WorldWideScience

Sample records for suppressed larval pigmentation

  1. Continuous illumination through larval development suppresses dopamine synthesis in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, causing activation of α-MSH synthesis in the pituitary and abnormal metamorphic skin pigmentation in flounder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kae; Washio, Youhei; Fujinami, Yuichiro; Shimizu, Daisuke; Uji, Susumu; Yokoi, Hayato; Suzuki, Tohru

    2012-04-01

    In order to better understand the endocrine aberrations related to abnormal metamorphic pigmentation that appear in flounder larvae reared in tanks, this study examined the effects of continuous 24-h illumination (LL) through larval development on the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase-1 (th1), proopiomelanocortin (pomc), α-melanophore-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and melanin concentrating hormone (MCH), which are known to participate in the control of background adaptation of body color. We observed two conspicuous deviations in the endocrine system under LL when compared with natural light conditions (LD). First, LL severely suppressed th1 expression in the dopaminergic neurons in the anterior diencephalon, including the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Second, pomc and α-MSH expression in the pars intermedia melanotrophs was enhanced by LL. Skin color was paler under LL than LD before metamorphic pigmentation, and abnormal metamorphic pigmentation occurred at a higher ratio in LL. We therefore hypothesize that continuous LL inhibited dopamine synthesis in the SCN, which resulted in up-regulation of pomc mRNA expression in the melanotrophs. In spite of the up-regulation of pomc in the melanotrophs, larval skin was adjusted to be pale by MCH which was not affected by LL. Accumulation of α-MSH in the melanotrophs is caused by uncoupling of α-MSH synthesis and secretion due to inhibitory role of MCH on α-MSH secretion, which results in abnormal metamorphic pigmentation by affecting differentiation of adult-type melanophores. Our data demonstrate that continuous illumination at the post-embryonic stage has negative effects on the neuroendocrine system and pituitary in flounder. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Regulation of 20-hydroxyecdysone on the larval pigmentation and the expression of melanin synthesis enzymes and yellow gene of the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futahashi, Ryo; Fujiwara, Haruhiko

    2007-08-01

    The swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus, changes its larval body pattern dramatically during the fourth ecdysis. Cuticular pigmentation occurs with precise timing just before ecdysis. We previously found that the cuticular pigmentation was regulated by three melanin synthesis genes, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopa decarboxylase (DDC), and ebony. We discovered that yellow is strongly expressed in the presumptive black markings earlier than TH and DDC. Because the ecdysis is triggered by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), the effects of 20E on the pigmentation and expression of the melanin synthesis genes were examined. Here, we established a method for the topical application of 20E to molting specimens, so that 20E has only a partial effect, resulting in successful ecdysis. When we applied 20E during the mid-phase of the molting period, when the 20E titer is declining, cuticular pigmentation was completely inhibited. The cessation of hormonal treatments caused delayed pigmentation. yellow expression was promoted by a high titer of 20E, whereas the expression of TH, DDC, and ebony was suppressed, suggesting that a decline in the 20E concentration is necessary for the induction of the expression of the latter three genes. These results indicate that cuticular pigmentation is controlled by the exposure to 20E and its removal.

  3. First report of pigmentation dystrophy in terrestrial isopods, Atlantoscia floridana (van Name (Isopoda, Oniscidea, induced by larval acanthocephalans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amato José F. R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The observation of pigmentation alteration in isopod crustaceans induced by acanthocephalans, known as pigmentation dystrophy, has been documented in North America in species of the aquatic genera Asellus Geoffroy, 1764, Lirceus Rafinesque-Schmaltz, 1820, and Caecidotea Packard, 1871, and in Europe, in Asellus. Recently, three depigmented specimens of Atlantoscia floridana (van Name, 1940, a terrestrial isopod, occurring from >Florida, USA to northern Argentina were found showing pigmentation dystrophy and harboring larval acanthocephalans. Photographic documentation of live and preserved, infected isopods is presented. Morphometric data and photomicrographs of the male, unencysted cystacanth specimen which allowed its placement in the genus Centrorhynchus Lühe, 1911 are presented. This is the first record of the phenomenon of pigmentation dystrophy in terrestrial isopod crustaceans, the first record of A. floridana infected by an acanthocephalan and the first record of a species of Centrorhynchus in a terrestrial isopod.

  4. Drosophila clueless is highly expressed in larval neuroblasts, affects mitochondrial localization and suppresses mitochondrial oxidative damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Sen

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are critical for neuronal function due to the high demand of ATP in these cell types. During Drosophila development, neuroblasts in the larval brain divide asymmetrically to populate the adult central nervous system. While many of the proteins responsible for maintaining neuroblast cell fate and asymmetric cell divisions are known, little is know about the role of metabolism and mitochondria in neuroblast division and maintenance. The gene clueless (clu has been previously shown to be important for mitochondrial function. clu mutant adults have severely shortened lifespans and are highly uncoordinated. Part of their lack of coordination is due to defects in muscle, however, in this study we have identified high levels of Clu expression in larval neuroblasts and other regions of the dividing larval brain. We show while mitochondria in clu mutant neuroblasts are mislocalized during the cell cycle, surprisingly, overall brain morphology appears to be normal. This is explained by our observation that clu mutant larvae have normal levels of ATP and do not suffer oxidative damage, in sharp contrast to clu mutant adults. Mutations in two other genes encoding mitochondrial proteins, technical knockout and stress sensitive B, do not cause neuroblast mitochondrial mislocalization, even though technical knockout mutant larvae suffer oxidative damage. These results suggest Clu functions upstream of electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation, has a role in suppressing oxidative damage in the cell, and that lack of Clu's specific function causes mitochondria to mislocalize. These results also support the previous observation that larval development relies on aerobic glycolysis, rather than oxidative phosphorylation. Thus Clu's role in mitochondrial function is not critical during larval development, but is important for pupae and adults.

  5. Effects of age and immune suppression of sheep on fecundity, hatching and larval feeding of different strains of Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargison, N D; Jackson, F; Gilleard, J S

    2011-09-01

    The effects of host age and immune suppression on abomasal parasitic infection in sheep were investigated following single experimental oral infections with MHco3 (ISE), MHco4 (WRS) and MHco10 (CAVR) strains of Haemonchus contortus in naïve 5-month-old crossbred lambs (n=1 per group) and 15-month-old Greyface sheep treated with methyl prednisolone acetate (n=2 per group) or without corticosteroid treatment (n=2 per group). Adult female H. contortus in 5-month-old lambs (n=1 per group) shed on average 6.5, 3.1 and 8.0 times more eggs than in 15-month-old sheep (n=4 per group) following infection with MHco3 (ISE), MHco4 (WRS) and MHco10 (CAVR) strains of H. contortus, respectively, over a period of 28 days following the commencement of patency. There was no obvious effect of age of sheep or corticosteroid treatment on the abomasal establishment of H. contortus or on in vitro assays for egg hatching or larval feeding at different concentrations of anthelmintics, although statistical analysis could not be performed due to the small group sizes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of niacinamide on reducing cutaneous pigmentation and suppression of melanosome transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakozaki, T; Minwalla, L; Zhuang, J; Chhoa, M; Matsubara, A; Miyamoto, K; Greatens, A; Hillebrand, G G; Bissett, D L; Boissy, R E

    2002-07-01

    Cutaneous hyperpigmentation occurs in multiple conditions. In addition, many Asian women desire a lighter skin colour. Thus, there is a need for the development of skin lightening agents. Niacinamide is a possible candidate. To investigate the effects of niacinamide on melanogenesis in vitro and on facial hyperpigmentation and skin colour in vivo in Japanese women. Melanin production was measured in a purified mushroom tyrosinase assay, cultured melanocytes, a keratinocyte/melanocyte coculture model, and a pigmented reconstructed epidermis (PREP) model. The clinical trials included 18 subjects with hyperpigmentation who used 5% niacinamide moisturizer and vehicle moisturizer in a paired design, and 120 subjects with facial tanning who were assigned to two of three treatments: vehicle, sunscreen and 2% niacinamide + sunscreen. Changes in facial hyperpigmentation and skin colour were objectively quantified by computer analysis and visual grading of high-resolution digital images of the face. Niacinamide had no effect on the catalytic activity of mushroom tyrosinase or on melanogenesis in cultured melanocytes. However, niacinamide gave 35-68% inhibition of melanosome transfer in the coculture model and reduced cutaneous pigmentation in the PREP model. In the clinical studies, niacinamide significantly decreased hyperpigmentation and increased skin lightness compared with vehicle alone after 4 weeks of use. The data suggest niacinamide is an effective skin lightening compound that works by inhibiting melanosome transfer from melanocytes to keratinocytes.

  7. Suppressive effect of AMP-activated protein kinase on the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Matoba

    Full Text Available The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells plays a central role in the development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, a key regulator of energy homeostasis, on the EMT in RPE cells. In this study, EMT-associated formation of cellular aggregates was induced by co-stimulation of cultured ARPE-19 cells with tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α (10 ng/ml and transforming growth factor (TGF-β2 (5 ng/ml. 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR, a potent activator of AMPK, significantly suppressed TNF-α and TGF-β2-induced cellular aggregate formation (p < 0.01. Dipyridamole almost completely reversed the suppressive effect of AICAR, whereas 5'-amino-5'-deoxyadenosine restored aggregate formation by approximately 50%. AICAR suppressed the downregulation of E-cadherin and the upregulation of fibronectin and α-smooth muscle actin by TNF-α and TGF-β2. The levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2, MMP-9, interleukin-6, and vascular endothelial growth factor were significantly decreased by AICAR. Activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin pathways, but not the Smad pathway, was inhibited by AICAR. These findings indicate that AICAR suppresses the EMT in RPE cells at least partially via activation of AMPK. AMPK is a potential target molecule for the prevention and treatment of PVR, so AICAR may be a promising candidate for PVR therapy.

  8. Heterologous expression of gentian MYB1R transcription factors suppresses anthocyanin pigmentation in tobacco flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, Takashi; Yamada, Eri; Saito, Misa; Fujita, Kohei; Nishihara, Masahiro

    2013-12-01

    Single-repeat MYB transcription factors, GtMYB1R1 and GtMYB1R9 , were isolated from gentian. Overexpression of these genes reduced anthocyanin accumulation in tobacco flowers, demonstrating their applicability to modification of flower color. RNA interference (RNAi) has recently been used to successfully modify flower color intensity in several plant species. In most floricultural plants, this technique requires prior isolation of target flavonoid biosynthetic genes from the same or closely related species. To overcome this limitation, we developed a simple and efficient method for reducing floral anthocyanin accumulation based on genetic engineering using novel transcription factor genes isolated from Japanese gentians. We identified two single-repeat MYB genes--GtMYB1R and GtMYB1R9--predominantly expressed in gentian petals. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing these genes were produced, and their flowers were analyzed for flavonoid components and expression of flavonoid biosynthetic genes. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing GtMYB1R1 or GtMYB1R9 exhibited significant reductions in floral anthocyanin accumulation, resulting in white-flowered phenotypes. Expression levels of chalcone isomerase (CHI), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) genes were preferentially suppressed in these transgenic tobacco flowers. A yeast two-hybrid assay demonstrated that both GtMYB1R1 and GtMYB1R9 proteins interacted with the GtbHLH1 protein, previously identified as an anthocyanin biosynthesis regulator in gentian flowers. In addition, a transient expression assay indicated that activation of the gentian GtDFR promoter by the GtMYB3-GtbHLH1 complex was partly canceled by addition of GtMYB1R1 or GtMYB1R9. These results suggest that GtMYB1R1 and GtMYB1R9 act as antagonistic transcription factors of anthocyanin biosynthesis in gentian flowers. These genes should consequently be useful for manipulating anthocyanin accumulation via genetic engineering in

  9. The inhibitory effect of an extract of Sanguisorba officinalis L. on ultraviolet B-induced pigmentation via the suppression of endothelin-converting enzyme-1α

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachiya, Akira; Kobayashi, Akemi; Ohuchi, Atsushi; Kitahara, Takashi; Takema, Yoshinori

    2001-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been reported to be expressed in human epidermis at both the gene and protein levels. ET-1 plays a pivotal role in ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced pigmentation due to its accentuated secretion after UVB irradiation and its function as a mitogen and as a melanogen for human melanocytes. We have recently found that endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE)-1α plays a constitutive role in the secretion of ET-1 by human keratinocytes and that an extract of Sanguisorba officinalis L. inhibits ECE activity in human endothelial cells, which predominantly express ECE-1α. In this report, to clarify the potential use of this botanical extract as a whitening agent, we examined whether this extract inhibits UVB-induced pigmentation in vivo. When this extract was applied to human keratinocytes after UVB irradiation, secretion of ET-1 by those cells was reduced, and this was accompanied by a concomitant increase in the secretion of inactive precursor Big endothelin-1. When hairless mice were exposed to UVB light and were treated with the extract, it suppressed the induction of ET-1 in the UVB-irradiated epidermis. In the course of UVB-induced pigmentation of brownish guinea pig skin, this extract significantly diminished pigmentation in UVB-exposed areas. These findings indicate that ECE-1α in keratinocytes plays a pivotal role in the induction of pigmentation following UVB irradiation and that an extract of S. officinalis, which inhibits ET-1 production in human keratinocytes, is a good ingredient for a whitening agent. (author)

