WorldWideScience

Sample records for suppresses semliki forest

  1. The effect of irradiation on demyelination induced by a virulent Semliki Forest virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew-Lim, M.; Webb, H.E.; Jagelma, S.

    1977-01-01

    A dose of 500 rad total body irradiation before Semliki Forest virus infection was the most effective in producing multiple foci of demyelination in Swiss mice. Animals receiving this dose had the highest virus titre of Semliki Forest virus persisting in the brain and a delayed antibody response. In spite of extensive demyelination no obvious clinical signs such as paralysis were observed. (author)

  2. Sphingolipids activate membrane fusion of Semliki Forest virus in a stereospecific manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesby, Lise; Corver, J; Erukulla, R K

    1995-01-01

    The alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV) enters cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis. Subsequently, triggered by the acid pH in endosomes, the viral envelope fuses with the endosomal membrane. Membrane fusion of SFV has been shown previously to be dependent on the presence of cholesterol ...

  3. Reversible acid-induced inactivation of the membrane fusion protein of Semliki Forest virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waarts, BL; Smit, JM; Aneke, OJC; McInerney, GM; Liljestrom, P; Bittman, R; Wilschut, J

    Previously, it has been shown that the exposure of Semliki Forest virus (SFV) to a mildly acidic environment induces a rapid and complete loss of the ability of the virus to bind and fuse to target membranes added subsequently. In the present study, incubation of SFV at low pH followed by a specific

  4. Membrane fusion activity of Semliki forest virus in a liposomal model system : Specific inhibition by Zn2+ ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corver, J; Snippe, H; Kraaijeveld, C; Wilschut, J

    1997-01-01

    Semliki Forest virus (SFV) has been shown previously to fuse efficiently with cholesterol-and sphingolipid-containing liposomal model membranes in a low-pH-dependent manner. Several steps can be distinguished in this process, including low-pH-induced irreversible binding of the virus to the

  5. Growth, purification and characterization of Semliki Forest virus in Ehrlich ascites tumor cell suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanic, S

    1976-01-01

    The growth of Semliki Forest Virus (SFV) in suspension cultures of Ehrlich Ascites (EA) cells and its purification is described. Large volumes of virus material were concentrated by filtration with DIAFLO XM-300 membrane and precipitation with ammonium sulfate. A combination of protamine sulfate treatment, centrifugation of the virus onto a 50 per cent sucrose cushion, and sedimentation through a 5--30 per cent sucrose density gradient was employed. The purified virus particles were homogeneous as revealed by electron microscopy, by moving boundary electrophoresis, and by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Virus suspensions containing 1 mg/ml of protein had a hemagglutinin titer of 1:12,000 when measured with 0.25 per cent goose red blood cells.

  6. Sphingolipids activate membrane fusion of Semliki Forest virus in a stereospecific manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesby, Lise; Corver, J; Erukulla, R K

    1995-01-01

    on degradation of the viral capsid protein by trypsin encapsulated in the target liposomes. Fusion mediated by D-erythro-ceramide was not affected by the additional presence in the target liposomes of ceramide stereoisomers incapable of fusion activation. Binding of the virus to the liposomes, as assessed...... by flotation on sucrose density gradients, was not dependent on the presence of fusion-competent or fusion-incompetent sphingolipids in the liposomes. The results of this study support the notion that a stereospecific interaction of the viral fusion protein with D-erythro sphingolipids in the target membrane......The alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV) enters cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis. Subsequently, triggered by the acid pH in endosomes, the viral envelope fuses with the endosomal membrane. Membrane fusion of SFV has been shown previously to be dependent on the presence of cholesterol...

  7. Fusion of Semliki Forest virus with cholesterol-containing liposomes at low pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilschut, J; Corver, J; Nieva, J L

    1995-01-01

    . This, and the remarkably low levels of sphingolipid required for half-maximal fusion (1-2 mol%), suggest that the sphingolipid does not play a structural role in SFV fusion, but rather acts as a cofactor, possibly through activation of the viral fusion protein. Domain formation between cholesterol......Semliki Forest virus (SFV) utilizes a membrane fusion strategy to introduce its genome into the host cell. After binding to cell-surface receptors, virus particles are internalized through receptor-mediated endocytosis and directed to the endosomal cell compartment. Subsequently, triggered...... by the acid pH in the lumen of the endosomes, the viral envelope fuses with the endosomal membrane. As a result of this fusion reaction the viral RNA gains access to the cell cytosol. Low-pH-induced fusion of SFV, in model systems as well as in cells, has been demonstrated previously to be strictly dependent...

  8. Structure and interaction with lipid membrane models of Semliki Forest virus fusion peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopian, A; Quetin, M; Castano, S

    2016-11-01

    Semliki Forest virus (SFV) is a well-characterized alphavirus that infects cells via endocytosis and an acid-triggered fusion step using class II fusion proteins. Membrane fusion is mediated by the viral spike protein, a heterotrimer of two transmembrane subunits, E1 and E2, and a peripheral protein, E3. Sequence analysis of the E1 ectodomain of a number of alphaviruses demonstrated the presence of a highly conserved hydrophobic domain on the E1 ectodomain. This sequence was proposed to be the fusion peptide of SFV and is believed to be the domain of E1 that interacts with the target membrane and triggers fusion. Here, we investigate the structure and the interaction with lipid membrane models of 76 YQCKVYTGVYPFMWGGAYCFC 96 sequence from SFV, named SFV21, using optical method (ellipsometry) and vibrational spectroscopiy approaches (Polarization Modulation infra-Red Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy, PMIRRAS, and polarized ATR-FTIR). We demonstrate a structural flexibility of SFV21 sequence whether the lateral pressure and the lipid environment. In a lipid environment that mimics eukaryotic cell membranes, a conformational transition from an α-helix to a β-sheet is induced in the presence of lipid by increasing the peptide to lipid ratio, which leads to important perturbations in the membrane organisation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Role of Conserved Histidine Residues in the Low-pH Dependence of the Semliki Forest Virus Fusion Protein▿

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Zhao-ling; Zheng, Yan; Kielian, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    A wide variety of enveloped viruses infects cells by taking advantage of the low pH in the endocytic pathway to trigger virus-membrane fusion. For alphaviruses such as Semliki Forest virus (SFV), acidic pH initiates a series of conformational changes in the heterodimeric virus envelope proteins E1 and E2. Low pH dissociates the E2/E1 dimer, releasing the membrane fusion protein E1. E1 inserts into the target membrane and refolds to a trimeric hairpin conformation, thus driving the fusion reac...

  10. The lipidomes of vesicular stomatitis virus, semliki forest virus, and the host plasma membrane analyzed by quantitative shotgun mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalvodova, Lucie; Sampaio, Julio L; Cordo, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    Although enveloped virus assembly in the host cell is a crucial step in the virus life cycle, it remains poorly understood. One issue is how viruses include lipids in their membranes during budding from infected host cells. To analyze this issue, we took advantage of the fact that baby hamster...... kidney cells can be infected by two different viruses, namely, vesicular stomatitis virus and Semliki Forest virus, from the Rhabdoviridae and Togaviridae families, respectively. We purified the host plasma membrane and the two different viruses after exit from the host cells and analyzed the lipid...

  11. Quantitative RT-PCR for titration of replication-defective recombinant Semliki Forest virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglia, Ana L P; Rezende, Alexandre G; Jorge, Soraia A C; Wagner, Renaud; Pereira, Carlos A; Astray, Renato M

    2013-11-01

    Virus titration may constitute a drawback in the development and use of replication-defective viral vectors like Semliki Forest virus (SFV). The standardization and validation of a reverse transcription quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) method for SFV titration is presented here. The qRT-PCR target is located within the nsp1 gene of the non-structural polyprotein SFV region (SFV RNA), which allows the strategy to be used for several different recombinant SFV constructs. Titer determinations were carried out by performing virus titration and infection assays with SFVs containing an RNA coding region for the rabies virus glycoprotein (RVGP) or green fluorescent protein (GFP). Results showed that the standardized qRT-PCR is applicable for different SFV constructs, and showed good reproducibility. To evaluate the correlation between the amount of functional SFV RNA in a virus lot and its infectivity in BHK-21 cell cultures, a temperature mediated titer decrease was performed and successfully quantitated by qRT-PCR. When used for cell infection at the same multiplicity of infection (MOI), the temperature treated SFV-RVGP samples induced the same levels of RVGP expression. Similarly, when different SFV-GFP lots with different virus titers, as accessed by qRT-PCR, were used for cell infection at the same MOI, the cultures showed comparable amounts of fluorescent cells. The data demonstrate a good correlation between the amount of virus used for infection, as measured by its SFV RNA, and the protein synthesis in the cells. In conclusion, the qRT-PCR method developed here is accurate and enables the titration of replication-defective SFV vectors, an essential aid for viral vector development as well as for establishment of production bioprocesses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Semliki Forest virus produced in the absence of the 6K protein has an altered spike structure as revealed by decreased membrane fusion capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McInerney, GM; Smit, JM; Liljestrom, P; Wilschut, J

    2004-01-01

    We examined the kinetics of membrane fusion of wild type (wt) and Delta6K mutant Semliki Forest virus in a liposomal model system. The final extent of membrane fusion of the mutant (at pH 5.5) was approximately one third that of the wt virus, although the level of E1 (fusion protein) trimerization

  13. Eradication of established HPV16-transformed tumours after immunisation with recombinant Semliki Forest virus expressing a fusion protein of E6 and E7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daemen, T; Riezebos-Brilman, A; Bungener, L; Regts, J; Dontje, B; Wischut, J

    2003-01-01

    Previously, we described the efficacy of immunisation with recombinant Semliki Forest virus (SFV), expressing the human papillomavirus 16 (HPV) oncoproteins E6 and E7, in inducing HPV-specific CTLs and anti-tumour responses. Recently, we developed a novel recombinant SFV construct encoding a

  14. Replication-defective recombinant Semliki Forest virus encoding GM-CSF as a vector system for rapid and facile generation of autologous human tumor cell vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withoff, S; Glazenburg, KL; van Veen, ML; Kraak, MMJ; Hospers, GAP; Storkel, S; de Vries, EGE; Wischut, J; Daemen, T

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the production of recombinant Semliki Forest virus encoding murine or human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and the capacity of these vectors to transduce murine and human tumor cells ex vivo. High-titer stocks (up to 3 x 10(9) particles/ml) of

  15. Vectors based on Semliki Forest virus for rapid and efficient gene transfer into non-endothelial cardiovascular cells: comparison to adenovirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roks, A. J.; Pinto, Y. M.; Paul, M.; Pries, F.; Stula, M.; Eschenhagen, T.; Orzechowski, H. D.; Gschwendt, S.; Wilschut, J.; van Gilst, W. H.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Replication-deficient, recombinant adenovirus is used as a carrier for gene transfer, but it is unspecific and the onset of transgene expression is relatively late. Here, we evaluated the efficiency and selectivity of gene transfer mediated by recombinant Semliki Forest virus (SFV).

  16. SPHINGOLIPID-DEPENDENT FUSION OF SEMLIKI FOREST VIRUS WITH CHOLESTEROL-CONTAINING LIPOSOMES REQUIRES BOTH THE 3-HYDROXYL GROUP AND THE DOUBLE-BOND OF THE SPHINGOLIPID BACKBONE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CORVER, J; MOESBY, L; ERUKULLA, RK; REDDY, KC; BITTMAN, R; WILSCHUT, J

    Low-pH-induced membrane fusion of Semliki Forest virus (SFV) in a model system is mediated by sphingolipids in the target membrane; ceramide is the sphingolipid minimally required (J. L. Nieva, R. Bron, J. Corver, and J. Wilschut, EMBO J. 13:2797-2804, 1994). Here, using various ceramide analogs, we

  17. Tattoo Delivery of a Semliki Forest Virus-Based Vaccine Encoding Human Papillomavirus E6 and E7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie van de Wall

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The skin is an attractive organ for immunization because of the presence of antigen-presenting cells. Intradermal delivery via tattooing has demonstrated superior vaccine immunogenicity of DNA vaccines in comparison to conventional delivery methods. In this study, we explored the efficacy of tattoo injection of a tumor vaccine based on recombinant Semliki Forest virus replicon particles (rSFV targeting human papillomavirus (HPV. Tattoo injection of rSFV particles resulted in antigen expression in both the skin and draining lymph nodes. In comparison with intramuscular injection, the overall antigen expression determined at the site of administration and draining lymph nodes was 10-fold lower upon tattoo injection. Delivery of SFV particles encoding the E6 and E7 antigens of human papillomavirus type 16 (SFVeE6,7 via tattooing resulted in HPV-specific cytotoxic T cells and in vivo therapeutic antitumor response. Strikingly, despite the observed lower overall transgene expression, SFVeE6,7 delivered via tattoo injection resulted in higher or equal levels of immune responses as compared to intramuscular injection. The intrinsic immunogenic potential of tattooing provides a benefit for immunotherapy based on an alphavirus.

  18. Tattoo Delivery of a Semliki Forest Virus-Based Vaccine Encoding Human Papillomavirus E6 and E7

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wall, Stephanie; Walczak, Mateusz; van Rooij, Nienke; Hoogeboom, Baukje-Nynke; Meijerhof, Tjarko; Nijman, Hans W.; Daemen, Toos

    2015-01-01

    The skin is an attractive organ for immunization because of the presence of antigen-presenting cells. Intradermal delivery via tattooing has demonstrated superior vaccine immunogenicity of DNA vaccines in comparison to conventional delivery methods. In this study, we explored the efficacy of tattoo injection of a tumor vaccine based on recombinant Semliki Forest virus replicon particles (rSFV) targeting human papillomavirus (HPV). Tattoo injection of rSFV particles resulted in antigen expression in both the skin and draining lymph nodes. In comparison with intramuscular injection, the overall antigen expression determined at the site of administration and draining lymph nodes was 10-fold lower upon tattoo injection. Delivery of SFV particles encoding the E6 and E7 antigens of human papillomavirus type 16 (SFVeE6,7) via tattooing resulted in HPV-specific cytotoxic T cells and in vivo therapeutic antitumor response. Strikingly, despite the observed lower overall transgene expression, SFVeE6,7 delivered via tattoo injection resulted in higher or equal levels of immune responses as compared to intramuscular injection. The intrinsic immunogenic potential of tattooing provides a benefit for immunotherapy based on an alphavirus. PMID:26343186

  19. Microscopic Visualisation of Zoonotic Arbovirus Replication in Tick Cell and Organ Cultures Using Semliki Forest Virus Reporter Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Bell-Sakyi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are vectors and reservoirs of many arboviruses pathogenic for humans or domestic animals; in addition, during bloodfeeding they can acquire and harbour pathogenic arboviruses normally transmitted by other arthropods such as mosquitoes. Tick cell and organ cultures provide convenient tools for propagation and study of arboviruses, both tick-borne and insect-borne, enabling elucidation of virus-tick cell interaction and yielding insight into the mechanisms behind vector competence and reservoir potential for different arbovirus species. The mosquito-borne zoonotic alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV, which replicates well in tick cells, has been isolated from Rhipicephalus, Hyalomma, and Amblyomma spp. ticks removed from mammalian hosts in East Africa; however nothing is known about any possible role of ticks in SFV epidemiology. Here we present a light and electron microscopic study of SFV infecting cell lines and organ cultures derived from African Rhipicephalus spp. ticks. As well as demonstrating the applicability of these culture systems for studying virus-vector interactions, we provide preliminary evidence to support the hypothesis that SFV is not normally transmitted by ticks because the virus does not infect midgut cells.

  20. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of Semliki forest virus replicon-based DNA vaccines encoding goatpox virus structural proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Min; Jin Ningyi; Liu Qi; Huo Xiaowei; Li Yang; Hu Bo; Ma Haili; Zhu Zhanbo; Cong Yanzhao; Li Xiao; Jin Minglan; Zhu Guangze

    2009-01-01

    Goatpox, caused by goatpox virus (GTPV), is an acute feverish and contagious disease in goats often associated with high morbidity and high mortality. To resolve potential safety risks and vaccination side effects of existing live attenuated goatpox vaccine (AV41), two Semliki forest virus (SFV) replicon-based bicistronic expression DNA vaccines (pCSm-AAL and pCSm-BAA) which encode GTPV structural proteins corresponding to the Vaccinia virus proteins A27, L1, A33, and B5, respectively, were constructed. Then, theirs ability to induce humoral and cellular response in mice and goats, and protect goats against virulent virus challenge were evaluated. The results showed that, vaccination with pCSm-AAL and pCSm-BAA in combination could elicit strong humoral and cellular responses in mice and goats, provide partial protection against viral challenge in goats, and reduce disease symptoms. Additionally, priming vaccination with the above-mentioned DNA vaccines could significantly reduce the goats' side reactions from boosting vaccinations with current live vaccine (AV41), which include skin lesions at the inoculation site and fevers. Data obtained in this study could not only facilitate improvement of the current goatpox vaccination strategy, but also provide valuable guidance to suitable candidates for evaluation and development of orthopoxvirus vaccines.

  1. Role of Conserved Histidine Residues in the Low-pH Dependence of the Semliki Forest Virus Fusion Protein▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhao-ling; Zheng, Yan; Kielian, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    A wide variety of enveloped viruses infects cells by taking advantage of the low pH in the endocytic pathway to trigger virus-membrane fusion. For alphaviruses such as Semliki Forest virus (SFV), acidic pH initiates a series of conformational changes in the heterodimeric virus envelope proteins E1 and E2. Low pH dissociates the E2/E1 dimer, releasing the membrane fusion protein E1. E1 inserts into the target membrane and refolds to a trimeric hairpin conformation, thus driving the fusion reaction. The means by which E1 senses and responds to low pH is unclear, and protonation of conserved E1 histidine residues has been proposed as a possible mechanism. We tested the role of four conserved histidines by mutagenesis of the wild-type (wt) SFV infectious clone to create virus mutants with E1 H3A, H125A, H331A, and H331A/H333A mutations. The H125A, H331A, and H331A/H333A mutants had growth properties similar to those of wt SFV and showed modest change or no change in the pH dependence of virus-membrane fusion. By contrast, the E1 H3A mutation produced impaired virus growth and a markedly more acidic pH requirement for virus-membrane fusion. The dissociation of the H3A heterodimer and the membrane insertion of the mutant E1 protein were comparable to those of the wt in efficiency and pH dependence. However, the formation of the H3A homotrimer required a much lower pH and showed reduced efficiency. Together, these results and the location of H3 suggest that this residue acts to regulate the low-pH-dependent refolding of E1 during membrane fusion. PMID:19244325

  2. Role of conserved histidine residues in the low-pH dependence of the Semliki Forest virus fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhao-Ling; Zheng, Yan; Kielian, Margaret

    2009-05-01

    A wide variety of enveloped viruses infects cells by taking advantage of the low pH in the endocytic pathway to trigger virus-membrane fusion. For alphaviruses such as Semliki Forest virus (SFV), acidic pH initiates a series of conformational changes in the heterodimeric virus envelope proteins E1 and E2. Low pH dissociates the E2/E1 dimer, releasing the membrane fusion protein E1. E1 inserts into the target membrane and refolds to a trimeric hairpin conformation, thus driving the fusion reaction. The means by which E1 senses and responds to low pH is unclear, and protonation of conserved E1 histidine residues has been proposed as a possible mechanism. We tested the role of four conserved histidines by mutagenesis of the wild-type (wt) SFV infectious clone to create virus mutants with E1 H3A, H125A, H331A, and H331A/H333A mutations. The H125A, H331A, and H331A/H333A mutants had growth properties similar to those of wt SFV and showed modest change or no change in the pH dependence of virus-membrane fusion. By contrast, the E1 H3A mutation produced impaired virus growth and a markedly more acidic pH requirement for virus-membrane fusion. The dissociation of the H3A heterodimer and the membrane insertion of the mutant E1 protein were comparable to those of the wt in efficiency and pH dependence. However, the formation of the H3A homotrimer required a much lower pH and showed reduced efficiency. Together, these results and the location of H3 suggest that this residue acts to regulate the low-pH-dependent refolding of E1 during membrane fusion.

  3. Immunogenicity of Semliki Forest virus based self-amplifying RNA expressing Indian HIV-1C genes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajbani, Seema P; Velhal, Shilpa M; Kadam, Ravindra B; Patel, Vainav V; Bandivdekar, Atmaram H

    2015-11-01

    Development of recombinant vaccines is considered as a promising approach to prevent transmission and eradication of HIV/AIDS. Candidate vaccines tested so far have shown poor to modest efficacy. Self-amplifying RNAs of positive strand alphaviruses are reported to be promising vectors for development of recombinant vaccines. This study describes the construction, in vitro expression and in vivo immunogenicity of recombinant RNA vaccines developed by individually cloning gag, env and polRT genes of primary HIV-1C Indian isolates using Semliki Forest virus (SFV) vector. HIV-1C specific T cell responses were detected in mice immunized with rSFV2gen/gag RNA by IFN-γ ELISPOT assay. Furthermore, using flow cytometry based intracellular cytokine staining (ICCS) assay HIV-1C specific IL-2 responses were detected in immunized mice that were mediated by both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Mice immunized with rSFV2gen/env RNA elicited HIV-1C Env-specific antibodies as detected by gp120 ELISA. The Env, Gag and Pol (RT) RNA constructs in combination elicited better HIV-1C Env-specific humoral responses compared to mice immunized with Env RNA alone. In conclusion, rSFV2gen RNA constructs encoding HIV-1C antigens elicited clear cell mediated and humoral immune responses in mice, thus demonstrating the potential of self-amplifying rSFV2gen RNA as a promising candidate for anti-HIV vaccine development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Neoadjuvant administration of Semliki Forest virus expressing interleukin-12 combined with attenuated Salmonella eradicates breast cancer metastasis and achieves long-term survival in immunocompetent mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, M. Gabriela; Masner, Martín; Casales, Erkuden; Moreno, María; Smerdou, Cristian; Chabalgoity, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic breast cancer is a major cause of death among women worldwide; therefore efficient therapeutic strategies are extremely needed. In this work we have developed a gene therapy- and bacteria-based combined neoadjuvant approach and evaluated its antitumor effect in a clinically relevant animal model of metastatic breast cancer. 2×10 8 particles of a Semliki Forest virus vector expressing interleukin-12 (SFV-IL-12) and/or 2×10 7 units of an aroC − Samonella Typhimurium strain (LVR01) were injected into 4T1 tumor nodules orthotopically implanted in mice. Tumors were surgically resected and long-term survival was determined. IL-12 and interferon-γ were quantified by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay, bacteria was visualized by inmunohistochemistry and the number of lung metastasis was calculated with a clonogenic assay. SFV-IL-12 and LVR01 timely inoculated and followed by surgical resection of tumors succeeded in complete inhibition of lethal lung metastasis and long-term survival in 90 % of treated mice. The combined therapy was markedly synergistic compared to each treatment alone, since SFV-IL-12 monotherapy showed a potent antiangiogenic effect, being able to inhibit tumor growth and extend survival, but could not prevent establishment of distant metastasis and death of tumor-excised animals. On the other hand, LVR01 alone also showed a significant, although limited, antitumor potential, despite its ability to invade breast cancer cells and induce granulocyte recruitment. The efficacy of the combined therapy depended on the order in which both factors were administered; inasmuch the therapeutic effect was only observed when SFV-IL-12 was administered previous to LVR01, whereas administration of LVR01 before SFV-IL-12 had negligible antitumor activity. Moreover, pre-treatment with LVR01 seemed to suppress SFV-IL-12 antiangiogenic effects associated to lower IL-12 expression in this group. Re-challenged mice were unable to reject a second 4T1 tumor

  5. Transfection of Infectious RNA and DNA/RNA Layered Vectors of Semliki Forest Virus by the Cell-Penetrating Peptide Based Reagent PepFect6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärn, Kalle; Viru, Liane; Lehto, Taavi; Oskolkov, Nikita; Langel, Ülo; Merits, Andres

    2013-01-01

    Viral vectors have a wide variety of applications ranging from fundamental studies of viruses to therapeutics. Recombinant viral vectors are usually constructed using methods of reverse genetics to obtain the genetic material of the viral vector. The physicochemical properties of DNA and RNA make them unable to access cells by themselves, and they require assistance to achieve intracellular delivery. Non-viral delivery vectors can be used for this purpose if they enable efficient intracellular delivery without interfering with the viral life cycle. In this report, we utilize Semliki Forest virus (genus alphavirus) based RNA and DNA vectors to study the transfection efficiency of the non-viral cell-penetrating peptide-based delivery vector PepFect6 in comparison with that of the cationic liposome-based Lipofectamine 2000, and assess their impact on viral replication. The optimal conditions for transfection were determined for both reagents. These results demonstrate, for the first time, the ability of PepFect6 to transport large (13-19 kbp) constructs across the cell membrane. Curiously, DNA molecules delivered using the PepFect6 reagent were found to be transported to the cell nucleus approximately 1.5 hours later than DNA molecules delivered using the Lipofectamine 2000 reagent. Finally, although both PepFect6 and Lipofectamine 2000 reagents can be used for alphavirus research, PepFect6 is preferred because it does not induce changes in the normal cellular phenotype and it does not affect the normal replication-infection cycle of viruses in previously transfected cells. PMID:23861978

  6. MicroRNA-Attenuated Clone of Virulent Semliki Forest Virus Overcomes Antiviral Type I Interferon in Resistant Mouse CT-2A Glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martikainen, Miika; Niittykoski, Minna; von und zu Fraunberg, Mikael; Immonen, Arto; Koponen, Susanna; van Geenen, Maartje; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; Ylösmäki, Erkko; Jääskeläinen, Juha E; Saksela, Kalle; Hinkkanen, Ari

    2015-10-01

    Glioblastoma is a terminal disease with no effective treatment currently available. Among the new therapy candidates are oncolytic viruses capable of selectively replicating in cancer cells, causing tumor lysis and inducing adaptive immune responses against the tumor. However, tumor antiviral responses, primarily mediated by type I interferon (IFN-I), remain a key problem that severely restricts viral replication and oncolysis. We show here that the Semliki Forest virus (SFV) strain SFV4, which causes lethal encephalitis in mice, is able to infect and replicate independent of the IFN-I defense in mouse glioblastoma cells and cell lines originating from primary human glioblastoma patient samples. The ability to tolerate IFN-I was retained in SFV4-miRT124 cells, a derivative cell line of strain SFV4 with a restricted capacity to replicate in neurons due to insertion of target sites for neuronal microRNA 124. The IFN-I tolerance was associated with the viral nsp3-nsp4 gene region and distinct from the genetic loci responsible for SFV neurovirulence. In contrast to the naturally attenuated strain SFV A7(74) and its derivatives, SFV4-miRT124 displayed increased oncolytic potency in CT-2A murine astrocytoma cells and in the human glioblastoma cell lines pretreated with IFN-I. Following a single intraperitoneal injection of SFV4-miRT124 into C57BL/6 mice bearing CT-2A orthotopic gliomas, the virus homed to the brain and was amplified in the tumor, resulting in significant tumor growth inhibition and improved survival. Although progress has been made in development of replicative oncolytic viruses, information regarding their overall therapeutic potency in a clinical setting is still lacking. This could be at least partially dependent on the IFN-I sensitivity of the viruses used. Here, we show that the conditionally replicating SFV4-miRT124 virus shares the IFN-I tolerance of the pathogenic wild-type SFV, thereby allowing efficient targeting of a glioma that is refractory

  7. An RNA Vaccine Based on Recombinant Semliki Forest Virus Particles Expressing the Cu,Zn Superoxide Dismutase Protein of Brucella abortus Induces Protective Immunity in BALB/c Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oñate, Angel A.; Donoso, Gabriel; Moraga-Cid, Gustavo; Folch, Hugo; Céspedes, Sandra; Andrews, Edilia

    2005-01-01

    We constructed infectious but replication-deficient Semliki Forest virus (SFV) particles carrying recombinant RNA encoding Brucella abortus Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD). The recombinant SFV particles (SFV-SOD particles) were then evaluated for their ability to induce a T-cell immune response and to protect BALB/c mice against a challenge with B. abortus 2308. Intraperitoneal injection of mice with recombinant SFV-SOD particles did not lead to the induction of SOD-specific antibodies, at least until week 6 after immunization (the end of the experiment). In vitro stimulation of splenocytes from the vaccinated mice with either recombinant Cu,Zn SOD (rSOD) or crude Brucella protein resulted in a T-cell proliferative response and the induction of gamma interferon secretion but not interleukin-4. In addition, the splenocytes exhibited significant levels of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity against Brucella-infected cells. The SFV-SOD particles, but not the control virus particles, induced a significant level of protection in BALB/c mice against challenge with B. abortus virulent strain 2308. These findings indicated that an SFV-based vector carrying the SOD gene has potential for use as a vaccine to induce resistance against B. abortus infections. PMID:15908354

  8. Long-term demographic trends in a fire-suppressed mixed-conifer forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrie R. Levine; Flora Krivak-Tetley; Natalie S. van Doorn; Jolie-Anne S. Ansley; John J. Battles

    2016-01-01

    In the western United States, forests are experiencing novel environmental conditions related to a changing climate and a suppression of the historical fire regime. Mixed-conifer forests, considered resilient to disturbance due to their heterogeneity in structure and composition, appear to be shifting to a more homogeneous state, but the timescale of these shifts is...

  9. Decreases in Soil Moisture and Organic Matter Quality Suppress Microbial Decomposition Following a Boreal Forest Fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, Sandra R.; Berhe, Asmeret A.; Treseder, Kathleen K.

    2015-08-01

    Climate warming is projected to increase the frequency and severity of wildfires in boreal forests, and increased wildfire activity may alter the large soil carbon (C) stocks in boreal forests. Changes in boreal soil C stocks that result from increased wildfire activity will be regulated in part by the response of microbial decomposition to fire, but post-fire changes in microbial decomposition are poorly understood. Here, we investigate the response of microbial decomposition to a boreal forest fire in interior Alaska and test the mechanisms that control post-fire changes in microbial decomposition. We used a reciprocal transplant between a recently burned boreal forest stand and a late successional boreal forest stand to test how post-fire changes in abiotic conditions, soil organic matter (SOM) composition, and soil microbial communities influence microbial decomposition. We found that SOM decomposing at the burned site lost 30.9% less mass over two years than SOM decomposing at the unburned site, indicating that post-fire changes in abiotic conditions suppress microbial decomposition. Our results suggest that moisture availability is one abiotic factor that constrains microbial decomposition in recently burned forests. In addition, we observed that burned SOM decomposed more slowly than unburned SOM, but the exact nature of SOM changes in the recently burned stand are unclear. Finally, we found no evidence that post-fire changes in soil microbial community composition significantly affect decomposition. Taken together, our study has demonstrated that boreal forest fires can suppress microbial decomposition due to post-fire changes in abiotic factors and the composition of SOM. Models that predict the consequences of increased wildfires for C storage in boreal forests may increase their predictive power by incorporating the observed negative response of microbial decomposition to boreal wildfires.

  10. A fire suppression model for forested range of the Beverly and Qamanirjuaq herds of caribou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald C. Thomas

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A fire suppression model was developed for forested winter range of the Beverly and Qamanirjuaq (formerly Kaminuriak herds of barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus in north-central Canada. The model is a balance between total protection, as voiced by some aboriginal people, and a let-burn policy for natural fires advocated by some ecologists. Elements in the model were caribou ecology, lichen recovery after fire, burn history, community priorities for caribou hunting, and fire cycle lengths. The percent ratio of current productive caribou habitat to the goal for that habitat determines whether fire should be suppressed in a specific area. The goals for productive caribou habitat, defined as forests older than 50 years, were scaled by fire cycle length and community priority ranking. Thus, the model is an example of co-management: traditional knowledge combined with science in a joint forum, the Beverly and Qamanirjuaq Caribou Management Board.

  11. Determination of Characteristic Peroids of Suppression of Thermal Decomposition Reaction of Forest Fuel Material by Specialized Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumerov Vladislav M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies determining periods of suppression of thermal decomposition reaction of forest combustible materials was carried out by high-speed, cross-correlation cameras and panoramic techniques PIV and IPI under influence of water steam. Conditions and characteristics of reaction termination of thermal decomposition of forest combustible materials under reaction with steam cloud were defined.

  12. Determination of Characteristic Peroids of Suppression of Thermal Decomposition Reaction of Forest Fuel Material by Specialized Software

    OpenAIRE

    Gumerov, Vladislav; Zhdanova, Alena Olegovna; Osmolovskaya, Maria; Strizhak, Pavel Alexandrovich

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies determining periods of suppression of thermal decomposition reaction of forest combustible materials was carried out by high-speed, cross-correlation cameras and panoramic techniques PIV and IPI under influence of water steam. Conditions and characteristics of reaction termination of thermal decomposition of forest combustible materials under reaction with steam cloud were defined.

  13. Forecasting poductivity in forest fire suppression operations: A methodological approach based on suppression difficulty analysis and documented experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Rodríguez y Silva; Armando González-Cabán

    2013-01-01

    The abandonment of land, the high energy load generated and accumulated by vegetation covers, climate change and interface scenarios in Mediterranean forest ecosystems are demanding serious attention to forest fire conditions. This is particularly true when dealing with the budget requirements for undertaking protection programs related to the state of current and...

  14. Tree species effects on pathogen-suppressive capacities of soil bacteria across two tropical dry forests in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becklund, Kristen; Powers, Jennifer; Kinkel, Linda

    2016-11-01

    Antibiotic-producing bacteria in the genus Streptomyces can inhibit soil-borne plant pathogens, and have the potential to mediate the impacts of disease on plant communities. Little is known about how antibiotic production varies among soil communities in tropical forests, despite a long history of interest in the role of soil-borne pathogens in these ecosystems. Our objective was to determine how tree species and soils influence variation in antibiotic-mediated pathogen suppression among Streptomyces communities in two tropical dry forest sites (Santa Rosa and Palo Verde). We targeted tree species that co-occur in both sites and used a culture-based functional assay to quantify pathogen-suppressive capacities of Streptomyces communities beneath 50 focal trees. We also measured host-associated litter and soil element concentrations as potential mechanisms by which trees may influence soil microbes. Pathogen-suppressive capacities of Streptomyces communities varied within and among tree species, and inhibitory phenotypes were significantly related to soil and litter element concentrations. Average proportions of inhibitory Streptomyces in soils from the same tree species varied between 1.6 and 3.3-fold between sites. Densities and proportions of pathogen-suppressive bacteria were always higher in Santa Rosa than Palo Verde. Our results suggest that spatial heterogeneity in the potential for antibiotic-mediated disease suppression is shaped by tree species, site, and soil characteristics, which could have significant implications for understanding plant community composition and diversity in tropical dry forests.

  15. Determination of The Minimal Amount of Water for Effective Suppression of The Thermal Decomposition of Forest Combustible Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhdanova Alena О.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires are big problem for whole the world community. The development of new effective methods is needed to increase the efficiency of the firefighting. We have investigated experimentally the suppression of thermal decomposition of different typical forest combustibles using water aerosol. Droplet sizes were 0.02-0.2mm; the concentration −3.8·10−5 m3 of water/m3, the flow rate −0.00035 l/s, flow velocity −2 m/s. Registration of the aerosol propagation and interaction with combustibles was done by high-speed video camera using Shadow Photography and Particle Tracking Velocimetry methods. The effective water volumes for fire suppression were determined together with corresponding suppression times. The obtained results could be used for improvement of the fire-fighting technologies.

  16. Fusion of Semliki Forest virus with cholesterol-containing liposomes at low pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilschut, J; Corver, J; Nieva, J L

    1995-01-01

    on the presence of cholesterol in the target membrane. In this paper, we show that fusion of SFV with cholesterol-containing liposomes depends on sphingomyelin (SM) or other sphingolipids in the target membrane, ceramide representing the sphingolipid minimally required for mediating the process. The action...... of the sphingolipid is confined to the actual fusion event, cholesterol being necessary and sufficient for low-pH-dependent binding of the virus to target membranes. The 3-hydroxyl group on the sphingosine backbone plays a key role in the SFV fusion reaction, since 3-deoxy-sphingomyelin does not support the process....... This, and the remarkably low levels of sphingolipid required for half-maximal fusion (1-2 mol%), suggest that the sphingolipid does not play a structural role in SFV fusion, but rather acts as a cofactor, possibly through activation of the viral fusion protein. Domain formation between cholesterol...

  17. Antigen design enhances the immunogenicity of Semliki Forest virus-based therapeutic human papillomavirus vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ip, P. P.; Boerma, A.; Walczak, M.; Oosterhuis, K.; Haanen, J. B.; Schumacher, T. N.; Nijman, H. W.; Daemen, T.

    Cellular immunity against cancer can be achieved with viral vector-and DNA-based immunizations. In preclinical studies, cancer vaccines are very potent, but in clinical trials these potencies are not achieved yet. Thus, a rational approach to improve cancer vaccines is warranted. We previously

  18. Infection of neuroblastoma cells with Semliki Forest virus. Incorporation of 35S or 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Phosphate-free medium is used for the incorporation of 32 P and methionine-free medium for 35 S-methionine labelling. After virus replication, the culture shows a clear CPE all of the cells appearing round and dead. Materials used are presented and experimental procedure is described

  19. MEMBRANE-FUSION OF SEMLIKI FOREST VIRUS INVOLVES HOMOTRIMERS OF THE FUSION PROTEIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WAHLBERG, JM; WILSCHUT, J; GAROFF, H

    1992-01-01

    Infection of cells with enveloped viruses is accomplished through membrane fusion. The binding and fusion Processes are mediated by the spike proteins in the envelope of the virus particle and usually involve a series of conformational changes in these proteins. We have studied the low-pH-mediated

  20. Using unplanned fires to help suppressing future large fires in Mediterranean forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Regos

    Full Text Available Despite the huge resources invested in fire suppression, the impact of wildfires has considerably increased across the Mediterranean region since the second half of the 20th century. Modulating fire suppression efforts in mild weather conditions is an appealing but hotly-debated strategy to use unplanned fires and associated fuel reduction to create opportunities for suppression of large fires in future adverse weather conditions. Using a spatially-explicit fire-succession model developed for Catalonia (Spain, we assessed this opportunistic policy by using two fire suppression strategies that reproduce how firefighters in extreme weather conditions exploit previous fire scars as firefighting opportunities. We designed scenarios by combining different levels of fire suppression efficiency and climatic severity for a 50-year period (2000-2050. An opportunistic fire suppression policy induced large-scale changes in fire regimes and decreased the area burnt under extreme climate conditions, but only accounted for up to 18-22% of the area to be burnt in reference scenarios. The area suppressed in adverse years tended to increase in scenarios with increasing amounts of area burnt during years dominated by mild weather. Climate change had counterintuitive effects on opportunistic fire suppression strategies. Climate warming increased the incidence of large fires under uncontrolled conditions but also indirectly increased opportunities for enhanced fire suppression. Therefore, to shift fire suppression opportunities from adverse to mild years, we would require a disproportionately large amount of area burnt in mild years. We conclude that the strategic planning of fire suppression resources has the potential to become an important cost-effective fuel-reduction strategy at large spatial scale. We do however suggest that this strategy should probably be accompanied by other fuel-reduction treatments applied at broad scales if large-scale changes in fire

  1. Aerial wildland firefighting resources in fire suppression activities: an example USDA Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. González-Cabán

    2011-01-01

    Wildfires are a significant social problem affecting millions of people worldwide and causing major economic impacts at all levels. In the US, the severe fires of 1910 in Idaho and Montana galvanized a fire policy excluding fire from the ecosystem by the U.S.Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USDAFS). Fire management policy changed in 1935, 1978,1995, and 2001....

