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Sample records for suppresses lung expression

  1. expression by RNA interference suppresses human lung cancer cell

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR TONUKARI NYEROVWO

    2012-02-16

    Feb 16, 2012 ... surgery, radiotherapy and pharmacological approaches. Although, they are helpful to some degree none of them can offer a permanent cure. For patients with leading lung. *Corresponding author. E-mail: ... chemotherapy have not sufficiently brought about improved prognosis (Dovedi and Davies, 2009; ...

  2. Suppression subtractive hybridization identified differentially expressed genes in lung adenocarcinoma: ERGIC3 as a novel lung cancer-related gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Mingsong; Tu, Tao; Huang, Yunchao; Cao, Yi

    2013-01-01

    To understand the carcinogenesis caused by accumulated genetic and epigenetic alterations and seek novel biomarkers for various cancers, studying differentially expressed genes between cancerous and normal tissues is crucial. In the study, two cDNA libraries of lung cancer were constructed and screened for identification of differentially expressed genes. Two cDNA libraries of differentially expressed genes were constructed using lung adenocarcinoma tissue and adjacent nonmalignant lung tissue by suppression subtractive hybridization. The data of the cDNA libraries were then analyzed and compared using bioinformatics analysis. Levels of mRNA and protein were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-RT-PCR) and western blot respectively, as well as expression and localization of proteins were determined by immunostaining. Gene functions were investigated using proliferation and migration assays after gene silencing and gene over-expression. Two libraries of differentially expressed genes were obtained. The forward-subtracted library (FSL) and the reverse-subtracted library (RSL) contained 177 and 59 genes, respectively. Bioinformatic analysis demonstrated that these genes were involved in a wide range of cellular functions. The vast majority of these genes were newly identified to be abnormally expressed in lung cancer. In the first stage of the screening for 16 genes, we compared lung cancer tissues with their adjacent non-malignant tissues at the mRNA level, and found six genes (ERGIC3, DDR1, HSP90B1, SDC1, RPSA, and LPCAT1) from the FSL were significantly up-regulated while two genes (GPX3 and TIMP3) from the RSL were significantly down-regulated (P < 0.05). The ERGIC3 protein was also over-expressed in lung cancer tissues and cultured cells, and expression of ERGIC3 was correlated with the differentiated degree and histological type of lung cancer. The up-regulation of ERGIC3 could promote cellular migration and proliferation in vitro. The

  3. Gene expression of the concentration-sensitive sodium channel is suppressed in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Teruki; Yoshida, Shigeru; Hidaka, Yuji

    2017-04-01

    The concentration-sensitive sodium channel (Na C ) is expressed in alveolar type II epithelial cells and pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells in mouse lungs. We recently reported that Na C contributes to amiloride-insensitive sodium transport in mouse lungs (Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, 2016). However, details regarding its physiological role in the lung remain unknown. To examine whether Na C is involved in alveolar fluid clearance during an acute lung injury (ALI), we analyzed the relationship between Na C gene expression in the lung and the development of pulmonary edema in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI mice. LPS-induced ALI mice were prepared by the intratracheal administration of LPS. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) neutrophils and lung water content (LWCs) were used as a marker of ALI and pulmonary edema, respectively. Na C protein production in the lung was detected by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence. The gene expressions of Na C and the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) of LPS-induced ALI mice were examined by quantitative RT-PCR over a time course of 14 days. The BAL neutrophil count increased until day 2 after LPS administration and had nearly recovered by day 6. LWCs in LPS-induced mice gradually increased until day 8 and had recovered by day 14. The expression of the Na C protein in the lungs of LPS-induced mice dramatically decreased from day 2 to day 6, but recovered by day 8. The mRNA expression of Na C decreased in the lung, as well as those for α-, β-, and γ-ENaC during ALI. Thus, Na C expression is suppressed during the development stage of pulmonary edema and then recovers in the convalescent phase. Our results suggest that suppression of the gene expression of Na C is involved in the development of pulmonary edema in ALI.

  4. EFEMP1 Suppresses Growth and Invasion of Lung Cancer Cells 
by Downregulating Matrix Metalloproteinase-7 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan LANG

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective EFEMP1, a member of fibulin family proteins, is a very important extracellular matrix protein which is involved in cell metabolism and its role in tumor occurrence and progression is still poorly understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the functional effect and mechanism of EFEMP1 in lung cancer cell growth and invasion. Methods EFEMP1 expression in lung cancer cells was determined by Western blot. The promoter methylation status of EFEMP1 was detected by methylation-specific PCR (MSP. After transfection of control or EFEMP1 vector in lung cancer cells, the ability of colony formation and invasion was detected by colony formation experiment and matrigel invasion method. Western blot and real-time PCR were used to detect matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7 expression. Luciferase assay was used to detect expression of MMP-7 reporter construct transfected with or without EFEMP1 in lung cancer cells. Results Western blot result showed EFEMP1 expression was downregulated in lung cancer cells. The promoter region of EFEMP1 was methylated in A549 and H1299 and after treatment with 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine, the EFEMP1 expression was upregulated. The growth and invasion of A549 and H1299 were all significantly suppressed by transfecting with EFEMP1 and the MMP-7 expression was dowanregulated by EFEMP1 as well. Expression activity of MMP-7 reporter construct was decreased by cotransfecting with EFEMP1. Conclusion Collectively, these results suggest that EFEMP1 functions as a suppressor of lung cancer growth and invasion. Epigenetic silencing of EFEMP1 promotes lung cancer invasion and metastasis by activating MMP-7 expression.

  5. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine protects against emphysema in mice via suppressing p16Ink4a expression in lung tissue

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    He ZH

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Zhi-Hui He,1 Yan Chen,2 Ping Chen,2 Sheng-Dong He,2 Hui-Hui Zeng,2 Ji-Ru Ye,2 Da Liu,2 Jun Cao3 1Intensive Care Unit, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 3Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hunan Provincial People’s Hospital, Changsha, China Background: There is a growing realization that COPD, or at least emphysema, involves several processes presenting in aging and cellular senescence. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs contribute to neovascularization and play an important role in the development of COPD. The gene for p16Ink4a is a major dominant senescence one. The aim of the present study was to observe changes in lung function, histomorphology of lung tissue, and expression of p16Ink4a in lung tissue and bone marrow-derived EPCs in emphysematous mice induced by cigarette-smoke extract (CSE, and further to search for a potential candidate agent protecting against emphysema induced by CSE. Materials and methods: An animal emphysema model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of CSE. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR was administered to the emphysematous mice. Lung function and histomorphology of lung tissue were measured. The p16Ink4a protein and mRNA in EPCs and lung tissues were detected using Western blotting and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Results: CSE induced emphysema with increased p16Ink4a expression in lung tissue and bone marrow-derived EPCs. 5-Aza-CdR partly protected against emphysema, especially in the lung-morphology profile, and partly protest against the overexpression of p16Ink4a in EPCs and lung tissue induced by CSE. Conclusion: 5-Aza-CdR partly protected against emphysema in mice via suppressing p16Ink4a expression in EPCs and lung tissue. Keywords: 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine, cigarette smoke, emphysema, endothelial progenitor cells, p16Ink4a

  6. TGF-β Suppresses COX-2 Expression by Tristetraprolin-Mediated RNA Destabilization in A549 Human Lung Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Soyeong; Min, Ahrum; Im, Seock-Ah; Song, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Sang Gyun; Kim, Hyun-Ah; Kim, Hee-Jun; Oh, Do-Youn; Jong, Hyun-Soon; Kim, Tae-You; Bang, Yung-Jue

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Overexpression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) is thought to promote survival of transformed cells. Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) exerts anti-proliferative effects on a broad range of epithelial cells. In the current study, we investigated whether TGF-β can regulate COX-2 expression in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells, which are TGF-β-responsive and overexpress COX-2. Materials and Methods Western blotting, Northern blotting, and mRNA stability assays were performed to demonstrate that COX-2 protein and mRNA expression were suppressed by TGF-β. We also evaluated the effects of tristetraprolin (TTP) on COX-2 mRNA using RNA interference. Results We demonstrated that COX-2 mRNA and protein expression were both significantly suppressed by TGF-β. An actinomycin D chase experiment demonstrated that COX-2 mRNA was more rapidly degraded in the presence of TGF-β, suggesting that TGF-β–induced inhibition of COX-2 expression is achieved via decreased mRNA stability. We also found that TGF-β rapidly and transiently induced the expression of TTP, a well-known mRNA destabilizing factor, before suppression of COX-2 mRNA expression was observed. Using RNA interference, we confirmed that increased TTP levels play a pivotal role in the destabilization of COX-2 mRNA by TGF-β. Furthermore, we showed that Smad3 is essential to TTP-dependent down-regulation of COX-2 expression in response to TGF-β. Conclusion The results of this study show that TGF-β down-regulated COX-2 expression via mRNA destabilization mediated by Smad3/TTP in A549 cells. PMID:25544576

  7. E1A expression dysregulates IL-8 production and suppresses IL-6 production by lung epithelial cells

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    Snoek Mieke

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adenoviral protein E1A has been proposed to play a role in the pathophysiology of COPD, in particular by increasing IL-8 gene transcription of lung epithelial cells in response to cigarette smoke-constituents such as LPS. As IL-8 production is also under tight post-transcriptional control, we planned to study whether E1A affected IL-8 production post-transcriptionally. The production of IL-6 by E1A-positive cells had not been addressed and was studied in parallel. Based on our previous work into the regulation of IL-8 and IL-6 production in airway epithelial cells, we used the lung epithelial-like cell line NCI-H292 to generate stable transfectants expressing either E1A and/or E1B, which is known to frequently co-integrate with E1A. We analyzed IL-8 and IL-6 production and the underlying regulatory processes in response to LPS and TNF-α. Methods Stable transfectants were generated and characterized with immunohistochemistry, western blot and flow cytometry. IL-8 and IL-6 protein production was measured by ELISA. Levels of IL-8 and IL-6 mRNA were measured using specific radiolabeled probes. EMSA was used to assess transcriptional activation of relevant transcription factors. Post-transcriptional regulation of mRNA half-life was measured by Actinomycin D chase experiments. Results Most of the sixteen E1A-expressing transfectants showed suppression of IL-6 production, indicative of biologically active E1A. Significant but no uniform effects on IL-8 production, nor on transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of IL-8 production, were observed in the panel of E1A-expressing transfectants. E1B expression exerted similar effects as E1A on IL-8 production. Conclusion Our results indicate that integration of adenoviral DNA and expression of E1A and E1B can either increase or decrease IL-8 production. Furthermore, we conclude that expression of E1A suppresses IL-6 production. These findings question the unique role of E1

  8. Global gene expression profiling reveals a suppressed immune response pathway associated with 3q amplification in squamous carcinoma of the lung

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    Jun Qian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome 3q26–28 is a critical region of genomic amplification in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, particularly lung squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs. No molecular therapeutic target has shown clinical utility for SCC, in contrast with adenocarcinomas of the lung. To identify novel candidate drivers in this region, we performed both Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (array CGH, Agilent Human Genome CGH 244A oligo-microarrays and Gene Expression Microarray (Agilent Human Gene Expression 4 × 44 K microarray on 24 untreated lung SCC specimens. Using our previously published integrative genomics approach, we identified 12 top amplified driver genes within this region that are highly correlated and overexpressed in lung SCC. We further demonstrated one of the 12 top amplified driver Fragile X mental retardation-related protein 1 (FXR1 as a novel cancer gene in NSCLC and FXR1 executes its regulatory function by forming a novel complex with two other oncogenes, protein kinase C, iota ( PRKCI and epithelial cell transforming 2 (ECT2 within the same amplicon in lung cancer cell. Here we report that immune response pathways are significantly suppressed in lung SCC and negatively associated with 3q driver gene expression, implying a potential role of 3q drivers in cancer immune-surveillance. In light of the attractive immunotherapy strategy using blockade of negative regulators of T cell function for multiple human cancer including lung SCC, our findings may provide a rationale for targeting 3q drivers in combination of immunotherapies for human tumors harboring the 3q amplicon. The data have been deposited in NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus and are accessible through GEO Series accession number GSE40089.

  9. Osthole inhibits the invasive ability of human lung adenocarcinoma cells via suppression of NF-κB-mediated matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, Shang-Jyh [Department of Chest Medicine, Shin-Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Respiratory Therapy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei Taiwan (China); Su, Jen-Liang [Graduate Institute of Cancer Biology, College of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Center for Molecular Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chi-Kuan [Graduate Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yu, Ming-Chih; Bai, Kuan-Jen; Chang, Jer-Hua [Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Medical University-Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Bien, Mauo-Ying [School of Respiratory Therapy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei Taiwan (China); Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei Medical University-Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yang, Shun-Fa [Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chien, Ming-Hsien, E-mail: mhchien1976@gmail.com [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2012-05-15

    The induction of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 is particularly important for the invasiveness of various cancer cells. Osthole, a natural coumarin derivative extracted from traditional Chinese medicines, is known to inhibit the proliferation of a variety of tumor cells, but the effect of osthole on the invasiveness of tumor cells is largely unknown. This study determines whether and by what mechanism osthole inhibits invasion in CL1-5 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Herein, we found that osthole effectively inhibited the migratory and invasive abilities of CL1-5 cells. A zymographic assay showed that osthole inhibited the proteolytic activity of MMP-9 in CL1-5 cells. Inhibition of migration, invasion, and MMP2 and/or MMP-9 proteolytic activities was also observed in other lung adenocarcinoma cell lines (H1299 and A549). We further found that osthole inhibited MMP-9 expression at the messenger RNA and protein levels. Moreover, a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that osthole inhibited the transcriptional activity of MMP-9 by suppressing the DNA binding activity of nuclear factor (NF)-κB in the MMP-9 promoter. Using reporter assays with point-mutated promoter constructs further confirmed that the inhibitory effect of osthole requires an NF-κB binding site on the MMP-9 promoter. Western blot and immunofluorescence assays demonstrated that osthole inhibited NF-κB activity by inhibiting IκB-α degradation and NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation. In conclusion, we demonstrated that osthole inhibits NF-κB-mediated MMP-9 expression, resulting in suppression of lung cancer cell invasion and migration, and osthole might be a potential agent for preventing the invasion and metastasis of lung cancer. -- Highlights: ► Osthole treatment inhibits lung adenocarcinoma cells migration and invasion. ► Osthole reduces the expression and proteolytic activity of MMP-9. ► Osthole inhibits MMP-9 transcription via suppression of NF-κB binding activity. ► Osthole

  10. HuR-targeted nanotherapy in combination with AMD3100 suppresses CXCR4 expression, cell growth, migration and invasion in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, R; Panneerselvam, J; Chen, A; Zhao, Y D; Munshi, A; Ramesh, R

    2015-12-01

    The CXCR4 chemokine receptor has an important role in cancer cell metastasis. The CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100, has limited efficacy in controlling metastasis. HuR, an RNA-binding protein, regulates CXCR4 in cancer cells. We therefore investigated whether targeting HuR using a siRNA-based nanoparticle plus AMD3100 would suppress CXCR4 and inhibit lung cancer metastasis. We treated human H1299 lung cancer cells with HuR-specific siRNA contained in a folate-targeted lipid nanoparticle (HuR-FNP) plus AMD3100, and compared this with AMD3100 alone, HuR-FNP alone and no treatment. HuR-FNP plus AMD3100 treatment produced a G1 phase cell cycle arrest and reduced cell viability above and beyond the effects of AMD3100 alone. HuR and CXCR4 mRNA and protein expression levels were markedly reduced in all treatment groups. Phosphorylated (p) AKT(S473) protein was also reduced. P27 protein expression increased with HuR-FNP and combination treatment. Promoter-based reporter studies showed that the combination inhibited CXCR4 promoter activity more than did either treatment alone. Cell migration and invasion was significantly reduced with all treatments; the combination provided the most inhibition. Reduced matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-2 and -9 expression was associated with reduced invasion in all treatment groups. Thus, we found that combined HuR and CXCR4 targeting effectively controlled lung cancer metastasis.

  11. PDGF-Rα gene expression predicts proliferation, but PDGF-A suppresses transdifferentiation of neonatal mouse lung myofibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grossmann Ruth E

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Platelet-derived growth factor A (PDGF-A signals solely through PDGF-Rα, and is required for fibroblast proliferation and transdifferentiation (fibroblast to myofibroblast conversion during alveolar development, because pdgfa-null mice lack both myofibroblasts and alveoli. However, these PDGF-A-mediated mechanisms remain incompletely defined. At postnatal days 4 and 12 (P4 and P12, using mouse lung fibroblasts, we examined (a how PDGF-Rα correlates with ki67 (proliferation marker or alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA, myofibroblast marker expression, and (b whether PDGF-A directly affects αSMA or modifies stimulation by transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ. Methods Using flow cytometry we examined PDGF-Rα, αSMA and Ki67 in mice which express green fluorescent protein (GFP as a marker for PDGF-Rα expression. Using real-time RT-PCR we quantified αSMA mRNA in cultured Mlg neonatal mouse lung fibroblasts after treatment with PDGF-A, and/or TGFβ. Results The intensity of GFP-fluorescence enabled us to distinguish three groups of fibroblasts which exhibited absent, lower, or higher levels of PDGF-Rα. At P4, more of the higher than lower PDGF-Rα + fibroblasts contained Ki67 (Ki67+, and Ki67+ fibroblasts predominated in the αSMA + but not the αSMA- population. By P12, Ki67+ fibroblasts comprised a minority in both the PDGF-Rα + and αSMA+ populations. At P4, most Ki67+ fibroblasts were PDGF-Rα + and αSMA- whereas at P12, most Ki67+ fibroblasts were PDGF-Rα- and αSMA-. More of the PDGF-Rα + than - fibroblasts contained αSMA at both P4 and P12. In the lung, proximate αSMA was more abundant around nuclei in cells expressing high than low levels of PDGF-Rα at both P4 and P12. Nuclear SMAD 2/3 declined from P4 to P12 in PDGF-Rα-, but not in PDGF-Rα + cells. In Mlg fibroblasts, αSMA mRNA increased after exposure to TGFβ, but declined after treatment with PDGF-A. Conclusion During both septal eruption (P4 and

  12. Uncovering growth-suppressive MicroRNAs in lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xi; Sempere, Lorenzo F; Galimberti, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: MicroRNA (miRNA) expression profiles improve classification, diagnosis, and prognostic information of malignancies, including lung cancer. This study uncovered unique growth-suppressive miRNAs in lung cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: miRNA arrays were done on normal lung tissues...... and adenocarcinomas from wild-type and proteasome degradation-resistant cyclin E transgenic mice to reveal repressed miRNAs in lung cancer. Real-time and semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR as well as in situ hybridization assays validated these findings. Lung cancer cell lines were derived from each......-malignant human lung tissue bank. RESULTS: miR-34c, miR-145, and miR-142-5p were repressed in transgenic lung cancers. Findings were confirmed by real-time and semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR as well as in situ hybridization assays. Similar miRNA profiles occurred in human normal versus malignant lung...

  13. Ectopic expression of miR-34a enhances radiosensitivity of non-small cell lung cancer cells, partly by suppressing the LyGDI signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Weiming; Xu Yaxiang; Dong Yujin; Cao Lili; Tong Jian; Zhou Xinwen

    2013-01-01

    miR-34a is transcriptionally induced by the tumor suppressor gene p53, which is often downregulated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To address whether the downstream signal of miR-34a is sufficient to induce apoptosis and to alter cellular radiosensitivity, a chemical synthetic miR-34a mimic was delivered into A549 and H1299 cells, with or without co-treatment of γ-irradiation. Results showed that ectopic expression of miR-34a induced dose-dependent cell growth inhibition and apoptosis in a p53-independent manner in both NSCLC cell lines. Interestingly, LyGDI was discovered as a new target gene of miR-34a, and downregulation of LyGDI promoted Rac1 activation and membrane translocation, resulting in cell apoptosis. Furthermore, restoration of miR-34a indirectly reduced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate that restoration of miR-34a expression enhances radiation-induced apoptosis, partly by suppressing the LyGDI signaling pathway, and miR-34a could possibly be used as a radiosensitizer for non-small cell lung cancer therapy. (author)

  14. Growth suppression by transforming growth factor beta 1 of human small-cell lung cancer cell lines is associated with expression of the type II receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, P; Damstrup, L; Rygaard, K

    1994-01-01

    the growth-suppressive effect of TGF-beta 1, the expression of functional pRb, as characterised by nuclear localisation, was examined by immunocytochemistry. Nuclear association of pRb was only seen in two of the five TGF-beta 1-responsive cell lines. These results indicate that in SCLC pRb is not required...

  15. Curcumin decreases the expression of Pokemon by suppressing the binding activity of the Sp1 protein in human lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jiajun; Meng, Xianfeng; Gao, Xudong; Tan, Guangxuan

    2010-03-01

    Pokemon, which stands for POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor, can regulate expression of many genes and plays an important role in tumorigenesis. Curcumin, a natural and non-toxic yellow compound, has capacity for antioxidant, free radical scavenger, anti-inflammatory properties. Recent studies shows it is a potential inhibitor of cell proliferation in a variety of tumour cells. To investigate whether curcumin can regulate the expression of Pokemon, a series of experiments were carried out. Transient transfection experiments demonstrated that curcumin could decrease the activity of the Pokemon promoter. Western blot analysis suggested that curcumin could significantly decrease the expression of the Pokemon. Overexpression of Sp1 could enhance the activity of the Pokemon promoter, whereas knockdown of Sp1 could decrease its activity. More important, we also found that curcumin could decrease the expression of the Pokemon by suppressing the stimulation of the Sp1 protein. Therefore, curcumin is a potential reagent for tumour therapy which may target Pokemon.

  16. Development of Antisense Therapeutic and Imaging Agents to Detect and Suppress Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) Expression in Acute Lung Injury (ALI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuefei

    This dissertation focuses on the development and investigation of antisense imaging and therapeutic agents, combined with nanotechnology, to detect and suppress inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression for the diagnosis and treatment of acute lung injury (ALI). To achieve this goal, several efforts were made. The first effort was the identification and characterization of high binding affinity antisense peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) and shell-crosslinked knedel-like nanoparticle (SCK)-PNA conjugates to the iNOS mRNA. Antisense binding sites on the iNOS mRNA were first mapped by a procedure for rapidly generating a library of antisense accessible sites on native mRNAs (MASL) which involves reverse transcription of whole cell mRNA extracts with a random oligodeoxynucleotide primer followed by mRNA-specific PCR. Antisense PNAs against the antisense accessible sites were accordingly synthesized and characterized. The second effort was the investigation of cationic shell crosslinked knedel-like nanoparticle (cSCK)-mediated siRNA delivery to suppress iNOS expression for the treatment of ALI. siRNA with its unique gene-specific properties could serve as a promising therapeutic agent, however success in this area has been challenged by a lack of efficient biocompatible transfection agents. cSCK with its nanometer size and positive charge previously showed efficient cellular delivery of phosphorothioate ODNs (oligodeoxynucleotides), plasmid DNA and PNA. Herein, cSCK showed good siRNA binding and facilitated efficient siRNA transfection in HeLa, a mouse macrophage cell line and other human cell lines. cSCK led to greater silencing efficiency than Lipofectamine 2000 in HeLa cells as determined by the viability following transfection with cytotoxic and non-cytotoxic siRNAs, as well in 293T and HEK cells, and was comparable in BEAS-2B and MCF10a cells. The third effort was the preparation of an iNOS imaging probe through electrostatic complexation between a radiolabeled

  17. [Suppression of WIFI transcript and protein in non-small cell lung carcinomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobko, E V; Kalinichenko, S V; Shepelev, M V; Zborovskaia, I B; Allakhverdiev, A K; Zinov'eva, M V; Vinogradova, T V; Sverdlov, E D; Korobko, I V

    2007-01-01

    Changes in WIFI expression, an extracellular inhibitor of Wnt pathway, in non-small cell lung carcinomas were analyzed. Frequent (67% cases) suppression of WIFI transcript in non-small cell lung carcinomas were found. Our results, together with previously published data, suggest that inhibition of WIFI expression often occurs in squamous cell carcinomas and is less typical of adenocarcinomas. It was also found that a decrease in the WIFI transcript in tumors is parallel to concomitant suppression of the WIFI protein level. Our results provide further evidence that the WIFI suppression is a frequent event in the lung carcinogenesis, which might lead to disregulation of Wnt signaling pathway and contribute to tumor progression.

  18. Preventing cleavage of Mer promotes efferocytosis and suppresses acute lung injury in bleomycin treated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ye-Ji; Lee, Seung-Hae; Youn, Young-So; Choi, Ji-Yeon; Song, Keung-Sub; Cho, Min-Sun; Kang, Jihee Lee

    2012-01-01

    Mer receptor tyrosine kinase (Mer) regulates macrophage activation and promotes apoptotic cell clearance. Mer activation is regulated through proteolytic cleavage of the extracellular domain. To determine if membrane-bound Mer is cleaved during bleomycin-induced lung injury, and, if so, how preventing the cleavage of Mer enhances apoptotic cell uptake and down-regulates pulmonary immune responses. During bleomycin-induced acute lung injury in mice, membrane-bound Mer expression decreased, but production of soluble Mer and activity as well as expression of disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) were enhanced . Treatment with the ADAM inhibitor TAPI-0 restored Mer expression and diminished soluble Mer production. Furthermore, TAPI-0 increased Mer activation in alveolar macrophages and lung tissue resulting in enhanced apoptotic cell clearance in vivo and ex vivo by alveolar macrophages. Suppression of bleomycin-induced pro-inflammatory mediators, but enhancement of hepatocyte growth factor induction were seen after TAPI-0 treatment. Additional bleomycin-induced inflammatory responses reduced by TAPI-0 treatment included inflammatory cell recruitment into the lungs, levels of total protein and lactate dehydrogenase activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, as well as caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity and alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis in lung tissue. Importantly, the effects of TAPI-0 on bleomycin-induced inflammation and apoptosis were reversed by coadministration of specific Mer-neutralizing antibodies. These findings suggest that restored membrane-bound Mer expression by TAPI-0 treatment may help resolve lung inflammation and apoptosis after bleomycin treatment. -- Highlights: ►Mer expression is restored by TAPI-0 treatment in bleomycin-stimulated lung. ►Mer signaling is enhanced by TAPI-0 treatment in bleomycin-stimulated lung. ►TAPI-0 enhances efferocytosis and promotes resolution of lung injury.

  19. Protection Against Lung Cancer Patient Plasma-Induced Lymphocyte Suppression by Ganoderma Lucidum Polysaccharides

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    Li-Xin Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: This study was conducted to determine the potential of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (Gl-PS in protection against lung cancer patient plasma-induced suppression of lymphocytes. Lung cancer is a major cause of disease and loss of life in the United States and worldwide. Cancer cells release immunosuppressive mediators, such as PGE2, TGF-β, IL-10, and VEGF, to inhibit the immune response to escape from immune surveillance. Gl-PS has been shown to counteract this immune inhibition in an animal cell culture model, and thus to facilitate tumor control. The present study explored whether or not such an effect could also be demonstrated in human lung cancer patients. Methods: Immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, MTT, immunocytochemistry, and western blot analysis were used to assess lymphocyte activation with PHA. Results: The plasma of lung cancer patients suppressed proliferation, CD69 expression, and perforin and granzyme B production in lymphocytes upon activation by PHA, effects that were partially of fully reversed by Gl-PS. Conclusion: Lung cancer patient plasma-induced suppression of lymphocyte activation by phytohemagglutinin may be antagonized fully or partially by Gl-PS, an observation suggesting the potential of Gl-PS in cancer therapy.

  20. Mechanisms of RhoGDI2 Mediated Lung Cancer Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Suppression

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    Huiyan Niu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the function of RhoGDI2 in lung cancer epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT process and to illustrate the underlying mechanisms that will lead to improvement of lung cancer treatment. Methods: The RhoGDI2 knock-down and overexpressing A549 cell lines were first constructed. The influence of RhoGDI2 on cytoskeleton in A549 cells was studied using two approaches: G-LISA-based Rac1 activity measurement and immunostaining-based F-actin distribution. The expression levels of key EMT genes were analyzed using real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR, western blot and immunostaining in untreated and RhoGDI2 knock-down or overexpressing A549 cells in both in vivo and in vitro experimental settings. Results: Our study showed that the activity of Rac1, a key gene that is crucial for the initiation and metastasis of human lung adenocarcinoma, causing the redistribution of F-actin with partial loss of cell-cell adhesions and stress fibers, was significantly suppressed by RhoGDI2. RhoGDI2 promoted the expression of EMT marker gene E-cadherin and repressed EMT promoting genes Slug, Snail, α-SMA in both A549 cells and lung and liver organs derived from the mouse models. Knocking-down RhoGDI2 induced abnormal morphology for lung organs. Conclusion: These findings indicate that RhoGDI2 repressed the activity of Rac1 and may be involved in the rearrangement of cytoskeleton in lung cancer cells. RhoGDI2 suppresses the metastasis of lung cancer mediated through EMT by regulating the expression of key genes such as E-cadherin, Slug, Snail and α-SMA in both in vivo and in vitro models.

  1. Cystatin A suppresses tumor cell growth through inhibiting epithelial to mesenchymal transition in human lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yunxia; Chen, Yuan; Li, Yong; Grün, Katja; Berndt, Alexander; Zhou, Zhongwei; Petersen, Iver

    2018-03-06

    Cystatin A ( CSTA ), belonging to type 1 cystatin super-family, is expressed primarily in epithelial and lymphoid tissues for protecting cells from proteolysis of cytoplasmic and cytoskeletal proteins by cathepsins B, H and L. CSTA acts as a tumor suppressor in esophageal cancer, however, its role in lung cancer has not yet been elucidated. Here we found that CSTA was down-regulated in all lung cancer cell lines compared to normal lung epithelial cells. CSTA was restored in most lung cancer cell lines after treatment with demethylation agent 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine and deacetylation agent Trichostatin. Bisulfite sequencing revealed that CSTA was partially methylated in the promoter and exon 1. In primary lung tumors, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) significantly expressed more CSTA compared to adenocarcinoma (pgrade (ptransition (MET) and prevented the TGF-β1-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) through inhibiting the ERK/MAPK pathway. In conclusion, our date indicate 1) epigenetic regulation is associated with CSTA gene silencing; 2) CSTA exerts tumor suppressive function through inhibiting MAPK and AKT pathways; 3) Overexpression of CSTA leads to MET and prevents TGF-β1-induced EMT by modulating the MAPK pathway; 4) CSTA may be a potential biomarker for lung SCC and tumor differentiation.

  2. Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition Antagonizes Response to Targeted Therapies in Lung Cancer by Suppressing BIM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kyung-A; Niederst, Matthew J; Lochmann, Timothy L; Hata, Aaron N; Kitai, Hidenori; Ham, Jungoh; Floros, Konstantinos V; Hicks, Mark A; Hu, Haichuan; Mulvey, Hillary E; Drier, Yotam; Heisey, Daniel A R; Hughes, Mark T; Patel, Neha U; Lockerman, Elizabeth L; Garcia, Angel; Gillepsie, Shawn; Archibald, Hannah L; Gomez-Caraballo, Maria; Nulton, Tara J; Windle, Brad E; Piotrowska, Zofia; Sahingur, Sinem E; Taylor, Shirley M; Dozmorov, Mikhail; Sequist, Lecia V; Bernstein, Bradley; Ebi, Hiromichi; Engelman, Jeffrey A; Faber, Anthony C

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) confers resistance to a number of targeted therapies and chemotherapies. However, it has been unclear why EMT promotes resistance, thereby impairing progress to overcome it. Experimental Design: We have developed several models of EMT-mediated resistance to EGFR inhibitors (EGFRi) in EGFR -mutant lung cancers to evaluate a novel mechanism of EMT-mediated resistance. Results: We observed that mesenchymal EGFR -mutant lung cancers are resistant to EGFRi-induced apoptosis via insufficient expression of BIM, preventing cell death despite potent suppression of oncogenic signaling following EGFRi treatment. Mechanistically, we observed that the EMT transcription factor ZEB1 inhibits BIM expression by binding directly to the BIM promoter and repressing transcription. Derepression of BIM expression by depletion of ZEB1 or treatment with the BH3 mimetic ABT-263 to enhance "free" cellular BIM levels both led to resensitization of mesenchymal EGFR -mutant cancers to EGFRi. This relationship between EMT and loss of BIM is not restricted to EGFR -mutant lung cancers, as it was also observed in KRAS -mutant lung cancers and large datasets, including different cancer subtypes. Conclusions: Altogether, these data reveal a novel mechanistic link between EMT and resistance to lung cancer targeted therapies. Clin Cancer Res; 24(1); 197-208. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Dexmedetomidine Inhibits Inflammatory Reaction in Lung Tissues of Septic Rats by Suppressing TLR4/NF-κB Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqing Wu

    2013-01-01

    and 20 μg/kg significantly decreased mortality and pulmonary inflammation of septic rats, as well as suppressed CLP-induced elevation of TNF-α and IL-6 and inhibited TLR4/MyD88 expression and NF-κB activation. These results suggest that dexmedetomidine may decrease mortality and inhibit inflammatory reaction in lung tissues of septic rats by suppressing TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB pathway.

  4. Nox1 oxidase suppresses influenza a virus-induced lung inflammation and oxidative stress.

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    Stavros Selemidis

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus infection is an ongoing clinical problem and thus, there is an urgent need to understand the mechanisms that regulate the lung inflammation in order to unravel novel generic pharmacological strategies. Evidence indicates that the Nox2-containing NADPH oxidase enzyme promotes influenza A virus-induced lung oxidative stress, inflammation and dysfunction via ROS generation. In addition, lung epithelial and endothelial cells express the Nox1 isoform of NADPH oxidase, placing this enzyme at key sites to regulate influenza A virus-induced lung inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Nox1 oxidase regulates the inflammatory response and the oxidative stress to influenza infection in vivo in mice. Male WT and Nox1-deficient (Nox1(-/y mice were infected with the moderately pathogenic HkX-31 (H3N2, 1×10(4 PFU influenza A virus for analysis of bodyweight, airways inflammation, oxidative stress, viral titre, lung histopathology, and cytokine/chemokine expression at 3 and 7 days post infection. HkX-31 virus infection of Nox1(-/y mice resulted in significantly greater: loss of bodyweight (Day 3; BALF neutrophilia, peri-bronchial, peri-vascular and alveolar inflammation; Nox2-dependent inflammatory cell ROS production and peri-bronchial, epithelial and endothelial oxidative stress. The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including CCL2, CCL3, CXCL2, IL-1β, IL-6, GM-CSF and TNF-α was higher in Nox1(-/y lungs compared to WT mice at Day 3, however, the expression of CCL2, CCL3, CXCL2, IFN-γ and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 were lower in lungs of Nox1(-/y mice vs. WT mice at Day 7. Lung viral titre, and airways infiltration of active CD8(+ and CD4(+ T lymphocytes, and of Tregs were similar between WT and Nox1(-/y mice. In conclusion, Nox1 oxidase suppresses influenza A virus induced lung inflammation and oxidative stress in mice particularly at the early phases of the infection. Nox1 and Nox2 oxidases appear

  5. Superior Suppressive Capacity of Skin Tregs Compared with Lung Tregs in a Model of Epicutaneous Priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Subhashree; Albrecht, Melanie; Baru, Abdul M; Sparwasser, Tim; Herrick, Christina; Dittrich, Anna M

    2015-10-01

    We have previously shown that T helper type 2 (Th2)-polarized airway inflammation can facilitate priming to new antigens in the lungs, which we called "collateral priming". To investigate whether allergic skin inflammation can also facilitate priming toward new antigens, we developed an allergic skin inflammation model based on an allergic lung inflammation model. Mice were sensitized intraperitoneally toward the primary antigen, ovalbumin. Challenge was subsequently performed intranasally or epicutaneously with ovalbumin and a secondary antigen, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). Re-challenge consisted of local application of either antigen alone. Analysis of KLH-specific antibody responses, KLH-specific cytokines, and local inflammation demonstrated tolerance induction toward the secondary antigen in the skin, whereas in the lung priming had occurred. Flow-cytometric analysis revealed increased numbers of regulatory T cells (Tregs), increased cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) expression, and an enhanced suppressive capacity of Tregs from skin-draining lymph nodes when compared with Tregs from the lung-draining lymph nodes. Furthermore, depletion of Tregs resulted in restoration of collateral priming in the skin. These results demonstrate crucial local differences between the Treg function in the skin and lung to repetitive antigen exposure, which can decisively influence the immune response toward new antigens.

  6. Overexpression of SAMD9 suppresses tumorigenesis and progression during non small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Qing; Yu, Tao; Ren, Yao-Yao; Gong, Ting; Zhong, Dian-Sheng, E-mail: zhongdsyx@126.com

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • SAMD9 is down-regulated in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). • Knockdown of SAMD9 expression is increased the invasion, migration and proliferation in H1299 cells in vitro. • Overexpression of SAMD9 suppressed proliferation and invasion in A549 cells in vitro. • Depletion of SAMD9 increases tumor formation in vivo. - Abstract: The Sterile Alpha Motif Domain-containing 9 (SAMD9) gene has been recently emphasized during the discovery that it is expressed at a lower level in aggressive fibromatosis and some cases of breast and colon cancer, however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we found that SAMD9 is down-regulated in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Furthermore, knockdown of SAMD9 expression is increased the invasion, migration and proliferation in H1299 cells in vitro and overexpression of SAMD9 suppressed proliferation and invasion in A549 cells. Finally, depletion of SAMD9 increases tumor formation in vivo. Our results may provide a strategy for blocking NSCLC tumorigenesis and progression.

  7. miR-19 targeting of GSK3β mediates sulforaphane suppression of lung cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianyun; Wang, Shijia; Chen, Yue; Li, Xiaoting; Jiang, Ye; Yang, Xue; Li, Yuan; Wang, Xiaoqian; Meng, Yu; Zhu, Mingming; Ma, Xiao; Huang, Cong; Wu, Rui; Xie, Chunfeng; Geng, Shanshan; Wu, Jieshu; Zhong, Caiyun; Han, Hongyu

    2017-06-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play a central role in the development of cancer. The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway is critical for maintaining stemness of CSCs. Phytochemicals from dietary compounds possess anti-CSCs properties and have been characterized as promising therapeutic agents for the prevention and treatment of many cancers. To date, the involvement and function of miR-19, a key oncogenic miRNA, in regulating Wnt/β-catenin pathway and lung CSCs has not been defined. Meanwhile, the effect of sulforaphane (SFN) on lung CSCs also remains to be elucidated. Here, we reported that lung CSCs up-regulated miR-19a and miR-19b expression. Overexpression of miR-19a/19b enhanced the ability of tumorsphere formation, up-regulated the expression of lung CSCs markers, increased Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation and β-catenin/TCF transcriptional activity in lung CSCs. In contrary, down-regulation of miR-19 suppressed lung CSCs activity and Wnt/β-catenin activation. We further revealed that miR-19 activated Wnt/β-catenin pathway by directly targeting GSK3β, the key negative modulator of this pathway. Moreover, we showed that SFN exhibited inhibitory effect on lung CSCs through suppressing miR-19 and Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Taken together, these data illustrate the role of miR-19 in regulating lung CSCs traits and miR-19/GSK3β/β-catenin axis in SFN intervention of lung CSCs. Findings from this study could provide important new insights into the molecular mechanisms of lung CSCs regulation as well as its target intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. MHC class II expression in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yayi; Rozeboom, Leslie; Rivard, Christopher J; Ellison, Kim; Dziadziuszko, Rafal; Yu, Hui; Zhou, Caicun; Hirsch, Fred R

    2017-10-01

    Immunotherapy is an exciting development in lung cancer research. In this study we described major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class II protein expression in lung cancer cell lines and patient tissues. We studied MHC Class II (DP, DQ, DR) (CR3/43, Abcam) protein expression in 55 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, 42 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines and 278 lung cancer patient tissues by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Seven (12.7%) NSCLC cell lines were positive for MHC Class II. No SCLC cell lines were found to be MHC Class II positive. We assessed 139 lung cancer samples available in the Hirsch Lab for MHC Class II. There was no positive MHC Class II staining on SCLC tumor cells. MHC Class II expression on TILs in SCLC was significantly lower than that on TILs in NSCLC (P<0.001). MHC Class II was also assessed in an additional 139 NSCLC tumor tissues from Medical University of Gdansk, Poland. Patients with positive staining of MHC Class II on TILs had longer regression-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) than those whose TILs were MHC Class II negative (2.980 years, 95% CI 1.628-4.332 vs. 1.050 years, 95% CI 0.556-1.554, P=0.028) (3.230 years, 95% CI 2.617-3.843 vs. 1.390 years, 95% CI 0.629-2.151, P=0.014). MHC Class II was expressed both in NSCLC cell lines and tissues. However, MHC Class II was not detected in SCLC cell lines or tissue tumor cells. MHC Class II expression was lower on SCLC TILs than on NSCLC TILs. Loss of expression of MHC Class II on SCLC tumor cells and reduced expression on SCLC TILs may be a means of escaping anti-cancer immunity. Higher MHC Class II expression on TILs was correlated with better prognosis in patients with NSCLC. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Screening and identification of lung cancer metastasis-related genes by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiewei; Zhong, Xiaorong; Li, Juan; Liu, Baoxing; Guo, Shanxian; Chen, Jun; Tan, Qingwei; Wang, Qin; Ma, Wei; Wu, Zhihao; Wang, Haisu; Hou, Mei; Zhang, Hong-Tao; Zhou, Qinghua

    2012-08-01

    Lung cancer metastasis is a complicated process in which multiple stages and multiple genes are involved. There is an urgent need to use new molecular biology techniques to get more systematic information and have a general idea of the molecular events that take place in lung cancer metastasis. The object of this study was to construct the subtracted cDNA libraries of different metastatic potential lung cancer cell lines, NL9980 and L9981, which were established and screened from human lung large cell carcinoma cell line, WCQH-9801.   The forward and reverse subtracted cDNA libraries were constructed in the large cell lung cancer cell lines NL9980 and L9981 with the same heredity background but different metastatic potential, by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). The positive clones were preliminarily screened by blue-white colony and precisely identified by PCR. The forward and reverse subtracted libraries were screened and identified by dot blot so as to obtain the clones corresponding to gene segments with differential expression. DNA sequencing was performed to analyze the sequences of differential expression segments, which were then searched and compared using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool from The National Center for Biotechnology Information NCBI BLAST tools. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting were performed to confirm the differential expressed genes both on RNA and protein levels.   The forward and reverse subtracted cDNA libraries of the different large cell lung cancer cell lines with metastatic potential were successfully constructed. With blue-white colony and dot blot, 307 positive clones in the forward subtracted library and 78 positive clones in the reverse subtracted library were obtained. Fifty-five clones were successfully sequenced in the forward subtracted library while 31 clones were successfully sequenced in the reverse subtracted library. One new

  10. P53 suppresses expression of the 14-3-3gamma oncogene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wenqing

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 14-3-3 proteins are a family of highly conserved proteins that are involved in a wide range of cellular processes. Recent evidence indicates that some of these proteins have oncogenic activity and that they may promote tumorigenesis. We previously showed that one of the 14-3-3 family members, 14-3-3gamma, is over expressed in human lung cancers and that it can induce transformation of rodent cells in vitro. Methods qRTPCR and Western blot analysis were performed to examine 14-3-3gamma expression in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC. Gene copy number was analyzed by qPCR. P53 mutations were detected by direct sequencing and also by western blot. CHIP and yeast one hybrid assays were used to detect p53 binding to 14-3-3gamma promoter. Results Quantitative rtPCR results showed that the expression level of 14-3-3gamma was elevated in the majority of NSCLC that we examined which was also consistent with protein expression. Further analysis of the expression pattern of 14-3-3gamma in lung tumors showed a correlation with p53 mutations suggesting that p53 might suppress 14-3-3 gamma expression. Analysis of the gamma promoter sequence revealed the presence of a p53 consensus binding motif and in vitro assays demonstrated that wild-type p53 bound to this motif when activated by ionizing radiation. Deletion of the p53 binding motif eliminated p53's ability to suppress 14-3-3gamma expression. Conclusion Increased expression of 14-3-3gamma in lung cancer coincides with loss of functional p53. Hence, we propose that 14-3-3gamma's oncogenic activities cooperate with loss of p53 to promote lung tumorigenesis.

  11. Trichostatin A suppresses lung adenocarcinoma development in Grg1 overexpressing transgenic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ju, E-mail: ju.liu@sdu.edu.cn [Medical Research Center, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, 16766 Jingshi Road, Jinan (China); Molecular and Cellular Biology Division, Sunnybrook Health Science Centre, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Li, Yan [Children' s Health Care Center, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, 16766 Jingshi Road, Jinan, Shandong 250014 (China); Dong, Fengyun; Li, Liqun [Medical Research Center, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, 16766 Jingshi Road, Jinan (China); Masuda, Takahiro; Allen, Thaddeus D. [Molecular and Cellular Biology Division, Sunnybrook Health Science Centre, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Lobe, Corrinne G. [Molecular and Cellular Biology Division, Sunnybrook Health Science Centre, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Miami Mice Research Corp., MaRS Centre, Heritage Bldg., 101 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7 (Canada)

    2015-08-07

    Trichostatin A (TSA) is a histone deacetylase inhibitor and a potential therapeutic for various malignancies. The in vivo effect of TSA, however, has not been investigated in a transgenic lung cancer model. Previously, we generated transgenic mice with overexpression of Groucho-related-gene 1 (Grg1) and these mice all developed mucinous lung adenocarcinoma. Grg1 is a transcriptional co-repressor protein, the function of which is thought to depend on HDAC activity. However, functions outside the nucleus have also been proposed. We tested the supposition that Grg1-induced tumorigenesis is HDAC-dependent by assaying the therapeutic effect of TSA in the Grg1 transgenic mouse model. We found that TSA significantly inhibited lung tumorigenesis in Grg1 transgenic mice (p < 0.01). TSA did not affect overall Grg1 protein levels, but instead reduced ErbB1 and ErbB2 expression, which are upregulated by Grg1 in the absence of TSA. We confirmed this effect in A549 cells. Furthermore, lapatinib, an inhibitor of both ErbB1 and ErbB2, effectively masked the effect of TSA on the inhibition of A549 cell proliferation and migration, suggesting TSA does work, at least in part, by downregulating ErbB receptors. We additionally found that TSA reduced the expression of VEGF and VEGFR2, but not basic FGF and FGFR1. Our findings indicate that TSA effectively inhibits Grg1-induced lung tumorigenesis through the down-regulation of ErbB1 and ErbB2, as well as reduced VEGF signaling. This suggests TSA and other HDAC inhibitors could have therapeutic value in the treatment of lung cancers with Grg1 overexpression. - Highlights: • TSA suppresses lung tumorigenesis in Grg1 overexpressing transgenic mice. • TSA does not affect overall Grg1 protein levels in the mice and in A549 cells. • TSA reduces ErbB1 and ErbB2 expression in the mice and in A549 cells. • Lapatinib masks TSA-induced inhibition of A549 cell proliferation and migration. • TSA inhibits VEGF signaling, but not basic FGF

  12. Context shapes social judgments of positive emotion suppression and expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalokerinos, Elise K; Greenaway, Katharine H; Casey, James P

    2017-02-01

    It is generally considered socially undesirable to suppress the expression of positive emotion. However, previous research has not considered the role that social context plays in governing appropriate emotion regulation. We investigated a context in which it may be more appropriate to suppress than express positive emotion, hypothesizing that positive emotion expressions would be considered inappropriate when the valence of the expressed emotion (i.e., positive) did not match the valence of the context (i.e., negative). Six experiments (N = 1,621) supported this hypothesis: when there was a positive emotion-context mismatch, participants rated targets who suppressed positive emotion as more appropriate, and evaluated them more positively than targets who expressed positive emotion. This effect occurred even when participants were explicitly made aware that suppressing targets were experiencing mismatched emotion for the context (e.g., feeling positive in a negative context), suggesting that appropriate emotional expression is key to these effects. These studies are among the first to provide empirical evidence that social costs to suppression are not inevitable, but instead are dependent on context. Expressive suppression can be a socially useful emotion regulation strategy in situations that call for it. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Pleiotropic effect of the proton pump inhibitor esomeprazole leading to suppression of lung inflammation and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebremariam, Yohannes T; Cooke, John P; Gerhart, William; Griego, Carol; Brower, Jeremy B; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Moeller, Benjamin C; Zhou, Qingtao; Ho, Lawrence; de Andrade, Joao; Raghu, Ganesh; Peterson, Leif; Rivera, Andreana; Rosen, Glenn D

    2015-08-01

    The beneficial outcome associated with the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has been reported in retrospective studies. To date, no prospective study has been conducted to confirm these outcomes. In addition, the potential mechanism by which PPIs improve measures of lung function and/or transplant-free survival in IPF has not been elucidated. Here, we used biochemical, cell biological and preclinical studies to evaluate regulation of markers associated with inflammation and fibrosis. In our in vitro studies, we exposed primary lung fibroblasts, epithelial and endothelial cells to ionizing radiation or bleomycin; stimuli typically used to induce inflammation and fibrosis. In addition, we cultured lung fibroblasts from IPF patients and studied the effect of esomeprazole on collagen release. Our preclinical study tested efficacy of esomeprazole in a rat model of bleomycin-induced lung injury. Furthermore, we performed retrospective analysis of interstitial lung disease (ILD) databases to examine the effect of PPIs on transplant-free survival. The cell culture studies revealed that esomeprazole controls inflammation by suppressing the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules including vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukins (IL-1β and IL-6). The antioxidant effect is associated with strong induction of the stress-inducible cytoprotective protein heme oxygenase-1 (HO1) and the antifibrotic effect is associated with potent inhibition of fibroblast proliferation as well as downregulation of profibrotic proteins including receptors for transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), fibronectin and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Furthermore, esomeprazole showed robust effect in mitigating the inflammatory and fibrotic responses in a murine model of acute lung injury. Finally, retrospective analysis of two ILD databases was performed to assess the effect

  14. MiR-26a enhances invasive capacity by suppressing GSK3β in human lung cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Gaoyang; Liu, Boning [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Lung Cancer Metastasis and Tumor Microenviroment, Tianjin Lung Cancer Institute, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052 (China); Meng, Zhaowei [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052 (China); Liu, Yunde [School of Laboratory Medicine, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300052 (China); Li, Xuebing [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Lung Cancer Metastasis and Tumor Microenviroment, Tianjin Lung Cancer Institute, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052 (China); Wu, Xiang [Core Facility Center, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052 (China); Zhou, Qinghua [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Lung Cancer Metastasis and Tumor Microenviroment, Tianjin Lung Cancer Institute, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052 (China); Xu, Ke, E-mail: ke_xu@hotmail.com [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Lung Cancer Metastasis and Tumor Microenviroment, Tianjin Lung Cancer Institute, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052 (China)

    2017-03-15

    Lung cancer is the common cause of death from cancer, and most lung cancer patients die of metastasis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) function as either oncogenes or tumor suppressors, playing crucial role not only in tumorigenesis, but also in tumor invasion and metastasis. There are several studies showed that miR-26a is involved in carcinogenesis, however, its role in tumor metastasis need to be elucidated. In this study, we showed that ectopic expression of miR-26a enhanced migration and invasion of lung cancer cells. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) was identified as a direct target of miR-26a. GSK3β expression negatively correlated with miR-26a expression in lung cancer tissues. Silencing of GSK3β achieved similar effect as miR-26a over-expression; over-expression of GSK3β reversed the enhanced effect of miR-26a on lung cancer cell migration and invasion. Further study indicated that miR-26a increased β-catenin expression and nuclear translocation. C-myc and cyclin D1, the downstream genes of β-catenin, were also up-regulated by miR-26a. Furthermore, xenograft study showed that miR-26a promoted lung cancer cell growth in vivo, and suppressed GSK3β expression. Collectively, our results demonstrated that miR-26a enhanced metastatic potential of lung cancer cells via activation of β-catenin pathway by targeting GSK3β, suggesting the potential applicability of miR-26a as a target for cancer treatment. - Highlights: • miR-26a enhances migration and invasion of lung cancer cells. • GSK3β is identified as a direct target of miR-26a. • miR-26a activates β-catenin pathway by targeting GSK3β. • miR-26a promotes lung cancer cell growth in vivo.

  15. Inhibition of Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel ANO1/TMEM16A Suppresses Tumor Growth and Invasion in Human Lung Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linghan Jia

    Full Text Available Lung cancer or pulmonary carcinoma is primarily derived from epithelial cells that are thin and line on the alveolar surfaces of the lung for gas exchange. ANO1/TMEM16A, initially identified from airway epithelial cells, is a member of Ca2+-activated Cl- channels (CaCCs that function to regulate epithelial secretion and cell volume for maintenance of ion and tissue homeostasis. ANO1/TMEM16A has recently been shown to be highly expressed in several epithelium originated carcinomas. However, the role of ANO1 in lung cancer remains unknown. In this study, we show that inhibition of calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1/TMEM16A suppresses tumor growth and invasion in human lung cancer. ANO1 is upregulated in different human lung cancer cell lines. Knocking-down ANO1 by small hairpin RNAs inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of GLC82 and NCI-H520 cancel cells evaluated by CCK-8, would-healing, transwell and 3D soft agar assays. ANO1 protein is overexpressed in 77.3% cases of human lung adenocarcinoma tissues detected by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, the tumor growth in nude mice implanted with GLC82 cells was significantly suppressed by ANO1 silencing. Taken together, our findings provide evidence that ANO1 overexpression contributes to tumor growth and invasion of lung cancer; and suppressing ANO1 overexpression may have therapeutic potential in lung cancer therapy.

  16. Inhibition of Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel ANO1/TMEM16A Suppresses Tumor Growth and Invasion in Human Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Linghan; Liu, Wen; Guan, Lizhao; Lu, Min; Wang, KeWei

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer or pulmonary carcinoma is primarily derived from epithelial cells that are thin and line on the alveolar surfaces of the lung for gas exchange. ANO1/TMEM16A, initially identified from airway epithelial cells, is a member of Ca2+-activated Cl- channels (CaCCs) that function to regulate epithelial secretion and cell volume for maintenance of ion and tissue homeostasis. ANO1/TMEM16A has recently been shown to be highly expressed in several epithelium originated carcinomas. However, the role of ANO1 in lung cancer remains unknown. In this study, we show that inhibition of calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1/TMEM16A suppresses tumor growth and invasion in human lung cancer. ANO1 is upregulated in different human lung cancer cell lines. Knocking-down ANO1 by small hairpin RNAs inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of GLC82 and NCI-H520 cancel cells evaluated by CCK-8, would-healing, transwell and 3D soft agar assays. ANO1 protein is overexpressed in 77.3% cases of human lung adenocarcinoma tissues detected by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, the tumor growth in nude mice implanted with GLC82 cells was significantly suppressed by ANO1 silencing. Taken together, our findings provide evidence that ANO1 overexpression contributes to tumor growth and invasion of lung cancer; and suppressing ANO1 overexpression may have therapeutic potential in lung cancer therapy.

  17. Electroacupuncture at the Wangu acupoint suppresses expression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: The 54 healthy, male, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, 9 months old, and of clean grade (300-450) g, were randomly divided into three groups: sham surgery group, VD group and electro-acupuncture group. The ethology scores of VD rats were evaluated and the mRNA expressions of inflammatory ...

  18. MiR-132 suppresses the migration and invasion of lung cancer cells via targeting the EMT regulator ZEB2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiacong You

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small, non-coding RNAs which can function as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes in human cancers. Emerging evidence reveals that deregulation of miRNAs contributes to the human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. In the present study, we demonstrated that the expression levels of miR-132 were dramatically decreased in examined NSCLC cell lines and clinical NSCLC tissue samples. Then, we found that introduction of miR-132 significantly suppressed the migration and invasion of lung cancer cells in vitro, suggesting that miR-132 may be a novel tumor suppressor. Further studies indicated that the EMT-related transcription factor ZEB2 was one direct target genes of miR-132, evidenced by the direct binding of miR-132 with the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR of ZEB2. Further, miR-132 could decrease the expression of ZEB2 at the levels of mRNA and protein. Notably, the EMT marker E-cadherin or vimentin, a downstream of ZEB2, was also down-regulated or up-regulated upon miR-132 treatment. Additionally, over-expressing or silencing ZEB2 was able to elevate or inhibit the migration and invasion of lung cancer cells, parallel to the effect of miR-132 on the lung cancer cells. Meanwhile, knockdown of ZEB2 reversed the enhanced migration and invasion mediated by anti-miR-132. These results indicate that miR-132 suppresses the migration and invasion of NSCLC cells through targeting ZEB2 involving the EMT process. Thus, our finding provides new insight into the mechanism of NSCLC progression. Therapeutically, miR-132 may serve as a potential target in the treatment of human lung cancer.

  19. Perinatal Exposure to Insecticide Methamidophos Suppressed Production of Proinflammatory Cytokines Responding to Virus Infection in Lung Tissues in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Watanabe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Methamidophos, a representative organophosphate insecticide, is regulated because of its severe neurotoxicity, but it is suspected of contaminating agricultural foods in many countries due to illicit use. To reveal unknown effects of methamidophos on human health, we evaluated the developmental immunotoxicity of methamidophos using a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV infection mouse model. Pregnant mice were exposed to methamidophos (10 or 20 ppm in their drinking water from gestation day 10 to weaning on postnatal day 21. Offsprings born to these dams were intranasally infected with RSV. The levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interferon-gamma in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids after infection were significantly decreased in offspring mice exposed to methamidophos. Treatment with methamidophos did not affect the pulmonary viral titers but suppressed moderately the inflammation of lung tissues of RSV-infected offspring, histopathologically. DNA microarray analysis revealed that gene expression of the cytokines in the lungs of offspring mice exposed to 20 ppm of methamidophos was apparently suppressed compared with the control. Methamidophos did not suppress IL-6 production in RSV-infected J774.1 cell cultures. Thus, exposure of the mother to methamidophos during pregnancy and nursing was suggested to cause an irregular immune response in the lung tissues in the offspring mice.

  20. Twist1 suppresses senescence programs and thereby accelerates and maintains mutant Kras-induced lung tumorigenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Phuoc T; Shroff, Emelyn H; Burns, Timothy F

    2012-01-01

    overexpressed in primary human lung tumors. The suppression of TWIST1 in human lung cancer cells also induced cellular senescence. Hence, TWIST1 is a critical regulator of cellular senescence programs, and the suppression of TWIST1 in human tumors may be an effective example of pro-senescence therapy....... mouse model and in human lung tumors that the inhibition of Twist1 restores a senescence program inducing the loss of a neoplastic phenotype. The Twist1 gene encodes for a transcription factor that is essential during embryogenesis. Twist1 has been suggested to play an important role during tumor...... progression. However, there is no in vivo evidence that Twist1 plays a role in autochthonous tumorigenesis. Through two novel transgenic mouse models, we show that Twist1 cooperates with Kras(G12D) to markedly accelerate lung tumorigenesis by abrogating cellular senescence programs and promoting...

  1. [Construction of the suppression subtractive cDNA libraries of human large cell lung cancer line L9981 before and after transfection with nm23-H1 gene.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Sujuan; Feng, Zhihua; Zhu, Wen; Cai, Chunji; Li, Lu; Sun, Liya; Wan, Haisu; Ma, Li; Zhou, Qinghua

    2008-08-20

    It has been proven that nm23-H1 gene is an important metastaticsuppressed gene of lung cancer. In order to screen the differential expression genes related to nm23-H1 , we constructed the suppression subtractive cDNA libraries of human large cell lung cancer line L9981 transfected and untransfected with nm23-H1 gene by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) in this study, which lay a solid foundation for further screening and cloning metastatic-related genes of nm23-H1. The forward and reverse suppression subtractive cDNA libraries were constructed in the human large cell lung cancer line L9981 before and after transfection with nm23-H1 gene (L9981 and L9981-nm23-H1) by SSH method. The positive clones were preliminarily screened by bluewhite colony, and precisely identified by PCR. The suppression subtractive cDNA libraries were successfully constructed in the human large cell lung cancer line L9981 transfected and untransfected with nm23-H1 gene (L9981-nm23-H1 and L9981). After the blue-white screening, about three hundred positive clones in the forward subtracted library and four hundred positive clones in the reverse subtracted library were obtained. Ramdom analysis of 96 clones in each library with colony PCR methods showed that 84 clones in the forward subtracted library and 83 clones in the reverse subtracted library contained (300-750) bp inserts. SSH is proved to be an efficient tool for differential expression gene cloning. The forward and reverse suppression subtractive cDNA libraries of human large cell lung cancer line L9981 transfected and untransfected with nm23-H1 gene (L9981-nm23-H1 and L9981) are successfully constructed by SSH and T/A cloning technology. The expression of nm23-H1 gene in the human large cell lung cancer cell lines may affect the differential expression of some metastatic-related genes.

  2. miR-203 suppresses the proliferation and migration and promotes the apoptosis of lung cancer cells by targeting SRC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Wang

    Full Text Available SRC, also known as proto-oncogene c-Src, is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that plays an important role in cancer progression by promoting survival, angiogenesis, proliferation, and invasion pathways. In this study, we found that SRC protein levels were consistently upregulated in lung cancer tissues, but that SRC mRNA levels varied randomly, suggesting that a post-transcriptional mechanism was involved in SRC regulation. Because microRNAs (miRNAs are powerful post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, we used bioinformatic analyses to search for miRNAs that potentially target SRC. We identified specific targeting sites for miR-203 in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR of SRC. We then experimentally validated miR-203 as a direct regulator of SRC using cell transfection and luciferase assays and showed that miR-203 inhibited SRC expression and consequently triggered suppression of the SRC/Ras/ERK pathway. Finally, we demonstrated that the repression of SRC by miR-203 suppressed the proliferation and migration and promoted the apoptosis of lung cancer cells. In summary, this study provides the first clues regarding the role of miR-203 as a tumor suppressor in lung cancer cells through the inhibition of SRC translation.

  3. Why expressive suppression does not pay? Cognitive costs of negative emotion suppression: The mediating role of subjective tense-arousal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczygieł Dorota

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to contribute to a broader understanding of the cognitive consequences of expressive suppression. Specifically, we examined whether the deteriorating effect of expressive suppression on cognitive functioning is caused by tense arousal enhanced by suppression. Two experiments were performed in order to test this prediction. In both studies we tested the effect of expressive suppression on working memory, as measured with a backwards digit-span task (Study 1, N = 43 and anagram problem-solving task (Study 2, N = 60. In addition, in Study 2 we tested whether expressive suppression degrades memory of the events that emerged during the period of expressive suppression. Both studies were conducted in a similar design: Participants watched a film clip which evoked negative emotions (i.e. disgust in Study 1 and a combination of sadness and anxiety in Study 2 under the instruction to suppress those negative emotions or (in the control condition to simply watch the film. The results of these experiments lead to three conclusions. First, the results reveal that expressive suppression degrades memory of the events that emerged during the period of expressive suppression and leads to poorer performance on working memory tasks, as measured with a backwards digit-span task and anagram problem-solving task. Second, the results indicate that expressive suppression leads to a significant increase in subjective tense arousal. Third, the results support our prediction that expressive suppression decreases cognitive performance through its effects on subjective tense arousal. The results of the Study 1 show that tense arousal activated during expressive suppression of disgust fully mediates the negative effect of suppression on working memory as measured with a backwards digit-span task. The results of Study 2 reveal that subjective tense arousal elicited while suppressing sadness and anxiety mediates both the effect of suppression on

  4. Perillyl alcohol suppresses antigen-induced immune responses in the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Mitsuru; Sasaki, Oh; Okunishi, Katsuhide; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Harada, Hiroaki; Kawahata, Kimito; Tanaka, Ryoichi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Dohi, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Perillyl alcohol (POH) is an isoprenoid which inhibits the mevalonate pathway. •We examined whether POH suppresses immune responses with a mouse model of asthma. •POH treatment during sensitization suppressed Ag-induced priming of CD4 + T cells. •POH suppressed airway eosinophila and cytokine production in thoracic lymph nodes. -- Abstract: Perillyl alcohol (POH) is an isoprenoid which inhibits farnesyl transferase and geranylgeranyl transferase, key enzymes that induce conformational and functional changes in small G proteins to conduct signal production for cell proliferation. Thus, it has been tried for the treatment of cancers. However, although it affects the proliferation of immunocytes, its influence on immune responses has been examined in only a few studies. Notably, its effect on antigen-induced immune responses has not been studied. In this study, we examined whether POH suppresses Ag-induced immune responses with a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation. POH treatment of sensitized mice suppressed proliferation and cytokine production in Ag-stimulated spleen cells or CD4 + T cells. Further, sensitized mice received aerosolized OVA to induce allergic airway inflammation, and some mice received POH treatment. POH significantly suppressed indicators of allergic airway inflammation such as airway eosinophilia. Cytokine production in thoracic lymph nodes was also significantly suppressed. These results demonstrate that POH suppresses antigen-induced immune responses in the lung. Considering that it exists naturally, POH could be a novel preventive or therapeutic option for immunologic lung disorders such as asthma with minimal side effects

  5. Brain structural basis of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Andrea; Bieber, Alexandra; Keck, Tanja; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, two major emotion regulation strategies, are differentially related to emotional well-being. The aim of this study was to test the association of individual differences in these two emotion regulation strategies with gray matter volume of brain regions that have been shown to be involved in the regulation of emotions. Based on high-resolution magnetic resonance images of 96 young adults voxel-based morphometry was used to analyze the gray matter volumes of the a priori regions of interest, including amygdala, insula, dorsal anterior cingulate and paracingulate cortex, medial and lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) and their association with cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression usage as well as neuroticism. A positive association of cognitive reappraisal with right and tendentially left amygdala volume and of neuroticism with left amygdala volume (marginally significant) was found. Expressive suppression was related to dorsal anterior cingulate/paracingulate cortex and medial PFC gray matter volume. The results of this study emphasize the important role of the amygdala in individual differences in cognitive reappraisal usage as well as neuroticism. Additionally, the association of expressive suppression usage with larger volumes of the medial PFC and dorsal anterior/paracingulate cortex underpins the role of these regions in regulating emotion-expressive behavior. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Propolin C Inhibited Migration and Invasion via Suppression of EGFR-Mediated Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in Human Lung Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Tung Pai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling lung cancer cell migration and invasion via epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT through the regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR signaling pathway has been demonstrated. Searching biological active phytochemicals to repress EGFR-regulated EMT might prevent lung cancer progression. Propolis has been used as folk medicine in many countries and possesses anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. In this study, the antimigration and anti-invasion activities of propolin C, a c-prenylflavanone from Taiwanese propolis, were investigated on EGFR-regulated EMT signaling pathway. Cell migration and invasion activities were dose-dependently suppressed by noncytotoxic concentration of propolin C. Downregulations of vimentin and snail as well as upregulation of E-cadherin expressions were through the inhibition of EGFR-mediated phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK signaling pathway in propolin C-treated cells. In addition, EGF-induced migration and invasion were suppressed by propolin C-treated A549 lung cancer cells. No significant differences in E-cadherin expression were observed in EGF-stimulated cells. Interestingly, EGF-induced expressions of vimentin, snail, and slug were suppressed through the inhibition of PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathway in propolin C-treated cells. Inhibition of cell migration and invasion by propolin C was through the inhibition of EGF/EGFR-mediated signaling pathway, followed by EMT suppression in lung cancer.

  7. Maresin 1 Ameliorates Lung Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Suppressing Oxidative Stress via Activation of the Nrf-2-Mediated HO-1 Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanchao Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury occurs in various clinical conditions and heavily damaged lung function. Oxidative stress reaction and antioxidant enzymes play a pivotal role in the etiopathogenesis of lung I/R injury. In the current study, we investigated the impact of Maresin 1 on lung I/R injury and explored the possible mechanism involved in this process. MaR 1 ameliorated I/R-induced lung injury score, wet/dry weight ratio, myeloperoxidase, tumor necrosis factor, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF leukocyte count, BALF neutrophil ratio, and pulmonary permeability index levels in lung tissue. MaR 1 significantly reduced ROS, methane dicarboxylic aldehyde, and 15-F2t-isoprostane generation and restored antioxidative enzyme (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activities. Administration of MaR 1 improved the expression of nuclear Nrf-2 and cytosolic HO-1 in I/R-treated lung tissue. Furthermore, we also found that the protective effects of MaR 1 on lung tissue injury and oxidative stress were reversed by HO-1 activity inhibitor, Znpp-IX. Nrf-2 transcription factor inhibitor, brusatol, significantly decreased MaR 1-induced nuclear Nrf-2 and cytosolic HO-1 expression. In conclusion, these results indicate that MaR 1 protects against lung I/R injury through suppressing oxidative stress. The mechanism is partially explained by activation of the Nrf-2-mediated HO-1 signaling pathway.

  8. Maresin 1 Ameliorates Lung Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Suppressing Oxidative Stress via Activation of the Nrf-2-Mediated HO-1 Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, You; Zhao, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Lung ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury occurs in various clinical conditions and heavily damaged lung function. Oxidative stress reaction and antioxidant enzymes play a pivotal role in the etiopathogenesis of lung I/R injury. In the current study, we investigated the impact of Maresin 1 on lung I/R injury and explored the possible mechanism involved in this process. MaR 1 ameliorated I/R-induced lung injury score, wet/dry weight ratio, myeloperoxidase, tumor necrosis factor, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) leukocyte count, BALF neutrophil ratio, and pulmonary permeability index levels in lung tissue. MaR 1 significantly reduced ROS, methane dicarboxylic aldehyde, and 15-F2t-isoprostane generation and restored antioxidative enzyme (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase) activities. Administration of MaR 1 improved the expression of nuclear Nrf-2 and cytosolic HO-1 in I/R-treated lung tissue. Furthermore, we also found that the protective effects of MaR 1 on lung tissue injury and oxidative stress were reversed by HO-1 activity inhibitor, Znpp-IX. Nrf-2 transcription factor inhibitor, brusatol, significantly decreased MaR 1-induced nuclear Nrf-2 and cytosolic HO-1 expression. In conclusion, these results indicate that MaR 1 protects against lung I/R injury through suppressing oxidative stress. The mechanism is partially explained by activation of the Nrf-2-mediated HO-1 signaling pathway. PMID:28751936

  9. MiR-876-5p suppresses epithelial–mesenchymal transition of lung ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Liang Bao

    2017-11-07

    Nov 7, 2017 ... Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death throughout the world. We aimed to investigate the role of a novel. microRNA-876-5p and its potential molecular target bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4), in the epithelial–mes- enchymal transition (EMT) of lung cancer. Expressions of ...

