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Sample records for suppressed-fission icf hybrid

  1. Parametric systems analysis for ICF hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berwald, D.H.; Maniscalco, J.A.; Chapin, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Parametric design and systems analysis for inertial confinement fusion-fission hybrids are presented. These results were generated as part of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) sponsored Feasibility Assessment of Fusion-Fission Hybrids, using an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) hybrid power plant design code developed in conjunction with the feasibility assessment. The SYMECON systems analysis code, developed by Westinghouse, was used to generate economic results for symbiotic electricity generation systems consisting of the hybrid and its client Light Water Reactors (LWRs). These results explore the entire fusion parameter space for uranium fast fission blanket hybrids, thorium fast fission blanket hybrids, and thorium suppressed fission blanket types are discussed, and system sensitivities to design uncertainties are explored

  2. Reactor systems modeling for ICF hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berwald, D.H.; Meier, W.R.

    1980-10-01

    The computational models of ICF reactor subsystems developed by LLNL and TRW are described and a computer program was incorporated for use in the EPRI-sponsored Feasibility Assessment of Fusion-Fission Hybrids. Representative parametric variations have been examined. Many of the ICF subsystem models are very preliminary and more quantitative models need to be developed and included in the code

  3. ICF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekharaiah, M.N.; Dubben, G.; Kolster, B.H.

    1992-01-01

    Federal tax credits for producing U.S. unconventional gas should be changed to restore original energy objectives of Congress, says ICF Resources Inc., Fairfax, Va. This paper reports that ICF suggests how Section 29 tax credits might be changed in an analysis drawing on a confidential survey of 60 producers of unconventional gas resources (UGRs) and two earlier ICF Section 29 studies. The analysis comes at a time when Section 29 incentives are stirring debate in Congress and controversy in the U.S. gas industry. ICF says Section 29 credits for developing and producing UGRs no longer provide the incentives Congress intended because, despite sweeping changes in the U.S. gas industry, the credit's scope and mechanism have not changed since its inception in 1980. The company says Congress implemented Section 29 to speed development and production of unconventional gas, mostly in marginal or otherwise uneconomic tight sand, coal seam, and Devonian shale reservoirs

  4. Thorium--uranium cycle ICF hybrid concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, T.G.

    1978-01-01

    The results of preliminary studies of a laser-driven fusion-fission hybrid concept utilizing the 232 Th- 233 U breeding cycle are reported. Neutron multiplication in the breeding blanket is provided by a region containing 238 UO 2 and the equilibrium concentration of 239 PuO 2 . Established fission reactor technology is utilized to determine limits on operating conditions for high-temperature fuels and structures. The implications of nonproliferation policies for the operation of fusion-fission hybrid reactors are discussed

  5. Hybrid Monte-Carlo method for ICF calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clouet, J.F.; Samba, G.

    2003-01-01

    Numerical simulation of Inertial Confinement Fusion targets in indirect drive requires an accurate description of the radiation transport flow. Laser energy is first converted to X-ray in the gold wall and then transferred to the fusion target through an hohlraum filled with gas. The emissive region is moving in the gold wall which is rapidly expanding into the hohlraum so that the resolution of the radiative transfer equations has to be coupled with hydrodynamic motion. Scientific computing is actually the only tool for an accurate design of ICF targets: one of the difficulties is to compute the non-isotropic irradiation on the capsule and to control them by an appropriate balance between the energy of the different laser beams. Hence an approximate description of radiation transport is not relevant and a transport method has to be chosen. On the other hand transport methods are known to be more or less inefficient in optically thick regions: for instance in the gold wall before it is sufficiently heated and ablated to become optically thin. In these regions, diffusion approximation of the transfer equations is an accurate description of the physical phenomenon; moreover it is much more cheaper to solve numerically than the full transport equations. This is why we developed an hybrid method for radiation transport where the lower part of the energy spectrum is treated in the diffusion approximation whereas the higher part is treated by a transport method. We introduced the notion of spectral cut-off to describe this separation between the two descriptions. The method is dynamic in the sense that the spectral cut-off evolves with time and space localization. The method has been introduced in our ICF code FCl2: this is a 2D radiation hydrodynamics code in cylindrical geometry which has been used for several years at the CEA for laser studies. It is a Lagrangian code with Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian capabilities, flux-limited thermal (electronic and ionic

  6. Conceptual design of a hybrid KrF laser system for ICF commercial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.B.; Lowenthal, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    KrF lasers appear to be the most efficient lasers operating near the optimal wavelength for laser fusion. Most high-efficiency, low-cost KrF laser designs use large electron-beam-driven amplifiers and use pure angular multiplexing for the required pulse compression. A recent study carried out by Los Alamos National Lab. and Spectra Technology has defied a high-efficiency hybrid KrF laser system architecture that uses both angular multiplexing and Raman beam combination. The high overall system efficiency of this hybrid design, ∼ 12%, is achieved primarily through the use of electron-beam sustained discharge lasers (EBSDL), and by using the efficient forward rotational Raman process in hydrogen. The new system appears attractive as a commercial-applications driver because the calculated efficiency is higher than the usual large electron-beam-pumped (EBP) KrF laser/pure angular multiplexing approach. In this paper, the hybrid system architecture will be described, and the trade-offs with respect to the large EBP amplifier/angular multiplexed system will be discussed

  7. Conceptual design of a hybrid KrF laser system for ICF commercial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.B.; Lowenthal, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    KrF lasers appear to be the most efficient lasers operating near the optimal wavelength for laser fusion. Most high-efficiency, low-cost KrF laser designs use large electron-beam driven amplifiers and use pure angular multiplexing for the required pulse compression. A recent study carried out by Los Alamos and Spectra Technology has defined a high-efficiency hybrid KrF laser system architecture that uses both angular multiplexing and Raman beam combination. The high overall system efficiency of this hybrid design, approximately 12%, is achieved primarily through the use of e-beam sustained discharge lasers (EBSDL), and by using the efficient forward rotational Raman process in hydrogen. The new system appears attractive as a commercial-applications driver because the calculated efficiency is higher than the usual large e-beam pumped (EBP) KrF laser/pure angular multiplexing approach. In this paper, the hybrid system architecture is described, and the tradeoffs with respect to the large EBP amplifier/angular multiplexed system are discussed

  8. 1996 ICF program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correll, D

    1996-01-01

    The continuing objective of the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program is the demonstration of thermonuclear fusion ignition and energy gain in the laboratory. The underlying theme of all ICF activities as a science research and development program is the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Defense Programs (DP) science-based Stockpile Stewardship and Management (SSM) Program. The extension of current program research capabilities in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is necessary for the ICF Program to satisfy its stewardship responsibilities. ICF resources (people and facilities) are increasingly being redirected in support of the performance, schedule, and cost goals of the NIF. One of the more important aspects of ICF research is the national nature of the program. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) ICF Program falls within DOE's national ICF Program, which includes the Nova and Beamlet laser facilities at LLNL and the OMEGA, Nike, and Trident laser facilities at the University of Rochester (Laboratory for Laser Energetics, UR/LLE), the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), respectively. The Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator (PBFA) and Saturn pulsed-power facilities are at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). General Atomics, Inc. (GA) develops and provides many of the targets for the above experimental facilities. LLNL's ICF Program supports activities in two major interrelated areas: (1) target physics and technology (experimental, theoretical, and computational research); and (2) laser science and optics technology development. Experiments on LLNL's Nova laser primarily support ignition and weapons physics research. Experiments on LLNL's Beamlet laser support laser science and optics technology development. In addition, ICF sciences and technologies, developed as part of the DP mission goals, continue to support additional DOE objectives. These objectives are (1) to achieve diversity in energy sources

  9. Multiuser development scenario for ICF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, W.J.

    1985-10-01

    An outline is given of some of the various possible applications of ICF technology. Developmental paths for each application are briefly described. The implications on design and operation of the ICF facilities if multipurpose use is allowed are examined

  10. Using the ICF in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Good, Anne

    2011-05-01

    This paper reflects on the use of ICF in Ireland, taking as a case study the experience of the first National Disability Survey (NDS). There were four clear effects in Ireland of using ICF as a framework for the NDS: a) that a broader range of people with disabilities was encompassed; b) that the environmental factors included from the ICF were comprehensive and policy relevant; c) that both barriers and facilitators were incorporated into the model; and d) that a focus on research ethics was encouraged. Some general conclusions regarding the benefits and limitations of ICF based on this experience are also drawn.

  11. Inertial confinement fusion (ICF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.

    1977-01-01

    The principal goal of the inertial confinement fusion program is the development of a practical fusion power plant in this century. Rapid progress has been made in the four major areas of ICF--targets, drivers, fusion experiments, and reactors. High gain targets have been designed. Laser, electron beam, and heavy ion accelerator drivers appear to be feasible. Record-breaking thermonuclear conditions have been experimentally achieved. Detailed diagnostics of laser implosions have confirmed predictions of the LASNEX computer program. Experimental facilities are being planned and constructed capable of igniting high gain fusion microexplosions in the mid 1980's. A low cost long lifetime reactor design has been developed

  12. FIRST STEP towards ICF commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saylor, W.W.; Pendergrass, J.H.; Dudziak, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Production of tritium for weapons and fusion R and D programs and successful development of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) technologies are important national goals. A conceptual design for an ICF facility to meet these goals is presented. FIRST STEP (Fusion, Inertial, Reduced-Requirements Systems Test for Special Nuclear Material, Tritium, and Energy Production) is a concept for a plant to produce SNM, tritium, and energy while serving as a test bed for ICF technology development. A credible conceptual design for an ICF SNM and tritium production facility that competes favorably with fission technology on the bases of cost, production quality, and safety was sought. FIRST STEP is also designed to be an engineering test facility that integrates systems required for an ICF power plant and that is intermediate in scale between proof-of-principle experiment and commercial power plant. FIRST STEP driver and pellet performance requirements are moderate and represent reasonable intermediate goals in an R and D plan for ICF commercialization. Repetition rate requirements for FIRST STEP are similar to those of commercial size plants and FIRST STEP can be used to integrate systems under realistic ICF conditions

  13. Hydrodynamick instabilities on ICF capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haan, S.W.

    1991-01-01

    This article summarizes our current understanding of hydrodynamic instabilities as relevant to ICF. First we discuss classical, single mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability, and nonlinear effects in the evolution of a single mode. Then we discuss multimode systems, considering: (1) the onset of nonlinearity; (2) a second order mode coupling theory for weakly nonlinear effects, and (3) the fully nonlinear regime. Two stabilization mechanisms relevant to ICF are described next: gradient scale length and convective stabilization. Then we describe a model which is meant to estimate the weakly nonlinear evolution of multi-mode systems as relevant to ICF, given the short-wavelength stabilization. Finally, we discuss the relevant code simulation capability, and experiments. At this time we are quite optimistic about our ability to estimate instability growth on ICF capsules, but further experiments and simulations are needed to verify the modeling. 52 refs

  14. Cascade ICF power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, W.J.; Pitts, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The double-cone-shaped Cascade reaction chamber rotates at 50 rpm to keep a blanket of ceramic granules in place against the wall as they slide from the poles to the exit slots at the equator. The 1 m-thick blanket consists of layers of carbon, beryllium oxide, and lithium aluminate granules about 1 mm in diameter. The x rays and debris are stopped in the carbon granules; the neutrons are multiplied and moderated in the BeO and breed tritium in the LiAlO 2 . The chamber wall is made up of SiO tiles held in compression by a network of composite SiC/Al tendons. Cascade operates at a 5 Hz pulse rate with 300 MJ in each pulse. The temperature in the blanket reaches 1600 K on the inner surface and 1350 K at the outer edge. The granules are automatically thrown into three separate vacuum heat exchangers where they give up their energy to high pressure helium. The helium is used in a Brayton cycle to obtain a thermal-to-electric conversion efficiency of 55%. Studies have been done on neutron activation, debris recovery, vaporization and recondensation of blanket material, tritium control and recovery, fire safety, and cost. These studies indicate that Cascade appears to be a promising ICF reactor candidate from all standpoints. At the 1000 MWe size, electricity could be made for about the same cost as in a future fission reactor

  15. ICF ETF and its engineering development requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blink, J.A.; Allen, W.O.; Billman, K.

    1980-10-01

    Inertial confinement fusion driver development and ICF target physics are being intensively explored both theoretically and experimentally. However, engineering considerations of harnessing the fusion energy pulses that are an ultimate product and goal of the ICF physics program are only being addressed on a small scale. Experience with development of other new technologies indicates that engineering development time will be substantial for ICF energy converters. The authors met at Livermore in July 1980 to form an ICF Reactor Technology Working Group to address this issue. This paper outlines the current state of planning for an ICF Engineering Test Facility (ETF) and the engineering development that must precede it

  16. ICF research at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstone, P.D.; Ackerhalt, J.R.; Blair, L.S.

    1987-01-01

    It is apparent that short wavelength lasers (<500 nm) provide efficient coupling of laser energy into ICF target compression. KrF lasers (248 nm) operate at near-optimum wavelength and provide other potential benefits to ICF target coupling (e.g., bandwidth) and applications (high wallplug efficiency and relatively low cost). However, no driver technology has yet been shown to meet all of the requirements for a high-gain ICF capability at a currently acceptable cost, and there are still significant uncertainties in the driver-target coupling and capsule hydrodynamics that must be addressed. The Los Alamos research program is designed to assess the potential of KrF lasers for ICF and to determine the feasibility of achieving high gain in the laboratory with a KrF laser driver. Major efforts in KrF laser development and technology, target fabrication and materials development, and laser-matter interaction and hydrodynamics research are discussed. 27 refs., 10 figs

  17. Equilibrium ignition for ICF capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackner, K.S.; Colgate, S.A.; Johnson, N.L.; Kirkpatrick, R.C.; Menikoff, R.; Petschek, A.G.

    1993-01-01

    There are two fundamentally different approaches to igniting DT fuel in an ICF capsule which can be described as equilibrium and hot spot ignition. In both cases, a capsule which can be thought of as a pusher containing the DT fuel is imploded until the fuel reaches ignition conditions. In comparing high-gain ICF targets using cryogenic DT for a pusher with equilibrium ignition targets using high-Z pushers which contain the radiation. The authors point to the intrinsic advantages of the latter. Equilibrium or volume ignition sacrifices high gain for lower losses, lower ignition temperature, lower implosion velocity and lower sensitivity of the more robust capsule to small fluctuations and asymmetries in the drive system. The reduction in gain is about a factor of 2.5, which is small enough to make the more robust equilibrium ignition an attractive alternative

  18. Pulsed power, ICF, and SDI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Devender, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    Pulsed power technology has been developed over many years for nuclear weapon effects simulation, inertial fusion, and directed energy. Every four years there is a factor of ten increase in power available, and we are now near the 100 TW, couple of million joule (MJ) mark, according to the author. 100 TW is sufficient for studying physics relevant to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) or the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Pulsed power can be viewed as a basic technology for making electron beams, X-rays, and ion beams. Applications include ICF, plasmoid-directed energy weapons, and microwave weapons. The author presents a set of tentative requirements for an effective defense, a concept for deploying the defense, and a strategy for making the transition to a defense-dominated world

  19. Numerical modeling of ICF plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlburg, J.P.; Gardner, J.H.; Schmitt, A.J.; Colombant, D.; Klapisch, M.; Phillips, L.

    1999-07-01

    Radiation transport hydrodynamics codes play an important role in the design and development of ignition-regime and high-gain direct drive Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) pellets. In this concept, laser light is used to symmetrically implode a spherical pellet to sufficiently high densities and temperatures to achieve thermonuclear fusion. This requires a very symmetric illumination and a stable hydrodynamic implosion. Simulations of the dynamics of both planar and spherical targets are being performed to provide better understanding of how to control the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability, using the 1-, 2- and 3-dimensional laser matter interaction (LMI) code FAST. To benchmark FAST, and the Super Transition Array material opacities used in the pellet design simulations, comparisons are being made with experimental data obtained in planar LMI experiments on the Naval Research Laboratory Nike KrF laser. One of the major efforts is to understand the behavior of the RT instability in planar laser-accelerated targets. Since this is one of the primary obstacles to successful ICF, experimental comparison is not only providing for code benchmarking, but will also lead to a better understanding of how to control this basic instability. Code benchmarking is also being performed using data from Nike opacity experiments, and from equation of state experiments in ICF-relevant regimes. In this talk they present an overview of FAST and a comparison of simulation results with data from ongoing laboratory experiments.

  20. Numerical modeling of ICF plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlburg, J.P.; Gardner, J.H.; Schmitt, A.J.; Colombant, D.; Klapisch, M.; Phillips, L.

    1999-01-01

    Radiation transport hydrodynamics codes play an important role in the design and development of ignition-regime and high-gain direct drive Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) pellets. In this concept, laser light is used to symmetrically implode a spherical pellet to sufficiently high densities and temperatures to achieve thermonuclear fusion. This requires a very symmetric illumination and a stable hydrodynamic implosion. Simulations of the dynamics of both planar and spherical targets are being performed to provide better understanding of how to control the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability, using the 1-, 2- and 3-dimensional laser matter interaction (LMI) code FAST. To benchmark FAST, and the Super Transition Array material opacities used in the pellet design simulations, comparisons are being made with experimental data obtained in planar LMI experiments on the Naval Research Laboratory Nike KrF laser. One of the major efforts is to understand the behavior of the RT instability in planar laser-accelerated targets. Since this is one of the primary obstacles to successful ICF, experimental comparison is not only providing for code benchmarking, but will also lead to a better understanding of how to control this basic instability. Code benchmarking is also being performed using data from Nike opacity experiments, and from equation of state experiments in ICF-relevant regimes. In this talk they present an overview of FAST and a comparison of simulation results with data from ongoing laboratory experiments

  1. Advances in ICF power reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, W.J.; Kulcinski, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    Fifteen ICF power reactor design studies published since 1980 are reviewed to illuminate the design trends they represent. There is a clear, continuing trend toward making ICF reactors inherently safer and environmentally benign. Since this trend accentuates inherent advantages of ICF reactors, we expect it to be further emphasized in the future. An emphasis on economic competitiveness appears to be a somewhat newer trend. Lower cost of electricity, smaller initial size (and capital cost), and more affordable development paths are three of the issues being addressed with new studies

  2. Monte Carlo Methods in ICF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, George B.

    Monte Carlo methods appropriate to simulate the transport of x-rays, neutrons, ions and electrons in Inertial Confinement Fusion targets are described and analyzed. The Implicit Monte Carlo method of x-ray transport handles symmetry within indirect drive ICF hohlraums well, but can be improved 50X in efficiency by angular biasing the x-rays towards the fuel capsule. Accurate simulation of thermonuclear burn and burn diagnostics involves detailed particle source spectra, charged particle ranges, inflight reaction kinematics, corrections for bulk and thermal Doppler effects and variance reduction to obtain adequate statistics for rare events. It is found that the effects of angular Coulomb scattering must be included in models of charged particle transport through heterogeneous materials.

  3. Monte Carlo methods in ICF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, G.B.

    1997-01-01

    Monte Carlo methods appropriate to simulate the transport of x-rays, neutrons, ions and electrons in Inertial Confinement Fusion targets are described and analyzed. The Implicit Monte Carlo method of x-ray transport handles symmetry within indirect drive ICF hohlraums well, but can be improved 50X in efficiency by angular biasing the x-rays towards the fuel capsule. Accurate simulation of thermonuclear burn and burn diagnostics involves detailed particle source spectra, charged particle ranges, inflight reaction kinematics, corrections for bulk and thermal Doppler effects and variance reduction to obtain adequate statistics for rare events. It is found that the effects of angular Coulomb scattering must be included in models of charged particle transport through heterogeneous materials. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  4. Monte Carlo methods in ICF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, George B.

    1997-01-01

    Monte Carlo methods appropriate to simulate the transport of x-rays, neutrons, ions and electrons in Inertial Confinement Fusion targets are described and analyzed. The Implicit Monte Carlo method of x-ray transport handles symmetry within indirect drive ICF hohlraums well, but can be improved 50X in efficiency by angular biasing the x-rays towards the fuel capsule. Accurate simulation of thermonuclear burn and burn diagnostics involves detailed particle source spectra, charged particle ranges, inflight reaction kinematics, corrections for bulk and thermal Doppler effects and variance reduction to obtain adequate statistics for rare events. It is found that the effects of angular Coulomb scattering must be included in models of charged particle transport through heterogeneous materials

  5. Progress and prospects for indirect drive ICF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindl, J.D.

    1992-08-01

    During the past few years, a great deal of progress has been made toward demonstrating the requirements for ignition and high gain ICF targets. Because of this progress, the 1990 National Academy of Science (NAS) and Fusion Policy Advisory Committee (FPAC) reviews recommended that the US National ICF Program focus on the physics of ignition. Subject to successful completion of a series of experiments to be carried out on the Nova laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), these reviews advocated construction of a 1 to 2 MJ glass laser, whose purpose would be demonstration of ignition and modest-gain ICF targets within about a decade. The LLNL proposal for this National Ignition Facility, which was endorsed by the NAS and FPAC as the most timely and cost effective path to this goal, is referred to as the ''Nova Upgrade.'' This paper reviews recent progress on the Nova laser and the performance expected with the Nova Upgrade

  6. Nuclear diagnostics in support of ICF experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, M.J.; Hall, J.

    1996-01-01

    As the yields of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments increase to NIF levels new diagnostic techniques for studying details of fusion burn behavior will become feasible. The new techniques will provide improved measurements of fusion burn temperature and history. Improved temperature measurements might be achieved with magnetic spectroscopy of fusion neutrons. High-bandwidth fusion reaction history will be measured with fusion-specific γ-ray diagnostics. Additional energy-resolved γ-ray might be able to study a selection of specific behaviors during fusion burn. Present ICF yields greater than 10 13 neutrons are sufficient to demonstrate the basic methods that underlie the new techniques. As ICF yields increase, the diagnostics designs adjusted accordingly in order to provide clear and specific data on fusion burn performance

  7. The ICF and Postsurgery Occupational Therapy after Traumatic Hand Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitinghoff, Helene; Lindqvist, Birgitta; Nygard, Louise; Ekholm, Jan; Schult, Marie-Louise

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have examined the effectiveness of hand rehabilitation programmes and have linked the outcomes to the concept of ICF but not to specific ICF category codes. The objective of this study was to gain experience using ICF concepts to describe occupational therapy interventions during postsurgery hand rehabilitation, and to describe…

  8. Towards ICF implementation in menopause healthcare: a systematic review of ICF application in Switzerland.

    OpenAIRE

    Zangger, Martina; Poethig, Dagmar; Meissner, Florian; von Wolff, Michael; Stute, Petra

    2017-01-01

    AIMS OF THE STUDY To present a systematic literature review on the application and degree of implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) across different health conditions and regions in Switzerland in order to develop an ICF classification of the climacteric syndrome in the medium term. METHODS A systematic literature search was conducted through Embase and Medline covering the period between 2011 and August 2016. Inclusion crite...

  9. Physics of ignition for ICF capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindl, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    The implosion of an ICF capsule must accomplish both compression of the main fuel to several hundred grams per cubic centimeter and heating and compression of the central region of the fuel to ignition. This report discusses the physics of these conditions

  10. Comparison of three ICF reactor designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    Three concepts for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactors are described and compared with each other, and with magnetic fusion and fission reactors on the basis of environmental impact, safety and efficiency. The critical technical developments of each concept are described. The three concepts represent alternative development paths for inertial fusion

  11. Hydrodynamic instabilities in astrophysics and ICF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul Drake, R.

    2005-01-01

    Inertial fusion systems and astrophysical systems both involve hydrodynamic effects, including sources of pressure, shock waves, rarefactions, and plasma flows. In the evolution of such systems, hydrodynamic instabilities naturally evolve. As a result, a fundamental understanding of hydrodynamic instabilities is necessary to understand their behavior. In addition, high-energy-density facilities designed for ICF purposes can be used to provide and experimental basis for understanding astrophysical processes. In this talk. I will discuss the instabilities that appear in astrophysics and ICF from the common perspective of the basic mechanisms at work. Examples will be taken from experiments aimed at ICF, from astrophysical systems, and from experiments using ICF systems to address issues in astrophysics. The high-energy-density research facilities of today can accelerate small but macroscopic amounts of material to velocities above 100 km/s, can heat such material to temperature above 100 eV, can produce pressures far above a million atmospheres (10''12 dybes/cm''2 or 0.1 TPascal), and can do experiments under these conditions that address basic physics issues. This enables on to devise experiments aimed directly at important process such as the Rayleigh Taylor instability at an ablating surface or at an embedded interface that is accelerating, the Richtmeyer Meshkov evolution of shocked interfaces, and the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of shear flows. The talk will include examples of such phenomena from the laboratory and from astrophysics, and will discuss experiments to study them. (Author)

  12. Towards ICF implementation in menopause healthcare: a systematic review of ICF application in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangger, Martina; Poethig, Dagmar; Meissner, Florian; von Wolff, Michael; Stute, Petra

    2017-12-28

    To present a systematic literature review on the application and degree of implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) across different health conditions and regions in Switzerland in order to develop an ICF classification of the climacteric syndrome in the medium term. A systematic literature search was conducted through Embase and Medline covering the period between 2011 and August 2016. Inclusion criteria were the term ICF in title or abstract and Switzerland as the workplace of the first author. Identified publications were analysed as descriptive statistics. A total of 83 articles were included in the analysis. Forty-seven different first authors from 24 different institutions were identified. The majority of publications were from Swiss Paraplegic Research (68.7%) and focused on neurology (31.3%). Forty-six cohort studies were identified. In most of them, the ICF was used to set up a general language for comparing patients' information (82.9%). Only one paper from the medical specialty gynaecology was identified; this was on breast cancer. No paper on the menopause was found. In Switzerland, the ICF is actively used in various areas of healthcare, especially in the field of neurology and rehabilitation. There is a need for ICF core sets in other medical fields, such as menopause healthcare, in order to accomplish the goal of the European Menopause and Andropause Society, which is a healthcare model for healthy menopause and aging.

  13. Status and progress in the Chinese ICF program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, X.T.; Deng, X.M.; Fan, D.Y.; Zhang, X.M.; Lin, Z.Q.; Wang, N.Y.; Zheng, Z.J.; Liu, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    The Chinese ICF program is aimed towards inertial fusion energy in the 21st century and other applications. In this presentation, driver developments involving solid state lasers, i.e. Shenguang series, and the gas laser, i.e. KrF excimer laser, are presented; the theoretical and experimental studies for target physics, the equipment development for diagnostics, and the target fabrication are described; the achievements of ICF research in the past few years are mentioned. Precision physics is the basic point in ICF research of target physics in China. And the prospects for the Chinese ICF program are encouraging. (orig.)

  14. ICF-based classification and measurement of functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, G; Kostanjsek, N; Ustün, B; Cieza, A

    2008-09-01

    If we aim towards a comprehensive understanding of human functioning and the development of comprehensive programs to optimize functioning of individuals and populations we need to develop suitable measures. The approval of the International Classification, Disability and Health (ICF) in 2001 by the 54th World Health Assembly as the first universally shared model and classification of functioning, disability and health marks, therefore an important step in the development of measurement instruments and ultimately for our understanding of functioning, disability and health. The acceptance and use of the ICF as a reference framework and classification has been facilitated by its development in a worldwide, comprehensive consensus process and the increasing evidence regarding its validity. However, the broad acceptance and use of the ICF as a reference framework and classification will also depend on the resolution of conceptual and methodological challenges relevant for the classification and measurement of functioning. This paper therefore describes first how the ICF categories can serve as building blocks for the measurement of functioning and then the current state of the development of ICF based practical tools and international standards such as the ICF Core Sets. Finally it illustrates how to map the world of measures to the ICF and vice versa and the methodological principles relevant for the transformation of information obtained with a clinical test or a patient-oriented instrument to the ICF as well as the development of ICF-based clinical and self-reported measurement instruments.

  15. Exploring use of the ICF in health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornbaum, Catherine C; Day, Adam M B; Izaryk, Kristen; Morrison, Stephanie J; Ravenek, Michael J; Sleeth, Lindsay E; Skarakis-Doyle, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Currently, little is known regarding use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in health education applications. Therefore, this review sought to examine the scope of work that has been conducted regarding the application of the ICF in health education. A review of the current literature related to use of the ICF in health education programs was conducted. Twelve electronic databases were searched in accordance with a search protocol developed by a health sciences librarian. In total, 17,878 records were reviewed, and 18 articles met the criteria for inclusion in this review. Current evidence regarding use of the ICF in healthcare education revealed that program and participant properties can be essential facilitators or barriers to successful education programs. In addition, gaps in comprehensive outcome measurement were revealed as areas for future attention. Educational applications of the ICF are very much a work in progress as might be expected given the ICF's existence for only a little over a decade. To advance use of the ICF in education, it is important to incorporate the measurement of both knowledge acquisition and behavior change related to ICF-based programs. Ultimately, widespread implementation of the ICF represents not only a substantial opportunity but also poses a significant challenge.

  16. Wetted foam liquid fuel ICF target experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R E; Leeper, R J; Yi, S A; Kline, J L; Zylstra, A B; Peterson, R R; Shah, R; Braun, T; Biener, J; Kozioziemski, B J; Sater, J D; Biener, M M; Hamza, A V; Nikroo, A; Hopkins, L Berzak; Ho, D; LePape, S; Meezan, N B

    2016-01-01

    We are developing a new NIF experimental platform that employs wetted foam liquid fuel layer ICF capsules. We will use the liquid fuel layer capsules in a NIF sub-scale experimental campaign to explore the relationship between hot spot convergence ratio (CR) and the predictability of hot spot formation. DT liquid layer ICF capsules allow for flexibility in hot spot CR via the adjustment of the initial cryogenic capsule temperature and, hence, DT vapor density. Our hypothesis is that the predictive capability of hot spot formation is robust and 1D-like for a relatively low CR hot spot (CR∼15), but will become less reliable as hot spot CR is increased to CR>20. Simulations indicate that backing off on hot spot CR is an excellent way to reduce capsule instability growth and to improve robustness to low-mode x-ray flux asymmetries. In the initial experiments, we will test our hypothesis by measuring hot spot size, neutron yield, ion temperature, and burn width to infer hot spot pressure and compare to predictions for implosions with hot spot CR's in the range of 12 to 25. Larger scale experiments are also being designed, and we will advance from sub-scale to full-scale NIF experiments to determine if 1D-like behavior at low CR is retained as the scale-size is increased. The long-term objective is to develop a liquid fuel layer ICF capsule platform with robust thermonuclear burn, modest CR, and significant α-heating with burn propagation. (paper)

  17. Spin-polarized fuel in ICF pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakuta, Yoshihisa; Emoto, Nobuya; Nakao, Yasuyuki; Honda, Takuro; Honda, Yoshinori; Nakashima, Hideki.

    1990-01-01

    The use of parallel spin-polarized DT or D 3 He fuel increases the fusion cross-section by 50%. By implosion-burn simulation for inertially confined fusion (ICF) pellets of the spin-polarized fuels, we found that the input energy requirement could be reduced by nearly a fact of two. These pellets taken up here include large-high-aspect-ratio DT target proposed in ILE Osaka University and DT ignitor/D 3 He fuel pellet proposed by our group. We also found that the polarized state could survive during the implosion-burn phase. (author)

  18. ICF-CY: A Universal Tool for Documentation of Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonsson, Rune J.

    2009-01-01

    The "International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health--ICF" (ICF-CY) conceptual framework offers a new paradigm and taxonomy of human functioning disability, which can be used to guide holistic and interdisciplinary approaches to assessment and intervention. In settings serving children, youth, or adults with disabilities, the…

  19. Progress in the US ICF Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sluyter, M.M.

    1996-01-01

    The ICF Program has made exciting progress in the past year towards its goal of the achievement of fusion ignition and gain in the laboratory. A series of experiments on the Nova laser facility has resolved the major technical issues involved in the design of an ignition target. A baseline target has been designed that ignites (calculationally) with a nominal drive of 1.35 MJ (at 351 nm). In parallel, a detailed conceptual design for the National Ignition Facility (NIF-a 1.8 MJ glass laser) has been completed and a successful laser beam line prototype has validated its architecture. As a result, the Department of Energy has requested funding for the preliminary design for the NIF from the U.S. Congress. With these developments, the attainment of the long-sought goal is in sight. In addition, two new laser facilities (OMEGA Upgrade and Nike) have recently been completed, and ion-beam fusion driver development is encouraging. Their availability expands the capability of the program to perform advanced ICF and plasma experiments. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  20. Analysis of directly driven ICF targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velarde, G.; Aragones, J.M.; Gago, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The current capabilities at DENIM for the analysis of directly driven targets are presented. These include theoretical, computational and applied physical studies and developments of detailed simulation models for the most relevant processes in ICF. The simulation of directly driven ICF targets is carried out with the one-dimensional NORCLA code developed at DENIM. This code contains two main segments: NORMA and CLARA, able to work fully coupled and in an iterative manner. NORMA solves the hydrodynamic equations in a lagrangian mesh. It has modular programs couple to it to treat the laser or particle beam interaction with matter. Equations of state, opacities and conductivities are taken from a DENIM atomic data library, generated externally with other codes that will also be explained in this work. CLARA solves the transport equation for neutrons, as well as for charged particles, and suprathermal electrons using discrete ordinates and finite element methods in the computational procedure. Parametric calculations of multilayered single-shell targets driven by heavy ion beams are also analyzed. Finally, conclusions are focused on the ongoing developments in the areas of interest such as: radiation transport, atomic physics, particle in cell method, charged particle transport, two-dimensional calculations and instabilities. (author)

  1. The physics of radiation driven ICF hohlraums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    On the Nova Laser at LLNL, we have recently demonstrated many of the key elements required for assuring that the next proposed laser, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will drive an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) target to ignition. The target uses the recently declassified indirect drive (sometimes referred to as open-quotes radiation driveclose quotes) approach which converts laser light to x-rays inside a gold cylinder, which then acts as an x-ray open-quotes ovenclose quotes (called a hohlraum) to drive the fusion capsule in its center. On Nova we've demonstrated good understanding of the temperatures reached in hohlraums and of the ways to control the uniformity with which the x-rays drive the spherical fusion capsules. In this lecture we briefly review the fundamentals of ICF, and describe the capsule implosion symmetry advantages of the hohlraum approach. We then concentrate on a quantitative understanding of the scaling of radiation drive with hohlraum size and wall material, and with laser pulse length and power. We demonstrate that coupling efficiency of x-ray drive to the capsule increases as we proceed from Nova to the NIF and eventually to a reactor, thus increasing the gain of the system

  2. Advances in commercial ICF technology since 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulcinski, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    Progress in the march toward commercial ICF fusion reactors has been uneven in the past few years. Considerable advances have been made in the area of light ion beam fusion through the development of rep ratable drivers (i.e., HERMES-III technology) and diodes (i.e., applied B configuration with renewable Li surfaces). Significant progress in the development of lasers to compress targets has also been made through the KrF Aurura program. The possibility of lowering the cost of glass in the advanced solid state lasers has been given serious consideration. The development of the Induced Spatial Incoherence (ISI) technique to improve the uniformity of the laser beam has allowed physicists and engineers to once again contemplate the use of symmetric illumination. This would reduce the driver energy required to achieve high gains but it also introduces difficulty in the reactor design. Relatively little progress in commercial heavy ion beam drivers has been made over the past few years aside from an indepth study (HIFSA) of the desirable operating regimes to be pursued. Other areas where little progress has been made are conceptual reactor studies, target declassification and specific experimental programs to address commercial ICF reactor technology needs

  3. [The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) : The implementation of the ICF Core Sets for Hand Conditions in clinical routine as an example of application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenen, Michaela; Rudolf, Klaus-Dieter; Kus, Sandra; Dereskewitz, Caroline

    2018-05-24

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) provides a standardized language of almost 1500 ICF categories for coding information about functioning and contextual factors. Short lists (ICF Core Sets) are helpful tools to support the implementation of the ICF in clinical routine. In this paper we report on the implementation of ICF Core Sets in clinical routine using the "ICF Core Sets for Hand Conditions" and the "Lighthouse Project Hand" as an example. Based on the ICF categories of the "Brief ICF Core Set for Hand Conditions", the ICF-based assessment tool (ICF Hand A ) was developed aiming to guide the assessment and treatment of patients with injuries and diseases located at the hand. The ICF Hand A facilitates the standardized assessment of functioning - taking into consideration of a holistic view of the patients - along the continuum of care ranging from acute care to rehabilitation and return to work. Reference points for the assessment of the ICF Hand A are determined in treatment guidelines for selected injuries and diseases of the hand along with recommendations for acute treatment and care, procedures and interventions of subsequent treatment and rehabilitation. The assessment of the ICF Hand A according to the defined reference points can be done using electronic clinical assessment tools and allows for an automatic generation of a timely medical report of a patient's functioning. In the future, the ICF Hand A can be used to inform the coding of functioning in ICD-11.

  4. Identification of candidate categories of the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF for a Generic ICF Core Set based on regression modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Üstün Bedirhan T

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF is the framework developed by WHO to describe functioning and disability at both the individual and population levels. While condition-specific ICF Core Sets are useful, a Generic ICF Core Set is needed to describe and compare problems in functioning across health conditions. Methods The aims of the multi-centre, cross-sectional study presented here were: a to propose a method to select ICF categories when a large amount of ICF-based data have to be handled, and b to identify candidate ICF categories for a Generic ICF Core Set by examining their explanatory power in relation to item one of the SF-36. The data were collected from 1039 patients using the ICF checklist, the SF-36 and a Comorbidity Questionnaire. ICF categories to be entered in an initial regression model were selected following systematic steps in accordance with the ICF structure. Based on an initial regression model, additional models were designed by systematically substituting the ICF categories included in it with ICF categories with which they were highly correlated. Results Fourteen different regression models were performed. The variance the performed models account for ranged from 22.27% to 24.0%. The ICF category that explained the highest amount of variance in all the models was sensation of pain. In total, thirteen candidate ICF categories for a Generic ICF Core Set were proposed. Conclusion The selection strategy based on the ICF structure and the examination of the best possible alternative models does not provide a final answer about which ICF categories must be considered, but leads to a selection of suitable candidates which needs further consideration and comparison with the results of other selection strategies in developing a Generic ICF Core Set.

  5. Dependence of ICF reaction dynamics on target structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Kamal; Dutt, Sunil; GulI, Muntazir; Ahmad, Tauseef; Rizvi, I.A.; Ali, Sabir; Agarwal, Avinash; Kumar, R.; Chaubey, A.K.

    2016-01-01

    The projectile structure is also found responsible for the ICF reaction processes. It is found that projectile having bigger alpha cluster is more unstable towards break up. In this context, a comparative study of 12 C and 16 O ion-beams induced reactions with different targets has been done. The deduced ICF contributions for different systems have been plotted against the target charge of different targets. It is observed that target properties may also be responsible for the interplay between CF and ICF reaction dynamics

  6. Numerical Simulation of Doped Targets for ICF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Lee; Gardner, John H.; Bodner, Stephen E.; Colombant, Denis; Klapisch, Marcel; Bar-Shalom, Avraham

    1997-11-01

    The ablative Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability can be reduced by preheating the ablator, thereby reducing the peak density and increasing the mass ablation velocity. The ablator can be preheated with radiation from higher Z dopants.(Gardner, J.H., Bodner, S.E., Dahlburg, J.P., Phys. Fluids 3), 1070 (1991) Dopants also reduce the density gradient at the ablator, which provides a second mechanism to reduce the RT growth rate. We have recently developed a more sophisticated and detailed radiation package that uses opacities generated by an STA code, with non-LTE radiation transport based on the Busquet method. This radiation package has been incorporated into NRL's FAST2D radiation hydrodynamics code, which has been used to evaluate and optimize the use of various dopants that can provide interesting levels of preheat for an ICF target.

  7. Non-Maxwellian Effects for ICF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovits, Seth; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2013-10-01

    While in collisional plasma the bulk of the distribution function is driven toward Maxwellian in a few collision times, the high velocity tails can take much longer to form. The fast ions in these tails have much larger fusion cross sections than thermal ions, and contribute substantially to fusion production. We investigate the possibilities for enhancement or depletion of these tails in regimes applicable to ICF capsule implosions, and the corresponding effects on fusion reactivity. There are a number of possible scenarios that might yield such non-Maxwellian tails, including, for example, hydrodynamic flows or Knudsen layer effects. Work supported by DOE under DE-AC02-09CH11466, by DTRA under HDTRA1-11-10037 and by DOE CSGF under DE-FG02- 97ER25308.

  8. Introduction to the physics of ICF capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindl, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Inertial Confinement Fusion is an approach to fusion which relies on the inertia of the fuel mass to provide confinement. To achieve conditions under which this confinement is sufficient for efficient thermonuclear burn, high gain ICF targets designed to be imploded directly by laser light. These capsules are generally a spherical shell which is filled with low density DT gas. The shell is composed of an outer region which forms the ablator and an inner region of frozen or liquid DT which forms the main fuel. Energy from the driver is delivered to the ablator which heats up and expands. As the ablator expands and blows outward, the rest of the shell is forced inward to conserve momentum. In this implosion process, several features are important. We define the in-flight-aspect-ratio (IFAR) as the ratio of the shell radius R as it implodes to its thickness ΔR. Hydrodynamic instabilities during the implosion impose limits on this ratio which results in a minimum pressure requirement of about 100 Mbar. The convergence ratio is defined as the ratio of the initial outer radius of the ablator to the final compressed radius of the hot spot. This hot spot is the central region of the compressed fuel which is required to ignite the main fuel in high gain designs. Typical convergence ratios are 30--40. To maintain a nearly spherical shape during the implosion, when convergence ratios are this large, the flux delivered to the capsule must be uniform to a few percent. The remainder of this paper discusses the conditions necessary to achieve thermonuclear ignition in these ICF capsules

  9. Rett and ICF syndromes: methylation moves into medicine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Two human genetic disorders, Rett and ICF syndromes, have recently been shown to be ... normally until 6–18 months of age, then gradually loose speech and ... (abnormal lateral curvature of the vertebral column), vacant stare, severe ...

  10. ICF in the U.S.: Facilities and diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, L.W.

    1988-08-01

    In the last few years there has been significant progress in ICF research in laboratories in the United States and elsewhere. These advances have occurred in areas that range from demonstrating an innovative laser beam smoothing techniques important for both directly and indirectly driven ICF, to achieving a more complete understanding of capsule implosions and related physics. This progress has been possible because of the capabilities provided by the ICF laser-target facilities currently in operation and the new developments in diagnostics, particularly for measurements of the implosion process and the conditions in the compressed capsule core. Both of these topics, facilities and selected new diagnostics capabilities in the US ICF Program, are summarized in this paper. 32 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs

  11. Psychometric analyses to improve the Dutch ICF Activity Inventory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijning, J.E.; van Rens, G.H.M.B.; Knol, D.L.; van Nispen, R.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: In the past, rehabilitation centers for the visually impaired used unstructured or semistructured methods to assess rehabilitation needs of their patients. Recently, an extensive instrument, the Dutch ICF Activity Inventory (D-AI), was developed to systematically investigate rehabilitation

  12. Coating requirements for an ICF dry-wall design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, L.H.; Sucov, E.W.

    1981-01-01

    A new concept for protecting the first wall of an ICF reactor has been developed which relies heavily on a coating to protect the steel tubes which comprise the first wall. This coating must survive the pellet explosion, be ductile, and be compatible with the materials in the ICF pellet. Calculations indicate that tantalum is the best choice for the coating material and that tantalum coated steel tubes can handle fusion thermal powers of 3500 MW in a 10 m radius spherical chamber

  13. Magnetron co-sputtering system for coating ICF targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, E.J.; Meyer, S.F.; Halsey, W.G.; Jameson, G.T.; Wittmayer, F.J.

    1981-01-01

    Fabrication of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) targets requires deposition of various types of coatings on microspheres. The mechanical strength, and surface finish of the coatings are of concern in ICF experiments. The tensile strength of coatings can be controlled through grain refinement, selective doping and alloy formation. We have constructed a magnetron co-sputtering system to produce variable density profile coatings with high tensile strength on microspheres

  14. ICF gamma-ray reaction history diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, H W; Young, C S; Mack, J M; Kim, Y H; McEvoy, A; Evans, S; Sedillo, T; Batha, S; Schmitt, M; Wilson, D C; Langenbrunner, J R; Malone, R; Kaufman, M I; Cox, B C; Frogget, B; Tunnell, T W; Miller, E K; Ali, Z A; Stoeffl, W; Horsfield, C J

    2010-01-01

    Reaction history measurements, such as nuclear bang time and burn width, are fundamental components of diagnosing ICF implosions and will be employed to help steer the National Ignition Facility (NIF) towards ignition. Fusion gammas provide a direct measure of nuclear interaction rate (unlike x-rays) without being compromised by Doppler spreading (unlike neutrons). Gas Cherenkov Detectors that convert fusion gamma rays to UV/visible Cherenkov photons for collection by fast optical recording systems have established their usefulness in illuminating ICF physics in several experimental campaigns at OMEGA. In particular, bang time precision better than 25 ps has been demonstrated, well below the 50 ps accuracy requirement defined by the NIF. NIF Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostics are being developed based on optimization of sensitivity, bandwidth, dynamic range, cost, and NIF-specific logistics, requirements and extreme radiation environment. Implementation will occur in two phases. The first phase consists of four channels mounted to the outside of the target chamber at ∼6 m from target chamber center (GRH-6m) coupled to ultra-fast photo-multiplier tubes (PMT). This system is intended to operate in the 10 13 -10 17 neutron yield range expected during the early THD campaign. It will have high enough bandwidth to provide accurate bang times and burn widths for the expected THD reaction histories (> 80 ps fwhm). Successful operation of the first GRH-6m channel has been demonstrated at OMEGA, allowing a verification of instrument sensitivity, timing and EMI/background suppression. The second phase will consist of several channels located just inside the target bay shield wall at 15 m from target chamber center (GRH-15m) with optical paths leading through the cement shield wall to well-shielded streak cameras and PMTs. This system is intended to operate in the 10 16 -10 20 yield range expected during the DT ignition campaign, providing higher temporal resolution

  15. ICF gamma-ray reaction history diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, H. W.; Young, C. S.; Mack, J. M.; Kim, Y. H.; McEvoy, A.; Evans, S.; Sedillo, T.; Batha, S.; Schmitt, M.; Wilson, D. C.; Langenbrunner, J. R.; Malone, R.; Kaufman, M. I.; Cox, B. C.; Frogget, B.; Miller, E. K.; Ali, Z. A.; Tunnell, T. W.; Stoeffl, W.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M.

    2010-08-01

    Reaction history measurements, such as nuclear bang time and burn width, are fundamental components of diagnosing ICF implosions and will be employed to help steer the National Ignition Facility (NIF) towards ignition. Fusion gammas provide a direct measure of nuclear interaction rate (unlike x-rays) without being compromised by Doppler spreading (unlike neutrons). Gas Cherenkov Detectors that convert fusion gamma rays to UV/visible Cherenkov photons for collection by fast optical recording systems have established their usefulness in illuminating ICF physics in several experimental campaigns at OMEGA. In particular, bang time precision better than 25 ps has been demonstrated, well below the 50 ps accuracy requirement defined by the NIF. NIF Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostics are being developed based on optimization of sensitivity, bandwidth, dynamic range, cost, and NIF-specific logistics, requirements and extreme radiation environment. Implementation will occur in two phases. The first phase consists of four channels mounted to the outside of the target chamber at ~6 m from target chamber center (GRH-6m) coupled to ultra-fast photo-multiplier tubes (PMT). This system is intended to operate in the 1013-1017 neutron yield range expected during the early THD campaign. It will have high enough bandwidth to provide accurate bang times and burn widths for the expected THD reaction histories (> 80 ps fwhm). Successful operation of the first GRH-6m channel has been demonstrated at OMEGA, allowing a verification of instrument sensitivity, timing and EMI/background suppression. The second phase will consist of several channels located just inside the target bay shield wall at 15 m from target chamber center (GRH-15m) with optical paths leading through the cement shield wall to well-shielded streak cameras and PMTs. This system is intended to operate in the 1016-1020 yield range expected during the DT ignition campaign, providing higher temporal resolution for the

  16. Innovative ICF scheme-impact fast ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, M.; Nagatomo, H.; Sakaiya, T.; Karasik, M.; Gardner, J.; Bates, J.

    2007-01-01

    A totally new ignition scheme for ICF, impact fast ignition (IFI), is proposed [1], in which the compressed DT main fuel is to be ignited by impact collision of another fraction of separately imploded DT fuel, which is accelerated in the hollow conical target. Two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation results in full geometry are presented, in which some key physical parameters for the impact shell dynamics such as 10 8 cm/s of the implosion velocity, 200- 300 g/cm 3 of the compressed density, and the converted temperature beyond 5 keV are demonstrated. As the first step toward the proof-of-principle of IFI, we have conducted preliminary experiments under the operation of GEKKO XII/HYPER laser system to achieve a hyper-velocity of the order of 108 cm/s. As a result we have observed a highest velocity, 6.5 x 10 7 cm/s, ever achieved. Furthermore, we have also done the first integrated experiments using the target and observed substantial amount of neutron yields. Reference: [1] M. Murakami and Nagatomo, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 544(2005) 67

  17. Analysis of equations of state for ICF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogando, F.; Velarde, P.

    1998-01-01

    In the field of inertial confinement fusion (ICF), numerical simulation plays a very important role reproducing real results with a good accuracy. Once considered the needed simplificative approximations, it is obtained and equation system that has to be solved in a more or less complex way. Anyway these simulation codes have to fit the behaviour of real materials with the help of some flexible parameters. In the case of fluid dynamics, the key to fit the equation system to the real material behaviour are the equations of state (EOS) involved in the problem. This is why there is an actual need of using accurate data in order to obtain results that match the real behaviour of materials. Nowadays there are several available sources of real EOS data. These sources are based either in theoretical models fixed with experimental results or in analytical approximations to those models. In this article a comparative analysis is made between two of the most used EOS data sources in simulations. The aim of this work is to check the quality of these data that is commonly used and on which the accuracy of the results depend. (Author) 3 refs

  18. Fabrication of Foam Shells for ICF Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czechowicz, D. G.; Acenas, O.; Flowers, J. S.; Nikroo, A.; Paguio, R. R.; Schroen, D. G.; Streit, J.; Takagi, M.

    2004-11-01

    The General Atomics/Schafer team has developed processes to fabricate foam shells targets suitable for ICF experiments. The two most common chemical systems used to produce foam shells have been resorcinol-formaldehyde (R/F) aerogel and divinylbenzene (DVB). Spherical targets have been made in the form of shells and beads having diameters ranging from approximately 0.5 mm to 4.0 mm, and having densities from approximately 100 mg/cc to 250 mg/cc. The work on R/F foam shells has been concentrated on 1) shell fabrication process improvement to obtain high yields ( ˜25%) and 2) depositing a reliable permeation barrier to provide shells for ongoing direct drive experiments at LLE. Development of divinylbenzene foam shells has been mainly directed towards Inertial Fusion Energy applications (at densities as low as 30 mg/cc) and recently for shells for experiments at LLE. Details of the relevant metrology and properties of these foams as well as the range of targets currently available will be discussed.

  19. Vocational rehabilitation evaluation and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltychev, Mikhail; Kinnunen, Aila; Laimi, Katri

    2013-03-01

    To identify the most frequent functional limitations according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) obtained by unstandardised clinical assessment of patients with chronic musculoskeletal disorders who underwent vocational rehabilitation evaluation; and to compare the obtained list with simplified versions of ICF. The descriptions of functional limitations were retrospectively identified for 32 patients. The original vocational rehabilitation evaluation was conducted by a multi-professional team in an out-patient clinic of a university hospital. The obtained descriptions were converted to ICF codes, the most frequent being compared with the ICF Checklist of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the ICF Comprehensive and Brief Core Sets suggested by the ICF Research Branch. In the study population (53 % women), 141 ICF codes were identified with a preciseness of three or more digits, the average being 21 codes/subject (median 20.0, range 9-40). When truncated to three digits, 84 ICF codes remained (average 18 codes/subject, range 9-25), 45 of which appeared in over 10 % of the study population, 24 also being found in the ICF Comprehensive, 5 in the ICF Brief Core Sets, and 33 in the WHO ICF Checklist. The list of most frequent ICF codes retrospectively obtained in this study from unstandardised records showed a similarity with ICF Comprehensive and Brief Core Sets by ICF Research Branch and the ICF Checklist by WHO, but with a bias towards the identification of body structures and functions. The results support the use of ICF in vocational rehabilitation evaluation to ensure comprehensiveness of evaluation. The ICF Comprehensive Core Set seems to be the most useful for the needs of multiprofessional team when assessing functioning of patients.

  20. ICF-DOC: the ICF dedicated checklist for evaluating functioning and disability in people with disorders of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Matilde; Covelli, Venusia; Giovannetti, Ambra M; Raggi, Alberto; Sattin, Davide

    2014-09-01

    Clinicians need a comprehensive description of patients' functioning state to capture the complex interaction between symptoms and environmental factors, and to determine the actual level of functioning in patients in a vegetative state or a minimally conscious state. The aim of this study is to develop an International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) checklist for patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) so as to capture and describe, with a tailored list of categories, the most common health, disability, and functioning issues of adult patients with DOC. The WHO ICF checklist was used as a basis for collecting data. This was an observational, cross-sectional, multicenter study conducted in 69 Italian centers. Specific methodological procedures were used to identify the most appropriate categories for DOC patients to be added to or deleted from the ICF checklist so as to develop the ICF-DOC checklist. A total of 566 adult patients were enrolled: 398 in a vegetative state and 168 in a minimally conscious state. A total of 127 ICF categories reached the threshold of 20% concerning the presence of a problem: 37 categories from the body functions chapter, 13 from the body structures chapter, 46 from the activities and participations chapter, and 31 from the environmental factors chapter. ICF categories identified in this study can be useful guidelines for clinicians and researchers to collect data on functioning and disability of adult patients with DOC. The new ICF-DOC checklist allows monitoring of the effects of interventions on functional areas and possible changes in each patient in follow-up studies.

  1. Two-dimensional integrated Z-pinch ICF design simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lash, J.S.

    1999-07-01

    The dynamic hohlraum ICF concept for a Z-pinch driver utilizes the imploding wire array collision with a target to produce a radiation history suitable for driving an embedded inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsule. This target may consist of various shaped layers of low-density foams or solid-density materials. The use of detailed radiation magneto-hydrodynamic (RMHD) modeling is required for understanding and designing these complex systems. Critical to producing credible simulations and designs is inclusion of the Rayleigh-Taylor unstable wire-array dynamics; the bubble and spike structure of the collapsing sheath may yield regions of low-opacity enhancing radiation loss as well as introduce non-uniformities in the capsule's radiation drive. Recent improvements in LASNEX have allowed significant progress to be made in the modeling of unstable z-pinch implosions. Combining this with the proven ICF capsule design capabilities of LASNEX, the authors now have the modeling tools to produce credible, fully-integrated ICF dynamic hohlraum simulations. They present detailed two-dimensional RMHD simulations of recent ICF dynamic hohlraum experiments on the Sandia Z-machine as well as design simulations for the next-generation Z-pinch facility and future high-yield facility.