  2. Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis R. Iverson; Mark W. Schwartz

    1994-01-01

    Originally diminished by development, forests are coming back: forest biomass is accumulating. Forests are repositories for many threatened species. Even with increased standing timber, however, biodiversity is threatened by increased forest fragmentation and by exotic species.

  3. Integrating landscape and hydrologic simulation models to assess the influence of fire-suppression on water yield from forested Rocky Mountain watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahl, R. S.; Woods, S.; Diluzio, M.

    2005-12-01

    Most of the water supply for semi-arid western North America originates as snow that is deposited and temporarily stored in forested, high elevation watersheds. Snow accumulation in these watersheds varies with climate, elevation, topography and forest vegetation characteristics. Canopy structure is an especially important vegetation characteristic because of its effect on the interception component of the water budget and the wind speed and solar radiation flux at the snow surface. Canopy structure is a function of forest composition, structure and extent, all of which are shaped by disturbance processes such as fire, insect and disease outbreaks, and human-induced changes. Changes in the frequency and magnitude of these disturbance processes such as those that have occurred due to fire suppression lead to changes in forest structure, and this may result in long term reductions in water yield from forested watersheds. We have developed a methodology for linking, spatially explicit, time-series, landcover and hydrologic analysis at the watershed scale, with the goal of quantifying changes in long term water yield due to fire suppression and other management scenarios. Output from the SIMPPLLE (Simulating Patterns and Processes at Landscape Scales) vegetation simulation model is classified and processed to provide input to the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) hydrologic model. SIMPPLLE integrates various data sources to simulate vegetation growth and disturbance pathways for forested environments in the Rocky Mountains. We used SIMPPLLE to simulate landcover change 300 years forward from current conditions for 1) fire suppression and 2) natural succession management scenarios. Grid-based maps were produced for each scenario at decadal intervals and used as input for SWAT. SWAT was calibrated using current landcover data and five years of daily streamflow records, and a Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency of 0.90 was achieved. The calibrated SWAT model was then used

  4. DAYCENT Simulations to Test the Influence of Fire Regime and Fire Suppression on Trace Gas Fluxes and Nitrogen Biogeochemistry of Colorado Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Gathany

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Biological activity and the physical environment regulate greenhouse gas fluxes (CH4, N2O and NO from upland soils. Wildfires are known to alter these factors such that we collected daily weather records, fire return intervals, or specific fire years, and soil data of four specific sites along the Colorado Front Range. These data were used as primary inputs into DAYCENT. In this paper we test the ability of DAYCENT to simulate four forested sites in this area and to address two objectives: (1 to evaluate the short-term influence of fire on trace gas fluxes from burned landscapes; and (2 to compare trace gas fluxes among locations and between pre-/post- fire suppression. The model simulations indicate that CH4 oxidation is relatively unaffected by wildfire. In contrast, gross nitrification rates were reduced by 13.5–37.1% during the fire suppression period. At two of the sites, we calculated increases in gross nitrification rates (>100%, and N2O and NO fluxes during the year of fire relative to the year before a fire. Simulated fire suppression exhibited decreased gross nitrification rates presumably as nitrogen is immobilized. This finding concurs with other studies that highlight the importance of forest fires to maintain soil nitrogen availability.

  5. Comparing resource values at risk from wildfires with Forest Service fire suppression expenditures: Examples from 2003 western Montana wildfire season

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Calkin; Kevin Hyde; Krista Gebert; Greg Jones

    2005-01-01

    Determining the economic effectiveness of wildfire suppression activities is complicated by difficulties in identifying the area that would have burned and the associated resource value changes had suppression resources not been employed. We developed a case study using break-even analysis for two large wildfires from the 2003 fire season in western Montana -- the...

  6. Tattoo Delivery of a Semliki Forest Virus-Based Vaccine Encoding Human Papillomavirus E6 and E7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wall, Stephanie; Walczak, Mateusz; van Rooij, Nienke; Hoogeboom, Baukje-Nynke; Meijerhof, Tjarko; Nijman, Hans W; Daemen, Toos

    2015-01-01

    The skin is an attractive organ for immunization because of the presence of antigen-presenting cells. Intradermal delivery via tattooing has demonstrated superior vaccine immunogenicity of DNA vaccines in comparison to conventional delivery methods. In this study, we explored the efficacy of tattoo

  7. A fuel treatment reduces potential fire severity and increases suppression efficiency in a Sierran mixed conifer forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason J. Moghaddas

    2006-01-01

    Fuel treatments are being widely implemented on public and private lands across the western U.S. While scientists and managers have an understanding of how fuel treatments can modify potential fire behavior under modeled conditions, there is limited information on how treatments perform under real wildfire conditions in Sierran mixed conifer forests. The Bell Fire...

  8. Fire suppression has led to greater drought-sensitivity in dry conifer forests: tree-ring carbon isotope evidence from Central Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, S.; Merschel, A. G.; Meinzer, F. C.; Spies, T. A.; Still, C. J.

    2016-12-01

    Mortality events of economically and ecologically important conifers have been widespread across Western North America over recent decades. Many of these events have been linked to "global change-type droughts" characterized by greater temperatures and evaporative demand. In parallel, since the early to mid- 20th century, increasing atmospheric [CO2] has been shown to increase the water use efficiency (WUE) of trees worldwide while conifer forests in western North America have become denser after the advent of modern fire suppression efforts. Therefore, competing hypotheses include that conifer forests have experienced 1) less drought stress due to water savings from increased WUE, 2) more drought stress due to increased demand for water in dense forests with greater leaf area index, or 3) unchanging stress because these two factors have cancelled each other out. To provide a test of these hypotheses we used inter-annual latewood carbon isotope discrimination, Δ13C, across a dry mixed-conifer forest landscape of central Oregon in the rain shadow of the Cascade Mountains. The forests are dominated by old-growth ponderosa pines (Pinus ponderosa) and younger and fire-intolerant grand firs (Abies grandis). Dendrochronological dating of tree establishment and fires scars established sharp declines in fire frequency and associated increases in the densities of grand fir since the early 1900s. Δ13C data for ponderosa pine and grand fir spanned 1830-2013 and 1900-2013, respectively. For our analyses these years were split into periods of high fire frequency (1830-1900), moderate fire frequency (1901-1956) and fire-exclusion (1957-2013). Comparisons of Δ13C to reconstructed Palmer Drought Severity Index values for the same years revealed that leaf gas exchange of both species has been more sensitive to drought during the recent fire-exclusion period compared to previous periods when surface fires kept tree densities much lower. Similar research is needed elsewhere to

  9. Autonomous Forest Fire Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breejen, E. den; Breuers, M.; Cremer, F.; Kemp, R.A.W.; Roos, M.; Schutte, K.; Vries, J.S. de

    1998-01-01

    Forest fire detection is a very important issue in the pre-suppression process. Timely detection allows the suppression units to reach the fire in its initial stages and this will reduce the suppression costs considerably. The autonomous forest fire detection principle is based on temporal contrast

  10. Climate change-induced water stress suppresses the regeneration of the critically endangered forest tree Nyssa yunnanensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shanshan; Kang, Hongmei; Yang, Wenzhong

    2017-01-01

    the natural regeneration of N. yunnanensis through suppressing seed germination and screening out seedlings in the dry season. Based on the experimental findings, habitat restoration and microclimate improvement should both be highlighted in the conservation of this particular plant species.

  11. Forest-fire models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush Preisler; Alan Ager

    2013-01-01

    For applied mathematicians forest fire models refer mainly to a non-linear dynamic system often used to simulate spread of fire. For forest managers forest fire models may pertain to any of the three phases of fire management: prefire planning (fire risk models), fire suppression (fire behavior models), and postfire evaluation (fire effects and economic models). In...

  12. Suppressed Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarine Romdenh-Romluc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Moran’s revised conception of conscious belief requires us to reconceptualise suppressed belief. The work of Merleau-Ponty offers a way to do this. His account of motor-skills allows us to understand suppressed beliefs as pre-reflective ways of dealing with the world.

  13. Venture capital: States suffer as suppression expenses climb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krista Gebert

    2008-01-01

    The high cost of suppressing wildfires is taking a toll on federal and state agencies alike. Large wildland fires are complex, costly events influenced by a vast array of physical, climatic, and social factors. During five of the last eight years, the Forest Services' wildfire suppression expenditures have topped $1 billion, and total federal wildland suppression...

  14. Suppression chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Akio.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To miniaturize the storage tank of condensated water in BWR reactor. Constitution: A diaphragm is provided in a suppression chamber thereby to partition the same into an inner compartment and an outer compartment. In one of said compartments there is stored clean water to be used for feeding at the time of separating the reactor and for the core spray system, and in another compartment there is stored water necessary for accomplishing the depressurization effect at the time of coolant loss accident. To the compartment in which clean water is stored there is connected a water cleaning device for constantly maintaining water in clean state. As this cleaning device an already used fuel pool cleaning device can be utilized. Further, downcomers for accomplishing the depressurization function are provided in both inner compartment and outer compartment. The capacity of the storage tank can be reduced by the capacity of clean water within the suppression chamber. (Ikeda, J.)

  15. Hydrological principles for sustainable management of forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irena F. Creed; Gabor Z. Sass; Jim M. Buttle; Julia A. Jones

    2011-01-01

    Forested landscapes around the world are changing as a result of human activities, including forest management, fire suppression, mountaintop mining, conversion of natural forests to plantations, and climate change (Brockerhoff et al., 2008; Cyr et al., 2009; Johnston et al., 2010; Miller et al., 2009; Kelly et al., 2010; Palmer et al., 2010). Forests...

  16. Urban Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nowak

    2016-01-01

    Urban forests (and trees) constitute the second forest resource considered in this report. We specifically emphasize the fact that agricultural and urban forests exist on a continuum defined by their relationship (and interrelationship) with a given landscape. These two forest types generally serve different purposes, however. Whereas agricultural forests are...

  17. Allowing a wildfire to burn: estimating the effect on future fire suppression costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel M. Houtman; Claire A. Montgomery; Aaron R. Gagnon; David E. Calkin; Thomas G. Dietterich; Sean McGregor; Mark Crowley

    2013-01-01

    Where a legacy of aggressive wildland fire suppression has left forests in need of fuel reduction, allowing wildland fire to burn may provide fuel treatment benefits, thereby reducing suppression costs from subsequent fires. The least-cost-plus-net-value-change model of wildland fire economics includes benefits of wildfire in a framework for evaluating suppression...

  18. Growth hormone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003376.htm Growth hormone suppression test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone suppression test determines whether growth hormone production is ...

  19. Research related to roads in USDA experimental forests [Chapter 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Elliot; P. J. Edwards; R. B. Foltz

    2014-01-01

    Forest roads are essential in experimental forests and rangelands (EFRs) to allow researchers and the public access to research sites and for fire suppression, timber extraction, and fuel management. Sediment from roads can adversely impact watershed health. Since the 1930s, the design and management of forest roads has addressed both access issues and watershed health...

  20. Forest hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Devendra Amatya; Steve McNulty

    2016-01-01

    Forest hydrology studies the distribution, storage, movement, and quality of water and the hydrological processes in forest-dominated ecosystems. Forest hydrological science is regarded as the foundation of modern integrated water¬shed management. This chapter provides an overview of the history of forest hydrology and basic principles of this unique branch of...

  1. Forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Michael C. Amacher

    2009-01-01

    Productive soils are the foundation of sustainable forests throughout the United States. Forest soils are generally subjected to fewer disturbances than agricultural soils, particularly those that are tilled, so forest soils tend to have better preserved A-horizons than agricultural soils. Another major contrast between forest and agricultural soils is the addition of...

  2. Forest rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balooni, Kulbhushan; Lund, Jens Friis

    2014-01-01

    One of the proposed strategies for implementation of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation plus (REDD+) is to incentivize conservation of forests managed by communities under decentralized forest management. Yet, we argue that this is a challenging road to REDD+ because......+ transactions costs. Third, beyond the “conservation islands” represented by forests under decentralized management, processes of deforestation and forest degradation continue. Given these challenges, we argue that REDD+ efforts through decentralized forestry should be redirected from incentivizing further...

  3. Forests, woods, forest plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannini R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In protected areas the forest ecosystem management is directed to define the best approaches with high protection levels from ecological, historical, anthropological and landscape point of view. The conservation purposes have to be taken in consideration to not disturb the natural and functional processes, and therefore any forest human activity has to be done. Through a detailed analysis of the relations among functionality, stability, productivity and genetic diversity, the statement of the reasons for application of close-to-nature silviculture is described and discussed. Some specific silvicultural systems are illustrated on the basis of very large quantity of data and information originated from researches carried out for long time. A major challenge facing modern silviculture is to reconcile the traditional objectives of timber production with the demand for multifunctional forest ecosystems which arises from the society. The preservation of the functionality is strictly related to the forest genetic pool which is the basis of biodiversity, as it represents the basis for adaptation and survival of species and individual.

  4. Multi-sensor data fusion for estimating forest species composition and abundance in northern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter P. Wolter; Phillip A. Townsend

    2011-01-01

    The magnitude, duration, and frequency of forest disturbance caused by the spruce budworm and forest tent caterpillar in northern Minnesota and neighboring Ontario, Canada have increased over the last century due to a shift in forest species composition linked to historical fire suppression, forest management, and pesticide application that has fostered increased...

  5. Virgilia divaricata may facilitate forest expansion in the afrotemperate forests of the southern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corli Coetsee

    2013-07-01

    Conservation implications: Alien plantations in the Outeniqua Mountains are being phased out and the areas are being incorporated into the Garden Route National Park. Fynbos areas are increasingly being invaded by forest and thicket species owing to fire suppression in lower-lying areas. An improved understanding of the fynbos–forest boundary dynamics will aid in efficient management and restoration of these ecosystems.

  6. Forest pyrology in Russia: achievements and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Tsvetkov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The state of Russian forest pyrology from the beginning of XXI century to present time was examined in the article. Main problems of basic and applied research of fire scientists for the last years were revealed. The identification of fire role as permanent ecological and evolutional factor of origin, development, and growth of forests was considered to be the aim of basic research. Applied research includes improvement and increase of efficiency of forest protection, estimation, and reasonable usage of positive fire role in a forest. The results of main basic and applied research of scientists from Siberia, Far East, European part of country, and Ural were examined. It was emphasized that to present time forest pyrology accumulated a significant amount of theoretical and applied knowledge. The results of investigations are the basis for planning of fire fighting, selection of means and methods of fire suppression, increase of efficiency of forest protection, estimation and reasonable usage of positive fire role. The foundations of pyroecology as a science of ecological and evolutional role of forest fires were laid down. In total, the results of investigations of Russian scientists were considered as the uniform system of knowledge of forest fire nature and methods of fire suppressions. In spite of this, modern state of forest pyrology in Russia could not be evaluated as satisfactory, especially after enactment of new RF Forest code since January 1, 2007. The main reasons of such state were determined. The suggestions of its improvement were provided.

  7. Forest Histories & Forest Futures

    OpenAIRE

    Whitlock, Cathy

    2009-01-01

    The climate changes projected for the future will have significant consequences for forest ecosystems and our ability to manage them. It is reasonable to ask: Are there historical precedents that help us understand what might happen in the future or are historical perspectives becoming irrelevant? What synergisms and feedbacks might be expected between rapidly changing climate and land–use in different settings, especially at the wildland–urban interface? What lessons from the past might help...

  8. Forest Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  9. Pressure suppression device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Tadaharu; Funahashi, Toshihiro.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a structure which permits the absorption of shocks and vibratory load produced on the floor of a pressure suppression chamber due to nitrogen gas or the like discharged into pool water in the pressure suppression chamber at the time of a loss-of-coolant accident. Constitution: A pressure suppression chamber accommodating pool water is comprised of a bottom wall and side walls constructed of concrete on the inner side of a liner. By providing concrete on the bottom surface and side wall surfaces of a pressure suppression chamber, it is possible to prevent non-condensing gas and steam exhausted from the vent duct and exhaust duct of a main vapor escapement safety valve exhaust duct from exerting impact forces and vibratory forces upon the bottom and side surfaces of the pressure suppression chamber. (Horiuchi, T.)

  10. Menstrual suppression for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, Anna Lea; Hillard, Paula J Adams

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this review is to highlight the recent literature and emerging data describing clinical situations in which menstrual suppression may improve symptoms and quality of life for adolescents. A variety of conditions occurring frequently in adolescents and young adults, including heavy menstrual bleeding, and dysmenorrhea as well as gynecologic conditions such as endometriosis and pelvic pain, can safely be improved or alleviated with appropriate menstrual management. Recent publications have highlighted the efficacy and benefit of extended cycle or continuous combined oral contraceptives, the levonorgestrel intrauterine device, and progestin therapies for a variety of medical conditions. This review places menstrual suppression in an historical context, summarizes methods of hormonal therapy that can suppress menses, and reviews clinical conditions for which menstrual suppression may be helpful.

  11. Cryogenic Acoustic Suppression Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A proof-of-concept method utilizing a cryogenic fluid for acoustic suppression in rocket engine testing environments will be demonstrated. It is hypothesized that...

  12. Sodium fire suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  13. AcEST: DK948956 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available OLN_SFV Non-structural polyprotein OS=Semliki forest ... 32 2.4 sp|Q8NDX5|PHC3_HUMAN Polyhomeotic-like prote...NLPSHLPLPAS 458 >sp|P08411|POLN_SFV Non-structural polyprotein OS=Semliki forest virus PE=1 SV=2 Length = 24

  14. AcEST: BP912285 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available utative uncharacterized protein YHR217C OS... 31 4.6 sp|P08411|POLN_SFV Non-structural polyprotein OS=Semliki forest...ural polyprotein OS=Semliki forest virus PE=1 SV=2 Length = 2432 Score = 30.0 bits (66), Expect = 7.9 Identi

  15. Pressure suppression device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumachi, Wataru; Fukuda, Akira; Kitaguchi, Hidemi; Shimizu, Toshiaki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To relieve and absorb impact wave vibrations caused by steam and non-condensed gases releasing into the pressure suppression chamber at the time of an accident. Structure: The reactor container is filled with inert gases. A safety valve attached main steam pipe is provided to permit the excessive steam to escape, the valve being communicated with the pressure suppression chamber through an exhaust pipe. In the pressure suppression chamber, a doughnut-like cylindrical outer wall is filled at its bottom with pool water to condense the high temperature vapor released through the exhaust pipe. A head portion of a vent tube which leads the exhaust pipe is positioned at the top, and a down comer and an exhaust vent tube are locked by means of steady rests. At the bottom is mounted a pressure adsorber device which adsorbs a pressure from the pool water. (Kamimura, M.)

  16. Texas' forests, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Bentley; Consuelo Brandeis; Jason A. Cooper; Christopher M. Oswalt; Sonja N. Oswalt; KaDonna Randolph

    2014-01-01

    This bulletin describes forest resources of the State of Texas at the time of the 2008 forest inventory. This bulletin addresses forest area, volume, growth, removals, mortality, forest health, timber product output, and the economy of the forest sector.

  17. Forest drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.W. Skaggs; S. Tian; G.M. Chescheir; Devendra Amatya; M.A. Youssef

    2016-01-01

    Most of the world's 4030 million ha of forested lands are situated on hilly, mountainous or well-drained upland landscapes where improved drainage is not needed. However, there are millions of hectares of poorly drained forested lands where excessively wet soil conditions limit tree growth and access for harvesting and other management activities. Improved or...

  18. Thyroxin hormone suppression treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    One of the important modalities of treatment of thyroid cancer (TC) after surgery is the administration of thyroxin as an adjuvant treatment. The analysis supports the theory that thyroid suppression plays an important role in patient management. 300 μg of thyroxin, as this is an adequate dose for suppression is given. Ideally the dose should be tailored by testing s-TSH levels. However, since a large number of the patients come from out station cities and villages this is impractical. We therefore depend on clinical criteria of hyperthyroid symptoms and adjust the dose. Very few patients need such adjustment

  19. Carbon and nitrogen cycling in southwestern ponderosa fine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen C. Hart; Paul C. Selmants; Sarah I. Boyle; Steven T. Overby

    2007-01-01

    Ponderosa pine forests of the southwestern United States were historically characterized by relatively open, parklike stands with a bunchgrass-dominated understory. This forest structure was maintained by frequent, low-intensity surface fires. Heavy livestock grazing, fire suppression, and favorable weather conditions following Euro-American settlement in the late 19th...

  20. 75 FR 1748 - Helena National Forest, Montana, Stonewall Vegetation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... National Forest, Montana, Stonewall Vegetation Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of... prepare an environmental impact statement for vegetation management actions north and west of the community of Lincoln, MT. Fire suppression and moist growing conditions through much of this century...

  1. AcEST: BP916713 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available OS=Homo ... 33 0.91 sp|P03315|POLS_SFV Structural polyprotein OS=Semliki forest viru... 32 1.5 sp|P25386|USO...ATK 206 Query: 8 PL 3 L Sbjct: 207 KL 208 >sp|P03315|POLS_SFV Structural polyprotein OS=Semliki forest...r|Q8JMP5|Q8JMP5_SFV Structural polyprotein OS=Semliki forest vi... 34 4.4 tr|A9BD99|A9BD99_PROM4 Trigger fac... Predicted protein OS=Monosiga brevicollis... 34 4.4 tr|Q87049|Q87049_SFV Virion protein OS=Semliki forest... virus GN=C... 34 5.8 tr|Q809B6|Q809B6_SFV Structural polyprotein OS=Semliki forest

  2. AcEST: BP913167 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n 2 OS=Homo ... 33 0.91 sp|P03315|POLS_SFV Structural polyprotein OS=Semliki forest viru... 32 1.5 sp|P25386...ESSAATK 206 Query: 8 PL 3 L Sbjct: 207 KL 208 >sp|P03315|POLS_SFV Structural polyprotein OS=Semliki forest....6 tr|Q8JMP5|Q8JMP5_SFV Structural polyprotein OS=Semliki forest vi... 34 4.4 tr|A9BD99|A9BD99_PROM4 Trigger...ion protein OS=Semliki forest virus GN=C... 34 5.8 tr|Q809B6|Q809B6_SFV Structural polyprotein OS=Semliki forest...ONBE Predicted protein OS=Monosiga brevicollis... 34 4.4 tr|Q87049|Q87049_SFV Vir

  3. Forest stand structure and pattern of old-growth western hemlock/Douglas-fir and mixed-conifer forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm North; Jiquan Chen; Brian Oakley; Bo Song; Mark Rudnicki; Andrew Gray; Jim Innes

    2004-01-01

    With fire suppression, many western forests are expected to have fewer gaps and higher stem density of shade-tolerant species as light competition becomes a more significant influence on stand pattern and composition. We compared species composition, structure, spatial pattern, and environmental factors such as light and soil moisture between two old-growth forests:...

  4. Plasma suppression of beamstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittum, D.H.; Sessler, A.M.; Stewart, J.J.; Yu, S.S.

    1988-06-01

    We investigate the use of a plasma at the interaction point of two colliding beams to suppress beamsstrahlung and related phenomena. We derive conditions for good current cancellation via plasma return currents and report on numerical simulations conducted to confirm our analytic results. 10 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Canopy microclimate response to pattern and density of thinning in a Sierra Nevada forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Rambo; M. North

    2009-01-01

    Restoring Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forests after a century of fire suppression has become an important management priority as fuel reduction thinning has been mandated by the Healthy Forests Restoration Act. However, in mechanically thinned stands there is little information on the effects of different patterns and densities of live-tree retention on forest canopy...

  6. Eighty-eight years of change in a managed ponderosa pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helen Y. Smith; Stephen F. Arno

    1999-01-01

    This publication gives an overview of structural and other ecological changes associated with forest management and fire suppression since the early 1900's in a ponderosa pine forest, the most widespread forest type in the Western United States. Three sources of information are presented: (1) changes seen in a series of repeat photographs taken between 1909 and...

  7. Managed wildfire effects on forest resilience and water in the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielle Boisramé; Sally Thompson; Brandon Collins; Scott Stephens

    2017-01-01

    Fire suppression in many dry forest types has left a legacy of dense, homogeneous forests. Such landscapes have high water demands and fuel loads, and when burned can result in catastrophically large fires. These characteristics are undesirable in the face of projected warming and drying in the western US. Alternative forest and fire treatments based on managed...

  8. Chapter 12: The variable-density thinning study at Stanislaus-Tuolumne Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Knapp; M. North; M. Benech; B. Estes

    2012-01-01

    Prior to historical logging and fire suppression, forests of the Sierra Nevada were extremely heterogeneous. Frequent low- to moderate-intensity fire was partly responsible for this heterogeneity, which in turn helped make forests resilient to high-severity stand-replacing events. Early observers of forests on the west slope of the Sierra Nevada noted the...

  9. Reducing social losses from forest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory S. Amacher; Arun S. Malik; Robert G. Haight

    2006-01-01

    We evaluate two financial incentives to encourage nonindustrial forest landowners to undertake activities that mitigate fire losses: sharing of fire suppression costs by the landowner and sharing of fuel reduction costs by the government. First and second best outcomes are identified and compared to assess the effectiveness of these incentives in reducing social...

  10. Boreal forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essen, P.A.; Ericson, L. [Univ. of Umeaa, Dept. of Ecological Botany, Umeaa (Sweden); Ehnstroem, B. [Swedish Univ., of Agricultural Sciences, Swedish Threatened Species Unit, Uppsala (Sweden); Sjoeberg, K. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Animal Ecology, Umeaa (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    We review patterns and processes important for biodiversity in the Fennoscandian boreal forest, describe man`s past and present impact and outline a strategy for conservation. Natural disturbances, particularly forest fire and gap formation, create much of the structural and functional diversity in forest ecosystems. Several boreal plants and animals are adapted to fire regimes. In contrast, many organisms (epiphytic lichens, fungi, invertebrates) require stable conditions with long continuity in canopy cover. The highly mechanized and efficient Fennoscandian forest industry has developed during the last century. The result is that most natural forest has been lost and that several hundreds of species, mainly cryptograms and invertebrates, are threatened. The forestry is now in a transition from exploitation to sustainable production and has recently incorporated some measures to protect the environment. Programmes for maintaining biodiversity in the boreal forest should include at least three parts. First, the system of forest reserves must be significantly improved through protection of large representative ecosystems and key biotopes that host threatened species. Second, we must restore ecosystem properties that have been lost or altered. Natural disturbance regimes must be allowed to operate or be imitated, for example by artificial fire management. Stand-level management should particularly increase the amount of coarse woody debris, the number of old deciduous trees and large, old conifers, by using partial cutting. Third, natural variation should also be mimicked at the landscape level, for example, by reducing fragmentation and increasing links between landscape elements. Long-term experiments are required to evaluate the success of different management methods in maintaining biodiversity in the boreal forest. (au) 260 refs.

  11. Boreal forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essen, P.A.; Ericson, L.; Ehnstroem, B.; Sjoeberg, K.

    1997-01-01

    We review patterns and processes important for biodiversity in the Fennoscandian boreal forest, describe man's past and present impact and outline a strategy for conservation. Natural disturbances, particularly forest fire and gap formation, create much of the structural and functional diversity in forest ecosystems. Several boreal plants and animals are adapted to fire regimes. In contrast, many organisms (epiphytic lichens, fungi, invertebrates) require stable conditions with long continuity in canopy cover. The highly mechanized and efficient Fennoscandian forest industry has developed during the last century. The result is that most natural forest has been lost and that several hundreds of species, mainly cryptograms and invertebrates, are threatened. The forestry is now in a transition from exploitation to sustainable production and has recently incorporated some measures to protect the environment. Programmes for maintaining biodiversity in the boreal forest should include at least three parts. First, the system of forest reserves must be significantly improved through protection of large representative ecosystems and key biotopes that host threatened species. Second, we must restore ecosystem properties that have been lost or altered. Natural disturbance regimes must be allowed to operate or be imitated, for example by artificial fire management. Stand-level management should particularly increase the amount of coarse woody debris, the number of old deciduous trees and large, old conifers, by using partial cutting. Third, natural variation should also be mimicked at the landscape level, for example, by reducing fragmentation and increasing links between landscape elements. Long-term experiments are required to evaluate the success of different management methods in maintaining biodiversity in the boreal forest. (au) 260 refs

  12. J/Ψ suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giubellino, P.; Abreu, M.C.; Alessandro, B.; Alexa, C.; Arnaldi, R.; Astruc, J.; Atayan, M.; Baglin, C.; Baldit, A.; Bedjidian, M.; Bellaiche, F.; Beole, S.; Boldea, V.; Bordalo, P.; Bussiere, A.; Capony, V.; Casagrande, L.; Castor, J.; Chambon, T.; Chaurand, B.; Chevrot, I.; Cheynis, B.; Chiavassa, E.; Cicalo, C.; Comets, M.P.; Constantinescu, S.; Cruz, J.; De Falco, A.; De Marco, N.; Dellacasa, G.; Devaux, A.; Dita, S.; Drapier, O.; Espagnon, B.; Fargeix, J.; Filippov, S.N.; Fleuret, F.; Force, P.; Gallio, M.; Gavrilov, Y.K.; Gerschel, C.; Giubellino, P.; Golubeva, M.B.; Gonin, M.; Grigorian, A.A.; Grossiord, J.Y.; Guber, F.F.; Guichard, A.; Gulkaninan, H.; Hakobyan, R.; Haroutunian, R.; Idzik, M.; Jouan, D.; Karavitcheva, T.L.; Kluberg, L.; Kurepin, A.B.; Le Bornec, Y.; Lourenco, C.; Mac Cormick, M.; Macciotta, P.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Mehrabyan, S.; Mourgues, S.; Musso, A.; Ohlsson-Malek, F.; Petiau, P.; Piccotti, A.; Pizzi, J.R.; Prado da Silva, W.L.; Puddu, G.; Quintans, C.; Racca, C.; Ramello, L.; Ramos, S.; Rato-Mendes, P.; Riccati, L.; Romana, A.; Sartori, S.; Saturnini, P.; Scomparin, E.; Serci, S.; Shahoyan, R.; Silva, S.; Soave, C.; Sonderegger, P.; Tarrago, X.; Temnikov, P.; Topilskaya, N.S.; Usai, G.; Vale, C.; Vercellin, E.; Willis, N.

    1999-01-01

    The cross section for J/Ψ production in Pb-Pb interactions at 158 GeV per nucleon is measured at the CERN SPS by the NA50 experiment. The final results from the 1995 run are presented here together with preliminary ones from the high-statistics 1996 run. An anomalous J/Ψ suppression is observed in Pb-Pb collisions as compared to extrapolations of the previous results obtained by the NA38 experiment with proton and lighter ion beams. The results of the two runs are in good agreement. The results from the 1996 run allow the study of the onset of the anomalous suppression within the same set of data, showing evidence of a sharp change of behaviour around a value of neutral transverse energy, as measured by our electromagnetic calorimeter, of about 50 GeV

  13. Climate Change, Wildfires and Fir Forests in Greece: Perceptions of Forest Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Mitsopoulos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The potential impact that climate change may have on fire regime in ecosystems that are not fire-dependent emerges from fires that are nowadays spreading over higher altitudes and northern latitudes. The effects of fire occurrence in high elevation forests of Greece became apparent during the last few years when a number of large forest fires burned a significant number of high altitude fir ecosystems. This paper describes a study that investigated perceptions of wildfire risk to fir ecosystems of Greece in the context of climate change among a sample of Greek forestry experts by conducting personal interviews. Materials and Methods: A total of 63 forest experts answered the developed survey from 43 different forest management units covering all forestry agencies which manage fir forests in the country. The perceived fire risk and management to fir forest ecosystems was assessed by means of a subset of scales previously identified as relevant to climate change and to all fire management aspects, such as fire prevention, fire suppression and post fire treatments. Results: Increased fire risk was rated as a quite important issue in fir forests during the last few years, while the adapting options to climate change are not implemented mainly due to budget and personnel constrains. According to forest experts, fire prevention in fir forests under climate change should be focused on public awareness and fuel management. Nevertheless, the survey results indicate that there is also a need for specific fire prevention measures such as the type of logging activities and other technical measures. The result of this survey highlighted the need for the establishment of a new firefighting organization and for the better coordination of all involved parties during fire suppression. Conclusions: The findings of the current study can be critically important in determining how forest fire management considerations are incorporated into

  14. Relation of weather forecasts to the prediction of dangerous forest fire conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. H. Weidman

    1923-01-01

    The purpose of predicting dangerous forest-fire conditions, of course, is to reduce the great cost and damage caused by forest fires. In the region of Montana and northern Idaho alone the average cost to the United States Forest Service of fire protection and suppression is over $1,000,000 a year. Although the causes of forest fires will gradually be reduced by...

  15. Changes of forest cover and disturbance regimes in the mountain forests of the Alps☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebi, P.; Seidl, R.; Motta, R.; Fuhr, M.; Firm, D.; Krumm, F.; Conedera, M.; Ginzler, C.; Wohlgemuth, T.; Kulakowski, D.

    2017-01-01

    Natural disturbances, such as avalanches, snow breakage, insect outbreaks, windthrow or fires shape mountain forests globally. However, in many regions over the past centuries human activities have strongly influenced forest dynamics, especially following natural disturbances, thus limiting our understanding of natural ecological processes, particularly in densely-settled regions. In this contribution we briefly review the current understanding of changes in forest cover, forest structure, and disturbance regimes in the mountain forests across the European Alps over the past millennia. We also quantify changes in forest cover across the entire Alps based on inventory data over the past century. Finally, using the Swiss Alps as an example, we analyze in-depth changes in forest cover and forest structure and their effect on patterns of fire and wind disturbances, based on digital historic maps from 1880, modern forest cover maps, inventory data on current forest structure, topographical data, and spatially explicit data on disturbances. This multifaceted approach presents a long-term and detailed picture of the dynamics of mountain forest ecosystems in the Alps. During pre-industrial times, natural disturbances were reduced by fire suppression and land-use, which included extraction of large amounts of biomass that decreased total forest cover. More recently, forest cover has increased again across the entire Alps (on average +4% per decade over the past 25–115 years). Live tree volume (+10% per decade) and dead tree volume (mean +59% per decade) have increased over the last 15–40 years in all regions for which data were available. In the Swiss Alps secondary forests that established after 1880 constitute approximately 43% of the forest cover. Compared to forests established previously, post-1880 forests are situated primarily on steep slopes (>30°), have lower biomass, a more aggregated forest structure (primarily stem-exclusion stage), and have been more

  16. Changes of forest cover and disturbance regimes in the mountain forests of the Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebi, P; Seidl, R; Motta, R; Fuhr, M; Firm, D; Krumm, F; Conedera, M; Ginzler, C; Wohlgemuth, T; Kulakowski, D

    2017-03-15

    Natural disturbances, such as avalanches, snow breakage, insect outbreaks, windthrow or fires shape mountain forests globally. However, in many regions over the past centuries human activities have strongly influenced forest dynamics, especially following natural disturbances, thus limiting our understanding of natural ecological processes, particularly in densely-settled regions. In this contribution we briefly review the current understanding of changes in forest cover, forest structure, and disturbance regimes in the mountain forests across the European Alps over the past millennia. We also quantify changes in forest cover across the entire Alps based on inventory data over the past century. Finally, using the Swiss Alps as an example, we analyze in-depth changes in forest cover and forest structure and their effect on patterns of fire and wind disturbances, based on digital historic maps from 1880, modern forest cover maps, inventory data on current forest structure, topographical data, and spatially explicit data on disturbances. This multifaceted approach presents a long-term and detailed picture of the dynamics of mountain forest ecosystems in the Alps. During pre-industrial times, natural disturbances were reduced by fire suppression and land-use, which included extraction of large amounts of biomass that decreased total forest cover. More recently, forest cover has increased again across the entire Alps (on average +4% per decade over the past 25-115 years). Live tree volume (+10% per decade) and dead tree volume (mean +59% per decade) have increased over the last 15-40 years in all regions for which data were available. In the Swiss Alps secondary forests that established after 1880 constitute approximately 43% of the forest cover. Compared to forests established previously, post-1880 forests are situated primarily on steep slopes (>30°), have lower biomass, a more aggregated forest structure (primarily stem-exclusion stage), and have been more strongly

  17. Disturbance from southern pine beetle, suppression, and wildfire affects vegetation composition in central Louisiana: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.W. Coleman; Alton Martin; J.R. Meeker

    2010-01-01

    We assessed plant composition and forest succession following tree mortality from infestation of southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis), associated suppression, and wildfire in two forest types, pine (Pinus spp.) with mixed hardwood and longleaf pine (P. palustris). In this case study, vegetation was...

  18. How to suppress obsessive thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, Eric; Diepstraten, Philip

    2003-01-01

    Thought suppression (i.e. consciously trying to avoid certain thoughts from entering consciousness) has been argued to be an inadequate strategy in case of unwanted intrusions. That is, thought suppression seems to result in more rather than less intrusions. Although this experimental finding has been explained in terms of failing attempts to distract oneself from the target thought, the White Bear Suppression Inventory (WBSI; a scale that measures chronic thought suppression tendencies) does not address the means by which respondents try to suppress unwanted thoughts. To examine which strategies of mental control people use to suppress unwanted thoughts, obsessive-compulsive disorder patients (N=47) completed the WBSI, the Thought Control Questionnaire, and two measures of psychopathology. Results suggest that the crucial mechanism in thought suppression may not be distraction, but self-punishment.

  19. First records of tool-set use for ant-dipping by Eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Kalinzu Forest Reserve, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Chie; Isaji, Mina; Koops, Kathelijne; Furuichi, Takeshi

    2015-10-01

    Chimpanzees at numerous study sites are known to prey on army ants by using a single wand to dip into the ant nest or column. However, in Goualougo (Republic of Congo) in Central Africa, chimpanzees use a different technique, use of a woody sapling to perforate the ant nest, then use of a herb stem as dipping tool to harvest the army ants. Use of a tool set has also been found in Guinea, West Africa: at Seringbara in the Nimba Mountains and at nearby Bossou. There are, however, no reports for chimpanzees in East Africa. We observed use of such a tool set in Kalinzu, Uganda, for the first time by Eastern chimpanzees. This behavior was observed among one group of chimpanzees at Kalinzu (S-group) but not among the adjacent group (M-group) with partly overlapping ranging areas despite the fact that the latter group has been under intensive observation since 1997. In Uganda, ant-dipping has not been observed in the northern three sites (Budongo, Semliki, and Kibale) but has been observed or seems to occur in the southern sites (Kalinzu and Bwindi), which suggests that ant-dipping was invented by and spread from the southern region after the northern and southern forest blocks became separated. Use of a tool-set by only one group at Kalinzu further suggests that this behavior was recently invented and has not yet spread to the other group via migrating females.