  10. Suppression of lymphangiogenesis by soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 in a mouse lung cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehana, Shotaro; Nakamura, Masaki; Ogawa, Fumihiro; Imai, Rimika; Murakami, Rei; Kojima, Fumiaki; Majima, Masataka; Kitasato, Hidero

    2016-12-01

    The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family has a key role in the formation of blood vessels and lymphatics. Among the members of this family, VEGF-C is one of the most important factors involved in lymphangiogenesis via binding with two receptors (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 and -3: VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3). Soluble VEGFR-2 (sVEGFR-2) has a role in maintaining the alymphatic state of the cornea associated with binding to VEGF-C, and selectively inhibits lymphangiogenesis but not angiogenesis. In this study, we introduced sVEGFR-2 into lung cancer cells and evaluated the influence on tumor progression and on genes regulating lymphatic formation and metastasis in vivo. A retroviral vector was used to introduce the sVEGFR-2 gene into Lewis lung carcinoma cells (LLC), which were designated as LLC-sVEGFR-2 cells. Proteins secreted into the culture supernatant by these cells were detected by western blotting using specific antibodies. To examine lymphangiogenesis by primary lung cancer in vivo, LLC-sVEGFR-2 cells were subcutaneously injected into C57BL/6 mice. At 14days after injection, immunohistochemistry was performed using an antibody directed against lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE-1), a marker of lymphatics. Expression of mRNA for VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3 and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was also determined by real-time PCR. Furthermore, LLC-sVEGFR-2 cells were directly inoculated into the left lung in C57BL/6 mice and the number of micro-metastases in pulmonary lymph nodes was determined. Introduction of sVEGFR-2 into LLC cells resulted in secretion of sVEGFR-2 protein into the culture supernatant. There were fewer LYVE-1 positive lymphatics after inoculation of LLC-sVEGFR-2 into mice compared with the control group. In addition, VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3, and MMPs gene expression was suppressed in the primary tumors of the LLC-sVEGFR-2 group compared with the control group. Furthermore, there were fewer micro-metastases in the

  11. Profiling of differentially expressed genes using suppression subtractive hybridization in an equine model of chronic asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Lavoie

    Full Text Available Gene expression analyses are used to investigate signaling pathways involved in diseases. In asthma, they have been primarily derived from the analysis of bronchial biopsies harvested from mild to moderate asthmatic subjects and controls. Due to ethical considerations, there is currently limited information on the transcriptome profile of the peripheral lung tissues in asthma.To identify genes contributing to chronic inflammation and remodeling in the peripheral lung tissue of horses with heaves, a naturally occurring asthma-like condition.Eleven adult horses (6 heaves-affected and 5 controls were studied while horses with heaves were in clinical remission (Pasture, and during disease exacerbation induced by a 30-day natural antigen challenge during stabling (Challenge. Large peripheral lung biopsies were obtained by thoracoscopy at both time points. Using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH, lung cDNAs of controls (Pasture and Challenge and asymptomatic heaves-affected horses (Pasture were subtracted from cDNAs of horses with heaves in clinical exacerbation (Challenge. The differential expression of selected genes of interest was confirmed using quantitative PCR assay.Horses with heaves, but not controls, developed airway obstruction when challenged. Nine hundred and fifty cDNA clones isolated from the subtracted library were screened by dot blot array and 224 of those showing the most marked expression differences were sequenced. The gene expression pattern was confirmed by quantitative PCR in 15 of 22 selected genes. Novel genes and genes with an already defined function in asthma were identified in the subtracted cDNA library. Genes of particular interest associated with asthmatic airway inflammation and remodeling included those related to PPP3CB/NFAT, RhoA, and LTB4/GPR44 signaling pathways.Pathways representing new possible targets for anti-inflammatory and anti-remodeling therapies for asthma were identified. The findings of genes

  12. Upregulation of SOCS3 in lung CD4+ T cells in a mouse model of chronic PA lung infection and suppression of Th17‑mediated neutrophil recruitment in exogenous SOCS3 transfer in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Feng-Ming; Liao, Ruo-Min; Chen, Yu-Qing; Xie, Guo-Gang; Zhang, Peng-Yu; Shao, Ping; Zhang, Min

    2017-07-01

    Neutrophilic airway inflammation in chronic lung infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is associated with T helper (Th)17 responses. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) is the major negative modulator of Th17 function through the suppression of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 activation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of SOCS3 in lung CD4+ T cells in a mouse model of chronic PA lung infection and the effect of exogenous SOCS3 on Th17‑mediated neutrophil recruitment in vitro. A mouse model of chronic PA lung infection was established and the activation of STAT3 and Th17 response in lung tissues and lung CD4+ T cells was assessed. The protein and mRNA expression of SOCS3 in lung CD4+ T cells was analyzed by western blotting and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The authors constructed a recombinant lentivirus carrying the SOCS3 gene and transferred it into lung CD4+ T cells isolated from a mouse model. These transfected cells were stimulated with interleukin (IL)‑23 in vitro and the protein level of p‑STAT3 and retinoid‑related orphan receptor (ROR)γt was determined by western blotting. The expression of IL‑17A+ cells was analyzed by flow cytometry and the level of IL‑17A in cell culture supernatant was measured by ELISA. The mouse lung epithelial cell line, MLE‑12, was cocultured with lung CD4+ T cells that overexpressed the SOCS3 gene and the culture supernatant was harvested and used for a chemotaxis assay. Compared with control mice, mice with chronic PA lung infection had significantly higher level of p‑STAT3 and Th17 response in both lung tissues and lung CD4+ T cells. The protein and mRNA level of SOCS3 in lung CD4+ T cells increased as the chronic PA lung infection developed. Exogenous SOCS3 gene transfer in PA‑infected lung CD4+ T cells decreased p‑STAT3 and RORγt expression and suppressed the level of IL‑17A+ cells in

  13. Folate receptor-targeted nanoparticle delivery of HuR-RNAi suppresses lung cancer cell proliferation and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Ranganayaki; Babu, Anish; Amreddy, Narsireddy; Basalingappa, Kanthesh; Mehta, Meghna; Chen, Allshine; Zhao, Yan Daniel; Kompella, Uday B; Munshi, Anupama; Ramesh, Rajagopal

    2016-06-21

    Human antigen R (HuR) is an RNA binding protein that is overexpressed in many human cancers, including lung cancer, and has been shown to regulate the expression of several oncoproteins. Further, HuR overexpression in cancer cells has been associated with poor-prognosis and therapy resistance. Therefore, we hypothesized that targeted inhibition of HuR in cancer cells should suppress several HuR-regulated oncoproteins resulting in an effective anticancer efficacy. To test our hypothesis, in the present study we investigated the efficacy of folate receptor-α (FRA)-targeted DOTAP:Cholesterol lipid nanoparticles carrying HuR siRNA (HuR-FNP) against human lung cancer cells. The therapeutic efficacy of HuR-FNP was tested in FRA overexpressing human H1299 lung cancer cell line and compared to normal lung fibroblast (CCD16) cells that had low to no FRA expression. Physico-chemical characterization studies showed HuR-FNP particle size was 303.3 nm in diameter and had a positive surface charge (+4.3 mV). Gel retardation and serum stability assays showed that the FNPs were efficiently protected siRNA from rapid degradation. FNP uptake was significantly higher in H1299 cells compared to CCD16 cells indicating a receptor-dose effect. The results of competitive inhibition studies in H1299 cells demonstrated that HuR-FNPs were efficiently internalized via FRA-mediated endocytosis. Biologic studies demonstrated HuR-FNP but not C-FNP (control siRNA) induced G1 phase cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in H1299 cells resulting in significant growth inhibition. Further, HuR-FNP exhibited significantly higher cytotoxicity against H1299 cells than it did against CCD16 cells. The reduction in H1299 cell viability was correlated with a marked decrease in HuR mRNA and protein expression. Further, reduced expression of HuR-regulated oncoproteins (cyclin D1, cyclin E, and Bcl-2) and increased p27 tumor suppressor protein were observed in HuR-FNP-treated H1299 cells but not in C

  14. Perillyl alcohol suppresses antigen-induced immune responses in the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imamura, Mitsuru; Sasaki, Oh; Okunishi, Katsuhide; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Harada, Hiroaki; Kawahata, Kimito; Tanaka, Ryoichi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko [Department of Allergy and Rheumatology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Dohi, Makoto, E-mail: mdohi-tky@umin.ac.jp [Department of Allergy and Rheumatology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Institute of Respiratory Immunology, Shibuya Clinic for Respiratory Diseases and Allergology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •Perillyl alcohol (POH) is an isoprenoid which inhibits the mevalonate pathway. •We examined whether POH suppresses immune responses with a mouse model of asthma. •POH treatment during sensitization suppressed Ag-induced priming of CD4{sup +} T cells. •POH suppressed airway eosinophila and cytokine production in thoracic lymph nodes. -- Abstract: Perillyl alcohol (POH) is an isoprenoid which inhibits farnesyl transferase and geranylgeranyl transferase, key enzymes that induce conformational and functional changes in small G proteins to conduct signal production for cell proliferation. Thus, it has been tried for the treatment of cancers. However, although it affects the proliferation of immunocytes, its influence on immune responses has been examined in only a few studies. Notably, its effect on antigen-induced immune responses has not been studied. In this study, we examined whether POH suppresses Ag-induced immune responses with a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation. POH treatment of sensitized mice suppressed proliferation and cytokine production in Ag-stimulated spleen cells or CD4{sup +} T cells. Further, sensitized mice received aerosolized OVA to induce allergic airway inflammation, and some mice received POH treatment. POH significantly suppressed indicators of allergic airway inflammation such as airway eosinophilia. Cytokine production in thoracic lymph nodes was also significantly suppressed. These results demonstrate that POH suppresses antigen-induced immune responses in the lung. Considering that it exists naturally, POH could be a novel preventive or therapeutic option for immunologic lung disorders such as asthma with minimal side effects.

  15. Long noncoding RNA TUG1 is a diagnostic factor in lung adenocarcinoma and suppresses apoptosis via epigenetic silencing of BAX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Zhou, Guizhi; Fu, Xin; Cui, Haiyan; Pu, Guangrui; Xiao, Yao; Sun, Wei; Dong, Xinhua; Zhang, Libin; Cao, Sijia; Li, Guiqin; Wu, Xiaowei; Yang, Xu

    2017-11-24

    Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality, and responds badly to existing treatment. Thus, it is of urgent need to identify novel diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets. Increasing evidences have indicated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an important role in initiation and progression of lung cancer. However, the role of lncRNA Taurine upregulated 1 (TUG1) in lung adenocarcinoma (LAD) progression is not well known. In this study, we determined the diagnostic value of TUG1 in LAD patients, and further uncovered the underlying functional mechanism. Our results showed that TUG1 was significantly upregulated in LAD cells and serum samples. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis suggested a relatively higher area under the curve (AUC) of TUG1 (0.756) contrast to cyfra21-1 (0.619). In addition, high TUG1 level was associated with enhanced tumor size, degree of differentiation, lymph node metastases, distant metastasis and TNM stage. Cell functional assays showed that knockdown of TUG1 suppressed LAD cell viability and promoted cell apoptosis. We then sought to reveal the underlying regulatory mechanism, and the pro-apoptotic protein BAX was then identified as the downstream target of TUG1. Gain and loss functional assays showed that inhibition of BAX reversed the induced apoptosis by TUG1 knockdown. Finally, RNA immunoprecipitation and Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that TUG1 suppressed BAX expression through physically interacting with EZH2. In conclusion, lncRNA TUG1 is a promising diagnostic marker for LAD patients and suppression of TUG1 levels could be a future direction to promote the prognosis of LAD patients.

  16. Captopril pretreatment protects the lung against severe acute pancreatitis induced injury via inhibiting angiotensin II production and suppressing Rho/ROCK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qi-Hong; Guo, Jie-Fang; Chen, Yan; Guo, Xiao-Rong; Du, Yi-Qi; Li, Zhao-Shen

    2016-09-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) usually causes acute lung injury, which is also known as acute pancreatitis associated lung injury (APALI). This study aimed to investigate whether captopril pretreatment was able to protect lung against APALI via inhibiting angiotensin II (Ang II) production and suppressing Rho/ROCK (Rho kinase) pathway in rats. Severe AP (SAP) was introduced to rats by bile-pancreatic duct retrograde injection of 5% sodium taurocholate. Rats were randomly divided into three groups. In the sham group, sham operation was performed; in the SAP group, SAP was introduced; in the pre-cpl + SAP group, rats were intragastrically injected with 5 mg/kg captopril 1 hour prior to SAP induction. Pathological examination of the lung and pancreas, evaluation of pulmonary vascular permeability by wet/dry ratio and Evans Blue staining, detection of serum amylase, Western blot assay for Ang II receptor type 1 (AT1), RhoA, ROCK (Rho kinase), and MLCK (myosin light chain kinase) were performed after the animals were sacrificed at 24 hours. After the surgery, characteristic findings of pancreatitis were observed, accompanied by lung injury. The serum amylase, Ang II, and lung expression of AT1, RhoA, ROCK, and MLCK increased dramatically in SAP rats. However, captopril pretreatment improved the histological changes, reduced the pathological score of the pancreas and lung, inhibited serum amylase and Ang II production, and decreased expression of AT1, RhoA, ROCK, and MLCK in the lung. These findings suggest that captopril pretreatment is able to protect the lung against APALI, which is, at least partially, related to the inhibition of Ang II production and the suppression of the Rho/ROCK pathway. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  17. Exposure to low doses of formaldehyde during pregnancy suppresses the development of allergic lung inflammation in offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiellaro, Marília [Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analyses, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Correa-Costa, Matheus [Department of Immunology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Vitoretti, Luana Beatriz; Gimenes Júnior, João Antônio [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva [Department of Immunology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Tavares-de-Lima, Wothan [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliselli [Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analyses, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Lino-dos-Santos-Franco, Adriana, E-mail: adrilino@usp.br [Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analyses, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is an environmental and occupational pollutant, and its toxic effects on the immune system have been shown. Nevertheless, no data are available regarding the programming mechanisms after FA exposure and its repercussions for the immune systems of offspring. In this study, our objective was to investigate the effects of low-dose exposure of FA on pregnant rats and its repercussion for the development of allergic lung inflammation in offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned in 3 groups: P (rats exposed to FA (0.75 ppm, 1 h/day, 5 days/week, for 21 days)), C (rats exposed to vehicle of FA (distillated water)) and B (rats non-manipulated). After 30 days of age, the offspring was sensitised with ovalbumin (OVA)-alum and challenged with aerosolized OVA (1%, 15 min, 3 days). After 24 h the OVA challenge the parameters were evaluated. Our data showed that low-dose exposure to FA during pregnancy induced low birth weight and suppressed the development of allergic lung inflammation and tracheal hyperresponsiveness in offspring by mechanisms mediated by reduced anaphylactic antibodies synthesis, IL-6 and TNF-alpha secretion. Elevated levels of IL-10 were found. Any systemic alteration was detected in the exposed pregnant rats, although oxidative stress in the uterine environment was evident at the moment of the delivery based on elevated COX-1 expression and reduced cNOS and SOD-2 in the uterus. Therefore, we show the putative programming mechanisms induced by FA on the immune system for the first time and the mechanisms involved may be related to oxidative stress in the foetal microenvironment. - Highlights: • Formaldehyde exposure does not cause lung inflammation in pregnant rats. • Formaldehyde exposure suppresses allergic lung inflammation in the offspring. • Formaldehyde exposure induces oxidative stress in uterine environment.

  18. Prediction of the gene expression in normal lung tissue by the gene expression in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, Justin W; Zhu, Dakai; Qian, David C; Byun, Jinyoung; Gorlova, Olga Y; Amos, Christopher I; Gorlov, Ivan P

    2015-11-17

    Comparative analysis of gene expression in human tissues is important for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying tissue-specific control of gene expression. It can also open an avenue for using gene expression in blood (which is the most easily accessible human tissue) to predict gene expression in other (less accessible) tissues, which would facilitate the development of novel gene expression based models for assessing disease risk and progression. Until recently, direct comparative analysis across different tissues was not possible due to the scarcity of paired tissue samples from the same individuals. In this study we used paired whole blood/lung gene expression data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. We built a generalized linear regression model for each gene using gene expression in lung as the outcome and gene expression in blood, age and gender as predictors. For ~18 % of the genes, gene expression in blood was a significant predictor of gene expression in lung. We found that the number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) influencing expression of a given gene in either blood or lung, also known as the number of quantitative trait loci (eQTLs), was positively associated with efficacy of blood-based prediction of that gene's expression in lung. This association was strongest for shared eQTLs: those influencing gene expression in both blood and lung. In conclusion, for a considerable number of human genes, their expression levels in lung can be predicted using observable gene expression in blood. An abundance of shared eQTLs may explain the strong blood/lung correlations in the gene expression.

  19. Construction of the suppression subtractive cDNA libraries of human large cell lung cancer line L9981 before and after transfection with nm23-H1 gene

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    Sujuan YE

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been proven that nm23-H1 gene is an important metastatic-suppressed gene of lung cancer. In order to screen the differential expression genes related to nm23-H1, we constructed the suppression subtractive cDNA libraries of human large cell lung cancer line L9981 transfected and untransfected with nm23-H1 gene by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH in this study, which lay a solid foundation for further screening and cloning metastatic-related genes of nm23-H1. Methods The forward and reverse suppression subtractive cDNA libraries were constructed in the human large cell lung cancer line L9981 before and after transfection with nm23-H1 gene (L9981 and L9981-nm23-H1 by SSH method. The positive clones were preliminarily screened by blue-white colony, and precisely identified by PCR. Results The suppression subtractive cDNA libraries were successfully constructed in the human large cell lung cancer line L9981 transfected and untransfected with nm23-H1 gene (L9981-nm23-H1 and L9981. After the blue-white screening, about three hundred positive clones in the forward subtracted library and four hundred positive clones in the reverse subtracted library were obtained. Ramdom analysis of 96 clones in each library with colony PCR methods showed that 84 clones in the forward subtracted library and 83 clones in the reverse subtracted library contained (300-750 bp inserts. Conclusion SSH is proved to be an efficient tool for differential expression gene cloning. The forward and reverse suppression subtractive cDNA libraries of human large cell lung cancer line L9981 transfected and untransfected with nm23-H1 gene (L9981-nm23-H1 and L9981 are successfully constructed by SSH and T/A cloning technology. The expression of nm23-H1 gene in the human large cell lung cancer cell lines may affect the differential expression of some metastatic-related genes.

  20. Expression Profiling in Granulomatous Lung Disease

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    Chen, Edward S.; Moller, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Granulomatous lung diseases, such as sarcoidosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, Wegener's granulomatosis, and chronic beryllium disease, along with granulomatous diseases of known infectious etiologies, such as tuberculosis, are major causes of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Clinical manifestations of these diseases are highly heterogeneous, and the determinants of disease susceptibility and clinical course (e.g., resolution vs. chronic, progressive fibrosis) are largely unknow...

  1. RYBP Inhibits Progression and Metastasis of Lung Cancer by Suppressing EGFR Signaling and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

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    Xiaoxiao Dinglin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer (LC is a common lethal malignancy with rapid progression and metastasis, and Ring1 and YY1 binding protein (RYBP has been shown to suppress cell growth in human cancers. This study aimed to investigate the role of RYBP in LC progression and metastasis. In this study, a total of 149 LC patients were recruited, and the clinical stage of their tumors, metastasis status, survival time, presence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR mutation, and RYBP expression levels were measured. RYBP silencing and overexpression were experimentally performed in LC cell lines and in nude mice, and the expressions of genes in EGFR-related signaling pathways and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT were detected. The results showed that RYBP was downregulated in LC compared with adjacent normal tissues, and low RYBP expression was associated with a more severe clinical stage, high mortality, high metastasis risk, and poor survival. Cell proliferation and xenograft growth were inhibited by RYBP overexpression, whereas proliferation and xenograft growth were accelerated by RYBP silencing. EGFR and phosphorylated-EGFR levels were upregulated when RYBP was silenced, whereas EGFR, p-EGFR, p-AKT, and p-ERK were downregulated when RYBP was overexpressed. Low RYBP expression was related to a high metastasis risk, and metastasized tumors showed low RYBP levels. Cell migration and invasion were promoted by silencing RYBP but were inhibited by overexpressed RYBP. In addition, the EMT marker vimentin showed diminished expression, and E-cadherin was promoted by the overexpression of RYBP. In conclusion, our data suggest that RYBP suppresses cell proliferation and LC progression by impeding the EGFR-ERK and EGFR-AKT signaling pathways and thereby inhibiting cell migration and invasion and LC metastasis through the suppression of EMT.

  2. A novel telomerase activator suppresses lung damage in a murine model of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

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    Claude Jourdan Le Saux

    Full Text Available The emergence of diseases associated with telomere dysfunction, including AIDS, aplastic anemia and pulmonary fibrosis, has bolstered interest in telomerase activators. We report identification of a new small molecule activator, GRN510, with activity ex vivo and in vivo. Using a novel mouse model, we tested the potential of GRN510 to limit fibrosis induced by bleomycin in mTERT heterozygous mice. Treatment with GRN510 at 10 mg/kg/day activated telomerase 2-4 fold both in hematopoietic progenitors ex vivo and in bone marrow and lung tissue in vivo, respectively. Telomerase activation was countered by co-treatment with Imetelstat (GRN163L, a potent telomerase inhibitor. In this model of bleomycin-induced fibrosis, treatment with GRN510 suppressed the development of fibrosis and accumulation of senescent cells in the lung via a mechanism dependent upon telomerase activation. Treatment of small airway epithelial cells (SAEC or lung fibroblasts ex vivo with GRN510 revealed telomerase activating and replicative lifespan promoting effects only in the SAEC, suggesting that the mechanism accounting for the protective effects of GRN510 against induced lung fibrosis involves specific types of lung cells. Together, these results support the use of small molecule activators of telomerase in therapies to treat idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

  3. Emodin suppresses migration and invasion through the modulation of CXCR4 expression in an orthotopic model of human hepatocellular carcinoma.

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    Kanjoormana Aryan Manu

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence(s indicate that CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling cascade plays an important role in the process of invasion and metastasis that accounts for more than 80% of deaths in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC patients. Thus, identification of novel agents that can downregulate CXCR4 expression and its associated functions have a great potential in the treatment of metastatic HCC. In the present report, we investigated an anthraquinone derivative, emodin for its ability to affect CXCR4 expression as well as function in HCC cells. We observed that emodin downregulated the expression of CXCR4 in a dose-and time-dependent manner in HCC cells. Treatment with pharmacological proteasome and lysosomal inhibitors did not have substantial effect on emodin-induced decrease in CXCR4 expression. When investigated for the molecular mechanism(s, it was observed that the suppression of CXCR4 expression was due to downregulation of mRNA expression, inhibition of NF-κB activation, and abrogation of chromatin immunoprecipitation activity. Inhibition of CXCR4 expression by emodin further correlated with the suppression of CXCL12-induced migration and invasion in HCC cell lines. In addition, emodin treatment significantly suppressed metastasis to the lungs in an orthotopic HCC mice model and CXCR4 expression in tumor tissues. Overall, our results show that emodin exerts its anti-metastatic effect through the downregulation of CXCR4 expression and thus has the potential for the treatment of HCC.

  4. Small Interfering RNA Efficiently Suppresses Adhesion Molecule Expression on Pulmonary Microvascular Endothelium

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    Tobias Walker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adhesion molecules are known to influence postoperative organ function, they are hardly involved in the inflammatory response following the ischemia-reperfusion injury. We sought to investigate the potency of small interfering RNAs to suppress adhesion molecule expression in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells. Methods. Human lung microvascular endothelial cells were transfected with specific siRNA followed by a stimulation of the cells with an inflammatory cytokine. Adhesion molecule expression was determined by FACS-analysis, and reduction of intracellular mRNA was determined by qRT-PCR. Furthermore, the attachment of isolated neutrophils on the endothelial layer was determined after siRNA transfection. Results. In summary, siRNA transfection significantly decreased the percentage positive cells in a single cocktail transfection of each adhesion molecule investigated. Adhering neutrophils were diminished as well. Conclusion. siRNA might be a promising tool for the effective suppression of adhesion molecule expression on pulmonary microvascular cells, potentially minimizing leukocyte-endothelial depending interactions of a pulmonary allograft.

  5. Zinc finger protein 668 suppresses non-small cell lung cancer invasion and migration by downregulating Snail and upregulating E-cadherin and zonula occludens-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiupeng; Jiang, Guiyang; Wu, Jingjing; Zhou, Haijing; Zhang, Yong; Miao, Yuan; Feng, Yangyang; Yu, Juanhan

    2018-03-01

    Zinc finger protein 668 (ZNF668) is a recently discovered protein and its expression levels, as well as its involvement in the invasion and metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), are largely unknown. In the present study, immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that ZNF668 protein expression was decreased in lung tumors (51/167, 30.5%) compared with adjacent normal lung tissues (43/62, 69.4%; P<0.001). Subsequent statistical analysis revealed that ZNF668 expression was negatively associated with increased tumor-node-metastasis stage (P=0.019) and lymph node metastasis (P=0.002). Following ZNF668 downregulation by transfection of a ZNF668 -expressing plasmid or small interfering RNA, it was demonstrated that ZNF668 inhibited the invasion and migration of NSCLC cells. Furthermore, restoration of ZNF668 expression downregulated the expression of Snail and increased the protein levels of epithelial (E-)cadherin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1). The results of the present study suggest that ZNF668 is downregulated in human NSCLC. Furthermore, restoration of ZNF668 expression was demonstrated to decrease the expression of Snail and increase the expression of E-cadherin and ZO-1, suppressing the invasion and migration of NSCLC cells.

  6. Ectopic expression of SUPERMAN suppresses development of petals and stamens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jae-Young; Weigel, Detlef; Lee, Ilha

    2002-01-01

    The floral regulatory gene SUPERMAN (SUP) encodes a C2H2 type zinc finger protein that is required for maintaining boundaries between floral organs in Arabidopsis. It has been proposed that the main function of SUP is to balance cell proliferation in the third and fourth whorl of developing flowers, thereby maintaining the boundaries between the two whorls. To gain further insight into the function of SUP, we have ectopically expressed SUP using the promoter of APETALA1 (AP1), a gene that is initially expressed throughout floral meristems and later becomes restricted to the first and second whorls. Flowers of AP1::SUP plants have fewer floral organs, consistent with an effect of SUP on cell proliferation. In addition, the AP1::SUP transgene caused the conversion of petals to sepals and suppressed the development of stamens. The expression of the B function homeotic gene APETALA3 (AP3) and its regulator UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) were delayed and reduced in AP1::SUP flowers. However, SUP does not act merely through UFO, as constitutive expression of UFO did not rescue the defects in petal and stamen development in AP1::SUP flowers. Together, these results suggest that SUP has both indirect and direct effects on the expression of B function homeotic genes.

  7. Hydroxysafflor yellow A suppress oleic acid-induced acute lung injury via protein kinase A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chaoyun [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China); Huang, Qingxian [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital, Yantai, Shandong 264000 (China); Wang, Chunhua; Zhu, Xiaoxi; Duan, Yunfeng; Yuan, Shuai [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China); Bai, Xianyong, E-mail: xybai2012@163.com [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Inflammation response and oxidative stress play important roles in acute lung injury (ALI). Activation of the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway may attenuate ALI by suppressing immune responses and inhibiting the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) is a natural flavonoid compound that reduces oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine-mediated damage. In this study, we examined whether HSYA could protect the lungs from oleic acid (OA)-induced injury, which was used to mimic ALI, and determined the role of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway in this process. Arterial oxygen tension (PaO{sub 2}), carbon dioxide tension, pH, and the PaO{sub 2}/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio in the blood were detected using a blood gas analyzer. We measured wet/dry lung weight ratio and evaluated tissue morphology. The protein and inflammatory cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum were determined using enzyme-linked immunoassay. The activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, PKA, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, and the concentrations of cAMP and malondialdehyde in the lung tissue were detected using assay kits. Bcl-2, Bax, caspase 3, and p22{sup phox} levels in the lung tissue were analyzed using Western blotting. OA increased the inflammatory cytokine and ROS levels and caused lung dysfunction by decreasing cAMP synthesis, inhibiting PKA activity, stimulating caspase 3, and reducing the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. H-89 increased these effects. HSYA significantly increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes, inhibited the inflammatory response via cAMP/PKA pathway activation, and attenuated OA-induced lung injury. Our results show that the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway is required for the protective effect of HSYA against ALI. - Highlights: • Oleic acid (OA) cause acute lung injury (ALI) via inhibiting cAMP/PKA signal pathway. • Blocking protein kinase A (PKA) activation may

  8. Hydroxysafflor yellow A suppress oleic acid-induced acute lung injury via protein kinase A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chaoyun; Huang, Qingxian; Wang, Chunhua; Zhu, Xiaoxi; Duan, Yunfeng; Yuan, Shuai; Bai, Xianyong

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation response and oxidative stress play important roles in acute lung injury (ALI). Activation of the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway may attenuate ALI by suppressing immune responses and inhibiting the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) is a natural flavonoid compound that reduces oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine-mediated damage. In this study, we examined whether HSYA could protect the lungs from oleic acid (OA)-induced injury, which was used to mimic ALI, and determined the role of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway in this process. Arterial oxygen tension (PaO 2 ), carbon dioxide tension, pH, and the PaO 2 /fraction of inspired oxygen ratio in the blood were detected using a blood gas analyzer. We measured wet/dry lung weight ratio and evaluated tissue morphology. The protein and inflammatory cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum were determined using enzyme-linked immunoassay. The activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, PKA, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, and the concentrations of cAMP and malondialdehyde in the lung tissue were detected using assay kits. Bcl-2, Bax, caspase 3, and p22 phox levels in the lung tissue were analyzed using Western blotting. OA increased the inflammatory cytokine and ROS levels and caused lung dysfunction by decreasing cAMP synthesis, inhibiting PKA activity, stimulating caspase 3, and reducing the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. H-89 increased these effects. HSYA significantly increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes, inhibited the inflammatory response via cAMP/PKA pathway activation, and attenuated OA-induced lung injury. Our results show that the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway is required for the protective effect of HSYA against ALI. - Highlights: • Oleic acid (OA) cause acute lung injury (ALI) via inhibiting cAMP/PKA signal pathway. • Blocking protein kinase A (PKA) activation may enhance Cytokine

  9. Sensitization of TNF-induced cytotoxicity in lung cancer cells by concurrent suppression of the NF-κB and Akt pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xia; Chen Wenshu; Lin Yong

    2007-01-01

    Blockage of either nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) or Akt sensitizes cancer cells to TNF-induced apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the undetermined effect of concurrent blockage of these two survival pathways on TNF-induced cytotoxicity in lung cancer cells. The results show that Akt contributes to TNF-induced NF-κB activation in lung cancer cells through regulating phosphorylation of the p65/RelA subunit of NF-κB. Although individually blocking IKK or Akt partially suppressed TNF-induced NF-κB activation, concurrent suppression of these pathways completely inhibited TNF-induced NF-κB activation and downstream anti-apoptotic gene expression, and synergistically potentiated TNF-induced cytotoxicity. Moreover, suppression of Akt inhibited the Akt-mediated anti-apoptotic pathway through dephosphorylation of BAD. These results indicate that concurrent suppression of NF-κB and Akt synergistically sensitizes TNF-induced cytotoxicity through blockage of distinct survival pathways downstream of NF-κB and Akt, which may be applied in lung cancer therapy

  10. Gigantol Suppresses Cancer Stem Cell-Like Phenotypes in Lung Cancer Cells

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    Narumol Bhummaphan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As cancer stem cells (CSCs contribute to malignancy, metastasis, and relapse of cancers, potential of compound in inhibition of CSCs has garnered most attention in the cancer research as well as drug development fields recently. Herein, we have demonstrated for the first time that gigantol, a pure compound isolated from Dendrobium draconis, dramatically suppressed stem-like phenotypes of human lung cancer cells. Gigantol at nontoxic concentrations significantly reduced anchorage-independent growth and survival of the cancer cells. Importantly, gigantol significantly reduced the ability of the cancer cells to form tumor spheroids, a critical hallmark of CSCs. Concomitantly, the treatment of the compound was shown to reduce well-known lung CSCs markers, including CD133 and ALDH1A1. Moreover, we revealed that gigantol decreased stemness in the cancer cells by suppressing the activation of protein kinase B (Akt signal which in turn decreased the cellular levels of pluripotency and self-renewal factors Oct4 and Nanog. In conclusion, gigantol possesses CSCs suppressing activity which may facilitate the development of this compound for therapeutic approaches by targeting CSCs.

  11. PIAS3 expression in squamous cell lung cancer is low and predicts overall survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Rime; McColl, Karen S; Kresak, Adam; Yang, Michael; Chen, Yanwen; Fu, Pingfu; Wildey, Gary; Dowlati, Afshin

    2015-01-01

    Unlike lung adenocarcinoma, little progress has been made in the treatment of squamous cell lung carcinoma (SCC). The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) has recently reported that receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathways are altered in 26% of SCC tumors, validating the importance of downstream Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription 3 (STAT3) activity as a prime therapeutic target in this cancer. In the present report we examine the status of an endogenous inhibitor of STAT3, called Protein Inhibitor of Activated STAT3 (PIAS3), in SCC and its potential role in this disease. We examine PIAS3 expression in SCC tumors and cell lines by immunohistochemistry of a tissue microarray and western blotting. PIAS3 mRNA expression and survival data are analyzed in the TCGA data set. SCC cell lines are treated with curcumin to regulate PIAS3 expression and cell growth. PIAS3 protein expression is decreased in a majority of lung SCC tumors and cell lines. Analysis of PIAS3 mRNA transcript levels demonstrated that low PIAS3 levels predicted poor survival; Cox regression analysis revealed a hazard ratio of 0.57 (95% CI: 0.37–0.87), indicating a decrease in the risk of death by 43% for every unit elevation in PIAS3 gene expression. Curcumin treatment increased endogenous PIAS3 expression and decreased cell growth and viability in Calu-1 cells, a model of SCC. Our results implicate PIAS3 loss in the pathology of lung SCC and raise the therapeutic possibility of upregulating PIAS3 expression as a single target that can suppress signaling from the multiple receptor tyrosine kinase receptors found to be amplified in SCC

  12. Let-7b-mediated suppression of basigin expression and metastasis in mouse melanoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Tzu-Yen [Department of Animal Science, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chia-Che [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, 91 Hsueh Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chun-Ting [Department of Animal Science, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Lai, Cong-Hao [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Department of Life Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Peng, Shao-Yu; Ko, Yi-Ju [Department of Animal Science, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Tang, Pin-Chi, E-mail: pctang@dragon.nchu.edu.tw [Department of Animal Science, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China)

    2011-02-15

    Basigin (Bsg), also called extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), is highly expressed on the surface of tumor cells and stimulates adjacent fibroblasts or tumor cells to produce matrix metalloproteinases (mmps). It has been shown that Bsg plays an important role in growth, development, cell differentiation, and tumor progression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short endogenous non-protein coding RNAs of 20-25 nucleotides (nt) that function as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression by base-pairing to their target mRNAs and thereby mediate cleavage of target mRNAs or translational repression. In this study, let-7b, one of the let-7 family members, was investigated for its effect on the growth and invasiveness of the mouse melanoma cell line B16-F10. We have shown that let-7b can suppress the expression of Bsg in B16-F10 cells and also provided evidence that this suppression could result in the indirect suppression of mmp-9. The ability of B16-F10 cells transfected with let-7b to invade or migrate was significantly reduced. In addition, let-7b transfected B16-F10 cells displayed an inhibition of both cellular proliferation and colony formation. Furthermore, it was shown that the overexpression of let-7b in B16-F10 cells could reduce lung metastasis. Taken together, the present study identifies let-7b as a tumor suppressor that represses cancer cell proliferation and migration as well as tumor metastasis in mouse melanoma cells.

  13. Fear Expression Suppresses Medial Prefrontal Cortical Firing in Rats.

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    Thomas F Giustino

    Full Text Available The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC plays a crucial role in emotional learning and memory in rodents and humans. While many studies suggest a differential role for the prelimbic (PL and infralimbic (IL subdivisions of mPFC, few have considered the relationship between neural activity in these two brain regions recorded simultaneously in behaving animals. Importantly, how concurrent PL and IL activity relate to conditioned freezing behavior is largely unknown. Here we used single-unit recordings targeting PL and IL in awake, behaving rats during the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear. On Day 1, rats received either signaled or unsignaled footshocks in the recording chamber; an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS preceded signaled footshocks. Twenty-four hours later, animals were returned to the recording chamber (modified to create a novel context where they received 5 CS-alone trials. After fear conditioning, both signaled and unsignaled rats exhibited high levels of post-shock freezing that was associated with an enduring suppression of mPFC spontaneous firing, particularly in the IL of signaled rats. Twenty-four hours later, CS presentation produced differential conditioned freezing in signaled and unsignaled rats: freezing increased in rats that had received signaled shocks, but decreased in animals in the unsignaled condition (i.e., external inhibition. This group difference in CS-evoked freezing was mirrored in the spontaneous firing rate of neurons in both PL and IL. Interestingly, differences in PL and IL firing rate highly correlated with freezing levels. In other words, in the signaled group IL spontaneous rates were suppressed relative to PL, perhaps limiting IL-mediated suppression of fear and allowing PL activity to dominate performance, resulting in high levels of freezing. This was not observed in the unsignaled group, which exhibited low freezing. These data reveal that the activity of mPFC neurons is modulated by both

  14. Romo1 expression contributes to oxidative stress-induced death of lung epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jung Ar [Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul 135-270 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin Sil [Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sang-Ho [Department of Pathology, Pochon CHA University, College of Medicine, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung Jung, E-mail: khj57@yuhs.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul 135-270 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Young Do, E-mail: ydy1130@korea.ac.kr [Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: •Romo1 mediates oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial ROS production. •Romo1 induction by oxidative stress plays an important role in oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. •Romo1 overexpression correlates with epithelial cell death in patients with IPF. -- Abstract: Oxidant-mediated death of lung epithelial cells due to cigarette smoking plays an important role in pathogenesis in lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, the exact mechanism by which oxidants induce epithelial cell death is not fully understood. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulator 1 (Romo1) is localized in the mitochondria and mediates mitochondrial ROS production through complex III of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Here, we show that Romo1 mediates mitochondrial ROS production and apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in lung epithelial cells. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) treatment increased Romo1 expression, and Romo1 knockdown suppressed the cellular ROS levels and cell death triggered by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment. In immunohistochemical staining of lung tissues from patients with IPF, Romo1 was mainly localized in hyperplastic alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells. Romo1 overexpression was detected in 14 of 18 patients with IPF. TUNEL-positive alveolar epithelial cells were also detected in most patients with IPF but not in normal controls. These findings suggest that Romo1 mediates apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in lung epithelial cells.

  15. Manic fringe inhibits tumor growth by suppressing Notch3 degradation in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fuming; Amarasinghe, Baru; Dang, Thao P

    2013-01-01

    Notch signaling plays an essential role in development as well as cancer. We have previously shown that Notch3 is important for lung cancer growth and survival. Notch receptors are activated through the interaction with their ligands, resulting in proteolytic cleavage of the receptors. This interaction is modulated by Fringe, a family of fucose-specific β1,3 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases that modify the extracellular subunit of Notch receptors. Studies in developmental models showed that Fringe enhances Notch's response to Delta ligands at the expense of Jagged ligands. We observed that Manic Fringe expression is down-regulated in lung cancer. Since Jagged1, a known ligand for Notch3, is often over-expressed in lung cancer, we hypothesized that Fringe negatively regulates Notch3 activation. In this study, we show that re-expression of Manic Fringe down-regulates Notch3 target genes HES1 and HeyL and reduces tumor phenotype in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism for this phenomenon appears to be related to modulation of Notch3 protein stability. Proteasome inhibition reverses Manic Fringe-induced protein turnover. Taken together, our data provide the first evidence that Manic Fringe functions as a tumor suppressor in the lung and that the mechanism of its anti-tumor activity is mediated by inhibition of Notch3 activation.

  16. 17-AAG suppresses growth and invasion of lung adenocarcinoma cells via regulation of the LATS1/YAP pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiang-Yun; Luo, Qing-Quan; Xu, Yun-Hua; Tang, Nai-Wang; Niu, Xiao-Min; Li, Zi-Ming; Shen, Sheng-Ping; Lu, Shun; Chen, Zhi-Wei

    2015-03-01

    The large tumour suppressor 1 (LATS1) signalling network has been proved to be an essential regulator within the cell, participating in multiple cellular phenotypes. However, it is unclear concerning the clinical significance of LATS1 and the regulatory mechanisms of 17-Allylamino-17- demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) in lung adenocarcinoma (LAC). The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation of LATS1 and yes-associated protein (YAP) expression with clinicopathological characteristics in LAC patients, and the effects of 17-AAG on biological behaviours of LAC cells. Subcutaneous LAC tumour models were further established to observe the tumour growth in nude mice. The results showed that the positive expression of LATS1 was significantly lowered (26.7% versus 68.0%, P AAG inhibited proliferation and invasion, and induced cell apoptosis and cycle arrest in LAC cells together with increased expression of E-cadherin and p-LATS1, and decreased expression of YAP and connective tissue growth factor. Tumour volumes and weight were much smaller in 17-AAG-treated groups than those in untreated group (P AAG suppresses growth and invasion of LAC cells via regulation of the LATS1/YAP pathway in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that we may provide a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of human LAC. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  17. 17-AAG suppresses growth and invasion of lung adenocarcinoma cells via regulation of the LATS1/YAP pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiang-Yun; Luo, Qing-Quan; Xu, Yun-Hua; Tang, Nai-Wang; Niu, Xiao-Min; Li, Zi-Ming; Shen, Sheng-Ping; Lu, Shun; Chen, Zhi-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The large tumour suppressor 1 (LATS1) signalling network has been proved to be an essential regulator within the cell, participating in multiple cellular phenotypes. However, it is unclear concerning the clinical significance of LATS1 and the regulatory mechanisms of 17-Allylamino-17- demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) in lung adenocarcinoma (LAC). The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation of LATS1 and yes-associated protein (YAP) expression with clinicopathological characteristics in LAC patients, and the effects of 17-AAG on biological behaviours of LAC cells. Subcutaneous LAC tumour models were further established to observe the tumour growth in nude mice. The results showed that the positive expression of LATS1 was significantly lowered (26.7% versus 68.0%, P AAG inhibited proliferation and invasion, and induced cell apoptosis and cycle arrest in LAC cells together with increased expression of E-cadherin and p-LATS1, and decreased expression of YAP and connective tissue growth factor. Tumour volumes and weight were much smaller in 17-AAG-treated groups than those in untreated group (P AAG suppresses growth and invasion of LAC cells via regulation of the LATS1/YAP pathway in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that we may provide a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of human LAC. PMID:25712415

  18. Lipopolysaccharide triggers nuclear import of Lpcat1 to regulate inducible gene expression in lung epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Bryon; Kaercher, Leah; Snavely, Courtney; Zhao, Yutong; Zou, Chunbin

    2012-07-26

    To report that Lpcat1 plays an important role in regulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inducible gene transcription. Gene expression in Murine Lung Epithelial MLE-12 cells with LPS treatment or Haemophilus influenza and Escherichia coli infection was analyzed by employing quantitative Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction techniques. Nucleofection was used to deliver Lenti-viral system to express or knock down Lpcat1 in MLE cells. Subcellular protein fractionation and Western blotting were utilized to study Lpcat1 nuclear relocation. Lpcat1 translocates into the nucleus from the cytoplasm in murine lung epithelia (MLE) after LPS treatment. Haemophilus influenza and Escherichia coli, two LPS-containing pathogens that cause pneumonia, triggered Lpcat1 nuclear translocation from the cytoplasm. The LPS inducible gene expression profile was determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction after silencing Lpcat1 or overexpression of the enzyme in MLE cells. We detected that 17 out of a total 38 screened genes were upregulated, 14 genes were suppressed, and 7 genes remained unchanged in LPS treated cells in comparison to controls. Knockdown of Lpcat1 by shRNA dramatically changed the spectrum of the LPS inducible gene transcription, as 18 genes out of 38 genes were upregulated, of which 20 genes were suppressed or unchanged. Notably, in Lpcat1 overexpressed cells, 25 genes out of 38 genes were reduced in the setting of LPS treatment. These observations suggest that Lpcat1 relocates into the nucleus in response to bacterial infection to differentially regulate gene transcriptional repression.

  19. Beclin1-induced autophagy abrogates radioresistance of lung cancer cells by suppressing osteopontin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Seung-Hee; Minai-Tehrani, Arash; Shin, Ji-Young

    2012-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) serves as an indicator of resistance to radiotherapy. However, the role of OPN in the development of acquired radioresistance in human lung cancer cells has not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, the potential importance of OPN as a marker of lung cancer with a potential significant role in the development of radioresistance against repeated radiotherapy has prompted us to define the pathways by which OPN regulates lung cancer cell growth. In addition, autophagy has been reported to play a key role in the radiosensitization of cancer cells. Here, we report that increased OPN expression through induction of nuclear p53 following irradiation was inhibited by exogenous beclin-1 (BECN1). Our results clearly show that BECN1 gene expression led to induction of autophagy and inhibition of cancer cell growth and angiogenesis. Our results suggest that the induction of autophagy abrogated the radioresistance of the cancer cells. Interestingly, we showed that knockdown of OPN by lentivirus-mediated shRNA induced the autophagy of human lung cancer cell. Taken together, these results suggest that OPN and BECN1 can be molecular targets for overcoming radioresistance by controlling autophagy. (author)

  20. Transgenic expression of nonclassically secreted FGF suppresses kidney repair.

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    Aleksandr Kirov

    Full Text Available FGF1 is a signal peptide-less nonclassically released growth factor that is involved in angiogenesis, tissue repair, inflammation, and carcinogenesis. The effects of nonclassical FGF export in vivo are not sufficiently studied. We produced transgenic mice expressing FGF1 in endothelial cells (EC, which allowed the detection of FGF1 export to the vasculature, and studied the efficiency of postischemic kidney repair in these animals. Although FGF1 transgenic mice had a normal phenotype with unperturbed kidney structure, they showed a severely inhibited kidney repair after unilateral ischemia/reperfusion. This was manifested by a strong decrease of postischemic kidney size and weight, whereas the undamaged contralateral kidney exhibited an enhanced compensatory size increase. In addition, the postischemic kidneys of transgenic mice were characterized by hyperplasia of interstitial cells, paucity of epithelial tubular structures, increase of the areas occupied by connective tissue, and neutrophil and macrophage infiltration. The continuous treatment of transgenic mice with the cell membrane stabilizer, taurine, inhibited nonclassical FGF1 export and significantly rescued postischemic kidney repair. It was also found that similar to EC, the transgenic expression of FGF1 in monocytes and macrophages suppresses kidney repair. We suggest that nonclassical export may be used as a target for the treatment of pathologies involving signal peptide-less FGFs.

  1. Lgr4 Expression in Osteoblastic Cells Is Suppressed by Hydrogen Peroxide Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawaputanon Na Mahasarakham, Chantida; Izu, Yayoi; Nishimori, Katsuhiko; Izumi, Yuichi; Noda, Masaki; Ezura, Yoichi

    2017-07-01

    LGR4 is expressed in bone and has been shown to be involved in bone metabolism. Oxidative stress is one of the key issues in pathophysiology of osteoporosis. However, the link between Lgr4 and oxidative stress has not been known. Therefore, effects of hydrogen peroxide on Lgr4 expression in osteoblasts were examined. Hydrogen peroxide treatment suppressed the levels of Lgr4 mRNA expression in an osteoblastic cell line, MC3T3-E1. The suppressive effects were not obvious at 0.1 mM, while 1 mM hydrogen peroxide suppressed Lgr4 expression by more than 50%. Hydrogen peroxide treatment suppressed Lgr4 expression within 12 h and this suppression lasted at least up to 48 h. Hydrogen peroxide suppression of Lgr4 expression was still observed in the presence of a transcription inhibitor but was no longer observed in the presence of a protein synthesis inhibitor. Although Lgr4 expression in osteoblasts is enhanced by BMP2 treatment as reported before, hydrogen peroxide treatment suppressed Lgr4 even in the presence of BMP2. Finally, hydrogen peroxide suppressed Lgr4 expression in primary cultures of osteoblasts similarly to MC3T3-E1 cells. These date indicate that hydrogen peroxide suppresses Lgr4 expression in osteoblastic cells. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1761-1766, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Expression of transcription factor Pokemon in non-small cell lung cancer and its clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-hong; Wang, Sheng-fa; Yu, Liang; Wang, Ju; Chang, Hao; Yan, Wei-li; Fu, Kai; Zhang, Jian

    2008-03-05

    Transcription factor Pokemon, a central regulation gene of the important tumor suppressor ARF gene, exerted its activity by acting upstream of many tumor-suppressing genes and proto-oncogenes. Its expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its clinical significance remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of Pokemon in NSCLC and to explore its correlation with the clinical pathological characteristics and its influence on patients' prognosis. Fifty-five cases of NSCLC were involved in this study. The expression of Pokemon in the tumor tissue, the corresponding tumor adjacent tissue and the surrounding tissue was detected via reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting, with the aim of investigating the correlation between the expression of Pokemon in tumor tissue of NSCLC and its clinical pathological characteristics. Moreover, a prognostic analysis was carried out based upon the immunohistochemical (IHC) detection of the expression of Pokemon gene in archival tumor specimens (5 years ago) of 62 cases of NSCLC. Statistical significance of the expression of Pokemon mRNA and protein was determined in the tumor tissue, the tumor adjacent tissue and the surrounding tissue (PPokemon was determined not to be associated with the patients' sex, age, smoking condition, tumor differentiation degree, histology and lymph node metastasis condition. However, its relationship with TNM staging was established (PPokemon expression was significantly higher than that of those with positive Pokemon expression (P=0.004), therefore, the expression of Pokemon is believed to be an independent factor affecting prognosis (P=0.034). Pokemon was over-expressed in NSCLC tissue and the expression of Pokemon might be of clinical significance in non-small cell lung cancer prognostic evaluation.

  3. Repetitive Imaging of Reporter Gene Expression in the Lung

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    Jean-Christophe Richard

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Positron emission tomographic imaging is emerging as a powerful technology to monitor reporter transgene expression in the lungs and other organs. However, little information is available about its usefulness for studying gene expression over time. Therefore, we infected 20 rats with a replication-deficient adenovirus containing a fusion gene encoding for a mutant Herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase and an enhanced green fluorescent protein. Five additional rats were infected with a control virus. Pulmonary gene transfer was performed via intratracheal administration of vector using a surfactant-based method. Imaging was performed 4–6 hr, and 4, 7, and 10 days after gene transfer, using 9-(4-[18F]-fluoro-3-hydroxymethylbutylguanine, an imaging substrate for the mutant kinase. Lung tracer uptake assessed with imaging was moderately but significantly increased 4–6 hr after gene transfer, was maximal after 4 days, and was no longer detectable by 10 days. The temporal pattern of transgene expression measured ex vivo with in vitro assays of thymidine kinase activity and green fluorescent protein was similar to imaging. In conclusion, positron emission tomography is a reliable new tool to evaluate the onset and duration of reporter gene expression noninvasively in the lungs of intact animals.

  4. Trichostatin A suppresses lung adenocarcinoma development in Grg1 overexpressing transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ju; Li, Yan; Dong, Fengyun; Li, Liqun; Masuda, Takahiro; Allen, Thaddeus D; Lobe, Corrinne G

    2015-08-07

    Trichostatin A (TSA) is a histone deacetylase inhibitor and a potential therapeutic for various malignancies. The in vivo effect of TSA, however, has not been investigated in a transgenic lung cancer model. Previously, we generated transgenic mice with overexpression of Groucho-related-gene 1 (Grg1) and these mice all developed mucinous lung adenocarcinoma. Grg1 is a transcriptional co-repressor protein, the function of which is thought to depend on HDAC activity. However, functions outside the nucleus have also been proposed. We tested the supposition that Grg1-induced tumorigenesis is HDAC-dependent by assaying the therapeutic effect of TSA in the Grg1 transgenic mouse model. We found that TSA significantly inhibited lung tumorigenesis in Grg1 transgenic mice (p < 0.01). TSA did not affect overall Grg1 protein levels, but instead reduced ErbB1 and ErbB2 expression, which are upregulated by Grg1 in the absence of TSA. We confirmed this effect in A549 cells. Furthermore, lapatinib, an inhibitor of both ErbB1 and ErbB2, effectively masked the effect of TSA on the inhibition of A549 cell proliferation and migration, suggesting TSA does work, at least in part, by downregulating ErbB receptors. We additionally found that TSA reduced the expression of VEGF and VEGFR2, but not basic FGF and FGFR1. Our findings indicate that TSA effectively inhibits Grg1-induced lung tumorigenesis through the down-regulation of ErbB1 and ErbB2, as well as reduced VEGF signaling. This suggests TSA and other HDAC inhibitors could have therapeutic value in the treatment of lung cancers with Grg1 overexpression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Lidocaine inhibits the proliferation of lung cancer by regulating the expression of GOLT1A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Hu, Rong; Cheng, Yanyong; Wu, Xiaoyang; Xi, Siwei; Sun, Yu; Jiang, Hong

    2017-10-01

    Lidocaine is the most commonly used local anaesthetic in clinical and can inhibit proliferation, suppress invasion and migration and induce apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma (LAD) cells. However, its specific downstream molecular mechanism is unclear. LAD cell lines, A549 and H1299 cells, were treated with lidocaine. The proliferation was evaluated by the methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) assay. The expression level of related proteins was detected by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and Western blot assay. The results indicated that lidocaine dose-dependently suppressed the proliferation of A549 and H1299 cells. In the LAD patients' samples, GOLT1A was upregulated and involved in the poor prognosis and higher grade malignancy. Additionally, GOLT1A mediates the function of lidocaine on repressing proliferation by regulating the cell cycle in A549 cells. Our findings suggest that lidocaine downregulates the GOLT1A expression to repress the proliferation of lung cancer cells. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. iASPP is over-expressed in human non-small cell lung cancer and regulates the proliferation of lung cancer cells through a p53 associated pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jinfeng; Xie, Fei; Zhang, Lijian; Jiang, Wen G

    2010-01-01

    iASPP is a key inhibitor of tumour suppressor p53 and is found to be up-regulated in certain malignant conditions. The present study investigated the expression of iASPP in clinical lung cancer, a leading cancer type in the world, and the biological impact of this molecule on lung cancer cells. iASPP protein levels in lung cancer tissues were evaluated using an immunohistochemical method. In vitro, iASPP gene expression was suppressed with a lentvirus-mediated shRNA method and the biological impact after knocking down iASSP on lung cancer cell lines was investigated in connection with the p53 expression status. We showed here that the expression of iASPP was significantly higher in lung cancer tissues compared with the adjacent normal tissues. iASPP shRNA treatment resulted in a down-regulation of iASPP in lung cancer cells. There was a subsequent reduction of cell proliferation of the two lung tumour cell lines A459 and 95D both of which had wild-type p53 expression. In contrast, reduction of iASPP in H1229 cells, a cell with little p53 expression, had no impact on its growth rate. iASPP regulates the proliferation and motility of lung cancer cells. This effect is intimately associated with the p53 pathway. Together with the pattern of the over-expression in clinical lung cancers, it is concluded that iASPP plays an pivotal role in the progression of lung cancer and is a potential target for lung cancer therapy

  7. Ascorbate induces apoptosis in melanoma cells by suppressing Clusterin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafi, Sushmita; Sant, David W; Liu, Zhao-Jun; Wang, Gaofeng

    2017-06-16

    Pharmacological levels of ascorbate have long been suggested as a potential treatment of cancer. However, we observed that EC50 of ascorbate was at a similar level for cultured healthy melanocytes and melanoma cells, suggesting a limit of pharmacological ascorbate in treating cancer. Loss of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5 hmC) is an epigenetic hallmark of cancer and ascorbate promotes 5 hmC generation by serving as a cofactor for TET methylcytosine dioxygenases. Our previous work demonstrated that ascorbate treatment at physiological level (100 μM) increased 5 hmC content in melanoma cells toward the level of healthy melanocytes. Here we show that 100 µM of ascorbate induced apoptosis in A2058 melanoma cells. RNA-seq analysis revealed that expression of the Clusterin (CLU) gene, which is related to apoptosis, was downregulated by ascorbate. The suppression of CLU was verified at transcript level in different melanoma cell lines, and at protein level in A2058 cells. The anti-apoptotic cytoplasmic CLU was decreased, while the pro-apoptotic nuclear CLU was largely maintained, after ascorbate treatment. These changes in CLU subcellular localization were also associated with Bax and caspases activation, Bcl-xL sequestration, and cytochrome c release. Taken together, this study establishes an impending therapeutic role of physiological ascorbate to potentiate apoptosis in melanoma.

  8. Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Antibody Suppresses ERK and NF-κB Activation in Ischemia-Reperfusion Lung Injury.

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    Chou-Chin Lan

    Full Text Available Ischemia-reperfusion (IR-induced acute lung injury (ALI is implicated in several clinical conditions like lung transplantation, acute pulmonary embolism after thrombolytic therapy, re-expansion of collapsed lung from pneumothorax or pleural effusion, cardiopulmonary bypass and etc. Because mortality remains high despite advanced medical care, prevention and treatment are important clinical issues for IR-induced ALI. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF has a controversial role in ALI. We therefore conducted this study to determine the effects of anti-VEGF antibody in IR-induced ALI. In the current study, the IR-induced ALI was conducted in a rat model of isolated-perfused lung in situ in the chest. The animals were divided into the control, control + preconditioning anti-VEGF antibody (bevacizumab, 5mg/kg, IR, IR + preconditioning anti-VEGF antibody (1mg/kg, IR+ preconditioning anti-VEGF antibody (5mg/kg and IR+ post-IR anti-VEGF antibody (5mg/kg group. There were eight adult male Sprague-Dawley rats in each group. The IR caused significant pulmonary micro-vascular hyper-permeability, pulmonary edema, neutrophilic infiltration in lung tissues, increased tumor necrosis factor-α, and total protein concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. VEGF and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK were increased in IR-induced ALI. Administration of preconditioning anti-VEGF antibody significantly suppressed the VEGF and ERK expressions and attenuated the IR-induced lung injury. This study demonstrates the important role of VEGF in early IR-induced ALI. The beneficial effects of preconditioning anti-VEGF antibody in IR-induced ALI include the attenuation of lung injury, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and neutrophilic infiltration into the lung tissues.

  9. Novel direct AMPK activator suppresses non-small cell lung cancer through inhibition of lipid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Xie, Chun; Fan, Xing-Xing; Jiang, Ze-Bo; Wong, Vincent Kam-Wai; Xu, Jia-Hui; Yao, Xiao-Jun; Liu, Liang; Leung, Elaine Lai-Han

    2017-01-01

    Drug resistance is becoming an obstacle in anti-cancer therapies. For target-based therapy of lung cancer, gefitinib, as the first generation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), demonstrated good initial response to the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients whom harbors epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation. However, within one year, additional EGFR mutation occurred, leading to eventual gefitinib-resistance. Therefore, it is urgently to discover novel effective small molecule inhibitors for those patients. Abnormal energy metabolism is accepted as new cancer hallmark. Recently, a metabolism rate-limiting enzyme 5’-adenosine menophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has become a promising anti-cancer target. In this study, we have identified a novel direct AMPK agonist, D561-0775 from a compound library by using molecular docking screening technique. We demonstrated that D561-0775 exhibited significant inhibitory effect on gefitinib-resistant NSCLC cell lines but less cytotoxicity on normal cells. Furthermore, D561-0775 demonstrated a remarkable in vitro AMPK enzyme activation effect. Taken together, D561-0775 showed potential anti-cancer activity via inducing apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, suppressing glycolysis and cholesterol synthesis after activation of AMPK in gefitinib-resistant H1975 cells. D561-0775 has provided a new chemical structure that could be developed as cancer drug for gefitinib-resistant NSCLC patients through inhibition lipid metabolism by directly targeting at AMPK directly. PMID:29221189

  10. Caffeine modulates glucocorticoid-induced expression of CTGF in lung epithelial cells and fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehrholz, Markus; Glaser, Kirsten; Speer, Christian P; Seidenspinner, Silvia; Ottensmeier, Barbara; Kunzmann, Steffen

    2017-03-23

    Although caffeine and glucocorticoids are frequently used to treat chronic lung disease in preterm neonates, potential interactions are largely unknown. While anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids are well defined, their impact on airway remodeling is less characterized. Caffeine has been ascribed to positive effects on airway inflammation as well as remodeling. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, CCN2) plays a key role in airway remodeling and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic lung diseases such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. The current study addressed the impact of glucocorticoids on the regulation of CTGF in the presence of caffeine using human lung epithelial and fibroblast cells. The human airway epithelial cell line H441 and the fetal lung fibroblast strain IMR-90 were exposed to different glucocorticoids (dexamethasone, budesonide, betamethasone, prednisolone, hydrocortisone) and caffeine. mRNA and protein expression of CTGF, TGF-β1-3, and TNF-α were determined by means of quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblotting. H441 cells were additionally treated with cAMP, the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin, and the selective phosphodiesterase (PDE)-4 inhibitor cilomilast to mimic caffeine-mediated PDE inhibition. Treatment with different glucocorticoids (1 μM) significantly increased CTGF mRNA levels in H441 (p caffeine (10 mM), both glucocorticoid-induced mRNA and protein expression were significantly reduced in IMR-90 cells (p caffeine alone significantly suppressed basal expression of CTGF mRNA and protein in IMR-90 cells. Caffeine-induced reduction of CTGF mRNA expression seemed to be independent of cAMP levels, adenylyl cyclase activation, or PDE-4 inhibition. While dexamethasone or caffeine treatment did not affect TGF-β1 mRNA in H441 cells, increased expression of TGF-β2 and TGF-β3 mRNA was detected upon exposure to dexamethasone or dexamethasone and caffeine, respectively. Moreover

  11. HIV-1 transgene expression in rats induces differential expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha and zinc transporters in the liver and the lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guidot David M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly effective antiviral treatment can suppress HIV-1 infection, but the chronic effects of HIV-1-related viral proteins, including gp120 and Tat, on organs such as the lungs can be damaging. HIV-1 transgenic rodent models are useful for studying the systemic effects of these proteins independently of viral infection. We have previously shown that HIV-1 transgene expression (and therefore, HIV-1-related protein expression in rats decreases alveolar macrophage zinc levels and phagocytic capacity by unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that HIV-1 transgene expression induces chronic inflammation and zinc sequestration within the liver and thereby decreases zinc bioavailability in the lung. We examined the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα, the zinc storage protein, metallothionein (MT1, and the zinc exporter, ZNT1 in the livers and the lungs of wild type and HIV-1 transgenic rats ± dietary zinc supplementation. In addition, we measured zinc levels, the zinc importing protein ZIP1, and the phagocytic capacity in the alveolar macrophages. Results HIV-1 transgene expression increased the liver-specific expression of TNFα, suggesting a chronic inflammatory response within the liver in response to HIV-1-related protein expression. In parallel, HIV-1 transgene expression significantly increased MT1 and ZNT1 expression in the liver as compared to the lung, a pattern that is consistent with zinc sequestration in the liver as occurs during systemic inflammation. Further, HIV-1 transgene expression decreased intracellular zinc levels and increased expression of ZIP1 in the alveolar macrophages, a pattern consistent with zinc deficiency, and decreased their bacterial phagocytic capacity. Interestingly, dietary zinc supplementation in HIV-1 transgenic rats decreased gene expression of TNFα, MT1, and ZNT1 in the liver while simultaneously increasing their expression in the lung. In parallel

  12. Suppressed expression of T-box transcription factors is involved in senescence in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

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    George K Acquaah-Mensah

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a major global health problem. The etiology of COPD has been associated with apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. However, understanding of the molecular interactions that modulate COPD pathogenesis remains only partly resolved. We conducted an exploratory study on COPD etiology to identify the key molecular participants. We used information-theoretic algorithms including Context Likelihood of Relatedness (CLR, Algorithm for the Reconstruction of Accurate Cellular Networks (ARACNE, and Inferelator. We captured direct functional associations among genes, given a compendium of gene expression profiles of human lung epithelial cells. A set of genes differentially expressed in COPD, as reported in a previous study were superposed with the resulting transcriptional regulatory networks. After factoring in the properties of the networks, an established COPD susceptibility locus and domain-domain interactions involving protein products of genes in the generated networks, several molecular candidates were predicted to be involved in the etiology of COPD. These include COL4A3, CFLAR, GULP1, PDCD1, CASP10, PAX3, BOK, HSPD1, PITX2, and PML. Furthermore, T-box (TBX genes and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A, which are in a direct transcriptional regulatory relationship, emerged as preeminent participants in the etiology of COPD by means of senescence. Contrary to observations in neoplasms, our study reveals that the expression of genes and proteins in the lung samples from patients with COPD indicate an increased tendency towards cellular senescence. The expression of the anti-senescence mediators TBX transcription factors, chromatin modifiers histone deacetylases, and sirtuins was suppressed; while the expression of TBX-regulated cellular senescence markers such as CDKN2A, CDKN1A, and CAV1 was elevated in the peripheral lung tissue samples from patients with COPD. The critical balance

  13. Suppressed Expression of T-Box Transcription Factors is Involved in Senescence in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acquaah-Mensah, George; Malhotra, Deepti; Vulimiri, Madhulika; McDermott, Jason E.; Biswal, Shyam

    2012-06-19

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major global health problem. The etiology of COPD has been associated with apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. However, understanding of the molecular interactions that modulate COPD pathogenesis remains only partly resolved. We conducted an exploratory study on COPD etiology to identify the key molecular participants. We used information-theoretic algorithms including Context Likelihood of Relatedness (CLR), Algorithm for the Reconstruction of Accurate Cellular Networks (ARACNE), and Inferelator. We captured direct functional associations among genes, given a compendium of gene expression profiles of human lung epithelial cells. A set of genes differentially expressed in COPD, as reported in a previous study were superposed with the resulting transcriptional regulatory networks. After factoring in the properties of the networks, an established COPD susceptibility locus and domain-domain interactions involving protein products of genes in the generated networks, several molecular candidates were predicted to be involved in the etiology of COPD. These include COL4A3, CFLAR, GULP1, PDCD1, CASP10, PAX3, BOK, HSPD1, PITX2, and PML. Furthermore, T-box (TBX) genes and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A), which are in a direct transcriptional regulatory relationship, emerged as preeminent participants in the etiology of COPD by means of senescence. Contrary to observations in neoplasms, our study reveals that the expression of genes and proteins in the lung samples from patients with COPD indicate an increased tendency towards cellular senescence. The expression of the anti-senescence mediators TBX transcription factors, chromatin modifiers histone deacetylases, and sirtuins was suppressed; while the expression of TBX-regulated cellular senescence markers such as CDKN2A, CDKN1A, and CAV1 was elevated in the peripheral lung tissue samples from patients with COPD. The critical balance between senescence

  14. CDA-2, a urinary preparation, inhibits lung cancer development through the suppression of NF-kappaB activation in myeloid cell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Wang

    Full Text Available CDA-2 (cell differentiation agent 2, a urinary preparation, has potent anti- proliferative and pro-apoptotic properties in cancer cells. However, the mechanisms of tumor inhibitory action of CDA-2 are far from clear, and especially there was no report on lung cancer. Here we demonstrate that CDA-2 and its main component phenylacetylglutamine (PG reduce the metastatic lung tumor growth, and increases survival time after inoculation with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC cells in a dose-dependent manner in C57BL6 mice. Proliferative program analysis in cancer cells revealed a fundamental impact of CDA-2 and PG on proliferation and apoptosis, including Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, cIAP1, Survivin, PCNA, Ki-67 proteins and TUNEL assays. CDA-2 and PG significantly reduced NF-κB DNA-binding activity in lung cancer cells and in alveolar macrophages of tumor bearing mice and especially decreased the release of inflammatory factors including TNFα, IL-6, and KC. Furthermore, CDA-2 and PG decrease the expressions of TLR2, TLR6, and CD14, but not TLR1, TLR3, TLR4, and TLR9 in bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM of mice stimulated by LLC-conditioned medium (LLC-CM. Over-expressing TLR2 in BMDM prevented CDA-2 and PG from inhibiting NF-κB activation, as well as induction of TNFα and IL-6. TLR2:TLR6 complexes mediate the effect of NF-κB inactivation by CDA-2. In conclusion, CDA-2 potently inhibits lung tumor development by reduction of the inflammation in lung through suppression of NF-κB activation in myeloid cells, associating with modulation of TLR2 signaling.

  15. Differing patterns of P-selectin expression in lung injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bless, N M; Tojo, S J; Kawarai, H

    1998-01-01

    Using two models of acute lung inflammatory injury in rats (intrapulmonary deposition of immunoglobulin G immune complexes and systemic activation of complement after infusion of purified cobra venom factor), we have analyzed the requirements and patterns for upregulation of lung vascular P...... was sustained for the next 7 hours, in striking contrast to the pattern of P-selectin expression in the cobra venom factor model, in which upregulation was very transient (within the 1st hour). In the immune complex model, injury and neutrophil accumulation were P-selectin dependent. Upregulation of P......-selectin was dependent on an intact complement system, and the presence of blood neutrophils was susceptible to the antioxidant dimethyl sulfoxide and required C5a but not tumor necrosis factor alpha. In contrast, in the cobra venom factor model, upregulation of P-selectin, which is C5a dependent, was also dimethyl...

  16. Shikonin Induces Apoptosis, Necrosis, and Premature Senescence of Human A549 Lung Cancer Cells through Upregulation of p53 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Chiao Yeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shikonin, a natural naphthoquinone pigment isolated from Lithospermum erythrorhizon, has been reported to suppress growth of various cancer cells. This study was aimed to investigate whether this chemical could also inhibit cell growth of lung cancer cells and, if so, works via what molecular mechanism. To fulfill this, A549 lung cancer cells were treated with shikonin and then subjected to microscopic, biochemical, flow cytometric, and molecular analyses. Compared with the controls, shikonin significantly induced cell apoptosis and reduced proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Specially, lower concentrations of shikonin (1–2.5 μg/mL cause viability reduction; apoptosis and cellular senescence induction is associated with upregulated expressions of cell cycle- and apoptotic signaling-regulatory proteins, while higher concentrations (5–10 μg/mL precipitate both apoptosis and necrosis. Treatment of cells with pifithrin-α, a specific inhibitor of p53, suppressed shikonin-induced apoptosis and premature senescence, suggesting the role of p53 in mediating the actions of shikonin on regulation of lung cancer cell proliferation. These results indicate the potential and dose-related cytotoxic actions of shikonin on A549 lung cancer cells via p53-mediated cell fate pathways and raise shikonin a promising adjuvant chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of lung cancer in clinical practice.

  17. Ski regulates Smads and TAZ signaling to suppress lung cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Mian; Wu, Xiaojun; Zhang, Jinjun; Zhang, Jiexia; Li, Xiangxiang

    2017-10-01

    Ski, the transforming protein of the avian Sloan-Kettering retrovirus, displays both pro- and anti-oncogenic activities in human cancer. The mechanisms underlying these conflicting observations have not been fully understood. Herein, we investigated the mechanism underlying the tumor suppressor activity of Ski. To investigate the effect of Ski re-activation on TGF-β and Hippo/TAZ pathway, we measured its effect on the endogenous Smad target genes (PAI-1 and P15 INK4B ) and TAZ target gene CTGF. The results revealed that Ski exerted its inhibitory activity in TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway. Ski inhibited TAZ by increasing their phosphorylation by Lats2 and did not alter the localization of TAZ. Ski inhibited lung cancer growth and invasion. Ski methylation correlated with decreased mRNA expression in human lung cancer cell lines. Thus, Ski inhibited the function of TGF-β and TAZ through multiple mechanisms in human lung cancer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Cloning and expression of guinea pig TIMP-2. Expression in normal and hyperoxic lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndez, J; Maldonado, V; Bingle, C D; Selman, M; Pardo, A

    2000-04-01

    Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) play a key regulatory role in extracellular matrix remodeling. By screening a lung library with a human TIMP-2 cDNA probe, we have isolated the cDNA corresponding to guinea pig TIMP-2. The 3.5-kb cDNA presents an open reading frame that predicts a protein of 220 amino acids showing 97.2, 96.8, 97.2, and 77.3% overall identity with human, mouse, rat, and chicken TIMP-2, respectively. Guinea pig TIMP-2 cDNA was expressed in CHO-K1 cells, showing a protein with the expected molecular weight and activity. Northern blot analysis revealed TIMP-2 expression in brain, kidney, intestine, spleen, heart, and lung. Transforming growth factor-beta downregulated TIMP-2 mRNA in guinea pig lung fibroblasts, whereas a variety of other stimuli showed no effect. In normal and hyperoxia-exposed lungs, TIMP-2 mRNA was mainly localized in alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells. No quantitative differences were found by Northern blot. These results confirm that TIMP-2 is highly conserved in mammals and largely expressed in lungs.