  2. Two-dimensional integrated Z-pinch ICF design simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lash, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    The dynamic hohlraum ICF concept for a Z-pinch driver utilizes the imploding wire array collision with a target to produce a radiation history suitable for driving an embedded inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsule. This target may consist of various shaped layers of low-density foams or solid-density materials. The use of detailed radiation magneto-hydrodynamic (RMHD) modeling is required for understanding and designing these complex systems. Critical to producing credible simulations and designs is inclusion of the Rayleigh-Taylor unstable wire-array dynamics; the bubble and spike structure of the collapsing sheath may yield regions of low-opacity enhancing radiation loss as well as introduce non-uniformities in the capsule's radiation drive. Recent improvements in LASNEX have allowed significant progress to be made in the modeling of unstable z-pinch implosions. Combining this with the proven ICF capsule design capabilities of LASNEX, the authors now have the modeling tools to produce credible, fully-integrated ICF dynamic hohlraum simulations. They present detailed two-dimensional RMHD simulations of recent ICF dynamic hohlraum experiments on the Sandia Z-machine as well as design simulations for the next-generation Z-pinch facility and future high-yield facility

  3. Neutronics in ICF reactor ''SENRI-I''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, S.; Ido, S.; Yamanaka, C.

    1983-01-01

    The neutronic behavior of SENRI-I has been examined taking into account the effect of fuel rhoR and Pb tamper on the emitted neutron from micro-explosion. One dimensional neutron transport was calculated by ANISIN-JR code with the nuclear data GICX-40. The effect of beam ports on neutronics and neutron streaming was examined by the three dimensional Monte-Carlo calculation code MORSE-E with the same nuclear data. The emitted neutrons are softened noticeably by the increase of the compressed fuel rhoR and the thickness of Pb coating. The latter also multiplies the net neutron number from pellet. The energy deposition and temperature increase and its distribution in the blankets and structural elements were obtained as a function of neutron spectrum from pellet. As for the tritium breeding ratio, the softening of neutron has little effect because the decrease of breeding by 7 Li with softening is compensated by the increase of breeding by 6 Li. The breeding ratio was 1.678, 1.639 and 1.576 with 14 MeV neutron, rhoR=0.7, rhoR=3 and rhoR=6 respectively. Neutron shielding and streaming from beam ports were examined and the dose rate of final optical elements were calculated to estimate the life of mirror. All these results show the feasibility of SENRI-I as a long life, maintenance free ICF pulse reactor and motivate to go further investigation and design studies in detail. (author)

  4. Directions of ICF research in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, W.J.; Campbell, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research in the United States is in a dramatic upswing. Technical progress continues at a rapid pace and with the start of the construction of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) this year the total U.S. budget for ICF for fiscal year 1997 stands at $380 million. The NIF is being built as an essential component of the U.S. Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program which has been formulated to assure the continued safety, reliability, and performance of the downsized nuclear weapons stockpile in the absence of nuclear tests. This paper will discuss some of the directions that the ICF research is now taking. (AIP) copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  5. Classification of functioning and impairment: the development of ICF core sets for autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bölte, Sven; de Schipper, Elles; Robison, John E; Wong, Virginia C N; Selb, Melissa; Singhal, Nidhi; de Vries, Petrus J; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2014-02-01

    Given the variability seen in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), accurate quantification of functioning is vital to studying outcome and quality of life in affected individuals. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) provides a comprehensive, universally accepted framework for the description of health-related functioning. ICF Core Sets are shortlists of ICF categories that are selected to capture those aspects of functioning that are most relevant when describing a person with a specific condition. In this paper, the authors preview the process for developing ICF Core Sets for ASD, a collaboration with the World Health Organization and the ICF Research Branch. The ICF Children and Youth version (ICF-CY) was derived from the ICF and designed to capture the specific situation of the developing child. As ASD affects individuals throughout the life span, and the ICF-CY includes all ICF categories, the ICF-CY will be used in this project ("ICF(-CY)" from now on). The ICF(-CY) categories to be included in the ICF Core Sets for ASD will be determined at an ICF Core Set Consensus Conference, where evidence from four preparatory studies (a systematic review, an expert survey, a patient and caregiver qualitative study, and a clinical cross-sectional study) will be integrated. Comprehensive and Brief ICF Core Sets for ASD will be developed with the goal of providing useful standards for research and clinical practice and generating a common language for functioning and impairment in ASD in different areas of life and across the life span. © 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Using the ICF in transition research and practice? Lessons from a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tram; Stewart, Debra; Rosenbaum, Peter; Baptiste, Sue; Kraus de Camargo, Olaf; Gorter, Jan Willem

    2018-01-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and subsequent ICF-CY (child and youth version) recognize the importance of personal and environmental factors in facilitating holistic transition planning and service delivery for youth with chronic health conditions (YCHC). The objective of this scoping review is to investigate the degree to which the ICF and ICF-CY have been used in transition research and practice since its initial publication. Arksey and O'Malley's five-stage methodological framework guided the scoping review using the following databases: AMED, CINAHL, EMBASE, HealthSTAR, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO. Keywords included: 'ICF', 'ICF-CY', and 'transition', which were adapted to each database. 25 articles met final inclusion. Two key themes emerged regarding use of the ICF: 1) the ICF enhances transdisciplinary processes to inform transition planning and interventions; and 2) the ICF facilitates comprehensive and developmentally appropriate transition services over a youth's lifecourse. The strengths and limitations of the ICF in guiding the planning and delivery of transition services are discussed. Some limitations include the large number of items inherent within the ICF and a lack of clarity between the components of activity and participation. Key recommendations include: i) further explanation and development of items for quality of life and well-being, personal factors, and psychological issues; and ii) additional research to advance knowledge towards developing empirically- based evidence for the application of the ICF in clinical practice to facilitate transition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Validation of the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for obstructive pulmonary diseases from the perspective of physiotherapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Alexandra; Kirchberger, Inge; Stucki, Gerold; Cieza, Alarcos

    2009-12-01

    The 'Comprehensive ICF Core Set for obstructive pulmonary diseases' (OPD) is an application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and represents the typical spectrum of problems in functioning of patients with OPD. To optimize a multidisciplinary and patient-oriented approach in pulmonary rehabilitation, in which physiotherapy plays an important role, the ICF offers a standardized language and understanding of functioning. For it to be a useful tool for physiotherapists in rehabilitation of patients with OPD, the objective of this study was to validate this Comprehensive ICF Core Set for OPD from the perspective of physiotherapists. A three-round survey based on the Delphi technique of physiotherapists who are experienced in the treatment of OPD asked about the problems, resources and aspects of environment of patients with OPD that physiotherapists treat in clinical practice (physiotherapy intervention categories). Responses were linked to the ICF and compared with the existing Comprehensive ICF Core Set for OPD. Fifty-one physiotherapists from 18 countries named 904 single terms that were linked to 124 ICF categories, 9 personal factors and 16 'not classified' concepts. The identified ICF categories were mainly third-level categories compared with mainly second-level categories of the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for OPD. Seventy of the ICF categories, all personal factors and 15 'not classified' concepts gained more than 75% agreement among the physiotherapists. Of these ICF categories, 55 (78.5%) were covered by the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for OPD. The validity of the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for OPD was largely supported by the physiotherapists. Nevertheless, ICF categories that were not covered, personal factors and not classified terms offer opportunities towards the final ICF Core Set for OPD and further research to strengthen physiotherapists' perspective in pulmonary rehabilitation.

  8. Tritium and plutonium production as a step toward ICF commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendergrass, J.H.; Dudziak, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of a combined special nuclear materials (SNM) production plant/engineering test facility (ETF) with reduced pellet and driver performance requirements as a step toward commercialization of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is examined. Blanket design and tritium production cost studies, the status of R and D programs, and the ETF role are emphasized

  9. Feasibility of the Dutch ICF Activity Inventory: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijning, J.E.; van Nispen, R.M.A.; van Rens, G.H.M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Demographic ageing will lead to increasing pressure on visual rehabilitation services, which need to be efficiently organised in the near future. The Dutch ICF Activity Inventory (D-AI) was developed to assess the rehabilitation needs of visually impaired persons. This pilot study tests

  10. Tritium and plutonium production as a step toward ICF commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendergrass, J.H.; Dudziak, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of a combined special nuclear materials (SNM) production plant/engineering test facility (ETF) with reduced pellet and driver performance requirements as a step toward commercialization of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is examined. Blanket design and tritium production cost studies, the status of RandD programs, and the ETF role are emphasized

  11. Contributions to the Genesis and Progress of ICF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuckolls, J H

    2006-02-15

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) has progressed from the detonation of large-scale fusion explosions initiated by atomic bombs in the early 1950s to final preparations for initiating small-scale fusion explosions with giant lasers. The next major step after ignition will be development of high performance targets that can be initiated with much smaller, lower cost lasers. In the 21st century and beyond, ICF's grand challenge is to develop practical power plants that generate low cost, clean, inexhaustible fusion energy. In this chapter, I first describe the origin in 1960-61 of ICF target concepts, early speculations on laser driven 'Thermonuclear Engines' for power production and rocket propulsion, and encouraging large-scale nuclear explosive experiments conducted in 1962. Next, I recall the 40-year, multi-billion dollar ignition campaign - to develop a matched combination of sufficiently high-performance implosion lasers and sufficiently stable targets capable of igniting small fusion explosions. I conclude with brief comments on the NIF ignition campaign and very high-performance targets, and speculations on ICF's potential in a centuries-long Darwinian competition of future energy systems. My perspectives in this chapter are those of a nuclear explosive designer, optimistic proponent of ICF energy, and Livermore Laboratory leader. The perspectives of Livermore's post 1970 laser experts and builders, and laser fusion experimentalists are provided in a chapter written by John Holzrichter, a leading scientist and leader in Livermore's second generation laser fusion program. In a third chapter, Ray Kidder, a theoretical physicist and early laser fusion pioneer, provides his perspectives including the history of the first generation laser fusion program he led from 1962-1972.

  12. Contributions to the Genesis and Progress of ICF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) has progressed from the detonation of large-scale fusion explosions initiated by atomic bombs in the early 1950s to final preparations for initiating small-scale fusion explosions with giant lasers. The next major step after ignition will be development of high performance targets that can be initiated with much smaller, lower cost lasers. In the 21st century and beyond, ICF's grand challenge is to develop practical power plants that generate low cost, clean, inexhaustible fusion energy. In this chapter, I first describe the origin in 1960-61 of ICF target concepts, early speculations on laser driven 'Thermonuclear Engines' for power production and rocket propulsion, and encouraging large-scale nuclear explosive experiments conducted in 1962. Next, I recall the 40-year, multi-billion dollar ignition campaign - to develop a matched combination of sufficiently high-performance implosion lasers and sufficiently stable targets capable of igniting small fusion explosions. I conclude with brief comments on the NIF ignition campaign and very high-performance targets, and speculations on ICF's potential in a centuries-long Darwinian competition of future energy systems. My perspectives in this chapter are those of a nuclear explosive designer, optimistic proponent of ICF energy, and Livermore Laboratory leader. The perspectives of Livermore's post 1970 laser experts and builders, and laser fusion experimentalists are provided in a chapter written by John Holzrichter, a leading scientist and leader in Livermore's second generation laser fusion program. In a third chapter, Ray Kidder, a theoretical physicist and early laser fusion pioneer, provides his perspectives including the history of the first generation laser fusion program he led from 1962-1972.

  13. The implementation of the ICF among Israeli rehabilitation centers--the case of physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Tamar

    2013-10-01

    The extent of the implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), developed by the WHO, in rehabilitation units and in physical therapy (PT) departments is unknown. The study aims to describe the extent to which the ICF has been implemented in PT services within rehabilitation units in Israel. To update data on ICF implementation since its inception. An online semi-structured survey was administered to 25 physiotherapists in charge of PT departments in all rehabilitation units throughout Israel. Rehabilitation units were grouped into three categories: general, geriatric and pediatric. The questionnaire included items regarding the ICF implementation, its strengths, and weaknesses. Twenty two physiotherapists (88%) completed the questionnaire. The majority was familiar with the ICF and nearly two thirds reported partial implementation in their units. Implementation focused mostly on adopting the biopsychosocial concepts and using ICF terms. The ICF was not used either for evaluating patients, or for reporting or encoding patient information. Physiotherapists, directors of most Israeli PT departments in rehabilitation units are familiar with the ICF; however, its clinical implementation is very limited. There is need for further research into the processes of knowledge transfer and implementation of the ICF, in order to better understand the factors that facilitate and those that impede ICF implementation.

  14. [The "Mini-ICF-Rating for Mental Disorders (Mini-ICF-P)". A short instrument for the assessment of disabilities in mental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, M; Baron, S

    2005-06-01

    Supplementary to the description of diseases at symptom level, the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), edited by the WHO, for the first time enables a systematic description also at the level of disabilities and impairments. The Mini-ICF-Rating for Mental Disorders (Mini-ICF-P) is a short observer rating instrument for the assessment of disabilities, especially with regard to occupational functioning. The Mini-ICF-P was first evaluated empirically in 125 patients of a Department of Behavioural Medicine and Psychosomatics. Parallel-test reliability was r = 0.59. Correlates were found with cognitive and motivational variables and duration of sick leave from work. In summary, the Mini-ICF-P is a quick and practicable instrument.

  15. A TDC module used in nTOF of ICF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuehua; Li Feng; Jin Ge; Yu Xiaoqi; Jiang Xiao

    2007-01-01

    Neutron time-of-flight (TOF) can provide important information about the fuel-ion burn temperature in various inertial-confinement-fusion (ICF) target designs. The sensitive neutron detector array is used to increase sensitivity while maintaining good time resolution for low-yield targets. It has been a standard technique to diagnose the average density-radius product(pR), which is a very important parameter in ICF experiments. The time resolution of the sensitive neutron detector array which will be used in 'Shen Guang III' system is expected to be 1 ns, and the one of the electronic system connected with the detectors is 100 ps. Based on the next generation of TDCs from ACAM, TDC-GP2, a VME-plug-in multi-chanel TDC module, with a time-resolution of less than 61 ps, has been designed. (authors)

  16. Stability design considerations for mirror support systems in ICF lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tietbohl, G.L.; Sommer, S.C.

    1996-10-01

    Some of the major components of laser systems used for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) are the large aperture mirrors which direct the path of the laser. These mirrors are typically supported by systems which consist of mirror mounts, mirror enclosures, superstructures, and foundations. Stability design considerations for the support systems of large aperture mirrors have been developed based on the experience of designing and evaluating similar systems at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Examples of the systems developed at LLNL include Nova, the Petawatt laser, Beamlet, and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The structural design of support systems of large aperture mirrors has typically been controlled by stability considerations in order for the large laser system to meet its performance requirements for alignment and positioning. This paper will discuss the influence of stability considerations and will provide guidance on the structural design and evaluation of mirror support systems in ICF lasers so that this information can be used on similar systems

  17. U.S. ICF program: status and accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, D. H.; Keane, Christopher J.; Bieg, K.; Powers, L. V.; Sluyter, Marshall M.

    1997-12-01

    The paper describes the structure of the ICF program and highlights its latest results. The pre-construction activities of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) project have increased their momentum as a result of the recent Congressional decision to appropriate the requested funds for Fiscal Year 1997 to continue the project. The facility is an essential part of United States nuclear defense program in the absence of underground testing. The near-term goal of the U.S. ICF program is to achieve ignition in the laboratory (i.e. NIF) and to achieve high yield in the future. This paper describes some current results in ignition physics and related areas, as well as the progress in some new concepts that may have application to high yield. International collaborations that have been developed in recent years have contributed to the increased rate of progress. The paper closes with a summary of current and planned international initiatives.

  18. Optical design of Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope for ICF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu Baozhong; Yi Shengzhen; Huang Shengling; Wang Zhanshan

    2008-01-01

    A new flux-resolution optical design method of Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope (KB microscope) is proposed. In X-ray imaging diagnostics of inertial confinement fusion(ICF), spatial resolution and flux are always the key parameters. While the traditional optical design of KB microscope is to correct on-axis spherical aberration and astigmatic aberration, flux-resolution method is based on lateral aberration of full field and astigmatic aberration. Thus the spatial resolution related to field dimension and light flux can be estimated. By the expressions of spatial resolution and actual limits in ICF, rules of how to set original structure and optical design flow are summarized. An instance is presented and it shows that the design has met the original targets and overcome the shortcomings of image characterization in compressed core by traditional spherical aberration correction. (authors)

  19. Towards an ICF Core Set for chronic musculoskeletal conditions: commonalities across ICF Core Sets for osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, low back pain and chronic widespread pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzkopf, S R; Ewert, T; Dreinhöfer, K E; Cieza, A; Stucki, G

    2008-11-01

    The objective of the study was to identify commonalities among the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Sets of osteoarthritis (OA), osteoporosis (OP), low back pain (LBP), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and chronic widespread pain (CWP). The aim is to identify relevant categories for the development of a tentative ICF Core Set for musculoskeletal and pain conditions. The ICF categories common to the five musculoskeletal and pain conditions in the Brief and Comprehensive ICF Core Sets were identified in three steps. In a first step, the commonalities across the Brief and Comprehensive ICF Core Sets for these conditions were examined. In a second and third step, we analysed the increase in commonalities when iteratively excluding one or two of the five conditions. In the first step, 29 common categories out of the total number of 120 categories were identified across the Comprehensive ICF Core Sets of all musculoskeletal and pain conditions, primarily in the component activities and participation. In the second and third step, we found that the exclusion of CWP across the Comprehensive ICF Core Sets increased the commonalities of the remaining four musculoskeletal conditions in a maximum of ten additional categories. The Brief ICF Core Sets of all musculoskeletal and pain conditions contain four common categories out of a total number of 62 categories. The iterative exclusion of a singular condition did not significantly increase the commonalities in the remaining. Based on our analysis, it seems possible to develop a tentative Comprehensive ICF Core Set across a number of musculoskeletal conditions including LBP, OA, OP and RA. However, the profile of functioning in people with CWP differs considerably and should not be further considered for a common ICF Core Set.

  20. Kinetic physics in ICF: present understanding and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinderknecht, Hans G.; Amendt, P. A.; Wilks, S. C.; Collins, G.

    2018-06-01

    Kinetic physics has the potential to impact the performance of indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. Systematic anomalies in the National Ignition Facility implosion dataset have been identified in which kinetic physics may play a role, including inferred missing energy in the hohlraum, drive asymmetry in near-vacuum hohlraums, low areal density and high burn-averaged ion temperatures (〈Ti 〉) compared with mainline simulations, and low ratios of the DD-neutron and DT-neutron yields and inferred 〈Ti 〉. Several components of ICF implosions are likely to be influenced or dominated by kinetic physics: laser-plasma interactions in the LEH and hohlraum interior; the hohlraum wall blowoff, blowoff/gas and blowoff/ablator interfaces; the ablator and ablator/ice interface; and the DT fuel all present conditions in which kinetic physics can significantly affect the dynamics. This review presents the assembled experimental data and simulation results to date, which indicate that the effects of long mean-free-path plasma phenomena and self-generated electromagnetic fields may have a significant impact in ICF targets. Simulation and experimental efforts are proposed to definitively quantify the importance of these effects at ignition-relevant conditions, including priorities for ongoing study.

  1. Compact torus accelerator as a driver for ICF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, M.T.; Meier, W.R.; Morse, E.C.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have carried out further investigations of the technical issues associated with using a compact torus (CT) accelerator as a driver for inertial confinement fusion (ICF). In a CT accelerator, a magnetically confined, torus-shaped plasma is compressed, accelerated, and focused by two concentric electrodes. After its initial formation, the torus shape is maintained for lifetimes exceeding 1 ms by inherent poloidal and toroidal currents. Hartman suggests acceleration and focusing of such a plasma ring will not cause dissolution within certain constraints. In this study, we evaluated a point design based on an available capacitor bank energy of 9.2 MJ. This accelerator, which was modeled by a zero-dimensional code, produces a xenon plasma ring with a 0.73-cm radius, a velocity of 4.14 x 10 9 cm/s, and a mass of 4.42 μg. The energy of the plasma ring as it leaves the accelerator is 3.8 MJ, or 41% of the capacitor bank energy. Our studies confirm the feasibility of producing a plasma ring with the characteristics required to induce fusion in an ICF target with a gain greater than 50. The low cost and high efficiency of the CT accelerator are particularly attractive. Uncertainties concerning propagation, accelerator lifetime, and power supply must be resolved to establish the viability of the accelerator as an ICF driver

  2. FUNCTIONAL PROFILE OF ACTIVE OLDER ADULTS WITH LOW BACK PAIN, ACCORDING TO THE ICF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersom Ricardo Fréz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF considers multiples aspects of functionality. It is believed that this tool can help to classify the functionality of older adults with low back pain (LBP . Objectives: To describe the functionality of active older adults with LBP according to the ICF. Methods: A transversal study was conducted using the brief ICF core set for low back pain, to establish functional profiles of 40 older adults. The ICF categories were considered valid when ≥20% of participants showed some disability. Results: Thirty-two of the 35 categories of the brief ICF core set could be considered representative of the sample. Conclusion: The brief ICF core set for LBP results demonstrated that this classification system is representative for describing the functional profile of the sample.

  3. The ICF has made a difference to functioning and disability measurement and statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Rosamond H; Bundy, Anita

    2018-02-12

    Fifteen years after the publication of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), we investigated: How ICF applications align with ICF aims, contents and principles, and how the ICF has been used to improve measurement of functioning and related statistics. In a scoping review, we investigated research published 2001-2015 relating to measurement and statistics for evidence of: a change in thinking; alignment of applications with ICF specifications and philosophy; and the emergence of new knowledge. The ICF is used in diverse applications, settings and countries, with processes largely aligned with the ICF and intended to improve measurement and statistics: new national surveys, information systems and ICF-based instruments; and international efforts to improve disability data. Knowledge is growing about the components and interactions of the ICF model, the diverse effects of the environment on functioning, and the meaning and measurement of participation. The ICF provides specificity and a common language in the complex world of functioning and disability and is stimulating new thinking, new applications in measurement and statistics, and the assembling of new knowledge. Nevertheless, the field needs to mature. Identified gaps suggest ways to improve measurement and statistics to underpin policies, services and outcomes. Implications for Rehabilitation The ICF offers a conceptualization of functioning and disability that can underpin assessment and documentation in rehabilitation, with a growing body of experience to draw on for guidance. Experience with the ICF reminds practitioners to consider all the domains of participation, the effect of the environment on participation and the importance of involving clients/patients in assessment and service planning. Understanding the variability of functioning within everyday environments and designing interventions for removing barriers in various environments is a vital part of

  4. Light ion beam approach to ICF ignition, gain, and energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.; Allshouse, G.; Cook, D.

    1993-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is supporting research oriented toward both near-term defense applications as well as long-term energy applications of inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The ICF programs at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is directed toward validating light ions as an efficient driver for these applications. The light ion laboratory microfusion facility (LMF) is envisioned as a facility in which high gain ICF targets could be developed and utilized in defense-related experiments. The LIBRA light ion beam commercial reactor study provides a baseline approach towards the use of the high gain light ion ICF technology as a source of commercial electrical energy

  5. Light ion beam approach to ICF ignition, gain, and energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.; Allshouse, G.; Cook, D.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is supporting research oriented toward both near-term defense applications as well as long-term energy applications of inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The ICF program at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is directed toward validating light ions as an efficient driver for these applications. The light ion laboratory microfusion facility (LMF) is envisioned as a facility in which high gain ICF targets could be developed and utilized in defense-related experiments. The LIBRA light ion beam commercial reactor study provides a baseline approach towards the use of the high gain light ion ICF technology as a source of commercial electrical energy. (author)

  6. Towards system-wide implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in routine practice: Developing simple, intuitive descriptions of ICF categories in the ICF Generic and Rehabilitation Set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodinger, Birgit; Reinhardt, Jan D; Selb, Melissa; Stucki, Gerold; Yan, Tiebin; Zhang, Xia; Li, Jianan

    2016-06-13

    A national, multi-phase, consensus process to develop simple, intuitive descriptions of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) categories contained in the ICF Generic and Rehabilitation Sets, with the aim of enhancing the utility of the ICF in routine clinical practice, is presented in this study. A multi-stage, national, consensus process was conducted. The consensus process involved 3 expert groups and consisted of a preparatory phase, a consensus conference with consecutive working groups and 3 voting rounds (votes A, B and C), followed by an implementation phase. In the consensus conference, participants first voted on whether they agreed that an initially developed proposal for simple, intuitive descriptions of an ICF category was in fact simple and intuitive. The consensus conference was held in August 2014 in mainland China. Twenty-one people with a background in physical medicine and rehabilitation participated in the consensus process. Four ICF categories achieved consensus in vote A, 16 in vote B, and 8 in vote C. This process can be seen as part of a larger effort towards the system-wide implementation of the ICF in routine clinical and rehabilitation practice to allow for the regular and comprehensive evaluation of health outcomes most relevant for the monitoring of quality of care.

  7. X-ray ablation measurements and modeling for ICF applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.T.

    1996-09-01

    X-ray ablation of material from the first wall and other components of an ICF (Inertial Confinement Fusion) chamber is a major threat to the laser final optics. Material condensing on these optics after a shot may cause damage with subsequent laser shots. To ensure the successful operation of the ICF facility, removal rates must be predicted accurately. The goal for this dissertation is to develop an experimentally validated x-ray response model, with particular application to the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Accurate knowledge of the x-ray and debris emissions from ICF targets is a critical first step in the process of predicting the performance of the target chamber system. A number of 1-D numerical simulations of NIF targets have been run to characterize target output in terms of energy, angular distribution, spectrum, and pulse shape. Scaling of output characteristics with variations of both target yield and hohlraum wall thickness are also described. Experiments have been conducted at the Nova laser on the effects of relevant x-ray fluences on various materials. The response was diagnosed using post-shot examinations of the surfaces with scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope instruments. Judgments were made about the dominant removal mechanisms for each material. Measurements of removal depths were made to provide data for the modeling. The finite difference ablation code developed here (ABLATOR) combines the thermomechanical response of materials to x-rays with models of various removal mechanisms. The former aspect refers to energy deposition in such small characteristic depths (∼ micron) that thermal conduction and hydrodynamic motion are significant effects on the nanosecond time scale. The material removal models use the resulting time histories of temperature and pressure-profiles, along with ancillary local conditions, to predict rates of surface vaporization and the onset of conditions that would lead to spallation

  8. Pulsed power drivers for ICF and high energy density physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, J.J.; Matzen, M.K.; McDaniel, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    Nanosecond Pulsed Power Science and Technology has its origins in the 1960s and over the past decade has matured into a flexible and robust discipline capable of addressing key physics issues of importance to ICF and high Energy Density Physics. The major leverage provided by pulsed power is its ability to generate and deliver high energy and high power at low cost and high efficiency. A low-cost, high-efficiency driver is important because of the very large capital investment required for multi-megajoule ignition-class systems. High efficiency is of additional importance for a commercially viable inertial fusion energy option. Nanosecond pulsed power has been aggressively and successfully developed at Sandia over the past twenty years. This effort has led to the development of unique multi-purpose facilities supported by highly capable diagnostic, calculational and analytic capabilities. The Sandia Particle-beam Fusion Program has evolved as part of an integrated national ICF Program. It applies the low-cost, high-efficiency leverage provided by nanosecond pulsed power systems to the longer-term goals of the national program, i.e., the Laboratory Microfusion Facility and Inertial Fusion Energy. A separate effort has led to the application of nanosecond pulsed power to the generation of intense, high-energy laboratory x-ray sources for application to x-ray laser and radiation effects science research. Saturn is the most powerful of these sources to date. It generates ∼500 kilojoules of x-rays from a magnetically driven implosion (Z-pinch). This paper describes results of x-ray physics experiments performed on Saturn, plans for a new Z-pinch drive capability for PBFA-II, and a design concept for the proposed ∼15 MJ Jupiter facility. The opportunities for ICF-relevant research using these facilities will also be discussed

  9. U.S. DOE driver development for ICF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sluyter, M.M.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) supported Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program is to produce pure fusion ignition with fusion yields of 200 to 1000 millions of joules, which could find several applications in the defence and in the electric power generation. The National Ignition Facility will operate in both direct and indirect driver modes, with a glass laser driver. However two other options have been developed to increase the energy efficiency: the Light Ion Pulsed Power program and the NIKE KrF laser. Heavy ion drivers are also investigated -Abstract only-. (TEC)

  10. Multi-dimensional cubic interpolation for ICF hydrodynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takayuki; Yabe, Takashi.

    1991-04-01

    A new interpolation method is proposed to solve the multi-dimensional hyperbolic equations which appear in describing the hydrodynamics of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosion. The advection phase of the cubic-interpolated pseudo-particle (CIP) is greatly improved, by assuming the continuities of the second and the third spatial derivatives in addition to the physical value and the first derivative. These derivatives are derived from the given physical equation. In order to evaluate the new method, Zalesak's example is tested, and we obtain successfully good results. (author)

  11. [Functioning and disability: the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-López, Juan Antonio; Fernández-Fidalgo, María; Geoffrey, Reed; Stucki, Gerold; Cieza, Alarcos

    2009-01-01

    The World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) has provided a new foundation for our understanding of health, functioning, and disability. It covers most of the health and health-related domains that make up the human experience, and the most environmental factors that influence that experience of functioning and disability. With the exhaustive ICF, patients' functioning -including its components body functions and structures and activities and participation-, becomes a central perspective in medicine. To implement the ICF in medicine and other fields, practical tools (= ICF Core Sets) have been developed. They are selected sets of categories out of the whole classification which serve as minimal standards for the assessment and reporting of functioning and health for clinical studies and clinical encounters (Brief ICF Core Set) or as standards for multiprofessional comprehensive assessment (Comprehensive ICF Core Set). Different from generic and condition-specific health-status measures, the ICF Core Sets include important body functions and structures and contextual factors. The use of the ICF Core Sets provides an important step towards improved communications between healthcare providers and professionals, and will enable patients and their families to understand and communicate with health professionals about their functioning and treatment goals. Specific applications include multi- and interdisciplinary assessment in clinical settings and in legal expert evaluations and use in disease or functioning-management programs. The ICF has also a potential as a conceptual framework to clarify an interrelated universe of health-related concepts which can be elucidated based on the ICF and therefore will be an ideal tool for teaching students in all medical fields and may open doors to multi-professional learning.

  12. Performance of the Aurora KrF ICF laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.E.; Czuchlewski, S.J.; Turner, T.P.; Watt, R.G.; Thomas, S.J.; Netz, D.A.; Tallman, C.R.; Mack, J.M.; Figueira, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    Because short wavelength lasers are attractive for inertial confinement fusion (ICF), the Department of Energy is sponsoring work at Los Alamos National Laboratory in krypton-fluoride (KrF) laser technology. Aurora is a short-pulse, high-power, KrF laser system. It serves as an end-to-end technology demonstration prototype for large-scale ultraviolet laser systems for short wavelength ICF research. The system employs optical angular multiplexing and serial amplification by electron-beam-driven KrF laser amplifiers. The 1 to 5 ns pulse of the Aurora front end is split into 96 beams which are angularly and temporally multiplexed to produce a 480 ns pulse train for amplification by four KrF laser amplifiers. In the present system configuration half (48) of the amplified pulses are demultiplexed using different optical path lengths and delivered simultaneously to target. This paper discusses how the Aurora laser system has entered the initial operational phase by delivering pulse energies of greater than one kilojoule to target

  13. Wetted Foam Liquid DT Layer ICF Experiments at the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, R. E.; Leeper, R. J.; Peterson, R. R.; Yi, S. A.; Zylstra, A. B.; Kline, J. L.; Bradley, P. A.; Yin, L.; Wilson, D. C.; Haines, B. M.; Batha, S. H.

    2016-10-01

    A key physics issue in indirect-drive ICF relates to the understanding of the limitations on hot spot convergence ratio (CR), principally set by the hohlraum drive symmetry, the capsule mounting hardware (the ``tent''), and the capsule fill tube. An additional key physics issue relates to the complex process by which a hot spot must be dynamically formed from the inner ice surface in a DT ice-layer implosion. These physics issues have helped to motivate the development of a new liquid DT layer wetted foam platform at the NIF that provides an ability to form the hot spot from DT vapor and experimentally study and understand hot spot formation at a variety of CR's in the range of 12hot spot and the low adiabat cold fuel during the stagnation process and can allow for a fundamentally different (and potentially more robust) process of hot spot formation. This new experimental platform is currently being used in a series of experiments to discover a range of CR's at which DT layered implosions will have understandable performance - providing a sound basis from which to determine the requirements for ICF ignition. This work was performed under the auspices of the U. S. DOE by LANL under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  14. Dynamic hohlraum and ICF pellet implosion experiments on Z

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, T.J.; Derzon, M.S.; Chandler, G.A.

    1999-01-01

    By stabilizing an imploding z-pinch on Z (20 MA, 100 ns) with a solid current return can and a nested wire array the authors have achieved dynamic hohlraum radiation temperatures over 200 eV at a diameter of approximately 1 mm. The pinch configuration yielding this temperature is a nested tungsten wire array of 240 and 120 wires at 4 and 2 cm diameters weighing 2 and 1 mg, 1 cm long, imploding onto a 5 mm diameter, 14 mg/cc cylindrical CH foam, weighing 3 mg. They have used a single 4 cm diameter tungsten wire array to drive a 1.6 mm diameter ICF capsule mounted in a 6 mg/cc foam inside a 3 mg copper annulus at 5 mm diameter, and measured x-ray emissions indicative of the pellet implosion. Mounting the pellet in foam may have caused the hohlraum to become equator-hot. They will present results from upcoming pellet experiments in which the pellet is mounted by thread and driven by a larger diameter, 6 or 7 mm, copper annulus to improve radiation drive symmetry. They will also discuss designs for tapered foam annular targets that distort a cylindrical pinch into a quasi-sphere that will wrap around an ICF pellet to further improve drive symmetry

  15. Sirius-T, a symmetrically illuminated ICF tritium production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sviatoslavsky, I.N.; Sawan, M.E.; Moses, G.A.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Engelstad, R.L.; Larsen, E.; Lovell, E.; MacFarlane, J.; Peterson, R.R.; Wittenberg, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    A scoping study of a symmetrically illuminated ICF tritium production facility utilizing a KrF laser is presented. A single shell ICF target is illuminated by 92 beams symmetrically distributed around a spherical cavity filled with xenon gas at 1.0 torr. The driver energy and target gain are taken to be 2 MJ and 50 for the optimistic case and 1 MJ and 100 for the conservative case. Based on a graphite dry wall evaporation rate of 0.1 cm/y for a 100 MJ yield, the authors estimate a cavity radius of 3.5 m for a rep-rate of 10 Hz and 3.0 m for 5 Hz. A spherical structural frame has been scoped out capable of supporting 92 blanket modules, each with a beam port in the center. They have selected liquid lithium in vanadium structure as the primary breeding concept utilizing beryllium as a neutron multiplier. A tritium breeding ratio of 1.83 can be achieved in the 3 m radius cavity which at 10 Hz and an availability of 75% provides an annual tritium surplus of 32.6 kg. Assuming 100% debt financing over a 30 year reactor lifetime, the production cost of T 2 for the 2 MJ driver case is $7,325/g for a 5% interest rate and $12,370/g for a 10% interest rate. 8 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  16. An alternative to the compact torus ICF driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latter, A.L.; Martinelli, E.A.

    1992-11-01

    Plasma guns have been used in the Controlled Thermonuclear Reaction (CTR) Program to inject energetic deuterium-tritium plasma into a magnetic confinement machine, also for dense-plasma-focus devices to achieve fusion utilizing Z-pinches. In this report we propose another CTR application of a plasma gun: accelerating the plasma in a coaxial geometry to a speed in the neighborhood of a centimeter per shake with a total kinetic energy of about 20 MJ. The kinetic energy is efficiently converted to x-rays in a time of about a shake, and the x-ray pulse is used to implode an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) capsule. As far as we know the plasma gun application we are proposing has not been explored before, but we observe that the LLNL Compact Torus Program hopes to accelerate a compact-torus-plasma to a comparable speed and energy and, in one of its applications, to generate x-rays for ICF purposes. In fact, the only difference between the LLNL Compact Torus Program and what we are proposing is that our plasma does not rely on imbedded magnetic fields and currents to minimize instabilities. We minimize instabilities by snowplowing the plasma to its required speed in a single shock. Which approach is better requires additional investigation

  17. Moving finite element method for ICF target implosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, J.; Kawata, S.; Niu, K.

    1985-03-01

    One dimensional hydrodynamic codes for the analysis of internal confinement fusion (ICF) target implosion which include various effects were developed, but most of them utilize the artificial viscosity (e.g., Von Neumann's viscosity) which cannot reveal accurately the shock waves. A gain of ICF target implosion is much due to the dissipation at the shock fronts, so it is necessary to express correctly the shock waves which are affected by the viscosity. The width of the shock waves is usually a few times as large as the length of mean free path, therefore the meshes for the shock waves must be set to about 10 to the 4th to 10 to the 5th power. It is a serious problem because of the computational memories or CPU time. In the moving finite element (MPE) method, both nodal amplitudes and nodal positions move continuously with time in such a way as to satisfy simultaneous ordinary differential equations (OPDs) which minimize partial differential equation (PDE) residuals.

  18. Kinetic studies of ICF target dynamics with ePLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, R. J.

    2016-10-01

    The ePLAS code was recently used1 to show that a modeling change from artificial to real viscosity can result in a decrease of the predicted performance of ICF targets. This code typically follows either fluid or PIC electrons with fluid ions in self-consistent E - and B - fields computed by the Implicit Moment Method2. For the present study the ions have instead been run as PIC particles undergoing Krook-like self-collisions. The ePLAS collision model continually redistributes the ion particle properties toward a local Maxwellian, while conserving the mean density, momentum and energy. Whereas the use of real viscosity captures large Knudsen Number effects as the active target dimensions shrink below the ion mean-free-path, the new kinetic modeling can manifest additional effects such as collisional shock precursors3 from the escape and streaming of the fastest particle ions. In 2D cylindrical geometry we will explore how such kinetic shock extensions might affect shell and core compression dynamics in ICF target implosions.

  19. Barriers, activities and participation: Incorporating ICF into service planning datasets.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donovan, MA

    2009-05-21

    Purpose. Guided by the World Health Organization\\'s International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), a measure of activity and participation (MAP) was developed and incorporated into the National Physical and Sensory Disability Database in Ireland. The aims of this article are to investigate and explore the relationship between the barriers, participation restriction and functioning levels experienced by people with disabilities. Method. Seven thousand five hundred and sixty-two personal interviews with people meeting specific eligibility criteria for registering onto the database were conducted across four health service executive regions in Ireland. Results. Overall, differences in barriers, participation restriction and activity limitations experienced by people with different types of disabilities were found to be significant. Furthermore, low functioning and experience of barriers were indicators of participation restriction. Conclusions. This article has shown that elements of the ICF have been successfully operationalised in a service planning tool through the development of the MAP. This provides a more holistic view of disability and will enable the impact of service interventions to be measured over time.

  20. ICF-viitekehyksen soveltuminen kuntoutusprosessin tueksi kehitysvammahuollossa : Työntekijöiden näkemyksiä

    OpenAIRE

    Hellsten, Pirjo; Marin-Vilkkinen, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    Pirkanmaan Sairaanhoitopiirin kehitysvammahuollossa käynnistettiin ICF-projekti vuosille 2015-2018. Projektin tarkoituksena on ottaa ICF-viitekehys käyttöön kuntoutuksen tueksi toimintakyvyn kuvaamisessa. Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli saada tietoa ICF-viitekehyksen soveltumisesta kehitysvammaisen asiakkaan kuntoutusprosessissa ja tavoitteena oli tuottaa tietoa ICF- viitekehyksen käyttöönotosta ICF-projektiryhmän käyttöön. Opinnäytetyö toteutettiin laadullisena tutkimuksena. Tutkimusaine...

  1. Thermodynamic and dynamical properties of dense ICF plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabdullin Maratbek T.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In present work, thermodynamic expressions were obtained through potentials that took into consideration long-range many-particle screening effects as well as short-range quantum-mechanical effects and radial distribution functions (RDFs. Stopping power of the projectile ions in dense, non-isothermal plasma was considered. One of the important values that describe the stopping power of the ions in plasma is the Coulomb logarithm. We investigated the stopping power of ions in inertial confinement fusion (ICF plasma and other energetic characteristics of fuel. Calculations of ions energy losses in the plasma for different values of the temperature and plasma density were carried out. A comparison of the calculated data of ion stopping power and energy deposition with experimental and theoretical results of other authors was also performed.

  2. Experiment of ambient temperature distribution in ICF driver's target building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yi; He Jie; Yang Shujuan; Zhang Junwei; Zhou Hai; Feng Bin; Xie Na; Lin Donghui

    2009-01-01

    An experiment is designed to explore the ambient temperature distribution in an ICF driver's target building, Multi-channel PC-2WS temperature monitoring recorders and PTWD-2A precision temperature sensors are used to measure temperatures on the three vertical cross-sections in the building, and the collected data have been handled by MATLAB. The experiment and analysis show that the design of the heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system can maintain the temperature stability throughout the building. However, because of the impact of heat in the target chamber, larger local environmental temperature gradients appear near the marshalling yard, the staff region on the middle floor, and equipments on the lower floor which needs to be controlled. (authors)

  3. Solid state laser driver for an ICF reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupke, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    A conceptual design is presented of the main power amplifier of a multi-beamline, multi-megawatt solid state ICF reactor driver. Simultaneous achievement of useful beam quality and high average power is achieved by a proper choice of amplifier geometry. An amplifier beamline consists of a sequence of face-pumped rectangular slab gain elements, oriented at the Brewster angle relative to the beamline axis, and cooled on their large faces by helium gas that is flowing subsonically. The infrared amplifier output radiation is shifted to an appropriately short wavelength ( 10% (including all flow cooling input power) when the amplifiers are pumped by efficient high-power AlGaAs semiconductor laser diode arrays. 11 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  4. Numerical analysis of anisotropic diffusion effect on ICF hydrodynamic instabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olazabal-Loumé M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of anisotropic diffusion on hydrodynamic instabilities in the context of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF flows is numerically assessed. This anisotropy occurs in indirect-drive when laminated ablators are used to modify the lateral transport [1,2]. In direct-drive, non-local transport mechanisms and magnetic fields may modify the lateral conduction [3]. In this work, numerical simulations obtained with the code PERLE [4], dedicated to linear stability analysis, are compared with previous theoretical results [5]. In these approaches, the diffusion anisotropy can be controlled by a characteristic coefficient which enables a comprehensive study. This work provides new results on the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor (RT, ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM and Darrieus-Landau (DL instabilities.

  5. Monte Carlo Methods in ICF (LIRPP Vol. 13)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, George B.

    2016-10-01

    Monte Carlo methods appropriate to simulate the transport of x-rays, neutrons, ions and electrons in Inertial Confinement Fusion targets are described and analyzed. The Implicit Monte Carlo method of x-ray transport handles symmetry within indirect drive ICF hohlraums well, but can be improved SOX in efficiency by angular biasing the x-rays towards the fuel capsule. Accurate simulation of thermonuclear burn and burn diagnostics involves detailed particle source spectra, charged particle ranges, inflight reaction kinematics, corrections for bulk and thermal Doppler effects and variance reduction to obtain adequate statistics for rare events. It is found that the effects of angular Coulomb scattering must be included in models of charged particle transport through heterogeneous materials.

  6. Validating Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) predictive capability using perturbed capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Mark; Magelssen, Glenn; Tregillis, Ian; Hsu, Scott; Bradley, Paul; Dodd, Evan; Cobble, James; Flippo, Kirk; Offerman, Dustin; Obrey, Kimberly; Wang, Yi-Ming; Watt, Robert; Wilke, Mark; Wysocki, Frederick; Batha, Steven

    2009-11-01

    Achieving ignition on NIF is a monumental step on the path toward utilizing fusion as a controlled energy source. Obtaining robust ignition requires accurate ICF models to predict the degradation of ignition caused by heterogeneities in capsule construction and irradiation. LANL has embarked on a project to induce controlled defects in capsules to validate our ability to predict their effects on fusion burn. These efforts include the validation of feature-driven hydrodynamics and mix in a convergent geometry. This capability is needed to determine the performance of capsules imploded under less-than-optimum conditions on future IFE facilities. LANL's recently initiated Defect Implosion Experiments (DIME) conducted at Rochester's Omega facility are providing input for these efforts. Recent simulation and experimental results will be shown.

  7. Advanced power flow technologies for high current ICF accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanDevender, J.P.; McDaniel, D.H.

    1978-01-01

    Two new technologies for raising the power density in high current, inertial confinement fusion accelerators have been developed in the past two years. Magnetic flashover inhibition utilizes the self-magnetic fields around the vacuum insulator surface to inhibit surface flashover; average electric fields of 40 Mv/m at magnetic fields of 1.1 T have been achieved. Self-magnetic insulation of long, vacuum transmission lines has been used to transport power at 1.6 x 10 14 W/m 2 over six meters and up to 1.6 x 10 15 W/m 2 over short distances in a radial anode-cathode feed. The recent data relevant to these new technologies and their implications for ICF will be explored

  8. Resolving a central ICF issue for ignition: Implosion symmertry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cray, M.; Delamater, N.D.; Fernandez, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program focuses on resolving key target-physics issues and developing technology needed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This work is being performed in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). A major requirement for the indirect-drive NIF ignition target is to achieve the irradiation uniformity on the capsule surface needed for a symmetrical high-convergence implosion. Los Alamos employed an integrated modeling technique using the Lasnex radiation-hydrodynamics code to design two different targets that achieve ignition and moderate gain. Los Alamos is performing experiments on the Nova Laser at LLNL in order to validate our NIF ignition calculations

  9. Recent advances in indirect drive ICF target physics at CEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassart, J.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of Target Physics Program at CEA is the achievement of ignition on the LMJ, a glass laser facility of 1.8 MJ which will be completed by 2008. It is composed of theoretical work, experimental work and numerical simulations. An important part of experimental studies is made in collaboration with U.S. DOE Laboratories: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Laboratory for Laser Energetics at the University of Rochester. Experiments were performed on Phebus, NOVA (LLNL) and OMEGA (LLE) ; they included diagnostics developments. Recent efforts have been focused on Laser Plasma Interaction, hohlraum energetics, symmetry, ablator physics and hydrodynamic instabilities. Ongoing work prepare the first experiments on the LIL which is a prototype facility of the LMJ (8 of its 240 beams). They will be performed by 2002. Recent progress in ICF target physics allows us to precise laser specifications to achieve ignition with reasonable margin. (author)

  10. Blast venting through blanket material in the HYLIFE ICF reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.C.; Peterson, P.F.; Schrock, V.E.

    1992-01-01

    This work presents a numerical study of blast venting through various blanket configurations in the HYLIFE ICF reactor design. The study uses TSUNAMI -- a multi-dimensional, high-resolution, shock capturing code -- to predict the momentum exchange and gas dynamics for blast venting in complex geometries. In addition, the study presents conservative predictions of wall loading by gas shock and impulse delivered to the protective liquid blanket. Configurations used in the study include both 2700 MJ and 350 MJ fusion yields per pulse for 5 meter and 3 meter radius reactor chambers. For the former, an annular jet array is used for the blanket geometry, while in the latter, both annular jet array as well as slab geometries are used. Results of the study indicate that blast venting and wall loading may be manageable in the HYLIFE-II design by a judicious choice of blanket configuration

  11. X-ray Thomson Scattering from Spherically Imploded ICF Ablators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritcher, Andrea; Doeppner, Tilo; Landen, Otto; Glenzer, Siegfried

    2010-11-01

    Time-resolved X-ray Thomson scattering measurements from spherically imploded inertial fusion capsules-type targets have been obtained for the first time at the Omega OMEGA laser facility to characterize the in-flight properties of ICF ablators. In these experiments, the non-collective, or microscopic particle behavior, of imploding CH and Be shells, was probed using a 9 keV Zn He-alpha x-ray source at scattering angles of 113^o and 135^o. for two drive pulse shapes.As an example, the analysis of In-flight scattering measurements from one set of directly-driven compressed 8600 μm-diameter, 40-μm thick Be shells taken (4.2 ns after the start of the compression beamswhen compressed a factor of 4.83x) yielded electron densities of ˜ 1.2±0.23x10^24cm-3, temperatures of ˜13±32 eV, and an ionization state of Be(+2), with uncertainties in the temperature and density of about 40% and 20%. These conditions resulting in an inferred adiabat (ratio of plasma pressure to Fermi degenerate pressure) of 1.797 +0.3/-.5 with an error of about 30%. The high signal-to-noise and high signal-to-background ratio of data obtained in these experiments provides a platform for studying the adiabat of other indirect-drive ICF ablators such as CH and High Density Carbon (HDC) ablators and demonstrates the viability of using this diagnostic to study the in-flight properties adiabat of implosion targets at the National Ignition Facility (NIF).

  12. Clinical spectrum of immunodeficiency, centromeric instability and facial dysmorphism (ICF syndrome).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagleitner, M.M.; Lankester, A.; Maraschio, P.; Hulten, M.; Fryns, J.P.; Schuetz, C.; Gimelli, G.; Davies, E.G.; Gennery, A.R.; Belohradsky, B.H.; Groot, R. de; Gerritsen, E.J.; Mattina, T.; Howard, P.J.; Fasth, A.; Reisli, I.; Furthner, D.; Slatter, M.A.; Cant, A.J.; Cazzola, G.; Dijken, P.J. van; Deuren, M. van; Greef, J.C. de; Maarel, S.M. van der; Weemaes, C.M.R.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Immunodeficiency, centromeric instability and facial dysmorphism (ICF syndrome) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterised by facial dysmorphism, immunoglobulin deficiency and branching of chromosomes 1, 9 and 16 after PHA stimulation of lymphocytes. Hypomethylation of DNA of a

  13. A Conceptual Definition of Vocational Rehabilitation Based on the ICF : building a shared global model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escorpizo, Reuben; Reneman, Michiel F.; Ekholm, Jan; Fritz, Julie; Krupa, Terry; Marnetoft, Sven-Uno; Maroun, Claude E.; Guzman, Julietta Rodriguez; Suzuki, Yoshiko; Stucki, Gerold; Chan, Chetwyn C. H.

    Background The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is a conceptual framework and classification system by the World Health Organization (WHO) to understand functioning. The objective of this discussion paper is to offer a conceptual definition for vocational

  14. The VISTA spacecraft: Advantages of ICF [Inertial Confinement Fusion] for interplanetary fusion propulsion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, C.D.; Klein, G.; Sercel, J.; Hoffman, N.; Murray, K.; Chang-Diaz, F.

    1987-01-01

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is an attractive engine power source for interplanetary manned spacecraft, especially for near-term missions requiring minimum flight duration, because ICF has inherent high power-to-mass ratios and high specific impulses. We have developed a new vehicle concept called VISTA that uses ICF and is capable of round-trip manned missions to Mars in 100 days using A.D. 2020 technology. We describe VISTA's engine operation, discuss associated plasma issues, and describe the advantages of DT fuel for near-term applications. Although ICF is potentially superior to non-fusion technologies for near-term interplanetary transport, the performance capabilities of VISTA cannot be meaningfully compared with those of magnetic-fusion systems because of the lack of a comparable study of the magnetic-fusion systems. We urge that such a study be conducted

  15. Towards an ICF-based clinical measure of functioning in people with ankylosing spondylitis: a methodological exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieza, A; Hilfiker, R; Boonen, A; van der Heijde, D; Braun, J; Stucki, G

    2009-01-01

    To explore whether it is possible to construct clinical measures of functioning for patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) by integrating information obtained across categories of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Sixty-eight ICF categories that were identified as relevant by patients with AS and that covered body functions, structures, and activity and participation were analysed based on the Rasch model for ordered response options. The following properties were studied: unidimensionality, reliability, fit of the ICF categories to the Rasch model, the appropriateness of the order of the response options of the ICF qualifier, and the targeting between the ICF categories and the person's abilities. After accounting for disordered thresholds and misfitting ICF categories, a clinical measure of functioning for AS was proposed that contained 64 ICF categories. On the basis of a transformation table, the raw scores obtained by adding the answers to the 64 ICF categories can be transformed to the Rasch logit scale and to a meaningful interval scale ranging from zero to 100. For the first time, it has been shown that clinical measures of functioning, in principle, can be constructed based on the comprehensive ICF framework covering body functions and structures and activities and participation domains. The results of this investigation are preliminary and must be validated, but they are promising and can contribute to the acceptance and usefulness of the ICF in clinical practice.

  16. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in Electronic Health Records. A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maritz, Roxanne; Aronsky, Dominik; Prodinger, Birgit

    2017-09-20

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is the World Health Organization's standard for describing health and health-related states. Examples of how the ICF has been used in Electronic Health Records (EHRs) have not been systematically summarized and described yet. To provide a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature about the ICF's use in EHRs, including related challenges and benefits. Peer-reviewed literature, published between January 2001 and July 2015 was retrieved from Medline ® , CINAHL ® , Scopus ® , and ProQuest ® Social Sciences using search terms related to ICF and EHR concepts. Publications were categorized according to three groups: Requirement specification, development and implementation. Information extraction was conducted according to a qualitative content analysis method, deductively informed by the evaluation framework for Health Information Systems: Human, Organization and Technology-fit (HOT-fit). Of 325 retrieved articles, 17 publications were included; 4 were categorized as requirement specification, 7 as development, and 6 as implementation publications. Information regarding the HOT-fit evaluation framework was summarized. Main benefits of using the ICF in EHRs were its unique comprehensive perspective on health and its interdisciplinary focus. Main challenges included the fact that the ICF is not structured as a formal terminology as well as the need for a reduced number of ICF codes for more feasible and practical use. Different approaches and technical solutions exist for integrating the ICF in EHRs, such as combining the ICF with other existing standards for EHR or selecting ICF codes with natural language processing. Though the use of the ICF in EHRs is beneficial as this review revealed, the ICF could profit from further improvements such as formalizing the knowledge representation in the ICF to support and enhance interoperability.

  17. Operationalization and reliability testing of ICF categories relevant for physiotherapists' interventions in the acute hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Grill, E; Gloor-Juzi, T; Huber, E O; Stucki, G

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To operationalize items based on categories of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) relevant to patient problems that are addressed by physiotherapeutic interventions in the acute hospital, and to test the reliability of these items when applied by physiotherapists. Methods: A selection of 124 ICF categories was operationalized in a formal decision-making and consensus process. The reliability of the newly operationalized item list ...

  18. Towards an ICF core set for ADHD: a worldwide expert survey on ability and disability

    OpenAIRE

    de Schipper, Elles; Mahdi, Soheil; Coghill, David; de Vries, Petrus J.; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Granlund, Mats; Holtmann, Martin; Karande, Sunil; Levy, Florence; Almodayfer, Omar; Rohde, Luis; Tannock, Rosemary; B?lte, Sven

    2015-01-01

    This is the second in a series of four empirical studies designed to develop International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF and Children and Youth version, ICF-CY) core sets for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The objective of this stage was to gather the opinions from international experts on which ability and disability concepts were considered relevant to functioning in ADHD. An email-based survey was carried out amongst international experts in AD...

  19. Management a marketing sportovní akce: ICF Slalom World Ranking Race Prague 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Kubričan, Lukáš

    2009-01-01

    Title: Management and marketing of sport's event: ICF Slalom World Ranking Race Prague 2009 Objectives: Present strengths and weaknesses of ICF Slalom World Ranking Race Prague 2009 based on analyse of recent years and present ideas for its improvement. Methods: Descriptive analysis, SWOT analysis and interview with expert. Results: Conclusion and advices for organizers of sport's events. Key words: Management, marketing, SWOT analysis, descriptive analysis, sport's event, canoe slalom compet...

  20. Looking at the ICF and human communication through the lens of classification theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Regina

    2011-08-01

    This paper explores the insights that classification theory can provide about the application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to communication. It first considers the relationship between conceptual models and classification systems, highlighting that classification systems in speech-language pathology (SLP) have not historically been based on conceptual models of human communication. It then overviews the key concepts and criteria of classification theory. Applying classification theory to the ICF and communication raises a number of issues, some previously highlighted through clinical application. Six focus questions from classification theory are used to explore these issues, and to propose the creation of an ICF-related conceptual model of communicating for the field of communication disability, which would address some of the issues raised. Developing a conceptual model of communication for SLP purposes closely articulated with the ICF would foster productive intra-professional discourse, while at the same time allow the profession to continue to use the ICF for purposes in inter-disciplinary discourse. The paper concludes by suggesting the insights of classification theory can assist professionals to apply the ICF to communication with the necessary rigour, and to work further in developing a conceptual model of human communication.

  1. Identification of relevant ICF categories in patients with chronic health conditions: a Delphi exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigl, Martin; Cieza, Alarcos; Andersen, Christina; Kollerits, Barbara; Amann, Edda; Stucki, Gerold

    2004-07-01

    To identify the most typical and relevant categories of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) for patients with low back pain, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, chronic generalized pain, stroke, depression, obesity, chronic ischaemic heart disease, obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, and breast cancer. An international expert survey using the Delphi technique was conducted. Data were collected in 3 rounds. Answers were linked to the ICF and analysed for the degree of consensus. Between 21 (osteoporosis, chronic ischaemic heart disease, and obstructive pulmonary disease) and 43 (stroke) experts responded in each of the conditions. In all conditions, with the exception of depression, there were categories in all ICF components that were considered typical and/or relevant by at least 80% of the responders. While all conditions had a distinct typical spectrum of relevant ICF categories, there were also some common relevant categories throughout the majority of conditions. Lists of ICF categories that are considered relevant and typical for specific conditions by international experts could be created. This is an important step towards identifying ICF Core Sets for chronic conditions.

  2. Understanding Yield Anomalies in ICF Implosions via Fully Kinetic Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taitano, William

    2017-10-01

    In the quest towards ICF ignition, plasma kinetic effects are among prime candidates for explaining some significant discrepancies between experimental observations and rad-hydro simulations. To assess their importance, high-fidelity fully kinetic simulations of ICF capsule implosions are needed. Owing to the extremely multi-scale nature of the problem, kinetic codes have to overcome nontrivial numerical and algorithmic challenges, and very few options are currently available. Here, we present resolutions of some long-standing yield discrepancy conundrums using a novel, LANL-developed, 1D-2V Vlasov-Fokker-Planck code iFP. iFP possesses an unprecedented fidelity and features fully implicit time-stepping, exact mass, momentum, and energy conservation, and optimal grid adaptation in phase space, all of which are critically important for ensuring long-time numerical accuracy of the implosion simulations. Specifically, we concentrate on several anomalous yield degradation instances observed in Omega campaigns, with the so-called ``Rygg effect'', or an anomalous yield scaling with the fuel composition, being a prime example. Understanding the physical mechanisms responsible for such degradations in non-ignition-grade Omega experiments is of great interest, as such experiments are often used for platform and diagnostic development, which are then used in ignition-grade experiments on NIF. In the case of Rygg's experiments, effects of a kinetic stratification of fuel ions on the yield have been previously proposed as the anomaly explanation, studied with a kinetic code FPION, and found unimportant. We have revisited this issue with iFP and obtained excellent yield-over-clean agreement with the original Rygg results, and several subsequent experiments. This validates iFP and confirms that the kinetic fuel stratification is indeed at the root of the observed yield degradation. This work was sponsored by the Metropolis Postdoctoral Fellowship, LDRD office, Thermonuclear Burn

  3. ICF target technology at the Russian Federal Nuclear Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veselov, A.V.; Drozhin, V.S.; Druzhinin, A.A.; Izgorodin, V.M.; Iiyushechkin, B.N.; Kirillov, G.A.; Komleva, G.V.; Korochkin, A.M.; Medvedev, E.F.; Nikolaev, G.P.; Pikulin, I.V.; Pinegin, A.V.; Punin, V.T.; Romaev, V.N.; Sumatokhin, V.L.; Tarasova, N.N.; Tachaev, G.V.; Cherkesova, I.N.