  20. Restoring forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Douglass F.; Oliet, Juan A.; Aronson, James

    2015-01-01

    Forest loss and degradation is occurring at high rates but humankind is experiencing historical momentum that favors forest restoration. Approaches to restoration may follow various paradigms depending on stakeholder objectives, regional climate, or the degree of site degradation. The vast amount...... of land requiring restoration implies the need for spatial prioritization of restoration efforts according to cost-benefit analyses that include ecological risks. To design resistant and resilient ecosystems that can adapt to emerging circumstances, an adaptive management approach is needed. Global change......, in particular, imparts a high degree of uncertainty about the future ecological and societal conditions of forest ecosystems to be restored, as well as their desired goods and services. We must also reconsider the suite of species incorporated into restoration with the aim of moving toward more stress resistant...

  1. Illinois' Forests 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Crocker; Gary J. Brand; Brett J. Butler; David E. Haugen; Dick C. Little; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Charles H. Perry; Ronald J. Piva; Barry T. Wilson; Christopher W. Woodall

    2009-01-01

    The first full, annualized inventory of Illinois' forests reports more than 4.5 million acres of forest land with an average of 459 trees per acre. Forest land is dominated by oak/hickory forest types, which occupy 65 percent of total forest land area. Seventy-two percent of forest land consists of sawtimber, 20 percent contains poletimber, and 8 percent contains...

  2. Minnesota's Forests 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick D. Miles; David Heinzen; Manfred E. Mielke; Christopher W. Woodall; Brett J. Butler; Ron J. Piva; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Charles H. Perry; Dale D. Gormanson; Charles J. Barnett

    2011-01-01

    The second full annual inventory of Minnesota's forests reports 17 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 1,000 cubic feet per acre. Forest land is dominated by the aspen forest type, which occupies nearly 30 percent of the total forest land area. Twenty-eight percent of forest land consists of sawtimber, 35 percent poletimber, 35 percent...

  3. Unihemispheric burst suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C. Mader Jr.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Burst suppression (BS consists of bursts of high-voltage slow and sharp wave activity alternating with periods of background suppression in the electroencephalogram (EEG. When induced by deep anesthesia or encephalopathy, BS is bihemispheric and is often viewed as a non-epileptic phenomenon. In contrast, unihemispheric BS is rare and its clinical significance is poorly understood. We describe here two cases of unihemispheric BS. The first patient is a 56-year-old woman with a left temporoparietal tumor who presented in convulsive status epilepticus. EEG showed left hemispheric BS after clinical seizure termination with lorazepam and propofol. The second patient is a 39-year-old woman with multiple medical problems and a vague history of seizures. After abdominal surgery, she experienced a convulsive seizure prompting treatment with propofol. Her EEG also showed left hemispheric BS. In both cases, increasing the propofol infusion rate resulted in disappearance of unihemispheric BS and clinical improvement. The prevailing view that typical bihemispheric BS is non-epileptic should not be extrapolated automatically to unihemispheric BS. The fact that unihemispheric BS was associated with clinical seizure and resolved with propofol suggests that, in both cases, an epileptic mechanism was responsible for unihemispheric BS.

  4. Uncertainty in future water supplies from forests: hydrologic effects of a changing forest landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. A.; Achterman, G. L.; Alexander, L. E.; Brooks, K. N.; Creed, I. F.; Ffolliott, P. F.; MacDonald, L.; Wemple, B. C.

    2008-12-01

    Forests account for 33 percent of the U.S. land area, process nearly two-thirds of the fresh water supply, and provide water to 40 percent of all municipalities or about 180 million people. Water supply management is becoming more difficult given the increasing demand for water, climate change, increasing development, changing forest ownership, and increasingly fragmented laws governing forest and watershed management. In 2006, the US National Research Council convened a study on the present understanding of forest hydrology, the hydrologic effects of a changing forest landscape, and research and management needs for sustaining water resources from forested landscapes. The committee concluded that while it is possible to generate short-term water yield increases by timber harvesting, there are a variety of reasons why active forest management has only limited potential to sustainably increase water supplies. These include the short-term nature of the increases in most environments, the timing of the increases, the need for downstream storage, and that continuing ground- based timber harvest can reduce water quality. At the same time, past and continuing changes in forest structure and management may be altering water supplies at the larger time and space scales that are of most interest to forest and water managers. These changes include the legacy of past forest management practices, particularly fire suppression and clearcutting; exurban sprawl, which permanently converts forest land to nonforest uses; effects of climate change on wildfires, insect outbreaks, forest structure, forest species composition, snowpack depth and snowmelt; road networks; and changes in forest land ownership. All of these changes have the potential to alter water quantity and quality from forests. Hence, the baseline conditions that have been used to estimate sustained water yields from forested watersheds may no longer be applicable. Stationarity also can no longer be assumed for the

  5. Forest insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis T. Williams

    1949-01-01

    Standing timber is one of the few important kinds of property that are not generally covered by insurance. Studies made by the Forest Service and other agencies have indicated that the risks involved in the insurance of timber are not unduly great, provided they can be properly distributed. Such studies, however, have thus far failed to induce any notable development...

  6. Dryland forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bose, Purabi; Dijk, van Han

    2016-01-01

    This volume provides new insights and conceptual understandings of the human and gender dimension of vulnerability in relation to the dynamics of tenure reforms in the dryland forests of Asia and Africa. The book analyzes the interaction between biophysical factors such as climate variability

  7. Forest Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    NASA's Technology Applications Center, with other government and academic agencies, provided technology for improved resources management to the Cibola National Forest. Landsat satellite images enabled vegetation over a large area to be classified for purposes of timber analysis, wildlife habitat, range measurement and development of general vegetation maps.

  8. Forest Fires

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 11. Forest Fires - Origins and Ecological Paradoxes. K Narendran. General Article Volume 6 Issue 11 November 2001 pp 34-41. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/11/0034-0041 ...

  9. Suppression of dust explosions and ignition spots in biomass- fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Rautalin, A. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Dust explosion characteristics of forest residue dust both at normal pressure and at elevated initial pressure have been determined in previous studies. These indices give a good base for evaluating the usability of suppression systems to obtain a sufficient level of operational safety in biomass fuel handling equipment. The objectives of this project were to evaluate the usability of suppression systems and to demonstrate dust explosion suppression at elevated initial pressure. Suppression tests at 1 - 20 bar pressure will be carried out in co-operation with CTDD of British Coal, Kiddy Fire Protection and Health and Safety Executive. The tests with coal and biomass dust are scheduled to be started in March 1996 in Great Britain. In the second task of the project, self-ignition properties of forest residue dust and straw dust have been measured in a flow-through system simulating slow drying of the fuel

  10. Suppression of dust explosions and ignition spots in biomass-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Rautalin, A.

    1995-12-31

    Dust explosion characteristics of forest residue dust both at normal pressure and at elevated initial pressure have been determined in previous studies. These indices give a good base for evaluating the usability of suppression systems to obtain a sufficient level of peritoneal safety in biomass fuel handling equipment. The objectives of this project were to evaluate the usability of suppression systems and to demonstrate dust explosion suppression at elevated initial pressure. Suppression tests at 1 - 20 bar pressure will be carried out in co-operation with CTDD of British Coal, Kiddy Fire Protection and Health and Safety Executive. The tests with coal and biomass dust are scheduled to be started in March 1996 in Great Britain. In the second task of the project, self-ignition properties of forest residue dust and straw dust have been measured in a flow-through system simulating slow drying of the fuel

  11. Evolving the policy framework: Budget strategies, legislative authorities, and management strategies to facilitate federal forest adaptation and collaborative partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher Topik; Paige Lewis

    2014-01-01

    Some of the greatest challenges to the management of federal forests in the Unites States result from inadequate public and private investment in proactive forest restoration projects. This situation has been exacerbated by the growing fiscal and logistical demands of wildfire suppression activities, which currently consume at least 40 percent of the U.S. Forest...

  12. Air pollution increases forest susceptibility to wildfires: a case study for the San Bernardino Mountains in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    N.E. Grulke; R.A. Minnich; T. Paine; P. Riggan

    2010-01-01

    Many factors increase susceptibility of forests to wildfire. Among them are increases in human population, changes in land use, fire suppression, and frequent droughts. These factors have been exacerbating forest susceptibility to wildfires over the last century in southern California. Here we report on the significant role that air pollution has on increasing forest...

  13. Attaining the canopy in dry and moist tropical forests: strong differences in tree growth trajectories reflect variation in growing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brienen, Roel J W; Zuidema, Pieter A; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel

    2010-06-01

    Availability of light and water differs between tropical moist and dry forests, with typically higher understorey light levels and lower water availability in the latter. Therefore, growth trajectories of juvenile trees--those that have not attained the canopy--are likely governed by temporal fluctuations in light availability in moist forests (suppressions and releases), and by spatial heterogeneity in water availability in dry forests. In this study, we compared juvenile growth trajectories of Cedrela odorata in a dry (Mexico) and a moist forest (Bolivia) using tree rings. We tested the following specific hypotheses: (1) moist forest juveniles show more and longer suppressions, and more and stronger releases; (2) moist forest juveniles exhibit wider variation in canopy accession pattern, i.e. the typical growth trajectory to the canopy; (3) growth variation among dry forest juveniles persists over longer time due to spatial heterogeneity in water availability. As expected, the proportion of suppressed juveniles was higher in moist than in dry forest (72 vs. 17%). Moist forest suppressions also lasted longer (9 vs. 5 years). The proportion of juveniles that experienced releases in moist forest (76%) was higher than in dry forest (41%), and releases in moist forests were much stronger. Trees in the moist forest also had a wider variation in canopy accession patterns compared to the dry forest. Our results also showed that growth variation among juvenile trees persisted over substantially longer periods of time in dry forest (>64 years) compared to moist forest (12 years), most probably because of larger persistent spatial variation in water availability. Our results suggest that periodic increases in light availability are more important for attaining the canopy in moist forests, and that spatial heterogeneity in water availability governs long-term tree growth in dry forests.

  14. Suppression of sympathetic detonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J. C., Jr.; Gunger, M. E.; Craig, B. G.; Parsons, G. H.

    1984-08-01

    There are two basic approaches to suppression of sympathetic detonation. Minimizing the shock sensitivity of the explosive to long duration pressure will obviously reduce interround separation distances. However, given that the explosive sensitivity is fixed, then much can be gained through the use of simple barriers placed between the rounds. Researchers devised calculational methods for predicting shock transmission; experimental methods have been developed to characterize explosive shock sensitivity and observe the response of acceptors to barriers. It was shown that both EAK and tritonal can be initiated to detonation with relatively low pressure shocks of long durations. It was also shown that to be an effective barrier between the donor and acceptor, the material must attenuate shock and defect fragments. Future actions will concentrate on refining the design of barriers to minimize weight, volume, and cost.

  15. Forest ownership dynamics of southern forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett J. Butler; David N. Wear

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsPrivate landowners hold 86 percent of the forest area in the South; two-thirds of this area is owned by families or individuals.Fifty-nine percent of family forest owners own between 1 and 9 acres of forest land, but 60 percent of family-owned forests are in holdings of 100 acres or more.Two-...

  16. Combating Forest Corruption: the Forest Integrity Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, A.; Siebert, U.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the strategies and activities of the Forest Integrity Network. One of the most important underlying causes of forest degradation is corruption and related illegal logging. The Forest Integrity Network is a timely new initiative to combat forest corruption. Its approach is to

  17. Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science is one of the leading forestry journals in the Southern Hemisphere. The journal publishes scientific articles in forest science and management of fast-growing, planted or natural forests in the Southern Hemisphere and the tropics. Papers are also encouraged on related ...

  18. Forest Structure Assessment of a Rehabilitated Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Roland K.J. Heng; Nik M.A. Majid; Seca Gandaseca; Osumanu H. Ahmed; Silvester Jemat; Melvin K.K. Kin

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Forest structure assessment provides information on forest succession, dynamics, biodiversity and health which are important but only few information is available on rehabilitated forest. The objective of this study was to assess the forest structure of selected age stands at a rehabilitated forest situated in Universiti Putra Malaysia Bintulu Sarawak Campus, Sarawak, Malaysia. Approach: Four 20± 22years) and all stands were measured for Diameter Breast Height (DBH) ...

  19. Forest fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, M.

    1991-01-01

    This book examines the many complex and sensitive issues relating to wildland fires. Beginning with an overview of the fires of 1980s, the book discusses the implications of continued drought and considers the behavior of wildland fires, from ignition and spread to spotting and firestorms. Topics include the effects of weather, forest fuels, fire ecology, and the effects of fire on plants and animals. In addition, the book examines firefighting methods and equipment, including new minimum impact techniques and compressed air foam; prescribed burning; and steps that can be taken to protect individuals and human structures. A history of forest fire policies in the U.S. and a discussion of solutions to fire problems around the world completes the coverage. With one percent of the earth's surface burning every year in the last decade, this is a penetrating book on a subject of undeniable importance

  20. Forest thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corona P

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This note emphasizes the importance of appreciating the conceptual paths and theories that have historically characterized forestry development. A recent monograph on the history of forest thinking presents the theoretical evolution of silvicultural science, with particular attention to epistemological and ethical implications: the main lines of research progress are stressed by analysing the various schools of thought in this field. The reading of the monograph strengthens the evidence that always behind the facts, there are the ideas.

  1. Forest report 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This forest condition report of Hesse (Germany) includes the following topics: forest condition survey for all tree species, forest in the in the Rhine-Main area, weather and climate, soil water balance and drought stress, insects and fungi, Forestry Environment Monitoring, infiltrated substances, main results of Forest soil survey in Hesse (BZE II), the substrate group red sandstone, heavy metal contamination of forests.

  2. Tenure and forest income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagger, Pamela; Luckert, Martin K.; Duchelle, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    We explore the relationship between tenure and forest income in 271 villages throughout the tropics. We find that state-owned forests generate more forest income than private and community-owned forests both per household and per hectare. We explore whether forest income varies according to the e...

  3. South Dakota's forests 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; W. Keith Moser; Douglas D. Haugan; Gregory J. Josten; Gary J. Brand; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Mark H. Hansen; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Charles H. Perry; Christopher W. Woodall

    2009-01-01

    The first completed annual inventory of South Dakota's forests reports almost 1.7 million acres of forest land. Softwood forests make up 74 percent of the total forest land area; the ponderosa pine forest type by itself accounts for 69 percent of the total.

  4. Dispersal of forest insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmanus, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    Dispersal flights of selected species of forest insects which are associated with periodic outbreaks of pests that occur over large contiguous forested areas are discussed. Gypsy moths, spruce budworms, and forest tent caterpillars were studied for their massive migrations in forested areas. Results indicate that large dispersals into forested areas are due to the females, except in the case of the gypsy moth.

  5. An Alternative to Thought Suppression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boice, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Setting free the bears: Escape from thought suppression," by D. M. Wegner (see record 2011-25622-008). While Wegner supposed that we might have to learn to live with bad thoughts, the present author discusses the use of imagination and guided imagery as an alternative to forced thought suppression.

  6. Accounting for Risk in Valuing Forest Carbon Offsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurteau, M. D.; Hungate, B. A.; Koch, G. W.

    2008-12-01

    Forests can sequester carbon dioxide, thereby reducing atmospheric concentrations and slowing global warming. U.S. Forest carbon stocks have increased as a result of regrowth following land abandonment and in-growth due to fire suppression. Increasing carbon density and reducing emissions from disturbances (fire, pest outbreaks) are two potential strategies for using forests to slow the rise of atmospheric CO2. The recent increase in frequency of large and severe fires due to past fire suppression and ongoing climate change represents risk in forest carbon offset investment. Under current carbon accounting mechanisms, all forest carbon offset projects are equivalent provided they meet additionality and permanence standards. Risk of loss from disturbance is not incorporated into quantifying permanence, even though some forests are at greater risk than others. We used the fire regime condition class (FRCC) departure index and mean fire return interval (mFRI) data products developed for the LANDFIRE project to discount the market value of forest carbon as a function of the risk of loss due to wildfire. Based on our risk assessment valuation method, the value of carbon varies depending on forest type and condition. For example, a unit carbon in fire-prone ponderosa pine forests of the Southwestern U.S. is worth only 24% of that in redwood forest. FRCC departure can be altered, making this equation robust to management actions and allowing for site specific quantification of the carbon market value of a management action. Substitution of FRCC and mFRI with the appropriate metrics would allow application of this approach to discounting market value of forest carbon due to risks of other disturbances such as forest pest outbreaks.

  7. Potential climate change impacts on fire intensity and key wildfire suppression thresholds in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotton, B. M.; Flannigan, M. D.; Marshall, G. A.

    2017-09-01

    Much research has been carried out on the potential impacts of climate change on forest fire activity in the boreal forest. Indeed, there is a general consensus that, while change will vary regionally across the vast extent of the boreal, in general the fire environment will become more conducive to fire. Land management agencies must consider ways to adapt to these new conditions. This paper examines the impact of that changed fire environment on overall wildfire suppression capability. We use multiple General Circulation Models and carbon emission pathways to generate future fire environment scenarios for Canada’s forested region. We then use these scenarios with the Canadian Forest Fire Behaviour Prediction System and spatial coverages of the current forest fuel composition across the landscape to examine potential variation in key fire behaviour outputs that influence whether fire management resources can effectively suppress fire. Specifically, we evaluate how the potential for crown fire occurrence and active growth of fires changes with the changing climate. We also examine future fire behaviour through the lens of operational fire intensity thresholds used to guide decisions about resources effectiveness. Results indicate that the proportion of days in fire seasons with the potential for unmanageable fire will increase across Canada’s forest, more than doubling in some regions in northern and eastern boreal forest.

  8. Indiana's Forests 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; Mark N. Webb; Barry T. Wilson; Jeff Settle; Ron J. Piva; Charles H. Perry; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Susan J. Crocker; Brett J. Butler; Mark Hansen; Mark Hatfield; Gary Brand; Charles. Barnett

    2011-01-01

    The second full annual inventory of Indiana's forests reports more than 4.75 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 2,000 cubic feet per acre. Forest land is dominated by the white oak/red oak/hickory forest type, which occupies nearly a third of the total forest land area. Seventy-six percent of forest land consists of sawtimber, 16...

  9. Minnesota Forests 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick D. Miles; Curtis L. VanderSchaaf; Charles Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Dale D. Gormanson; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Tonya W. Lister; William H. McWilliams; Randall S. Morin; Mark D. Nelson; Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Rachel I. Riemann; James E. Smith; Brian F. Walters; Jim Westfall; Christopher W. Woodall

    2016-01-01

    The third full annual inventory of Minnesota forests reports 17.4 million acres of forest land with an average live tree volume of 1,096 cubic feet per acre. Forest land is dominated by the aspen forest type, which occupies 29 percent of the total forest land area. Twenty-eight percent of forest land consists of sawtimber, 35 percent poletimber, 36 percent sapling/...

  10. Wisconsin's Forests 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. Perry; Vern A. Everson; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Sally E. Dahir; Andrea L. Diss-Torrance; Grant M Domke; Dale D. Gormanson; Sarah K. Herrick; Steven S. Hubbard; Terry R. Mace; Patrick D. Miles; Mark D. Nelson; Richard B. Rodeout; Luke T. Saunders; Kirk M. Stueve; Barry T. Wilson; Christopher W. Woodall

    2012-01-01

    The second full annual inventory of Wisconsin's forests reports more than 16.7 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 1,400 cubic feet per acre. Forest land is dominated by the oak/hickory forest-type group, which occupies slightly more than one quarter of the total forest land area; the maple/beech/birch forest-type group occupies an...

  11. Techniques of forest restoration in restingas

    OpenAIRE

    Liliane Garcia da Silva Morais Rodrigues; Fernando Morais Rodrigues; Sérgio Luis Melo Viroli

    2016-01-01

    Restinga is an ecosystem of the Atlantic Forest Biome vegetation which has ecological functions and is undergoing anthropogenic occupations that result in the disturbance and its suppression of these environments. But to be the restoration of degraded restinga is necessary to know the different formations of the ecosystem and their respective characteristics. From this diagnosis, one can choose the most appropriate techniques to apply for its restoration. Thus, this study aims to conduct a li...

  12. Percent Forest Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCTFuture) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water....

  13. Percent Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCT) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water. More...

  14. Menstrual suppression in the adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantartzis, Kelly L; Sucato, Gina S

    2013-06-01

    Menstrual suppression, the use of contraceptive methods to eliminate or decrease the frequency of menses, is often prescribed for adolescents to treat menstrual disorders or to accommodate patient preference. For young women using hormonal contraceptives, there is no medical indication for menstruation to occur monthly, and various hormonal contraceptives can be used to decrease the frequency of menstruation with different side effect profiles and rates of amenorrhea. This article reviews the different modalities for menstrual suppression, common conditions in adolescents which may improve with menstrual suppression, and strategies for managing common side effects. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Suppression of transpiration due to cloud immersion in a seasonally dry Mexican Weeping Pine plantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarado-Barrientos, M.S.; Holwerda, F.; Asbjornsen, H.; Dawson, T.E.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.

    2013-01-01

    Cloud immersion affects the water budget of fog-affected forests not only by introducing an additional source of water (via cloud water interception by the canopy), but also by suppressing plant transpiration. The latter effect is often overlooked and not routinely quantified, restricting a complete

  16. A five-year record of lightning storms and forest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. T. Gisborne

    1931-01-01

    According to the records compiled by the supervisors of the national forests in the northern Rocky Mountain region, lightning has been responsible for a greater number of fires, more burned area, more damage, and more expense of suppression in this territory than all other causes of forest fires combined. Smokers, campers, brush burners, incendiarists, lumbering...

  17. Restoration of southwestern ponderosa pine forests: Implications and opportunities for wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine S. Wightman; Steven S. Rosenstock

    2008-01-01

    (Please note, this is an abstract only) After a century of fire suppression, livestock grazing, and even-aged timber harvest practices, forest managers in the Southwest face an enormous challenge. Millions of acres of ponderosa pine forest are extremely susceptible to uncharacteristic, high intensity wildfires, the consequences of which were amply demonstrated by...

  18. Forest wildfire, fuel reduction treatments, and landscape carbon stocks: a sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    John L. Campbell; Alan A. Ager

    2013-01-01

    Fuel reduction treatments prescribed in fire-suppressed forests of western North America pose an apparent paradox with respect to terrestrial carbon management. Such treatments have the immediate effect of reducing forest carbon stocks but likely reduce future carbon losses through the combustion and mortality caused by high-severity wildfires. Assessing the long-term...

  19. Spatial variability in soil nitrogen dynamics after prescribed burning in Ohio mixed-oak forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph E. J. Boerner; Sherri Jeakins Morris; Elaine Kennedy Sutherland; Todd F. Hutchinson

    2000-01-01

    This study describes the results of the application of a single dormant season prescribed fire to two southern Ohio forest sites for the purposes of restoring the ecosystem functional properties that existed in these sites prior to major human intervention (clearcutting, fire suppression, and atmospheric deposition). Each forest site was composed of three contiguous...

  20. Compton suppression gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberger, S.; Iskander, F.Y.; Niset, M.; Heydorn, K.

    2002-01-01

    In the past decade there have been many studies to use Compton suppression methods in routine neutron activation analysis as well as in the traditional role of low level gamma ray counting of environmental samples. On a separate path there have been many new PC based software packages that have been developed to enhance photopeak fitting. Although the newer PC based algorithms have had significant improvements, they still suffer from being effectively used in weak gamma ray lines in natural samples or in neutron activated samples that have very high Compton backgrounds. We have completed a series of experiments to show the usefulness of Compton suppression. As well we have shown the pitfalls when using Compton suppression methods for high counting deadtimes as in the case of neutron activated samples. We have also investigated if counting statistics are the same both suppressed and normal modes. Results are presented in four separate experiments. (author)

  1. COMIFAC Forest Conservation Framework: Towards Better Forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protected areas in Central Africa are a panacea as several million people are not schooled on the benefits of sustainably managing forests. Of perennial concern is the land tenure system which could provide incentives for forest management and conservation. Within this context, this article examines COMIFAC's forest ...

  2. Forest tenure and sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.P. Siry; K. McGinley; F.W. Cubbage; P. Bettinger

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed the principles and key literature related to forest tenure and sustainable forest management, and then examined the status of sustainable forestry and land ownership at the aggregate national level for major forested countries. The institutional design principles suggested by Ostrom are well accepted for applications to public, communal, and private lands....

  3. Thyroid suppression test with dextrothyroxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, D.; Fridman, J.; Ribeiro, H.B.

    1978-01-01

    The classic thyroid suppression test with triiodothyronine (l-T 3 ) has been shown to be efficient as an auxiliary method in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases, but should not be performed on elderly patients or on those with heart disease or a tendency to tachycardia. Since these subjects seem able to support a short period of dextro-thyronine (d-T 4 ) feeding, we compared the effect of d-T 4 and l-T 3 on the 24 hours thyroid uptake in euthyroid and hyperthyroid subjects. After basal radio-iodine uptake determination, 99 patients without hyperthyroidism and 27 with Graves' disease were randomly divided in 2 groups; one received 100μg of l-T 3 per day and the other 4 mg of d-T 4 per day, both groups being treated for a period of 10 days. At the end of this suppression period the 24 hours radio-iodine uptake was measured again and the percentual suppression index (S.I.) calculated. Since the comparison of the two groups showed no difference between the suppressive effect of l-T 3 and d-T 4 in euthyroid subjects, while dextro-thyronine, as levo-triiodothyronine, did not suppress the 24 hours uptake of hyperthyroid patients, l-T 3 or d-T 4 can be used interchangeably to test thyroid suppressibility. In the euthyroid subjects the normal range for the post-suppression uptake was 0-17.1% and for the suppression index 54,7.100% [pt

  4. In vivo Treg suppression assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Creg J; Collison, Lauren W; Bettini, Maria; Pillai, Meenu R; Rehg, Jerold E; Vignali, Dario A A

    2011-01-01

    To fully examine the functionality of a regulatory T cell (T(reg)) population, one needs to assess their ability to suppress in a variety of in vivo models. We describe five in vivo models that examine the suppressive capacity of T(regs) upon different target cell types. The advantages and disadvantages of each model including resources, time, and technical expertise required to execute each model are also described.

  5. In Vivo Treg Suppression Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Workman, Creg J.; Collison, Lauren W.; Bettini, Maria; Pillai, Meenu R.; Rehg, Jerold E.; Vignali, Dario A.A.

    2011-01-01

    To fully examine the functionality of a regulatory T cell (Treg) population, one needs to assess their ability to suppress in a variety of in vivo models. We describe five in vivo models that examine the suppressive capacity of Tregs upon different target cell types. The advantages and disadvantages of each model includ ing resources, time, and technical expertise required to execute each model are also described.

  6. Burst Suppression for ICP Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiler, Frederick A; Akoth, Eva; Gillman, Lawrence M; West, Michael

    2017-02-01

    The goal of our study was to perform a systematic review of the literature to determine the effect that burst suppression has on intracranial pressure (ICP) control. All articles from MEDLINE, BIOSIS, EMBASE, Global Health, Scopus, Cochrane Library, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (inception to January 2015), reference lists of relevant articles, and gray literature were searched. The strength of evidence was adjudicated using both the Oxford and the Grading of Recommendation Assessment Development and Education (GRADE) methodology. Seven articles were considered for review. A total of 108 patients were studied, all receiving burst suppression therapy. Two studies failed to document a decrease in ICP with burst suppression therapy. There were reports of severe hypotension and increased infection rates with barbiturate-based therapy. Etomidate-based suppressive therapy was linked to severe renal dysfunction. There currently exists both Oxford level 2b and GRADE C evidence to support that achieving burst suppression reduces ICP, and also has no effect on ICP, in severe traumatic brain injury. The literature suggests burst suppression therapy may be useful for ICP reduction in certain cases, although these situations are currently unclear. In addition, the impact on patient functional outcome is unclear. Further prospective study is warranted.

  7. Suppressed Charmed B Decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoek, Hella Leonie [Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-06-02

    This thesis describes the measurement of the branching fractions of the suppressed charmed B0 → D*- a0+ decays and the non-resonant B0 → D*- ηπ+ decays in approximately 230 million Υ(4S) → B$\\bar{B}$ events. The data have been collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in California. Theoretical predictions of the branching fraction of the B0 → D*- a{sub 0}+ decays show large QCD model dependent uncertainties. Non-factorizing terms, in the naive factorization model, that can be calculated by QCD factorizing models have a large impact on the branching fraction of these decay modes. The predictions of the branching fractions are of the order of 10-6. The measurement of the branching fraction gives more insight into the theoretical models. In general a better understanding of QCD models will be necessary to conduct weak interaction physics at the next level. The presence of CP violation in electroweak interactions allows the differentiation between matter and antimatter in the laws of physics. In the Standard Model, CP violation is incorporated in the CKM matrix that describes the weak interaction between quarks. Relations amongst the CKM matrix elements are used to present the two relevant parameters as the apex of a triangle (Unitarity Triangle) in a complex plane. The over-constraining of the CKM triangle by experimental measurements is an important test of the Standard Model. At this moment no stringent direct measurements of the CKM angle γ, one of the interior angles of the Unitarity Triangle, are available. The measurement of the angle γ can be performed using the decays of neutral B mesons. The B0 → D*- a0+ decay is sensitive to the angle γ and, in comparison to the current decays that are being employed, could significantly

  8. Virgilia divaricata may facilitate forest expansion in the afrotemperate forests of the southern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corli Coetsee

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Virgilia divaricata is a fast-growing nitrogen-fixing tree species often found on the margins of forest in the southern Cape of South Africa and is particularly abundant after fire. However, V. divaricatamay invade fynbos even in the absence of fire and it has been described as a forest precursor. We investigated whether V. divaricata enriches soil fertility after its invasion into fynbos areas adjacent to forests. We measured soil organic carbon and soil nutrients at four sites. At each site, three vegetation types (forest, V. divaricata and fynbos were examined on the same soil type and at the same elevation. Our results showed that, on average, soils taken from V. divaricata stands had higher nitrogen and phosphorus values than the adjacent fynbos soils, with either lower or similar values to the adjacent forest soils. Higher soil fertility under V. divaricata, together with their shading effect, may create conditions favourable for shade-loving forest species dependent on an efficient nutrient cycle in the topsoil layers, and less favourable for shade-hating fynbos species, which are generally adapted to low soil fertility. We suggest that the restoration of the nutrient cycle found in association with forest may be accelerated under V. divaricata compared with other forest precursor species, which has important consequences for the use of V. divaricata in ecosystem restoration.Conservation implications: Alien plantations in the Outeniqua Mountains are being phased out and the areas are being incorporated into the Garden Route National Park. Fynbos areas are increasingly being invaded by forest and thicket species owing to fire suppression in lower-lying areas. An improved understanding of the fynbos–forest boundary dynamics will aid in efficient management and restoration of these ecosystems.

  9. Suitable level of suppression in Pinus sylvestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagner, Mats

    1999-10-01

    It is `well known` among Swedish foresters that pine trees need light and cannot grow suppressed. It is also `well known` that old trees that have grown slowly are unable to react with good growth. However, these facts can be questioned in the light of new research as it has been found that thinning reaction is not correlated with age. It is also well known that the commercial value of a pine is closely related to the growth at young age. If the first 20 annual rings close to pith are wide (>3 mm) the log cannot be accepted as first class. This is related to number and size of branches on the young tree and to the features of the juvenile wood. This is to say that a pine must not grow fast when it is small and if this has happened it cannot be cured by artificial debranching or by growing the tree slowly at higher age. Accordingly, young pines should be grown under bigger trees that in their young age were grown under big trees, and so on. Today, when clear cutting is the dominating forest management system, the only way to obtain high quality pine trees is to start the rotation age with stands of very high density. This is of course a very expensive way as dense planting, followed by intensive thinning requires a lot of input. However, if pine is a pioneer species and cannot be grown in multistoried stands, then the economic solution is not present. This was the reason why the annual increment of three pines was measured. They were selected because their different growth pattern showed that old `well known facts` should be revised Working papers 139. 3 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  10. Assessing fire effects on forest spatial structure using a fusion of Landsat and airborne LiDAR data in Yosemite National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van R. Kane; Malcolm P. North; James A. Lutz; Derek J. Churchill; Susan L. Roberts; Douglas F. Smith; Robert J. McGaughey; Jonathan T. Kane; Matthew L. Brooks

    2014-01-01

    Mosaics of tree clumps and openings are characteristic of forests dominated by frequent, low-and moderate-severity fires. When restoring these fire-suppressed forests, managers often try to reproduce these structures to increase ecosystem resilience. We examined unburned and burned forest structures for 1937 0.81 ha sample areas in Yosemite National Park, USA. We...

  11. Alternatives for Bulgarian forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Päivinen, R.; Nabuurs, G.J.

    2001-01-01

    The European Forest Information Scenario Model (EFISCEN) is an area-based forest matrix model, which is especially suitable for projections of forest resources of large areas under assumptions of total national felling. EFISCEN uses time steps of five years and national forest inventory data. The

  12. Forest Health Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Tara L.

    2014-01-01

    "Forest health" is an important concept often not covered in tree, forest, insect, or fungal ecology and biology. With minimal, inexpensive equipment, students can investigate and conduct their own forest health survey to assess the percentage of trees with natural or artificial wounds or stress. Insects and diseases in the forest are…

  13. Iowa's forest resources, 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Jr. Spencer; Pamela J. Jakes

    1980-01-01

    The second inventory of Iowa's forest resources shows big declines in commercial forest area and in growing-stock and sawtimber volumes between 1954 and 1974. Presented are text and statistics on forest area and timber volume, growth, mortality, ownership, stocking, future timber supply, timber use, forest management opportunities, and nontimber resources.

  14. Sustaining Urban Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Dwyer; David J. Nowak

    2003-01-01

    The significance of the urban forest resource and the powerful forces for change in the urban environment make sustainability a critical issue in urban forest management. The diversity, connectedness, and dynamics of the urban forest establish the context for management that will determine the sustainability of forest structure, health, functions, and benefits. A...

  15. North Dakota's forests 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen; Michael Kangas; Susan J. Crocker; Charles H. Perry; Christopher W. Woodall; Brett J. Butler; Barry T. Wilson; Dan J. Kaisershot

    2009-01-01

    The first completed annual inventory of North Dakota's forests reports estimates of more than 724,000 acres of forest land. Information about forest attributes and forest health is presented along with information on agents of change including changing land use patterns and the introduction of nonnative plants, insects, and disease.

  16. Bartlett Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane Gamal-Eldin

    1998-01-01

    The Bartlett Experimental Forest is a field laboratory for research on the ecology and management of northern forest ecosystems. Research on the Bartlett includes: 1) extensive investigations on structure and dynamics of forests at several levels, and developing management alternatives to reflect an array of values and benefits sought by users of forest lands, 2) a...

  17. Forest farming practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L. Chamberlain; D. Mitchell; T. Brigham; T. Hobby; L. Zabek; J. Davis

    2009-01-01

    Forest farming in North America is becoming popular as a way for landowners to diversify income opportunities, improve management of forest resources, and increase biological diversity. People have been informally "farming the forests" for generations. However, in recent years, attention has been directed at formalizing forest farming and improving it...

  18. Michigan's forests 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott A. Pugh; Mark H. Hansen; Lawrence D. Pedersen; Douglas C. Heym; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Dacia Meneguzzo; Charles H. Perry; David E. Haugen; Christopher Woodall; Ed Jepsen

    2009-01-01

    The first annual inventory of Michigan's forests, completed in 2004, covers more than 19.3 million acres of forest land. The data in this report are based on visits to 10,355 forested plots from 2000 to 2004. In addition to detailed information on forest attributes, this report includes data on forest health, biomass, land-use change, and timber-product outputs....

  19. New Jersey Forests 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Crocker; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Tonya W. Lister; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Patrick D. Miles; Randall S. Morin; Mark D. Nelson; Ronald J. Piva; Rachel Riemann; James E. Smith; Christopher W. Woodall; William. Zipse

    2017-01-01

    The second full annual inventory of New Jersey’s forests reports more than 2.0 million acres of forest land and 77 tree species. Forest land is dominated by oak/hickory forest types in the north and pitch pine forest types in the south. The volume of growing stock on timberland has been rising since 1956 and currently totals 3.3 billion cubic feet. Average annual net...

  20. West Virginia Forests 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall S. Morin; Gregory W. Cook; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Tonya W. Lister; William G. Luppold; William H. McWilliams; Patrick D. Miles; Mark D. Nelson; Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Ronald J. Piva; James E. Smith; Jim Westfall; Richard H. Widmann; Christopher W. Woodall

    2016-01-01

    The annual inventory of West Virginia's forests, completed in 2013, covers nearly 12.2 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 2,300 cubic feet per acre. This report is based data collected from 2,808 plots located across the State. Forest land is dominated by the oak/hickory forest-type group, which occupies 74 percent of total forest...

  1. Pennsylvania's Forests, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    George L. McCaskill; William H. McWilliams; Carol A. Alerich; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Grant M. Domke; Doug Griffith; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Shawn Lehman; Tonya W. Lister; Randall S. Morin; W. Keith Moser; Paul Roth; Rachel Riemann; James A. Westfall

    2013-01-01

    The second full annual inventory of Pennsylvania's forests reports a stable base of 16.7 million acres of forest land. Northern hardwoods and mixed-oak forest-type groups account for 54 and 32 percent of the forest land, respectively. The State's forest land averages about 61 dry tons of wood per acre and almost 6,500 board feet (International ¼-inch...

  2. Illinois' Forests 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Crocker; Mark D. Nelson; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Grant M. Domke; Mark H. Hansen; Mark A. Hatfield; Tonya W. Lister; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Ronald J. Piva; Barry T. Wilson; Christopher W. Woodall

    2013-01-01

    The second full annual inventory of Illinois' forests, completed in 2010, reports more than 4.8 million acres of forest land and 97 tree species. Forest land is dominated by oak/hickory and elm/ash/cottonwood forest-type groups, which occupy 93 percent of total forest land area. The volume of growing stock on timberland totals 7.2 billion cubic feet. The average...