  10. From colloidal spheres to nanofibrils: extensional flow properties of mineral pigment and mixtures with micro and nanofibrils under progressive double layer suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimic-Misic, Katarina; Hummel, Michael; Paltakari, Jouni; Sixta, Herbert; Maloney, Thad; Gane, Patrick

    2015-05-15

    Suspensions of mineral pigment and cellulose fibrillar derivatives are materials regularly found in the forest products industries, particularly in paper and board production. Many manufacturing processes, including forming and coating employ flow geometries incorporating extensional flow. Traditionally, colloidal mineral pigment suspensions have been considered to show little to no non-linear behaviour in extensional viscosity. Additionally, recently, nanofibrillar materials, such as microfibrillar (MFC) and nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC), collectively termed MNFC, have been confirmed by their failure to follow the Cox-Merz rule to behave more as particulate material rather than showing polymeric rheological properties when dispersed in water. Such suspensions and their mixtures are currently intensively investigated to enable them to generate likely enhanced composite material properties. The processes frequently involve exposure to increasing levels of ionic strength, coming either from the weak solubility of pigments, such as calcium carbonate, or retained salts arising from the feed fibre source processing. By taking the simple case of polyacrylate stabilised calcium carbonate suspension and comparing the extensional viscosity as a function of post extension capillary-induced Hencky strain on a CaBER extensional rheometer over a range of increasing salt concentration, it has been shown that the regime of constriction changes as the classic DLVO double layer is progressively suppressed. This change is seen to lead to a characteristic double (bimodal) measured viscosity response for flocculated systems. With this novel characteristic established, more complex mixed suspensions of calcium carbonate, clay and MNFC have been studied, and the effects of fibrils versus flocculation identified and where possible separated. This technique is suggested to enable a better understanding of the origin of viscoelasticity in these important emerging water-based suspensions

  11. Efficacy of dexamethasone suppression test during the diagnosis of primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease in Chinese adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent Cushing syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shi; Li, Ran; Lu, Lin; Duan, Lian; Zhang, Xuebin; Tong, Anli; Pan, Hui; Zhu, Huijuan; Lu, Zhaolin

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the cut-off value of the ratio of 24 h urinary free cortisol (24 h UFC) levels post-dexamethasone to prior-dexamethasone in dexamethasone suppression test (DST) during the diagnosis of primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease in Chinese adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent Cushing syndrome. Retrospective study. The patients diagnosed with primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD, n = 25), bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (BMAH, n = 27), and adrenocortical adenoma (ADA, n = 84) were admitted to the Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 2001 to 2016. Serum cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and 24 h UFC were measured before and after low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (LDDST) and high-dose dexamethasone suppression test (HDDST). After LDDST and HDDST, 24 h UFC elevated in patients with PPNAD (paired t-test, P = 0.007 and P = 0.001), while it remained unchanged in the BMAH group (paired t-test, P = 0.471 and P = 0.414) and decreased in the ADA group (paired t-test, P = 0.002 and P = 0.004). The 24 h UFC level after LDDST was higher in PPNAD and BMAH as compared to ADA (P < 0.017), while no significant difference was observed between PPNAD and BMAH. After HDDST, 24 h UFC was higher in patients with PPNAD as compared to that of ADA and BMAH (P < 0.017). The cut-off value of 24 h UFC (Post-L-Dex)/(Pre-L-Dex) was 1.16 with 64.0% sensitivity and 77.9% specificity, and the cut-off value of 24 h UFC (Post-H-Dex)/(Pre-H-Dex) was 1.08 with 84.0% sensitivity and 75.6% specificity. The ratio of post-dexamethasone to prior-dexamethasone had a unique advantage in distinguishing PPNAD from BMAH and ADA.

  12. Pigment epithelial-derived factor gene loaded novel COOH-PEG-PLGA-COOH nanoparticles promoted tumor suppression by systemic administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu T

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ting Yu,1,* Bei Xu,1,* Lili He,2 Shan Xia,3 Yan Chen,1 Jun Zeng,1 Yongmei Liu,1 Shuangzhi Li,1 Xiaoyue Tan,4 Ke Ren,1 Shaohua Yao,1 Xiangrong Song1 1State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, and Collaborative Innovation Center for Biotherapy, 2College of Chemistry and Environment Protection Engineering, Southwest University for Nationalities, 3Central Laboratory, Science Education Department, Chengdu Normal University, Chengdu, Sichuan, 4Department of Pathology/Collaborative Innovation Center of Biotherapy, Medical School of Nankai University, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Anti-angiogenesis has been proposed as an effective therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF is one of the most powerful endogenous anti-angiogenic reagents discovered to date and PEDF gene therapy has been recognized as a promising treatment option for various tumors. There is an urgent need to develop a safe and valid vector for its systemic delivery. Herein, a novel gene delivery system based on the newly synthesized copolymer COOH-PEG-PLGA-COOH (CPPC was developed in this study, which was probably capable of overcoming the disadvantages of viral vectors and cationic lipids/polymers-based nonviral carriers. PEDF gene loaded CPPC nanoparticles (D-NPs were fabricated by a modified double-emulsion water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W solvent evaporation method. D-NPs with uniform spherical shape had relatively high drug loading (~1.6%, probably because the introduced carboxyl group in poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide terminal enhanced the interaction of copolymer with the PEDF gene complexes. An excellent in vitro antitumor effect was found in both C26 and A549 cells treated by D-NPs, in which PEDF levels were dramatically elevated due to the successful transfection of PEDF gene. D-NPs also showed a strong inhibitory effect on

  13. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) inhibits proximal tubular cell injury in early diabetic nephropathy by suppressing advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-receptor (RAGE) axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Sayaka; Matsui, Takanori; Takeuchi, Masayoshi; Yoshida, Yumiko; Yamakawa, Ryoji; Fukami, Kei; Yamagishi, Sho-ichi

    2011-03-01

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a multifunctional glycoprotein with anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory properties, and it could block the development and progression of experimental diabetic retinopathy. However, a role for PEDF in early experimental diabetic nephropathy is not fully understood. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) axis stimulates oxidative stress generation and subsequently evokes inflammatory and fibrogenic reactions in renal tubular cells, thereby playing a role in diabetic nephropathy. Therefore, this study investigated whether PEDF could prevent AGE-elicited tubular cell injury in early diabetic nephropathy. Human proximal tubular cells were incubated with or without AGE-bovine serum albumin in the presence or absence of PEDF. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were treated with or without intravenous injection of PEDF for 4 weeks. Gene expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured with dihydroethidium staining. PEDF or antibodies raised against RAGE inhibited the AGE-induced RAGE gene expression and subsequently reduced ROS generation, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), fibronectin and type IV collagen mRNA levels in proximal tubular cells. RAGE gene expression, ROS generation and MCP-1 and TGF-β mRNA levels were significantly increased in diabetic kidney, which were suppressed by administration of PEDF. Our present data suggest that PEDF could play a protective role against tubular injury in diabetic nephropathy by attenuating the deleterious effects of AGEs via down-regulation of RAGE expression. Administration of PEDF may offer a promising strategy for halting the development of diabetic nephropathy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. ceramic pigment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Co costs and environmental impact, most of the current research activities concerning Co-based blue pigments have been focused upon the minimization of the employed amount of Co in their formulation (thus reducing both the economic costs and the toxicity). Accordingly, several studies have been previously reported on ...

  15. ceramic pigment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sintering process). The other samples show practically the same morphology, and the mean particle size of the obtained powders is in agreement with that for inorganic pigments used in most applications (i.e., between 0.1 and 10 μm [13]). 3.3 Optical spectroscopy (powders). Since Co2SiO4 mineral owes its violet colour to ...

  16. Overview of plant pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorophylls, carotenoids, flavonoids and betalains are four major classes of biological pigments produced in plants. Chlorophylls are the primary pigments responsible for plant green and photosynthesis. The other three are accessary pigments and secondary metabolites that yield non-green colors and...

  17. Roles of hesC and gcm in echinoid larval mesenchyme cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Atsuko; Minokawa, Takuya

    2016-04-01

    To understand the roles of hesC and gcm during larval mesenchyme specification and differentiation in echinoids, we performed perturbation experiments for these genes in two distantly related euechinoids, Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus and Scaphechinus mirabilis. The number of larval mesenchyme cells increased when the translation of hesC was inhibited, thereby suggesting that hesC has a general role in larval mesenchyme development. We confirmed previous results by demonstrating that gcm is involved in pigment cell differentiation. Simultaneous inhibition of the translation of hesC and gcm induced a significant increase in the number of skeletogenic cells, which suggests that gcm functions in skeletogenic fate repression. Based on these observations, we suggest that: (i) hesC participates in some general aspects of mesenchymal cell development; and (ii) gcm is involved in the mechanism responsible for the binary specification of skeletogenic and pigment cell fates. © 2016 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  18. Is the Schwabe Organ a Retained Larval Eye? Anatomical and Behavioural Studies of a Novel Sense Organ in Adult Leptochiton asellus (Mollusca, Polyplacophora Indicate Links to Larval Photoreceptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren H Sumner-Rooney

    Full Text Available The discovery of a sensory organ, the Schwabe organ, was recently reported as a unifying feature of chitons in the order Lepidopleurida. It is a patch of pigmented tissue located on the roof of the pallial cavity, beneath the velum on either side of the mouth. The epithelium is densely innervated and contains two types of potential sensory cells. As the function of the Schwabe organ remains unknown, we have taken a cross-disciplinary approach, using anatomical, histological and behavioural techniques to understand it. In general, the pigmentation that characterises this sensory structure gradually fades after death; however, one particular concentrated pigment dot persists. This dot is positionally homologous to the larval eye in chiton trochophores, found in the same neuroanatomical location, and furthermore the metamorphic migration of the larval eye is ventral in species known to possess Schwabe organs. Here we report the presence of a discrete subsurface epithelial structure in the region of the Schwabe organ in Leptochiton asellus that histologically resembles the chiton larval eye. Behavioural experiments demonstrate that Leptochiton asellus with intact Schwabe organs actively avoid an upwelling light source, while Leptochiton asellus with surgically ablated Schwabe organs and a control species lacking the organ (members of the other extant order, Chitonida do not (Kruskal-Wallis, H = 24.82, df = 3, p < 0.0001. We propose that the Schwabe organ represents the adult expression of the chiton larval eye, being retained and elaborated in adult lepidopleurans.

  19. Genetic disorders of pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passeron, Thierry; Mantoux, Frédéric; Ortonne, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    More than 127 loci are actually known to affect pigmentation in mouse when they are mutated. From embryogenesis to transfer of melanin to the keratinocytes or melanocytes survival, any defect is able to alter the pigmentation process. Many gene mutations are now described, but the function of their product protein and their implication in melanogenesis are only partially understood. Each genetic pigmentation disorder brings new clues in the understanding of the pigmentation process. According to the main genodermatoses known to induce hypo- or hyperpigmentation, we emphasize in this review the last advances in the understanding of the physiopathology of these diseases and try to connect, when possible, the mutation to the clinical phenotype.

  20. Solitary black pigment stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolpers, C.; Wosiewitz, U.

    1986-01-01

    Solitary pigment stones of the gall-bladder are rare (1.7%). 82,5% are radiopaque, 17.5% radiolucent. 64,8% of radiopaque solitary pigment stones have the structure of a cockade. Such cockades take years to develop. Solitary cholesterol stones with a nucleus of a radiopaque pigment stone should not be treated for litholysis. 8% of solitary cholesterol stones with a cross diameter below 15 mm. possess a radiolucent pigment stone nucleus. X-ray diagnosis for selecting litholytic treatment remains the safest method, especially if the radiologist compares his films regularly with the specimens after surgery. (orig.) [de

  1. Development of Betta splendens embryos and larvae reveals variation in pigmentation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Alexis N; Lyvers, Benjamin H; Ferrill, Rachel N; Johnson, Rachel L; Dumaine, Anne Marie; Sly, Belinda J

    2016-06-01

    Vertebrate pigmentation provides an ideal system for studying the intersections between evolution, genetics, and developmental biology. Teleost fish, with their accessible developmental stages and intense and diverse colours produced by chromatophores, are an ideal group for study. We set out to test whether Betta splendens is a good model organism for studying the evolution and development of diverse pigmentation. Our results demonstrate that B. splendens can be bred to produce large numbers of offspring with easily visualized pigment cells. Depending on the colour of the parents, there was variation in larval pigmentation patterns both within and between breeding events. In juveniles the developing adult pigmentation patterns showed even greater variation. These results suggest that B. splendens has great potential as a model organism for pigmentation studies.