    1995-01-01

    The main effort of the ICF target fabrication group is support of the experiments performed on the 'ISKRA-4' and 'ISKRA-5' laser systems. The main types of targets used in these experiments are direct drive, inverted corona, and indirect drive. For production of direct drive targets, manufacturing techniques have been developed for both hollow glass and polystyrene microspheres. Hollow glass microspheres are fabricated by free-fall of liquid glass drops or dry gel in a 4 meter vertical kiln. These methods allow us to manufacture glass microspheres with diameters from 50 μm to 1 mm, wall thicknesses from 0.5 to 10 μm, and aspect ratios (radius/ wall) from 20 to 500. The microspheres have a thickness inhomogeneity less than 5% and non-sphericity less than 1%. Polystyrene microspheres are fabricated from polystyrene particles with a blowing agent in a similar vertical kiln. Polystyrene microspheres are fabricated with diameter up to 800 μm and wall thicknesses from 1 to 10 μm. 15 refs., 8 figs

  4. Non-LTE Equation of State for ICF simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapisch, Marcel; Bar-Shalom, Avraham; Colombant, Denis

    2002-11-01

    SCROLL is a collisional radiative model able to deal with complex spectra[1]. It is used to generate opacity/emissivity databases [2] compatible with the hydrocode FAST[3] for all elements of interest in the simulation of ICF targets, including high-Z. It is now modified to yield tables of EOS data for FAST, in the whole range of interest (T=1 to 25000eV, rho=10-6 to 100g/cc). SCROLL contributes the electronic -free and bound- part of the EOS, replacing Busquet's model of an ionization temperature. Ionization energies include contributions of all excited states. Energies and Z* go smoothly to the high density regime, where a "jellium" model is assumed. The free electrons are self consistent with the bound electrons. Examples of runs will be shown. Supported by USDOE through a contract with the Naval Research Laboratory. [1] A. Bar-Shalom, J. Oreg, and M. Klapisch, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 65, 43 (2000). [2] A. Bar-shalom, M. Klapisch, J. Oreg, and D. Colombant, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 46, 295 (2001). [3] J. H. Gardner, A. J. Schmitt, J. P. Dahlburg, et al, Phys. Plasmas 5, 1935 (1998).

  5. Simulation of instability growth on ICF capsule ablators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niasse, Nicolas; Chittenden, Jeremy

    2014-10-01

    It is believed that the ablation-front instabilities are mainly responsible for the hot-spot mix that impacts the performance of ICF capsules. Understanding the formation of these instabilities is therefore a first step towards a better control of the implosion dynamics and the optimization of the fusion yield. Using the Chimera code currently in development at Imperial College, we have performed several spherical wedge simulations of the low and high adiabat ablation phase pre-imposing different single-mode 2D and 3D perturbations on the capsule surface. Synthetic Sc, Fe and V X-ray backlighter images are generated by the Spk code and used to measure the growth of modes 30-160 with initial amplitude <= 3.4 μm PTV. The growth of imposed 2D perturbations is assessed for both low-foot and high-foot radiation pulse shapes on the National Ignition Facility. Results showing the merger of spike and bubble structures in multi-mode perturbations in both 2D and 3D simulations are explored and preliminary assessments of the difference between 2D and 3D non-linear behaviour is discussed. The sensitivity of shock timing to NLTE changes in opacity is also assessed.

  6. Parametric analysis of stress in the ICF HYLIFE converter structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovingh, J.; Blink, J.A.

    1980-10-01

    The concept of a liquid-metal first wall in an ICF energy converter has a particularly attractive feature: the liquid metal absorbs the short-ranged fusion energy and moderates and attenuates the neutron energy so that the converter structure may have a lifetime similar to that of a conventional power plant. However, the sudden deposition of fusion energy in the liquid-metal first wall will result in disassembly of the liquid, which then impacts on the structure. The impact pressure on the structure is a strong function of the location and thickness of the liquid-metal first wall. The impact stress is determined by the impact pressure and duration and by the thickness and location of the structure. The maximum allowable stress is determined by the design stress criteria chosen by the structural designer. Scaling laws for the impact pressure as a function of the liquid-metal first wall location and mass are presented for a 2700 MW(f) (fusion power) plant with either one or four fusion reactor vessels. A methodology for determining the optimum combination of liquid-metal first wall geometry and first-structural-wall thickness is shown. Based on the methodology developed, a parametric analysis is presented of the liquid-metal flow rate and first-structural-wall requirements

  7. The reliability, validity, and applicability of an English language version of the Mini-ICF-APP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molodynski, Andrew; Linden, Michael; Juckel, George; Yeeles, Ksenija; Anderson, Catriona; Vazquez-Montes, Maria; Burns, Tom

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed at establishing the validity and reliability of an English language version of the Mini-ICF-APP. One hundred and five patients under the care of secondary mental health care services were assessed using the Mini-ICF-APP and several well-established measures of functioning and symptom severity. 47 (45 %) patients were interviewed on two occasions to ascertain test-retest reliability and 50 (48 %) were interviewed by two researchers simultaneously to determine the instrument's inter-rater reliability. Occupational and sick leave status were also recorded to assess construct validity. The Mini-ICF-APP was found to have substantial internal consistency (Chronbach's α 0.869-0.912) and all 13 items correlated highly with the total score. Analysis also showed that the Mini-ICF-APP had good test-retest (ICC 0.832) and inter-rater (ICC 0.886) reliability. No statistically significant association with length of sick leave was found, but the unemployed scored higher on the Mini ICF-APP than those in employment (mean 18.4, SD 9.1 vs. 9.4, SD 6.4, p Mini-ICF-APP correlated highly with the other measures of illness severity and functioning considered in the study. The English version of the Mini-ICF-APP is a reliable and valid measure of disorders of capacity as defined by the International Classification of Functioning. Further work is necessary to establish whether the scale could be divided into sub scales which would allow the instrument to more sensitively measure an individual's specific impairments.

  8. Standardized reporting of functioning information on ICF-based common metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodinger, Birgit; Tennant, Alan; Stucki, Gerold

    2018-02-01

    In clinical practice and research a variety of clinical data collection tools are used to collect information on people's functioning for clinical practice and research and national health information systems. Reporting on ICF-based common metrics enables standardized documentation of functioning information in national health information systems. The objective of this methodological note on applying the ICF in rehabilitation is to demonstrate how to report functioning information collected with a data collection tool on ICF-based common metrics. We first specify the requirements for the standardized reporting of functioning information. Secondly, we introduce the methods needed for transforming functioning data to ICF-based common metrics. Finally, we provide an example. The requirements for standardized reporting are as follows: 1) having a common conceptual framework to enable content comparability between any health information; and 2) a measurement framework so that scores between two or more clinical data collection tools can be directly compared. The methods needed to achieve these requirements are the ICF Linking Rules and the Rasch measurement model. Using data collected incorporating the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0), and the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0 (SIS 3.0), the application of the standardized reporting based on common metrics is demonstrated. A subset of items from the three tools linked to common chapters of the ICF (d4 Mobility, d5 Self-care and d6 Domestic life), were entered as "super items" into the Rasch model. Good fit was achieved with no residual local dependency and a unidimensional metric. A transformation table allows for comparison between scales, and between a scale and the reporting common metric. Being able to report functioning information collected with commonly used clinical data collection tools with ICF-based common metrics enables clinicians

  9. The ICF-CY and Goal Attainment Scaling: benefits of their combined use for pediatric practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Janette; Wright, Virginia

    2009-01-01

    There is much heterogeneity and disconnect in the approaches used by service providers to conduct needs assessments, set goals and evaluate outcomes for clients receiving pediatric rehabilitation services. The purpose of this article is to describe how the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Child and Youth (ICF-CY) can be used in combination with Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS), an individualised measure of change, to connect the various phases of the therapeutic process to provide consistent clinical care that is family-centred, collaborative, well directed and accountable. A brief description of both the ICF-CY and GAS as they pertain to pediatric rehabilitation is provided as background. An explanation is given of how the ICF-CY offers a framework through which clients, families and service providers can together identify the areas of clients' needs. In addition, the article discusses how the use of GAS facilitates translation of clients' identified needs into distinct, measurable goals set collaboratively by clients, their families and service providers. Examples of integrated GAS goals set for the various components of the ICF-CY are provided. The utility of GAS as a measure of clinical outcomes for individual clients is also discussed. Used in combination, the ICF-CY and GAS can serve to coordinate, simplify and standardise assessment and outcome evaluation practices for individual clients receiving pediatric rehabilitation services.

  10. A conceptual definition of vocational rehabilitation based on the ICF: building a shared global model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escorpizo, Reuben; Reneman, Michiel F; Ekholm, Jan; Fritz, Julie; Krupa, Terry; Marnetoft, Sven-Uno; Maroun, Claude E; Guzman, Julietta Rodriguez; Suzuki, Yoshiko; Stucki, Gerold; Chan, Chetwyn C H

    2011-06-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is a conceptual framework and classification system by the World Health Organization (WHO) to understand functioning. The objective of this discussion paper is to offer a conceptual definition for vocational rehabilitation (VR) based on the ICF. We presented the ICF as a model for application in VR and the rationale for the integration of the ICF. We also briefly reviewed other work disability models. Five essential elements of foci were found towards a conceptual definition of VR: an engagement or re-engagement to work, along a work continuum, involved health conditions or events leading to work disability, patient-centered and evidence-based, and is multi-professional or multidisciplinary. VR refers to a multi-professional approach that is provided to individuals of working age with health-related impairments, limitations, or restrictions with work functioning and whose primary aim is to optimize work participation. We propose that the ICF and VR interface be explored further using empirical and qualitative works and encouraging stakeholders' participation.

  11. Identification of relevant ICF categories by geriatric patients in an early post-acute rehabilitation facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, Eva; Stucki, Gerold; Boldt, Christine; Joisten, Susanne; Swoboda, Walter

    To describe functioning and health of elderly patients in an early post-acute rehabilitation facility and to identify the most common problems using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Cross-sectional survey in a convenience sample of elderly patients requiring rehabilitation in an early post-acute rehabilitation facility. The second-level categories of the ICF were used to collect information on patients' problems. For the ICF components Body Functions, Body Structures and Activities and Participation, absolute and relative frequencies of impairments/limitations in the study population were reported. For the component Environmental Factors absolute and relative frequencies of perceived barriers or facilitators were reported. The mean age in the sample was 79.9 years. Sixty-nine percent of the patients were female. In 150 patients, 82 ICF categories (34%) had a prevalence of 30% or above. The 82 categories included 22 categories (45%) of the component Body Functions, six categories (15%) of the component Body Structures, 25 categories (34%) of the component Activities and Participation and 29 (57%) categories of the component Environmental Factors. This study is a first step towards the development of ICF Core Sets for geriatric patients in early post-acute rehabilitation facilities.

  12. The ICF National Diagnostic Plan (NDP) 9/19/17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilkenny, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Richau, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sangster, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Batha, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bell, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Larson, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bradley, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Leeper, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Herrmann, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bourdon, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hilsabeck, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-02

    A major goal of the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) is to deliver validated numerical models, benchmarked against experiments that address relevant and important issues and provide data that stress the codes and our understanding. DOENNSA has made significant investments in major facilities and high-performance computing to successfully execute the SSP. The more information obtained about the physical state of the plasmas produced, the more stringent the test of theories, models, and codes can be, leading to increased confidence in our predictive capability. To fully exploit the world-leading capabilities of the ICF program, a multi-year program to develop and deploy advanced diagnostics has been developed by the expert scientific community. To formalize these activities NNSA’s Acting Director for the Inertial Confinement Fusion Program directed the formation and duties of the National Diagnostics Working Group (NDWG) in a Memorandum 11/3/16 (Appendix A). The NDWG identified eight transformational diagnostics, shown in Table 1, that will provide unprecedented information from experiments in support of the SSP at NIF, Z and OMEGA. Table 1 shows how the missions of the SSP experiments including materials, complex hydrodynamics, radiation flow and effects and thermo-nuclear burn and boost will produce new observables, which will be measured using a variety of largely new diagnostic technologies used in the eight transformational diagnostics. The data provided by these diagnostics will validate and improve the physics contained within the SSP’s simulations and both uncover and quantify important phenomena that lie beyond our present understanding.

  13. Feasibility of the Dutch ICF Activity Inventory: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Nispen Ruth MA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Demographic ageing will lead to increasing pressure on visual rehabilitation services, which need to be efficiently organised in the near future. The Dutch ICF Activity Inventory (D-AI was developed to assess the rehabilitation needs of visually impaired persons. This pilot study tests the feasibility of the D-AI using a computer-assisted telephone interview. Methods In addition to the regular intake, the first version of the D-AI was assessed in 20 patients. Subsequently, patients and intake assessors were asked to fill in an evaluation form. Based on these evaluations, a new version of the D-AI was developed. Results Mean administration time of the D-AI was 88.8 (± 41.0 minutes. Overall, patients and assessors were positive about the D-AI assessment. However, professionals and 60% of the patients found the administration time to be too long. All included items were considered relevant and only minor adjustments were recommended. Conclusion The systematic character of the revised D-AI will prevent topics from being overlooked and indicate which needs have the highest priority from a patient-centred perspective. Moreover, ongoing assessment of the D-AI will enhance evaluation of the rehabilitation process. To decrease administration time, in the revised D-AI only the top priority goals will be fully assessed. Using the D-AI, a rehabilitation plan based on individual needs can be developed for each patient. Moreover, it enables better evaluation of the effects of rehabilitation. A larger validation study is planned.

  14. The ICF Status and Plans in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, E; Miller, G; Kauffman, R

    2005-01-01

    The United States continues to maintain its leadership in ICF as it moves toward the goal of ignition. The flagship of the program is the National Ignition Facility (NIF) presently under construction at LLNL. Experiments had begun on the first four beams of the National Ignition Facility just at the time of the last IFSA Conference. Several new successful campaigns have been conducted since then in planar hydrodynamics and hohlraums as well as activating the VISAR diagnostic for equation of state experiments. Highlights of these results will be reviewed. Presently, the four beam experimental capability has been suspended while the first eight beams are being installed as the first step in building out the project. Meanwhile, much progress has been made in developing ignition designs for using NIF. An array of designs having several ablator materials have been shown computationally to ignite with energies ranging from the design energy to as low as 1 MJ of laser energy. Alternative direct drive designs in the NIF indirect drive configuration have been developed by LLE. This wide array of design choices has increased the chance of achieving ignition sooner on the facility. Plans are now being developed to begin an ignition experimental campaign on NIF in 2010, a little over a year after completion of the facility. Other US facilities are also implementing improved capabilities. Petawatt lasers are now under construction at the University of Rochester and Sandia National Laboratory. The Z pulsed power machine at Sandia National Laboratory is being refurbished to improve its performance. The ongoing research program at the OMEGA laser at the University of Rochester and the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratory as well as at the Nike, Trident and Janus lasers remain strong, performing experiments supporting the NIF ignition plan and direct drive ignition. There also is an active program in the broader field of high energy density science on these facilities. These

  15. Psychometric analyses to improve the Dutch ICF Activity Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruijning, Janna E; van Rens, Ger; Knol, Dirk; van Nispen, Ruth

    2013-08-01

    In the past, rehabilitation centers for the visually impaired used unstructured or semistructured methods to assess rehabilitation needs of their patients. Recently, an extensive instrument, the Dutch ICF Activity Inventory (D-AI), was developed to systematically investigate rehabilitation needs of visually impaired adults and to evaluate rehabilitation outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying factor structure and other psychometric properties to shorten and improve the D-AI. The D-AI was administered to 241 visually impaired persons who recently enrolled in a multidisciplinary rehabilitation center. The D-AI uses graded scores to assess the importance and difficulty of 65 rehabilitation goals. For high-priority goals (e.g., daily meal preparation), the difficulty of underlying tasks (e.g., read recipes, cut vegetables) was assessed. To reduce underlying task items (>950), descriptive statistics were investigated and factor analyses were performed for several goals. The internal consistency reliability and test-retest reliability of the D-AI were investigated by calculating Cronbach α and Cohen (weighted) κ. Finally, consensus-based discussions were used to shorten and improve the D-AI. Except for one goal, factor analysis model parameters were at least reasonable. Internal consistency reliability was satisfactory (range, 0.74 to 0.93). In total, 60% of the 65 goal importance items and 84.4% of the goal difficulty items showed moderate to almost perfect κ values (≥0.40). After consensus-based discussions, a new D-AI was produced, containing 48 goals and less than 500 tasks. The analyses were an important step in the validation process of the D-AI and to develop a more feasible assessment tool to investigate rehabilitation needs of visually impaired persons in a systematic way. The D-AI is currently implemented in all Dutch rehabilitation centers serving all visually impaired adults with various rehabilitation needs.

  16. [Relevance of personal contextual factors of the ICF for use in practical social medicine and rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotkamp, S; Cibis, W; Bahemann, A; Baldus, A; Behrens, J; Nyffeler, I D; Echterhoff, W; Fialka-Moser, V; Fries, W; Fuchs, H; Gmünder, H P; Gutenbrunner, C; Keller, K; Nüchtern, E; Pöthig, D; Queri, S; Rentsch, H P; Rink, M; Schian, H-M; Schian, M; Schmitt, K; Schwarze, M; Ulrich, P; von Mittelstaedt, G; Seger, W

    2014-03-01

    Personal contextual factors play an essential part in the model of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The WHO has not yet classified personal factors for global use although they impact on the functioning of persons positively or negatively. In 2010, the ICF working group of the German Society of Social Medicine and Prevention (DGSMP) presented a proposal for the classification of personal factors into 72 categories previously arranged in 6 chapters. Now a positioning paper has been added in order to stimulate a discussion about the fourth component of the ICF, to contribute towards a broader and common understanding about the nature of personal factors and to incite a dialogue among all those involved in health care as well as those people with or with-out health problems in order to gain a comprehensive perspective about a person's condition. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Type C investigation of electrical fabrication projects in ICF Kaiser shops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckfeldt, R.A.

    1995-06-01

    A Type C Investigation Board was convened to investigate an electrical miswiring problem found during the operation of the electrical distribution trailer for the TWRS Rotary Mode Core Sampling Truck number-sign 2. The trailer was designed by WHC and fabricated ICF KH on site for use in the Characterization Program. This problem resulted in a serious safety hazard since the support truck frame/chassis became electrically energized. This final report provides results of the ''Type C Investigation, Electrical Fabrication Projects in ICF KH Shops, June, 1995.'' It contains the investigation scope, executive summary, relevant facts, analysis, conclusions and corrective actions. DOE Order 5484.1, ''Environmental Protection, Safety and Health Protection Information Reporting Requirements,'' was followed in preparation of this report. Because the incident was electrical in nature and involved both Westinghouse Hanford Company and ICF Kaiser Hanford organizations, the board included members from both contractors and members with considerable electrical expertise

  18. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Penelope M; Pryor, Julie

    2004-04-01

    Nursing conceptualizes disability from largely medical and individual perspectives that do not consider its social dimensions. Disabled people are critical of this paradigm and its impact on their health care. The aims of this paper are to review the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), including its history and the theoretical models upon which it is based and to discuss its relevance as a conceptual framework for nursing. The paper presents a critical overview of concepts of disability and their implications for nursing and argues that a broader view is necessary. It examines ICF and its relationship to changing paradigms of disability and presents some applications for nursing. The ICF, with its acknowledgement of the interaction between people and their environments in health and disability, is a useful conceptual framework for nursing education, practice and research. It has the potential to expand nurses' thinking and practice by increasing awareness of the social, political and cultural dimensions of disability.

  19. Mapping of a standard documentation template to the ICF core sets for arthritis and low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escorpizo, Reuben; Davis, Kandace; Stumbo, Teri

    2010-12-01

    To identify the contents of a documentation template in The Guide to Physical Therapist Practice using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) Core Sets for rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and low back pain (LBP) as reference. Concepts were identified from items of an outpatient documentation template and mapped to the ICF using established linking rules. The ICF categories that were linked were compared with existing arthritis and LBP Core Sets. Based on the ICF, the template had the highest number (29%) of linked categories under Activities and participation while Body structures had the least (17%). ICF categories in the arthritis and LBP Core Sets had a 37-55% match with the ICF categories found in the template. We found 164 concepts that were not classified or not defined and 37 as personal factors. The arthritis and LBP Core Sets were reflected in the contents of the template. ICF categories in the Core Sets were reflected in the template (demonstrating up to 55% match). Potential integration of ICF in documentation templates could be explored and examined in the future to enhance clinical encounters and multidisciplinary communication. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. An International Clinical Study of Ability and Disability in Autism Spectrum Disorder Using the WHO-ICF Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahdi, Soheil; Albertowski, Katja; Almodayfer, Omar

    2018-01-01

    This is the fourth international preparatory study designed to develop International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, and Children and Youth version, ICF-CY) Core Sets for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Examine functioning of individuals diagnosed with ASD as documented...

  1. Standardised assessment of functioning in ADHD: consensus on the ICF Core Sets for ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bölte, Sven; Mahdi, Soheil; Coghill, David; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Granlund, Mats; Holtmann, Martin; Karande, Sunil; Levy, Florence; Rohde, Luis A; Segerer, Wolfgang; de Vries, Petrus J; Selb, Melissa

    2018-02-12

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with significant impairments in social, educational, and occupational functioning, as well as specific strengths. Currently, there is no internationally accepted standard to assess the functioning of individuals with ADHD. WHO's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-child and youth version (ICF) can serve as a conceptual basis for such a standard. The objective of this study is to develop a comprehensive, a common brief, and three age-appropriate brief ICF Core Sets for ADHD. Using a standardised methodology, four international preparatory studies generated 132 second-level ICF candidate categories that served as the basis for developing ADHD Core Sets. Using these categories and following an iterative consensus process, 20 ADHD experts from nine professional disciplines and representing all six WHO regions selected the most relevant categories to constitute the ADHD Core Sets. The consensus process resulted in 72 second-level ICF categories forming the comprehensive ICF Core Set-these represented 8 body functions, 35 activities and participation, and 29 environmental categories. A Common Brief Core Set that included 38 categories was also defined. Age-specific brief Core Sets included a 47 category preschool version for 0-5 years old, a 55 category school-age version for 6-16 years old, and a 52 category version for older adolescents and adults 17 years old and above. The ICF Core Sets for ADHD mark a milestone toward an internationally standardised functional assessment of ADHD across the lifespan, and across educational, administrative, clinical, and research settings.

  2. Core science and technology development plan for indirect-drive ICF ignition. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, H.T.; Kilkenny, J.D. [eds.

    1995-12-01

    To define the development work needed to support inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program goals, the authors have assembled this Core Science and Technology (CS and T) Plan that encompasses nearly all science research and technology development in the ICF program. The objective of the CS and T Plan described here is to identify the development work needed to ensure the success of advanced ICF facilities, in particular the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This plan is intended as a framework to facilitate planning and coordination of future ICF programmatic activities. The CS and T Plan covers all elements of the ICF program including laser technology, optic manufacturing, target chamber, target diagnostics, target design and theory, target components and fabrication, and target physics experiments. The CS and T Plan has been divided into these seven different technology development areas, and they are used as level-1 categories in a work breakdown structure (WBS) to facilitate the organization of all activities in this plan. The scope of the CS and T Plan includes all research and development required to support the NIF leading up to the activation and initial operation as an indirect-drive facility. In each of the CS and T main development areas, the authors describe the technology and issues that need to be addressed to achieve NIF performance goals. To resolve all issues and achieve objectives, an extensive assortment of tasks must be performed in a coordinated and timely manner. The authors describe these activities and present planning schedules that detail the flow of work to be performed over a 10-year period corresponding to estimated time needed to demonstrate fusion ignition with the NIF. Besides the benefits to the ICF program, the authors also discuss how the commercial sector and the nuclear weapons science may profit from the proposed research and development program.

  3. [ICF-Checklist to Evaluate Inclusion of Elderlies with Intellectual Disability - Psychometric Properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queri, Silvia; Eggart, Michael; Wendel, Maren; Peter, Ulrike

    2017-11-28

    Background An instrument should have been developed to measure participation as one possible criterion to evaluate inclusion of elderly people with intellectual disability. The ICF was utilized, because participation is one part of health related functioning, respectively disability. Furthermore ICF includes environmental factors (contextual factors) and attaches them an essentially influence on health related functioning, in particular on participation. Thus ICF Checklist additionally identifies environmental barriers for elimination. Methodology A linking process with VINELAND-II yielded 138 ICF items for the Checklist. The sample consists of 50 persons with a light or moderate intellectual disability. Two-thirds are female and the average age is 68. They were directly asked about their perceived quality of life. Additionally, proxy interviews were carried out with responsible staff members concerning necessary support and behavioral deviances. The ICF Checklist was administered twice, once (t2) the current staff member should rate health related functioning at the given time and in addition, a staff member who knows the person at least 10 years before (t1) should rate the former functioning. Content validity was investigated with factor analysis and criterion validity with correlational analysis related to supports need, behavioral deviances and perceived quality of life. Quantitative analysis was validated by qualitative content analysis of patient documentation. Results Factor analysis shows logical variable clusters across the extracted factors but neither interpretable factors. The Checklist is reliable, valid related to the chosen criterions and shows the expected age-related shifts. Qualitative analysis corresponds with quantitative data. Consequences/Conclusion ICF Checklist is appropriate to manage and evaluate patient-centered care. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Core science and technology development plan for indirect-drive ICF ignition. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, H.T.; Kilkenny, J.D.

    1995-12-01

    To define the development work needed to support inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program goals, the authors have assembled this Core Science and Technology (CS and T) Plan that encompasses nearly all science research and technology development in the ICF program. The objective of the CS and T Plan described here is to identify the development work needed to ensure the success of advanced ICF facilities, in particular the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This plan is intended as a framework to facilitate planning and coordination of future ICF programmatic activities. The CS and T Plan covers all elements of the ICF program including laser technology, optic manufacturing, target chamber, target diagnostics, target design and theory, target components and fabrication, and target physics experiments. The CS and T Plan has been divided into these seven different technology development areas, and they are used as level-1 categories in a work breakdown structure (WBS) to facilitate the organization of all activities in this plan. The scope of the CS and T Plan includes all research and development required to support the NIF leading up to the activation and initial operation as an indirect-drive facility. In each of the CS and T main development areas, the authors describe the technology and issues that need to be addressed to achieve NIF performance goals. To resolve all issues and achieve objectives, an extensive assortment of tasks must be performed in a coordinated and timely manner. The authors describe these activities and present planning schedules that detail the flow of work to be performed over a 10-year period corresponding to estimated time needed to demonstrate fusion ignition with the NIF. Besides the benefits to the ICF program, the authors also discuss how the commercial sector and the nuclear weapons science may profit from the proposed research and development program

  5. An international qualitative study of ability and disability in ADHD using the WHO-ICF framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Soheil; Viljoen, Marisa; Massuti, Rafael; Selb, Melissa; Almodayfer, Omar; Karande, Sunil; de Vries, Petrus J; Rohde, Luis; Bölte, Sven

    2017-10-01

    This is the third in a series of four cross-cultural empirical studies designed to develop International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, and Children and Youth version, ICF(-CY) Core Sets for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). To explore the perspectives of individuals diagnosed with ADHD, self-advocates, immediate family members and professional caregivers on relevant areas of impairment and functional abilities typical for ADHD across the lifespan as operationalized by the ICF(-CY). A qualitative study using focus group discussions or semi-structured interviews of 76 participants, divided into 16 stakeholder groups. Participants from five countries (Brazil, India, Saudi Arabia, South Africa and Sweden) were included. A deductive qualitative content analysis was conducted to extract meaningful functioning and disability concepts from verbatim material. Extracted concepts were then linked to ICF(-CY) categories by independent researchers using a standardized linking procedure. In total, 82 ICF(-CY) categories were identified, of which 32 were related to activities and participation, 25 to environmental factors, 23 to body functions and 2 to body structures. Participants also provided opinions on experienced positive sides to ADHD. A high level of energy and drive, creativity, hyper-focus, agreeableness, empathy, and willingness to assist others were the most consistently reported strengths associated with ADHD. Stakeholder perspectives highlighted the need to appraise ADHD in a broader context, extending beyond diagnostic criteria into many areas of ability and disability as well as environmental facilitators and barriers. This qualitative study, along with three other studies (comprehensive scoping review, expert survey and clinical study), will provide the scientific basis to define ICF(-CY) Core Sets for ADHD, from which assessment tools can be derived for use in clinical and research setting, as well as in health care

  6. Overlap and Nonoverlap Between the ICF Core Sets for Hearing Loss and Otology and Audiology Intake Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Lisette M; Merkus, Paul; Pronk, Marieke; van der Torn, Marein; Maré, Marcel; Goverts, S Theo; Kramer, Sophia E

    The International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF) Core Sets for Hearing Loss (HL) were developed to serve as a standard for the assessment and reporting of the functioning and health of patients with HL. The aim of the present study was to compare the content of the intake documentation currently used in secondary and tertiary hearing care settings in the Netherlands with the content of the ICF Core Sets for HL. Research questions were (1) to what extent are the ICF Core Sets for HL represented in the Dutch Otology and Audiology intake documentation? (2) are there any extra ICF categories expressed in the intake documentation that are currently not part of the ICF Core Sets for HL, or constructs expressed that are not part of the ICF? Multicenter patient record study including 176 adult patients from two secondary, and two tertiary hearing care settings. The intake documentation was selected from anonymized patient records. The content was linked to the appropriate ICF category from the whole ICF classification using established linking rules. The extent to which the ICF Core Sets for HL were represented in the intake documentation was determined by assessing the overlap between the ICF categories in the Core Sets and the list of unique ICF categories extracted from the intake documentation. Any extra constructs that were expressed in the intake documentation but are not part of the Core Sets were described as well, differentiating between ICF categories that are not part of the Core Sets and constructs that are not part of the ICF classification. In total, otology and audiology intake documentation represented 24 of the 27 Brief ICF Core Set categories (i.e., 89%), and 60 of the 117 Comprehensive ICF Core Set categories (i.e., 51%). Various ICF Core Sets categories were not represented, including higher mental functions (Body Functions), civic life aspects (Activities and Participation), and support and attitudes of family (Environmental

  7. The Development of a Framework for Target Diagnostic Centralized Control System (TDCCS) in ICF Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chi; Wang Jian; Yu Xiaoqi; Yang Dong

    2008-01-01

    A framework for target diagnostic centralized control system (TDCCS) in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiment has been developed. The developed framework is based on the common object request broker architecture (CORBA) standard and part of the concept from the ICFRoot (a framework based on ROOT for ICF experiments) framework design. This framework is of a component architecture, including a message bus, command executer, status processor, parser and proxy. To test the function of the framework, a simplified prototype of the TDCCS has been developed as well.

  8. Axisymmetric Magnetic Mirror Fusion-Fission Hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martovetsky, N. N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Molvik, A. W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ryutov, D. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Simonen, T. C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-05-13

    sale of both electricity and production of fissile fuel with fissioning blankets might need Q~1 while suppressing fissioning might be the most economical application of fusion but will require Q≥4.

  9. Use of The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF as a conceptual framework and common language for disability statistics and health information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostanjsek Nenad

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A common framework for describing functional status information is needed in order to make this information comparable and of value. The World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, which has been approved by all its member states, provides this common language and framework. The article provides an overview of ICF taxonomy, introduces the conceptual model which underpins ICF and elaborates on how ICF is used at population and clinical level. Furthermore, the article presents key features of the ICF tooling environment and outlines current and future developments of the classification.

  10. The development and application of advanced analytical methods to commercial ICF reactor chambers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousseau, P.; Engelstad, R.; Henderson, D.L. [and others

    1997-10-01

    Progress is summarized in this report for each of the following tasks: (1) multi-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics computer code development; (2) 2D radiation-hydrodynamic code development; (3) ALARA: analytic and Laplacian adaptive radioactivity analysis -- a complete package for analysis of induced activation; (4) structural dynamics modeling of ICF reactor chambers; and (5) analysis of self-consistent target chamber clearing.

  11. Site support program plan for ICF Kaiser Hanford Company, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    This document is the general administrative plan implemented by the Hanford Site contractor, ICF Kaiser Hanford Company. It describes the mission, administrative structure, projected staffing, to be provided by the contractor. The report breaks out the work responsibilities within the different units of the company, a baseline schedule for the different groups, and a cost summary for the different operating units

  12. Conceptual design of an angular multiplexed 50 kJ KrF amplifier for ICF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowenthal, D.D.; Ewing, J.J.; Center, R.E.; Mumola, P.; Olson, T.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a conceptual design for an angular multiplexed 50 kJ KrF amplifier for ICF are presented. Optical designs, amplifier scaling with a KrF kinetics code and limitations imposed by pulsed power technology are described

  13. Site support program plan for ICF Kaiser Hanford Company, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This document is the general administrative plan implemented by the Hanford Site contractor, ICF Kaiser Hanford Company. It describes the mission, administrative structure, projected staffing, to be provided by the contractor. The report breaks out the work responsibilities within the different units of the company, a baseline schedule for the different groups, and a cost summary for the different operating units.

  14. Evaluation of Reading, Writing, and Watching TV Using the Dutch ICF Activity Inventory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijning, J.E.; van Rens, G.H.M.B.; Knol, D.L.; van Nispen, R.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the longitudinal outcomes of rehabilitation (from baseline to 4 and 12 months) at a multidisciplinary rehabilitation center. The three goals (“Reading,” “Writing,” and “Watching TV”) were measured with the Dutch ICF Activity Inventory (D-AI). In addition, outcomes were

  15. Analyses in support of the Laboratory Microfusion Facility and ICF commercial reactor designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.R.; Monsler, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    Our work on this contract was divided into two major categories; two thirds of the total effort was in support of the Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF), and one third of the effort was in support of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) commercial reactors. This final report includes copies of the formal reports, memoranda, and viewgraph presentations that were completed under this contract

  16. Recent laser experiments on the Aurora KrF/ICF laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, T.P.; Jones, J.E.; Czuchlewski, S.J.; Watt, R.G.; Thomas, S.J.; Kang, M.; Tallman, C.R.; Mack, J.M.; Figueira, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    The Aurora KrF/ICF Laser Facility at Los Alamos is operational at the kilojoule-level for both laser and target experiments. We report on recent laser experiments on the system and resulting system improvements. 3 refs., 4 figs

  17. Analysis on two technologic errors of color separation grating used for ICF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Dewei; Li Yongping

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the depth of color separation grating applied in ICF system is optimized firstly for good separating effect. After this, duty cycle error and the trapezoid structure are analyzed. A probable scope of technologic error that make the color separation grating have good effect is given in the end

  18. 25-ps neutron detector for measuring ICF-target burn history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, R.A.; Phillion, D.W.; Tietbohl, G.L.

    1994-01-01

    We have developed a fast, sensitive neutron detector for recording the fusion reaction-rate history of inertial-confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. The detector is based on the fast rise-time of a commercial plastic scintillator (BC-422) and has a response 8 and 2 x 10 13 neutrons

  19. Italian ICF training programs: describing and promoting human functioning and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francescutti, Carlo; Fusaro, Guido; Leonardi, Matilde; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Sala, Marina; Russo, Emanuela; Frare, Mara; Pradal, Monica; Zampogna, Daniela; Cosentino, Alessandro; Raggi, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of the article is to report on 5 years of ICF training experiences in Italy aimed at promoting a consistent approach to ICF's field application. More than 7000 persons participated in around 150 training events: almost half were organised by political bodies, at national, regional or local level, directly linked to implementation experiences. Few training events were organised by the school sector, while training commissioned by NGOs represent a relevant area and, in our opinion, constitute the first step towards a full inclusion of persons with disabilities. Central pillars of our training modules are: the inclusion of all ICF components in the description of functional profiles, the need of providing brief theoretical background information before moving to practical aspects and the importance of providing personalised face to face training modules, in contrast to self-administered learning modules, or web-based protocols. On the basis of our experience, we can conclude that training's objectives are generally reached: trainees improved their knowledge of the ICF and its related tools, and are able to begin practical applications in their contexts.

  20. Towards the joint use of ICD and ICF: a call for contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Friedbert; Selb, Melissa; Escorpizo, Reuben; Kostanjsek, Nenad; Stucki, Gerold; Riberto, Marcelo

    2012-10-01

    To optimize patient functioning, rehabilitation professionals often rely on measurements of functioning as well as on classifications. Although the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) are used, their joint use has yet to become an established practice. To encourage their joint use in daily practice, the World Health Organization (WHO) has invited all rehabilitation practitioners worldwide to support the ICD-11 revision process by identifying the ICF categories that correspond to specific rehabilitation-relevant health conditions. The first step in completing this task, generating the list of these health conditions, was taken at a February 2012 workshop in São Paulo, Brazil. The objectives of this paper are to present the results of the São Paulo workshop, and to invite practitioners to participate in the ICD-ICF joint use initiative. Alternating plenary and small working group sessions were held and 103 rehabilitation-relevant health conditions were identified. With this list available, WHO together with the International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ISPRM), is reaching out to clinicians of all rehabilitation disciplines to take on the challenge of identifying the ICF categories for at least one of the health conditions listed.

  1. Towards an ICF- and IMMPACT-Based Pain Vocational Rehabilitation Core Set in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reneman, M. F.; Beemster, T. T.; Edelaar, M. J. A.; van Velzen, J. M.; van Bennekom, C.; Escorpizo, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background For clinical use and research of pain within the context of vocational rehabilitation, a specific core set of measurements is needed. The recommendations of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) brief Core Set for Vocational Rehabilitation (VR) and

  2. Disability and Functional Profiles of Patients with Myasthenia Gravis Measured with ICF Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Matilde; Raggi, Alberto; Antozzi, Carlo; Confalonieri, Paolo; Maggi, Lorenzo; Cornelio, Ferdinando; Mantegazza, Renato

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe functional profiles of patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), and the relationships among symptoms, activities and environmental factors (EF), by using WHO's International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF). Patients were consecutively enrolled at the Besta Institute of Milan, Italy.…

  3. Inertial confinement fusion. 1995 ICF annual report, October 1994--September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program is a Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Program research and advanced technology development program focused on the goal of demonstrating thermonuclear fusion ignition and energy gain in the laboratory. During FY 1995, the ICF Program continued to conduct ignition target physics optimization studies and weapons physics experiments in support of the Defense Program`s stockpile stewardship goals. It also continued to develop technologies in support of the performance, cost, and schedule goals of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project. The NIF is a key element of the DOE`s Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program. In addition to its primary Defense Program goals, the ICF Program provides research and development opportunities in fundamental high-energy-density physics and supports the necessary research base for the possible long-term application to inertial fusion energy (IFE). Also, ICF technologies have had spin-off applications for industrial and governmental use. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  4. The development and application of advanced analytical methods to commercial ICF reactor chambers. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousseau, P.; Engelstad, R.; Henderson, D.L.

    1997-10-01

    Progress is summarized in this report for each of the following tasks: (1) multi-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics computer code development; (2) 2D radiation-hydrodynamic code development; (3) ALARA: analytic and Laplacian adaptive radioactivity analysis -- a complete package for analysis of induced activation; (4) structural dynamics modeling of ICF reactor chambers; and (5) analysis of self-consistent target chamber clearing

  5. Identification of health problems in patients with acute inflammatory arthritis, using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zochling, J; Grill, E; Scheuringer, M; Liman, W; Stucki, G; Braun, J

    2006-01-01

    To identify the most common health problems experienced by patients with acute inflammatory arthritis using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), and to provide empirical data for the development of an ICF Core Set for acute inflammatory arthritis. Cross-sectional survey of patients with acute inflammatory arthritis of two or more joints requiring admission to an acute hospital. The second level categories of the ICF were used to collect information on patients' health problems. Relative frequencies of impairments, limitations and restrictions in the study population were reported for the ICF components Body Functions, Body Structures, and Activities and Participations. For the component Environmental Factors absolute and relative frequencies of perceived barriers or facilitators were reported. In total, 130 patients were included in the survey. The mean age of the population was 59.9 years (median age 63.0 years), 75% of the patients were female. Most had rheumatoid arthritis (57%) or early inflammatory polyarthritis (22%). Fifty-four second-level ICF categories had a prevalence of 30% or more: 3 (8%) belonged to the component Body Structures and 10 (13%) to the component Body Functions. Most categories were identified in the components Activities and Participation (19; 23%) and Environmental Factors (22; 56%). Patients with acute inflammatory arthritis can be well described by ICF categories and components. This study is the first step towards the development of an ICF Core Set for patients with acute inflammatory arthritis.

  6. Towards an ICF core set for ADHD: a worldwide expert survey on ability and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Schipper, Elles; Mahdi, Soheil; Coghill, David; de Vries, Petrus J; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Granlund, Mats; Holtmann, Martin; Karande, Sunil; Levy, Florence; Almodayfer, Omar; Rohde, Luis; Tannock, Rosemary; Bölte, Sven

    2015-12-01

    This is the second in a series of four empirical studies designed to develop International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF and Children and Youth version, ICF-CY) core sets for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The objective of this stage was to gather the opinions from international experts on which ability and disability concepts were considered relevant to functioning in ADHD. An email-based survey was carried out amongst international experts in ADHD. Relevant functional ability and disability concepts were extracted from their responses and linked to the ICF/-CY categories by two independent researchers using a standardised linking procedure. 174 experts from 11 different disciplines and 45 different countries completed the survey. Meaningful concepts identified in their responses were linked to 185 ICF/-CY categories. Of these, 83 categories were identified by at least 5 % of the experts and considered the most relevant to ADHD: 30 of these were related to Body functions (most identified: attention functions, 85 %), 30 to Activities and Participation (most identified: school education, 52 %), 20 to Environmental factors (most identified: support from immediate family, 61 %), and 3 to Body structures (most identified: structure of brain, 83 %). Experts also provided their views on particular abilities related to ADHD, naming characteristics such as high-energy levels, flexibility and resiliency. Gender differences in the expression of ADHD identified by experts pertained mainly to females showing more internalising (e.g. anxiety, low self-esteem) and less externalising behaviours (e.g. hyperactivity), leading to a risk of late- and under-diagnosis in females. Results indicate that the impact of ADHD extends beyond the core symptom domains, into all areas of life and across the lifespan. The current study in combination with three additional preparatory studies (comprehensive scoping review, focus groups, clinical study

  7. Identification of relevant ICF categories by patients in the acute hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, Eva; Huber, Erika Omega; Stucki, Gerold; Herceg, Malvina; Fialka-Moser, Veronika; Quittan, Michael

    To describe functioning and health of patients in the acute hospital and to identify the most common problems using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Cross-sectional survey in a convenience sample of neurological, musculoskeletal and cardiopulmonary patients requiring rehabilitation in the acute hospital. The second level categories of the ICF were used to collect information on patients' problems. For the ICF components Body Functions, Body Structures and Activities and Participation absolute and relative frequencies of impairments/limitations in the study population were reported. For the component Environmental Factors absolute and relative frequencies of perceived barriers or facilitators were reported. The mean age in the sample was 57.6 years with a median age of 60.5, 49% of the patients were female. In 101 patients with neurological conditions, 115 ICF categories had a prevalence of 30% and more: 32 categories of Body Functions, 13 categories of Body Structures, 32 categories of Activities and Participation and 38 categories of Environmental Factors. In 105 patients with cardiopulmonary conditions, 80 categories had a prevalence of 30% and more: 36 categories of Body Functions, eight categories of Body Structures, 10 categories of Activities and Participation and 26 categories of Environmental Factors. In 90 patients with musculoskeletal conditions, 61 categories had a prevalence of 30% and more: 14 categories of Body Functions, five categories of Body Structures, 16 categories of Activities and Participation and 26 categories of Environmental Factors. This study is a first step towards the development of ICF Core Sets for patients in the acute hospital.

  8. Comparing contents of outcome measures in cerebral palsy using the International Classification of Functioning (ICF-CY): a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiariti, Veronica; Klassen, Anne F; Cieza, Alarcos; Sauve, Karen; O'Donnell, Maureen; Armstrong, Robert; Mâsse, Louise C

    2014-01-01

    The International Classification of Functioning children and youth version (ICF-CY) provides a universal framework for defining and classifying functioning and disability in children worldwide. To facilitate the application of the ICF in practice, ICF based-tools like the "ICF Core Sets" are being developed. In the context of the development of the ICF-CY Core Sets for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP), the aims of this study were as follows: to identify and compare the content of outcome measures used in studies of children with CP using the ICF-CY coding system; and to describe the most frequently addressed areas of functioning in those studies. We searched multiple databases likely to capture studies involving children with CP from January 1998 to March 2012. We included all English language articles that studied children aged 2-18 years and described an interventional or observational study. Constructs of the outcome measures identified in studies were linked to the ICF-CY by two trained professionals. We found 231 articles that described 238 outcome measures. The outcome measures contained 2193 concepts that were linked to the ICF-CY and covered 161 independent ICF-CY categories. Out of the 161 categories, 53 (33.5%) were related to body functions, 75 (46%) were related to activities/participation, 26 (16.1%) were related to environmental factors, and 7 (4.3%) were related to body structures. This systematic review provides information about content of measures that may guide researchers and clinicians in their selection of an outcome measure for use in a study and/or clinical practice with children with CP. Copyright © 2013 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of ICF categories relevant for nursing in the situation of acute and early post-acute rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Martin; Boldt, Christine; Grill, Eva; Strobl, Ralf; Stucki, Gerold

    2008-01-01

    Background The recovery of patients after an acute episode of illness or injury depends both on adequate medical treatment and on the early identification of needs for rehabilitation care. The process of early beginning rehabilitation requires efficient communication both between health professionals and the patient in order to effectively address all rehabilitation goals. The currently used nursing taxonomies, however, are not intended for interdisciplinary use and thus may not contribute to efficient rehabilitation management and an optimal patient outcome. The ICF might be the missing link in this communication process. The objective of this study was to identify the categories of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) categories relevant for nursing care in the situation of acute and early post-acute rehabilitation. Methods First, in a consensus process, "Leistungserfassung in der Pflege" (LEP) nursing interventions relevant for the situation of acute and early post-acute rehabilitation were selected. Second, in an integrated two-step linking process, two nursing experts derived goals of LEP nursing interventions from their practical knowledge and selected corresponding ICF categories most relevant for patients in acute and post-acute rehabilitation (ICF Core Sets). Results Eighty-seven percent of ICF Core Set categories could be linked to goals of at least one nursing intervention variable of LEP. The ICF categories most frequently linked with LEP nursing interventions were respiration functions, experience of self and time functions and focusing attention. Thirteen percent of ICF Core Set categories could not be linked with LEP nursing interventions. The LEP nursing interventions which were linked with the highest number of different ICF-categories of all were "therapeutic intervention", "patient-nurse communication/information giving" and "mobilising". Conclusion The ICF Core Sets for the acute hospital and early post

  10. Identification of ICF categories relevant for nursing in the situation of acute and early post-acute rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strobl Ralf

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recovery of patients after an acute episode of illness or injury depends both on adequate medical treatment and on the early identification of needs for rehabilitation care. The process of early beginning rehabilitation requires efficient communication both between health professionals and the patient in order to effectively address all rehabilitation goals. The currently used nursing taxonomies, however, are not intended for interdisciplinary use and thus may not contribute to efficient rehabilitation management and an optimal patient outcome. The ICF might be the missing link in this communication process. The objective of this study was to identify the categories of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF categories relevant for nursing care in the situation of acute and early post-acute rehabilitation. Methods First, in a consensus process, "Leistungserfassung in der Pflege" (LEP nursing interventions relevant for the situation of acute and early post-acute rehabilitation were selected. Second, in an integrated two-step linking process, two nursing experts derived goals of LEP nursing interventions from their practical knowledge and selected corresponding ICF categories most relevant for patients in acute and post-acute rehabilitation (ICF Core Sets. Results Eighty-seven percent of ICF Core Set categories could be linked to goals of at least one nursing intervention variable of LEP. The ICF categories most frequently linked with LEP nursing interventions were respiration functions, experience of self and time functions and focusing attention. Thirteen percent of ICF Core Set categories could not be linked with LEP nursing interventions. The LEP nursing interventions which were linked with the highest number of different ICF-categories of all were "therapeutic intervention", "patient-nurse communication/information giving" and "mobilising". Conclusion The ICF Core Sets for the acute

  11. Effect of initial conditions and Mach number on the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in ICF like conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Pooja; She, Dan; Lim, Hyunkyung; Glimm, James

    2015-11-01

    The qualitative and quantitative effect of initial conditions (linear and non-linear) and high Mach number (1.3 and 1.45) is studied on the turbulent mixing induced by the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in idealized ICF conditions. The Richtmyer-Meshkov instability seeds Rayleigh-taylor instabilities in ICF experiments and is one of the factors that contributes to reduced performance of ICF experiments. Its also found in collapsing cores of stars and supersonic combustion. We use the Stony Brook University code, FronTier, which is verified via a code comparison study against the AMR multiphysics code FLASH, and validated against vertical shock tube experiments done by the LANL Extreme Fluids Team. These simulations are designed as a step towards simulating more realistic ICF conditions and quantifying the detrimental effects of mixing on the yield.

  12. [Application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in Psychosomatic Rehabilitation and Addiction Rehabilitation in Germany - The Current State].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, M; Brütt, A L; Freitag, M; Buchholz, A

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to gather information on the current state of the implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in psychosomatic and addiction rehabilitation. In the summer of 2013, rehabilitation clinics in Germany were surveyed online on their ICF utilization. The questionnaire covered scope and purpose of ICF use, application of ICF core sets and assessments as well as barriers to the use of ICF. Of 359 clinics invited, 104 (30%) participated in the survey. Of those surveyed, 60 (61.9%) claimed to have taken measures to implement the ICF in their clinic; only 37 (38.5%), however, reported using the ICF in their daily work. The main barriers identified were complexity of the ICF, time management issues and training deficits. Approaches to ICF use are not uniform. There is a need for training programs, and guidance from health care insurance providers could help towards uniform implementation of the ICF. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. The impact of age and gender on the ICF-based assessment of chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehrmann, Elisabeth; Kotulla, Simone; Fischer, Linda; Kienbacher, Thomas; Tuechler, Kerstin; Mair, Patrick; Ebenbichler, Gerold; Paul, Birgit

    2018-01-12

    To evaluate the impact of age and gender on the international classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF)-based assessment for chronic low back pain. Two hundred forty-four chronic low back pain patients (52% female) with a mean age of 49 years (SD =17.64) were interviewed with the comprehensive ICF core set for activities and participation, and environmental factors. After conducting explorative factor analysis, the impact of age and gender on the different factors was analyzed using analyzes of variances. Results revealed that older patients experienced more limitations within "self-care and mobility" and "walking" but less problems with "transportation" compared to younger patients. Older or middle-aged low back pain patients further perceived more facilitation through "architecture and products for communication", "health services", and "social services and products for mobility" than younger patients. Regarding gender differences, women reported more restriction in "housework" than men. An interaction effect between age and gender was found for "social activities and recreation" with young male patients reporting the highest impairment. The study demonstrated that the comprehensive ICF core set classification for chronic low back pain is influenced by age and gender. This impact is relevant for ICF-based assessments in clinical practice, and should be considered in intervention planning for rehabilitative programs. Implications for rehabilitation It is important to consider age and gender differences when classifying with the ICF. The intervention planning based on the ICF should focus on improvement of bodily functioning and mobility in older patients, facilitation of household activities in women, consideration of work-life balance and recreation (e.g., through mindfulness based stress reduction), and reduction of dissatisfaction with rehabilitation in younger patients. It is important to offer patients the opportunity to participate in

  14. Problems in functioning after a mild traumatic brain injury within the ICF framework: the patient perspective using focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveen, Unni; Ostensjo, Sigrid; Laxe, Sara; Soberg, Helene L

    2013-05-01

    To describe problems in body functions, activities, and participation and the influence of environmental factors as experienced after mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), using the ICF framework. To compare our findings with the Brief and Comprehensive ICF Core Sets for TBI. Six focus-group interviews were performed with 17 participants (nine women, eight men, age ranged from 22 to 55 years) within the context of an outpatient rehabilitation programme for patients with mild TBI. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using the ICF. One-hundred and eight second-level categories derived from the interview text, showing a large diversity of TBI-related problems in functioning. Problems in cognitive and emotional functions, energy and drive, and in carrying out daily routine and work, were frequently reported. All ICF categories reported with high-to-moderate frequencies were present in the Brief ICF Core Set and 84% in the Comprehensive ICF Core Set. The reported environmental factors mainly concerned aspects of health and social security systems, social network and attitudes towards the injured person. This study confirms the diversity of problems and the environmental factors that have an impact on post-injury functioning of patients with mild TBI.

  15. Physics issues related to the confinement of ICF experiments in the US National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, M.; Anderson, A.; Latkowski, J.

    1995-04-01

    ICF experiments planned for the proposed US National Ignition Facility (NIF) will produce emissions of neutrons, x rays, debris, and shrapnel. The NIF Target Area (TA) must acceptably confine these emissions and respond to their effects to allow an efficient rate of experiments, from 600 to possibly 1500 per year, and minimal down time for maintenance. Detailed computer code predictions of emissions are necessary to study their effects and impacts on Target Area operations. Preliminary results show that the rate of debris shield transmission loss (and subsequent periodicity of change-out) due to ablated material deposition is acceptable, neutron effects on optics are manageable, and preliminary safety analyses show a facility rating of low hazard, non-nuclear. Therefore, NIF Target Area design features such as fused silica debris shields, refractory first wall coating, and concrete shielding are effective solutions to confinement of ICF experiment emissions

  16. Conceptual design of ICF reactor SENRI, Part II. Advances in design and pellet gain scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ido, S.; Mima, K.; Nakai, S.; Tsuji, R.; Yamanaka, C.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter reviews the recent design studies on reactor concepts with magnetically guided lithium flow, SENRI-I, SENRI-IA and SENRI-II. The routes from the present status to power reactors and an advanced fuel pellet concept is also discussed. Topics covered include pellet design, magnetohydrodynamic design of liquid lithium flow; reactor cavity concepts with magnetically guided lithium flow, a thermo-hydraulic analysis, a tritium recovery system; and an advanced fuel pellet concept for an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor without a tritium breeding blanket. An advanced fuel pellet for an ICF reactor without a T breeder was studied in the model calculations, which showed sufficiently high values of pellet gain. Includes a table and 8 diagrams

  17. AUTOMATED BATCH CHARACTERIZATION OF ICF SHELLS WITH VISION-ENABLED OPTICAL MICROSCOPE SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HUANG, H.; STEPHENS, R.B.; HILL, D.W.; LYON, C.; NIKROO, A.; STEINMAN, D.A.

    2003-09-01

    OAK-B135 Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) shells are mesoscale objects with nano-scale dimensional and nano-surface finish requirements. Currently, the shell dimensions are measured by white-light interferometry and an image analysis method. These two methods complement each other and give a rather complete data set on a single shell. The process is, however, labor intensive. They have developed an automation routine to fully characterize a shell in one shot and perform unattended batch measurements. The method is useful to the ICF program both for production screening and for full characterization. It also has potential for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) power plant where half a million shells need to be processed daily

  18. Absence of molecular deuterium dissociation during room-temperature permeation into polystyrene ICF target shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honig, A.; Alexander, N.; Fan, Q.; Gram, R.; Kim, H.

    1991-01-01

    Polystyrene microshells filled with deuterium and tritium gas are important target shells for inertially confined fusion (ICF) and are particularly promising for target containing spin-polarized hydrogens fuels. A currently active approach to the latter uses polarized D in HD, in a method which requires preservation of the high purity of the initially prepared HD (very low specified H 2 and D 2 concentrations). This would not be possible if dissociation should occur during permeation into the target shells. We have thus tested polystyrene shells using a novel method which employs very pure polystyrene shells using a novel method which employs very pure ortho-D 2 as the test gas. An upper limit of 6 x 10 -4 was deduced for the dissociation of D 2 upon room temperature permeation through an approximately 8 um wall of polystyrene, clearing the way for use of polystyrene target shells for ICF fusion experiments with spin-polarized hydrogens fuels. 19 refs., 1 fig

  19. Laser performance upgrade for precise ICF experiment in SG-Ⅲ laser facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanguo Zheng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The SG-Ⅲ laser facility (SG-Ⅲ is the largest laser driver for inertial confinement fusion (ICF researches in China, which has 48 beamlines and can deliver 180 kJ ultraviolet laser energy in 3 ns. In order to meet the requirements of precise physics experiments, some new functionalities need to be added to SG-Ⅲ and some intrinsic laser performances need upgrade. So at the end of SG-Ⅲ's engineering construction, the 2-year laser performance upgrade project started. This paper will introduce the newly added functionalities and the latest laser performance of SG-Ⅲ. With these function extensions and performance upgrade, SG-Ⅲ is now fully prepared for precise ICF experiments and solidly paves the way towards fusion ignition.

  20. Inference of ICF Implosion Core Mix using Experimental Data and Theoretical Mix Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welser-Sherrill, L.; Haynes, D.A.; Mancini, R.C.; Cooley, J.H.; Tommasini, R.; Golovkin, I.E.; Sherrill, M.E.; Haan, S.W.

    2009-01-01

    The mixing between fuel and shell materials in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosion cores is a current topic of interest. The goal of this work was to design direct-drive ICF experiments which have varying levels of mix, and subsequently to extract information on mixing directly from the experimental data using spectroscopic techniques. The experimental design was accomplished using hydrodynamic simulations in conjunction with Haan's saturation model, which was used to predict the mix levels of candidate experimental configurations. These theoretical predictions were then compared to the mixing information which was extracted from the experimental data, and it was found that Haan's mix model performed well in predicting trends in the width of the mix layer. With these results, we have contributed to an assessment of the range of validity and predictive capability of the Haan saturation model, as well as increased our confidence in the methods used to extract mixing information from experimental data.

  1. Adapting an x-ray/debris shield to the cascade ICF power plant: Neutronics issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, M.T.