  3. Nebraska's Forests 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacia M Meneguzzo; Susan J. Crocker; Mark D. Nelson; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Grant M. Domke; Mark H. Hansen; Mark A. Hatfield; Greg C. Liknes; Andrew J. Lister; Tonya W. Lister; Ronald J. Piva; Barry T. (Ty) Wilson; Christopher W. Woodall

    2012-01-01

    The second full annual inventory of Nebraska's forests reports more than 1.5 million acres of forest land and 39 tree species. Forest land is dominated by the elm/ash/cottonwood and oak/hickory forest types, which occupy nearly half of the total forest land area. The volume of growing stock on timberland currently totals 1.1 billion cubic feet. The average annual...

  4. New Jersey's forests, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Crocker; Mark D. Nelson; Charles J. Barnett; Gary J. Brand; Brett J. Butler; Grant M. Domke; Mark H. Hansen; Mark A. Hatfield; Tonya W. Lister; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Charles H. Perry; Ronald J. Piva; Barry T. Wilson; Christopher W. Woodall; Bill. Zipse

    2011-01-01

    The first full annual inventory of New Jersey's forests reports more than 2.0 million acres of forest land and 83 tree species. Forest land is dominated by oak-hickory forest types in the north and pitch pine forest types in the south. The volume of growing stock on timberland has been rising since 1956 and currently totals 3.4 billion cubic feet. The average...

  5. Are Northeastern U.S. forests vulnerable to extreme drought?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam P. Coble; Matthew A. Vadeboncoeur; Z. Carter Berry; Katie A. Jennings; Cameron D. McIntire; John L. Campbell; Lindsey E. Rustad; Pamela H. Templer; Heidi Asbjornsen

    2017-01-01

    In the Northeastern U.S., drought is expected to increase in frequency over the next century, and therefore, the responses of trees to drought are important to understand. There is recent debate about whether land-use change or moisture availability is the primary driver of changes in forest species composition in this region. Some argue that fire suppression from the...

  6. Forest health in Canada, Montane cordillera ecozone 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, E.; Garbutt, R.; Hirvonen, H.; Pinnell, H.

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes the key forest health issues affecting the 6 main forest types in Canada's Montane Cordillera ecozone in the central interior of British Columbia and the Alberta Foothills. In order to protect and conserve biological diversity, the Canadian Council of Forest Ministers adopted national criteria to measure sustainable forest management. This report describes the Montane Cordillera landscape conditions, pre-industrial ecological influences, current ecological influences, and the impact of invasive alien insects and diseases on the diversity of tree species. Pine forests in the Montane Cordillera ecozone are threatened by the mountain pine beetle. Fire suppression has also resulted in ecological changes to forests in the Montane Cordillera, including an increase in Douglas-firs, gradual replacement of Lodgepole pine forests, and reduced health of Ponderosa pine ecosystems. Alien insects are being monitored by provincial forestry agencies through annual surveys. They are also being controlled through localized treatment programs. The impact of land use practices such as forest harvesting on forest structure and composition was also addressed. It was noted that the unrestricted movement of wood and forestry products also increases the threat of invasive alien diseases and insects. The trees in this ecozone have not been damaged by air pollution. refs., tabs., figs.

  7. Forest dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frelich, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Forest dynamics encompass changes in stand structure, species composition, and species interactions with disturbance and environment over a range of spatial and temporal scales. For convenience, spatial scale is defined as individual tree, neighborhood, stand, and landscape. Whether a given canopy-leveling disturbance will initiate a sequence of development in structure with little change in composition or initiate an episode of succession depends on a match or mismatch, respectively, with traits of the dominant tree species that allow the species to survive disturbance. When these match, certain species-disturbance type combinations lock in a pattern of stand and landscape dynamics that can persist for several generations of trees; thus, dominant tree species regulate, as well as respond to, disturbance. A complex interaction among tree species, neighborhood effects, disturbance type and severity, landform, and soils determines how stands of differing composition form and the mosaic of stands that compose the landscape. Neighborhood effects (e.g., serotinous seed rain, sprouting, shading, leaf-litter chemistry, and leaf-litter physical properties) operate at small spatial extents of the individual tree and its neighbors but play a central role in forest dynamics by contributing to patch formation at stand scales and dynamics of the entire landscape. Dominance by tree species with neutral to negative neighborhood effects leads to unstable landscape dynamics in disturbance-prone regions, wherein most stands are undergoing succession; stability can only occur under very low-severity disturbance regimes. Dominance by species with positive effects leads to stable landscape dynamics wherein only a small proportion of stands undergo succession at any one time. Positive neighborhood effects are common in temperate and boreal zones, whereas negative effects are more common in tropical climates. Landscapes with positive dynamics have alternate categories of dynamics

  8. Rocky Mountain Research Station Part 2 [U.S. Forest Service scientists continue work with the Lincoln National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd A. Rawlinson

    2010-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS) is studying the effects of fuels reduction treatments on Mexican Spotted Owls and their prey in the Sacramento Mountains of New Mexico. One challenge facing Forest Service managers is that much of the landscape is dominated by overstocked stands resulting from years of fire suppression.

  9. Beyond viral suppression of HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V.; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Barton, Simon E

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) adopted a new Global Health Sector Strategy on HIV for 2016-2021. It establishes 15 ambitious targets, including the '90-90-90' target calling on health systems to reduce under-diagnosis of HIV, treat a greater number of those diagnosed......, and ensure that those being treated achieve viral suppression. DISCUSSION: The WHO strategy calls for person-centered chronic care for people living with HIV (PLHIV), implicitly acknowledging that viral suppression is not the ultimate goal of treatment. However, it stops short of providing an explicit target...... for health-related quality of life. It thus fails to take into account the needs of PLHIV who have achieved viral suppression but still must contend with other intense challenges such as serious non-communicable diseases, depression, anxiety, financial stress, and experiences of or apprehension about HIV...

  10. Resonance suppression from color reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acconcia, R.; Chinellato, D. D.; de Souza, R. Derradi; Takahashi, J.; Torrieri, G.; Markert, C.

    2018-02-01

    We present studies that show how multi-parton interaction and color reconnection affect the hadro-chemistry in proton-proton (pp) collisions with special focus on the production of resonances using the pythia8 event generator. We find that color reconnection suppresses the relative production of meson resonances such as ρ0 and K* , providing an alternative explanation for the K*/K decrease observed in proton-proton collisions as a function of multiplicity by the ALICE collaboration. Detailed studies of the underlying mechanism causing meson resonance suppression indicate that color reconnection leads to shorter, less energetic strings whose fragmentation is less likely to produce more massive hadrons for a given quark content, therefore reducing ratios such as K*/K and ρ0/π in high-multiplicity pp collisions. In addition, we have also studied the effects of allowing string junctions to form and found that these may also contribute to resonance suppression.

  11. Some observations of wood density and anatomical properties in a Douglas-fir sample with suppressed growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.Y. Zhu; David W. Vahey; C. Tim Scott

    2008-01-01

    This study used ring width correlations to examine the effects of tree-growth suppression on within-tree local wood density and tracheid anatomical properties. A wood core sample was taken from a 70-yr-old Douglas-fir that grew under various degrees of suppression in a natural forest setting. SilviScan and an imaging technique were used to obtain wood density and...

  12. Teaching to suppress Polglish processes

    OpenAIRE

    Dziubalska-Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Balas, Anna; Schwartz, Geoffrey; Rojczyk, Arkadiusz; Wrembel, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Advanced second language (henceforth L2) learners in a formal setting can suppress many first language (henceforth L1) processes in L2 pronunciation when provided with sufficient exposure to L2 and meta competence (see Sect. 4 for a definition of this term). This paper shows how imitation in L2 teaching can be enhanced on the basis of current phonetic research and how complex allophonic processes such as nasal vocalization and glottal stop insertion can be suppressed using “repair”—a method o...

  13. Human-Forest Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Eva; Dauksta, D.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between human beings and forests has been important for the development of society. It is based on various productive, ecological, social and cultural functions of forests. The cultural functions, including the spiritual and symbolic role of forests, are often not addressed...... problems. To achieve a deeper understanding of the dependency of society on forests, it is necessary to recognise the role of forests in our consciousness of being human. Giving a historical overview about the cultural bonds between people and forests, the first part of the paper puts focus on non......-productive aspects in human–forest relationships. Through history, forest values have changed and new functions have emerged. Industrialisation and urbanisation have contributed to an alienation from nature and weakened the connection of humans to forests. The consequences of these changes for the development...

  14. Forest and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After having recalled the challenges the French forest has to face, and a brief overview of the status of forests in the world, this report proposes an overview of actions which are implemented to strengthen the carbon sequestration role of forests, at the international level and in France. It discusses the distribution of carbon, the forest carbon stocks (in the world, Europe and France), the actions against climate change, the costs and financing of the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the forest sector. It comments the status of international negotiations and how forests are taken into account. It presents the French forest and wood sector (characteristics of the forest in metropolitan France and overseas, wood as material and as energy). It recalls the commitment of the Grenelle de l'Environnement, and indicates the current forest studies

  15. Forest resources of Mississippi’s national forests, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonja N. Oswalt

    2011-01-01

    This bulletin describes forest resource characteristics of Mississippi’s national forests, with emphasis on DeSoto National Forest, following the 2006 survey completed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis program. Mississippi’s national forests comprise > 1 million acres of forest land, or about 7 percent of all forest...

  16. Conditioned suppression, punishment, and aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme-Johnson, D. W.; Yarczower, M.

    1974-01-01

    The aversive action of visual stimuli was studied in two groups of pigeons which received response-contingent or noncontingent electric shocks in cages with translucent response keys. Presentation of grain for 3 sec, contingent on key pecking, was the visual stimulus associated with conditioned punishment or suppression. The responses of the pigeons in three different experiments are compared.

  17. Plasma suppression of beamstrahlung: Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittum, D.H.; Sessler, A.M.; Stewart, J.J.; Yu, S.S.

    1988-06-01

    We investigate the use of a plasma at the interaction point of two colliding beams to suppress beamstrahlung and related phenomena. We derive conditions for good current cancellation via plasma return currents and report on numerical simulations conducted to confirm our analytic results. 17 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  18. Forest report 2013; Waldzustandsbericht 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    This forest report of Lower Saxony (Germany) contains the following topics: weather and climate, forest protection, crown defoliation, infiltrated substances, environmental monitoring, insects and fungi, forest soil survey and forest site mapping, and nutritional status of beech on loess.

  19. Forest resources of the Santa Fe National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana Lambert

    2004-01-01

    The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, as part of its national Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) duties, conducted forest resource inventories of the Southwestern Region (Region 3) National Forests. This report presents highlights of the Santa Fe National Forest 1998...

  20. Herbivory enhances the resistance of mangrove forest to cordgrass invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yihui; Meng, Hanyu; Wang, Yi; He, Qiang

    2018-04-01

    The biotic resistance hypothesis proposes that biotic interactions, such as competition and herbivory, resist the establishment and spread of non-native species. The relative and interactive role of competition and herbivory in resisting plant invasions, however, remains poorly understood. We investigated the interactive role of competition and herbivory (by the native rodent Rattus losea) in resisting Spartina alterniflora (cordgrass) invasions into mangrove forests. In southern China, although exotic cordgrass numerically dominates intertidal mudflats and open gaps in mangrove forests, intact forests appear to be highly resistant to cordgrass invasion. A field transplant and rodent exclusion experiment showed that while the impact of rodent grazing on cordgrass was weak on mangrove forest edges and open mudflats, rodent grazing strongly suppressed cordgrass in mangrove understory habitats. A greenhouse experiment confirmed a synergistic interaction between grazing and light availability (a proxy for mangrove shading and light competition) in suppressing cordgrass establishment, with the strongest impacts of grazing in low light conditions that likely weakened cordgrass to survive and resprout. When both were present, as in mangrove understory habitats, grazing and low light acted in concert to eliminate cordgrass establishment, resulting in resistance of mangrove forests to cordgrass invasion. Our results reveal that grazing by native herbivores can enhance the resistance of mangrove forests to cordgrass invasion in southern China, and suggest that investigating multifactor interactions may be critical to understanding community resistance to exotic invasions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. National Forest Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This theme shows the USFS national forest boundaries in the state. This data was acquired from the GIS coordinators at both the Chippewa National Forest and the...

  2. Influence of Forest Therapy on Cardiovascular Relaxation in Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juyoung Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite increasing attention toward forest therapy as an alternative medicine, very little evidence continues to be available on its therapeutic effects. Therefore, this study was focused on elucidating the health benefits of forest walking on cardiovascular reactivity. Methods. Within-group comparisons were used to examine the cardiovascular responses to walking in forest and urban environments. Forty-eight young adult males participated in the two-day field research. Changes in heart rate variability, heart rate, and blood pressure were measured to understand cardiovascular reactivity. Four different questionnaires were used to investigate the changes in psychological states after walking activities. Results. Forest walking significantly increased the values of ln(HF and significantly decreased the values of ln(LF/HF compared with the urban walking. Heart rate during forest walking was significantly lower than that in the control. Questionnaire results showed that negative mood states and anxiety levels decreased significantly by forest walking compared with urban walking. Conclusion. Walking in the forest environment may promote cardiovascular relaxation by facilitating the parasympathetic nervous system and by suppressing the sympathetic nervous system. In addition, forest therapy may be effective for reducing negative psychological symptoms.

  3. Iowa Forests, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Nelson; Charles J. Barnett; Matt Brewer; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Grant M. Domke; Dale D. Gormanson; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Tonya W. Lister; Stephen Matthews; William H. McWilliams; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Patrick D. Miles; Randall S. Morin; Ronald J. Piva; Rachel Riemann; James E. Smith; Brian F. Walters; Jim Westfall; Christopher W. Woodall

    2016-01-01

    The third full annual inventory of Iowa's forests (2009-2013) indicates that just under 3 million acres of forest land exists in the State, 81 percent of which is in family forest ownership. Almost all of Iowa's forest land is timberland (96 percent), with an average volume of more than 1,000 cubic feet of growing stock per acre on timberland and more than 1,...

  4. Maine's forests 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    George L. McCaskill; William H. McWilliams; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Randall S. Morin; W. Keith Moser; Charles H. Perry; Christopher W. Woodall

    2011-01-01

    The second annual inventory of Maine's forests was completed in 2008 after more than 3,160 forested plots were measured. Forest land occupies almost 17.7 million acres, which represents 82 percent of the total land area of Maine. The dominant forest-type groups are maple/beech/yellow birch, spruce/fir, white/red/jack pine, and aspen/white birch. Statewide volume...

  5. West Virginia's Forests 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard H. Widmann; Gregory W. Cook; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Douglas M. Griffith; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Randall S. Morin; W. Keith Moser; Charles H. Perry; Ronald J. Piva; Rachel Riemann; Christopher W. Woodall

    2012-01-01

    The first full annual inventory of West Virginia's forests reports 12.0 million acres of forest land or 78 percent of the State's land area. The area of forest land has changed little since 2000. Of this land, 7.2 million acres (60 percent) are held by family forest owners. The current growing-stock inventory is 25 billion cubic feet--12 percent more than in...

  6. Forests and water cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iovino F

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on a comprehensive literature analysis, a review on factors that control water cycle and water use in Mediterranean forest ecosystems is presented, including environmental variables and silvicultural treatments. This important issue is considered in the perspective of sustainable forest management of Mediterranean forests, with special regard to crucial environmental hazards such as forest fires and desertification risks related to climate change.

  7. Securing tropical forest carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharlemann, Jörn P. W.; Kapos, Valerie; Campbell, Alison

    2010-01-01

    that 1.75 million ha of forest were lost from protected areas in humid tropical forests, causing the emission of 0.25-0.33 Pg C. Protected areas lost about half as much carbon as the same area of unprotected forest. We estimate that the reduction of these carbon emissions from ongoing deforestation......, although certainly not sufficient, component of an overall strategy for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD)...

  8. Alabama's forests, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew J. Hartsell; Tony G. Johnson

    2009-01-01

    The principle findings of the seventh forest survey of Alabama (2000) and changes that have occurred since the previous surveys are presented. Topics examined include forest area, ownership, forest-type groups, stand structure, basal area, timber volume, growth, removals, and mortality.

  9. Forests of Kansas, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacia M. Meneguzzo

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Kansas based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. For annual inventory years 2001-2013, the sample length was equal to 5 years. Beginning in 2014, the cycle length was changed to 7 years. For the 2015 inventory,...

  10. Forests of Iowa, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Nelson; Matt Brewer; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Kathryne. Clark

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Iowa based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the Iowa Department of Natural Resources. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  11. Forests of Nebraska, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Susan J. Crocker

    2015-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Nebraska based on annual inventories conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program of the Northern Research Station (NRS), U.S. Forest Service. The estimates presented in this update are based on field data collected in 2010-2014 with comparisons made to data collected from 2005-...

  12. Forests of Kansas, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacia M. Meneguzzo

    2017-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Kansas based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. For annual inventory years 2001-2013, the sample length was equal to 5 years. Beginning in 2014, the cycle length was changed to 7 years. For the 2016 inventory,...

  13. Forests of Nebraska, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacia M. Meneguzzo

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Nebraska based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. For annual inventory years 2001-2013, the sample length was equal to 5 years. Beginning in 2014, the cycle length was changed to 7 years. For the 2015 inventory...

  14. Forests of Virginia, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.J. Brandeis; A.J. Hartsell; K.C. Randolph; C.M. Oswalt

    2018-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Virginia based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Virginia Department of Forestry.

  15. Minnesota forest statistics, 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick D. Miles; Chung M. Chen

    1992-01-01

    The fifth inventory of Minnesota's forests reports 51.0 million acres of land, of which 16.7 million acres are forested. This bulletin presents statistical highlights and contains detailed tables of forest area, as well as timber volume, growth, removals, mortality, and ownership.

  16. Forests of Kentucky, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.M. Oswalt

    2015-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resource attributes for the Commonwealth of Kentucky based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program at the Southern Research Station of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture in cooperation with the Kentucky Department of Natural Resources Division of Forestry....

  17. Forest Fires 3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    heat from within the Earth could be transferred to the charcoal layers above, from there onto the peat and other vegetation in the soil and finally when it comes in contact with forest litter it would develop into a natural forest fire. Ironically, in regions usually thought of as cool and wet, forest fires do occur naturally frop1 time to ...

  18. Forest resources and conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. McWilliams; Linda S. Heath; Gordon C. Reese; Thomas L. Schmidt

    2000-01-01

    The forests of the northern United States support a rich mix of floral and faunal communities that provide inestimable benefits to society. Today's forests face a range of biotic and abiotic stressors, not the least of which may be environmental change. This chapter reviews the compositional traits of presettlement forests and traces the major land use patterns...

  19. Forests of Alabama, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andy Hartsell

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Alabama based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Alabama Forestry Commission. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated yearly....

  20. Forests of Wisconsin, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. Perry

    2014-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Wisconsin based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Data estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and...

  1. Forest products issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton T. Munger

    1935-01-01

    This issue of Forest Research Notes is devoted to abstracts of projects under way or recently completed by the Section of Forest Products. This section conducts research designed to contribute to better and more economic utilization of the products of the forest. As shown by the variety of subjects presented in these notes, the projects range from the statistics of...

  2. Nebraska's forest resources, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.M. Meneguzzo; B. Walters

    2012-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Nebraska based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report....

  3. Wisconsin's forest resources, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.H. Perry

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Wisconsin based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report...

  4. Wisconsin's forest resources, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.H. Perry; V.A. Everson

    2007-01-01

    Figure 2 was revised by the author in August 2008. This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Wisconsin based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service from 2002-2006. These estimates, along with associated core tables postedon the Internet, are...

  5. Wisconsin's Forest Resources, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.H. Perry; V.A. Everson

    2008-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Wisconsin based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, are updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report.

  6. Wisconsin's forest resources, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.H. Perry

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Wisconsin based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this report...

  7. Forests of Georgia, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Brandeis; Consuelo Brandeis; Andy Hartsell; KaDonna Randolph; Sonja Oswalt

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Georgia based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Georgia Forestry Commission. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated yearly....

  8. Forests of Kentucky, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Brandeis; Andy Hartsell; KaDonna Randolph; Sonja Oswalt; Consuelo Brandeis

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Kentucky based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated yearly. The estimates presented in this update are...

  9. Forests of Georgia, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Brandeis; Andy Hartsell

    2015-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Georgia based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Georgia Forestry Commission. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated yearly....

  10. Forests of Alabama, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andy Hartsell

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Alabama based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Alabama Forestry Commission. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated yearly....

  11. Forests of Oklahoma, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Lambert; J.A. Cooper

    2014-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Oklahoma based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station, in cooperation with Oklahoma Forestry Services (OFS). Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated yearly...

  12. Forests of Oklahoma, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Lambert; J.T. Vogt.; J. Cooper

    2015-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Oklahoma based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station, in cooperation with Oklahoma Forestry Services (OFS). Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated yearly...

  13. Forests of Oklahoma, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Lambert; K. Randolph; J. Cooper

    2015-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Oklahoma based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station, in cooperation with Oklahoma Forestry Services. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated yearly,...

  14. Guam's forest resources, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph A. Donnegan; Sarah L. Butler; Walter Grabowiecki; Bruce A. Hiserote; David. Limtiaco

    2004-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis Program collected, analyzed, and summarized field data on 46 forested plots on the island of Guam. Estimates of forest area, tree stem volume and biomass, the numbers of trees, tree damages, and the distribution of tree sizes were summarized for this statistical sample. Detailed tables and graphical highlights provide a summary of Guam...

  15. Landscape patterns of montane forest age structure relative to fire history at Cheesman Lake in the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie S. Huckaby; Merrill R. Kaufmann; Jason M. Stoker; Paula J. Fornwalt

    2001-01-01

    Lack of Euro-American disturbance, except fire suppression, has preserved the patterns of forest structure that resulted from the presettlement disturbance regime in a ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir landscape at Cheesman Lake in the Colorado Front Range. A mixed-severity fire regime and variable timing of tree recruitment created a heterogeneous forest age structure with...

  16. Forests and Forest Cover - DCNR - State Forest Lands 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — The state forest boundry coverage is being updated frequently. It is derived from survey descriptions and will be, and has been in certain areas, adjusted to GPS...

  17. Strangeness Suppression and Color Deconfinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satz, Helmut

    2018-02-01

    The relative multiplicities for hadron production in different high energy collisions are in general well described by an ideal gas of all hadronic resonances, except that under certain conditions, strange particle rates are systematically reduced. We show that the suppression factor γs, accounting for reduced strange particle rates in pp, pA and AA collisions at different collision energies, becomes a universal function when expressed in terms of the initial entropy density s0 or the initial temperature T of the produced thermal medium. It is found that γs increases from about 0.5 to 1.0 in a narrow temperature range around the quark-hadron transition temperature Tc ≃ 160 MeV. Strangeness suppression thus disappears with the onset of color deconfinement; subsequently, full equilibrium resonance gas behavior is attained.

  18. Suppression of stratified explosive interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, M.K.; Shamoun, B.I.; Bonazza, R.; Corradini, M.L. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics

    1998-01-01

    Stratified Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI) experiments with Refrigerant-134a and water were performed in a large-scale system. Air was uniformly injected into the coolant pool to establish a pre-existing void which could suppress the explosion. Two competing effects due to the variation of the air flow rate seem to influence the intensity of the explosion in this geometrical configuration. At low flow rates, although the injected air increases the void fraction, the concurrent agitation and mixing increases the intensity of the interaction. At higher flow rates, the increase in void fraction tends to attenuate the propagated pressure wave generated by the explosion. Experimental results show a complete suppression of the vapor explosion at high rates of air injection, corresponding to an average void fraction of larger than 30%. (author)

  19. Suppressing Quantum Fluctuations in Classicalization

    CERN Document Server

    Vikman, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We study vacuum quantum fluctuations of simple Nambu-Goldstone bosons - derivatively coupled single scalar-field theories possessing shift-symmetry in field space. We argue that quantum fluctuations of the interacting field can be drastically suppressed with respect to the free-field case. Moreover, the power-spectrum of these fluctuations can soften to become red for sufficiently small scales. In quasiclassical approximation, we demonstrate that this suppression can only occur for those theories that admit such classical static backgrounds around which small perturbations propagate faster than light. Thus a quasiclassical softening of quantum fluctuations is only possible for theories which classicalize instead of having a usual Lorentz invariant and local Wilsonian UV- completion. We illustrate our analysis by estimating the quantum fluctuations for the DBI-like theories.

  20. Forecasting resource-allocation decisions under climate uncertainty: fire suppression with assessment of net benefits of research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Geoffrey H. Donovan

    2008-01-01

    Making input decisions under climate uncertainty often involves two-stage methods that use expensive and opaque transfer functions. This article describes an alternative, single-stage approach to such decisions using forecasting methods. The example shown is for preseason fire suppression resource contracting decisions faced by the United States Forest Service. Two-...

  1. European mixed forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bravo-Oviedo, Andres; Pretzsch, Hans; Ammer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Aim of study: We aim at (i) developing a reference definition of mixed forests in order to harmonize comparative research in mixed forests and (ii) review the research perspectives in mixed forests. Area of study: The definition is developed in Europe but can be tested worldwide. Material...... and Methods: Review of existent definitions of mixed forests based and literature review encompassing dynamics, management and economic valuation of mixed forests. Main results: A mixed forest is defined as a forest unit, excluding linear formations, where at least two tree species coexist at any...... developmental stage, sharing common resources (light, water, and/or soil nutrients). The presence of each of the component species is normally quantified as a proportion of the number of stems or of basal area, although volume, biomass or canopy cover as well as proportions by occupied stand area may be used...

  2. In the suppression of regge cut contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chia, S.P.

    1975-07-01

    It is shown that contributions of reggeon-pomeron cuts are suppressed in amplitudes with opposite natural to the reggeon. This suppression grows logarithmically with energy. The suppression in the πP cut is, however, found to be weak. Consequence on conspiracy is discussed

  3. Techniques of forest restoration in restingas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Garcia da Silva Morais Rodrigues

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Restinga is an ecosystem of the Atlantic Forest Biome vegetation which has ecological functions and is undergoing anthropogenic occupations that result in the disturbance and its suppression of these environments. But to be the restoration of degraded restinga is necessary to know the different formations of the ecosystem and their respective characteristics. From this diagnosis, one can choose the most appropriate techniques to apply for its restoration. Thus, this study aims to conduct a literature on restoration techniques in restinga environments. It was found that forest restoration on restinga, in most cases there is use of natural regeneration techniques nucleation, and these studies highlight the successional advances and establishments of life forms preserved features of the area, thus making the restoration in these environments.

  4. Secretoneurin suppresses cardiac hypertrophy through suppression of oxidant stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua-Li; Liu, Yan; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Xiao-Xiao; Yuan, Guo-Lin; Zhao, Yi-Lin; Yu, Chao

    2018-03-05

    The neuropeptide secretoneurin (SN) plays protective roles in myocardial ischemia. In the present study, the effect of SN in cardiac hypertrophy was investigated. We observed that, in isoproterenol (ISO) treatment induced cardiac or cardiomyocytes hypertrophy, a marked increase in the expression of endogenous SN in mouse plasma, myocardium and primary-cultured cardiomyocytes occurs. In hypertrophic mice, the heart size, heart weight/body weight (HW/BW) ratio, cardiomyocyte size, and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) expression were significantly higher than those in controls but were effectively suppressed by SN gene therapy. Similarly, the protective effects of SN were also observed in cultured cardiomyocytes following ISO treatment. SN significantly increased the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in parallel with the decrease in reactive oxygen species levels in cardiomyocytes. We observed that SN evoked the activation of all of the AMPK, P38/MAPK and ERK/MAPK pathways in cardiomyocytes, but pretreatment with only AMPK inhibitor (compound C) and ERK1/2/MAPK inhibitor (PD98059) counteracted the protective effects of SN against cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and the suppressive effects of SN on oxidant stress in cardiomyocytes. These results indicated that endogenous SN is induced in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes, and may play a protective role in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy. These results suggest that exogenous SN supplementation protects the cardiac hypertrophy induced by ISO treatment through the activation of AMPK and ERK/MAPK pathways, thus upregulating antioxidants and suppressing oxidative stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Wildfire and Spatial Patterns in Forests in Northwestern Mexico: The United States Wishes It Had Similar Fire Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott L. Stephens

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the ecological effect of wildfire is important to resource managers, especially from forests in which past anthropogenic influences, e.g., fire suppression and timber harvesting, have been limited. Changes to forest structure and regeneration patterns were documented in a relatively unique old-growth Jeffrey pine-mixed conifer forest in northwestern Mexico after a July 2003 wildfire. This forested area has never been harvested and fire suppression did not begin until the 1970s. Fire effects were moderate especially considering that the wildfire occurred at the end of a severe, multi-year (1999-2003 drought. Shrub consumption was an important factor in tree mortality and the dominance of Jeffrey pine increased after fire. The Baja California wildfire enhanced or maintained a patchy forest structure; similar spatial heterogeneity should be included in US forest restoration plans. Most US forest restoration plans include thinning from below to separate tree crowns and attain a narrow range for residual basal area/ha. This essentially produces uniform forest conditions over broad areas that are in strong contrast to the resilient forests in northern Baja California. In addition to producing more spatial heterogeneity in restoration plans of forests that once experienced frequent, low-moderate intensity fire regimes, increased use of US wildfire management options such as wildland fire use as well as appropriate management responses to non-natural ignitions could also be implemented at broader spatial scales to increase the amount of burning in western US forests.

  6. Effects of wastewater on forested wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Thomas W.

    2002-01-01

    Cycling nutrient-enriched wastewater from holding ponds through natural, forested wetlands is a practice that municipal waste treatment managers are considering as a viable option for disposing of wastewater. In this wastewater cycling process, sewer effluent that has been circulated through aerated ponds is discharged into neighboring wetland systems. To understand how wastewater cycling affects forest and species productivity, researchers at the USGS National Wetlands Research Center conducted dendroecological investigations in a swamp system and in a bog system that have been exposed to wastewater effluent for many decades. Dendroecology involves the study of forest changes over time as interpreted from tree rings. Tree-ring chronologies describe the pattern and history of growth suppression and release that can be associated with aging and disturbances such as hurricanes, floods, and fires. But because of limited monitoring, little is known about the potential for long-term effects on forested wetlands as a result of wastewater flooding. USGS researchers used tree rings to detect the effect of wastewater cycling on tree growth. Scientists expected to find that tree-ring width would be increased as a result of added nutrients.

  7. Forest resources of the Nez Perce National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michele Disney

    2010-01-01

    As part of a National Forest System cooperative inventory, the Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) Program of the USDA Forest Service conducted a forest resource inventory on the Nez Perce National Forest using a nationally standardized mapped-plot design (for more details see the section "Inventory methods"). This report presents highlights...

  8. The effects of forest fragmentation on forest stand attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts; Greg C. Liknes

    2002-01-01

    For two study areas in Minnesota, USA, one heavily forested and one sparsely forested, maps of predicted proportion forest area were created using Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery, forest inventory plot data, and a logistic regression model. The maps were used to estimate quantitative indices of forest fragmentation. Correlations between the values of the indices and...

  9. Background Suppression Effects on Signal Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burr, Tom [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Gamma detectors at border crossings are intended to detect illicit nuclear material. One performance challenge involves the fact that vehicles suppress the natural background, thus potentially reducing detection probability for threat items. Methods to adjust for background suppression have been considered in related but different settings. Here, methods to adjust for background suppression are tested in the context of signal estimation. Adjustment methods include several clustering options. We find that for the small-to-moderate suppression magnitudes exhibited in the analyzed data, suppression adjustment is only moderatel helpful in locating the signal peak, and in estimating its width or magnitude.

  10. Forests: a planetary treasure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, N

    1996-01-01

    This article explores the real nature of tropical forests and outlines some of the damaging consequences of grand-scale deforestation. Forests are the main home of Earth's species. They cover only 6% of the planet's land surface, and 50% of them are tropical forests inhabited by possibly 70% and conceivably 90% of all species. Aside from their being a habitat, these forests contain plants that have been known to contribute to our health. Analgesics, antibiotics, contraceptives are some of the few byproducts of plants in tropical forests. In addition, tropical forests contribute environmental services even more valuable than the material goods they produce. Most significant of these are watershed services, wherein deforestation of upland catchments can lead to disruption of hydrological systems, causing year-round water flows in downstream areas to give way to flood-and-drought regimes. Moreover, forests have a role in carbon sinking and hence in mitigating global warming. Depletion of forests through deforestation as well as forest fires could lead to an increased rate of die-off in remaining forests in other parts of the world, plus a decline of biomass in other ecological zones such as grasslands.

  11. Accounting for risk in valuing forest carbon offsets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koch George W

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Forests can sequester carbon dioxide, thereby reducing atmospheric concentrations and slowing global warming. In the U.S., forest carbon stocks have increased as a result of regrowth following land abandonment and in-growth due to fire suppression, and they currently sequester approximately 10% of annual US emissions. This ecosystem service is recognized in greenhouse gas protocols and cap-and-trade mechanisms, yet forest carbon is valued equally regardless of forest type, an approach that fails to account for risk of carbon loss from disturbance. Results Here we show that incorporating wildfire risk reduces the value of forest carbon depending on the location and condition of the forest. There is a general trend of decreasing risk-scaled forest carbon value moving from the northern toward the southern continental U.S. Conclusion Because disturbance is a major ecological factor influencing long-term carbon storage and is often sensitive to human management, carbon trading mechanisms should account for the reduction in value associated with disturbance risk.

  12. Accounting for risk in valuing forest carbon offsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurteau, Matthew D; Hungate, Bruce A; Koch, George W

    2009-01-16

    Forests can sequester carbon dioxide, thereby reducing atmospheric concentrations and slowing global warming. In the U.S., forest carbon stocks have increased as a result of regrowth following land abandonment and in-growth due to fire suppression, and they currently sequester approximately 10% of annual US emissions. This ecosystem service is recognized in greenhouse gas protocols and cap-and-trade mechanisms, yet forest carbon is valued equally regardless of forest type, an approach that fails to account for risk of carbon loss from disturbance. Here we show that incorporating wildfire risk reduces the value of forest carbon depending on the location and condition of the forest. There is a general trend of decreasing risk-scaled forest carbon value moving from the northern toward the southern continental U.S. Because disturbance is a major ecological factor influencing long-term carbon storage and is often sensitive to human management, carbon trading mechanisms should account for the reduction in value associated with disturbance risk.

  13. Suppression effects on musical and verbal memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schendel, Zachary A; Palmer, Caroline

    2007-06-01

    Three experiments contrasted the effects of articulatory suppression on recognition memory for musical and verbal sequences. In Experiment 1, a standard/comparison task was employed, with digit or note sequences presented visually or auditorily while participants remained silent or produced intermittent verbal suppression (saying "the") or musical suppression (singing "la"). Both suppression types decreased performance by equivalent amounts, as compared with no suppression. Recognition accuracy was lower during suppression for visually presented digits than during that for auditorily presented digits (consistent with phonological loop predictions), whereas accuracy was equivalent for visually presented notes and auditory tones. When visual interference filled the retention interval in Experiment 2, performance with visually presented notes but not digits was impaired. Experiment 3 forced participants to translate visually presented music sequences by presenting comparison sequences auditorily. Suppression effects for visually presented music resembled those for digits only when the recognition task required sensory translation of cues.

  14. Forest report 2016; Waldzustandsbericht 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-07-01

    This forest condition report of Hesse (Germany) includes the following topics: forest condition survey for all tree species, forest in the in the Rhine-Main area, weather and climate, soil water balance and drought stress, insects and fungi, Forestry Environment Monitoring, infiltrated substances, main results of Forest soil survey in Hesse (BZE II), the substrate group red sandstone, heavy metal contamination of forests.

  15. 78 FR 18307 - Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting; Correction. SUMMARY: The Forest Service published a document in the Federal Register of January 31, 2013, concering a notice of meeting for the Forest Resource...

  16. Forests of east Texas, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.J.W. Dooley; T.J. Brandeis

    2014-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in east Texas based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Texas A&M Forest Service. Forest resource estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and...

  17. Forest health from different perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. E. Kolb; M. R. Wagner; W. W. Covington

    1995-01-01

    Forest health is an increasingly important concept in natural resource management. However, definition of forest health is difficult and dependent on human perspective. From a utilitarian perspective, forest health has been defined by the production of forest conditions which directly satisfy human needs. From an ecosystem-centered perspective, forest health has been...

  18. Forest Area in Nebraska, 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas L. Castonguay

    1984-01-01

    The 1982 forest inventory of Nebraska showed that 1.5 percent of the total land area is forested. Commercial forest land accounted for 75 percent or 537,837 acres of the forest land and ponderosa pine is the major forest type. An important Nebraska resouce is the 262,230 acres of natural wooded strips.

  19. Forest Area in Kansas, 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald L. Hackett

    1983-01-01

    The 1981 forest inventory of Kansas showed that 2.6 percent of the total land area is forested. Commercial forest land accounted for 89 percent or 1,207,900 acres of the forest land and oak-hickory is the major forest type. An important Kansas resource are the 150,000 acres of natural wooded strips.

  20. Forests beyond income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena

    2013-01-01

    Since the last few decades, there is an increasing recognition of the contribution of forest and environmental resources to rural poverty. Using data from two rural villages in Mozambique, this study aimed to assess the contribution of forest and environmental resources to rural poverty incidence......, depth and severity on the one hand, and the dependency of rural poor and non-poor households on forest and environmental resources on the other. The three variants of the FGT poverty index, with and without forest and environmental income, and the relative shares of each livelihood activities......-poor sample households respectively. With regard to the contribution of forest and environmental resources to rural poverty, dramatic increase in the incidence, depth and severity of poverty were observed when forest and environmental income was excluded from sample households' total income accounting...

  1. Forest, trees and agroforestry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Syed Ajijur; Foli, Samson; Al Pavel, Muha Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Scientific community is concerned to address contemporary issues of food production and conserve tropical forests that support the livelihoods of millions of people. A review of the literature on deforestation, forest utilization, and landscape management for ecosystem services was conducted...... to investigate the effect on peoples’ livelihoods and the sustainability of forests in Bangladesh as a case. Results reveal that the current rate of deforestation is at 0.3% per annum meaning that, with current trends, in two decades little or no forest cover will exist in Bangladesh making the livelihoods...... of millions of people who depend on forest resources extremely vulnerable. We ask; can better implementation of forest policies and landscape management contribute to curb the current level of deforestation? Agroforestry systems in particular are a promising strategy to sustainably deliver food, nutritional...

  2. Nuclear reactor scram suppression device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshi, Hiroshi; Ozawa, Hisamitsu.