  19. Tobacco smoke exposure suppresses radiation-induced inflammation in the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjermer, L.; Cai, Y.; Nilsson, K.; Hellstroem, S.; Henriksson, R.

    1993-01-01

    Previous studies on patients with breast cancer, who received postsurgical irradiation, displayed a markedly suppressed inflammatory response in the lung of smoking patients compared to nonsmokers. The aim of the present study was to investigate further the effect of exposure to tobacco smoke on the development of irradiation-induced pneumonitis in the rat. Four groups of animals were used: controls (C); those exposed to tobacco smoke (S); those irradiated but not exposed to smoke (RNS); and those irradiated and exposed to tobacco smoke (RS). The rats were exposed to a diluted main stream of cigarette smoke, at a concentration of about 0.4 mgxl -1 , in a nose-only exposure system for 1 hxday -1 , 5 daysxweek -1 for 10 weeks. Exposure to tobacco smoke started 3 weeks before irradiation. The basal one third of both lungs was exposed to a single radiation dose of 28 Gy (6 MeV photons). All animals were killed 7 weeks after irradiation. We compared findings in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and tissue morphology. The alveolar tissue showed less inflammation in the RS-group than in the RNS-group. Most strikingly, mast cells were increased one hundredfold in the lung interstitium and thirty fold in the peribronchial area in the RNS-group, whereas no increase was found in the RS-group or in the controls. The alveolar septa of the RNS-group were thickened, with occurrence of inflammatory cells and mast cells, whereas the RS-group displayed no difference as compared to the non-irradiated, nonsmoking group (C). There was a marked discrepancy between the findings in BAL and tissue of the alveolar space or lung interstitium. In BAL, neutrophils, and to a lesser extent lymphocytes, were increased both in the RS- and RNS-group; however, with significantly higher numbers in the RNS-group. In contrast, the cells in the alveolar space and interstitium were dominated by mononuclear cells, mainly macrophages. Moreover, a more than twenty fold increase in total cells in the alveolar

  20. Candidate tumour suppressor CCDC19 regulates miR-184 direct targeting of C-Myc thereby suppressing cell growth in non-small cell lung cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Mai, Chunping; Yang, Huiling; Zhen, Yan; Yu, Xiaoli; Hua, Shengni; Wu, Qiangyun; Jiang, Qinping; Zhang, Yajie; Song, Xin; Fang, Weiyi

    2014-08-01

    We previously reported and revised the nasopharyngeal epithelium specific protein CCDC19 and identified it as a potential tumour suppressor in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The purpose of this study was to investigate the involvement of CCDC19 in the pathogenesis of human non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). Down-regulated CCDC19 expression was observed in NSCLC tissues and cells compared to normal tissues. However, reduced protein expression did not correlate with the status of NSCLC progression. Instead, we observed that patients with lower CCDC19 expression had a shorter overall survival than did patients with higher CCDC19 expression. Lentiviral-mediated CCDC19 overexpression significantly suppressed cell proliferation and cell cycle transition from G1 to S and G2 phases in NSCLC cells. Knocking down CCDC19 expression significantly restored the ability of cell growth in CCDC19 overexpressing NSCLC cells. Mechanistically CCDC19 functions as a potential tumour suppressor by stimulating miR-184 suppression of C-Myc thus blocking cell growth mediated by the PI3K/AKT/C-Jun pathway. Our studies are the first to demonstrate that reduced expression of CCDC19 is an unfavourable factor in NSCLC. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  1. Enhanced expression of G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER/GPR30) in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jala, Venkatakrishna Rao; Radde, Brandie N; Haribabu, Bodduluri; Klinge, Carolyn M

    2012-01-01

    G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER/GPR30) was reported to bind 17β-estradiol (E 2 ), tamoxifen, and ICI 182,780 (fulvestrant) and promotes activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated signaling in breast, endometrial and thyroid cancer cells. Although lung adenocarcinomas express estrogen receptors α and β (ERα and ERβ), the expression of GPER in lung cancer has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the expression of GPER in lung cancer. The expression patterns of GPER in various lung cancer lines and lung tumors were investigated using standard quantitative real time PCR (at mRNA levels), Western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC) methods (at protein levels). The expression of GPER was scored and the pairwise comparisons (cancer vs adjacent tissues as well as cancer vs normal lung tissues) were performed. Analysis by real-time PCR and Western blotting revealed a significantly higher expression of GPER at both mRNA and protein levels in human non small cell lung cancer cell (NSCLC) lines relative to immortalized normal lung bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs). The virally immortalized human small airway epithelial cell line HPL1D showed higher expression than HBECs and similar expression to NSCLC cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissue sections of murine lung adenomas as well as human lung adenocarcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas and non-small cell lung carcinomas showed consistently higher expression of GPER in the tumor relative to the surrounding non-tumor tissue. The results from this study demonstrate increased GPER expression in lung cancer cells and tumors compared to normal lung. Further evaluation of the function and regulation of GPER will be necessary to determine if GPER is a marker of lung cancer progression

  2. Cancer-associated loss of TARSH gene expression in human primary lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terauchi, Kunihiko; Shimada, Junichi; Uekawa, Natsuko; Yaoi, Takeshi; Maruyama, Mitsuo; Fushiki, Shinji

    2006-01-01

    We have previously identified mouse Tarsh as one of the cellular senescence-related genes and showed the loss of expression of TARSH mRNA in four human lung cancer cell lines. TARSH is a presumptive signal transduction molecule interacting with NESH, which is implicated to have some roles in lung cancer metastasis. The amplification of complete ORF-encoding TARSH cDNA was done with reverse transcription-PCR. Northern blotting was carried out using TARSH cDNA probes. To clarify the relationship between TARSH and lung cancer, we quantified TARSH mRNA expression in 15 human lung cancer cell lines and 32 primary non-small cell lung cancers. We first determined the complete ORF-encoding cDNA sequence which is expressed in the human lung. On the Northern hybridization analysis, TARSH was strongly expressed in the human lung. The expression of TARSH mRNA is remarkably downregulated in all the lung cancer cell lines examined. Furthermore, TARSH expression was significantly low in all of the tumor specimens when compared to the expression in corresponding non-neoplastic lung tissue specimens. The cancer-associated transcriptional inactivation of TARSH suggests that TARSH could be used as a biomarker for lung cancer development as well as a molecular adjunct for lung carcinogenesis in human.

  3. Pentoxifylline Regulates Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Expression and Protein Kinase A Phosphorylation in Radiation-Induced Lung Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Geol Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Radiation-induced lung fibrosis (RILF is a serious late complication of radiotherapy. In vitro studies have demonstrated that pentoxifylline (PTX has suppressing effects in extracellular matrix production in fibroblasts, while the antifibrotic action of PTX alone using clinical dose is yet unexplored. Materials and Methods. We used micro-computed tomography (micro-CT and histopathological analysis to evaluate the antifibrotic effects of PTX in a rat model of RILF. Results. Micro-CT findings showed that lung density, volume loss, and mediastinal shift are significantly increased at 16 weeks after irradiation. Simultaneously, histological analysis demonstrated thickening of alveolar walls, destruction of alveolar structures, and excessive collagen deposition in the irradiated lung. PTX treatment effectively attenuated the fibrotic changes based on both micro-CT and histopathological analyses. Western analysis also revealed increased levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor- (PAI- 1 and fibronectin (FN and PTX treatment reduced expression of PAI-1 and FN by restoring protein kinase A (PKA phosphorylation but not TGF-β/Smad in both irradiated lung tissues and epithelial cells. Conclusions. Our results demonstrate the antifibrotic effect of PTX on radiation-induced lung fibrosis and its effect on modulation of PKA and PAI-1 expression as possible antifibrotic mechanisms.

  4. Fluoxetine protects against methamphetamine‑induced lung inflammation by suppressing oxidative stress through the SERT/p38 MAPK/Nrf2 pathway in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Gu, Yu-Han; Liu, Ming; Bai, Yang; Wang, Huai-Liang

    2017-02-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) abuse is a major public health and safety concern throughout the world and a growing burden on healthcare costs. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of fluoxetine against MA‑induced chronic pulmonary inflammation and to evaluate the potential role of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidative stress. Wistar rats were divided into control, MA and two fluoxetine‑treated groups. Rats in the MA and the two fluoxetine‑treated groups were treated daily with intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg MA twice daily. Rats in the two fluoxetine‑treated groups were injected intragastrically with fluoxetine (2 and 10 mg/kg) once daily, respectively. After 5 weeks, the rats were euthanized and hematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis and redox assay were performed. It was demonstrated that chronic exposure to MA can induce pulmonary inflammation in rats, with the symptoms of inflammatory cell infiltration, crowded lung parenchyma, thickened septum and a reduced number of alveolar sacs. Fluoxetine attenuated pulmonary inflammation and the expression of interleukin‑6 and tumor necrosis factor‑α in rat lungs. Fluoxetine inhibited MA‑induced increases in the expression levels of serotonin transporter (SERT) and p‑p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK), and reversed the MA‑induced decrease in nuclear Nrf2 and human heme oxygenase‑1 in lungs. Fluoxetine at 10 mg/kg significantly reversed the reduced glutathione (GSH) level, the ratio of GSH/oxidized glutathione, and the reactive oxygen species level in rat lungs from the MA group. These findings suggested that fluoxetine, a SERT inhibitor, has a protective effect against MA‑induced lung inflammation by suppressing oxidative stress through the SERT/p38 MAPK/Nrf2 pathway in rats.

  5. Suppression of Wnt signaling by the miR-29 family is mediated by demethylation of WIF-1 in non-small-cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Min [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Wu, Junjie, E-mail: wujunjiesh@126.com [Department of Pneumology, Changhai Hospital of Shanghai, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering and Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Contemporary Anthropology, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Cai, Yong, E-mail: dryongcai@126.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •Dnmt3A and Dnmt3B are involved in the down-regulation of WIF-1 expression in non-small-cell lung cancer. •MiR-29 family members could restore WIF-1 expression through demethylation. •MiR-29s suppress Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and inhibit tumor growth. •The expression of miR-29a and miR-29b could be regulated partially in a positive feedback loop. -- Abstract: Wnt inhibitory factor-1 (WIF-1) silencing induced by promoter hypermethylation is a common mechanism of aberrant activation of the Wnt signaling pathway in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the activity of regulators associated with the methylation of the WIF-1 gene remains unclear. Here, we investigated the role of three DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B) in the expression of WIF-1. The three DNMTs were up-regulated in NSCLC tumor tissues and suppression of DNMT3A and DNMT3B restored the expression of WIF-1 in NSCLC cells. The miR-29 family (miR-29a, -29b, and -29c), which negatively regulates DNMT3A and DNMT3B, was examined in association with the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. A positive correlation between the expression of WIF-1 and that of MiR-29s was observed in NSCLC tissues. Methylation-specific PCR and Western blotting indicated that miR-29s positively regulate WIF-1 expression by inhibiting the methylation of its promoter. Furthermore, miR-29 overexpression downregulated β-catenin expression, inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. The expression of miR-29a and miR-29b was partially regulated by DNMT3A and DNMT3B in a positive feedback loop. Taken together, our findings show that miR-29s suppress the Wnt signaling pathway through demethylation of WIF-1 in NSCLC.

  6. Albendazole inhibits HIF-1α-dependent glycolysis and VEGF expression in non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fang; Du, Jin; Wang, Jianjun

    2017-04-01

    Albendazole (ABZ) has an anti-tumor ability and inhibits HIF-1α activity. HIF-1α is associated with glycolysis and vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) expression, which plays an important role in cancer progression. These clues indicate that ABZ exerts an anti-cancer effect by regulating glycolysis and VEGF expression. The aim of this study is to clarify the effects of ABZ on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. The expression levels of HIF-1α and VEGF were detected using western blot analysis, and the effect of ABZ on glycolysis was evaluated by measuring the relative activities of hexokinase (HK), pyruvate kinase (PK), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and detecting the production of lactate in A549 and H1299 cells. The results showed that ABZ decreased the expression levels of HIF-1α and VEGF and suppressed glycolysis in under hypoxia, but not normoxic condition. Inhibiting HIF-1α also suppressed glycolysis and VEGF expression. Additionally, ABZ inhibited the volume and weight, decreased the relative activities of HK, PK, and LDH, and reduced the levels of HIF-1α and VEGF of A549 xenografts in mouse models. In conclusion, ABZ inhibited growth of NSCLC cells by suppressing HIF-1α-dependent glycolysis and VEGF expression.

  7. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ Inhibits Transformed Growth of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells through Selective Suppression of Snail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Choudhary

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Work from our laboratory and others has demonstrated that activation of the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ inhibits transformed growth of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cell lines in vitro and in vivo. We have demonstrated that activation of PPARγ promotes epithelial differentiation of NSCLC by increasing expression of E-cadherin, as well as inhibiting expression of COX-2 and nuclear factor-κB. The Snail family of transcription factors, which includes Snail (Snail1, Slug (Snail2, and ZEB1, is an important regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, as well as cell survival. The goal of this study was to determine whether the biological responses to rosiglitazone, a member of the thiazolidinedione family of PPARγ activators, are mediated through the regulation of Snail family members. Our results indicate that, in two independent NSCLC cell lines, rosiglitazone specifically decreased expression of Snail, with no significant effect on either Slug or ZEB1. Suppression of Snail using short hairpin RNA silencing mimicked the effects of PPARγ activation, in inhibiting anchorage-independent growth, promoting acinar formation in three-dimensional culture, and inhibiting invasiveness. This was associated with the increased expression of E-cadherin and decreased expression of COX-2 and matrix metaloproteinases. Conversely, overexpression of Snail blocked the biological responses to rosiglitazone, increasing anchorage-independent growth, invasiveness, and promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transition. The suppression of Snail expression by rosiglitazone seemed to be independent of GSK-3 signaling but was rather mediated through suppression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity. These findings suggest that selective regulation of Snail may be critical in mediating the antitumorigenic effects of PPARγ activators.

  8. Trehalose Liposomes Suppress the Growth of Tumors on Human Lung Carcinoma-bearing Mice by Induction of Apoptosis In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Hideaki; Kuwabara, Keiji; Matsumoto, Yoko

    2017-11-01

    Previous evidence demonstrates that trehalose liposomes (DMTreC14) composed of L-α-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and α-D-glycopyranosyl-α-D-glucopyranoside monomyristate (TreC14) inhibit proliferation and invasion on lung carcinoma (A549 cells) in vitro. Here, we aimed to investigate suppressive effects of DMTreC14 on the growth of tumor on human lung carcinoma bearing mice. DMTreC14 composed of 30 mol% DMPC and 70 mol% TreC14 were prepared by the sonication method. Anti-tumor activities of DMTreC14 using the subcutaneous and orthotopic graft-bearing mice of A549 cells were investigated in vivo. The remarkable reduction of volume and weight in subcutaneous tumors on subcutaneous lung carcinoma-bearing mice topically administrated with DMTreC14 were obtained. Apoptotic-positive cells in the subcutaneous tumor slice of subcutaneous lung carcinoma-bearing mice topically administrated with DMTreC14 were observed using TUNEL staining. Lung weights on the orthotopic graft-bearing mice of lung carcinoma intravenously administrated with DMTreC14 were markedly decreased compared to those of the control group. Remarkable decrease in dimensions of tumor area of lung on the orthotopic graft-bearing mice of lung carcinoma intravenously administrated with DMTreC14 was obtained in histological analysis using the hematoxylin and eosin staining. Remarkably high anti-tumor activities of DMTreC14 for the subcutaneous and orthotopic graft-bearing mice of lung carcinoma accompanied with apoptosis were revealed for the first time in vivo. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  9. The efficiency of reappraisal and expressive suppression in regulating everyday affective experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Thomas; Smeets, Tom; Giesbrecht, Timo; Merckelbach, Harald

    2012-12-30

    A widespread assumption in research and clinical practice is that cognitive reappraisal is a healthy and successful emotion regulation strategy, while expressive suppression is ineffective and has non-favourable consequences (e.g., decreased positive affect, higher physiological arousal). However, little is known about the consequences of reappraisal and expressive suppression for everyday affect. We investigated affective consequences of habitual reappraisal and expressive suppression in undergraduates (n=87), and sampled affect characteristics for 24h. Moreover, we quantified affective recovery from viewing an aversive video fragment. Habitual reappraisal was associated with lowered emotional arousal (but not valence), both in terms of diurnal affect levels and positive and negative responses to the emotional provocation task. This pattern contravenes the popular assumption that reappraisal has generally favourable consequences. Additionally, in contrast to the alleged non-favourable consequences of habitual expressive suppression, the current study failed to find a relation between expressive suppression, diurnal affect levels and affective recovery. This suggests that the detrimental effects of expressive suppression are limited in duration. Collectively, our results emphasise that the everyday consequences of emotion regulation for affect merits systematic research, for instance by using more naturalistic and prolonged interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The HLJ1-targeting drug screening identified Chinese herb andrographolide that can suppress tumour growth and invasion in non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yi-Hua; Yu, Sung-Liang; Chen, Hsuan-Yu; Wang, Chi-Chung; Chen, Huei-Wen; Chen, Jeremy J W

    2013-05-01

    HLJ1 is a novel tumour suppressor and is a potential druggable target for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this report, using a promoter-containing enhancer region as the HLJ1-targeting drug-screening platform, we identified several herbal compounds from a Chinese herbal bank with the capacity to enhance HLJ1 promoter activity and suppress tumour growth and invasion of NSCLC. Among the herbal drugs identified, the andrographolide (from Andrographis paniculata [Burm. f.] Nees.) most significantly induced HLJ1 expression and suppressed tumorigenesis both in vitro and in vivo. The andrographolide upregulates HLJ1 via JunB activation, which modulates AP-2α binding at the MMP-2 promoter and represses the expression of MMP-2. In addition, silencing of HLJ1 partially reverses the inhibition of cancer-cell invasion by andrographolide. Microarray transcriptomic analysis was performed to comprehensively depict the andrographolide-regulated signalling pathways. We showed that andrographolide can affect 939 genes (analysis of variance, false discovery rate andrographolide on anticancer invasion and proliferation. In conclusion, the HLJ1-targeting drug-screening platform is useful for screening of novel anticancer compounds. Using this platform, we identified andrographolide is a promising new anticancer agent that could suppress tumour growth and invasion in NSCLC.

  11. Behavioral experience induces zif268 expression in mature granule cells but suppresses its expression in immature granule cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckleberry, Kylie A.; Kane, Gary A.; Mathis, Rita J.; Cook, Sarah G.; Clutton, Jonathan E.; Drew, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of neurons are born each day in the dentate gyrus (DG), but many of these cells die before reaching maturity. Both death and survival of adult-born neurons are regulated by neuronal activity in the DG. The immediate-early gene (IEG) zif268 appears to be an important mediator of these effects, as its expression can be induced by neural activity and knockout of zif268 impairs survival of adult-born neurons (Richardson et al., 1992; Veyrac et al., 2013). Despite the apparent importance of zif268 for adult neurogenesis, its behavior-induced expression has not been fully characterized in adult-born neurons. Here we characterize behavior-evoked expression of zif268 in mature and newborn dentate granule cells (DGCs). We first quantified zif268 expression in doublecortin-positive (DCX+) immature neurons and in the general granule cell population after brief exposure to a novel environment (NE). In the general granule cell population, zif268 expression peaked 1 h after NE exposure and returned to baseline by 8 h post-exposure. However, in the DCX+ cells, zif268 expression was suppressed relative to home cage for at least 8 h post-exposure. We next asked whether suppression of zif268 in DCX+ immature cells occurs in other behavioral paradigms that recruit the hippocampus. Exposure to Morris water maze (MWM) training, an enriched environment, or a NE caused approximately equal suppression of zif268 expression in DCX+ cells and approximately equal activation of zif268 expression among the general granule cell population. The same behavioral procedures activated zif268 expression in 6-week-old BrdU-labeled adult-born neurons, indicating that zif268 suppression is specific to immature neurons. Finally, we asked whether zif268 suppression varied as a function of age within the DCX+ population, which ranges in age from 0 to approximately 4 weeks. NE exposure had no significant effect on zif268 expression in 2- or 4-week-old BrdU-labeled neurons, but it significantly

  12. MicroRNA-128 suppresses paclitaxel-resistant lung cancer by inhibiting MUC1-C and BMI-1 in cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Hyebin; Park, Hyeri; Chandimali, Nisansala; Huynh, Do Luong; Zhang, Jiao Jiao; Ghosh, Mrinmoy; Gera, Meeta; Kim, Nameun; Bak, Yesol; Yoon, Do-Young; Park, Yang Ho; Kwon, Taeho; Jeong, Dong Kee

    2017-12-15

    The existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is the main reason for failure of cancer treatment caused by drug resistance. Therefore, eradicating cancers by targeting CSCs remains a significant challenge. In the present study, because of the important role of BMI-1 proto-oncogene, polycomb ring finger (BMI-1) and C-terminal Mucin1 (MUC1-C) in tumor growth and maintenance of CSCs, we aimed to confirm that microRNA miR-128, as an inhibitor of BMI-1 and MUC1-C, could effectively suppress paclitaxel (PTX)-resistant lung cancer stem cells. We showed that CSCs have significantly higher expression levels of BMI-1, MUC1-C, stemness proteins, signaling factors, and higher malignancy compared with normal tumor cells. After transfection with miR-128, the BMI-1 and MUC1-C levels in CSCs were suppressed. When miR-128 was stably expressed in PTX-resistant lung cancer stem cells, the cells showed decreased proliferation, metastasis, self-renewal, migration, invasive ability, clonogenicity, and tumorigenicity in vitro and in vivo and increased apoptosis compared with miR-NC (negative control) CSCs. Furthermore, miR-128 effectively decreased the levels of β-catenin and intracellular signaling pathway-related factors in CSCs. MiR-128 also decreased the luciferase activity of MUC1 reporter constructs and reduced the levels of transmembrane MUC1-C and BMI-1. These results suggested miR-128 as an attractive therapeutic strategy for PTX-resistant lung cancer via inhibition of BMI-1 and MUC1-C.

  13. Gene Expression Analysis to Assess the Relevance of Rodent Models to Human Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Timothy E; Lofgren, Shane; Khatri, Purvesh; Rogers, Angela J

    2017-08-01

    The relevance of animal models to human diseases is an area of intense scientific debate. The degree to which mouse models of lung injury recapitulate human lung injury has never been assessed. Integrating data from both human and animal expression studies allows for increased statistical power and identification of conserved differential gene expression across organisms and conditions. We sought comprehensive integration of gene expression data in experimental acute lung injury (ALI) in rodents compared with humans. We performed two separate gene expression multicohort analyses to determine differential gene expression in experimental animal and human lung injury. We used correlational and pathway analyses combined with external in vitro gene expression data to identify both potential drivers of underlying inflammation and therapeutic drug candidates. We identified 21 animal lung tissue datasets and three human lung injury bronchoalveolar lavage datasets. We show that the metasignatures of animal and human experimental ALI are significantly correlated despite these widely varying experimental conditions. The gene expression changes among mice and rats across diverse injury models (ozone, ventilator-induced lung injury, LPS) are significantly correlated with human models of lung injury (Pearson r = 0.33-0.45, P human lung injury. Predicted therapeutic targets, peptide ligand signatures, and pathway analyses are also all highly overlapping. Gene expression changes are similar in animal and human experimental ALI, and provide several physiologic and therapeutic insights to the disease.

  14. Ligation of TLR7 on CD19(+) CD1d(hi) B cells suppresses allergic lung inflammation via regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Adnan R; Amu, Sylvie; Saunders, Sean P; Hams, Emily; Blackshields, Gordon; Leonard, Martin O; Weaver, Casey T; Sparwasser, Tim; Sheils, Orla; Fallon, Padraic G

    2015-06-01

    B cells have been described as having the capacity to regulate cellular immune responses and suppress inflammatory processes. One such regulatory B-cell population is defined as IL-10-producing CD19(+) CD1d(hi) cells. Previous work has identified an expansion of these cells in mice infected with the helminth, Schistosoma mansoni. Here, microarray analysis of CD19(+) CD1d(hi) B cells from mice infected with S. mansoni demonstrated significantly increased Tlr7 expression, while CD19(+) CD1d(hi) B cells from uninfected mice also demonstrated elevated Tlr7 expression. Using IL-10 reporter, Il10(-/-) and Tlr7(-/-) mice, we formally demonstrate that TLR7 ligation of CD19(+) CD1d(hi) B cells increases their capacity to produce IL-10. In a mouse model of allergic lung inflammation, the adoptive transfer of TLR7-elicited CD19(+) CD1d(hi) B cells reduced airway inflammation and associated airway hyperresponsiveness. Using DEREG mice to deplete FoxP3(+) T regulatory cells in allergen-sensitized mice, we show that that TLR7-elicited CD19(+) CD1d(hi) B cells suppress airway hyperresponsiveness via a T regulatory cell dependent mechanism. These studies identify that TLR7 stimulation leads to the expansion of IL-10-producing CD19(+) CD1d(hi) B cells, which can suppress allergic lung inflammation via T regulatory cells. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Suppression of cancer stem-like phenotypes in NCI-H460 lung cancer cells by vanillin through an Akt-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinual, Songpol; Chanvorachote, Pithi; Pongrakhananon, Varisa

    2017-04-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been reported as a major cause of cancer metastasis and the failure of cancer treatment. Cumulative studies have indicated that protein kinase B (Akt) and its downstream signaling pathway, including CSC markers, play a critical role in the aggressive behavior of this cancer. In this study, we investigated whether vanillin, a major component in Vanilla planifolia seed, could suppress cancer stemness phenotypes and related proteins in the human non-small cell lung cancer NCI‑H460 cell line. A non-toxic concentration of vanillin suppressed spheroid and colony formation, two hallmarks of the cancer stemness phenotype, in vitro in NCI‑H460 cells. Western blot analysis revealed that the CSC markers CD133 and ALDH1A1 and the associated transcription factors, Oct4 and Nanog, were extensively downregulated by vanillin. Vanillin also attenuated the expression and activity of Akt, a transcription regulator upstream of CSCs, an action that was confirmed by treatment with the Akt inhibitor perifosine. Furthermore, the ubiquitination of Akt was elevated in response to vanillin treatment prior to proteasomal degradation. This finding indicates that vanillin can inhibit cancer stem cell-like behavior in NCI‑H460 cells through the induction of Akt-proteasomal degradation and reduction of downstream CSC transcription factors. This inhibitory effect of vanillin may be an alternative approach in the treatment against lung cancer metastasis and its resistance to chemotherapy.

  16. Expression of hPNAS-4 Radiosensitizes Lewis Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Hui; Yuan Zhu; Zhu Hong; Li Lei; Shi Huashan; Wang Zi; Fan Yu; Deng Qian; Zeng Jianshuang; He Yinbo; Xiao Jianghong; Li Zhiping

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to transfer the hPNAS-4 gene, a novel apoptosis-related human gene, into Lewis lung cancer (LL2) and observe its radiosensitive effect on radiation therapy in vitro and in vivo. Methods and Materials: The hPNAS-4 gene was transfected into LL2 cells, and its expression was detected via western blot. Colony formation assay and flow cytometry were used to detect the growth and apoptosis of cells treated with irradiation/PNAS-4 in vitro. The hPNAS-4 gene was transferred into LL2-bearing mice through tail vein injection of the liposome/gene complex. The tumor volumes were recorded after radiation therapy. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay were performed to detect the tumor cell growth and apoptosis in vivo. Results: The hPNAS-4 gene was successfully transferred into LL2 cells and tumor tissue, and its overexpressions were confirmed via western blot analysis. Compared with the control, empty plasmid, hPNAS-4, radiation, and empty plasmid plus radiation groups, the hPNAS-4 plus radiation group more significantly inhibited growth and enhanced apoptosis of LL2 cells in vitro and in vivo (P<.05). Conclusions: The hPNAS-4 gene was successfully transferred into LL2 cells and tumor tissue and was expressed in both LL2 cell and tumor tissue. The hPNAS-4 gene therapy significantly enhanced growth inhibition and apoptosis of LL2 tumor cells by radiation therapy in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, it may be a potential radiosensitive treatment of radiation therapy for lung cancer.

  17. FOXD3 suppresses tumor growth and angiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Jun-Hai; Zhao, Chun-Liu [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Luwan Branch of Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 20020 (China); Ding, Lan-Bao [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai 10th People' s Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200072 (China); Zhou, Xi, E-mail: modelmap@139.com [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Luwan Branch of Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 20020 (China)

    2015-10-09

    The transcription factor forkhead box D3 (FOXD3), widely studied as a transcriptional repressor in embryogenesis, participates in the carcinogenesis of many cancers. However, the expression pattern and role of FOXD3 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have not been well characterized. We report that FOXD3 is significantly downregulated in NSCLC cell lines and clinical tissues. FOXD3 overexpression significantly inhibits cell growth and results in G1 cell cycle arrest in NSCLC A549 and H1299 cells. In a xenograft tumor model, FOXD3 overexpression inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis. Remarkably, expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was reduced in FOXD3 overexpression models both in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that FOXD3 plays a potential tumor suppressor role in NSCLC progression and represents a promising clinical prognostic marker and therapeutic target for this disease. - Highlights: • FOXD3 is downregulated in NSCLC cell lines and tissues. • FOXD3 overexpression inhibited cell proliferation in NSCLC cells. • FOXD3 overexpression led to decreased angiogenesis in NSCLC cells in vitro and in vivo.

  18. FOXD3 suppresses tumor growth and angiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Jun-Hai; Zhao, Chun-Liu; Ding, Lan-Bao; Zhou, Xi

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor forkhead box D3 (FOXD3), widely studied as a transcriptional repressor in embryogenesis, participates in the carcinogenesis of many cancers. However, the expression pattern and role of FOXD3 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have not been well characterized. We report that FOXD3 is significantly downregulated in NSCLC cell lines and clinical tissues. FOXD3 overexpression significantly inhibits cell growth and results in G1 cell cycle arrest in NSCLC A549 and H1299 cells. In a xenograft tumor model, FOXD3 overexpression inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis. Remarkably, expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was reduced in FOXD3 overexpression models both in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that FOXD3 plays a potential tumor suppressor role in NSCLC progression and represents a promising clinical prognostic marker and therapeutic target for this disease. - Highlights: • FOXD3 is downregulated in NSCLC cell lines and tissues. • FOXD3 overexpression inhibited cell proliferation in NSCLC cells. • FOXD3 overexpression led to decreased angiogenesis in NSCLC cells in vitro and in vivo.

  19. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in radiation-induced dog lung tumors by immunocytochemical localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, F.L.; Park, J.F.; Dagle, G.E.

    1993-06-01

    In studies to determine the role of growth factors in radiation-induced lung cancer, epidermal growth factor (EGFR) expression was examined by immunocytochemistry in 51 lung tumors from beagle dogs exposed to inhaled plutonium; 21 of 51 (41%) tumors were positive for EGFR. The traction of tumors positive for EGFR and the histological type of EGFR-positive tumors in the plutonium-exposed dogs were not different from spontaneous dog lung tumors, In which 36% were positive for EGFR. EGFR involvement in Pu-induced lung tumors appeared to be similar to that in spontaneous lung tumors. However, EGFR-positive staining was observed in only 1 of 16 tumors at the three lowest Pu exposure levels, compared to 20 of 35 tumors staining positive at the two highest Pu exposure levels. The results in dogs were in good agreement with the expression of EGFR reported in human non-small cell carcinoma of the lung, suggesting that Pu-induced lung tumors in the dog may be a suitable animal model to investigate the role of EGFR expression in lung carcinogenesis. In humans, EGFR expression in lung tumors has been primarily related to histological tumor types. In individual dogs with multiple primary lung tumors, the tumors were either all EGFR positive or EGFR negative, suggesting that EGFR expression may be related to the response of the individual dog as well as to the histological type of tumor.

  20. Regulated gene expression in cultured type II cells of adult human lung

    OpenAIRE

    Ballard, Philip L.; Lee, Jae W.; Fang, Xiaohui; Chapin, Cheryl; Allen, Lennell; Segal, Mark R.; Fischer, Horst; Illek, Beate; Gonzales, Linda W.; Kolla, Venkatadri; Matthay, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Alveolar type II cells have multiple functions, including surfactant production and fluid clearance, which are critical for lung function. Differentiation of type II cells occurs in cultured fetal lung epithelial cells treated with dexamethasone plus cAMP and isobutylmethylxanthine (DCI) and involves increased expression of 388 genes. In this study, type II cells of human adult lung were isolated at ∼95% purity, and gene expression was determined (Affymetrix) before and after culturing 5 days...

  1. Lung and pleural fibrosis as an expression of Recklinghausen's neurofibromatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, P.; Cheng, G.J.H.; Hildebrandt-Stark, H.E.

    1988-01-01

    We report three patients with neurofibromatosis, lung parenchymal, and pleural changes. Lung fibrosis occurs in 10% of patients with neurofibromatosis. Pleural involvement is less common. We are presenting one such case. (orig.) [de

  2. Fetuin-A induces cytokine expression and suppresses adiponectin production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita M Hennige

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The secreted liver protein fetuin-A (AHSG is up-regulated in hepatic steatosis and the metabolic syndrome. These states are strongly associated with low-grade inflammation and hypoadiponectinemia. We, therefore, hypothesized that fetuin-A may play a role in the regulation of cytokine expression, the modulation of adipose tissue expression and plasma concentration of the insulin-sensitizing and atheroprotective adipokine adiponectin. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human monocytic THP1 cells and human in vitro differenttiated adipocytes as well as C57BL/6 mice were treated with fetuin-A. mRNA expression of the genes encoding inflammatory cytokines and the adipokine adiponectin (ADIPOQ was assessed by real-time RT-PCR. In 122 subjects, plasma levels of fetuin-A, adiponectin and, in a subgroup, the multimeric forms of adiponectin were determined. Fetuin-A treatment induced TNF and IL1B mRNA expression in THP1 cells (p<0.05. Treatment of mice with fetuin-A, analogously, resulted in a marked increase in adipose tissue Tnf mRNA as well as Il6 expression (27- and 174-fold, respectively. These effects were accompanied by a decrease in adipose tissue Adipoq mRNA expression and lower circulating adiponectin levels (p<0.05, both. Furthermore, fetuin-A repressed ADIPOQ mRNA expression of human in vitro differentiated adipocytes (p<0.02 and induced inflammatory cytokine expression. In humans in plasma, fetuin-A correlated positively with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, a marker of subclinical inflammation (r = 0.26, p = 0.01, and negatively with total- (r = -0.28, p = 0.02 and, particularly, high molecular weight adiponectin (r = -0.36, p = 0.01. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: We provide novel evidence that the secreted liver protein fetuin-A induces low-grade inflammation and represses adiponectin production in animals and in humans. These data suggest an important role of fatty liver in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and

  3. [Expression of various matrix metalloproteinases in mice with hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang-feng; Ding, Shao-fang; Gao, Yuan-ming; Liang, Ying; Foda, Hussein D

    2006-08-01

    To investigate the role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury induced by hyperoxia. Fifty four mice were exposed in sealed cages to >98% oxygen (for 24-72 hours), and another 18 mice to room air. The severity of lung injury was assessed, and the expression of mRNA and protein of MMP-2, MMP-9 and EMMPRIN in lung tissue, after exposure for 24, 48 and 72 hours of hyperoxia were studied by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Hyperoxia caused acute lung injury; this was accompanied by increased expression of an upregulation of MMP-2, MMP-9 and EMMPRIN mRNA and protein in lung tissues. Hyperoxia causes acute lung injury in mice; increases in MMP-2, MMP-9 and EMMPRIN may play an important role in the development of hyperoxia induced lung injury in mice.

  4. Expression of the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor in human lung cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaoli; Wang, Qian; Sun, Jingran; Gu, Ankang; Jin, Min; Shen, Zhiqiang; Qiu, Zhigang; Wang, Jingfeng; Wang, Xinwei; Zhan, Zhongli; Li, Jun-Wen

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study is to elucidate the relation between expression of coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) and formation of lung cancer. We investigated the expression of CAR by immunohistochemistry, Western blot and real-time RT-PCR in 120 lung cancers. We found that CAR expression in tumor tissues was significantly higher than that in normal lung tissues. CAR expression had a correlation with the histological grade of lung squamous cell carcinoma; however, there was no relationship between the CAR expression and the other clinical pathological features. In vitro, silencing or overexpression of CAR could significantly inhibit or promote colony formation, cell adhesion, and invasion in A549 cells. Our findings demonstrated that CAR may play an essential role in the formation of lung cancer.

  5. Sevoflurane suppresses hypoxia-induced growth and metastasis of lung cancer cells via inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor-1α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hua; Yang, Cheng Xiang; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Han Bing; Liu, Hong Zhen; Lai, Xiao Hong; Liao, Mei Juan; Zhang, Tao

    2015-12-01

    Hypoxia promotes the progression of lung cancer cells. Unfortunately, anesthetic technique might aggravate hypoxia of lung cancer cells. Sevoflurane is a commonly used anesthetic. Its effect on hypoxia-induced aggressiveness of lung cancer cells remains unknown. The aim of the study is to investigate the effects of sevoflurane on hypoxia-induced growth and metastasis of lung cancer cells. As hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) plays a pivotal role in mediating the adaptation and tolerance of cancer cells under hypoxic microenvironment, the role of HIF-1α in the effect of sevoflurane on hypoxia-induced growth and metastasis has also been elucidated. A549 cells were treated with normoxia, hypoxia, co-treatment of sevoflurane and hypoxia, and dimethyloxaloylglycine (DMOG, a HIF-1α agonist) for 4 h, respectively. MTT assay and colony formation assay were used to evaluate cell growth. Transwell assay was performed to detect invasion and migration ability. The protein level of HIF-1α, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), survivin, fascin, heparanase (HPA), and p38 MAPK were determined by Western blotting. Hypoxia enhanced proliferation and metastatic potential of cells. Sevoflurane could suppress hypoxia-induced growth and metastasis ability of cells. Furthermore, HIF-1α, XIAP, survivin, fascin and HPA were down-regulated significantly by the co-treatment of sevoflurane and hypoxia as compared to hypoxia treatment. DMOG abolished the inhibiting effects of sevoflurane on hypoxia-induced growth and metastasis ability of cells. In addition, sevoflurane partly reversed the increase of p38 MAPK activity that was induced by hypoxia. Sevoflurane could suppress hypoxia-induced growth and metastasis of lung cancer cells, which might be associated with modulating HIF-1α and its down-stream genes. Moreover, p38 MAPK signaling pathway was involved in the regulation of HIF-1α by sevoflurane.

  6. Neurotrophins expression is decreased in lungs of human infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Hanlon LD

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Lynn D O'Hanlon, Sherry M Mabry, Ikechukwu I EkekezieChildren's Mercy Hospitals/University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Kansas City, MO, USAObjectives: To evaluate neurotrophin (NT (nerve growth factor [NGF], NT-3, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF] expression in autopsy lung tissues of human congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH infants versus that of infants that expired with: 1 "normal" lungs (controls; 2 chronic lung disease (CLD; and 3 pulmonary hypertension (PPHN.Hypothesis: NT expression will be significantly altered in CDH lung tissue compared with normal lung tissue and other neonatal lung diseases.Study design: Immunohistochemical studies for NT proteins NGF, BDNF, and NT-3 were applied to human autopsy neonatal lung tissue samples.Subject selection: The samples included a control group of 18 samples ranging from 23-week gestational age to term, a CDH group of 15 samples, a PPHN group of six samples, and a CLD group of 12 samples.Methodology: The tissue samples were studied, and four representative slide fields of alveoli/saccules and four of bronchioles were recorded from each sample. These slide fields were then graded (from 0 to 3 by three blinded observers for intensity of staining.Results: BDNF, NGF, and NT-3 immunostaining intensity scores were significantly decreased in the CDH lung tissue (n=15 compared with normal neonatal lung tissue (n=18 (P<0.001. The other neonatal pulmonary diseases that were studied, CLD and PPHN, were much less likely to be affected and were much more variable in their neurotrophin expression.Conclusion: NT expression is decreased in CDH lungs. The decreased expression of NT in CDH lung tissue may suggest they contribute to the abnormality in this condition.Keywords: nerve growth factor, NGF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF, neurotrophin-3, NT-3, chronic lung disease, persistent pulmonary hypertension, lung

  7. Low-dose radiation suppresses Pokemon expression under hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Whan; Yu, Kweon; Shin, Kee-Sun; Kwon, Kisang; Hwang, Tae-Sik; Kwon, O-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Our previous data demonstrated that CoCl2-induced hypoxia controls endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-associated and other intracellular factors. One of them, the transcription factor Pokemon, was differentially regulated by low-dose radiation (LDR). There are limited data regarding how this transcription factor is involved in expression of the unfolded protein response (UPR) under hypoxic conditions. The purpose of this study was to obtain clues on how Pokemon is involved in the UPR. Pokemon was selected as a differentially expressed gene under hypoxic conditions; however, its regulation was clearly repressed by LDR. It was also demonstrated that both expression of ER chaperones and ER stress sensors were affected by hypoxic conditions, and the same results were obtained when cells in which Pokemon was up- or down-regulated were used. The current state of UPR and LDR research associated with the Pokemon pathway offers an important opportunity to understand the oncogenesis, senescence, and differentiation of cells, as well as to facilitate introduction of new therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals.

  8. Altered Gene Expressions and Cytogenetic Repair Efficiency in Cells with Suppressed Expression of XPA after Proton Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Rohde, Larry H.; Gridley, Daila S.; Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.; Wu, Honglu

    2009-01-01

    Cellular responses to damages from ionizing radiation (IR) exposure are influenced not only by the genes involved in DNA double strand break (DSB) repair, but also by non- DSB repair genes. We demonstrated previously that suppressed expression of several non-DSB repair genes, such as XPA, elevated IR-induced cytogenetic damages. In the present study, we exposed human fibroblasts that were treated with control or XPA targeting siRNA to 250 MeV protons (0 to 4 Gy), and analyzed chromosome aberrations and expressions of genes involved in DNA repair. As expected, after proton irradiation, cells with suppressed expression of XPA showed a significantly elevated frequency of chromosome aberrations compared with control siRNA treated (CS) cells. Protons caused more severe DNA damages in XPA knock-down cells, as 36% cells contained multiple aberrations compared to 25% in CS cells after 4Gy proton irradiation. Comparison of gene expressions using the real-time PCR array technique revealed that expressions of p53 and its regulated genes in irradiated XPA suppressed cells were altered similarly as in CS cells, suggesting that the impairment of IR induced DNA repair in XPA suppressed cells is p53-independent. Except for XPA, which was more than 2 fold down regulated in XPA suppressed cells, several other DNA damage sensing and repair genes (GTSE1, RBBP8, RAD51, UNG and XRCC2) were shown a more than 1.5 fold difference between XPA knock-down cells and CS cells after proton exposure. The possible involvement of these genes in the impairment of DNA repair in XPA suppressed cells will be further investigated.

  9. IL-1β directly suppress ghrelin mRNA expression in ghrelin-producing cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, Mika; Iwakura, Hiroshi; Ueda, Yoko; Ariyasu, Hiroyuki; Inaba, Hidefumi; Furukawa, Yasushi; Furuta, Hiroto; Nishi, Masahiro; Akamizu, Takashi

    2017-05-15

    In animal models, ghrelin production is suppressed by LPS administration. To elucidate the detailed molecular mechanisms involved in the phenomenon, we investigated the effects of LPS and LPS-inducible cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, on the expression of ghrelin in the ghrelin-producing cell line MGN3-1. These cells expressed IL-1R, and IL-1β significantly suppressed ghrelin mRNA levels. The suppressive effects of IL-1β were attenuated by knockdown of IKKβ, suggesting the involvement of the NF-κB pathway. These results suggested that IL-1β is a major regulator of ghrelin expression during inflammatory processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Expression and clinical significance of SALL4 and LGR5 in patients with lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    GAUTAM, AJAY KUMAR; WANG, CHANGMING; ZENG, JINRONG; WANG, JIYING; LU, JINGYAN; WEI, JIANGHONG; HUANG, GUOJIN; MO, BIFAN; LUO, MIAO; MO, BIWEN

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most frequent cancer worldwide, in terms of incidence and mortality. Due to challenges in the diagnosis of the disease, the 5-year overall survival rate is only ~16%. Previous studies have suggested that malignant transformations originate from adult stem cells, and malignant lesions may therefore express stem-cell-associated markers. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the expression and clinical significance of the stem cell-associated markers Sal-like protein 4 (SALL4) and leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (LGR5) in lung cancer, and to provide novel diagnostic markers and targets for the treatment of lung cancer. The expression of the stem cell-associated markers SALL4 and LGR5 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry performed on 135 human lung cancer tissue specimens and 10 non-cancer lung tissue specimens. The clinical significance of the expression of these markers and correlation between their expression and clinical parameters was also assessed. SALL4 expression was highly upregulated in lung cancer tissues, but was not present in non-cancerous lung tissues, and the sensitivity and specificity of SALL4 reached 88% and 100%, respectively. By contrast, LGR5 demonstrated 97% sensitivity, but the specificity was poor. Therefore, SALL4 may be an extremely useful diagnostic marker for lung cancer, but LGR5 is not as useful. PMID:26788181

  11. "Keep calm and carry on": structural correlates of expressive suppression of emotions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Kühn

    Full Text Available There is a growing appreciation that individuals differ systematically in their use of particular emotion regulation strategies. Our aim was to examine the structural correlates of the habitual use of expressive suppression of emotions. Based on our previous research on the voluntary suppression of actions we expected this response-focused emotion regulation strategy to be associated with increased grey matter volume in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC. On high-resolution MRI scans of 42 college-aged healthy adults we computed optimized voxel-based-morphometry (VBM to explore the correlation between grey matter volume and inter-individual differences in the tendency to suppress the expression of emotions assessed by means of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (Gross & John, 2003. We found a positive correlation between the habitual use of expressive suppression as an emotion regulation strategy and grey matter volume in the dmPFC. No other brain area showed a significant positive or negative correlation with the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire scores. The association between the suppression of expression of emotions and volume in the dmPFC supports the behavioural stability and biological foundation of the concept of this particular emotion regulation strategy within an age-homogenous sample of adults.

  12. "Keep calm and carry on": structural correlates of expressive suppression of emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Simone; Gallinat, Jürgen; Brass, Marcel

    2011-01-26

    There is a growing appreciation that individuals differ systematically in their use of particular emotion regulation strategies. Our aim was to examine the structural correlates of the habitual use of expressive suppression of emotions. Based on our previous research on the voluntary suppression of actions we expected this response-focused emotion regulation strategy to be associated with increased grey matter volume in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC). On high-resolution MRI scans of 42 college-aged healthy adults we computed optimized voxel-based-morphometry (VBM) to explore the correlation between grey matter volume and inter-individual differences in the tendency to suppress the expression of emotions assessed by means of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (Gross & John, 2003). We found a positive correlation between the habitual use of expressive suppression as an emotion regulation strategy and grey matter volume in the dmPFC. No other brain area showed a significant positive or negative correlation with the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire scores. The association between the suppression of expression of emotions and volume in the dmPFC supports the behavioural stability and biological foundation of the concept of this particular emotion regulation strategy within an age-homogenous sample of adults.

  13. Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats Induces Lung Injury and Systemic Immune Suppression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, Jan-Dirk; Aslami, Hamid; Fluiter, Kees; Roelofs, Joris J.; van den Bergh, Walter M.; Juffermans, Nicole P.; Schultz, Marcus J.; Van der Sluijs, Koen; van de Beek, Diederik; van Westerloo, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is frequently complicated by acute lung injury, which is predictive for poor outcome. However, it is unclear whether lung injury develops independently or as a result of mechanical ventilation after TBI. Further, TBI is strongly associated with the development of

  14. MiR-876-5p suppresses epithelial–mesenchymal transition of lung ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Liang Bao

    2017-11-07

    Nov 7, 2017 ... in lung cancer cells and patient tissues. Luciferase activity assay was ... Bone morphogenetic protein 4; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; lung cancer; metastasis; microRNA-876-5p. 1. Introduction ..... -UTR of BMP-4 mRNAs were cloned at the downstream of a luciferase reporter gene (Luci). (C) Levels of ...

  15. Human umbilical cord matrix mesenchymal stem cells suppress the growth of breast cancer by expression of tumor suppressor genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Ohta

    Full Text Available Human and rat umbilical cord matrix mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSC possess the ability to control the growth of breast carcinoma cells. Comparative analyses of two types of UCMSC suggest that rat UCMSC-dependent growth regulation is significantly stronger than that of human UCMSC. Their different tumoricidal abilities were clarified by analyzing gene expression profiles in the two types of UCMSC. Microarray analysis revealed differential gene expression between untreated naïve UCMSC and those co-cultured with species-matched breast carcinoma cells. The analyses screened 17 differentially expressed genes that are commonly detected in both human and rat UCMSC. The comparison between the two sets of gene expression profiles identified two tumor suppressor genes, adipose-differentiation related protein (ADRP and follistatin (FST, that were specifically up-regulated in rat UCMSC, but down-regulated in human UCMSC when they were co-cultured with the corresponding species' breast carcinoma cells. Over-expression of FST, but not ADRP, in human UCMSC enhanced their ability to suppress the growth of MDA-231 cells. The growth of MDA-231 cells was also significantly lower when they were cultured in medium conditioned with FST, but not ADRP over-expressing human UCMSC. In the breast carcinoma lung metastasis model generated with MDA-231 cells, systemic treatment with FST-over-expressing human UCMSC significantly attenuated the tumor burden. These results suggest that FST may play an important role in exhibiting stronger tumoricidal ability in rat UCMSC than human UCMSC and also implies that human UCMSC can be transformed into stronger tumoricidal cells by enhancing tumor suppressor gene expression.

  16. Behavioral experience induces zif268 expression in mature granule cells but suppresses its expression in immature granule cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylie A. Huckleberry

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of neurons are born each day in the dentate gyrus (DG, but many of these cells die before reaching maturity. Both death and survival of adult-born neurons are regulated by neuronal activity in DG. The immediate-early gene (IEG zif268 is an important mediator of these effects, as its expression is induced by neural activity and knockout of zif268 impairs survival of adult-born neurons (Veyrac et al., 2013. Despite the apparent importance of zif268 for adult neurogenesis, its behavior-induced expression has not been fully characterized in adult-born neurons. Here we characterize behavior-evoked expression of zif268 in mature and newborn dentate granule cells (DGCs. In the general granule cell population, zif268 expression peaked 1 hour after novel environment exposure and returned to baseline by 8 hours post-exposure. However, in the doublecortin-positive (DCX+ immature neurons, zif268 expression was suppressed relative to home cage for at least 8 hours post-exposure. We next determined that exposure to water maze training, an enriched environment, or a novel environment caused approximately equal suppression of zif268 expression in DCX+ cells and approximately equal activation of zif268 in the general DGC population and in 6-week-old adult-born neurons. Finally, we asked whether zif268 suppression varied as a function of age within the DCX+ population, which ranges in age from 0 to approximately 4 weeks. Novel environment exposure had no significant effect on zif268 expression in 2- or 4-week-old BrdU-labeled neurons, but it significantly suppressed zif268 expression in 3-week-old neurons. In summary, behavioral experience transiently activated expression of zif268 in mature DGCs but caused a more long-lasting suppression of zif268 expression in immature, adult-born DGCs. We hypothesize that zif268 suppression inhibits memory-related synaptic plasticity in immature DGCs or mediates learning-induced apoptosis of immature adult

  17. Endoplasmic reticulum stress suppresses lipin-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Nobuhiko, E-mail: ntkhs@hoku-iryo-u.ac.jp [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Division of Gastroenterology and Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, 2-1-1-1, Midorigaoka-Higashi, Asahikawa, Hokkaido 078-8510 (Japan); Yoshizaki, Takayuki [Innovation Center, Kagoshima University, 1-21-40, Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Hiranaka, Natsumi; Suzuki, Takeshi [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Yui, Tomoo; Akanuma, Masayoshi [Department of Fixed Prosthodontics and Oral Implantology, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Kanazawa, Kaoru [Department of Dental Anesthesiology, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Yoshida, Mika; Naito, Sumiyoshi [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan); Fujiya, Mikihiro; Kohgo, Yutaka [Division of Gastroenterology and Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, 2-1-1-1, Midorigaoka-Higashi, Asahikawa, Hokkaido 078-8510 (Japan); Ieko, Masahiro [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757, Kanazawa, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0023 (Japan)

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: ► Lipin-1 involves lipid metabolism, adipocyte differentiation, and inflammation. ► Adipose lipin-1 expression is reduced in obesity. ► ER stress suppresses lipin-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ► Activation of PPAR-γ recovers ER stress-induced lipin-1 reduction. -- Abstract: Lipin-1 plays crucial roles in the regulation of lipid metabolism and cell differentiation in adipocytes. In obesity, adipose lipin-1 mRNA expression is decreased and positively correlated with systemic insulin sensitivity. Amelioration of the lipin-1 depletion might be improved dysmetabolism. Although some cytokines such as TNF-α and interleukin-1β reduces adipose lipin-1 expression, the mechanism of decreased adipose lipin-1 expression in obesity remains unclear. Recently, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity. Here we investigated the role of ER stress on the lipin-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We demonstrated that lipin-1 expression was suppressed by the treatment with ER stress inducers (tunicamycin and thapsigargin) at transcriptional level. We also showed that constitutive lipin-1 expression could be maintained by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ recovered the ER stress-induced lipin-1 suppression. These results suggested that ER stress might be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity through lipin-1 depletion.

  18. miR-370 suppresses HBV gene expression and replication by targeting nuclear factor IA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hongxia; Lv, Ping; Lv, Jing; Zhao, Xiaopei; Liu, Min; Zhang, Guangling; Tang, Hua

    2017-05-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major health problem worldwide. The roles of microRNAs in the regulation of HBV expression are being increasingly recognized. In this study, we found that overexpression of miR-370 suppressed HBV gene expression and replication in Huh7 cells, whereas antisense knockdown of endogenous miR-370 enhanced HBV gene expression and replication in Huh7 cells and HepG2.2.15 cells. Further, we identified the transcription factor nuclear factor IA (NFIA) as a new host target of miR-370. Overexpression and knockdown studies showed that NFIA stimulated HBV gene expression and replication. Importantly, overexpression of NFIA counteracted the effect of miR-370 on HBV gene expression and replication. Further mechanistic studies showed that miR-370 suppressed HBV replication and gene expression by repressing HBV Enhancer I activity, and one of the NFIA binding site in the Enhancer I element was responsible for the repressive effect of miR-370 on HBV Enhancer I activity. Altogether, our results demonstrated that miR-370 suppressed HBV gene expression and replication through repressing NFIA expression, which stimulates HBV replication via direct regulation on HBV Enhancer I activities. Our findings may provide a new antiviral strategy for HBV infection. J. Med. Virol. 89:834-844, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Endoplasmic reticulum stress suppresses lipin-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Nobuhiko; Yoshizaki, Takayuki; Hiranaka, Natsumi; Suzuki, Takeshi; Yui, Tomoo; Akanuma, Masayoshi; Kanazawa, Kaoru; Yoshida, Mika; Naito, Sumiyoshi; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Kohgo, Yutaka; Ieko, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Lipin-1 involves lipid metabolism, adipocyte differentiation, and inflammation. ► Adipose lipin-1 expression is reduced in obesity. ► ER stress suppresses lipin-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ► Activation of PPAR-γ recovers ER stress-induced lipin-1 reduction. -- Abstract: Lipin-1 plays crucial roles in the regulation of lipid metabolism and cell differentiation in adipocytes. In obesity, adipose lipin-1 mRNA expression is decreased and positively correlated with systemic insulin sensitivity. Amelioration of the lipin-1 depletion might be improved dysmetabolism. Although some cytokines such as TNF-α and interleukin-1β reduces adipose lipin-1 expression, the mechanism of decreased adipose lipin-1 expression in obesity remains unclear. Recently, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity. Here we investigated the role of ER stress on the lipin-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We demonstrated that lipin-1 expression was suppressed by the treatment with ER stress inducers (tunicamycin and thapsigargin) at transcriptional level. We also showed that constitutive lipin-1 expression could be maintained by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ recovered the ER stress-induced lipin-1 suppression. These results suggested that ER stress might be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity through lipin-1 depletion

  20. Expression of the p16{sup INK4a} tumor suppressor gene in rodent lung tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swafford, D.S.; Tesfaigzi, J.; Belinsky, S.A.

    1995-12-01

    Aberrations on the short arm of chromosome 9 are among the earliest genetic changes in human cancer. p16{sup INK4a} is a candidate tumor suppressor gene that lies within human 9p21, a chromosome region associated with frequent loss of heterozygosity in human lung tumors. The p16{sup INK4a} protein functions as an inhibitor of cyclin D{sub 1}-dependent kinases that phosphorylate the retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor gene product enabling cell-cycle progression. Thus, overexpression of cyclin D{sub 1}, mutation of cyclin-dependent kinase genes, or loss of p16{sup INK4a} function, can all result in functional inactivation of Rb. Inactivation of Rb by mutation or deletion can result in an increase in p16{sup INK4a} transcription, suggesting that an increased p16{sup INK4a} expression in a tumor cell signals dysfunction of the pathway. The p16{sup (INK4a)} gene, unlike some tumor suppressor genes, is rarely inactivated by mutation. Instead, the expression of this gene is suppressed in some human cancers by hypermethylation of the CpG island within the first exon or by homozygous deletion: 686. Chromosome losses have been observed at 9p21 syntenic loci in tumors of the mouse and rat, two species often used as animal models for pulmonary carcinogenesis. Expression of p16{sup INK4a} is lost in some mouse tumor cell lines, often due to homozygous deletion. These observations indicate that p16{sup INK4a} dysfunction may play a role in the development of neoplasia in rodents as well as humans. The purpose of the current investigation was to define the extent to which p16{sup INK4a} dysfunction contributes to the development of rodent lung tumors and to determine the mechanism of inactivation of the gene. There is no evidence to suggest a loss of function of the p16{sup INK4a} tumor suppressor gene in these primary murine lung tumors by mutation, deletion, or methylation.

  1. Lung Adenocarcinomas and Lung Cancer Cell Lines Show Association of MMP-1 Expression With STAT3 Activation

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    Alexander Schütz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 is constitutively activated in the majority of lung cancer. This study aims at defining connections between STAT3 function and the malignant properties of non–small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC cells. To address possible mechanisms by which STAT3 influences invasiveness, the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1 was analyzed and correlated with the STAT3 activity status. Studies on both surgical biopsies and on lung cancer cell lines revealed a coincidence of STAT3 activation and strong expression of MMP-1. MMP-1 and tyrosine-phosphorylated activated STAT3 were found co-localized in cancer tissues, most pronounced in tumor fronts, and in particular in adenocarcinomas. STAT3 activity was constitutive, although to different degrees, in the lung cancer cell lines investigated. Three cell lines (BEN, KNS62, and A549 were identified in which STAT3 activitation was inducible by Interleukin-6 (IL-6. In A549 cells, STAT3 activity enhanced the level of MMP-1 mRNA and stimulated transcription from the MMP-1 promoter in IL-6–stimulated A549 cells. STAT3 specificity of this effect was confirmed by STAT3 knockdown through RNA interference. Our results link aberrant activity of STAT3 in lung cancer cells to malignant tumor progression through up-regulation of expression of invasiveness-associated MMPs.

  2. Expression of transcription factor Klf8 in lung cancer tissue and the biological effect of downregulation of Klf8 expression in lung cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the expression of transcription factor Klf8 in lung cancer tissue and the biological effect of downregulation of Klf8 expression in lung cancer cell lines. Methods: Cancer tissue and adjacent normal lung tissue were collected and mRNA contents of Klf8 were detected; lung cancer A549 cell lines were cultured, and after transfection of Klf8 siRNA, cell cycle, cell invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition were detected. Results: mRNA contents of Klf8 in lung cancer tissue were higher than those in adjacent normal lung tissue; after transfection of Klf8 siRNA, Klf8 mRNA inhibition rate was 74.31%; G0/G1 phase ratio of Klf8 siRNA group was higher than that of negative control siRNA group; ratios of S-phase and G2/M phase cells, mRNA contents of Cyclin D1 and number of cells invading to the outer side of the transwell microporous membrane were lower than those of negative control siRNA group; mRNA contents of CDH1 and CK18 as well as Snail and Slug of Klf8 siRNA group were higher than those of negative control siRNA group; mRNA contents of VIM and N-cadherin were lower than those of negative control siRNA group. Conclusion: The expression of Klf8 in lung cancer tissue abnormally elevates; downregulation of Klf8 expression in lung cancer cell lines can inhibit malignant biological effect of cells, manifested as cell cycle arrest as well as the inhibition of cell invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition processes.

  3. Suppression of calpain expression by NSAIDs is associated with inhibition of cell migration in rat duodenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Kristopher; Littlejohn, A; Thomas, Laurel; Bawa, Bhupinder; Lillich, James D

    2017-05-15

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used for the alleviation of pain and inflammation, but these drugs are also associated with a suite of negative side effects. Gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity is particularly concerning since it affects an estimated 70% of individuals taking NSAIDs routinely, and evidence suggests the majority of toxicity is occurring in the small intestine. Traditionally, NSAID-induced GI toxicity has been associated with indiscriminate inhibition of cyclooxygenase isoforms, but other mechanisms, including inhibition of cell migration, intestinal restitution, and wound healing, are likely to contribute to toxicity. Previous efforts demonstrated that treatment of cultured intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) with NSAIDs inhibits expression and activity of calpain proteases, but the effects of specific inhibition of calpain expression in vitro or the effects of NSAIDs on intestinal cell migration in vivo remain to be determined. Accordingly, we examined the effect of suppression of calpain protease expression with siRNA on cell migration in cultured IECs and evaluated the effects of NSAID treatment on epithelial cell migration and calpain protease expression in rat duodenum. Our results show that calpain siRNA inhibits protease expression and slows migration in cultured IECs. Additionally, NSAID treatment of rats slowed migration up the villus axis and suppressed calpain expression in duodenal epithelial cells. Our results are supportive of the hypothesis that suppression of calpain expression leading to slowing of cell migration is a potential mechanism through which NSAIDs cause GI toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Expression analysis of asthma candidate genes during human and murine lung development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melén, Erik; Kho, Alvin T; Sharma, Sunita; Gaedigk, Roger; Leeder, J Steven; Mariani, Thomas J; Carey, Vincent J; Weiss, Scott T; Tantisira, Kelan G

    2011-06-23

    Little is known about the role of most asthma susceptibility genes during human lung development. Genetic determinants for normal lung development are not only important early in life, but also for later lung function. To investigate the role of expression patterns of well-defined asthma susceptibility genes during human and murine lung development. We hypothesized that genes influencing normal airways development would be over-represented by genes associated with asthma. Asthma genes were first identified via comprehensive search of the current literature. Next, we analyzed their expression patterns in the developing human lung during the pseudoglandular (gestational age, 7-16 weeks) and canalicular (17-26 weeks) stages of development, and in the complete developing lung time series of 3 mouse strains: A/J, SW, C57BL6. In total, 96 genes with association to asthma in at least two human populations were identified in the literature. Overall, there was no significant over-representation of the asthma genes among genes differentially expressed during lung development, although trends were seen in the human (Odds ratio, OR 1.22, confidence interval, CI 0.90-1.62) and C57BL6 mouse (OR 1.41, CI 0.92-2.11) data. However, differential expression of some asthma genes was consistent in both developing human and murine lung, e.g. NOD1, EDN1, CCL5, RORA and HLA-G. Among the asthma genes identified in genome wide association studies, ROBO1, RORA, HLA-DQB1, IL2RB and PDE10A were differentially expressed during human lung development. Our data provide insight about the role of asthma susceptibility genes during lung development and suggest common mechanisms underlying lung morphogenesis and pathogenesis of respiratory diseases.

  5. The Regulation of Induced Depression during a Frustrating Situation: Benefits of Expressive Suppression in Chinese Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Nanxiang; Yang, Jiemin

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies from European-American cultures consistently reported that expressive suppression was associated with worse emotional consequence (e.g. depression) in comparison with acceptance. However, this conclusion may not apply to Chinese, as suppressing emotional displays to maintain relational harmony is culturally valued in East Asian countries. Thus, the present study examined the effects of suppression and acceptance on the depressive mood induced by a frustrating task in a Chinese sample. Method Sixty-four subjects were randomly assigned to one of three instructions: suppression, acceptance or no-regulation during a frustrating arithmetic task. The experience of depressive emotion and skin conductance response (SCR) were recorded during pre-frustration baseline, frustration induction and post-frustration recovery phases, respectively. Results Compared with the control and acceptance instructions, suppression instruction was associated with decreased depressive experiences and smaller SCR activity during frustration. There were no significant differences between acceptance and control groups in both subjective depression and SCR activity during frustration. Moreover, the suppression group showed a better emotional recovery after the frustrating task, in comparison with the acceptance and control groups. Correlation analyses verified that SCR reactivity was a reliable index of experienced depression during the frustration. Conclusions Expressive suppression is effective in reducing depressive experiences and depression-related physiological activity (SCR) when Chinese people are involved. By contrast, the acceptance of depressive emotion in Chinese people does not produce a similar regulation effect. These findings suggest that cultural context should be considered in understanding the emotional consequences of suppression and acceptance strategies. PMID:24827934

  6. Expression and Clinical Significance of Progesterone and Adiponectin Receptor Family Member 3 in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui LIANG

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Progesterone and adiponectin receptor family member 3 (PAQR3 is a recently discovered tumor suppressor gene, which affects the development of a tumor by inhibiting cell proliferation, cell malignant transformation, angiogenesis, and tumor metastasis. This study investigates the expression of PAQR3 in lung cancer and its clinical significance. Methods A total of 106 patients with lung cancer received surgical treatment in hospital, and adjacent normal tissues of these patients were utilized as control group. The diagnosis of all patients was confirmed through clinical pathology. The expression of PAQR3 protein was detected by immunohistochemistry in lung cancer and adjacent normal tissues. The clinical significance of its expression was also investigated. Results The positive expression rate of PAQR3 protein in lung cancer was lower than that in adjacent normal tissues (P<0.01. The positive expression rate of PAQR3 protein was unrelated to age, tumor size, and gender, but it exhibited a significant relationship with the pathological type and differentiation, TNM staging, and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the five-year survival rate of patients with PAQR3 protein positive expression was higher than that in patients with negative expression (P=0.026. Conclusion The expression of PAQR3 protein significantly decreased in lung cancer, indicating that PAQR3 protein plays an important role in the pathogenesis of PAQR3 in lung cancer.

  7. Eosinophilic lung inflammation in particulate-induced lung injury: technical consideration in isolating RNA for gene expression studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodavanti, U P; Jaskot, R H; Bonner, J; Badgett, A; Dreher, K L

    1996-01-01

    Particulate and other pollutant exposures are associated with lung injury and inflammation. The purpose of this study was to develop an approach by which intact RNA could be obtained from inflamed lung tissue from particulate-exposed animals in order to correlate injury with specific gene expression. Male Sprague Dawley (SD) and Fischer-344 (F-344) rats were intratracheally instilled with saline or residual oil fly ash (ROFA) particles, 8.3 mg/kg body weight in saline. At various time points following ROFA instillation, lungs were either lavaged or used for RNA isolation. ROFA exposure produced an increase in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) neutrophils in both SD and F-344 rats. A time-dependent increase in eosinophils occurred only in SD rats but not in F-344 rats. Extraction of inflamed pulmonary tissue having a high influx of eosinophils for RNA using the conventional acid guanidinium thiocyanate phenol-chloroform (AGPC) procedure failed to provide undegraded RNA suitable for RT-PCR and Northern blot analysis of beta-actin mRNA expression. Mixing intact total RNA from saline control rat lungs with degraded RNA samples from inflamed lung yielded a gel profile of degraded RNA, indicating the presence of ribonuclease-like activity in the RNA extracted from lung tissues having eosinophil influx. Evidently, the conventional AGPC procedure failed to completely remove ribonuclease activity associated with ROFA-induced pulmonary eosinophil influx. This study reports a single-step modification to the AGPC extraction method that does not require additional reagents or additional precipitation steps for extracting undegraded RNA from nuclease-rich inflamed lung tissue. The aqueous layer resulting from mixing homogenate and chloroform is extracted a second time using an equal volume of AGPC buffer followed by addition of chloroform and centrifugation. The second aqueous phase is then treated as described in the conventional RNA extraction protocol. This simple and

  8. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for stage I lung cancer and small lung metastasis: evaluation of an immobilization system for suppression of respiratory tumor movement and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayakawa Shiho

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT for lung tumors, reducing tumor movement is necessary. In this study, we evaluated changes in tumor movement and percutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2 levels, and preliminary clinical results of SBRT using the BodyFIX immobilization system. Methods Between 2004 and 2006, 53 consecutive patients were treated for 55 lesions; 42 were stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, 10 were metastatic lung cancers, and 3 were local recurrences of NSCLC. Tumor movement was measured with fluoroscopy under breath holding, free breathing on a couch, and free breathing in the BodyFIX system. SpO2 levels were measured with a finger pulseoximeter under each condition. The delivered dose was 44, 48 or 52 Gy, depending on tumor diameter, in 4 fractions over 10 or 11 days. Results By using the BodyFIX system, respiratory tumor movements were significantly reduced compared with the free-breathing condition in both craniocaudal and lateral directions, although the amplitude of reduction in the craniocaudal direction was 3 mm or more in only 27% of the patients. The average SpO2 did not decrease by using the system. At 3 years, the local control rate was 80% for all lesions. Overall survival was 76%, cause-specific survival was 92%, and local progression-free survival was 76% at 3 years in primary NSCLC patients. Grade 2 radiation pneumonitis developed in 7 patients. Conclusion Respiratory tumor movement was modestly suppressed by the BodyFIX system, while the SpO2 level did not decrease. It was considered a simple and effective method for SBRT of lung tumors. Preliminary results were encouraging.

  9. Emotion Regulation in Adolescence: A Prospective Study of Expressive Suppression and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Junilla K.; Vermulst, Ad A.; Geenen, Rinie; van Middendorp, Henriet; English, Tammy; Gross, James J.; Ha, Thao; Evers, Catharine; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2013-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have shown a positive association between expressive suppression and depressive symptoms. These results have been interpreted as reflecting the impact of emotion regulation efforts on depression. However, it is also possible that depression may alter emotion regulation tendencies. The goal of the present study was to…

  10. Knockdown of p53 suppresses Nanog expression in embryonic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelalim, Essam Mohamed, E-mail: emohamed@qf.org.qa [Qatar Biomedical Research Institute, Qatar Foundation, Doha 5825 (Qatar); Molecular Neuroscience Research Center, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Department of Cytology and Histology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); Tooyama, Ikuo [Molecular Neuroscience Research Center, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan)

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •We investigate the role of p53 in ESCs in the absence of DNA damage. •p53 knockdown suppresses ESC proliferation. •p53 knockdown downregulates Nanog expression. •p53 is essential for mouse ESC self-renewal. -- Abstract: Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) express high levels of cytoplasmic p53. Exposure of mouse ESCs to DNA damage leads to activation of p53, inducing Nanog suppression. In contrast to earlier studies, we recently reported that chemical inhibition of p53 suppresses ESC proliferation. Here, we confirm that p53 signaling is involved in the maintenance of mouse ESC self-renewal. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of p53 induced downregulation of p21 and defects in ESC proliferation. Furthermore, p53 knockdown resulted in a significant downregulation in Nanog expression at 24 and 48 h post-transfection. p53 knockdown also caused a reduction in Oct4 expression at 48 h post-transfection. Conversely, exposure of ESCs to DNA damage caused a higher reduction of Nanog expression in control siRNA-treated cells than in p53 siRNA-treated cells. These data show that in the absence of DNA damage, p53 is required for the maintenance of mouse ESC self-renewal by regulating Nanog expression.