  2. [Microbial sources of pigments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañizares-Villanueva, R O; Ríos-Leal, E; Olvera Ramírez, R; Ponce Noyola, T; Márquez Rocha, F

    1998-01-01

    Pigments from natural sources has been obtained since long time ago, and their interest has increased due to the toxicity problems caused by those of synthetic origin. In this way the pigments from microbial sources are a good alternative. Some of more important natural pigments, are the carotenoids, flavonoids (anthocyanins) and some tetrapirroles (chloropyls, phycobilliproteins). Another group less important are the betalains and quinones. The carotenoids are molecules formed by isoprenoids units and the most important used as colorant are the alpha and beta carotene which are precursors of vitamin A, and some xantophylls as astaxanthin. The pigment more used in the industry is the beta-carotene which is obtained from some microalgae and cyanobacteria. The astaxanthin another important carotenoid is a red pigment of great commercial value, and it is used in the pharmaceutical feed and acuaculture industries. This pigments is mainly obtained from Phaffia rhodozyma and Haematococcus pluvialis and other organisms. The phycobilliproteins obtained from cyanobacteria and some group of algae, have recently been increased on the food industries. In the last years it has been used as fluorescent marker in biochemical assays. Our research group have carried out studies about the factors that improve the production of these pigments obtained from different microbial species as well as the methods for their extraction and application.

  3. Ion transport in pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellono, Nicholas W; Oancea, Elena V

    2014-12-01

    Skin melanocytes and ocular pigment cells contain specialized organelles called melanosomes, which are responsible for the synthesis of melanin, the major pigment in mammals. Defects in the complex mechanisms involved in melanin synthesis and regulation result in vision and pigmentation deficits, impaired development of the visual system, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. Ion transport across cellular membranes is critical for many biological processes, including pigmentation, but the molecular mechanisms by which it regulates melanin synthesis, storage, and transfer are not understood. In this review we first discuss ion channels and transporters that function at the plasma membrane of melanocytes; in the second part we consider ion transport across the membrane of intracellular organelles, with emphasis on melanosomes. We discuss recently characterized lysosomal and endosomal ion channels and transporters associated with pigmentation phenotypes. We then review the evidence for melanosomal channels and transporters critical for pigmentation, discussing potential molecular mechanisms mediating their function. The studies investigating ion transport in pigmentation physiology open new avenues for future research and could reveal novel molecular mechanisms underlying melanogenesis.

  4. Pigments in Thermophilic fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Somasundaram, T; Rao, Sanjay SR; Maheshwari, R

    1986-01-01

    UV and visible absorption spectra of thermophilic fungi were obtained by photoacoustic spectroscopy. Based on these data as well as on the chem. properties and IR spectra, it is suggested that the pigments may be hydroxylated polycyclic quinones.

  5. Chlorophyll: The wonder pigment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhat, S.R.

    Chlorophyll, the green plant pigment, a 'real life force' of living beings, besides synthesizing food, is a great source of vitamins, minerals and other phytochemicals. Adding chlorophyll rich food to our diet fortifies our body against health...

  6. Prodigiosin-like pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, N N

    1975-05-01

    Prodigiosin, the bright red tripyrrole pigment from Serratia marcescens, has also been identified in Pseudomonas magnesiorubra, Vibrio psychroerythrus, and two Gram-negative rod-shaped mesophilic marine bacteria not members of the genus Serratia. Prodigiosin is sometimes bound to proteins; thus, extracts may require acid treatment before isolation of the pigment. Higher homologs of prodigiosin have been detected by mass spectroscopy. A mutant strain of S. marcescens produced nor-prodigiosin, in which the methoxy group of prodigiosin is replaced by a hydroxy group. Another mutant strain produced a blue tetrapyrrole pigment whose structure is a dimer of prodigiosin's rings A and B. Three novel biosynthetic analogs of prodigiosin have been obtained using a colorless mutant which does make rings A and B but not ring C and which can couple rings A and B with some added monopyrroles similar to ring C. The structures of three prodiginine (prodigiosin-like) pigments from streptomyces have been elucidated. All have the methoxytripyrrole aromatic nucleus of prodigiosin and all have an 11 carbon aliphatic side chain attached at carbon 2 of ring C. In two of the pigments the side chain is also linked to another carbon of ring C. The earlier literature about prodiginine pigments from actinomycetes has been interpreted and evaluated in light of the most recent findings. The structure elucidation of six prodiginine pigments from Actinomadurae (Nocardiae) has been completed. Only one, undecylprodiginine, is the same as from a streptomycete. For three of the six pigments, nine carbon side chains are observed and in four of them the side chain is attached to carbon 5 of ring A as well as carbon 2 of ring C so that a large ring is formed which includes the three pyrrole moieties. A section on identification summarized useful methods and presents information with which any known prodiginine pigment can be identified. The final step in the biosynthesis of prodigiosin was known to be

  7. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms

    OpenAIRE

    Kuczynska, Paulina; Jemiola-Rzeminska, Malgorzata; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvestin...

  8. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Kuczynska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvesting pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthin, there is a group of photoprotective carotenoids which includes β-carotene and the xanthophylls, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which are engaged in the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, some intermediate products of biosynthetic pathways have been identified in diatoms as well as unusual pigments, e.g., marennine. Marine algae have become widely recognized as a source of unique bioactive compounds for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical applications. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on diatom photosynthetic pigments complemented by some new insights regarding their physico-chemical properties, biological role, and biosynthetic pathways, as well as the regulation of pigment level in the cell, methods of purification, and significance in industries.

  9. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczynska, Paulina; Jemiola-Rzeminska, Malgorzata; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvesting pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthin, there is a group of photoprotective carotenoids which includes β-carotene and the xanthophylls, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which are engaged in the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, some intermediate products of biosynthetic pathways have been identified in diatoms as well as unusual pigments, e.g., marennine. Marine algae have become widely recognized as a source of unique bioactive compounds for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical applications. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on diatom photosynthetic pigments complemented by some new insights regarding their physico-chemical properties, biological role, and biosynthetic pathways, as well as the regulation of pigment level in the cell, methods of purification, and significance in industries. PMID:26389924

  10. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczynska, Paulina; Jemiola-Rzeminska, Malgorzata; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2015-09-16

    Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvesting pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthin, there is a group of photoprotective carotenoids which includes β-carotene and the xanthophylls, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which are engaged in the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, some intermediate products of biosynthetic pathways have been identified in diatoms as well as unusual pigments, e.g., marennine. Marine algae have become widely recognized as a source of unique bioactive compounds for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical applications. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on diatom photosynthetic pigments complemented by some new insights regarding their physico-chemical properties, biological role, and biosynthetic pathways, as well as the regulation of pigment level in the cell, methods of purification, and significance in industries.

  11. Skin pigmentation evaluation in broilers fed natural and synthetic pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, M P; Hirschler, E M; Sams, A R

    2005-01-01

    Broiler carcass skin color is important in the United States and Mexico. This study evaluated the use of natural and synthetic pigments in broiler diets at commercial levels. Birds were fed natural or synthetic pigments at low or high levels, simulating US and Mexican commercial practices. Skin color was measured during live production (3 to 7 wk of age) and after slaughter and chilling. The natural pigments had consistently greater skin b* values (yellowness) than the synthetic pigments. The high levels produced greater skin b* values than the low levels, regardless of source. The synthetic pigments had a slower increase in skin b* but reached the same level as the natural low by 7 wk. There was no difference in skin a* values (redness) due to pigment source or level or the age of the bird. By 7 wk, all pigment sources approached plateau levels in the blood, but the synthetic pigment diet produced higher blood levels of yellow and red pigments than the natural pigment diets. Processing intensified skin yellowness and reduced skin redness. These data suggest that although synthetic pigments might have been absorbed better than natural ones, natural pigments were more efficient at increasing skin yellowness and there were only small differences between high and low levels for each pigment source. This finding may allow reduction in pigment use and feed cost to achieve the same skin acceptance by the consumer.

  12. Raman af hvide pigmenter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeler, Nini Elisabeth Abildgaard; Nielsen, Ole Faurskov; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2013-01-01

    Et samspil mellem kunst og kemi. I et samarbejde mellem Statens Museum for Kunst og Kemisk Institut på KU er Ramanspek-troskopi brugt til at definere sammensætningen af blandinger af blyhvidt og calcit i maleriers hvide pigmenter.......Et samspil mellem kunst og kemi. I et samarbejde mellem Statens Museum for Kunst og Kemisk Institut på KU er Ramanspek-troskopi brugt til at definere sammensætningen af blandinger af blyhvidt og calcit i maleriers hvide pigmenter....

  13. True bursal pigmented villonodular synovitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelwahab, Ibrahim Fikry; Kenan, Samuel; Steiner, German C.; Abdul-Quader, Mohammed

    2002-01-01

    We describe two cases of pigmented villonodular synovitis affecting true bursae. This study was also designed to discuss the term ''pigmented villonodular bursitis'', not confined to true synovial bursae, sometimes creating misunderstanding. (orig.)

  14. True bursal pigmented villonodular synovitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelwahab, Ibrahim Fikry [Department of Radiology, New York Methodist Hospital, Affiliated with New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Kenan, Samuel [Department of Orthopedics, New York University Medical Center, NY (United States); Steiner, German C. [Department of Pathology, Hospital for Joint Diseases/Orthopedic Institute, New York, NY (United States); Abdul-Quader, Mohammed [Department of Radiology, New York Presbyterian Hospital, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)

    2002-06-01

    We describe two cases of pigmented villonodular synovitis affecting true bursae. This study was also designed to discuss the term ''pigmented villonodular bursitis'', not confined to true synovial bursae, sometimes creating misunderstanding. (orig.)

  15. Phototrophic pigment production with microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, K.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract

    Microalgal pigments are regarded as natural alternatives for food colorants. To facilitate optimization of microalgae-based pigment production, this thesis aimed to obtain key insights in the pigment metabolism of phototrophic microalgae, with the main focus on secondary

  16. Phototrophic pigment production with microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, K.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract

    Microalgal pigments are regarded as natural alternatives for food colorants. To facilitate optimization of microalgae-based pigment production, this thesis aimed to obtain key insights in the pigment metabolism of phototrophic microalgae, with the main  focus

  17. Larval development of Culex quinquefasciatus in water with low to moderate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori, Navideh; Lockaby, B Graeme; Kalin, Latif

    2015-12-01

    Population growth and urbanization have increased the potential habitats, and consequently the abundance of Culex quinquefasciatus, the southern house mosquito, a vector of West Nile Virus in urban areas. Water quality is critical in larval habitat distribution and in providing microbial food resources for larvae. A mesocosm experiment was designed to demonstrate which specific components of water chemistry are conducive to larval Culex mosquitoes. Dose-response relationships between larval development and NO3 , NH4 , and PO4 concentrations in stream water were developed through this experiment to describe the isolated effects of each nutrient on pre-adult development. The emergence pattern of Culex mosquitoes was found to be strongly related to certain nutrients, and results showed that breeding sites with higher PO4 or NO3 concentrations had higher larval survival rates. High NO3 concentrations favor the development of male mosquitoes and suppress the development of female mosquitoes, but those adult females that do emerge develop faster in containers with high NO3 levels compared to the reference group. The addition of PO4 in the absence of nitrogen sources to the larval habitat slowed larval development, however, it took fewer days for larvae to reach the pupal stage in containers with combinations of NO3 and PO4 or NH4 and PO4 nutrients. Results from this study may bolster efforts to control WNV in urban landscapes by exploring water quality conditions of Culex larval habitats that produce adult mosquitoes. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  18. Larval outbreaks in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Magnus; Raundrup, Katrine; Westergaard-Nielsen, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    effects of a larval outbreak in 2011 on vegetation productivity and CO2 exchange. We estimate a decreased carbon (C) sink strength in the order of 118–143 g C m−2, corresponding to 1210–1470 tonnes C at the Kobbefjord catchment scale. The decreased C sink was, however, counteracted the following years...

  19. Kauri seeds and larval somersaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Steen Thorleif

    2012-01-01

    The trunk morphology of the larvae of the kauri pine (Agathis) seed infesting moth Agathiphaga is described using conventional, polarization, and scanning electron microscopy. The pine seed chamber formed by the larva is also described and commented on. The simple larval chaetotaxy includes more ...

  20. Pigmentos maculares Macular pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Canovas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A luteína e a zeaxantina são pigmentos amarelos que se localizam na mácula. Devido à sua localização, diminuem e filtram a quantidade de luz principalmente azul que chega aos fotorreceptores, atuam como antioxidantes e podem melhorar a qualidade visual. Esta é uma revisão do seu mecanismo de incorporação, ação, possíveis aplicações e conhecimento científico a respeito.Lutein and Zeaxanthin are yellow pigments located at the macula. Because of your location macular pigments decrease and filter the amount of blue light that reach photoreceptors, protect the outer retina from oxidative stress and may improve the vision quality. This is a review regarding incorporation mechanism, function and knowledge update.