    1993-01-01

    The device of the present invention suppresses reactor scram due to increase of neutrons caused by pressure elevation in the reactor even when a portion of main steam pipes is closed by some or other causes such as closure of a main steam isolation valve in a BWR type power plant. That is, when a flow channel is closed, such as upon closure of a main steam isolation valve, a flow rate signal sent from each of main steam flow rate detection means is inputted to a selective circuit of a pressure control device, from which a normal value is obtained. A deviation value for each of the main steam flow rate values is determined from the value described above and a flow rate average value obtained in an averaging circuit. Abnormality in the main steam pipelines is judged if a level for each of the deviation values is greater than a predetermined value. Further, the insertion of selective control rods and trip and run back instructions for recycling pumps are controlled by output signals of the deviation value detection circuit, to decrease the reactor power and prevent elevation in the reactor. As a result, reactor scram due to increase of neutron fluxes is suppressed. (I.S.)

  3. Missouri Forests 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; Thomas B. Treiman; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Dale D. Gormanson; Douglas M. Griffith; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Tonya W. Lister; William G. Luppold; William H. McWilliams; Patrick D. Miles; Randall S. Morin; Mark D. Nelson; Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Rachel Riemann; James E. Smith; Brian F. Walters; Christopher W. Woodall

    2016-01-01

    The third full cycle of annual inventories (2009-2013) of Missouri's forests, completed in 2013, reports that there are an estimated 15.5 million acres of forest land in the State. An estimated 60 percent of the forest land area is in sawtimber size stands, 30 percent are pole timber size, and 10 percent are seedling/sapling size or nontstocked. The net volume of...

  4. Maine Forests 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    George L. McCaskill; Thomas Albright; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Cassandra M. Kurtz; William H. McWilliams; Patrick D. Miles; Randall S. Morin; Mark D. Nelson; Richard H. Widmann; Christopher W. Woodall

    2016-01-01

    The third 5-year annualized inventory of Maine's forests was completed in 2013 after more than 3170 forested plots were measured. Maine contains more than 17.6 million acres of forest land, an area that has been quite stable since 1960, covering more than 82 percent of the total land area. The number of live trees greater than 1 inch in diameter are approaching 24...

  5. Kentucky's forests, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery A. Turner; Christopher M. Oswalt; James L. Chamberlain; Roger C. Conner; Tony G. Johnson; Sonja N. Oswalt; KaDonna C. Randolph

    2008-01-01

    Forest land area in the Commonwealth of Kentucky amounted to 11.97 million acres, including 11.6 million acres of timberland. Over 110 different species, mostly hardwoods, account for an estimated 21.2 billion cubic feet of all live tree volume. Hardwood forest types occupy 85 percent of Kentucky’s timberland, and oak-hickory is the dominant forest-type group...

  6. Forest Fires in a Random Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuenberger, Michael; Kanevski, Mikhaïl; Vega Orozco, Carmen D.

    2013-04-01

    Forest fires in Canton Ticino (Switzerland) are very complex phenomena. Meteorological data can explain some occurrences of fires in time, but not necessarily in space. Using anthropogenic and geographical feature data with the random forest algorithm, this study tries to highlight factors that most influence the fire-ignition and to identify areas under risk. The fundamental scientific problem considered in the present research deals with an application of random forest algorithms for the analysis and modeling of forest fires patterns in a high dimensional input feature space. This study is focused on the 2,224 anthropogenic forest fires among the 2,401 forest fire ignition points that have occurred in Canton Ticino from 1969 to 2008. Provided by the Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL), the database characterizes each fire by their location (x,y coordinates of the ignition point), start date, duration, burned area, and other information such as ignition cause and topographic features such as slope, aspect, altitude, etc. In addition, the database VECTOR25 from SwissTopo was used to extract information of the distances between fire ignition points and anthropogenic structures like buildings, road network, rail network, etc. Developed by L. Breiman and A. Cutler, the Random Forests (RF) algorithm provides an ensemble of classification and regression trees. By a pseudo-random variable selection for each split node, this method grows a variety of decision trees that do not return the same results, and thus by a committee system, returns a value that has a better accuracy than other machine learning methods. This algorithm incorporates directly measurement of importance variable which is used to display factors affecting forest fires. Dealing with this parameter, several models can be fit, and thus, a prediction can be made throughout the validity domain of Canton Ticino. Comprehensive RF analysis was carried out in order to 1

  7. Forest in industrial society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasel, K.

    1973-01-01

    Forests are endangered by the increase of cities and industries and by the effects of air pollution. The importance of forests as a material resource is described. Because forests live so long they are exposed to the toxic air pollutants for a long time. In the Ruhr area a forest spanning more than 30,000 hectares has been damaged by waste gases and dusts. Coniferous trees are more affected. Injured trees must often be cut down 20 to 40 years ahead of time. Sometimes an entire species of tree is extinguished. 6 references, 2 figures.

  8. Mangrove forest decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malik, Abdul; Mertz, Ole; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    Mangrove forests in the tropics and subtropics grow in saline sediments in coastal and estuarine environments. Preservation of mangrove forests is important for many reasons, including the prevention of coastal erosion and seawater intrusion; the provision of spawning, nursery, and feeding grounds...... change in dense mangrove forest cover (8.37 %) occurred during the period 2006–2011. The changes were caused mainly by the mangrove clearing and conversion to aquaculture, and consequences have been increasing forest degradation, coastal abrasion, seawater intrusion, a decline in fish capture...

  9. Forest structure in low diversity tropical forests: a study of Hawaiian wet and dry forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Ostertag; F. Inman-Narahari; S. Cordell; C.P. Giardina; L. Sack

    2014-01-01

    The potential influence of diversity on ecosystem structure and function remains a topic of significant debate, especially for tropical forests where diversity can range widely. We used Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS) methodology to establish forest dynamics plots in montane wet forest and lowland dry forest on Hawai‘i Island. We compared the species...

  10. The forest resources of Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas L. Schmidt; Tom D. Wardle

    1998-01-01

    The third inventory of Nebraska's forests reports 49.2 million acres of land, of which 947.7 thousand acres are forested. This bulletin contains detailed tables related to the extent, composition, and causes of change of Nebraska's forests.

  11. Nebraska's forest resources in 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Keith Moser; Gary J. Brand; Mark H. Hansen; William R. Lovett

    2005-01-01

    Reports results of the first three yearly panels (2001-2003) of the fourth inventory of Nebraska's forest resources. Includes information on forest area; volume; biomass; growth, removals, and mortality; and forest health.

  12. Life in Tropical Rain Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NatureScope, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the diversity of rain forest life, the adaptations of rain forest plants and animals, and ways these organisms interact. Includes activities on canopy critters with a copyable sheet, rain forest revue, design a plant, and jungle sleuths. (RT)

  13. Forest report 2014; Waldzustandsbericht 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    This forest report of Hesse (Germany) contains the following topics: weather and climate, forest protection, crown defoliation, infiltrated substances, environmental monitoring, insects and fungi, and water quality of forest streams.

  14. Summer moisture of forest fire fuels in Oregon and Washington in 1948 and previous years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Morris

    1948-01-01

    The forest fire season of 1948 in Oregon and Washington was regarded by fire suppression agencies as the most favorable for many years. The number of fires started and area burned were, in general, less than for many years. On the national forests the number of fires was the least since 1912 and the acreage burned was the least ever recorded. Was this primarily due to...

  15. 78 FR 36163 - Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District, Como Forest Health Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District, Como Forest Health Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: The USDA Forest Service, Bitterroot National Forest will prepare an...

  16. 78 FR 38287 - Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District, Como Forest Health Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District, Como Forest Health Project AGENCY: Forest Service. ACTION: Notice; Correction. SUMMARY: The Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District published a document in...

  17. Safety system for pressure suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, L.E.; Ludwig, G.J.; Tulsa, O.

    1975-01-01

    The rupture disk with rated breaking points is constrained by two supporting elements and has a convex-concave shape. For pressure suppression, it is reversable inversely to its bulging. Its surface has notches which are the rated breaking points and respond to higher pressures. The centre of the rupture disk contains an area of relatively smaller thickness that will burst at lower pressure and thus makes it applicable for lower pressures. For the response of the rupture disk centre, a thrust ring with a central opening may also be used. Its edge is formed into a convex-concave section supported on the edge of the rupture disk on the exit side. The free centre of the rupture disk is then the area of relative weakness. (RW/AK) [de

  18. MEK5 suppresses osteoblastic differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneshiro, Shoichi [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Japan Community Health Care Organization Osaka Hospital, 4-2-78 Fukushima, Fukushima Ward, Osaka City, Osaka 553-0003 (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Otsuki, Dai; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Higuchi, Chikahisa, E-mail: c-higuchi@umin.ac.jp [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2015-07-31

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family and is activated by its upstream kinase, MAPK kinase 5 (MEK5), which is a member of the MEK family. Although the role of MEK5 has been investigated in several fields, little is known about its role in osteoblastic differentiation. In this study, we have demonstrated the role of MEK5 in osteoblastic differentiation in mouse preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and bone marrow stromal ST2 cells. We found that treatment with BIX02189, an inhibitor of MEK5, increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the gene expression of ALP, osteocalcin (OCN) and osterix, as well as it enhanced the calcification of the extracellular matrix. Moreover, osteoblastic cell proliferation decreased at a concentration of greater than 0.5 μM. In addition, knockdown of MEK5 using siRNA induced an increase in ALP activity and in the gene expression of ALP, OCN, and osterix. In contrast, overexpression of wild-type MEK5 decreased ALP activity and attenuated osteoblastic differentiation markers including ALP, OCN and osterix, but promoted cell proliferation. In summary, our results indicated that MEK5 suppressed the osteoblastic differentiation, but promoted osteoblastic cell proliferation. These results implied that MEK5 may play a pivotal role in cell signaling to modulate the differentiation and proliferation of osteoblasts. Thus, inhibition of MEK5 signaling in osteoblasts may be of potential use in the treatment of osteoporosis. - Highlights: • MEK5 inhibitor BIX02189 suppresses proliferation of osteoblasts. • MEK5 knockdown and MEK5 inhibitor promote differentiation of osteoblasts. • MEK5 overexpression inhibits differentiation of osteoblasts.

  19. Repeated wildfires alter forest recovery of mixed-conifer ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Rumann, Camille; Morgan, Penelope

    2016-09-01

    Most models project warmer and drier climates that will contribute to larger and more frequent wildfires. However, it remains unknown how repeated wildfires alter post-fire successional patterns and forest structure. Here, we test the hypothesis that the number of wildfires, as well as the order and severity of wildfire events interact to alter forest structure and vegetation recovery and implications for vegetation management. In 2014, we examined forest structure, composition, and tree regeneration in stands that burned 1-18 yr before a subsequent 2007 wildfire. Three important findings emerged: (1) Repeatedly burned forests had 15% less woody surface fuels and 31% lower tree seedling densities compared with forests that only experienced one recent wildfire. These repeatedly burned areas are recovering differently than sites burned once, which may lead to alternative ecosystem structure. (2) Order of burn severity (high followed by low severity compared with low followed by high severity) did influence forest characteristics. When low burn severity followed high, forests had 60% lower canopy closure and total basal area with 92% fewer tree seedlings than when high burn severity followed low. (3) Time between fires had no effect on most variables measured following the second fire except large woody fuels, canopy closure and tree seedling density. We conclude that repeatedly burned areas meet many vegetation management objectives of reduced fuel loads and moderate tree seedling densities. These differences in forest structure, composition, and tree regeneration have implications not only for the trajectories of these forests, but may reduce fire intensity and burn severity of subsequent wildfires and may be used in conjunction with future fire suppression tactics. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  20. Boreal Forest Fire Cools Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randerson, J. T.; Liu, H.; Flanner, M.; Chambers, S. D.; Harden, J. W.; Hess, P. G.; Jin, Y.; Mack, M. C.; Pfister, G.; Schuur, E. A.; Treseder, K. K.; Welp, L. R.; Zender, C. S.

    2005-12-01

    We report measurements, modeling, and analysis of carbon and energy fluxes from a boreal forest fire that occurred in interior Alaska during 1999. In the first year after the fire, ozone production, atmospheric aerosol loading, greenhouse gas emissions, soot deposition, and decreases in summer albedo contributed to a positive annual radiative forcing (RF). These effects were partly offset by an increase in fall, winter, and spring albedo from reduced canopy cover and increased exposure of snow-covered surfaces. The atmospheric lifetime of aerosols and ozone and are relatively short (days to months). The radiative effects of soot on snow are also attenuated rapidly from the deposition of fresh snow. As a result, a year after the fire, only two classes of RF mechanisms remained: greenhouse gas emissions and post-fire changes in surface albedo. Summer albedo increased rapidly in subsequent years and was substantially higher than unburned control areas (by more than 0.03) after 4 years as a result of grass and shrub establishment. Satellite measurements from MODIS of other interior Alaska burn scars provided evidence that elevated levels of spring and summer albedo (relative to unburned control areas) persisted for at least 4 decades after fire. In parallel, our chamber, eddy covariance, and biomass measurements indicated that the post-fire ecosystems switch from a source to a sink within the first decade. Taken together, the extended period of increased spring and summer albedo and carbon uptake of intermediate-aged stands appears to more than offset the initial warming pulse caused by fire emissions, when compared using the RF concept. This result suggests that management of forests in northern countries to suppress fire and preserve carbon sinks may have the opposite effect on climate as that intended.

  1. Landscape fuel reduction, forest fire, and biophysical linkages to local habitat use and local persistence of fishers (Pekania pennanti) in Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.A. Sweitzer; B.J. Furnas; R.H. Barrett; Kathryn Purcell; Craig Thompson

    2016-01-01

    Fire suppression and logging have contributed to major changes in California’s Sierra Nevada forests. Strategically placed landscape treatments (SPLATS) are being used to reduce density of trees, shrubs, and surface fuels to limit wildfire intensity and spread, but may negatively impact fishers (Pekania pennanti). We used camera traps to survey for...

  2. Forests and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeme Lockaby; Chelsea Nagy; James M. Vose; Chelcy R. Ford; Ge Sun; Steve McNulty; Pete Caldwell; Erika Cohen; Jennifer Moore Myers

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsForest conversion to agriculture or urban use consistently causes increased discharge, peak flow, and velocity of streams. Subregional differences in hydrologic responses to urbanization are substantial.Sediment, water chemistry indices, pathogens, and other substances often become more concentrated after forest...

  3. Why sustain oak forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Wm. Smith

    2006-01-01

    A brief overview and some personal thoughts are offered that deal with the implications of our social and political systems on the long-term sustainability of our forest resources. The connection of the most recent climatic events, in a geologic-time context, to the development of present day oak dominated forests of the Eastern United States is discussed. The impacts...

  4. Forests [Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda A. Joyce; Steven W. Running; David D. Breshears; Virginia H. Dale; Robert W. Malmsheimer; R. Neil Sampson; Brent Sohngen; Christopher W. Woodall

    2014-01-01

    Forests occur within urban areas, at the interface between urban and rural areas (wildland-urban interface), and in rural areas. Urban forests contribute to clean air, cooling buildings, aesthetics, and recreation in parks. Development in the wildland-urban interface is increasing because of the appeal of owning homes near or in the woods. In rural areas, market...

  5. Ghana's high forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oduro, K.A.

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation and forest degradation in the tropics have been receiving both scientific and political attention in recent decades due to its impacts on the environment and on human livelihoods. In Ghana, the continuous decline of forest resources and the high demand for timber have raised

  6. Northern forests, Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.H. Pardo; C.L. Goodale; E.A. Lilleskov; L.H. Geiser

    2011-01-01

    The Northern Forests ecological region spans much of Canada, from Saskatchewan to Newfoundland; its southern portion extends into the northern United States (CEC 1997). The U.S. component includes the northern hardwood and spruce-fir forest types and encompasses parts of the Northeast (mountainous regions in Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, Connecticut,...

  7. People & Tropical Rain Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NatureScope, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Discusses ways people who live in rain forests make a living and some of the products that enrich our lives. Provides activities covering forest people, tropical treats, jungle in the pantry, treetop explorers, and three copyable pages to accompany activities. (Author/RT)

  8. Why 'a forest conscienceness'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Calver; H. Bigler-Cole; G. Bolton; J. Dargavel; A. Gaynor; P. Horwitz; J. Mills; G. Wardell-Johnson

    2005-01-01

    The phrase 'a forest conscienceness' was used in a major statement made by Charles Lane Poole, Western Australia's Conservator of Forests from 1916-1921, for the 1920 British Empire Forestry Conference. It is both relevant and contemporary at the beginning of the 21st century. We chose it as the conference theme to encourage engagement with both a...

  9. Resilience of Amazonian forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteiro Flores, B.

    2016-01-01

    The Amazon has recently been portrayed as a resilient forest system based on quick recovery of biomass after human disturbance. Yet with climate change, the frequency of droughts and wildfires may increase, implying that parts of this massive forest may shift into a savanna state. Although the

  10. Ghana's high forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oduro, K.A.

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation and forest degradation in the tropics have been receiving both scientific and political attention in recent decades due to its impacts on the environment and on human livelihoods. In Ghana, the continuous decline of forest resources and the high demand for timber have raised

  11. Forest insurance number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton T. Munger; H.B. Shepard

    1934-01-01

    This inquiry, originally conceived as an effort to determine definitely whether the existing lack of adequate and practical forest fire insurance facilities is in truth unavoidable and, if possible, to suggest means whereby the condition might be remedied, finds no apparent reason why successful forest fire insurance should not be possible as far as the loss situation...

  12. Status of Forest Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar Espinoza; Urs Buehlmann; Michael Dockry

    2013-01-01

    Forest certification systems are voluntary, market-based initiatives to promote the sustainable use of forests. These standards assume that consumers prefer products made from materials grown in an environmentally sustainable fashion, and this in turn creates incentives for companies to adopt responsible environmental practices. One of the major reasons for the...

  13. Forests of Virginia,2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anita K. Rose

    2015-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Virginia. Information for this factsheet was updated by means of the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) annualized sample design. Each year, 20 percent of the sample plots (one panel) in Virginia are measured by field crews, the data compiled, and new estimates produced.

  14. Wisconsin's forest resources, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, H. (Hobie) Perry; Gary J. Brand

    2006-01-01

    The annual forest inventory of Wisconsin continues, and this document reports 2001-05 moving averages for most variables and comparisons between 2000 and 2005 for growth, removals, and mortality. Summary resource tables can be generated through the Forest Inventory Mapmaker website at http://ncrs2.fs.fed.us/4801/fiadb/index. htm. Estimates from this inventory show a...

  15. Forest Tent Caterpillar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold O. Belzer; Robert C. Morris

    1978-01-01

    The forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria Hubner)3 may be found throughout the United States and Canada wherever hardwoods grow. It is a native insect that has attracted attention since colonial times. Regionwide outbreaks have occurred at intervals varying from 6 to 16 years in northern areas. Southern gum forests in southwest Alabama and southern Louisiana...

  16. Trading forest carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nature of carbon in forests is discussed from the perspective of carbon trading. Carbon inventories, specifically in the area of land use and forestry are reviewed for the Pacific Northwest. Carbon turnover in forests is discussed as it relates to carbon sequestration. Scient...

  17. Winning and losing tree species of reassembly in Minnesota's mixed and broadleaf forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brice B Hanberry

    Full Text Available We examined reassembly of winning and losing tree species, species traits including shade and fire tolerance, and associated disturbance filters and forest ecosystem types due to rapid forest change in the Great Lakes region since 1850. We identified winning and losing species by changes in composition, distribution, and site factors between historical and current surveys in Minnesota's mixed and broadleaf forests. In the Laurentian Mixed Forest, shade-intolerant aspen replaced shade-intolerant tamarack as the most dominant tree species. Fire-tolerant white pine and jack pine decreased, whereas shade-tolerant ashes, maples, and white cedar increased. In the Eastern Broadleaf Forest, fire-tolerant white oaks and red oaks decreased, while shade-tolerant ashes, American basswood, and maples increased. Tamarack, pines, and oaks have become restricted to sites with either wetter or sandier and drier soils due to increases in aspen and shade-tolerant, fire-sensitive species on mesic sites. The proportion of shade-tolerant species increased in both regions, but selective harvest reduced the applicability of functional groups alone to specify winners and losers. Harvest and existing forestry practices supported aspen dominance in mixed forests, although without aspen forestry and with fire suppression, mixed forests will transition to a greater composition of shade-tolerant species, converging to forests similar to broadleaf forests. A functional group framework provided a perspective of winning and losing species and traits, selective filters, and forest ecosystems that can be generalized to other regions, regardless of species identity.

  18. Winning and Losing Tree Species of Reassembly in Minnesota’s Mixed and Broadleaf Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanberry, Brice B.; Palik, Brian J.; He, Hong S.

    2013-01-01

    We examined reassembly of winning and losing tree species, species traits including shade and fire tolerance, and associated disturbance filters and forest ecosystem types due to rapid forest change in the Great Lakes region since 1850. We identified winning and losing species by changes in composition, distribution, and site factors between historical and current surveys in Minnesota’s mixed and broadleaf forests. In the Laurentian Mixed Forest, shade-intolerant aspen replaced shade-intolerant tamarack as the most dominant tree species. Fire-tolerant white pine and jack pine decreased, whereas shade-tolerant ashes, maples, and white cedar increased. In the Eastern Broadleaf Forest, fire-tolerant white oaks and red oaks decreased, while shade-tolerant ashes, American basswood, and maples increased. Tamarack, pines, and oaks have become restricted to sites with either wetter or sandier and drier soils due to increases in aspen and shade-tolerant, fire-sensitive species on mesic sites. The proportion of shade-tolerant species increased in both regions, but selective harvest reduced the applicability of functional groups alone to specify winners and losers. Harvest and existing forestry practices supported aspen dominance in mixed forests, although without aspen forestry and with fire suppression, mixed forests will transition to a greater composition of shade-tolerant species, converging to forests similar to broadleaf forests. A functional group framework provided a perspective of winning and losing species and traits, selective filters, and forest ecosystems that can be generalized to other regions, regardless of species identity. PMID:23613911

  19. Winning and losing tree species of reassembly in Minnesota's mixed and broadleaf forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanberry, Brice B; Palik, Brian J; He, Hong S

    2013-01-01

    We examined reassembly of winning and losing tree species, species traits including shade and fire tolerance, and associated disturbance filters and forest ecosystem types due to rapid forest change in the Great Lakes region since 1850. We identified winning and losing species by changes in composition, distribution, and site factors between historical and current surveys in Minnesota's mixed and broadleaf forests. In the Laurentian Mixed Forest, shade-intolerant aspen replaced shade-intolerant tamarack as the most dominant tree species. Fire-tolerant white pine and jack pine decreased, whereas shade-tolerant ashes, maples, and white cedar increased. In the Eastern Broadleaf Forest, fire-tolerant white oaks and red oaks decreased, while shade-tolerant ashes, American basswood, and maples increased. Tamarack, pines, and oaks have become restricted to sites with either wetter or sandier and drier soils due to increases in aspen and shade-tolerant, fire-sensitive species on mesic sites. The proportion of shade-tolerant species increased in both regions, but selective harvest reduced the applicability of functional groups alone to specify winners and losers. Harvest and existing forestry practices supported aspen dominance in mixed forests, although without aspen forestry and with fire suppression, mixed forests will transition to a greater composition of shade-tolerant species, converging to forests similar to broadleaf forests. A functional group framework provided a perspective of winning and losing species and traits, selective filters, and forest ecosystems that can be generalized to other regions, regardless of species identity.

  20. Identifying key research objectives to make European forests greener for bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Russo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bats are a biodiverse mammal order providing key ecosystem services such as pest suppression, pollination and seed dispersal. Bats are also very sensitive to human actions, and significant declines in many bat populations have been recorded consequently. Many bat species find crucial roosting and foraging opportunities in European forests. Such forests have historically been exploited by humans and are still influenced by harvesting. One of the consequences of this pressure is the loss of key habitat resources, often making forests inhospitable to bats. Despite the legal protection granted to bats across Europe, the impacts of forestry on bats are still often neglected. Because forest exploitation influences forest structure at several spatial scales, economically viable forestry could become more sustainable and even favour bats. We highlight that a positive future for bat conservation that simultaneously benefits forestry is foreseeable, although more applied research is needed to develop sound management. Key future research topics include the detection of factors influencing the carrying capacity of forests, and determining the impacts of forest management and the economic importance of bats in forests. Predictive tools to inform forest managers are much needed, together with greater synergies between forest managers and bat conservationists.

  1. Roads impact the distribution of noxious weeds more than restoration treatments in a lodgepole pine forest in Montana, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer L. Birdsall; Ward McCaughey; Justin B. Runyon

    2012-01-01

    A century of fire suppression has created unnaturally dense stands in many western North American forests, and silviculture treatments are being increasingly used to reduce fuels to mitigate wildfire hazards and manage insect infestations. Thinning prescriptions have the potential to restore forests to a more historically sustainable state, but land managers need to be...

  2. Legacies of historical land use on regional forest composition and structure in Wisconsin, USA (mid-1800s-1930s-2000s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanine M. Rhemtulla; David J. Mladenoff; Murray K. Clayton

    2009-01-01

    Historical land use can influence forest species composition and structure for centuries after direct use has ceased. In Wisconsin, USA, Euro-American settlement in the mid- to late 1800s was accompanied by widespread logging, agricultural conversion, and fire suppression. To determine the maximum magnitude of change in forest ecosystems at the height of the...

  3. Forest resources of the Hoosier National Forest, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoper W. Woodall; Judith A. Perez; Thomas R. Thake

    2007-01-01

    The first annual inventory of the Hoosier National Forest reports more than 200,000 forest land acres dominated by oaks, maples, and hickories with annual growth exceeding annual mortality by a factor of seven. When compared to forests in the rest of Indiana, the Hoosier's forests are on average older, have greater biomass per acre, and possess a greater...

  4. The forest resources of the Hiawatha National Forest, 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Schmidt; Mike Lanasa

    1995-01-01

    The inventory of the forest resources of Hiawatha National Forest reports 892.1 thousand acres of land, of which 756.7 thousand acres are forested. This bulletin presents statistical highlights and contains detailed tables of forest area, as well as of timber volume, growth, removals, and mortality.

  5. Forest inventory: role in accountability for sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd C. Irland

    2007-01-01

    Forest inventory can play several roles in accountability for sustainable forest management. A first dimension is accountability for national performance. The new field of Criteria and Indicators is an expression of this need. A more familiar role for the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program is for assessment and...

  6. Forest structure in low-diversity tropical forests: a study of Hawaiian wet and dry forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostertag, Rebecca; Inman-Narahari, Faith; Cordell, Susan; Giardina, Christian P; Sack, Lawren

    2014-01-01

    The potential influence of diversity on ecosystem structure and function remains a topic of significant debate, especially for tropical forests where diversity can range widely. We used Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS) methodology to establish forest dynamics plots in montane wet forest and lowland dry forest on Hawai'i Island. We compared the species diversity, tree density, basal area, biomass, and size class distributions between the two forest types. We then examined these variables across tropical forests within the CTFS network. Consistent with other island forests, the Hawai'i forests were characterized by low species richness and very high relative dominance. The two Hawai'i forests were floristically distinct, yet similar in species richness (15 vs. 21 species) and stem density (3078 vs. 3486/ha). While these forests were selected for their low invasive species cover relative to surrounding forests, both forests averaged 5->50% invasive species cover; ongoing removal will be necessary to reduce or prevent competitive impacts, especially from woody species. The montane wet forest had much larger trees, resulting in eightfold higher basal area and above-ground biomass. Across the CTFS network, the Hawaiian montane wet forest was similar to other tropical forests with respect to diameter distributions, density, and aboveground biomass, while the Hawai'i lowland dry forest was similar in density to tropical forests with much higher diversity. These findings suggest that forest structural variables can be similar across tropical forests independently of species richness. The inclusion of low-diversity Pacific Island forests in the CTFS network provides an ∼80-fold range in species richness (15-1182 species), six-fold variation in mean annual rainfall (835-5272 mm yr(-1)) and 1.8-fold variation in mean annual temperature (16.0-28.4°C). Thus, the Hawaiian forest plots expand the global forest plot network to enable testing of ecological theory for

  7. Contribution of semi-arid forests to the climate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberg, Eyal; Yakir, Dan

    2010-01-22

    Forests both take up CO2 and enhance absorption of solar radiation, with contrasting effects on global temperature. Based on a 9-year study in the forests' dry timberline, we show that substantial carbon sequestration (cooling effect) is maintained in the large dry transition zone (precipitation from 200 to 600 millimeters) by shifts in peak photosynthetic activities from summer to early spring, and this is counteracted by longwave radiation (L) suppression (warming effect), doubling the forestation shortwave (S) albedo effect. Several decades of carbon accumulation are required to balance the twofold S + L effect. Desertification over the past several decades, however, contributed negative forcing at Earth's surface equivalent to approximately 20% of the global anthropogenic CO2 effect over the same period, moderating warming trends.

  8. Photoperiodic suppression of drug reinstatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorg, B A; Stark, G; Sergeeva, A; Jansen, H T

    2011-03-10

    The rewarding influence of drugs of abuse varies with time of day and appears to involve interactions between the circadian and the mesocorticolimbic dopamine systems. The circadian system is also intimately involved in measuring daylength. Thus, the present study examined the impact of changing daylength (photoperiod) on cocaine-seeking behaviors. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained and tested on a 12L:12D light:dark schedule for cocaine-induced reinstatement of conditioned place preference (CPP) at three times of day (Zeitgeber time (ZT): 4, 12, and 20) to determine a preference score. Rats were then shifted to either shorter (6L:18D) or longer (18L:6D) photoperiods and then to constant conditions, re-tested for cocaine-induced reinstatement under each different condition, and then returned to their original photoperiod (12L:12D) and tested once more. Rats exhibited a circadian profile of preference score in constant darkness with a peak at 12 h after lights-off. At both ZT4 and ZT20, but not at ZT12, shorter photoperiods profoundly suppressed cocaine reinstatement, which did not recover even after switching back to 12L:12D. In contrast, longer photoperiods did not alter reinstatement. Separate studies showed that the suppression of cocaine reinstatement was not due to repeated testing. In an additional experiment, we examined the photoperiodic regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine transporter (DAT) proteins in drug-naive rats. These results revealed photoperiodic modulation of proteins in the prefrontal cortex and dorsal striatum, but not in the nucleus accumbens or ventral tegmental area. Together, these findings add further support to the circadian genesis of cocaine-seeking behaviors and demonstrate that drug-induced reinstatement is modulated by photoperiod. Furthermore, the results suggest that photoperiod partly contributes to the seasonal expression of certain drug-related behaviors in humans living at different latitudes and thus our

  9. Menstrual suppression for adolescents with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savasi, I; Spitzer, R F; Allen, L M; Ornstein, M P

    2009-06-01

    The approach to menstrual suppression for adolescents with developmental disabilities has evolved considerably over the years due to changing philosophies and evolving treatment options. We review the medical management options available for menstrual suppression with a focus on the needs and treatment of adolescents with developmental disabilities.

  10. Suppression of fertility in adult cats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goericke-Pesch, Sandra Kathrin; Wehrend, A.; Georgiev, P.

    2014-01-01

    and clinical options are available for the suppression of fertility in adult cats and the decision as to which should be chosen - independent of the legal registration of any state - depends on different facts: (i) feral or privately owned animal? (ii) temporary or permanent suppression of fertility wanted...

  11. Simulation analysis of a wildfire suppression system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abílio Pereira Pacheco; João Claro; Tiago. Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Rekindles and false alarms are unusually high in the Portuguese wildfire management system, representing a high burden on suppression resources in particular, and fire management resources in general. In 20,049 occurrences that the suppression system handled in the summer of 2010, 12.5% were false alarms and 15.0% were rekindles. We present a discreteevent simulation...

  12. Forest pathology in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    Native Hawaiian forests are characterised by a high degree of endemism, including pathogens as well as their hosts. With the exceptions of koa (Acacia koa Gray), possibly maile (Alyxia oliviformis Gaud.), and, in the past, sandalwood (Santalum spp.), forest species are of little commercial value. On the other hand, these forests are immensely important from a cultural, ecological, and evolutionary standpoint. Forest disease research was lacking during the mid-twentieth century, but increased markedly with the recognition of ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud.) decline in the 1970s. Because many pathogens are themselves endemic, or are assumed to be, having evolved with their hosts, research emphasis in natural areas is on understanding host-parasite interactions and evolutionary influences, rather than disease control. Aside from management of native forests, attempts at establishing a commercial forest industry have included importation of several species of pine, Araucaria, and Eucalyptus as timber crops, and of numerous ornamentals. Diseases of these species have been introduced with their hosts. The attacking of native species by introduced pathogens is problematic - for example, Armillaria mellea (Vahl ex Fr.) Que??l. on koa and mamane (Sophora chrysophylla (Salisb.) Seem.). Much work remains to be done in both native and commercial aspects of Hawaiian forest pathology.

  13. Phylobetadiversity among forest types in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Leandro Da Silva; Bergamin, Rodrigo Scarton; Marcilio-Silva, Vinícius; Seger, Guilherme Dubal Dos Santos; Marques, Márcia Cristina Mendes

    2014-01-01

    Phylobetadiversity is defined as the phylogenetic resemblance between communities or biomes. Analyzing phylobetadiversity patterns among different vegetation physiognomies within a single biome is crucial to understand the historical affinities between them. Based on the widely accepted idea that different forest physiognomies within the Southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest constitute different facies of a single biome, we hypothesize that more recent phylogenetic nodes should drive phylobetadiversity gradients between the different forest types within the Atlantic Forest, as the phylogenetic divergence among those forest types is biogeographically recent. We compiled information from 206 checklists describing the occurrence of shrub/tree species across three different forest physiognomies within the Southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Dense, Mixed and Seasonal forests). We analyzed intra-site phylogenetic structure (phylogenetic diversity, net relatedness index and nearest taxon index) and phylobetadiversity between plots located at different forest types, using five different methods differing in sensitivity to either basal or terminal nodes (phylogenetic fuzzy weighting, COMDIST, COMDISTNT, UniFrac and Rao's H). Mixed forests showed higher phylogenetic diversity and overdispersion than the other forest types. Furthermore, all forest types differed from each other in relation phylobetadiversity patterns, particularly when phylobetadiversity methods more sensitive to terminal nodes were employed. Mixed forests tended to show higher phylogenetic differentiation to Dense and Seasonal forests than these latter from each other. The higher phylogenetic diversity and phylobetadiversity levels found in Mixed forests when compared to the others likely result from the biogeographical origin of several taxa occurring in these forests. On one hand, Mixed forests shelter several temperate taxa, like the conifers Araucaria and Podocarpus. On the other hand, tropical groups, like

  14. Phylobetadiversity among forest types in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Da Silva Duarte

    Full Text Available Phylobetadiversity is defined as the phylogenetic resemblance between communities or biomes. Analyzing phylobetadiversity patterns among different vegetation physiognomies within a single biome is crucial to understand the historical affinities between them. Based on the widely accepted idea that different forest physiognomies within the Southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest constitute different facies of a single biome, we hypothesize that more recent phylogenetic nodes should drive phylobetadiversity gradients between the different forest types within the Atlantic Forest, as the phylogenetic divergence among those forest types is biogeographically recent. We compiled information from 206 checklists describing the occurrence of shrub/tree species across three different forest physiognomies within the Southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Dense, Mixed and Seasonal forests. We analyzed intra-site phylogenetic structure (phylogenetic diversity, net relatedness index and nearest taxon index and phylobetadiversity between plots located at different forest types, using five different methods differing in sensitivity to either basal or terminal nodes (phylogenetic fuzzy weighting, COMDIST, COMDISTNT, UniFrac and Rao's H. Mixed forests showed higher phylogenetic diversity and overdispersion than the other forest types. Furthermore, all forest types differed from each other in relation phylobetadiversity patterns, particularly when phylobetadiversity methods more sensitive to terminal nodes were employed. Mixed forests tended to show higher phylogenetic differentiation to Dense and Seasonal forests than these latter from each other. The higher phylogenetic diversity and phylobetadiversity levels found in Mixed forests when compared to the others likely result from the biogeographical origin of several taxa occurring in these forests. On one hand, Mixed forests shelter several temperate taxa, like the conifers Araucaria and Podocarpus. On the other hand

  15. Suppression of Aspergillus by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Guillaume; Jelsbak, Lars; Søndergaard, Ib

    Objectives: Cystic fibrosis patients are commonly infected by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but Aspergilli are also frequently isolated. Our aim was to examine the possible interaction between P. aeruginosa and different Aspergillus. Methods: A suspension of 106 fungal spores/ml was streaked onto WATM......, here among 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone (PQS). An unidentified green pseudomonas compound was also observed. Interestingly the P. aeruginosa mutant rpoN was unable to suppress A. fumigatus, but suppressed A. flavus, A. oryzae and A. niger. However several other P. aeruginosa mutants suppressed A....... fumigatus including flif, pilA, lasR, PVDA, PQSC and rhlA mutants indicating that phenazines may be involved in the suppressed growth of A. fumigatus. All pseudomonas mutants suppressed A. oryzae, A. niger and A. flavus. Conclusions: An increase in phenazine production by P. aeruginosa may contribute...

  16. Emotion suppression, not reappraisal, predicts psychotherapy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Anne; Boecker, Maren; Pawelzik, Markus; Gauggel, Siegfried; Forkmann, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify whether trait emotion regulation strategies predict successful or unsuccessful psychotherapy outcomes in cognitive behaviour therapy. Three emotion regulation strategies (reappraisal, suppression, and externalizing behaviour) were assessed in 358 in- and outpatients. Patients were then grouped by therapy outcome. Emotion regulation strategies and confounding variables were entered as predictors in multinomial logistic regression analyses. Emotion suppression, but not reappraisal, was found to predict therapy outcomes for in- and outpatients, with patients high in suppression experiencing worse outcomes. Externalizing behaviour was only relevant in inpatient treatment. High suppression might be detrimental to psychotherapy outcome and should be assessed early on. Further research should investigate the influence of suppression on the mechanisms that facilitate change in psychotherapy.

  17. 78 FR 23903 - Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Dixie Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service... and to provide advice and recommendations to the Forest Service concerning projects and funding... review proposals for forest projects and recommending funding. DATES: The meeting will be held Thursday...

  18. Climate change and forest diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.N. Sturrock; Susan Frankel; A. V. Brown; Paul Hennon; J. T. Kliejunas; K. J. Lewis; J. J. Worrall; A. J. Woods

    2011-01-01

    As climate changes, the effects of forest diseases on forest ecosystems will change. We review knowledge of relationships between climate variables and several forest diseases, as well as current evidence of how climate, host and pathogen interactions are responding or might respond to climate change. Many forests can be managed to both adapt to climate change and...