  11. MYC expression correlates with PD-L1 expression in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Young; Kim, Arum; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Yoon Soo

    2017-08-01

    Objectives Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a widely used biomarker for predicting immune checkpoint inhibitors, but is of limited usefulness in the prediction of drug response. MYC, a transcription factor that is overexpressed in cancers, is involved in preventing immune cells from attacking tumor cells through inducing PD-L1 expression. This study evaluated the relationship between MYC and PD-L1 expression in 84 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who underwent curative surgical resection. Materials and Methods The relationship between MYC and PD-L1 was investigated by introducing pcDNA3-cMYC into A549 and H1299 cells with low PD-L1 expression and siRNA against MYC into H60 and H2009 cells with high PD-L1 expression. Expression of PD-L1 in NSCLC tissues was analyzed by immunostaining using a PD-L1 (22C3) PharmDx protocol using the Dako Automated Link 48 platform and expression of MYC was determined using anti-c-MYC (Y69) (ab320720). Results Of 84 patients, PD-L1 was expressed in 14 (16.7%) and MYC was overexpressed in 30 (35.7%). We investigated the relationship between PD-L1 and MYC expression. There were 49 (58.3%) double-negative patients and 9 (10.7%) double-positive patients. Significant positive correlation was observed between PD-L1 and MYC expression (γ=0.210, P=0.029). Double-negative patients showed better disease free (31.1 vs. 7.1 months, P=0.011) and overall survival (56.1 vs. 14.4 months, P=0.032) than double-positive patients. Conclusion Taken together, MYC expression significantly correlated with PD-L1 expression in NSCLC. The usefulness of MYC expression as a surrogate marker of treatment response assessment is worth evaluating for immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy and special interest are required for the subgroup of NSCLC patients, whose tumor expresses PD-L1 and MYC double positive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Suppression of RAGE and TLR9 by Ketamine Contributes to Attenuation of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunyan; Song, Yulong; Wang, Hui

    2017-06-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the protective role of ketamine in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) by the inhibition of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). ALI was induced in rats by intratracheal instillation of LPS (5 mg/kg), and ketamine (5, 7.5, and 10 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 1 h after LPS administration. Meanwhile, A549 alveolar epithelial cells were incubated with LPS in the presence or absence of ketamine. After 24 h, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue were collected. Ketamine posttreatment at doses of 5, 7.5, and 10 mg/kg decreased LPS-induced evident lung histopathological changes, lung wet-to-dry weight ratio, and lung myeloperoxidase activity. In addition, posttreatment with ketamine-inhibited inflammatory cells and inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and high-mobility group box 1 in BALF. Furthermore, we demonstrated that ketamine-inhibited LPS-induced RAGE and TLR9 protein up-expressions and the phosphorylation of I-κB-α and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 in vivo and in vitro. The results presented here suggest that the protective mechanism of ketamine may be attributed partly to decreased production of inflammatory mediators through the inhibition of RAGE/TLR9-NF-κB pathway.

  13. Twist1 controls lung vascular permeability and endotoxin-induced pulmonary edema by altering Tie2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammoto, Tadanori; Jiang, Elisabeth; Jiang, Amanda; Lu, Yongbo; Juan, Aimee M; Chen, Jing; Mammoto, Akiko

    2013-01-01

    Tight regulation of vascular permeability is necessary for normal development and deregulated vascular barrier function contributes to the pathogenesis of various diseases, including acute respiratory distress syndrome, cancer and inflammation. The angiopoietin (Ang)-Tie2 pathway is known to control vascular permeability. However, the mechanism by which the expression of Tie2 is regulated to control vascular permeability has not been fully elucidated. Here we show that transcription factor Twist1 modulates pulmonary vascular leakage by altering the expression of Tie2 in a context-dependent way. Twist1 knockdown in cultured human lung microvascular endothelial cells decreases Tie2 expression and phosphorylation and increases RhoA activity, which disrupts cell-cell junctional integrity and increases vascular permeability in vitro. In physiological conditions, where Ang1 is dominant, pulmonary vascular permeability is elevated in the Tie2-specific Twist1 knockout mice. However, depletion of Twist1 and resultant suppression of Tie2 expression prevent increase in vascular permeability in an endotoxin-induced lung injury model, where the balance of Angs shifts toward Ang2. These results suggest that Twist1-Tie2-Angs signaling is important for controlling vascular permeability and modulation of this mechanism may lead to the development of new therapeutic approaches for pulmonary edema and other diseases caused by abnormal vascular permeability.

  14. Expression of SHH signaling pathway components in the developing human lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingfeng; Wang, Hong; Teng, Hongqi; Shi, Jueping; Zhang, Yanding

    2010-10-01

    The Sonic hedgehog (Shh) cascade is crucial for the patterning of the early lung morphogenesis in mice, but its role in the developing human lung remains to be determined. In the present study, the expression patterns of SHH signaling pathway components, including SHH, PTCH1, SMO, GLI1, GLI2 and GLI3 were examined by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, and compared with the equivalent patterns in mice. Our results showed that, as in mice, SHH was expressed in the epithelium of the developing human lung. However, SHH receptors (PTCH1 and SMO) and SHH signaling effectors (GLI1-3) were strongly detected in the human lung epithelium, but weakly in the mesenchyme, slightly different from their expressions in mice. Furthermore, the expression levels of SHH signaling pathway genes in human lung, but not that of GLI1, were subsequently downregulated at the canalicular stage evaluated by real-time PCR, coincident with a decline in the developing murine lung. In conclusion, in spite of slight differences, the considerable similarities of gene expression in human and mice suggest that conserved molecular networks regulate mammalian lung development.

  15. Increased expressions of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in lung following 12 Gy local irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Kunyu; Liu Li; Zhang Tao; Wu Gang; Hu Yu; Ruebe, C.; Ruebe, C.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To measure expressions of metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in the lung following thoracic irradiation of 12 Gy, and explore its possible role in the development of radiation-induced lung damage. Methods: C57BL/6J mice at age of 8 weeks were thoracically irradiated with 12 Gy X-rays (10 MV, 2.4 Gy/min, single exposure), and the control mice were sham-irradiated. The mice were sacrificed at 4 or 8 weeks after thoracic irradiation by decapitation. Lung tissues samples were collected. Expressions of MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-3, MMP-13, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and TIMP-3 in lung samples were measured. Results: There was no significant difference in expressions of MMP-3, MMP-13, TIMP-1 TIMP-2, and TIMP-3 in the lung between the two groups at 4 and 8 weeks after thoracic irradiation (or sham-irradiation). However, the expressions of MMP-2 were enhanced by 1.7 and 1.9 folds, and MMP-9 by 2.7 and 2.6 folds at 4 and 8 weeks after thoracic irradiation, respectively. Conclusion: Enhanced expressions of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the lung were involved in the development of acute lung injury after thoracic irradiation, leading to a disruption of the structure and fibrosis. (authors)

  16. Foxp3+Regulatory T Cell Expression of Keratinocyte Growth Factor Enhances Lung Epithelial Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dial, Catherine F; Tune, Miriya K; Doerschuk, Claire M; Mock, Jason R

    2017-08-01

    Repair of the lung epithelium after injury is a critical component for resolution; however, the processes necessary to drive epithelial resolution are not clearly defined. Published data demonstrate that Foxp3 + regulatory T cells (Tregs) enhance alveolar epithelial proliferation after injury, and Tregs in vitro directly promote type II alveolar epithelial cell (AT2) proliferation, in part by a contact-independent mechanism. Therefore, we sought to determine the contribution of Treg-specific expression of a growth factor that is known to be important in lung repair, keratinocyte growth factor (kgf). The data demonstrate that Tregs express kgf and that Treg-specific expression of kgf regulates alveolar epithelial proliferation during the resolution phase of acute lung injury and in a model of regenerative alveologenesis in vivo. In vitro experiments demonstrate that AT2 cells cocultured with Tregs lacking kgf have decreased rates of proliferation compared with AT2 cells cocultured with wild-type Tregs. Moreover, Tregs isolated from lung tissue and grown in culture express higher levels of two growth factors that are important for lung repair (kgf and amphiregulin) compared with Tregs isolated from splenic tissue. Lastly, Tregs isolated from human lung tissue can be stimulated ex vivo to induce kgf expression. This study reveals mechanisms by which Tregs direct tissue-reparative effects during resolution after acute lung injury, further supporting the emerging role of Tregs in tissue repair.

  17. Matrine suppresses airway inflammation by downregulating SOCS3 expression via inhibition of NF-κB signaling in airway epithelial cells and asthmatic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Daqing [Department of Respiration, Xi’an Children’s Hospital, Xi’an 710003 (China); Wang, Jing [Department of Neonatology, Xi’an Children’s Hospital, Xi’an 710003 (China); Yang, Niandi [Outpatient Department, School of Aerospace Engineering, Air Force Engineering University, Xi’an 710038 (China); Ma, Haixin, E-mail: drhaixinma@163.com [Department of Quality Control, Xi’an Children’s Hospital, Xi’an 710003 (China)

    2016-08-12

    Matrine has been demonstrated to attenuate allergic airway inflammation. Elevated suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) was correlated with the severity of asthma. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of matrine on SOCS3 expression in airway inflammation. In this study, we found that matrine significantly inhibited OVA-induced AHR, inflammatory cell infiltration, goblet cell differentiation, and mucous production in a dose-dependent manner in mice. Matrine also abrogated the level of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, but enhanced interferon (IFN)-γ expression, both in BALF and in lung homogenates. Furthermore, matrine impeded TNF-α-induced the expression of IL-6 and adhesion molecules in airway epithelial cells (BEAS-2B and MLE-12). Additionally, we found that matrine inhibited SOCS3 expression, both in asthmatic mice and TNF-α-stimulated epithelial cells via suppression of the NF-κB signaling pathway by using pcDNA3.1-SOCS3 plasmid, SOCS3 siRNA, or nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) inhibitor PDTC. Conclusions: Matrine suppresses airway inflammation by downregulating SOCS3 expression via inhibition of NF-κB signaling in airway epithelial cells and asthmatic mice. - Highlights: • Matrine attenuates asthmatic symptoms and regulates Th1/Th2 balance in vivo. • Matrine suppresses inflammation responses in vitro. • Matrine decreases SOCS3 expression both in vivo and in vitro. • Matrine inhibits SOCS3 expression by suppressing NF-κB signaling.

  18. Carvacrol, a component of thyme oil, activates PPARα and γ and suppresses COX-2 expression[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Mariko; Nakata, Rieko; Katsukawa, Michiko; Hori, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Saori; Inoue, Hiroyasu

    2010-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), the rate-limiting enzyme in prostaglandin biosynthesis, plays a key role in inflammation and circulatory homeostasis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-dependent transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily and are involved in the control of COX-2 expression, and vice versa. Here, we show that COX-2 promoter activity was suppressed by essential oils derived from thyme, clove, rose, eucalyptus, fennel, and bergamot in cell-based transfection assays using bovine arterial endothelial cells. Moreover, from thyme oil, we identified carvacrol as a major component of the suppressor of COX-2 expression and an activator of PPARα and γ. PPARγ-dependent suppression of COX-2 promoter activity was observed in response to carvacrol treatment. In human macrophage-like U937 cells, carvacrol suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced COX-2 mRNA and protein expression, suggesting that carvacrol regulates COX-2 expression through its agonistic effect on PPARγ. These results may be important in understanding the antiinflammatory and antilifestyle-related disease properties of carvacrol. PMID:19578162

  19. Pharmacologic suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells expressing chimeric T-cell receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Vallina, L; Yañez, R; Blanco, B; Gil, M; Russell, S J

    2000-04-01

    Adoptive therapy with autologous T cells expressing chimeric T-cell receptors (chTCRs) is of potential interest for the treatment of malignancy. To limit possible T-cell-mediated damage to normal tissues that weakly express the targeted tumor antigen (Ag), we have tested a strategy for the suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells. Jurkat T cells were transduced with an anti-hapten chTCR tinder the control of a tetracycline-suppressible promoter and were shown to respond to Ag-positive (hapten-coated) but not to Ag-negative target cells. The engineered T cells were then reacted with hapten-coated target cells at different effector to target cell ratios before and after exposure to tetracycline. When the engineered T cells were treated with tetracycline, expression of the chTCR was greatly decreased and recognition of the hapten-coated target cells was completely suppressed. Tetracycline-mediated suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells may be a useful strategy to limit the toxicity of the approach to cancer gene therapy.

  20. STK11/LKB1 deficiency promotes neutrophil recruitment and proinflammatory cytokine production to suppress T cell activity in the lung tumor microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Shohei; Akbay, Esra A.; Li, Yvonne Y.; Aref, Amir R.; Skoulidis, Ferdinandos; Herter-Sprie, Grit S.; Buczkowski, Kevin A.; Liu, Yan; Awad, Mark M.; Denning, Warren L.; Diao, Lixia; Wang, Jing; Parra-Cuentas, Edwin R.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Soucheray, Margaret; Thai, Tran C.; Asahina, Hajime; Kitajima, Shunsuke; Altabef, Abigail; Cavanaugh, Jillian D.; Rhee, Kevin; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Haikuo; Fecci, Peter E.; Shimamura, Takeshi; Hellmann, Matthew D.; Heymach, John V.; Hodi, F. Stephen; Freeman, Gordon J.; Barbie, David A.; Dranoff, Glenn; Hammerman, Peter S.; Wong, Kwok-Kin

    2016-01-01

    STK11/LKB1 is among the most commonly inactivated tumor suppressors in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), especially in tumors harboring KRAS mutations. Many oncogenes promote immune escape, undermining the effectiveness of immunotherapies, but it is unclear whether inactivation of tumor suppressor genes such as STK11/LKB1 exert similar effects. In this study, we investigated the consequences of STK11/LKB1 loss on the immune microenvironment in a mouse model of KRAS-driven NSCLC. Genetic ablation of STK11/LKB1 resulted in accumulation of neutrophils with T cell suppressive effects, along with a corresponding increase in the expression of T cell exhaustion markers and tumor-promoting cytokines. The number of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes was also reduced in LKB1-deficient mouse and human tumors. Furthermore, STK11/LKB1 inactivating mutations were associated with reduced expression of PD-1 ligand PD-L1 in mouse and patient tumors as well as in tumor-derived cell lines. Consistent with these results, PD-1 targeting antibodies were ineffective against Lkb1-deficient tumors. In contrast, treating Lkb1-deficient mice with an IL-6 neutralizing antibody or a neutrophil-depleting antibody yielded therapeutic benefits associated with reduced neutrophil accumulation and proinflammatory cytokine expression. Our findings illustrate how tumor suppressor mutations can modulate the immune milieu of the tumor microenvironment, and they offer specific implications for addressing STK11/LKB1 mutated tumors with PD-1 targeting antibody therapies. PMID:26833127

  1. Loss of expression of BAP1 is very rare in non-small cell lung carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrici, Juliana; Parkhill, Thomas R; Jung, Jason; Wardell, Kathryn L; Verdonk, Brandon; Singh, Arjun; Sioson, Loretta; Clarkson, Adele; Watson, Nicole; Sheen, Amy; Farzin, Mahtab; Toon, Christopher W; Gill, Anthony J

    2016-06-01

    Germline mutations of the BAP1 gene have been implicated in a cancer predisposition syndrome which includes mesothelioma, uveal melanoma, cutaneous melanocytic lesions, renal cell carcinoma, and possibly other malignancies. Double hit inactivation of BAP1 with subsequent loss of expression of the BAP1 protein also occurs in approximately 50% of mesotheliomas. The link between BAP1 mutation and lung cancer is yet to be fully explored. We sought to assess BAP1 expression in a large cohort of lung cancers undergoing surgery with curative intent. We searched the Anatomical Pathology database of our institution for lung cancer patients undergoing surgery with curative intent between 2000 and 2010. Immunohistochemistry for BAP1 was then performed in tissue microarray format. Our cohort included 257 lung cancer patients, of which 155 (60%) were adenocarcinomas and 72 (28%) were squamous cell carcinomas, with no other subtype comprising more than 3%. BAP1 loss of expression was found in only one lung cancer. We conclude that BAP1 mutation occurs very infrequently (0.4%) in non-small cell lung cancer. Given that the pathological differential diagnosis between lung carcinoma and mesothelioma may sometimes be difficult, this finding increases the specificity of loss of expression for BAP1 for the diagnosis of mesothelioma. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Inverse agonistic activity of antihistamines and suppression of histamine H1 receptor gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Ono, Shohei; Hattori, Masashi; Fukui, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Histamine H(1) receptor (H1R) expression influences the severity of allergy symptoms. We examined the effect of inverse agonists on H1R gene expression. Two inverse agonists (carebastine and mepyramine), but not the neutral antagonist oxatomide, decreased inositol phosphate accumulation. The inverse agonists also decreased H1R gene expression and down-regulated H1R mRNA below basal expression, while basal H1R mRNA expression was maintained after oxatomide treatment. These results suggest that inverse agonists more potently alleviate allergy symptoms by not only inhibiting stimulus-induced up-regulation of H1R gene expression but also by suppressing basal histamine signaling through their inverse agonistic activity.

  3. β-Escin inhibits NNK-induced lung adenocarcinoma and ALDH1A1 and RhoA/Rock expression in A/J mice and growth of H460 human lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlolla, Jagan M R; Qian, Li; Biddick, Laura; Zhang, Yuting; Desai, Dhimant; Amin, Shantu; Lightfoot, Stan; Rao, Chinthalapally V

    2013-10-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. β-Escin, a triterpene saponin isolated from horse chestnut seeds, was tested for inhibition of lung adenoma and adenocarcinoma induced by the tobacco carcinogen 4-(methyl-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) in female A/J mice; and its possible mode of action was evaluated using the H460 human lung cancer cell line. At 6 weeks of age, 35 mice were fed AIN-76A-modified diet, and one week later, lung tumors were induced with a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 10 μmol NNK/mouse. Three weeks after the NNK treatment, groups of mice were fed either control or experimental diets containing 500 ppm for 20 weeks (10 control, 5 β-escin) or 36 weeks (15 control, 5 β-escin) and evaluated for lung tumor via histopathologic methods. Administration of 500 ppm β-escin significantly suppressed lung tumor (adenoma + adenocarcinoma) formation by more than 40% (P Escin inhibited NNK-induced lung adenocarcinoma formation by 65% (P escin showed significantly reduced aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)1A1 and phospho-Akt (p-Akt) expression when compared with those in mice fed control diet. Aldefluor assay for ALDH revealed that among H460 lung cancer cells treated with different concentrations of β-escin (0-40 μmol/L), the subpopulation of cells with elevated ALDH activity was inhibited significantly. Our findings suggest that β-escin inhibits tobacco carcinogen-induced lung tumor formation by modulating ALDH1A1-positive cells and RhoA/Rock signaling.

  4. Post-translational suppression of expression of intestinal brush border enzymes by fructose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M

    1989-01-01

    The two major dietary sugars, fructose and sucrose, were found to suppress effectively the biosynthetic renewal of brush border enzymes in the gut. When studied in cultured explants of pig small intestine mucosa, 10-50 mM concentrations of fructose completely prevented the expression of mature...... aminopeptidase N and severely reduced that of sucrase-isomaltase. The instantly occurring and reversible suppressive effect manifested itself as a leupeptin-sensitive degradation of newly synthesized brush border enzymes. The likely mechanism of action of the dietary sugar is by causing an abnormal...... cotranslational glycosylation that in turn triggers a rapid proteolytic breakdown. Our findings suggest that renewal of digestive brush border enzymes is transiently suppressed during intake of fructose- or sucrose-rich meals....

  5. Suppression of expression of muscle-associated proteins by PPARα in brown adipose tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Yuhong; Hara, Atsushi; Komatsu, Makiko; Tanaka, Naoki; Kamijo, Yuji; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Aoyama, Toshifumi

    2005-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) belongs to the steroid/nuclear receptor superfamily. Two-dimensional (2D) SDS-PAGE analysis of brown adipose tissue (BAT) unexpectedly revealed six spots that were present only in PPARα-null mice. Proteomic analysis indicated that these proteins were tropomyosin-1 α chain, tropomyosin β chain, myosin regulatory light chain 2, myosin light chain 3, and parvalbumin α. Analyses of mRNA have revealed that PPARα suppressed the genes encoding these proteins in a synchronous manner in adult wild-type mice. Histological and physiological analyses of BAT showed in adult wild-type mice, a marked suppression of BAT growth concurrent with a prominent decrease in lipolytic and thermogenesis activities. These results suggest that in adult mice, PPARα functions to suppress the expression of the proteins that may be involved in the architecture of BAT, and thus may function in keeping BAT in a quiescent state

  6. Breviscapine suppresses the growth of non-small cell lung cancer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Breviscapine (BVP) has previously been shown to inhibit the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.However, little is known about the effects of BVP on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) growth. Here, we aimedto study the effects of BVP on human NSCLC growth. We employed A549, NCL-H460 and A549 cells ...

  7. Breviscapine suppresses the growth of non-small cell lung cancer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-02-10

    Feb 10, 2017 ... Breviscapine (BVP) has previously been shown to inhibit the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. However, little is known about the effects of BVP on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) growth. Here, we aimed to study the effects of BVP on human NSCLC growth. We employed A549, NCL-H460 ...

  8. Suppression and expression of emotion in social and interpersonal outcomes: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervonsky, Elizabeth; Hunt, Caroline

    2017-06-01

    Emotion expression is critical for the communication of important social information, such as emotional states and behavioral intentions. However, people tend to vary in their level of emotional expression. This meta-analysis investigated the relationships between levels of emotion expression and suppression, and social and interpersonal outcomes. PsycINFO databases, as well as reference lists were searched. Forty-three papers from a total of 3,200 papers met inclusion criteria, allowing for 105 effect sizes to be calculated. Meta-analyses revealed that greater suppression of emotion was significantly associated with poorer social wellbeing, including more negative first impressions, lower social support, lower social satisfaction and quality, and poorer romantic relationship quality. Furthermore, the expression of positive and general/nonspecific emotion was related to better social outcomes, while the expression of anger was associated with poorer social wellbeing. Expression of negative emotion generally was also associated with poorer social outcomes, although this effect size was very small and consisted of mixed results. These findings highlight the importance of considering the role that regulation of emotional expression can play in the development of social dysfunction and interpersonal problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. PM2.5-induced alterations of cell cycle associated gene expression in lung cancer cells and rat lung tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Yang, Biao; Xu, Jia; Chen, Dong-Mei; Xiao, Chun-Ling

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the expression of cell cycle-associated genes induced by fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) in lung cancer cell line and tissues. The pulmonary lymph node metastasis cells (H292) were treated with PM 2.5 in vitro. Wistar rats were used to perform an in vivo study. Rats were randomly assigned to experiment and control groups and those in the experiment group were exposed to PM 2.5 once every 15 d, while those in the control group were exposed to normal saline. The cell cycle-associated genes expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. Trachea and lung tissues of rats were processed for scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examinations. Exposure of H292 cells to PM 2.5 dramatically increased the expressions of p53 and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) after 24h of exposure (pcell division cycle 2 (Cdc2) and cyclin B after 48h of exposure (p<0.01), while those genes expressions were significantly reduced after 72h of exposure, at which time the expression of p21 was predominant (p<0.01). In vivo studies further demonstrated these results. The results of SEM suggested that both of the trachea and lung tissues were damaged and the degree of damage was time-dependent. In conclusion, PM 2.5 can induce significantly alterations of p53 and CDK2 in the early phase, Cdc2 and cyclin B in mid-term and p21 in long-term exposure. The degree of PM 2.5 -induced damage to the trachea and lung tissue was time-dependent. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Integrated analyses of copy number variations and gene expression in lung adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Pin Lu

    Full Text Available Numerous efforts have been made to elucidate the etiology and improve the treatment of lung cancer, but the overall five-year survival rate is still only 15%. Identification of prognostic biomarkers for lung cancer using gene expression microarrays poses a major challenge in that very few overlapping genes have been reported among different studies. To address this issue, we have performed concurrent genome-wide analyses of copy number variation and gene expression to identify genes reproducibly associated with tumorigenesis and survival in non-smoking female lung adenocarcinoma. The genomic landscape of frequent copy number variable regions (CNVRs in at least 30% of samples was revealed, and their aberration patterns were highly similar to several studies reported previously. Further statistical analysis for genes located in the CNVRs identified 475 genes differentially expressed between tumor and normal tissues (p<10(-5. We demonstrated the reproducibility of these genes in another lung cancer study (p = 0.0034, Fisher's exact test, and showed the concordance between copy number variations and gene expression changes by elevated Pearson correlation coefficients. Pathway analysis revealed two major dysregulated functions in lung tumorigenesis: survival regulation via AKT signaling and cytoskeleton reorganization. Further validation of these enriched pathways using three independent cohorts demonstrated effective prediction of survival. In conclusion, by integrating gene expression profiles and copy number variations, we identified genes/pathways that may serve as prognostic biomarkers for lung tumorigenesis.

  11. SIRT1 expression is associated with poor prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li C

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chong Li,1,2,* Lingling Wang,3,* Liang Zheng,4 Xianghong Zhan,4 Bin Xu,1,2 Jingting Jiang,1,2 Changping Wu1,2 1Department of Tumor Biological Treatment, the Third Affiliated Hospital, Soochow University, Changzhou, 2Cancer Immunotherapy Engineering Research Center of Jiangsu Province, Changzhou, 3Department of Medical Education, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, 4Department of Thoracic Surgery, the Third Affiliated Hospital, Soochow University, Changzhou, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Several studies have reported that the overexpression of Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1 was associated with poor prognosis in various human cancers. However, little is known regarding the prognostic value of SIRT1 in lung adenocarcinoma. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the role of SIRT1 in the prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma patients. Using a tissue microarray, we detected SIRT1 expression by immunohistochemistry in lung adenocarcinoma tissue, as well as in corresponding noncancerous tissues (NCTs. A high expression level of SIRT1 was observed in 74.7% (56/75 of patients with lung adenocarcinoma and 6.7% (5/75 of NCTs (P<0.001. SIRT1 expression was significantly associated with high pathological stage. Importantly, we found that SIRT1 expression was associated with worse overall survival in these lung adenocarcinoma patients (67.0 months vs 104.5 months; P=0.005. In addition, anaplastic lymphoma kinase, epidermal growth factor receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and Survivin expression were evaluated by fluorescent in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry, respectively. We found that VEGF and Survivin were both highly expressed in the lung adenocarcinoma tissues, as compared to NCTs. Moreover, the SIRT1 and VEGF expression statuses were significantly positively correlated (r=0.238, P=0.039, while SIRT1 and Survivin expression status were not

  12. Nuclear receptor expression defines a set of prognostic biomarkers for lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangsik Jeong

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The identification of prognostic tumor biomarkers that also would have potential as therapeutic targets, particularly in patients with early stage disease, has been a long sought-after goal in the management and treatment of lung cancer. The nuclear receptor (NR superfamily, which is composed of 48 transcription factors that govern complex physiologic and pathophysiologic processes, could represent a unique subset of these biomarkers. In fact, many members of this family are the targets of already identified selective receptor modulators, providing a direct link between individual tumor NR quantitation and selection of therapy. The goal of this study, which begins this overall strategy, was to investigate the association between mRNA expression of the NR superfamily and the clinical outcome for patients with lung cancer, and to test whether a tumor NR gene signature provided useful information (over available clinical data for patients with lung cancer.Using quantitative real-time PCR to study NR expression in 30 microdissected non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs and their pair-matched normal lung epithelium, we found great variability in NR expression among patients' tumor and non-involved lung epithelium, found a strong association between NR expression and clinical outcome, and identified an NR gene signature from both normal and tumor tissues that predicted patient survival time and disease recurrence. The NR signature derived from the initial 30 NSCLC samples was validated in two independent microarray datasets derived from 442 and 117 resected lung adenocarcinomas. The NR gene signature was also validated in 130 squamous cell carcinomas. The prognostic signature in tumors could be distilled to expression of two NRs, short heterodimer partner and progesterone receptor, as single gene predictors of NSCLC patient survival time, including for patients with stage I disease. Of equal interest, the studies of microdissected histologically normal

  13. Expressive Suppression of Emotions and Overeating in Individuals with Overweight and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görlach, Mirja Gianna; Kohlmann, Sebastian; Shedden-Mora, Meike; Rief, Winfried; Westermann, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Emotions have a considerable impact on eating behaviour; however, research addressing emotion regulation in obesity is rare. The present study is the first to investigate the association between emotional suppression and overeating in individuals with overweight. In total, 314 participants including 190 individuals with obesity filled in a cross-sectional online survey, which assessed emotional suppression, eating behaviour and psychopathology. A hierarchical linear regression analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with overeating. Individuals with obesity reported more frequent overeating compared with individuals without obesity. The habitual use of emotional suppression was associated with more overeating; however, this link was moderated by increased body mass index (BMI). The results suggest that suppression of emotional expression contributes to overeating and is maladaptive especially in individuals with obesity. Further research should longitudinally investigate the predictive value of emotional suppression on overweight, as the training of emotion regulation could contribute to treating obesity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  14. FGF signaling pathway in the developing chick lung: expression and inhibition studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rute S Moura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factors (FGF are essential key players during embryonic development. Through their specific cognate receptors (FGFR they activate intracellular cascades, finely regulated by modulators such as Sprouty. Several FGF ligands (FGF1, 2, 7, 9, 10 and 18 signaling through the four known FGFRs, have been implicated in lung morphogenesis. Although much is known about mammalian lung, so far, the avian model has not been explored for lung studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we provide the first description of fgf10, fgfr1-4 and spry2 expression patterns in early stages of chick lung development by in situ hybridization and observe that they are expressed similarly to their mammalian counterparts. Furthermore, aiming to determine a role for FGF signaling in chick lung development, in vitro FGFR inhibition studies were performed. Lung explants treated with an FGF receptor antagonist (SU5402 presented an impairment of secondary branch formation after 48 h of culture; moreover, abnormal lung growth with a cystic appearance of secondary bronchi and reduction of the mesenchymal tissue was observed. Branching and morphometric analysis of lung explants confirmed that FGFR inhibition impaired branching morphogenesis and induced a significant reduction of the mesenchyme. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This work demonstrates that FGFRs are essential for the epithelial-mesenchymal interactions that determine epithelial branching and mesenchymal growth and validate the avian embryo as a good model for pulmonary studies, namely to explore the FGF pathway as a therapeutic target.

  15. Post-translational suppression of expression of intestinal brush border enzymes by fructose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M

    1989-01-01

    The two major dietary sugars, fructose and sucrose, were found to suppress effectively the biosynthetic renewal of brush border enzymes in the gut. When studied in cultured explants of pig small intestine mucosa, 10-50 mM concentrations of fructose completely prevented the expression of mature am...... cotranslational glycosylation that in turn triggers a rapid proteolytic breakdown. Our findings suggest that renewal of digestive brush border enzymes is transiently suppressed during intake of fructose- or sucrose-rich meals.......The two major dietary sugars, fructose and sucrose, were found to suppress effectively the biosynthetic renewal of brush border enzymes in the gut. When studied in cultured explants of pig small intestine mucosa, 10-50 mM concentrations of fructose completely prevented the expression of mature...... aminopeptidase N and severely reduced that of sucrase-isomaltase. The instantly occurring and reversible suppressive effect manifested itself as a leupeptin-sensitive degradation of newly synthesized brush border enzymes. The likely mechanism of action of the dietary sugar is by causing an abnormal...

  16. Longitudinal assessment of TUBB3 expression in non-small cell lung cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jan Nyrop; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric; Sørensen, Jens Benn

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Class-III-beta-tubulin (TUBB3) expression may be a potential predictive factor for treatment with microtubule interfering cytotoxic drugs in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Potential changes in TUBB3 expression during chemotherapy may be of interest if future choice of chemother......INTRODUCTION: Class-III-beta-tubulin (TUBB3) expression may be a potential predictive factor for treatment with microtubule interfering cytotoxic drugs in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Potential changes in TUBB3 expression during chemotherapy may be of interest if future choice...... of chemotherapy is to be based on TUBB3 expression. If the biomarker expression changes during chemotherapy, biopsies before initiation of chemotherapy beyond first line may be needed if treatment decision is to be based on TUBB3 expression. Thus, the aim was to explore TUBB3 expression heterogeneity and changes......, suggesting no need for rebiopsy in case second-line chemotherapy with microtubule interfering cytotoxic treatments is necessary....

  17. Gene expression profiling for molecular distinction and characterization of laser captured primary lung cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schott Matthias

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Methods We examined gene expression profiles of tumor cells from 29 untreated patients with lung cancer (10 adenocarcinomas (AC, 10 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC, and 9 small cell lung cancer (SCLC in comparison to 5 samples of normal lung tissue (NT. The European and American methodological quality guidelines for microarray experiments were followed, including the stipulated use of laser capture microdissection for separation and purification of the lung cancer tumor cells from surrounding tissue. Results Based on differentially expressed genes, different lung cancer samples could be distinguished from each other and from normal lung tissue using hierarchical clustering. Comparing AC, SCC and SCLC with NT, we found 205, 335 and 404 genes, respectively, that were at least 2-fold differentially expressed (estimated false discovery rate: Genetic programming (GP was performed to construct a classifier for distinguishing between AC, SCC, SCLC, and NT. Forty genes, that could be used to correctly classify the tumor or NT samples, have been identified. In addition, all samples from an independent test set of 13 further tumors (AC or SCC were also correctly classified. Conclusion The data from this research identified potential candidate genes which could be used as the basis for the development of diagnostic tools and lung tumor type-specific targeted therapies.

  18. [Expression and clinical significance of Pokemon in non-small cell lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhihong; Wang, Shengfa; Zhang, Tiewa

    2007-12-20

    Proto-oncogene Pokemon is the special transcription inhibitor of ARF,which can regulate cell growth and differentiation by ARF-P53 path.It may be the important monitoring target of tumor because of being upstream region of many tumor suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes.The aim of this study is to explore the clinical significance of Pokemon gene in non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC). Immunohistochemistry was applied to detect the expression of Pokemon protein in 92 cases of NSCLC and 20 cases of paracancerous lung tissues.Correlation between abnormal expression of Pokemon with pathologic characteristics and prognosis of NSCLC was analyzed. Pokemon was not expressed in paracancerous lung tissues and was found in 66 of 92(71.7%) cases of lung cancer tissues.Expression of Pokemon was closely related to TNM stages(P=0.011).Survival rate of patients with negative Pokemon expression was significantly higher than that of those with positive Pokemon expression(P=0.0015).Pokemon expression was demonstrated as independent prognostic factor of NSCLC. Pokemon is expressed in NSCLC and it may be identified as a new diagnostic marker.High expression of Pokemon may indicate poor prognosis of patients with NSCLC.

  19. Estrogen stimulates osteoprotegerin expression via the suppression of miR-145 expression in MG-63 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jun; Zhou, Hengxing; Zeng, Xiantie; Feng, Shiqing

    2017-04-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is implicated in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis, and other metabolic bone diseases caused by estrogen deficiency. Previous studies have demonstrated that estrogen may stimulate OPG expression in osteoblast cells at the transcriptional level; however, whether estrogen can regulate OPG expression at a post-transcriptional level remains elusive. The present study aimed to investigate the role of microRNA (miRNA) in estrogen‑mediated OPG production in human osteoblast‑like MG‑63 cells. The results from ELISA, western blotting and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) confirmed that estrogen may upregulate OPG expression. Mechanistic studies indicated that estrogen increased the activity of a luciferase reporter harboring the OPG 3'‑untranslated region (3'‑UTR). Bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that there is a potential targeting site in the OPG 3'‑UTR for miRNA (miR)‑145, which is associated with osteoblast differentiation. The results of an RT‑qPCR suggested that estrogen suppressed miR‑145 expression. In addition, dual‑luciferase assay, RT‑qPCR and western blot analysis indicated that miR‑145 directly targets and negatively regulates OPG expression. Furthermore, transfection of cells with miR‑145 mimics was able to partially inhibit the induction of OPG expression by estrogen, thus confirming the role of miR‑145 in estrogen‑mediated OPG induction. Taken together, the results of the present study demonstrated that estrogen may post-transcriptionally regulate OPG expression through suppression of miR-145 expression.

  20. Histamine suppresses gene expression and synthesis of tumor necrosis factor alpha via histamine H2 receptors

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    Histamine and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) can each contribute to the pathogenesis of allergic reactions and chronic inflammatory diseases. We now report the effect of histamine on gene expression and total cellular synthesis of TNF-alpha. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced synthesis of TNF-alpha in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 18 healthy donors was suppressed by histamine concentrations from 10(-6) to 10(-4) M, levels comparable with those measured in tissues after...

  1. Citrus nobiletin suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression in interleukin-1β-treated hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshigai, Emi [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization (R-GIRO), Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Machida, Toru [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Okuyama, Tetsuya [Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization (R-GIRO), Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Mori, Masatoshi; Murase, Hiromitsu; Yamanishi, Ryota [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Okumura, Tadayoshi [Research Organization of Science and Technology, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Department of Surgery, Kansai Medical University, Hirakata, Osaka (Japan); Ikeya, Yukinobu [Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Nishino, Hoyoku [Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization (R-GIRO), Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Department of Biochemistry, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Nishizawa, Mikio, E-mail: nishizaw@sk.ritsumei.ac.jp [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan)

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •Nobiletin is a polymethoxylated flavone that is abundant in citrus peels. •Nobiletin is a major constituent of the Citrus unshiu peel extract. •Nobiletin suppresses induction of NO and reduces iNOS expression in hepatocytes. •Nobiletin reduces the iNOS promoter activity and the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB. -- Abstract: Background: Nobiletin is a polymethoxylated flavone that is abundant in the peels of citrus fruits, such as Citrus unshiu (Satsuma mandarin) and Citrus sinensis. The dried peels of C. unshiu (chinpi) have been included in several formulae of Japanese Kampo medicines. Nobiletin may suppress the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which synthesizes the inflammatory mediator nitric oxide (NO) in hepatocytes. Methods: A C. unshiu peel (CUP) extract was prepared. Primary cultured rat hepatocytes were treated with the CUP extract or nobiletin in the presence of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), which induces iNOS expression. NO production and iNOS gene expression were analyzed. Results: High-performance liquid chromatography analyses revealed that the nobiletin content in the CUP extract was 0.14%. Nobiletin dose-dependently reduced the NO levels and decreased iNOS expression at the protein, mRNA and antisense transcript levels. Flavone, which does not contain any methoxy groups, also suppressed iNOS induction. Nobiletin reduced the transcriptional activity of iNOS promoter-luciferase constructs and the DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) in the nuclei. Conclusions: The suppression of iNOS induction by nobiletin suggests that nobiletin may be responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of citrus peels and have a therapeutic potential for liver diseases.

  2. Expressive Suppression Tendencies, Projection Bias in Memory of Negative Emotions, and Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Valerie T; Overall, Nickola C; Madden, Helen; Low, Rachel S T

    2018-02-01

    The current research extends prior research linking negative emotions and emotion regulation tendencies to memory by investigating whether (a) naturally occurring negative emotions during routine weekly life are associated with more negatively biased memories of prior emotional experiences-a bias called projection; (b) tendencies to regulate emotions via expressive suppression are associated with greater projection bias in memory of negative emotions; and (c) greater projection bias in memory is associated with poorer future well-being. Participants (N = 308) completed a questionnaire assessing their general tendencies to engage in expressive suppression. Then, every week for 7 weeks, participants reported on (a) the negative emotions they experienced across the current week (e.g., "This week, I felt 'sad'"), (b) their memories of the negative emotions they experienced the prior week (e.g., "Last week, I felt 'sad'"), and (c) their well-being. First, participants demonstrated significant projection bias in memory: Greater negative emotions in a given week were associated with remembering emotions in the prior week more negatively than those prior emotions were originally reported. Second, projection bias in memory of negative emotions was greater for individuals who reported greater tendencies to regulate emotions via expressive suppression. Third, greater projection bias in memory of negative emotions was associated with reductions in well-being across weeks. These 3 novel findings indicate that (a) current negative emotions bias memory of past emotions, (b) this memory bias is magnified for people who habitually use expressive suppression to regulate emotions, and (c) this memory bias may undermine well-being over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. VEGF receptor expression decreases during lung development in congenital diaphragmatic hernia induced by nitrofen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sbragia, L. [Divisão de Cirurgia Pediátrica, Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, Divisão de Cirurgia Pediátrica, Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Nassr, A.C.C. [Departamento de Hidrobiologia do Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Hidrobiologia do Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Gonçalves, F.L.L. [Divisão de Cirurgia Pediátrica, Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, Divisão de Cirurgia Pediátrica, Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Schmidt, A.F. [Pediatrics House Office, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA, Pediatrics House Office, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Zuliani, C.C. [Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Garcia, P.V. [Departamento de Histologia e Embriologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, Campinas, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Histologia e Embriologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Gallindo, R.M. [Divisão de Cirurgia Pediátrica, Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, Divisão de Cirurgia Pediátrica, Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Pereira, L.A.V. [Departamento de Histologia e Embriologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, Campinas, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Histologia e Embriologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2014-02-17

    Changes in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in pulmonary vessels have been described in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and may contribute to the development of pulmonary hypoplasia and hypertension; however, how the expression of VEGF receptors changes during fetal lung development in CDH is not understood. The aim of this study was to compare morphological evolution with expression of VEGF receptors, VEGFR1 (Flt-1) and VEGFR2 (Flk-1), in pseudoglandular, canalicular, and saccular stages of lung development in normal rat fetuses and in fetuses with CDH. Pregnant rats were divided into four groups (n=20 fetuses each) of four different gestational days (GD) 18.5, 19.5, 20.5, 21.5: external control (EC), exposed to olive oil (OO), exposed to 100 mg nitrofen, by gavage, without CDH (N-), and exposed to nitrofen with CDH (CDH) on GD 9.5 (term=22 days). The morphological variables studied were: body weight (BW), total lung weight (TLW), left lung weight, TLW/BW ratio, total lung volume, and left lung volume. The histometric variables studied were: left lung parenchymal area density and left lung parenchymal volume. VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 expression were determined by Western blotting. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance with the Tukey-Kramer post hoc test. CDH frequency was 37% (80/216). All the morphological and histometric variables were reduced in the N- and CDH groups compared with the controls, and reductions were more pronounced in the CDH group (P<0.05) and more evident on GD 20.5 and GD 21.5. Similar results were observed for VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 expression. We conclude that N- and CDH fetuses showed primary pulmonary hypoplasia, with a decrease in VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 expression.

  4. VEGF receptor expression decreases during lung development in congenital diaphragmatic hernia induced by nitrofen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sbragia, L.; Nassr, A.C.C.; Gonçalves, F.L.L.; Schmidt, A.F.; Zuliani, C.C.; Garcia, P.V.; Gallindo, R.M.; Pereira, L.A.V.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in pulmonary vessels have been described in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and may contribute to the development of pulmonary hypoplasia and hypertension; however, how the expression of VEGF receptors changes during fetal lung development in CDH is not understood. The aim of this study was to compare morphological evolution with expression of VEGF receptors, VEGFR1 (Flt-1) and VEGFR2 (Flk-1), in pseudoglandular, canalicular, and saccular stages of lung development in normal rat fetuses and in fetuses with CDH. Pregnant rats were divided into four groups (n=20 fetuses each) of four different gestational days (GD) 18.5, 19.5, 20.5, 21.5: external control (EC), exposed to olive oil (OO), exposed to 100 mg nitrofen, by gavage, without CDH (N-), and exposed to nitrofen with CDH (CDH) on GD 9.5 (term=22 days). The morphological variables studied were: body weight (BW), total lung weight (TLW), left lung weight, TLW/BW ratio, total lung volume, and left lung volume. The histometric variables studied were: left lung parenchymal area density and left lung parenchymal volume. VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 expression were determined by Western blotting. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance with the Tukey-Kramer post hoc test. CDH frequency was 37% (80/216). All the morphological and histometric variables were reduced in the N- and CDH groups compared with the controls, and reductions were more pronounced in the CDH group (P<0.05) and more evident on GD 20.5 and GD 21.5. Similar results were observed for VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 expression. We conclude that N- and CDH fetuses showed primary pulmonary hypoplasia, with a decrease in VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 expression

  5. VEGF receptor expression decreases during lung development in congenital diaphragmatic hernia induced by nitrofen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sbragia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Changes in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in pulmonary vessels have been described in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH and may contribute to the development of pulmonary hypoplasia and hypertension; however, how the expression of VEGF receptors changes during fetal lung development in CDH is not understood. The aim of this study was to compare morphological evolution with expression of VEGF receptors, VEGFR1 (Flt-1 and VEGFR2 (Flk-1, in pseudoglandular, canalicular, and saccular stages of lung development in normal rat fetuses and in fetuses with CDH. Pregnant rats were divided into four groups (n=20 fetuses each of four different gestational days (GD 18.5, 19.5, 20.5, 21.5: external control (EC, exposed to olive oil (OO, exposed to 100 mg nitrofen, by gavage, without CDH (N-, and exposed to nitrofen with CDH (CDH on GD 9.5 (term=22 days. The morphological variables studied were: body weight (BW, total lung weight (TLW, left lung weight, TLW/BW ratio, total lung volume, and left lung volume. The histometric variables studied were: left lung parenchymal area density and left lung parenchymal volume. VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 expression were determined by Western blotting. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance with the Tukey-Kramer post hoc test. CDH frequency was 37% (80/216. All the morphological and histometric variables were reduced in the N- and CDH groups compared with the controls, and reductions were more pronounced in the CDH group (P<0.05 and more evident on GD 20.5 and GD 21.5. Similar results were observed for VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 expression. We conclude that N- and CDH fetuses showed primary pulmonary hypoplasia, with a decrease in VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 expression.

  6. Gene expression profiling in mouse lung following polymeric hexamethylene diisocyanate exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.-T.; Ylostalo, Joni; Friedman, Mitchell; Hoyle, Gary W.

    2005-01-01

    Isocyanates are a common cause of occupational lung disease. Hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), a component of polyurethane spray paints, can induce respiratory symptoms, inflammation, lung function impairment, and isocyanate asthma. The predominant form of HDI in polyurethane paints is a nonvolatile polyisocyanate known as HDI biuret trimer (HDI-BT). Exposure of mice to aerosolized HDI-BT results in pathological effects, including pulmonary edema, lung inflammation, cellular proliferation, and fibrotic lesions, which occur with distinct time courses following exposure. To identify genes that mediate lung pathology in the distinct temporal phases after exposure, gene expression profiles in HDI-BT-exposed C57BL/6J mouse lungs were analyzed. RNase protection assay (RPA) of genes involved in apoptosis, cell survival, and inflammation revealed increased expression of IκBα, Fas, Bcl-X L , TNFα, KC, MIP-2, IL-6, and GM-CSF following HDI-BT exposure. Microarray analysis of approximately 10 000 genes was performed on lung RNA collected from mice 6, 18, and 90 h after HDI-BT exposure and from unexposed mice. Classes of genes whose expression was increased 6 h after exposure included those involved in stress responses (particularly oxidative stress and thiol redox balance), growth arrest, apoptosis, signal transduction, and inflammation. Types of genes whose expression was increased at 18 h included proteinases, anti-proteinases, cytoskeletal molecules, and inflammatory mediators. Transcripts increased at 90 h included extracellular matrix components, transcription factors, inflammatory mediators, and cell cycle regulators. This characterization of the gene expression profile in lungs exposed to HDI-BT will provide a basis for investigating injury and repair pathways that are operative during isocyanate-induced lung disease

  7. The Peptidylarginine Deiminase Inhibitor Cl-Amidine Suppresses Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression in Dendritic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byungki Jang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of peptidylarginine into peptidylcitrulline by calcium-dependent peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases, identifying PADs as therapeutic targets for various diseases. The PAD inhibitor Cl-amidine ameliorates the disease course, severity, and clinical manifestation in multiple disease models, and it also modulates dendritic cell (DC functions such as cytokine production, antigen presentation, and T cell proliferation. The beneficial effects of Cl-amidine make it an attractive compound for PAD-targeting therapeutic strategies in inflammatory diseases. Here, we found that Cl-amidine inhibited nitric oxide (NO generation in a time- and dose-dependent manner in maturing DCs activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS. This suppression of NO generation was independent of changes in NO synthase (NOS enzyme activity levels but was instead dependent on changes in inducible NO synthase (iNOS transcription and expression levels. Several upstream signaling pathways for iNOS expression, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase, nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65, and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 pathways, were not affected by Cl-amidine. By contrast, the LPS-induced signal transducer and the activator of transcription (STAT phosphorylation and activator protein-1 (AP-1 transcriptional activities (c-Fos, JunD, and phosphorylated c-Jun were decreased in Cl-amidine-treated DCs. Inhibition of Janus kinase/STAT signaling dramatically suppressed iNOS expression and NO production, whereas AP-1 inhibition had no effect. These results indicate that Cl-amidine-inhibited STAT activation may suppress iNOS expression. Additionally, we found mildly reduced cyclooxygenase-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 production in Cl-amidine-treated DCs. Our findings indicate that Cl-amidine acts as a novel suppressor of iNOS expression, suggesting that Cl-amidine has the potential to ameliorate the effects of

  8. Nicotinic alpha 7 receptor expression and modulation of the lung epithelial response to lipopolysaccharide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorise C Gahring

    Full Text Available Nicotine modulates multiple inflammatory responses in the lung through the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtype alpha7 (α7. Previously we reported that α7 modulates both the hematopoietic and epithelium responses in the lung to the bacterial inflammogen, lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Here we apply immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and RNA-Seq analysis of isolated distal lung epithelium to further define α7-expression and function in this tissue. Mouse lines were used that co-express a bicistronic tau-green fluorescent protein (tGFP as a reporter of α7 (α7G expression and that harbor an α7 with a specific point mutation (α7E260A:G that selectively uncouples it from cell calcium-signaling mechanisms. The tGFP reporter reveals strong cell-specific α7-expression by alveolar macrophages (AM, Club cells and ATII cells. Ciliated cells do not express detectible tGFP, but their numbers decrease by one-third in the α7E260A:G lung compared to controls. Transcriptional comparisons (RNA-Seq between α7G and α7E260A:G enriched lung epithelium 24 hours after challenge with either intra-nasal (i.n. saline or LPS reveals a robust α7-genotype impact on both the stasis and inflammatory response of this tissue. Overall the α7E260A:G lung epithelium exhibits reduced inflammatory cytokine/chemokine expression to i.n. LPS. Transcripts specific to Club cells (e.g., CC10, secretoglobins and Muc5b or to ATII cells (e.g., surfactant proteins were constitutively decreased in in the α7E260A:G lung, but they were strongly induced in response to i.n. LPS. Protein analysis applying immunohistochemistry and ELISA also revealed α7-associated differences suggested by RNA-Seq including altered mucin protein 5b (Muc5b accumulation in the α7E260A:G bronchia, that in some cases appeared to form airway plugs, and a substantial increase in extracellular matrix deposits around α7E260A:G airway bronchia linings that was not seen in controls. Our results show that α7 is

  9. Expressive Suppression and Enhancement During Music-Elicited Emotions in Younger and Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine eVieillard

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available When presented with emotional visual scenes, older adults have been found to be equally capable to regulate emotion expression as younger adults, corroborating the view that emotion regulation skills are maintained or even improved in later adulthood. However, the possibility that gaze direction might help achieve an emotion control goal has not been taken into account, raising the question whether the effortful processing of expressive regulation is really spared from the general age-related decline. Since it does not allow perceptual attention to be redirected away from the emotional source, music provides a useful way to address this question. In the present study, affective, behavioral and physiological consequences of free expression of emotion, expressive suppression and expressive enhancement were measured in 31 younger and 30 older adults while they listened to positive and negative musical excerpts. The main results indicated that compared to younger adults, older adults reported experiencing less emotional intensity in response to negative music during the free expression of emotion condition. No age difference was found in the ability to amplify or reduce emotional expressions. However, an age-related decline in the ability to reduce the intensity of emotional state and an age-related increase in physiological reactivity were found when participants were instructed to suppress negative expression. Taken together, the current data support previous findings suggesting an age-related change in response to music. They also corroborate the observation that older adults are as efficient as younger adults at controlling behavioral expression. But most importantly, they suggest that when faced with auditory sources of negative emotion, older age does not always confer a better ability to regulate emotions.

  10. Expressive suppression and enhancement during music-elicited emotions in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieillard, Sandrine; Harm, Jonathan; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    When presented with emotional visual scenes, older adults have been found to be equally capable to regulate emotion expression as younger adults, corroborating the view that emotion regulation skills are maintained or even improved in later adulthood. However, the possibility that gaze direction might help achieve an emotion control goal has not been taken into account, raising the question whether the effortful processing of expressive regulation is really spared from the general age-related decline. Since it does not allow perceptual attention to be redirected away from the emotional source, music provides a useful way to address this question. In the present study, affective, behavioral, and physiological consequences of free expression of emotion, expressive suppression and expressive enhancement were measured in 31 younger and 30 older adults while they listened to positive and negative musical excerpts. The main results indicated that compared to younger adults, older adults reported experiencing less emotional intensity in response to negative music during the free expression of emotion condition. No age difference was found in the ability to amplify or reduce emotional expressions. However, an age-related decline in the ability to reduce the intensity of emotional state and an age-related increase in physiological reactivity were found when participants were instructed to suppress negative expression. Taken together, the current data support previous findings suggesting an age-related change in response to music. They also corroborate the observation that older adults are as efficient as younger adults at controlling behavioral expression. But most importantly, they suggest that when faced with auditory sources of negative emotion, older age does not always confer a better ability to regulate emotions.

  11. [Analysis of Phenotypic Manifestation of peanut Gene Expression Suppression by RNAi in Drosophila Oogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetova, K A; Dorogova, C N; Chesnokov, I N; Fedorova, S A

    2015-09-01

    The peanut gene functions in Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis were studied. It was demonstrated that the suppression of peanut expression by RNA interference in the ovary follicular cells results in the violation of oocyte polarization, anomalous cytokinesis in the chorion cells, and violation of the chromatin condensation in follicular cells. No oogenesis violations were observed in females with decreased peanut gene expression or an absence of the Pnut protein in the ovary generative cells. However, embryos produced by such females had a decreased survival rate caused by two death peaks.

  12. Incomplete Memories: The Natural Suppression of Tissue-Resident Memory CD8 T Cells in the Lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie L. Reagin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The yearly, cyclic impact of viruses like influenza on human health and the economy is due to the high rates of mutation of traditional antibody targets, which negate any preexisting humoral immunity. However, the seasonality of influenza infections can equally be attributed to an absent or defective memory CD8 T cell response since the epitopes recognized by these cells are derived from essential virus proteins that mutate infrequently. Experiments in mouse models show that protection from heterologous influenza infection is temporally limited and conferred by a population of tissue-resident memory (TRM cells residing in the lung and lung airways. TRM are elicited by a diverse set of pathogens penetrating mucosal barriers and broadly identified by extravascular staining and expression of the activation and adhesion molecules CD69 and CD103. Interestingly, lung TRM fail to express these molecules, which could limit tissue retention, resulting in airway expulsion or death with concomitant loss of heterologous protection. Here, we make the case that respiratory infections uniquely evoke a form of natural immunosuppression whereby specific cytokines and cell–cell interactions negatively impact memory cell programming and differentiation. Respiratory memory is not only short-lived but most of the memory cells in the lung parenchyma may not be bona fide TRM. Given the quantity of microbes humans inhale over a lifetime, limiting cellular residence could be a mechanism employed by the respiratory tract to preserve organismal vitality. Therefore, successful efforts to improve respiratory immunity must carefully and selectively breach these inherent tissue barriers.

  13. Hyaluronic Acid is Overexpressed in Fibrotic Lung Tissue and Promotes Collagen Expression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gooz, Pal

    2008-01-01

    ... (LPS, another TLR2 and TLR4 ligand) had major effects on collagen expression. In addition, HA oligomers affected the expression of the collagen-degrading enzyme MMP-2. These observations open up the possibility that reagents that affect signaling cascades initiated by HA or LPS will have therapeutic value in inhibiting the progression of lung fibrosis in human patients.

  14. Over-expression of phosphorylated MARCKS in the nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone induced lung cancer mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Chen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most frequently occurring lethal cancers in men and women population. The aim of the present study is to observe the over-expression pattern of phosphorylated MARCKS in the nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone (NNK induced lung cancer mice. Pathogen-free female A/J mice were used for the present experiment to induce lung cancer by the carcinogen namely, NNK. At different time intervals namely, 5th, 6th and 7th month after NNK injection, lung tissue samples were collected. Immunohistochemistry in accordance with the immunoblotting techniques were used to confirm the over-expression of phosphorylated MARCKS in the NNK induced lung cancer mice model. The present study concludes that the phosphorylated MARCKS was over-expressed in the NNK induced lung cancer mice during the early stages of lung cancer and it may be used as a tool to detect the lung cancer in the initial stages.

  15. Shared Gene Expression Alterations in Nasal and Bronchial Epithelium for Lung Cancer Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    We previously derived and validated a bronchial epithelial gene expression biomarker to detect lung cancer in current and former smokers. Given that bronchial and nasal epithelial gene expression are similarly altered by cigarette smoke exposure, we sought to determine if cancer-associated gene expression might also be detectable in the more readily accessible nasal epithelium. Nasal epithelial brushings were prospectively collected from current and former smokers undergoing diagnostic evaluation for pulmonary lesions suspicious for lung cancer in the AEGIS-1 (n = 375) and AEGIS-2 (n = 130) clinical trials and gene expression profiled using microarrays. All statistical tests were two-sided. We identified 535 genes that were differentially expressed in the nasal epithelium of AEGIS-1 patients diagnosed with lung cancer vs those with benign disease after one year of follow-up ( P  cancer-associated gene expression alterations between the two airway sites ( P  lung cancer classifier derived in the AEGIS-1 cohort that combined clinical factors (age, smoking status, time since quit, mass size) and nasal gene expression (30 genes) had statistically significantly higher area under the curve (0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.74 to 0.89, P  = .01) and sensitivity (0.91; 95% CI = 0.81 to 0.97, P  = .03) than a clinical-factor only model in independent samples from the AEGIS-2 cohort. These results support that the airway epithelial field of lung cancer-associated injury in ever smokers extends to the nose and demonstrates the potential of using nasal gene expression as a noninvasive biomarker for lung cancer detection. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. SEGEL: A Web Server for Visualization of Smoking Effects on Human Lung Gene Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xu

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is a major cause of death worldwide resulting in over six million deaths per year. Cigarette smoke contains complex mixtures of chemicals that are harmful to nearly all organs of the human body, especially the lungs. Cigarette smoking is considered the major risk factor for many lung diseases, particularly chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD and lung cancer. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of smoking-induced lung injury associated with these lung diseases still remain largely unknown. Expression microarray techniques have been widely applied to detect the effects of smoking on gene expression in different human cells in the lungs. These projects have provided a lot of useful information for researchers to understand the potential molecular mechanism(s of smoke-induced pathogenesis. However, a user-friendly web server that would allow scientists to fast query these data sets and compare the smoking effects on gene expression across different cells had not yet been established. For that reason, we have integrated eight public expression microarray data sets from trachea epithelial cells, large airway epithelial cells, small airway epithelial cells, and alveolar macrophage into an online web server called SEGEL (Smoking Effects on Gene Expression of Lung. Users can query gene expression patterns across these cells from smokers and nonsmokers by gene symbols, and find the effects of smoking on the gene expression of lungs from this web server. Sex difference in response to smoking is also shown. The relationship between the gene expression and cigarette smoking consumption were calculated and are shown in the server. The current version of SEGEL web server contains 42,400 annotated gene probe sets represented on the Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 platform. SEGEL will be an invaluable resource for researchers interested in the effects of smoking on gene expression in the lungs. The server also provides

  17. SEGEL: A Web Server for Visualization of Smoking Effects on Human Lung Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Hu, Brian; Alnajm, Sammy S; Lu, Yin; Huang, Yangxin; Allen-Gipson, Diane; Cheng, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major cause of death worldwide resulting in over six million deaths per year. Cigarette smoke contains complex mixtures of chemicals that are harmful to nearly all organs of the human body, especially the lungs. Cigarette smoking is considered the major risk factor for many lung diseases, particularly chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) and lung cancer. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of smoking-induced lung injury associated with these lung diseases still remain largely unknown. Expression microarray techniques have been widely applied to detect the effects of smoking on gene expression in different human cells in the lungs. These projects have provided a lot of useful information for researchers to understand the potential molecular mechanism(s) of smoke-induced pathogenesis. However, a user-friendly web server that would allow scientists to fast query these data sets and compare the smoking effects on gene expression across different cells had not yet been established. For that reason, we have integrated eight public expression microarray data sets from trachea epithelial cells, large airway epithelial cells, small airway epithelial cells, and alveolar macrophage into an online web server called SEGEL (Smoking Effects on Gene Expression of Lung). Users can query gene expression patterns across these cells from smokers and nonsmokers by gene symbols, and find the effects of smoking on the gene expression of lungs from this web server. Sex difference in response to smoking is also shown. The relationship between the gene expression and cigarette smoking consumption were calculated and are shown in the server. The current version of SEGEL web server contains 42,400 annotated gene probe sets represented on the Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 platform. SEGEL will be an invaluable resource for researchers interested in the effects of smoking on gene expression in the lungs. The server also provides useful information

  18. Aspirin augments the expression of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli protein by suppression of IKKβ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashida, Noboru, E-mail: nashida@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Innovative Medicine, Institute for Advancement of Clinical and Translational Science, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Kishihata, Masako [Department of Clinical Innovative Medicine, Institute for Advancement of Clinical and Translational Science, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Tien, Dat Nguyen [Department of Clinical Innovative Medicine, Institute for Advancement of Clinical and Translational Science, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kamei, Kaeko [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kimura, Takeshi [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Yokode, Masayuki [Department of Clinical Innovative Medicine, Institute for Advancement of Clinical and Translational Science, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • Clinical studies revealed aspirin inhibits cancer, but the mechanism is not known. • Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) is a well-known tumor-suppressing gene. • We found aspirin up-regulates the protein of APC. • Aspirin suppressed the expression of IKKβ, an essential kinase in NFκB activation. • The deletion of IKKβ significantly increases the expression of APC protein. - Abstract: Aspirin has been widely used as analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory medicine for long. In addition to these traditional effects, clinical studies suggest that aspirin can protect against cancer, but its mechanism has not been explored. To unveil it, we identified the proteins up- or down-regulated after incubation with aspirin by using proteomics analysis with Nano-flow LC/MALDI-TOF system. Interestingly, the analysis identified the protein of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) as one of the most up-regulated protein. APC regulates cell proliferation or angiogenesis, and is widely known as a tumor-suppressing gene which can cause colorectal cancer when it is mutated. Western blots confirmed this result, and real-time PCR indicated it is transcriptionally regulated. We further tried to elucidate the molecular mechanism with focusing on IKKβ. IKKβ is the essential kinase in activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), major transcriptional factors that regulate genes responsible for inflammation or immune response. Previous reports indicated that aspirin specifically inhibits IKKβ activity, and constitutively active form of IKKβ accelerates APC loss. We found that aspirin suppressed the expression of IKKβ, and the deletion of IKKβ by siRNA increases the expression of APC in HEK294 cells. Finally, we observed similar effects of aspirin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Taken together, these results reveal that aspirin up-regulates the expression of APC via the suppression of IKKβ. This can be a mechanism how aspirin prevents cancer at

  19. Aspirin augments the expression of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli protein by suppression of IKKβ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashida, Noboru; Kishihata, Masako; Tien, Dat Nguyen; Kamei, Kaeko; Kimura, Takeshi; Yokode, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Clinical studies revealed aspirin inhibits cancer, but the mechanism is not known. • Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) is a well-known tumor-suppressing gene. • We found aspirin up-regulates the protein of APC. • Aspirin suppressed the expression of IKKβ, an essential kinase in NFκB activation. • The deletion of IKKβ significantly increases the expression of APC protein. - Abstract: Aspirin has been widely used as analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory medicine for long. In addition to these traditional effects, clinical studies suggest that aspirin can protect against cancer, but its mechanism has not been explored. To unveil it, we identified the proteins up- or down-regulated after incubation with aspirin by using proteomics analysis with Nano-flow LC/MALDI-TOF system. Interestingly, the analysis identified the protein of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) as one of the most up-regulated protein. APC regulates cell proliferation or angiogenesis, and is widely known as a tumor-suppressing gene which can cause colorectal cancer when it is mutated. Western blots confirmed this result, and real-time PCR indicated it is transcriptionally regulated. We further tried to elucidate the molecular mechanism with focusing on IKKβ. IKKβ is the essential kinase in activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), major transcriptional factors that regulate genes responsible for inflammation or immune response. Previous reports indicated that aspirin specifically inhibits IKKβ activity, and constitutively active form of IKKβ accelerates APC loss. We found that aspirin suppressed the expression of IKKβ, and the deletion of IKKβ by siRNA increases the expression of APC in HEK294 cells. Finally, we observed similar effects of aspirin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Taken together, these results reveal that aspirin up-regulates the expression of APC via the suppression of IKKβ. This can be a mechanism how aspirin prevents cancer at

  20. [Effect of cisplatin on the expression of Pokemon gene: experiment with different human lung cancer cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Sheng-Fa; Yu, Liang; Wang, Ju; Cong, De-Gang; Chang, Hao; Wang, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Tie-Wa; Zhang, Jian; Fu, Kai; Jiang, Jiu-Yang

    2008-04-29

    To investigate the correlation between Pokemon gene and cisplatin mechanism. Human lung adenocarcinoma cells of the lines A549 and AGZY83-a, human lung squamous carcinoma cells of the line HE-99, and human giant cell lung cancer cells of the line 95D were cultured and cisplatin was added into the medium. Other lung cancer cells of the above mentioned lines were cultured in the medium without cisplatin and were used as control groups. RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression of Pokemon. Pokemon mRNA and protein were expressed highly in all the 4 cell lines. The Pokemon gene expression did not changed significantly after cisplatin treatment groups. There were not significant differences in the mRNA and protein expression of Pokemon among the 4 experiment groups and the control groups (all P > 0.05). Cisplatin has no effect on the Pokemon gene expression of the human lung cancer cells.

  1. Thymosin beta 10 Prompted the VEGF-C Expression in Lung Cancer Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zixuan LI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Our previous study found that thymosin β10 overexpressed in lung cancer and positively correlated with differentiation, lymph node metastasis and stage of lung cancer. In this reasearch we aim to study the effects and mechanism of exogenous human recombinant Tβ10 on the expression of VEGF-C on non-small cell lung cancer. Methods After SPC, A549 and LK2 cells were treated with 100 ng/mL recombinant human Tβ10, the mRNA level of VEGF-C were detected by RT-PCR. The mean while the protein expression of VEGF-C, P-AKT and AKT were determined by Western blot assay. Results Exogenous recombinant human Tβ10 were significantly promote the expression levels of VEGF-C mRNA and protein while promoting the phosphorylation of AKT. Exogenous Tβ10 can promote the expression of VEGF-C mRNA and protein in lung cancer cell lines A549 and LK2 (P<0.05, and this effect can be inhibited by use AKT inhibitor LY294002 (P<0.05. Conclusion Tβ10 human recombinant proteins can promote the expression of VEGF-C by activating AKT phosphorylation in lung cancer cell lines.

  2. Differential microRNAs expression in serum of patients with lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, and pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-El-Fattah, Amal A; Sadik, Nermin Abdel Hamid; Shaker, Olfat Gamil; Aboulftouh, Mariam Lotfy

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play critical regulatory roles in the physiological and pathological processes. The high stability of miRNAs in human serum represents attractive novel diagnostic biomarkers of clinical conditions. Several studies have shown that aberrant expression of miRNAs in human cancer including lung cancer, but little is known about their effects on some infectious lung diseases such as pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and pneumonia. In this study, we investigated miRNA expression pattern in serum of Egyptian patients with lung cancer, TB, and pneumonia compared with matched healthy controls. Using microarray-based expression profiling followed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction validation, we compared the levels of a series of circulating miRNAs (miR-21, miR-155, miR-182, and miR-197) in serum from patients with lung cancer (n = 65), pulmonary tuberculosis (n = 29), pneumonia (n = 29), and transudate (n = 16) compared with matched healthy controls (n = 37). MiRNA SNORD68 was the housekeeping endogenous control. We found that the serum levels of miR-21, miR-155, and miR-197 were significantly elevated in the patients with lung cancer and pneumonia whereas miR-182 and miR-197 levels were increased only in patients with lung cancer and TB, respectively, compared with controls. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that miR-182, miR-155, and miR-197 have superior diagnostic potential in discriminating patients with lung cancer, pneumonia, and TB, respectively, from controls. Our results conclude that the differential expression of the four studied miRNAs can be potential non-invasive biomarkers for patients with lung cancer, TB and pneumonia.

  3. Dihydroavenanthramide D inhibits human breast cancer cell invasion through suppression of MMP-9 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young-Rae; Noh, Eun-Mi; Oh, Hyun Ju; Hur, Hyun; Kim, Jeong-Mi; Han, Ji-Hey; Hwang, Jin-Ki; Park, Byung-Hyun; Park, Jin-Woo; Youn, Hyun Jo; Jung, Sung Hoo; Kim, Byeong-Soo; Jung, Ji-Youn; Lee, Sung-Ho; Park, Chang-Sik; Kim, Jong-Suk

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → MMP-9 plays a pivotal role in the invasion of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. → TPA stimulates MMP-9 expression through activation of MAPK/NF-κB and MAPK/AP-1 pathways. → Dihydroavenanthramide D suppresses MMP-9 expression via inhibition of TPA-induced MAPK/NF-κB and MAPK/AP-1 activations. → Dihydroavenanthramide D blocks cell invasion of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. -- Abstract: Dihydroavenanthramide D (DHAvD) is a synthetic analog to naturally occurring avenanthramide, which is the active component of oat. Previous study demonstrates that DHAvD strongly inhibits activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), which is a major component in cancer cell invasion. The present study investigated whether DHAvD can modulate MMP-9 expression and cell invasion in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. MMP-9 expression and cell invasion in response to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) was increased, whereas these inductions were muted by DHAvD. DHAvD also suppressed activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and MAPK-mediated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) activations in TPA-treated MCF-7 cells. The results indicate that DHAvD-mediated inhibition of TPA-induced MMP-9 expression and cell invasion involves the suppression of the MAPK/NF-κB and MAPK/AP-1 pathways in MCF-7 cells. DHAvD may have potential value in breast cancer metastasis.

  4. miR-935 suppresses gastric signet ring cell carcinoma tumorigenesis by targeting Notch1 expression

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    Yan, Chao [Department of General Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100730 (China); Yu, Jianchun, E-mail: yu_jchpumch@163.com [Department of General Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100730 (China); Kang, Weiming [Department of General Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100730 (China); Liu, Yuqin [Cell Culture Center, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100005 (China); Ma, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Li [Department of General Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100730 (China)

    2016-01-29

    Gastric signet ring cell carcinoma (GSRCC) is a unique pathological type of gastric carcinoma that is extremely invasive and has a poor prognosis. Expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been closely linked to the carcinogenesis of gastric cancer and has been considered as a powerful prognostic marker. The function of miR-935 has never been reported in cancer before. We found, using microRNA array, that expression of miR-935 in GSRCC cell lines is lower than in non-GSRCC cell lines, and enhanced expression of miR-935 in GSRCC cell-lines inhibit cell proliferation, migration and invasion. We also identified Notch1 as a direct target of miR-935. Knockdown of Notch1 reduced proliferation, migration/invasion of GSRCC cells, and overexpression Notch1's activated form (Notch intracellular domain) could rescue miR-935's tumor suppressive effect on GSRCC. Expression of miR-935 was lower in gastric carcinoma tissue than in paired normal tissue samples, and lower in GSRCC than in non-GSRCC. Our results demonstrate the inverse correlation between the expression of miR-935 and Notch1 in gastric tissues. We conclude that miR-935 inhibits gastric carcinoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion by targeting Notch1, suggesting potential applications of the miR-935-Notch1 pathway in gastric cancer clinical diagnosis and therapeutics, especially in gastric signet ring cell carcinoma. - Highlights: • The expression of miR-935 is lower in GC tissue than in paired normal tissue. • The expression of miR-935 is lower in GSRCC tissue than in non-GSRCC. • Enhanced expression of miR-935 suppresses tumorigenesis of GSRCC. • Notch1 is a direct target of miR-935.