  1. Fungal pigments inhibit the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis of darkly pigmented fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskirk, Amanda D; Hettick, Justin M; Chipinda, Itai; Law, Brandon F; Siegel, Paul D; Slaven, James E; Green, Brett J; Beezhold, Donald H

    2011-04-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been used to discriminate moniliaceous fungal species; however, darkly pigmented fungi yield poor fingerprint mass spectra that contain few peaks of low relative abundance. In this study, the effect of dark fungal pigments on the observed MALDI mass spectra was investigated. Peptide and protein samples containing varying concentrations of synthetic melanin or fungal pigments extracted from Aspergillus niger were analyzed by MALDI-TOF and MALDI-qTOF (quadrupole TOF) MS. Signal suppression was observed in samples containing greater than 250ng/μl pigment. Microscopic examination of the MALDI sample deposit was usually heterogeneous, with regions of high pigment concentration appearing as black. Acquisition of MALDI mass spectra from these darkly pigmented regions of the sample deposit yielded poor or no [M+H](+) ion signal. In contrast, nonpigmented regions within the sample deposit and hyphal negative control extracts of A. niger were not inhibited. This study demonstrated that dark fungal pigments inhibited the desorption/ionization process during MALDI-MS; however, these fungi may be successfully analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS when culture methods that suppress pigment expression are used. The addition of tricyclazole to the fungal growth media blocks fungal melanin synthesis and results in less melanized fungi that may be analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Larval helminths in intermediate hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Poulin, R

    2005-01-01

    Density-dependent effects on parasite fitness have been documented from adult helminths in their definitive hosts. There have, however, been no studies on the cost of sharing an intermediate host with other parasites in terms of reduced adult parasite fecundity. Even if larval parasites suffer...... transmission to their bird definitive host by predation. In experimental infections, we found an intensity-dependent establishment success, with a decrease in the success rate of cercariae developing into infective metacercariae with an increasing dose of cercariae applied to each amphipod. In natural...... the two species. Our results thus indicate that the infracommunity of larval helminths in their intermediate host is interactive and that any density-dependent effect in the intermediate host may have lasting effects on individual parasite fitness....

  3. 'Peer pressure' in larval Drosophila?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewalda, Thomas; Jeske, Ines; Michels, Birgit; Gerber, Bertram

    2014-06-06

    Understanding social behaviour requires a study case that is simple enough to be tractable, yet complex enough to remain interesting. Do larval Drosophila meet these requirements? In a broad sense, this question can refer to effects of the mere presence of other larvae on the behaviour of a target individual. Here we focused in a more strict sense on 'peer pressure', that is on the question of whether the behaviour of a target individual larva is affected by what a surrounding group of larvae is doing. We found that innate olfactory preference of a target individual was neither affected (i) by the level of innate olfactory preference in the surrounding group nor (ii) by the expression of learned olfactory preference in the group. Likewise, learned olfactory preference of a target individual was neither affected (iii) by the level of innate olfactory preference of the surrounding group nor (iv) by the learned olfactory preference the group was expressing. We conclude that larval Drosophila thus do not take note of specifically what surrounding larvae are doing. This implies that in a strict sense, and to the extent tested, there is no social interaction between larvae. These results validate widely used en mass approaches to the behaviour of larval Drosophila. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Sensitizing pigment in the fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, K.; Kirschfeld, K.

    1983-01-01

    The sensitizing pigment hypothesis for the high UV sensitivity in fly photoreceptors (R1-6) is further substantiated by measurements of the polarisation sensitivity in the UV. The quantum yield of the energy transfer from sensitizing pigment to rhodopsin was estimated by electrophysiological measurements of the UV sensitivity and the rhabdomeric absorptance (at 490 nm) in individual receptor cells. The transfer efficiency is >=0.75 in receptors with an absorptance in the rhabdomeres of 0.55-0.95. This result suggests that the sensitizing pigment is bound in some way to the rhodopsin. A ratio of two molecules of sensitizing pigment per one rhodopsin is proposed. (orig.)

  5. Pigmented villo nodular synovitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pigmented villonodular synovitis is a rare disorder affecting joints. Methods : We reviewed 19 cases of pigmented villonodular synovitis out of 481 arthroscopic synovial biopsies over a period of ten years. A common presenting symptom was locking. Both diffuse and localized forms were diagnosed. Duration of symptoms varied from 5 months to3 years. We report our experience of patients treated by arthroscopic excision for localized villonodular synovitis and arthroscopic synovectomy for diffuse villonodular synovitis followed by intraarticular Yttrium. Results : In diffuse villonodular synovitis arthroscopic total synovectomy was done a using special angular and straight motorized shaver through different portals to reach all corners of the joint. Localized variety was treated by excising the pedicle attached to the synovium. In our series none of the patients with localized villonodular synovitis showed recurrence till date. Three cases of diffuse variety presented with effusion and swelling three to six months after treatment and were managed by arthoscopic synovial shaving. Two cases who showed recurrence after one year were subjected to intraarticular 90Y isotope injection. Conclusion : Arthroscopic synovectomy helps in reducing morbidity. Radiation and intraarticular Injection of 90 Y are alternative modes of treatment.

  6. Nonphotosynthetic Pigments as Potential Biosignatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S.; Meadows, Victoria S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Previous work on possible surface reflectance biosignatures for Earth-like planets has typically focused on analogues to spectral features produced by photosynthetic organisms on Earth, such as the vegetation red edge. Although oxygenic photosynthesis, facilitated by pigments evolved to capture photons, is the dominant metabolism on our planet, pigmentation has evolved for multiple purposes to adapt organisms to their environment. We present an interdisciplinary study of the diversity and detectability of nonphotosynthetic pigments as biosignatures, which includes a description of environments that host nonphotosynthetic biologically pigmented surfaces, and a lab-based experimental analysis of the spectral and broadband color diversity of pigmented organisms on Earth. We test the utility of broadband color to distinguish between Earth-like planets with significant coverage of nonphotosynthetic pigments and those with photosynthetic or nonbiological surfaces, using both 1-D and 3-D spectral models. We demonstrate that, given sufficient surface coverage, nonphotosynthetic pigments could significantly impact the disk-averaged spectrum of a planet. However, we find that due to the possible diversity of organisms and environments, and the confounding effects of the atmosphere and clouds, determination of substantial coverage by biologically produced pigments would be difficult with broadband colors alone and would likely require spectrally resolved data. Key Words: Biosignatures—Exoplanets—Halophiles—Pigmentation—Reflectance spectroscopy—Spectral models. Astrobiology 15, 341–361. PMID:25941875

  7. New directions in phthalocyanine pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Diep VO

    1994-01-01

    Phthalocyanines have been used as a pigment in coatings and related applications for many years. These pigments are some of the most stable organic pigments known. The phthalo blue and green pigments have been known to be ultraviolet (UV) stable and thermally stable to over 400 C. These phthalocyanines are both a semiconductor and photoconductor, exhibiting catalytic activity and photostabilization capability of polymers. Many metal free and metallic phthalocyanine derivatives have been prepared. Development of the new classes of phthalocyanine pigment could be used as coating on NASA spacecraft material such as glass to decrease the optical degradation from UV light, the outside of the space station modules for UV protection, and coating on solar cells to increase lifetime and efficiency.

  8. Iris phenotypes and pigment dispersion caused by genes influencing pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Michael G; Hawes, Norman L; Trantow, Colleen M; Chang, Bo; John, Simon W M

    2008-10-01

    Spontaneous mutations altering mouse coat colors have been a classic resource for discovery of numerous molecular pathways. Although often overlooked, the mouse iris is also densely pigmented and easily observed, thus representing a similarly powerful opportunity for studying pigment cell biology. Here, we present an analysis of iris phenotypes among 16 mouse strains with mutations influencing melanosomes. Many of these strains exhibit biologically and medically relevant phenotypes, including pigment dispersion, a common feature of several human ocular diseases. Pigment dispersion was identified in several strains with mutant alleles known to influence melanosomes, including beige, light, and vitiligo. Pigment dispersion was also detected in the recently arising spontaneous coat color variant, nm2798. We have identified the nm2798 mutation as a missense mutation in the Dct gene, an identical re-occurrence of the slaty light mutation. These results suggest that dysregulated events of melanosomes can be potent contributors to the pigment dispersion phenotype. Combined, these findings illustrate the utility of studying iris phenotypes as a means of discovering new pathways, and re-linking old ones, to processes of pigmented cells in health and disease.

  9. Natural pigments and sacred art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelekian, Lena, ,, Lady

    2010-05-01

    Since the dawn of mankind, cavemen has expressed himself through art. The earliest known cave paintings date to some 32,000 years ago and used 4 colours derived from the earth. These pigments were iron oxides and known as ochres, blacks and whites. All pigments known by the Egyptians, the Greeks, the Romans and Renaissance man were natural and it was not until the 18th century that synthetic pigments were made and widely used. Until that time all art, be it sacred or secular used only natural pigments, of which the preparation of many have been lost or rarely used because of their tedious preparation. As a geologist, a mineralogist and an artist specializing in iconography, I have been able to rediscover 89 natural pigments extracted from minerals. I use these pigments to paint my icons in the traditional Byzantine manner and also to restore old icons, bringing back their glamour and conserving them for years to come. The use of the natural pigments in its proper way also helps to preserve the traditional skills of the iconographer. In the ancient past, pigments were extremely precious. Many took an exceedingly long journey to reach the artists, and came from remote countries. Research into these pigments is the work of history, geography and anthropology. It is an interesting journey in itself to discover that the blue aquamarines came from Afghanistan, the reds from Spain, the greens Africa, and so on. In this contribution I will be describing the origins, preparation and use of some natural pigments, together with their history and provenance. Additionally, I will show how the natural pigments are used in the creation of an icon. Being a geologist iconographer, for me, is a sacrement that transforms that which is earthly, material and natural into a thing of beauty that is sacred. As bread and wine in the Eucharist, water during baptism and oil in Holy Union transmit sanctification to the beholder, natural pigments do the same when one considers an icon. The

  10. Xanthophore migration from the dermis to the epidermis and dermal remodeling during Salamandra salamandra salamandra (L.) larval development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederzoli, Aurora; Gambarelli, Andrea; Restani, Cinzia

    2003-02-01

    During larval development of Salamandra salamandra salamandra chromatophores organize to form the definitive pigment pattern constituted by a black background with yellow patches that are characterized by epidermal xanthophores and dermal iridophores. Simultaneously the dermis undergoes remodeling from the larval stage to that typical of the adult. In the present study we ultrastucturally and immunocytochemically examined skin fragments of S. s. salamandra larvae and juveniles in order to investigate the modalities of xanthophore migration and differentiation in the context of dermal remodeling from the larval to adult stage. Semithin and thin sections showed that the dermis in newly born larvae consists of a compact connective tissue (basement lamella), to which fibroblasts and xanthophores adhere, and of a loose deep collagen layer. As larval development proceeds, fibroblasts and xanthophores invade the basement lamella, skin glands develop and the adult dermis forms. At metamorphosis, xanthophores reach the epidermis crossing through the basal lamina. We examined immunocytochemically the expression of signal molecules, such as fibronectin, vitronectin, beta1-integrin, chondroitin sulfate, E-cadherin, N-cadherin and plasminogen activator, which are known to be involved in regulating morphogenetic events. Their role in dermal remodeling and in pigment pattern formation is discussed.

  11. Ephrin-mediated restriction of ERK1/2 activity delimits the number of pigment cells in the Ciona CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupaix, Nicolas; Abitua, Philip B; Sirour, Cathy; Yasuo, Hitoyoshi; Levine, Michael; Hudson, Clare

    2014-10-01

    Recent evidence suggests that ascidian pigment cells are related to neural crest-derived melanocytes of vertebrates. Using live-imaging, we determine a revised cell lineage of the pigment cells in Ciona intestinalis embryos. The neural precursors undergo successive rounds of anterior-posterior (A-P) oriented cell divisions, starting at the blastula 64-cell stage. A previously unrecognized fourth A-P oriented cell division in the pigment cell lineage leads to the generation of the post-mitotic pigment cell precursors. We provide evidence that MEK/ERK signals are required for pigment cell specification until approximately 30min after the final cell division has taken place. Following each of the four A-P oriented cell divisions, ERK1/2 is differentially activated in the posterior sister cells, into which the pigment cell lineage segregates. Eph/ephrin signals are critical during the third A-P oriented cell division to spatially restrict ERK1/2 activation to the posterior daughter cell. Targeted inhibition of Eph/ephrin signals results in, at neurula stages, anterior expansion of both ERK1/2 activation and a pigment cell lineage marker and subsequently, at larval stages, supernumerary pigment cells. We discuss the implications of these findings with respect to the evolution of the vertebrate neural crest. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pigment production from a mangrove Penicillium | Chintapenta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A mangrove Penicillium producing red pigment was cultured in an optimized medium that was designed by the authors previously and used in this study. The purpose of this study was to identify the pigment and also to study the effect of bio elements on pigment production. Pigment from the medium was efficiently extracted ...

  13. Pigment production from a mangrove Penicillium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-25

    Jun 25, 2014 ... A mangrove Penicillium producing red pigment was cultured in an optimized medium that was designed by the authors previously and used in this study. The purpose of this study was to identify the pigment and also to study the effect of bio elements on pigment production. Pigment from the medium was.

  14. Oral pigmentation induced by Premarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérusse, R; Morency, R

    1991-07-01

    Pigmented lesions of the oral cavity are important entities. The wide range of their clinical differential diagnosis includes such diverse systemic conditions as Addison's disease, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, malignant melanoma, Kaposi's sarcoma, as well as specific oral lesions, such as amalgam tattoo or gingival melanosis. This paper reports a very rare cause of oral pigmentation, a melanic type, related to the use of Premarin.