  19. The Challenge of Forest Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harini Nagendra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecologists and practitioners have conventionally used forest plots or transects for monitoring changes in attributes of forest condition over time. However, given the difficulty in collecting such data, conservation practitioners frequently rely on the judgment of foresters and forest users for evaluating changes. These methods are rarely compared. We use a dataset of 53 forests in five countries to compare assessments of forest change from forest plots, and forester and user evaluations of changes in forest density. We find that user assessments of changes in tree density are strongly and significantly related to assessments of change derived from statistical analyses of randomly distributed forest plots. User assessments of change in density at the shrub/sapling level also relate to assessments derived from statistical evaluations of vegetation plots, but this relationship is not as strong and only weakly significant. Evaluations of change by professional foresters are much more difficult to acquire, and less reliable, as foresters are often not familiar with changes in specific local areas. Forester evaluations can instead better provide valid single-time comparisons of a forest with other areas in a similar ecological zone. Thus, in forests where local forest users are present, their evaluations can be used to provide reliable assessments of changes in tree density in the areas they access. However, assessments of spatially heterogeneous patterns of human disturbance and regeneration at the shrub/sapling level are likely to require supplemental vegetation analysis.

  20. Forests of East Texas, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Brandeis

    2015-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in east Texas derived from an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Texas A&M Forest Service. These estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are...

  1. Forests of east Texas, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry Dooley

    2018-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in east Texas based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station (SRS) in cooperation with Texas A&M Forest Service. The 254 counties of Texas are consolidated into seven FIA survey units—Southeast (unit 1),...

  2. Forests of North Dakota, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen

    2014-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the North Dakota Forest Service. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  3. Forests of North Carolina, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Brown

    2015-01-01

    This periodic resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Carolina based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the North Carolina Forest Service. Data estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design...

  4. Forests of North Dakota, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Haugen; S.A. Pugh

    2014-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the North Dakota Forest Service. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  5. Forests of North Carolina, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Brown; Samuel Lambert

    2016-01-01

    This periodic resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Carolina based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the North Carolina Forest Service. Data estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design...

  6. Northwest Forest Plan research synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Haynes; Gloria E. Perez; [tech. eds.].

    2000-01-01

    This document synthesizes research accomplishments initiated and funded under the Northwest Forest Plan or the President’s Forest Plan (hereafter referred to as the Forest Plan) since its inception in 1994. Three major parts in this document cover, the context for this effort, eight Forest Plan research accomplishments, and a synthesis. The eight accomplishments...

  7. Forest Fuels Management in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavriil Xanthopoulos; David Caballero; Miguel Galante; Daniel Alexandrian; Eric Rigolot; Raffaella Marzano

    2006-01-01

    Current fuel management practices vary considerably between European countries. Topography, forest and forest fuel characteristics, size and compartmentalization of forests, forest management practices, land uses, land ownership, size of properties, legislation, and, of course, tradition, are reasons for these differences.Firebreak construction,...

  8. Forests of North Dakota, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles S. Paulson

    2018-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program within the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the North Dakota Forest Service. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  9. Forests of North Dakota, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the North Dakota Forest Service. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  10. Minnesota's forest resources in 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick D. Miles; Gary J. Brand; Manfred E. Mielke

    2006-01-01

    This report presents forest statistics based on the five annual inventory panels measured from 2000 through 2004. Forest area is estimated at 16.2 million acres or 32 percent of the total land area in the State. Important pests in Minnesota forests include the forest tent caterpillar and spruce budworm.

  11. Historical forest baselines reveal potential for continued carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhemtulla, Jeanine M.; Mladenoff, David J.; Clayton, Murray K.

    2009-01-01

    One-third of net CO2 emissions to the atmosphere since 1850 are the result of land-use change, primarily from the clearing of forests for timber and agriculture, but quantifying these changes is complicated by the lack of historical data on both former ecosystem conditions and the extent and spatial configuration of subsequent land use. Using fine-resolution historical survey records, we reconstruct pre-EuroAmerican settlement (1850s) forest carbon in the state of Wisconsin, examine changes in carbon after logging and agricultural conversion, and assess the potential for future sequestration through forest recovery. Results suggest that total above-ground live forest carbon (AGC) fell from 434 TgC before settlement to 120 TgC at the peak of agricultural clearing in the 1930s and has since recovered to approximately 276 TgC. The spatial distribution of AGC, however, has shifted significantly. Former savanna ecosystems in the south now store more AGC because of fire suppression and forest ingrowth, despite the fact that most of the region remains in agriculture, whereas northern forests still store much less carbon than before settlement. Across the state, continued sequestration in existing forests has the potential to contribute an additional 69 TgC. Reforestation of agricultural lands, in particular, the formerly high C-density forests in the north-central region that are now agricultural lands less optimal than those in the south, could contribute 150 TgC. Restoring historical carbon stocks across the landscape will therefore require reassessing overall land-use choices, but a range of options can be ranked and considered under changing needs for ecosystem services. PMID:19369213

  12. Burst suppression probability algorithms: state-space methods for tracking EEG burst suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemali, Jessica; Ching, ShiNung; Purdon, Patrick L.; Solt, Ken; Brown, Emery N.

    2013-10-01

    Objective. Burst suppression is an electroencephalogram pattern in which bursts of electrical activity alternate with an isoelectric state. This pattern is commonly seen in states of severely reduced brain activity such as profound general anesthesia, anoxic brain injuries, hypothermia and certain developmental disorders. Devising accurate, reliable ways to quantify burst suppression is an important clinical and research problem. Although thresholding and segmentation algorithms readily identify burst suppression periods, analysis algorithms require long intervals of data to characterize burst suppression at a given time and provide no framework for statistical inference. Approach. We introduce the concept of the burst suppression probability (BSP) to define the brain's instantaneous propensity of being in the suppressed state. To conduct dynamic analyses of burst suppression we propose a state-space model in which the observation process is a binomial model and the state equation is a Gaussian random walk. We estimate the model using an approximate expectation maximization algorithm and illustrate its application in the analysis of rodent burst suppression recordings under general anesthesia and a patient during induction of controlled hypothermia. Main result. The BSP algorithms track burst suppression on a second-to-second time scale, and make possible formal statistical comparisons of burst suppression at different times. Significance. The state-space approach suggests a principled and informative way to analyze burst suppression that can be used to monitor, and eventually to control, the brain states of patients in the operating room and in the intensive care unit.

  13. Forest Health Monitoring and Forest Inventory Analysis programs monitor climate change effects in forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth W. Stolte

    2001-01-01

    The Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) and Forest Inventory and Analyses (FIA) programs are integrated bilogical monitoring systems that use nationally standardized methods to evaluate and report on the health and sustainability of forest ecosystems in the United States. Many of the anticipated changes in forest ecosystems from climate change were also issues addressed in...

  14. Restoring forest structure and process stabilizes forest carbon in wildfire-prone southwestern ponderosa pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew D. Hurteau; Shuang Liang; Katherine L. Martin; Malcolm P. North; George W. Koch; Bruce A. Hungate

    2016-01-01

    Changing climate and a legacy of fire-exclusion have increased the probability of high-severity wildfire, leading to an increased risk of forest carbon loss in ponderosa pine forests in the southwestern USA. Efforts to reduce high-severity fire risk through forest thinning and prescribed burning require both the removal and emission of carbon from these forests, and...

  15. Forest Biophysical Parameters (SNF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Biophysical parameters (DBH, NPP, biomass, bark area index, LAI, subcanopy LAI) by study site for Aspen and Spruce in the Superior National Forest, MN (SNF)

  16. Forest Fire Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucca, Carol; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents a model that integrates high school science with the needs of the local scientific community. Describes how a high school ecology class conducted scientific research in fire ecology that benefited the students and a state park forest ecologist. (MKR)

  17. Forest decline through radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, G.; Kollert, R.

    1985-01-01

    Is more serious damage of forest observed in the vicinity of nuclear reactors. How are those decline patterns to be explained. Does the combined effect of radioactivity and different air pollutants (such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, oxidants etc.) have an influence in the decline of the forest. In what way do synergisms, i.e. mutually enhanced effects, participate. How does natural and artificial radioactivity affect the chemistry of air in the polluted atmosphere. What does this mean for the extension of nuclear energy, especially for the reprocessing plant planned. Damage in the forests near nuclear and industrial plants was mapped and the resulting hypotheses on possible emittors were statistically verified. Quantitative calculations as to the connection between nuclear energy and forest decline were carried through: they demand action. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Trading forest carbon - OSU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issues associate with trading carbon sequestered in forests are discussed. Scientific uncertainties associated with carbon measurement are discussed with respect to proposed accounting procedures. Major issues include: (1) Establishing baselines. (2) Determining additivity from f...

  19. Forest fires in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Haines; William A. Main; Eugene F. McNamara

    1978-01-01

    Describes factors that contribute to forest fires in Pennsylvania. Includes an analysis of basic statistics; distribution of fires during normal, drought, and wet years; fire cause, fire activity by day-of-week; multiple-fire day; and fire climatology.

  20. Population growth and the decline of natural Southern yellow pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. South; Edward R. Buckner

    2004-01-01

    Population growth has created social and economic pressures that affect the sustainability of naturally regenerated southern yellow pine forests. Major causes of this decline include (1) a shift in public attitudes regarding woods burning (from one favoring it to one that favors fire suppression) and (2) an increase in land values (especially near urban centers). The...

  1. Ten years after wildfires: How does varying tree mortality impact fire hazard and forest resiliency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camille S. Stevens-Rumann; Carolyn H. Sieg; Molly E. Hunter

    2012-01-01

    Severe wildfires across the western US have lead to concerns about heavy surface fuel loading and the potential for high-intensity reburning. Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests, often overly dense from a century of fire suppression, are increasingly susceptible to large and severe wildfires especially given warmer and drier climate projections for the future....

  2. Characteristics of the Psidium cattleianum (Myrtaceae) Seed bank in Hawaiian lowland wet forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanda L. Uowolo; Julie S. Denslow

    2008-01-01

    Psidium cattleianum Sabine (strawberry guava) is one of Hawai‘i’s most disruptive alien plants. Dense stands can suppress growth and establishment of native species, support high populations of crop-damaging fruit flies, and preclude restoration or management of native forests. Our research investigated factors affecting persistence of P...

  3. Ponderosa pine, mixed conifer, and spruce-fir forests [Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Battaglia; Wayne D. Shepperd

    2007-01-01

    Before European settlement of the interior west of the United States, coniferous forests of this region were influenced by many disturbance regimes, primarily fires, insects, diseases, and herbivory, which maintained a diversity of successional stages and vegetative types across landscapes. Activities after settlement, such as fire suppression, grazing, and logging...

  4. The influence of market proximity on national forest hazardous fuels treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max Nielsen-Pincus; Susan Charnley; Cassandra. Moseley

    2013-01-01

    The US Department of Agriculture Forest Service’s focus on hazardous fuels reduction has increased since the adoption of the National Fire Plan in 2001. However, appropriations for hazardous fuels reduction still lag behind wildfire suppression spending. Offsetting fuels treatment costs through biomass utilization or by using innovative administrative mechanisms such...

  5. Presettlement fire regime and vegetation mapping in Southeastern Coastal Plain forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew D. Bailey; Robert Mickler; Cecil Frost

    2007-01-01

    Fire-adapted forest ecosystems make up 95 percent of the historic Coastal Plain vegetation types in the Southeastern United States. Fire suppression over the last century has altered the species composition of these ecosystems, increased fuel loads, and increased wildfire risk. Prescribed fire is one management tool used to reduce fuel loading and restore fire-adapted...

  6. Applications of ion chromatography to study pollution effects on forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter C. Shortle; Rakesh Minocha

    1990-01-01

    Air pollution and acidic deposition can influence forest tree growth and survival by causing ionic imbalances in the rooting zone. Altered nutrient status suppresses tree growth and weakens its immune system. Internal infections spread more quickly in response to weakened tree defenses. As adverse conditions persist, many trees die and the survivors are less healthy....

  7. Fire frequency effects on fuel loadings in pine-oak forests of the Madrean Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco J. Escobedo; Peter F. Ffolliott; Gerald J. Gottfried; Florentino Garza

    2001-01-01

    Loadings of downed woody fuels in pine-oak forests of the Madrean Province are heavier on sites in southeastern Arizona with low fire frequencies and lower on sites in northeastern Sonora, Mexico, with high fire frequencies. Low fire frequencies in southeastern Arizona are attributed largely to past land uses and the fire suppression policies of land management...

  8. Disturbing forest disturbances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volney, W.J.A.; Hirsch, K.G. [Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-10-01

    This paper described the role that disturbances play in maintaining the ecological integrity of Canadian boreal forests. Potential adaptation options to address the challenges that these disturbances present were also examined. Many forest ecosystems need fire for regeneration, while other forests rely on a cool, wet disintegration process driven by insects and commensal fungi feeding on trees to effect renewal. While there are characteristic natural, temporal and spatial patterns to these disturbances, recent work has demonstrated that the disturbances are being perturbed by climatic change that has been compounded by anthropogenic disturbances in forests. Fire influences species composition and age structure, regulates forest insects and diseases, affects nutrient cycling and energy fluxes, and maintains the productivity of different habitats. Longer fire seasons as a result of climatic change will lead to higher intensity fires that may more easily evade initial attacks and become problematic. Fire regimes elevated beyond the range of natural variation will have a dramatic effect on the regional distribution and functioning of forest ecosystems and pose a threat to the safety and prosperity of people. While it was acknowledged that if insect outbreaks were to be controlled on the entire forest estate, the productivity represented by dead wood would be lost, it was suggested that insects such as the forest tent caterpillar and the spruce bud worm may also pose a greater threat as the climate gets warmer and drier. Together with fungal associates, saproxylic arthropods are active in nutrient cycling and ultimately determine the fertility of forest sites. It was suggested that the production of an age class structure and forest mosaic would render the forest landscape less vulnerable to the more negative aspects of climate change on vegetation response. It was concluded that novel management design paradigms are needed to successfully reduce the risk from threats

  9. Psychopathology and Thought Suppression: A Quantitative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Joshua C.; Harden, K. Paige; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent theories of psychopathology have suggested that thought suppression intensifies the persistence of intrusive thoughts, and proposed that difficulty with thought suppression may differ between groups with and without psychopathology. The current meta-analytic review evaluates empirical evidence for difficulty with thought suppression as a function of the presence and specific type of psychopathology. Based on theoretical proposals from the psychopathology literature, diagnosed and analogue samples were expected to show greater recurrence of intrusive thoughts during thought suppression attempts than non-clinical samples. However, results showed no overall differences in the recurrence of thoughts due to thought suppression between groups with and without psychopathology. There was, nevertheless, variation in the recurrence of thoughts across different forms of psychopathology, including relatively less recurrence during thought suppression for samples with symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, compared to non-clinical samples. However, these differences were typically small and provided only mixed support for existing theories. Implications for cognitive theories of intrusive thoughts are discussed, including proposed mechanisms underlying thought suppression. PMID:22388007

  10. Volatile suppressing method for radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Atsushi; Haruguchi, Keiko.

    1997-01-01

    In the present invention, a metal plate is disposed above the pool water surface of a suppression chamber disposed to a reactor container in order to reduce evaporation of radioactive iodine released from a suppression pool. A metal plate is disposed above the pool water surface of the suppression chamber disposed to the reactor container. In addition, a metal plate is disposed around the space connecting a bent tube extending from a dry well to underwater of suppression pool water and a gas bent tube extending from the suppression chamber to an emergency gas processing system. Spray water is supplied for cooling the suppression chamber d as a means for cooling the metal plate. Then, among iodine released to the suppression chamber, elemental iodine liberated from the pool water is deposited on the surface of the metal plate, and the amount of iodine to be flown into and processed by an emergency gas processing system or a filter bent system can be reduced. (T.M.)

  11. The Massabesic Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W. McConkey; Wendell E. Smith

    1958-01-01

    White pine and fire! These two - the tree and its destroyer, fire - are keys to the history and present make-up of the research program on the Massabesic Experimental Forest at Alfred, Maine. The Forest was established in the late 1930's to study the management of eastern white pine. During World War II, it was shut down, and reopened again in 1946. Then, in 1947...

  12. The changing Amazon forest

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Oliver L; Lewis, Simon L; Baker, Timothy R; Chao, Kuo-Jung; Higuchi, Niro

    2008-01-01

    Long-term monitoring of distributed, multiple plots is the key to quantify macroecological patterns and changes. Here we examine the evidence for concerted changes in the structure, dynamics and composition of old-growth Amazonian forests in the late twentieth century. In the 1980s and 1990s, mature forests gained biomass and underwent accelerated growth and dynamics, all consistent with a widespread, long-acting stimulation of growth. Because growth on average exceeded mortality, intact Amaz...

  13. Culturing the forest [Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Reviw of: The Social Lives of Forests Past, Present, and Future of Woodland Resurgence Susanna B. Hecht, Kathleen D. Morrison, and Christine Padoch, Eds. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 2014. 507 pp. $50, £35. ISBN 9780226322667.......Reviw of: The Social Lives of Forests Past, Present, and Future of Woodland Resurgence Susanna B. Hecht, Kathleen D. Morrison, and Christine Padoch, Eds. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 2014. 507 pp. $50, £35. ISBN 9780226322667....

  14. Newtonian boreal forest ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Hari, Pertti; Aakala, Tuomas; Aalto, Juho; Bäck, Jaana; Hollmén, Jaakko; Jõgiste, Kalev; Koupaei, Kourosh Kabiri; Kähkönen, Mika A.; Korpela, Mikko; Kulmala, Liisa; Nikinmaa, Eero; Pumpanen, Jukka; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja; Schiestl-Aalto, Pauliina; Simojoki, Asko

    2017-01-01

    Isaac Newton's approach to developing theories in his book Principia Mathematica proceeds in four steps. First, he defines various concepts, second, he formulates axioms utilising the concepts, third, he mathematically analyses the behaviour of the system defined by the concepts and axioms obtaining predictions and fourth, he tests the predictions with measurements. In this study, we formulated our theory of boreal forest ecosystems, called NewtonForest, following the four steps introduced by...

  15. Missouri's forests 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gus Raeker; W. Keith Moser; Brett J. Butler; John Fleming; Dale D. Gormanson; Mark H. Hansen; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Patrick D. Miles; Mike Morris; Thomas B. Treiman

    2011-01-01

    The second full annual inventory of Missouri's forests (2004-2008) reports more than 15 million acres of forest land, almost all of which is timberland (98 percent), with an average volume of more than 1,117 cubic feet of growing stock per acre. White oak and black oak are the most abundant in terms of live tree volume. Eighty-three percent of the State's...

  16. Maryland's Forests 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.W. Lister; J.L Perdue; C.J. Barnett; B.J. Butler; S.J. Crocker; G.M. Domke; D. Griffith; M.A. Hatfield; C.M. Kurtz; A.J. Lister; R.S. Morin; W.K. Moser; M.D. Nelson; C.H. Perry; R.J. Piva; R. Riemann; R. Widmann; C.W. Woodall

    2011-01-01

    The first full annual inventory of Maryland's forests reports approximately 2.5 million acres of forest land, which covers 40 percent of the State's land area and with a total volume of more than 2,100 cubic feet per acre. Nineteen percent of the growing-stock volume is yellow-poplar, followed by red maple (13 percent) and loblolly pine (10 percent). All...

  17. Iowa's Forests 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Nelson; Matt Brewer; Christopher W. Woodall; Charles H. Perry; Grant M. Domke; Ronald J. Piva; Cassandra M. Kurtz; W. Keith Moser; Tonya W. Lister; Brett J. Butler; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Patrick D. Miles; Charles J. Barnett; Dale Gormanson

    2011-01-01

    The second full annual inventory of Iowa's forests (2004-2008) reports more than 3 million acres of forest land, almost all of which is timberland (98 percent), with an average volume of more than 1,000 cubic feet of growing stock per acre. American elm and eastern hophornbeam are the most numerous tree species, but silver maple and bur oak predominate in terms of...

  18. Delaware's Forests 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonya W. Lister; Glenn Gladders; Charles J. Barnett; Gary J. Brand; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Grant M. Domke; Douglas M. Griffith; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Andrew J. Lister; Randall S. Morin; W. Keith Moser; Mark D. Nelson; Charles H. Perry; Ronald J. Piva; Rachel Riemann; Christopher W. Woodall

    2012-01-01

    The fifth full inventory of Delaware's forests reports an 8 percent decrease in the area of forest land to 352,000 acres, which cover 28 percent of the State's land area and has a volume of approximately 2,352 cubic feet per acre. Twenty-one percent of the growing-stock volume is red maple, followed by sweetgum (13 percent), and loblolly pine (12 percent)....

  19. Human-Forest Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Eva; Dauksta, Dainis

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between forests and people goes back to the early development of civilisation. However, parallel with technical innovations and an increasing urbanisation of the society, an alienation from nature has taken place......The relationship between forests and people goes back to the early development of civilisation. However, parallel with technical innovations and an increasing urbanisation of the society, an alienation from nature has taken place...

  20. New focus on forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine Unger; Divya Abhat.; Constance Millar; Greg [featured scientists] McPherson

    2010-01-01

    It would appear that forests are finally having their day—and not a moment too soon. Around the world, trees are dying at an alarming rate, besieged by illegal logging, agricultural conversion, wildfire, and drought. According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, 13 million  hectares of the world’s forests are now lost to deforestation every year....

  1. Rehabilitation of radioactive contaminated forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panfilov, A.V.; Uspenskaya, E.Ju.

    2002-01-01

    As a result of radiation accidents and nuclear-weapon tests at the territory of the former USSR a part of the Forest Fund of 23 subjects of the Russian Federation has been contaminated by radionuclides. The contaminated forests, which are included in a structure of more than 130 forest management units (leskhozes) and more then 330 local forest management units, as a rule, are located in highly inhabited regions with traditionally intensive forestry management and high level of forest resources use. To provide radiologically safe forest management in the contaminated areas, the Federal Forest Service has developed and validated a special system of countermeasures. Use of this system makes it possible to diminish significantly the dose to personnel, to exclude the use of forest products with contamination exceeding radiological standards and to provide protection of the forest as a biogeochemical barrier to radionuclide migration from contaminated areas to human habitat. (author)

  2. Design of forest rent accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Osadcha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The urgent task for the effective functioning of the national economy is the need to reflect income from the use of forest resources in accounting, which will allow management personnel to prove the effectiveness of environmental protection measures, to assess the amount of expenses taken during restoration and protection of forest resources. The study aims at identifying characteristics of forest rent to determine the amount and its reflection in the accounting for its management. The author understands a forest rent as the income received from the owner of forest resources. The above procedure for determining the amount of forest rent can be used to display it in the accounting. A forest rent is a type of business income, so for its reflection in the accounting it is proposed to open the analytical accounts to account 79 named «Financial results». To determine the amount of forest rent and its reflection in the accounting the author suggests the calculation form of a forest rent. In order to manage the size of a forest rent and expenses incurred to obtain it the author proposes to use the information from the developed report about the forest rent formation. The displaying forest rents in accounting will provide accurate and deep information to the management about the revenue and assets of a company. The rational use of forest resources and accounting reflection of a forest rent will strengthen control over the influence of human activity on natural resources and keep the conception of sustainable development.

  3. Where do forests influence rainfall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; van der Ent, Ruud; Fetzer, Ingo; Keys, Patrick; Savenije, Hubert; Gordon, Line

    2017-04-01

    Forests play a major role in hydrology. Not only by immediate control of soil moisture and streamflow, but also by regulating climate through evaporation (i.e., transpiration, interception, and soil evaporation). The process of evaporation travelling through the atmosphere and returning as precipitation on land is known as moisture recycling. Whether evaporation is recycled depends on wind direction and geography. Moisture recycling and forest change studies have primarily focused on either one region (e.g. the Amazon), or one biome type (e.g. tropical humid forests). We will advance this via a systematic global inter-comparison of forest change impacts on precipitation depending on both biome type and geographic location. The rainfall effects are studied for three contemporary forest changes: afforestation, deforestation, and replacement of mature forest by forest plantations. Furthermore, as there are indications in the literature that moisture recycling in some places intensifies during dry years, we will also compare the rainfall impacts of forest change between wet and dry years. We model forest change effects on evaporation using the global hydrological model STEAM and trace precipitation changes using the atmospheric moisture tracking scheme WAM-2layers. This research elucidates the role of geographical location of forest change driven modifications on rainfall as a function of the type of forest change and climatic conditions. These knowledge gains are important at a time of both rapid forest and climate change. Our conclusions nuance our understanding of how forests regulate climate and pinpoint hotspot regions for forest-rainfall coupling.

  4. 76 FR 4279 - Coconino and Kaibab National Forests, Arizona, Four Forest Restoration Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Coconino and Kaibab National Forests, Arizona, Four Forest Restoration Initiative AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: The Coconino and Kaibab National Forests are proposing to conduct...

  5. Controls over leaf litter decomposition in wet tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder, William R; Cleveland, Cory C; Townsend, Alan R

    2009-12-01

    Tropical forests play a substantial role in the global carbon (C) cycle and are projected to experience significant changes in climate, highlighting the importance of understanding the factors that control organic matter decomposition in this biome. In the tropics, high temperature and rainfall lead to some of the highest rates of litter decomposition on earth, and given the near-optimal abiotic conditions, litter quality likely exerts disproportionate control over litter decomposition. Yet interactions between litter quality and abiotic variables, most notably precipitation, remain poorly resolved, especially for the wetter end of the tropical forest biome. We assessed the importance of variation in litter chemistry and precipitation in a lowland tropical rain forest in southwest Costa Rica that receives >5000 mm of precipitation per year, using litter from 11 different canopy tree species in conjunction with a throughfall manipulation experiment. In general, despite the exceptionally high rainfall in this forest, simulated throughfall reductions consistently suppressed rates of litter decomposition. Overall, variation between species was greater than that induced by manipulating throughfall and was best explained by initial litter solubility and lignin:P ratios. Collectively, these results support a model of litter decomposition in which mass loss rates are positively correlated with rainfall up to very high rates of mean annual precipitation and highlight the importance of phosphorus availability in controlling microbial processes in many lowland tropical forests.

  6. Suppression factors in diffractive photoproduction of dijets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasen, Michael; Kramer, Gustav

    2010-06-01

    After new publications of H1 data for the diffractive photoproduction of dijets, which overlap with the earlier published H1 data and the recently published data of the ZEUS collaboration, have appeared, we have recalculated the cross sections for this process in next-to-leading order (NLO) of perturbative QCD to see whether they can be interpreted consistently. The results of these calculations are compared to the data of both collaborations. We find that the NLO cross sections disagree with the data, showing that factorization breaking occurs at that order. If direct and resolved contributions are both suppressed by the same amount, the global suppression factor depends on the transverse-energy cut. However, by suppressing only the resolved contribution, also reasonably good agreement with all the data is found with a suppression factor independent of the transverse-energy cut. (orig.)

  7. Attention modulates sensory suppression during back movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hulle, Lore; Juravle, Georgiana; Spence, Charles; Crombez, Geert; Van Damme, Stefaan

    2013-06-01

    Tactile perception is often impaired during movement. The present study investigated whether such sensory suppression also occurs during back movements, and whether this would be modulated by attention. In two tactile detection experiments, participants simultaneously engaged in a movement task, in which they executed a back-bending movement, and a perceptual task, consisting of the detection of subtle tactile stimuli administered to their upper or lower back. The focus of participants' attention was manipulated by raising the probability that one of the back locations would be stimulated. The results revealed that tactile detection was suppressed during the execution of the back movements. Furthermore, the results of Experiment 2 revealed that when the stimulus was always presented to the attended location, tactile suppression was substantially reduced, suggesting that sensory suppression can be modulated by top-down attentional processes. The potential of this paradigm for studying tactile information processing in clinical populations is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Quadratic dynamical decoupling with nonuniform error suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiroz, Gregory; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze numerically the performance of the near-optimal quadratic dynamical decoupling (QDD) single-qubit decoherence errors suppression method [J. West et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 130501 (2010)]. The QDD sequence is formed by nesting two optimal Uhrig dynamical decoupling sequences for two orthogonal axes, comprising N 1 and N 2 pulses, respectively. Varying these numbers, we study the decoherence suppression properties of QDD directly by isolating the errors associated with each system basis operator present in the system-bath interaction Hamiltonian. Each individual error scales with the lowest order of the Dyson series, therefore immediately yielding the order of decoherence suppression. We show that the error suppression properties of QDD are dependent upon the parities of N 1 and N 2 , and near-optimal performance is achieved for general single-qubit interactions when N 1 =N 2 .

  9. Combustion suppressing device for leaked sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooto, Akihiro.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To suppress the atmospheric temperature to secure the building safety and shorten the recovery time after the leakage in a chamber for containing sodium leaked from coolant circuit equipments or pipeways of LMFBR type rector by suppressing the combustion of sodium contained in the chamber. Constitution: To the inner wall of a chamber for containing sodium handling equipments, are vertically disposed a panel having a coolant supply port at the upper portion and a coolant discharge port at the lower portion thereof and defined with a coolant flowing channel and a panel for sucking the coolant discharged from the abovementioned panel and exhausting the same externally. Further, a corrugated combustion suppressing plate having apertures for draining the condensated leaked sodium is disposed near the sodium handling equipments. If ruptures are resulted to the sodium handling equipments or pipeway, leaked sodium is passed through the drain apertures in the suppressing plate and stored at the bottom of the containing chamber. (Horiuchi, T.)

  10. Forest Classification Based on Forest texture in Northwest Yunnan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinliang; Gao, Yan; Wang, Xiaohua; Fu, Lei

    2014-03-01

    Forest texture is an intrinsic characteristic and an important visual feature of a forest ecological system. Full utilization of forest texture will be a great help in increasing the accuracy of forest classification based on remote sensed data. Taking Shangri-La as a study area, forest classification has been based on the texture. The results show that: (1) From the texture abundance, texture boundary, entropy as well as visual interpretation, the combination of Grayscale-gradient co-occurrence matrix and wavelet transformation is much better than either one of both ways of forest texture information extraction; (2) During the forest texture information extraction, the size of the texture-suitable window determined by the semi-variogram method depends on the forest type (evergreen broadleaf forest is 3×3, deciduous broadleaf forest is 5×5, etc.). (3)While classifying forest based on forest texture information, the texture factor assembly differs among forests: Variance Heterogeneity and Correlation should be selected when the window is between 3×3 and 5×5 Mean, Correlation, and Entropy should be used when the window in the range of 7×7 to 19×19 and Correlation, Second Moment, and Variance should be used when the range is larger than 21×21.

  11. Forest Classification Based on Forest texture in Northwest Yunnan Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jinliang; Gao, Yan; Fu, Lei; Wang, Xiaohua

    2014-01-01

    Forest texture is an intrinsic characteristic and an important visual feature of a forest ecological system. Full utilization of forest texture will be a great help in increasing the accuracy of forest classification based on remote sensed data. Taking Shangri-La as a study area, forest classification has been based on the texture. The results show that: (1) From the texture abundance, texture boundary, entropy as well as visual interpretation, the combination of Grayscale-gradient co-occurrence matrix and wavelet transformation is much better than either one of both ways of forest texture information extraction; (2) During the forest texture information extraction, the size of the texture-suitable window determined by the semi-variogram method depends on the forest type (evergreen broadleaf forest is 3×3, deciduous broadleaf forest is 5×5, etc.). (3)While classifying forest based on forest texture information, the texture factor assembly differs among forests: Variance Heterogeneity and Correlation should be selected when the window is between 3×3 and 5×5; Mean, Correlation, and Entropy should be used when the window in the range of 7×7 to 19×19; and Correlation, Second Moment, and Variance should be used when the range is larger than 21×21

  12. A Computer Model of Saccadic Suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Implications of sustained and transient channels for theories of visul pattern masking, saccadic suppression, and information processing...suppression. Because information available to the retina during saccades is a dynamic event in space and in time, the spatio-temporal properties of the...t), use is made of the convolution integral: In the context of the model, g(x,t) is the information supplied to a psychophysical detector and f(x,t

  13. Suppression mental questionnaire: a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore Settineri; Emanuele Maria Merlo; Irene Pagano Dritto; Maria Midili; Antonio Bruno; Carmela Mento

    2016-01-01

    Authors postulate that the difference between suppression and repression, highlighted in particular by the Societè Psychanalitique de Paris, enables the development of a quantitative instrument, since suppression is a defense accessible to consciousness and therefore quantifiable like scales and questionnaires. The idea of constructing a questionnaire, included the identification of thirty variables having somehow a plausible relationship with this mechanism. The factor exploratory analysis w...

  14. Suppressing Tsetse Flies to Improve Lives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potterton, Louise; Pavlicek, Petr; Parker, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the government-run Southern Tsetse Eradication Project (STEP) in Ethiopia, with the support of the IAEA, started to carry out intensive activities to suppress the fly population using insecticides. The fly population is now down by 90%. The benefits of tsetse suppression can be seen all over the region. Diary produce is now widely available at markets and healthy animals can be seen everywhere in farming and transport

  15. Pressure suppression chamber for a reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Masami

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the safety of a pressure suppression device by floating shock absorbers on the surface of pressure suppression pool water in a pressure suppression chamber opposing to vent headers of a reactor container. Constitution: Vent pipes of a reactor container are provided with vent headers, vacuum valves which are actuated upon excessively high pressure resulted in the space of a pressure suppression chamber, and downcomers for supplying water, vapor, etc. from the container to the pressure suppression pool. Shock absorbers are floated on the surface of pool water opposing to the headers. Accordingly, if gaseous nitrogen or air sealed in the container is compressed upon loss of coolant accidents to rapidly form gas bubbles in the pool and thereby generate impact pressure to the pool water, the pressure are absorbed by the shock absorbers and not transmitted directly to the vent pies or headers, whereby the improved stability can be attained for the pressure suppression device of the reactor container. (Seki, T.)

  16. Suppression sours sacrifice: emotional and relational costs of suppressing emotions in romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impett, Emily A; Kogan, Aleksandr; English, Tammy; John, Oliver; Oveis, Christopher; Gordon, Amie M; Keltner, Dacher

    2012-06-01

    What happens when people suppress their emotions when they sacrifice for a romantic partner? This multimethod study investigates how suppressing emotions during sacrifice shapes affective and relationship outcomes. In Part 1, dating couples came into the laboratory to discuss important romantic relationship sacrifices. Suppressing emotions was associated with emotional costs for the partner discussing his or her sacrifice. In Part 2, couples participated in a 14-day daily experience study. Within-person increases in emotional suppression during daily sacrifice were associated with decreases in emotional well-being and relationship quality as reported by both members of romantic dyads. In Part 3, suppression predicted decreases in relationship satisfaction and increases in thoughts about breaking up with a romantic partner 3 months later. In the first two parts of the study, authenticity mediated the costly effects of suppression. Implications for research on close relationships and emotion regulation are discussed.

  17. National forest inventory contributions to forest biodiversity monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirici, Cherardo; McRoberts, Ronald; Winter, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Forests are the most biodiverse terrestrial ecosystems. National forest inventories (NFIs) are the main source of information on the status and trends of forests, but they have traditionally been designed to assess land coverage and the production value of forests rather than forest biodiversity....... The primary international processes dealing with biodiversity and sustainable forest management, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), Forest Europe, Streamlining European Biodiversity Indicators 2010 of the European Environmental Agency, and the Montréal Process, all include indicators related...... Forest Inventories in Europe: Techniques for Common Reporting“) of the European program Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST). We discuss definitions and techniques for harmonizing estimates of possible biodiversity indicators based on data from NFIs in Europe and the United States. We compare...

  18. Benefits of a strategic national forest inventory to science and society: the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis program

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. D. Shaw

    2006-01-01

    Benefits of a strategic national forest inventory to science and society: the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis program. Forest Inventory and Analysis, previously known as Forest Survey, is one of the oldest research and development programs in the USDA Forest Service. Statistically-based inventory efforts that started in Scandinavian countries in the...

  19. Potential of the Russian forests and forest industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anttonen, T.; Petrov, A.P. [eds.

    1997-12-31

    The publication contains the proceedings of the seminar `Potential of the Russian Forests and Forest Industries` held in Moscow, May 14-16, 1997. The seminar was one step along the road to spread knowledge and become acquainted with forestry and forest industries in northern Europe and Russia. The seminar proceedings contain a lot of fresh information concerning forestry and forest industries in Russia. Both have undergone many changes and reforms during the last few years

  20. Reviewing efforts in global forest conservation for sustainable forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The world's forests are in crisis - facing greater threats than ever before; and there is need to document efforts made in protecting them for effective forest resources management. The paper compiled and assessed from 1996-1998 a maiden report of the efforts of a leading world forest conservation Organization - the World ...

  1. Forested plant associations of the Colville National Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton K. Williams; Brian F. Kelley; Bradley G. Smith; Terry R. Lillybridge

    1995-01-01

    A classification of forest vegetation is presented for the Colville National Forest in northeastern Washington State. It is based on potential vegetation with the plant association as the basic unit. The classification is based on a sample of approximately 229 intensive plots and 282 reconnaissance plots distributed across the forest from 1980 to 1983. The hierarchical...

  2. Impact of decentralised forest management on forest cover changes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the semi-arid, the forest under JFM experienced substantial increase in forest cover (+3.5%.y-1) as compared to exclusive state management and CBFM. More tree basal area were harvested under exclusive state management in the montane study forests as compared to JFM and CBFM and the differences were ...

  3. Forest Stakeholder Participation in Improving Game Habitat in Swedish Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene E. Ezebilo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Although in Sweden the simultaneous use of forests for timber production and game hunting are both of socioeconomic importance it often leads to conflicting interests. This study examines forest stakeholder participation in improving game habitat to increase hunting opportunities as well as redistribute game activities in forests to help reduce browsing damage in valuable forest stands. The data for the study were collected from a nationwide survey that involved randomly selected hunters and forest owners in Sweden. An ordered logit model was used to account for possible factors influencing the respondents’ participation in improving game habitat. The results showed that on average, forest owning hunters were more involved in improving game habitat than non-hunting forest owners. The involvement of non-forest owning hunters was intermediate between the former two groups. The respondents’ participation in improving game habitat were mainly influenced by factors such as the quantity of game meat obtained, stakeholder group, forests on hunting grounds, the extent of risk posed by game browsing damage to the economy of forest owners, importance of bagging game during hunting, and number of hunting days. The findings will help in designing a more sustainable forest management strategy that integrates timber production and game hunting in forests.

  4. Influence of poverty on forest / forest management policies of Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... management of the forest as this would help to reduce the level of poverty. Also other sources of income and nutrition (example, fish and snail farming) apart from forest resources should be developed and encouraged. Keywords: rural poverty, forest management policies. Global Journal of Environmental Sciences Vol.

  5. California's forest resources: Forest Inventory and Analysis, 2001–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn A. Christensen; Karen L. Waddell; Sharon M. Stanton; Olaf Kuegler

    2016-01-01

    This report highlights key findings from the most recent (2001–2010) data collected by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program across all forest land in California, updating previously published findings from data collected from 2001 through 2005 (Christensen et al. 2008). We summarize and interpret basic resource information such as forest area, ownership, volume,...