    1990-01-01

    A neutronics analysis has been carried out to determine the effects on the Cascade ICF reactor concept of adding a solid-lithium x-ray and debris shield to each ICF capsule. Results indicate that tritium breeding in LiAlO 2 is possible with a modest isotopic enhancement in 6 Li (to 15%). The shallow-burial index is greater than 1 (indicating that deep burial may be required) if the blanket is kept in the reactor for more than 2.5 yr. Nine percent of the total thermal power is unrecoverable. Parts of the chamber wall may require replacement once during the reactor life due to radiation damage. Part of the SiC chamber end cap must be replaced annually. The reactor may not require any nuclear-grade construction. 20 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Precise focusing and diagnosis technology for laser beams in ICF target chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Qixiang

    1999-01-01

    The precise focusing and diagnosis experimental system for laser beams in ICF target chamber is introduced. The system is controlled by computer. In process of focusing a series data of displacement in axial direction and relative area of focus spots are acquired. According to the functional curvature the accurate position of focal plane is determined. The construction of the system is simple, the system is controlled conveniently and runs quickly

  3. The ICF as a common language for rehabilitation goal-setting: comparing client and professional priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Merwe Aletia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Joint rehabilitation goals are an important component for effective teamwork in the rehabilitation field. The activities and participation domain of the ICF provides a common language for professionals when setting these goals. Involving clients in the formulation of rehabilitation goals is gaining momentum as part of a person-centred approach to rehabilitation. However, this is particularly difficult when clients have an acquired communication disability. The expressive communication difficulties negatively affect the consensus building process. As a result, obtaining information regarding rehabilitation goals from professionals and their clients warrants further investigation for this particular population. Methods This comparative study investigated clients and their assigned rehabilitation professionals' perception of the importance of ICF activities and participation domains for inclusion in their rehabilitation program. Twelve clients in an acute rehabilitation centre and twenty of their corresponding rehabilitation professionals participated in an activity using the Talking Mats™ visual framework for goal setting. Each participant rated the importance of the nine activities and participation domains of the ICF for inclusion in their current rehabilitation program. Results The ICF domains which consistently appear as very important across these groups are mobility, self-care and communication. Domains which consistently appear in the lower third of the rankings include spare time, learning and thinking and domestic life. Results indicate however that no statistical significant differences exist in terms of the individual domains across each of the participant groups. Within group differences however indicated that amongst the speech-language therapists and physiotherapists there was a statistical significant difference between spare time activities and communication and mobility. Conclusions Findings indicate that

  4. Heavy ion beam transport through liquid lithium first wall ICF reactor cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroud, P.D.

    1985-01-01

    This analysis addresses the critical issue of the final transport of a heavy ion beam in an inertial confinement fusion reactor. The beam must traverse the reaction chamber from the final focusing lens to the target without being disrupted. This requirement has a strong impact on the reactor design. It is essential to the development of ICF fusion reactor technology, that the restrictions placed on the reactor engineering parameters by final beam transport consideration be understood early on

  5. An efficient method of fuel ice formation in moving free-standing ICF/IFE targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, I. V.; Bazdenkov, S. V.; Chtcherbakov, V. I.; Gromov, A. I.; Koresheva, E. R.; Koshelev, E. A.; Osipov, I. E.; Yaguzinskiy, L. S.

    2004-04-01

    Currently, research fields related to the elaboration of efficient layering methods for ICF/IFE applications are rapidly expanding. Significant progress has been made in the technology development based on rapid fuel layering inside moving free-standing targets (FST) which is referred to as the FST layering method. This paper presents our new results obtained in this area and describes technologically elegant solutions towards demonstrating a credible pathway for mass production of IFE cryogenic targets.

  6. An efficient method of fuel ice formation in moving free-standing ICF/IFE targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrova, I V; Bazdenkov, S V; Chtcherbakov, V I; Gromov, A I; Koresheva, E R; Koshelev, E A; Osipov, I E; Yaguzinskiy, L S

    2004-01-01

    Currently, research fields related to the elaboration of efficient layering methods for ICF/IFE applications are rapidly expanding. Significant progress has been made in the technology development based on rapid fuel layering inside moving free-standing targets (FST) which is referred to as the FST layering method. This paper presents our new results obtained in this area and describes technologically elegant solutions towards demonstrating a credible pathway for mass production of IFE cryogenic targets

  7. Progress in development of low density polymer foams for the ICF Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letts, S.A.; Lucht, L.M.; Morgan, R.J.; Cook, R.C.; Tillotson, T.M.; Mercer, M.B.; Miller, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the status of CH foam development with densities of 50 mg/ccs and cell sizes of 1 μm for the ICF Program. Two approaches that both involve polymer phase separation are being investigated. The first involves a gelation-crystallization of high molecular weight polyethylene from solution, whereas the second approach involves the modification of the phase separation morphology of water-styrene emulsions by molecularly-tailored surfactants followed by polymerization of the continuous styrene phase

  8. Integration of the Aurora KrF ICF laser system at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosocha, L.A.; Blair, L.S.

    1988-01-01

    The Aurora laser system, under construction at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for the past few years, is now being integrated into a working system for examining the applicability of high-power KrF lasers to inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The design principles of the system have been described in detail in earlier publications and conferences. Multikilojoule 248-nm 5-ns duration laser pulses, which have been derived from angular-multiplexed electron-beam-driven KrF amplifiers, are to be delivered to ICF targets when the system is fully integrated. The authors describe the progress of the Aurora system toward the goal of delivering energy (MkJ/48 pulses stacked into one 5-ns pulse/200-μm spot) to ICF targets. Integrated performance to date of the front end optical multiplexer/demultiplexer e-beam-driven amplifiers and alignment hardware are discussed in particular. They have concentrated on the demonstration of system integration at a modest (--100-J) level of energy on-target (without the final amplifier stage). They discuss the amplifier gain measurements, the extraction of energy from a chain of three e-beam-driven machines, and progress toward the delivery of on-target energy

  9. Mapping SAGE questionnaire to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggi, Alberto; Quintas, Rui; Russo, Emanuela; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Costardi, Daniela; Frisoni, Giovanni Battista; Franco, Maria Grazia; Andreotti, Alessandra; Ojala, Matti; Peña, Sebastián; Perales, Jaime; Chatterji, Somnath; Miret, Marta; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Koskinen, Seppo; Frattura, Lucilla; Leonardi, Matilde

    2014-01-01

    The collaborative research on ageing in Europe protocol was based on that of the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) project that investigated the relationship between health and well-being and provided a set of instruments that can be used across countries to monitor health and health-related outcomes of older populations as well as the strategies for addressing issues concerning the ageing process. To evaluate the degree to which SAGE protocol covered the spectrum of disability given the scope of the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), a mapping exercise was performed with SAGE protocol. Results show that the SAGE protocol covers ICF domains in a non-uniform way, with environmental factors categories being underrepresented, whereas mental, cardiovascular, sensory functions and mobility were overrepresented. To overcome this partial coverage of ICF functioning categories, new assessment instruments have been developed. PRACTITIONER MESSAGE: Mapping exercises are valid procedures to understand the extent to which a survey protocol covers the spectrum of functioning. The mapping exercise with SAGE protocol shows that it provides only a partial representation of body functions and activities and participation domains, and the coverage of environmental factors is poor. New instruments are therefore needed for researchers to properly understand the health and disability of ageing populations. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy for warm dense matter studies and ICF plasma diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Stephanie

    2017-10-01

    The burning core of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) plasma at stagnation is surrounded by a shell of warm, dense matter whose properties are difficult both to model (due to a complex interplay of thermal, degeneracy, and strong coupling effects) and to diagnose (due to low emissivity and high opacity). We demonstrate a promising technique to study the warm dense shells of ICF plasmas based on the fluorescence emission of dopants or impurities in the shell material. This emission, which is driven by x-rays produced in the hot core, exhibits signature changes in response to compression and heating. High-resolution measurements of absorption and fluorescence features can refine our understanding of the electronic structure of material under high compression, improve our models of density-driven phenomena such as ionization potential depression and plasma polarization shifts, and help diagnose shell density, temperature, mass distribution, and residual motion in ICF plasmas at stagnation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA-0003525. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science Early Career Research Program, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences under FWP-14-017426.

  11. Implementing the ICF in Occupational Health; building a curriculum as an exemplary case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brouwer, Carin P M; van Amelsvoort, Ludovic G P M; Heerkens, Yvonne F; Widdershoven, Guy A M; Kant, IJmert

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the need for a paradigm shift from post-diagnosis tertiary care towards maintenance and promotion of health across the lifespan, for healthcare in general and in occupational healthcare specifically. It is based on the assumption that the realization of this paradigm shift may be facilitated by teaching (future) occupational health professionals to use the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Describing the development of a an ICF based occupational health curriculum. Grafting a training trajectory in the ICF for educating the biopsychosocial health paradigm, onto a training trajectory in the Critical Appraisal of a Topic (CAT), a method for teaching evidence based practice skills. The development process of the training trajectories in the master program Work, Health, and Career at Maastricht University is described as an example of an intervention for shifting the paradigm in healthcare curricula. The expected results are a shift from the biomedical towards the biopsychosocial paradigm, a reductionist approach towards a more holistic view on cases, a reactive way of working towards a more proactive work style, and from using a merely quantifiable evidence base towards using a broad evidence base. Incorporating the biopsychosocial paradigm into the assessment and scientific reasoning skills of students is not only valuable in occupational healthcare but might be a valuable approach for all disciplines in healthcare for which contextual factors are important e.g. rehabilitation, psychiatry and nutritional science.

  12. Long-term ophthalmic health care in Usher syndrome type I from an ICF perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Kerstin; Eriksson, Kristina; Sadeghi, André M; Möller, Claes; Danermark, Berth

    2009-01-01

    The aim was to explore ophthalmic health care in female patients with Usher Syndrome type I (USH I) over 20 years and to evaluate the relationship between the ophthalmic health care and the health state of the patients from a health perspective. A retrospective study of records from ophthalmology departments (OD) and low vision clinics (LVC) from 1985 to 2004. Assessment of the reports was performed based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Findings were analysed by manifest content analysis with ICF as a framework and using four themes: health care system, procedure examinations, patient's functioning and disability and procedure actions. The records of nine female patients (aged 25-39 years, 1985) with USH I were selected from the national database of USH. A great number of notes were collected (OD 344 and LVC 566). Procedure examinations were exclusively oriented towards body structure and function. All patients showed aggravated visual impairment over and above the hearing and vestibular impairment. Procedure actions were oriented towards environmental factors. No correlation was found between procedures performed and patient's experience of disability. The high degree of resource allocation was not correlated to the patients' impairment. The study indicates that the ophthalmic health care was characterised by inefficiency. This conclusion is very serious because patients very likely face severe disability and emotional difficulties. ICF is ought to be incorporated in ophthalmic health care strategy to improve the health care.

  13. Nova Upgrade: A proposed ICF facility to demonstrate ignition and gain, revision 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    The present objective of the national Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program is to determine the scientific feasibility of compressing and heating a small mass of mixed deuterium and tritium (DT) to conditions at which fusion occurs and significant energy is released. The potential applications of ICF will be determined by the resulting fusion energy yield (amount of energy produced) and gain (ratio of energy released to energy required to heat and compress the DT fuel). Important defense and civilian applications, including weapons physics, weapons effects simulation, and ultimately the generation of electric power will become possible if yields of 100 to 1,000 MJ and gains exceeding approximately 50 can be achieved. Once ignition and propagating bum producing modest gain (2 to 10) at moderate drive energy (1 to 2 MJ) has been achieved, the extension to high gain (greater than 50) is straightforward. Therefore, the demonstration of ignition and modest gain is the final step in establishing the scientific feasibility of ICF. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) proposes the Nova Upgrade Facility to achieve this demonstration by the end of the decade. This facility would be constructed within the existing Nova building at LLNL for a total cost of approximately $400 M over the proposed FY 1995-1999 construction period. This report discusses this facility.

  14. An examination of concepts in vocational rehabilitation that could not be linked to the ICF based on an analysis of secondary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Monika; de Bie, Robert; Selb, Melissa; Escorpizo, Reuben

    2016-02-15

    In the last few years the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) has become a widely known and useful reference classification in vocational rehabilitation. It would be equally important to know which aspects of work-related health information cannot be assigned to distinct ICF categories. The objective of this study is to examine the concepts derived from three studies conducted within the ICF Core Set for vocational rehabilitation project, which could not be linked to distinct ICF codes in order to complement the current understanding of functioning in vocational rehabilitation. Secondary data analysis of the concepts from the systematic literature review, expert survey and patient focus group study of the ICF Core Set for vocational rehabilitation project that were marked as nd = not definable, nc = not covered or pf = personal factor. Nd-concepts were assigned to the biopsychosocial model of the ICF; additional ICF categories were formulated where needed. Nc-concepts were grouped into common themes not covered by the ICF. Pf-categories were linked to a proposed personal factors classification. 1093 nd-concepts were matched to overarching terms in the ICF, and "other specified"-categories were detailed. 1924 pf-concepts were linked to 31 second level categories of a proposed personal factors classification. 441 nc-concepts were grouped into six themes including the concept of well-being and attributes related to processes and time. With concepts that emerged from the secondary analysis of data gathered during the vocational rehabilitation ICF Core Set project, we have enriched the ICF model with constructs specific to vocational rehabilitation. However, additional research is needed to further explore personal factors specific to vocational rehabilitation. The influence of themes complementary to the ICF such as well-being and quality of life on return-to-work should be further investigated.

  15. ICF-CY as a Framework for Understanding Child Engagement in Preschool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Adolfsson

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Engagement in preschool predicts children's development, learning, and wellbeing in later school years. The time children engage in activities and social interactions is conditional for preschool inclusion. Engagement is part of the construct participation, which is determined by attendance and involvement. Two suggested underlying dimensions of engagement had been identified as essential when assessing children's participation in preschool activities. As engagement is a key question in inclusion of all children, and preschool becomes a common context for them, it is increasingly important to understand the concept of engagement in those settings. In Sweden most children attend preschool but children in need of special support tend not to receive enough support for their everyday functioning. This study aimed to conceptualize child engagement in preschool with ICF-CY as a framework to clarify core and developmental engagement dimensions included in Child Engagement Questionnaire (CEQ. The content of CEQ was identified through linking processes based on ICF linking rules with some exceptions. Specific challenges and solutions were acknowledged. To identify engagement dimensions in the ICF-CY, CEQ items related to ICF-CY chapters were integrated in the two-dimensional model of engagement. Findings showed that engagement measured for preschool ages was mostly related to Learning and Applying knowledge belonging to Activities and Participation but the linkage detected missing areas. Broader perspectives of children's everyday functioning require extended assessment with consideration to mutual influences between activities, participation, body functions, and contextual factors. Related to core and developmental engagement, findings highlight the importance for preschool staff to pay attention to how children do things, not only what they do. Activities related to core engagement include basic skills; those related to developmental engagement set

  16. Relationship between work-related attitudes, performance and capacities according to the ICF in patients with mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Michael; Baron, Stefanie; Muschalla, Beate

    2010-01-01

    The International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF) differentiates between functions, activities/capacities, contextual factors and participation. Dysfunctions can result in impaired capacities, which in turn can lead to problems with participation depending on the context. Motivational and volitional deficits are intervening factors. The question is to what degree work performance (i.e. participation), motivational factors, and the inability to perform activities (i.e. dysfunctions) interact. Incapacities were measured in 213 patients (70% women) admitted to the Department of Behavioral Medicine using the Mini-ICF-Rating for Mental Disorders (Mini-ICF-APP), work performance was measured with the Endicott Work Productivity Scale (EWPS), and volitional and motivational problems in regard to work were assessed with the Arbeitsbezogenes Verhaltens- und Erlebensmuster (AVEM). Sick leave prior to admission and work-related problems were assessed in a special clinical interview. The mean global score of the Mini-ICF-APP across all patients was 0.84 +/- 0.56 (SD), corresponding to 'mild disability'. The highest disabilities in this patient population were found for 'flexibility' (item 3, 1.64 +/- 0.94); the lowest disabilities were found for 'self maintenance' (item 11, 0.19 +/- 0.44) and 'mobility' (item 12, 0.43 +/- 0.85). Partial correlations between the Mini-ICF-APP, AVEM and EWPS showed highly significant correlations between the Mini-ICF-APP and EWPS and no or weak correlations between the AVEM and the Mini-ICF-APP or EWPS. Work performance is primarily related to the inability to perform activities and incapacities, and only due to attitudes or volitional/motivational factors to a much lesser degree. Therefore, capacity and motivation can and must be separated. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Health promotion and education: application of the ICF in the US and Canada using an ecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David; Nieuwenhuijsen, Els R; Saleeby, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Health promotion is an issue comprised of complex and multi-layered concepts that involves a process of enabling people to increase control over and improve their health. The aims and applications of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), with its focus on components of functioning, activities and participation, and environmental factors are salient to health promotion and health education efforts. For individuals with or without disabilities, health promotion occurs within the community in which they reside and is influenced by a complex interaction of personal and environmental factors. The aim of this paper is to discuss how the ICF can be useful in enhancing social change through health promotion and health education for all people, in particular those with disabilities and chronic conditions. In doing so health promotion concepts and the ecological approach linked with the ICF, the relationship of social change and social support to the ICF, the potential role of the ICF for national and local (city) policies, and the role of health professionals in this process will be examined. Building on this body of knowledge, the authors recommend that future research should focus on the relationship between policies and the social participation of people with disabilities in the community, the use of ICF measurement tools to improve the indicators established by the National Organization on Disability, the development of a new ICF core set for community accessibility and inclusion, better interventions to enhance social support, and enhancing the role of professionals in health promotion for people with disabilities or chronic health conditions.

  18. Review Article: Mapping of children's health and development data on population level using the classification system ICF-CY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ståhl, Ylva; Granlund, Mats; Gäre-Andersson, Boel; Enskär, Karin

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if essential health and development data of all children in Sweden in the Child Health Service (CHS) and School Health Service (SHS) can be linked to the classification system International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health--Children and Youth (ICF-CY). Lists of essential health terms, compiled by professionals from CHS and SHS, expected to be used in the national standardised records form the basis for the analysis in this study. The essential health terms have been linked to the codes of ICF-CY by using linking rules and a verification procedure. After exclusion of terms not directly describing children's health, a majority of the health terms could be linked into the ICF-CY with a high proportion of terms in body functions and a lower proportion in activity/participation and environment respectively. Some health terms had broad description and were linked to several ICF-CY codes. The precision of the health terms was at a medium level of detail. ICF-CY can be useful as a tool for documenting child health. It provides not only a code useful for statistical purposes but also a language useful for the CHS and SHS in their work on individual as well as population levels. It was noted that the health terms used by services mainly focused on health related to body function. This indicates that more focus is needed on health data related to child's functioning in everyday life situations.

  19. ICD-11: a comprehensive picture of health, an update on the ICD-ICF joint use initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selb, Melissa; Kohler, Friedbert; Robinson Nicol, Molly Meri; Riberto, Marcelo; Stucki, Gerold; Kennedy, Cille; Üstün, Bedirhan

    2015-01-01

    This is a follow-up of the special report Towards the joint use of ICD and ICF: A call for contribution, published by the Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine in 2012, which introduced an initiative of using the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in a complementary way in clinical practice. Recognizing the merits of using the ICD and ICF jointly, the World Health Organization (WHO) introduced so-called functioning properties in the ICD-11. The first step in this ICD-ICF joint use initiative revealed 103 rehabilitation-relevant health conditions for which functioning properties were to be identified. Afterwards experts were recruited to identify the functioning properties for the health conditions for which no ICF Core Sets were available and all the functioning properties were integrated in the beta-version of ICD-11. The objective of this special report is to present the outcome of the recruitment and training of the contributing experts, and to provide an update on the current status of identifying functioning properties and their integration in ICD-11. Having functioning properties in the ICD-11 achieves a milestone in depicting health information in an integrated and comprehensive manner. Explicitly identifying functioning properties for specific health conditions further reinforces the importance of acquiring a broader and more meaningful picture of a person's health, and can guide clinical decision-making.

  20. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF): a unifying model for the conceptual description of the rehabilitation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, Gerold; Cieza, Alarcos; Melvin, John

    2007-05-01

    An important basis for the successful development of rehabilitation practice and research is a conceptually sound description of rehabilitation understood as a health strategy based on a universally accepted conceptual model and taxonomy of human functioning. With the approval of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) by the World Health Assembly in 2001 and the reference to the ICF in the World Health Assembly's resolution on "Disability, including prevention, management and rehabilitation" in 2005, we can now rely on a universally accepted conceptual model. It is thus time to initiate the process of evolving an ICF-based conceptual description that can serve as a basis for similar conceptual descriptions and according definitions of the professions applying the rehabilitation strategy and of distinct scientific fields of human functioning and rehabilitation research. In co-operation with the Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) section of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS) and its professional practice committee, we present a first tentative version of an ICF-based conceptual description in this paper. A brief definition describes rehabilitation as the health strategy applied by PRM and professionals in the health sector and across other sectors that aims to enable people with health conditions experiencing or likely to experience disability to achieve and maintain optimal functioning in interaction with the environment. Readers of the Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine are invited to contribute towards achieving an internationally accepted ICF-based conceptual description of rehabilitation by submitting commentaries to the Editor of this journal.

  1. Identification of relevant ICF categories for indication, intervention planning and evaluation of health resort programs: a Delphi exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, E.; Weigl, M.; Schuh, A.; Stucki, G.

    2006-01-01

    Health resort programs have a long tradition, mainly in European countries and Japan. They rely on local resources and the physical environment, physical medicine interventions and traditional medicine to optimise functioning and health. Arguably because of the long tradition, there is only a limited number of high-quality studies that examine the effectiveness of health resort programs. Specific challenges to the evaluation of health resort programs are to randomise the holistic approach with a varying number of specific interventions but also the reliance on the effect of the physical environment. Reference standards for the planning and reporting of health resort studies would be highly beneficial. With the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF), we now have such a standard that allows us to describe body functions and structures, activities and participation and interaction with environmental factors. A major challenge when applying the ICF in practice is its length. Therefore, the objective of this project was to identify the ICF categories most relevant for health resort programs. We conducted a consensus-building, three-round, e-mail survey using the Delphi technique. Based on the consensus of the experts, it was possible to come up with an ICF Core Set that can serve as reference standards for the indication, intervention planning and evaluation of health resort programs. This preliminary ICF Core Set should be tested in different regions and in subsets of health resort visitors with varying conditions.

  2. (D,T) Driven thorium hybrid blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kusayer, T.A.; Khan, S.; Sahin, S.

    1983-01-01

    Recently, a project has started, with the aim to establish the neutronic performance and the basic design of an experimental fusionfission (hybrid) reactor facility, called AYMAN, in cylinderical geometry. The fusion reactor will have to be simulated by a (D,T) neutron generator. Fissile and fertile fuel will have to surround the neutron generator as a cylinderical blanket to simulate the boundary conditions of the hybrid blanket in a proper way. This geometry is consistent with Tandem Mirror Hybrid Blanket design and with most of the ICF blanket designs. A similar experimental installation will become operational around 1984 at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, Switzerland known under the project LOTUS. Due to the limited dimensions of the experimental cavity of the LOTUS-hybrid reactor, the LOTUS blankets have to be designed in plane geometry. Also, the bulky form of the Haefely neutron generator of the LOTUS facility obliges one to design a blanket in the plane geometry. This results in a vacuum left boundary conditions for the LOTUS blanket. The importance of a reflecting left boundary condition on the overall neutronic performance of a hybrid blanket has been analyzed in previous work in detail

  3. Possibilities and Implications of Using the ICF and Other Vocabulary Standards in Electronic Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeman, Daniel J; Richoz, Christophe

    2015-12-01

    There is now widespread recognition of the powerful potential of electronic health record (EHR) systems to improve the health-care delivery system. The benefits of EHRs grow even larger when the health data within their purview are seamlessly shared, aggregated and processed across different providers, settings and institutions. Yet, the plethora of idiosyncratic conventions for identifying the same clinical content in different information systems is a fundamental barrier to fully leveraging the potential of EHRs. Only by adopting vocabulary standards that provide the lingua franca across these local dialects can computers efficiently move, aggregate and use health data for decision support, outcomes management, quality reporting, research and many other purposes. In this regard, the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) is an important standard for physiotherapists because it provides a framework and standard language for describing health and health-related states. However, physiotherapists and other health-care professionals capture a wide range of data such as patient histories, clinical findings, tests and measurements, procedures, and so on, for which other vocabulary standards such as Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes and Systematized Nomenclature Of Medicine Clinical Terms are crucial for interoperable communication between different electronic systems. In this paper, we describe how the ICF and other internationally accepted vocabulary standards could advance physiotherapy practise and research by enabling data sharing and reuse by EHRs. We highlight how these different vocabulary standards fit together within a comprehensive record system, and how EHRs can make use of them, with a particular focus on enhancing decision-making. By incorporating the ICF and other internationally accepted vocabulary standards into our clinical information systems, physiotherapists will be able to leverage the potent

  4. Towards an ICF- and IMMPACT-based pain vocational rehabilitation core set in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reneman, M F; Beemster, T T; Edelaar, M J A; van Velzen, J M; van Bennekom, C; Escorpizo, R

    2013-12-01

    For clinical use and research of pain within the context of vocational rehabilitation, a specific core set of measurements is needed. The recommendations of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) brief Core Set for Vocational Rehabilitation (VR) and those of Initiative on Methods, Measurement, and Pain Assessment in Clinical Trials (IMMPACT) cover two broad areas. These two sources can be integrated when made applicable to vocational rehabilitation and pain. Objective To develop a core set of diagnostic and evaluative measures specifically for vocational rehabilitation of patients with subacute and chronic musculoskeletal pain, while using the brief ICF core set for VR as the reference framework in VR, and the IMMPACT recommendations in the outcome measurements around pain. Three main steps were taken. The first step was to remove irrelevant and duplicate domains of the brief ICF Core Set for Vocational Rehabilitation and the IMMPACT recommendations around pain. The second step was to match the remaining domains with existing instruments or measures. Instruments were proposed based on availability and its proven use in Dutch practice and based on proof of sufficient clinimetric properties. In step 3, the preliminary VR-Pain core set was presented to 3 expert panels: proposed users, Dutch pain rehabilitation experts, and international VR experts. Experts agreed with the majority of the proposed domains and instruments. The final VR-Pain Core Set consists of 18 domains measured with 12 instruments. All instruments possessed basic clinimetric properties. An agreed-upon VR-Pain Core Set with content that covers relevant domains for pain and VR and validated instruments measuring these domains has been developed. The VR-Pain Core Set may be used for regular clinical purposes and research in the field of vocational rehabilitation and pain, but adaptations should be considered for use outside the Netherlands.

  5. Decoding using back-project algorithm from coded image in ICF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang shaoen; Liu Zhongli; Zheng Zhijian; Tang Daoyuan

    1999-01-01

    The principle of the coded imaging and its decoding in inertial confinement fusion is described simply. The authors take ring aperture microscope for example and use back-project (BP) algorithm to decode the coded image. The decoding program has been performed for numerical simulation. Simulations of two models are made, and the results show that the accuracy of BP algorithm is high and effect of reconstruction is good. Thus, it indicates that BP algorithm is applicable to decoding for coded image in ICF experiments

  6. Z-Pinch Generated X-Rays Demonstrate Indirect-Drive ICF Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, R.L.; Chandler, G.A.; Derzon, M.S.; Hebron, D.E.; Leeper, R.J.; Matzen, M.K.; Mock, R.C.; Nash, T.J.; Olson, R.E.; Peterson, D.L.; Ruggles, L.E.; Sanford, T.W.L.; Simpson, W.W.; Struve, K.W.; Vesey, R.A.

    1999-06-16

    Hohlraums (measuring 6-mm in diameter by 7-mm in height) have been heated by x-rays from a z-pinch. Over measured x-ray input powers P of 0.7 to 13 TW, the hohlraum radiation temperature T increases from {approximately}55 to {approximately}130 eV, and is in agreement with the Planckian relation P-T{sup 4}. The results suggest that indirect-drive ICF studies involving NIF relevant pulse shapes and <2-mm diameter capsules can he studied using this arrangement.

  7. Characteristics of ICF Relevant Hohlraums Driven by X-Rays from a Z-Pinch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOWERS,R.L.; CHANDLER,GORDON A.; HEBRON,DAVID E.; LEEPER,RAMON J.; MATUSKA,W.; MOCK,RAYMOND CECIL; NASH,THOMAS J.; OLSON,RICHARD E.; PETERSON,D.L.; PETERSON,R.R.; RUGGLES,LAURENCE E.; RUIZ,CARLOS L.; SANFORD,THOMAS W. L.; SIMPSON,WALTER W.; VESEY,ROGER A.

    1999-11-03

    Radiation environments characteristic of those encountered during the low-temperature foot pulse and subsequent higher-temperature early-step pulses (without the foot pulse) required for indirect-drive ICF ignition on the National ignition Facility have been produced in hohlraums driven by x-rays from a z-pinch. These environments provide a platform to better understand the dynamics of full-scale NIF hohlraums, ablator material, and capsules prior to NIF completion. Radiation temperature, plasma fill, and wall motion of these hohlraums are discussed.

  8. Investigation of fitting capability of active mirror for controlling ICF's focal profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Zhige; Ling Ning; Jiang Wenhan

    1998-01-01

    Laser beam's profile at focal plane can be controlled using active mirror in ICF system because the beam's profile has strong relationship with the surface of active mirror, the surface of active mirror can be changed at any time and maintained for a long time. The capabilities of fitting given wave-front (computed by Geometric Transformation Method) at conditions of different actuator numbers and different arrangement have been investigated by computer simulation. The computing results present that the needed laser profile can obtained by adaptive optical technology

  9. Dissipation terms in one-dimensional hydrodynamic code for ICF target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamba, Moritake; Niu, Keishiro.

    1985-01-01

    The one-dimensional hydrodynamic code so far used for the simulation of the target improsion in ICF, the artificial viscosity has been employed as the dissipation terms. This artificial viscosity depends on the mesh width of the space using in the simulation and is much large in comparison with the real viscosity. In this paper, it is shown that this artificial viscosity leads to the unreasonable fusion parameters depending on the used mesh width of the space. Several methods to modify the dissipation term are given in this paper. (author)

  10. Using the ICF in economic analyses of Assistive Technology systems: methodological implications of a user standpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraner, Ingrid; De Jonge, Desleigh; Layton, Natasha; Bringolf, Jane; Molenda, Agata

    2008-01-01

    This paper identifies key methodological issues for economic analyses of costs and effectiveness of Assistive Technology (AT) systems based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Following the biopsychosocial model of the ICF, the paper explores the consequences for cost-effectiveness analyses of AT systems when a user centred approach is taken. In so doing, the paper questions the fiction of neutrality in economic analyses and discusses the distinction between weak and strong objectivity. Costs are measured as all resources used when providing a particular level of environmental facilitators and reducing environmental barriers for an AT user, while effectiveness is measured in terms of the resulting increase in activities and participation of the AT user. The ICF's fourth qualifier for activities and participation, which denotes performance without assistance is used to identify the additional performance achieved due to the particular environmental factors in the current situation (first qualifier). A fifth qualifier for activities and participation is introduced to denote performance with optimal assistance, and the fourth qualifier is then again used to identify the increase in activities and participation due to the environmental factors in the situation with optimal assistance. The effectiveness that an AT user achieves in his or her current situation can be compared with the effectiveness he or she could achieve when provided with what is considered an optimal AT system based on current technologies and user priorities. This comparison throws into sharp relief the role of AT systems as well as of universal design (UD) in reducing environmental barriers for AT users in a way that is cost-effective for society as a whole. Cost-effectiveness analysis based on the ICF can provide powerful economic evidence for how best to allocate existing funding for AT systems. We can identify three particular scenarios in which clear

  11. Status of Indirect Drive ICF Experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewald, E.

    2016-01-01

    In the quest to demonstrate Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) ignition of deuterium-tritium (DT) filled capsules and propagating thermonuclear burn with net energy gain (fusion energy/laser energy >1), recent experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have shown progress towards increasing capsule hot spot temperature (T ion >5 keV) and fusion neutron yield (~10 16 ), while achieving ~2x yield amplification by alpha particle deposition. At the same time a performance cliff was reached, resulting in lower fusion yields than expected as the implosion velocity was increased. Ongoing studies of the hohlraum and capsule physics are attempting to disseminate possible causes for this performance ceiling.

  12. Z-Pinch Generated X-Rays Demonstrate Indirect-Drive ICF Potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, R.L.; Chandler, G.A.; Derzon, M.S.; Hebron, D.E.; Leeper, R.J.; Matzen, M.K.; Mock, R.C.; Nash, T.J.; Olson, R.E.; Peterson, D.L.; Ruggles, L.E.; Sanford, T.W.L.; Simpson, W.W.; Struve, K.W.; Vesey, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Hohlraums (measuring 6-mm in diameter by 7-mm in height) have been heated by x-rays from a z-pinch. Over measured x-ray input powers P of 0.7 to 13 TW, the hohlraum radiation temperature T increases from approximately55 to approximately130 eV, and is in agreement with the Planckian relation P-T 4 . The results suggest that indirect-drive ICF studies involving NIF relevant pulse shapes and <2-mm diameter capsules can he studied using this arrangement

  13. Characteristics of ICF Relevant Hohlraums Driven by X-Rays from a Z-Pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOWERS, R.L.; CHANDLER, GORDON A.; HEBRON, DAVID E.; LEEPER, RAMON J.; MATUSKA, W.; MOCK, RAYMOND CECIL; NASH, THOMAS J.; OLSON, RICHARD E.; PETERSON, D.L.; PETERSON, R.R.; RUGGLES, LAURENCE E.; RUIZ, CARLOS L.; SANFORD, THOMAS W. L.; SIMPSON, WALTER W.; VESEY, ROGER A.

    1999-01-01

    Radiation environments characteristic of those encountered during the low-temperature foot pulse and subsequent higher-temperature early-step pulses (without the foot pulse) required for indirect-drive ICF ignition on the National ignition Facility have been produced in hohlraums driven by x-rays from a z-pinch. These environments provide a platform to better understand the dynamics of full-scale NIF hohlraums, ablator material, and capsules prior to NIF completion. Radiation temperature, plasma fill, and wall motion of these hohlraums are discussed

  14. SAFIRE: A systems analysis code for ICF [inertial confinement fusion] reactor economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarville, T.J.; Meier, W.R.; Carson, C.F.; Glasgow, B.B.

    1987-01-01

    The SAFIRE (Systems Analysis for ICF Reactor Economics) code incorporates analytical models for scaling the cost and performance of several inertial confinement fusion reactor concepts for electric power. The code allows us to vary design parameters (e.g., driver energy, chamber pulse rate, net electric power) and evaluate the resulting change in capital cost of power plant and the busbar cost of electricity. The SAFIRE code can be used to identify the most attractive operating space and to identify those design parameters with the greatest leverage for improving the economics of inertial confinement fusion electric power plants

  15. Sensitivity of ICF ignition conditions to non-Maxwellian DT fusion reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbett, W. J.

    2013-01-01

    The hotspot ignition conditions in ICF are determined by considering the power balance between fusion energy deposition and energy loss terms. Uncertainty in any of these terms has potential to modify the ignition conditions, changing the optimum ignition capsule design. This paper considers the impact of changes to the DT fusion reaction rate due to non-thermal ion energy distributions. The DT fusion reactivity has been evaluated for a class of non-Maxwellian distributions representing a perturbation to the tail of a thermal distribution. The resulting reactivity has been used to determine hotspot ignition conditions as a function of the characteristic parameter of the modified distribution. (authors)

  16. ICF burn-history measurments using 17-MeV fusion gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, R.A.; Cable, M.D.; Dendooven, P.G.

    1995-01-01

    Fusion reaction rate for inertial-confinement fusion (ICF) experiments at the Nova Laser Facility is measured with 30-ps resolution using a high-speed neutron detector. We are investigating a measurement technique based on the 16.7-MeV gamma rays that are released in deuterium-tritium fusion. Our concept is to convert gamma-ray energy into a fast burst of Cerenkov light that can be recorded with a high-speed optical detector. We have detected fusion gamma rays in preliminary experiments conducted at Nova where we used a tungsten/aerogel converter to generate Cerenkov light and an optical streak camera to record the signal

  17. First-wall-coating candidates for ICF reactor chambers using dry-wall protection only

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sink, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty pure metals were considered as potential candidates for first-wall coatings of ICF reactor chambers. Seven were found to merit further consideration based on the results of computer-code calculations of figures-of-merit. The seven are rhenium, iridium, molybdenum, chromium, tungsten, tantalum, and niobium (listed in order of decreasing values of figures-of-merit). The calculations are based on mechanical, thermal, and vacuum vaporization engineering constraints. A number of alloys of these seven metals are suggested as additional candidates

  18. Application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to people with dysphagia following non-surgical head and neck cancer management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nund, Rebecca L; Scarinci, Nerina A; Cartmill, Bena; Ward, Elizabeth C; Kuipers, Pim; Porceddu, Sandro V

    2014-12-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) is an internationally recognized framework which allows its user to describe the consequences of a health condition on an individual in the context of their environment. With growing recognition that dysphagia can have broad ranging physical and psychosocial impacts, the aim of this paper was to identify the ICF domains and categories that describe the full functional impact of dysphagia following non-surgical head and neck cancer (HNC) management, from the perspective of the person with dysphagia. A secondary analysis was conducted on previously published qualitative study data which explored the lived experiences of dysphagia of 24 individuals with self-reported swallowing difficulties following HNC management. Categories and sub-categories identified by the qualitative analysis were subsequently mapped to the ICF using the established linking rules to develop a set of ICF codes relevant to the impact of dysphagia following HNC management. The 69 categories and sub-categories that had emerged from the qualitative analysis were successfully linked to 52 ICF codes. The distribution of these codes across the ICF framework revealed that the components of Body Functions, Activities and Participation, and Environmental Factors were almost equally represented. The findings confirm that the ICF is a valuable framework for representing the complexity and multifaceted impact of dysphagia following HNC. This list of ICF codes, which reflect the diverse impact of dysphagia associated with HNC on the individual, can be used to guide more holistic assessment and management for this population.

  19. Constitutive phosphorylation of ATM in lymphoblastoid cell lines from patients with ICF syndrome without downstream kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstine, Jimena V; Nahas, Shareef; Gamo, Kristin; Gartler, Stanley M; Hansen, R Scott; Roelfsema, Jeroen H; Gatti, Richard A; Marahrens, York

    2006-04-08

    Double strand DNA breaks in the genome lead to the activation of the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase in a process that requires ATM autophosphorylation at serine-1981. ATM autophosphorylation only occurs if ATM is previously acetylated by Tip60. The activated ATM kinase phosphorylates proteins involved in arresting the cell cycle, including p53, and in repairing the DNA breaks. Chloroquine treatment and other manipulations that produce chromatin defects in the absence of detectable double strand breaks also trigger ATM phosphorylation and the phosphorylation of p53 in primary human fibroblasts, while other downstream substrates of ATM that are involved in the repair of DNA double strand breaks remain unphosphorylated. This raises the issue of whether ATM is constitutively activated in patients with genetic diseases that display chromatin defects. We examined lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) generated from patients with different types of chromatin disorders: Immunodeficiency, Centromeric instability, Facial anomalies (ICF) syndrome, Coffin Lowry syndrome, Rubinstein Taybi syndrome and Fascioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy. We show that ATM is phosphorylated on serine-1981 in LCLs derived from ICF patients but not from the other syndromes. The phosphorylated ATM in ICF cells did not phosphorylate the downstream targets NBS1, SMC1 and H2AX, all of which require the presence of double strand breaks. We demonstrate that ICF cells respond normally to ionizing radiation, ruling out the possibility that genetic deficiency in ICF cells renders activated ATM incapable of phosphorylating its downstream substrates. Surprisingly, p53 was also not phosphorylated in ICF cells or in chloroquine-treated wild type LCLs. In this regard the response to chromatin-altering agents differs between primary fibroblasts and LCLs. Our findings indicate that although phosphorylation at serine-1981 is essential in the activation of the ATM kinase, serine-1981 phosphorylation is

  20. Assessment of functioning in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder with the Mini-ICF-APP: a validation study in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Federica; Fiorillo, Andrea; Tusconi, Massimo; Guiso, Beatrice; Carpiniello, Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate validity of the Italian Mini-ICF-APP (Mini-ICF Rating for Limitations of Activities and Participation in Psychological Disorders) in schizophrenia and related disorders. 74 outpatients affected by schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders attending a University-based community mental health centre were recruited to the study. All participants underwent comprehensive evaluation using standardized instruments to assess clinical, neurocognitive and functional status. Concurrent validity of Mini-ICF-APP was evaluated and compared to severity scores obtained using the Clinical Global Impression-Schizophrenia scale (CGI-SCH), Positive and Negative Syndrome scale (PANSS), Mini Mental State Examination test (MMSE), Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia scale (BACS) and Personal and Social Performance scale (PSP). Construct validity was evaluated by comparing scores obtained at Mini-ICF-APP by remitted versus non-remitted patients, and by recovered versus unrecovered patients. Discriminant validity was evaluated comparing scores on Mini-ICF-APP and Subjective Well-being (SWN) scale. the total score and 12 out of the 13 Mini-ICF-APP items correlated significantly with total score at PSP; Mini-ICF-App total score was moreover significantly correlated with total scores at CGI-SCH, PANSS, MMSE, as well as with several BACS items. Total scores obtained at Mini-ICF-APP were significantly higher among remitted and recovered patients. No relevant correlations were found between scores of Mini-ICF-APP and SWN scales. The total score and 12 out of the 13 Mini-ICF-APP items correlated significantly with total score at PSP; Mini-ICF-App total score was moreover significantly correlated with total scores at CGI-SCH, PANSS, MMSE, as well as with several BACS items. Total scores obtained at Mini-ICF-APP were significantly higher among remitted and recovered patients. No relevant correlations were found between scores of Mini-ICF-APP and SWN

  1. [Assessment of functioning in patients with head and neck cancer based on the international classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschiesner, U

    2011-09-01

    The article approaches with the question how preservation of function after treatment of head and neck cancer (HNC) can be defined and measured across treatment approaches. On the basis of the "International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF)" a series of efforts are summarized how all relevant aspects of the interdisciplinary team can be integrated into a common concept.Different efforts on the development, validation and implementation of ICF Core Sets for head and neck cancer (ICF-HNC) are discussed. The ICF-HNC covers organ-based problems with food ingestion, breathing, and speech, as well as psychosocial difficulties.Relationships between the ICF-HNC and well-established outcome measures are illustrated. This enables the user to integrate different aspects of functional outcome into a consolidated approach towards preservation/rehabilitation of functioning after HNC - applicable for a variety of treatment-approaches and health-professions. George Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. The Edward Teller Medal Lecture: the Evolution Toward Indirect Drive and Two Decades of Progress Toward Icf Ignition and Burn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindl, John D.

    In 1972, I joined the Livermore ICF Theory and Target Design group led by John Nuckolls, shortly after publication of John's seminal Nature article on ICF. My primary role, working with others in the target design program including Mordy Rosen, Steve Haan, and Larry Suter, has been as a target designer and theorist who utilized the LASNEX code to perform numerical experiments, which along with analysis of laboratory and underground thermonuclear experiments allowed me to develop a series of models and physical insights which have been used to set the direction and priorities of the Livermore program.

  3. Toward the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Rehabilitation Set: A Minimal Generic Set of Domains for Rehabilitation as a Health Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodinger, Birgit; Cieza, Alarcos; Oberhauser, Cornelia; Bickenbach, Jerome; Üstün, Tevfik Bedirhan; Chatterji, Somnath; Stucki, Gerold

    2016-06-01

    To develop a comprehensive set of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) categories as a minimal standard for reporting and assessing functioning and disability in clinical populations along the continuum of care. The specific aims were to specify the domains of functioning recommended for an ICF Rehabilitation Set and to identify a minimal set of environmental factors (EFs) to be used alongside the ICF Rehabilitation Set when describing disability across individuals and populations with various health conditions. Secondary analysis of existing data sets using regression methods (Random Forests and Group Lasso regression) and expert consultations. Along the continuum of care, including acute, early postacute, and long-term and community rehabilitation settings. Persons (N=9863) with various health conditions participated in primary studies. The number of respondents for whom the dependent variable data were available and used in this analysis was 9264. Not applicable. For regression analyses, self-reported general health was used as a dependent variable. The ICF categories from the functioning component and the EF component were used as independent variables for the development of the ICF Rehabilitation Set and the minimal set of EFs, respectively. Thirty ICF categories to be complemented with 12 EFs were identified as relevant to the identified ICF sets. The ICF Rehabilitation Set constitutes of 9 ICF categories from the component body functions and 21 from the component activities and participation. The minimal set of EFs contains 12 categories spanning all chapters of the EF component of the ICF. The identified sets proposed serve as minimal generic sets of aspects of functioning in clinical populations for reporting data within and across heath conditions, time, clinical settings including rehabilitation, and countries. These sets present a reference framework for harmonizing existing information on disability across

  4. ICF quarterly report January - March 1997 volume 7, number 3; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J

    1998-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility Project The mission of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is to produce ignition and modest energy gain in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets. Achieving these goals will maintain U.S. world leadership in ICF and will directly benefit the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) missions in national security, science and technology, energy resources, and industrial competitiveness. Development and operation of the NIF are consistent with DOE goals for environmental quality, openness to the community, and nuclear nonproliferation and arms control. Although the primary mission of inertial fusion is for defense applications, inertial fusion research will provide critical information for the development of inertial fusion energy. The NIF, under construction at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), is a cornerstone of the DOE's science-based Stockpile Stewardship Program for addressing high-energy-density physics issues in the absence of nuclear weapons testing. In pursuit of this mission, the DOE's Defense Programs has developed a state-of-the-art capability with the NIF to investigate high-energy-density physics in the laboratory with a microfusion capability for defense and energy applications. As a Strategic System Acquisition, the NIF Project has a separate and disciplined reporting chain to DOE as shown below

  5. Shock physics with the nova laser for ICF applications. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammel, B.A.; Cauble, R.; Celliers, P.

    1995-01-01

    The physics of high pressure shocks plays a central role in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). In indirect drive ICF, x-rays from a gold cavity (hohlraum) are used to ablatively drive a series of high pressure shocks into a spherical target (capsule). These shocks converge at the center, compressing the fuel and forming a hot dense core. The target performance, such as peak fuel density and temperature and neutron yield, depends critically on hock timing, and material compressibility. Accurate predictions of NIF target performance depends critically on shock timing and material compressibility. Current measurement techniques enable us to accurately determine shock timing in planar samples of abator material as a function of laser drive. Although this technique does not separately address uncertainties in material EOS and opacity, it does allow us to tune the laser drive until the desired shock timing is achieved. Experiments to directly address the EOS of D 2 ice are planned to further increase the margin for ignition in current target designs

  6. Recent progress on the Los Alamos Aurora ICF [inertial confinement fusion] laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosocha, L.A.; Blair, L.S.

    1987-01-01

    Aurora is the Los Alamos short-pulse, high-power, krypton-fluoride laser system. It serves as an end-to-end technology demonstration prototype for large-scale ultraviolet laser systems for short wavelength inertial confinement fusion (ICF) investigations. The system is designed to employ optical angular multiplexing and serial amplification by electron-beam-driven KrF laser amplifiers to deliver stacked, 248-nm, 5-ns duration multikilojoule laser pulses to ICF-relevant targets. This paper presents a summary of the Aurora system and a discussion of the progress achieved in the construction and integration of the laser system. We concentrate on the main features of the following major system components: front-end lasers, amplifier train, multiplexer, optical relay train, demultiplexer, and the associated optical alignment system. During the past year, two major construction and integration tasks have been accomplished. The first task is the demonstration of 96-beam multiplexing and amplified energy extraction, as evidenced by the integrated operation of the front end, the multiplexer (12-fold and 8-fold encoders), the optical relay train, and three electron-beam-driven amplifiers. The second task is the assembly and installation of the demultiplexer optical hardware, which consists of over 300 optical components ranging in size from several centimeters square to over a meter square. 13 refs., 13 figs

  7. A Phoswich Detector System to Measure Sub-Second Half-Lives using ICF Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, Micah; Cook, Katelyn; Yuly, Mark; Padalino, Stephen; Sangster, Craig; Regan, Sean

    2017-10-01

    The 3H(t,γ)6He cross section has not been measured at any bombarding energy due to the difficulties of simultaneously producing both a tritium beam and target at accelerator labs. An alternative technique may be to use an ICF tt implosion at the OMEGA Laser Facility. The 3H(t,γ)6He cross section could be determined in situ by measuring the beta decay of 6He beginning a few milliseconds after the shot along with other ICF diagnostics. A dE-E phoswich system capable of surviving in the OMEGA target chamber was tested using the SUNY Geneseo pelletron to create neutrons via 2H(d,n)3He and subsequently 6He via 9Be(n,α)6He in a beryllium target. The phoswich dE-E detector system was used to select beta decay events and measure the 807 ms half-life of 6He. It is composed of a thin, 2 ns decay time dE scintillator optically coupled to a thick, 285 ns E scintillator, with a linear gate to separate the short dE pulse from the longer E tail. Funded in part by a Grant from the DOE through the Laboratory for Laser Energetics.

  8. Development of a Z-pinch-driven ICF hohlraum concept on Z

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuneo, M.E.; Porter, J.L. Jr.; Vesey, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Recent development of high power z-pinches (> 150 MW) on the Z driver has permitted the study of high-temperature, radiation-driven hohlraums. Three complementary, Z-pinch source-hohlraum-ICF capsule configurations are being developed to harness the x-ray output of these Z-pinch's. These are the dynamic-hohlraum, static-wall hohlraum, and Z-pinch-driven hohlraum concepts. Each has different potential strengths and concerns. In this paper, the authors report on the first experiments with the Z-pinch-driven hohlraum (ZPDH) concept. A high-yield ICF capsule design for this concept appears feasible, when driven by z-pinches from a 60 MA-class driver. Initial experiments characterize the behavior of the spoke array on Z-pinch performance and x-ray transmission, and the uniformity of radiation flux incident on a foam capsule in the secondary, for a single-sided drive. Measurements of x-ray wall re-emission power and spectrum, radiation temperatures, spoke-plasma location, and drive uniformity will be presented and compared with 0-D energetics, 2-D Lasnex rad-hydro, and 3-D radiosity calculations of energy transport and drive uniformity

  9. Development of a Z-pinch-driven ICF hohlraum concept on Z

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuneo, M E; Porter, Jr, J L; Vesey, R A [and others

    1999-07-01

    Recent development of high power z-pinches (> 150 MW) on the Z driver has permitted the study of high-temperature, radiation-driven hohlraums. Three complementary, Z-pinch source-hohlraum-ICF capsule configurations are being developed to harness the x-ray output of these Z-pinch's. These are the dynamic-hohlraum, static-wall hohlraum, and Z-pinch-driven hohlraum concepts. Each has different potential strengths and concerns. In this paper, the authors report on the first experiments with the Z-pinch-driven hohlraum (ZPDH) concept. A high-yield ICF capsule design for this concept appears feasible, when driven by z-pinches from a 60 MA-class driver. Initial experiments characterize the behavior of the spoke array on Z-pinch performance and x-ray transmission, and the uniformity of radiation flux incident on a foam capsule in the secondary, for a single-sided drive. Measurements of x-ray wall re-emission power and spectrum, radiation temperatures, spoke-plasma location, and drive uniformity will be presented and compared with 0-D energetics, 2-D Lasnex rad-hydro, and 3-D radiosity calculations of energy transport and drive uniformity.

  10. Progress in laboratory high gain ICF [inertial confinement fusion]: Prospects for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm, E.; Lindl, J.D.; Campbell, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF), a thermonuclear reaction in a small (/approximately/5 mm diameter) fuel capsule filled with a few milligrams of deuterium and tritium, has been the subject of very fruitful experimentation since the early 1970's. High gain ICF is now on the threshold of practical applications. With a Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF), these applications will have major implications for national defense, basic and applied science, and power production. With a driver capable of delivering about 10 MJ in a 10-ns pulse at an intensity of /approximately/3 /times/ 10 14 W/cm 2 , an appropriately configured cryogenic capsule could be compressed to a density of about 200 g/cm 3 and a temperature of 3--5 keV. Under these conditions, up to 10 mg of DT could be ignited, and with a burn efficiency of about 30%, release up to 1000 MJ of fusion energy, an energy gain of about 100. A thousand megajoules is equivalent to about one quarter ton of TNT, or about 7 gallons of oil--an amount of energy tractable under laboratory conditions and potentially very useful for a variety of applications. 61 refs., 33 figs

  11. A neuropsychological rehabilitation program for patients with Multiple Sclerosis based on the model of the ICF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusswald, Gisela; Mildner, Christa; Zebenholzer, Karin; Auff, Eduard; Lehrner, Johann

    2014-01-01

    Forty to sixty percent of MS patients suffer from cognitive impairments. Cognitive deficits are a great burden for patients affected. In particular they may lead to a reduced quality of life, loss of work and problems with the social environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate a specific neuropsychological rehabilitation program for MS patients according to the ICF to be able to meet more properly individual requirements on the therapy level of function as well as of activities and participation. Forty patients with MS were randomised in an intervention (IG) - and a control group (CG). The outcome measure of the IG, who started an intensive computer based home training of attention and attended psychological counselling was compared to the untrained CG. In specific domains of attention (simple and cued alertness and divided attention) significant group differences between CG and IG could be found. The IG reported an improvement of mental fatigue and retardation. These findings support the idea that a neuropsychological rehabilitation program, which based on the model of ICF, could improve cognitive impairment and could also have a positive influence of activities and participation.

  12. Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy for warm dense matter studies and ICF plasma diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, S. B.; Harding, E. C.; Knapp, P. F.; Gomez, M. R.; Nagayama, T.; Bailey, J. E.

    2018-05-01

    The burning core of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) plasma produces bright x-rays at stagnation that can directly diagnose core conditions essential for comparison to simulations and understanding fusion yields. These x-rays also backlight the surrounding shell of warm, dense matter, whose properties are critical to understanding the efficacy of the inertial confinement and global morphology. We show that the absorption and fluorescence spectra of mid-Z impurities or dopants in the warm dense shell can reveal the optical depth, temperature, and density of the shell and help constrain models of warm, dense matter. This is illustrated by the example of a high-resolution spectrum collected from an ICF plasma with a beryllium shell containing native iron impurities. Analysis of the iron K-edge provides model-independent diagnostics of the shell density (2.3 × 1024 e/cm3) and temperature (10 eV), while a 12-eV red shift in Kβ and 5-eV blue shift in the K-edge discriminate among models of warm dense matter: Both shifts are well described by a self-consistent field model based on density functional theory but are not fully consistent with isolated-atom models using ad-hoc density effects.

  13. Low Back Pain in 17 Countries, a Rasch Analysis of the ICF Core Set for Low Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Cecilie; Bautz-Holter, Erik; Cieza, Alarcos

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that a worldwide measurement tool may be developed based on the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF) Core Sets for chronic conditions. The aim of the present study was to explore the possibility of constructing a cross-cultural measurement of functioning for patients with low back pain…

  14. The Edward Teller medal lecture: The evolution toward Indirect Drive and two decades of progress toward ICF ignition and burn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindl, J.D.

    1993-12-01

    In 1972, I joined the Livermore ICF Theory and Target Design group led by John Nuckolls, shortly after publication of John's seminal Nature article on ICF. My primary role, working with others in the target design program including Mordy Rosen, Steve Haan, and Larry Suter, has been as a target designer and theorist who utilized the LASNEX code to perform numerical experiments, which along with analysis of laboratory and underground thermonuclear experiments allowed me to develop a series of models and physical insights which have been used to set the direction and priorities of the Livermore program. I have had the good fortune of working with an outstanding team of scientists who have established LLNL as the premier ICF laboratory in the world. John Emmett and the LLNL Laser Science team were responsible for developing a series of lasers from Janus to Nova which have given LLNL unequaled facilities. George Zimmerman and the LASNEX group developed the numerical models essential for projecting future performance and requirements as well as for designing and analyzing the experiments. Bill Kruer, Bruce Langdon and others in the plasma theory group developed the fundamental understanding of laser plasma interactions which have played such an important role in ICF. And a series of experiment program leaders including Mike Campbell and Joe Kilkenny and their laser experimental teams developed the experimental techniques and diagnostic capabilities which have allowed us to c increasingly complex and sophisticated experiments

  15. Identification of relevant ICF categories by patients with neurological conditions in early post-acute rehabilitation facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, Eva; Lipp, Berthold; Boldt, Christine; Stucki, Gerold; Koenig, Eberhard

    To describe functioning and health of patients with neurological conditions in early post-acute rehabilitation facilities and to identify the most common problems using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Cross-sectional survey in a convenience sample of patients with neurological conditions requiring rehabilitation in early post-acute facilities. The second-level categories of the ICF were used to collect information on patients' problems. For the ICF components Body Functions, Body Structures and Activities and Participation absolute and relative frequencies of impairments/limitations in the study population were reported. For the component Environmental Factors absolute and relative frequencies of perceived barriers or facilitators were reported. The mean age in the sample was 56.6 years with a median age of 60 years. Forty percent of the patients were female. In 292 neurological patients 125 categories (51%) had a prevalence of 30% and above: 39 categories (49%) of Body Functions, 11 categories (28%) of Body Structures, 64 categories (88%) of Activities and Participation and 10 (20%) categories of Environmental Factors. This study is a first step towards the development of ICF Core Sets for of patients with neurological conditions in early post-acute rehabilitation facilities.

  16. The LLNL [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory] ICF [Inertial Confinement Fusion] Program: Progress toward ignition in the Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm, E.; Batha, S.H.; Bernat, T.P.; Bibeau, C.; Cable, M.D.; Caird, J.A.; Campbell, E.M.; Campbell, J.H.; Coleman, L.W.; Cook, R.C.; Correll, D.L.; Darrow, C.B.; Davis, J.I.; Drake, R.P.; Ehrlich, R.B.; Ellis, R.J.; Glendinning, S.G.; Haan, S.W.; Haendler, B.L.; Hatcher, C.W.; Hatchett, S.P.; Hermes, G.L.; Hunt, J.P.; Kania, D.R.; Kauffman, R.L.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Kornblum, H.N.; Kruer, W.L.; Kyrazis, D.T.; Lane, S.M.; Laumann, C.W.; Lerche, R.A.; Letts, S.A.; Lindl, J.D.; Lowdermilk, W.H.; Mauger, G.J.; Montgomery, D.S.; Munro, D.H.; Murray, J.R.; Phillion, D.W.; Powell, H.T.; Remington, B.R.; Ress, D.B.; Speck, D.R.; Suter, L.J.; Tietbohl, G.L.; Thiessen, A.R.; Trebes, J.E.; Trenholme, J.B.; Turner, R.E.; Upadhye, R.S.; Wallace, R.J.; Wiedwald, J.D.; Woodworth, J.G.; Young, P.M.; Ze, F.