  15. Analysis of Indian pigment gallstones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautray, T.R.; Vijayan, V.; Panigrahi, S.

    2007-01-01

    Particle induced X-ray emission and particle induced γ-ray emission spectroscopic techniques have been carried out to analyse the elemental concentrations of human pigment gallstone samples from eastern region (Orissa) and southern region (Chennai) of India. It was observed that 18 minor/trace elements namely Na, Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb were present in the pigment gallstone samples of both the regions. Our study reveals that average concentration of all elements except Ni in south Indian pigment gallstone samples is higher than that of corresponding values in east Indian pigment gallstone samples whereas elements like Al, P, S, Cl and V did not show much variation between these two regions. Fourier transform infra-red analysis was carried out to identify the functional groups and the classification of the pigment type gallstones of both the regions. The thermal behaviour of pigment gallstones was carried out by thermogravimetry-derivative thermogravimetry analysis

  16. Drusenoid retinal pigment epithelium detachments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Hage Amaro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The authors make a review of drusenoid retinal pigment epithelium detachments(DPDs, a form of retinal pigment epithelium detachment(PED that evolves from confluent and large soft drusen.Drusenoidretinal pigment epithelial detachments are a recognized element of the "dry" AMD. Until now, no treatment is indicated in drusenoid PEDs. The authors describe the clinical characteristics of drusenoid retinal pigment epithelium detachments (DPEDs and make a review of the DPEDs related in the international literature. We related in this revision paper the multimodal advanced image exams in two cases of dusenoid retinal pigment epithelium detachments (DPEDs and the general characteristics of thisfinding associated with Dry Macular degeneration.Upon examination of the ocular fundusDPEDs emerge as well-circumscribed yellow or yellow–white elevations of the RPE that are usually found within the macula.They may show scalloped borders and a slightly irregular surface. When visualized using fluorescein angiography (FA,DPEDs are typically described as faint hyper-fluorescent in the early phase followed by a slow increase in fluorescence throughout the transit stage of the study without late leakage. With optical coherence tomography (OCT, drusenoid PEDs usually show a smooth contour of the detached hyperreflective RPE band that may have an undulating appearance.Drusenoid PEDs encompass far above the ground possibility type of "dry" AMD that develops in relationship with large confluent soft drusen.At this point no treatment is utilized in drusenoid retinal pigment epithelium detachment(DPEDs.

  17. Yolk pigments of the Mexican leaf frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinetti, G V; Bagnara, J T

    1983-02-25

    Eggs of the Mexican leaf frog contain blue and yellow pigments identified as biliverdin and lutein, respectively. Both pigments are bound to proteins that occur in crystalline form in the yolk platelet. The major blue pigment is biliverdin IX alpha. The eggs vary in color from brilliant blue to pale yellow-green depending on the amount of each pigment. These pigments may provide protective coloration to the eggs.

  18. Suppressed Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarine Romdenh-Romluc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Moran’s revised conception of conscious belief requires us to reconceptualise suppressed belief. The work of Merleau-Ponty offers a way to do this. His account of motor-skills allows us to understand suppressed beliefs as pre-reflective ways of dealing with the world.

  19. Optimal methodologies for terahertz time-domain spectroscopic analysis of traditional pigments in powder form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Taewoo; Lee, Howon; Sim, Kyung Ik; Kim, Jonghyeon; Jo, Young Chan; Kim, Jae Hoon; Baek, Na Yeon; Kang, Dai-ill; Lee, Han Hyoung

    2017-05-01

    We have established optimal methods for terahertz time-domain spectroscopic analysis of highly absorbing pigments in powder form based on our investigation of representative traditional Chinese pigments, such as azurite [blue-based color pigment], Chinese vermilion [red-based color pigment], and arsenic yellow [yellow-based color pigment]. To accurately extract the optical constants in the terahertz region of 0.1 - 3 THz, we carried out transmission measurements in such a way that intense absorption peaks did not completely suppress the transmission level. This required preparation of pellet samples with optimized thicknesses and material densities. In some cases, mixing the pigments with polyethylene powder was required to minimize absorption due to certain peak features. The resulting distortion-free terahertz spectra of the investigated set of pigment species exhibited well-defined unique spectral fingerprints. Our study will be useful to future efforts to establish non-destructive analysis methods of traditional pigments, to construct their spectral databases, and to apply these tools to restoration of cultural heritage materials.

  20. Related allopolyploids display distinct floral pigment profiles and transgressive pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Elizabeth W; Berardi, Andrea E; Smith, Stacey D; Litt, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Both polyploidy and shifts in floral color have marked angiosperm evolution. Here, we investigate the biochemical basis of the novel and diverse floral phenotypes seen in allopolyploids in Nicotiana (Solanaceae) and examine the extent to which the merging of distinct genomes alters flavonoid pigment production. We analyzed flavonol and anthocyanin pigments from Nicotiana allopolyploids of different ages (N. tabacum, 0.2 million years old; several species from Nicotiana section Repandae, 4.5 million years old; and five lines of first-generation synthetic N. tabacum) as well as their diploid progenitors. Allopolyploid floral pigment profiles tend not to overlap with their progenitors or related allopolyploids, and allopolyploids produce transgressive pigments that are not present in either progenitor. Differences in floral color among N. tabacum accessions seems mainly to be due to variation in cyanidin concentration, but changes in flavonol concentrations among accessions are also present. Competition for substrates within the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway to make either flavonols or anthocyanins may drive the differences seen among related allopolyploids. Some of the pigment differences observed in allopolyploids may be associated with making flowers more visible to nocturnal pollinators. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  1. The visual pigment cyanide effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescitelli, F; Karvaly, B

    1989-12-01

    The visual pigment of the Tokay gecko (Gekko gekko) with its in situ absorption maximum at 521 nm has its spectral position at 500 to 505 nm when chloride-deficient digitonin is used for the extraction. In this case the addition of chloride or bromide to the extract restores the maximum to 521 nm. This property, characteristic of gecko pigments in general, does not occur with any of the rhodopsins that have been tested. Simple salts of cyanide, a pseudohalogenoid with an ionic radius close to those of chloride and bromide and/or its hydrolysis product attacks both this gecko pigment and rhodopsins in the dark. This is seen as a slow thermal loss of photopigment if (sodium) cyanide is present at concentrations above 40 mM for the gecko pigment and 150 mM for the rhodopsins of the midshipman (Porichthys notatus) and of the frog (Rana pipiens). In all cases the loss of the photopigment is accompanied by the appearance of a spectral product with maximum absorption at about 340 nm. Cyanide addition has no effect on the photosensitivity of the native pigments and neither does it alter, as do chloride, bromide and other anions, the spectral absorbance curve. The spectral product at 340 nm also appears when the visual pigments are photolyzed in the presence of cyanide salts below the threshold concentrations given above. Incubation of digitonin-solubilized all-trans-retinal with (sodium) cyanide leads to a reaction product with absorption spectrum similar to that obtained with visual pigments under comparable conditions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Effect of newly developed pigments and ultraviolet absorbers on the color change of pigmented silicone elastomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit G Kheur

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The newly developed pigment led to increased color stability as compared to commercially available pigments. Addition of UV stabilizer, Chimassorb led to a further reduction in color change of the pigmented elastomer.

  3. Differential sensitivity of pigmented and non-pigmented marine bacteria to metals and antibiotics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.; Chandramohan, D.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    The response of pigmented and non-pigmented marine bacteria to metals and antibiotics was investigated. The two groups responded differently to heavy metals and antibiotics. Pigmented bacteria were more resistant to metals. Among the metals, Zn...

  4. Melanin pigmentation gives rise to black spots on the wings of the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Katsuhiko; Yoshikawa, Manabu; Fujii, Takeshi; Tabunoki, Hiroko; Yokoyama, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Several mutants of the silkworm Bombyx mori show body color variation at the larval and adult stages. The Wild wing spot (Ws) mutant exhibits a phenotype in which the moth has a spot on the apex of the forewing. In this study, we investigated this trait to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the color pattern. Microscopy of the black spot of Ws mutants showed that the pigment emerges in the scales of the wing, and accumulation of the pigment becomes strong just before eclosion. We next examined the relationship between the black spot of the Ws mutant and melanin. The spectrophotometry using alkaline extracts from the black spot in the wing showed the highest absorption intensity at 405nm, which is the absorbance wavelength of melanin. Moreover, inhibition assays for enzymes implicated in melanin synthesis using 3-iodo-l-tyrosine (a tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor) and L-α-methyl-DOPA (a dopa decarboxylase inhibitor) revealed that treatment with each inhibitor disrupted the pigmentation of the wing of the Ws mutant. On the basis of these results, we analyzed the expression pattern of five genes involved in melanin formation, and found that the expression levels of yellow and laccase2 were increased just before pigmentation, whereas those of DDC, tan, and TH were increased when the apex of the wing turned black. These results showed that melanin pigmentation gives rise to the black spot on the wing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Diversity and functional properties of bistable pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Hisao; Terakita, Akihisa

    2010-11-01

    Rhodopsin and related opsin-based pigments, which are photosensitive membrane proteins, have been extensively studied using a wide variety of techniques, with rhodopsin being the most understood G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). Animals use various opsin-based pigments for vision and a wide variety of non-visual functions. Many functionally varied pigments are roughly divided into two kinds, based on their photoreaction: bistable and monostable pigments. Bistable pigments are thermally stable before and after photo-activation, but monostable pigments are stable only before activation. Here, we review the diversity of bistable pigments and their molecular characteristics. We also discuss the mechanisms underlying different molecular characteristics of bistable and monostable pigments. In addition, the potential of bistable pigments as a GPCR model is proposed.

  6. Iris pigmentation and AC thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, A F; Mukherjee, D; Chumlea, W C; Siervogel, R M

    1983-03-01

    Data from 160 White children were used to analyze possible associations between iris pigmentation and AC pure-tone thresholds. Iris pigmentation was graded from iris color using glass models of eyes, and AC thresholds were obtained under carefully controlled conditions. Analyses of variance using two groupings of iris color grades showed no evidence of an association between iris color grade and AC thresholds. Furthermore, inspection of arrays of the actual glass eye models, in conjunction with the order of mean thresholds at each test frequency, did not indicate the presence of an association between iris color grades and thresholds. It was concluded that while iris pigmentation may be related to some aspects of hearing ability, it does not appear to be related to AC thresholds in children.

  7. Larval Development of Two N. E. Pacific Pilidiophoran Nemerteans (Heteronemertea; Lineidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Terra C; Maslakova, Svetlana A

    2015-12-01

    Unique to the phylum Nemertea, the pilidium is an unmistakable planktonic larva found in one group of nemerteans, the Pilidiophora. Inside the pilidium, the juvenile develops from a series of epidermal invaginations in the larval body, called imaginal discs. The discs grow and fuse around the larval gut over the course of weeks to months in the plankton. Once complete, the juvenile breaks free from the larval body in a catastrophic metamorphosis, and often devours the larva as its first meal. One third of nemertean species are expected to produce a pilidium, but the larvae are known for very few species; development from fertilization to metamorphosis has been described in only one species, Micrura alaskensis. Known pilidia include both planktotrophic and lecithotrophic forms, and otherwise exhibit great morphological diversity. Here, we describe the complete development in two lineiform species that are common to the northeast Pacific coast, Micrura wilsoni and Lineus sp. "red." Both species possess typical, cap-shaped planktotrophic pilidia, and the order of emergence of imaginal discs is similar to that which is described in M. alaskensis. The pilidium of Lineus sp. "red" resembles pilidia of several other species, such as Lineus flavescens, and potentially characterizes a pilidiophoran clade. M. wilsoni has relatively transparent oocytes and a pilidium with what appears to be a unique pattern of pigmentation. The adults of both species are more commonly observed in intertidal zones than their larvae are in the plankton. © 2015 Marine Biological Laboratory.

  8. Colloidal assembly in Leidenfrost drops for noniridescent structural color pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Che Ho; Kang, Hyelim; Kim, Shin-Hyun

    2014-07-22

    Noniridescent structural color pigments have great potential as alternatives to conventional chemical color pigments in many coloration applications due to their nonbleaching and color-tunable properties. In this work, we report a novel method to create photonic microgranules composed of glassy packing of silica particles and small fraction of carbon black nanoparticles, which show pronounced structural colors with low angle-dependency. To prepare isotropic random packing in each microgranule, a Leidenfrost drop, which is a drop levitated by its own vapor on a hot surface, is employed as a template for fast consolidation of silica particles. The drop randomly migrates over the hot surface and rapidly shrinks, while maintaining its spherical shape, thereby consolidating silica particles to granular structures. Carbon black nanoparticles incorporated in the microgranules suppress incoherent multiple scattering, thereby providing improved color contrast. Therefore, photonic microgranules in a full visible range can be prepared by adjusting the size of silica particles with insignificant whitening.

  9. Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie T Manipadam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD is a rare cause of ACTH-independent Cushing′s syndrome and has characteristic gross and microscopic pathologic findings. We report a case of PPNAD in a 15-year-old boy, which was not associated with Carney′s complex. Bilateral adrenalectomy is the treatment of choice.