  5. MiR-509-3-5p causes aberrant mitosis and anti-proliferative effect by suppression of PLK1 in human lung cancer A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xian-Hui; Lu, Yao; Liang, Jing-Jing; Cao, Ji-Xiang; Jin, Ya-Qiong; An, Guo-Shun; Ni, Ju-Hua; Jia, Hong-Ti; Li, Shu-Yan

    2016-09-16

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are potent post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression and play roles in DNA damage response (DDR). PLK1 is identified as a modulator of DNA damage checkpoint. Although down-regulation of PLK1 by certain microRNAs has been reported, little is known about the interplay between PLK1 and miR-509-3-5p in DDR. Here we have demonstrated that miR-509-3-5p repressed PLK1 expression by targeting PLK1 3'-UTR, thereby causing mitotic aberration and growth arrest of human lung cancer A549 cells. Repression of PLK1 by miR-509-3-5p was further evidenced by over-expression of miR-509-3-5p in A549, HepG2 and HCT116p53(-/-) cancer cells, in which PLK1 protein was suppressed. Consistently, miR-509-3-5p was stimulated, while PLK1 protein was down-regulated in A549 cells exposed to CIS and ADR, suggesting that suppression of PLK1 by miR-509-3-5p is a component of CIS/ADR-induced DDR pathway. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence labeling showed that over-expression of miR-509-3-5p in A549 induced G2/M arrest and aberrant mitosis characterized by abnormal bipolar mitotic spindles, condensed chromosomes, lagging DNA and chromosome bridges. In addition, over-expression of miR-509-3-5p markedly blocked A549 cell proliferation and sensitized the cells to CIS and ADR treatment. Taken together, miR-509-3-5p is a feasible suppressor for cancer by targeting PLK1. Our data may provide aid in potential design of combined chemotherapy and in our better understanding of the roles of microRNAs in response to DNA damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ethanol Extracts of Fruiting Bodies of Antrodia cinnamomea Suppress CL1-5 Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells Migration by Inhibiting Matrix Metalloproteinase-2/9 through ERK, JNK, p38, and PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathways

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    Ying-Yi Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer metastasis is a primary cause of cancer death. Antrodia cinnamomea (A. cinnamomea, a medicinal mushroom in Taiwan, has shown antioxidant and anticancer activities. In this study, we first observed that ethanol extract of fruiting bodies of A. cinnamomea (EEAC exerted a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on migration and motility of the highly metastatic CL1-5 cells in the absence of cytotoxicity. The results of a gelatin zymography assay showed that A. cinnamomea suppressed the activities of matrix metalloproteinase-(MMP- 2 and MMP-9 in a concentration-dependent manner. Western blot results demonstrated that treatment with A. cinnamomea decreased the expression of MMP-9 and MMP-2; while the expression of the endogenous inhibitors of these proteins, that is, tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 increased. Further investigation revealed that A. cinnamomea suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, and JNK1/2. A. cinnamomea also suppressed the expressions of PI3K and phosphorylation of Akt. Furthermore, treatment of CL1-5 cells with inhibitors specific for PI3K (LY 294002, ERK1/2 (PD98059, JNK (SP600125, and p38 MAPK (SB203580 decreased the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9. This is the first paper confirming the antimigration activity of this potentially beneficial mushroom against human lung adenocarcinoma CL1-5 cancer cells.

  7. Genetic and environmental influences on emotion regulation: A twin study of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Kateri; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Gatt, Justine M; Godinez, Detre; Williams, Leanne M; Gross, James J

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have established that personality traits related to emotionality are moderately heritable. However, the relative heritability of the strategies people use to regulate emotions is unknown. The present study compared the magnitude of additive genetic, shared environmental, and nonshared environmental influences on 2 commonly used emotion regulation strategies: cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression. In 743 twin pairs (1,486 twins), we replicated previous estimates of heritability of neuroticism (a2 = .41). Furthermore, cognitive reappraisal was significantly less heritable and more influenced by nonshared environment (a2 = .20; e2 = .80) than either neuroticism or suppression (a2 = .35; e2 = .65), another emotion regulation strategy. Finally, Cholesky decomposition modeling suggested that while there were common genetic and environmental influences on neuroticism, reappraisal and suppression, there were also significant nonshared environmental influences common between reappraisal and adaptive emotional functioning after controlling for neuroticism and suppression. These findings highlight that different aspects of emotional processing, even the use of different emotion regulation strategies, are differentially heritable. The importance of the nonshared environmental influences specific to reappraisal and adaptive emotional functioning speaks to the potential impact of social context, social partners, and psychosocial interventions on reappraisal habits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Arctigenin enhances chemosensitivity to cisplatin in human nonsmall lung cancer H460 cells through downregulation of survivin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan-qin; Jin, Jian-jun; Wang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Arctigenin, a dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan, enhances cisplatin-mediated cell apoptosis in cancer cells. Here, we sought to investigate the effects of arctigenin on cisplatin-treated non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) H460 cells. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and annexin-V/propidium iodide staining were performed to analyze the proliferation and apoptosis of H460 cells. Arctigenin dose-dependently suppressed cell proliferation and potentiated cell apoptosis, coupled with increased cleavage of caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Moreover, arctigenin sensitized H460 cells to cisplatin-induced proliferation inhibition and apoptosis. Arctigenin alone or in combination with cisplatin had a significantly lower amount of survivin. Ectopic expression of survivin decreased cell apoptosis induced by arctigenin (P arctigenin (P arctigenin has a therapeutic potential in combina-tion with chemotherapeutic agents for NSLC. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Correlation between matrix metalloproteinase-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Y L; Li, L

    2015-12-29

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and clinicopathological features of lung adenocarcinoma. The expression of MMP-9 and VEGF was evaluated by immunohistochemistry of 30 samples from lung adenocarcinoma patients and 12 paratumoral (normal) tissue samples. In addition, the change in VEGF or MMP-9 expression after MMP-9 or VEGF blockade, respectively, was measured using western blot in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. High expression of MMP-9 was found in 63.3% of adenocarcinoma tissues versus 16.7% in normal tissues (P correlation was identified between MMP-9 and VEGF expression (correlation coefficient = 0.7094, P < 0.001), and their mutual overexpression was associated with clinical staging and lymph node status (P < 0.05). In addition, an decrease in VEGF protein expression was observed after MMP-9 blockade by an MMP-9-specific monoclonal antibody. Similarly, a decrease in MMP-9 protein expression was found after VEGF blockade by a VEGF-specific monoclonal antibody. In conclusion, VEGF and MMP-9 are overexpressed in lung adenocarcinoma tissues, and they have a synergistic effect on the invasion and metastasis of adenocarcinoma.

  10. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae induces sustained lung oxidative stress and protease expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T King

    Full Text Available Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi is a prevalent bacterium found in a variety of chronic respiratory diseases. The role of this bacterium in the pathogenesis of lung inflammation is not well defined. In this study we examined the effect of NTHi on two important lung inflammatory processes 1, oxidative stress and 2, protease expression. Bronchoalveolar macrophages were obtained from 121 human subjects, blood neutrophils from 15 subjects, and human-lung fibroblast and epithelial cell lines from 16 subjects. Cells were stimulated with NTHi to measure the effect on reactive oxygen species (ROS production and extracellular trap formation. We also measured the production of the oxidant, 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT in the lungs of mice infected with this bacterium. NTHi induced widespread production of 3-NT in mouse lungs. This bacterium induced significantly increased ROS production in human fibroblasts, epithelial cells, macrophages and neutrophils; with the highest levels in the phagocytic cells. In human macrophages NTHi caused a sustained, extracellular production of ROS that increased over time. The production of ROS was associated with the formation of macrophage extracellular trap-like structures which co-expressed the protease metalloproteinase-12. The formation of the macrophage extracellular trap-like structures was markedly inhibited by the addition of DNase. In this study we have demonstrated that NTHi induces lung oxidative stress with macrophage extracellular trap formation and associated protease expression. DNase inhibited the formation of extracellular traps.

  11. NFAT5 promotes proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells in part through regulating AQP5 expression

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    Guo, Kai, E-mail: gk161@163.com [Department of Respiration, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710038 (China); Department of Respiration, 161th Hospital, PLA, Wuhan 430015 (China); Jin, Faguang, E-mail: jinfag@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of Respiration, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710038 (China)

    2015-09-25

    The osmoregulated transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5(NFAT5), has been found to play important roles in the development of many kinds of human cancers, including breast cancer, colon carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma and melanoma. The aim of the present study was to determine whether NFAT5 is involved in the proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells. We found that NFAT5 was upregulated in lung adenocarcinoma cells and knockdown of NFAT5 decreased proliferation and migration of the cells, accompanied by a significant reduction in the expression of AQP5. AQP5 was upregulated in lung adenocarcinoma cells and knockdown of AQP5 also inhibited proliferation and migration of the cells as knockdown of NFAT5 did. Moreover, overexpression of NFAT5 promoted proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells, accompanied by a significant increase in the expression of AQP5. These results indicate that NFAT5 plays important roles in proliferation and migration of human lung adenocarcinoma cells through regulating AQP5 expression, providing a new therapeutic option for lung adenocarcinoma therapy. - Highlights: • NFAT5 expression is higher in lung adenocarcinoma cells compared with normal cells. • NFAT5 knockdown decreases proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells. • Knockdown of NFAT5 reduces AQP5 expression in human lung adenocarcinoma cells. • Overexpression of NFAT5 promotes proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells. • Overexpression of NFAT5 increases AQP5 expression in human lung adenocarcinoma cells.

  12. NFAT5 promotes proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells in part through regulating AQP5 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Kai; Jin, Faguang

    2015-01-01

    The osmoregulated transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5(NFAT5), has been found to play important roles in the development of many kinds of human cancers, including breast cancer, colon carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma and melanoma. The aim of the present study was to determine whether NFAT5 is involved in the proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells. We found that NFAT5 was upregulated in lung adenocarcinoma cells and knockdown of NFAT5 decreased proliferation and migration of the cells, accompanied by a significant reduction in the expression of AQP5. AQP5 was upregulated in lung adenocarcinoma cells and knockdown of AQP5 also inhibited proliferation and migration of the cells as knockdown of NFAT5 did. Moreover, overexpression of NFAT5 promoted proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells, accompanied by a significant increase in the expression of AQP5. These results indicate that NFAT5 plays important roles in proliferation and migration of human lung adenocarcinoma cells through regulating AQP5 expression, providing a new therapeutic option for lung adenocarcinoma therapy. - Highlights: • NFAT5 expression is higher in lung adenocarcinoma cells compared with normal cells. • NFAT5 knockdown decreases proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells. • Knockdown of NFAT5 reduces AQP5 expression in human lung adenocarcinoma cells. • Overexpression of NFAT5 promotes proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells. • Overexpression of NFAT5 increases AQP5 expression in human lung adenocarcinoma cells

  13. 3,4-Dihydroxybenzalactone Suppresses Human Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Cells Metastasis via Suppression of Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition, ROS-Mediated PI3K/AKT/MAPK/MMP and NFκB Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Wei; Deng, Jeng-Shyan; Li, Pei-Ying; Liang, Yu-Chia; Huang, Guan-Jhong

    2017-03-28

    3,4-Dihydroxybenzalactone (DBL) was isolated from Phellinus linteus (PL), which is a folk medicine possessing various physiological effects. In this study, we used highly metastatic A549 cells to investigate efficacy of DBL inhibition of cancer metastasis and possible mechanisms. The results revealed DBL inhibited migratory and invasive abilities of cancer cells at noncytotoxic concentrations. We found DBL suppressed enzymatic activities, protein expression, and RNA levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. Western blot results showed DBL decreased phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT, phosphorylation status of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/paxillin, which correlated with cell migratory ability. DBL also affected epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related biomarkers. In addition, DBL enhanced cytoprotective effects through elevated antioxidant enzymes including heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Moreover, DBL influenced the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NFκB), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), Snail, and Slug in A549 cells. Taken together, these results suggested that treatment with DBL may act as a potential candidate to inhibit lung cancer metastasis by inhibiting MMP-2 and -9 via affecting PI3K/AKT, MAPKs, FAK/paxillin, EMT/Snail and Slug, Nrf2/antioxidant enzymes, and NFκB signaling pathways.

  14. Modulation of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC expression in mouse lung infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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    Radzioch Danuta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The intratracheal instillation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa entrapped in agar beads in the mouse lung leads to chronic lung infection in susceptible mouse strains. As the infection generates a strong inflammatory response with some lung edema, we tested if it could modulate the expression of genes involved in lung liquid clearance, such as the α, β and γ subunits of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC and the catalytic subunit of Na+-K+-ATPase. Methods Pseudomonas aeruginosa entrapped in agar beads were instilled in the lung of resistant (BalB/c and susceptible (DBA/2, C57BL/6 and A/J mouse strains. The mRNA expression of ENaC and Na+-K+-ATPase subunits was tested in the lung by Northern blot following a 3 hours to 14 days infection. Results The infection of the different mouse strains evoked regulation of α and β ENaC mRNA. Following Pseudomonas instillation, the expression of αENaC mRNA decreased to a median of 43% on days 3 and 7 after infection and was still decreased to a median of 45% 14 days after infection (p 1Na+-K+-ATPase mRNA, the catalytic subunit of the sodium pump, was recorded. The distinctive expression profiles of the three subunits were not different, between the susceptible and resistant mouse strains. Conclusions These results show that Pseudomonas infection, by modulating ENaC subunit expression, could influence edema formation and clearance in infected lungs.

  15. Regulation of cytochrome P4501A1 expression by hyperoxia in human lung cell lines: Implications for hyperoxic lung injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhakta, Kushal Y.; Jiang, Weiwu; Couroucli, Xanthi I.; Fazili, Inayat S.; Muthiah, Kathirvel; Moorthy, Bhagavatula

    2008-01-01

    Supplemental oxygen, used to treat pulmonary insufficiency in newborns, contributes to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Cytochrome P4501A enzymes are induced by hyperoxia in animal models, but their role in human systems is unknown. Here we investigated the molecular mechanisms of induction of CYP1A1 by hyperoxia in human lung cell lines. Three human lung cell lines were exposed to hyperoxia (95% O2) for 0-72 h, and CYP1A1 activities, apoprotein contents, and mRNA levels were determined. Hyperoxia significantly induced CYP1A1 activity and protein contents (2-4 fold), and mRNA levels (30-40 fold) over control in each cell line. Transfection of a CYP1A1 promoter/luciferase reporter construct, followed by hyperoxia (4-72 h), showed marked (2-6 fold) induction of luciferase expression. EMSA and siRNA experiments strongly suggest that the Ah receptor (AHR) is involved in the hyperoxic induction of CYP1A1. MTT reduction assays showed attenuation of cell injury with the CYP1A1 inducer beta-naphthoflavone (BNF). Our results strongly suggest that hyperoxia transcriptionally activates CYP1A1 expression in human lung cell lines by AHR-dependent mechanisms, and that CYP1A1 induction is associated with decreased toxicity. This novel finding of induction of CYP1A1 in the absence of exogenous AHR ligands could lead to novel interventions in the treatment of BPD

  16. miR-17 inhibitor suppressed osteosarcoma tumor growth and metastasis via increasing PTEN expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Yong; Luo, Ling-hui; Li, Shuai; Yang, Cao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • miR-17 was increased in OS tissues and cell lines. • Inhibition of miR-17 suppressed OS cell proliferation. • Inhibition of miR-17 suppressed OS cell migration and invasion. • PTEN was a target of miR-17. • miR-17 was negatively correlated with PTEN in OS tissues. - Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play essential roles in cancer development and progression. Here, we investigated the role of miR-17 in the progression and metastasis of osteosarcoma (OS). miR-17 was frequently increased in OS tissues and cell lines. Inhibition of miR-17 in OS cell lines substantially suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) was identified as a target of miR-17, and ectopic expression of miR-17 inhibited PTEN by direct binding to its 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR). Expression of miR-17 was negatively correlated with PTEN in OS tissues. Together, these findings indicate that miR-17 acts as an oncogenic miRNA and may contribute to the progression and metastasis of OS, suggesting miR-17 as a potential novel diagnostic and therapeutic target of OS

  17. miR-17 inhibitor suppressed osteosarcoma tumor growth and metastasis via increasing PTEN expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yong, E-mail: gaoyongunion@163.com [Department of Orthopedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Luo, Ling-hui [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Li, Shuai; Yang, Cao [Department of Orthopedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China)

    2014-02-07

    Highlights: • miR-17 was increased in OS tissues and cell lines. • Inhibition of miR-17 suppressed OS cell proliferation. • Inhibition of miR-17 suppressed OS cell migration and invasion. • PTEN was a target of miR-17. • miR-17 was negatively correlated with PTEN in OS tissues. - Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play essential roles in cancer development and progression. Here, we investigated the role of miR-17 in the progression and metastasis of osteosarcoma (OS). miR-17 was frequently increased in OS tissues and cell lines. Inhibition of miR-17 in OS cell lines substantially suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) was identified as a target of miR-17, and ectopic expression of miR-17 inhibited PTEN by direct binding to its 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR). Expression of miR-17 was negatively correlated with PTEN in OS tissues. Together, these findings indicate that miR-17 acts as an oncogenic miRNA and may contribute to the progression and metastasis of OS, suggesting miR-17 as a potential novel diagnostic and therapeutic target of OS.

  18. Inhibition of PDE4B suppresses inflammation by increasing expression of the deubiquitinase CYLD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Kensei; Lee, Ji-Yun; Miyata, Masanori; Hyang Lim, Jae; Jono, Hirofumi; Koga, Tomoaki; Xu, Haidong; Yan, Chen; Kai, Hirofumi; Li, Jian-Dong

    2013-01-01

    The deubiquitinase CYLD acts as a key negative regulator to tightly control overactive inflammation. Most anti-inflammatory strategies have focused on directly targeting the positive regulator, which often results in significant side effects such as suppression of the host defence response. Here, we show that inhibition of phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B) markedly enhances upregulation of CYLD expression in response to bacteria, thereby suggesting that PDE4B acts as a negative regulator for CYLD. Interestingly, in Cyld-deficient mice, inhibition of PDE4B no longer suppresses inflammation. Moreover, PDE4B negatively regulates CYLD via specific activation of JNK2 but not JNK1. Importantly, ototopical post-inoculation administration of a PDE4 inhibitor suppresses inflammation in this animal model, thus demonstrating the therapeutic potential of targeting PDE4. These studies provide insights into how inflammation is tightly regulated via the inhibition of its negative regulator and may also lead to the development of new anti-inflammatory therapeutics that upregulate CYLD expression. PMID:23575688

  19. A pH-Responsive Host-guest Nanosystem Loading Succinobucol Suppresses Lung Metastasis of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Zhaoling; Cao, Haiqiang; He, Xinyu; Zhang, Zhiwen; Zou, Lili; Zeng, Lijuan; Xu, Yan; Yin, Qi; Xu, Minghua; Zhong, Dafang; Yu, Haijun; Shen, Qi; Zhang, Pengcheng; Li, Yaping

    2016-01-01

    Cancer metastasis is the leading reason for the high mortality of breast cancer. Herein, we report on a pH-responsive host-guest nanosystem of succinobucol (PHN) with pH-stimuli controlled drug release behavior to improve the therapeutic efficacy on lung metastasis of breast cancer. PHN was composed of the host polymer of β-cyclodextrin linked with multiple arms of N,N-diisopropylethylenediamine (βCD-DPA), the guest polymer of adamantyl end-capped methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG-Ad), and the active agent of succinobucol. PHN comprises nanometer-sized homogenous spherical particles, and exhibits specific and rapid drug release in response to the intracellular acidic pH-stimuli. Then, the anti-metastatic efficacy of PHN is measured in metastatic 4T1 breast cancer cells, which effectively confirms the superior inhibitory effects on cell migration and invasion activities, VCAM-1 expression and cell-cell binding of RAW 264.7 to 4T1 cells. Moreover, PHN can be specifically delivered to the sites of metastatic nodules in lungs, and result in an obviously improved therapeutic efficacy on lung metastasis of breast cancer. Thereby, the pH-responsive host-guest nanosystem can be a promising drug delivery platform for effective treatment of cancer metastasis.

  20. Suppression of HBV replication by the expression of nickase- and nuclease dead-Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Takeshi; Fukuhara, Takasuke; Ono, Chikako; Yamamoto, Satomi; Uemura, Kentaro; Okamoto, Toru; Sugiyama, Masaya; Motooka, Daisuke; Nakamura, Shota; Ikawa, Masato; Mizokami, Masashi; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Matsuura, Yoshiharu

    2017-07-21

    Complete removal of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA from nuclei is difficult by the current therapies. Recent reports have shown that a novel genome-editing tool using Cas9 with a single-guide RNA (sgRNA) system can cleave the HBV genome in vitro and in vivo. However, induction of a double-strand break (DSB) on the targeted genome by Cas9 risks undesirable off-target cleavage on the host genome. Nickase-Cas9 cleaves a single strand of DNA, and thereby two sgRNAs are required for inducing DSBs. To avoid Cas9-induced off-target mutagenesis, we examined the effects of the expressions of nickase-Cas9 and nuclease dead Cas9 (d-Cas9) with sgRNAs on HBV replication. The expression of nickase-Cas9 with a pair of sgRNAs cleaved the target HBV genome and suppressed the viral-protein expression and HBV replication in vitro. Moreover, nickase-Cas9 with the sgRNA pair cleaved the targeted HBV genome in mouse liver. Interestingly, d-Cas9 expression with the sgRNAs also suppressed HBV replication in vitro without cleaving the HBV genome. These results suggest the possible use of nickase-Cas9 and d-Cas9 with a pair of sgRNAs for eliminating HBV DNA from the livers of chronic hepatitis B patients with low risk of undesirable off-target mutation on the host genome.

  1. Active Component of Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, Tanshinone I, Attenuates Lung Tumorigenesis via Inhibitions of VEGF, Cyclin A, and Cyclin B Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tang Tung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanshinone I (T1 and tanshinone II (T2 are the major diterpenes isolated from Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. Three human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines, A549, CL1-0, and CL1-5, were treated with T1 and T2 for the in vitro antitumor test. Results showed that T1 was more effective than T2 in inhibiting the growth of lung cancer cells via suppressing the expression of VEGF, Cyclin A, and Cyclin B proteins in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, a transgenic mice model of the human vascular endothelial growth factor-A165 (hVEGF-A165 gene-induced pulmonary tumor was further treated with T1 for the in vivo lung cancer therapy test. T1 significantly attenuated hVEGF-A165 overexpression to normal levels of the transgenic mice (Tg that were pretreated with human monocytic leukemia THP-1 cell-derived conditioned medium (CM. It also suppressed the formation of lung adenocarcinoma tumors (16.7% compared with two placebo groups (50% for Tg/Placebo and 83.3% for Tg/CM/Placebo; P<0.01. This antitumor effect is likely to slow the progression of cells through the S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle. Blocking of the tumor-activated cell cycle pathway may be a critical mechanism for the observed antitumorigenic effects of T1 treatment on vasculogenesis and angiogenesis.

  2. Intratumour variation of biomarker expression by immunohistochemistry in resectable non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jan Nyrop; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric; Ravn, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    truly reflect the pattern of biomarker expression. It may also be an important factor in chemo resistance, as tumours with heterogeneous biomarker expression may potentially harbour chemo resistant tumour clones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemical evaluation of the expression of excision repair...... intratumour heterogeneity in 33-87% of tumours examined. This heterogeneity may influence results in studies investigating the therapeutic impact of predictive biomarkers in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)....

  3. Surfactant protein-A suppresses eosinophil-mediated killing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in allergic lungs.

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    Julie G Ledford

    Full Text Available Surfactant protein-A (SP-A has well-established functions in reducing bacterial and viral infections but its role in chronic lung diseases such as asthma is unclear. Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp frequently colonizes the airways of chronic asthmatics and is thought to contribute to exacerbations of asthma. Our lab has previously reported that during Mp infection of non-allergic airways, SP-A aides in maintaining airway homeostasis by inhibiting an overzealous TNF-alpha mediated response and, in allergic mice, SP-A regulates eosinophilic infiltration and inflammation of the airway. In the current study, we used an in vivo model with wild type (WT and SP-A(-/- allergic mice challenged with the model antigen ovalbumin (Ova that were concurrently infected with Mp (Ova+Mp to test the hypothesis that SP-A ameliorates Mp-induced stimulation of eosinophils. Thus, SP-A could protect allergic airways from injury due to release of eosinophil inflammatory products. SP-A deficient mice exhibit significant increases in inflammatory cells, mucus production and lung damage during concurrent allergic airway disease and infection (Ova+Mp as compared to the WT mice of the same treatment group. In contrast, SP-A deficient mice have significantly decreased Mp burden compared to WT mice. The eosinophil specific factor, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO, which has been implicated in pathogen killing and also in epithelial dysfunction due to oxidative damage of resident lung proteins, is enhanced in samples from allergic/infected SP-A(-/- mice as compared to WT mice. In vitro experiments using purified eosinophils and human SP-A suggest that SP-A limits the release of EPO from Mp-stimulated eosinophils thereby reducing their killing capacity. These findings are the first to demonstrate that although SP-A interferes with eosinophil-mediated biologic clearance of Mp by mediating the interaction of Mp with eosinophils, SP-A simultaneously benefits the airway by limiting inflammation

  4. Irradiation induces a biphasic expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruebe, C.E.; Wilfert, F.; Palm, J.; Burdak-Rothkamm, S.; Ruebe, C. [Dept. of Radiotherapy - Radiooncology, Saarland Univ., Homburg/Saar (Germany); Koenig, J. [Inst. of Medical Biometrics, Epidemiology and Medical Informatics, Saarland Univ., Homburg/Saar (Germany); Liu Li [Dept. of Radiotherapy - Radiooncology, Saarland Univ., Homburg/Saar (Germany); Cancer Center, Union Hospital Tongji Medical Coll., Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Schuck, A.; Willich, N. [Dept. of Radiotherapy - Radiooncology, Univ. of Muenster (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Background and purpose: the precise pathophysiological mechanisms of radiation-induced lung injury are poorly understood, but have been shown to correlate with dysregulation of different cytokines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the time course of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-(TNF-){alpha}, interleukin-(IL)-1{alpha} and IL-6 after whole-lung irradiation. Material and methods: the thoraces of C57BL/6J mice were irradiated with 12 Gy. Treated and control mice were sacrificed at 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 h, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 24 weeks post irradiation (p.i.). Real-time multiplex RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polmyerase chain reaction) was established to evaluate the expression of TNF-{alpha}, IL-1{alpha} and IL-6 in the lung tissue of the mice. For histological analysis, lung tissue sections were stained by hematoxylin and eosin. Results: multiplex RT-PCR analysis revealed a biphasic expression of these pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lung tissue after irradiation. After an initial increase at 1 h p.i. for TNF-{alpha} and at 6 h p.i. for IL-1{alpha} and IL-6, the mRNA expression of these pro-inflammatory cytokines returned to basal levels (48 h, 72 h, 1 week, 2 weeks p.i.). During the pneumonic phase, TNF-{alpha}, IL-1{alpha} and IL-6 were significantly elevated and revealed their maximum at 8 weeks p.i. Histopathologic evaluation of the lung sections obtained within 4 weeks p.i. revealed only minor lung damage in 5-30% of the lung tissue. By contrast, at 8, 16, and 24 weeks p.i., 70-90% of the lung tissue revealed histopathologically detectable organizing alveolitis. Conclusion: irradiation induces a biphasic expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lung. The initial transitory cytokine response occurred within the first hours after lung irradiation with no detectable histopathologic alterations. The second, more persistent cytokine elevation coincided with the onset of histologically discernible organizing acute

  5. MicroRNA expression signatures in lungs of mice infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malardo, Thiago; Gardinassi, Luiz Gustavo; Moreira, Bernardo Pereira; Padilha, Éverton; Lorenzi, Júlio César Cetrulo; Soares, Luana Silva; Gembre, Ana Flávia; Fontoura, Isabela Cardoso; de Almeida, Luciana Previato; de Miranda Santos, Isabel Kinney Ferreira; Silva, Célio Lopes; Coelho-Castelo, Arlete Aparecida Martins

    2016-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health concern worldwide; however the factors that account for resistance or susceptibility to disease are not completely understood. Although some studies suggest that the differential expression of miRNAs in peripheral blood of TB patients could be useful as biomarkers of active disease, their involvement during the inflammatory process in lungs of infected individuals is unknown. Here, we evaluated the global expression of miRNAs in the lungs of mice experimentally infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis on 30 and 60 days post-infection. We observed that several miRNAs were differentially expressed compared to uninfected mice. Furthermore, we verified that the expression of miR-135b, miR-21, miR-155, miR-146a, and miR-146b was significantly altered in distinct leukocyte subsets isolated from lungs of infected mice, while genes potentially targeted by those miRNAs were associated with a diversity of immune related molecular pathways. Importantly, we validated the inhibition of Pellino 1 expression by miR-135b in vitro. Overall, this study contributes to the understanding of the dynamics of miRNA expression in lungs during experimental TB and adds further perspectives into the role of miRNAs on the regulation of immune processes such as leukocyte activation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The expression of GST isoenzymes and p53 in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MĂźzeyyen Ozhavzali

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the immunohistochemical staining characteristics of glutathione-S-transferase alpha, pi, mu, theta and p53 in non-small cell lung carcinoma and normal lung tissue from 50 patients. The relationships between expressions of the Glutathione-S-transferase isoenzymes and some clinicopathological features were also examined. Expression of glutathione-S-transferase pi, mu, alpha, theta and p53 was assessed by immunohistochemistry for primary lung carcinomas of 50 patients from the Sanitarium Education and Research Hospital, Ankara lung cancer collection. The relationships between expression of the glutathione-S-transferase isoenzymes, p53 in normal and tumor tissue by Student T test and the clinicopathological data were also examined by Spearman Rank tests. When the normal and tumor tissue of these cases were compared according to their staining intensity and percentage of positive staining, glutathione-S-transferase alpha, pi, mu, theta expressions in tumor cells was significantly higher than normal cells (p<0.05. There was no significant difference in the expression of p53 between normal and tumor cells (p>0.05. When the immunohistochemical results of glutathione-S-transferase isoenzymes and p53 were correlated with the clinical parameters, there were no significant associations between glutathione-S-transferases and p53 expressions and tumor stage, tumor grade and smoking status (p>0.05.

  7. Nintedanib reduces ventilation-augmented bleomycin-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and lung fibrosis through suppression of the Src pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Fu; Kao, Kuo-Chin; Liu, Yung-Yang; Lin, Chang-Wei; Chen, Ning-Hung; Lee, Chung-Shu; Wang, Chih-Wei; Yang, Cheng-Ta

    2017-11-01

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) used in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) can increase lung inflammation and pulmonary fibrogenesis. Src is crucial in mediating the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) during the fibroproliferative phase of ARDS. Nintedanib, a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor that directly blocks Src, has been approved for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The mechanisms regulating interactions among MV, EMT and Src remain unclear. In this study, we suggested hypothesized that nintedanib can suppress MV-augmented bleomycin-induced EMT and pulmonary fibrosis by inhibiting the Src pathway. Five days after administrating bleomycin to mimic acute lung injury (ALI), C57BL/6 mice, either wild-type or Src-deficient were exposed to low tidal volume (V T ) (6 ml/kg) or high V T (30 ml/kg) MV with room air for 5 hrs. Oral nintedanib was administered once daily in doses of 30, 60 and 100 mg/kg for 5 days before MV. Non-ventilated mice were used as control groups. Following bleomycin exposure in wild-type mice, high V T MV induced substantial increases in microvascular permeability, TGF-β1, malondialdehyde, Masson's trichrome staining, collagen 1a1 gene expression, EMT (identified by colocalization of increased staining of α-smooth muscle actin and decreased staining of E-cadherin) and alveolar epithelial apoptosis (P Src signalling using Src-deficient mice, dampened the MV-augmented profibrotic mediators, EMT profile, epithelial apoptotic cell death and pathologic fibrotic scores (P Src pathway. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  8. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, enhances radiosensitivity and suppresses lung metastasis in breast cancer in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Wen Chiu

    Full Text Available Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC, defined by the absence of an estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 expression, is associated with an early recurrence of disease and poor outcome. Furthermore, the majority of deaths in breast cancer patients are from metastases instead of from primary tumors. In this study, MCF-7 (an estrogen receptor-positive human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231 (a human TNBC cell line and 4T1 (a mouse TNBC cell line were used to investigate the anti-cancer effects of ionizing radiation (IR combined with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC and to determine the underlying mechanisms of these effects in vitro and in vivo. We also evaluated the ability of SAHA to inhibit the metastasis of 4T1 cells. We found that IR combined with SAHA showed increased therapeutic efficacy when compared with either treatment alone in MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and 4T1 cells. Moreover, the combined treatment enhanced DNA damage through the inhibition of DNA repair proteins. The combined treatment was induced primarily through autophagy and ER stress. In an orthotopic breast cancer mouse model, the combination treatment showed a greater inhibition of tumor growth. In addition, SAHA inhibited the migration and invasion abilities of 4T1 cells and inhibited breast cancer cell migration by inhibiting the activity of MMP-9. In an in vivo experimental metastasis mouse model, SAHA significantly inhibited lung metastasis. SAHA not only enhances radiosensitivity but also suppresses lung metastasis in breast cancer. These novel findings suggest that SAHA alone or combined with IR could serve as a potential therapeutic strategy for breast cancer.

  9. Knockdown of Pokemon protein expression inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation by suppression of AKT activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaosan; Dai, Yichen; Chen, Zhangxin; Xie, Junpei; Zeng, Wei; Lin, Yuanyuan

    2013-01-01

    Overexpression of Pokemon, which is an erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor protein, occurs in different cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Pokemon is also reported to have an oncogenic activity in various human cancers. This study investigated the effect of Pokemon knockdown on the regulation of HCC growth. POK shRNA suppressed the expression of Pokemon protein in HepG2 cells compared to the negative control vector-transfected HCC cells. Pokemon knockdown also reduced HCC cell viability and enhanced cisplatin-induced apoptosis in HCC cells. AKT activation and the expression of various cell cycle-related genes were inhibited following Pokemon knockdown. These data demonstrate that Pokemon may play a role in HCC progression, suggesting that inhibition of Pokemon expression using Pokemon shRNA should be further evaluated as a novel target for the control of HCC.

  10. A DNA vector-based RNAi technology to suppress gene expression in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Guangchao; Soohoo, Christina; Affar, El Bachir; Gay, Frédérique; Shi, Yujiang; Forrester, William C; Shi, Yang

    2002-04-16

    Double-stranded RNA-mediated interference (RNAi) has recently emerged as a powerful reverse genetic tool to silence gene expression in multiple organisms including plants, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Drosophila. The discovery that synthetic double-stranded, 21-nt small interfering RNA triggers gene-specific silencing in mammalian cells has further expanded the utility of RNAi into mammalian systems. Here we report a technology that allows synthesis of small interfering RNAs from DNA templates in vivo to efficiently inhibit endogenous gene expression. Significantly, we were able to use this approach to demonstrate, in multiple cell lines, robust inhibition of several endogenous genes of diverse functions. These findings highlight the general utility of this DNA vector-based RNAi technology in suppressing gene expression in mammalian cells.

  11. Epigenetic regulation of miR-212 expression in lung cancer.

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    Mariarosaria Incoronato

    Full Text Available Many studies have shown that microRNA expression in cancer may be regulated by epigenetic events. Recently, we found that in lung cancer miR-212 was strongly down-regulated. However, mechanisms involved in the regulation of miR-212 expression are unknown. Therefore, we addressed this point by investigating the molecular mechanisms of miR-212 silencing in lung cancer. We identified histone modifications rather than DNA hypermethylation as epigenetic events that regulate miR-212 levels in NSCLC. Moreover, we found that miR-212 silencing in vivo is closely associated with the severity of the disease.

  12. Epigenetic regulation of miR-212 expression in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incoronato, Mariarosaria; Urso, Loredana; Portela, Ana; Laukkanen, Mikko O; Soini, Ylermi; Quintavalle, Cristina; Keller, Simona; Esteller, Manel; Condorelli, Gerolama

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have shown that microRNA expression in cancer may be regulated by epigenetic events. Recently, we found that in lung cancer miR-212 was strongly down-regulated. However, mechanisms involved in the regulation of miR-212 expression are unknown. Therefore, we addressed this point by investigating the molecular mechanisms of miR-212 silencing in lung cancer. We identified histone modifications rather than DNA hypermethylation as epigenetic events that regulate miR-212 levels in NSCLC. Moreover, we found that miR-212 silencing in vivo is closely associated with the severity of the disease.

  13. Cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression strategies role in the emotion regulation: an overview on their modulatory effects and neural correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora eCutuli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Individuals regulate their emotions in a wide variety of ways. In the present review it has been addressed the issue of whether some forms of emotion regulation are healthier than others by focusing on two commonly used emotion regulation strategies: cognitive reappraisal (changing the way one thinks about potentially emotion-eliciting events and expressive suppression (changing the way one behaviorally responds to emotion-eliciting events. In the first section, experimental findings showing that cognitive reappraisal has a healthier profile of short-term affective, cognitive, and social consequences than expressive suppression are briefly reported. In the second section, individual-difference findings are reviewed showing that using cognitive reappraisal to regulate emotions is associated with healthier patterns of affect, social functioning, and well-being than is using expressive suppression. Finally, brain structural basis and functional activation linked to the habitual usage of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression are discussed in detail.

  14. Cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression strategies role in the emotion regulation: an overview on their modulatory effects and neural correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutuli, Debora

    2014-01-01

    Individuals regulate their emotions in a wide variety of ways. In the present review it has been addressed the issue of whether some forms of emotion regulation are healthier than others by focusing on two commonly used emotion regulation strategies: cognitive reappraisal (changing the way one thinks about potentially emotion-eliciting events) and expressive suppression (changing the way one behaviorally responds to emotion-eliciting events). In the first section, experimental findings showing that cognitive reappraisal has a healthier profile of short-term affective, cognitive, and social consequences than expressive suppression are briefly reported. In the second section, individual-difference findings are reviewed showing that using cognitive reappraisal to regulate emotions is associated with healthier patterns of affect, social functioning, and well-being than is using expressive suppression. Finally, brain structural basis and functional activation linked to the habitual usage of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression are discussed in detail.

  15. Knockdown of malic enzyme 2 suppresses lung tumor growth, induces differentiation and impacts PI3K/AKT signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jian-Guo; Seth, Pankaj; Clish, Clary B; Lorkiewicz, Pawel K; Higashi, Richard M; Lane, Andrew N; Fan, Teresa W-M; Sukhatme, Vikas P

    2014-06-24

    Mitochondrial malic enzyme 2 (ME2) catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of malate to yield CO2 and pyruvate, with concomitant reduction of dinucleotide cofactor NAD(+) or NADP(+). We find that ME2 is highly expressed in many solid tumors. In the A549 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line, ME2 depletion inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell death and differentiation, accompanied by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NADP(+)/NADPH ratio, a drop in ATP, and increased sensitivity to cisplatin. ME2 knockdown impacts phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression, leading to AKT inhibition. Depletion of ME2 leads to malate accumulation and pyruvate decrease, and exogenous cell permeable dimethyl-malate (DMM) mimics the ME2 knockdown phenotype. Both ME2 knockdown and DMM treatment reduce A549 cell growth in vivo. Collectively, our data suggest that ME2 is a potential target for cancer therapy.

  16. Gene expression profile in newborn rat lungs after two days of recovery of mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dénervaud, Valérie; Gremlich, Sandrine; Trummer-Menzi, Eliane; Schittny, Johannes C; Roth-Kleiner, Matthias

    2015-12-01

    Preterm infants having immature lungs often require respiratory support, potentially leading to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Conventional BPD rodent models based on mechanical ventilation (MV) present outcome measured at the end of the ventilation period. A reversible intubation and ventilation model in newborn rats recently allowed discovering that different sets of genes modified their expression related to time after MV. In a newborn rat model, the expression profile 48 h after MV was analyzed with gene arrays to detect potentially interesting candidates with an impact on BPD development. Rat pups were injected P4-5 with 2 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS). One day later, MV with 21 or 60% oxygen was applied during 6 h. Animals were sacrified 48 h after end of ventilation. Affymetrix gene arrays assessed the total gene expression profile in lung tissue. In fully treated animals (LPS + MV + 60% O(2)) vs. controls, 271 genes changed expression significantly. All modified genes could be classified in six pathways: tissue remodeling/wound repair, immune system and inflammatory response, hematopoiesis, vasodilatation, and oxidative stress. Major alterations were found in the MMP and complement system. MMPs and complement factors play a central role in several of the pathways identified and may represent interesting targets for BPD treatment/prevention.Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease occurring in ~30% of preterm infants born less than 30 wk of gestation (1). Its main risk factors include lung immaturity due to preterm delivery, mechanical ventilation (MV), oxygen toxicity, chorioamnionitis, and sepsis. The main feature is an arrest of alveolar and capillary formation (2). Models trying to decipher genes involved in the pathophysiology of BPD are mainly based on MV and oxygen application to young mammals with immature lungs of different species (3). In newborn rodent models, analyses of lung structure and gene and protein

  17. STK11/LKB1 Deficiency Promotes Neutrophil Recruitment and Proinflammatory Cytokine Production to Suppress T-cell Activity in the Lung Tumor Microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Shohei; Akbay, Esra A; Li, Yvonne Y; Aref, Amir R; Skoulidis, Ferdinandos; Herter-Sprie, Grit S; Buczkowski, Kevin A; Liu, Yan; Awad, Mark M; Denning, Warren L; Diao, Lixia; Wang, Jing; Parra-Cuentas, Edwin R; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Soucheray, Margaret; Thai, Tran; Asahina, Hajime; Kitajima, Shunsuke; Altabef, Abigail; Cavanaugh, Jillian D; Rhee, Kevin; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Haikuo; Fecci, Peter E; Shimamura, Takeshi; Hellmann, Matthew D; Heymach, John V; Hodi, F Stephen; Freeman, Gordon J; Barbie, David A; Dranoff, Glenn; Hammerman, Peter S; Wong, Kwok-Kin

    2016-03-01

    STK11/LKB1 is among the most commonly inactivated tumor suppressors in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), especially in tumors harboring KRAS mutations. Many oncogenes promote immune escape, undermining the effectiveness of immunotherapies, but it is unclear whether the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, such as STK11/LKB1, exerts similar effects. In this study, we investigated the consequences of STK11/LKB1 loss on the immune microenvironment in a mouse model of KRAS-driven NSCLC. Genetic ablation of STK11/LKB1 resulted in accumulation of neutrophils with T-cell-suppressive effects, along with a corresponding increase in the expression of T-cell exhaustion markers and tumor-promoting cytokines. The number of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes was also reduced in LKB1-deficient mouse and human tumors. Furthermore, STK11/LKB1-inactivating mutations were associated with reduced expression of PD-1 ligand PD-L1 in mouse and patient tumors as well as in tumor-derived cell lines. Consistent with these results, PD-1-targeting antibodies were ineffective against Lkb1-deficient tumors. In contrast, treating Lkb1-deficient mice with an IL6-neutralizing antibody or a neutrophil-depleting antibody yielded therapeutic benefits associated with reduced neutrophil accumulation and proinflammatory cytokine expression. Our findings illustrate how tumor suppressor mutations can modulate the immune milieu of the tumor microenvironment, and they offer specific implications for addressing STK11/LKB1-mutated tumors with PD-1-targeting antibody therapies. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Suppression of polygalacturonase gene expression in the phytopathogenic fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi by RNA interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Joyce S; de la Bastide, Paul Y; Chabot, Meghan; Lerch, Lindsey; Hintz, William E

    2010-05-01

    The fungal pathogen, Ophiostomo novo-ulmi, has been responsible for the rapid decline of American elm (Ulmus americana) across North America and remains a serious threat to surviving elm populations. The production of pectinolytic polygalacturonase enzymes has been implicated as a virulence factor for many fungal pathogens, including O. novo-ulmi. Previous work has shown that the targeted disruption of the endopolygalacturonase gene locus epg1 of O. novo-ulmi reduced, but did not eliminate pectinase activity. In the present study, we evaluated the use of RNA interference (RNAi) as a method of suppressing expression of the epg1 locus in O. novo-ulmi and compared its efficiency to the gene disruption method. While there was a reduction in epg1-specific mRNA transcripts and in the amount of polygalacturonase enzyme secreted for both methods of gene regulation, neither method completely suppressed the expression of pectinase activity. There was, however, a significantly greater reduction in both transcript levels and secreted enzyme observed for some of the RNAi transformants. As the first demonstration of RNAi in O. novo-ulmi, this method of gene regulation shows promise in future studies of gene expression and pathogenicity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Minocycline reduces remyelination by suppressing ciliary neurotrophic factor expression after cuprizone-induced demyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Tatsuhide; Murakami, Koichi; Bando, Yoshio; Yoshida, Shigetaka

    2013-10-01

    Remyelination is disrupted in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis, but the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we employed the murine cuprizone model of demyelination, in which remyelination occurs after removal of the toxin from the diet, to examine the cellular and molecular changes during demyelination and remyelination. Microglia accumulated in the corpus callosum during weeks 2-4 of the cuprizone diet, and these cells remained activated 2 weeks after the change to the normal diet. To examine the role of microglia in remyelination, mice were treated with minocycline to inactivate these cells after cuprizone-induced demyelination. Minocycline treatment reduced the number of CC1-positive oligodendrocytes, as well as levels of myelin basic protein (MBP) and CNPase in the remyelination phase. The expression of CNTF mRNA in the corpus callosum increased after 4 weeks on the cuprizone diet and remained high 2 weeks after the change to the normal diet. Minocycline suppressed CNTF expression during the remyelination phase on the normal diet. Primary culture experiments showed that CNTF was produced by microglia in addition to astrocytes. In vitro, CNTF directly affected the differentiation of oligodendrocytic cells. These findings suggest that minocycline reduces remyelination by suppressing CNTF expression by microglia after cuprizone-induced demyelination. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  20. Angiogenesis gene expression in murine endothelial cells during post-pneumonectomy lung growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konerding Moritz A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although blood vessel growth occurs readily in the systemic bronchial circulation, angiogenesis in the pulmonary circulation is rare. Compensatory lung growth after pneumonectomy is an experimental model with presumed alveolar capillary angiogenesis. To investigate the genes participating in murine neoalveolarization, we studied the expression of angiogenesis genes in lung endothelial cells. After left pneumonectomy, the remaining right lung was examined on days 3, 6, 14 and 21days after surgery and compared to both no surgery and sham thoracotomy controls. The lungs were enzymatically digested and CD31+ endothelial cells were isolated using flow cytometry cell sorting. The transcriptional profile of the CD31+ endothelial cells was assessed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR arrays. Focusing on 84 angiogenesis-associated genes, we identified 22 genes with greater than 4-fold regulation and significantly enhanced transcription (p

  1. TR4 nuclear receptor suppresses HCC cell invasion via downregulating the EphA2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ren'an; Lin, Hui; Li, Gonghui; Xu, Junjie; Shi, Liang; Chang, Chawnshang; Cai, Xiujun

    2018-02-15

    Early studies indicated that testicular nuclear receptor 4 (TR 4 ) could function as a suppressor in the transcriptional regulation of the HBV core gene expression, which might then influence the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The direct linkage between TR 4 and HCC progression, however, remained unclear. Here, via a human clinical sample survey, we found that 13 of the 18 HCC patients studied had lower TR 4 expression in metastatic lesions than in matched primary HCC lesions, suggesting that TR 4 may play a negative role in HCC metastasis. Results from in vitro cell migration/invasion studied confirmed that TR 4 could suppress HCC cell migration/invasion. Mechanism dissection revealed that TR 4 might function through downregulating ephrin type-A receptor 2 (EphA2) expression at the transcriptional level via direct binding to the TR 4 REs located on the 5' promoter of EphA2 to suppress HCC cell migration/invasion. Targeting the EphA2 via EphA2-siRNA partially reversed the enhanced HCC cell migration/invasion with confirmed TR 4 knockdown. Notably, results from preclinical studies using in vivo mouse model with orthotopic xenograft of HCC LM3 cells also confirmed the in vitro findings. Taking these findings together, preclinical studies using multiple in vitro HCC cell lines and an in vivo mouse model all led to the conclusion that TR 4 may function as a suppressor of HCC metastasis and that targeting this newly identified TR 4 -EphA2 signaling may improve our ability to suppress HCC metastasis.

  2. Silibinin and Paclitaxel Cotreatment Significantly Suppress the Activity and Lung Metastasis of Triple Negative 4T1 Mammary Tumor Cell in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Ying Ho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro and in vivo bioactivities of silibinin (SB, paclitaxel (PTX and SB and PTX in combination (SB+PTX against murine metastatic mammary 4T1 cancer cell line were investigated. Isobologram and combination index (CI analyses showed that SB and PTX can function synergistically in the inhibition of 4T1 cell proliferation with a CI value<1. Both SB and PTX alone or SB+PTX treatment inhibited 4T1 cell migration and motility possibly through downregulation of the serpin protease nexin-1 (PN-1 and N-cadherin expression, inhibition of matrix metalloprotease (MMP-9 activity, and upregulation of E-cadherin. Flow cytometry and Western blot analyses demonstrated that both drugs deregulated cell-cycle mediators and induced apoptosis in 4T1 cells. A real-time in vivo bioluminescence imaging system to monitor the breast cancer cell metastasis in syngeneic BALB/c mice was established using a stable 4T1pGL−COX−2/Luc cell clone carrying a COX-2 promoter driven-luciferase reporter gene. In vivo study using the allograft 4T1pGL−COX−2/Luc metastatic mouse model indicated that SB co-treated with PTX can significantly suppress lung metastasis of 4T1 cells likely through inhibiting cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Together, this study demonstrates that SB could act synergistically with PTX in 4T1 cells, providing a therapeutic option for highly metastatic triple negative breast cancer.

  3. [Screening of differentially expressed genes in human renal cell carcinoma using suppression subtractive hybridization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Chen, Wei; Li, Xu

    2008-01-01

    To suppress COL1A1 and COL3A1 gene expressions in human skin fibroblasts (HSFs) by means of RNA interference (RNAi). SSH was performed in two directions to isolate the differentially expressed genes between human a RCC cell line RLC-310 and a normal renal cell line HK-2 (ATCC). The cDNAs obtained from the final nested PCR were directly inserted into T/A cloning vector to establish a subtractive cDNA library of specifically or highly expressed genes in RCC. Reverse Northern dot blotting was performed to screen the truly differentially expressed genes, and 200 positive genes were randomly selected for sequencing. The two-directional subtractive libraries contained more than 1200 clones, and 213 positive clones were obtained using reverse Northern blotting. Sequence analysis of these clones identified 144 differentially expressed genes, including 67 up-regulated and 77 down-regulated genes, in which 14 novel ESTs and 21 functionally unknown genes were found. Cluster analysis indicated the involvement of the sequenced genes in cell growth, cell adhesion and apoptosis. Reliable subtractive cDNA libraries of human RCC have been constructed successfully with SSH. The identification of the gene expression profile in RCC may help clarify the mechanism of tumorigenesis and development of RCC, and also sheds light on new targets for prevention, diagnosis and therapy of this malignancy.

  4. Noise suppress or express exponential growth for hybrid Hopfield neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Song; Shen Yi; Chen Guici

    2010-01-01

    In this Letter, we will show that noise can make the given hybrid Hopfield neural networks whose solution may grows exponentially become the new stochastic hybrid Hopfield neural networks whose solution will grows at most polynomially. On the other hand, we will also show that noise can make the given hybrid Hopfield neural networks whose solution grows at most polynomially become the new stochastic hybrid Hopfield neural networks whose solution will grows at exponentially. In other words, we will reveal that the noise can suppress or express exponential growth for hybrid Hopfield neural networks.

  5. Assisted ventilation modes reduce the expression of lung inflammatory and fibrogenic mediators in a model of mild acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddy, Felipe; Oliveira, Gisele P; Garcia, Cristiane S N B; Nardelli, Liliane M; Rzezinski, Andreia F; Ornellas, Debora S; Morales, Marcelo M; Capelozzi, Vera L; Pelosi, Paolo; Rocco, Patricia R M

    2010-08-01

    The goal of the study was to compare the effects of different assisted ventilation modes with pressure controlled ventilation (PCV) on lung histology, arterial blood gases, inflammatory and fibrogenic mediators in experimental acute lung injury (ALI). Paraquat-induced ALI rats were studied. At 24 h, animals were anaesthetised and further randomized as follows (n = 6/group): (1) pressure controlled ventilation mode (PCV) with tidal volume (V (T)) = 6 ml/kg and inspiratory to expiratory ratio (I:E) = 1:2; (2) three assisted ventilation modes: (a) assist-pressure controlled ventilation (APCV1:2) with I:E = 1:2, (b) APCV1:1 with I:E = 1:1; and (c) biphasic positive airway pressure and pressure support ventilation (BiVent + PSV), and (3) spontaneous breathing without PEEP in air. PCV, APCV1:1, and APCV1:2 were set with P (insp) = 10 cmH(2)O and PEEP = 5 cmH(2)O. BiVent + PSV was set with two levels of CPAP [inspiratory pressure (P (High) = 10 cmH(2)O) and positive end-expiratory pressure (P (Low) = 5 cmH(2)O)] and inspiratory/expiratory times: T (High) = 0.3 s and T (Low) = 0.3 s. PSV was set as follows: 2 cmH(2)O above P (High) and 7 cmH(2)O above P (Low). All rats were mechanically ventilated in air and PEEP = 5 cmH(2)O for 1 h. Assisted ventilation modes led to better functional improvement and less lung injury compared to PCV. APCV1:1 and BiVent + PSV presented similar oxygenation levels, which were higher than in APCV1:2. Bivent + PSV led to less alveolar epithelium injury and lower expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and type III procollagen. In this experimental ALI model, assisted ventilation modes presented greater beneficial effects on respiratory function and a reduction in lung injury compared to PCV. Among assisted ventilation modes, Bi-Vent + PSV demonstrated better functional results with less lung damage and expression of inflammatory mediators.

  6. Frequent loss of Fas expression and function in human lung tumours with overexpression of FasL in small cell lung carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viard-Leveugle, Isabelle; Veyrenc, Sylvie; French, Lars E; Brambilla, Christian; Brambilla, Elisabeth

    2003-10-01

    Fas (CD95) and its ligand FasL signal apoptosis and are involved in tissue homeostasis and the elimination of target cells by cytotoxic T cells. Corruption of this signalling pathway in tumour cells, for example by reduced Fas expression or increased FasL expression, can participate in tumour development and immune escape. The present study has analysed Fas/FasL expression and Fas death signalling function in vivo in lung tumour tissues [57 non-small cell lung carcinomas and 64 neuroendocrine lung tumours including small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC)] in comparison with normal lung tissue, and in vitro in neuroendocrine tumour cell lines in comparison with normal human bronchial epithelial cells. The Fas expression score was markedly decreased compared with normal lung tissue in 90% of the 121 lung tumours and was completely lost in 24%. The Fas staining pattern suggested cytoplasmic Fas expression in tumours, whereas membrane expression was observed in normal lung tissue. Loss of Fas at the cell surface was also shown in vitro by FACS analysis of neuroendocrine tumour cell lines and was concomitant with the resistance of tumour cells to FasL-mediated apoptosis according to in vitro cell viability. The lack of cell surface Fas expression in tumour cell lines resulted from the lack of intracellular Fas protein due to impaired Fas gene transcription. The FasL expression score was also decreased in most non-small cell lung carcinomas compared with normal bronchial cells, whereas 91% of SCLCs had higher expression than normal cells. FasL overexpression was related to advanced tumour stage as well as to a Fas/FasL ratio less than 1. It is concluded that a marked decrease in Fas expression may be part of lung tumourigenesis allowing tumour cells to escape from apoptosis. FasL overexpression in the context of Fas down-regulation in SCLC predicts the ability of SCLC cells to induce paracrine killing of Fas-expressing cytotoxic T cells. In lung tumours, Fas restoration may

  7. Cannonball lung metastases as a presenting feature of ectopic hCG expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Hsin Yang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cannonball metastases refer to well-defined spherical nodules scattered over both lungs, being a classical presentation of hematogenous tumor spreading. Striking progression of lung metastases without established primary malignancy can raise a diagnostic challenge. We herein report three cases with cannonball metastases at initial presentation. Two patients ended up having a choriocarcinoma but no awareness of the presence of primary tumors, and the third had abrupt lung metastases of endometrial cancer while she was being asymptomatic. Relentless progression was illustrated by clinical and radiographic changes. Ectopic expression of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG would seemingly go some way responsible for fulminant cancer spreading associated with poor prognosis in our patients. The goal of this presentation is to raise awareness of ectopic hCG expression in patients presenting with similar astonishing scenarios.

  8. MicroRNA-203 induces apoptosis by upregulating Puma expression in colon and lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funamizu, Naotake; Lacy, Curtis R; Kamada, Minori; Yanaga, Katsuhiko; Manome, Yoshinobu

    2015-11-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between microRNA-203 (miR-203) and the p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (Puma) in colon (HCT116) and lung cancer (A549) cells. Colon and lung cancer cell lines were selected for this study since a relationship between p53/miR-203 and p53/Puma has been established in both cancers. In the present study, adriamycin and nutlin-3 were used to activate p53, which induced both miR-203 and Puma expression in HCT116 cells. In contrast, HCT 116 cells with downregulated p53 showed decreased miR-203 and Puma expression. Importantly, we found that overexpressed miR-203 in HCT116 cells resulted in significantly increased Puma expression (PPuma axis depends on miR-203 expression. To further validate this relationship, we used lung cancer cells (A549) and found that activated p53 increased both miR-203 and Puma expression. In addition, we found that Puma expression remained elevated in cells with overexpressed miR-203 in the presence of p53 downregulation. Cumulatively, our data purport that p53 not only increased Puma expression directly, but that it may also do so through miR-203. Additionally, functional studies revealed that miR-203 overexpression induced apoptosis and inhibited cell invasiveness.

  9. Co-expression of podoplanin and fibroblast growth factor 1 predicts poor prognosis in patients with lung squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Chen, Han; Li, Xiaoqing; Wang, Linlin; Gao, Aiqin; Zhang, Pei; Lin, Wenli; Gao, Wei; Yang, Dong; Guo, Xiaosun; Liu, Jie; Dang, Qi; Sun, Yuping

    2017-08-01

    Podoplanin and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 1 have been detected more frequently in lung squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC) compared with lung adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, it has been previous demonstrated that FGF1 is located on the edge of tumor nests in certain lung SQCC sections, which resembles the characteristic expression pattern of podoplanin. Podoplanin and FGF1 have roles in lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis. Based on their consistently specific expression in lung SQCC and similar localization patterns, the present study aimed to investigate whether the expression of podoplanin in tumor cells is correlated with FGF1 expression in lung SQCC and whether their co‑expression has clinicopathological significance, particularly for lymphangiogenesis/angiogenesis. The correlation between podoplanin and FGF1 expression in tumor cells of 82 lung SQCC cases was investigated by immunohistochemical staining and the association between the co‑expression of podoplanin and FGF1, and clinicopathological factors such as microvessel density (MVD), was examined in these samples. In addition, the prognostic value of co‑expression of podoplanin and FGF1 in tumor cells was determined, and the regulation of FGF1 expression and angiogenesis by podoplanin was examined in vitro in a human lung SQCC cell line. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that there was a significant correlation between podoplanin and FGF1 expression in lung SQCC tumor cells (R=0.591; P<0.0001). Co‑expression of podoplanin and FGF1 was significantly associated with larger primary tumor size, advanced TNM stage and higher intratumoral MVD. Survival analysis demonstrated that cases with podoplanin and FGF1 double‑positive staining had a significantly lower survival rate compared with cases with double‑negative staining. In vitro experiments revealed that podoplanin regulated FGF1 expression and affected tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Combined, the results

  10. Gene expression profiling reveals novel TGFβ targets in adult lung fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearson Jeremy D

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ, a multifunctional cytokine, plays a crucial role in the accumulation of extracellular matrix components in lung fibrosis, where lung fibroblasts are considered to play a major role. Even though the effects of TGFβ on the gene expression of several proteins have been investigated in several lung fibroblast cell lines, the global pattern of response to this cytokine in adult lung fibroblasts is still unknown. Methods We used Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarrays U95v2, containing approximately 12,000 human genes, to study the transcriptional profile in response to a four hour treatment with TGFβ in control lung fibroblasts and in fibroblasts from patients with idiopathic and scleroderma-associated pulmonary fibrosis. A combination of the Affymetrix change algorithm (Microarray Suite 5 and of analysis of variance models was used to identify TGFβ-regulated genes. Additional criteria were an average up- or down- regulation of at least two fold. Results Exposure of fibroblasts to TGFβ had a profound impact on gene expression, resulting in regulation of 129 transcripts. We focused on genes not previously found to be regulated by TGFβ in lung fibroblasts or other cell types, including nuclear co-repressor 2, SMAD specific E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 2 (SMURF2, bone morphogenetic protein 4, and angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AGTR1, and confirmed the microarray results by real time-PCR. Western Blotting confirmed induction at the protein level of AGTR1, the most highly induced gene in both control and fibrotic lung fibroblasts among genes encoding for signal transduction molecules. Upregulation of AGTR1 occurred through the MKK1/MKK2 signalling pathway. Immunohistochemical staining showed AGTR1 expression by lung fibroblasts in fibroblastic foci within biopsies of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Conclusions This study identifies several novel TGFβ targets in lung fibroblasts, and confirms

  11. [Expression of PEPT2 mRNA in lung tissue of rats with pulmonary fibrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Wang, Dianhua; Zhang, Xuan; Song, Xin; Ma, Xiaobiao; Hu, Zaoxiu

    2013-10-20

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a common pathological phenomenon in lung cancer patients after chemotherapy or radiotherapy. It is also a key hindrance to the transport of drugs to lung tissue. Peptide transporters have become a target of the rational design of peptides and peptide drugs. The aim of this study is to investigates the expression of peptide transporter 2 (PEPT2) mRNA in the lungs of rats with bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Fifty healthy adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups. One group was untreated (control), the second group was injected with normal saline solution (NS), and the three remaining groups were treated with a single dose of bleomycin to induce pulmonary fibrosis (BLM). Rats from the NS group were killed by exsanguination on day 14. Rats from the BLM group were killed by exsanguination on days 7, 14, and 28. The lung samples were observed under light microscopy and the hydroxyproline concentration was determined. The expression levels of PEPT2 mRNA were measured by RT-PCR. The morphological study showed that collagenous fiber proliferated in the lungs of rats injected with BLM, indicating pulmonary fibrosis. This proliferation was apparent at 14 d post-injection and especially at 28 d post-injection. Hydroxyproline levels increased seven days post-injection compared with the control group and NS group, but there was no significant statistical difference (P>0.05). Hydroxyproline levels significantly increased (Ppulmonary PEPT2 mRNA expression levels among the different groups (P>0.05). PEPT2 is a potential peptide drug target in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis, although there were no significant changes of PEPT2 mRNA expression in the lungs of rats with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

  12. Gene Expression Profiling in Lung Tissues from Rat Exposed to Lunar Dust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Lam, Chiu-Wing; Zalesak, Selina M.; Kidane, Yared H.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Scully, Robert R.; Williams, Kyle; Wu, Honglu; James, John T.

    2014-01-01

    The Moon's surface is covered by a layer of fine, reactive dust. Lunar dust contain about 1-2% of very fine dust (dust that could pose a health risk. The purpose of the study is to analyze the dynamics of global gene expression changes in lung tissues from rats exposed to lunar dust particles. F344 rats were exposed for 4 weeks (6h/d; 5d/wk) in nose-only inhalation chambers to concentrations of 0 (control air), 2.1, 6.8, 21, and 61 mg/m(exp 3) of lunar dust. Five rats per group were euthanized 1 day, and 3 months after the last inhalation exposure. The total RNAs were isolated from lung tissues after being lavaged. The Agilent Rat GE v3 microarray was used to profile global gene expression (44K). The genes with significant expression changes are identified and the gene expression data were further analyzed using various statistical tools.

  13. SSX2-4 expression in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, K B V; Pøhl, M; Olsen, K E

    2014-01-01

    The expression of cancer/testis antigens SSX2, SSX3, and SSX4 in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) was examined, since they are considered promising targets for cancer immunotherapy due to their immunogenicity and testis-restricted normal tissue expression. We characterized three SSX antibodies...... was only detected in 5 of 143 early-stage NSCLCs, which is rare compared to other cancer/testis antigens (e.g. MAGE-A and GAGE). However, further studies are needed to determine whether SSX can be used as a prognostic or predictive biomarker in NSCLC.......The expression of cancer/testis antigens SSX2, SSX3, and SSX4 in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) was examined, since they are considered promising targets for cancer immunotherapy due to their immunogenicity and testis-restricted normal tissue expression. We characterized three SSX antibodies...

  14. Iroquois homeobox 2 suppresses cellular motility and chemokine expression in breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, Stefan; Stamm, Hauke; Pandjaitan, Mutiha; Kemming, Dirk; Brors, Benedikt; Pantel, Klaus; Wikman, Harriet

    2015-01-01

    Disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) can be detected using ultrasensitive immunocytochemical assays and their presence in the bone marrow can predict the subsequent occurrence of overt metastasis formation and metastatic relapse. Using expression profiling on early stage primary breast tumors, low IRX2 expression was previously shown to be associated with the presence of DTCs in the bone marrow, suggesting a possible role of IRX2 in the early steps of metastasis formation. The purpose of this study is to gain insights into the significance of IRX2 protein function in the progression of breast cancer. To assess the physiological relevance of IRX2 in breast cancer, we evaluated IRX2 expression in a large breast cancer cohort (n = 1992). Additionally, constitutive IRX2 over expression was established in BT-549 and Hs578T breast cancer cell lines. Subsequently we analyzed whether IRX2 overexpression effects chemokine secretion and cellular motility of these cells. Low IRX2 mRNA expression was found to correlate with high tumor grade, positive lymph node status, negative hormone receptor status, and basal type of primary breast tumors. Also in cell lines low IRX2 expression was associated with mainly basal breast cancer cell lines. The functional studies show that overexpression of the IRX2 transcription factor in basal cell lines suppressed secretion of the pro-metastatic chemokines and inhibited cellular motility but did not influence cell proliferation. Our results imply that the IRX2 transcription factor might represent a novel metastasis associated protein that acts as a negative regulator of cellular motility and as a repressor of chemokine expression. Loss of IRX2 expression could therefore contribute to early hematogenous dissemination of breast cancer by sustaining chemokine secretion and enabling mobilization of tumor cells. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1907-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  15. Nitric oxide modifies chromatin to suppress ICAM-1 expression during colonic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingjie; Sarna, Sushil K

    2012-07-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an established inflammatory mediator. However, it remains controversial whether NO enhances the inflammatory response in the colon or suppresses it. We investigated the epigenetic regulation of Icam-1 expression by NO following induction of colonic inflammation in rats by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic (TNBS) acid and obtaining colonic muscularis externae tissues 24 h later. TNBS inflammation induced intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression by translocating NF-κB to the nucleus. The incubation of inflamed tissues with S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) did not affect the nuclear translocation of NF-κB; however, it suppressed the NF-κB binding to DNA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis (ChIP)-qPCR assays showed that the increase in NF-κB/DNA interaction following inflammation is due to the transcriptional downregulation of global HDAC3 and a decrease in its interaction with the DNA on the Icam-1 promoter containing the binding motifs of NF-κB. The decrease in the association of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 3 with the Icam-1 promoter increased the acetylation of histone 4 lysine residue 12 (H4K12), which would favor chromatin relaxation and greater access of NF-κB to its DNA binding sites. HDAC3 dissociation from the DNA did not affect the acetylation levels of H4K8 and H4K16. The NO release by GSNO countered the upregulation of Icam-1 by increasing the transcription of global HDAC3 and its association with the Icam-1 promoter, and by suppressing H4K12 acetylation. We conclude that chromatin modification by transcriptional downregulation of HDAC3 plays a critical role in the induction of the inflammatory response. NO may serve as an anti-inflammatory mediator during the acute stage of inflammation by blunting the downregulation of global HDAC3, increasing HDAC3 interaction with the nucleosomes containing the binding moieties of NF-κB, reducing H4K12Ac to restrict the access of NF-κB to DNA, and suppressing ICAM-1 expression.

  16. Isolation of differentially expressed sex genes in garden asparagus using suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chuan-liang; Wang, Ning-na; Li, Shu-fen; Dong, Tian-yu; Zhao, Xin-peng; Wang, Shao-jing; Gao, Wu-jun; Lu, Long-dou

    2015-09-01

    Garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) is a dioecious species whose male and female flowers are found in separate unisexual individuals. A region called the M-locus, located on a pair of homomorphic sex chromosomes, controls sexual dimorphism in asparagus. To date, no sex determining gene has been isolated from asparagus. To identify more genes involved in flower development in asparagus, subtractive hybridization library of male flowers in asparagus was constructed by suppression subtraction hybridization. A total of 107 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified. BLASTX analysis showed that the library contained several genes that could be related to flower development. The expression patterns of seven selected genes believed to be involved in the development of asparagus male flower were further analyzed by semi-quantitative or real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results showed that AOEST4-5, AOEST12-40, and AOEST13-38 were strongly expressed in the male flower stage, whereas no transcript level of AOEST13-38 was detected in the female flower stage. The expression levels of AOEST13-87, AOEST13-92, AOEST13-40, and AOEST18-87 in the male flower stage were also higher than those in the female flower stage, although these transcripts were also expressed in other tissues. The identified genes can provide a strong starting point for further studies on the underlying molecular differences between the male and female flowers of asparagus.

  17. Chicoric acid suppresses BAFF expression in B lymphocytes by inhibiting NF-κB activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lingxi; Huang, Gang; Gao, Min; Shen, Xiaodong; Gong, Wei; Xu, Zhizhen; Zeng, Yijun; He, Fengtian

    2017-03-01

    B cell activating factor belonging to the TNF family (BAFF) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. The inhibition of BAFF expression is an emerging therapeutic approach for these disorders. Chicoric acid (CA), a bioactive phytochemical found in several widely used traditional medicinal plants, has significant anti-inflammatory activity and anti-arthritic effects. However, the role of CA in modulation of BAFF expression remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that CA reduced BAFF expression in human B lymphocyte cell lines and decreased the DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in the BAFF promoter region. Furthermore, CA inhibited both the nuclear translocation of p65 (the subunit of NF-κB) and the phosphorylation of IκBα (inhibitor of NF-κB). These results suggest that CA suppresses BAFF expression by inhibiting NF-κB activity, and CA may serve as a novel therapeutic agent to down-regulate excessive BAFF expression in autoimmune diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Myofibroblast Expression in Skin Wounds Is Enhanced by Collagen III Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M. Al-Qattan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally speaking, the excessive expression of myofibroblasts is associated with excessive collagen production. One exception is seen in patients and animal models of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV in which the COL3A1 gene mutation results in reduced collagen III but with concurrent increased myofibroblast expression. This paradox has not been examined with the use of external drugs/modalities to prevent hypertrophic scars. In this paper, we injected the rabbit ear wound model of hypertrophic scarring with two doses of a protein called nAG, which is known to reduce collagen expression and to suppress hypertrophic scarring in that animal model. The higher nAG dose was associated with significantly less collagen III expression and concurrent higher degree of myofibroblast expression. We concluded that collagen III content of the extracellular matrix may have a direct or an indirect effect on myofibroblast differentiation. However, further research is required to investigate the pathogenesis of this paradoxical phenomenon.