  6. Ecological modeling for forest management in the Shawnee National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard G. Thurau; J.F. Fralish; S. Hupe; B. Fitch; A.D. Carver

    2008-01-01

    Land managers of the Shawnee National Forest in southern Illinois are challenged to meet the needs of a diverse populace of stakeholders. By classifying National Forest holdings into management units, U.S. Forest Service personnel can spatially allocate resources and services to meet local management objectives. Ecological Classification Systems predict ecological site...

  7. Does participatory forest management promote sustainable forest utilisation in Tanzania?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treue, Thorsten; Ngaga, Y.M.; Meilby, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, Participatory Forest Management (PFM) has become a dominant forest management strategy in Tanzania, covering more than 4.1 million hectares. Sustainable forest use and supply of wood products to local people are major aims of PFM. This paper assesses the sustainability of ...

  8. Perceptions about Forest Schools: Encouraging and Promoting Archimedes Forest Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Haq; Blackwell, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find out parents' and children's perception of outdoor learning programmes with specific reference to Archimedes Forest Schools, known as Forest Schools. A review of existing research showed that there had been no rigorous evaluation of perception of forest schools. The study was conducted in the UK and mixed method…

  9. Assessing urban forest effects and values: Morgantown's Urban Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Robert E. III Hoehn; Daniel E. Crane; Jack C. Stevens; Jonathan Cumming; Sandhya Mohen; Anne Buckelew. Cumming

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of the community forest in Morgantown, WV, was undertaken in 2004 to characterize the structural and functional attributes of this forest resource. The assessment revealed that this city has about 658,000 trees with canopies that cover 35.5 percent of the area. The most common tree species are sugar maple, black cherry, and hawthorn. The urban forest...

  10. Seasonal use of remnant forest fragments by understorey forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While there is information on the distribution of forest bird species in most of the Eastern Arc Mountain forests, some forests, particularly the smaller fragments, have not been adequately surveyed. Using mist ... Keywords: altitudinal gradient, altitudinal migration, bird distribution, conservation, fragmentation, mist-netting ...

  11. The purpose of forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westoby, J.

    1987-01-01

    The writings and speeches in this book have been selected to illustrate Jack Westoby's contributions to international forestry over the last two decades and more, and to show something of the evolution of his thinking. The problems he addresses are ones central to international forest policy and to the proper social responsibilities of foresters. This paper covers the following topics: Part I is a selection of papers which Westoby wrote during the 1960s on forest industries and their part in propelling economic development. The papers of Part II explore the responsibilities and dilemmas of the forestry profession in deciding which, among conflicting interests, to serve. Part III develops and enlarges Westoby's ideas of what forestry should be about-which he earlier defined as making trees serve people

  12. Fertilization in northern forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedwall, Per Ola; Gong, Peichen; Ingerslev, Morten

    2014-01-01

    resources into food, health and industrial products and energy. Fertilization in Sweden and Finland is currently practiced by extensive fertilization regimens where nitrogen fertilizers are applied once, or up to three times, during a rotation period, mainly in mature forest. This type of fertilization...... gives, in most cases, a small and transient effect on the environment as well as a high rate of return to the forest owner with low-economic risk. The increase in biomass production, however, is relatively small and consequently the impact on the processing industry and the bioeconomy is limited. More...... on the effects on the stand level, and especially on the landscape level, including late rotation management of the forest....

  13. Management of contaminated forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouve, A.; Tikhomirov, F.A.; Grebenkov, A.; Dubourg, M.; Belli, M.; Arkhipov, N.

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the main radioecological issues, the consequence of which are the distribution of doses for critical group of populations living in the vicinity of contaminated forest after the Chernobyl accident and the effects on the forestry economy. The main problems that have to be tackled are to avert doses for the population and forest workers, mitigate the economical burden of the lost forestry production and comply with the permissible levels of radionuclides in forest products. Various options are examined with respect to their application, and their cost effectiveness in terms of dose reduction when such attribute appears to be relevant. It is found that the cost effectiveness of the various options is extremely dependant of the case in which it is intended to be applied. Little actions are available for decreasing the doses, but most of them can lead to an economical benefit

  14. Interpreting Sustainability for Urban Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Ordóñez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Incisive interpretations of urban-forest sustainability are important in furthering our understanding of how to sustain the myriad values associated with urban forests. Our analysis of earlier interpretations reveals conceptual gaps. These interpretations are attached to restrictive definitions of a sustainable urban forest and limited to a rather mechanical view of maintaining the biophysical structure of trees. The probing of three conceptual domains (urban forest concepts, sustainable development, and sustainable forest management leads to a broader interpretation of urban-forest sustainability as the process of sustaining urban forest values through time and across space. We propose that values—and not services, benefits, functions or goods—is a superior concept to refer to what is to be sustained in and by an urban forest.

  15. Global Mangrove Forests Distribution, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Mangrove Forests Distribution, 2000 data set is a compilation of the extent of mangroves forests from the Global Land Survey and the Landsat archive with...

  16. Hydrological modelling in forested systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter provides a brief overview of forest hydrology modelling approaches for answering important global research and management questions. Many hundreds of hydrological models have been applied globally across multiple decades to represent and predict forest hydrological p...

  17. Impact of anthropogenic climate change on wildfire across western US forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abatzoglou, John T; Williams, A Park

    2016-10-18

    Increased forest fire activity across the western continental United States (US) in recent decades has likely been enabled by a number of factors, including the legacy of fire suppression and human settlement, natural climate variability, and human-caused climate change. We use modeled climate projections to estimate the contribution of anthropogenic climate change to observed increases in eight fuel aridity metrics and forest fire area across the western United States. Anthropogenic increases in temperature and vapor pressure deficit significantly enhanced fuel aridity across western US forests over the past several decades and, during 2000-2015, contributed to 75% more forested area experiencing high (>1 σ) fire-season fuel aridity and an average of nine additional days per year of high fire potential. Anthropogenic climate change accounted for ∼55% of observed increases in fuel aridity from 1979 to 2015 across western US forests, highlighting both anthropogenic climate change and natural climate variability as important contributors to increased wildfire potential in recent decades. We estimate that human-caused climate change contributed to an additional 4.2 million ha of forest fire area during 1984-2015, nearly doubling the forest fire area expected in its absence. Natural climate variability will continue to alternate between modulating and compounding anthropogenic increases in fuel aridity, but anthropogenic climate change has emerged as a driver of increased forest fire activity and should continue to do so while fuels are not limiting.

  18. The changing Amazon forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Oliver L; Lewis, Simon L; Baker, Timothy R; Chao, Kuo-Jung; Higuchi, Niro

    2008-05-27

    Long-term monitoring of distributed, multiple plots is the key to quantify macroecological patterns and changes. Here we examine the evidence for concerted changes in the structure, dynamics and composition of old-growth Amazonian forests in the late twentieth century. In the 1980s and 1990s, mature forests gained biomass and underwent accelerated growth and dynamics, all consistent with a widespread, long-acting stimulation of growth. Because growth on average exceeded mortality, intact Amazonian forests have been a carbon sink. In the late twentieth century, biomass of trees of more than 10cm diameter increased by 0.62+/-0.23tCha-1yr-1 averaged across the basin. This implies a carbon sink in Neotropical old-growth forest of at least 0.49+/-0.18PgCyr-1. If other biomass and necromass components are also increased proportionally, then the old-growth forest sink here has been 0.79+/-0.29PgCyr-1, even before allowing for any gains in soil carbon stocks. This is approximately equal to the carbon emissions to the atmosphere by Amazon deforestation. There is also evidence for recent changes in Amazon biodiversity. In the future, the growth response of remaining old-growth mature Amazon forests will saturate, and these ecosystems may switch from sink to source driven by higher respiration (temperature), higher mortality (as outputs equilibrate to the growth inputs and periodic drought) or compositional change (disturbances). Any switch from carbon sink to source would have profound implications for global climate, biodiversity and human welfare, while the documented acceleration of tree growth and mortality may already be affecting the interactions among millions of species.

  19. Proceedings 19th Central Hardwood Forest Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Groninger; Eric J. Holzmueller; Clayton K. Nielsen; Daniel C., eds. Dey

    2014-01-01

    Proceedings from the 2014 Central Hardwood Forest Conference in Carbondale, IL. The published proceedings include 27 papers and 47 abstracts pertaining to research conducted on biofuels and bioenergy, forest biometrics, forest ecology and physiology, forest economics, forest health including invasive species, forest soils and hydrology, geographic information systems,...

  20. Forest Economy Versus Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Małgorzata Falencka-Jabłońska

    2017-01-01

    In 2017 it is 30 years since The World Commission on Environment and Development has published the Brundtland report “Our common future”. Documents of III Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe and the notations of 1.2 resolution adopted in Lisbon has obliged Poland to run forest management according to rules of durable and sustainable development. Forest economy was based on multi-use forest model with special attention to its environment-creating and social role. ...

  1. Forest report 2017; Waldzustandsbericht 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-11-01

    This forest condition report of Hesse (Germany) includes the following topics: forest condition survey for all tree species, forest in the in the Rhine-Main area, weather and climate, insects and fungi, forestry environment monitoring, site information for the Federal Forest Inventory in Hesse, infiltrated substances, development of soil acidification on intensive monitoring areas in northwestern Germany, and the substrate group basalt/diabase.

  2. Forest Structure in Low-Diversity Tropical Forests: A Study of Hawaiian Wet and Dry Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostertag, Rebecca; Inman-Narahari, Faith; Cordell, Susan; Giardina, Christian P.; Sack, Lawren

    2014-01-01

    The potential influence of diversity on ecosystem structure and function remains a topic of significant debate, especially for tropical forests where diversity can range widely. We used Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS) methodology to establish forest dynamics plots in montane wet forest and lowland dry forest on Hawai‘i Island. We compared the species diversity, tree density, basal area, biomass, and size class distributions between the two forest types. We then examined these variables across tropical forests within the CTFS network. Consistent with other island forests, the Hawai‘i forests were characterized by low species richness and very high relative dominance. The two Hawai‘i forests were floristically distinct, yet similar in species richness (15 vs. 21 species) and stem density (3078 vs. 3486/ha). While these forests were selected for their low invasive species cover relative to surrounding forests, both forests averaged 5–>50% invasive species cover; ongoing removal will be necessary to reduce or prevent competitive impacts, especially from woody species. The montane wet forest had much larger trees, resulting in eightfold higher basal area and above-ground biomass. Across the CTFS network, the Hawaiian montane wet forest was similar to other tropical forests with respect to diameter distributions, density, and aboveground biomass, while the Hawai‘i lowland dry forest was similar in density to tropical forests with much higher diversity. These findings suggest that forest structural variables can be similar across tropical forests independently of species richness. The inclusion of low-diversity Pacific Island forests in the CTFS network provides an ∼80-fold range in species richness (15–1182 species), six-fold variation in mean annual rainfall (835–5272 mm yr−1) and 1.8-fold variation in mean annual temperature (16.0–28.4°C). Thus, the Hawaiian forest plots expand the global forest plot network to enable testing of

  3. Forest structure in low-diversity tropical forests: a study of Hawaiian wet and dry forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Ostertag

    Full Text Available The potential influence of diversity on ecosystem structure and function remains a topic of significant debate, especially for tropical forests where diversity can range widely. We used Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS methodology to establish forest dynamics plots in montane wet forest and lowland dry forest on Hawai'i Island. We compared the species diversity, tree density, basal area, biomass, and size class distributions between the two forest types. We then examined these variables across tropical forests within the CTFS network. Consistent with other island forests, the Hawai'i forests were characterized by low species richness and very high relative dominance. The two Hawai'i forests were floristically distinct, yet similar in species richness (15 vs. 21 species and stem density (3078 vs. 3486/ha. While these forests were selected for their low invasive species cover relative to surrounding forests, both forests averaged 5->50% invasive species cover; ongoing removal will be necessary to reduce or prevent competitive impacts, especially from woody species. The montane wet forest had much larger trees, resulting in eightfold higher basal area and above-ground biomass. Across the CTFS network, the Hawaiian montane wet forest was similar to other tropical forests with respect to diameter distributions, density, and aboveground biomass, while the Hawai'i lowland dry forest was similar in density to tropical forests with much higher diversity. These findings suggest that forest structural variables can be similar across tropical forests independently of species richness. The inclusion of low-diversity Pacific Island forests in the CTFS network provides an ∼80-fold range in species richness (15-1182 species, six-fold variation in mean annual rainfall (835-5272 mm yr(-1 and 1.8-fold variation in mean annual temperature (16.0-28.4°C. Thus, the Hawaiian forest plots expand the global forest plot network to enable testing of ecological

  4. What is forest landscape restoration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Lamb; John Stanturf; Palle Madsen

    2012-01-01

    The extent and distribution of global forests is a matter of considerable concern. The overall rate of deforestation remains high although recent reports suggest it is fi nally beginning to decline (FAO 2011 ) . But this hides regional differences. In temperate regions net forest cover is increasing because of afforestation and natural expansion of forests. By contrast...

  5. Forest operations for ecosystem management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert B. Rummer; John Baumgras; Joe McNeel

    1997-01-01

    The evolution of modern forest resource management is focusing on ecologically sensitive forest operations. This shift in management strategies is producing a new set of functional requirements for forest operations. Systems to implement ecosystem management prescriptions may need to be economically viable over a wider range of piece sizes, for example. Increasing...

  6. Forest development leading to disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton E. Carlson; Stephen F. Arno; Jimmie Chew; Catherine A. Stewart

    1995-01-01

    Natural disturbance in western U.S.A. forest ecosystems is related to forest succession, growth, and structural development. Natural disturbance may be biotic (insects and diseases) or abiotic (fire, wind, avalanche, etc.). Natural disturbances are more appropriately thought of as natural processes; disturbance is a social connotation implicating economic loss. Forest...

  7. Washington's public and private forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles L. Bolsinger; Neil McKay; Donald FL Gedney; Carol. Alerich

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes and analyzes 1988-91 timber inventories of western and eastern Washington. These inventories were conducted on all private and public lands except National Forests. Timber resource statistics from National Forest inventories also are presented. Detailed tables provide estimates of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest. Data...

  8. Forest Economy Versus Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Falencka-Jabłońska

    2017-11-01

    Actions which confirmed introduction of rules of sustainable development into forest practice was: creating 19 Promotional Forest Complexes, systematic increase of afforestation and number of reserves. A very important element was also designation Natura 2000 areas in Poland within European Network of Protected Sites. Amongst those areas, as much as 39% are forest ecosystems.

  9. Ecology of forest insect invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. Brockerhoff; A.M. Liebhold

    2017-01-01

    Forests in virtually all regions of the world are being affected by invasions of non-native insects. We conducted an in-depth review of the traits of successful invasive forest insects and the ecological processes involved in insect invasions across the universal invasion phases (transport and arrival, establishment, spread and impacts). Most forest insect invasions...

  10. Michigan's Fourth Forest Inventory: Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Jr. Spencer

    1983-01-01

    The fourth inventory of Michigan's forest resources found 17.5 million acres of commercial forest, down 7% from the 18.9 million found in 1966. This bulletin analyzes findings from the inventory and presents detailed tables of forest area.

  11. Wisconsin's forest resources in 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Vissage; Gery J. Brand; Manfred E. Mielke

    2003-01-01

    Results of the 2001 annual inventory of Wisconsin show about 15.8 million acres of forest land, more than 21.6 billion cubic feet of live volume on forest land, and nearly 584 million dry tons of all live aboveground tree biomass on timberland. Gypsy moth, forest tent caterpillar, twolined chestnut borer, bronze birch borer, ash yellows, and white pine blister rust...

  12. Forests of West Virginia, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard H. Widmann

    2014-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of the forest resources in West Virginia based upon inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. Information about the FIA program is available online at http://fia.fs.fed.us. Since 2004, FIA has implemented an annual inventory in West Virginia. For...

  13. Forests of South Dakota, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian F. Walters

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in South Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station (NRS) in cooperation with the South Dakota Department of Agriculture, Resource Conservation and Forestry Division. Estimates are based on field data...

  14. South Dakota's forest resources, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian F. Walters

    2013-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for South Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station. These estimates, along with Web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory reports for South...

  15. North Dakota's forest resources, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Haugen; R.A. Harsel

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for North Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this...

  16. Forests of South Dakota, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian F. Walters

    2015-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in South Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station (NRS) in cooperation with the South Dakota Department of Agriculture, Resource Conservation and Forestry Division. Estimates are based on field data...

  17. South Dakota's forest resources, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian F. Walters

    2012-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for South Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory reports for South...

  18. North Dakota's forest resources, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Haugen; R.A. Harsel

    2012-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for North Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this...

  19. South Dakota's forest resources, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for South Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory reports for South...

  20. Forests of South Dakota, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian F. Walters

    2014-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in South Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the South Dakota Department of Agriculture, Resource Conservation and Forestry Division. Estimates are based on field data collected...

  1. South Dakota's forest resources, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian F. Walters; Ronald J. Piva

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for South Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory reports for South...

  2. South Dakota's Forest Resources, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; Andrew J. Lister; Douglas Haugan

    2009-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for South Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory reports for South...

  3. North Dakota's forest resources, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Haugen

    2013-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for North Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with Web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this...

  4. South Dakota's forest resources, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for South Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory reports for South...

  5. North Dakota's forest resources, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Haugen; A.J. Lister

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for North Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this...

  6. North Dakota's forest resources, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Haugen

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for North Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this...

  7. Forest-fire behavior studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.R. Curry; W.L. Fons

    1940-01-01

    General principles of forest management were established over 200 years ago in Central Europe and the task of the American forester has been largely to adapt these principles to the management of the vast, rough, and inaccessible natural forests of this country. A series of essentially new problems has arisen, however. In the humid climate where forestry originated,...

  8. Biological invasions in forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew M. Liebhold; Eckehard G. Brockerhoff; Susan Kalisz; Martin A. Nuñez; David A. Wardle; Michael J. Wingfield

    2017-01-01

    Forests play critical roles in global ecosystem processes and provide numerous services to society. But forests are increasingly affected by a variety of human influences, especially those resulting from biological invasions. Species invading forests include woody and herbaceous plants, many animal species including mammals and invertebrates, as well as a variety of...

  9. Suppression and ritualistic behaviour in normal participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, E; Merckelbach, H; Muris, P; Stapert, S

    1999-06-01

    Previous research has shown that normal and abnormal ritualistic behaviours do not differ in content. Rather, the differences between both categories of rituals pertain to characteristics such as frequency, intensity, discomfort and resistance. This study sought to investigate whether thought suppression is linked to these characteristics. Cross-sectional; questionnaires on thought suppression and rituals were administered to a sample of undergraduate students (N = 166). Habitual suppressors (N = 20) and non-suppressors (N = 20), as measured by the White Bear Suppression Inventory, were selected and compared with regard to the characteristics of their rituals. Suppressors experienced their rituals as more intense, discomforting and resistance-provoking than did non-suppressors. There were no group differences in the content, frequency, and perceived senselessness of rituals. Although the cross-sectional nature of the present study precludes causal inferences, its findings are consistent with the view that chronic thought suppression may promote ritualistic behaviour. Clearly, the details of the link between thought suppression and rituals require further examination.

  10. Interocular suppression in children with deprivation amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Lisa; Chen, Zidong; Li, Jinrong; Black, Joanna; Dai, Shuan; Yuan, Junpeng; Yu, Minbin; Thompson, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    In patients with anisometropic or strabismic amblyopia, interocular suppression can be minimized by presenting high contrast stimulus elements to the amblyopic eye and lower contrast elements to the fellow eye. This suggests a structurally intact binocular visual system that is functionally suppressed. We investigated whether suppression can also be overcome by contrast balancing in children with deprivation amblyopia due to childhood cataracts. To quantify interocular contrast balance, contrast interference thresholds were measured using an established dichoptic global motion technique for 21 children with deprivation amblyopia, 14 with anisometropic or mixed strabismic/anisometropic amblyopia and 10 visually normal children (mean age mean=9.9years, range 5-16years). We found that interocular suppression could be overcome by contrast balancing in most children with deprivation amblyopia, at least intermittently, and all children with anisometropic or mixed anisometropic/strabismic amblyopia. However, children with deprivation amblyopia due to early unilateral or bilateral cataracts could tolerate only very low contrast levels to the stronger eye indicating strong suppression. Our results suggest that treatment options reliant on contrast balanced dichoptic presentation could be attempted in a subset of children with deprivation amblyopia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Tropical Forest Gain and Interactions amongst Agents of Forest Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Sloan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The tropical deforestation literature advocates multi-agent enquiry in recognition that key dynamics arise from inter-agent interactions. Studies of tropical forest-cover gain have lagged in this respect. This article explores the roles and key aspects of interactions shaping natural forest regeneration and active reforestation in Eastern Panama since 1990. It employs household surveys of agricultural landholders, interviews with community forest-restoration organisations, archival analysis of plantation reforestation interests, satellite image analysis of forest-cover change, and the consideration of State reforestation policies. Forest-cover gain reflected a convergence of interests and land-use trends amongst agents. Low social and economic costs of sustained interaction and organisation enabled extensive forest-cover gain, but low transaction costs did not. Corporate plantation reforestation rose to the fore of regional forest-cover gain via opportunistic land sales by ranchers and economic subsidies indicative of a State preference for autonomous, self-organising forest-cover gain. This reforestation follows a recent history of neoliberal frontier development in which State-backed loggers and ranchers similarly displaced agriculturalists. Community institutions, long neglected by the State, struggled to coordinate landholders and so effected far less forest-cover gain. National and international commitments to tropical forest restoration risk being similarly characterised as ineffective by a predominance of industrial plantation reforestation without greater State support for community forest management.

  12. Climatic impact of lowland deforestation on tropical montane cloud forests in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Udaysankar Sukumaran

    Tropical montane cloud forests depend on predictable, frequent, and prolonged immersion in clouds. Recent studies have shown that there has been a reduction in dry season moisture input from direct interception of cloud water and wind blown mist at the lee edge of the Monteverde cloud forest, Costa Rica, since the mid 1970s. This reduction of moisture could be responsible for the population crashes of anurans observed in the region. It has been hypothesized that this behavior is a result of increases in cloud base height, linked to increased sea surface temperatures. This study presents a complementary hypothesis, that deforestation upstream of the Monteverde cloud forest preserve is responsible for the observed changes in cloud base height. An automated cumulus cloud classification scheme is used to extract monthly spatial maps of the frequency of occurrence of cumulus cloudiness over Costa Rica from GOES-8 visible channel satellite imagery. It is found that cumulus cloud formations in the morning hours over deforested regions are suppressed compared to forested areas. The degree of suppression appears to be associated with the extent of deforestation. This difference in cloud formation between forested and deforested areas is a clear signal of land-use change influencing the regional climate. The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) simulations are used to explore the differences in cloud field characteristics over the lowland pasture and forest surfaces. Statistically significant differences in cloud base height and cloud thickness are found between the forest and pasture simulations, clouds having higher base heights and being thinner over pasture surfaces compared to forest surfaces. There are enhanced sensible heat fluxes over pasture surfaces compared to forest surfaces, while forest surfaces have higher latent heat fluxes. RAMS is also used to examine the impact of lowland deforestation on orographic cloud formation. Numerical modeling simulations of

  13. Forest Microclimate Characteristics Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Vegetation in Panama Panama soil moisture, canopy openness, seed germination , seed recruitment 70 Williams- Linera 1990b Vegetation Structure...earlier. The dominant species were Pseudotsuga menziesii, Abies grandis, Abies concolor, Pinus ponderosa, Pinus contorta, Picea engelmanii, and Larix...Forest in northern Wiscon- sin in a 50-yr-old pine stand. Common species included: Pinus resinosa, Pinus bansiana, Betula papyrifera, Acer rubrum

  14. Voices from southern forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Ken Cordell; John C. Bliss; Cassandra Y. Johnson; Mark Fly

    1998-01-01

    The faces and voices of the South have been changing dramatically over the last several decades, just like the rest of the Nation. Population growth, immigration, urbanization, expanding minority proportions, a thriving economy, rising environmental sentiments, and shifts in property ownership, among many other changes, have put forest and wildlife management in a much...

  15. Rain Forest Murals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    The rain forest murals in the author's school began as a request from her principal to have students decorate the cafeteria with their own paintings. She decided to brainstorm ideas with her eighth-grade students. Taking into consideration the architectural space and the environmental concerns they wanted to convey, students chose the rain forest…

  16. Plentiful forest, happy people?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin; Nathan, Iben

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on potential impact on social sustainability in timber exporting or processing states outside the EU, this article discusses the EU’s Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) scheme and its regulatory implementation modalities. Drawing on Vietnam as a case study and the priva...

  17. Timber and forest birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Roy Lockhart

    2009-01-01

    Many years ago, I had an epiphany that I would like to share. Several students and I were installing research plots in the forests on Pittman Island, Issaquena County, Mississippi, an island adjacent to the Mississippi River, near the borders of Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana. While eating lunch, we watched a bird, more specifically a prothonotary warbler (

  18. Rain Forests: Tropical Treasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Rain Forests: Tropical Treasures." Contents are organized into the…

  19. Tropical Montane Cloud Forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramirez Correal, Beatriz; Teuling, Adriaan J.; Ganzeveld, Laurens; Hegger, Zita; Leemans, Rik

    2017-01-01

    Mountain areas are characterized by a large heterogeneity in hydrological and meteorological conditions. This heterogeneity is currently poorly represented by gauging networks and by the coarse scale of global and regional climate and hydrological models. Tropical Montane Cloud Forests (TMCFs)

  20. Forests of Stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidow, Beth

    1992-01-01

    Presents a geological tour of Arizona's Petrified Forest National Park, cited as containing the greatest record of life in the Triassic Period. Discusses ancient ecosystems, fossil records, geologic formations, petroglyphs, the Anasazi settlements, Painted Desert, and other park features. Includes an illustration of the fossilization process,…

  1. Forest resources of Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor A. Rudis; James F. Rosson; John F. Kelly

    1984-01-01

    The 1982 survey of Alabama's timberland presented in this report covers many items related to the forest resources of the State. The appendix contains standard statistical tables definitions, and estimates of sampling errors upon which the survey is based. Trend data and other information are presented throughout the text. Listed below are a few of the more...

  2. Florida's forests-2005 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Brown

    2007-01-01

    This bulletin highlights principal findings of an annual inventory of Florida's forests. Data summaries are based on measurements of 60 percent of the plots in the State. Additional data summaries and bulletins will be published as the remaining plots are measured.

  3. Trees, forests and water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellison, David; Morris, Cindy E.; Locatelli, Bruno; Sheil, Douglas; Cohen, Jane; Murdiyarso, Daniel; Gutierrez, Victoria; Noordwijk, van Meine; Creed, Irena F.; Pokorny, Jan; Gaveau, David; Spracklen, Dominick V.; Tobella, Aida Bargués; Ilstedt, Ulrik; Teuling, Adriaan J.; Gebrehiwot, Solomon Gebreyohannis; Sands, David C.; Muys, Bart; Verbist, Bruno; Springgay, Elaine; Sugandi, Yulia; Sullivan, Caroline A.

    2017-01-01

    Forest-driven water and energy cycles are poorly integrated into regional, national, continental and global decision-making on climate change adaptation, mitigation, land use and water management. This constrains humanity's ability to protect our planet's climate and life-sustaining functions. The

  4. Harmonizing national forest inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts; Erkki O. Tomppo; Klemens Schadauer; Göran. Ståhl

    2012-01-01

    International agreements increasingly require that countries report estimates of national forest resources. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change requires that countries submit annual reports of greenhouse gas emissions and removals by sources and sinks. The Convention on Biological Diversity requires that countries identify and monitor components...

  5. Rain Forest Dance Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Dawn

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the author's experience as a dancer and choreographer artist-in-residence with third graders at a public elementary school, providing a cultural arts experience to tie in with a theme study of the rain forest. Details the residency and the insights she gained working with students, teachers, and theme. (SR)

  6. Herbicides for Forest Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. H. Hadley; C. B. Briscoe

    1966-01-01

    MSMA, sodium cacodylate, diquat, aminotriazole, paraquat + surfactant, 2,4-0 amine, ametryne, and picram were tested for use as herbicides in forest plantations. MSMA gave best weed control per dollar of her bicide. Picram also gave good control on dry sites, although more expensive than MSMA, but damaged planted trees. When herbicides were applied during or just...

  7. Forest-management modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Twery; Aaron R. Weiskittel

    2013-01-01

    Forests are complex and dynamic ecosystems comprising individual trees that can vary in both size and species. In comparison to other organisms, trees are relatively long lived (40-2000 years), quite plastic in terms of their morphology and ecological niche, and adapted to a wide variety of habitats, which can make predicting their behaviour exceedingly difficult....

  8. Forest processes [Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Ryan; James M. Vose; Paul J. Hanson; Louis R. Iverson; Chelcy F. Miniat; Charles H. Luce; Lawrence E. Band; Steven L. Klein; Don McKenzie; David N. Wear

    2014-01-01

    Some of the changes to U.S. forests will be directly caused by the effects of an altered climate, such as increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) temperature (T), and nitrogen (N) deposition on tree growth, mortality, and regeneration. Other changes will be indirectly caused by climate-induced changes in disturbances, such as droughts, fire, insect outbreaks,...

  9. Fire and forest meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    SA Ferguson; T.J. Brown; M. Flannigan

    2005-01-01

    The American Meteorological Society symposia series on Fire and Forest Meteorology provides biennial forums for atmospheric and fire scientists to introduce and discuss the latest and most relevant research on weather, climate and fire. This special issue highlights significant work that was presented at the Fifth Symposium in Orlando, Florida during 16-20 November...

  10. Modeling extreme ultraviolet suppression of electrostatic analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershman, Daniel J.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    In addition to analyzing energy-per-charge ratios of incident ions, electrostatic analyzers (ESAs) for spaceborne time-of-flight mass spectrometers must also protect detectors from extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons from the Sun. The required suppression rate often exceeds 1:10 7 and is generally established in tests upon instrument design and integration. This paper describes a novel technique to model the EUV suppression of ESAs using photon ray tracing integrated into SIMION, the most commonly used ion optics design software for such instruments. The paper compares simulation results with measurements taken from the ESA of the Mass instrument flying onboard the Wind spacecraft. This novel technique enables an active inclusion of EUV suppression requirements in the ESA design process. Furthermore, the simulation results also motivate design rules for such instruments.

  11. Quantum-mechanical suppression of bremsstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker-Szendy, R.; Keller, L.; Niemi, G.; Perl, M.; Rochester, L. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Anthony, P. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Bosted, P. [American Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Kelley, L.; Klein, S. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-01

    The authors have studied quantum-mechanical suppression of bremsstrahlung of low-energy 1-500 MeV photons from high-energy 25 GeV electrons. They have measured the LPM effect, where multiple scattering of the radiating electron destroys coherence required for the emission of low-energy photons, and the dielectric effect, where the emitted photon traveling in the radiator medium interferes with itself. For the experiment, the collaboration developed a novel method of extracting a parasitic low-intensity high-energy electron beam into the fixed target area during normal SLC operation of the accelerator. The results agree quantitatively with Migdal`s calculation of the LPM effect. Surface effects, for which there is no satisfactory theoretical prediction, are visible at low photon energies. For very thin targets, the suppression disappears, as expected. Preliminary results on dielectric suppression of bremsstrahlung are in qualitative agreement with the expectation.

  12. Effects of thought suppression on episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, E; Merckelbach, H; Muris, P

    1997-11-01

    Subjects were shown a short film fragment. Following this, one group of subjects (n = 26) was instructed to suppress their thoughts about the film, while the other group (n = 24) received no instructions. After 5 hrs subjects returned to the laboratory and completed a questionnaire testing their memory about the film. Results showed that suppression subjects reported a higher frequency of thoughts about the film than control subjects. No evidence was obtained for Wegner, Quillian, and Houston's (1996; Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 680-691) claim that suppression has an undermining effect on memory for chronology. Possible causes for the differences between the results as obtained by Wegner et al., and those found in the present study are discussed. These causes may pertain to the experimental design, but also to differences in emotional impact of the stimulus material that was used in both studies.

  13. Star formation suppression in compact group galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alatalo, K.; Appleton, P. N.; Lisenfeld, U.

    2015-01-01

    We present CO(1-0) maps of 12 warm H-2-selected Hickson Compact Groups (HCGs), covering 14 individually imaged warm H2 bright galaxies, with the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter Astronomy. We found a variety of molecular gas distributions within the HCGs, including regularly rotating disks......, bars, rings, tidal tails, and possibly nuclear outflows, though the molecular gas morphologies are more consistent with spirals and earlytype galaxies than mergers and interacting systems. Our CO-imaged HCG galaxies, when plotted on the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, shows star formation (SF) suppression......-to-dust ratios of these galaxies to determine if an incorrect LCO-M(H2) conversion caused the apparent suppression and find that HCGs have normal gas-to-dust ratios. It is likely that the cause of the apparent suppression in these objects is associated with shocks injecting turbulence into the molecular gas...

  14. Weed suppression ability of spring barley varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Svend

    1995-01-01

    Three years of experiments with spring barley showed significant differences in weed suppression ability among varieties. Weed dry matter in the most suppressive variety, Ida, was 48% lower than the mean weed dry matter of all varieties, whereas it was 31% higher in the least suppressive variety......, Grit. Ranking varietal responses to weed competition in terms of grain yield loss corresponded well to ranking weed dry matter produced in crop weed mixtures. There was no correspondence between the varietal grain yields in pure stands and their competitiveness, suggesting that breeding to optimize...... interception model was developed to describe the light interception profiles of the varieties. A study of the estimated parameters showed significant correlation between weed dry matter, rate of canopy height development and the light interception profile. However, when estimates were standardized to eliminate...

  15. Low temperature growth of ultra-high mass density carbon nanotube forests on conductive supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugime, Hisashi; Esconjauregui, Santiago; Yang, Junwei; D'Arsié, Lorenzo; Robertson, John; Oliver, Rachel A.; Bhardwaj, Sunil; Cepek, Cinzia

    2013-01-01

    We grow ultra-high mass density carbon nanotube forests at 450 °C on Ti-coated Cu supports using Co-Mo co-catalyst. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows Mo strongly interacts with Ti and Co, suppressing both aggregation and lifting off of Co particles and, thus, promoting the root growth mechanism. The forests average a height of 0.38 μm and a mass density of 1.6 g cm −3 . This mass density is the highest reported so far, even at higher temperatures or on insulators. The forests and Cu supports show ohmic conductivity (lowest resistance ∼22 kΩ), suggesting Co-Mo is useful for applications requiring forest growth on conductors

  16. The Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project: the effects of forest management on the forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Brookshire; Carl Hauser

    1993-01-01

    The effects of forest management on non-timber resources are of growing concern to forest managers and the public. While many previous studies have reported effects of stand-level treatments (less than 15 ha) on various stand-level attributes, few studies have attempted to document the influence of forest management on the biotic and abiotic characteristics of entire...

  17. Male reproductive suppression: not a social affair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizzari, Z Valentina; Jessen, Andrea; Koene, Joris M

    2017-10-01

    In the animal kingdom there are countless strategies via which males optimize their reproductive success when faced with male-male competition. These male strategies typically fall into two main categories: pre- and post-copulatory competition. Within these 2 categories, a set of behaviors, referred to as reproductive suppression, is known to cause inhibition of reproductive physiology and/or reproductive behavior in an otherwise fertile individual. What becomes evident when considering examples of reproductive suppression is that these strategies conventionally encompass reproductive interference strategies that occur between members of a hierarchical social group. However, mechanisms aimed at impairing a competitor's reproductive output are also present in non-social animals. Yet, current thinking emphasizes the importance of sociality as the primary driving force of reproductive suppression. Therefore, the question arises as to whether there is an actual difference between reproductive suppression strategies in social animals and equivalent pre-copulatory competition strategies in non-social animals. In this perspective paper we explore a broad taxonomic range of species whose individuals do not repeatedly interact with the same individuals in networks and yet, depress the fitness of rivals. Examples like alteration of male reproductive physiology, female mimicry, rival spermatophore destruction, and cementing the rival's genital region in non-social animals, highlight that male pre-copulatory reproductive suppression and male pre-copulatory competition overlap. Finally, we highlight that a distinction between male reproductive interference in animals with and without a social hierarchy might obscure important similarities and does not help to elucidate why different proximate mechanisms evolved. We therefore emphasize that male reproductive suppression need not be restricted to social animals.

  18. 77 FR 11569 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: USDA Forest Service, Coconino National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... Cultural Items: USDA Forest Service, Coconino National Forest, Flagstaff, AZ AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The USDA Forest Service, Coconino NF, in consultation with the...

  19. Jet suppression measurement with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00443411; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A hot medium with a high density of unscreened color charges is produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions. Jets are produced at the early stages of this collision and are known to become attenuated as they propagate through the hot matter. One manifestation of this energy loss is a lower yield of jets emerging from the medium than expected in the absence of medium effects. Another manifestation of the energy loss is the modification of the dijet balance and the modification of fragmentation functions. In these proceedings, the latest ATLAS results on single jet suppression, dijet suppression, and modification of the jet internal structure in \\PbPb~collisions are presented.

  20. Suppression mental questionnaire: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Settineri

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Authors postulate that the difference between suppression and repression, highlighted in particular by the Societè Psychanalitique de Paris, enables the development of a quantitative instrument, since suppression is a defense accessible to consciousness and therefore quantifiable like scales and questionnaires. The idea of constructing a questionnaire, included the identification of thirty variables having somehow a plausible relationship with this mechanism. The factor exploratory analysis were identified three factors, named respectly “repressive function”,  “regression to the ego service” and “rationalization”, the first of which is the closest to the theoretical construct postulated.

  1. Feedback suppression in digital hearing instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Guilin

    . Methods to extract the fixed model are proposed and proved to be effective in representing the invariant part of the feedback path. Based on the investigation of the dynamic changes of the feedback path in adverse situations, for example when the user picks up the telephone handset, a reflection model...... is developed as one type of the fast varying models. The techniques to suppress the feedback are then reviewed. To improve the existing feedback suppression systems, two approaches are proposed to address the so-called “bias problem”. The first approach improves the performance of the adaptive feedback...... of the proposed feedback path models in the feedback cancellation systems is presented....

  2. How to restore dry forest ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Nalvarte, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    AIDER is a Peruvian non-governmental organization working since 1992 on forest management activities, watershed management and urban forest management on tropical humid and dry forest at a national level. AIDER and the José Ignacio Távara Pasapera rural community have been working on dry forest management and recovery since 1992. This paper summarizes the activity of AIDER in the dry forests for the purpose of recovering degraded forest areas and conserve existing forests by developing sustai...