  10. Key factors for UV curable pigment dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magny, B.; Pezron, E.; Ciceron, P.H.; Askienazy, A.

    1999-01-01

    UV oligomers with good pigment dispersion are needed to allow good formulation flexibility and possibility to apply thinner films. Pigment dispersion mainly depends on three phenomena: the wetting of agglomerates, the breakage of agglomerates by mechanical stress and the stabilization of smaller agglomerates and primary particles against flocculation. It has been shown that oligomers with low viscosity and low surface tension induce a good pigment wetting. Examples of monomers and oligomers for good pigment dispersion are given

  11. Anopheline larval habitats seasonality and species distribution: a prerequisite for effective targeted larval habitats control programmes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliningaya J Kweka

    Full Text Available Larval control is of paramount importance in the reduction of malaria vector abundance and subsequent disease transmission reduction. Understanding larval habitat succession and its ecology in different land use managements and cropping systems can give an insight for effective larval source management practices. This study investigated larval habitat succession and ecological parameters which influence larval abundance in malaria epidemic prone areas of western Kenya.A total of 51 aquatic habitats positive for anopheline larvae were surveyed and visited once a week for a period of 85 weeks in succession. Habitats were selected and identified. Mosquito larval species, physico-chemical parameters, habitat size, grass cover, crop cycle and distance to nearest house were recorded. Polymerase chain reaction revealed that An. gambiae s.l was the most dominant vector species comprised of An.gambiae s.s (77.60% and An.arabiensis (18.34%, the remaining 4.06% had no amplification by polymerase chain reaction. Physico-chemical parameters and habitat size significantly influenced abundance of An. gambiae s.s (P = 0.024 and An. arabiensis (P = 0.002 larvae. Further, larval species abundance was influenced by crop cycle (P≤0.001, grass cover (P≤0.001, while distance to nearest houses significantly influenced the abundance of mosquito species larvae (r = 0.920;P≤0.001. The number of predator species influenced mosquito larval abundance in different habitat types. Crop weeding significantly influenced with the abundance of An.gambiae s.l (P≤0.001 when preceded with fertilizer application. Significantly higher anopheline larval abundance was recorded in habitats in pasture compared to farmland (P = 0.002. When habitat stability and habitat types were considered, hoof print were the most productive followed by disused goldmines.These findings suggest that implementation of effective larval control programme should be targeted with larval

  12. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Paracoccus pigment. 73.352 Section 73.352 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.352 Paracoccus pigment. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive paracoccus pigment consists of the heat-killed, dried cells of a nonpathogenic and nontoxicogenic strain of...

  13. Swapping one red pigment for another.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Betalains are bright red and yellow pigments, which are produced in only one order of plants, the Caryophyllales, and replace the more familiar anthocyanin pigments. The evolutionary origin of betalain production is a mystery, but a new study has identified the first regulator of betalain production and discovered a previously unknown link between the two pigment pathways.

  14. Seperation, identification and analysis of pigment (melanin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nine strains among 180 Streptomyces isolates produce a diffusible dark brown pigment on both peptone-yeast extract agar and synthetic tyrosine-agar. They also show the positive reaction to Ltyrosine or L-dopa substrates. The pigment has been referred to be as merely as dark brown watersoluble pigment, as melanoid or ...

  15. Rehydration of forensically important larval Diptera specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Michelle R; Pechal, Jennifer L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2011-01-01

    Established procedures for collecting and preserving evidence are essential for all forensic disciplines to be accepted in court and by the forensic community at large. Entomological evidence, such as Diptera larvae, are primarily preserved in ethanol, which can evaporate over time, resulting in the dehydration of specimens. In this study, methods used for rehydrating specimens were compared. The changes in larval specimens with respect to larval length and weight for three forensically important blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species in North America were quantified. Phormia regina (Meigen), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) third-instar larvae were collected from various decomposing animals and preserved with three preservation methods (80% ethanol, 70% isopropyl alcohol, and hot-water kill then 80% ethanol). Preservative solutions were allowed to evaporate. Rehydration was attempted with either of the following: 80% ethanol, commercial trisodium phosphate substitute solution, or 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution. All three methods partially restored weight and length of specimens recorded before preservation. Analysis of variance results indicated that effects of preservation, rehydration treatment, and collection animal were different in each species. The interaction between preservative method and rehydration treatment had a significant effect on both P. regina and C. macellaria larval length and weight. In addition, there was a significant interaction effect of collection animal on larval C. macellaria measurements. No significant effect was observed in C. rufifacies larval length or weight among the preservatives or treatments. These methods could be used to establish a standard operating procedure for dealing with dehydrated larval specimens in forensic investigations.

  16. Availability and Utilization of Pigments from Microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Hasina; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Banerjee, Sanjoy; Khatoon, Helena; Shariff, Mohamed

    2016-10-02

    Microalgae are the major photosynthesizers on earth and produce important pigments that include chlorophyll a, b and c, β-carotene, astaxanthin, xanthophylls, and phycobiliproteins. Presently, synthetic colorants are used in food, cosmetic, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical industries. However, due to problems associated with the harmful effects of synthetic colorants, exploitation of microalgal pigments as a source of natural colors becomes an attractive option. There are various factors such as nutrient availability, salinity, pH, temperature, light wavelength, and light intensity that affect pigment production in microalgae. This paper reviews the availability and characteristics of microalgal pigments, factors affecting pigment production, and the application of pigments produced from microalgae. The potential of microalgal pigments as a source of natural colors is enormous as an alternative to synthetic coloring agents, which has limited applications due to regulatory practice for health reasons.

  17. Photo-enhanced toxicity of fluoranthene to Gulf of Mexico marine organisms at different larval ages and ultraviolet light intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Bryson E; Stubblefield, William A

    2016-05-01

    Significant increases in toxicity have been observed as a result of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) absorption of ultraviolet (UV) radiation in aquatic organisms. Early life stage aquatic organisms are predicted to be more susceptible to PAH photo-enhanced toxicity as a result of their translucence and tendency to inhabit shallow littoral or surface waters. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the sensitivity of varying ages of larval mysid shrimp (Americamysis bahia), inland silverside (Menidia beryllina), sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus), and Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) to photo-enhanced toxicity and to examine the correlation between photo-enhanced toxicity and organism pigmentation. Organisms were exposed to fluoranthene and artificial UV light at different larval ages and results were compared using median lethal concentrations (LC50s) and the lethal time-to-death (LT50s). In addition, a high UV light intensity, short-duration (4-h) experiment was conducted at approximately 24 W/m(2) of ultraviolet radiation A (UV-A) and compared with a low-intensity, long-duration (12-h) experiment at approximately 8 W/m(2) of UV-A. The results indicated decreased toxicity with increasing age for all larval organisms. The amount of organism pigmentation was correlated with observed LC50 and LT50 values. High-intensity short-duration exposure resulted in greater toxicity than low-intensity long-duration UV treatments for mysid shrimp, inland silverside, and sheepshead minnow. Data from these experiments suggest that toxicity is dependent on age, pigmentation, UV light intensity, and fluoranthene concentration. © 2015 SETAC.

  18. Suppression chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Akio.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To miniaturize the storage tank of condensated water in BWR reactor. Constitution: A diaphragm is provided in a suppression chamber thereby to partition the same into an inner compartment and an outer compartment. In one of said compartments there is stored clean water to be used for feeding at the time of separating the reactor and for the core spray system, and in another compartment there is stored water necessary for accomplishing the depressurization effect at the time of coolant loss accident. To the compartment in which clean water is stored there is connected a water cleaning device for constantly maintaining water in clean state. As this cleaning device an already used fuel pool cleaning device can be utilized. Further, downcomers for accomplishing the depressurization function are provided in both inner compartment and outer compartment. The capacity of the storage tank can be reduced by the capacity of clean water within the suppression chamber. (Ikeda, J.)

  19. Larval development of Lecanogaster chrysea Briggs, 1957

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Instituto de Ciencias del Mar, Paseo Nacional sIn, 08003 Barcelona, Spain. Received 18 February 1986; accepted 7 November 1986. The first description of the larval development of Lecanogasterchrysea Briggs, 1957 (Gobiesocidae) is presented. Adults of this species have been reported only off Ghana. The larvae ...

  20. Ecological-friendly pigments from fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Nelson; Teixeira, Maria F S; De Conti, Roseli; Esposito, Elisa

    2002-01-01

    The dyestuff industry is suffering from the increases in costs of feedstock and energy for dye synthesis, and they are under increasing pressure to minimize the damage to the environment. The industries are continuously looking for cheaper, more environmentally friendly routes to existing dyes. The aim of this minireview is to discuss the most important advances in the fungal pigment area and its interest in biotechnological applications. Characteristic pigments are produced by a wide variety of fungi and the chemical composition of natural dyes are described. These pigments exhibit several biological activities besides cytotoxicity. The synthetic pigments authorized by the EC and in USA and the natural pigments available in the world market are discussed. The obstacle to the exploitation of new natural pigments sources is the food legislation, requesting costly toxicological research, manufacturing costs, and acceptance by consumers. The dislike for novel ingredients is likely to be the biggest impediment for expansion of the pigment list in the near future. If the necessary toxicological testing and the comparison with accepted pigments are made, the fungal pigments, could be acceptable by the current consumer. The potentiality of pigment production in Brazil is possible due to tremendous Amazonian region biodiversity.

  1. Larval growth rate and sex determine resource allocation and stress responsiveness across life stages in juvenile frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warne, Robin W; Crespi, Erica J

    2015-03-01

    The extent to which interactions between environmental stressors and phenotypic variation during larval life stages impose carry-over effects on adult phenotypes in wildlife are not clear. Using semi-natural mesocosms, we examined how chronically low food availability and size-specific phenotypes in larval amphibians interact and carry over to influence frog growth, resource allocation, endocrine activity and survival. We tagged three cohorts of larvae that differed in body size and developmental stage at 3 weeks after hatching, and tracked them through 10 weeks after metamorphosis in high and low food conditions. We found that growth and development rates during the early tadpole stage not only affected metamorphic rates, but also shaped resource allocation and stress responsiveness in frogs: the slowest growing larvae from low-food mesocosms exhibited a suppressed glucocorticoid response to a handling stressor; reduced growth rate and fat storage as frogs. We also show for the first time that larval developmental trajectories varied with sex, where females developed faster than males especially in food-restricted conditions. Last, while larval food restriction profoundly affected body size in larvae and frogs, time to metamorphosis was highly constrained, which suggests that the physiology and development of this ephemeral pond-breeding amphibian is adapted for rapid metamorphosis despite large potential variation in nutrient availability. Taken together, these results suggest that larval phenotypic variation significantly influences multiple dimensions of post-metamorphic physiology and resource allocation, which likely affect overall performance. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Influence of dietary arachidonic acid combined with light intensity and tank colour on pigmentation of common sole (Solea solea L.) larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ivar; Steenfeldt, Svend Jørgen; Hansen, B.W.

    2010-01-01

    Supplementation of dietary arachidonic acid (ARA) is known to cause hypopigmentation in common sole larvae (Solea solea L.). This study examined a possible link between dietary ARA supplementation - light intensity and tank colour on pigment defects in common sole larvae. Larval tissue ARA...... treated with the ARA supplemented emulsion during premetamorphosis showed partly or complete dorsal hypopigmentation. There were no significant effects of light intensity or tank background colour in combination with ARA on malpigmentation. Larval hypopigmentation was below 10% in the groups not treated...... to be related to a higher feed intake. Early pigment cell (chromatophor) development until 11 dph (i.e. start of metamorphosis) was not significantly related to dietary treatment, but during metamorphosis (from 16 dph) total chromatophore concentration (cells larvae (-1)) was significantly lower for larvae...

  3. Optimal number of pigments in photosynthetic complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesenko, Simon; Žnidarič, Marko

    2012-01-01

    We study excitation energy transfer in a simple model of a photosynthetic complex. The model, described by the Lindblad equation, consists of pigments interacting via dipole–dipole interaction. The overlapping of pigments induces an on-site energy disorder, providing a mechanism for blocking the excitation transfer. Based on the average efficiency as well as the robustness of random configurations of pigments, we calculate the optimal number of pigments that should be enclosed in a pigment–protein complex of a given size. The results suggest that a large fraction of pigment configurations are efficient as well as robust if the number of pigments is properly chosen. We compare the optimal results of the model to the structure of pigment–protein complexes as found in nature, finding good agreement. (paper)

  4. Pigmented xerodermoid - Report of three cases

    OpenAIRE

    Das Jayanta Kumar; Gangopadhyay Asok Kumar

    2005-01-01

    Pigmented xerodermoid, a rare genodermatosis, presents with clinical features and pathology similar to xeroderma pigmentosum, but at a later age. DNA repair replication is normal, but there is total depression of DNA synthesis after exposure to UV radiation. Two siblings in their teens and a man in his thirties with features of pigmented xerodermoid, e.g. photophobia, freckle-like lesions, keratoses, dryness of skin, and hypo- and hyper-pigmentation, are described. Although classically the on...