  19. Obesity Suppresses Estrogen Receptor Beta Expression in Breast Cancer Cells via a HER2-Mediated Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Laura W; Wiese, Megan; Brenner, Andrew J; Rossi, Emily L; Tekmal, Rajeshwar R; Hursting, Stephen D; deGraffenried, Linda A

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a worse breast cancer prognosis, while greater breast tumor estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) expression is correlated with improved therapy response and survival. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of obesity on breast cancer cell ERβ expression, which is currently unknown. We utilized an in vitro model of obesity in which breast cancer cells were exposed to patient serum pooled by body mass index category (obese (OB): ≥30 kg/m2; normal weight (N): 18.5-24.9 kg/m2). Four human mammary tumor cell lines representing the major breast cancer subtypes (SKBR3, MCF-7, ZR75, MDA-MB-231) and mammary tumor cells from MMTV-neu mice were used. ERβ expression, assessed by qPCR and western blotting, was suppressed in the two HER2-overexpressing cell lines (SKBR3, MMTV-neu) following OB versus N sera exposure, but did not vary in the other cell lines. Expression of Bcl-2 and cyclin D1, two genes negatively regulated by ERβ, was elevated in SKBR3 cells following exposure to OB versus N sera, but this difference was eliminated when the ERβ gene was silenced with siRNA. Herceptin, a HER2 antagonist, and siRNA to HER2 were used to evaluate the role of HER2 in sera-induced ERβ modulation. SKBR3 cell treatment with OB sera plus Herceptin increased ERβ expression three-fold. Similar results were obtained when HER2 expression was silenced with siRNA. OB sera also promoted greater SKBR3 cell viability and growth, but this variance was not present when ERβ was silenced or the cells were modified to overexpress ERβ. Based on this data, we conclude that obesity-associated systemic factors suppress ERβ expression in breast cancer cells via a HER2-mediated pathway, leading to greater cell viability and growth. Elucidation of the mechanism(s) mediating this effect could provide important insights into how ERβ expression is regulated as well as how obesity promotes a more aggressive disease.

  20. Obesity Suppresses Estrogen Receptor Beta Expression in Breast Cancer Cells via a HER2-Mediated Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura W Bowers

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with a worse breast cancer prognosis, while greater breast tumor estrogen receptor beta (ERβ expression is correlated with improved therapy response and survival. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of obesity on breast cancer cell ERβ expression, which is currently unknown. We utilized an in vitro model of obesity in which breast cancer cells were exposed to patient serum pooled by body mass index category (obese (OB: ≥30 kg/m2; normal weight (N: 18.5-24.9 kg/m2. Four human mammary tumor cell lines representing the major breast cancer subtypes (SKBR3, MCF-7, ZR75, MDA-MB-231 and mammary tumor cells from MMTV-neu mice were used. ERβ expression, assessed by qPCR and western blotting, was suppressed in the two HER2-overexpressing cell lines (SKBR3, MMTV-neu following OB versus N sera exposure, but did not vary in the other cell lines. Expression of Bcl-2 and cyclin D1, two genes negatively regulated by ERβ, was elevated in SKBR3 cells following exposure to OB versus N sera, but this difference was eliminated when the ERβ gene was silenced with siRNA. Herceptin, a HER2 antagonist, and siRNA to HER2 were used to evaluate the role of HER2 in sera-induced ERβ modulation. SKBR3 cell treatment with OB sera plus Herceptin increased ERβ expression three-fold. Similar results were obtained when HER2 expression was silenced with siRNA. OB sera also promoted greater SKBR3 cell viability and growth, but this variance was not present when ERβ was silenced or the cells were modified to overexpress ERβ. Based on this data, we conclude that obesity-associated systemic factors suppress ERβ expression in breast cancer cells via a HER2-mediated pathway, leading to greater cell viability and growth. Elucidation of the mechanism(s mediating this effect could provide important insights into how ERβ expression is regulated as well as how obesity promotes a more aggressive disease.

  1. Dry powder inhalation of hemin to induce heme oxygenase expression in the lung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, G.S.; Brandsma, C.; Harpe, M.F.H.; Van Dam, G.M.; Slebos, D.J.; Kerstjens, H.A.M.; de Boer, Anne; Frijlink, H.W.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to formulate hemin as a powder for inhalation and to show proof of concept of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression in the lungs of mice by inhalation of hemin. Hemin was spray dried from a neutralized sodium hydroxide solution. The particle size distribution of the powder

  2. Synthetic Nanoparticles That Promote Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 2 Expressing Regulatory T Cells in the Lung and Resistance to Allergic Airways Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohimah Mohamud

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic glycine coated 50 nm polystyrene nanoparticles (NP (PS50G, unlike ambient NP, do not promote pulmonary inflammation, but instead, render lungs resistant to the development of allergic airway inflammation. In this study, we show that PS50G modulate the frequency and phenotype of regulatory T cells (Treg in the lung, specifically increasing the proportion of tumor necrosis factor 2 (TNFR2 expressing Treg. Mice pre-exposed to PS50G, which were sensitized and then challenged with an allergen a month later, preferentially expanded TNFR2+Foxp3+ Treg, which further expressed enhanced levels of latency associated peptide and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated molecule-4. Moreover, PS50G-induced CD103+ dendritic cell activation in the lung was associated with the proliferative expansion of TNFR2+Foxp3+ Treg. These findings provide the first evidence that engineered NP can promote the selective expansion of maximally suppressing TNFR2+Foxp3+ Treg and further suggest a novel mechanism by which NP may promote healthy lung homeostasis.

  3. Oncogene expression in primary lung tumors in dogs that inhaled 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, G.; Kerkof, P.R.; Haley, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    Ten radiation-induced and three spontaneous lung tumors were analyzed for aberrant expression of known oncogenes. In 12 of 13 tumors tested, sequences hybridizing to the c-myc oncogene were expressed at levels 1.5 times higher than sequences hybridizing to β-actin. This level of oncogene expression was also observed in 9 of 13 tumors for 1 or more members of the ras family of oncogenes. Seven of thirteen tumors examined express sequences that hybridize with clones of v-ros or c-met. The ros and met clones both code for oncogenes whose normal homologues are transmembrane proteins related to the insulin receptor. (author)

  4. Adenovirus-encoding virus-associated RNAs suppress HDGF gene expression to support efficient viral replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saki Kondo

    Full Text Available Non-coding small RNAs are involved in many physiological responses including viral life cycles. Adenovirus-encoding small RNAs, known as virus-associated RNAs (VA RNAs, are transcribed throughout the replication process in the host cells, and their transcript levels depend on the copy numbers of the viral genome. Therefore, VA RNAs are abundant in infected cells after genome replication, i.e. during the late phase of viral infection. Their function during the late phase is the inhibition of interferon-inducible protein kinase R (PKR activity to prevent antiviral responses; recently, mivaRNAs, the microRNAs processed from VA RNAs, have been reported to inhibit cellular gene expression. Although VA RNA transcription starts during the early phase, little is known about its function. The reason may be because much smaller amount of VA RNAs are transcribed during the early phase than the late phase. In this study, we applied replication-deficient adenovirus vectors (AdVs and novel AdVs lacking VA RNA genes to analyze the expression changes in cellular genes mediated by VA RNAs using microarray analysis. AdVs are suitable to examine the function of VA RNAs during the early phase, since they constitutively express VA RNAs but do not replicate except in 293 cells. We found that the expression level of hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF significantly decreased in response to the VA RNAs under replication-deficient condition, and this suppression was also observed during the early phase under replication-competent conditions. The suppression was independent of mivaRNA-induced downregulation, suggesting that the function of VA RNAs during the early phase differs from that during the late phase. Notably, overexpression of HDGF inhibited AdV growth. This is the first report to show the function, in part, of VA RNAs during the early phase that may be contribute to efficient viral growth.

  5. Attentional deployment is not necessary for successful emotion regulation via cognitive reappraisal or expressive suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebko, Genna M; Franconeri, Steven L; Ochsner, Kevin N; Chiao, Joan Y

    2014-06-01

    According to appraisal theories of emotion, cognitive reappraisal is a successful emotion regulation strategy because it involves cognitively changing our thoughts, which, in turn, change our emotions. However, recent evidence has challenged the importance of cognitive change and, instead, has suggested that attentional deployment may at least partly explain the emotion regulation success of cognitive reappraisal. The purpose of the current study was to examine the causal relationship between attentional deployment and emotion regulation success. We examined 2 commonly used emotion regulation strategies--cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression-because both depend on attention but have divergent behavioral, experiential, and physiological outcomes. Participants were either instructed to regulate emotions during free-viewing (unrestricted image viewing) or gaze-controlled (restricted image viewing) conditions and to self-report negative emotional experience. For both emotion regulation strategies, emotion regulation success was not altered by changes in participant control over the (a) direction of attention (free-viewing vs. gaze-controlled) during image viewing and (b) valence (negative vs. neutral) of visual stimuli viewed when gaze was controlled. Taken together, these findings provide convergent evidence that attentional deployment does not alter subjective negative emotional experience during either cognitive reappraisal or expressive suppression, suggesting that strategy-specific processes, such as cognitive appraisal and response modulation, respectively, may have a greater impact on emotional regulation success than processes common to both strategies, such as attention.

  6. Cholera Toxin Suppresses Expression of Ubiquitin Editing Enzyme A20 and Enhances Transcytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yang Li

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ubiquitin editing enzyme A20 plays an important role in maintaining the homeostasis in the body Microbe-derived adjuvants are commonly used in animal models of intestinal allergy. Objective: This study aims to investigate the role of cholera toxin-induced A20 suppression in compromising intestinal barrier function. Methods: Human intestinal epithelial cells were cultured into monolayers as an in vitro epithelial barrier model. Ovalbumin (OVA was used as a specific allergen to test the degrading capability of intestinal epithelial cells for the endocytic allergens. The fusion of endosomes and lysosomes in epithelial cells was observed by immunocytochemistry. The antigenicity of OVA was tested by T cell proliferation assay. Results: A20 was detectable in the intestinal cell lines and mouse intestinal epithelialum. A20 was required in the degradation of endocytic allergens in HT-29 cells. The allergen, OVA, could pass through A20-deficient HT-29 monolayer barrier. Exposure to microbial adjuvant, cholera toxin, suppressed the expression of A20 in HT-29 cells, which compromised the epithelial barrier function. Conclusion: The microbial product, cholera toxin, interferes with the expression of A20 in intestinal epithelial cells, which compromises the intestinal epithelial barrier function.

  7. Onbaekwon Suppresses Colon Cancer Cell Invasion by Inhibiting Expression of the CXC Chemokine Receptor 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Buyun; Yoon, Jaewoo; Yoon, Seong Woo; Park, Byoungduck

    2017-06-01

    Cysteine X cysteine (CXC) chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and C-X-C motif chemokine 12 (CXCL12) were originally identified as chemoattractants between immune cells and sites of inflammation. Since studies have validated an increased level of CXCL12 and its receptor in patients with colorectal cancers, CXCL12/CXCR4 axis has been considered as a valuable marker of cancer metastasis. Therefore, identification of CXCR4 inhibitors has great potential to abrogate tumor metastasis. Onbaekwon (OBW) is a complex herbal formula that is derived from the literature of traditional Korean medicine Dongeuibogam. In this study, we demonstrated that OBW suppressed CXCR4 expression in various cancer cell types in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Both proteasomal and lysosomal inhibitors had no effect to prevent the OBW-induced suppression of CXCR4, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of OBW was not due to proteolytic degradation but occurred at the transcriptional level. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay further confirmed that OBW could block endogenous activation of nuclear factor kappa B, a key transcription factor that regulates the expression of CXCR4 in colon cancer cells. Consistent with the aforementioned molecular basis, OBW abolished cell invasion induced by CXCL12 in colon cancer cells. Together, our results suggest that OBW, as a novel inhibitor of CXCR4, could be a promising therapeutic agent contributing to cancer treatment.

  8. Suppression of Idol expression is an additional mechanism underlying statin-induced up-regulation of hepatic LDL receptor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bin; Wu, Minhao; Cao, Aiqin; Li, Hai; Liu, Jingwen

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have identified proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and Idol as negative regulators of low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) protein stability. While the induction of PCSK9 transcription has been recognized as a limitation to the statin cholesterol-lowering efficacy at higher doses, it is unknown whether Idol is involved in the statin-mediated up-regulation of the hepatic LDLR. Here we report that statins exert opposite effects on PCSK9 and Idol gene expression in human hepatoma-derived cell lines and primary hepatocytes isolated from hamsters and rats. While PCSK9 expression was induced, the level of Idol mRNA rapidly declined in statin-treated cells in a dose-dependent manner. This differs from the effect of the liver X receptor ligand, GW3965, which increased the expression of both PCSK9 and Idol. We further show that cellular depletion of Idol by siRNA transfection did not change PCSK9 expression levels in control and statin-treated cells; however, the basal level of LDLR protein increased by 60% in Idol siRNA transfected HepG2 cells. More importantly, the increase in LDLR protein abundance by rosuvastatin and atorvastatin treatment was compromised by Idol siRNA transfection. Collectively, our present findings suggest that the suppression of Idol gene expression in liver cells is an additional mechanism underlying the statin-induced up-regulation of hepatic LDLR expression. This may contribute to the hypocholesterolemic effects of statins observed in clinical settings.

  9. Lung cancer gene expression database analysis incorporating prior knowledge with support vector machine-based classification method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Desheng

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A reliable and precise classification is essential for successful diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Gene expression microarrays have provided the high-throughput platform to discover genomic biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Rational use of the available bioinformation can not only effectively remove or suppress noise in gene chips, but also avoid one-sided results of separate experiment. However, only some studies have been aware of the importance of prior information in cancer classification. Methods Together with the application of support vector machine as the discriminant approach, we proposed one modified method that incorporated prior knowledge into cancer classification based on gene expression data to improve accuracy. A public well-known dataset, Malignant pleural mesothelioma and lung adenocarcinoma gene expression database, was used in this study. Prior knowledge is viewed here as a means of directing the classifier using known lung adenocarcinoma related genes. The procedures were performed by software R 2.80. Results The modified method performed better after incorporating prior knowledge. Accuracy of the modified method improved from 98.86% to 100% in training set and from 98.51% to 99.06% in test set. The standard deviations of the modified method decreased from 0.26% to 0 in training set and from 3.04% to 2.10% in test set. Conclusion The method that incorporates prior knowledge into discriminant analysis could effectively improve the capacity and reduce the impact of noise. This idea may have good future not only in practice but also in methodology.

  10. Esculetin exerts anti-proliferative effects against non-small-cell lung carcinoma by suppressing specificity protein 1 in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ra H; Jeon, Young-Joo; Cho, Jin H; Jang, Jeong-Yun; Kong, Il-Keun; Kim, Seok-Ho; Kim, MinSeok S; Chung, Hak-Jae; Oh, Keon B; Park, Seon-Min; Shin, Jae-Cheon; Seo, Jae-Min; Ko, Sungho; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Chae, Jung-Il

    2017-01-01

    Esculetin, a coumarin derivative, is a phenolic compound isolated from Artemisia capillaris, Citrus limonia, and Euphorbia lathyris. Although it has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-proliferative activities in several human cancers, its anti-proliferative activity against non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and the molecular mechanisms involved have not been adequately elucidated. In this study, we used two NSCLC cell lines (NCI-H358 and NCI-H1299) to investigate the anti-proliferative activity and apoptotic effect of esculetin. Our data showed that esculetin-treated cells exhibited reduced proliferation and apoptotic cell morphologies. Intriguingly, the transcription factor specificity protein 1 (Sp1) was significantly suppressed by esculetin in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, the levels of p27 and p21, two key regulators of the cell cycle, were up-regulated by the esculetin-mediated down-regulation of Sp1; the level of a third cell-cycle regulator, survivin, was decreased, resulting in caspase-dependent apoptosis. Therefore, we conclude that esculetin could be a potent anti-proliferative agent in patients with NSCLC.

  11. The butanol fraction of guava (Psidium cattleianum Sabine) leaf extract suppresses MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and activity through the suppression of the ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Inhwan; Park, Kyung-Ran; Kim, Sung-Moo; Kim, Chulwon; Park, Jeong Ha; Nam, Dongwoo; Jang, Hyeung-Jin; Shim, Bum Sang; Ahn, Kyoo Seok; Mosaddik, Ashik; Sethi, Gautam; Cho, Somi K; Ahn, Kwang Seok

    2012-01-01

    The leaf extract of guava (Psidium cattleianum Sabine) has traditionally been used for the treatment of diarrhea and diabetes in East Asia and other countries. Recently, the leaf extract has been employed in the therapy of cancer, bacterial infections, and inflammation in experimental models. However, the exact mechanisms of how guava leaf extract inhibits tumor metastasis and invasion are still unknown. In the present study, we investigated in detail the molecular mechanism(s) responsible for the potential antimetastatic and antiinvasive effects of the butanol fraction of guava leaf extract (GBF). Interestingly, we observed for the first time that GBF suppressed both matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-9 and MMP-2 expression and activity in part through the downregulation of the ERK1/2 activation in lung cancer cells. Also, importantly, the major components of the GBF were identified as d-glucuronic acid, quercetin 3-glucuronide, loganin, and xanthyletin by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Collectively, our data indicate that the guava leaf could reduce the metastasis of lung cancer cells and therefore suggest that it could be advantageously used to control the metastatic process.

  12. Changes in gene expression in lungs of mice exposed to traffic-related air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Chen, Yi; Yu, Zhi; Ding, Hui; Ma, Zhongfu

    2018-04-03

    Long-term exposure to traffic-related pollutants can lead to a variety of respiratory diseases, including inflammation, asthma, and lung cancer; however, the underlying biological mechanisms are not fully understood. We focused on the effects of exposure to different air pollutants on the expression of genes associated with inflammatory immune responses, allergic reactions and asthma, and lung cancer. In order to understand the cellular responses induced by exposure to different traffic-related pollutants, we performed PCR array to evaluate the mRNA expression of genes associated with inflammatory immune responses, allergic reactions and asthma, and lung cancer in the lungs of mice exposed to three different environments, including the laboratory (clean air), and polluted parking garages in Foshan and Guangzhou for four weeks. Cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17A) were analyzed by Flow cytometry; the morphological structures were detected by Haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Our results revealed that the main pollutant in Guangzhou was PM2.5, the main pollutants in Foshan were gaseous pollutants including CO, NO x and SO 2. IFN-γ was significantly lower, and IL-4, and IL-17A were significantly higher in mice in the Guangzhou and Foshan groups compared with laboratory group. The morphological structures were damaged in Guangzhou and Foshan groups. In addition, we found that exposure to traffic-related pollutants triggered the expression of inflammatory genes (Cxcl11 and Tnfs4), allergy and asthma genes (Clca3 and Prg2), and lung cancer genes (Agr2, Col11a1, and Sostdc1). As such, our results demonstrate that persistent exposure to traffic-related pollutants may elevate the incidence of immune disorders and asthma, and may be as a risk factor for lung cancer. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Expression of PEPT2 mRNA in Lung Tissue of Rats with Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li LI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Pulmonary fibrosis is a common pathological phenomenon in lung cancer patients after chemotherapy or radiotherapy. It is also a key hindrance to the transport of drugs to lung tissue. Peptide transporters have become a target of the rational design of peptides and peptide drugs. The aim of this study is to investigates the expression of peptide transporter 2 (PEPT2 mRNA in the lungs of rats with bleomycin (BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Methods Fifty healthy adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups. One group was untreated (control, the second group was injected with normal saline solution (NS, and the three remaining groups were treated with a single dose of bleomycin to induce pulmonary fibrosis (BLM. Rats from the NS group were killed by exsanguination on day 14. Rats from the BLM group were killed by exsanguination on days 7, 14, and 28. The lung samples were observed under light microscopy and the hydroxyproline concentration was determined. The expression levels of PEPT2 mRNA were measured by RT-PCR. Results The morphological study showed that collagenous fiber proliferated in the lungs of rats injected with BLM, indicating pulmonary fibrosis. This proliferation was apparent at 14 d post-injection and especially at 28 d post-injection. Hydroxyproline levels increased seven days post-injection compared with the control group and NS group, but there was no significant statistical difference (P>0.05. Hydroxyproline levels significantly increased (P0.05. Conclusion PEPT2 is a potential peptide drug target in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis, although there were no significant changes of PEPT2 mRNA expression in the lungs of rats with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

  14. Expression of cell cycle regulating factor mRNA in small cell lung cancer xenografts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, M; Poulsen, H S; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1998-01-01

    cyclin and CDK's but only a few of the cell lines expressed cyclin D1 and/or D2 and some lacked expression of CDK6. Most cell lines expressed mRNA for the CKI's but two cell lines lacked expression of P15INK4B and p16INK4A. The mRNA expression differed for a few of the cell lines regarding cyclin D2......We have investigated the expression of cyclins, cyclin dependent kinases (CDK), and CDK inhibitors (CKI) at the mRNA level in a panel of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines in vitro and in vivo as xenografts in nude mice. The results showed that the cell lines expressed varying amounts of most...

  15. MicroRNA expression in lung tissue and blood isolated from pigs suffering from bacterial pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Wendt, Karin Tarp; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a highly evolutionarily conserved group of small non-coding RNA molecules, which regulate the activity of other genes at the post-transcriptional level. Recently it has become evident that miRNA plays an important role in modulating and fine tuning of the innate and adaptive...... expressed (p-values lower than 0.05). MicroRNA expression in lung tissue over time in response to the two different serotypes were very similar. miR-223 was found to be highly up regulated, followed by miR-146a and to a lesser degree miR-21 in lung tissue of the AP serotype 2 infected animals. MiR-233...... immune responses. Still, little is known about the impact of miRNAs in the development and pathogenesis of lung infections. Expression of miRNA, known to be induced by bacterial (i.e., LPS) ligands and thus supposed to play a role in the regulation of antimicrobial defence, were studied in lung tissue...

  16. Expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor in human small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damstrup, L; Rygaard, K; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1992-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor expression was evaluated in a panel of 21 small cell lung cancer cell lines with radioreceptor assay, affinity labeling, and Northern blotting. We found high-affinity receptors to be expressed in 10 cell lines. Scatchard analysis of the binding data...... lung cancer cell lines express the EGF receptor....... of EGF receptor mRNA in all 10 cell lines that were found to be EGF receptor-positive and in one cell line that was found to be EGF receptor-negative in the radioreceptor assay and affinity labeling. Our results provide, for the first time, evidence that a large proportion of a broad panel of small cell...

  17. Cannabidivarin (CBDV suppresses pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced increases in epilepsy-related gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Amada

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To date, anticonvulsant effects of the plant cannabinoid, cannabidivarin (CBDV, have been reported in several animal models of seizure. However, these behaviourally observed anticonvulsant effects have not been confirmed at the molecular level. To examine changes to epilepsy-related gene expression following chemical convulsant treatment and their subsequent control by phytocannabinoid administration, we behaviourally evaluated effects of CBDV (400 mg/kg, p.o. on acute, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ: 95 mg/kg, i.p.-induced seizures, quantified expression levels of several epilepsy-related genes (Fos, Casp 3, Ccl3, Ccl4, Npy, Arc, Penk, Camk2a, Bdnf and Egr1 by qPCR using hippocampal, neocortical and prefrontal cortical tissue samples before examining correlations between expression changes and seizure severity. PTZ treatment alone produced generalised seizures (median: 5.00 and significantly increased expression of Fos, Egr1, Arc, Ccl4 and Bdnf. Consistent with previous findings, CBDV significantly decreased PTZ-induced seizure severity (median: 3.25 and increased latency to the first sign of seizure. Furthermore, there were correlations between reductions of seizure severity and mRNA expression of Fos, Egr1, Arc, Ccl4 and Bdnf in the majority of brain regions in the CBDV+PTZ treated group. When CBDV treated animals were grouped into CBDV responders (criterion: seizure severity ≤3.25 and non-responders (criterion: seizure severity >3.25, PTZ-induced increases of Fos, Egr1, Arc, Ccl4 and Bdnf expression were suppressed in CBDV responders. These results provide the first molecular confirmation of behaviourally observed effects of the non-psychoactive, anticonvulsant cannabinoid, CBDV, upon chemically-induced seizures and serve to underscore its suitability for clinical development.

  18. WSSV-responsive gene expression under the influence of PmVRP15 suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummamunkong, Phawida; Jaree, Phattarunda; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Somboonwiwat, Kunlaya

    2018-01-01

    The viral responsive protein 15 from black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (PmVRP15), is highly up-regulated and produced in the hemocytes of shrimp with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. To investigate the differential expression of genes from P. monodon hemocytes that are involved in WSSV infection under the influence of PmVRP15 expression, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) of PmVRP15-silenced shrimp infected with WSSV was performed. The 189 cDNA clones of the forward library were generated by subtracting the cDNAs from WSSV-infected and PmVRP15 knockdown shrimp with cDNAs from WSSV-infected and GFP knockdown shrimp. For the opposite subtraction, the 176 cDNA clones in the reverse library was an alternative set of genes in WSSV-infected shrimp hemocytes in the presence of PmVRP15 expression. The abundant genes in forward SSH library had a defense/homeostasis of 26%, energy/metabolism of 23% and in the reverse SSH library a hypothetical protein with unknown function was found (30%). The differential expressed immune-related genes from each library were selected for expression analysis using qRT-PCR. All selected genes from the forward library showed high up-regulation in the WSSV-challenged PmVRP15 knockdown group as expected. Interestingly, PmHHAP, a hemocyte homeostasis associated protein, and granulin-like protein, a conserved growth factor, are extremely up-regulated in the absence of PmVRP15 expression in WSSV-infected shrimp. Only transcript level of transglutaminase II, that functions in regulating hematopoietic tissue differentiation and inhibits mature hemocyte production in shrimp, was obviously down-regulated as observed from SSH results. Taken together, our results suggest that PmVRP15 might have a function relevant to hemocyte homeostasis during WSSV infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Abnormal gene expression and gene fusion in lung adenocarcinoma with high-throughput RNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z-H; Zheng, R; Gao, Y; Zhang, Q; Zhang, H

    2014-02-01

    To explore the universal law of the abnormal gene expression and the structural variation of genes related to lung adenocarcinoma, the gene expression profile of GSE37765 were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were analyzed with t-test and NOISeq tool, and the core DEGs were screened out by combining with another RNA-seq data containing totally 77 pairs of samples in 77 patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Moreover, the functional annotation of the core DEGs was performed by using the Database for Annotation Visualization and Integrated Discovery following selection of oncogene and tumor suppressor by combining with tumor suppressor genes and Cancer Genes database, and motif-finding of core DEGs was performed with motif-finding algorithm Seqpos. We also used Tophat-fusion tool to further explore the fusion genes. In total, 850 downregulated DEGs and 206 upregulated DEGs were screened out in lung adenocarcinoma tissues. Next, we selected 543 core DEGs, including 401 downregulated and 142 upregulated genes, and vasculature development (P=1.89E-06) was significantly enriched among downregulated core genes, as well as mitosis (P=6.26E-04) enriched among upregulated core genes. On the basis of the cellular localization analysis of core genes, wnt-1-induced secreted protein 1 (WISP1) and receptor (G protein-coupled) activity modifying protein 1 (RAMP1) identified mainly located in extracellular region and extracellular space. We also screened one oncogene, v-myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog-like 2 (MYBL2). Moreover, transcription factor GATA2 was mined by motif-finding analysis. Finally, four fusion genes belonged to the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) family. WISP1, RAMP1, MYBL2 and GATA2 could be potential targets of treatment for lung adenocarcinoma and the fusion of HLA family genes might have important roles in lung adenocarcinoma.

  20. Regulated gene expression in cultured type II cells of adult human lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Philip L; Lee, Jae W; Fang, Xiaohui; Chapin, Cheryl; Allen, Lennell; Segal, Mark R; Fischer, Horst; Illek, Beate; Gonzales, Linda W; Kolla, Venkatadri; Matthay, Michael A

    2010-07-01

    Alveolar type II cells have multiple functions, including surfactant production and fluid clearance, which are critical for lung function. Differentiation of type II cells occurs in cultured fetal lung epithelial cells treated with dexamethasone plus cAMP and isobutylmethylxanthine (DCI) and involves increased expression of 388 genes. In this study, type II cells of human adult lung were isolated at approximately 95% purity, and gene expression was determined (Affymetrix) before and after culturing 5 days on collagen-coated dishes with or without DCI for the final 3 days. In freshly isolated cells, highly expressed genes included SFTPA/B/C, SCGB1A, IL8, CXCL2, and SFN in addition to ubiquitously expressed genes. Transcript abundance was correlated between fetal and adult cells (r = 0.88), with a subset of 187 genes primarily related to inflammation and immunity that were expressed >10-fold higher in adult cells. During control culture, expression increased for 8.1% of expressed genes and decreased for approximately 4% including 118 immune response and 10 surfactant-related genes. DCI treatment promoted lamellar body production and increased expression of approximately 3% of probed genes by > or =1.5-fold; 40% of these were also induced in fetal cells. Highly induced genes (> or =10-fold) included PGC, ZBTB16, DUOX1, PLUNC, CIT, and CRTAC1. Twenty-five induced genes, including six genes related to surfactant (SFTPA/B/C, PGC, CEBPD, and ADFP), also had decreased expression during control culture and thus are candidates for hormonal regulation in vivo. Our results further define the adult human type II cell molecular phenotype and demonstrate that a subset of genes remains hormone responsive in cultured adult cells.

  1. Irinotecan (CPT-11)-induced elevation of bile acids potentiates suppression of IL-10 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Zhong-Ze; Zhang, Dunfang; Cao, Yun-Feng; Xie, Cen; Lu, Dan; Sun, Dong-Xue; Tanaka, Naoki; Jiang, Changtao; Chen, Qianming; Chen, Yu; Wang, Haina; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Irinotecan (CPT-11) is a first-line anti-colon cancer drug, however; CPT-11-induced toxicity remains a key factor limiting its clinical application. To search for clues to the mechanism of CPT-11-induced toxicity, metabolomics was applied using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg of CPT-11 induced loss of body weight, and intestine toxicity. Changes in gallbladder morphology suggested alterations in bile acid metabolism, as revealed at the molecular level by analysis of the liver, bile, and ileum metabolomes between the vehicle-treated control group and the CPT-11-treated group. Analysis of immune cell populations further showed that CPT-11 treatment significantly decreased the IL-10-producing CD4 T cell frequency in intestinal lamina propria lymphocytes, but not in spleen or mesenteric lymph nodes. In vitro cell culture studies showed that the addition of bile acids deoxycholic acid and taurodeoxycholic acid accelerated the CPT-11-induced suppression of IL-10 secretion by activated CD4 + naive T cells isolated from mouse splenocytes. These results showed that CPT-11 treatment caused metabolic changes in the composition of bile acids that altered CPT-11-induced suppression of IL-10 expression. - Highlights: • CPT-11 is an effective anticancer drug, but induced toxicity limits its application in the clinic. • CPT-11 decreased IL-10-producing CD4 T cell frequency in intestinal lamina propria lymphocytes. • CPT-11 altered the composition of bile acid metabolites, notably DCA and TDCA in liver, bile and intestine. • DCA and TDCA potentiated CPT-11-induced suppression of IL-10 secretion by active CD4 + naive T cells.

  2. Expression of cadherin and NCAM in human small cell lung cancer cell lines and xenografts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, K; Møller, C; Bock, E

    1992-01-01

    characterised, the cadherin family and the Ig superfamily member, neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). We investigated expression of these two adhesion molecule families in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines and xenografts by immunoblotting. Nineteen tumours established from 15 patients with SCLC were...... embryonic development, which may play a role in connection with tumour invasion and metastasis, was found in 14/18 NCAM expressing SCLC tumours. Individual tumours grown as cell lines and as nude mouse xenografts showed no qualitative differences in cadherin or NCAM expression....

  3. Neural Substrates of Social Emotion Regulation: A fMRI Study on Imitation and Expressive Suppression to Dynamic Facial Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal eVrticka

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Emotion regulation is crucial for successfully engaging in social interactions. Yet, little is known about the neural mechanisms controlling behavioral responses to emotional expressions perceived in the face of other people, which constitute a key element of interpersonal communication. Here, we investigated brain systems involved in social emotion perception and regulation, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in 20 healthy participants who saw dynamic facial expressions of either happiness or sadness, and were asked to either imitate the expression or to suppress any expression on their own face (in addition to a gender judgment control task. fMRI results revealed higher activity in regions associated with emotion (e.g., the insula, motor function (e.g., motor cortex, and theory of mind during imitation. Activity in dorsal cingulate cortex was also increased during imitation, possibly reflecting greater action monitoring or conflict with own feeling states. In addition, premotor regions were more strongly activated during both imitation and suppression, suggesting a recruitment of motor control for both the production and inhibition of emotion expressions. Expressive suppression produced increases in dorsolateral and lateral prefrontal cortex typically related to cognitive control. These results suggest that voluntary imitation and expressive suppression modulate brain responses to emotional signals perceived from faces, by up- and down-regulating activity in distributed subcortical and cortical networks that are particularly involved in emotion, action monitoring, and cognitive control.

  4. Genomic structure, chromosomal localization and expression profile of a novel melanoma differentiation associated (mda-7) gene with cancer specific growth suppressing and apoptosis inducing properties.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, E. Y.; Madireddi, M. T.; Gopalkrishnan, R. V.; Leszczyniecka, M.; Su, Z. Z.; Lebedeva, I. V.; Kang, D. C.; Jian, H.; Lin, J. J.; Alexandre, D.; Chen, Y.; Vozhilla, N.; Mei, M. X.; Christiansen, K. A.; Sivo, F.; Goldstein, N. I.; Chada, S.; Huberman, E.; Pestka, S.; Fisher, P. B.; Biochip Technology Center; Columbia Univ.; Introgen Therapeutics Inc.; UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School

    2001-10-25

    Abnormalities in cellular differentiation are frequent occurrences in human cancers. Treatment of human melanoma cells with recombinant fibroblast interferon (IFN-beta) and the protein kinase C activator mezerein (MEZ) results in an irreversible loss in growth potential, suppression of tumorigenic properties and induction of terminal cell differentiation. Subtraction hybridization identified melanoma differentiation associated gene-7 (mda-7), as a gene induced during these physiological changes in human melanoma cells. Ectopic expression of mda-7 by means of a replication defective adenovirus results in growth suppression and induction of apoptosis in a broad spectrum of additional cancers, including melanoma, glioblastoma multiforme, osteosarcoma and carcinomas of the breast, cervix, colon, lung, nasopharynx and prostate. In contrast, no apparent harmful effects occur when mda-7 is expressed in normal epithelial or fibroblast cells. Human clones of mda-7 were isolated and its organization resolved in terms of intron/exon structure and chromosomal localization. Hu-mda-7 encompasses seven exons and six introns and encodes a protein with a predicted size of 23.8 kDa, consisting of 206 amino acids. Hu-mda-7 mRNA is stably expressed in the thymus, spleen and peripheral blood leukocytes. De novo mda-7 mRNA expression is also detected in human melanocytes and expression is inducible in cells of melanocyte/melanoma lineage and in certain normal and cancer cell types following treatment with a combination of IFN-beta plus MEZ. Mda-7 expression is also induced during megakaryocyte differentiation induced in human hematopoietic cells by treatment with TPA (12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate). In contrast, de novo expression of mda-7 is not detected nor is it inducible by IFN-beta+MEZ in a spectrum of additional normal and cancer cells. No correlation was observed between induction of mda-7 mRNA expression and growth suppression following treatment with IFN-beta+MEZ and

  5. Celecoxib inhibits osteoblast maturation by suppressing the expression of Wnt target genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Nagano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs have been shown to impair bone healing. We previously reported that in colon cancer cells, celecoxib, a COX-2-selective NSAID, inhibited the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Since this pathway also plays an important role in osteoblast growth and differentiation, we examined the effect of celecoxib on maturation of osteoblast-like cell line MC3T3-E1. Celecoxib induced degradation of transcription factor 7-like 2, a key transcription factor of the canonical Wnt pathway. Subsequently, we analyzed the effect of celecoxib on two osteoblast differentiation markers; runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2 and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, both of which are the products of the canonical Wnt pathway target genes. Celecoxib inhibited the expression of both RUNX2 and ALP by suppressing their promoter activity. Consistent with these observations, celecoxib also strongly inhibited osteoblast-mediated mineralization. These results suggest that celecoxib inhibits osteoblast maturation by suppressing Wnt target genes, and this could be the mechanism that NSAIDs inhibit bone formation and fracture healing.

  6. Suppression of endothelial t-PA expression by prolonged high laminar shear stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulfhammer, Erik; Carlstroem, Maria; Bergh, Niklas; Larsson, Pia; Karlsson, Lena; Jern, Sverker

    2009-01-01

    Primary hypertension is associated with an impaired capacity for acute release of endothelial tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), which is an important local protective response to prevent thrombus extension. As hypertensive vascular remodeling potentially results in increased vascular wall shear stress, we investigated the impact of shear on regulation of t-PA. Cultured human endothelial cells were exposed to low (≤1.5 dyn/cm 2 ) or high (25 dyn/cm 2 ) laminar shear stress for up to 48 h in two different experimental models. Using real-time RT-PCR and ELISA, shear stress was observed to time and magnitude-dependently suppress t-PA transcript and protein secretion to approximately 30% of basal levels. Mechanistic experiments revealed reduced nuclear protein binding to the t-PA specific CRE element (EMSA) and an almost completely abrogated shear response with pharmacologic JNK inhibition. We conclude that prolonged high laminar shear stress suppresses endothelial t-PA expression and may therefore contribute to the enhanced risk of arterial thrombosis in hypertensive disease.

  7. JOURNAL CLUB: Computer-Aided Detection of Lung Nodules on CT With a Computerized Pulmonary Vessel Suppressed Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, ShihChung B; Freedman, Matthew T; Gillis, Laura B; White, Charles S; Mun, Seong K

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate radiologists' performance in detecting actionable nodules on chest CT when aided by a pulmonary vessel image-suppressed function and a computer-aided detection (CADe) system. A novel computerized pulmonary vessel image-suppressed function with a built-in CADe (VIS/CADe) system was developed to assist radiologists in interpreting thoracic CT images. Twelve radiologists participated in a comparative study without and with the VIS/CADe using 324 cases (involving 95 cancers and 83 benign nodules). The ratio of nodule-free cases to cases with nodules was 2:1 in the study. Localization ROC (LROC) methods were used for analysis. In a stand-alone test, the VIS/CADe system detected 89.5% and 82.0% of malignant nodules and all nodules no smaller than 5 mm, respectively. The false-positive rate per CT study was 0.58. For the reader study, the mean area under the LROC curve (LROCAUC) for the detection of lung cancer significantly increased from 0.633 when unaided by VIS/CADe to 0.773 when aided by VIS/CADe (p < 0.01). For the detection of all clinically actionable nodules, the mean LROC-AUC significantly increased from 0.584 when unaided by VIS/CADe to 0.692 when detection was aided by VIS/CADe (p < 0.01). Radiologists detected 80.0% of cancers with VIS/CADe versus 64.45% of cancers unaided (p < 0.01); specificity decreased from 89.9% to 84.4% (p < 0.01). Radiologist interpretation time significantly decreased by 26%. The VIS/CADe system significantly increased radiologists' detection of cancers and actionable nodules with somewhat lower specificity. With use of the VIS/CADe system, radiologists increased their interpretation speed by a factor of approximately one-fourth. Our study suggests that the technique has the potential to assist radiologists in the detection of additional actionable nodules on thoracic CT.

  8. Pulmonary microvascular hyperpermeability and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in smoke inhalation- and pneumonia-induced acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Matthias; Hamahata, Atsumori; Traber, Daniel L; Connelly, Rhykka; Nakano, Yoshimitsu; Traber, Lillian D; Schmalstieg, Frank C; Herndon, David N; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei

    2012-11-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) and sepsis are major contributors to the morbidity and mortality of critically ill patients. The current study was designed further evaluate the mechanism of pulmonary vascular hyperpermeability in sheep with these injuries. Sheep were randomized to a sham-injured control group (n=6) or ALI/sepsis group (n=7). The sheep in the ALI/sepsis group received inhalation injury followed by instillation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa into the lungs. These groups were monitored for 24 h. Additional sheep (n=16) received the injury and lung tissue was harvested at different time points to measure lung wet/dry weight ratio, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA and protein expression as well as 3-nitrotyrosine protein expression in lung homogenates. The injury induced severe deterioration in pulmonary gas exchange, increases in lung lymph flow and protein content, and lung water content (P<0.01 each). These alterations were associated with elevated lung and plasma nitrite/nitrate concentrations, increased tracheal blood flow, and enhanced VEGF mRNA and protein expression in lung tissue as well as enhanced 3-nitrotyrosine protein expression (P<0.05 each). This study describes the time course of pulmonary microvascular hyperpermeability in a clinical relevant large animal model and may improve the experimental design of future studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  9. Expression of canonical WNT/β-CATENIN signaling components in the developing human lung

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    Zhang Mingfeng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The WNT/β-CATENIN signaling cascade is crucial for the patterning of the early lung morphogenesis in mice, but its role in the developing human lung remains to be determined. In this study, expression patterns of canonical WNT/β-CATENIN signaling components, including WNT ligands (WNT2, WNT7B, receptors ( FZD4, FZD7, LRP5, LRP6, transducers ( DVL2, DVL3, GSK-3β, β-CATENIN, APC, AXIN2, transcription factors ( TCF4, LEF1 and antagonists ( SOSTDC1 were examined in human embryonic lung at 7, 12, 17 and 21 weeks of gestation (W by real-time qRT-PCR and in situ hybridization. Results qRT-PCR analysis showed that some of these components were gradually upregulated, while some were significantly downregulated from the 7 W to the 12 W. However, most components reached a high level at 17 W, with a subsequent decrease at 21 W. In situ hybridization showed that the canonical WNT ligands and receptors were predominantly located in the peripheral epithelium, whereas the canonical WNT signal transducers and transcription factors were not only detected in the respiratory epithelium, but some were also scattered at low levels in the surrounding mesenchyme in the developing human lung. Furthermore, Western blot, qRT-PCR and histological analysis demonstrated that the β-CATENIN-dependent WNT signaling in embryonic human lung was activated in vitro by CHIR 99021 stimulation. Conclusions This study of the expression patterns and in vitro activity of the canonical WNT/β-CATENIN pathways suggests that these components play an essential role in regulation of human lung development.

  10. Global gene expression patterns in the post-pneumonectomy lung of adult mice

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    Ingenito Edward P

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult mice have a remarkable capacity to regenerate functional alveoli following either lung resection or injury that exceeds the regenerative capacity observed in larger adult mammals. The molecular basis for this unique capability in mice is largely unknown. We examined the transcriptomic responses to single lung pneumonectomy in adult mice in order to elucidate prospective molecular signaling mechanisms used in this species during lung regeneration. Methods Unilateral left pneumonectomy or sham thoracotomy was performed under general anesthesia (n = 8 mice per group for each of the four time points. Total RNA was isolated from the remaining lung tissue at four time points post-surgery (6 hours, 1 day, 3 days, 7 days and analyzed using microarray technology. Results The observed transcriptomic patterns revealed mesenchymal cell signaling, including up-regulation of genes previously associated with activated fibroblasts (Tnfrsf12a, Tnc, Eln, Col3A1, as well as modulation of Igf1-mediated signaling. The data set also revealed early down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine transcripts and up-regulation of genes involved in T cell development/function, but few similarities to transcriptomic patterns observed during embryonic or post-natal lung development. Immunohistochemical analysis suggests that early fibroblast but not myofibroblast proliferation is important during lung regeneration and may explain the preponderance of mesenchymal-associated genes that are over-expressed in this model. This again appears to differ from embryonic alveologenesis. Conclusion These data suggest that modulation of mesenchymal cell transcriptome patterns and proliferation of S100A4 positive mesenchymal cells, as well as modulation of pro-inflammatory transcriptome patterns, are important during post-pneumonectomy lung regeneration in adult mice.

  11. CXCL12 chemokine expression suppresses human pancreatic cancer growth and metastasis.

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    Ishan Roy

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is an unsolved health problem with nearly 75% of patients diagnosed with advanced disease and an overall 5-year survival rate near 5%. Despite the strong link between mortality and malignancy, the mechanisms behind pancreatic cancer dissemination and metastasis are poorly understood. Correlative pathological and cell culture analyses suggest the chemokine receptor CXCR4 plays a biological role in pancreatic cancer progression. In vivo roles for the CXCR4 ligand CXCL12 in pancreatic cancer malignancy were investigated. CXCR4 and CXCR7 were consistently expressed in normal and cancerous pancreatic ductal epithelium, established cell lines, and patient-derived primary cancer cells. Relative to healthy exocrine ducts, CXCL12 expression was pathologically repressed in pancreatic cancer tissue specimens and patient-derived cell lines. To test the functional consequences of CXCL12 silencing, pancreatic cancer cell lines stably expressingthe chemokine were engineered. Consistent with a role for CXCL12 as a tumor suppressor, cells producing the chemokine wereincreasingly adherent and migration deficient in vitro and poorly metastatic in vivo, compared to control cells. Further, CXCL12 reintroduction significantly reduced tumor growth in vitro, with significantly smaller tumors in vivo, leading to a pronounced survival advantage in a preclinical model. Together, these data demonstrate a functional tumor suppressive role for the normal expression of CXCL12 in pancreatic ducts, regulating both tumor growth andcellulardissemination to metastatic sites.

  12. MiR-433 inhibits retinoblastoma malignancy by suppressing Notch1 and PAX6 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohua; Yang, Lan; Shuai, Tianjiao; Piao, Tianhua; Wang, Rui

    2016-08-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most frequent primary intraocular cancer. It has been demonstrated by previous studies that retinoblastoma is initiated primarily by the inactivation of the retinoblastoma Rb1 gene in retinal cells. However, additional genetic alterations than Rb1 mutation could play important roles in the process of transforming benign retinal cells into retinoblastoma tumor cells. In this study, we identified that microRNA miR-433 is one of such genetic factors. We found that the expression levels of miR-433 were downregulated in RB tissues. We also determined that miR-433 negatively regulated RB cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of RB cells. We used bioinformatics method to predict and confirmed that Notch1 and PAX6 were miR-433 target genes in RB cells. Importantly, we demonstrated that restoration of Notch1 and PAX6 expression partially rescued the inhibition of cell proliferation and metastasis induced by miR-433 overexpression, suggesting that miR-433 regulates RB cell proliferation and metastasis through suppressing the expression of Notch1 and PAX6. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Stage dependent expression and tumor suppressive function of FAM134B (JK1) in colon cancer.

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    Islam, Farhadul; Gopalan, Vinod; Wahab, Riajul; Smith, Robert A; Qiao, Bin; Lam, Alfred King-Yin

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the present study are to investigate sub-cellular location, differential expression in different cancer stages and functional role of FAM134B in colon cancer development. FAM134B expression was studied and quantified at protein and mRNA levels in cell lines using immunocytochemistry, Western blot and real-time PCR. In vitro functional assays and an in vivo xenotransplantation mouse models were used to investigate the molecular role of FAM134B in cancer cell biology in response to FAM134B silencing with shRNA lentiviral particles. FAM134B protein was noted in both cytoplasm and nuclei of cancer cells. In cancer cells derived from stage IV colon cancer, FAM134B expression was remarkably reduced when compared to non-cancer colon cells and cancer cells derived from stage II colon cancer. FAM134B knockdown significantly (P colon cancer cells following lentiviral transfection. Furthermore, FAM134B suppression significantly increased (34-52%; P cancer suppressor gene in colon cancer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes Associated with Apple Fruit Ripening and Softening by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zongying; Jiang, Shenghui; Wang, Nan; Li, Min; Ji, Xiaohao; Sun, Shasha; Liu, Jingxuan; Wang, Deyun; Xu, Haifeng; Qi, Sumin; Wu, Shujing; Fei, Zhangjun; Feng, Shouqian; Chen, Xuesen

    2015-01-01

    Apple is one of the most economically important horticultural fruit crops worldwide. It is critical to gain insights into fruit ripening and softening to improve apple fruit quality and extend shelf life. In this study, forward and reverse suppression subtractive hybridization libraries were generated from 'Taishanzaoxia' apple fruits sampled around the ethylene climacteric to isolate ripening- and softening-related genes. A set of 648 unigenes were derived from sequence alignment and cluster assembly of 918 expressed sequence tags. According to gene ontology functional classification, 390 out of 443 unigenes (88%) were assigned to the biological process category, 356 unigenes (80%) were classified in the molecular function category, and 381 unigenes (86%) were allocated to the cellular component category. A total of 26 unigenes differentially expressed during fruit development period were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. These genes were involved in cell wall modification, anthocyanin biosynthesis, aroma production, stress response, metabolism, transcription, or were non-annotated. Some genes associated with cell wall modification, anthocyanin biosynthesis and aroma production were up-regulated and significantly correlated with ethylene production, suggesting that fruit texture, coloration and aroma may be regulated by ethylene in 'Taishanzaoxia'. Some of the identified unigenes associated with fruit ripening and softening have not been characterized in public databases. The results contribute to an improved characterization of changes in gene expression during apple fruit ripening and softening.

  15. Chemokine CXCL16 Expression Suppresses Migration and Invasiveness and Induces Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells

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    Yeying Fang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Increasing evidence argues that soluble CXCL16 promotes proliferation, migration, and invasion of cancer cells in vitro. However, the role of transmembrane or cellular CXCL16 in cancer remains relatively unknown. In this study, we determine the function of cellular CXCL16 as tumor suppressor in breast cancer cells. Methods. Expression of cellular CXCL16 in breast cancer cell lines was determined at both RNA and protein levels. In vitro and in vivo studies that overexpressed or downregulated CXCL16 were conducted in breast cancer cells. Results. We report differential expression of cellular CXCL16 in breast cancer cell lines that was negatively correlated with cell invasiveness and migration. Overexpression of CXCL16 in MDA-MB-231 cells led to a decrease in cell invasion and migration and induced apoptosis of the cells; downregulation of CXCL16 in MCF-7 cells increased cell migration and invasiveness. Consistent with the in vitro data, CXCL16 overexpression inhibited tumorigenesis in vivo. Conclusions. Cellular CXCL16 suppresses invasion and metastasis of breast cancer cells in vitro and inhibits tumorigenesis in vivo. Targeting of cellular CXCL16 expression is a potential therapeutic strategy for breast cancer.

  16. Sodium azide suppresses LPS-induced expression MCP-1 through regulating IκBζ and STAT1 activities in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cho-Yi; Heo, Jae-Nyoung; Suk, Kyoungho; Lee, Won-Ha

    2017-05-01

    Sodium azide (NaN 3 ) is a chemical compound with multiple toxic effects on vascular and neuronal systems, causing hypotension and neurotoxicity, respectively. In order to test its effects on the immune system, human and mouse macrophage-like cell lines were treated with nontoxic doses of NaN 3 and the changes in LPS-induced inflammatory activation was measured. Interestingly, the LPS-induced expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 was suppressed by NaN 3 without affecting the expression of IL-8 and TNF-α. Further analysis of cellular signaling mediators involved in the expression of these cytokines revealed that NaN 3 suppressed the LPS-induced activation of signal transducers and activator of transcription (STAT)1 and inhibitor of κB (IκB) ς, which are involved in the LPS-induced expression of MCP-1, while the LPS-induced activation of nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) was not affected. The LPS-induced expression of MCP-2 and CXCL10, which are also regulated by STAT1, was suppressed by NaN 3 . Similarly, the LPS-induced expression of IL-6, which is regulated by IκBζ, was suppressed by NaN 3 . These results demonstrate that NaN 3 selectively suppresses the LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory mediators through the suppression of STAT1 and IκBζ activation. These new findings about the activity of NaN 3 may contribute to the development of specific regulators of macrophage activity during acute and chronic inflammation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. TFF1 expression suppresses H. pylori-induced inflammation in gastric carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soutto, Mohammed; Chen, Zheng; Katsha, Ahmed; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Krishna, Uma; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Washington, M. Kay; Peek, Richard M.; Belkhiri, Abbes; El-Rifai, Wael

    2015-01-01

    Background Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a high-risk factor for gastric cancer, is frequently associated with chronic inflammation through activation of NFκB. TFF1 is a constitutively expressed protein in the stomach that has tumor suppressor functions and plays a critical role in maintaining mucosal integrity. In this study, we investigated the role of TFF1 in regulating the proinflammatory response to H. pylori infection. Methods For in vitro studies, we performed immunofluorescence, luciferase reporter assay, Western blot, and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to investigate activation of NFκB and its target genes in response to infection with H. pylori strains J166 and 7.13. In addition, we utilized the Tff1 knockout (KO) and Tff1 wild-type (WT) mice for infection with PMSS1 H. pylori strain. Results The reconstitution of TFF1 expression in gastric cancer cells significantly suppressed an H. pylori-mediated increase of NFκB-p65 nuclear staining, transcriptional activity and expression of proinflammatory cytokine genes (TNFα, IL1β, CXCL5, and IL4R) that were associated with reduction in expression and phosphorylation of NFκB-p65 and IKKα/β proteins. The in vivo studies using the Tff1-KO mouse model of gastric neoplasia confirmed the in vitro findings. Furthermore, they demonstrated an increase in chronic inflammation scores and frequency of invasive gastric adenocarcinoma in the Tff1-KO mice infected with H. pylori, as compared to uninfected Tff1-KO mice. Conclusion These findings underscore an important protective role of TFF1 in abrogating H. pylori-mediated inflammation, a crucial hallmark of gastric tumorigenesis. Therefore, loss of TFF1 expression could be an important step in the H. pylori-mediated gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:26372254

  18. Antisense suppression of LOX3 gene expression in rice endosperm enhances seed longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huibin; Wei, Yidong; Zhu, Yongsheng; Lian, Ling; Xie, Hongguang; Cai, Qiuhua; Chen, Qiushi; Lin, Zhongping; Wang, Zonghua; Xie, Huaan; Zhang, Jianfu

    2015-05-01

    Lipid peroxidation plays a major role in seed longevity and viability. In rice grains, lipid peroxidation is catalyzed by the enzyme lipoxygenase 3 (LOX3). Previous reports showed that grain from the rice variety DawDam in which the LOX3 gene was deleted had less stale flavour after grain storage than normal rice. The molecular mechanism by which LOX3 expression is regulated during endosperm development remains unclear. In this study, we expressed a LOX3 antisense construct in transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants to down-regulate LOX3 expression in rice endosperm. The transgenic plants exhibited a marked decrease in LOX mRNA levels, normal phenotypes and a normal life cycle. We showed that LOX3 activity and its ability to produce 9-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid (9-HPOD) from linoleic acid were significantly lower in transgenic seeds than in wild-type seeds by measuring the ultraviolet absorption of 9-HPOD at 234 nm and by high-performance liquid chromatography. The suppression of LOX3 expression in rice endosperm increased grain storability. The germination rate of TS-91 (antisense LOX3 transgenic line) was much higher than the WT (29% higher after artificial ageing for 21 days, and 40% higher after natural ageing for 12 months). To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate that decreased LOX3 expression can preserve rice grain quality during storage with no impact on grain yield, suggesting potential applications in agricultural production. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Xuebijing Ameliorates Sepsis-Induced Lung Injury by Downregulating HMGB1 and RAGE Expressions in Mice

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    Qiao Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Xuebijing (XBJ injection, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been reported as a promising approach in the treatment of sepsis in China. However, its actual molecular mechanisms in sepsis-induced lung injury are yet unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of XBJ on inflammation and the underlying mechanisms in a model of caecal ligation and puncture-(CLP- induced lung injury. The mice were divided into CLP group, CLP+XBJ group (XBJ, 4 mL/kg per 12 hours, and sham group. The molecular and histological examinations were performed on the lung, serum, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid samples of mice at the points of 6, 24, and 48 hours after CLP. The results show that XBJ reduces morphological destruction and neutrophil infiltration in the alveolar space and lung wet/dry weight ratio, which improves mortality of CLP-induced lung injury. Meanwhile, XBJ treatment downregulates high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1 and the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE expression, as well as neutrophil counts, production of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in the BAL fluids. In conclusion, these results indicate that XBJ may reduce the mortality through inhibiting proinflammatory cytokines secretion mediated by HMGB1/RAGE axis.

  20. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent regulation of miR-196a expression controls lung fibroblast apoptosis but not proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecht, Emelia [Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Zago, Michela [Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Sarill, Miles [Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Rico de Souza, Angela [Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Gomez, Alvin; Matthews, Jason [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Hamid, Qutayba; Eidelman, David H. [Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Baglole, Carolyn J., E-mail: Carolyn.baglole@McGill.ca [Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2014-11-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor implicated in the regulation of apoptosis and proliferation. Although activation of the AhR by xenobiotics such as dioxin inhibits the cell cycle and control apoptosis, paradoxically, AhR expression also promotes cell proliferation and survival independent of exogenous ligands. The microRNA (miRNA) miR-196a has also emerged as a regulator of proliferation and apoptosis but a relationship between the AhR and miR-196a is not known. Therefore, we hypothesized that AhR-dependent regulation of endogenous miR-196a expression would promote cell survival and proliferation. Utilizing lung fibroblasts from AhR deficient (AhR{sup −/−}) and wild-type (AhR{sup +/+}) mice, we show that there is ligand-independent regulation of miRNA, including low miR-196a in AhR{sup −/−} cells. Validation by qRT-PCR revealed a significant decrease in basal expression of miR-196a in AhR{sup −/−} compared to AhR{sup +/+} cells. Exposure to AhR agonists benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and FICZ as well as AhR antagonist CH-223191 decreased miR-196a expression in AhR{sup +/+} fibroblasts concomitant with decreased AhR protein levels. There was increased proliferation only in AhR{sup +/+} lung fibroblasts in response to serum, corresponding to a decrease in p27{sup KIP1} protein, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. Increasing the cellular levels of miR-196a had no effect on proliferation or expression of p27{sup KIP1} in AhR{sup −/−} fibroblasts but attenuated cigarette smoke-induced apoptosis. This study provides the first evidence that AhR expression is essential for the physiological regulation of cellular miRNA levels- including miR-196a. Future experiments designed to elucidate the functional relationship between the AhR and miR-196a may delineate additional novel ligand-independent roles for the AhR. - Highlights: • The AhR controls proliferation and apoptosis in lung cells. • The AhR regulates the

  1. Expressed wishes and incidence of euthanasia in advanced lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardon, Koen; Deschepper, Reginald; Vander Stichele, Robert; Bernheim, Jan L; Mortier, Freddy; Schallier, Denis; Germonpré, Paul; Galdermans, Daniella; Van Kerckhoven, Willem; Deliens, Luc

    2012-10-01

    This study explores expressed wishes and requests for euthanasia (i.e. administration of lethal drugs at the explicit request of the patient), and incidence of end-of-life decisions with possible life-shortening effects (ELDs) in advanced lung cancer patients in Flanders, Belgium. We performed a prospective, longitudinal, observational study of a consecutive sample of advanced lung cancer patients and selected those who died within 18 months of diagnosis. Immediately after death, the pulmonologist/oncologist and general practitioner (GP) of the patient filled in a questionnaire. Information was available for 105 out of 115 deaths. According to the specialist or GP, one in five patients had expressed a wish for euthanasia; and three in four of these had made an explicit and repeated request. One in two of these received euthanasia. Of the patients who had expressed a wish for euthanasia but had not made an explicit and repeated request, none received euthanasia. Patients with a palliative treatment goal at inclusion were more likely to receive euthanasia. Death was preceded by an ELD in 62.9% of patients. To conclude, advanced lung cancer patients who expressed a euthanasia wish were often determined. Euthanasia was performed significantly more among patients whose treatment goal after diagnosis was exclusively palliative.

  2. Family with sequence similarity 83, member B is a predictor of poor prognosis and a potential therapeutic target for lung adenocarcinoma expressing wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaura, Takumi; Ezaki, Junji; Okabe, Naoyuki; Takagi, Hironori; Ozaki, Yuki; Inoue, Takuya; Watanabe, Yuzuru; Fukuhara, Mitsuro; Muto, Satoshi; Matsumura, Yuki; Hasegawa, Takeo; Hoshino, Mika; Osugi, Jun; Shio, Yutaka; Waguri, Satoshi; Tamura, Hirosumi; Imai, Jun-Ichi; Ito, Emi; Yanagisawa, Yuka; Honma, Reiko; Watanabe, Shinya; Suzuki, Hiroyuki

    2018-01-01

    Lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) patients with tumors that harbor no targetable driver gene mutation, such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations, have unfavorable prognosis, and thus, novel therapeutic targets are required. Family with sequence similarity 83, member B (FAM83B) is a biomarker for squamous cell lung cancer. FAM83B has also recently been shown to serve an important role in the EGFR signaling pathway. In the present study, the molecular and clinical impact of FAM83B in lung ADC was investigated. Matched tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples were obtained from 216 patients who underwent complete lung resection for primary lung ADC and were examined for FAM83B expression using cDNA microarray analysis. The associations between FAM83B expression and clinicopathological parameters, including patient survival, were examined. FAM83B was highly expressed in tumors from males, smokers and in tumors with wild-type EGFR. Multivariate analyses further confirmed that wild-type EGFR tumors were significantly positively associated with FAM83B expression. In survival analysis, FAM83B expression was associated with poor outcomes in disease-free survival and overall survival, particularly when stratified against tumors with wild-type EGFR. Furthermore, FAM83B knockdown was performed to investigate its phenotypic effect on lung ADC cell lines. Gene silencing by FAM83B RNA interference induced growth suppression in the HLC-1 and H1975 lung ADC cell lines. FAM83B may be involved in lung ADC tumor proliferation and can be a predictor of poor survival. FAM83B is also a potential novel therapeutic target for ADC with wild-type EGFR. PMID:29434849

  3. In silico modelling and validation of differential expressed proteins in lung cancer

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    Bhagavathi S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study aims predict the three dimensional structure of three major proteins responsible for causing Lung cancer. Methods: These are the differentially expressed proteins in lung cancer dataset. Initially, the structural template for these proteins is identified from structural database using homology search and perform homology modelling approach to predict its native 3D structure. Three-dimensional model obtained was validated using Ramachandran plot analysis to find the reliability of the model. Results: Four proteins were differentially expressed and were significant proteins in causing lung cancer. Among the four proteins, Matrixmetallo proteinase (P39900 had a known 3D structure and hence was not considered for modelling. The remaining proteins Polo like kinase I Q58A51, Trophinin B1AKF1, Thrombomodulin P07204 were modelled and validated. Conclusions: The three dimensional structure of proteins provides insights about the functional aspect and regulatory aspect of the protein. Thus, this study will be a breakthrough for further lung cancer related studies.

  4. Hesperidin suppresses the migration and invasion of non-small cell lung cancer cells by inhibiting the SDF-1/CXCR-4 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Rongmu; Xu, Gang; Huang, Yue; Sheng, Xin; Xu, Xianlin; Lu, Hongling

    2018-03-28

    The present study aimed to investigate the ability of hesperidin to suppress the migration and invasion of A549 cells, and to investigate the role of the SDF-1/CXCR-4 cascade in this suppression. We performed a Transwell migration assay to measure the migratory capability of A549 cells treated with 0.5% DMSO, SDF-1α, AMD3100 or hesperidin. The SDF-1 level in the culture medium was determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect whether different concentrations of hesperidin affected SDF-1 secretion. A wound-healing assay was performed to determine the effects of different concentrations of hesperidin on the migration inhibition of A549, H460 and H1975 cells. Additionally, the effect of various hesperidin concentrations on the rate of A549 cell invasion and migration was examined with and without Matrigel in Transwell assays, respectively. Western blot analysis was used to evaluate the protein levels of CXCR-4, MMP-9, CK-19, Vimentin, p65, p-p65, p-IκB, IκB, p-Akt and Akt. RT-qPCR was used to detect the mRNA levels of CXCR-4, MMP-9, CK-19, Vimentin, p65, IκB, SDF-1 and Akt. The Transwell migration assay indicated that SDF-1α promoted A549 cell migration, while AMD3100 and hesperidin significantly inhibited the migratory capability. The wound-healing assay demonstrated that hesperidin treatment significantly reduced the rate of wound closure compared with the control group in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, the migration and invasive abilities of A549 cells, H460 and H1975 cells treated with hesperidin were significantly decreased compared with the control group. The ELISA data suggested that hesperidin attenuated the secretion of SDF-1 from A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, western blot analysis indicated that SDF-1α treatment significantly increased the levels of CXCR-4, p-p65, p-IκB and p-Akt in A549 cells. In contrast, AMD3100 or hesperidin reversed the effect induced by SDF-1α through decreasing the expression

  5. α-Solanine Inhibits Invasion of Human Prostate Cancer Cell by Suppressing Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and MMPs Expression

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    Kun-Hung Shen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available α-Solanine, a naturally occurring steroidal glycoalkaloid found in nightshade (Solanum nigrum Linn., was found to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of tumor cells. However, the mechanism involved in suppression of cancer cell metastasis by α-solanine remains unclear. This study investigates the suppression mechanism of α-solanine on motility of the human prostate cancer cell PC-3. Results show that α-solanine reduces the viability of PC-3 cells. When treated with non-toxic doses of α-solanine, cell invasion is markedly suppressed by α-solanine. α-Solanine also significantly elevates epithelial marker E-cadherin expression, while it concomitantly decreases mesenchymal marker vimentin expression, suggesting it suppresses epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT. α-Solanine reduces the mRNA level of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2, MMP-9 and extracellular inducer of matrix metalloproteinase (EMMPRIN, but increases the expression of reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs (RECK, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. Immunoblotting assays indicate α-solanine is effective in suppressing the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase (PI3K, Akt and ERK. Moreover, α-solanine downregulates oncogenic microRNA-21 (miR-21 and upregulates tumor suppressor miR-138 expression. Taken together, the results suggest that inhibition of PC-3 cell invasion by α-solanine may be, at least in part, through blocking EMT and MMPs expression. α-Solanine also reduces ERK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways and regulates expression of miR-21 and miR-138. These findings suggest an attractive therapeutic potential of α-solanine for suppressing invasion of prostate cancer cell.

  6. The delayed effect of mustard gas on housekeeping gene expression in lung biopsy of chemical injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghtedardoost, Marzieh; Hassan, Zuhair Mohammad; Askari, Nayereh; Sadeghipour, Alireza; Naghizadeh, Mohammad Mahdi; Ghafarpour, Sara; Ghazanfari, Tooba

    2017-09-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) was used as a chemical weapon in Iraq-Iran war. Exposed people have major complications in important organs such as pulmonary system. Some studies have shown that SM could affect the expression of endogenous genes and non-housekeeping genes, time dependently. To understand the accurate molecular mechanism of the delayed effect of SM, the identification of the gene expression pattern in these patients is essential. Hence, we have evaluated mRNA expression of four common housekeeping genes (ACTIN, PGK1, β2m, GAPDH) in SM-exposed and non-exposed (control) formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) human lung tissues. Paraffin block of lung biopsy of SM-exposed people (11 cases) and people without exposure to SM as control group (9 cases) have been selected. The mRNA expression of four endogenous control genes has been evaluated by qRT-PCR. The stability value of each gene was calculated by different methods. It was found that ACTIN mRNA has the highest expression (30.26±2.87) and PGK1 has the lowest standard deviation (SD) (30.885±2.215) between pooled groups. The best correlation was between ACTIN and PGK1 expressions. The M value has shown that ACTIN and then PGK1 are the most stable housekeeping genes among. The results obtained from the GeNorm and NormFinder have indicated that the pair ACTIN- PGK1 is the most suitable choice for endogenous control genes. ACTIN and PGK1 genes are stable in studied lung tissues and are the better than two other housekeeping genes. In addition, mustard gas does not affect their expression in long term.