  3. T2 relaxation measurement with solvent suppression and implications to solvent suppression in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Markus M; Sobstyl, Hanna S; Badali, Vincent A

    2009-07-01

    A number of suppression pulse sequences including Excitation Sculpting and WATERGATE were incorporated into the standard Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) program for T(2) measurement and experimentally evaluated. The chosen suppression schemes were of varying complexity encompassing pulse program elements, such as presaturation, gradients, and selective pulses, which are typically utilized for solvent suppression. The quality of the spectral data and the accuracy of T(2) measurements of the investigated suppression schemes were evaluated using three aqueous samples with increasing proton content in the water solvent, i.e. by volume 100% D(2)O, 80/20% D(2)O/H(2)O, and 20/80% D(2)O/H(2)O. For signals removed from the water signal, the T(2) values were generally very consistent between all pulse sequences tested. T(2) measurements can be unreliable for signals too close to the water signal such that they are significantly suppressed as well. Their intensity may actually grow initially through cross relaxation that transfers magnetization back to the solute signal. In turn, this relaxation phenomenon can be exploited to improve the spectral quality of conventional solvent suppression schemes. In favorable cases, even signals that are completely masked by the water signal can be recovered by adding a carefully chosen number of spin echoes with optimized evolution time to conventional water suppression pulse programs, such as Excitation Sculpting or WATERGATE. 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Reappraising suppression: subjective and physiological correlates of experiential suppression in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu eLemaire

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotion regulation strategies based on suppressing behavioural expressions of emotion have been considered maladaptive. However this may not apply to suppressing the emotional experience (experiential suppression. The aim of this study was to define the effect of experiential suppression on subjective and physiological emotional responses. Methods: Healthy adults (N=101 were characterized in terms of the temperament, personality, and hedonic capacity using the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, the Fawcett-Clark Pleasure Scale and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Participants were shown positive, negative and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System under two conditions, passive viewing and experiential suppression. During both conditions, subjective ratings of the intensity and duration of emotional responses and physiological measures of skin conductance (SC and cardiac inter-beat interval (IBI to each picture were recorded.Results: Negative pictures elicited the most intense physiological and emotional responses regardless of experimental condition. Ratings of emotional intensity were not affected by condition. In contrast, experiential suppression, compared to passive viewing, was associated with decreased duration of the emotional response, reduced maximum SC amplitude and longer IBIs independent of age, picture valence, personality traits, hedonic capacity and anxiety. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that experiential suppression may represent an adaptive emotion regulation mechanism associated with reduced arousal and cardiovascular activation.

  5. Reappraising suppression: subjective and physiological correlates of experiential suppression in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Mathieu; El-Hage, Wissam; Frangou, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    Emotion regulation strategies based on suppressing behavioral expressions of emotion have been considered maladaptive. However, this may not apply to suppressing the emotional experience (experiential suppression). The aim of this study was to define the effect of experiential suppression on subjective and physiological emotional responses. Healthy adults (N = 101) were characterized in terms of the temperament, personality, and hedonic capacity using the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, the Fawcett-Clark Pleasure Scale, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Participants were shown positive, negative, and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System under two conditions, passive viewing, and experiential suppression. During both conditions, subjective ratings of the intensity and duration of emotional responses and physiological measures of skin conductance (SC) and cardiac inter-beat interval (IBI) to each picture were recorded. Negative pictures elicited the most intense physiological and emotional responses regardless of experimental condition. Ratings of emotional intensity were not affected by condition. In contrast, experiential suppression, compared to passive viewing, was associated with decreased duration of the emotional response, reduced maximum SC amplitude and longer IBIs independent of age, picture valence, personality traits, hedonic capacity, and anxiety. These findings demonstrate that experiential suppression may represent an adaptive emotion regulation mechanism associated with reduced arousal and cardiovascular activation.

  6. Efflux inhibitor suppresses Streptococcus mutans virulence properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huihui; Liu, Jia; Ling, Junqi

    2017-04-01

    It is well established that efflux pumps play important roles in bacterial pathogenicity and efflux inhibitors (EIs) have been proved to be effective in suppressing bacterial virulence properties. However, little is known regarding the EI of Streptococcus mutans, a well-known caries-inducing bacterium. In this study, we identified the EI of S. mutans through ethidium bromide efflux assay and investigated how EI affected S. mutans virulence regarding the cariogenicity and stress response. Results indicated that reserpine, the identified EI, suppressed acid tolerance, mutacin production and transformation efficiency of S. mutans, and modified biofilm architecture and extracellular polysaccharide distribution. Suppressed glycosyltransferase activity was also noted after reserpine exposure. The data from quantitative real-time-PCR demonstrated that reserpine significantly altered the expression profile of quorum-sensing and virulence-associated genes. These findings suggest that reserpine represents a promising adjunct anticariogenic agent in that it suppresses virulence properties of S. mutans. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Evaluation of nematode suppression and yield improvement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2017-11-30

    Nov 30, 2017 ... Objective: To investigate nematode suppression and yield improvement potential of two organic materials; poultry manure ... region of Ghana. The organic materials were applied on two sweet potato varieties; Apomuden and Santom ..... but a trend similar to what happened in 2014 occurred at. Atebubu.

  8. Genetic sequences derived from suppression subtractive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaf scald disease (LSD) is caused by the Gram-negative bacterium, Xanthomonas albilineans. Genomic DNA from X. albilineans and Xanthomonas hyacinthi were analyzed by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) using X. albilineans as the tester from which unique sequences were sought and X. hyacinthi as the ...

  9. Suppressive competition: how sounds may cheat sight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Christoph; Remedios, Ryan

    2012-02-23

    In this issue of Neuron, Iurilli et al. (2012) demonstrate that auditory cortex activation directly engages local GABAergic circuits in V1 to induce sound-driven hyperpolarizations in layer 2/3 and layer 6 pyramidal neurons. Thereby, sounds can directly suppress V1 activity and visual driven behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Suppression of Quantum Corrections by Classical Backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Brouzakis, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    We use heat-kernel techniques in order to compute the one-loop effective action in the cubic Galileon theory for a background that realizes the Vainshtein mechanism. We find that the UV divergences are suppressed relative to the predictions of standard perturbation theory at length scales below the Vainshtein radius.

  11. Emotions shape memory suppression in trait anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa eMarzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The question that motivated this study was to investigate the relation between trait anxiety, emotions and memory control. To this aim, memory suppression was explored in high and low trait anxiety individuals with the Think/No-think paradigm. After learning associations between neutral words and emotional scenes (negative, positive and neutral, participants were shown a word and were requested either to think about the associated scene or to block it out from mind. Finally, in a test phase, participants were again shown each word and asked to recall the paired scene. The results show that memory control is influenced by high trait anxiety and emotions. Low trait anxiety individuals showed a memory suppression effect, whereas there was a lack of memory suppression in high trait anxious individuals, especially for emotionally negative scenes. Thus, we suggest that individuals with anxiety may have difficulty exerting cognitive control over memories with a negative valence. These findings provide evidence that memory suppression can be impaired by anxiety thus highlighting the crucial relation between cognitive control, emotions and individual differences in regulating emotions.

  12. Quarkonium suppression: Gluonic dissociation vs. colour screening

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mechanism comes into play for the initial conditions taken from the self screened parton cascade model in these studies. Keywords. Quark gluon plasma; J ψ; suppression; dissociation; colour screening. PACS No. 12.38.M. 1. Introduction. The last two decades have seen hectic activity towards identifying unique signatures ...

  13. Methanol Extract of Polyopes lancifolius Suppresses Tumor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The expression and activity of MMP-9 were significantly increased in response to TNF-α, but MEPL suppressed TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression and activity. MEPL also inhibited TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression at the transcriptional level by blocking the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Furthermore ...

  14. Genetic sequences derived from suppression subtractive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    Jun 17, 2008 ... Genomic DNA from X. albilineans and Xanthomonas hyacinthi were analyzed by suppression subtractive ... Clone X. albilineans 12 showed 92% homology to the acetate repressor proteins and clone. X. albilineans 18 .... stranded DNA will be enriched for tester-specific DNA, as DNA fragments that are not ...

  15. Contour detection by surround suppression of texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkov, Nicolai; Tavares, JMRS; Jorge, RMN

    2007-01-01

    Based on a keynote lecture at Complmage 2006, Coimbra, Oct. 20-21, 2006, an overview is given of our activities in modelling and using surround inhibition for contour detection. The effect of suppression of a line or edge stimulus by similar surrounding stimuli is known from visual perception

  16. Are Patents used to Suppress Useful Technology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    2006-01-01

    suppression of innovation in the historical record (Dunford 1987; Merges and Nelson 1990). This paper shows that there are many errors of interpretation, both in the historical papers and in Dunford and Merges and Nelson's writing. Most important are confusions about the nature of technological competition...

  17. Extensive Sampling of Forest Carbon using High Density Power Line Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, H. M.; Chen, Q.; Dye, D. G.; Hungate, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    Estimating carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions from forest management, natural processes, and disturbance is of growing interest for mitigating global warming. Ponderosa pine is common at mid-elevations throughout the western United States and is a dominant tree species in southwestern forests. Existing unmanaged "relict" sites and stand reconstructions of southwestern ponderosa pine forests from before European settlement (late 1800s) provide evidence of forests of larger trees of lower density and less vulnerability to severe fires than today's typical conditions of high densities of small trees that have resulted from a century of fire suppression. Forest treatments to improve forest health in the region include tree cutting focused on small-diameter trees (thinning), low-intensity prescribed burning, and monitoring rather than suppressing wildfires. Stimulated by several uncharacteristically-intense fires in the last decade, a collaborative process found strong stakeholder agreement to accelerate forest treatments to reduce fire risk and restore ecological conditions. Land use planning to ramp up management is underway and could benefit from quick and inexpensive techniques to inventory tree-level carbon because existing inventory data are not adequate to capture the range of forest structural conditions. Our approach overcomes these shortcomings by employing recent breakthroughs in estimating aboveground biomass from high resolution light detection and ranging (lidar) remote sensing. Lidar is an active remote sensing technique, analogous to radar, which measures the time required for a transmitted pulse of laser light to return to the sensor after reflection from a target. Lidar data can capture 3-dimensional forest structure with greater detail and broader spatial coverage than is feasible with conventional field measurements. We developed a novel methodology for extensive sampling and field validation of forest carbon, applicable to managed and

  18. Bark beetles responses to stand structure and prescribed fire at Black Mountain Experimental Forest, California, USA: 5-year data

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.J. Fettig; S.R. McKelvey

    2010-01-01

    Highly effective fire suppression and selective harvesting of large-diameter, fire-tolerant tree species, such as ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa C. Lawson) and Jeffrey pine (P. jeffreyi Balf.), have resulted in substantial changes to the structure and composition of interior ponderosa pine forests. Mechanical thinning and the...

  19. An optimization modeling approach to awarding large fire support wildfire helicopter contracts from the US Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanie A. Snyder; Keith D. Stockmann; Gaylord E. Morris

    2012-01-01

    The US Forest Service used contracted helicopter services as part of its wildfire suppression strategy. An optimization decision-modeling system was developed to assist in the contract selection process. Three contract award selection criteria were considered: cost per pound of delivered water, total contract cost, and quality ratings of the aircraft and vendors....

  20. Anticoagulant rodenticides on our public and community lands: spatial distribution of exposure and poisoning of a rare forest carnivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad W Gabriel; Leslie W. Woods; Robert Poppenga; Rick A. Sweitzer; Craig Thompson; Sean M. Matthews; J. Mark Higley; Stefan M. Keller; Kathryn Purcell; Reginald H. Barrett; Greta M. Wengert; Benjamin N. Sacks; Deanna L. Clifford

    2012-01-01

    Anticoagulant rodenticide (AR) poisoning has emerged as a significant concern for conservation and management of nontarget wildlife. The purpose for these toxicants is to suppress pest populations in agricultural or urban settings. The potential of direct and indirect exposures and illicit use of ARs on public and community forest lands have recently raised concern for...

  1. Roost tree selection by northern myotis (Myotis septentrionalis) maternity colonies following prescribed fire in a Central Appalachian Mountains hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua B. Johnson; John W. Edwards; W. Mark Ford; J. Edward Gates

    2009-01-01

    Following decades of fire suppression in eastern forests, prescribed fire as a tool to restore or enhance oak (Quercus spp.)-dominated communities is gaining widespread acceptance in the Appalachian Mountains and elsewhere. However, the interactions of fire with biotic components such as wildlife that might be impacted by prescribed fire are poorly...

  2. Forest commons and local enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatre, Ashwini; Agrawal, Arun

    2008-09-09

    This article examines the relationship between local enforcement and forests used as commons. It uses a unique multicountry dataset, created over the past 15 years by the International Forestry Resources and Institutions Research Program. Drawing on original enforcement and forest commons data from 9 countries, we find that higher levels of local enforcement have a strong and positive but complex relationship to the probability of forest regeneration. This relationship holds even when the influence of a number of other factors such as user group size, subsistence, and commercial importance of forests, size of forest, and collective action for forest improvement activities is taken into account. Although several of the above factors have a statistically significant relationship to changes in the condition of forest commons, differences in levels of local enforcement strongly moderate their link with forest commons outcomes. The research, using data from diverse political, social, and ecological contexts, shows both the importance of enforcement to forest commons and some of the limits of forest governance through commons arrangements.

  3. Short- and long-term effects of fire on carbon in US dry temperate forest systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurteau, Matthew D.; Brooks, Matthew L.

    2011-01-01

    Forests sequester carbon from the atmosphere, and in so doing can mitigate the effects of climate change. Fire is a natural disturbance process in many forest systems that releases carbon back to the atmosphere. In dry temperate forests, fires historically burned with greater frequency and lower severity than they do today. Frequent fires consumed fuels on the forest floor and maintained open stand structures. Fire suppression has resulted in increased understory fuel loads and tree density; a change in structure that has caused a shift from low- to high-severity fires. More severe fires, resulting in greater tree mortality, have caused a decrease in forest carbon stability. Fire management actions can mitigate the risk of high-severity fires, but these actions often require a trade-off between maximizing carbon stocks and carbon stability. We discuss the effects of fire on forest carbon stocks and recommend that managing forests on the basis of their specific ecologies should be the foremost goal, with carbon sequestration being an ancillary benefit. ?? 2011 by American Institute of Biological Sciences. All rights reserved.

  4. Post-Fire Restoration Plan for Sustainable Forest Management in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soung-Ryoul Ryu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This review was to determine a standard post-fire restoration strategy for use in South Korea according to the magnitude of the damage and the condition of the affected site. The government has strongly enforced reforestation in deforested areas as well as fire prevention and suppression since the 1960s. These efforts have successfully recovered dense even-aged forests over the last five decades. However, high fuel loading and the homogeneous structure have made forests vulnerable to large fires. In recent years, large forest fires have occurred in the eastern coastal region of Korea. Forest fires can significantly influence the economic and social activities of the residents of such affected forest regions. Burned areas may require urgent and long-term restoration strategies, depending on the condition of the affected site. Erosion control is the most important component of an urgent restoration and should be completed before a rainy season to prevent secondary damage such as landslides and sediment runoff in burned areas. Long-term restoration is necessary to renew forest functions such as timber production, water conservation, ecosystem conservation, and recreation for residents. Sound restoration for burned areas is critical for restoring healthy ecological functions of forests and providing economic incentives to local residents.

  5. Protecting climate with forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Robert B; Randerson, James T; Anderson, Ray G; Pataki, Diane E; Canadell, Josep G; Avissar, Roni; Baldocchi, Dennis D; Bonan, Gordon B; Caldeira, Ken; Field, Christopher B; Diffenbaugh, Noah S; Hungate, Bruce A; Jobbagy, Esteban G; Nosetto, Marcelo D; Kueppers, Lara M

    2008-01-01

    Policies for climate mitigation on land rarely acknowledge biophysical factors, such as reflectivity, evaporation, and surface roughness. Yet such factors can alter temperatures much more than carbon sequestration does, and often in a conflicting way. We outline a framework for examining biophysical factors in mitigation policies and provide some best-practice recommendations based on that framework. Tropical projects-avoided deforestation, forest restoration, and afforestation-provide the greatest climate value, because carbon storage and biophysics align to cool the Earth. In contrast, the climate benefits of carbon storage are often counteracted in boreal and other snow-covered regions, where darker trees trap more heat than snow does. Managers can increase the climate benefit of some forest projects by using more reflective and deciduous species and through urban forestry projects that reduce energy use. Ignoring biophysical interactions could result in millions of dollars being invested in some mitigation projects that provide little climate benefit or, worse, are counter-productive.

  6. Trees for future forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobo, Albin

    Climate change creates new challenges in forest management. The increase in temperature may in the long run be beneficial for the forests in the northern latitudes, but the high rate at which climate change is predicted to proceed will make adaptation difficult because trees are long living sessile...... of precipitation. Adaptive traits such as phenology which is sensitive to changes in temperature and drought resistance as a response to water scarcity are studied. Quantitative genetics is extensively used in field phenotyping to identify the availability of sufficient genetic variation within species. Other...... as a faster mechanism in aiding climate change adaptation in trees. Drought resistance varied among the different species belonging to a single genus showing the inherent capacity of native species to overcome water scarcity in severely drought prone regions of the world. More research into the important...

  7. Management of oak forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löf, Magnus; Brunet, Jörg; Filyushkina, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Identification of the ecosystem services provided by oak-dominated forests in southern Sweden is a prerequisite for ensuring their conservation and sustainable management. These forests seem well-suited for multiple-use forestry, but knowledge is limited regarding how to manage them for multiple...... uses. Management for the production of high-value timber species like oaks and management to conserve biodiversity, or for cultural services can be in conflict with each other. This study evaluates the capacity of three contrasting management regimes to provide societies with economic revenue from...... timber production, habitats for biodiversity and cultural services, and the study analyses associated trade-offs and synergies. The three regimes were: intensive oak timber production (A), combined management for both timber production and biodiversity (B) and biodiversity conservation without management...

  8. Managing impressions and forests

    OpenAIRE

    Ångman, Elin; Hallgren, Lars; Nordström, Eva-Maria

    2011-01-01

    Social interaction is an important—and often forgotten—aspect of conflicts in natural resource management (NRM). Building on the theoretical framework of symbolic interaction, this article explores how the concept of impression management during social interaction can help understand NRM conflicts. A qualitative study was carried out on a Swedish case involving a conflict over clear-cutting of a forest. To explain why the conflict escalated and destructivity increased, we investigated how the...

  9. The forest Gribskov, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overballe-Petersen, Mette V; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Buttenschøn, Rita M.

    2014-01-01

    valuable when working with forest management, conservation and restoration. Integrating the legacies of past disturbances-natural as well as anthropogenic-into conservation and management strategies is likely to favour natural values and ecosystem services. A case-study in Gribskov, Denmark, using...... palaeoecological data and historical source materials explores the lessons learned from the past and leads to the suggestion of a conceptual model of how information from the past can increase understanding of long-term ecological processes....

  10. Forest crimes as a threat to sustainable forest management

    OpenAIRE

    S. Özden; S. Ayan

    2016-01-01

    From ancient times to the present day, forest public relations has been an issue on the agenda. This relationship’s purpose was initially needed for shelter and nutrition; however today this process has changed with urbanization, overpopulation and understanding the new functions of forests. When land ownership became a tool of production, offenses occurred in order to convert forestlands to agricultural lands. So the vast majority of the world’s forests have been lost for this reason. Today,...

  11. Palaeoecological data as a tool to predict possible future vegetation changes in the boreal forest zone of European Russia: a case study from the Central Forest Biosphere Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novenko, E. Yu; Tsyganov, A. N.; Olchev, A. V.

    2018-01-01

    New multi-proxy records (pollen, testate amoebae, and charcoal) were applied to reconstruct the vegetation dynamics in the boreal forest area of the southern part of Valdai Hills (the Central Forest Biosphere Reserve) during the Holocene. The reconstructions of the mean annual temperature and precipitation, the climate moisture index (CMI), peatland surface moisture, and fire activity have shown that climate change has a significant impact on the boreal forests of European Russia. Temperature growth and decreased moistening during the warmest phases of the Holocene Thermal Maximum in 7.0-6.2 ka BP and 6.0-5.5 ka BP and in the relatively warm phase in 3.4-2.5 ka BP led to structural changes in plant communities, specifically an increase in the abundance of broadleaf tree species in forest stands and the suppression of Picea. The frequency of forest fires was higher in that period, and it resulted in the replacement of spruce forests by secondary stands with Betula and Pinus. Despite significant changes in the climatic parameters projected for the 21st century using even the optimistic RCP2.6 scenario, the time lag between climate changes and vegetation responses makes any catastrophic vegetation disturbances (due to natural reasons) in the area in the 21st century unlikely.

  12. Transboundary Collaborations to Enhance Wildfire Suppression in Protected Areas of the Black Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Zaimes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available For the most effective and efficient management of certain natural resources (e.g. protected areas and disasters (e.g. wildfires transboundary approaches are needed. In addition in the management of protected areas, the role of wildfire should be incorporated, something that was ignored in the past and led to catastrophic wildfires. The Black Sea is a region that wildfires in the protected areas are expected to increase. This has to do with the abandonment of rural areas and the higher temperatures, especially during summer, due to climate change. Interesting is also the fact that some countries of the region have extensive experience while other do not have neither the experience nor the necessary infrastructures to face large wildfires. A transboundary collaboration would be very beneficial to the countries with limited experiences and capacities to suppress wildfires. The objective of this study is to be proactive by developing innovative tools to help suppress wildfires and enhancing the knowledge on wildfires and protected areas. The innovative tools included 4 different research activities and products. Firstly, an online Digital Geodatabase for the six pilot areas was developed. Next forest fire fuels and maps were developed while a forest fire behavior model was run to create the overall fire risk maps for the pilot areas. To estimate water resources and watershed streamflows the hydrologic model SWAT was validated and calibrated for the pilot areas. The final activities included a multi-criteria decision analysis to select the optimal location of the water reservoirs and the use of spatial analyst to provide the optimal routes to reach reservoirs by the fire vehicles. To enhance the responsible agency personnel along with stakeholders knowledge of the region, a Neighborhood Network with regular quarterly meetings was established. Participants for all six project countries were present in the meetings. Overall, new tool that will enhance

  13. Method of determining forest production from remotely sensed forest parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, J.C.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1987-08-31

    A method of determining forest production entirely from remotely sensed data in which remotely sensed multispectral scanner (MSS) data on forest 5 composition is combined with remotely sensed radar imaging data on forest stand biophysical parameters to provide a measure of forest production. A high correlation has been found to exist between the remotely sensed radar imaging data and on site measurements of biophysical 10 parameters such as stand height, diameter at breast height, total tree height, mean area per tree, and timber stand volume.

  14. Forest crimes as a threat to sustainable forest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Özden

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available From ancient times to the present day, forest public relations has been an issue on the agenda. This relationship’s purpose was initially needed for shelter and nutrition; however today this process has changed with urbanization, overpopulation and understanding the new functions of forests. When land ownership became a tool of production, offenses occurred in order to convert forestlands to agricultural lands. So the vast majority of the world’s forests have been lost for this reason. Today, deforestation is occurring in tropical countries that are expecting to gain agricultural area. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between urbanization and the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of forest crimes, which are a major obstacle for sustainable forestry. Although forests cover about 27 % of Turkey’s territory, the forests are losing viability; the status of wood raw material per unit area and the total area of the country in the ratio of productive forests are becoming critical in Turkey. Turkey’s rugged terrain and factors such as human interventions, fires, deforestation for agriculture, illegal cuttings, or improper grazing reduce existing forests or cause deterioration of their structure. In the past, deforestation, as a result of human interventions in Turkey, was done by forest villagers who live in rural areas. The forest crimes depend on various socio-economic reasons and have many adverse effects on the sustainability of forest and forest existence. In developed countries, illegal interventions such as opening, grazing, cutting, occupation, use, settlement, or hunting crimes have been largely eliminated because of the absence of cadastral problems, the existence of more responsive people to protect the environment and forests and a rural population, which has a higher standard of living. In the last 20 years, there has been both a dramatic decrease in the population living in rural areas and a

  15. 78 FR 6806 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Forest Resource Committee Meeting will meet in... address the national priorities for non- industrial private forest land. The purpose of the meeting is...

  16. Gainesville's urban forest structure and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Francisco Escobedo; Jennifer A. Seitz; Wayne Zipperer

    2009-01-01

    The urban forest provides a community numerous benefits. The urban forest is composed of a mix of native and non-native species introduced by people managing this forest and by residents. Because they usually contain non-native species, many urban forests often have greater species diversity than forests in the surrounding natural...

  17. Geospatial technology applications in forest hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.S. Panda; E. Masson; S. Sen; H.W. Kim; Devendra Amatya

    2016-01-01

    Two separate disciplines, hydrology and forestry, together constitute forest hydrology. It is obvious that forestry and forest hydrology disciplines are spatial entities. Forestry is the science that seeks to understand the nature of forests throygh their life cycle and interactions with the surrounding environment. Forest hydrology includes forest soil water, streams...

  18. 76 FR 79151 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Forest Resource Committee Meeting will meet in Washington, DC on January 20, 2012... closed to the public. The Forest Resource Committee is authorized under the Food, Conservation, and...

  19. 78 FR 73819 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Cancellation. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service was required to cancel the October 17-18, 2013 meeting of the Forest Resource Coordinating Committee due to the Government partial shutdown...

  20. 78 FR 34035 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Forest Resource Coordinating Committee will meet via teleconference every month on... conference call will be posted to the Forest Resource Coordinating Committee Web site, http://www.fs.fed.us...

  1. Globalization and its implications for forest health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Liebhold; Michael. Wingfield

    2014-01-01

    Consideration of forest health is central to the sustainable management of forests. While many definitions of forest health have been proposed, the most widely adopted concept refers to the sustained functioning of desired forest ecosystem processes (Kolb et al., 1994). Legitimate complaints have been raised about the human-centric usage of the term "Forest Health...

  2. Northeastern Area Forest Legacy Program Yearbook 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Northeastern Area, State and Private Forestry

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the Forest Legacy Program (FLP) is to protect environmentally important forest areas that are threatened by conversion to nonforest uses. The Forest Legacy Program is a partnership between participating States and the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. These two entities work together to identify important forest lands and...

  3. Framing the issues affecting northern forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen R. Shifley; Francisco X. Aguilar; Nianfu Song; Susan I. Stewart; David J. Nowak; Dale D. Gormanson; W. Keith Moser; Sherri Wormstead; Eric J. Greenfield

    2012-01-01

    People in the North are concerned about forests, especially the forests near to them. Concerns reflect their diverse connections to forests and the many ways that rural and urban forests affect their quality of life. A recent analysis by Dietzman et al. (2011) summarized more than 700 comments about issues facing northern forests. The comments came from 74 print and...

  4. The conservation of diversity in forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Thomas Ledig

    1988-01-01

    Deforestation, pollution, and climatic change threaten forest diversity all over the world. And because forests are the habitats for diverse organisms, the threat is extended to all the flora and fauna associated with forests, not only forest trees. In a worst case scenario, if the tropical forest in Latin America was reduced to the areas now set aside in parks and...

  5. Benchmark enclosure fire suppression experiments - phase 1 test report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, Victor G.; Nichols, Robert Thomas; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2007-06-01

    A series of fire benchmark water suppression tests were performed that may provide guidance for dispersal systems for the protection of high value assets. The test results provide boundary and temporal data necessary for water spray suppression model development and validation. A review of fire suppression in presented for both gaseous suppression and water mist fire suppression. The experimental setup and procedure for gathering water suppression performance data are shown. Characteristics of the nozzles used in the testing are presented. Results of the experiments are discussed.

  6. Variability in the Geographic Distribution of Fires in Interior Alaska Considering Cause, Human Proximity, and Level of Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calef, M. P.; Varvak, A.; McGuire, A. D.; Chapin, T.

    2015-12-01

    The boreal forest of Interior Alaska is characterized by frequent extensive wildfires that have been mapped for the past 70 years. Simple predictions based on this record indicate that area burned will increase as a response to climate warming in Alaska. However, two additional factors have affected the area burned in this time record: the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) switched from cool and moist to warm and dry in the late 1970s and the Alaska Fire Service instituted a fire suppression policy in the late 1980s. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and statistics, this presentation evaluates the variability in area burned and fire ignitions in Interior Alaska in space and time with particular emphasis on the human influence via ignition and suppression. Our analysis shows that while area burned has been increasing by 2.4% per year, the number of lightning ignitions has decreased by 1.9 ignitions per year. Human ignitions account for 50% of all fire ignitions in Interior Alaska and are clearly influenced by human proximity: human fires mostly occur close to settlements, highways and in intense fire suppression zones (which are in turn close to human settlements and roads); fires close to settlements, highways and in intense fire suppression zones burn much shorter than fires further away from this sphere of human influence; and 60% of all human fire ignitions in Interior Alaska are concentrated in the Fairbanks area and thereby strongly influence regional analyses. Fire suppression has effectively reduced area burned since it was implemented but the PDO change has also had some influence. Finally, we found that human fires start earlier in the year and burn for a shorter duration than lightning fires. This study provides insights into the importance of human behavior as well as regional climate patterns as large-scale controls on fires over time and across the Alaskan boreal forest.

  7. Coulomb suppression of the stellar enhancement factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, G.G.; Gyuerky, Gy.; Simon, A.; Fueloep, Zs.; Somorjai, E.

    2008-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Modern p process studies require large reaction networks, often including hundreds and thousands of nuclei and their respective reactions with light particles. Astrophysical reaction rates employed in reaction network calculations are determined either directly from cross sections or from the rate for the inverse reaction by applying detailed balance. The cross sections are known from experiment or predicted by theory. However, even when a reaction is experimentally accessible, often astrophysical rates cannot be directly measured. Excited states are thermally populated in an astrophysical plasma whereas only reactions on the ground state of the target can be investigated in the laboratory. A measure of the influence of the excited target states is given by the stellar enhancement factor f = r stellar /r g.s. , defined by the ratio of the stellar rate to the ground state rate. The enhancement factor f rev for the reverse reaction B(b,a)A (defined by having negative reaction Q value) is usually larger than the enhancement f forw of the forward reaction A(a,b)B (being the one with positive Q value) because more excited states are energetically accessible in nucleus B than in nucleus A. Therefore, it was assumed so far that more astrophysically relevant transitions are neglected when experimentally studying a reaction with negative Q value. However, there are cases for which f rev forw due to Coulomb suppression of a part of the energetically allowed transitions. This effect will be most pronounced in reactions with a charged particle in one and a neutral particle in the other channel, e.g. (n,p), but it can also appear when the entrance channel and exit channel have Coulomb barriers of different height, e.g. (p,α). Transitions from excited states to the same state in a compound nucleus are proceeding at smaller relative energy and are stronger suppressed by the Coulomb barrier. Thus, a prerequisite is that /Q/ is low compared to

  8. Forest and water relationships: hydrologic implications of forestation campaigns in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Guoyi Zhou; Zhiqiang Zhang; Xiaohua Wei; Steven G. McNulty; James Vose

    2005-01-01

    Reforestation and afforestation (referred to forestation thereafter) campaigns in the past two decades have resulted in great increases in both forest land area and forest ecosystem productivity in China. Although the ecological benefits of forests are well accepted, the hydrologic consequences of man-made forests by forestation are unclear. Debate and confusion on the...

  9. CTFS-ForestGEO: a worldwide network monitoring forests in an era of global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristina J. Anderson-Teixeira; Stuart J. Davies; Amy C. Bennett; Erika B. Gonzalez-Akre; Helene C. Muller-Landau; S. Joseph Wright; Kamariah Abu Salim; Angélica M. Almeyda Zambrano; Alfonso Alonso; Jennifer L. Baltzer; Yves Basset; Norman A. Bourg; Eben N. Broadbent; Warren Y. Brockelman; Sarayudh Bunyavejchewin; David F. R. P. Burslem; Nathalie Butt; Min Cao; Dairon Cardenas; George B. Chuyong; Keith Clay; Susan Cordell; Handanakere S. Dattaraja; Xiaobao Deng; Matteo Detto; Xiaojun Du; Alvaro Duque; David L. Erikson; Corneille E.N. Ewango; Gunter A. Fischer; Christine Fletcher; Robin B. Foster; Christian P. Giardina; Gregory S. Gilbert; Nimal Gunatilleke; Savitri Gunatilleke; Zhanqing Hao; William W. Hargrove; Terese B. Hart; Billy C.H. Hau; Fangliang He; Forrest M. Hoffman; Robert W. Howe; Stephen P. Hubbell; Faith M. Inman-Narahari; Patrick A. Jansen; Mingxi Jiang; Daniel J. Johnson; Mamoru Kanzaki; Abdul Rahman Kassim; David Kenfack; Staline Kibet; Margaret F. Kinnaird; Lisa Korte; Kamil Kral; Jitendra Kumar; Andrew J. Larson; Yide Li; Xiankun Li; Shirong Liu; Shawn K.Y. Lum; James A. Lutz; Keping Ma; Damian M. Maddalena; Jean-Remy Makana; Yadvinder Malhi; Toby Marthews; Rafizah Mat Serudin; Sean M. McMahon; William J. McShea; Hervé R. Memiaghe; Xiangcheng Mi; Takashi Mizuno; Michael Morecroft; Jonathan A. Myers; Vojtech Novotny; Alexandre A. de Oliveira; Perry S. Ong; David A. Orwig; Rebecca Ostertag; Jan den Ouden; Geoffrey G. Parker; Richard P. Phillips; Lawren Sack; Moses N. Sainge; Weiguo Sang; Kriangsak Sri-ngernyuang; Raman Sukumar; I-Fang Sun; Witchaphart Sungpalee; Hebbalalu Sathyanarayana Suresh; Sylvester Tan; Sean C. Thomas; Duncan W. Thomas; Jill Thompson; Benjamin L. Turner; Maria Uriarte; Renato Valencia; Marta I. Vallejo; Alberto Vicentini; Tomáš Vrška; Xihua Wang; Xugao Wang; George Weiblen; Amy Wolf; Han Xu; Sandra Yap; Jess Zimmerman

    2014-01-01

    Global change is impacting forests worldwide, threatening biodiversity and ecosystem services including climate regulation. Understanding how forests respond is critical to forest conservation and climate protection. This review describes an international network of 59 long-term forest dynamics research sites (CTFS-ForestGEO) useful for characterizing forest responses...

  10. A model of forest floor carbon mass for United States forest types

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Smith; Linda S. Heath

    2002-01-01

    Includes a large set of published values of forest floor mass and develop large-scale estimates of carbon mass according to region and forest type. Estimates of average forest floor carbon mass per hectare of forest applied to a 1997 summary forest inventory, sum to 4.5 Gt carbon stored in forests of the 48 contiguous United States.

  11. The soil indicator of forest health in the Forest Inventory and Analysis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael C. Amacher; Charles H. Perry

    2010-01-01

    Montreal Process Criteria and Indicators (MPCI) were established to monitor forest conditions and trends to promote sustainable forest management. The Soil Indicator of forest health was developed and implemented within the USFS Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program to assess condition and trends in forest soil quality in U.S. forests regardless of ownership. The...

  12. Modelling mixed forest growth : a review of models for forest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porte, A.; Bartelink, H.H.

    2002-01-01

    Most forests today are multi-specific and heterogeneous forests (`mixed forests'). However, forest modelling has been focusing on mono-specific stands for a long time, only recently have models been developed for mixed forests. Previous reviews of mixed forest modelling were restricted to certain

  13. Western forests and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.K.; Binkley, D.; Boehm, M.

    1992-01-01

    The book addresses the relationships between air pollution in the western United States and trends in the growth and condition of Western coniferous forests. The major atmospheric pollutants to which forest in the region are exposed are sulfur and nitrogen compounds and ozone. The potential effects of atmospheric pollution on these forests include foliar injury, alteration of growth rates and patterns, soil acidification, shifts in species composition, and modification of the effects of natural stresses

  14. Forest commons and local enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Chhatre, Ashwini; Agrawal, Arun

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between local enforcement and forests used as commons. It uses a unique multicountry dataset, created over the past 15 years by the International Forestry Resources and Institutions Research Program. Drawing on original enforcement and forest commons data from 9 countries, we find that higher levels of local enforcement have a strong and positive but complex relationship to the probability of forest regeneration. This relationship holds even when the inf...

  15. Nebraska's forest resources in 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine P. O' Neill; Earl C. Leatherberry; William R. Lovett

    2004-01-01

    Results of the 2002 annual inventory of Nebraska show an estimated 1,346.5 thousand acres of forest land in the State. The estimated total volume of all live trees on forest land is 1.9 billion cubic feet. An estimated 1,297.4 thousand acres of forest land are classified as timberland. The estimate of growing-stock volume on timberland is 1.6 billion cubic feet. All...

  16. Future directions in forest hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.M. Williams; Devendra Amatya; L. Bren; C. deJong; J.E. Nettles

    2016-01-01

    Forest hydrology is a separate and unique branch of hydrology due to the special conditions caused by trees, and the understorey beneath them, comprising a forest. Understanding the forest, with trees that can grow over 100 m tall, may have crowns up to 20-30 m in diameter with roots 5-10 m deep and spread as widely as the crowns, and have lifespans from 50 to 5000...

  17. Illinois's Forest Resources in 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl C. Leatherberry; Gary J Brand; Dick C Little

    2004-01-01

    Results of the 2002 annual inventory of Illinois shows an estimated 4.3 million acres of forest land. The estimate of total volume of all live trees on forest land is 7.5 billion cubic feet. Nearly 4.1 million acres of forest land are classified as timberland. The estimate of growing-stock volume on timberland is 6.3 billion cubic feet. All live aboveground tree...

  18. Iowa's forest resources in 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl C. Leatherberry; Steve Pennington; Gary J. Brand

    2003-01-01

    Results of the 2001 annual inventory of Iowa show an estimated 2.6 million acres of forest land in the State. The estimate of total all live tree volume on forest land is 3.6 billion cubic feet. Nearly 2.5 million acres of forest land in Iowa are classified as timberland. The estimate of growing-stock volume on timberland is 2.7 billion cubic feet. All live aboveground...

  19. Iowa's forest resources in 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl C Leatherberry; Gary J. Brand

    2004-01-01

    Results of the 2002 annual inventory of Iowa show an estimated 2.7 million acres of forest land. The estimate of total all live tree volume on forest land is 3.9 billion cubic feet. Nearly 2.6 million acres of forest land in Iowa are classified as timberland. The estimate of growing-stock volume on timberland is 3.0 billion cubic feet. All live aboveground tree biomass...

  20. Pioneer Mothers' Memorial Forest revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.C. Schlesinger; D.T. Funk; P.L. Roth; C.C. Myers

    1991-01-01

    The area now known as Pioneer Mothers' Memorial Forest was acquired by Joseph Cox in 1816 from the public domain. In 1944, a portion of that property, including the area referred to as Cox Woods, was established as a National Forest Research Natural Area. This beech-maple forest, located in the Knobs area of southern Indiana, is considered to be one of the few...