  5. Production of Monascus-like azaphilone Pigment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of biotechnological production of polyketide based colorants from filamentous fungi, in particular a method for preparing a biomass comprising a Monascus-like pigment composition from a nontoxigenic and non-pathogenic fungal source. The present invention...... further relates to use of the Monascus-like pigment composition as a colouring agent for food items and/or non-food items, and a cosmetic composition comprising the Monascus-like pigment composition....

  6. PRODUCTION OF MONASCUS-LIKE AZAPHILONE PIGMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of biotechnological production of polyketide based colorants from filamentous fungi, in particular a method for preparing a biomass comprising a Monascus-like pigment composition from a nontoxigenic and non-pathogenic fungal source. The present invention...... further relates to use of the Monascus-like pigment composition as a colouring agent for food items and/or non-food items, and a cosmetic composition comprising the Monascus-like pigment composition....

  7. Transcriptomic analysis of neuropeptides and peptide hormones in the barnacle Balanus amphitrite: evidence of roles in larval settlement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Cheng Yan

    Full Text Available The barnacle Balanus amphitrite is a globally distributed marine crustacean and has been used as a model species for intertidal ecology and biofouling studies. Its life cycle consists of seven planktonic larval stages followed by a sessile juvenile/adult stage. The transitional processes between larval stages and juveniles are crucial for barnacle development and recruitment. Although some studies have been conducted on the neuroanatomy and neuroactive substances of the barnacle, a comprehensive understanding of neuropeptides and peptide hormones remains lacking. To better characterize barnacle neuropeptidome and its potential roles in larval settlement, an in silico identification of putative transcripts encoding neuropeptides/peptide hormones was performed, based on transcriptome of the barnacle B. amphitrite that has been recently sequenced. Potential cleavage sites andstructure of mature peptides were predicted through homology search of known arthropod peptides. In total, 16 neuropeptide families/subfamilies were predicted from the barnacle transcriptome, and 14 of them were confirmed as genuine neuropeptides by Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends. Analysis of peptide precursor structures and mature sequences showed that some neuropeptides of B. amphitrite are novel isoforms and shared similar characteristics with their homologs from insects. The expression profiling of predicted neuropeptide genes revealed that pigment dispersing hormone, SIFamide, calcitonin, and B-type allatostatin had the highest expression level in cypris stage, while tachykinin-related peptide was down regulated in both cyprids and juveniles. Furthermore, an inhibitor of proprotein convertase related to peptide maturation effectively delayed larval metamorphosis. Combination of real-time PCR results and bioassay indicated that certain neuropeptides may play an important role in cypris settlement. Overall, new insight into neuropeptides/peptide hormones characterized in

  8. Transcriptomic analysis of neuropeptides and peptide hormones in the barnacle Balanus amphitrite: evidence of roles in larval settlement.

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Xing-Cheng

    2012-10-02

    The barnacle Balanus amphitrite is a globally distributed marine crustacean and has been used as a model species for intertidal ecology and biofouling studies. Its life cycle consists of seven planktonic larval stages followed by a sessile juvenile/adult stage. The transitional processes between larval stages and juveniles are crucial for barnacle development and recruitment. Although some studies have been conducted on the neuroanatomy and neuroactive substances of the barnacle, a comprehensive understanding of neuropeptides and peptide hormones remains lacking. To better characterize barnacle neuropeptidome and its potential roles in larval settlement, an in silico identification of putative transcripts encoding neuropeptides/peptide hormones was performed, based on transcriptome of the barnacle B. amphitrite that has been recently sequenced. Potential cleavage sites andstructure of mature peptides were predicted through homology search of known arthropod peptides. In total, 16 neuropeptide families/subfamilies were predicted from the barnacle transcriptome, and 14 of them were confirmed as genuine neuropeptides by Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends. Analysis of peptide precursor structures and mature sequences showed that some neuropeptides of B. amphitrite are novel isoforms and shared similar characteristics with their homologs from insects. The expression profiling of predicted neuropeptide genes revealed that pigment dispersing hormone, SIFamide, calcitonin, and B-type allatostatin had the highest expression level in cypris stage, while tachykinin-related peptide was down regulated in both cyprids and juveniles. Furthermore, an inhibitor of proprotein convertase related to peptide maturation effectively delayed larval metamorphosis. Combination of real-time PCR results and bioassay indicated that certain neuropeptides may play an important role in cypris settlement. Overall, new insight into neuropeptides/peptide hormones characterized in this study shall

  9. Transcriptomic Analysis of Neuropeptides and Peptide Hormones in the Barnacle Balanus amphitrite: Evidence of Roles in Larval Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xing-Cheng; Chen, Zhang-Fan; Sun, Jin; Matsumura, Kiyotaka; Wu, Rudolf S. S.; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    The barnacle Balanus amphitrite is a globally distributed marine crustacean and has been used as a model species for intertidal ecology and biofouling studies. Its life cycle consists of seven planktonic larval stages followed by a sessile juvenile/adult stage. The transitional processes between larval stages and juveniles are crucial for barnacle development and recruitment. Although some studies have been conducted on the neuroanatomy and neuroactive substances of the barnacle, a comprehensive understanding of neuropeptides and peptide hormones remains lacking. To better characterize barnacle neuropeptidome and its potential roles in larval settlement, an in silico identification of putative transcripts encoding neuropeptides/peptide hormones was performed, based on transcriptome of the barnacle B. amphitrite that has been recently sequenced. Potential cleavage sites andstructure of mature peptides were predicted through homology search of known arthropod peptides. In total, 16 neuropeptide families/subfamilies were predicted from the barnacle transcriptome, and 14 of them were confirmed as genuine neuropeptides by Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends. Analysis of peptide precursor structures and mature sequences showed that some neuropeptides of B. amphitrite are novel isoforms and shared similar characteristics with their homologs from insects. The expression profiling of predicted neuropeptide genes revealed that pigment dispersing hormone, SIFamide, calcitonin, and B-type allatostatin had the highest expression level in cypris stage, while tachykinin-related peptide was down regulated in both cyprids and juveniles. Furthermore, an inhibitor of proprotein convertase related to peptide maturation effectively delayed larval metamorphosis. Combination of real-time PCR results and bioassay indicated that certain neuropeptides may play an important role in cypris settlement. Overall, new insight into neuropeptides/peptide hormones characterized in this study shall

  10. Electron crystallography of organic pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, G

    1997-10-01

    The principle aim of this thesis is the detailing of the development and subsequent use of electron crystallographic techniques which employ the maximum entropy approach. An account is given of the electron microscope as a crystallographic instrument, along with the necessary theory involved. Also, an overview of the development of electron crystallography, as a whole, is given. This progresses to a description of the maximum entropy methodology and how use can be made of electron diffraction data in ab initio phasing techniques. Details are also given of the utilisation of image derived phases in the determination of structural information. Extensive examples are given of the use of the maximum entropy program MICE, as applied to a variety of structural problems. A particular area of interest covered by this thesis is regarding the solid state structure of organic pigments. A detailed structure review of both {beta}-naphthol and acetoacetanilide pigments was undertaken. Information gained from this review was used as a starting point for the attempted structural elucidation of a related pigment, Barium Lake Red C. Details are given of the synthesis, electron microscope studies and subsequent ab initio phasing procedures applied in the determination of structural information on Barium Lake Red C. The final sections of this thesis detail electron crystallographic analyses of three quite different structures. Common to all was the use of maximum entropy methods, both for ab initio phasing and use of image derived phases. Overall, it is shown that electron crystallographic structure analyses using maximum entropy methods are successful using electron diffraction data and do provide distinct structural information even when significant perturbations to the data exist. (author)

  11. Melanin pigmented solar absorbing surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallas, J.M.; Eisner, M.

    1980-01-01

    Selectivity enhancement is shown to result for melanin, a black biopolymer pigment, for sufficiently low sample density. The effect is proposed to follow from a consideration of the evanescent waves associated with the total internal reflection phenomenon. A relationship is discussed among powder density, pH and the paramagnetic properties of melanin; this relationship is shown to be consistent with, and offer support to an amino-acid side group proposed earlier as part of the melanin structure. A brief discussion is also presented on the optical properties of melanin and the relative importance of quinhydrone, a change transfer complex believed to exist in the polymeric structure of melanin.

  12. Pigmented poroid neoplasm mimicking nodular melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuishi, Tsuyoshi; Ansai, Shin-ichi; Ueno, Takashi; Kawana, Seiji

    2010-06-01

    We reported the case of a 92-year-old woman with a pigmented and non-pigmented surface of the pedunculated nodule on her lower leg. Microscopic examination revealed that this nodule consisted of a component of small, dark, homogenous, poroid cells and cuticular cells in the dermis. The histopathological features of the lesion were consistent with poroid neoplasm. Immunohistochemistry showed that HMB-45 and Melan-A were positive in malanocytes and melanophages of the pigmented areas. Unlike most poroid neoplasms, this case showed pigmented lesion mimicked nodular melanoma.

  13. Organization of the Drosophila larval visual circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendre, Nanae; Neagu-Maier, G Larisa; Fetter, Richard D; Schneider-Mizell, Casey M; Truman, James W; Zlatic, Marta; Cardona, Albert

    2017-01-01

    Visual systems transduce, process and transmit light-dependent environmental cues. Computation of visual features depends on photoreceptor neuron types (PR) present, organization of the eye and wiring of the underlying neural circuit. Here, we describe the circuit architecture of the visual system of Drosophila larvae by mapping the synaptic wiring diagram and neurotransmitters. By contacting different targets, the two larval PR-subtypes create two converging pathways potentially underlying the computation of ambient light intensity and temporal light changes already within this first visual processing center. Locally processed visual information then signals via dedicated projection interneurons to higher brain areas including the lateral horn and mushroom body. The stratified structure of the larval optic neuropil (LON) suggests common organizational principles with the adult fly and vertebrate visual systems. The complete synaptic wiring diagram of the LON paves the way to understanding how circuits with reduced numerical complexity control wide ranges of behaviors.

  14. Effect of massing on larval growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aidan P; Wallman, James F

    2014-08-01

    Estimation of minimum postmortem interval commonly relies on predicting the age of blowfly larvae based on their size and an estimate of the temperatures to which they have been exposed throughout their development. The majority of larval growth rate data have been developed using small larval masses in order to avoid excess heat generation. The current study collected growth rate data for larvae at different mass volumes, and assessed the temperature production of these masses, for two forensically important blow fly species, Chrysomya rufifacies and Calliphora vicina. The growth rate of larvae in a small mass, exposed to the higher temperatures equivalent to those experienced by large masses, was also assessed to determine if observed differences were due to the known temperature effects of maggot masses. The results showed that temperature production increased with increasing mass volume, with temperature increases of 11 °C observed in the large Ch. rufifacies masses and increases of 5 °C in the large C. vicina masses. Similarly, the growth rate of the larvae was affected by mass size. The larvae from small masses grown at the higher temperatures experienced by large masses displayed an initial delay in growth, but then grew at a similar rate to those larvae at a constant 23 °C. Since these larvae from masses of equivalent sizes displayed similar patterns of growth rate, despite differing temperatures, and these growth rates differed from larger masses exposed to the same temperatures, it can be concluded that larval growth rate within a mass may be affected by additional factors other than temperature. Overall, this study highlights the importance of understanding the role of massing in larval development and provides initial developmental data for mass sizes of two forensically important blowfly species commonly encountered in Australian forensic casework. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Organization Of The Drosophila Larval Visual Circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Fritsch, Pauline; Gendre, Nanae; Maier, Larisa; Fetter, Rick; Schneider-Mizell, Casey; Truman, James; Zlatic, Marta; Cardona, Albert; Larderet, Ivan; Sprecher, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Visual systems transduce, process and transmit light-dependent environmental cues. Computation of visual features depends on the types of photoreceptor neurons (PR) present, the organization of the eye and the wiring of the underlying neural circuit. Here, we describe the circuit architecture of the visual system of Drosophila larvae by mapping the synaptic wiring diagram and neurotransmitters. By contacting different targets, the two larval PR-subtypes create parallel circuits potentially un...

  16. Larval development of Spondyliosoma emarginatimi (Cuvier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flexion occurs at about 6 mm BL and postflexion larvae are characterized by distinct medio-Iateral pigmentation. Osteological development is described from a series of cleared and stained specimens. All fins have the adult complement of spines and rays by 12 mm BL. The larvae of S. emarginatum are compared with ...