  7. NF-κB inhibitor dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin suppresses osteoclastogenesis and expression of NFATc1 in mouse arthritis without affecting expression of RANKL, osteoprotegerin or macrophage colony-stimulating factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Tetsuo; Hoshino, Machiko; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Ohya, Keiichi; Komano, Yukiko; Nanki, Toshihiro; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Umezawa, Kazuo

    2007-01-01

    Inhibition of NF-κB is known to be effective in reducing both inflammation and bone destruction in animal models of arthritis. Our previous study demonstrated that a small cell-permeable NF-κB inhibitor, dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ), suppresses expression of proinflammatory cytokines and ameliorates mouse arthritis. It remained unclear, however, whether DHMEQ directly affects osteoclast precursor cells to suppress their differentiation to mature osteoclasts in vivo. The effect of DHMEQ on human osteoclastogenesis also remained elusive. In the present study, we therefore examined the effect of DHMEQ on osteoclastogenesis using a mouse collagen-induced arthritis model, and using culture systems of fibroblast-like synovial cells obtained from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and of osteoclast precursor cells from peripheral blood of healthy volunteers. DHMEQ significantly suppressed formation of osteoclasts in arthritic joints, and also suppressed expression of NFATc1 along the inner surfaces of bone lacunae and the eroded bone surface, while serum levels of soluble receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin and macrophage colony-stimulating factor were not affected by the treatment. DHMEQ also did not suppress spontaneous expression of RANKL nor of macrophage colony-stimulating factor in culture of fibroblast-like synovial cells obtained from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. These results suggest that DHMEQ suppresses osteoclastogenesis in vivo, through downregulation of NFATc1 expression, without significantly affecting expression of upstream molecules of the RANKL/receptor activator of NF-κB/osteoprotegerin cascade, at least in our experimental condition. Furthermore, in the presence of RANKL and macrophage colony-stimulating factor, differentiation and activation of human osteoclasts were also suppressed by DHMEQ, suggesting the possibility of future application of NF-κB inhibitors to rheumatoid arthritis therapy. PMID

  8. 4-Hydroxyphenylacetic Acid Attenuated Inflammation and Edema via Suppressing HIF-1α in Seawater Aspiration-Induced Lung Injury in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongyang; Xi, Ronggang; Zhang, Zhiran; Li, Wangping; Liu, Yan; Jin, Faguang; Wang, Xiaobo

    2014-01-01

    4-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid (4-HPA) is an active component of Chinese herb Aster tataricus which had been widely used in China for the treatment of pulmonary diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of 4-HPA on seawater aspiration-induced lung injury. Pulmonary inflammation and edema were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) white cell count, Evans blue dye analysis, wet to dry weight ratios, and histology study. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) siRNA and permeability assay were used to study the effect of 4-HPA on the production of inflammatory cytokines and monolayer permeability in vitro. The results showed that 4-HPA reduced seawater instillation-induced mortality in rats. In lung tissues, 4-HPA attenuated hypoxia, inflammation, vascular leak, and edema, and decreased HIF-1α protein level. In primary rat alveolar epithelial cells (AEC), 4-HPA decreased hypertonicity- and hypoxia-induced HIF-1α protein levels through inhibiting the activations of protein translational regulators and via promoting HIF-1α protein degradation. In addition, 4-HPA lowered inflammatory cytokines levels through suppressing hypertonicity- and hypoxia-induced HIF-1α in NR8383 macrophages. Moreover, 4-HPA decreased monolayer permeability through suppressing hypertonicity and hypoxia-induced HIF-1α, which was mediated by inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in rat lung microvascular endothelial cell line (RLMVEC). In conclusion, 4-HPA attenuated inflammation and edema through suppressing hypertonic and hypoxic induction of HIF-1α in seawater aspiration-induced lung injury in rats. PMID:25050781

  9. Sulforaphane suppresses EMT and metastasis in human lung cancer through miR-616-5p-mediated GSK3β/β-catenin signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Da-Xuan; Zou, Yu-Jiao; Zhuang, Xi-Bin; Chen, Shu-Xing; Lin, Yong; Li, Wen-Lan; Lin, Jun-Jin; Lin, Zhi-Qiang

    2017-02-01

    Sulforaphane is a common antioxidant selectively abundant in cruciferous plants, which exhibits effective anti-cancer actions in control of tumorigenesis or progression of various cancers. A recent study has shown that sulforaphane attenuates the EGFR signaling pathway in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), suggesting its potential anti-metastatic effects. In this study we assessed the involvement of sulforaphane and miR-616-5p in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and NSCLC metastasis. Sulforaphane suppressed the cell proliferation in human NSCLC cell lines H1299, 95C and 95D with IC 50 values of 9.52±1.23, 9.04±1.90 and 17.35±2.03 μmol/L, respectively. At low concentrations (1-5 μmol/L), sulforaphane dose-dependently inhibited the migration and invasion of 95D and H1299 cells with relatively high metastatic potential. The anti-metastatic action of sulforaphane was confirmed in 95D and H1299 cell xenografts in vivo. In fresh NSCLC tissue samples from 179 patients, miR-616-5p levels were upregulated in late-stage NSCLCs, and strongly correlated with risk of NSCLC recurrence and metastasis. Consistent with the clinic observation, miR-616-5p levels in the 3 NSCLC cell lines were correlated with their metastatic ability, and were decreased by sulforaphane treatment. Silencing miR-616-5p markedly suppressed the migration and invasion of 95D cells in vitro and NSCLC metastasis in vivo. Further studies revealed that miR-616-5p directly targeted GSK3β and decreased its expression, whereas sulforaphane decreased miR-616-5p levels by histone modification, and followed by inactivation of the GSK3β/β-catenin signaling pathway and inhibition of EMT, which was characterized by loss of epithelial markers and acquisition of a mesenchymal phenotype in NSCLC cells. Our findings suggest that sulforaphane is a potential adjuvant chemotherapeutic agent for the prevention of NSCLC recurrence and metastasis, and miR-616-5p can be clinically utilized as a biomarker or

  10. Paraquat increases connective tissue growth factor expression and impairs lung fibroblast proliferation and viscoelasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N; Xie, Y-P; Pang, L; Zang, X-X; Wang, J; Shi, D; Wu, Y; Liu, X-L; Wang, G-H

    2014-12-01

    This in vitro study was designed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of paraquat-induced damage using cultured human fetal lung fibroblasts (MRC-5 cells), in order to promote the development of improved therapies for paraquat poisoning. Paraquat's effects on proliferation were examined by flow cytometry, on viscoelasticity by the micropipette aspiration technique, and on connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Paraquat was found to significantly reduce the proliferation index of MRC-5 cells in a concentration-dependent manner (p paraquat led to a significant and time-dependent increase in CTGF expression (p paraquat-induced lung fibrosis but may represent useful targets of improved molecular-based therapies for paraquat poisoning. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Normalisation of surfactant protein -A and -B expression in the lungs of low birth weight lambs by 21 days old.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Yin Soo

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR induced by placental restriction (PR in the sheep negatively impacts lung and pulmonary surfactant development during fetal life. Using a sheep model of low birth weight (LBW, we found that there was an increase in mRNA expression of surfactant protein (SP-A, -B and -C in the lung of LBW lambs but no difference in the protein expression of SP-A or -B. LBW also resulted in increased lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein (LAMP-3 mRNA expression, which may indicate an increase in either the density of type II Alveolar epithelial cells (AEC or maturity of type II AECs. Although there was an increase in glucocorticoid receptor (GR and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11βHSD-1 mRNA expression in the lung of LBW lambs, we found no change in the protein expression of these factors, suggesting that the increase in SP mRNA expression is not mediated by increased GC signalling in the lung. The increase in SP mRNA expression may, in part, be mediated by persistent alterations in hypoxia signalling as there was an increase in lung HIF-2α mRNA expression in the LBW lamb. The changes in the hypoxia signalling pathway that persist within the lung after birth may be involved in maintaining SP production in the LBW lamb.

  12. Butyrate suppresses proliferation and migration of RKO colon cancer cells though regulating endocan expression by MAPK signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Li; Lu, Man; Zhou, Qing; Wei, Wei; Wang, Yuan

    2013-12-01

    Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid produced by colonic bacterial fermentation. In colon cancer cells butyrate is able to suppress cell growth, induce apoptosis. It also inhibits tumor growth in vivo. However, the underlying mechanism is still not fully understood. We hypothesize that butyrate regulates the growth and migration of colon cancer cells by altering endocan expression. To test this hypothesis, we performed quantitative real time RT–PCR and Western blots, and found that butyrate increased endocan expression of colon cancer cell RKO. Moreover, endocan over-expression inhibited RKO proliferation, migration and colony formation. Functionally, butyrate significantly suppressed RKO proliferation, migration, and colony formation, as well as induced apoptosis. Knocking down endogenous endocan was able to attenuate the inhibitory role of butyrate in RKO migration and proliferation. Since our results showed that butyrate inhibited MAPK/ERK2 phosphorylation. To determine whether ERK2 signaling is associated with endocan expression, we knocked down endogenous ERK2 expression. Our results showed that knocking down ERK2 expression up-regulated endocan expression. Taken together, these results suggested that butyrate suppressed RKO proliferation, colony formation, migration through up-regulating endocan expression via ERK2/MAPK signaling pathway.

  13. Adenovirus-mediated Foxp3 expression in lung epithelial cells ameliorates acute radiation-induced pneumonitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, D; Lee, G; Lee, S; Park, S; Jung, K-H; Lee, J H; Lee, J M; Kim, J-Y; Cho, J; Bae, H

    2017-02-01

    Forkhead transcription factor 3 (Foxp3) has a critical role in regulatory T cells (Treg). There are an increasing number of researches concerning the functions of Foxp3 in other cells, including lung epithelial cells besides Treg. However, the roles of Foxp3 in lung epithelial cells remain poorly understood. To examine the potential therapeutic benefits of Foxp3 for lung inflammation, this study investigates the effect of adenovirus-mediated Foxp3 overexpression in a radiation-induced lung damage model. Foxp3-EGFP expressing adenovirus was administered by intratracheal injection three times over 14 days after focal X-ray irradiation. To evaluate effects of Foxp3 overexpression in radiation-induced lung inflammation, immune cell profiles of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were analyzed. Foxp3 gene-delivered mice showed significant inhibition of immune cell infiltration, such as eosinophils, lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils in BAL fluid. Histopathological analysis also showed that Foxp3 overexpression inhibits inflammatory cell recruitment and collagen deposition in lung tissues. In addition, expression of inflammatory and fibrosis-related genes was decreased in the Foxp3 expression adenovirus-infected group. These results suggest that Foxp3 expression in lungs holds considerable therapeutic potential for attenuating inflammation and fibrosis in radiation-induced lung injury.

  14. Cardamonin Regulates miR-21 Expression and Suppresses Angiogenesis Induced by Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Sheng Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardamonin has promising potential in cancer prevention and therapy by interacting with proteins and modifying the expressions and activities, including factors of cell survival, proliferation, and angiogenesis. In our precious study, we have demonstrated that cardamonin suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor- (VEGF- induced angiogenesis as evaluated in the mouse aortic ring assay. It is also known that microRNAs (miRNAs play important roles in angiogenesis. Herein, we hypothesized whether antiangiogenesis effect of cardamonin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs triggered by VEGF was associated with miRNAs. We found that cardamonin reduced the miR-21 expression induced by VEGF in HUVECs. Treatment with miR-21 mimics abolished the effects of cardamonin on VEGF-induced cell proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis in HUVECs. However, treatment with miR-21 inhibitors presented the opposite effects, indicating the vital role of miR-21 in this process. Our study provides a new insight of the preliminary mechanism of anti-VEGF-induced angiogenesis by cardamonin in HUVECs.

  15. Differentiation-inducing factor-1 suppresses gene expression of cyclin D1 in tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasmin, Tania; Takahashi-Yanaga, Fumi; Mori, Jun; Miwa, Yoshikazu; Hirata, Masato; Watanabe, Yutaka; Morimoto, Sachio; Sasaguri, Toshiyuki

    2005-01-01

    To determine the mechanism by which differentiation-inducing factor-1 (DIF-1), a morphogen of Dictyostelium discoideum, inhibits tumor cell proliferation, we examined the effect of DIF-1 on the gene expression of cyclin D1. DIF-1 strongly reduced the expression of cyclin D1 mRNA and correspondingly decreased the amount of β-catenin in HeLa cells and squamous cell carcinoma cells. DIF-1 activated glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and inhibition of GSK-3β attenuated the DIF-1-induced β-catenin degradation, indicating the involvement of GSK-3β in this effect. Moreover, DIF-1 reduced the activities of T-cell factor (TCF)/lymphoid enhancer factor (LEF) reporter plasmid and a reporter gene driven by the human cyclin D1 promoter. Eliminating the TCF/LEF consensus site from the cyclin D1 promoter diminished the effect of DIF-1. These results suggest that DIF-1 inhibits Wnt/β-catenin signaling, resulting in the suppression of cyclin D1 promoter activity

  16. Bmi-1 expression modulates non-small cell lung cancer progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Dan; Ye, Yunlin; Fu, Yujie; Wang, Jinglong; Kuang, Bohua; Wang, Hongbo; Wang, Xiumin; Zu, Lidong; Xiao, Gang; Hao, Mingang; Wang, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that the role of B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 homolog (Bmi-1) is responsible for multiple cancer progression. However, Bmi-1 in controlling gene expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) development is not well explored. Here we report that the Bmi-1 level is highly increased in primary NSCLC tissues compared to matched adjacent non-cancerous tissues and required for lung tumor growth in xenograft model. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that Bmi-1 level is lower in matched involved lymph node cancerous tissues than the respective primary NSCLC tissues. We find that Bmi-1 does not affect cell cycle and apoptosis in lung cancer cell lines as it does not affect the expression of p16/p19, Pten, AKT and P-AKT. Mechanistic analyses note that reduction of Bmi-1 expression inversely regulates invasion and metastasis of NSCLC cells in vitro and in vivo, followed by induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Using genome microarray assays, we find that RNAi-mediated silence of Bmi-1 modulates some important molecular genetics or signaling pathways, potentially associated with NSCLC development. Taken together, our findings disclose for the first time that Bmi-1 level accumulates strongly in early stage and then declines in late stage, which is potentially important for NSCLC cell invasion and metastasis during progression. PMID:25880371

  17. SNCA Is a Functionally Low-Expressed Gene in Lung Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanliang Yan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence for the contribution of synuclein alpha (SNCA to the etiology of neurological disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease (PD. However, little is known about the detailed role of SNCA in human cancers, especially lung cancers. Here, we evaluated the effects of SNCA on the occurrence and prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma (ADC. Comprehensive bioinformatics analyses of data obtained from the Oncomine platform, the human protein atlas (HPA project and the cancer cell line encyclopedia (CCLE demonstrated that SNCA expression was significantly reduced in both ADC tissues and cancer cells. The results of relevant clinical studies indicated that down-regulation of SNCA was statistically correlated with shorter overall survival time and post-progression survival time. Through analysis of datasets obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, significant low levels of SNCA were identified in cisplatin-resistant ADC cells. Moreover, small interfering RNA (siRNA-mediated knockdown of protein tyrosine kinase 7 (PTK7 elevated the expression of SNCA in the ADC cell lines H1299 and H2009. Our work demonstrates that low levels of SNCA are specifically found in ADC and that this gene may be a potential therapeutic target for this subset of lung cancers. Determination of the role of SNCA in ADC biology would give us some insightful information for further investigations.

  18. Prenatal retinoic acid improves lung vascularization and VEGF expression in CDH rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Augusto F; Gonçalves, Frances L L; Regis, Aline C; Gallindo, Rodrigo M; Sbragia, Lourenço

    2012-07-01

    We sought to investigate the effects of antenatal retinoic acid on the pulmonary vasculature and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptors (VEGFR) expression in a nitrofen-induced congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) model. Rat fetuses were exposed to nitrofen at gestational day 9.5 and/or all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) at gestational days 18.5-20.5. We assessed lung growth, airway, and vascular morphometry. VEGF, VEGFR1, and VEGFR2 expression was analyzed by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Continuous data were analyzed by analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis test. CDH decreased lung to body weight ratio, increased mean linear intercept and mean transection length/airspace, and decreased mean airspace cord length. ATRA did not affect lung growth or morphometry. CDH increased proportional medial wall thickness of arterioles while ATRA reduced it. ATRA recovered expression of VEGF and receptors, which were reduced in CDH. Retinoic acid and VEGF may provide pathways for preventing pulmonary hypertension in CDH. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Is expressive suppression always associated with poorer psychological functioning? A cross-cultural comparison between European Americans and Hong Kong Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, José A; Perez, Christopher R; Kim, Young-Hoon; Lee, Elizabeth A; Minnick, Mark R

    2011-12-01

    The habitual use of expressive suppression as an emotion regulation strategy has been consistently linked to adverse outcomes in a number of domains, including psychological functioning. The present study aimed to uncover whether the suppression-health relationship is dependent on cultural context, given differing cultural norms surrounding the value of suppressing emotional displays. We hypothesized that the negative associations between suppression and psychological functioning seen in European Americans would not be seen among members of East Asian cultures, in which emotional restraint is relatively encouraged over emotional expression. To test this hypothesis, we asked 71 European American students and 100 Chinese students from Hong Kong to report on their use of expressive suppression, life satisfaction, and depressed mood. A moderation analysis revealed that expressive suppression was associated with adverse psychological functioning for European Americans, but not for Chinese participants. These findings highlight the importance of context in understanding the suppression-health relationship. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Heterologous expression of gentian MYB1R transcription factors suppresses anthocyanin pigmentation in tobacco flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, Takashi; Yamada, Eri; Saito, Misa; Fujita, Kohei; Nishihara, Masahiro

    2013-12-01

    Single-repeat MYB transcription factors, GtMYB1R1 and GtMYB1R9 , were isolated from gentian. Overexpression of these genes reduced anthocyanin accumulation in tobacco flowers, demonstrating their applicability to modification of flower color. RNA interference (RNAi) has recently been used to successfully modify flower color intensity in several plant species. In most floricultural plants, this technique requires prior isolation of target flavonoid biosynthetic genes from the same or closely related species. To overcome this limitation, we developed a simple and efficient method for reducing floral anthocyanin accumulation based on genetic engineering using novel transcription factor genes isolated from Japanese gentians. We identified two single-repeat MYB genes--GtMYB1R and GtMYB1R9--predominantly expressed in gentian petals. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing these genes were produced, and their flowers were analyzed for flavonoid components and expression of flavonoid biosynthetic genes. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing GtMYB1R1 or GtMYB1R9 exhibited significant reductions in floral anthocyanin accumulation, resulting in white-flowered phenotypes. Expression levels of chalcone isomerase (CHI), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) genes were preferentially suppressed in these transgenic tobacco flowers. A yeast two-hybrid assay demonstrated that both GtMYB1R1 and GtMYB1R9 proteins interacted with the GtbHLH1 protein, previously identified as an anthocyanin biosynthesis regulator in gentian flowers. In addition, a transient expression assay indicated that activation of the gentian GtDFR promoter by the GtMYB3-GtbHLH1 complex was partly canceled by addition of GtMYB1R1 or GtMYB1R9. These results suggest that GtMYB1R1 and GtMYB1R9 act as antagonistic transcription factors of anthocyanin biosynthesis in gentian flowers. These genes should consequently be useful for manipulating anthocyanin accumulation via genetic engineering in

  1. Maternal E-Cigarette Exposure in Mice Alters DNA Methylation and Lung Cytokine Expression in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Li, Gerard; Chan, Yik Lung; Chapman, David G; Sukjamnong, Suporn; Nguyen, Tara; Annissa, Tiara; McGrath, Kristine C; Sharma, Pawan; Oliver, Brian G

    2018-03-01

    E-cigarette usage is increasing, especially among the young, with both the general population and physicians perceiving them as a safe alternative to tobacco smoking. Worryingly, e-cigarettes are commonly used by pregnant women. As nicotine is known to adversely affect children in utero, we hypothesized that nicotine delivered via e-cigarettes would negatively affect lung development. To test this, we developed a mouse model of maternal e-vapor (nicotine and nicotine-free) exposure and investigated the impact on the growth and lung inflammation in both offspring and mothers. Female Balb/c mice were exposed to e-fluid vapor containing nicotine (18 mg/ml nicotine E-cigarette [E-cig18], equivalent to two cigarettes per treatment, twice daily,) or nicotine free (E-cig0 mg/ml) from 6 weeks before mating until pups weaned. Male offspring were studied at Postnatal Day (P) 1, P20, and at 13 weeks. The mothers were studied when the pups weaned. In the mothers' lungs, e-cigarette exposure with and without nicotine increased the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α. In adult offspring, TNF-α protein levels were increased in both E-cig18 and E-cig0 groups, whereas IL-1β was suppressed. This was accompanied by global changes in DNA methylation. In this study, we found that e-cigarette exposure during pregnancy adversely affected maternal and offspring lung health. As this occurred with both nicotine-free and nicotine-containing e-vapor, the effects are likely due to by-products of vaporization rather than nicotine.

  2. Emotion regulation and the temporal dynamics of emotions: Effects of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression on emotional inertia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, Peter; Butler, Emily A; Hollenstein, Tom; Lanteigne, Dianna; Kuppens, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The tendency for emotions to be predictable over time, labelled emotional inertia, has been linked to low well-being and is thought to reflect impaired emotion regulation. However, almost no studies have examined how emotion regulation relates to emotional inertia. We examined the effects of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression on the inertia of behavioural, subjective and physiological measures of emotion. In Study 1 (N = 111), trait suppression was associated with higher inertia of negative behaviours. We replicated this finding experimentally in Study 2 (N = 186). Furthermore, in Study 2, instructed suppressors and reappraisers both showed higher inertia of positive behaviours, and reappraisers displayed higher inertia of heart rate. Neither suppression nor reappraisal were associated with the inertia of subjective feelings in either study. Thus, the effects of suppression and reappraisal on the temporal dynamics of emotions depend on the valence and emotional response component in question.

  3. Expression dynamics of caveolin-1 in fibroblasts of newborn rats with chronic lung disease and its impact on lung fibroblast proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Fu, Jian-Hua; Xue, Xin-Dong

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the changes of caveolin-1 in lung fibroblasts in newborn Wistar rats when exposed to hyperoxic conditions, as well as lung fibroblasts cell cycle. One hundred newborn Wistar rats were randomly divided (50 rats/group) into experimental and control groups, exposed to hyperoxic conditions or normal air, respectively. The fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) in the experimental group was 90%, whereas this value was 21% in the control group. Lung fibroblasts were collected on days 3, 7, and 14 of the experiment. Caveolin-1 expression dynamics in lung fibroblasts was assayed in each group by immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses. Flow cytometry (FCM) was used to assess the proportions of lung fibroblasts at different stages of the cell cycle. On day 3, no significant difference in caveolin-1 expression was observed between the hyperoxic and control groups; however, on days 7 and 14, caveolin-1 expression was significantly lower in the hyperoxic group than in the control (Pfibroblasts in G0/G1 phase in the hyperoxic group decreased compared to that of the control group on day 7, while the proportion of S-phase cells increased (Pfibroblasts proliferated and caveolin-1 expression decreased.

  4. Depleting NFAT1 expression inhibits the ability of invasion and migration of human lung cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ji-fu; Zhao, Shou-hua; Wu, Shan-shan

    2013-01-01

    Background Nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) is a general name applied to a family of transcription factors shown to be important in immune response. One or more members of the NFAT family are expressed in most cells of the immune system. NFAT1 is considered to involve in the development of cardiac, skeletal muscle, nervous systems, and tumorigenesis. Methods In the current study, we analyzed MEKK1 expression in 159 surgically resection non-small cell lung cancer patient?s samples by...

  5. Expression of YKL-40 by peritumoral macrophages in human small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker, Nanna; Johansen, Julia S; Andersen, Claus B

    2005-01-01

    YKL-40 is a 40 kDa protein with possible involvement in tissue remodeling, cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Elevated serum YKL-40 levels in patients with metastatic cancers (including small cell lung cancer (SCLC)) are associated with poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to identify...... the cellular source of YKL-40 in SCLC patient biopsies and in a panel of 20 human SCLC lines cultured in vitro and in vivo in nude mice. In general, the SCLC cell lines had no or very limited (human) YKL-40 expression, whereas, by RT-PCR a pronounced murine (i.e., stromal) YKL-40 expression was present in all...

  6. Expression of Rab25 in non-small cell lung cancer and its clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu ZHOU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To assess the expression of Rab25 protein in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, and explore the correlation of its expression with tumor proliferation and metastasis. Methods Sixty-one cases of NSCLC specimens (31 cases of squamous cell carcinoma, 26 cases of adenocarcinoma, and 4 cases of adenosquamous carcinoma undergone surgical treatment, and 40 specimens of adjacent normal lung tissues were obtained from Jan. 2009 to Jun. 2010 at Xingqiao Hospital of Third Military Medical University. Immunochemistry method of MaxVision was used to detect the expression of Rab25 in the specimens, and then the correlation of the expression with the clinicopathological parameters (patients' sex, age, smoking history, tumor type, differentiation, volume, TNM stage, lymph metastasis, etc. was analyzed using statistical software SPSS 21.0. Results  Rab25 protein was mainly expressed in cytoplasm and cell membrane. The positive rate of Rab25 in NSCLC was 93.4%, which was significantly higher than that in adjacent normal tissues (27.5%, P<0.01. The expression of Rab25 protein was significantly associated with the TNM stage and tumor size (P<0.05. Conclusions The expression of Rab25 is obviously higher in NSCLC than in the adjacent normal tissues, and the expression is associated with TNM stage and tumor size. Moreover, the later of the NSCLC stage, the larger of tumor size, and the higher of Rab25 expression will be in the NSCLC tissue. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.02.16

  7. miR-101 suppresses HBV replication and expression by targeting FOXO1 in hepatoma carcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanjing; Tian, Hui

    2017-05-20

    microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified to participate in the progression of cancers and in the infection of viruses. miR-101 expression has been found to be suppressed by HBV, however, the regulatory relationship between miR-101 and HBV replication remains elusive. In this report, miR-101 was significantly downregulated in HepG2.2.15 cells with HBV expression. miR-101 overexpression dramatically suppressed HBV replication and expression. Oppositely, overexpression of FOXO1 significantly promoted HBV replication and expression. Moreover, luciferase reporter analysis, qRT-PCR analysis and western blot assay confirmed that FOXO1 was a functional target of miR-101. Furthermore, restored FOXO1 expression abolished the inhibitory effect of miR-101 overexpression on HBV replication and expression in HepG2.2.15 cells. Our data suggested that miR-101 suppressed HBV replication and expression partially by targeting FOXO1, providing new insights into the molecular mechanisms of miR-101 in HBV-host interactions and a promising therapeutic target for HBV replication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Inhibition of TMEM16A expression suppresses growth and invasion in human colorectal cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Sui

    Full Text Available Metastasis leads to poor prognosis in colorectal cancer patients, and there is a growing need for new therapeutic targets. TMEM16A (ANO1, DOG1 or TAOS2 has recently been identified as a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC and is reported to be overexpressed in several malignancies; however, its expression and function in colorectal cancer (CRC remains unclear. In this study, we found expression of TMEM16A mRNA and protein in high-metastatic-potential SW620, HCT116 and LS174T cells, but not in primary HCT8 and SW480 cells, using RT-PCR, western blotting and immunofluorescence labeling. Patch-clamp recordings detected CaCC currents regulated by intracellular Ca(2+ and voltage in SW620 cells. Knockdown of TMEM16A by short hairpin RNAs (shRNA resulted in the suppression of growth, migration and invasion of SW620 cells as detected by MTT, wound-healing and transwell assays. Mechanistically, TMEM16A depletion was accompanied by the dysregulation of phospho-MEK, phospho-ERK1/2 and cyclin D1 expression. Flow cytometry analysis showed that SW620 cells were inhibited from the G1 to S phase of the cell cycle in the TMEM16A shRNA group compared with the control group. In conclusion, our results indicate that TMEM16A CaCC is involved in growth, migration and invasion of metastatic CRC cells and provide evidence for TMEM16A as a potential drug target for treating metastatic colorectal carcinoma.

  9. Glycyrrhizin suppresses the expressions of HMGB1 and relieves the severity of traumatic pancreatitis in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Xiang

    Full Text Available High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1 plays important roles in a large variety of diseases; glycyrrhizin (GL is recognized as an HMGB1 inhibitor. However, few studies have focused on whether glycyrrhizin can potentially improve the outcome of traumatic pancreatitis (TP by inhibiting HMGB1.A total of 60 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 20 in each: Control group, TP group and TP-GL group. Pancreatic trauma was established with a custom-made biological impact machine-III, and GL was administered at 15 minutes after the accomplishment of operation. To determine survival rates during the first 7 days after injury, another 60 rats (n = 20 in each were grouped and treated as mentioned above. At 24 hours of induction of TP, the histopathological changes in pancreas were evaluated and serum amylase levels were tested. Serum tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, interleukin 6 (IL-6, and HMGB1 were measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. HMGB1 expressions in pancreas were measured using immunohistochemical staining, Western blot and Real-Time PCR analysis.Serum levels of HMGB1, TNF-α and IL-6 were increased dramatically in TP group at 24 hours after induction of TP. However, these indicators were reduced significantly by GL administration in TP-GL group comparing with TP group (P < 0.05. Meanwhile, survival analysis showed that the seven-day survival rate in TP-GL group was significantly higher than that in TP group (85% versus 65%, P < 0.05. GL treatment significantly decreased the pancreatic protein and mRNA expressions of HMGB1 and ameliorated the pancreatic injury in rats with TP.Glycyrrhizin might play an important role in improving survival rates and ameliorating pancreatic injury of TP by suppression of the expressions of HMGB1 and other proinflammatory cytokine.

  10. A chronic high-cholesterol diet paradoxically suppresses hepatic CYP7A1 expression in FVB/NJ mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Anne S; Anderson, Kristy A; Dewey, Amanda M; Kavesh, Mark H; Green, Richard M

    2011-02-01

    Cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) encodes for the rate-limiting step in the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids in the liver. In response to acute cholesterol feeding, mice upregulate CYP7A1 via stimulation of the liver X receptor (LXR) α. However, the effect of a chronic high-cholesterol diet on hepatic CYP7A1 expression in mice is unknown. We demonstrate that chronic cholesterol feeding (0.2% or 1.25% w/w cholesterol for 12 weeks) in FVB/NJ mice results in a >60% suppression of hepatic CYP7A1 expression associated with a >2-fold increase in hepatic cholesterol content. In contrast, acute cholesterol feeding induces a >3-fold upregulation of hepatic CYP7A1 expression. We show that chronic, but not acute, cholesterol feeding increases the expression of hepatic inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, and interleukin (IL)-1β, which are known to suppress hepatic CYP7A1 expression. Chronic cholesterol feeding also results in activation of the mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinases, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Furthermore, we demonstrate in vitro that suppression of CYP7A1 by TNFα and IL-1β is dependent on JNK and ERK signaling. We conclude that chronic high-cholesterol feeding suppresses CYP7A1 expression in mice. We propose that chronic cholesterol feeding induces inflammatory cytokine activation and liver damage, which leads to suppression of CYP7A1 via activation of JNK and ERK signaling pathways.

  11. YY1 suppresses FEN1 over-expression and drug resistance in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianwei; Zhou, Lina; Li, Zhi; Zhang, Ting; Liu, Wenpeng; Liu, Zheng; Yuan, Yate-Ching; Su, Fan; Xu, Lu; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Xiaotong; Xu, Hong; Hua, Yuejin; Wang, Ying-Jie; Zheng, Li; Teng, Yue-E; Shen, Binghui

    2015-02-13

    Drug resistance is a major challenge in cancer therapeutics. Abundant evidence indicates that DNA repair systems are enhanced after repetitive chemotherapeutic treatments, rendering cancers cells drug-resistant. Flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) plays critical roles in DNA replication and repair and in counteracting replication stress, which is a key mechanism for many chemotherapeutic drugs to kill cancer cells. FEN1 was previously shown to be upregulated in response to DNA damaging agents. However, it is unclear about the transcription factors that regulate FEN1 expression in human cancer. More importantly, it is unknown whether up-regulation of FEN1 has an adverse impact on the prognosis of chemotherapeutic treatments of human cancers. To reveal regulation mechanism of FEN1 expression, we search and identify FEN1 transcription factors or repressors and investigate their function on FEN1 expression by using a combination of biochemical, molecular, and cellular approaches. Furthermore, to gain insights into the impact of FEN1 levels on the response of human cancer to therapeutic treatments, we determine FEN1 levels in human breast cancer specimens and correlate them to the response to treatments and the survivorship of corresponding breast cancer patients. We observe that FEN1 is significantly up-regulated upon treatment of chemotherapeutic drugs such as mitomycin C (MMC) and Taxol in breast cancer cells. We identify that the transcription factor/repressor YY1 binds to the FEN1 promoter and suppresses the expression of FEN1 gene. In response to the drug treatments, YY1 is dissociated from the FEN1 promoter region leading over-expression of FEN1. Overexpression of YY1 in the cells results in down-regulation of FEN1 and sensitization of the cancer cells to MMC or taxol. Furthermore, we observe that the level of FEN1 is inversely correlated with cancer drug and radiation resistance and with survivorship in breast cancer patients. Altogether, our current data indicate that

  12. Mechanisms of MRP over-expression in four human lung-cancer cell lines and analysis of the MRP amplicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijdems, E. W.; de Haas, M.; Coco-Martin, J. M.; Ottenheim, C. P.; Zaman, G. J.; Dauwerse, H. G.; Breuning, M. H.; Twentyman, P. R.; Borst, P.; Baas, F.

    1995-01-01

    Some multidrug resistant cell lines over-express the gene encoding the multidrug-resistance-associated protein (MRP). In all cell lines reported thus far, over-expression is associated with gene amplification. We have studied the predominant mechanisms of MRP over-expression in 4 human lung-cancer

  13. Expression of cadherin and NCAM in human small cell lung cancer cell lines and xenografts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, K; Møller, C; Bock, E

    1992-01-01

    characterised, the cadherin family and the Ig superfamily member, neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). We investigated expression of these two adhesion molecule families in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines and xenografts by immunoblotting. Nineteen tumours established from 15 patients with SCLC were......Tumour cell adhesion, detachment and aggregation seem to play an important part in tumour invasion and metastasis, and numerous cell adhesion molecules are expressed by tumour cells. Several families of cell-cell adhesion molecules have been described, of which two groups are particularly well...... embryonic development, which may play a role in connection with tumour invasion and metastasis, was found in 14/18 NCAM expressing SCLC tumours. Individual tumours grown as cell lines and as nude mouse xenografts showed no qualitative differences in cadherin or NCAM expression....

  14. The Expression and Biological Significance of PD-L1 on Lung Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng CHEN

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Tumor-associated PD-L1 expression was recently shown to promote T-cell apoptosis and proposed as a potential mechanism of immune evasion by tumors. On the basis of the ability of tumor-associated PD-L1 to mediate activated T-cell death, it is likely that manipulation of the PD-L1 pathway at defined time points during the development of the T-cell antitumor immune response can enhance the efficacy of T-cell-based immunotherapy. Here, the levels of expression of PD-L1 on lung cancer cell lines and its role in interaction of CTL and target cells was investigated. Methods Human PBMC derived DCs were loaded with apoptotic tumor cells and stimulated by CD40 mAb (5C11. Tumor specific CTL was generated in vitro by autologous T cells co-cultured with mature DCs. Expression of PD-L1 on lung cancer cell lines H1299 and A549 were analyzed by FCM. JAM assay was used to detect the cytolytic activity of CTL with or without blocking PD-L1 by PD-L1 mAb respectively. The concentrations of IFN-γ in supernatants from distinct groups were analyzed by ELISA. Results Tumor cells-loaded mature DCs could induce the generation of the tumor specific CTL. Expression of PD-L1 was low on A549 cell, but high on H1299 cell. Blockade of PD-L1 on A549 could not improve cytolytic effect of CTL on target cells and IFN-γ production, but fragmentation of H1299 cells and IFN-γ production were significantly enhanced by the combination of PD-L1 mAb and CTL. Conclusion Expression of PD-L1 on lung cancer cell line can decrease the cytolytic effect of CTL on target cells.

  15. Expression of von Willebrand factor, pulmonary intravascular macrophages, and Toll-like receptors in lungs of septic foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Jacqueline M E; Quanstrom, Leah M; Robinson, Alex R; Wobeser, Bruce; Anderson, Stacy L; Singh, Baljit

    2017-03-30

    Sepsis causes significant mortality in neonatal foals; however, there is little data describing the cellular and molecular pathways of lung inflammation in septic foals. This study was conducted to characterize lung inflammation in septic foals. Lung tissue sections from control (n = 6) and septic (n = 17) foals were compared using histology and immunohistology. Blinded pathologic scoring of hematoxylin and eosin stained samples revealed increased features of lung inflammation such as thickened alveolar septa and sequestered inflammatory cells in septic foals. Septic foal lungs showed increased expression of von Willebrand factor in blood vessels, demonstrating vascular inflammation. Use of MAC387 antibody to detect calprotectin as a reflection of mononuclear cell infiltration revealed a significant increase in their numbers in alveolar septa of lungs from septic foals compared to those from control foals. The mononuclear cells appeared to be mature macrophages and were located in the septal capillaries, suggesting they were pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs). Finally, lungs from septic foals showed increased expression of Toll-like receptor 4 and 9 in mononuclear cells relative to the control. Taken together, this study is the first to show the expression of inflammatory molecules and an increase in PIMs in lungs from foals that died from sepsis.

  16. Hypoxia-induced suppression of c-Myc by HIF-2α in human pulmonary endothelial cells attenuates TFAM expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrabi, Ali J; Kao, Derrick; Nguyen, Dustin T; Loscalzo, Joseph; Handy, Diane E

    2017-10-01

    The adaptive response to hypoxia is mediated in large part by stabilization of the hypoxia-inducible factors, HIF-1α and HIF-2α. A hallmark of this response is the metabolic shift to decreased oxidative phosphorylation and increased glycolysis. We hypothesized that hypoxic responses would include a suppression of mitochondrial gene expression. We determined the effects of hypoxia on TFAM, a key mitochondrial transcription factor, in normal pulmonary artery endothelial cells. Hypoxia decreased gene expression of TFAM and that of its upstream regulator, the transcriptional co-activator PGC1β. Although HIF-1α and HIF-2α pathways both contributed to hypoxia-mediated PGC1β suppression, TFAM suppression was regulated solely by HIF-2α-dependent mechanisms. We found that HIF-2α suppresses TFAM by decreasing c-Myc expression. In addition, we show a role for c-Jun in this pathway, linking HIF-2α with attenuation of c-Jun activation. Taken together, these findings establish a new link between HIF-2α and MAPK-signaling that mediates the adaptive regulation of mitochondrial gene expression under low oxygen tension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Human biallelic MFN2 mutations induce mitochondrial dysfunction, upper body adipose hyperplasia, and suppression of leptin expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Nuno; Bulger, David A; Frontini, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    body adipose overgrowth. We describe similar massive adipose overgrowth with suppressed leptin expression in four further patients with biallelic MFN2 mutations and at least one p.Arg707Trp allele. Overgrown tissue was composed of normal-sized, UCP1-negative unilocular adipocytes, with mitochondrial...

  18. Cigarette smoke inhibits BAFF expression and mucosal immunoglobulin A responses in the lung during influenza virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianmiao; Li, Qinghai; Xie, Jungang; Xu, Yongjian

    2015-03-14

    It is incompletely understood how cigarette smoke (CS) exposure affects lung mucosal immune responses during viral respiratory infections. B cell activating factor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF) plays an important role in the induction of secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA) which is the main effector of the mucosal immune system. We therefore investigated the effects of CS exposure on BAFF expression and S-IgA responses in the lung during influenza virus infection. Mice were exposed to CS and/or infected with influenza virus. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung compartments were analyzed for BAFF expression, influenza-specific S-IgA level and histological changes. Lung B cells were isolated and the activation-induced cytidine deaminase (Aicda) expression was determined. BEAS-2B cells were treated with CS extract (CSE), influenza virus, interferon beta or N-acetylcysteine and BAFF expression was measured. CS inhibited BAFF expression in the lung, particularly after long-term exposure. BAFF and S-IgA levels were increased during influenza virus infection. Three-month CS exposure prior to influenza virus infection resulted in reduced BAFF and S-IgA levels in the lung as well as augmented pulmonary inflammation on day 7 after infection. Prior CS exposure also caused decreased Aicda expression in lung B cells during infection. Neutralization of BAFF in the lung resulted in reduced S-IgA levels during influenza virus infection. CSE inhibited virus-mediated BAFF induction in a dose-dependent manner in BEAS-2B cells, while this inhibition of BAFF by CSE was prevented by pretreatment with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine. Our findings indicate that CS may hinder early mucosal IgA responses in the lung during influenza virus infection through oxidative inhibition of BAFF, which might contribute to the increased incidence and severity of viral infections in smokers.

  19. Divergent expression of claudin -1, -3, -4, -5 and -7 in developing human lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehtonen Siri

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Claudins are the main components of tight junctions, structures which are associated with cell polarity and permeability. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of claudins 1, 3, 4, 5, and 7 in developing human lung tissues from 12 to 40 weeks of gestation. Methods 47 cases were analyzed by immunohistochemisty for claudins 1, 3, 4, 5 and 7. 23 cases were also investigated by quantitative RT-PCR for claudin-1, -3 and -4. Results Claudin-1 was expressed in epithelium of bronchi and large bronchioles from week 12 onwards but it was not detected in epithelium of developing alveoli. Claudin-3, -4 and -7 were strongly expressed in bronchial epithelium from week 12 to week 40, and they were also expressed in alveoli from week 16 to week 40. Claudin-5 was expressed strongly during all periods in endothelial cells. It was expressed also in epithelium of bronchi from week 12 to week 40, and in alveoli during the canalicular period. RT-PCR analyses revealed detectable amounts of RNAs for claudins 1, 3 and 4 in all cases studied. Conclusion Claudin-1, -3, -4, -5, and -7 are expressed in developing human lung from week 12 to week 40 with distinct locations and in divergent quantities. The expression of claudin-1 was restricted to the bronchial epithelium, whereas claudin-3, -4 and -7 were positive also in alveolar epithelium as well as in the bronchial epithelium. All claudins studied are linked to the development of airways, whereas claudin-3, -4, -5 and -7, but not claudin-1, are involved in the development of acinus and the differentiation of alveolar epithelial cells.

  20. Association of Inorganics Accumulation with the Activation of NF-κB Signaling Pathway and the iNOS Expression of Lung Tissue in Xuanwei Lung Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiapeng YANG

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Indoor air pollution induces asthma, leads to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and may promote lung cancer. Our previous studies found that the accumulation of inorganic particulate matter that is due to indoor air pollution can lead to damage to alveolar cells and activation of signaling pathway, and ultimately provoke tumorigenesis. The aim of this study is to explore the accumulation of inorganics and activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB-inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS signaling pathway of lung tissue in Xuanwei lung cancer patients. Methods From December 2013 to November 2014, 48 cases Xuanwei patients with lung cancer who underwent surgical treatment from the Third Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University were enrolled in this study and compared with lung cancer patients from other regions. The ultrastructure of postoperative specimens was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM to explore the occurrence of inorganic particles. Serum cytokines were analyzed. Then, the expression levels of NF-κB-p65 protein and iNOS protein in postoperative specimens was explored by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Finally, 8-OHdG accumulation in lung cancer tissues and urine was measured. Results A large number of nanoscale inorganics were observed in alveolar type II cells and macrophages located in adjacent tissues of lung cancer with Xuanwei patients. Silicon (Si content was found in inorganic elemental analysis. The serum interleukin (IL-1β levels (31.50±19.16 pg/mL of Xuanwei lung-cancer patients were remarkably higher than those from other regions (11.33±6.94 pg/mL (P<0.01, with statistically significant difference. The pathological tissues of Xuanwei lung-cancer patients express NF-κB-p65, and iNOS expression were significantly higher than those of patients from non-Xuanwei regions. No significant difference was found between cancerous and normal adjacent tissues. Xuanwei lung

  1. Prostacyclin synthase expression and epigenetic regulation in nonsmall cell lung cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cathcart, Mary-Clare

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostacyclin synthase (PGIS) metabolizes prostaglandin H(2), into prostacyclin. This study aimed to determine the expression profile of PGIS in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and examine potential mechanisms involved in PGIS regulation. METHODS: PGIS expression was examined in human NSCLC and matched controls by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western analysis, and immunohistochemistry. A 204-patient NSCLC tissue microarray was stained for PGIS and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) expression. Staining intensity was correlated with clinical parameters. Epigenetic mechanisms underpinning PGIS promoter expression were examined using RT-PCR, methylation-specific PCR, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis. RESULTS: PGIS expression was reduced\\/absent in human NSCLC protein samples (P < .0001), but not mRNA relative to matched controls. PGIS tissue expression was higher in squamous cell carcinoma (P = .004) and in male patients (P < .05). No significant correlation of PGIS or COX2 expression with overall patient survival was observed, although COX2 was prognostic for short-term (2-year) survival (P < .001). PGIS mRNA expression was regulated by DNA CpG methylation and histone acetylation in NSCLC cell lines, with chromatin remodeling taking place directly at the PGIS gene. PGIS mRNA expression was increased by both demethylation agents and histone deacetylase inhibitors. Protein levels were unaffected by demethylation agents, whereas PGIS protein stability was negatively affected by histone deacetylase inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: PGIS protein expression is reduced in NSCLC, and does not correlate with overall patient survival. PGIS expression is regulated through epigenetic mechanisms. Differences in expression patterns between mRNA and protein levels suggest that PGIS expression and protein stability are regulated post-translationally. PGIS protein stability may have an important therapeutic role in NSCLC.

  2. Placenta growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor B expression in the hypoxic lung

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sands, Michelle

    2011-01-25

    Abstract Background Chronic alveolar hypoxia, due to residence at high altitude or chronic obstructive lung diseases, leads to pulmonary hypertension, which may be further complicated by right heart failure, increasing morbidity and mortality. In the non-diseased lung, angiogenesis occurs in chronic hypoxia and may act in a protective, adaptive manner. To date, little is known about the behaviour of individual vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family ligands in hypoxia-induced pulmonary angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of placenta growth factor (PlGF) and VEGFB during the development of hypoxic pulmonary angiogenesis and their functional effects on the pulmonary endothelium. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to conditions of normoxia (21% O2) or hypoxia (10% O2) for 1-21 days. Stereological analysis of vascular structure, real-time PCR analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), VEGFB, placenta growth factor (PlGF), VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1) and VEGFR2, immunohistochemistry and western blots were completed. The effects of VEGF ligands on human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells were determined using a wound-healing assay. Results Typical vascular remodelling and angiogenesis were observed in the hypoxic lung. PlGF and VEGFB mRNA expression were significantly increased in the hypoxic lung. Immunohistochemical analysis showed reduced expression of VEGFB protein in hypoxia although PlGF protein was unchanged. The expression of VEGFA mRNA and protein was unchanged. In vitro PlGF at high concentration mimicked the wound-healing actions of VEGFA on pulmonary microvascular endothelial monolayers. Low concentrations of PlGF potentiated the wound-healing actions of VEGFA while higher concentrations of PlGF were without this effect. VEGFB inhibited the wound-healing actions of VEGFA while VEGFB and PlGF together were mutually antagonistic. Conclusions VEGFB and PlGF can either inhibit or potentiate the

  3. Placenta growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor B expression in the hypoxic lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLoughlin Paul

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic alveolar hypoxia, due to residence at high altitude or chronic obstructive lung diseases, leads to pulmonary hypertension, which may be further complicated by right heart failure, increasing morbidity and mortality. In the non-diseased lung, angiogenesis occurs in chronic hypoxia and may act in a protective, adaptive manner. To date, little is known about the behaviour of individual vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF family ligands in hypoxia-induced pulmonary angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of placenta growth factor (PlGF and VEGFB during the development of hypoxic pulmonary angiogenesis and their functional effects on the pulmonary endothelium. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to conditions of normoxia (21% O2 or hypoxia (10% O2 for 1-21 days. Stereological analysis of vascular structure, real-time PCR analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA, VEGFB, placenta growth factor (PlGF, VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, immunohistochemistry and western blots were completed. The effects of VEGF ligands on human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells were determined using a wound-healing assay. Results Typical vascular remodelling and angiogenesis were observed in the hypoxic lung. PlGF and VEGFB mRNA expression were significantly increased in the hypoxic lung. Immunohistochemical analysis showed reduced expression of VEGFB protein in hypoxia although PlGF protein was unchanged. The expression of VEGFA mRNA and protein was unchanged. In vitro PlGF at high concentration mimicked the wound-healing actions of VEGFA on pulmonary microvascular endothelial monolayers. Low concentrations of PlGF potentiated the wound-healing actions of VEGFA while higher concentrations of PlGF were without this effect. VEGFB inhibited the wound-healing actions of VEGFA while VEGFB and PlGF together were mutually antagonistic. Conclusions VEGFB and PlGF can either inhibit or

  4. Effects of acupuncture on the gene expression profile of lung tissue from normal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lei-Miao; Wang, Yu; Wang, Yan; Xu, Yu-Dong; Liu, Yan-Yan; Jin, Wei-Rong; Zhang, Qing-Hua; Yang, Yong-Qing

    2012-08-01

    Acupuncture has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for various diseases. However, little attention has been paid to its physiological influences, especially on the changes in protein and mRNA levels following acupuncture treatment under normal conditions. In this study, we investigated the gene expression profile of lung tissue from acupuncture-treated normal rats and attempted to characterize the underlying mechanisms of the changes in expression. Three common acupoints, Dazhui (GV14), fengmen (BL12) and feishu (BL13) were selected for analysis, and 2 serial analyses of gene expression (SAGE) tag libraries of the lung tissues that were derived from the normal and acupuncture-treated rats were established. Bioinformatic analyses were carried out using the functional annotation tools of the database for annotation, visualization and integrated discovery (DAVID), the gene ontology (GO) Tree Machine and the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis. In total, 144 tags were differentially expressed (PSAGE libraries. Our results show that the essential effects of acupuncture on normal rats include the regulation of macromolecular biosynthesis, transportation and metabolism. Cellular biosynthesis and cellular lipid metabolism are the common biological processes that occur in response to acupuncture under normal and morbid conditions, which may be the general physiological effects of acupuncture.

  5. Effect of radiation on the expression of tumor-associated antigens of human lung adenocarcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hareyama, Masato

    1988-01-01

    We studied the effects of irradiation on the expression of a tumor-associated antigen (YH206 antigen) of cultured human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and flow cytometry. YH206 antigen is preferentially expressed on adenocarcinoma cells. Irradiation of A549 cells remarkably increased the expression of YH206 antigen on the cell surface and the level of the antigen in the culture supernatant as well as in the cell lysate, whereas it significantly affected the expression of HLA (MHC-class I) antigen on the same cells. The expression of HLA antigen on the cell was also increased after treatment of the cells with interferon-γ. In an additional experiment, cells were stained simultaneously for surface antigens (fluorescein coupled antibodies) and for DNA content (propidium iodide), and then dual parameter measurements were performed by flow cytometry to analyse the relationship between antigen levels and the cell cycle. YH206 antigen and HLA antigen increased more in the S and G 2 /M phases of the cell cycle than in G 0 /G 1 . The expression of YH206 antigen was enhanced in the S and G 2 /M phases by irradiation, whereas the expression of HLA antigen was enhanced in each phase of the cell cycle with irradiation or IFN. These results suggest that irradiation plays a key role in the change of the expression of certain tumor-associated antigens. (author)

  6. Expression of cell cycle regulating factor mRNA in small cell lung cancer xenografts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, M; Poulsen, H S; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated the expression of cyclins, cyclin dependent kinases (CDK), and CDK inhibitors (CKI) at the mRNA level in a panel of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines in vitro and in vivo as xenografts in nude mice. The results showed that the cell lines expressed varying amounts of most...... cyclin and CDK's but only a few of the cell lines expressed cyclin D1 and/or D2 and some lacked expression of CDK6. Most cell lines expressed mRNA for the CKI's but two cell lines lacked expression of P15INK4B and p16INK4A. The mRNA expression differed for a few of the cell lines regarding cyclin D2...... and CDK6 when in vitro and in vivo data were compared. Two of the cell lines that express the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein had no sign of a deregulated Rb pathway but further studies at the protein level are necessary to demonstrate whether these two cell lines should have a normal Rb pathway or whether...

  7. Screening Thai plants for DNA protection, anti-collagenase and suppression of MMP-3 expression properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittisak Buddhachat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the suppression effect of six Thai plants on matrix-degrading enzymes such as collagenase and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs. Methods: Six Thai plant extracts, Phyllanthus niruri (P. niruri, Vernonia cinerea, Pluchea indica, Rhinocanthus nasutus (R. nasutus, Zingiber cassumunar (Z. cassumunar and Cissus quadrangularis (C. quadrangularis were tested for total phenolic content, antioxidant, DNA protection, anti-collagenase properties and inhibitory effects on IL-1β-acitvated MMP-3 expression. Additionally, the ethanolic extracts of P. niruri and Z. cassumunar were assessed for MMP-2 and -9 production using gelatin zymography. Results: An evaluation of antioxidant activity and total phenolic content revealed that the ethanolic extract of P. niruri had the highest activity (72.17 and 93.05 mg gallic/g extract, respectively. The ethanolic extracts of P. niruri, Vernonia cinerea, R. nasutus and C. quadrangularis performed a strong activity of DNA protection against hydroxyl radicals. The extracts of C. quadrangularis, R. nasutus and P. niruri (IC50 = 0.3, 0.82 and 0.91 mg/mL, respectively possessed good activity for the inhibition of bacterial collagenase activity. Using the promoter activity assay, the ethanolic extract of P. niruri and Z. cassumunar (IC50 = 26.94 and 27.82 µg/mL, respectively decreased IL-1β-stimulated MMP-3 expression in human chondrosarcoma cells (SW1353 cells. Besides, both the ethanolic extracts of P. niruri and Z. cassumunar could alleviate the production of MMP-2 and -9 in IL-1β-activated SW1353. Conclusions: Taken together, the ethanolic extract of P. niruri had several beneficial effects.

  8. Induction of bacterial lipoprotein tolerance is associated with suppression of toll-like receptor 2 expression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wang, Jiang Huai

    2012-02-03

    Tolerance to bacterial cell wall components including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) may represent an essential regulatory mechanism during bacterial infection. Two members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, TLR2 and TLR4, recognize the specific pattern of bacterial cell wall components. TLR4 has been found to be responsible for LPS tolerance. However, the role of TLR2 in bacterial lipoprotein (BLP) tolerance and LPS tolerance is unclear. Pretreatment of human THP-1 monocytic cells with a synthetic bacterial lipopeptide induced tolerance to a second BLP challenge with diminished tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 production, termed BLP tolerance. Furthermore, BLP-tolerized THP-1 cells no longer responded to LPS stimulation, indicating a cross-tolerance to LPS. Induction of BLP tolerance was CD14-independent, as THP-1 cells that lack membrane-bound CD14 developed tolerance both in serum-free conditions and in the presence of a specific CD14 blocking monoclonal antibody (MEM-18). Pre-exposure of THP-1 cells to BLP suppressed mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation and nuclear factor-kappaB activation in response to subsequent BLP and LPS stimulation, which is comparable with that found in LPS-tolerized cells, indicating that BLP tolerance and LPS tolerance may share similar intracellular pathways. However, BLP strongly enhanced TLR2 expression in non-tolerized THP-1 cells, whereas LPS stimulation had no effect. Furthermore, a specific TLR2 blocking monoclonal antibody (2392) attenuated BLP-induced, but not LPS-induced, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 production, indicating BLP rather than LPS as a ligand for TLR2 engagement and activation. More importantly, pretreatment of THP-1 cells with BLP strongly inhibited TLR2 activation in response to subsequent BLP stimulation. In contrast, LPS tolerance did not prevent BLP-induced TLR2 overexpression. These results demonstrate that BLP tolerance develops through down-regulation of TLR2

  9. Suppression of interleukin-6-induced C-reactive protein expression by FXR agonists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Songwen; Liu Qiangyuan; Wang Juan; Harnish, Douglas C.

    2009-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP), a human acute-phase protein, is a risk factor for future cardiovascular events and exerts direct pro-inflammatory and pro-atherogenic properties. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, plays an essential role in the regulation of enterohepatic circulation and lipid homeostasis. In this study, we report that two synthetic FXR agonists, WAY-362450 and GW4064, suppressed interleukin-6-induced CRP expression in human Hep3B hepatoma cells. Knockdown of FXR by short interfering RNA attenuated the inhibitory effect of the FXR agonists and also increased the ability of interleukin-6 to induce CRP production. Furthermore, treatment of wild type C57BL/6 mice with the FXR agonist, WAY-362450, attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced serum amyloid P component and serum amyloid A3 mRNA levels in the liver, whereas no effect was observed in FXR knockout mice. These data provide new evidence for direct anti-inflammatory properties of FXR.

  10. Expression of Transient Receptor Potential Canonical Channel Proteins in Human Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi ZHANG

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC proteins, a group of Ca2+ permeable nonselective cation channels, are thought to constitute store-operated calcium channels (SOCC and mediate store-operated calcium entry (SOCE in various cell types. Members of TRPC have been found to be involved in abnormal proliferation, differentiation, and growth of cancer cells. The aim of this study is to detect the mRNA and protein expression of TRPC in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Methods Real-time quantitative PCR was performed to screen the expression of TRPC mRNA in NSCLC tissue. Protein expression of TRPC was detected by Western blot. Results Among the seven family members of TRPC so far identified (TRPC1-7, we detected the expression of TRPC1, TRPC3, TRPC4, TRPC6 mRNA in 24 cases of NSCLC tissue; TRPC2, TRPC5 and TRPC7 mRNA were not detectable. The relative abundance of the expressed TRPC was TRPC1≈TRPC6>TRPC3>TRPC4. Western blot confirmed the protein expression of TRPC1, TRPC3, TRPC4 and TRPC6 in NSCLC tissue. Conclusion Out of the seven members of TRPC, we found TRPC1, TRPC3, TRPC4, TRPC6 mRNA and protein were selectively expressed in human NSCLC tissue. This study could provide a basis for future exploration of the individual role of these TRPC proteins in mediating SOCE and in the progression of lung cancer.

  11. MiR-21-Mediated Suppression of Smad7 Induces TGFβ1 and Can Be Inhibited by Activation of Nrf2 in Alcohol-Treated Lung Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marts, Lucian T; Green, David E; Mills, Stephen T; Murphy, Tamara; Sueblinvong, Viranuj

    2017-11-01

    We previously demonstrated that chronic alcohol ingestion augments TGFβ1 expression in the lung fibroblast and increases the risk of fibroproliferative disrepair in a mouse model of acute lung injury. The effect of alcohol on TGFβ1 is mitigated by treatment with sulforaphane (SFP), which can activate nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2). However, the mechanisms by which alcohol amplifies, or SFP attenuates, TGFβ1 expression in the fibroblast are not known. MicroRNA (miR)-21 has been shown to inhibit Smad7, a TGFβ1 signaling inhibitor. In this study, we hypothesized that alcohol augments TGFβ1 expression through up-regulation of miR-21, which subsequently inhibits Smad7. Primary mouse lung fibroblasts were cultured ± alcohol ± SFP and assessed for gene expression of miR-21, and gene and/or protein expression of Nrf2, Nrf2-regulated antioxidant enzymes, Smad7, STAT3, and TGFβ1. NIH 3T3 fibroblasts were transfected with a miR-21 inhibitor and cultured ± alcohol. α-SMA, Smad7, and TGFβ1 protein expression were then assessed. In parallel, NIH 3T3 lung fibroblasts were transfected with Nrf2 silencing RNA (siRNA) and cultured ± alcohol ± SFP. Gene expression of miR-21, Nrf2, Smad7, and TGFβ1 was assessed. MiR-21 gene expression was increased by 12-fold at 48 hours, and Smad7 gene expression and protein expression were reduced by ~30% in alcohol-treated fibroblasts. In parallel, inhibition of miR-21 attenuated alcohol-mediated decrease in Smad7 and increase in TGFβ1 and α-SMA protein expression. Treatment with SFP mitigated the effect of alcohol on miR-21, Smad7 and total and phosphorylated STAT3, and restored Nrf2-regulated antioxidant gene expression. Silencing of Nrf2 prevented the effect of SFP on miR-21, Smad7, and TGFβ1 gene expression in alcohol-treated NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. Alcohol treatment increases TGFβ1 in fibroblasts, at least in part, through augmentation of miR-21, which then inhibits Smad7 expression. These effects

  12. Expression of Bim, Noxa, and Puma in non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakakibara-Konishi, Jun; Oizumi, Satoshi; Kikuchi, Junko; Kikuchi, Eiki; Mizugaki, Hidenori; Kinoshita, Ichiro; Dosaka-Akita, Hirotoshi; Nishimura, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    The BH3-only members of the Bcl-2 protein family have been proposed to play a key role in the control of apoptosis and in the initiation of the apoptotic pathways. In this study, we evaluated the expression of Bim, Noxa, and Puma in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A total of 135 surgically resected NSCLCs were immunohistochemically assessed for Bim, Noxa, and Puma expression. The immunoscores were determined, and then its correlation with either the clinicopathological variables or the survival outcomes were analyzed. Immunohistochemical reactivity for Bim, Noxa, and Puma was detected in the cytoplasm of the tumor cells. Bim expression was associated with several clinicopathological factors, including sex (p < 0.001), smoking habit (p = 0.03), pathological histology (p = 0.001), pathological T stage (p = 0.03), pathological disease stage (p = 0.02), and differentiation of tumor (p < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a significant correlation between low Bim expression and squamous cell carcinoma (p = 0.04), in addition to a correlation between high Bim expression and well differentiated tumors (p = 0.02). Analysis of cellular biological expression demonstrated a link between low Bim expression and high Ki67. While Noxa expression was also shown to be correlated with both smoking habit (p = 0.02) and the pathological histology (p = 0.03), there was no strong association observed between the expression and the clinical features when they were examined by a multivariate logistic regression analysis. No correlations were noted between Puma expression and any of the variables. Our analyses also indicated that the expression levels of the BH3-only proteins were not pertinent to the survival outcome. The current analyses demonstrated that Bim expression in the NSCLCs was associated with both squamous cell carcinoma histology and tumor proliferation

  13. Caloric Restriction Mimetic 2-Deoxyglucose Alleviated Inflammatory Lung Injury via Suppressing Nuclear Pyruvate Kinase M2–Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 Pathway

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    Kai Hu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is an energy-intensive process, and caloric restriction (CR could provide anti-inflammatory benefits. CR mimetics (CRM, such as the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG, mimic the beneficial effects of CR without inducing CR-related physiologic disturbance. This study investigated the potential anti-inflammatory benefits of 2-DG and the underlying mechanisms in mice with lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced lethal endotoxemia. The results indicated that pretreatment with 2-DG suppressed LPS-induced elevation of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 6. It also suppressed the upregulation of myeloperoxidase, attenuated Evans blue leakage, alleviated histological abnormalities in the lung, and improved the survival of LPS-challenged mice. Treatment with 2-DG had no obvious effects on the total level of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2, but it significantly suppressed LPS-induced elevation of PKM2 in the nuclei. Prevention of PKM2 nuclear accumulation by ML265 mimicked the anti-inflammatory benefits of 2-DG. In addition, treatment with 2-DG or ML265 suppressed the phosphorylation of nuclear signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3. Inhibition of STAT3 by stattic suppressed LPS-induced inflammatory injury. Interestingly, posttreatment with 2-DG at the early stage post-LPS challenge also improved the survival of the experimental animals. This study found that treatment with 2-DG, a representative CRM, provided anti-inflammatory benefits in lethal inflammation. The underlying mechanisms included suppressed nuclear PKM2-STAT3 pathway. These data suggest that 2-DG might have potential value in the early intervention of lethal inflammation.

  14. Caloric Restriction Mimetic 2-Deoxyglucose Alleviated Inflammatory Lung Injury via Suppressing Nuclear Pyruvate Kinase M2-Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kai; Yang, Yongqiang; Lin, Ling; Ai, Qing; Dai, Jie; Fan, Kerui; Ge, Pu; Jiang, Rong; Wan, Jingyuan; Zhang, Li

    2018-01-01

    Inflammation is an energy-intensive process, and caloric restriction (CR) could provide anti-inflammatory benefits. CR mimetics (CRM), such as the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG), mimic the beneficial effects of CR without inducing CR-related physiologic disturbance. This study investigated the potential anti-inflammatory benefits of 2-DG and the underlying mechanisms in mice with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lethal endotoxemia. The results indicated that pretreatment with 2-DG suppressed LPS-induced elevation of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 6. It also suppressed the upregulation of myeloperoxidase, attenuated Evans blue leakage, alleviated histological abnormalities in the lung, and improved the survival of LPS-challenged mice. Treatment with 2-DG had no obvious effects on the total level of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), but it significantly suppressed LPS-induced elevation of PKM2 in the nuclei. Prevention of PKM2 nuclear accumulation by ML265 mimicked the anti-inflammatory benefits of 2-DG. In addition, treatment with 2-DG or ML265 suppressed the phosphorylation of nuclear signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Inhibition of STAT3 by stattic suppressed LPS-induced inflammatory injury. Interestingly, posttreatment with 2-DG at the early stage post-LPS challenge also improved the survival of the experimental animals. This study found that treatment with 2-DG, a representative CRM, provided anti-inflammatory benefits in lethal inflammation. The underlying mechanisms included suppressed nuclear PKM2-STAT3 pathway. These data suggest that 2-DG might have potential value in the early intervention of lethal inflammation.

  15. Knockdown of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E suppresses cell growth and invasion, and induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baofu; Zhang, Bo; Xia, Lilong; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Yu; Hu, Quanteng; Zhu, Chengchu

    2015-12-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) was shown to be upregulated in malignant human tumors. To assess the effect of downregulation of eIF4E on the proliferation and invasiveness of a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line, a short hairpin (sh)RNA targeting eIF4E was constructed and transfected into A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. The expression of eIF4E was determined by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Cell viability was assessed using a Cell Counting kit‑8, and apoptosis levels and cell cycle distribution were assessed by flow cytometry. Invasiveness was assessed using Transwell chambers. Transfection of the A549 cells with eIF4E targeting shRNA reduced the mRNA and protein expression levels of eIF4E by >70% 48 and 72 h following transfection, and eIF4E targeting shRNA‑transfected cells were significantly less viable compared with the cells transfected with scrambled shRNA. The rate of apoptosis was also significantly increased, significantly more cells were in the G0/G1 phase and fewer were in the S phase, indicating cell cycle arrest. The fraction of transfected cells migrating across Transwell inserts were also reduced. In conclusion, inhibition of eIF4E suppressed cell growth and invasion, induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, suggesting that eIF4E may be a potential therapeutic target in lung adenocarcinoma.

  16. Blocking the Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway by Lentivirus-Mediated Short Hairpin RNA Targeting β-Catenin Gene Suppresses Silica-Induced Lung Fibrosis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Dai, Wujing; Wang, Yanrang; Gu, Qing; Yang, Deyi; Zhang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Silicosis is a form of occupational lung disease caused by inhalation of crystalline silica dust. While the pathogenesis of silicosis is not clearly understood, the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is thought to play a major role in lung fibrosis. To explore the role of Wnt/β-catenin pathway in silicosis, we blocked Wnt/β-catenin pathway both in silica-treated MLE-12 cells (a mouse pulmonary epithelial cell line) and in a mouse silicosis model by using a lentiviral vector expressing a short hairpin RNA silencing β-catenin (Lv-shβ-catenin). In vitro, Lv-shβ-catenin significantly decreased the expression of β-catenin, MMP2 and MMP9, and secretion of TGF-β1. In vivo, intratracheal treatment with Lv-shβ-catenin significantly reduced expression of β-catenin in the lung and levels of TGF-β1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and notably attenuated pulmonary fibrosis as evidenced by hydroxyproline content and collagen I\\III synthesis in silica-administered mice. These results indicate that blockade of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway can prevent the development of silica-induced lung fibrosis. Thus Wnt/β-catenin pathway may be a target in prevention and treatment of silicosis. PMID:26340635

  17. Long noncoding RNA TUG1 is a diagnostic factor in lung adenocarcinoma and suppresses apoptosis via epigenetic silencing of BAX

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Huan; Zhou, Guizhi; Fu, Xin; Cui, Haiyan; Pu, Guangrui; Xiao, Yao; Sun, Wei; Dong, Xinhua; Zhang, Libin; Cao, Sijia; Li, Guiqin; Wu, Xiaowei; Yang, Xu

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality, and responds badly to existing treatment. Thus, it is of urgent need to identify novel diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets. Increasing evidences have indicated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an important role in initiation and progression of lung cancer. However, the role of lncRNA Taurine upregulated 1 (TUG1) in lung adenocarcinoma (LAD) progression is not well known. In this study, we determined the diagn...

  18. DZNep, inhibitor of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase, down-regulates expression of SETDB1 H3K9me3 HMTase in human lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Kyung; Kim, Keun-Cheol

    2013-09-06

    3-Deazaneplanocin A (DZNep), an epigenetic anticancer drug, leads to the indirect suppression of S-adenosyl methionine-dependent cellular methylations by inhibiting S-adenosyl homocystein (AdoHcy) hydrolase. Although it is well known that DZNep targets the degradation of EZH2 protein, H3K27me3 HMTase, there are still uncertainties about the regulation of other types of HMTases during cell death. In this study, we describe that SETDB1 gene expression was regulated by DZNep treatment in human lung cancer cells. We confirm that DZNep induced growth inhibition and increased the dead cell population of lung cancer cells. DZNep treatment affected histone methylations, including H3K27me3 and H3K9me3, but not H3K4me3. Reduced levels of H3K27me3 and H3K9me3 were related with the decreased EZH2 and SETDB1 proteins. Real time PCR analysis showed that SETDB1 gene expression was decreased by DZNep treatment, but no effect was observed for EZH2 gene expression. We cloned the promoter region of SETDB1 and SUV39H1 genes, and performed luciferase assays. The promoter activity of SETDB1 gene was down regulated by DZNep treatment, whereas no effect on SUV39H1 promoter activity was observed. In conclusion, we suggest that DZNep regulates not only on H3K27me3 HMTase EZH2, but also H3K9 HMTase SETDB1 gene expression at the transcription level, implicating that the mechanism of action of DZNep targets multiple HMTases during the death of lung cancer cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Expression and Its Clinical Significance of SLC22A18 in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming LEI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been proven that multidrug resistance (MDR is the main cause of chemotherapy failure in lung cancer. Research on emergence mechanisms of MDR has great clinical significance in improving the curative efficiency of lung cancer chemotherapy. Proteins encoded by the SLC22A18 gene, which is similar to the transmembrane transporter, may influence the sensitivity of chemotherapeutics as well as the metabolism and growth of cells. In addition, these proteins probably have some effect on the development of lung cancer MDR. The aim of the present study is to investigate the expression of SLC22A18 protein in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC as well as in corresponding normal lung tissue. Furthermore, the relationship between SLC22A18 expression and pathological grade and TNM stage is analyzed. Methods The expression of SLC22A18 was detected by EnVinsion in 96 cases with NSCLC and in corresponding normal lung tissue. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 17.0 statistical software. Results SLC22A18 was mainly located in cell membrane and cytoplasm. The expression level of SLC22A18 in NSCLC was significantly higher than that in normal tissue (P<0.01. The positive rates in squamous cell lung cancer and lung adenocarcinoma were 68% and 78.2%, respectively (P<0.05. Moreover, the higher expression of SLC22A18 was associated with lower histological grade and later TNM stage (P<0.05. Conclusion SLC22A18 protein is overexpressed in NSCLC, and its expression is correlated with pathological grade and TNM stage. These findings provide the experimental basis for investigating the role of tumor and chemoresistance.

  20. Expression of myc family oncoproteins in small-cell lung-cancer cell lines and xenografts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, K; Vindeløv, L L; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1993-01-01

    A number of genes have altered activity in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), but especially genes of the myc family (c-myc, L-myc and N-myc) are expressed at high levels in SCLC. Most studies have explored expression at the mRNA level, whereas studies of myc family oncoprotein expression are sparse....... WE examined the expression of myc proto-oncogenes at the mRNA and protein level in 23 cell lines or xenografts. In the cell lines, the doubling time and the cell-cycle distribution, as determined by flow-cytometric DNA analysis, were examined to establish whether the level of myc......-myc. In general, the level of expression of c-myc and N-myc was similar at the mRNA and the protein level. Expression of c-myc was positively correlated with the proliferative index (sum of S and G2+M phases) of cell lines, but not with the population doubling time. In general, L-myc-expressing cell lines had...

  1. Hotair mediates hepatocarcinogenesis through suppressing miRNA-218 expression and activating P14 and P16 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei-Ming; Zhu, Xiao; Wang, Wei-Mao; Lu, Ying-Fei; Hu, Bao-Guang; Wang, Hua; Liang, Wei-Cheng; Wang, Shan-Shan; Ko, Chun-Hay; Waye, Mary Miu-Yee; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Li, Gang; Zhang, Jin-Fang

    2015-10-01

    Long non-coding RNA Hotair has been considered as a pro-oncogene in multiple cancers. Although there is emerging evidence that reveals its biological function and the association with clinical prognosis, the precise mechanism remains largely elusive. We investigated the function and mechanism of Hotair in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell models and a xenograft mouse model. The regulatory network between miR-218 and Hotair was elucidated by RNA immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays. Finally, the correlation between Hotair, miR-218 and the target gene Bmi-1 were evaluated in 52 paired HCC specimens. In this study, we reported that Hotair negatively regulated miR-218 expression in HCC, which might be mediated through an EZH2-targeting-miR-218-2 promoter regulatory axis. Further investigation revealed that Hotair knockdown dramatically inhibited cell viability and induced G1-phase arrest in vitro and suppressed tumorigenicity in vivo by promoting miR-218 expression. Oncogene Bmi-1 was shown to be a functional target of miR-218, and the main downstream targets signaling, P16(Ink4a) and P14(ARF), were activated in Hotair-suppressed tumorigenesis. In primary human HCC specimens, Hotair and Bmi-1 were concordantly upregulated whereas miR-218 was downregulated in these tissues. Furthermore, Hotair was inversely associated with miR-218 expression and positively correlated with Bmi-1 expression in these clinical tissues. Hotair silence activates P16(Ink4a) and P14(ARF) signaling by enhancing miR-218 expression and suppressing Bmi-1 expression, resulting in the suppression of tumorigenesis in HCC. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Gene expression profile of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in lung tissue of patients exposed to sulfur mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasbpour, Eisa; Ghanei, Mostafa; Qazvini, Ali; Vahedi, Ensieh; Panahi, Yunes

    2016-04-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a potent alkylating agent that targets several organs, especially lung tissue. Although pathological effects of SM on mustard lung have been widely considered, molecular and cellular mechanisms for these pathologies are poorly understood. We investigated changes in expression of genes related to oxidative stress (OS) and antioxidant defense caused by SM in lung tissue of patients. We performed gene expression profiling of OS and antioxidant defense in lung tissue samples from healthy controls (n=5) and SM-exposed patients (n=6). Changes in gene expression were measured using a 96-well RT(2) Profiler ™PCR Array: Human Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defense, which arrayed 84 genes functionally involved in cellular OS response. 47 (55.95%) genes were found to be significantly upregulated in patients with mustard lung compared with controls (p<0.05), whereas 7 (8.33%) genes were significantly downregulated (p<0.05). Among the most upregulated genes were OS responsive-1 (OXSR1), forkhead box M1 (FOXM1), and glutathione peroxidase-2 (GPX2), while metallothionein-3 (MT3) and glutathione reductase (GSR) were the most downregulated genes. Expression of hypoxia-induced genes (CYGB and MB), antioxidants and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing genes were significantly altered, suggesting an increased oxidative damage in mustard lungs. Mustard lungs were characterized by hypoxia, massive production of ROS, OS, disruption of epithelial cells, surfactant dysfunction, as well as increased risk of lung cancer and pulmonary fibrosis. Oxidative stress induced by ROS is the major mechanism for direct effect of SM exposure on respiratory system. Antioxidant treatment may improve the main features of mustard lungs. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Drosophila clueless is highly expressed in larval neuroblasts, affects mitochondrial localization and suppresses mitochondrial oxidative damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Sen

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are critical for neuronal function due to the high demand of ATP in these cell types. During Drosophila development, neuroblasts in the larval brain divide asymmetrically to populate the adult central nervous system. While many of the proteins responsible for maintaining neuroblast cell fate and asymmetric cell divisions are known, little is know about the role of metabolism and mitochondria in neuroblast division and maintenance. The gene clueless (clu has been previously shown to be important for mitochondrial function. clu mutant adults have severely shortened lifespans and are highly uncoordinated. Part of their lack of coordination is due to defects in muscle, however, in this study we have identified high levels of Clu expression in larval neuroblasts and other regions of the dividing larval brain. We show while mitochondria in clu mutant neuroblasts are mislocalized during the cell cycle, surprisingly, overall brain morphology appears to be normal. This is explained by our observation that clu mutant larvae have normal levels of ATP and do not suffer oxidative damage, in sharp contrast to clu mutant adults. Mutations in two other genes encoding mitochondrial proteins, technical knockout and stress sensitive B, do not cause neuroblast mitochondrial mislocalization, even though technical knockout mutant larvae suffer oxidative damage. These results suggest Clu functions upstream of electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation, has a role in suppressing oxidative damage in the cell, and that lack of Clu's specific function causes mitochondria to mislocalize. These results also support the previous observation that larval development relies on aerobic glycolysis, rather than oxidative phosphorylation. Thus Clu's role in mitochondrial function is not critical during larval development, but is important for pupae and adults.