    1990-01-01

    The Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has made substantial progress in target physics, target diagnostics, and laser science and technology. In each area, progress required the development of experimental techniques and computational modeling. The objectives of the target physics experiments in the Nova laser facility are to address and understand critical physics issues that determine the conditions required to achieve ignition and gain in an ICF capsule. The LLNL experimental program primarily addresses indirect-drive implosions, in which the capsule is driven by x rays produced by the interaction of the laser light with a high-Z plasma. Experiments address both the physics of generating the radiation environment in a laser-driven hohlraum and the physics associated with imploding ICF capsules to ignition and high-gain conditions in the absence of alpha deposition. Recent experiments and modeling have established much of the physics necessary to validate the basic concept of ignition and ICF target gain in the laboratory. The rapid progress made in the past several years, and in particular, recent results showing higher radiation drive temperatures and implosion velocities than previously obtained and assumed for high-gain target designs, has led LLNL to propose an upgrade of the Nova laser to 1.5 to 2 MJ (at 0.35 μm) to demonstrate ignition and energy gains of 10 to 20 -- the Nova Upgrade

  17. Assessment of functioning in the acute hospital: operationalisation and reliability testing of ICF categories relevant for physical therapists interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, Eva; Gloor-Juzi, Thomas; Huber, Erika O; Stucki, Gerold

    2011-01-01

    To operationalize items based on categories of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) relevant to patient problems that are addressed by physiotherapeutic interventions in the acute hospital, and to test the reliability of these items when applied by physiotherapists. A selection of 124 ICF categories was operation-alized in a formal decision-making and consensus process. The reliability of the newly operationalized item list was tested with a cross-sectional study with repeated measurements. The item writing process resulted in 94 dichotomous and 30 polytomous items. Data were collected in a convenience sample of 28 patients with neurological, musculoske-letal, cardiopulmonary, or internal organ conditions, requiring physical therapy in an acute hospital. Fifty-six percent of the polytomous and 68% of the dichotomous items had a raw agreement of 0.7 or above, whereas 36% of all polytomous and 34% of all dichotomous items had a kappa coefficient of 0.7 and above. The study supports that the ICF is adaptable to professional and setting-specific needs of physiotherapists. Further research towards the development of reliable instruments for physiotherapists based on the ICF seems justified. :

  18. Towards a common disability assessment framework: theoretical and methodological issues for providing public services and benefits using ICF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francescutti, Carlo; Frattura, Lucilla; Troiano, Raffaella; Gongolo, Francesco; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Sala, Marina; Meucci, Paolo; Raggi, Alberto; Russo, Emanuela; Buffoni, Mara; Gorini, Giovanna; Conclave, Mario; Petrangeli, Agostino; Solipaca, Alessandro; Leonardi, Matilde

    2009-01-01

    To report on the preliminary results of an Italian project on the implementation of an ICF-based protocol for providing public services and benefits for persons with disabilities. The UN Convention on the Rights of persons with disabilities (UNC) was mapped to the ICF, and core elements were implemented in an ICF-based evaluation protocol. A person-environment interaction classification (PEIC) tree was also developed for defining evaluation outputs. The PEIC and the ICF-based protocol are the guideline and the data interpretation source, respectively, for providing public services and benefits. They enable to assign persons to different services, from surveillance and monitoring to facilitator provision or sustain over time, to barrier removal or to the reorganisation of environmental factors provision. A detailed description of the target intervention is made available through the implementation of a protocol, which points out the effect of personal support and other environmental factors. The detailed description of functioning and disability provided by our methodology can help policy makers and administrators in decision making, on the basis of a description of real needs, and in targeting person-tailored interventions.

  19. The Edward Teller medal lecture: The evolution toward Indirect Drive and two decades of progress toward ICF ignition and burn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindl, J.D.

    1993-12-01

    In 1972, I joined the Livermore ICF Theory and Target Design group led by John Nuckolls, shortly after publication of John`s seminal Nature article on ICF. My primary role, working with others in the target design program including Mordy Rosen, Steve Haan, and Larry Suter, has been as a target designer and theorist who utilized the LASNEX code to perform numerical experiments, which along with analysis of laboratory and underground thermonuclear experiments allowed me to develop a series of models and physical insights which have been used to set the direction and priorities of the Livermore program. I have had the good fortune of working with an outstanding team of scientists who have established LLNL as the premier ICF laboratory in the world. John Emmett and the LLNL Laser Science team were responsible for developing a series of lasers from Janus to Nova which have given LLNL unequaled facilities. George Zimmerman and the LASNEX group developed the numerical models essential for projecting future performance and requirements as well as for designing and analyzing the experiments. Bill Kruer, Bruce Langdon and others in the plasma theory group developed the fundamental understanding of laser plasma interactions which have played such an important role in ICF. And a series of experiment program leaders including Mike Campbell and Joe Kilkenny and their laser experimental teams developed the experimental techniques and diagnostic capabilities which have allowed us to c increasingly complex and sophisticated experiments.

  20. Theranostic Approach for Metastatic Pigmented Melanoma Using ICF15002, a Multimodal Radiotracer for Both PET Imaging and Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifa Rbah-Vidal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This work reports, in melanoma models, the theranostic potential of ICF15002 as a single fluorinated and iodinated melanin-targeting compound. METHODS: Studies were conducted in the murine syngeneic B16BL6 model and in the A375 and SK-MEL-3 human xenografts. ICF15002 was radiolabeled with fluorine-18 for positron emission tomography (PET imaging and biodistribution, with iodine-125 for metabolism study, and iodine-131 for targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT. TRT efficacy was assessed by tumor volume measurement, with mechanistics and dosimetry parameters being determined in the B16BL6 model. Intracellular localization of ICF15002 was characterized by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS. RESULTS: PET imaging with [18F]ICF15002 evidenced tumoral uptake of 14.33 ± 2.11%ID/g and 4.87 ± 0.93%ID/g in pigmented B16BL6 and SK-MEL-3 models, respectively, at 1 hour post inoculation. No accumulation was observed in the unpigmented A375 melanoma. SIMS demonstrated colocalization of ICF15002 signal with melanin polymers in melanosomes of the B16BL6 tumors. TRT with two doses of 20 MBq [131I]ICF15002 delivered an absorbed dose of 102.3 Gy to B16BL6 tumors, leading to a significant tumor growth inhibition [doubling time (DT of 2.9 ± 0.5 days in treated vs 1.8 ± 0.3 in controls] and a prolonged median survival (27 days vs 21 in controls. P53S15 phosphorylation and P21 induction were associated with a G2/M blockage, suggesting mitotic catastrophe. In the human SK-MEL-3 model, three doses of 25 MBq led also to a DT increase (26.5 ± 7.8 days vs 11.0 ± 3.8 in controls and improved median survival (111 days vs 74 in controls. CONCLUSION: Results demonstrate that ICF15002 fulfills suitable properties for bimodal imaging/TRT management of patients with pigmented melanoma.

  1. Prevalence and features of ICF-disability in Spain as captured by the 2008 National Disability Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maierhofer Sarah

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1986, the study of disability in Spain has been mainly addressed by National Disability Surveys (NDSs. While international attempts to frame NDS designs within the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF have progressed, in general, the ICF has hardly been used in either the NDS or epidemiological studies. This study sought to identify ICF Activity- and Participation-related content in the most recent Spanish NDS, the 2008 Survey on Disabilities, Independence and Dependency Situations (Encuesta sobre discapacidades, autonomía personal y situaciones de Dependencia - EDAD 2008, and estimate the prevalence of such ICF-framed disability. Methods EDAD 2008 methods and questions were perused. Of the 51 EDAD items analysed, 29 were backcoded to specific d2-d7 domains of the ICF Checklist and, by rating the recorded difficulty to perform specific tasks with or without help, these were then taken as performance and capacity respectively. A global ICF score was also derived, albeit lacking data for d1, "Learning and applying knowledge", d8, "Major Life Areas" and d9, "Community, Social and Civic Life". Data were grouped by sex, age, residence and initial positive screening, and prevalence figures were calculated by disability level both for the general population, using the originally designed weights, and for the population that had screened positive to disability. Data for institutionalised persons were processed separately. Results Crude prevalence of ICF severe/complete and moderate disability among the community-dwelling population aged ≥6 years was 0.9%-2.2% respectively, and that of severe/complete disability among persons living in sheltered accommodation was 0.3%. Prevalence of severe/complete disability was: higher in women than in men, 0.8% vs. 0.4%; increased with age; and was particularly high in domains such as "Domestic Life", 3.4%, "Mobility", 1.8%, and "Self-care", 1.9%, in

  2. Prevalence and features of ICF-disability in Spain as captured by the 2008 National Disability Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Since 1986, the study of disability in Spain has been mainly addressed by National Disability Surveys (NDSs). While international attempts to frame NDS designs within the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) have progressed, in general, the ICF has hardly been used in either the NDS or epidemiological studies. This study sought to identify ICF Activity- and Participation-related content in the most recent Spanish NDS, the 2008 Survey on Disabilities, Independence and Dependency Situations (Encuesta sobre discapacidades, autonomía personal y situaciones de Dependencia - EDAD 2008), and estimate the prevalence of such ICF-framed disability. Methods EDAD 2008 methods and questions were perused. Of the 51 EDAD items analysed, 29 were backcoded to specific d2-d7 domains of the ICF Checklist and, by rating the recorded difficulty to perform specific tasks with or without help, these were then taken as performance and capacity respectively. A global ICF score was also derived, albeit lacking data for d1, "Learning and applying knowledge", d8, "Major Life Areas" and d9, "Community, Social and Civic Life". Data were grouped by sex, age, residence and initial positive screening, and prevalence figures were calculated by disability level both for the general population, using the originally designed weights, and for the population that had screened positive to disability. Data for institutionalised persons were processed separately. Results Crude prevalence of ICF severe/complete and moderate disability among the community-dwelling population aged ≥6 years was 0.9%-2.2% respectively, and that of severe/complete disability among persons living in sheltered accommodation was 0.3%. Prevalence of severe/complete disability was: higher in women than in men, 0.8% vs. 0.4%; increased with age; and was particularly high in domains such as "Domestic Life", 3.4%, "Mobility", 1.8%, and "Self-care", 1.9%, in which prevalence decreased

  3. Use of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to describe patient-reported disability in multiple sclerosis and identification of relevant environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fary; Pallant, Julie F

    2007-01-01

    To use the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to describe patient-reported disability in multiple sclerosis and identify relevant environmental factors. Cross-sectional survey of 101 participants in the community. Their multiple sclerosis-related problems were linked with ICF categories (second level) using a checklist, consensus between health professionals and the "linking rules". The impact of multiple sclerosis on health areas corresponding to 48 ICF categories was also assessed. A total of 170 ICF categories were identified (mean age 49 years, 72 were female). Average number of problems reported was 18. The categories include 48 (42%) for body function, 16 (34%) body structure, 68 (58%) activities and participation and 38 (51%) for environmental factors. Extreme impact in health areas corresponding to ICF categories for activities and participation were reported for mobility, work, everyday home activities, community and social activities. While those for the environmental factors (barriers) included products for mobility, attitudes of extended family, restriction accessing social security and health resources. This study is a first step in the use of the ICF in persons with multiple sclerosis and towards development of the ICF Core set for multiple sclerosis from a broader international perspective.

  4. Towards an outcome documentation in manual medicine: a first proposal of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) intervention categories for manual medicine based on a Delphi survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchberger, I; Stucki, G; Böhni, U; Cieza, A; Kirschneck, M; Dvorak, J

    2009-09-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) provides a useful framework for the comprehensive description of the patients' functional health. The aim of this study was to identify the ICF categories that represent the patients' problems treated by manual medicine practitioners in order to facilitate its application in manual medicine. This selection of ICF categories could be used for assessment, treatment documentation and quality management in manual medicine practice. Swiss manual medicine experts were asked about the patients' problems commonly treated by manual medicine practitioners in a three-round survey using the Delphi technique. Responses were linked to the ICF. Forty-eight manual medicine experts gave a total of 808 responses that were linked to 225 different ICF categories; 106 ICF categories which reached an agreement of at least 50% among the participants in the final Delphi-round were included in the set of ICF Intervention Categories for Manual Medicine; 42 (40%) of the categories are assigned to the ICF component body functions, 36 (34%) represent the ICF component body structures and 28 (26%) the ICF component activities and participation. A first proposal of ICF Intervention Categories for Manual Medicine was defined and needs to be validated in further studies.

  5. Families' perception of children / adolescents with language impairment through the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF-CY).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroschi, Daniele Theodoro; Zanolli, Maria de Lurdes; Chun, Regina Yu Shon

    2017-05-22

    To investigate the perception of family members regarding linguistic conditions and social participation of children and adolescents with speech and language impairments using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Children and Youth Version (ICF-CY). Quali-quantitative approach research, in which a survey of medical records of 24 children/adolescents undergoing speech-language therapy and interviews with their family members was conducted. A descriptive analysis of the participants' profiles was performed, followed by a categorization of responses using the ICF-CY. All family members mentioned various aspects of speech/language categorized by the ICF-CY. Initially, they approached it as an organic issue, categorized under the component of Body Functions and Structures. Most reported different repercussions of the speech-language impairments on the domains, such as dealing with stress and speaking, qualified from mild to severe. Participants reported Environmental Factors categorized as facilitators in the immediate family's attitudes and as barriers in the social attitudes. These findings, according to the use of the ICF-CY, demonstrate that the children/adolescents' speech-language impairments, from the families' perception, are primarily understood in the body dimension. However, guided by a broader approach to health, the findings in the Activities and Participation and Environmental Factors demonstrate a broader understanding of the participants of the speech-language impairments. The results corroborate the importance of using the ICF-CY as a health care analysis tool, by incorporating functionality and participation aspects and providing subsidies for the construction of unique therapeutic projects in a broader approach to the health of the group studied.

  6. Frost as a first wall for the ICF laboratory microfusion facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, C.D.

    1989-01-01

    The authors introduce the concept of using frost as the first wall of the ICF Laboratory Microfusion Facility being designed to produce 200-1000 MJ of thermonuclear yield. They present one design incorporating 2cm of frost deposited at 0.1 g/cm/sup 3/ on an LN-cooled fiber-reinforced polymer substrate. They calculate that such a frost layer will protect the substrate from ablation by target x rays and debris, and from shock-induced spallation. Postshot washdown with water should permit low-activation operation, and should preserve the original wall properties. The authors expect the impact of the frost on laser optics to be minimal, and expect the preshot lifetime of thermally unprotected cryogenic targets to be extended by operating the wall at 100-150 K. Moreover, they believe that such a frost first wall involves little technical risk, and will be inexpensive to construct and operate

  7. Frost as a first wall for the ICF Laboratory Microfusion Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, C.D.

    1988-01-01

    We introduce the concept of using frost as the first wall of the ICF Laboratory Microfusion Facility being designed to produce 200--1000 MJ of thermonuclear yield. We present one design incorporating 2 cm of frost deposited at 0.1 g/cm 3 on an LN-cooled fiber-reinforced polymer substrate. We calculate that such a frost layer will protect the substrate from ablation by target x rays and debris, and from shock-induced spallation. Postshot washdown with water should permit low-activation operation, and should preserve the original wall properties. We expect the impact of the frost on laser optics to be minimal, and expect the preshot lifetime of thermally unprotected cryogenic targets to be extended by operating the wall at 100-150 K. Moreover, we believe that such a frost first wall will involve little technical risk, and will be inexpensive to construct and operate. 4 refs., 1 fig

  8. Numerical simulation of direct-drive ICF ignition in spherical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xiaojin

    2006-01-01

    The basic condition required for achieving central ignition is producing a hot spot with 10 keV temperature and 0.3 g/cm 2 surface density. Growth of hydrodynamic instability during deceleration phase will destroy the symmetric-drive, reduce the volume of central hot spot and make a harmful effect on ignition. Based on the LARED-S code, considering the thermonuclear reaction and α-particle heating, a numerical study of direct-drive ICF in spherical geometry is made. One-dimensional results agree well with the NIF ignition target designs, and show that the α-particle heating plays an important role in marginal ignition. Two-dimensional results show that the growth of hydrodynamic instability during deceleration phase makes a harmful effect on ignition. (authors)

  9. Using absolute x-ray spectral measurements to infer stagnation conditions in ICF implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pravesh; Benedetti, L. R.; Cerjan, C.; Clark, D. S.; Hurricane, O. A.; Izumi, N.; Jarrott, L. C.; Khan, S.; Kritcher, A. L.; Ma, T.; Macphee, A. G.; Landen, O.; Spears, B. K.; Springer, P. T.

    2016-10-01

    Measurements of the continuum x-ray spectrum emitted from the hot-spot of an ICF implosion can be used to infer a number thermodynamic properties at stagnation including temperature, pressure, and hot-spot mix. In deuterium-tritium (DT) layered implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) we field a number of x-ray diagnostics that provide spatial, temporal, and spectrally-resolved measurements of the radiated x-ray emission. We report on analysis of these measurements using a 1-D hot-spot model to infer thermodynamic properties at stagnation. We compare these to similar properties that can be derived from DT fusion neutron measurements. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  10. A state-of-the-art plasma polymerization coater for ICF targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, G.; Letts, S.; Cook, R.; Brusasco, R.

    1992-01-01

    Increasingly stringent demands on the characteristics of plasma polymer coatings for use in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments have created a need for a plasma Polymerization coating system with the capability of producing a wide variety of different types of coatings as well as one that can be used to do fundamental investigations of the process conditions leading to desirable films. We report on the construction and use of just such a coating instrument. We have recognized the usefulness of computer assisted process monitoring and control, currently being developed by the semiconductor industry, in designing our own, State-of-the-art plasma polymerization device. Our system is fully computer interfaced to provide the user with the capability of collecting system parameter data over the length of the deposition experiment. The system is also designed to allow for any degree of computer control of the deposition process in the future

  11. KrF laser cost/performance model for ICF commercial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.B.; Pendergrass, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Simple expressions suitable for use in commercial-applications plant parameter studies for the direct capital cost plus indirect field costs and for the efficiency as a function of repetition rate were developed for pure-optical-compression KrF laser fusion drivers. These simple expressions summarize estimates obtained from detailed cost-performance studies incorporating recent results of ongoing physics, design, and cost studies. Contributions of KrF laser capital charges and D and M costs to total levelized constant-dollar (1984) unit ICF power generation cost are estimated as a function of plant size and driver pulse energy using a published gain for short-wavelength lasers and representative values of plant parameters

  12. ICF implosion hotspot ion temperature diagnostic techniques based on neutron time-of-flight method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Qi; Song Zifeng; Chen Jiabin; Zhan Xiayu

    2013-01-01

    Ion temperature of implosion hotspot is a very important parameter for inertial confinement fusion. It reflects the energy level of the hotspot, and it is very sensitive to implosion symmetry and implosion speed. ICF implosion hotspot ion temperature diagnostic techniques based on neutron time-of-flight method were described. A neutron TOF spectrometer was developed using a ultrafast plastic scintillator as the neutron detector. Time response of the spectrometer has 1.1 ns FWHM and 0.5 ns rising time. TOF spectrum resolving method based on deconvolution and low pass filter was illuminated. Implosion hotspot ion temperature in low neutron yield and low ion temperature condition at Shenguang-Ⅲ facility was acquired using the diagnostic techniques. (authors)

  13. Burn performance of deuterium-tritium, deuterium-deuterium, and catalyzed deuterium ICF targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.B.; Blue, T.E.

    1983-01-01

    The University of Illinois hydrodynamic burn code, AFBURN, has been used to model the performance of homogeneous D-T, D 2 , and catalyzed deuterium ICF targets. Yields and gains are compared for power-producing targets. AFBURN is a one-dimensional, two-temperature, single-fluid hydrodynamic code with non-local fusion product energy deposition. The initial conditions for AFBURN are uniformly compressed targets with central hot spots. AFBURN predicts that maximum D 2 target gains are obtained for target rhoR and spark rhoR about seven times larger than the target and spark rhoR for maximum D-T target gains, that the maximum D 2 target gain is approximately one third of the maximum D-T target gain, and that the corresponding yields are approximately equal. By recycling tritium and 3 He from previous targets, D 2 target performance can be improved by about 10%. (author)

  14. Experimental Study of High-Z Gas Buffers in Gas-Filled ICF Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, M A; Kane, J; Loosmore, G; DeMuth, J; Latkowski, J

    2010-12-03

    ICF power plants, such as the LIFE scheme at LLNL, may employ a high-Z, target-chamber gas-fill to moderate the first-wall heat-pulse due to x-rays and energetic ions released during target detonation. To reduce the uncertainties of cooling and beam/target propagation through such gas-filled chambers, we present a pulsed plasma source producing 2-5 eV plasma comprised of high-Z gases. We use a 5-kJ, 100-ns theta discharge for high peak plasma-heating-power, an electrode-less discharge for minimizing impurities, and unobstructed axial access for diagnostics and beam (and/or target) propagation studies. We will report on the plasma source requirements, design process, and the system design.

  15. Preparation of germanium doped plasma polymerized coatings as ICF target ablators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusasco, R.M.; Saculla, M.D.; Cook, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    Targets for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) utilize an organic (CH) ablator coating prepared by plasma polymerization. Some of these experiments require a mid-Z dopant in the ablator coating to modify the opacity of the shell. Bromine had been used in the past, but the surface finish of brominated CH degrades rapidly with time upon exposure to air. This paper describes the preparation and characterization of plasma polymer layers containing germanium as a dopant at concentrations of between 1.25 and 2.25 atom percent. The coatings are stable in air and have an rms surface roughness of 7--9 nm (modes 10--1,000) which is similar to that obtained with undoped coatings. High levels of dopant result in cracking of the inner mandrel during target assembly. Possible explanations for the observed cracking behavior will be discussed

  16. Environmental needs in childhood disability analysed by the WHO ICF, Child and Youth Version

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illum, Niels Ove; Bonderup, Mette; Gradel, Kim Oren

    2016-01-01

    influences through interviews in their own homes. RESULTS: Of the 367 invited parents, 332 (90.5%) participated, providing data on children with spina bifida, spinal muscular atrophy, muscular disorders, cerebral palsy, visual impairments, hearing impairments, mental disability and disabilities following......INTRODUCTION: The WHO has launched a common classification for disabilities in children, the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Child and Youth Version (ICF-CY). We wanted to determine whether cat-egories of the environmental (e) and the body functions (b......) components of the classification could address environmental needs in children with different disorders and various disability severities. METHODS: A set of 16 e categories and 47 b categories were selected and worded to best enable parents to describe children's everyday support needs and environmental...

  17. Introducing the ICF: the development of an online resource to support learning, teaching and curriculum design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lester E

    2011-03-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) was adopted as one of the key models to support early health professional learning across a suite of new preregistration health science courses. It was decided that an online resource should be developed to enable students, course designers and teaching staff, across all disciplines, to have access to the same definitions, government policies and other supporting information on disability. As part of the comprehensive curriculum review, enquiry-based learning was adopted as the educational approach. Enquiry-based learning promotes deeper learning by encouraging students to engage in authentic challenges. As such, it was important that the online resource was not merely a site for accessing content, but enabled students to make decisions about where else to explore for credible information about the ICF. The selection of a host location that all students and staff could access meant that the resource could not be located in the existing online learning management system. Construction using software being trialled by the library at La Trobe University allowed for the required access, as well as alignment with an enquiry-based learning approach. Consultation for the content of the online resource included formal and informal working groups on curriculum review. The published version included resources from the World Health Organization, examples of research completed within different disciplines, a test of knowledge and a preformatted search page. The format of the online resource allows for updating of information, and feedback on the utilisation of the software has been used to enhance the student experience. The key issues for the development of this online resource were accessibility for students and staff, alignment with the adopted educational approach, consultation with all disciplines, and ease of modification of information and format once published. Copyright © 2010 Chartered

  18. Experimental techniques for measuring Rayleigh-Taylor instability in inertial confinement fusion (ICF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smalyuk, V A

    2012-06-07

    Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability is one of the major concerns in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) because it amplifies target modulations in both acceleration and deceleration phases of implosion, which leads to shell disruption and performance degradation of imploding targets. This article reviews experimental results of the RT growth experiments performed on OMEGA laser system, where targets were driven directly with laser light. RT instability was studied in the linear and nonlinear regimes. The experiments were performed in acceleration phase, using planar and spherical targets, and in deceleration phase of spherical implosions, using spherical shells. Initial target modulations consisted of 2-D pre-imposed modulations, and 2-D and 3-D modulations imprinted on targets by the non-uniformities in laser drive. In planar geometry, the nonlinear regime was studied using 3-D modulations with broadband spectra near nonlinear saturation levels. In acceleration-phase, the measured modulation Fourier spectra and nonlinear growth velocities are in good agreement with those predicted by Haan's model [Haan S W 1989 Phys. Rev. A 39 5812]. In a real-space analysis, the bubble merger was quantified by a self-similar evolution of bubble size distributions [Oron D et al 2001 Phys. Plasmas 8, 2883]. The 3-D, inner-surface modulations were measured to grow throughout the deceleration phase of spherical implosions. RT growth rates are very sensitive to the drive conditions, therefore they can be used to test and validate drive physics in hydrodynamic codes used to design ICF implosions. Measured growth rates of pre-imposed 2-D target modulations below nonlinear saturation levels were used to validate non-local thermal electron transport model in laser-driven experiments.

  19. Integrating the ICF with positive psychology: Factors predicting role participation for mothers with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Ruth S; Kern, Margaret L; Brusilovsky, Eugene

    2015-05-01

    Being a mother has become a realizable life role for women with disabilities and chronic illnesses, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Identifying psychosocial factors that facilitate participation in important life roles-including motherhood-is essential to help women have fuller lives despite the challenge of their illness. By integrating the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) and a positive psychology perspective, this study examined how environmental social factors and positive personal factors contribute to daily role participation and satisfaction with parental participation. One hundred and 11 community-dwelling mothers with MS completed Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scales, the Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey, the Short Form-36, and the Parental Participation Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses examined associations between social support and positive personal factors (environmental mastery, self-acceptance, purpose in life) with daily role participation (physical and emotional) and satisfaction with parental participation. One-way ANOVAs tested synergistic combinations of social support and positive personal factors. Social support predicted daily role participation (fewer limitations) and greater satisfaction with parental participation. Positive personal factors contributed additional unique variance. Positive personal factors and social support synergistically predicted better function and greater satisfaction than either alone. Integrating components of the ICF and positive psychology provides a useful model for understanding how mothers with MS can thrive despite challenge or impairment. Both positive personal factors and environmental social factors were important contributors to positive role functioning. Incorporating these paradigms into treatment may help mothers with MS participate more fully in meaningful life roles. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Adolescents with disabilities participate in the shopping mall: facilitators and barriers framed according to the ICF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan-Oliel, Noémi; Shikako-Thomas, Keiko; Mazer, Barbara; Majnemer, Annette

    2016-10-01

    Community participation is restricted for youth with disabilities. The mall is an important gathering place where adolescents often socialise and develop community living skills, yet participation may be restricted. The aim of this study was to evaluate the facilitators and barriers to participation in a shopping mall through the perspectives of adolescents with disabilities. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with adolescents aged 12-19 years with a physical and/or sensory disability. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and coded following a template analysis using the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF). Eleven youth (six females, mean age = 17.0 years) participated. Medical conditions included visual impairment, hearing impairment, cerebral palsy, hemiplegia, osteogenesis imperfecta and congenital amputations. Six themes were identified by the adolescents: what the shopping mall means to me, physical environment, transportation, social factors, attitudes and the person. The majority of themes mapped to the ICF's 'environmental factors'. Facilitators and barriers identified were either generic or disability-specific, implying that some modifications to shopping malls may be beneficial across disability types. Changes made to the physical, social and attitudinal environment are required to enable full participation of youth with disabilities within a shopping mall and other built environments of high public access. Implications for Rehabilitation The meaning of the shopping mall according to youth with disabilities includes socialisation, shopping, getting out of the home and employment. The majority of themes mapped to 'environmental factors' indicating that most obstacles to participation are caused by environmental barriers. Facilitators and barriers identified were either generic or disability-specific implying that some modifications to shopping malls may be beneficial across disability types

  1. Understanding recovery: changes in the relationships of the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) components over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A M; Perruccio, A V; Ibrahim, S; Hogg-Johnson, S; Wong, R; Badley, E M

    2012-12-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework describes human functioning through body structure and function, activity and participation in the context of a person's social and physical environment. This work tested the temporal relationships of these components. Our hypotheses were: 1) there would be associations among physical impairment, activity limitations and participation restrictions within time; 2) prior status of a component would be associated with future status; 3) prior status of one component would influence status of a second component (e.g. prior activity limitations would be associated with current participation restrictions); and, 4) the magnitude of the within time relationships of the components would vary over time. Participants from Canada with primary hip or knee joint replacement (n = 931), an intervention with predictable improvement in pain and disability, completed standardized outcome measures pre-surgery and five times in the first year post-surgery. These included physical impairment (pain), activity limitations and participation restrictions. ICF component relationships were evaluated cross-sectionally and longitudinally using path analysis adjusting for age, sex, BMI, hip vs. knee, low back pain and mood. All component scores improved significantly over time. The path coefficients supported the hypotheses in that both within and across time, physical impairment was associated with activity limitation and activity limitation was associated with participation restriction; prior status and change in a component were associated with current status in another component; and, the magnitude of the path coefficients varied over time with stronger associations among components to three months post surgery than later in recovery with the exception of the association between impairment and participation restrictions which was of similar magnitude at all times. This work enhances understanding of the

  2. Classical and Ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability and Other ICF-Relevant Plasma Flows Diagnosed With Monochromatic X-Ray Imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aglitskiy, Y; Karasik, M; Velikovich, A. L; Metzler, N; Zalesak, S; Schmitt, A. J; Gardner, J. H; Serlin, V; Weaver, J; Obenschain, S. P

    2007-01-01

    In inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy density physics (HEDP), the most important manifestations of the hydrodynamic instabilities and other mixing processes involve lateral motion of the accelerated plasmas...

  3. Progress in z-pinch driven dynamic-hohlraums for high-temperature radiation-flow and ICF experiments at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T W L; Nash, T J; Olson, R E; Bliss, D E; Lemke, R W; Olson, C L; Ruiz, C L; Mock, R C; Bailey, J E; Chandler, G A; Cuneo, M E; Leeper, R J; Matzen, M K; Mehlhorn, T A; Slutz, S A; Stygar, W A; Peterson, D L; Chrien, R E; Watt, R G; Roderick, N F; Cooper, G W; Apruzese, J P; Sarkisov, G S; Chittenden, J P; Haines, M G

    2004-01-01

    Progress in understanding the physics of dynamic-hohlraums is reviewed for a system capable of generating 13 TW of axial radiation for high temperature (>200 eV) radiation-flow experiments and ICF capsule implosions

  4. [Can ICF core sets be helpful in preparing a social-medical expert report due to incapacity to work?--a first proposal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschneck, M; Legner, R; Armbrust, W; Nowak, D; Cieza, A

    2015-04-01

    Social-medical expert reports from the German statutory pension insurance are essential for the German statutory pension regulatory authority to decide whether to grant services regarding participation as well as retirement pensions due to incapacity to work.The objective of this investigation is to determine whether the ICF Core Sets and other international approaches, such as the EUMASS Core Sets or ICF Core Set for vocational rehabilitation cover the content of the social-medical expert reports as well as to propose an approach how the ICF can be economically used by the social medicine practitioner when writing a social-medical expert report. A retrospective quantitative study design was used to translate a total of 294 social-medical expert reports from patients with low back pain (LBP) or chronic widespread pain (CWP) into the language of the ICF (linking) by 2 independent health professionals and compare the results with the ICF Core Sets for specific health conditions and other international approaches. The content of social-medical expert reports was largely reflected by the condition specific brief ICF Core Sets, brief ICF Core Sets for vocational rehabilitation and EUMASS Core Sets. The weighted Kappa statistic for the agreement between the 2 health professionals who translated the expert reports were in CWP 0.69 with a bootstrapped confidence interval of 0.67-0.71 and in LBP 0.73 (0.71-0.74). The analyses show that the content of social-medical expert reports varies enormously. A combination of a condition specific brief ICF Core Set as well as vocational rehabilitation and EUMASS ICF Core Sets as well as all ICF-categories from the expert reports that were named at least in 50% of it can largely provide a basis for preparing expert reports. Within the scope of implementation the need for a specific ICF Core Set for expert reports of the German statutory pension insurance should be further analyzed and discussed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart

  5. Implementation of the international classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) in the Portuguese educational system: Attitudes and training needs of special education teachers’.

    OpenAIRE

    Saragoça, M.; Candeias, A. A.; Rosário, A.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2008, the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - ICF (WHO, 2001) is the framework of reference in the assessment and intervention process with students with SEN, in the Portuguese educational system. As a consequence special education teachers’ training needs emerged from it. In this study, we characterize the received training and the special education teachers’ attitudes and training needs towards ICF. The sample consisted of 913 Portuguese special educat...

  6. The relevance of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in monitoring and evaluating Community-based Rehabilitation (CBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Rosamond H; Dune, Tinashe; Lukersmith, Sue; Hartley, Sally; Kuipers, Pim; Gargett, Alexandra; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth

    2014-01-01

    To examine the relevance of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to CBR monitoring and evaluation by investigating the relationship between the ICF and information in published CBR monitoring and evaluation reports. A three-stage literature search and analysis method was employed. Studies were identified via online database searches for peer-reviewed journal articles, and hand-searching of CBR network resources, NGO websites and specific journals. From each study "information items" were extracted; extraction consistency among authors was established. Finally, the resulting information items were coded to ICF domains and categories, with consensus on coding being achieved. Thirty-six articles relating to monitoring and evaluating CBR were selected for analysis. Approximately one third of the 2495 information items identified in these articles (788 or 32%) related to concepts of functioning, disability and environment, and could be coded to the ICF. These information items were spread across the entire ICF classification with a concentration on Activities and Participation (49% of the 788 information items) and Environmental Factors (42%). The ICF is a relevant and potentially useful framework and classification, providing building blocks for the systematic recording of information pertaining to functioning and disability, for CBR monitoring and evaluation. Implications for Rehabilitation The application of the ICF, as one of the building blocks for CBR monitoring and evaluation, is a constructive step towards an evidence-base on the efficacy and outcomes of CBR programs. The ICF can be used to provide the infrastructure for functioning and disability information to inform service practitioners and enable national and international comparisons.

  7. Assessment of functioning in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder with the Mini-ICF-APP: a validation study in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Pinna, Federica; Fiorillo, Andrea; Tusconi, Massimo; Guiso, Beatrice; Carpiniello, Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to evaluate validity of the Italian Mini-ICF-APP (Mini-ICF Rating for Limitations of Activities and Participation in Psychological Disorders) in schizophrenia and related disorders. Methods 74 outpatients affected by schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders attending a University-based community mental health centre were recruited to the study. All participants underwent comprehensive evaluation using standardized instruments to assess clinical, neurocogn...

  8. The Geriatric ICF Core Set reflecting health-related problems in community-living older adults aged 75 years and older without dementia: development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoorenberg, Sophie L W; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Middel, Berrie; Uittenbroek, Ronald J; Kremer, Hubertus P H; Wynia, Klaske

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a valid Geriatric ICF Core Set reflecting relevant health-related problems of community-living older adults without dementia. A Delphi study was performed in order to reach consensus (≥70% agreement) on second-level categories from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The Delphi panel comprised 41 older adults, medical and non-medical experts. Content validity of the set was tested in a cross-sectional study including 267 older adults identified as frail or having complex care needs. Consensus was reached for 30 ICF categories in the Delphi study (fourteen Body functions, ten Activities and Participation and six Environmental Factors categories). Content validity of the set was high: the prevalence of all the problems was >10%, except for d530 Toileting. The most frequently reported problems were b710 Mobility of joint functions (70%), b152 Emotional functions (65%) and b455 Exercise tolerance functions (62%). No categories had missing values. The final Geriatric ICF Core Set is a comprehensive and valid set of 29 ICF categories, reflecting the most relevant health-related problems among community-living older adults without dementia. This Core Set may contribute to optimal care provision and support of the older population. Implications for Rehabilitation The Geriatric ICF Core Set may provide a practical tool for gaining an understanding of the relevant health-related problems of community-living older adults without dementia. The Geriatric ICF Core Set may be used in primary care practice as an assessment tool in order to tailor care and support to the needs of older adults. The Geriatric ICF Core Set may be suitable for use in multidisciplinary teams in integrated care settings, since it is based on a broad range of problems in functioning. Professionals should pay special attention to health problems related to mobility and emotional functioning since these are the most

  9. The MentDis_ICF65+study protocol: prevalence, 1-year incidence and symptom severity of mental disorders in the elderly and their relationship to impairment, functioning (ICF) and service utilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas, Sylke; Haerter, Martin; Volkert, Jana; Hausberg, Maria; Sehner, Susanne; Wegscheider, Karl; Rabung, Sven; Ausin, Berta; Canuto, Alessandra; Da Ronch, Chiara; Grassi, Luigi; Hershkovitz, Yael; Lelliott, Paul; Munoz, Manuel; Quirk, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Background The EU currently lacks reliable data on the prevalence and incidence of mental disorders in older people. Despite the availability of several national and international epidemiological studies, the size and burden of mental disorders in the elderly remain unclear due to various reasons. Therefore, the aims of the MentDis_ICF65+ study are (1) to adapt existing assessment instruments, and (2) to collect data on the prevalence, the incidence, and the natural course and prognosis of me...

  10. A case study on the application of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF)-based tools for vocational rehabilitation in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glässel, Andrea; Rauch, Alexandra; Selb, Melissa; Emmenegger, Karl; Lückenkemper, Miriam; Escorpizo, Reuben

    2012-01-01

    Vocational rehabilitation (VR) plays a key role in bringing persons with acquired disabilities back to work, while encouraging employment participation. The purpose of this case study is to illustrate the systematic application of International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF)-based documentation tools by using ICF Core Sets in VR shown with a case example of a client with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). The client was a 26-year-old male with paraplegia (7th thoracic level), working in the past as a mover. This case study describes the integration of the ICF Core Sets for VR into an interdisciplinary rehabilitation program by using ICF-based documentation tools. Improvements in the client's impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions were observed following rehabilitation. Goals in different areas of functioning were achieved. The use of the ICF Core Sets in VR allows a comprehensive assessment of the client's level of functioning and intervention planning. Specifically, the Brief ICF Core Set in VR can provide domains for intervention relevant to each member of an interdisciplinary team and hence, can facilitate the VR management process in a SCI center in Switzerland.

  11. The Danish version of Lymphoedema Functioning, Disability and Health Questionnaire (Lymph-ICF) for breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grarup, Karin R; Devoogdt, Nele; Strand, Liv Inger

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: To translate and culturally adapt the Lymphoedema Functioning, Disability and Health Questionnaire (Lymph-ICF) for breast cancer survivors with arm lymphedema into Danish and examine its content validity and reliability. METHODS: (1) Translation and cultural adaptation was performed in 10...... steps following international guidelines (International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcome Research); (2) cognitive interviewing (step 7) was conducted in 15 women with breast cancer related arm lymphedema to explore understandability, interpretation, and cultural relevance; (3) after adjustments...... for the domains ranged from 0.84 to 0.94. SEM values differed for the domains, 6.4 (physical function), 5.7 (mobility activities), 7.09 (life and social activities), 9.1 (mental functions), and 10.2 (household activities). CONCLUSION: The translated and adjusted Lymph-ICF DK (Denmark) is reliable and valid...

  12. Transition from equilibrium ignition to non-equilibrium burn for ICF capsules surrounded by a high-Z pusher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ji W.; Chang, Lei; Li, Yun S.; Li, Jing H.

    2011-01-01

    For the ICF capsule surrounded by a high-Z pusher which traps the radiation and confines the hot fuel, the fuel will first be ignited in thermal equilibrium with radiation at a much lower temperature than hot-spot ignition, which is also the low temperature ignition. Because of the lower areal density for ICF capsules, the equilibrium ignition must be developed into a non-equilibrium burn to shorten the reaction time and lower the drive energy. In this paper, the transition from the equilibrium ignition to non-equilibrium burn is discussed and the energy deposited by α particles required for the equilibrium ignition and non-equilibrium burn to occur is estimated.

  13. An empirical exploration of the relations between the health components of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perenboom, Rom J M; Wijlhuizen, Gert Jan; Garre, Francisca Galindo; Heerkens, Yvonne F; van Meeteren, Nico L U

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relations between the ICF components from a subjective perspective. Data on health condition and perceived functioning were collected among 2941 individuals with at least one chronic disease or disorder. Path analysis was used with perceived level of participation as the final denominator. Three models were tested: one with the number of chronic diseases and disorders as an indicator of health condition, one with perceived health as indicator of health condition, and one with perceived health as part of the personal factors. Although all models showed a good fit, the model with the best fit was that with perceived health as an indicator of health condition. From a patient's perspective, components of the ICF scheme appear to be associated with each other, with perceived health being the best indicator of the health condition.

  14. Hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of 233 U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m -2 , and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid

  15. Effects of hippotherapy on body functions, activities and participation in children with cerebral palsy based on ICF-CY assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yueh-Ling; Yang, Chen-Chia; Sun, Shih-Heng; Chan, Shu-Ya; Wang, Tze-Hsuan; Luo, Hong-Ji

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of hippotherapy on body functions, activities, and participation in children with CP of various functional levels by using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Children and Youth (ICF-CY) checklist. Fourteen children with cerebral palsy (CP) (3-8 years of age) were recruited for a 36-week study composed of baseline, intervention, and withdrawal phases (12 weeks for each phase, ABA design). Hippotherapy was implemented for 30 min once weekly for 12 consecutive weeks during the intervention phase. Body Functions (b) and Activities and Participation (d) components of the ICF-CY checklist were used as outcome measures at the initial interview and at the end of each phase. Over the 12 weeks of hippotherapy, significant improvements in ICF-CY qualifiers were found in neuromusculoskeletal and movement-related functions (b7), mobility (d4) and major life areas (d8) and, in particular, mobility of joint functions (b710), muscle tone functions (b735), involuntary movement reaction functions (b755), involuntary movement functions (b765), and play (d811) (all p hippotherapy on body functions, activities, and participation in children with CP. Implications for Rehabilitation ICF-CY provides a comprehensive overview of functioning and disability and constitutes a universal language for identifying the benefits of hippotherapy in areas of functioning and disability in children with CP. In children with CP, hippotherapy encourages a more complementary approach that extends beyond their impairments and limitations in body functions, activities, and participation. The effect of hippotherapy was distinct from GMFCS levels and the majority of improvements were present in children with GMFCS levels I-III.

  16. Evolution of disability in traffic accident victims in rehabilitation, characterized by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Regina de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF enables monitoring of the clinical evolution of a patient. Objective: This study aimed to characterize the evolution of disabilities in patients undergoing physical therapy following traffic accidents, using the ICF. Methods: A longitudinal study of 53 accident victims was conducted between April and October 2010, in a rehabilitation unit in the capital of Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Data from physical therapy evaluation were collected in 2 stages and coded by the ICF. Results: The average time between evaluation and reevaluation was 73.4 days. The evolution of functional impairment demonstrated a reduction in the number of patients with deficits, except for muscle tone functions. On initial evaluation, 90.6% had difficulty with sensory functions and pain, varying from mild to complete, decreasing to 67.9% on reevaluation, with pain still mostly present. Almost all patients (96.2% had a disability of neuromusculoskeletal and movement related functions on initial assessment, with a decrease to 15.7% of patients on reevaluation. The greatest improvements were observed in the categories of muscle strength (36.7% and gait pattern (30.6%. On reevaluation, improvement was also observed regarding perceived impairment of body structures, especially for those with severe and complete disability. Conclusion: The study confirmed a reduction in the percentage of patients with some form of disability, and positive development in functional capacity. The use of ICF enabled evaluation of physical disabilities and monitoring of the evolution of patients undergoing physical therapy.

  17. Knee posture during gait and global functioning post-stroke: a theoretical ICF framework using current measures in stroke rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Neves Rosa, Marlene Cristina; Marques, Alda; Demain, Sara; Metcalf, Cheryl D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To characterise the global functioning post-stroke in patients with normal knee posture (NKP) and abnormal knee posture (AKP) during loading-response. Methods: 35 people, 6 months post-stroke. with NKP and AKP were identified and assessed using clinical measures classified into the corresponding International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) domains: weight function (body mass index); muscle power (knee isometric strength); muscle tone (Modified Ashworth Sca...

  18. Using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to address facilitators and barriers to participation at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Anabela Correia

    2015-01-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) was approved by the World Health Assembly in 2001. Ten years later, strong arguments have arisen regarding the added value of ICF to the policies on employment and the outcomes at the workplace. As a conceptual framework, ICF has universality because of its inclusive and comprehensive view of human functioning. At a practical level ICF can be used to quantify the impact of impairment on an individual's ability to act in his/her environment and to assess interventions to minimize the impact of disability and maximize functioning. To explore key indicators of social participation (life habits) of persons with disabilities, particularly related to work, among environmental and personal factors. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaires from a convenience sample of 149 working-age persons with disabilities. Social participation is a construct composed by multiple components and employment domain is the strongest indicator of participation. Correlations between social participation and personal factors, such as self-efficacy and attitudes towards disability were moderate. Those who are employed scored higher quality of life in terms of satisfaction with life, more positive attitudes toward disabilities and higher self-efficacy than the ones who are retired or unemployed. Persons using adapted wheelchair and those who were involved in wheelchair selection scored higher in social participation in general, performance at work, and quality of life. Age and disability duration were not associated with participants' employment status. These findings suggest that rehabilitation and vocational agents, like physiotherapists and other professionals, should have knowledge and understanding of the multiple factors that influence persons with disabilities' participation at work. Programs should provide appropriate wheelchairs, skills training, empowerment and problem-solving strategies in

  19. Environmental and personal factors that support early return-to-work: a qualitative study using the ICF as a framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefsmit, Nicole; Houkes, Inge; Nijhuis, Frans

    2014-01-01

    Occupational health professionals such as occupational physicians (OPs) increasingly understand that in addition to health improvement, environmental factors (such as work adaptations) and personal factors (such as an employee's attitude towards return-to-work (RTW)) may stimulate employees on sick leave to return to work early. To target their professional interventions more specifically according to these factors, occupational health professionals need further insight into environmental and personal factors that stimulate RTW. The objectives of this study are (1) to identify which and how environmental and personal factors support RTW, and (2) to examine whether the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) can be used to describe these factors. We performed interviews with 14 employees, 15 employers and 4 OPs from multiple organisations with varying organisational sizes and types of industry such as healthcare and education. We used a qualitative data analysis partially based on the Qualitative Analysis Guide of Leuven. The following environmental factors were found to support early RTW: 'social support from relatives', 'belief that work stimulates health', 'adequate cooperation between stakeholders in RTW' (e.g., employees, employers and OPs) and 'the employers' communicative skills'. One personal factor stimulated RTW: 'positive perception of the working situation' (e.g. enjoyment of work). Most factors stimulated RTW directly. In addition, adequate treatment and social support stimulated medical recovery. Environmental factors can either fully (social support, belief that RTW stimulates health), partially (effective cooperation), or not (employers' communicative skills) be described using ICF codes. The personal factor could not be classified because the ICF does not contain codes for personal factors. RTW interventions should aim at the environmental and personal factors mentioned above. Professionals can use the ICF to

  20. A tool to enhance occupational therapy reasoning from ICF perspective: The Hasselt Occupational Performance Profile (H-OPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghysels, R; Vanroye, E; Westhovens, M; Spooren, A

    2017-03-01

    In order to enhance occupational therapy reasoning in clinical practice, different elements such as client-centred approach, evidence-based care and interdisciplinary work should be taken into account, but is a challenge. To describe the development of the digital Hasselt Occupational Performance Profile (H-OPP © ) that enhances occupational therapy reasoning from ICF perspective. A participative qualitative design was used to create the H-OPP © in an iterative way in which occupational therapy lectures, ICF experts, students and occupational therapists in the field were involved. After linking occupational therapy terminology to the ICF, different stages of the H-OPP were identified and elaborated with main features: generating an occupational performance profile based on inventarization of problems and possibilities, formulating an occupational performance diagnosis and enabling to create an intervention plan. In all stages, both the perspectives of the client and the occupational therapist were taken into account. To increase practical use, the tool was further elaborated and digitalized. The H-OPP © is a digital coach that guides and facilitates professional reasoning in (novice) occupational therapists. It augments involvement of the client system. Furthermore, it enhances interdisciplinary communication and evidence-based care.

  1. An ICF-Based Model for Implementing and Standardizing Multidisciplinary Obesity Rehabilitation Programs within the Healthcare System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Brunani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective: In this study, we aimed to design an ICF-based individual rehabilitation project for obese patients with comorbidities (IRPOb integrated into the Rehab-CYCLE to standardize rehabilitative programs. This might facilitate the different health professionals involved in the continuum of care of obese patients to standardize rehabilitation interventions. Methods: After training on the ICF and based on the relevant studies, ICF categories were identified in a formal consensus process by our multidisciplinary team. Thereafter, we defined an individual rehabilitation project based on a structured multi-disciplinary approach to obesity. Results: the proposed IRPOb model identified the specific intervention areas (nutritional, physiotherapy, psychology, nursing, the short-term goals, the intervention modalities, the professionals involved and the assessment of the outcomes. Information was shared with the patient who signed informed consent. Conclusions: The model proposed provides the following advantages: (1 standardizes rehabilitative procedures; (2 facilitates the flow of congruent and updated information from the hospital to outpatient facilities, relatives, and care givers; (3 addresses organizational issues; (4 might serve as a benchmark for professionals who have limited specific expertise in rehabilitation of comorbid obese patients.

  2. The measurement and analysis of wavefront structure from large aperture ICF optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, C.R.; Lawson, J.K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the techniques, developed over the past year, for high spatial resolution measurement and analysis of the transmitted and/or reflected wavefront of large aperture ICF optical components. Parts up to 400 mm x 750 mm have been measured and include: laser slabs, windows, KDP crystals and lenses. The measurements were performed using state-of-the-art commercial phase shifting interferometers at a wavelength of 633 μm. Both 1 and 2-D Fourier analysis have been used to characterize the wavefront; specifically the Power Spectral Density, (PSD), function was calculated. The PSDs of several precision optical components will be shown. The PSD(V) is proportional to the (amplitude) 2 of components of the Fourier frequency spectrum. The PSD describes the scattered intensity and direction as a function of scattering angle in the wavefront. The capability of commercial software is limited to 1-D Fourier analysis only. We are developing our own 2-D analysis capability in support of work to revise specifications for NIF optics. 2-D analysis uses the entire wavefront phase map to construct 2D PSD functions. We have been able to increase the signal-to-noise relative to 1-D and can observe very subtle wavefront structure

  3. Improved performance of the Aurora KrF/ICF laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.E.; Czuchlewski, S.J.; Turner, T.P.; Watt, R.G.; Thomas, S.J.; Netz, D.A.; Tallman, C.R.; Figueira, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on Aurora the Los Alamos National Laboratory short pulse high power krypton-fluoride laser system. It serves as an end-to-end technology demonstration prototype for large scale UV laser systems for short wavelength inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research. The system employs optical angular multiplexing and serial amplification by electron-beam driven KrF laser amplifiers. The 1-5-ns pulse of the Aurora front end is split into ninety-six beams which are angularly and temporally multiplexed to produce a 480-ns pulse train for amplification by four KrF laser amplifiers. The largest amplifier, the large aperture module (LAM), has a 1-m square aperture and a gain length of 2 m. In the present system configuration half (forty-eight) of the amplified pulses are demultiplexed using different optical path lengths and delivered simultaneously to target. The system has not been optimized, and several near term improvements are expected to result in significant increases in both delivered energy and target irradiance. Removing the twelve calorimeters from the lens plate and allowing forty-eight beams to go to target will increase delivered energy by 33%. Relatively minor modifications to the front end should result in a 30% increase in system output energy. Replacement of damaged optics will increase transmission into the preamplifier by at least 25%. New optics and reduction of retro-pulses will allow the preamplifier stage gain to be increased by 50%

  4. A megajoule class krypton fluoride amplifier for single shot, high gain ICF application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, E.; Hanson, D.; Krohn, B.; McLeod, J.; Kang, M.

    1988-01-01

    A design study is underway to define the optimal architecture for a KrF laser system which will deliver 10 MJ of 248-nm light to an ICF target. We present one approach which incorporates final power amplifiers in the megajoule class, achieving 10 MJ with four final amplifiers. Each double-pass laser amplifier employs two-sided electron-beam pumping of the laser gas medium. Details of the design are based on a Monte-Carlo electron-beam deposition code, a one-dimensional, time-dependent kinetics code, and pulsed power circuit modeling. Linear dimensions of the amplifier's extracted gain volume are 6.25 m in height and length and 5.12 m in width. Each amplifier handles 160 angularly multiplexed laser channels. The one-amagat, krypton-rich laser medium is e-beam pumped at 60-kW cm/sup /minus/3/ (4-MA at3.3-MV) over the 2-microsecond duration of the laser beam pulse train. 5 refs., 4 figs

  5. Hotspot ignition using a Z-pinch precursor plasma in a magneto-inertial ICF scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chittenden, J.P.; Vincent, P.; Jennings, C.A.; Ciardi, A.

    2006-01-01

    Precursor plasma flow is a common feature of wire array Z-pinches. The precursor flow represents a fraction of the mass of the array which arrives on the axis early in time and remains confined at high density by the inertia of further material bombarding the axis. Later on, the main implosion of the Z-pinch then compresses this precursor to substantially higher density. We show that if the same system can be generated with a Deuterium-Tritium plasma then the precursor provides an ideal target for a cylindrical magneto-inertial ICF scheme. The implosion of the DT Z-pinch produces a dense, low temperature shell which compressively heats the precursor target to high temperatures and tamps its expansion. The azimuthal magnetic field in the hotspot is sufficient to reduce the Larmor radius for the alpha particles to much less than the hotspot size, which dramatically reduces the pR required for ignition. A computational analysis of this approach is presented, including a study of the thermonuclear burn wave propagation. The robustness of the scheme with respect to instabilities, confinement time and drive parameters is examined. The results indicate that a high energy gain can be achieved using Z-pinches with 50-100 MA currents and a few hundred nanosecond rise-times. This work was partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy through cooperative agreement DE-FC03-02NA00057

  6. ND:GLASS LASER DESIGN FOR LASER ICF FISSION ENERGY (LIFE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caird, J.A.; Agrawal, V.; Bayramian, A.; Beach, R.; Britten, J.; Chen, D.; Cross, R.; Ebbers, C.; Erlandson, A.; Feit, M.; Freitas, B.; Ghosh, C.; Haefner, C.; Homoelle, D.; Ladran, T.; Latkowski, J.; Molander, W.; Murray, J.; Rubenchik, S.; Schaffers, K.; Siders, C.W.; Stappaerts, E.; Sutton, S.; Telford, S.; Trenholme, J.; Barty, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed preliminary conceptual laser system designs for the Laser ICF (Inertial Confinement Fusion) Fission Energy (LIFE) application. Our approach leverages experience in high-energy Nd:glass laser technology developed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), along with high-energy-class diode-pumped solid-state laser (HEC-DPSSL) technology developed for the DOE's High Average Power Laser (HAPL) Program and embodied in LLNL's Mercury laser system. We present laser system designs suitable for both indirect-drive, hot spot ignition and indirect-drive, fast ignition targets. Main amplifiers for both systems use laser-diode-pumped Nd:glass slabs oriented at Brewster's angle, as in NIF, but the slabs are much thinner to allow for cooling by high-velocity helium gas as in the Mercury laser system. We also describe a plan to mass-produce pump-diode lasers to bring diode costs down to the order of $0.01 per Watt of peak output power, as needed to make the LIFE application economically attractive

  7. A dual-PIXE tomography setup for reconstruction of Germanium in ICF target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, N.; Lu, H. Y.; Wang, Q.; Meng, J.; Gao, D. Z.; Zhang, Y. J.; Liang, X. X.; Zhang, W.; Li, J.; Ma, X. J.; Shen, H.

    2017-08-01

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is one type of fusion energy research which could initiate nuclear fusion reactions through heating and compressing thermonuclear fuel. Compared to a pure plastic target, Germanium doping into the CH ablator layer by Glow Discharge Polymer (GDP) technique can increase the ablation velocity and the standoff distance between the ablation front and laser-deposition region. During target fabrication process, quantitative doping of Ge should be accurately controlled. Particle Induced X-ray Emission Tomography (PIXE-T) can make not only quantification of the concentration, but also reconstruction of the spatial distribution of doped element. The Si (Li) detector for PIXE tomography technique had a disadvantage of low counting rate. To make up this deficiency, another detector of Si (Li) with the same configuration positioned at the opposite side with the same detective angle 135° have been implemented. Simultaneously acquired elemental maps of Ge obtained using two detectors may be different because of the X-ray absorption along the X-ray exit route in the target. In this paper, the X-ray detection efficiency is drastically improved by this dual-PIXE tomography system.

  8. ND:GLASS LASER DESIGN FOR LASER ICF FISSION ENERGY (LIFE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caird, J A; Agrawal, V; Bayramian, A; Beach, R; Britten, J; Chen, D; Cross, R; Ebbers, C; Erlandson, A; Feit, M; Freitas, B; Ghosh, C; Haefner, C; Homoelle, D; Ladran, T; Latkowski, J; Molander, W; Murray, J; Rubenchik, S; Schaffers, K; Siders, C W; Stappaerts, E; Sutton, S; Telford, S; Trenholme, J; Barty, C J

    2008-10-28

    We have developed preliminary conceptual laser system designs for the Laser ICF (Inertial Confinement Fusion) Fission Energy (LIFE) application. Our approach leverages experience in high-energy Nd:glass laser technology developed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), along with high-energy-class diode-pumped solid-state laser (HEC-DPSSL) technology developed for the DOE's High Average Power Laser (HAPL) Program and embodied in LLNL's Mercury laser system. We present laser system designs suitable for both indirect-drive, hot spot ignition and indirect-drive, fast ignition targets. Main amplifiers for both systems use laser-diode-pumped Nd:glass slabs oriented at Brewster's angle, as in NIF, but the slabs are much thinner to allow for cooling by high-velocity helium gas as in the Mercury laser system. We also describe a plan to mass-produce pump-diode lasers to bring diode costs down to the order of $0.01 per Watt of peak output power, as needed to make the LIFE application economically attractive.

  9. Z-pinch implosion for ICF physics study on Angara-5-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branitsky, A. V.; Fedulov, M. V.; Grabovsky, E. V.; Nedoseev, S. L.; Olejinik, G. M.; Smirnov, V. P.; Zakharov, S. V.

    1997-01-01

    Recent development of soft X-ray sources based on super-fast Z-pinch implosion has demonstrated the great promise of pulsed power for ICF physics study. The main direction of the 'Angara-5-1' program is oriented toward using the double liner scheme to confine radiation inside a cavity in order to enhance its intensity significantly. Collision of the external liner shell onto the inner leads to radiation penetration through the inner liner and a decrease in the radiation pulse duration to 3-5 ns. Testing this scheme on 'Angara-5-1' with current 3.5-5 MA demonstrates a flux intensity up to 3 TW/cm 2 . In spite of the fact that results of the experiment and a 1D-simulation are close, there are many issues with external liner stability during current sheath formation and implosion. Recent experimental efforts on Angara-5-1 focused on the 'cold start' problem and on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability for thick (gas-puff) and thin (doped foam) shells. Preionization makes the liner's plasma more homogeneous. The method also works in a plasma focus, according to the first results of a joint Polish-Russian experiment. A high current convolute increases ANGARA-5's load current from about 4 MA to 5.8 MA, which moves the radiation temperature toward the region of interest. We also outline a new approach to a generator intended to produce tens of MA, ANGARA-5-2

  10. Liquid momentum removal using rod arrays applied to the HYLIFE ICF reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffray, A.R.; Hoffman, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    This research relates to the multiple liquid-lithium-jet blanket concept for the HYLIFE inertial-confinement fusion (ICF) reactor. The fusion micro-explosion would result in part of the liquid lithium being propelled towards the vacuum chamber wall where the resulting impact would cause high peak stresses. In an attempt to reduce these peak stresses, it was proposed to set up an array of bars between the vacuum vessel first wall and the liquid jets so that part of the liquid momentum would be removed as the liquid passed through the bars. A series of small-scale scoping experiments were run to obtain a preliminary evaluation of the effectiveness of such rod arrays in removing momentum from impinging liquid slugs. The impact force of an unconfined cylindrical water jet on in-line and staggered rod arrays was measured. The results indicate that the fraction of momentum removed from liquid slugs could probably exceed 18% for a staggered rod arrangement in the HYLIFE reactor

  11. Self-Generated Magnetic Fields in Stagnation-Phase ICF Implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Christopher; Chittenden, Jeremy; McGlinchey, Kristopher; Niasse, Nicolas

    2016-10-01

    3-D extended-MHD simulations of the stagnation phase of an ICF implosion are presented, showing significant self-generated magnetic fields (1000-5000T) due to the Biermann Battery effect. Perturbed hot-spots generate magnetic fields at their edges, as the extremities of hot bubbles are rapidly cooled by the surrounding low temperature fuel, giving non-parallel electron pressure and density gradients. Larger amplitude and higher mode-number perturbations lead to an increased hot-spot surface area and more heat flow, developing greater non-parallel gradients and therefore larger magnetic fields. Due to this, largely perturbed hot-spots can be affected more by magnetic fields, although the accelerated cooling associated with greater deviations from symmetry lowers magnetisation. The Nernst effect advects magnetic field down temperature gradients towards the outer region of the hot-spot, which can also lower the magnetisation of the plasma. In some regions, however, the Nernst velocity is convergent, magnetising the tips of cold fuel spikes, resulting in anisotropic heat-flow and an improvement in energy containment. Low-mode and multi-high-mode simulations are shown, with magnetisations reaching sufficiently high levels in some regions of the hot-spot to suppress thermal conduction to lower than 50% of the unmagnetised case. A quantitative analysis of how this affects the hot-spot energy balance is included.

  12. Unique capabilities for ICF and HEDP research with the KrF laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obenschain, Stephen; Bates, Jason; Chan, Lop-Yung; Karasik, Max; Kehne, David; Sethian, John; Serlin, Victor; Weaver, James; Oh, Jaechul; Jenkins, Bruce; Lehmberg, Robert; Hegeler, Frank; Terrell, Stephen; Aglitskiy, Yefim; Schmitt, Andrew

    2014-10-01

    The krypton-fluoride (KrF) laser provides the shortest wavelength, broadest bandwidth and most uniform target illumination of all developed high-energy lasers. For directly driven targets these characteristics result in higher and more uniform ablation pressures as well as higher intensity thresholds for laser-plasma instability. The ISI beam smoothing scheme implemented on the NRL Nike KrF facility allows easy implementation of focal zooming where the laser radial profile is varied during the laser pulse. The capability for near continuous zooming with KrF would be valuable towards minimizing the effects of cross beam energy transport (CBET) in directly driven capsule implosions. The broad bandwidth ISI beam smoothing that is utilized with the Nike KrF facility may further inhibit certain laser plasma instability. In this presentation we will summarize our current understanding of laser target interaction with the KrF laser and the benefits it provides for ICF and certain HEDP experiments. Status and progress in high-energy KrF laser technology will also be discussed. Work supported by the Deparment of Energy, NNSA.

  13. Effects on Implosion Characteristics of High-Z Dopant Profiles in ICF Ignition Capsule Ablators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongsheng; Wang, Min; Gu, Jianfa; Zou, Shiyang; Kang, Dongguo; Ye, Wenhua; Zhang, Weiyan

    2012-10-01

    For ignition target design (ITD) of indirect drive ICF [J. Lindl, PoP 2, 3933(1995)], high-Z dopants in capsule ablators were used to prevent preheat of DTadjacentablators by Au M-band flux in laser-driven gold Hohlraums, therefore to restrain the growth of high-mode hydro-instabilities and to improve the targetrobustness.Based on NIC's Rev. 5 ITD[S. W. Haan et al., PoP 18, 051001(2011)], we investigated the effect of thickness and dopant concentration of doped layers on implosion characteristics, including the Atwood number (AWN) of fuel-ablator interface, the density gradient scale length (DGSL) of ablation front and the implosion velocity (VIM); all three variables decrease with increment of dopant dosage, and increase with dopant concentration while keeping dosage constant. Since a smaller AWN, a larger DGSL, and a faster VIM always characterize a more robust ITD, one should make tradeoff among them by adjusting the dopant profiles in ablators.A Gaussian spectrum (GS) was used to imitate the Au M-band flux [Y. S. Li et al., PoP 18, 022701(2011)], and the impact of GScenter on implosion characteristics of Rev. 5 ITD was studied while moving the GScenter towards higher energy, the ablatorpreheat got severe, AWN got larger, DGSL got larger, and VIM got faster.

  14. Characterizing ICF Neutron Diagnostics on the nTOF line at SUNY Geneseo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Angela; Padalino, Stephen; Turner, Ethan; Ginnane, Mary Kate; Dubois, Natalie; Fletcher, Kurtis; Giordano, Michael; Lawson-Keister, Patrick; Harrison, Hannah; Visca, Hannah; Sangster, Craig; Regan, Sean

    2014-10-01

    Charged particle beams from the Geneseo 1.7 MV tandem Pelletron accelerator produce nuclear reactions that emit neutrons in the range of 0.5 to 17.9 MeV via the d(d,n)3He and 11B(d,n)12C reactions. The neutron energy and flux can be adjusted by controlling the accelerator beam current and potential. This adjustable neutron source makes it possible to calibrate ICF and HEDP neutron scintillator diagnostics. However, gamma rays which are often present during an accelerator-based calibration are difficult to differentiate from neutron signals in scintillators. To identify neutrons from gamma rays and to determine their energy, a permanent neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) line is being constructed. By detecting the scintillator signal in coincidence with an associated charged particle (ACP) produced in the reaction, the identity of the neutron can be known and its energy determined by time of flight. Using a 100% efficient surface barrier detector to count the ACPs, the absolute efficiency of the scintillator as a function of neutron energy can be determined. This is done by determining the ratio of the ACP counts in the singles spectrum to coincidence counts for matched solid angles of the SBD and scintillator. Funded in part by a LLE contract through the DOE.

  15. PRP Comments for ICF Q1/Q2 FY17 Experiments 3/10/16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffman, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-04-14

    The PRP generally endorsed the Program plan during the short time for discussions. We agree that the strategy to develop a hohlraum that is symmetric and has low laser-plasma instabilities and to develop an alternative method for supporting the capsule is the best path forward for making progress in understanding ignition performance. The Program is oriented toward a milestone in 2020 for “determining the efficacy of NIF for ignition and credible physics-scaling to multi-megajoule yields for all ICF approaches.” We are concerned that the time and resources are not sufficient to vet all of the various approaches that are being pursued to make an informed decision by this date. For NIF to meet this goal, a process will be needed to to select the most promising paths forward. We recommend that the Program develop this process for selecting the path forward to optimize resources. We were glad to see that the direct drive program took our comments under consideration. We think that the proposed experiments have the program headed in a better direction. The PRP had only a short time to discuss the detailed experimental proposals. The following are comments on the detailed proposals. We did not have time to discuss them as a group. They represent individual opinions and provided to you as feedback to your proposals.

  16. Modeling radiative transport in ICF plasmas on an IBM SP2 supercomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, J.A.; MacFarlane, J.J.; Moses, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    At the University of Wisconsin-Madison the authors have integrated a collisional-radiative-equilibrium model into their CONRAD radiation-hydrodynamics code. This integrated package allows them to accurately simulate the transport processes involved in ICF plasmas; including the important effects of self-absorption of line-radiation. However, as they increase the amount of atomic structure utilized in their transport models, the computational demands increase nonlinearly. In an attempt to meet this increased computational demand, they have recently embarked on a mission to parallelize the CONRAD program. The parallel CONRAD development is being performed on an IBM SP2 supercomputer. The parallelism is based on a message passing paradigm, and is being implemented using PVM. At the present time they have determined that approximately 70% of the sequential program can be executed in parallel. Accordingly, they expect that the parallel version will yield a speedup on the order of three times that of the sequential version. This translates into only 10 hours of execution time for the parallel version, whereas the sequential version required 30 hours

  17. Spectroscopic diagnostics of NIF ICF implosions using line ratios of Kr dopant in the ignition capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Arati; Ouart, Nicholas; Giuiani, John; Clark, Robert; Schneider, Marilyn; Scott, Howard; Chen, Hui; Ma, Tammy

    2017-10-01

    X ray spectroscopy is used on the NIF to diagnose the plasma conditions in the ignition target in indirect drive ICF implosions. A platform is being developed at NIF where small traces of krypton are used as a dopant to the fuel gas for spectroscopic diagnostics using krypton line emissions. The fraction of krypton dopant was varied in the experiments and was selected so as not to perturb the implosion. Our goal is to use X-ray spectroscopy of dopant line ratios produced by the hot core that can provide a precise measurement of electron temperature. Simulations of the krypton spectra using a 1 in 104 atomic fraction of krypton in direct-drive exploding pusher with a range of electron temperatures and densities show discrepancies when different atomic models are used. We use our non-LTE atomic model with a detailed fine-structure level atomic structure and collisional-radiative rates to investigate the krypton spectra at the same conditions. Synthetic spectra are generated with a detailed multi-frequency radiation transport scheme from the emission regions of interest to analyze the experimental data with 0.02% Kr concentration and compare and contrast with the existing simulations at LLNL. Work supported by DOE/NNSA; Part of this work was also done under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  18. Scattered and (n,2n) neutrons as a measure of areal density in ICF capsules

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, D C; Disdier, L; Houry, M; Bourgade, J L; Murphy, T J

    2002-01-01

    The fraction of low-energy neutrons created from 14 MeV neutrons by elastic scattering and (n,2n) reactions on D and T has been proposed as a measure of the areal density (radial integral of density) of ICF targets. In simple situations the fraction of neutrons between 9.4 (the upper energy of T+T neutrons) and 13 MeV (below the Doppler broadened 14.1 MeV peak) is proportional to the at the time of neutron production. This ratio does not depend upon the temperature of the fuel, as does the number of reaction-in-flight neutrons. The ratio of neutrons elastically scattered at a specific energy (e.g. 13 MeV) to the total number of neutrons can be measured along different lines of sight. The ratio of two perpendicular measurements provides a quantitative measure of asymmetry. A detector can be placed inside the target chamber to measure these low-energy neutrons. If it is close enough to the target that measurements are made before the 14 MeV neutrons reach the chamber wall, gamma rays can be a negligible back...

  19. Coherent structures in ablatively compressed ICF targets and Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, H.C.; Desai, T.

    1996-01-01

    One of the major issues in laser induced inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is a stable ablative compression of spherical fusion pellets. The main impediment in achievement of this objective is Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the pellet's ablation front. Under sufficiently high acceleration this instability can grow out of noise. However, it can also arise either due to non-uniform laser intensity distribution over the pellet surface or due to pellet wall areal mass irregularity. Coherent structures in the dense target behind the ablation front can be effectively utilised for stabilisation of the Rayleigh-Taylor phenomenon. Such coherent structures in the form of a super lattice can be created by doping the pellet pusher with high atomic number (Z) micro particles. A compressed-cool pusher under laser irradiation behaves like a strongly correlated non ideal plasma when compressed to sufficiently high density such that the non ideality parameter exceeds unity. Moreover, the nonideality parameter for high Z microinclusions may exceed a critical value of 180 and as a consequence they remain in the form of intact clusters, maintaining the superlattice intact during ablative acceleration. Micro-hetrogeneity and its superlattice plays an important role in stabilization of Rayleigh-Taylor instability, through a variety of mechanisms. (orig.)

  20. Fluidized-bed design for ICF reactor blankets using solid-lithium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sucov, E.W.; Malick, F.S.; Green, L.; Hall, B.O.

    1983-01-01

    A fluidized-bed concept for blankets of dry or wetted first-wall ICF reactors using solid-lithium compounds is described. The reaction chamber is a right cylinder, 32 m high and 20 m in diameter; the blanket is composed of 36 steel tanks, 32 m high, which carry the sintered Li 2 O particles in the fluidizing helium gas. Each tank has a radial thickness of 2 m which generates a tritium breeding ration (TBR) of 1.27 and absorbs over 98% of the neutron energy; reducing the thickness to 1.2 m produces a TBR of 1.2 and energy absorption of 97% which satisfy the design goals. Calculations of tritium diffusion through the grains and heat removal from the grains showed that neither could be removed by the carrier gas; tritium and heat are therefore removed by removing the grains themselves by varying the helium flow rate. The particles are continuously fed into the bottom of the tanks at 300 0 C and removed at the top at 475 0 C. Tritium and heat extraction are easily and conveniently done outside the reactor

  1. Two-dimensional nucleonics calculations for a ''FIRST STEP'' conceptual ICF reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.W.; Battat, M.E.; Saylor, W.W.; Pendergrass, J.H.; Dudziak, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed two-dimensional nucleonic analysis has been performed for the FIRST STEP conceptual ICF reactor blanket design. The reactor concept incorporated in this design is a modified wetted-wall cavity with target illumination geometry left as a design variable. The 2-m radius spherical cavity is surrounded by a blanket containing lithium and 238 U as fertile species and also as energy multipliers. The blanket is configured as 0.6-m-thick cylindrical annuli containing modified LMFBR-type fuel elements with 0.5-m-thick fuel-bearing axial end plugs. Liquid lithium surrounds the inner blanket regions and serves as the coolant for both the blanket and the first wall. The two-dimensional analysis of the blanket performance was made using the 2-D discrete-ordinates code TRISM, and benchmarked with the 3-D Monte Carlo code MCNP. Integral responses including the tritium breeding ratio (TBR), plutonium breeding ratio (PUBR), and blanket energy multiplication were calculated for axial and radial blanket regions. Spatial distributions were calculated for steady-state rates of fission, neutron heating, prompt gamma-ray heating, and fuel breeding

  2. Hybrid composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available mixed short sisal/glass hybrid fibre reinforced low density polyethylene composites was investigated by Kalaprasad et al [25].Chemical surface modifications such as alkali, acetic anhydride, stearic acid, permanganate, maleic anhydride, silane...

  3. Measurement of activity limitations and participation restrictions: examination of ICF-linked content and scale properties of the FIM and PC-PART instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darzins, Susan W; Imms, Christine; Di Stefano, Marilyn

    2017-05-01

    To explore the operationalization of activity and participation-related measurement constructs through comparison of item phrasing, item response categories and scoring (scale properties) for two separate instruments targeting activities of daily living. Personal Care Participation Assessment and Resource Tool (PC-PART) item content was linked to ICF categories using established linking rules. Previously reported ICF-linked FIM content categories and ICF-linked PC-PART content categories were compared to identify common ICF categories between the instruments. Scale properties of both instruments were compared using a patient scenario to explore the instruments' separate measurement constructs. The PC-PART and FIM shared 15 of the 53 level two ICF-linked categories identified across both instruments. Examination of the instruments' scale properties for items with overlapping ICF content, and exploration through a patient scenario, provided supportive evidence that the instruments measure different constructs. While the PC-PART and FIM share common ICF-linked content, they measure separate constructs. Measurement construct was influenced by the instruments' scale properties. The FIM was observed to measure activity limitations and the PC-PART measured participation restrictions. Scrutiny of instruments' scale properties in addition to item content is critical in the operationalization of activity and participation-related measurement constructs. Implications for Rehabilitation When selecting outcome measures for use in rehabilitation it is necessary to examine both the content of the instruments' items and item phrasing, response categories and scoring, to clarify the construct being measured. Measurement of activity limitations as well as participation restrictions in activities of daily living required for community life provides a more comprehensive measurement of rehabilitation outcomes than measurement of either construct alone. To measure the effects of

  4. Hybrid intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cetorelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  5. Practice, science and governance in interaction: European effort for the system-wide implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, Gerold; Zampolini, Mauro; Juocevicius, Alvydas; Negrini, Stefano; Christodoulou, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    Since its launch in 2001, relevant international, regional and national PRM bodies have aimed to implement the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM), whereby contributing to the development of suitable practical tools. These tools are available for implementing the ICF in day-to-day clinical practice, standardized reporting of functioning outcomes in quality management and research, and guiding evidence-informed policy. Educational efforts have reinforced PRM physicians' and other rehabilitation professionals' ICF knowledge, and numerous implementation projects have explored how the ICF is applied in clinical practice, research and policy. Largely lacking though is the system-wide implementation of ICF in day-to-day practice across all rehabilitation services of national health systems. In Europe, system-wide implementation of ICF requires the interaction between practice, science and governance. Considering its mandate, the UEMS PRM Section and Board have decided to lead a European effort towards system-wide ICF implementation in PRM, rehabilitation and health care at large, in interaction with governments, non-governmental actors and the private sector, and aligned with ISPRM's collaboration plan with WHO. In this paper we present the current PRM internal and external policy agenda towards system-wide ICF implementation and the corresponding implementation action plan, while highlighting priority action steps - promotion of ICF-based standardized reporting in national quality management and assurance programs, development of unambiguous rehabilitation service descriptions using the International Classification System for Service Organization in Health-related Rehabilitation, development of Clinical Assessment Schedules, qualitative linkage and quantitative mapping of data to the ICF, and the cultural adaptation of the ICF Clinical Data Collection Tool in European languages.

  6. Aurora: Los Alamos multikilojoule angular-multiplexed KrF driver prototype for ICF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosocha, L.A.; Hanlon, J.A.; McLeod, J.

    1987-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has participated in programs to apply high-power gas lasers to inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The bulk of this effort has been in the development of CO/sub 2/ laser systems and laser-plasma interaction experiments at a 10.6-μm wavelength. The main hardware element in this program is the Aurora KrF laser system, which is a prototype for using optical angular multiplexing and serial amplification by large electron-beam-driven KrF laser amplifiers to study KrF systems as potential fusion drivers. Aurora will serve as a test-bed for specific laser, optical, and electron-beam-pumping technology aspects of larger KrF fusion systems. The Aurora system is being built in two phases. The first-phase portion of the Aurora system contains all the main optical and laser elements from the front end to the final amplifier output. In the first phase, the front end output is replicated using aperture slicers and beam splitters to produce a 480-ns long pulse train consisting of 96 separate 5-ns pulses. This pulse train is encoded in angular separation, relayed through the amplifier chain by means of the centered optical system and the computer-controlled alignment station, and delivered to a diagnostic station which follows the main power amplifier [large aperture module (LAM)]. The second phase of the system contains the first-phase portion and the additional optical and target hardware needed to stack 48 of the 96 multiplexed and amplified beams into a single multikilojoule 5-ns pulse at the fusion target. The authors give a description of the Aurora system and discuss its present status

  7. Analysis of impacts from environmental factors evaluated by icf in individuals post-cva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Suely Queiroz Silva Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The CVA is the second cause of death in Brazil, presenting with serious clinical repercussions and as a public health issue. Live with the disabilities caused by it requires facing daily situations, which can increase the disability, such as the ones imposed by the environment inside or outside home. Objective: Analyze the environmental factors of ICF with a facilitator or barrier for victims of Stroke. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study, 152 individuals; span of less than 60 months involvement and enrolled in the Family Health Units in João Pessoa, Brazil. A questionnaire was used to characterize the socio-economic and clinical form and the Core Set for stroke to identify environmental factors. The data were stored in EpiInfo 7. Associations between environmental factors and the variables age, gender, and marital status verified by chi-square test. Results: Assistive technologies and products or substances for personal consumption were the main factors recognized as facilitators, followed by interpersonal relationships. The most prevalent factors as barriers were the physical structures of public and private spaces, highlighting the physical geography of their residence. It was found that the immediate family was associated with variable marital status, use of products and technology for personal use in daily life was associated with age and, friends partnered with variable gender. Conclusions: The Core Set is shown as a sensitive instrument to capture the barriers and facilitators in population surveys. Their findings point to the need to think about public policy more appropriate for this population.{#}

  8. Characterizing ICF Neutron Scintillation Diagnostics on the nTOF line at SUNY Geneseo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson-Keister, Pat; Padawar-Curry, Jonah; Visca, Hannah; Fletcher, Kurt; Padalino, Stephen; Sangster, T. Craig; Regan, Sean

    2015-11-01

    Neutron scintillator diagnostics for ICF and HEDP can be characterized using the neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) line on Geneseo's 1.7 MV tandem Pelletron accelerator. Neutron signals can be differentiated from gamma signals by employing coincidence methods. A 1.8-MeV beam of deuterons incident on a deuterated polyethylene target produces neutrons via the 2H(d,n)3He reaction. Neutrons emerging at a lab angle of 88° have an energy of 2.96 MeV; the 3He ions associated with these neutrons are detected at a scattering angle of 43° using a surface barrier detector. The time of flight of the neutron can be measured by using the 3He detection as a ``start'' signal and the scintillation detection as a ``stop'' signal. This time of flight requirement is used to identify the 2.96-MeV neutron signals in the scintillator. To measure the light curve produced by these monoenergetic neutrons, two photomultiplier (PMT) tubes are attached to the scintillator. The full aperture PMT establishes the nTOF coincidence. The other PMT is fitted with a pinhole to collect single events. The time between the full aperture PMT signal and the arrival of the signal in the pinhole PMT is used to determine the light curve for the scintillator. This system will enable the neutron response of various scintillators to be compared. Supported in part by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  9. Health behaviour change theories: contributions to an ICF-based behavioural exercise therapy for individuals with chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geidl, Wolfgang; Semrau, Jana; Pfeifer, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this perspective is (1) to incorporate recent psychological health behaviour change (HBC) theories into exercise therapeutic programmes, and (2) to introduce the International Classification of Functioning (ICF)-based concept of a behavioural exercise therapy (BET). Relevant personal modifiable factors of physical activity (PA) were identified based on three recent psychological HBC theories. Following the principles of intervention mapping, a matrix of proximal programme objectives specifies desirable parameter values for each personal factor. As a result of analysing reviews on behavioural techniques and intervention programmes of the German rehabilitation setting, we identified exercise-related techniques that impact the personal determinants. Finally, the techniques were integrated into an ICF-based BET concept. Individuals' attitudes, skills, emotions, beliefs and knowledge are important personal factors of PA behaviour. BET systematically addresses these personal factors by a systematic combination of adequate exercise contents with related behavioural techniques. The presented 28 intervention techniques serve as a theory-driven "tool box" for designing complex BET programmes to promote PA. The current paper highlights the usefulness of theory-based integrative research in the field of exercise therapy, offers explicit methods and contents for physical therapists to promote PA behaviour, and introduces the ICF-based conceptual idea of a BET. Implications for Rehabilitation Irrespective of the clients' indication, therapeutic exercise programmes should incorporate effective, theory-based approaches to promote physical activity. Central determinants of physical activity behaviour are a number of personal factors: individuals' attitudes, skills, emotions, beliefs and knowledge. Clinicians implementing exercise therapy should set it within a wider theoretical framework including the personal factors that influence physical activity. To increase

  10. Block Ignition Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) with Condensed Matter Cluster Type Targets for p-B11 Powered Space Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, George H.; Hora, H.; Badziak, J.; Wolowski, J.; Sheng Zhengming; Zhang Jie; Osman, F.; Zhang Weiyan; Tuhe Xia

    2009-01-01

    The use of laser-driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) for space propulsion has been the subject of several earlier conceptual design studies, (see: Orth, 1998; and other references therein). However, these studies were based on older ICF technology using either 'direct' or 'in-direct x-ray driven' type target irradiation. Important new directions have opened for laser ICF in recent years following the development of 'chirped' lasers capable of ultra short pulses with powers of TW up to few PW which leads to the concept of 'fast ignition (FI)' to achieve higher energy gains from target implosions. In a recent publication the authors showed that use of a modified type of FI, termed 'block ignition' (Miley et al., 2008), could meet many of the requirements anticipated (but not then available) by the designs of the Vehicle for Interplanetary Space Transport Applications (VISTA) ICF fusion propulsion ship (Orth, 2008) for deep space missions. Subsequently the first author devised and presented concepts for imbedding high density condensed matter 'clusters' of deuterium into the target to obtain ultra high local fusion reaction rates (Miley, 2008). Such rates are possible due to the high density of the clusters (over an order of magnitude above cryogenic deuterium). Once compressed by the implosion, the yet higher density gives an ultra high reaction rate over the cluster volume since the fusion rate is proportional to the square of the fuel density. Most recently, a new discovery discussed here indicates that the target matrix could be composed of B 11 with proton clusters imbedded. This then makes p-B 11 fusion practical, assuming all of the physics issues such as stability of the clusters during compression are resolved. Indeed, p-B 11 power is ideal for fusion propulsion since it has a minimum of unwanted side products while giving most of the reaction energy to energetic alpha particles which can be directed into an exhaust (propulsion) nozzle. Power plants

  11. Block Ignition Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) with Condensed Matter Cluster Type Targets for p-B11 Powered Space Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miley, George H.; Hora, H.; Badziak, J.; Wolowski, J.; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Zhang, Jie; Osman, F.; Zhang, Weiyan; tu He, Xia

    2009-03-01

    The use of laser-driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) for space propulsion has been the subject of several earlier conceptual design studies, (see: Orth, 1998; and other references therein). However, these studies were based on older ICF technology using either "direct "or "in-direct x-ray driven" type target irradiation. Important new directions have opened for laser ICF in recent years following the development of "chirped" lasers capable of ultra short pulses with powers of TW up to few PW which leads to the concept of "fast ignition (FI)" to achieve higher energy gains from target implosions. In a recent publication the authors showed that use of a modified type of FI, termed "block ignition" (Miley et al., 2008), could meet many of the requirements anticipated (but not then available) by the designs of the Vehicle for Interplanetary Space Transport Applications (VISTA) ICF fusion propulsion ship (Orth, 2008) for deep space missions. Subsequently the first author devised and presented concepts for imbedding high density condensed matter "clusters" of deuterium into the target to obtain ultra high local fusion reaction rates (Miley, 2008). Such rates are possible due to the high density of the clusters (over an order of magnitude above cryogenic deuterium). Once compressed by the implosion, the yet higher density gives an ultra high reaction rate over the cluster volume since the fusion rate is proportional to the square of the fuel density. Most recently, a new discovery discussed here indicates that the target matrix could be composed of B11 with proton clusters imbedded. This then makes p-B11 fusion practical, assuming all of the physics issues such as stability of the clusters during compression are resolved. Indeed, p-B11 power is ideal for fusion propulsion since it has a minimum of unwanted side products while giving most of the reaction energy to energetic alpha particles which can be directed into an exhaust (propulsion) nozzle. Power plants using p

  12. Diagnostic techniques for measuring temperature transients and stress transients in the first wall of an ICF reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melamed, N.T.; Taylor, L.H.

    1983-01-01

    The primary challenge in the design of an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) power reactor is to make the first wall survive the frequent explosions of the pellets. Westinghouse has proposed a dry wall design consisting of steel tubes coated with tantalum. This report describes the design of a test chamber and two diagnostic procedures for experimentally determining the reliability of the Westinghouse design. The test chamber simulates the x-ray and ion pulse irradiation of the wall due to a pellet explosion. The diagnostics consist of remote temperature sensing and surface deformation measurements. The chamber and diagnostics can also be used to test other first-wall designs

  13. Towards comparability of data: using the ICF to map the contrasting definitions of disability in Irish surveys and census, 2000-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Mary-Ann; Good, Anne

    2010-01-01

    To examine how disability was measured and understood within Irish data sources 2000-2006, using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a guiding framework for a more comprehensive and transformative definition of disability. During the EU-funded Measuring Health and Disability in Europe (MHADIE) project (2003-2006), an audit of data sources which included a disability identifier question was conducted. Thirty Irish data sources were examined in total. An overview of these data sources was provided in 'Disability Data Sources in Ireland' (National Disability Authority, unpublished, 2007). Using guidelines developed by Cieza et al. (J Rehabil Med 2002;34:205-210, J Rehabil Med 2002;27:212-218) five data sources were selected for detailed examination and were mapped to the ICF. These were the census (2006), National Disability Survey (2006), National Physical and Sensory Disability Database (2006), Survey of Lifestyles, Attitudes and Nutrition (2002), Euro Student Survey (2003). Subsequent work conducted after the completion of the MHADIE project added to the findings. The environmental dimension of disability dominated the data collection exercises which used the ICF as their framework-for the National Disability Survey (NDS) and the National Physical and Sensory Disability Database (NPSDD). Both also had strong focus on activity and participation. When mapped on to the ICF, the data sources which preceded the ICF or did not use it, are shown to focus more on activity and participation data than any other ICF component. Across the five selected data sources, limited information was collected on body function and body structure.

  14. Using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF to describe children referred to special care or paediatric dental services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Faulks

    Full Text Available Children in dentistry are traditionally described in terms of medical diagnosis and prevalence of oral disease. This approach gives little information regarding a child's capacity to maintain oral health or regarding the social determinants of oral health. The biopsychosocial approach, embodied in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Child and Youth version (ICF-CY (WHO, provides a wider picture of a child's real-life experience, but practical tools for the application of this model are lacking. This article describes the preliminary empirical study necessary for development of such a tool - an ICF-CY Core Set for Oral Health. An ICF-CY questionnaire was used to identify the medical, functional, social and environmental context of 218 children and adolescents referred to special care or paediatric dental services in France, Sweden, Argentina and Ireland (mean age 8 years ± 3.6 yrs. International Classification of Disease (ICD-10 diagnoses included disorders of the nervous system (26.1%, Down syndrome (22.0%, mental retardation (17.0%, autistic disorders (16.1%, and dental anxiety alone (11.0%. The most frequently impaired items in the ICF Body functions domain were 'Intellectual functions', 'High-level cognitive functions', and 'Attention functions'. In the Activities and Participation domain, participation restriction was frequently reported for 25 items including 'Handling stress', 'Caring for body parts', 'Looking after one's health' and 'Speaking'. In the Environment domain, facilitating items included 'Support of friends', 'Attitude of friends' and 'Support of immediate family'. One item was reported as an environmental barrier - 'Societal attitudes'. The ICF-CY can be used to highlight common profiles of functioning, activities, participation and environment shared by children in relation to oral health, despite widely differing medical, social and geographical contexts. The results of this empirical

  15. Hybrid stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hybrid stars. AsHOK GOYAL. Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India. Abstract. Recently there have been important developments in the determination of neutron ... number and the electric charge. ... available to the system to rearrange concentration of charges for a given fraction of.

  16. The holistic claims of the biopsychosocial conception of WHO's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF): a conceptual analysis on the basis of a pluralistic-holistic ontology and multidimensional view of the human being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solli, Hans Magnus; da Silva, António Barbosa

    2012-06-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), designed by the WHO, attempts to provide a holistic model of functioning and disability by integrating a medical model with a social one. The aim of this article is to analyze the ICF's claim to holism. The following components of the ICF's complexity are analyzed: (1) health condition, (2) body functions and structures, (3) activity, (4) participation, (5) environmental factors, (6) personal factors, and (7) health. Although the ICF claims to be holistic, it presupposes a monistic materialistic ontology. We indicate some limitations of this ontology, proposing instead: (a) a pluralistic-holistic ontology (PHO) and (b) a multidimensional view of the human being, with individual and environmental aspects, in relation to three levels of reality implied by the PHO. For the ICF to attain its holistic claim, the interactions between its components should be based on (a) and (b).

  17. Early detection and longitudinal monitoring of experimental primary and disseminated melanoma using [18F]ICF01006, a highly promising melanoma PET tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rbah-Vidal, Latifa; Vidal, Aurelien; Besse, Sophie; Audin, Laurent; Degoul, Francoise; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth; Moins, Nicole; Auzeloux, Philippe; Chezal, Jean-Michel; Cachin, Florent; Bonnet, Mathilde; Askienazy, Serge; Dolle, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    Here, we report a new and rapid radiosynthesis of 18 F-N-[2-(diethylamino)ethyl]-6-fluoro-pyridine-3-carboxamide ([ 18 F]ICF01006), a molecule with a high specificity for melanotic tissue, and its evaluation in a murine model for early specific detection of pigmented primary and disseminated melanoma. [ 18 F]ICF01006 was synthesized using a new one-step bromine-for-fluorine nucleophilic heteroaromatic substitution. Melanoma models were induced by subcutaneous (primary tumour) or intravenous (lung colonies) injection of B16BL6 melanoma cells in C57BL/6J mice. The relevance and sensitivity of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using [ 18 F]ICF01006 were evaluated at different stages of tumoural growth and compared to 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ([ 18 F]FDG). The fully automated radiosynthesis of [ 18 F]ICF01006 led to a radiochemical yield of 61 % and a radiochemical purity >99 % (specific activity 70-80 GBq/μmol; total synthesis time 42 min). Tumours were visualized before they were palpable as early as 1 h post-injection with [ 18 F]ICF01006 tumoural uptake of 1.64 ± 0.57, 3.40 ± 1.47 and 11.44 ± 2.67 percentage of injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g) at days 3, 5 and 14, respectively. [ 18 F]ICF01006 PET imaging also allowed detection of melanoma pulmonary colonies from day 9 after tumour cell inoculation, with a lung radiotracer accumulation correlated with melanoma invasion. At day 21, radioactivity uptake in lungs reached a value of 5.23 ± 2.08 %ID/g (versus 0.41 ± 0.90 %ID/g in control mice). In the two models, comparison with [ 18 F]FDG showed that both radiotracers were able to detect melanoma lesions, but [ 18 F]ICF01006 was superior in terms of contrast and specificity. Our promising results provide further preclinical data, reinforcing the excellent potential of [ 18 F]ICF01006 PET imaging for early specific diagnosis and follow-up of melanin-positive disseminated melanoma. (orig.)

  18. Compiling standardized information from clinical practice: using content analysis and ICF Linking Rules in a goal-oriented youth rehabilitation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustenberger, Nadia A; Prodinger, Birgit; Dorjbal, Delgerjargal; Rubinelli, Sara; Schmitt, Klaus; Scheel-Sailer, Anke

    2017-09-23

    To illustrate how routinely written narrative admission and discharge reports of a rehabilitation program for eight youths with chronic neurological health conditions can be transformed to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. First, a qualitative content analysis was conducted by building meaningful units with text segments assigned of the reports to the five elements of the Rehab-Cycle ® : goal; assessment; assignment; intervention; evaluation. Second, the meaningful units were then linked to the ICF using the refined ICF Linking Rules. With the first step of transformation, the emphasis of the narrative reports changed to a process oriented interdisciplinary layout, revealing three thematic blocks of goals: mobility, self-care, mental, and social functions. The linked 95 unique ICF codes could be grouped in clinically meaningful goal-centered ICF codes. Between the two independent linkers, the agreement rate was improved after complementing the rules with additional agreements. The ICF Linking Rules can be used to compile standardized health information from narrative reports if prior structured. The process requires time and expertise. To implement the ICF into common practice, the findings provide the starting point for reporting rehabilitation that builds upon existing practice and adheres to international standards. Implications for Rehabilitation This study provides evidence that routinely collected health information from rehabilitation practice can be transformed to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health by using the "ICF Linking Rules", however, this requires time and expertise. The Rehab-Cycle ® , including assessments, assignments, goal setting, interventions and goal evaluation, serves as feasible framework for structuring this rehabilitation program and ensures that the complexity of local practice is appropriately reflected. The refined "ICF Linking Rules" lead to a standardized

  19. The Edward Teller Medal Lecture: the Evolution Toward Indirect Drive and Two Decades of Progress Toward Icf Ignition and Burn (lirpp Vol. 11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindl, John D.

    2016-10-01

    In 1972, I joined the Livermore ICF Theory and Target Design group led by John Nuckolls, shortly after publication of John's seminal Nature article on ICF. My primary role, working with others in the target design program including Mordy Rosen, Steve Haan, and Larry Suter, has been as a target designer and theorist who utilized the LASNEX code to perform numerical experiments, which along with analysis of laboratory and underground thermonuclear experiments allowed me to develop a series of models and physical insights which have been used to set the direction and priorities of the Livermore program...

  20. Foot-pulse radiation drive necessary for ICF ignition capsule demonstrated on Z generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Olson, R.E.; Chandler, G.A.

    1999-01-01

    Implosion and ignition of an indirectly-driven ICF capsule operating near a Fermi-degenerate isentrope requires initial Planckian-radiation-drive temperatures of 70-to-90 eV to be present for a duration of 10-to-15 ns prior to the main drive pulse. Such capsules are being designed for high pulsed-power generators. This foot-pulse drive capability has been recently demonstrated in a NIF-sized (φ = 6-mm 1 = 7-mm), gold hohlraum, using a one-sided static-wall hohlraum geometry on the Z generator. The general arrangement utilized nested tungsten-wire arrays of radii (mass) 20 mm (2 mg) and 10 mm (1 mg) that had an axial length of approximately 10 mm. The arrays were driven by a peak current of approximately 21 MA and were made to implode on a 2-microm-thick Cu annulus (mass = 4.5 mg), which had a radius of 4 mm and was filled with a low-density CH foam, all centered about the z-axis. The gold hohlraum was mounted on axis and above the Cu/foam target. A 2.9-mm-radius axial hole between the top of the target and hohlraum permitted the x-rays generated from the implosion to enter the hohlraum. The radiation within the hohlraum was monitored by viewing the hohlraum through a 3-mm diameter hole on the lateral side of the hohlraum with a suite of diagnostics.The radiation entering the hohlraum was estimated by an additional suite of on-axis diagnostics, in a limited number of separate shots, when the hohlraum was not present. Additionally, the radiation generated outside the Cu annulus was monitored, for all shots, through a 3-mm diameter aperture located on the outside of the current return can. In the full paper, the characteristics of the radiation measured from these diagnostic sets, including the Planckian temperature of the hohlraum and radiation images, will be discussed as a function of the incident wire-array geometry (single vs nested array and array mass), target length (10, or 20 mm), annulus material (Cu, Au, or nothing), and CH-foam-fill density (10, 6, 2

  1. Conceptual design of a large E-beam-pumped KrF laser for ICF commercial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.B.; Waganer, L.M.; Zuckerman, D.S.; Bowers, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Two types of KrF lasers appear attractive as a driver for an ICF electric power plant. The original concept uses large electron-beam-pumped amplifiers and pure angular multiplexing to deliver short, shaped pulses to the target. A recently conceived alternate concept uses many small, long-pulse e-beam sustained discharge lasers which transfer their energy through the forward Raman process to a multiplexed set of beams to deliver the energy to target. Preliminary comparisons of the two systems indicate that the original concept has both a lower cost and a lower system efficiency, and both concepts appear to be nearly equally attractive as an ICF driver for an electric power plant. This paper examines a 4.8 MJ, 5 Hz KrF laser system designed using the original concept. The laser uses 24 main amplifiers arranged in eight sets of three amplifiers each. This layout optimizes both the optical system and the gas flow system, and uses a simple target illumination scheme that provides neutron shielding to allow hands-on maintenance in the laser hall

  2. Temporal behaviour of self generated magnetic field and its influence on inhibition of thermal flux in ICF plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, L.N.

    1989-06-01

    The self generated magnetic field of megagauss order is reported to play a crucial role in ICF target designs because of its strong influence on the transport of energy from the critical density region to the ablation layer. The inhibition of the thermal flux due to such a field, thus, affects the whole of the other phenomenon of ICF. The knowledge of the proper variation of the magnetic field may help in assigning the existing controversial value of flux limit, f. Many papers dealing with the spatial variation of such a field exist and are well documented but the study on the variation of self generated field with time is rare. Here, the spatial variation of the megagauss field generated in the corona of a wire target irradiated by a laser as well as a model to study the temporal nature of the B-field at the peak have been obtained by solving the self inhibited diffusion which is regarded as the most dominant mechanism by which the thermal transport is influenced. The field exists for about ten nanoseconds even after the laser is switched off. The ratio of the two components of the thermal conductivity is also plotted against time and shows the inhibition. So, a track on the B-field variation both in space and time is necessary to keep for at least a few nanoseconds for computation of f. (author). 19 refs, 4 figs

  3. ICF and casemix models for healthcare funding: use of the WHO family of classifications to improve casemix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Richard; Marshall, Ric; Race, Susan

    2013-06-01

    Casemix models for funding activity in health care and assessing performance depend on data based on uniformity of resource utilisation. It has long been an ideal to relate the measure of value more to patient outcome than output. A problem frequently expressed by clinicians is that measures of activity such as Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and Barthel Index scores may not sufficiently represent the aspirations of patients in many care programs. Firstly, the key features of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health are outlined. Secondly, the use of ICF dimensions in Australia and other countries is reviewed. Thirdly, a broader set of domains with potential for casemix funding models and performance reporting is considered. In recent years, the ICF has provided a more developed set of domains against which outcome goals can be expressed. Additional dimensions could be used to supplement existing data. Instances of developments in this area are identified and their potential discussed. A well-selected set of data items representing the broader dimensions of outcome goals may provide the ability to more meaningfully and systematically measure the goals of both curative and rehabilitation care against which outcome should be measured. More information about patient goals may be needed.

  4. Use of the Streaming Matrix Hybrid Method for discrete-ordinates fusion reactor calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battat, M.E.; Davidson, J.W.; Dudziak, D.J.; Thayer, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    The use of the discrete-ordinates method for solving two-dimensional, neutral-particle transport in fusion reactor blankets and shields is often limited by inherent inaccuracies due to the ray-effect. This effect presents a particular problem in the case of neutron streaming in the large internal void regions of a fusion reactor. A deterministic streaming technique called the Streaming Matrix Hybrid Method (SMHM) has been incorporated in the two-dimensional discrete-ordinates code TRIDENT-CTR. Calculations have been performed for an actual inertial-confinement fusion (ICF) reactor design using TRIDENT-CTR both with and without the SMHM. Comparisons of the calculated fluxes indicate that substantial mitigation of the ray effect can be achieved with the SMHM. Calculations were performed for the Los Alamos FIRST STEP hybrid ICF reactor designed for tritium production. Conventional 238 U fuel rod assemblies surround the spherical steel target chamber to form an annular cylindrical blanket. An axial fuel region is included to complete the blanket

  5. Comparison of subjective and objective assessments of outcome after traumatic brain injury using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Sanna; Hokkinen, Eeva-Maija; Wilson, Lindsay; Sarajuuri, Jaana; Von Steinbüchel, Nicole; Truelle, Jean-Luc

    2011-01-01

    The aim is to examine two aspects of outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Functional outcome was assessed by the Glasgow Outcome Scale - Extended (GOSE) and by clinician ratings, while health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was assessed by the Quality of Life after Brain Injury (QOLIBRI). The GOSE and the QOLIBRI were linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to analyse their content. Functional outcome on ICF categories was assessed by rehabilitation clinicians in 55 participants with TBI and was compared to the participants' own judgements of their HRQoL. The QOLIBRI was linked to 42 and the GOSE to 57 two-level ICF categories covering 78% of the categories on the ICF brief core set for TBI. The closest agreement in the views of the professionals and the participants was found on the Physical Problems and Cognition scales of the QOLIBRI. The problems encountered after TBI are well covered by the QOLIBRI and the GOSE. They capture important domains that are not traditionally sufficiently documented, especially in the domains of interpersonal relationships, social and leisure activities, self and the environment. The findings indicate that they are useful and complementary outcome measures for TBI. In rehabilitation, they can serve as tools in assessment, setting meaningful goals and creating therapeutic alliance.

  6. The International Classification of Disability, Functioning and Health (ICF) - an example of research methods and language in describing 'social functioning' in medical research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    Medical research ventures into the area of social life with a holistic approach to health and disabilities. However, the specific language developed for this kind of research in the 'ICF' model (adopted by the UN) loses sight of the very phenomena it aims at describing. By contrast, based...

  7. The Geriatric ICF Core Set reflecting health-related problems in community-living older adults aged 75 years and older without dementia : development and validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoorenberg, Sophie L. W.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Middel, Berrie; Uittenbroek, Ronald J.; Kremer, Hubertus P. H.; Wynia, Klaske

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to develop a valid Geriatric ICF Core Set reflecting relevant health-related problems of community-living older adults without dementia. Methods: A Delphi study was performed in order to reach consensus (70% agreement) on second-level categories from the

  8. Current Methods of Evaluating Speech-Language Outcomes for Preschoolers with Communication Disorders: A Scoping Review Using the ICF-CY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Barbara Jane; Washington, Karla N.; Binns, Amanda; Rolfe, Katelyn; Robertson, Bernadette; Rosenbaum, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this scoping review was to identify current measures used to evaluate speech-language outcomes for preschoolers with communication disorders within the framework of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Children and Youth Version (ICF-CY; World Health Organization, 2007). Method: The review…

  9. The Impact of Speech Impairment in Early Childhood: Investigating Parents' and Speech-Language Pathologists' Perspectives Using the ICF-CY

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Jane; McLeod, Sharynne; Harrison, Linda J.; McAllister, Lindy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the application of the Activities and Participation component of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Children and Youth (ICF-CY, World Health Organization, 2007) as a framework for investigating the perceived impact of speech impairment in childhood. Method: A 32-item questionnaire based on…

  10. Perspectives on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health: Child and Youth Version (ICF-CY) and Occupational Therapy Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramm, Heidi; Aiken, Alice B.; Stewart, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Classifying disability for children and youth has typically meant describing a diagnosis or developmental lag. The publication of the "International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: Child & Youth" version (ICF-CY) marks a global paradigm shift in the conceptualization and classification of childhood disability. Knowledge and…

  11. Can the ICF osteoarthritis core set represent a future clinical tool in measuring functioning in persons with osteoarthritis undergoing hip and knee joint replacement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alviar, Maria Jenelyn; Olver, John; Pallant, Julie F; Brand, Caroline; de Steiger, Richard; Pirpiris, Marinis; Bucknill, Andrew; Khan, Fary

    2012-11-01

    To determine the dimensionality, reliability, model fit, adequacy of the qualifier levels, response patterns across different factors, and targeting of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) osteoarthritis core set categories in people with osteoarthritis undergoing hip and knee arthroplasty. The osteoarthritis core set was rated in 316 persons with osteoarthritis who were either in the pre-operative or within one year post-operative stage. Rasch analyses were performed using the RUMM 2030 program. Twelve of the 13 body functions categories and 13 of the 19 activity and participation categories had good model fit. The qualifiers displayed disordered thresholds necessitating rescoring. There was uneven spread of ICF categories across the full range of the patients' scores indicating off--targeting. Subtest analysis of the reduced ICF categories of body functions and activity and participation showed that the two components could be integrated to form one measure. The results suggest that it is possible to measure functioning using a unidimensional construct based on ICF osteoarthritis core set categories of body functions and activity and participation in this population. However, omission of some categories and reduction in qualifier levels are necessary. Further studies are needed to determine whether better targeting is achieved, particularly during the pre-operative and during the sub-acute care period.

  12. Towards a standardized nutrition and dietetics terminology for clinical practice: An Austrian multicenter clinical documentation analysis based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF)-Dietetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gäbler, Gabriele; Coenen, Michaela; Lycett, Deborah; Stamm, Tanja

    2018-03-03

    High quality, continuity and safe interdisciplinary healthcare is essential. Nutrition and dietetics plays an important part within the interdisciplinary team in many health conditions. In order to work more effectively as an interdisciplinary team, a common terminology is needed. This study investigates which categories of the ICF-Dietetics are used in clinical dietetic care records in Austria and which are most relevant to shared language in different medical areas. A national multicenter retrospective study was conducted to collect clinical dietetic care documentation reports. The analysis included the "best fit" framework synthesis, and a mapping exercise using the ICF Linking Rules. Medical diagnosis and intervention concepts were excluded from the mapping, since they are not supposed to be classified by the ICF. From 100 dietetic records, 307 concepts from 1807 quotations were extracted. Of these, 241 assessment, dietetics diagnosis, goal setting and evaluation concepts were linked to 153 ICF-Dietetics categories. The majority (91.3%) could be mapped to a precise ICF-Dietetics category. The highest number of ICF-Dietetics categories was found in the medical area of diabetes and metabolism and belonged to the ICF component Body Function, while very few categories were used from the component Participation and Environmental Factors. The integration of the ICF-Dietetics in nutrition and dietetic care process is possible. Moreover, it could be considered as a conceptual framework for interdisciplinary nutrition and dietetics care. However, a successful implementation of the ICF-Dietetics in clinical practice requires a paradigm shift from medical diagnosis-focused health care to a holistic perspective of functioning with more attention on Participation and Environmental Factors. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Hybrid Qualifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Against the background of increasing qualification needs there is a growing awareness of the challenge to widen participation in processes of skill formation and competence development. At the same time, the issue of permeability between vocational education and training (VET) and general education...... has turned out as a major focus of European education and training policies and certainly is a crucial principle underlying the European Qualifications Framework (EQF). In this context, «hybrid qualifications» (HQ) may be seen as an interesting approach to tackle these challenges as they serve «two...

  14. Hybrid Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  15. ICF-CY as a Tool in Elementary School : An interview study of teacher experiences and perceptions of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for Children and Youth in their Work in Elementary School

    OpenAIRE

    Tulinius, Halla Kristín

    2008-01-01

    AIM OF THE STUDY The aim of this study was to explore if ICF-CY can support teachers in elementary schools in their work in promoting children’s health, development and learning. A further aim was to bring forward what teachers experience as benefits and disadvantages in using the classification.   METHOD After an introduction to ICF-CY, six elementary school teachers filled in questionnaires based on ICF-CY for 94 children. In conjunction with this, the teachers were interviewed about their ...

  16. Generation of an ICF syndrome model by efficient genome editing of human induced pluripotent stem cells using the CRISPR system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Takuro; Tamura, Daiki; Morita, Sumiyo; Kimura, Mika; Hatada, Izuho

    2013-09-30

    Genome manipulation of human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells is essential to achieve their full potential as tools for regenerative medicine. To date, however, gene targeting in human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) has proven to be extremely difficult. Recently, an efficient genome manipulation technology using the RNA-guided DNase Cas9, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system, has been developed. Here we report the efficient generation of an iPS cell model for immunodeficiency, centromeric region instability, facial anomalies syndrome (ICF) syndrome using the CRISPR system. We obtained iPS cells with mutations in both alleles of DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B) in 63% of transfected clones. Our data suggest that the CRISPR system is highly efficient and useful for genome engineering of human iPS cells.

  17. Development of the re-emit technique for ICF foot symmetry tuning for indirect drive ignition on NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewald, Eduard; Milovich, Jose; Edwards, John; Thomas, Cliff; Kalantar, Dan; Meeker, Don; Jones, Ogden

    2007-11-01

    Tuning of the the symmetry of the hohlraum radiation drive for the first 2 ns of the ICF pulse on NIF will be assessed by the re-emit technique [1] which measures the instantaneous x-ray drive asymmetry based on soft x-ray imaging of the re-emission of a high-Z sphere surrogate capsule. We will discuss the design of re-emit foot symmetry tuning measurements planned on NIF and their surrogacy for ignition experiments, including assessing the residual radiation asymmetry of the patches required for soft x-ray imaging. We will present the tuning strategy and expected accuracies based on calculations, analytical estimates and first results from scaled experiments performed at the Omega laser facility. [1] N. Delamater, G. Magelssen, A. Hauer, Phys. Rev. E 53, 5241 (1996.)

  18. Design process for applying the nonlocal thermal transport iSNB model to a Polar-Drive ICF simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Duc; Moses, Gregory; Delettrez, Jacques; Collins, Timothy

    2014-10-01

    A design process is presented for the nonlocal thermal transport iSNB (implicit Schurtz, Nicolai, and Busquet) model to provide reliable nonlocal thermal transport in polar-drive ICF simulations. Results from the iSNB model are known to be sensitive to changes in the SNB ``mean free path'' formula, and the latter's original form required modification to obtain realistic preheat levels. In the presented design process, SNB mean free paths are first modified until the model can match temperatures from Goncharov's thermal transport model in 1D temperature relaxation simulations. Afterwards the same mean free paths are tested in a 1D polar-drive surrogate simulation to match adiabats from Goncharov's model. After passing the two previous steps, the model can then be run in a full 2D polar-drive simulation. This research is supported by the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics.

  19. Generation of an ICF Syndrome Model by Efficient Genome Editing of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Using the CRISPR System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izuho Hatada

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Genome manipulation of human induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells is essential to achieve their full potential as tools for regenerative medicine. To date, however, gene targeting in human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs has proven to be extremely difficult. Recently, an efficient genome manipulation technology using the RNA-guided DNase Cas9, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR system, has been developed. Here we report the efficient generation of an iPS cell model for immunodeficiency, centromeric region instability, facial anomalies syndrome (ICF syndrome using the CRISPR system. We obtained iPS cells with mutations in both alleles of DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B in 63% of transfected clones. Our data suggest that the CRISPR system is highly efficient and useful for genome engineering of human iPS cells.

  20. Preparation of multishell ICF target plastic-foam cushion materials by thermally induced phase-inversion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, A.T.; Moreno, D.K.; Marsters, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    Homogenous, low-density plastic foams for ICF targets have been prepared by thermally induced phase inversion processes. Uniform, open cell foams have been obtained by the rapid freezing of water solutions of modified cellulose polymers with densities in the range of 5 mg/cm 3 to 0.7 mg/cm 3 and respective average cell sizes of 2 to 40 micrometers. In addition, low-density, microcellular foams have been prepared from the hydrocarbon polymer poly(4-methyl-l-pentene) via a similar phase inversion process using homogenous solutions in organic solvents. These foams have densities from 2 to 5 mg/cm 3 and average cell sizes of 20 micrometers. The physical-chemical aspects of the thermally induced phase inversion process is presented

  1. A pellet model of DT ignitor and DD fuel for an ICF reactor without tritium breeding blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ido, Shunji; Tazima, Teruhiko.

    1983-01-01

    A pellet concept of a DT ignitor and DD fuel for an ICF reactor without a tritium breeding blanket is analytically examined under the condition that T is bred through the DD reactions. There is the additional restriction that the tritium breeding ratio in a pellet is unity, including the in situ DT burn in the DD region. Model calculations show that sufficiently high pellet gain can be obtained in a DT-DD pellet, when fuel rhoR increases to --40 g/cm 2 and the fraction of energy released in the DD region becomes dominant. One-dimensional neutronics calculations carried out for a reference pellet model with rhoR --40 g/cm 2 show that the neutron heating in the compressed pellet model is evident and the total energy of the neutrons escaping from the pellet is reduced from --2000 MJ to 330 MJ for a microexplosion of --3000 MJ. (author)

  2. ANGARA-5-1 program development on superfast liner implosion for ICF physics study and basic research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branitskij, A V; Grabovskij, E V; Fedulov, M V [Troitsk Inst. for Innovation and Thermonuclear Investigation, Troitsk (Russian Federation); and others

    1997-12-31

    A double liner concept is proposed of utilizing pulsed power in investigations of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and High Energy Density Physics. In this project, an external cylindrical plasma shell (liner) magnetically imploded in the generator diode collides with the internal one. Thermal X-ray radiation brought about by a high-velocity shock wave penetrates into the internal liner cavity and irradiates a spherical target. Investigations at the ANGARA-5 generator were concentrated on a comprehensive study of physical processes and the possibility of short radiation pulse generation. Soft X-ray radiation intensities of up to 3 TW/cm{sup 2} with a 3 ns rise time were obtained. It follows from the theoretical model that for the generator current higher than 15 MA the radiation intensity should be close to the ignition threshold and magnetized plasma instabilities should be suppressed. The paper reports on the concept and the theoretical and experimental results. (author). 8 refs.

  3. Intuitionistic hybrid logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area.......Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area....