  4. Stability and Heterogeneity of Expression Profiles in Lung Cancer Specimens Harvested Following Surgical Resection

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    Fiona H. Blackhall

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the major concerns in microarray profiling studies of clinical samples is the effect of tissue sampling and RNA extraction on data. We analyzed gene expression in lung cancer specimens that were serially harvested from tumor mass and snap-frozen at several intervals up to 120 minutes after surgical resection. Global gene expression was profiled on cDNA microarrays, and selected stress and hypoxia-activated genes were evaluated using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Remarkably, similar gene expression profiles were obtained for the majority of samples regardless of the time that had elapsed between resection and freezing. Real-time RT-PCR studies showed significant heterogeneity in the expression levels of stress and hypoxia-activated genes in samples obtained from different areas of a tumor specimen at one time point after resection. The variations between multiple samplings were significantly greater than those of elapsed time between sampling/freezing. Overall samples snap-frozen within 30 to 60 minutes of surgical resection are acceptable for gene expression studies, thus making sampling and snap-freezing of tumor samples in a routine surgical pathology laboratory setting feasible. However, sampling and pooling from multiple sites of each tumor may be necessary for expression profiling studies to overcome the molecular heterogeneity present in tumor specimens.

  5. Resistance gene expression determines the in vitro chemosensitivity of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC

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    Amer Khalid

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NSCLC exhibits considerable heterogeneity in its sensitivity to chemotherapy and similar heterogeneity is noted in vitro in a variety of model systems. This study has tested the hypothesis that the molecular basis of the observed in vitro chemosensitivity of NSCLC lies within the known resistance mechanisms inherent to these patients' tumors. Methods The chemosensitivity of a series of 49 NSCLC tumors was assessed using the ATP-based tumor chemosensitivity assay (ATP-TCA and compared with quantitative expression of resistance genes measured by RT-PCR in a Taqman Array™ following extraction of RNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissue. Results There was considerable heterogeneity between tumors within the ATP-TCA, and while this showed no direct correlation with individual gene expression, there was strong correlation of multi-gene signatures for many of the single agents and combinations tested. For instance, docetaxel activity showed some dependence on the expression of drug pumps, while cisplatin activity showed some dependence on DNA repair enzyme expression. Activity of both drugs was influenced more strongly still by the expression of anti- and pro-apoptotic genes by the tumor for both docetaxel and cisplatin. The doublet combinations of cisplatin with gemcitabine and cisplatin with docetaxel showed gene expression signatures incorporating resistance mechanisms for both agents. Conclusion Genes predicted to be involved in known mechanisms drug sensitivity and resistance correlate well with in vitro chemosensitivity and may allow the definition of predictive signatures to guide individualized chemotherapy in lung cancer.

  6. Sex Chromosome-wide Transcriptional Suppression and Compensatory Cis-Regulatory Evolution Mediate Gene Expression in the Drosophila Male Germline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily L Landeen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes has repeatedly resulted in the evolution of sex chromosome-specific forms of regulation, including sex chromosome dosage compensation in the soma and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in the germline. In the male germline of Drosophila melanogaster, a novel but poorly understood form of sex chromosome-specific transcriptional regulation occurs that is distinct from canonical sex chromosome dosage compensation or meiotic inactivation. Previous work shows that expression of reporter genes driven by testis-specific promoters is considerably lower-approximately 3-fold or more-for transgenes inserted into X chromosome versus autosome locations. Here we characterize this transcriptional suppression of X-linked genes in the male germline and its evolutionary consequences. Using transgenes and transpositions, we show that most endogenous X-linked genes, not just testis-specific ones, are transcriptionally suppressed several-fold specifically in the Drosophila male germline. In wild-type testes, this sex chromosome-wide transcriptional suppression is generally undetectable, being effectively compensated by the gene-by-gene evolutionary recruitment of strong promoters on the X chromosome. We identify and experimentally validate a promoter element sequence motif that is enriched upstream of the transcription start sites of hundreds of testis-expressed genes; evolutionarily conserved across species; associated with strong gene expression levels in testes; and overrepresented on the X chromosome. These findings show that the expression of X-linked genes in the Drosophila testes reflects a balance between chromosome-wide epigenetic transcriptional suppression and long-term compensatory adaptation by sex-linked genes. Our results have broad implications for the evolution of gene expression in the Drosophila male germline and for genome evolution.

  7. Expression of genes related to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in murine fetal lungs in late gestation

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    Côté Mélissa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung maturation is modulated by several factors, including glucocorticoids. Expression of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis-related components, with proposed or described local regulatory systems analogous to the HPA axis, was reported in peripheral tissues. Here, HPA axis-related genes were studied in the mouse developing lung during a period overlapping the surge of surfactant production. Methods Expression of genes encoding for corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH, CRH receptors (CRHR 1 and 2beta, CRH-binding protein, proopiomelanocortin (POMC, melanocortin receptor 2 (MC2R, and glucocorticoid receptor was quantified by real-time PCR and localized by in situ hydridization in fetal lungs at gestational days (GD 15.5, 16.5, and 17.5, and was also quantified in primary mesenchymal- and epithelial cell-enriched cultures. In addition, the capability of CRH and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH to stimulate pulmonary expression of enzymes involved in the adrenal pathway of glucocorticoid synthesis was addressed, as well as the glucocorticoid production by fetal lung explants. Results We report that all the studied genes are expressed in fetal lungs according to different patterns. On GD 15.5, Mc2r showed peaks in expression in samples that have previously presented high mRNA levels for glucocorticoid synthesizing enzymes, including 11beta-hydroxylase (Cyp11b1. Crhr1 mRNA co-localized with Pomc mRNA in cells surrounding the proximal epithelium on GD 15.5 and 16.5. A transition in expression sites toward distal epithelial cells was observed between GD 15.5 and 17.5 for all the studied genes. CRH or ACTH stimulation of genes involved in the adrenal pathway of glucocorticoid synthesis was not observed in lung explants on GD 15.5, whereas CRH significantly increased expression of 21-hydroxylase (Cyp21a1 on GD 17.5. A deoxycorticosterone production by fetal lung explants was observed. Conclusions Temporal and spatial

  8. Radiation-induced VEGF-C expression and endothelial cell proliferation in lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu-Hsuan [National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Oncology, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University, Pharmacological Institute, College of Medicine, Taipei (China); Pan, Shiow-Lin; Wang, Jing-Chi; Teng, Che-Ming [National Taiwan University, Pharmacological Institute, College of Medicine, Taipei (China); Kuo, Sung-Hsin [National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Oncology, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei (China); Cheng, Jason Chia-Hsien [National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Oncology, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei (China)

    2014-12-15

    The present study was undertaken to investigate whether radiation induces the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) through activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway,subsequently affecting endothelial cells. Radiotherapy-induced tumor micro-lymphatic vessel density (MLVD) was determined in a lung cancer xenograft model established in SCID mice. The protein expression and phosphorylation of members of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and VEGF-C secretion and mRNA expression in irradiated lung cancer cells were assessed by Western blot analysis, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Moreover, specific chemical inhibitors were used to evaluate the role of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Conditioned medium (CM) from irradiated control-siRNA or VEGF-C-siRNA-expressing A549 cells was used to evaluate the proliferation of endothelial cells by the MTT assay. Radiation increased VEGF-C expression in a dose-dependent manner over time at the protein but not at the mRNA level. Radiation also up-regulated the phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR, 4EBP, and eIF4E, but not of p70S6K. Radiation-induced VEGF-C expression was down-regulated by LY294002 and rapamycin (both p < 0.05). Furthermore, CM from irradiated A549 cells enhanced human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) and lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) proliferation, which was not observed with CM from irradiated VEGF-C-siRNA-expressing A549 cells. Radiation-induced activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway increases VEGF-C expression in lung cancer cells, thereby promoting endothelial cell proliferation. (orig.) [German] Die vorliegende Studie untersucht, ob die Strahlung die Expression von VEGF-C (vascular endothelial growth factor C) mittels Aktivierung des PI3K/Akt/mTOR-Signalwegs induziert und anschliessend die endothelialen Zellen beeinflusst. Die durch Strahlentherapie induzierte Mikrolymphgefaessdichte (MLVD) im Tumor wurde in

  9. Epigenetic control of Ccr7 expression in distinct lineages of lung dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Timothy P; Nakano, Hideki; Kondilis-Mangum, Hrisavgi D; Wade, Paul A; Cook, Donald N

    2014-11-15

    Adaptive immune responses to inhaled allergens are induced following CCR7-dependent migration of precursor of dendritic cell (pre-DC)-derived conventional DCs (cDCs) from the lung to regional lymph nodes. However, monocyte-derived (moDCs) in the lung express very low levels of Ccr7 and consequently do not migrate efficiently to LN. To investigate the molecular mechanisms that underlie this dichotomy, we studied epigenetic modifications at the Ccr7 locus of murine cDCs and moDCs. When expanded from bone marrow precursors, moDCs were enriched at the Ccr7 locus for trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3), a modification associated with transcriptional repression. Similarly, moDCs prepared from the lung also displayed increased levels of H3K27me3 at the Ccr7 promoter compared with migratory cDCs from that organ. Analysis of DC progenitors revealed that epigenetic modification of Ccr7 does not occur early during DC lineage commitment because monocytes and pre-DCs both had low levels of Ccr7-associated H3K27me3. Rather, Ccr7 is gradually silenced during the differentiation of monocytes to moDCs. Thus, epigenetic modifications of the Ccr7 locus control the migration and therefore the function of DCs in vivo. These findings suggest that manipulating epigenetic mechanisms might be a novel approach to control DC migration and thereby improve DC-based vaccines and treat inflammatory diseases of the lung. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  10. Tetramethylpyrazine attenuates oleic acid-induced acute lung injury ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The protein expression of NF-kB in the lung was measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The results showed an increase in tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 1β in the ALI/ARDS rat models. The activation of NF-kB was suppressed by TMP in the ALI/ARDS rats. The suppression of those molecules is ...

  11. Lack of ADAM2, CALR3 and SAGE1 Cancer/Testis Antigen Expression in Lung and Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maheswaran, Emeaga; Pedersen, Christina B; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2015-01-01

    inhibitors has been proposed as an attractive strategy to increase the expression of cancer/testis antigens in tumors before immunotargeting; however, neither ADAM2, CALR3 nor SAGE1 could be significantly induced in lung and breast cancer cell lines using this strategy. Our results suggest that ADAM2, CALR3...... and antigenic properties, but the expression patterns of most of the more than 200 identified cancer/testis antigens in various cancers remain largely uncharacterized. In this study, we investigated the expression of the cancer/testis antigens ADAM2, CALR3 and SAGE1 in lung and breast cancer, the two most...... frequent human cancers, with the purpose of providing novel therapeutic targets for these diseases. We used a set of previously uncharacterized antibodies against the cancer/testis antigens ADAM2, CALR3 and SAGE1 to investigate their expression in a large panel of normal tissues as well as breast and lung...

  12. miR-203 Inhibits Frizzled-2 Expression via CD82/KAI1 Expression in Human Lung Carcinoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Mine

    Full Text Available CD82/KAI1, a member of the tetraspanin superfamily, is a suppressor of metastasis and CD82 inhibits canonical Wnt signaling via downregulation of several Frizzled (FZD isoforms, resulting in accumulation of β-catenin at the cell membrane. In this study, we investigated the mechanism through which CD82 inhibited FZD expression by examining the effects of microRNAs (miRNAs. The miRanda algorithm predicted 11 miRNAs from FZD sequences. Among these miRNAs, CD82 caused upregulation of miR-203 (by 2.095-fold and downregulation of miR-338-3p (by 0.354-fold as compared with control cells. Transfection with miR-203 and miR338-3p mimics or inhibitors revealed that miR-203 downregulated FZD2 mRNA (by 0.268-fold and protein expression (by 0.701-fold. Moreover, transfection with the miR-203 mimic also inhibited cell migration. Therefore, these findings suggested that CD82 enhanced the expression of miR-203 and directly downregulate FZD2 expression, suppressing cancer metastasis by inhibition of the Wnt signaling pathway.

  13. [Identification analysis of eukaryotic expression plasmid Rap2a and its effect on the migration of lung cancer cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinxia; Sang, Miaomiao; Cao, Wenjia; Zheng, Junnian; Pei, Dongsheng

    2014-09-20

    Rap2a, a member of the small GTPase superfamily, plays a critical role in regulating the function of integrin and cell adhesion, thereby controlling cell motility and cell/matrix interactions. However, the function of Rap2a in carcinogenesis is still poorly understood. To clone Rap2a cDNA, which belongs to human Ras-related small G protein superfamily, we constructed its eukaryotic expression vector and determined its expression in lung cancer cells. The aim of this study is to explore the role of Rap2a in carcinogenesis. The levels of endogenous Rap2a protein in lung cancer cells were measured by Western blot. Total RNA of human osteosarcoma cells U2OS was extracted and reverse-transcribed into cDNA by RT-PCR. Then, Rap2a gene was amplified by PCR and inserted into pcDNA3.1(+). The reconstructed plasmid was identified by restricted enzyme digestion and sequencing. pcDNA3.1(+)-Rap2a was transfected into H1299 and A549 cells, the expression of Rap2a was detected by Western blot. In addition, the migratory abilities of lung cancer cells were evaluated by Transwell assay. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)2 enzyme activity was evaluated by gelatin zymography. Rap2a is significantly upregulated in lung cancer cells. The results of enzyme digestion and sequencing showed that the coding sequence of pcDNA3.1(+)-Rap2a was right and was inserted into the vector correctly. The results of Western blot showed that H1299 and A549 cells were transfected successfully. Transwell assay indicated that the ectopic expression of Rap2a promotes lung cancer cells migration. Correspondly, enzyme activity of MMP2 also increased. Eukaryotic expression plasmid pcDNA3.1(+)-Rap2a was constructed successfully. Rap2a could be expressed in lung cancer cells efficiently and promotes lung cancer cell migration.

  14. Immunohistochemical expression of HER-2/neu in patients with lung carcinoma and its prognostic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrusevska, G.; Banev, S.; Ilievska-Poposka, B.; Smickova, S.; Spirovski, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Background. The HER-2 protein or p185her2 is a membrane receptor with tyrosine kinase activity encoded by HER-2/neu gene. Overexpression of HER-2/neu has been observed in many human cancers, including lung cancer. In the study, the expression of HER-2 protein is determined in the spectrum of lung cancer (adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma). Patients and methods. The study population consisted of two groups: 19 patients that had undergone surgical treatment and 10 patients that had undergone fiber-optic bronchoscopy and biopsy for primary diagnosis only. Tissue specimens were neutral formaldehyde-fixed and paraffin-embedded. Standard histochemical and immunohistochemical staining were used for diagnosis. Expression of HER-2/neu protein was determined by immunohistochemical staining with Hercep Test (DAKO). The results were graded 0-1 as negative and 2-3 as positive. Results. Overall incidence of HER-2/neu overexpression was 34.4% (10 of 29). Higher incidence was found in the patients with adenocarcinoma 45.4% (5 of 11). In squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma, the overexpression incidence was 30.7% (4 of 13) and 20% (1 of 5), respectively. No statistically significant difference was seen given the age and gender. HER-2/neu overexpression was more pronounced in the patients with advanced tumour: all patients with squamous cell carcinoma and HER-2/neu overexpression had stage IIIB and stage IV disease, while 80 % of adenocarcinoma patients with HER-2/neu overexpression had stage IIIA and IIIB disease. Conclusions. These results are satisfactory and encourage us to continue this work in the follow-up study to evaluate HER-2/neu role as predictive and prognostic factor for the patients with lung cancer. (author)

  15. [Expression of thrombospondin-1 in the lung of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan-Juan; Cheng, De-Yun; Zheng, Xi-Wei; Li, Fang; Yang, Gui-Lan

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the expression of thrombospondin-1(TSP-1) in the lung of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into two groups, pulmonary hypertension group and control group. The mice in experimental group were exposed to isobaric hypoxia for 3 weeks, and those in control group were exposed to air. The pulmonary artery pressure was measured by right cardiac catheterization. The expression of TSP-1 and TGF-beta1 in the lungs of rats were measured by immunohistochemical staining. The histological sections of the lungs were examined using a computerized image analyzer. After the induction of hypoxia for 3 weeks, the rats had pulmonary artery pressure increased with the thickening of the wall and the narrowing of the lumen of pulmonary arterioles. In the experimental group, the mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) was (2.86 +/- 0.39) kPa, the index of right ventricular hypertrophy RV/(LV+S) was (43.53 +/- 3.38)%, the ratio of vascular wall thickness/vascular external diameter (WA%) was (55.09 +/- 12.38)%, and the ratio of vascular wall area/total vascular area (WT%) was (35.24 +/- 11.2)%, which all were significantly increased in comparison with those of control group [mPAP (1.35 +/- 0.28) kPa, RV/(LV+S) (23.68 +/- 3.48)%, WT% (23.63 +/- 9.74)%, WA% (41.62 +/- 12.83)%, respectively. P pulmonary arteriole of the rats exposed to hypoxia were significantly stronger than those of control rats (P pulmonary hypertension rats, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of hypoxic pulmonary vascular remodeling.

  16. Tumor Associated Fibroblasts Promote PD-L1 Expression in Lung Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyang HE

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAF is an important part of TME, which inhibits the function of immune cells. CD8+ T cells play a significant role in tumor immunity. T-cell membrane possesses a distinct type of molecule with a negative regulatory function. Upon interaction with its corresponding ligand [programmed death factor ligand 1 (PD-L1], programmed death factor 1 (PD-1 is activated and thus inhibits the kinase activity of T cells. This study aims to explore the possible effects of TAF on PD-L1 expression in lung cancer cells. Methods Lung cancer cell lines H1975 and H520 were co-cultured with (experiment or without TAF (control via Transwell assay for through 48 hours under the same culture condition. H1975 and H520 cells were counted using a microscope. The protein and mRNA expression levels of PD-L1 were detected by FCM assay and PCR analysis, respectively. Results The numbers of lung cancer cells in 100 μm2 for H1975 and H520 cells are (46±21 and (38±10 in the experiment group, respectively, and (16±5 and (12±5 in the control group, respectively (P<0.05. The expression levels of the PD-L1 protein in H1975 and H520 cells are (20.93%±3.54% and (19.26%±3.04% in the experiment group, respectively, and (12.58%±2.52% and (11.60%±2.65% in the control group, respectively (P<0.05. The mRNA expression levels in H1975 and H520 cells are (16.45±1.25 and (15.38±2.02 pg/mL in the experiment group, respectively, and (7.78±1.27 and (7.20±1.58 pg/mL (P<0.05 in the control group, respectively (P<0.05. Conclusion TAF promotes the growth and increases the expression of PD-L1 in H1975 and H520 cells.

  17. Linezolid Exerts Greater Bacterial Clearance but No Modification of Host Lung Gene Expression Profiling: A Mouse MRSA Pneumonia Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwang Chen

    Full Text Available Linezolid (LZD is beneficial to patients with MRSA pneumonia, but whether and how LZD influences global host lung immune responses at the mRNA level during MRSA-mediated pneumonia is still unknown.A lethal mouse model of MRSA pneumonia mediated by USA300 was employed to study the influence of LZD on survival, while the sublethal mouse model was used to examine the effect of LZD on bacterial clearance and lung gene expression during MRSA pneumonia. LZD (100mg/kg/day, IP was given to C57Bl6 mice for three days. On Day 1 and Day 3 post infection, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF protein concentration and levels of cytokines including IL6, TNFα, IL1β, Interferon-γ and IL17 were measured. In the sublethal model, left lungs were used to determine bacterial clearance and right lungs for whole-genome transcriptional profiling of lung immune responses.LZD therapy significantly improved survival and bacterial clearance. It also significantly decreased BALF protein concentration and levels of cytokines including IL6, IL1β, Interferon-γ and IL17. No significant gene expression changes in the mouse lungs were associated with LZD therapy.LZD is beneficial to MRSA pneumonia, but it does not modulate host lung immune responses at the transcriptional level.

  18. Aberrant expression of interferon regulatory factor 3 in human lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokunaga, Takayuki [Division of Cytokine Signaling, Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Science, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Translational Medical Science, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Science, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Naruke, Yuki; Shigematsu, Sayuri; Kohno, Tomoko; Yasui, Kiyoshi; Ma, Yuhua; Chua, Koon Jiew [Division of Cytokine Signaling, Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Science, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Katayama, Ikuo; Nakamura, Takashi [Department of Radiology and Cancer Biology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Science, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Hishikawa, Yoshitaka; Koji, Takehiko [Department of Developmental and Reconstructive Medicine, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Science, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Yatabe, Yasushi [Department of Pathology and Clinical Oncology, Aichi Cancer Research Institute, Nagoya 464-8681 (Japan); Nagayasu, Takeshi [Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Translational Medical Science, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Science, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Fujita, Takashi [Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Matsuyama, Toshifumi, E-mail: tosim@nagasaki-u.ac.jp [Division of Cytokine Signaling, Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Science, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); The Global Center of Excellence Program at Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); and others

    2010-06-25

    We analyzed the subcellular distributions and gene structures of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) transcription factor in 50 cases of human primary lung cancer. The immunohistochemical analyses revealed substantially aberrant IRF3 expression specific to the cancer lesions (2 and 6 tumors with nuclear staining, and 4 and 5 tumors with negative staining, in adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, respectively), while the morphologically normal region around the tumors exhibited only cytoplasmic staining. In addition, we determined the sequence of the entire IRF3 coding region, and found two novel variants with the amino acid changes (S{sup 175}(AGC) {yields} R{sup 175}(CGC) and A{sup 208}(GCC) {yields} D{sup 208}(GAC)). The R{sup 175} variant was also detected in a morphologically normal region around the nuclear staining squamous cell carcinoma, and exhibited almost the same functions as the wild type IRF3. On the other hand, the D{sup 208} variant, found in the negative staining squamous cell carcinoma cases, reduced the nuclear translocation in response to I{kappa}B kinase {epsilon} stimulation, as compared to the wild type IRF3, but the same variant was detected in the surrounding morphologically normal region. The aberrant expression of IRF3 and the novel D{sup 208} variant may provide clues to elucidate the etiology of primary lung cancer.

  19. Pathways enrichment analysis for differentially expressed genes in squamous lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Liqiang; Luo, Qingquan; Zhao, Xiaojing; Huang, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Squamous lung cancer (SQLC) is a common type of lung cancer, but its oncogenesis mechanism is not so clear. The aim of this study was to screen the potential pathways changed in SQLC and elucidate the mechanism of it. Published microarray data of GSE3268 series was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). Significance analysis of microarrays was performed using software R, and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were harvested. The functions and pathways of DEGs were mapped in Gene Otology and KEGG pathway database, respectively. A total of 2961 genes were filtered as DEGs between normal and SQLC cells. Cell cycle and metabolism were the mainly changed functions of SQLC cells. Meanwhile genes such as MCM, RFC, FEN1, and POLD may induce SQLC through DNA replication pathway, and genes such as PTTG1, CCNB1, CDC6, and PCNA may be involved in SQLC through cell cycle pathway. It is demonstrated that pathway analysis is useful in the identification of target genes in SQLC.

  20. Serial analysis of gene expression in a rat lung model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lei-Miao; Jiang, Gong-Hao; Wang, Yu; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yan-Yan; Jin, Wei-Rong; Zhang, Zen; Xu, Yu-Dong; Yang, Yong-Qing

    2008-11-01

    The pathogenesis and molecular mechanism underlying asthma remain undetermined. The purpose of this study was to identify genes and pathways involved in the early airway response (EAR) phase of asthma by using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Two SAGE tag libraries of lung tissues derived from a rat model of asthma and controls were generated. Bioinformatic analyses were carried out using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and IntegratedDiscovery Functional Annotation Tool, Gene Ontology (GO) TreeMachine and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis. A total of 26 552 SAGE tags of asthmatic rat lung were obtained, of which 12 221 were unique tags. Of the unique tags, 55.5% were matched with known genes. By comparison of the two libraries, 186 differentially expressed tags (P SAGE libraries have provided information on regulatory networks of the EAR phase of asthma. Analyses of the regulated genes of interest may inform new hypotheses, increase our understanding of the disease and provide a foundation for future research.

  1. Cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression strategies role in the emotion regulation: an overview on their modulatory effects and neural correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Cutuli, Debora

    2014-01-01

    Individuals regulate their emotions in a wide variety of ways. In the present review it has been addressed the issue of whether some forms of emotion regulation are healthier than others by focusing on two commonly used emotion regulation strategies: cognitive reappraisal (changing the way one thinks about potentially emotion-eliciting events) and expressive suppression (changing the way one behaviorally responds to emotion-eliciting events). In the first section, experimental findings showin...

  2. Zinc Protoporphyrin Suppresses β-Catenin Protein Expression in Human Cancer Cells: The Potential Involvement of Lysosome-Mediated Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Hannafon, Bethany N; Lind, Stuart E; Ding, Wei-Qun

    2015-01-01

    Zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) has been found to have anticancer activity both in vitro and in vivo. We have recently demonstrated that ZnPP diminishes β-catenin protein expression in cancer cells. The present study examined the cellular mechanisms that mediate ZnPP's suppression of β-catenin expression. We demonstrate that ZnPP induces a rapid degradation of the β-catenin protein in cancer cells, which is accompanied by a significant inhibition of proteasome activity, suggesting that proteasome degradation does not directly account for the suppression. The possibility that ZnPP induces β-catenin exportation was rejected by the observation that there was no detectable β-catenin protein in the conditioned medium after ZnPP treatment of cancer cells. Further experimentation demonstrated that ZnPP induces lysosome membrane permeabilization, which was reversed by pretreatment with a protein transportation inhibitor cocktail containing Brefeldin A (BFA) and Monensin. More significantly, pretreatment of cancer cells with BFA and Monensin attenuated the ZnPP-induced suppression of β-catenin expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, indicating that the lysosome protein degradation pathway is likely involved in the ZnPP-induced suppression of β-catenin expression. Whether there is cross-talk between the ubiquitin-proteasome system and the lysosome pathway that may account for ZnPP-induced β-catenin protein degradation is currently unknown. These findings provide a novel mechanism of ZnPP's anticancer action and reveal a potential new strategy for targeting the β-catenin Wnt signaling pathway for cancer therapy.

  3. Zinc Protoporphyrin Suppresses β-Catenin Protein Expression in Human Cancer Cells: The Potential Involvement of Lysosome-Mediated Degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Wang

    Full Text Available Zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP has been found to have anticancer activity both in vitro and in vivo. We have recently demonstrated that ZnPP diminishes β-catenin protein expression in cancer cells. The present study examined the cellular mechanisms that mediate ZnPP's suppression of β-catenin expression. We demonstrate that ZnPP induces a rapid degradation of the β-catenin protein in cancer cells, which is accompanied by a significant inhibition of proteasome activity, suggesting that proteasome degradation does not directly account for the suppression. The possibility that ZnPP induces β-catenin exportation was rejected by the observation that there was no detectable β-catenin protein in the conditioned medium after ZnPP treatment of cancer cells. Further experimentation demonstrated that ZnPP induces lysosome membrane permeabilization, which was reversed by pretreatment with a protein transportation inhibitor cocktail containing Brefeldin A (BFA and Monensin. More significantly, pretreatment of cancer cells with BFA and Monensin attenuated the ZnPP-induced suppression of β-catenin expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, indicating that the lysosome protein degradation pathway is likely involved in the ZnPP-induced suppression of β-catenin expression. Whether there is cross-talk between the ubiquitin-proteasome system and the lysosome pathway that may account for ZnPP-induced β-catenin protein degradation is currently unknown. These findings provide a novel mechanism of ZnPP's anticancer action and reveal a potential new strategy for targeting the β-catenin Wnt signaling pathway for cancer therapy.

  4. Vanillin Suppresses Cell Motility by Inhibiting STAT3-Mediated HIF-1α mRNA Expression in Malignant Melanoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Ji; Lee, Yoon-Mi; Oh, Taek-In; Kim, Byeong Mo; Lim, Beong-Ou; Lim, Ji-Hong

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that vanillin has anti-cancer, anti-mutagenic, and anti-metastatic activity; however, the precise molecular mechanism whereby vanillin inhibits metastasis and cancer progression is not fully elucidated. In this study, we examined whether vanillin has anti-cancer and anti-metastatic activities via inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in A2058 and A375 human malignant melanoma cells. Immunoblotting and quantitative real time (RT)-PCR analysis revealed that vanillin down-regulates HIF-1α protein accumulation and the transcripts of HIF-1α target genes related to cancer metastasis including fibronectin 1 ( FN1 ), lysyl oxidase-like 2 ( LOXL2 ), and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor ( uPAR ). It was also found that vanillin significantly suppresses HIF-1α mRNA expression and de novo HIF-1α protein synthesis. To understand the suppressive mechanism of vanillin on HIF-1α expression, chromatin immunoprecipitation was performed. Consequently, it was found that vanillin causes inhibition of promoter occupancy by signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), but not nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), on HIF1A . Furthermore, an in vitro migration assay revealed that the motility of melanoma cells stimulated by hypoxia was attenuated by vanillin treatment. In conclusion, we demonstrate that vanillin might be a potential anti-metastatic agent that suppresses metastatic gene expression and migration activity under hypoxia via the STAT3-HIF-1α signaling pathway.

  5. Interleukin-1β Suppresses the Transporter Genes Ank and Ent1 Expression in Stromal Progenitor Cells Retaining Mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezura, Yoichi; Lin, Xin; Hatta, Arina; Izu, Yayoi; Noda, Masaki

    2016-08-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) in various tissues evokes clinical problems. Inflammatory responses of the stromal progenitor cells may be involved in its etiology. Previous report indicated that pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β enhanced the in vitro calcification of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), by suppressing the expression of ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase-1 gene (ENPP1). However, possible contribution of other related factors had not been investigated. Here, we investigated the expression of regulators of extracellular pyrophosphate and nucleosides including Enpp1, Nt5e, Ank, Enptds, and Ent1, examining various connective tissue stromal progenitor cells, including bone marrow stromal cells and synovium derived cells from mouse, or bone marrow MSCs from human. Consistent with previous studies, we observed characteristic suppression of the osteoblastic marker genes by IL-1β during the osteogenic culture for 20 days. In addition, we observed a reduced expression of the important transporter genes, Ank and Ent1, whereas the alteration in Enpp1 and Nt5e levels was not always consistent among the cell types. Our results suggest that IL-1β suppresses not only the osteoblastic but also the negative regulators of soft-tissue calcification, including Ank and Ent1 in stromal progenitor cells, which may contribute to the mechanisms of HO in various disorders.

  6. Human biallelic MFN2 mutations induce mitochondrial dysfunction, upper body adipose hyperplasia, and suppression of leptin expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Nuno; Bulger, David A; Frontini, Andrea; Titheradge, Hannah; Gribsholt, Sigrid Bjerge; Knox, Rachel; Page, Matthew; Harris, Julie; Payne, Felicity; Adams, Claire; Sleigh, Alison; Crawford, John; Gjesing, Anette Prior; Bork-Jensen, Jette; Pedersen, Oluf; Barroso, Inês; Hansen, Torben; Cox, Helen; Reilly, Mary; Rossor, Alex; Brown, Rebecca J; Taylor, Simeon I; McHale, Duncan; Armstrong, Martin; Oral, Elif A; Saudek, Vladimir; O’Rahilly, Stephen; Maher, Eamonn R; Richelsen, Bjørn; Savage, David B; Semple, Robert K

    2017-01-01

    MFN2 encodes mitofusin 2, a membrane-bound mediator of mitochondrial membrane fusion and inter-organelle communication. MFN2 mutations cause axonal neuropathy, with associated lipodystrophy only occasionally noted, however homozygosity for the p.Arg707Trp mutation was recently associated with upper body adipose overgrowth. We describe similar massive adipose overgrowth with suppressed leptin expression in four further patients with biallelic MFN2 mutations and at least one p.Arg707Trp allele. Overgrown tissue was composed of normal-sized, UCP1-negative unilocular adipocytes, with mitochondrial network fragmentation, disorganised cristae, and increased autophagosomes. There was strong transcriptional evidence of mitochondrial stress signalling, increased protein synthesis, and suppression of signatures of cell death in affected tissue, whereas mitochondrial morphology and gene expression were normal in skin fibroblasts. These findings suggest that specific MFN2 mutations cause tissue-selective mitochondrial dysfunction with increased adipocyte proliferation and survival, confirm a novel form of excess adiposity with paradoxical suppression of leptin expression, and suggest potential targeted therapies. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23813.001 PMID:28414270

  7. Low or undetectable TPO receptor expression in malignant tissue and cell lines derived from breast, lung, and ovarian tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erickson-Miller Connie L

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous efficacious chemotherapy regimens may cause thrombocytopenia. Thrombopoietin receptor (TPO-R agonists, such as eltrombopag, represent a novel approach for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia. The TPO-R MPL is expressed on megakaryocytes and megakaryocyte precursors, although little is known about its expression on other tissues. Methods Breast, lung, and ovarian tumor samples were analyzed for MPL expression by microarray and/or quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, and for TPO-R protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC. Cell line proliferation assays were used to analyze the in vitro effect of eltrombopag on breast, lung, and ovarian tumor cell proliferation. The lung carcinoma cell lines were also analyzed for TPO-R protein expression by Western blot. Results MPL mRNA was not detectable in 118 breast tumors and was detectable at only very low levels in 48% of 29 lung tumors studied by microarray analysis. By qRT-PCR, low but detectable levels of MPL mRNA were detectable in some normal (14-43% and malignant (3-17% breast, lung, and ovarian tissues. A comparison of MPL to EPOR, ERBB2, and IGF1R mRNA demonstrates that MPL mRNA levels were far lower than those of EPOR and ERBB2 mRNA in the same tissues. IHC analysis showed negligible TPO-R protein expression in tumor tissues, confirming mRNA analysis. Culture of breast, lung, and ovarian carcinoma cell lines showed no increase, and in fact, showed a decrease in proliferation following incubation with eltrombopag. Western blot analyses revealed no detectable TPO-R protein expression in the lung carcinoma cell lines. Conclusions Multiple analyses of breast, lung, and ovarian tumor samples and/or cell lines show no evidence of MPL mRNA or TPO-R protein expression. Eltrombopag does not stimulate growth of breast, lung, or ovarian tumor cell lines at doses likely to exert their actions on megakaryocytes and

  8. Low or undetectable TPO receptor expression in malignant tissue and cell lines derived from breast, lung, and ovarian tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson-Miller, Connie L; Pillarisetti, Kodandaram; Kirchner, Jennifer; Figueroa, David J; Ottesen, Lone; Martin, Anne-Marie; Liu, Yuan; Kamel, Yasser Mostafa; Messam, Conrad

    2012-09-11

    Numerous efficacious chemotherapy regimens may cause thrombocytopenia. Thrombopoietin receptor (TPO-R) agonists, such as eltrombopag, represent a novel approach for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia. The TPO-R MPL is expressed on megakaryocytes and megakaryocyte precursors, although little is known about its expression on other tissues. Breast, lung, and ovarian tumor samples were analyzed for MPL expression by microarray and/or quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and for TPO-R protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Cell line proliferation assays were used to analyze the in vitro effect of eltrombopag on breast, lung, and ovarian tumor cell proliferation. The lung carcinoma cell lines were also analyzed for TPO-R protein expression by Western blot. MPL mRNA was not detectable in 118 breast tumors and was detectable at only very low levels in 48% of 29 lung tumors studied by microarray analysis. By qRT-PCR, low but detectable levels of MPL mRNA were detectable in some normal (14-43%) and malignant (3-17%) breast, lung, and ovarian tissues. A comparison of MPL to EPOR, ERBB2, and IGF1R mRNA demonstrates that MPL mRNA levels were far lower than those of EPOR and ERBB2 mRNA in the same tissues. IHC analysis showed negligible TPO-R protein expression in tumor tissues, confirming mRNA analysis. Culture of breast, lung, and ovarian carcinoma cell lines showed no increase, and in fact, showed a decrease in proliferation following incubation with eltrombopag. Western blot analyses revealed no detectable TPO-R protein expression in the lung carcinoma cell lines. Multiple analyses of breast, lung, and ovarian tumor samples and/or cell lines show no evidence of MPL mRNA or TPO-R protein expression. Eltrombopag does not stimulate growth of breast, lung, or ovarian tumor cell lines at doses likely to exert their actions on megakaryocytes and megakaryocyte precursors.

  9. Zinc Protoporphyrin Suppresses ?-Catenin Protein Expression in Human Cancer Cells: The Potential Involvement of Lysosome-Mediated Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shuai; Hannafon, Bethany N.; Lind, Stuart E.; Ding, Wei-Qun

    2015-01-01

    Zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) has been found to have anticancer activity both in vitro and in vivo. We have recently demonstrated that ZnPP diminishes β-catenin protein expression in cancer cells. The present study examined the cellular mechanisms that mediate ZnPP's suppression of β-catenin expression. We demonstrate that ZnPP induces a rapid degradation of the β-catenin protein in cancer cells, which is accompanied by a significant inhibition of proteasome activity, suggesting that proteasome ...

  10. The Expression of miR-375 Is Associated with Carcinogenesis in Three Subtypes of Lung Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Jin

    Full Text Available Many studies demonstrated unique microRNA profiles in lung cancer. Nonetheless, the role and related signal pathways of miR-375 in lung cancer are largely unknown. Our study investigated relationships between carcinogenesis and miR-375 in adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and small cell lung carcinoma to identify new molecular targets for treatment. We evaluated 723 microRNAs in microdissected cancerous cells and adjacent normal cells from 126 snap-frozen lung specimens using microarrays. We validated the expression profiles of miR-375 and its 22 putative target mRNAs in an independent cohort of 78 snap-frozen lung cancer tissues using quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR. Moreover, we performed dual luciferase reporter assay and Western blot on 6 targeted genes (FZD8, ITGA10, ITPKB, LRP5, PIAS1 andRUNX1 in small cell lung carcinoma cell line NCI-H82. We also detected the effect of miR-375 on cell proliferation in NCI-H82. We found that miR-375 expression was significantly up-regulated in adenocarcinoma and small cell lung carcinoma but down-regulated in squamous cell carcinoma. Among the 22 putative target genes, 11 showed significantly different expression levels in at least 2 of 3 pair-wise comparisons (adenocarcinoma vs. normal, squamous cell carcinoma vs. normal or small cell lung carcinoma vs. normal. Six targeted genes had strong negative correlation with the expression level of miR-375 in small cell lung carcinoma. Further investigation revealed that miR-375 directly targeted the 3'UTR of ITPKB mRNA and over-expression of miR-375 led to significantly decreased ITPKB protein level and promoted cell growth. Thus, our study demonstrates the differential expression profiles of miR-375 in 3 subtypes of lung carcinomas and finds thatmiR-375 directly targets ITPKB and promoted cell growth in SCLC cell line.

  11. Relationship between the autoantibody and expression of β3-adrenoceptor in lung and heart.

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    Guobin Miao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidences suggest that β3 -adrenoceptor (β3-AR plays an important role in heart failure (HF, although no data is reported indicating how these effects may change with the increasing age. Pulmonary congestion and edema are the major life-threatening complications associated with HF. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between the anti-β3-AR autoantibody and the expression of β3-AR in the lungs and heart for both aged patients and rats with HF. METHODS: Synthetic β3-AR peptides served as the target antigens in ELISA were used to screen the anti-β3-AR autoantibody in aged patients and rats. Two aged rat models were constructed based on aortic banding and sham-operation. The expression of β3-AR mRNA and protein in the lung and heart was measured in intervention and non-intervention groups by Western blot analysis at the baseline, 5(th, 7(th, 9(th and 11(th week, respectively. RESULTS: The frequency and titer of anti-β3-AR autoantibody in aged patients and rats with HF were higher than those in the control group (p<0.05. The expression of β3-AR mRNA and protein in pulmonary tissues decreased continually from the 7(th week (p<0.05, followed by HF observed during the 9(th week. The expression of β3-AR in myocardial tissues continued to increase after the 9(th week (p<0.05, and the expression of both β3-AR mRNA and protein in the BRL group [HF group with BRL37344 (4-[-[2-hydroxy-(3-chlorophenylethyl-amino] phenoxyacetic acid (a β3-AR agonist injection] was positively correlated with BRL37344 when compared with non-BRL group (HF group without BRL37344 injection (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Anti-β3-AR autoantibody was detected in aged patients and rats with HF. The expression of β3-AR mRNA and protein in pulmonary tissues decreased continually, and began earlier than in the heart, but its expression in myocardial tissues increased continually and could be further promoted by β3-AR agonist.

  12. Inflammation stimulates thrombopoietin (Tpo) expression in rat brain-derived microvascular endothelial cells, but suppresses Tpo in astrocytes and microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Freyer, Dorette; Rung, Olga; Im, Ae-Rie; Hoffmann, Olaf; Dame, Christof

    2010-07-01

    Thrombopoietin (Tpo) and its receptor (c-Mpl; TpoR), which primary regulate megakaryopoiesis and platelet production, are also expressed in the central nervous system (CNS). Increased Tpo concentrations are present in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of some patients with bacterial or viral meningitis. Since previous data implicated a proapoptotic role of Tpo on newly generated neuronal cells, we herein elucidated the regulation of Tpo in primary rat neurons (e17), astrocytes, and microglia (p0-p3), as well as in brain-derived vascular endothelial cells of 3-week-old rats after exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS inhibited Tpo gene expression in astrocytes and microglia, but not in neurons, most likely due to absence of Toll-like receptor 4 in neurons. While Tpo mRNA expression recovered in astrocytes after 24 h, it remained suppressed in microglia. Furthermore, we detected Tpo mRNA expression in primary brain-derived vascular endothelial cells, which also express the TpoR. In these cells, LPS significantly up-regulated Tpo mRNA expression. TpoR mRNA and protein expression remained constitutive in all cell types. Thus, our data provide evidence for a cell-type-specific modulation of Tpo mRNA expression by inflammation in brain-derived cells. Transient down-regulation of Tpo expression in astrocytes and microglia may limit Tpo-induced neuronal cell death in inflammatory brain disorders.

  13. Acute Gene Expression Profile of Lung Tissue Following Sulfur Mustard Inhalation Exposure in Large Anesthetized Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugg, Bronwen J A; Hoard-Fruchey, Heidi; Rothwell, Cristin; Dillman, James F; David, Jonathan; Jenner, John; Sciuto, Alfred M

    2016-10-17

    Sulfur mustard (HD) is a vesicating and alkylating agent widely used on the battlefield during World War I and more recently in the Iran-Iraq War. It targets the eyes, skin, and lungs, producing skin burns, conjunctivitis, and compromised respiratory function; early acute effects lead to long-term consequences. However, it is the effects on the lungs that drive morbidity and eventual mortality. The temporal postexposure response to HD within lung tissue raises the question of whether toxicity is driven by the alkylating properties of HD on critical homeostatic pathways. We have established an anesthetized swine model of inhaled HD vapor exposure to investigate the toxic effects of HD 12 h postexposure. Large white female swine were anesthetized and instrumented prior to exposure to air, 60 (sublethal) or 100 μg·kg -1 (∼LD 40 ) doses of HD (10 min). Physiological parameters were continuously assessed. Data indicate that exposure to 100 μg·kg -1 HD lowered arterial blood oxygenation and increased shunt fraction and lavage protein compared with those of air-exposed controls and the 60 μg·kg -1 dose of HD. Histopathology showed an increased total pathology score between the 100 μg·kg -1 HD group and air-exposed controls. Principal component analysis of differentially expressed genes demonstrated a distinct and separable response of inhaled HD between air-exposed controls and the 60 and 100 μg·kg -1 doses of HD. Canonical pathway analysis demonstrated changes in acute phase response signaling, aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling, NRF-2 mediated oxidative stress, and zymosterol biosynthesis in the 60 and 100 μg·kg -1 HD dose group. Transcriptional changes also indicated alterations in immune response, cancer, and cell signaling and metabolism canonical pathways. The 100 μg·kg -1 dose group also showed significant changes in cholesterol biosynthesis. Taken together, exposure to inhaled HD had a significant effect on physiological responses coinciding with

  14. Burst-suppression pattern in the electroencephalogram of newborns and infants. Its clinical expression

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    Cervantes Blanco Jorge Mauricio

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Burst-suppression pattern in the electroencephalogram (EEG is associated with severe brain damage and has a bad prognosis in 85% of the cases. Objectives. To identify the prevalence of the EEG burst-suppression pattern (BSP in fullterm newborns and infants, determine its etiol- ogy, clinical features and course. Methods. A retrospective study was conducted. Between January 2008 and December 2012, 4,891 EEGs were reviewed. The EEGs of newborns and infants (< 3 months of age with BSP were selected. Results. 11 cases identified with burst suppression pattern. The overall prevalence of which was 3.5%; 8.1% among the newborns and 1.2% among infants. Seizures were the main reason for doing an EEG in the newborn period in 7 patients and after day 28 in three. The clinical manifestations were abnormal level of consciousness (n=8, hypotonia (n=2, and spasticity (n=6. The main causes were hypoxic ischemic injury, stroke and kernicterus. There were two cases of early infantile epileptic encephalopathy. Two patients died before the third month of age; 8 survived an average of 13 months. All had epilepsy, neurologic retardation and disability. Two patients had persistent EEG burst-suppression pattern; 1 and 3 months after the neonatal period respectively; 7 had focal spikes and an asymmetric pattern. Conclusions. Electroencephalographic burst-suppression pat- tern predicts a severe neurologic injury in fullterm newborns and infants.

  15. Knock-down of NDRG2 sensitizes cervical cancer Hela cells to cisplatin through suppressing Bcl-2 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Junye; Guo, Guozhen; Yang, Le; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Yongbin; Li, Kangchu; Li, Yurong; Li, Yan; Yao, Libo

    2012-01-01

    NDRG2, a member of N-Myc downstream regulated gene family, plays some roles in cellular stress, cell differentiation and tumor suppression. We have found that NDRG2 expression in cervical cancer Hela cells increases significantly upon stimulation with cisplatin, the most popular chemotherapeutic agent currently used for the treatment of advanced cervical cancer. This interesting phenomenon drove us to evaluate the role of NDRG2 in chemosensitivity of Hela cells. In the present study, RNA interference was employed to down-regulate NDRG2 expression in Hela cells. RT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect expression of NDRG2, Bcl-2 and Bax in cancer cells. Real-time PCR was applied to detect miR-15b and miR-16 expression levels. Drug sensitivity was determined with MTT assay. Cell cloning efficiency was evaluated by Colony-forming assay. Apoptotic cells were detected with annexin V staining and flow cytometry. In vitro drug sensitivity assay revealed that suppression of NDRG2 could sensitize Hela cells to cisplatin. Down-regulation of NDRG2 didn’t influence the colony-forming ability but promoted cisplatin-induced apoptosis of Hela cells. Inhibition of NDRG2 in Hela cells was accompanied by decreased Bcl-2 protein level. However, Bcl-2 mRNA level was not changed in Hela cells with down-regulation of NDRG2. Further study indicated that miR-15b and miR-16, two microRNAs targetting Bcl-2, were significantly up-regulated in NDRG2-suppressed Hela cells. These data suggested that down-regulation of NDRG2 could enhance sensitivity of Hela cells to cisplatin through inhibiting Bcl-2 protein expression, which might be mediated by up-regulating miR-15b and miR-16

  16. The STAT3 inhibitor pimozide impedes cell proliferation and induces ROS generation in human osteosarcoma by suppressing catalase expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Nan; Zhou, Wei; Ye, Lan-Lan; Chen, Jun; Liang, Qiu-Ni; Chang, Gang; Chen, Jia-Jie

    2017-01-01

    Currently, there is a considerable need to develop new treatments for osteosarcoma (OS), a very aggressive bone cancer. The activation of STAT3 signaling is positively associated with poor prognosis and aggressive progression in OS patients. Our previous study reported that the FDA-approved antipsychotic drug pimozide had anti-tumor activity against hepatocellular carcinoma and prostate cancer cells by suppressing STAT3 activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the specific effect of pimozide on OS cells and the underlying molecular mechanism. Pimozide inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation, and sphere formation capacities of the OS cells in a dose-dependent manner, inducing G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest. Pimozide reduced the percentage of side population cells representing cancer stem-like cells and enhanced the sensitivity of OS cells to 5-FU induced proliferative inhibition. In addition, pimozide induced apoptosis of U2OS cells, which showed increased expression of cleaved-PARP, a marker of programmed cell death. Moreover, pimozide suppressed Erk signaling in OS cells. Importantly, pimozide induced ROS generation by downregulating the expression of the antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT). NAC treatment partially reversed the ROS generation and cytotoxic effects induced by pimozide. CAT treatment attenuated the pimozide-induced proliferation inhibition. The decrease of CAT expression induced by pimozide was potentially mediated through the suppression of cellular STAT3 activity in OS cells. Thus, pimozide may be a novel STAT3 inhibitor that suppresses cellular STAT3 activity to inhibit OS cells or stem-like cells and is a novel potential anti-cancer agent in OS treatment.

  17. Conserved RXLR Effector Genes of Phytophthora infestans Expressed at the Early Stage of Potato Infection Are Suppressive to Host Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junliang Yin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Late blight has been the most devastating potato disease worldwide. The causal agent, Phytophthora infestans, is notorious for its capability to rapidly overcome host resistance. Changes in the expression pattern and the encoded protein sequences of effector genes in the pathogen are responsible for the loss of host resistance. Among numerous effector genes, the class of RXLR effector genes is well-known in mediating host genotype-specific resistance. We therefore performed deep sequencing of five genetically diverse P. infestans strains using in planta materials infected with zoospores (12 h post inoculation and focused on the identification of RXLR effector genes that are conserved in coding sequences, are highly expressed in early stages of plant infection, and have defense suppression activities. In all, 245 RXLR effector genes were expressed in five transcriptomes, with 108 being co-expressed in all five strains, 47 of them comparatively highly expressed. Taking sequence polymorphism into consideration, 18 candidate core RXLR effectors that were conserved in sequence and with higher in planta expression levels were selected for further study. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transient expression of the selected effector genes in Nicotiana benthamiana and potato demonstrated their potential virulence function, as shown by suppression of PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI or/and effector-triggered immunity (ETI. The identified collection of core RXLR effectors will be useful in the search for potential durable late blight resistance genes. Analysis of 10 known Avr RXLR genes revealed that the resistance genes R2, Rpi-blb2, Rpi-vnt1, Rpi-Smira1, and Rpi-Smira2 may be effective in potato cultivars. Analysis of 8 SFI (Suppressor of early Flg22-induced Immune response RXLR effector genes showed that SFI2, SFI3, and SFI4 were highly expressed in all examined strains, suggesting their potentially important function in early stages of pathogen infection.

  18. Reduced Dnmt3a increases Gdf5 expression with suppressed satellite cell differentiation and impaired skeletal muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatazawa, Yukino; Ono, Yusuke; Hirose, Yuma; Kanai, Sayaka; Fujii, Nobuharu L; Machida, Shuichi; Nishino, Ichizo; Shimizu, Takahiko; Okano, Masaki; Kamei, Yasutomi; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2018-03-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism regulating gene expression. In this study, we observed that DNA methyltransferase 3a (Dnmt3a) expression is decreased after muscle atrophy. We made skeletal muscle-specific Dnmt3a-knockout (Dnmt3a-KO) mice. The regeneration capacity after muscle injury was markedly decreased in Dnmt3a-KO mice. Diminished mRNA and protein expression of Dnmt3a were observed in skeletal muscles as well as in satellite cells, which are important for muscle regeneration, in Dnmt3a-KO mice. Dnmt3a-KO satellite cell showed smaller in size (length/area), suggesting suppressed myotube differentiation. Microarray analysis of satellite cells showed that expression of growth differentiation factor 5 (Gdf5) mRNA was markedly increased in Dnmt3a-KO mice. The DNA methylation level of the Gdf5 promoter was markedly decreased in Dnmt3a-KO satellite cells. In addition, DNA methylation inhibitor azacytidine treatment increased Gdf5 expression in wild-type satellite cells, suggesting Gdf5 expression is regulated by DNA methylation. Also, we observed increased inhibitor of differentiation (a target of Gdf5) mRNA expression in Dnmt3a-KO satellite cells. Thus, Dnmt3a appears to regulate satellite cell differentiation via DNA methylation. This mechanism may play a role in the decreased regeneration capacity during atrophy such as in aged sarcopenia.-Hatazawa, Y., Ono, Y., Hirose, Y., Kanai, S., Fujii, N. L., Machida, S., Nishino, I., Shimizu, T., Okano, M., Kamei, Y., Ogawa, Y. Reduced Dnmt3a increases Gdf5 expression with suppressed satellite cell differentiation and impaired skeletal muscle regeneration.

  19. Tumor-suppressing effects of microRNA-612 in bladder cancer cells by targeting malic enzyme 1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengnan; Chen, Yifan; Huang, Bisheng; Mao, Shiyu; Cai, Keke; Wang, Longsheng; Yao, Xudong

    2018-03-29

    The present study investigated the possible tumor-suppressing function of microRNA (miR)-612 and the underlying molecular mechanism of its action in bladder cancer in vitro and in vivo. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) was carried out to quantify the expression levels of miR‑612 in bladder cancer tissues and cell lines. The data demonstrated that the level of miR‑612 expression was significantly reduced in bladder cancer tissues and cell lines, as compared with that in non‑cancerous tissues and cells. Reduced miR‑612 expression was associated with advanced tumor, lymph node and metastasis stages, and with distant metastasis of bladder cancer. A functional study revealed that transfection of cells with an miR‑612 mimic suppressed bladder cancer cell growth, colony formation, migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Bioinformatics analysis identified that miR‑612 targeted the expression of malic enzyme 1 (ME1), and this was confirmed by western blot and luciferase reporter assay results. Furthermore, the ME1 expression levels were inversely associated with miR‑612 expression in bladder cancer tissue specimens. In addition, knockdown of ME1 expression using ME1 siRNA mimicked the effect of ectopic miR‑612 overexpression in bladder cancer cells in terms of tumor cell growth, migration and invasion. By contrast, ME1 overexpression weakened the inhibitory effect of the miR‑612 mimic in bladder cancer cells. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that miR‑612 may function as a tumor suppressor in bladder cancer by targeting ME1 expression.

  20. Is the Glut expression related to FDG uptake in PET/CT of non-small cell lung cancer patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo Hee; Yoo, Ie Ryung; O, Joo Hyun; Kim, Tae Jung; Lee, Kyo Young; Kim, Young Kyoon

    2015-01-01

    Though 18F-FDG PET/CT scans are widely used in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the mechanism of FDG uptake by lung cancer cells has not yet been fully elucidated. This study evaluated the relationship between FDG uptake and the expression of glucose transporters in NSCLC. Sixty-four NSCLC patients who underwent both preoperative 18F-FDG PET/CT scanning and thoracotomy were included. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of the primary lung cancer was compared to the immunohistochemistry results for Glut expression and tumor size. In all the NSCLC cases, degree of FDG uptake significantly correlated with both Glut-1 and Glut-3 expression. When stratified by the histology, squamous cell carcinomas showed higher mean SUVmax, Glut-1 expression intensity, and percentage of area positive for Glut-1 expression than adenocarcinomas. Glut-1 and Glut-3 expressions correlated with SUVmax in adenocarcinomas, but there was no significant correlation in squamous cell carcinomas. No significant correlation was observed between tumor size and FDG uptake or Glut expression. These results show that Glut expression was significantly correlated with SUVmax in NSCLC, especially in adenocarcinomas, and that neither FDG uptake nor the expression of Glut was associated with tumor size.

  1. Gene expression profiles in asbestos-exposed epithelial and mesothelial lung cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaski Samuel

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asbestos has been shown to cause chromosomal damage and DNA aberrations. Exposure to asbestos causes many lung diseases e.g. asbestosis, malignant mesothelioma, and lung cancer, but the disease-related processes are still largely unknown. We exposed the human cell lines A549, Beas-2B and Met5A to crocidolite asbestos and determined time-dependent gene expression profiles by using Affymetrix arrays. The hybridization data was analyzed by using an algorithm specifically designed for clustering of short time series expression data. A canonical correlation analysis was applied to identify correlations between the cell lines, and a Gene Ontology analysis method for the identification of enriched, differentially expressed biological processes. Results We recognized a large number of previously known as well as new potential asbestos-associated genes and biological processes, and identified chromosomal regions enriched with genes potentially contributing to common responses to asbestos in these cell lines. These include genes such as the thioredoxin domain containing gene (TXNDC and the potential tumor suppressor, BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19kD-interacting protein gene (BNIP3L, GO-terms such as "positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB cascade" and "positive regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent", and chromosomal regions such as 2p22, 9p13, and 14q21. We present the complete data sets as Additional files. Conclusion This study identifies several interesting targets for further investigation in relation to asbestos-associated diseases.

  2. Gene expression profiling in lung tissues from rats exposed to formaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sul, Donggeun; Kim, Hyunsook; Oh, Eunha; Phark, Sohee; Cho, Eunkyung; Choi, Seonyoung; Kang, Hyung-Sik; Kim, Eun-Mi; Hwang, Kwang-Woo; Jung, Woon-Won

    2007-08-01

    Formaldehyde is a ubiquitous toxic organic compound recently classified as a carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer and one of the major factors causing sick building syndrome. In this study, we have investigated the effects of formaldehyde on mRNA expression in rat lung tissues by applying genomics. Rats were exposed to ambient air and two different concentrations of formaldehyde (0, 5, 10 ppm) for 2 weeks at 6 h/day and 5 days/week in an inhalation chamber. Malondialdehyde (MDA) assay and carbonyl spectrometric assay were conducted to determine lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation levels and Comet assays were used for genotoxicity evaluation. Level of MDA, carbonyl insertion and DNA damage in the lungs of rats exposed to FA were found to be dose dependently increased. Gene expression was evaluated by using a bio-array hybridization analysis. A total of 21 (2 up- and 19 down-regulated) genes were identified as biomarkers for formaldehyde effects. Several differentiated gene groups were found. Genes involved in apoptosis, immunity, metabolism, signal transduction, transportation, coagulation and oncogenesis were found to be up- and down-regulated. Among these genes, the mRNA expressions of cytochrome P450, hydroxymethylbilane synthase, glutathione reductase, carbonic anhydrase 2, natriuretic peptide receptor 3, lysosomal associated protein transmembrane 5, regulator of G-protein signaling 3, olfactomedin related ER localized protein, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. In summary, the MDA lipid peroxidation and the carbonyl protein oxidation assays showed that cytotoxic effects increased with increasing formaldehyde levels. Genomic analysis showed that 21 genes were up- or down-regulated. Of these genes, nine were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR and could be potential biomarkers for human diseases associated with formaldehyde exposure.

  3. [Clinic significance of nm23, collage IV and PCNA expression in non-small cell lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Q; Ma, L; Jing, S; Xu, Y; Geng, D

    2001-12-20

    To study the significance of nm23, collagen IV and PCNA expressions in non-small cell lung cancer. Expressions of the nm23, collagen IV and PCNA in 84 cases of non-small cell lung cancer were examined with SP immunohistochemical technique. Of the 84 cases, there were squamous cell carcinoma 42, adenocarcinoma 42, stage I 27, stage II 24, stage III 24, and stage IV 9. Statistical analysis was performed with Chi-Square test. Expressions of the nm23, collagen IV and PCNA in 84 cases of non-small cell lung cancer were 60. 7% ( 51/ 84) , 75. 0% ( 63/ 84) and 53. 6% ( 45/ 84) respectively. There was negative correlation between the lymph node metastasis and the expressions of nm23 and collagen IV in squamous cell carcinoma, and the expressions of collagen IV and PCNA were associated with tumor differentiation. No correlation was found between TNM stage and expressions of nm23, collagen IV and PCNA. The results indicate that nm23, collagen IV and PCNA participate the modulation of metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer and that they may be used to evaluate the potential of metastasis.

  4. [Altered expressions of alkane monooxygenase and hypoxia inducible factor-1α expression in lung tissue of rat hypoxic pulmonary hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hua-jun; Yuan, Ya-dong

    2013-10-29

    To explore the altered expressions of alkane monooxygenase (AlkB) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in a rat model of hypoxic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Twenty Wistar rats were divided randomly into normal control and hypoxia groups after 1-week adaptive feeding. Hypoxia group was raised in a homemade organic glass tank with a 24-h continuous supply of air and nitrogen atmospheric mixed gas. And the oxygen concentration of (10.0 ± 0.5)% was controlled by oxygen monitoring control system. The control group was maintained in room air. Both groups stayed in the same room with the same diet. After 8 weeks, the level of mean pulmonary pressure (mPAP) was measured by right-heart catheterization, right ventricular hypertrophy index (RVHI) calculated by the ratio of right ventricle to left ventricle plus septum and hypoxic pulmonary vascular remodeling (HPSR) observed under microscope. And the levels of AlkB and HIF-1α mRNA and protein in lungs were measured by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot. At 8 weeks post-hypoxia, compared with the control group [11.0 ± 0.7 mm Hg (1 mm Hg = 0.133 kPa), 0.210 ± 0.035], the levels of mPAP and RVHI in hypoxia group (33.3 ± 1.3 mm Hg, 0.448 ± 0.013) increased significantly (both P < 0.05), the expressions of AlkB mRNA and protein in pulmonary tissue decreased significantly (0.338 ± 0.085 vs 0.688 ± 0.020, P < 0.01) (0.483 ± 0.052 vs 0.204 ± 0.010, P < 0.01), and the expressions of HIF-1α mRNA and protein increased significantly (0.790 ± 0.161 vs 0.422 ± 0.096, P < 0.01) (0.893 ± 0.080 vs 0.346 ± 0.008, P < 0.01). The down-regulation of AlkB in lung tissue may increase the activity of HIF-1 to participate in the occurrence and development of pulmonary hypertension.

  5. Elucidating the Mechanism of Regulation of Transforming Growth Factor β Type II Receptor Expression in Human Lung Cancer Cell Lines

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    Sunil K. Halder

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Lung carcinogenesis in humans involves an accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes that lead to alterations in normal lung epithelium, to in situ carcinoma, and finally to invasive and metastatic cancers. The loss of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β-induced tumor suppressor function in tumors plays a pivotal role in this process, and our previous studies have shown that resistance to TGF-β in lung cancers occurs mostly through the loss of TGF-β type II receptor expression (TβRII. However, little is known about the mechanism of down-regulation of TβRII and how histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors (HDIs can restore TGF-β-induced tumor suppressor function. Here we show that HDIs restore TβRII expression and that DNA hypermethylation has no effect on TβRII promoter activity in lung cancer cell lines. TGF-β-induced tumor suppressor function is restored by HDIs in lung cancer cell lines that lack TβRII expression. Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway by either activated Ras or epidermal growth factor signaling is involved in the down-regulation of TβRII through histone deacetylation. We have immunoprecipitated the protein complexes by biotinylated oligonucleotides corresponding to the HDI-responsive element in the TβRII promoter (−127/(−75 and identified the proteins/factors using proteomics studies. The transcriptional repressor Meis1/2 is involved in repressing the TβRII promoter activity, possibly through its recruitment by Sp1 and NF-YA to the promoter. These results suggest a mechanism for the downregulation of TβRII in lung cancer and that TGF-β tumor suppressor functions may be restored by HDIs in lung cancer patients with the loss of TβRII expression.

  6. Global gene expression profiling in human lung cells exposed to cobalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malard, V.; Berenguer, F.; Prat, O.; Ruat, S.; Steinmetz, G.; Quemeneur, E. [CEA VALRHO, Serv Biochim and Toxicol Nucl, DSV, iBEB, F-30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze (France)

    2007-06-06

    It has been estimated that more than 1 million workers in the United States are exposed to cobalt. Occupational exposure to {sup 59}Co occurs mainly via inhalation and leads to various lung diseases. Cobalt is classified by the IARC as a possible human carcinogen (group 2B). Although there is evidence for in vivo and in vitro toxicity, the mechanisms of cobalt-induced lung toxicity are not fully known. The purpose of this work was to identify potential signatures of acute cobalt exposure using a toxico-genomic approach. Data analysis focused on some cellular processes and protein targets that are thought to be relevant for carcinogenesis, transport and bio-marker research. Results: A time course transcriptome analysis was performed on A549 human pulmonary cells, leading to the identification of 85 genes which are repressed or induced in response to soluble 59 Co. A group of 29 of these genes, representing the main biological functions, was assessed by quantitative RT-PCR. The expression profiles of six of them were then tested by quantitative RT-PCR in a time-dependent manner and three modulations were confirmed by Western blotting. The 85 modulated genes include potential cobalt carriers (FBXL2, ZNT1, SLC12A5), tumor suppressors or transcription factors (MAZ, DLG1, MYC, AXL) and genes linked to the stress response (UBC, HSPCB, BN1P3L). We also identified nine genes coding for secreted proteins as candidates for bio-marker research. Of those, T1MP2 was found to be down-regulated and this modulation was confirmed, in a dose-dependent manner, at protein level in the supernatant of exposed cells. Conclusion: Most of these genes have never been described as related to cobalt stress and provide original hypotheses for further study of the effects of this metal ion on human lung epithelial cells. A putative bio-marker of cobalt toxicity was identified. (authors)

  7. Global gene expression profiling in human lung cells exposed to cobalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinmetz Gerard

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been estimated that more than 1 million workers in the United States are exposed to cobalt. Occupational exposure to 59 Co occurs mainly via inhalation and leads to various lung diseases. Cobalt is classified by the IARC as a possible human carcinogen (group 2B. Although there is evidence for in vivo and in vitro toxicity, the mechanisms of cobalt-induced lung toxicity are not fully known. The purpose of this work was to identify potential signatures of acute cobalt exposure using a toxicogenomic approach. Data analysis focused on some cellular processes and protein targets that are thought to be relevant for carcinogenesis, transport and biomarker research. Results A time course transcriptome analysis was performed on A549 human pulmonary cells, leading to the identification of 85 genes which are repressed or induced in response to soluble 59 Co. A group of 29 of these genes, representing the main biological functions, was assessed by quantitative RT-PCR. The expression profiles of six of them were then tested by quantitative RT-PCR in a time-dependent manner and three modulations were confirmed by Western blotting. The 85 modulated genes include potential cobalt carriers (FBXL2, ZNT1, SLC12A5, tumor suppressors or transcription factors (MAZ, DLG1, MYC, AXL and genes linked to the stress response (UBC, HSPCB, BNIP3L. We also identified nine genes coding for secreted proteins as candidates for biomarker research. Of those, TIMP2 was found to be down-regulated and this modulation was confirmed, in a dose-dependent manner, at protein level in the supernatant of exposed cells. Conclusion Most of these genes have never been described as related to cobalt stress and provide original hypotheses for further study of the effects of this metal ion on human lung epithelial cells. A putative biomarker of cobalt toxicity was identified.

  8. Human small-cell lung cancers show amplification and expression of the N-myc gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nau, M.M.; Brooks, B.J. Jr.; Carney, D.N.; Gazdar, A.F.; Battey, J.F.; Sausville, E.A.; Minna, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have found that 6 of 31 independently derived human small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines have 5- to 170-fold amplified N-myc gene sequences. The amplification is seen with probes from two separate exons of N-myc, which are homologous to either the second or the third exon of the c-myc gene. Amplified N-myc sequences were found in a tumor cell line started prior to chemotherapy, in SCLC tumor samples harvested directly from tumor metastases at autopsy, and from a resected primary lung cancer. Several N-myc-amplified tumor cell lines also exhibited N-myc hybridizing fragments not in the germ-line position. In one patient's tumor, an additional amplitifed N-myc DNA fragment was observed and this fragment was heterogeneously distributed in liver metastases. In contrast to SCLC with neuroendocrine properties, no non-small-cell lung cancer lines examined were found to have N-myc amplification. Fragments encoding two N-myc exons also detect increased amounts of a 3.1-kilobase N-myc mRNA in N-myc-amplified SCLC lines and in one cell line that does not show N-myc gene amplification. Both DNA and RNA hybridization experiments, using a 32 P-labelled restriction probe, show that in any one SCLC cell line, only one myc-related gene is amplified and expressed. They conclude that N-myc amplification is both common and potentially significant in the tumorigenesis or tumor progression of SCLC

  9. The Expression of the Ubiquitin Ligase SIAH2 (Seven In Absentia Homolog 2 Is Increased in Human Lung Cancer.

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    Paula Moreno

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Overall 5-year survival has shown little improvement over the last decades. Seven in absentia homolog (SIAH proteins are E3 ubiquitin ligases that mediate proteasomal protein degradation by poly-ubiquitination. Even though SIAH proteins play a key role in several biological processes, their role in human cancer remains controversial. The aim of the study was to document SIAH2 expression pattern at different levels (mRNA, protein level and immunohistochemistry in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC samples compared to surrounding healthy tissue from the same patient, and to analyse the association with clinicopathological features.One hundred and fifty-two samples from a patient cohort treated surgically for primary lung cancer were obtained for the study. Genic and protein expression levels of SIAH2 were analysed and compared with clinic-pathologic variables.The present study is the first to analyze the SIAH2 expression pattern at different levels (RNA, protein expression and immunohistochemistry in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. We found that SIAH2 protein expression is significantly enhanced in human lung adenocarcinoma (ADC and squamous cell lung cancer (SCC. Paradoxically, non-significant changes at RNA level were found, suggesting a post-traductional regulatory mechanism. More importantly, an increased correlation between SIAH2 expression and tumor grade was detected, suggesting that this protein could be used as a prognostic biomarker to predict lung cancer progression. Likewise, SIAH2 protein