  4. ICF target 2D modeling using Monte Carlo SNB electron thermal transport in DRACO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenhall, Jeffrey; Cao, Duc; Moses, Gregory

    2016-10-01

    The iSNB (implicit Schurtz Nicolai Busquet multigroup diffusion electron thermal transport method is adapted into a Monte Carlo (MC) transport method to better model angular and long mean free path non-local effects. The MC model was first implemented in the 1D LILAC code to verify consistency with the iSNB model. Implementation of the MC SNB model in the 2D DRACO code enables higher fidelity non-local thermal transport modeling in 2D implosions such as polar drive experiments on NIF. The final step is to optimize the MC model by hybridizing it with a MC version of the iSNB diffusion method. The hybrid method will combine the efficiency of a diffusion method in intermediate mean free path regions with the accuracy of a transport method in long mean free path regions allowing for improved computational efficiency while maintaining accuracy. Work to date on the method will be presented. This work was supported by Sandia National Laboratories and the Univ. of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics.

  5. Hybridized Tetraquarks

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, A.; Polosa, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X, Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules. The latter would require a negative or zero binding energy whose counterpart in h-tetraquarks is a positive quantity. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs pi+- channel by the D0 collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X, Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568) are also made.

  6. Which outcomes are most important to people with aphasia and their families? an international nominal group technique study framed within the ICF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Sarah J; Worrall, Linda; Rose, Tanya; Le Dorze, Guylaine; Cruice, Madeline; Isaksen, Jytte; Kong, Anthony Pak Hin; Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Scarinci, Nerina; Gauvreau, Christine Alary

    2017-07-01

    To identify important treatment outcomes from the perspective of people with aphasia and their families using the ICF as a frame of reference. The nominal group technique was used with people with aphasia and their family members in seven countries to identify and rank important treatment outcomes from aphasia rehabilitation. People with aphasia identified outcomes for themselves; and family members identified outcomes for themselves and for the person with aphasia. Outcomes were analysed using qualitative content analysis and ICF linking. A total of 39 people with aphasia and 29 family members participated in one of 16 nominal groups. Inductive qualitative content analysis revealed the following six themes: (1) Improved communication; (2) Increased life participation; (3) Changed attitudes through increased awareness and education about aphasia; (4) Recovered normality; (5) Improved physical and emotional well-being; and (6) Improved health (and support) services. Prioritized outcomes for both participant groups linked to all ICF components; primary activity/participation (39%) and body functions (36%) for people with aphasia, and activity/participation (49%) and environmental factors (28%) for family members. Outcomes prioritized by family members relating to the person with aphasia, primarily linked to body functions (60%). People with aphasia and their families identified treatment outcomes which span all components of the ICF. This has implications for research outcome measurement and clinical service provision which currently focuses on the measurement of body function outcomes. The wide range of desired outcomes generated by both people with aphasia and their family members, highlights the importance of collaborative goal setting within a family-centred approach to rehabilitation. These results will be combined with other stakeholder perspectives to establish a core outcome set for aphasia treatment research. Implications for Rehabilitation Important

  7. Continuity controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation

  8. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  9. Continuity controlled hybrid automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  10. Continuity controlled hybrid automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  11. Towards comprehensive and transparent reporting: context-specific additions to the ICF taxonomy for medical evaluations of work capacity involving claimants with chronic widespread pain and low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwegler, Urban; Anner, Jessica; Glässel, Andrea; Brach, Mirjam; De Boer, Wout; Cieza, Alarcos; Trezzini, Bruno

    2014-08-29

    Medical evaluations of work capacity provide key information for decisions on a claimant's eligibility for disability benefits. In recent years, the evaluations have been increasingly criticized for low transparency and poor standardization. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) provides a comprehensive spectrum of categories for reporting functioning and its determinants in terms of impairments and contextual factors and could facilitate transparent and standardized documentation of medical evaluations of work capacity. However, the comprehensiveness of the ICF taxonomy in this particular context has not been empirically examined. In this study, we wanted to identify potential context-specific additions to the ICF for its application in medical evaluations of work capacity involving chronic widespread pain (CWP) and low back pain (LBP). A retrospective content analysis of Swiss medical reports was conducted by using the ICF for data coding. Concepts not appropriately classifiable with ICF categories were labeled as specification categories (i.e. context-specific additions) and were assigned to predefined specification areas (i.e. precision, coverage, personal factors, and broad concepts). Relevant specification categories for medical evaluations of work capacity involving CWP and LBP were determined by calculating their relative frequency across reports and setting a relevance threshold. Forty-three specification categories for CWP and fifty-two for LBP reports passed the threshold. In both groups of reports, precision was the most frequent specification area, followed by personal factors. The ICF taxonomy represents a universally applicable standard for reporting health and functioning information. However, when applying the ICF for comprehensive and transparent reporting in medical evaluations of work capacity involving CWP and LBP context-specific additions are needed. This is particularly true for the documentation of

  12. The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire (DASH can measure the impairment, activity limitations and participation restriction constructs from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McQueen Margaret

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF model of the consequences of disease identifies three health outcomes, impairment, activity limitations and participation restrictions. However, few orthopaedic health outcome measures were developed with reference to the ICF. This study examined the ability of a valid and frequently used measure of upper limb function, namely the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire (DASH, to operationalise the ICF. Methods Twenty-four judges used the method of Discriminant Content Validation to allocate the 38 items of the DASH to the theoretical definition of one or more ICF outcome. One-sample t-tests classified each item as measuring, impairment, activity limitations, participation restrictions, or a combination thereof. Results The DASH contains items able to measure each of the three ICF outcomes with discriminant validity. The DASH contains five pure impairment items, 19 pure activity limitations items and three participation restriction items. In addition, seven items measured both activity limitations and participation restrictions. Conclusion The DASH can measure the three health outcomes identified by the ICF. Consequently the DASH could be used to examine the impact of trauma and subsequent interventions on each health outcome in the absence of measurement confound.

  13. Corporate Hybrid Bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlberg, Johan; Jansson, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid securities do not constitute a new phenomenon in the Swedish capital markets. Most commonly, hybrids issued by Swedish real estate companies in recent years are preference shares. Corporate hybrid bonds on the other hand may be considered as somewhat of a new-born child in the family of hybrid instruments. These do, as all other hybrid securities, share some equity-like and some debt-like characteristics. Nevertheless, since 2013 the interest for the instrument has grown rapidly and ha...

  14. Hybrid XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckel, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In the last 10 years significant innovations of EDXRF, e.g. total reflection XRF or polarized beam XRF, were utilized in different industrial applications. The decrease of background within the spectra was the goal of these developments. Excellent detection limits and sensitivities demonstrate the success of these new techniques. Nevertheless, further improvements are possible by using Si drift detectors. These detectors allow the processing of input count rates up to 10 6 cps in comparison to 10 5 of Si(Li) detectors. New excitation optics are necessary to produce such count rates. One possibility is the use of doubly curved crystals between tube and sample. These crystals enable the reflection of the primary beam within the given solid angle (0.4π) of an end window tube to the sample. Using such brightness optics excellent sensitivities mainly for light elements are achievable. The combination of a BRAGG crystal as a wavelength dispersive component and a solid state detector as an energy dispersive component creates a new technique: hybrid XRF. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  15. A transversal multicenter study assessing functioning, disability and environmental factors with the comprehensive ICF core set for low back pain in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riberto, M; Chiappetta, L M; Lopes, K A; Chiappetta, L R

    2014-04-01

    Low back pain is a leading cause of disability in Brazil. The multiple aspects of disability in these patients require comprehensive tools for their assessment. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) core set for low back pain is designed to comprehensively describe the experience of such patients with their functioning. This study aimed to describe functioning and contextual factors and to empirically validate the ICF core set for low back pain. Cross sectional study. Three outpatient clinics in Manaus, Maceio and São Paulo, Brazil. Population. 135 low back pain outpatients under rehabilitation. Data concerning diagnosis, personal features, and the 78 ICF core set categories for low back pain were collected from clinical charts, physical examinations, tests, and interviews with patients from rehabilitation services in three parts of Brazil. 7.7% of the categories (6 body functions and 10 activity and participation) were affected in less than 20% of the sample, and were thus considered not validated. Pain and other sensations related to the musculoskeletal system were the body most frequently impaired functions. Mobility and domestic life were the chapters of activity and limitation most often described as limited. All environmental factors were qualified as either facilitators or barriers and acted as modulators of disability. The comprehensive ICF core sets for low back pain can be used to describe the living experience of such individuals, although efforts to make it operational and enhance the reproducibility of the results are needed to warrant its reliable routine use. This study highlights the importance of a complete assessment of chronic low back pain and demonstrate the need for multidisciplinary approach.

  16. Moderators, mediators, and bidirectional relationships in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework: An empirical investigation using a longitudinal design and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouquette, Alexandra; Badley, Elizabeth M; Falissard, Bruno; Dub, Timothée; Leplege, Alain; Coste, Joël

    2015-06-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) published in 2001 describes the consequences of health conditions with three components of impairments in body structures or functions, activity limitations and participation restrictions. Two of the new features of the conceptual model were the possibility of feedback effects between each ICF component and the introduction of contextual factors conceptualized as moderators of the relationship between the components. The aim of this longitudinal study is to provide empirical evidence of these two kinds of effect. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze data from a French population-based cohort of 548 patients with knee osteoarthritis recruited between April 2007 and March 2009 and followed for three years. Indicators of the body structure and function, activity and participation components of the ICF were derived from self-administered standardized instruments. The measurement model revealed four separate factors for body structures impairments, body functions impairments, activity limitations and participation restrictions. The classic sequence from body impairments to participation restrictions through activity limitations was found at each assessment time. Longitudinal study of the ICF component relationships showed a feedback pathway indicating that the level of participation restrictions at baseline was predictive of activity limitations three years later. Finally, the moderating role of personal (age, sex, mental health, etc.) and environmental factors (family relationships, mobility device use, etc.) was investigated. Three contextual factors (sex, family relationships and walking stick use) were found to be moderators for the relationship between the body impairments and the activity limitations components. Mental health was found to be a mediating factor of the effect of activity limitations on participation restrictions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  17. Hybrid mimics and hybrid vigor in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Greaves, Ian K.; Groszmann, Michael; Wu, Li Min; Dennis, Elizabeth S.; Peacock, W. James

    2015-01-01

    F1 hybrids can outperform their parents in yield and vegetative biomass, features of hybrid vigor that form the basis of the hybrid seed industry. The yield advantage of the F1 is lost in the F2 and subsequent generations. In Arabidopsis, from F2 plants that have a F1-like phenotype, we have by recurrent selection produced pure breeding F5/F6 lines, hybrid mimics, in which the characteristics of the F1 hybrid are stabilized. These hybrid mimic lines, like the F1 hybrid, have larger leaves than the parent plant, and the leaves have increased photosynthetic cell numbers, and in some lines, increased size of cells, suggesting an increased supply of photosynthate. A comparison of the differentially expressed genes in the F1 hybrid with those of eight hybrid mimic lines identified metabolic pathways altered in both; these pathways include down-regulation of defense response pathways and altered abiotic response pathways. F6 hybrid mimic lines are mostly homozygous at each locus in the genome and yet retain the large F1-like phenotype. Many alleles in the F6 plants, when they are homozygous, have expression levels different to the level in the parent. We consider this altered expression to be a consequence of transregulation of genes from one parent by genes from the other parent. Transregulation could also arise from epigenetic modifications in the F1. The pure breeding hybrid mimics have been valuable in probing the mechanisms of hybrid vigor and may also prove to be useful hybrid vigor equivalents in agriculture. PMID:26283378

  18. Effects of molecular weight of PVA on formation, stability and deformation of compound droplets for ICF polymer shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meifang; Zheng, Yueqing; Li, Jie; Chen, Sufen; Liu, Yiyang; Li, Jing; Li, Bo; Zhang, Zhanwen

    2017-01-01

    Sphericity and wall thickness uniformity are some of the hardest specifications to fulfill, as required by inertial confined fusion (ICF) research for polymer shells prepared by the microencapsulation technique. Driven by the need to control the deformation of compound droplets, the effects of the molecular weight of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) on the formation and stability of the droplets, as well as the sphericity and wall thickness uniformity of the resulting shells, were investigated. On increasing the molecular weight of the PVA, the densities of the external water phases (W2) are almost the same, but the viscosity of the W2 phase increases more quickly than the interfacial tension. This makes the detaching force increase more quickly than the upward one, causing the formation of compound droplets and detachment from the oil tube. On the other hand, the increase in interfacial tension makes the maximum pressures ( P max) in the O phase (O) of the compound droplets increase, causing them to rupture easily and decreasing their stability. However, for PVA with the same molecular weight, the viscous shear force in the flowing field reduces the role of gravity and makes the inner water droplet move towards the center of the compound droplet, decreasing its P max in the flowing field and improving its stability. Moreover, during the solidifying process, the viscous shear force increases more quickly than the interfacial tension force due to the quicker increase in viscosity with an increase in the molecular weight of the PVA. The increase in the viscous shear force can make the droplets deform, resulting in a decrease in their sphericity. However, the appropriate viscous shear force can also center the compound droplet—although they become decentered when the viscous shear force is too large, leading to the wall thickness uniformity increasing at first before decreasing quickly. The results presented in this work provide a more in-depth understanding of the

  19. Progress in symmetric ICF capsule implosions and wire-array z-pinch source physics for double z-pinch driven hohlraums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliss, David Emery; Vesey, Roger Alan; Rambo, Patrick K.; Lebedev, Sergey V.; Hanson, David L.; Nash, Thomas J.; Yu, Edmund P.; Matzen, Maurice Keith; Afeyan, Bedros B.; Smith, Ian Craig; Stygar, William A.; Porter, John Larry Jr.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Bennett, Guy R.; Campbell, Robert B.; Sinars, Daniel Brian; Chittenden, Jeremy Paul; Waisman, Eduardo Mario; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan

    2005-01-01

    Over the last several years, rapid progress has been made evaluating the double-z-pinch indirect-drive, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) high-yield target concept (Hammer et al 1999 Phys. Plasmas 6 2129). We have demonstrated efficient coupling of radiation from two wire-array-driven primary hohlraums to a secondary hohlraum that is large enough to drive a high yield ICF capsule. The secondary hohlraum is irradiated from two sides by z-pinches to produce low odd-mode radiation asymmetry. This double-pinch source is driven from a single electrical power feed (Cuneo et al 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 215004) on the 20 MA Z accelerator. The double z-pinch has imploded ICF capsules with even-mode radiation symmetry of 3.1 ± 1.4% and to high capsule radial convergence ratios of 14-21 (Bennett et al 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 245002; Bennett et al 2003 Phys. Plasmas 10 3717; Vesey et al 2003 Phys. Plasmas 10 1854). Advances in wire-array physics at 20 MA are improving our understanding of z-pinch power scaling with increasing drive current. Techniques for shaping the z-pinch radiation pulse necessary for low adiabat capsule compression have also been demonstrated.

  20. Using a profile of a modified Brief ICF Core Set for chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain with qualifiers for baseline assessment in interdisciplinary pain rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Löfgren M

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Monika Löfgren,1,2 Jan Ekholm,2 Lisbet Broman,3 Philipe Njoo,1 Marie-Louise Schult1–3 1Department of Rehabilitation Medicine Stockholm, Danderyd University Hospital, Sweden; 2Karolinska Institutet, Division of Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Karolinska Institutet, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Stockholm, Sweden Aim: To describe the use of a “workable” visual profile of function and disability, based on a modified Brief International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF Core Set for chronic widespread pain, for initial assessments in a clinical setting of interdisciplinary pain rehabilitation teams. Method: The Brief ICF Core Set was slightly adapted to meet the needs of an interdisciplinary rehabilitation medicine team working in a university outpatient clinic and admitting patients referred from primary care. The Core Set categories were made measurable by means of eg, assessment instruments and clinical investigations. The resulting profile was given a workable shape to facilitate rapid understanding of the initial assessment outcome. Results: Individual patients showed different profiles of problems and resources, which facilitated individual rehabilitation planning. At the level of the study group, the profiles for the Core Set component Body Functions showed that most patients had severe impairment in the sensation of pain and exercise tolerance categories of function, but most had resources in the motivation and memory categories of function. Likewise, for the component Activities, most patients had limitations in lifting and carrying objects and remunerative employment, but most had resources in intimate relationships and family relationships. At first, the use of the modified Brief ICF Core Set in the team conference was rather time consuming, but after a couple of months of experience, the team assessment took

  1. Avaliação da funcionalidade de idosos institucionalizados: relação entre a MIF e a ICF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Cristina Malezan Fleig

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: demonstrar através da Medida de Independência Funcional (MIF, as características funcionais de idosos em instituições de longa permanência para idosos (ILPI’s, identificando a possível relação deste instrumento com a Classificação Internacional de Funcionalidade, Incapacidade e Saúde (ICF. Método: trata-se de um estudo transversal, com 55 idosos institucionalizados com idade média de 79,7±10,2 anos. A capacidade funcional foi avaliada através da MIF, sendo os domínios deste instrumento relacionados com as categorias da ICF. Cada idoso foi qualificado, quanto às limitações funcionais conforme a ICF. A análise de dados foi descrita em média, desvio padrão e frequência. Resultados: 72,7% dos idosos eram do sexo feminino, sendo a doença de Alzheimer o diagnóstico mais observado (45,4%. No que diz respeito à capacidade funcional, houve um predomínio de idosos com independência completa (47,3%. Na relação das categorias da ICF, com os domínios do instrumento de avaliação funcional, mostrou-se positiva em todos os itens. Considerações finais: os resultados indicam que os idosos em questão apresentavam independência completa para realizar suas atividades de vida diária. Além disso, a relação do instrumento de avaliação funcional com a ICF possibilitou-nos uma visão ampliada sobre o processo de envelhecimento de uma população de idosos institucionalizados, principalmente no componente Atividade e Participação, podendo ser utilizada como indicadora para o desenvolvimento de estratégias e propostas de intervenções que favoreçam a demanda clínica e pessoal destes idosos.

  2. Sol-gel optical thin films for an advanced megajoule-class Nd:glass laser ICF-driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floch, H.G.; Belleville, P.F.; Pegon, P.M.; Dijonneau, C.S.; Guerain, J.

    1995-01-01

    It is well established by manufacturers and users that optical coatings are generally prepared by the well known Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) technology. In the authors' opinion sol-gel technology is an effective and competitive alternative. The aim of this paper is to emphasize on the sol-gel thin film work carried out at Centre d'Etudes de Limeil-Valenton (CEL-V) and concerning the technology for high power lasers. The authors will briefly discuss the chemistry of the sol-gel process, the production of optical coatings and the related deposition techniques. Finally, the paper describes the preparation and performance of sol-gel optical coatings they have developed to fulfill the requirements of a future 2 MJ/500 TW (351 nm) pulsed Nd:glass laser so-called LMJ (Laser MegaJoules). This powerful laser is to be used for their national Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program, to demonstrate at the laboratory scale, ignition of deuterium-tritium fusion fuel. Moreover, the aim of this article is, hopefully, to provide a convincing argument that coatings and particularly optical coatings, are some of the useful products available from sol-gel technology, and that exciting developments in other areas are almost certain to emerge within the coming decade

  3. [Resource management: ICF-oriented exercise programs for patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. Chronic illnesses and biopsychosocial status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, K; Huber, G; Baldus, A; Pöthig, D; Schüle, K

    2012-02-01

    Common health problems are increasing due to the combination of decreased physical activity demands in everyday life and demographic changes; thus, the importance of exercise therapy is increasing. The incidence and prevalence of today's predominant chronic diseases are directly related to physical activity. However, daily clinical routine does not stay abreast with these changes. The education of physicians, and thus their scope of action, is dominated by biomedical therapy concepts, predominantly drug therapy concepts. Differential and consolidated findings of modern exercise and sport science are astonishingly rare in the counselling and treatment portfolio of medical care. The present disease management program for persons with diabetes mellitus type 2 is a good example. Referring to this background, the authors address the new approach of "ICF-oriented exercise programs and biopsychosocial status." They present resource-related interventional strategies and health care concepts for chronic health disorders like the metabolic syndrome or diabetes mellitus type 2. The relevance and use of active health promotion and care - due to lifestyle- and age-related health problems of the population - will increase in importance and be more commonly recommended.

  4. Dynamics of a Z Pinch X Ray Source for Heating ICF Relevant Hohlraums to 120-160eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SANFORD,THOMAS W. L.; OLSON,RICHARD E.; MOCK,RAYMOND CECIL; CHANDLER,GORDON A.; LEEPER,RAMON J.; NASH,THOMAS J.; RUGGLES,LAURENCE E.; SIMPSON,WALTER W.; STRUVE,KENNETH W.; PETERSON,D.L.; BOWERS,R.L.; MATUSKA,W.

    2000-07-10

    A z-pinch radiation source has been developed that generates 60 {+-} 20 KJ of x-rays with a peak power of 13 {+-} 4 TW through a 4-mm diameter axial aperture on the Z facility. The source has heated NIF (National Ignition Facility)-scale (6-mm diameter by 7-mm high) hohlraums to 122 {+-} 6 eV and reduced-scale (4-mm diameter by 4-mm high) hohlraums to 155 {+-} 8 eV -- providing environments suitable for indirect-drive ICF (Inertial Confinement Fusion) studies. Eulerian-RMHC (radiation-hydrodynamics code) simulations that take into account the development of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the r-z plane provide integrated calculations of the implosion, x-ray generation, and hohlraum heating, as well as estimates of wall motion and plasma fill within the hohlraums. Lagrangian-RMHC simulations suggest that the addition of a 6 mg/cm{sup 3} CH{sub 2} fill in the reduced-scale hohlraum decreases hohlraum inner-wall velocity by {approximately}40% with only a 3--5% decrease in peak temperature, in agreement with measurements.

  5. A review of the ablative stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in regimes relevant to ICF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilkenny, J.D.; Glendinning, S.G.; Haan, S.W.; Hammel, B.A.; Lindl, J.D.; Munro, D.; Remington, B.A.; Weber, S.V.; Knauer, J.P.; Verdon, C.P.

    1993-12-01

    It has been recognized for many years that the most significant limitation of ICF is the Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability. It limits the distance an ablatively driven shell can be moved to several times its initial thickness. Fortunately material flow through the unstable region at velocity v A reduces the growth rate to √ 1+kL / kg -βkv A with β from 2-3. In recent years experiments using both x-ray drive and smoothed laser drive to accelerate foils have confirmed our understanding of the R-T instability. The growth of small initial modulations on the foils is measured for growth factors up to 60 for direct drive and 80 for indirect drive. For x-ray drive large stabilization is evident After some growth, the instability enters the non-linear phase when mode coupling and saturation are also seen and compare well with modeling. Normalized growth rates for direct drive are measured to be higher, but strategies for reduction by raising the isentrope are being investigated. For direct drive, high spatial frequencies are imprinted from the laser beam and amplified by the R-T instability. Modeling shows an understanding of this ''laser imprinting.''

  6. Design options for reducing the impact of the fill-tube in ICF implosion experiments on the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Christopher R.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Casey, D. T.; Clark, D. S.; Hammel, B. A.; Le Pape, S.; Macphee, A.; Milovich, J.; Pickworth, L. A.; Robey, H. F.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Stadermann, M.; Felker, S. J.; Nikroo, A.; Thomas, C. A.; Crippen, J.; Rice, N.

    2017-10-01

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) capsules on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are filled with thermonuclear fuel through a fill-tube. When the capsule implodes, perturbations caused by the fill-tube allow ablator material to mix into the hot spot and reduce fusion performance. This talk will explore several design options that attempt to reduce this damaging effect. Reducing the diameter of the fill-tube and its entrance hole is the obvious course and has been tested in experiments. Simulations also show sensitivity to the amount of glue holding the fill-tube to the capsule and suggest that careful control of this feature can limit the amount of injected mass. Finally, an off-axis fill-tube reduces the initial squirt of material into the fuel and may be a way of further optimizing this engineering feature. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. D.O.E. by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  7. Dynamics of a Z Pinch X Ray Source for Heating ICF Relevant Hohlraums to 120-160eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, Thomas W.L.; Olson, Richard E.; Mock, Raymond Cecil; Chandler, Gordon A.; Leeper, Ramon J.; Nash, Thomas J.; Ruggles, Laurence E.; Simpson, Walter W.; Struve, Kenneth W.; Peterson, D.L.; Bowers, R.L.; Matuska, W.

    2000-01-01

    A z-pinch radiation source has been developed that generates 60 ± 20 KJ of x-rays with a peak power of 13 ± 4 TW through a 4-mm diameter axial aperture on the Z facility. The source has heated NIF (National Ignition Facility)-scale (6-mm diameter by 7-mm high) hohlraums to 122 ± 6 eV and reduced-scale (4-mm diameter by 4-mm high) hohlraums to 155 ± 8 eV -- providing environments suitable for indirect-drive ICF (Inertial Confinement Fusion) studies. Eulerian-RMHC (radiation-hydrodynamics code) simulations that take into account the development of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the r-z plane provide integrated calculations of the implosion, x-ray generation, and hohlraum heating, as well as estimates of wall motion and plasma fill within the hohlraums. Lagrangian-RMHC simulations suggest that the addition of a 6 mg/cm 3 CH 2 fill in the reduced-scale hohlraum decreases hohlraum inner-wall velocity by ∼40% with only a 3--5% decrease in peak temperature, in agreement with measurements

  8. Hybrid Management in Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Jespersen, Peter Kragh

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer......Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer...

  9. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  10. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  11. Hybrid quantum information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  12. The MentDis_ICF65+ study protocol: prevalence, 1-year incidence and symptom severity of mental disorders in the elderly and their relationship to impairment, functioning (ICF) and service utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Sylke; Härter, Martin; Volkert, Jana; Hausberg, Maria; Sehner, Susanne; Wegscheider, Karl; Rabung, Sven; Ausín, Berta; Canuto, Alessandra; Da Ronch, Chiara; Grassi, Luigi; Hershkovitz, Yael; Lelliott, Paul; Muñoz, Manuel; Quirk, Alan; Rotenstein, Ora; Santos-Olmo, Ana Belén; Shalev, Arieh; Siegert, Jens; Weber, Kerstin; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Koch, Uwe; Schulz, Holger

    2013-02-18

    The EU currently lacks reliable data on the prevalence and incidence of mental disorders in older people. Despite the availability of several national and international epidemiological studies, the size and burden of mental disorders in the elderly remain unclear due to various reasons. Therefore, the aims of the MentDis_ICF65+ study are (1) to adapt existing assessment instruments, and (2) to collect data on the prevalence, the incidence, and the natural course and prognosis of mental disorders in the elderly. Using a cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal design, this multi-centre study from six European countries and associated states (Germany, Great Britain, Israel, Italy, Spain, and Switzerland) is based on age-stratified, random samples of elderly people living in the community. The study program consists of three phases: (1) a methodological phase devoted primarily to the adaptation of age- and gender-specific assessment tools for older people (e.g., the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, CIDI) as well as psychometric evaluations including translation, back translation; (2) a baseline community study in all participating countries to assess the lifetime, 12 month and 1 month prevalence and comorbidity of mental disorders, including prior course, quality of life, health care utilization and helpseeking, impairments and participation and, (3) a 12 month follow-up of all baseline participants to monitor course and outcome as well as examine predictors. The study is an essential step forward towards the further development and improvement of harmonised instruments for the assessment of mental disorders as well as the evaluation of activity impairment and participation in older adults. This study will also facilitate the comparison of cross-cultural results. These results will have bearing on mental health care in the EU and will offer a starting point for necessary structural changes to be initiated for mental health care policy at the level of

  13. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-04-01

    Natural hybridization is reproduction (without artificial influence) between two or more species/populations which are distinguishable from each other by heritable characters. Natural hybridizations among marine fishes were highly underappreciated due to limited research effort; it seems that this phenomenon occurs more often than is commonly recognized. As hybridization plays an important role in biodiversity processes in the marine environment, detecting hybridization events and investigating hybridization is important to understand and protect biodiversity. The first chapter sets the framework for this disseration study. The Cohesion Species Concept was selected as the working definition of a species for this study as it can handle marine fish hybridization events. The concept does not require restrictive species boundaries. A general history and background of natural hybridization in marine fishes is reviewed during in chapter as well. Four marine fish hybridization cases were examed and documented in Chapters 2 to 5. In each case study, at least one diagnostic nuclear marker, screened from among ~14 candidate markers, was found to discriminate the putative hybridizing parent species. To further investigate genetic evidence to support the hybrid status for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations together, the potential reasons that triggered each hybridization events and the potential genetic/ecology effects could be discussed. In the last chapter, sequences from 82 pairs of hybridizing parents species (for which COI barcoding sequences were available either on GenBank or in our lab) were collected. By comparing the COI fragment p-distance between each hybridizing parent species, some general questions about marine fish hybridization were discussed: Is

  14. Applicability of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF for evaluation of children with cerebral palsy: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian de Fátima Dornelas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine and synthesize the knowledge available in the literature on the instruments used in the perspective of functionality in children with cerebral palsy (CP, and to review the literature evaluating the instruments used for the implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF in children with CP. Method: The search was conducted in the electronic databases Google Scholar, PubMed, Lilacs and Medline, for articles published between January 2006 and December 2012, using the following keywords: cerebral palsy, child and assessment, combined with ICF. Ten articles were selected for analysis according to pre-established criteria. Results: The authors proposed tools that could standardize the assessment for classification of the components “Structure and function of the body”, “Activities and Participation” and “Environmental Factors”, proposing instruments such as Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM, Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI, Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS, Manual Ability Classification System (MACS, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS, Physicians Rating Scale (PRS, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS, Pediatric Functional Independence Measure (Wee FIM, Gillette Functional Assessment Questionnaire (FAQ, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL, Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI, Gillette Gait Index (GGI, Energy Expenditure Index (EEI, and Vécu et Santé Perçue de l’Adolescent (VSP-A. Conclusion: The domains “Structure and function of the body” and “Activities and Participation” are often classified according to ICF in children with CP, and they present a variety of instrumentation for applicability of classification.

  15. Comparison of physical activity questionnaires for the elderly with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF)--an analysis of content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Katharina G; Lange, Martin A

    2015-03-14

    Physical activity questionnaires (PAQ) have been extensively used to determine physical activity (PA) levels. Most PAQ are derived from an energy expenditure-based perspective and assess activities with a certain intensity level. Activities with a moderate or vigorous intensity level are predominantly used to determine a person's PA level in terms of quantity. Studies show that the time spent engaging in moderate and vigorous intensity PA does not appropriately reflect the actual PA behavior of older people because they perform more functional, everyday activities. Those functional activities are more likely to be considered low-intense and represent an important qualitative health-promoting activity. For the elderly, functional, light intensity activities are of special interest but are assessed differently in terms of quantity and quality. The aim was to analyze the content of PAQ for the elderly. N = 18 sufficiently validated PAQ applicable to adults (60+) were included. Each item (N = 414) was linked to the corresponding code of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) using established linking rules. Kappa statistics were calculated to determine rater agreement. Items were linked to 598 ICF codes and 62 different ICF categories. A total of 43.72% of the codes were for sports-related activities and 14.25% for walking-related activities. Only 9.18% of all codes were related to household tasks. Light intensity, functional activities are emphasized differently and are underrepresented in most cases. Additionally, sedentary activities are underrepresented (5.55%). κ coefficients were acceptable for n = 16 questionnaires (0.48-1.00). There is a large inconsistency in the understandings of PA in elderly. Further research should focus (1) on a conceptual understanding of PA in terms of the behavior of the elderly and (2) on developing questionnaires that inquire functional, light intensity PA, as well as sedentary

  16. HIV/AIDS: use of the ICF in Brazil and South Africa--comparative data from four cross-sectional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myezwa, H; Buchalla, C M; Jelsma, J; Stewart, A

    2011-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a serious disease which can be associated with various activity limitations and participation restrictions. The aim of this paper was to describe how HIV affects the functioning and health of people within different environmental contexts, particularly with regard to access to medication. Four cross-sectional studies, three in South Africa and one in Brazil, had applied the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a classification instrument to participants living with HIV. Each group was at a different stage of the disease. Only two groups had had continuing access to antiretroviral therapy. The existence of these descriptive sets enabled comparison of the disability experienced by people living with HIV at different stages of the disease and with differing access to antiretroviral therapy. Common problems experienced in all groups related to weight maintenance, with two-thirds of the sample reporting problems in this area. Mental functions presented the most problems in all groups, with sleep (50%, 92/185), energy and drive (45%, 83/185), and emotional functions (49%, 90/185) being the most affected. In those on long-term therapy, body image affected 93% (39/42) and was a major problem. The other groups reported pain as a problem, and those with limited access to treatment also reported mobility problems. Cardiopulmonary functions were affected in all groups. Functional problems occurred in the areas of impairment and activity limitation in people at advanced stages of HIV, and more limitations occurred in the area of participation for those on antiretroviral treatment. The ICF provided a useful framework within which to describe the functioning of those with HIV and the impact of the environment. Given the wide spectrum of problems found, consideration could be given to a number of ICF core sets that are relevant to the different stages of HIV disease. Copyright © 2010 Chartered Society of

  17. Exploring the relationships between International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) constructs of Impairment, Activity Limitation and Participation Restriction in people with osteoarthritis prior to joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Beth; Johnston, Marie; Dieppe, Paul

    2011-05-16

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) proposes three main constructs, impairment (I), activity limitation (A) and participation restriction (P). The ICF model allows for all paths between the constructs to be explored, with significant paths likely to vary for different conditions. The relationships between I, A and P have been explored in some conditions but not previously in people with osteoarthritis prior to joint replacement. The aim of this paper is to examine these relationships using separate measures of each construct and structural equation modelling. A geographical cohort of 413 patients with osteoarthritis about to undergo hip and knee joint replacement completed the Aberdeen measures of Impairment, Activity Limitation and Participation Restriction (Ab-IAP). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the three factor (I, A, P) measurement model. Structural equation modelling was used to explore the I, A and P pathways in the ICF model. There was support from confirmatory factor analysis for the three factor I, A, P measurement model. The structural equation model had good fit [S-B Chi-square = 439.45, df = 149, CFI robust = 0.91, RMSEA robust = 0.07] and indicated significant pathways between I and A (standardised coefficient = 0.76 p < 0.0001) and between A and P (standardised coefficient = 0.75 p < 0.0001). However, the path between I and P was not significant (standardised coefficient = 0.01). The significant pathways suggest that treatments and interventions aimed at reducing impairment, such as joint replacement, may only affect P indirectly, through A, however, longitudinal data would be needed to establish this.

  18. The design and fabrication of power splitter used in the timescale system of soft X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer in ICF experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huige; China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang; Bai Lixin; Yu Ruizhen; Yang Cunbang; Su Cunxiao

    2006-01-01

    An improved eight power splitter is designed and fabricated newly, which is crucial in the time-scale system of soft X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer. The spectrometer is used in ICF laser facility to measure the evolution of soft X-ray spectrum, whose duration is only several nanoseconds. The synchronization and high bandwidth of signals produced by power splitter are tested, which shows the power splitter could meet the strict requirements of the experiments. The discussion of further improvement of power splitter are also presented. (authors)

  19. Proposal of the School Children Support System Using ICF to Communicate with the Teachers, the Specialists and the Guardians, Requiring Special Support Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogoshi, Yasuhiro; Nakai, Akio; Mitsuhashi, Yoshinori; Araki, Chikahiro

    At the present, educational support is required to the school children who confronts problems on study, life style, mental and health. For the school children who hold these problems, inference and understanding of those around adults are mandatory, for that intimate cooperation between the school, home and specialized agencies should be important. With above reason, the school children support system using ICF to communicate the school, the specialist and the guardian is developed in this works. Realization of this system, immediate support to the school children and their guardians will be possible. It is also considered to be a preventive support instead of an allopathic support.

  20. Thermal behavior of liquid-metal film exposed to ICF spectra. Annual technical progress report, 10 August 1981-9 August 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulcinski, G.L.; Hassanein, A.M.; Croessmann, C.D.

    1982-08-01

    The A*THERMAL code is used to calculate the temperature rise and subsequent evaporation of a liquid Pb film bombarded with ICF target debris. The usefulness of the A*THERMAL code is demonstrated by the fact that it can handle an arbitrary x-ray spectrum as well as different ion species with Maxwellian or Gaussian distributions of energies. Temperature increases resulting from the various species were combined with vapor pressure data to yield evaporation rates and the subsequent total amount of Pb vaporized from a thermonuclear explosion

  1. The use of CaCl2 and other salts to improve surface finish and eliminate vacuoles in ICF microencapsulated shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuillan, B.W.; Elsner, F.H.; Stephens, R.B.; Brown, L.C.

    1999-01-01

    Polystyrene and poly(α-methylstyrene) (PAMS) shells made by microencapsulation are prone to having vacuoles in the walls and a concomitant surface roughness. These defects can be detrimental to the implosion required for ICF shots. The authors have found that adding sufficient salt (typically CaCl 2 or NH 4 Cl) to the exterior polyvinylalcohol (PVA) solution during the drying phase inhibits the formation of vacuoles and decreases the surface roughness of the shells. The use of such salts does affect other shell specifications, for which other process variables must be adjusted

  2. Henkin and Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia; Manzano, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Leon Henkin was not a modal logician, but there is a branch of modal logic that has been deeply influenced by his work. That branch is hybrid logic, a family of logics that extend orthodox modal logic with special proposition symbols (called nominals) that name worlds. This paper explains why...... Henkin’s techniques are so important in hybrid logic. We do so by proving a completeness result for a hybrid type theory called HTT, probably the strongest hybrid logic that has yet been explored. Our completeness result builds on earlier work with a system called BHTT, or basic hybrid type theory...... is due to the first-order perspective, which lies at the heart of Henin’s best known work and hybrid logic....

  3. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    a differential action, which allows differential equations as primitive actions. The extension allows us to model hybrid systems with both continuous and discrete behaviour. The main result of this paper is an extension of such a hybrid action system with parallel composition. The extension does not change...... the original meaning of the parallel composition, and therefore also the ordinary action systems can be composed in parallel with the hybrid action systems....

  4. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-20

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.; Moganty, Surya S.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2010-01-01

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  7. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  8. Toronto hybrid taxi pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, M. [CrossChasm Technologies, Cambridge, ON (Canada); Marans, B. [Toronto Atmospheric Fund, ON (Canada)

    2009-10-15

    This paper provided details of a hybrid taxi pilot program conducted to compare the on-road performance of Toyota Camry hybrid vehicles against conventional vehicles over a 1-year period in order to determine the business case and air emission reductions associated with the use of hybrid taxi cabs. Over 750,000 km worth of fuel consumption was captured from 10 Toyota Camry hybrids, a Toyota Prius, and 5 non-hybrid Camry vehicles over an 18-month period. The average real world fuel consumption for the taxis demonstrated that the Toyota Prius has the lowest cost of ownership, while the non-hybrid Camry has the highest cost of ownership. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) reductions associated with the 10 Camry hybrid taxis were calculated at 236 tonnes over a 7-year taxi service life. Results suggested that the conversion of Toronto's 5680 taxis would yield annual CO{sub 2} emission reductions of over 19,000 tonnes. All hybrid purchasers identified themselves as highly likely to purchase a hybrid again. 5 tabs., 9 figs.

  9. Managing hybrid marketing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, R T; Moran, U

    1990-01-01

    As competition increases and costs become critical, companies that once went to market only one way are adding new channels and using new methods - creating hybrid marketing systems. These hybrid marketing systems hold the promise of greater coverage and reduced costs. But they are also hard to manage; they inevitably raise questions of conflict and control: conflict because marketing units compete for customers; control because new indirect channels are less subject to management authority. Hard as they are to manage, however, hybrid marketing systems promise to become the dominant design, replacing the "purebred" channel strategy in all kinds of businesses. The trick to managing the hybrid is to analyze tasks and channels within and across a marketing system. A map - the hybrid grid - can help managers make sense of their hybrid system. What the chart reveals is that channels are not the basic building blocks of a marketing system; marketing tasks are. The hybrid grid forces managers to consider various combinations of channels and tasks that will optimize both cost and coverage. Managing conflict is also an important element of a successful hybrid system. Managers should first acknowledge the inevitability of conflict. Then they should move to bound it by creating guidelines that spell out which customers to serve through which methods. Finally, a marketing and sales productivity (MSP) system, consisting of a central marketing database, can act as the central nervous system of a hybrid marketing system, helping managers create customized channels and service for specific customer segments.

  10. Toronto hybrid taxi pilot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, M.; Marans, B.

    2009-10-01

    This paper provided details of a hybrid taxi pilot program conducted to compare the on-road performance of Toyota Camry hybrid vehicles against conventional vehicles over a 1-year period in order to determine the business case and air emission reductions associated with the use of hybrid taxi cabs. Over 750,000 km worth of fuel consumption was captured from 10 Toyota Camry hybrids, a Toyota Prius, and 5 non-hybrid Camry vehicles over an 18-month period. The average real world fuel consumption for the taxis demonstrated that the Toyota Prius has the lowest cost of ownership, while the non-hybrid Camry has the highest cost of ownership. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) reductions associated with the 10 Camry hybrid taxis were calculated at 236 tonnes over a 7-year taxi service life. Results suggested that the conversion of Toronto's 5680 taxis would yield annual CO 2 emission reductions of over 19,000 tonnes. All hybrid purchasers identified themselves as highly likely to purchase a hybrid again. 5 tabs., 9 figs.

  11. Hybrid FOSS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers are continuing their efforts to further develop FOSS technologies. A hybrid FOSS technique (HyFOSS) employs conventional continuous grating...

  12. Design and fabrication of a CH/Al dual-layer perturbation target for hydrodynamic instability experiments in ICF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Jun [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure Materials and Technology, School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Xie, Zhiyong [Shanghai Institute of Laser Plasma, Shanghai 201800 (China); Du, Ai [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure Materials and Technology, School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Ye, Junjian [Shanghai Institute of Laser Plasma, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zhang, Zhihua; Shen, Jun [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure Materials and Technology, School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhou, Bin, E-mail: zhoubin863@tongji.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Special Artificial Microstructure Materials and Technology, School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2014-04-15

    Highlights: • Sinusoidal perturbed Al foil was prepared by single-point diamond turning. • Perturbed Al foil was measured by surface profiler and white light interferometer. • Perturbed Al foil and CH layer adhered with each other via a hot-press process. • Parameters and cross-section of the CH–Al perturbation target was characterized. - Abstract: A polystyrene (CH)/aluminum (Al) dual-layer perturbation target for hydrodynamic instability experiments in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) was designed and fabricated. The target was composed of a perturbed 40 μm Al foil and a CH layer. The detailed fabrication method consisted of four steps. The 40 μm Al foil was first prepared by roll and polish process; the perturbation patterns were then introduced on the surface of the Al foil by the single-point diamond turning (SPDT) technology; the CH layer was prepared via a simple method which called spin-coating process; finally, the CH layer was directly coated on the perturbation surface of Al foil by a hot-press process to avoid the use of a sticker and to eliminate the gaps between the CH layer and the Al foil. The parameters of the target, such as the perturbation wavelength (T) and perturbation amplitude (A), were characterized by a QC-5000 tool microscope, an alpha-step 500 surface profiler and a NT1100 white light interferometer. The results showed that T and A of the target were about 52 μm and 7.34 μm, respectively. Thickness of the Al foil (H1), thickness of the CH layer (H2), and cross-section of the dual-layer target were characterized by a QC-5000 tool microscope and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). H1 and H2 were about 40 μm and 15 μm, respectively, the cross-sectional photographs of the target showed that the CH layer and the Al foil adhered perfectly with each other.

  13. Classical and ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov instability and other ICF-relevant plasma flows diagnosed with monochromatic x-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aglitskiy, Y; Metzler, N; Karasik, M; Velikovich, A L; Zalesak, S T; Schmitt, A J; Serlin, V; Weaver, J; Obenschain, S P; Gardner, J H

    2008-01-01

    In inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy density physics (HEDP), the most important manifestations of the hydrodynamic instabilities and other mixing processes involve lateral motion of the accelerated plasmas. In order to understand the experimental observations and to advance the numerical simulation codes to the point of predictive capability, it is critically important to accurately diagnose the motion of the dense plasma mass. The most advanced diagnostic technique recently developed for this purpose is the monochromatic x-ray imaging that combines large field of view with high contrast, high spatial resolution and large throughput, ensuring high temporal resolution at large magnification. Its application made it possible for the experimentalists to observe for the first time important hydrodynamic effects that trigger compressible turbulent mixing in laser targets, such as ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability, feedout, interaction of an RM-unstable interface with shock and rarefaction waves. It also helped to substantially improve the accuracy of diagnosing many other important plasma flows, ranging from laser-produced jets to electromagnetically driven wires in a Z-pinch, and to test various methods suggested for mitigation of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We will review the results obtained with the aid of this technique in ICF-HEDP studies at the Naval Research Laboratory and the prospects of its future applications.

  14. Determinants of school activity performance in children with cerebral palsy: a multidimensional approach using the ICF-CY as a framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Yu; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Chen, Kuan-Lin; Shieh, Jeng-Yi; Lu, Lu

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to identify the determinants of activity performance in children with cerebral palsy (CP) in school by considering factors from the entire scope of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health for Child and Youth (ICF-CY). A sample of 167 school-aged children with CP and their caregivers were recruited in the study. Activity performance in school settings was assessed with part 3 of the School Functional Assessment - Chinese version, which divides activity performance into performance of physical activities and cognitive/behavioral activities. Possible determinants were collected according to all dimensions of the ICF-CY. Multiple regression analyses showed that the determinants of performance of physical activities were receiving speech therapy in school, diplegia, having a domestic helper, and severity of gross and fine motor impairments, explaining 83% of the total variance; the determinants of performance of cognitive/behavioral activities were intellectual impairment, prosocial behavior, having an assistant in school, educational placement, severity of fine motor impairment, accounting for 73% of the total variance. Results of the study provide clinicians a holistic understanding of factors influencing school activity performance, and enable clinicians to make appropriate evaluations and interventions targeted at the determinants to enhance children's activity performance in school. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Temperature-dependent tensile strength, surface roughness diagnostics, and magnetic support and positioning of polymer ICF shells. Final report, October 1, 1993--April 30, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honig, A.

    1995-01-01

    During the course of this grant, we perfected emissivity and accommodation coefficient measurements on polymer ICF shells in the temperature range 250 to 350 K. Values for polystyrene shells are generally between 10 -2 and 10 -3 , which are very advantageous for ICF at cryogenic temperatures. Preliminary results on Br doped target shells indicate an accommodation coefficient, presumably associated with surface roughness on an atomic scale, about an order of magnitude larger than for ordinary polystyrene target shells. We also constructed apparatus with optical access for low temperature tensile strength and emissivity measurements, and made preliminary tests on this system. Magnetic shells were obtained both from GDP coating and from doping styrene with 10 manometer size ferromagnetic particles. The magnetic properties were measured through electron spin resonance (ESR). These experiments confirm the applicability of the Curie law, and establish the validity of using ESR measurements to determine shell temperature in the low temperature regime from 4K to 250K, thus complementing our presently accessible range. The high electron spin densities (> 10 20 /CM 3 ) suggest magnetic levitation should be feasible at cryogenic temperatures. This work has resulted in two conference presentations, a Technical Report, a paper to be published in Fusion Technology, and a Master's Thesis

  16. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Szalanski, Allen L; Gaskin, John F.; Young, Nicholas E.; West, Amanda; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Tripodi, Amber

    2014-01-01

    Science has shown that the introgression or hybridization of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals up to 40,000 YBP may have led to the swarm of modern humans on earth. However, there is little doubt that modern trade and transportation in support of the humans has continued to introduce additional species, genotypes, and hybrids to every country on the globe. We assessed the utility of species distributions modeling of genotypes to assess the risk of current and future invaders. We evaluated 93 locations of the genus Tamarix for which genetic data were available. Maxent models of habitat suitability showed that the hybrid, T. ramosissima x T. chinensis, was slightly greater than the parent taxa (AUCs > 0.83). General linear models of Africanized honey bees, a hybrid cross of Tanzanian Apis mellifera scutellata and a variety of European honey bee including A. m. ligustica, showed that the Africanized bees (AUC = 0.81) may be displacing European honey bees (AUC > 0.76) over large areas of the southwestern U.S. More important, Maxent modeling of sub-populations (A1 and A26 mitotypes based on mDNA) could be accurately modeled (AUC > 0.9), and they responded differently to environmental drivers. This suggests that rapid evolutionary change may be underway in the Africanized bees, allowing the bees to spread into new areas and extending their total range. Protecting native species and ecosystems may benefit from risk maps of harmful invasive species, hybrids, and genotypes.

  17. Hybridization in geese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottenburghs, Jente; Hooft, van Pim; Wieren, van Sipke E.; Ydenberg, Ronald C.; Prins, Herbert H.T.

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of hybridization in waterfowl (ducks, geese and swans) makes this bird group an excellent study system to answer questions related to the evolution and maintenance of species boundaries. However, knowledge on waterfowl hybridization is biased towards ducks, with a large

  18. Mirror hybrid reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    The hybrid reactor studies are reviewed. The optimization of the point design and work on a reference design are described. The status of the nuclear analysis of fast spectrum blankets, systems studies for fissile fuel producing hybrid reactor, and the mechanical design of the machine are reviewed

  19. Hybrid Universities in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Molly; Wan, Chang Da; Sirat, Morshidi

    2017-01-01

    Are Asian universities different from those in Western countries? Premised on the hypothesis that Asian universities are different because of hybridization between Western academic models and local traditional cultures, this paper investigates the hybrid characteristics in Malaysian universities resulting from interaction between contemporary…

  20. Cardiac hybrid imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaemperli, Oliver [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Nuclear Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Kaufmann, Philipp A. [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-05-15

    Hybrid cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT imaging allows combined assessment of anatomical and functional aspects of cardiac disease. In coronary artery disease (CAD), hybrid SPECT/CT imaging allows detection of coronary artery stenosis and myocardial perfusion abnormalities. The clinical value of hybrid imaging has been documented in several subsets of patients. In selected groups of patients, hybrid imaging improves the diagnostic accuracy to detect CAD compared to the single imaging techniques. Additionally, this approach facilitates functional interrogation of coronary stenoses and guidance with regard to revascularization procedures. Moreover, the anatomical information obtained from CT coronary angiography or coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) adds prognostic information over perfusion data from SPECT. The use of cardiac hybrid imaging has been favoured by the dissemination of dedicated hybrid systems and the release of dedicated image fusion software, which allow simple patient throughput for hybrid SPECT/CT studies. Further technological improvements such as more efficient detector technology to allow for low-radiation protocols, ultra-fast image acquisition and improved low-noise image reconstruction algorithms will be instrumental to further promote hybrid SPECT/CT in research and clinical practice. (orig.)

  1. Hybrid job shop scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the problem of scheduling jobs in a hybrid job shop. We use the term 'hybrid' to indicate that we consider a lot of extensions of the classic job shop, such as transportation times, multiple resources, and setup times. The Shifting Bottleneck procedure can be generalized to deal with

  2. Hybrid Shipboard Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Othman @ Marzuki, Muzaidi Bin; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    Strict regulation on emissions of air pollutants imposed by the maritime authorities has led to the introduction of hybrid microgrids to the shipboard power systems (SPSs) which acts toward energy efficient ships with less pollution. A hybrid energy system can include different means of generation...

  3. Hybrid intelligent engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, L C; Adelaide, Australia University of

    1997-01-01

    This book on hybrid intelligent engineering systems is unique, in the sense that it presents the integration of expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems, genetic algorithms, and chaos engineering. It shows that these new techniques enhance the capabilities of one another. A number of hybrid systems for solving engineering problems are presented.

  4. Editorial: Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olderog, Ernst-Rüdiger; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2007-01-01

    An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005.......An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005....

  5. Course on hybrid calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weill, J.; Tellier; Bonnemay; Craigne; Chareton; Di Falco

    1969-02-01

    After a definition of hybrid calculation (combination of analogue and digital calculation) with a distinction between series and parallel hybrid computing, and a description of a hybrid computer structure and of task sharing between computers, this course proposes a description of hybrid hardware used in Saclay and Cadarache computing centres, and of operations performed by these systems. The next part addresses issues related to programming languages and software. The fourth part describes how a problem is organised for its processing on these computers. Methods of hybrid analysis are then addressed: resolution of optimisation problems, of partial differential equations, and of integral equations by means of different methods (gradient, maximum principle, characteristics, functional approximation, time slicing, Monte Carlo, Neumann iteration, Fischer iteration)

  6. Hybrid functional pseudopotentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Tan, Liang Z.; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2018-02-01

    The consistency between the exchange-correlation functional used in pseudopotential construction and in the actual density functional theory calculation is essential for the accurate prediction of fundamental properties of materials. However, routine hybrid density functional calculations at present still rely on generalized gradient approximation pseudopotentials due to the lack of hybrid functional pseudopotentials. Here, we present a scheme for generating hybrid functional pseudopotentials, and we analyze the importance of pseudopotential density functional consistency for hybrid functionals. For the PBE0 hybrid functional, we benchmark our pseudopotentials for structural parameters and fundamental electronic gaps of the Gaussian-2 (G2) molecular dataset and some simple solids. Our results show that using our PBE0 pseudopotentials in PBE0 calculations improves agreement with respect to all-electron calculations.

  7. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  8. Hybrid systems with constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Daafouz, Jamal; Sigalotti, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Control theory is the main subject of this title, in particular analysis and control design for hybrid dynamic systems.The notion of hybrid systems offers a strong theoretical and unified framework to cope with the modeling, analysis and control design of systems where both continuous and discrete dynamics interact. The theory of hybrid systems has been the subject of intensive research over the last decade and a large number of diverse and challenging problems have been investigated. Nevertheless, many important mathematical problems remain open.This book is dedicated mainly to

  9. Towers of hybrid mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semay, Claude; Buisseret, Fabien; Silvestre-Brac, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    A hybrid meson is a quark-antiquark pair in which, contrary to ordinary mesons, the gluon field is in an excited state. In the framework of constituent models, the interaction potential is assumed to be the energy of an excited string. An approximate, but accurate, analytical solution of the Schroedinger equation with such a potential is presented. When applied to hybrid charmonia and bottomonia, towers of states are predicted in which the masses are a linear function of a harmonic oscillator band number for the quark-antiquark pair. Such a formula could be a reliable guide for the experimental detection of heavy hybrid mesons.

  10. Hybrid Bloch brane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Lima, Elisama E.M.; Losano, L. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2017-02-15

    This work reports on models described by two real scalar fields coupled with gravity in the five-dimensional spacetime, with a warped geometry involving one infinite extra dimension. Through a mechanism that smoothly changes a thick brane into a hybrid brane, one investigates the appearance of hybrid branes hosting internal structure, characterized by the splitting on the energy density and the volcano potential, induced by the parameter which controls interactions between the two scalar fields. In particular, we investigate distinct symmetric and asymmetric hybrid brane scenarios. (orig.)

  11. A hybrid-drive nonisobaric-ignition scheme for inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, X. T., E-mail: xthe@iapcm.ac.cn [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, P. O. Box 8009, Beijing 100094 (China); Center for Applied Physics and Technology, HEDPS, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center of MoE, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Institute of Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Li, J. W.; Wang, L. F.; Liu, J.; Lan, K.; Ye, W. H. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, P. O. Box 8009, Beijing 100094 (China); Center for Applied Physics and Technology, HEDPS, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center of MoE, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Fan, Z. F.; Wu, J. F. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, P. O. Box 8009, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2016-08-15

    A new hybrid-drive (HD) nonisobaric ignition scheme of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is proposed, in which a HD pressure to drive implosion dynamics increases via increasing density rather than temperature in the conventional indirect drive (ID) and direct drive (DD) approaches. In this HD (combination of ID and DD) scheme, an assembled target of a spherical hohlraum and a layered deuterium-tritium capsule inside is used. The ID lasers first drive the shock to perform a spherical symmetry implosion and produce a large-scale corona plasma. Then, the DD lasers, whose critical surface in ID corona plasma is far from the radiation ablation front, drive a supersonic electron thermal wave, which slows down to a high-pressure electron compression wave, like a snowplow, piling up the corona plasma into high density and forming a HD pressurized plateau with a large width. The HD pressure is several times the conventional ID and DD ablation pressure and launches an enhanced precursor shock and a continuous compression wave, which give rise to the HD capsule implosion dynamics in a large implosion velocity. The hydrodynamic instabilities at imploding capsule interfaces are suppressed, and the continuous HD compression wave provides main pdV work large enough to hotspot, resulting in the HD nonisobaric ignition. The ignition condition and target design based on this scheme are given theoretically and by numerical simulations. It shows that the novel scheme can significantly suppress implosion asymmetry and hydrodynamic instabilities of current isobaric hotspot ignition design, and a high-gain ICF is promising.

  12. Does thinking and doing the same thing amount to involved participation? Empirical explorations for finding a measure of intensity for a third ICF-CY qualifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Gregor; Augustine, Lilly; Granlund, Mats

    2012-01-01

    Participation as involvement in a situation includes two dimensions; doing the activity and the experience of involvement. The ICF-CY only measures doing using the capacity and performance qualifiers, a dimension measuring the experience is needed; a third qualifier. The experienced involvement of pupils in school activities is higher when thinking and doing coincided. By comparing self-reported experiences of involvement of children, data about what children were thinking and doing during activities were gathered from 21 children with and 19 without disabilities in inclusive classrooms. A relationship exists between an index of the subjective experience of involvement and whether children were thinking and doing the same things. This index can be constructed using measures of concentration, control, involvement, and motivation. Choice is influential, as knowledge about why an activity is undertaken affects involvement. Additionally, increased subjective experience of involvement gives better psychological health and well-being.

  13. Formula hybrid SAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    User-friendly tools are needed for undergraduates to learn about component sizing, powertrain integration, and control : strategies for student competitions involving hybrid vehicles. A TK Solver tool was developed at the University of Idaho for : th...

  14. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T [Huntington Beach, CA; Sahimi, Muhammad [Altadena, CA; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak [Richmond, CA; Harale, Aadesh [Los Angeles, CA; Park, Byoung-Gi [Yeosu, KR; Liu, Paul K. T. [Lafayette Hill, PA

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  15. Hybrid plasmachemical reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lelevkin, V. M., E-mail: lelevkin44@mail.ru; Smirnova, Yu. G.; Tokarev, A. V. [Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University (Kyrgyzstan)

    2015-04-15

    A hybrid plasmachemical reactor on the basis of a dielectric barrier discharge in a transformer is developed. The characteristics of the reactor as functions of the dielectric barrier discharge parameters are determined.

  16. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-01-01

    for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations

  17. Motor training programs of arm and hand in patients with MS according to different levels of the ICF: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spooren Annemie IF

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The upper extremity plays an important role in daily functioning of patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS and strongly influences their quality of life. However, an explicit overview of arm-hand training programs is lacking. The present review aims to investigate the training components and the outcome of motor training programs for arm and hand in MS. Methods A computerized systematic literature search in 5 databases (PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, PEDro and Cochrane was performed using the following Mesh terms: Multiple Sclerosis, Rehabilitation, Physical Education and Training, Exercise, Patient-Centered Care, Upper Extremity, Activities of Daily Living, Motor Skills, Motor Activity, Intervention Studies and Clinical Trial. The methodological quality of the selected articles was scored with the Van Tulder Checklist. A descriptive analyses was performed using the PICO principle, including scoring of training components with the calculation of Hedges’g effect sizes. Results Eleven studies were eligible (mean Van Tulder-score = 10.82(SD2.96. Most studies reported a specific improvement in arm hand performance at the ICF level that was trained at. The mean number of training components was 5.5(SD2.8 and a significant correlation (r = 0.67; p  Conclusion Motor training programs (both at the ICF body function and activity level have shown to improve arm and hand performance in MS in which the value of the training specificity was emphasized. To optimize upper extremity training in MS the component ‘client-centred’ and ‘exercise progression’ may be important. Furthermore, given the importance attributed to the components ‘distribution based practice’, ‘feedback’ and ‘random practice’ in previous research in stroke patients, the use of these components in arm hand training should be explored in future research.

  18. The responsiveness of the Lucerne ICF-based Multidisciplinary Observation Scale (LIMOS: a comparison with the Functional Independence Measure (FIM and the Barthel Index (BI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Vanbellingen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Good responsive functional outcome measures are important to measure change in stroke patients. The aim of study was to compare the internal and external responsiveness, floor and ceiling effects of the motor, cognition & communication subscales of the Lucerne ICF-based Multidisciplinary Observation Scale (LIMOS with the motor and cognition subscales of the Functional Independence Measure (FIM, and the Barthel Index (BI, in a large cohort of stroke patients.Methods: One hundred and eighteen stroke patients participated in this study. Admission and discharge score distributions of the LIMOS motor, LIMOS cognition & communication, FIM motor and FIM cognition, and BI were analyzed based on skewness and kurtosis. Floor and ceiling effects of the scales were determined. Internal responsiveness was assessed with t-tests, effect sizes (ES and standardized response means (SRMs. External responsiveness was investigated with linear regression analyses.Results: The LIMOS motor and LIMOS cognition & communication subscales were more responsive, expressed by higher effect sizes (ES = 0.65, SRM = 1.17 and ES = 0.52, SRM = 1.17 respectively as compared with FIM motor (ES = 0.54, SRM = 0.96 and FIM cognition (ES = 0.41, SRM = 0.88, and the BI (ES = 0.41, SRM = 0.65. The LIMOS subscales showed neither floor nor ceiling effects at admission and discharge (all < 15%. In contrast, ceiling effects were found for the FIM motor (16%, FIM cognition (15% at discharge and the BI (at admission (22% and discharge (43%. LIMOS motor and LIMOS cognition & communication subscales significantly correlated (p < 0.0001 with a change in the FIM motor and FIM cognition subscales, suggesting good external responsiveness.Conclusions: We found that the LIMOS motor and LIMOS cognition & communication, which are ICF-based multidisciplinary standardized observation scales, might have the potential to better detect changes in functional outcome of stroke patients, compared to

  19. Hybrid vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide.......A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide....

  20. Human hybrid hybridoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiebout, R.F.; van Boxtel-Oosterhof, F.; Stricker, E.A.M.; Zeijlemaker, W.P.

    1987-11-15

    Hybrid hybridomas are obtained by fusion of two cells, each producing its own antibody. Several authors have reported the construction of murine hybrid hybridomas with the aim to obtain bispecific monoclonal antibodies. The authors have investigated, in a model system, the feasibility of constructing a human hybrid hybridoma. They fused two monoclonal cell lines: an ouabain-sensitive and azaserine/hypoxanthine-resistant Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human cell line that produces an IgG1kappa antibody directed against tetanus toxiod and an azaserine/hypoxanthine-sensitive and ouabain-resistant human-mouse xenohybrid cell line that produces a human IgG1lambda antibody directed against hepatitis-B surface antigen. Hybrid hybridoma cells were selected in culture medium containing azaserine/hypoxanthine and ouabain. The hybrid nature of the secreted antibodies was analyzed by means of two antigen-specific immunoassay. The results show that it is possible, with the combined use of transformation and xenohybridization techniques, to construct human hybrid hybridomas that produce bispecific antibodies. Bispecific antibodies activity was measured by means of two radioimmunoassays.

  1. Systems for hybrid cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsche, Otmar; Gutmann, Guenter

    Not only sharp competition but also legislation are pushing development of hybrid drive trains. Based on conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, these drive trains offer a wide range of benefits from reduced fuel consumption and emission to multifaceted performance improvements. Hybrid electric drive trains may also facilitate the introduction of fuel cells (FC). The battery is the key component for all hybrid drive trains, as it dominates cost and performance issues. The selection of the right battery technology for the specific automotive application is an important task with an impact on costs of development and use. Safety, power, and high cycle life are a must for all hybrid applications. The greatest pressure to reduce cost is in soft hybrids, where lead-acid embedded in a considerate management presents the cheapest solution, with a considerable improvement in performance needed. From mild to full hybridization, an improvement in specific power makes higher costs more acceptable, provided that the battery's service life is equivalent to the vehicle's lifetime. Today, this is proven for the nickel-metal hydride system. Lithium ion batteries, which make use of a multiple safety concept, and with some development anticipated, provide even better prospects in terms of performance and costs. Also, their scalability permits their application in battery electric vehicles—the basis for better performance and enhanced user acceptance. Development targets for the batteries are discussed with a focus on system aspects such as electrical and thermal management and safety.

  2. Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program 250K Hybrid Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, George; Zoladz, Tom; Arves, Joe; Kearney, Darren; Abel, Terry; Park, O.

    2003-01-01

    The Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program (HPDP) program was formed to mature hybrid propulsion technology to a readiness level sufficient to enable commercialization for various space launch applications. The goal of the HPDP was to develop and test a 250,000 pound vacuum thrust hybrid booster in order to demonstrate hybrid propulsion technology and enable manufacturing of large hybrid boosters for current and future space launch vehicles. The HPDP has successfully conducted four tests of the 250,000 pound thrust hybrid rocket motor at NASA's Stennis Space Center. This paper documents the test series.

  3. Fusion-fission hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter discusses the range of characteristics attainable from hybrid reactor blankets; blanket design considerations; hybrid reactor designs; alternative fuel hybrid reactors; multi-purpose hybrid reactors; and hybrid reactors and the energy economy. Hybrid reactors are driven by a fusion neutron source and include fertile and/or fissile material. The fusion component provides a copious source of fusion neutrons which interact with a subcritical fission component located adjacent to the plasma or pellet chamber. Fissile fuel and/or energy are the main products of hybrid reactors. Topics include high F/M blankets, the fissile (and tritium) breeding ratio, effects of composition on blanket properties, geometrical considerations, power density and first wall loading, variations of blanket properties with irradiation, thermal-hydraulic and mechanical design considerations, safety considerations, tokamak hybrid reactors, tandem-mirror hybrid reactors, inertial confinement hybrid reactors, fusion neutron sources, fissile-fuel and energy production ability, simultaneous production of combustible and fissile fuels, fusion reactors for waste transmutation and fissile breeding, nuclear pumped laser hybrid reactors, Hybrid Fuel Factories (HFFs), and scenarios for hybrid contribution. The appendix offers hybrid reactor fundamentals. Numerous references are provided

  4. Research on Hybrid Vehicle Drivetrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhongzhi

    Hybrid cars as a solution to energy saving, emission reduction measures, have received widespread attention. Motor drive system as an important part of the hybrid vehicles as an important object of study. Based on the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain control system for permanent magnet synchronous motor as the object of study. Can be applied to hybrid car compares the characteristics of traction motors, chose permanent magnet synchronous Motors as drive motors for hybrid vehicles. Building applications in hybrid cars in MATLAB/Simulink simulation model of permanent-magnet synchronous motor speed control system and analysis of simulation results.

  5. New hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardin, B.

    2001-01-01

    New hybrid systems are made up of a subcritical core, a spallation target and a proton accelerator. The neutrons that are produced in the target by the flux of protons are necessary to maintain the chain reaction of fission. Some parameters that are important for a classical nuclear reactor like doppler coefficient or delayed neutron fraction do not matter in a hybrid system. In a PWR-type reactor or in a fast reactor the concentration of actinides has a bad impact on these 2 parameters, so it is justified to study hybrid systems as actinide transmuters. The hybrid system, because of its external source of neutrons can put aside an important reactivity margin. This reactivity margin can be used to design safer nuclear reactors (particularly in some situations of reactivity accidents) or to irradiate fuel elements containing high concentrations of minor actinides that could not be allowed in a classical reactor. This article reviews various ways of integrating hybrid systems in a population of already existing nuclear reactors in order to manage quantities of plutonium, of minor actinides or of long-life fission products. (A.C.)

  6. The Hybrid Museum: Hybrid Economies of Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Vitus

    2013-01-01

    Social media has created new ways of communicating and has brought about a new distinctive ethos. New literacies are not simply about new technology but also about this new ethos. Many museums are embracing this ethos by what is often called participatory practices. From a sociocultural perspective...... this article shows that there are two different museum mindsets where the second mindset leans towards participatory practices. It is shown how a museum can support a hybrid economy of meaning that builds on both a user generated economy of meaning and an institutional economy of meaning and adds value to both...

  7. Hybrid system concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeyro, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid systems studied for fissile material production, were reconsidered for minor actinide and long-lived fission product destruction as alternative to the traditional final disposal of nuclear waste. Now there are attempts to extend the use of the concepts developed for minor actinide incineration to plutonium burning. The most promising hybrid system concept considers fuel and target both as liquids. From the results obtained, the possibility to adopt composite targets seems the most promising solution, but still there remains the problem of Pu production, not acceptable in a burning system. This kind of targets can be mainly used for fissile material production, while for accelerator driven burners it is most convenient to use a liquid lead target. The most suitable solvent is heavy water for minor actinide annihilation in the blanket of a hybrid system. Due to the criticality conditions and the necessity of electric energy production, the blanket using plutonium dissolved in molten salts is the most convenient one. (author)

  8. Hybrid strategies in nanolithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saavedra, Hector M; Mullen, Thomas J; Zhang Pengpeng; Dewey, Daniel C; Claridge, Shelley A; Weiss, Paul S [Department of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)], E-mail: psw@cnsi.ucla.edu

    2010-03-15

    Hybrid nanoscale patterning strategies combine the registration and addressability of conventional lithographic techniques with the chemical and physical functionality enabled by intermolecular, electrostatic and/or biological interactions. This review aims to highlight and to provide a comprehensive description of recent developments in hybrid nanoscale patterning strategies that enhance existing lithographic techniques or can be used to fabricate functional chemical patterns that interact with their environment. These functional structures create new capabilities, such as the fabrication of physicochemical surfaces that can recognize and capture analytes from complex liquid or gaseous mixtures. The nanolithographic techniques we describe can be classified into three general areas: traditional lithography, soft lithography and scanning-probe lithography. The strengths and limitations of each hybrid patterning technique will be discussed, along with the current and potential applications of the resulting patterned, functional surfaces.

  9. The tokamak hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.L.; Rose, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    At a time when the potential benefits of various energy options are being seriously evaluated in many countries through-out the world, it is both timely and important to evaluate the practical application of fusion reactors for their economical production of nuclear fissile fuels from fertile fuels. The fusion hybrid reactor represents a concept that could assure the availability of adequate fuel supplies for a proven nuclear technology and have the potential of being an electrical energy source as opposed to an energy consumer as are the present fuel enrichment processes. Westinghouse Fusion Power Systems Department, under Contract No. EG-77-C-02-4544 with the Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy, has developed a preliminary conceptual design for an early twenty-first century fusion hybrid reactor called the commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (CTHR). This design was developed as a first generation commercial plant producing fissile fuel to support a significant number of client Light Water Reactor (LWR) Plants. To the depth this study has been performed, no insurmountable technical problems have been identified. The study has provided a basis for reasonable cost estimates of the hybrid plants as well as the hybrid/LWR system busbar electricity costs. This energy system can be optimized to have a net cost of busbar electricity that is equivalent to the conventional LWR plant, yet is not dependent on uranium ore prices or standard enrichment costs, since the fusion hybrid can be fueled by numerous fertile fuel resources. A nearer-term concept is also defined using a beam driven fusion driver in lieu of the longer term ignited operating mode. (orig.)

  10. Hybride textuelle Strukturen und hybride textuelle Einheiten. Ein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    carrying set of all hybrid hierarchical structures are element-heterogeneous whilst the structure- carrying set of all ... grams of hierarchical hybrid article structures, the nodes for those text segments that establish the hybrid status of .... der; d ∈ ArtA ⊣ G|WAr (= Artikelangabe, anhand derer das Genus (= G) und zugleich die ...

  11. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications The following technical papers and fact sheets provide information about NREL's hydraulic hybrid fleet vehicle evaluations . Refuse Trucks Project Startup: Evaluating the Performance of Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse Vehicles. Bob

  12. Doubts about hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The natural draught wet cooling tower with a height of 160 m is considerably taller than the 80 m high hybrid cooling tower, but the latter has a considerably larger diameter. Spray losses for both types are about 4.5 kg/sec for a thermal output of 2500 MW. Apart from the pump load, the natural cooling tower requires no power. Apart from higher pump loads, the hybrid cooling tower requires power for the fans. The energy demand for this purpose is 1.5 to 3% of the nett powerstation output. For the Isar 2 nuclear powerstation this would mean a reduction in puput of about 35 MW. (orig.) [de

  13. Analog and hybrid computing

    CERN Document Server

    Hyndman, D E

    2013-01-01

    Analog and Hybrid Computing focuses on the operations of analog and hybrid computers. The book first outlines the history of computing devices that influenced the creation of analog and digital computers. The types of problems to be solved on computers, computing systems, and digital computers are discussed. The text looks at the theory and operation of electronic analog computers, including linear and non-linear computing units and use of analog computers as operational amplifiers. The monograph examines the preparation of problems to be deciphered on computers. Flow diagrams, methods of ampl

  14. Toyota hybrid synergy drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautschi, H.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Hannes Gautschi, director of service and training at the Toyota company in Switzerland, takes a look at Toyota's hybrid drive vehicles. The construction of the vehicles and their combined combustion engines and electric generators and drives is presented and the combined operation of these components is described. Braking and energy recovery are discussed. Figures on the performance, fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} output of the hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles.

  15. Mirror fusion--fission hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    The fusion-fission concept and the mirror fusion-fission hybrid program are outlined. Magnetic mirror fusion drivers and blankets for hybrid reactors are discussed. Results of system analyses are presented and a reference design is described

  16. Towards comprehensive and transparent reporting: context-specific additions to the ICF taxonomy for medical evaluations of work capacity involving claimants with chronic widespread pain and low back pain

    OpenAIRE

    Schwegler, U.; Anner, J.; Glässel, A.; Brach, M.; de Boer, W.; Cieza, A.; Trezzini, B.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Medical evaluations of work capacity provide key information for decisions on a claimant's eligibility for disability benefits. In recent years, the evaluations have been increasingly criticized for low transparency and poor standardization. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) provides a comprehensive spectrum of categories for reporting functioning and its determinants in terms of impairments and contextual factors and could facilitate tra...

  17. Security in hybrid cloud computing

    OpenAIRE

    Koudelka, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the area of hybrid cloud computing, specifically with its security. The major aim of the thesis is to analyze and compare the chosen hybrid cloud providers. For the minor aim this thesis compares the security challenges of hybrid cloud as opponent to other deployment models. In order to accomplish said aims, this thesis defines the terms cloud computing and hybrid cloud computing in its theoretical part. Furthermore the security challenges for cloud computing a...

  18. The International Classification of Function Disability and Health (ICF) in adults visiting the HIV outpatient clinic at a regional hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van As, Melissa; Myezwa, Hellen; Stewart, Aimee; Maleka, Douglas; Musenge, Eustasius

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, 16.6% of South Africans between 15 and 49 years of age were HIV positive. The advent of anti-retroviral therapy has led to improved longevity, CD4 counts and clinical well-being of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Physical impairments, activity limitations and participation restrictions of PLWHA have profound effects on the Health-related Quality of Life and functional abilities of those with the disease, and understanding thereof may assist in the formulation of rehabilitation protocols, health care interventions as well as vocational and legislative policies. The International Classification of Function, Disability and Health (ICF) is a standardised tool, endorsed by the World Health Assembly for international use, which aims to classify functioning and disability. It is structured to assess body functions and structure, functional activities and associated personal and environmental factors.This study aimed to develop a profile of the level of functional activity, using the ICF Checklist, of an urban cohort of 45 South African individuals who are HIV positive attending an outpatient clinic at the Helen Joseph Memorial Hospital, Gauteng, South Africa. The results showed a high prevalence of physical impairments, participation restrictions and selective activity limitations and that environmental factors influence their level of ability. Specific impairments where patients had problems were mental functions (69% (n=31), sensory and pain -- 71% (n=32), digestive and metabolic functions 45% (n=20) and neuromuscular 27% (n=12). Activity limitations included major life areas' 58% (n=26), interpersonal relationships 56% (n=25), mobility 40% (n=18) and general tasks and demands 38% (n=17). Limitations in mobility were significantly associated with problems of sensory functions (p=0.05), pain (p=0.006), neuromusculoskeletal and movement-related functions (p=0.006), muscle power (p=0.006) as well as energy and drive functions (p=0.001). The study identifies

  19. Hybrid Ventilation Air Flow Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    The scope of this annex is therefore to obtain better knowledge of the use of hybrid ventilation technologies. The annex focus on development of control strategies for hybrid ventilation, on development of methods to predict hybrid ventilation performance in office buildings and on implementation...

  20. Teelt van hybride wintertarwerassen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, R.D.; Paauw, J.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Om de mogelijkheden van de teelt van hybride wintertarwerassen onder Nederlandse omstandigheden in beeld te brengen zijn er van 2000-2002 proeven uitgevoerd op het PPO-proefbedrijf te Lelystad. In deze proeven zijn een 4-tal hybriderassen (Hybnos, Hyno-braba, Hyno-esta, Mercury) vergeleken met een

  1. Hybrid FSAE Vehicle Realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this multi-year project is to create a fully functional University of Idaho entry in the hybrid FSAE competition. Vehicle integration is underway as part of a variety of 2010-11 senior design projects. This leverages a variety of analytic...

  2. Electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Report characterizes state-of-the-art electric and hybrid (combined electric and heat engine) vehicles. Performance data for representative number of these vehicles were obtained from track and dynamometer tests. User experience information was obtained from fleet operators and individual owners of electric vehicles. Data on performance and physical characteristics of large number of vehicles were obtained from manufacturers and available literature.

  3. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  4. Hybridization of biomedical circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinard, G. A.

    1978-01-01

    The design and fabrication of low power hybrid circuits to perform vital signs monitoring are reported. The circuits consist of: (1) clock; (2) ECG amplifier and cardiotachometer signal conditioner; (3) impedance pneumobraph and respiration rate processor; (4) hear/breath rate processor; (5) temperature monitor; and (6) LCD display.

  5. Glueballs, Hybrids and Exotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, M. A.; Moreno, G.

    2006-09-01

    We comment on the physics analysis carried out by the Experimental High Energy Physics (EHEP) group of the Instituto de Fisica of the University of Guanajuato (IFUG), Mexico. In particular, this group has been involved in analysis carried out to search for glueball, hybrid and exotic candidates.

  6. Hybrid wars’ information component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Nevskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The war of the new generation - hybrid war, the information component which is directed not so much on the direct destruction of the enemy, how to achieve the goals without warfare. Fighting in the information field is no less important than immediate military action.

  7. Glueballs, Hybrids and Exotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, M. A.; Moreno, G.

    2006-01-01

    We comment on the physics analysis carried out by the Experimental High Energy Physics (EHEP) group of the Instituto de Fisica of the University of Guanajuato (IFUG), Mexico. In particular, this group has been involved in analysis carried out to search for glueball, hybrid and exotic candidates

  8. Hybrid quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehrawat, Arun; Englert, Berthold-Georg; Zemann, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We present a hybrid model of the unitary-evolution-based quantum computation model and the measurement-based quantum computation model. In the hybrid model, part of a quantum circuit is simulated by unitary evolution and the rest by measurements on star graph states, thereby combining the advantages of the two standard quantum computation models. In the hybrid model, a complicated unitary gate under simulation is decomposed in terms of a sequence of single-qubit operations, the controlled-z gates, and multiqubit rotations around the z axis. Every single-qubit and the controlled-z gate are realized by a respective unitary evolution, and every multiqubit rotation is executed by a single measurement on a required star graph state. The classical information processing in our model requires only an information flow vector and propagation matrices. We provide the implementation of multicontrol gates in the hybrid model. They are very useful for implementing Grover's search algorithm, which is studied as an illustrative example.

  9. Hybrid keyword search auctions

    KAUST Repository

    Goel, Ashish; Munagala, Kamesh

    2009-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the hybrid auction is truthful, assuming that the advertisers are risk-neutral. We then show that this auction is superior to the existing per-click auction in multiple ways: 1. We show that risk-seeking advertisers will choose only a per-impression bid whereas risk-averse advertisers will choose only a per-click bid, and argue that both kind of advertisers arise naturally. Hence, the ability to bid in a hybrid fashion is important to account for the risk characteristics of the advertisers. 2. For obscure keywords, the auctioneer is unlikely to have a very sharp prior on the click-probabilities. In such situations, we show that having the extra information from the advertisers in the form of a per-impression bid can result in significantly higher revenue. 3. An advertiser who believes that its click-probability is much higher than the auctioneer's estimate can use per-impression bids to correct the auctioneer's prior without incurring any extra cost. 4. The hybrid auction can allow the advertiser and auctioneer to implement complex dynamic programming strategies to deal with the uncertainty in the click-probability using the same basic auction. The per-click and per-impression bidding schemes can only be used to implement two extreme cases of these strategies. As Internet commerce matures, we need more sophisticated pricing models to exploit all the information held by each of the participants. We believe that hybrid auctions could be an important step in this direction. The hybrid

  10. Hybrid keyword search auctions

    KAUST Repository

    Goel, Ashish

    2009-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the hybrid auction is truthful, assuming that the advertisers are risk-neutral. We then show that this auction is superior to the existing per-click auction in multiple ways: 1. We show that risk-seeking advertisers will choose only a per-impression bid whereas risk-averse advertisers will choose only a per-click bid, and argue that both kind of advertisers arise naturally. Hence, the ability to bid in a hybrid fashion is important to account for the risk characteristics of the advertisers. 2. For obscure keywords, the auctioneer is unlikely to have a very sharp prior on the click-probabilities. In such situations, we show that having the extra information from the advertisers in the form of a per-impression bid can result in significantly higher revenue. 3. An advertiser who believes that its click-probability is much higher than the auctioneer\\'s estimate can use per-impression bids to correct the auctioneer\\'s prior without incurring any extra cost. 4. The hybrid auction can allow the advertiser and auctioneer to implement complex dynamic programming strategies to deal with the uncertainty in the click-probability using the same basic auction. The per-click and per-impression bidding schemes can only be used to implement two extreme cases of these strategies. As Internet commerce matures, we need more sophisticated pricing models to exploit all the information held by each of the participants. We believe that hybrid auctions could be an important step in this direction. The

  11. Epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chaoliang; Chen, Junze; Wu, Xue-Jun; Zhang, Hua

    2018-02-01

    Hybrid nanostructures are a class of materials that are typically composed of two or more different components, in which each component has at least one dimension on the nanoscale. The rational design and controlled synthesis of hybrid nanostructures are of great importance in enabling the fine tuning of their properties and functions. Epitaxial growth is a promising approach to the controlled synthesis of hybrid nanostructures with desired structures, crystal phases, exposed facets and/or interfaces. This Review provides a critical summary of the state of the art in the field of epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures. We discuss the historical development, architectures and compositions, epitaxy methods, characterization techniques and advantages of epitaxial hybrid nanostructures. Finally, we provide insight into future research directions in this area, which include the epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures from a wider range of materials, the study of the underlying mechanism and determining the role of epitaxial growth in influencing the properties and application performance of hybrid nanostructures.

  12. Mirror hybrid reactor optimization studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    A system model of the mirror hybrid reactor has been developed. The major components of the model include (1) the reactor description, (2) a capital cost analysis, (3) various fuel management schemes, and (4) an economic analysis that includes the hybrid plus its associated fission burner reactors. The results presented describe the optimization of the mirror hybrid reactor, the objective being to minimize the cost of electricity from the hybrid fission-burner reactor complex. We have examined hybrid reactors with two types of blankets, one containing natural uranium, the other thorium. The major difference between the two optimized reactors is that the uranium hybrid is a significant net electrical power producer, whereas the thorium hybrid just about breaks even on electrical power. Our projected costs for fissile fuel production are approximately 50 $/g for 239 Pu and approximately 125 $/g for 233 U

  13. The rediscovery of the social side of medicine: philosophy and value of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seger, Wolfgang

    2018-03-01

    Medicine is at risk of sliding into a sole repair service for the malfunction of organs. But the patients' hope and confidence towards doctors practicing this repair work go far beyond that: after acute medical treatment many patients suffer from chronic impairments due to the natural course of the disease or as a result of medical interventions. Despite resulting handicaps, patients aim at participating in family and social life, retaining a workplace and receiving support to remain a valued member of the family and the community. Doctors should therefore not only concentrate on the natural science and technological part of medicine, but also consider the background of their patients, their involvement in life situations including environmental and personal factors, as these may influence functioning and disability as facilitators or barriers. Health Insurances Companies must organize, finance and control the achievements of the post-acute treatment process with the goal of participation. "Public Health" must combine and assess individual views to prepare reasonable population based social, economic and political decisions. The philosophy and structure of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is supporting this attitude of medicine, to complement the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) as a basis for health reports.

  14. Temperature-dependent tensile strength, surface roughness diagnostics, and magnetic support and positioning of polymer ICF shells. Final report, April 17, 1995--July 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honig, A.

    1997-01-01

    The research carried out under this grant is a continuation of some of the authors previous experimental work on ICF target shells which focused on emissivity properties over a large temperature range, and on magnetic properties which could lead to successful levitation of target shells. Former methods in which contact-less shell temperature determination was achieved by accurate measurements of shell permeation rate are not workable at temperatures below about 230K, since the permeation rate becomes too slow. A new method explored here for emissivity determination at lower temperatures than in the preceding studies utilizes visual observation of phase changes between the liquid and gaseous phases as the shell warms up under the influence of black-body radiation absorption. The apparatus for this method was modified from its previously form by using cold flowing gas as coolant rather than a liquid N 2 bath. Two gases, argon and methane, were principally employed. While the actual emissivities were not accurately measured here, proof of the method was established. CH 4 (methane) gives the best results, thus extending the temperature range of emissivity determination down to about 140K. For emissivity determinations at still lower temperatures, another method discussed in previous work provides contact-less temperature measurement via the Curie law through measurements of the magnetic susceptibility using electron spin resonance (ESR). Current work showed some interesting distinctions among variously doped shells, but otherwise the results of the preliminary work carried out at the end of the previous grant were confirmed

  15. The ICF Core Sets for hearing loss--researcher perspective. Part I: Systematic review of outcome measures identified in audiological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granberg, Sarah; Dahlström, Jennie; Möller, Claes; Kähäri, Kim; Danermark, Berth

    2014-02-01

    To review the literature in order to identify outcome measures used in research on adults with hearing loss (HL) as part of the ICF Core Sets development project, and to describe study and population characteristics of the reviewed studies. A systematic review methodology was applied using multiple databases. A comprehensive search was conducted and two search pools were created, pool I and pool II. The study population included adults (≥ 18 years of age) with HL and oral language as the primary mode of communication. 122 studies were included. Outcome measures were distinguished by 'instrument type', and 10 types were identified. In total, 246 (pool I) and 122 (pool II) different measures were identified, and only approximately 20% were extracted twice or more. Most measures were related to speech recognition. Fifty-one different questionnaires were identified. Many studies used small sample sizes, and the sex of participants was not revealed in several studies. The low prevalence of identified measures reflects a lack of consensus regarding the optimal outcome measures to use in audiology. Reflections and discussions are made in relation to small sample sizes and the lack of sex differentiation/descriptions within the included articles.

  16. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are comparatively environmentally friendly and energy efficient, but cost substantially more compared with conventional vehicles. Hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs are mainly operated using engines, or using alternate combinations of engine and hydraulic power sources while vehicles accelerate. When the hydraulic system accumulator is depleted, the conventional engine reengages; concurrently, brake-regenerated power is recycled and reused by employing hydraulic motor–pump modules in circulation patterns to conserve fuel and recycle brake energy. This study adopted MATLAB Simulink to construct complete HHV and HEV models for backward simulations. New European Driving Cycles were used to determine the changes in fuel economy. The output of power components and the state-of-charge of energy could be retrieved. Varying power component models, energy storage component models, and series or parallel configurations were combined into seven different vehicle configurations: the conventional manual transmission vehicle, series hybrid electric vehicle, series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, parallel hybrid electric vehicle, parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle, purely electric vehicle, and hydraulic-electric hybrid vehicle. The simulation results show that fuel consumption was 21.80% lower in the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle compared to the series hybrid electric vehicle; additionally, fuel consumption was 3.80% lower in the parallel hybrid electric vehicle compared to the

  17. Sneutrino Hybrid Inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antusch, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    We review the scenario of sneutrino hybrid inflation, where one of the singlet sneutrinos, the superpartners of the right-handed neutrinos, plays the role of the inflaton. In a minimal model of sneutrino hybrid inflation, the spectral index is given by ns ≅ 1 + 2γ. With γ = 0.025 ± 0.01 constrained by WMAP, a running spectral index vertical bar dns/dlnk vertical bar << vertical barγvertical bar and a tensor-to-scalar ratio r << γ2 are predicted. Small neutrino masses arise from the seesaw mechanism, with heavy masses for the singlet (s)neutrinos generated by the vacuum expectation value of the waterfall field after inflation. The baryon asymmetry of the universe can be explained by non-thermal leptogenesis via sneutrino inflaton decay, with low reheat temperature TRH ≅ 106 GeV

  18. Hybrid-secure MPC 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Christoph; Raub, Dominik; Maurer, Ueli

    2010-01-01

    of the adversary, without being aware of the actual adversarial setting. Thus, hybrid-secure MPC protocols allow for graceful degradation of security. We present a hybrid-secure MPC protocol that provides an optimal trade-off between IT robustness and computational privacy: For any robustness parameter ρ ... obtain one MPC protocol that is simultaneously IT secure with robustness for up to t ≤ ρ actively corrupted parties, IT secure with fairness (no robustness) for up to t ... in the universal composability (UC) framework (based on a network of secure channels, a broadcast channel, and a common reference string). It achieves the bound on the trade-off between robustness and privacy shown by Ishai et al. [CRYPTO'06] and Katz [STOC'07], the bound on fairness shown by Cleve [STOC'86...

  19. Hybrid superconducting magnetic suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tixador, P.; Hiebel, P.; Brunet, Y.; Chaud, X.; Gautier-Picard, P.

    1996-01-01

    Superconductors, especially high T c ones, are the most attractive materials to design stable and fully passive magnetic suspensions which have to control five degrees of freedom. The hybrid superconducting magnetic suspensions present high performances and a simple cooling mode. They consist of a permanent magnet bearing, stabilized by a suitable magnet-superconductor structure. Several designs are given and compared in terms of forces and stiffnesses. The design of the magnet bearing plays an important part. The superconducting magnetic bearing participates less in levitation but must provide a high stabilizing stiffness. This is achieved by the magnet configuration, a good material in term of critical current density and field cooling. A hybrid superconducting suspension for a flywheel is presented. This system consists of a magnet thrust bearing stabilized by superconductors interacting with an alternating polarity magnet structure. First tests and results are reported. Superconducting materials are magnetically melt-textured YBaCuO

  20. The Power of Hybridization

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Programming languages always seem to do some things well but not others: Python punts when it comes to user interfaces, Java’s artificial complexity prevents rapid development and produces tangles, and it will be awhile before we see benefits from C++ concurrency work. The cognitive load of languages and their blind spots increases the cost of experimentation, impeding your ability to fail fast and iterate. If you use a single language to solve your problem, you are binding yourself to the worldview limitations and the mistakes made by the creator of that language. Consider increasing your wiggle room by crossing language boundaries, complementing a language that is powerful in one area with a different language powerful in another. Language hybridization can speed development to quickly discover your real problems, giving you more time to fix them. After making a case for hybridizing your thinking in general, I will present a number of simple examples; first showing the benefits of using other languages...

  1. Tokamak hybrid study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenney, F.H.

    1976-09-01

    A report on one year of study of a tokamak hybrid reactor is presented. The plasma is maintained by both D and T beams. To obtain long burn times a poloidal field divertor is required. Both the single null and the double null style of divertor are considered. The blanket consists of a neutron multiplier region containing natural uranium followed by burner regions of molten salt (flibe) loaded with PuF 3 to enhance the energy multiplication. Economic analysis has been applied only recently to a variety of reactor sizes and plasma conditions. Early indications suggest that the most attractive hybrids will have large plasmas of major radius in excess of 8 meters

  2. Tokamak hybrid study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenney, F.H.

    1976-01-01

    A report on one year of study of a tokamak hybrid reactor is given. The plasma is maintained by both D and T beams. To obtain long burn times a poloidal field divertor is required. Both the single null and the double null style of divertor are considered. The blanket consists of a neutron multiplier region containing natural uranium followed by burner regions of molten salt (flibe) loaded with PuF 3 to enhance the energy multiplication. Economic analysis has been applied only recently to a variety of reactor sizes and plasma conditions. Early indications suggest that the most attractive hybrids will have large plasmas of major radius in excess of 8 meters

  3. Hybrid undulator numerical optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hairetdinov, A.H. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zukov, A.A. [Solid State Physics Institute, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    3D properties of the hybrid undulator scheme arc studied numerically using PANDIRA code. It is shown that there exist two well defined sets of undulator parameters which provide either maximum on-axis field amplitude or minimal higher harmonics amplitude of the basic undulator field. Thus the alternative between higher field amplitude or pure sinusoidal field exists. The behavior of the undulator field amplitude and harmonics structure for a large set of (undulator gap)/(undulator wavelength) values is demonstrated.

  4. Hybrid electroluminescent devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiang, Joseph John; Duggal, Anil Raj; Michael, Joseph Darryl

    2010-08-03

    A hybrid electroluminescent (EL) device comprises at least one inorganic diode element and at least one organic EL element that are electrically connected in series. The absolute value of the breakdown voltage of the inorganic diode element is greater than the absolute value of the maximum reverse bias voltage across the series. The inorganic diode element can be a power diode, a Schottky barrier diode, or a light-emitting diode.

  5. Mirror hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    The fusion-fission hybrid is a combination of the fusion and fission processes, having features which are complementary. Fission energy is running out of readily available fuel, and fusion has extra neutrons which can be used to breed that fission fuel. Fusion would have to take on an extra burden of radioactivity, but this early application would give fusion, which does not work well enough now to make power, practical experience which may accelerate development of pure fusion

  6. The challenge of hybridization

    CERN Document Server

    Caccia, Massimo

    2000-01-01

    Hybridization of pixel detector systems has to satisfy tight requirements: high yield, long term reliability, mechanical stability, thermal compliance and robustness have to go together with low passive mass added to the system, radiation hardness, flexibility in the technology end eventually low cost. The current technologies for the interconnection of the front-end chips and the sensor are reviewed and compared, together with the solutions for the interface to the far-end electronics.

  7. Asymmetric Hybrid Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumanov, George [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2015-11-05

    Hybrid Nanoparticles (AHNs) are rationally-designed multifunctional nanostructures and novel building blocks for the next generation of advanced materials and devices. Nanoscale materials attract considerable interest because of their unusual properties and potential for practical applications. Most of the activity in this field is focused on the synthesis of homogeneous nanoparticles from metals, metal oxides, semiconductors, and polymers. It is well recognized that properties of nanoparticles can be further enhanced if they are made as hybrid structures. This program is concerned with the synthesis, characterization, and application of such hybrid structures termed AHNs. AHNs are composed of a homogeneous core and several caps of different materials deposited on its surface (Fig. 1). Combined properties of the core and the caps as well as new properties that arise from core-cap and cap-cap interactions render AHNs multifunctional. In addition, specific chemical reactivity of the caps enables directional self-assembly of AHNs into complex architectures that are not possible with only spherical nanoparticles.

  8. Hybrid2 - The hybrid power system simulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.; Green, H.J.; Dijk, V.A.P. van [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Manwell, J.F. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    There is a large-scale need and desire for energy in remote communities, especially in the developing world; however the lack of a user friendly, flexible performance prediction model for hybrid power systems incorporating renewables hindered the analysis of hybrids as options to conventional solutions. A user friendly model was needed with the versatility to simulate the many system locations, widely varying hardware configurations, and differing control options for potential hybrid power systems. To meet these ends, researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Massachusetts (UMass) developed the Hybrid2 software. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities, features, and functionality of the Hybrid2 code, discusses its validation and future plans. Model availability and technical support provided to Hybrid2 users are also discussed. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. First-Order Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid logic is an extension of modal logic which allows us to refer explicitly to points of the model in the syntax of formulas. It is easy to justify interest in hybrid logic on applied grounds, with the usefulness of the additional expressive power. For example, when reasoning about time one...... often wants to build up a series of assertions about what happens at a particular instant, and standard modal formalisms do not allow this. What is less obvious is that the route hybrid logic takes to overcome this problem often actually improves the behaviour of the underlying modal formalism....... For example, it becomes far simpler to formulate proof-systems for hybrid logic, and completeness results can be proved of a generality that is simply not available in modal logic. That is, hybridization is a systematic way of remedying a number of known deficiencies of modal logic. First-order hybrid logic...

  10. Hybrid solar lighting distribution systems and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D [Lenoir City, TN; Earl, Dennis D [Knoxville, TN; Beshears, David L [Knoxville, TN; Maxey, Lonnie C [Powell, TN; Jordan, John K [Oak Ridge, TN; Lind, Randall F [Lenoir City, TN

    2011-07-05

    A hybrid solar lighting distribution system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates all components.

  11. Completeness in Hybrid Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Areces, Carlos; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    We show that basic hybridization (adding nominals and @ operators) makes it possible to give straightforward Henkin-style completeness proofs even when the modal logic being hybridized is higher-order. The key ideas are to add nominals as expressions of type t, and to extend to arbitrary types th......-style intensional models; we build, as simply as we can, hybrid logicover Henkin’s logic...

  12. CASP-19 special section: how does chronic disease status affect CASP quality of life at older ages? Examining the WHO ICF disability domains as mediators of this relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, E; King-Kallimanis, B L; Layte, R; Hickey, A

    2015-07-01

    The effect of chronic disease status on quality of life (QoL) has been well established. However, less is known about how chronic diseases affect QoL. This article examines impairment in three domains of the WHO International Classification of Functioning, Health and Disability (ICF) - body function, activity and participation, as well as affective well-being, - as potential mediators of the relationship between chronic disease and QoL. A cross-sectional sample (n = 4961) of the general Irish community-dwelling population aged 50+ years was obtained from the Irish Longitudinal Study of Ageing (TILDA). The CASP measure of QoL was examined as two dimensions - control/autonomy and self-realisation/pleasure. Structural equation modelling was used to test the direct and indirect effects of chronic disease on QoL, via variables capturing body function, activity, participation and positive affect. A factor analysis showed that indicators of body function and activity loaded onto a single overall physical impairment factor. This physical impairment factor fully mediated the effect of chronic disease on positive affect and QoL. The total effect of chronic disease on control/autonomy (-0.160) was primarily composed of an indirect effect via physical impairment (-0.86), and via physical impairment and positive affect (-0.45). The decomposition of effects on self-realisation/pleasure was similar, although the direct effect of physical impairment was weaker. The model fitted the data well (RMSEA = 0.02, TLI = 0.96, CFI = 0.96). Chronic disease affects QoL through increased deficits in physical body function and activity. This overall physical impairment affects QoL both directly and indirectly via reduced positive affect.

  13. Glueballs, hybrids, multiquarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klempt, Eberhard [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen-und Kernphysik der Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms Universitaet, Nussallee 14-16, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)], E-mail: klempt@hiskp.uni-bonn.de; Zaitsev, Alexander [Institute for High-Energy Physics, Moscow Region, RU-142284 Protvino (Russian Federation)

    2007-12-15

    Glueballs, hybrids and multiquark states are predicted as bound states in models guided by quantum chromo dynamics (QCD), by QCD sum rules or QCD on a lattice. Estimates for the (scalar) glueball ground state are in the mass range from 1000 to 1800 MeV, followed by a tensor and a pseudoscalar glueball at higher mass. Experiments have reported evidence for an abundance of meson resonances with 0{sup -+},0{sup ++} and 2{sup ++} quantum numbers. In particular, the sector of scalar mesons is full of surprises starting from the elusive {sigma} and {kappa} mesons. The a{sub 0}(980) and f{sub 0}(980), discussed extensively in the literature, are reviewed with emphasis on their Janus-like appearance as KK-bar molecules, tetraquark states or qq-bar mesons. Most exciting is the possibility that the three mesons f{sub 0}(1370), f{sub 0}(1500), and f{sub 0}(1710) might reflect the appearance of a scalar glueball in the world of quarkonia. However, the existence of f{sub 0}(1370) is not beyond doubt and there is evidence that both f{sub 0}(1500) and f{sub 0}(1710) are flavour octet states, possibly in a tetraquark composition. We suggest a scheme in which the scalar glueball is dissolved into the wide background into which all scalar flavour-singlet mesons collapse. There is an abundance of meson resonances with the quantum numbers of the {eta}. Three states are reported below 1.5GeV/c{sup 2} whereas quark models expect only one, perhaps two. One of these states, {iota}(1440), was the prime glueball candidate for a long time. We show that {iota}(1440) is the first radial excitation of the {eta} meson. Hybrids may have exotic quantum numbers which are not accessible by qq-bar mesons. There are several claims for J{sup PC}=1{sup -+} exotics, some of them with properties as predicted from the flux tube model interpreting the quark-antiquark binding by a gluon string. The evidence for these states depends partly on the assumption that meson-meson interactions are dominated by s

  14. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin P Clark

    Full Text Available Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID. In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM. Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with

  15. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Darin P.

    2017-01-01

    Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD) technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID). In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM). Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with a spectral

  16. Hybrid Maritime Warfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John; Murphy, Martin; Hoffman, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Russia’s use of hybrid warfare techniques has raised concerns about the security of the Baltic States. Gary Schaub, Jr, Martin Murphy and Frank G Hoffman recommend a series of measures to augment NATO’s Readiness Action Plan in the Baltic region, including increasing the breadth and depth of naval...... exercises, and improving maritime domain awareness through cooperative programmes. They also suggest unilateral and cooperative measures to develop a sound strategic communications strategy to counter Moscow’s information operations, reduce dependence on Russian energy supplies and build the resilience...

  17. Indexical Hybrid Tense Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we explore the logic of now, yesterday, today and tomorrow by combining the semantic approach to indexicality pioneered by Hans Kamp [9] and refined by David Kaplan [10] with hybrid tense logic. We first introduce a special now nominal (our @now corresponds to Kamp’s original now...... operator N) and prove completeness results for both logical and contextual validity. We then add propositional constants to handle yesterday, today and tomorrow; our system correctly treats sentences like “Niels will die yesterday” as contextually unsatisfiable. Building on our completeness results for now......, we prove completeness for the richer language, again for both logical and contextual validity....

  18. Hybrid Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Dark matter can be produced in the early universe via the freeze-in or freeze-out mechanisms. Both scenarios were investigated in references, but the production of dark matters via the combination of these two mechanisms are not addressed. In this paper we propose a hybrid dark matter model where dark matters have two components with one component produced thermally and the other one produced non-thermally. We present for the first time the analytical calculation for the relic abundance of th...

  19. Reflections on Intellectual Hybridity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimala Price

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from the growing literature on interdisciplinarity and my own experiences as an intellectual hybrid, I discuss the personal and institutional challenges inherent in crossing disciplinary boundaries in the academy. I argue that boundary crossing is a natural occurrence and that the issue of (interdisciplinarity is a matter of degree and of determining who gets to define the boundaries. Defining boundaries is not merely an intellectual enterprise, but also a political act that delineates what is, or is not, legitimate scholarship. This issue is especially salient to women's and gender studies during times of economic distress and educational budget cuts.

  20. The Hybrid Advantage: Graduate Student Perspectives of Hybrid Education Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sarah; Villareal, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid courses combine online and face-to-face learning environments. To organize and teach hybrid courses, instructors must understand the uses of multiple online learning tools and face-toface classroom activities to promote and monitor the progress of students. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the perspectives of…

  1. Hybrid vehicle potential assessment. Volume 7: Hybrid vehicle review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leschly, K. O.

    1979-01-01

    Review of hybrid vehicles built during the past ten years or planned to be built in the near future is presented. An attempt is made to classify and analyze these vehicles to get an overall picture of their key characteristics. The review includes onroad hybrid passenger cars, trucks, vans, and buses.

  2. Examining the similarities and differences of OMERACT core sets using the ICF: first step towards an improved domain specification and development of an item pool to measure functioning and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escorpizo, Reuben; Boers, Maarten; Stucki, Gerold; Boonen, Annelies

    2011-08-01

    To contribute to the discussion on a common approach for domain selection in the Outcomes in Rheumatology Clinical Trials (OMERACT) process. First, this article reports on the consistency in the selection and names of the domains of the current OMERACT core set, and next on the comparability of the specifications of concepts that are relevant within the domains. For this purpose, a convenience sample of 4 OMERACT core sets was used: rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), longitudinal observational studies (LOS) in rheumatology, and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Domains from the different core sets were compared directly. To be able to compare the specific content of the domains, the concepts contained in the questionnaires that were considered or proposed to measure the domains were identified and linked to the category of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) that best fit that construct. Large differences in the domains, and lack of domain definitions, were noted among the 4 OMERACT core sets. When comparing the concepts in the questionnaires that represent the domains, core sets differed also in the number and type of constructs that were addressed within each of the domains. Especially for the specification of the concepts within the domains Discomfort and Disability, the ICF proved to be useful as external reference to classify the different constructs. Our exercise suggests that the OMERACT process could benefit from a standardized approach to select, define, and specify domains, and demonstrated that the ICF is useful for further classification of the more specific concepts of "what to measure" within the domains. A clear definition and classification of domains and their specification can be useful as a starting point to build a pool of items that could then be used to develop new instruments to assess functioning and health for rheumatological conditions.

  3. Nonminimally coupled hybrid inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Seoktae; Minamitsuji, Masato

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the hybrid inflation model where the inflaton field is nonminimally coupled to gravity. In the Jordan frame, the potential contains φ 4 term as well as terms in the original hybrid inflation model. In our model, inflation can be classified into the type (I) and the type (II). In the type (I), inflation is terminated by the tachyonic instability of the waterfall field, while in the type (II) by the violation of slow-roll conditions. In our model, the reheating takes place only at the true minimum and even in the case (II) finally the tachyonic instability occurs after the termination of inflation. For a negative nonminimal coupling, inflation takes place in the vacuum-dominated region, in the large field region, or near the local minimum/maximum. Inflation in the vacuum-dominated region becomes either the type (I) or (II), resulting in a blue or red spectrum of the curvature perturbations, respectively. Inflation around the local maximum can be either the type (I) or the type (II), which results in the red spectrum of the curvature perturbations, while around the local minimum it must be the type (I), which results in the blue spectrum. In the large field region, to terminate inflation, potential in the Einstein frame must be positively tilted, always resulting in the red spectrum. We then numerically solve the equations of motion to investigate the whole dynamics of inflaton and confirm that the spectrum of curvature perturbations changes from red to blue ones as scales become smaller.

  4. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  5. Hybrid spread spectrum radio system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen F [London, TN; Dress, William B [Camas, WA

    2010-02-09

    Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method, includes receiving a hybrid spread spectrum signal including: fast frequency hopping demodulating and direct sequence demodulating a direct sequence spread spectrum signal, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time and each bit is represented by chip transmissions at multiple frequencies.

  6. The governance of hybrid organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spear, Roger; Cornforth, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is on the governance of third sector organizations (TSOs) and the challenges that are raised by hybridity. In particular it will focus on the question how does hybridity affect governance structures and processes and the challenges that governing bodies face?...

  7. Electric/Hybrid Vehicle Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusser, R. A.; Chapman, C. P.; Brennand, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    ELVEC computer program provides vehicle designer with simulation tool for detailed studies of electric and hybrid vehicle performance and cost. ELVEC simulates performance of user-specified electric or hybrid vehicle under user specified driving schedule profile or operating schedule. ELVEC performs vehicle design and life cycle cost analysis.

  8. Electric-hybrid-vehicle simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasma, D. C.

    The simulation of electric hybrid vehicles is to be performed using experimental data to model propulsion system components. The performance of an existing ac propulsion system will be used as the baseline for comparative purposes. Hybrid components to be evaluated include electrically and mechanically driven flywheels, and an elastomeric regenerative braking system.

  9. Design Principles for Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    For many years mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately. Naturally, the next step in this development is the development of ventilation concepts that utilize and combine the best features from each system to create a new type of ventilation system -Hybrid Ventilation. ....... The hybrid ventilation concepts, design challenges and - principles are discussed and illustrated by four building examples....

  10. Conceptual innovations in hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.; Miley, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    A number of innovations in the conception of fusion-fission hybrid reactors, including the blanket, the fusion driver, the coupling of the fusion and the fission components as well as the application of hybrid reactors are described, and their feasibility assessed

  11. Hybrid laser-arc welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybrid laser-arc welding (HLAW) is a combination of laser welding with arc welding that overcomes many of the shortfalls of both processes. This important book gives a comprehensive account of hybrid laser-arc welding technology and applications. The first part of the book reviews...... the characteristics of the process, including the properties of joints produced by hybrid laser-arc welding and ways of assessing weld quality. Part II discusses applications of the process to such metals as magnesium alloys, aluminium and steel as well as the use of hybrid laser-arc welding in such sectors as ship...... building and the automotive industry. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Hybrid laser-arc welding, will be a valuable source of reference for all those using this important welding technology. Professor Flemming Ove Olsen works in the Department of Manufacturing...

  12. Laser driven fusion fission hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, L.F.; Maniscalco, J.A.

    1977-11-01

    The role of the fusion-fission hybrid reactor (FFHR) as a fissile fuel and/or power producer is discussed. As long range options to supply the world energy needs, hybrid-fueled thermal-burner reactors are compared to liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR). A discussion of different fuel cycles (thorium, depleted uranium, and spent fuel) is presented in order to compare the energy multiplication, the production of fissile fuel, the laser efficiency and pellet gain requirements of the hybrid reactor. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) has collaborated with Bechtel Corporation and with Westinghouse in two engineering design studies of laser fusion driven hybrid power plants. The hybrid designs which have resulted from these two studies are briefly described and analyzed by considering operational parameters, such as energy multiplication, power density, burn-up and plutonium production as a function time

  13. Hybrid Natural Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Graham G.; Germán, Gabriel; Vázquez, J. Alberto

    2016-05-01

    We construct two simple effective field theory versions of Hybrid Natural Inflation (HNI) that illustrate the range of its phenomenological implications. The resulting inflationary sector potential, V = Δ4(1 + acos( ϕ/f)), arises naturally, with the inflaton field a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson. The end of inflation is triggered by a waterfall field and the conditions for this to happen are determined. Also of interest is the fact that the slow-roll parameter ɛ (and hence the tensor r) is a non-monotonic function of the field with a maximum where observables take universal values that determines the maximum possible tensor to scalar ratio r. In one of the models the inflationary scale can be as low as the electroweak scale. We explore in detail the associated HNI phenomenology, taking account of the constraints from Black Hole production, and perform a detailed fit to the Planck 2015 temperature and polarisation data.

  14. Hybrid Natural Inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, Graham G.; Germán, Gabriel; Vázquez, J. Alberto

    2016-01-01

    We construct two simple effective field theory versions of Hybrid Natural Inflation (HNI) that illustrate the range of its phenomenological implications. The resulting inflationary sector potential, V=Δ"4(1+acos (ϕ/f)), arises naturally, with the inflaton field a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson. The end of inflation is triggered by a waterfall field and the conditions for this to happen are determined. Also of interest is the fact that the slow-roll parameter ϵ (and hence the tensor r) is a non-monotonic function of the field with a maximum where observables take universal values that determines the maximum possible tensor to scalar ratio r. In one of the models the inflationary scale can be as low as the electroweak scale. We explore in detail the associated HNI phenomenology, taking account of the constraints from Black Hole production, and perform a detailed fit to the Planck 2015 temperature and polarisation data.

  15. Hybrid powertrain system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Ricardo C.; O'Neil, Walter K.; Preston, David M.

    2005-09-20

    A hybrid powertrain system is provided that includes a first prime mover having a rotational output, a second prime mover having a rotational output, and a transmission having a main shaft supporting at least two main shaft gears thereon. The transmission includes a first independent countershaft drivingly connected to the first prime mover and including at least one ratio gear supported thereon that meshes with a respective main shaft gear. A second independent countershaft is drivingly connected to the second prime mover and includes at least one ratio gear supported thereon that meshes with a respective main shaft gear. The ratio gears on the first and second countershafts cooperate with the main shaft gears to provide at least one gear ratio between the first and second countershafts and the main shaft. A shift control mechanism selectively engages and disengages the first and second countershafts for rotation with the main shaft.

  16. Hybrid vehicle control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallvari, Iva; Velnati, Sashidhar; DeGroot, Kenneth P.

    2015-07-28

    A method and apparatus for heating a catalytic converter's catalyst to an efficient operating temperature in a hybrid electric vehicle when the vehicle is in a charge limited mode such as e.g., the charge depleting mode or when the vehicle's high voltage battery is otherwise charge limited. The method and apparatus determine whether a high voltage battery of the vehicle is incapable of accepting a first amount of charge associated with a first procedure to warm-up the catalyst. If it is determined that the high voltage battery is incapable of accepting the first amount of charge, a second procedure with an acceptable amount of charge is performed to warm-up the catalyst.

  17. Hyper- and hybrid nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanna; Gessner, Manuel; Li, Weidong; Smerzi, Augusto

    2018-02-01

    The controlled generation and identification of quantum correlations, usually encoded in either qubits or continuous degrees of freedom, builds the foundation of quantum information science. Recently, more sophisticated approaches, involving a combination of two distinct degrees of freedom, have been proposed to improve on the traditional strategies. Hyperentanglement describes simultaneous entanglement in more than one distinct degree of freedom, whereas hybrid entanglement refers to entanglement shared between a discrete and a continuous degree of freedom. In this work we propose a scheme that allows us to combine the two approaches, and to extend them to the strongest form of quantum correlations. Specifically, we show how two identical, initially separated particles can be manipulated to produce Bell nonlocality among their spins, among their momenta, as well as across their spins and momenta. We discuss possible experimental realizations with atomic and photonic systems.

  18. Hybrid Electric Transit Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    A government, industry, and university cooperative is developing an advanced hybrid electric city transit bus. Goals of this effort include doubling the fuel economy compared to current buses and reducing emissions to one-tenth of current EPA standards. Unique aspects of the vehicle's power system include the use of ultra-capacitors as an energy storage system, and a planned natural gas fueled turbogenerator developed from a small jet engine. Power from both the generator and energy storage system is provided to a variable speed electric motor attached to the rear axle. At over 15000 kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle of its kind ever built using ultra-capacitor energy storage. This paper describes the overall power system architecture, the evolution of the control strategy, and its performance over industry standard drive cycles.

  19. Hybrid Magnetic Shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Kevin; Crawford, Christopher; Mullins, Andrew; Porter, Greg; Blanton, Hunter; Johnstone, Connor; Kistler, Ben; Olivera, Daniela

    2017-09-01

    The search for the electric dipole moment of the neutron requires the ambient magnetic field to be on the pT scale which is accomplished with large magnetic shielding rooms. These rooms are fitted with large mu-metal sheets to allow for passive cancellation of background magnetic fields. Active shielding technology cannot uniformly cancel background magnetic fields. These issues can be remedied by combining the methods into a hybrid system. The design used is composed of panels that have an active layer of cancellation between two sheets of mu-metal. The panels form a cube and draw in magnetic fields perpendicular to the surface which can then be reduced using active shielding. This work is supported by the Department of Energy under Contract DE-SC0008107.

  20. A Hybrid Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew; Christensen, Steen Hyldgaard; Botin, Lars

    “hubris” that is so much taken for granted in contemporary science and engineering discourses and practices with a sense of cooperation and social responsibility. The book portrays the history of science and technology as an underlying tension between hubris – literally the ambition to “play god...... an alternative approach, devoting special attention to the role played by social and cultural movements in the making of science and technology. They show how social and cultural movements, from the Renaissance of the late 15th century to the environmental and global justice movements of our time, have provided......” on the part of many a scientist and engineer and neglect the consequences - and a hybrid imagination, connecting scientific “facts” and technological “artifacts” with cultural understanding. The book concludes with chapters on the recent transformations in the modes of scientific and technological production...