  17. Granulomatous responses in larval taeniid infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Á; Sagasti, C; Casaravilla, C

    2018-05-01

    Granulomas are responses to persistent nonliving bodies or pathogens, centrally featuring specialized macrophage forms called epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells. The larval stages of the cestode parasites of the Taeniidae family (Taenia, Echinococcus) develop for years in fixed tissue sites in mammals. In consequence, they are targets of granulomatous responses. The information on tissue responses to larval taeniids is fragmented among host and parasite species and scattered over many decades. We attempt to draw an integrated picture of these responses in solid tissues. The intensity of inflammation around live parasites spans a spectrum from minimal to high, parasite vitality correlating with low inflammation. The low end of the inflammatory spectrum features collagen capsules proximal to the parasites and moderate distal infiltration. The middle of the spectrum is dominated by classical granulomatous responses, whereas the high end features massive eosinophil invasions. Across the range of parasite species, much observational evidence suggests that eosinophils are highly effective at killing larval taeniids in solid tissues, before and during chronic granulomatous responses. The evidence available also suggests that these parasites are adapted to inhibit host granulomatous responses, in part through the exacerbation of host regulatory mechanisms including regulatory T cells and TGF-β. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. ‘Peer pressure’ in larval Drosophila?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Niewalda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding social behaviour requires a study case that is simple enough to be tractable, yet complex enough to remain interesting. Do larval Drosophila meet these requirements? In a broad sense, this question can refer to effects of the mere presence of other larvae on the behaviour of a target individual. Here we focused in a more strict sense on ‘peer pressure’, that is on the question of whether the behaviour of a target individual larva is affected by what a surrounding group of larvae is doing. We found that innate olfactory preference of a target individual was neither affected (i by the level of innate olfactory preference in the surrounding group nor (ii by the expression of learned olfactory preference in the group. Likewise, learned olfactory preference of a target individual was neither affected (iii by the level of innate olfactory preference of the surrounding group nor (iv by the learned olfactory preference the group was expressing. We conclude that larval Drosophila thus do not take note of specifically what surrounding larvae are doing. This implies that in a strict sense, and to the extent tested, there is no social interaction between larvae. These results validate widely used en mass approaches to the behaviour of larval Drosophila.

  19. Influence of the temperature on the early larval development of the Pacific red snapper, Lutjanus peru (Nichols & Murphy, 1922

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Estrada-Godínez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific red snapper, Lutjanus peru, is a commercially important species throughout its distribution range, making it a good alternative for aquaculture; however, there is few information regarding environmental conditions and their influence on early development of this species. Temperature is one of the main factors affecting embryo and larval development in marine fishes. In this paper, the effects of different temperatures upon hatching rate, growth, consumption of yolk sac and oil droplet and the formation of the digestive system and eye pigmentation were evaluated in larvae of this species under experimental conditions. Eggs incubated between 20 and 32°C showed hatching rates higher than 90%. However, larvae maintained at 26°C showed significantly larger notochord length and were the first to complete the pigmentation of the eyes and the formation of the digestive system when still possessing enough reserves in the yolk sac. Therefore, according to the results obtained, it is recommended that the incubation of eggs and larval rearing in Pacific red snapper takes place between 25 and 26°C.

  20. Combining larval parasitoids and an entomopathogenicfungus for biological control of Sitophilus granarius (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in stored grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lise Stengaard; Steenberg, Tove

    2006-01-01

    The potential of combining different natural enemies for biological control of Sitophilus granarius (L.) in grain was investigated in a laboratory study. We compared the effect of two species of larval parasitoids, Lariophagus distinguendus Förster and Anisoptermalus calandrae (Howard), alone...... suppression (>99.9%) was obtained in units with L. distinguendus, followed by units with A. calandrae. In units with both parasitoids and the entomopathogen, the pest suppression level was 83-98%. Although the parasitoids were negatively affected by the fungus, they still exerted some degree of control...

  1. The bioefficacy of microemulsified natural pigments in egg yolk pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, P Y; Gue, S Z; Leow, S K; Goh, L B

    2014-01-01

    1. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that microemulsified carotenoid products show improved bioavailability over corresponding regular preparations, leading to greater yolk pigmentation at lower dosages. 2. The first trial was conducted using a maize-soya bean basal diet supplemented with either 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 g/kg of microemulsified Red or non-microemulsified Red. The second trial involved feeding microemulsified Yellow or non-microemulsified Yellow using a similar dosage range. The layers were divided into 4 replicates of 8 layers each (32 layers per treatment). The 8 cages of layers were fed from a single feed trough. Feed and water were provided ad libitum throughout the trial. Each week, the eggs were collected. The whole liquid egg colour was determined by means of a commercially available yolk colour fan. Where required, HPLC-(high-performance liquid chromatography) based analysis of trans-capsanthin or trans-lutein equivalents using the Association of Analytical Communities method was carried out. Data were statistically analysed by one-way ANOVA method using Statgraphics. 3. Results showed that the colour and carotenoid content of the egg yolk increased with increasing amount of carotenoids in the diet. The colour of egg yolks from layers fed similar concentrations of microemulsified versus the regular preparation was significantly different. At the commercial recommended dose of one g/kg regular Yellow or Red product, the microemulsified pigmenter is able to provide the equivalent yolk colour at a 20-30% lower dose. 4. In conclusion, the trial results supported the hypothesis that a desired yolk colour score is achievable at a significantly lower inclusion rate when carotenoid molecules are emulsified using the microemulsion nanotechnology.

  2. Analysis of ancient pigments by Raman microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Jian; Xu Cunyi

    1999-01-01

    Raman microscopy can be applied for the spatial resolution, and non-destructive in situ analysis of inorganic pigments in pottery, manuscripts and paintings. Compared with other techniques, it is the best single technique for this purpose. An overview is presented of the applications of Raman microscopy in the analysis of ancient pigments

  3. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of Chlorophyll Pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Jerry

    1984-01-01

    Background information, list of materials needed, procedures used, and discussion of typical results are provided for an experiment on the thin layer chromatography of chlorophyll pigments. The experiment works well in high school, since the chemicals used are the same as those used in paper chromatography of plant pigments. (JN)

  4. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions of this... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178.3725 Food...

  5. Quantifying Abdominal Pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh Ziabari, Omid; Shingleton, Alexander W

    2017-06-01

    Pigmentation is a morphologically simple but highly variable trait that often has adaptive significance. It has served extensively as a model for understanding the development and evolution of morphological phenotypes. Abdominal pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster has been particularly useful, allowing researchers to identify the loci that underlie inter- and intraspecific variations in morphology. Hitherto, however, D. melanogaster abdominal pigmentation has been largely assayed qualitatively, through scoring, rather than quantitatively, which limits the forms of statistical analysis that can be applied to pigmentation data. This work describes a new methodology that allows for the quantification of various aspects of the abdominal pigmentation pattern of adult D. melanogaster. The protocol includes specimen mounting, image capture, data extraction, and analysis. All the software used for image capture and analysis feature macros written for open-source image analysis. The advantage of this approach is the ability to precisely measure pigmentation traits using a methodology that is highly reproducible across different imaging systems. While the technique has been used to measure variation in the tergal pigmentation patterns of adult D. melanogaster, the methodology is flexible and broadly applicable to pigmentation patterns in myriad different organisms.

  6. Pigmented skin disorders: Evaluation and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    Pigmentary disorders are disturbances of human skin color. Minor changes in the cellular physiology of the skin can dramatically affect pigment production in positive or negative manner. In this these, associated diseases, therapeutical options and disease parameters for the pigmentation disorder

  7. Bilateral pigmented villonodular synovitis of the knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir H. Shah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pigmented villonodular synovitis is a disorder resulting in a villous, nodular, or villonodular proliferation of the synovium, with pigmentation related to the presence of hemosiderin. These lesions are almost exclusively benign with rare reports of malignancy. Pigmented villonodular synovitis can occur in a variety of joints and at any age but most often occurs within the knee in the young adult. Pigmented villonodular synovitis is a rare disease entity, and bilateral synchronous or metachronous involvement of a joint is even more uncommon, with few reports previously described in the literature. We present a case of pigmented villonodular synovitis involving both the right and left knee in the same patient, with radiographic imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, photograph and video intraoperative imaging, and pathologic correlation.

  8. Production of Monascus-like pigments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for producing one or more Monascus-like pigment composition from Penicillium species comprising: a) providing a cultivation medium comprising a high concentration of C-and N-sources and a high C/N molar ratio, b) adjusting pH to about 5 to 8, c) inoculating...... the cultivation medium with an inoculum of Penicillium to form a cultivation composition; d) cultivating the inoculated cultivation composition of (c); e) separating the one or more produced pigment compositions. The method of the invention may be used for producing Monascus-like pigment compositions for use...... as colouring agents in food items or non food items. The inventions further relates to Monascus-like pigment composition obtainable by a method of the inventions as well as use of the pigments....

  9. Therapeutic potential of larval excretory/secretory proteins of the pig whipworm Trichuris suis in allergic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, F; Hepworth, M R; Rausch, S; Janek, K; Niewienda, A; Kühl, A; Henklein, P; Lucius, R; Hamelmann, E; Hartmann, S

    2014-11-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes are currently being evaluated as a novel therapeutic in the treatment of chronic human inflammatory disorders, due to their unique ability to induce immunoregulatory pathways in their hosts. In particular, administration of ova from the pig whipworm Trichuris suis (T. suis; TSO) has been proposed for the treatment of allergic, inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Despite these advances, the biological pathways through which TSO therapy modulates the host immune system in the context of human disease remain undefined. We characterized the dominant proteins present in the excretory/secretory (E/S) products of first-stage (L1) T. suis larvae (Ts E/S) using LC-MS/MS analysis and examined the immunosuppressive properties of whole larval Ts E/S in vitro and in a murine model of allergic airway disease. Administration of larval Ts E/S proteins in vivo during the allergen sensitization phase was sufficient to suppress airway hyperreactivity, bronchiolar inflammatory infiltrate and allergen-specific IgE production. Three proteins in larval Ts E/S were unambiguously identified. The immunomodulatory function of larval Ts E/S was found to be partially dependent on the immunoregulatory cytokine IL-10. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the released proteins of larval T. suis have significant immunomodulatory capacities and efficiently dampen allergic airway hyperreactivity. Thus, the therapeutic potential of defined larval E/S proteins should be exploited for the treatment of human allergic disorders. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The TSC1/2 complex controls Drosophila pigmentation through TORC1-dependent regulation of catecholamine biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitserman, Diana; Gupta, Sapna; Kruger, Warren D; Karbowniczek, Magdalena; Roegiers, Fabrice

    2012-01-01

    In Drosophila, the pattern of adult pigmentation is initiated during late pupal stages by the production of catecholamines DOPA and dopamine, which are converted to melanin. The pattern and degree of melanin deposition is controlled by the expression of genes such as ebony and yellow as well as by the enzymes involved in catecholamine biosynthesis. In this study, we show that the conserved TSC/TORC1 cell growth pathway controls catecholamine biosynthesis in Drosophila during pigmentation. We find that high levels of Rheb, an activator of the TORC1 complex, promote premature pigmentation in the mechanosensory bristles during pupal stages, and alter pigmentation in the cuticle of the adult fly. Disrupting either melanin synthesis by RNAi knockdown of melanogenic enzymes such as tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), or downregulating TORC1 activity by Raptor knockdown, suppresses the Rheb-dependent pigmentation phenotype in vivo. Increased Rheb activity drives pigmentation by increasing levels of TH in epidermal cells. Our findings indicate that control of pigmentation is linked to the cellular nutrient-sensing pathway by regulating levels of a critical enzyme in melanogenesis, providing further evidence that inappropriate activation of TORC1, a hallmark of the human tuberous sclerosis complex tumor syndrome disorder, can alter metabolic and differentiation pathways in unexpected ways.

  11. Structure of plant bile pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenleber, R.W.

    1983-12-01

    Selective peptide cleavage has provided a general procedure for the study of the structure, including stereochemistry, of plant bile pigments. The information derived from the synthesis and spectral analysis of a series of 2,3-dihydrodioxobilins allows the determination of the trans relative stereochemistry for ring A of the ..beta../sub 1/-phycocyanobilin from C-phycocyanin as well as for ring A of phytochrome. A complete structure proof of the five phycoerythrobilins attached to the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. subunits of B-phycoerythrin is described. One of these tetrapyrroles is doubly-peptide linked to a single peptide chain through two thioethers at the C-3' and C-18' positions. The four remaining phycoerythrobilins are singly-linked to the protein through thioethers at the C-3' position and all possess the probable stereochemistry C-2(R), C-3(R), C-3'(R), and C-16(R).

  12. Fungal and Bacterial Pigments: Secondary Metabolites with Wide Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narsing Rao, Manik Prabhu; Xiao, Min; Li, Wen-Jun

    2017-01-01

    The demand for natural colors is increasing day by day due to harmful effects of some synthetic dyes. Bacterial and fungal pigments provide a readily available alternative source of naturally derived pigments. In contrast to other natural pigments, they have enormous advantages including rapid growth, easy processing, and independence of weather conditions. Apart from colorant, bacterial and fungal pigments possess many biological properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activity. This review outlines different types of pigments. It lists some bacterial and fungal pigments and current bacterial and fungal pigment status and challenges. It also focuses on possible fungal and bacterial pigment applications. PMID:28690593

  13. Fungal and Bacterial Pigments: Secondary Metabolites with Wide Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manik Prabhu Narsing Rao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The demand for natural colors is increasing day by day due to harmful effects of some synthetic dyes. Bacterial and fungal pigments provide a readily available alternative source of naturally derived pigments. In contrast to other natural pigments, they have enormous advantages including rapid growth, easy processing, and independence of weather conditions. Apart from colorant, bacterial and fungal pigments possess many biological properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activity. This review outlines different types of pigments. It lists some bacterial and fungal pigments and current bacterial and fungal pigment status and challenges. It also focuses on possible fungal and bacterial pigment applications.

  14. Evaluating sampling strategies for larval cisco (Coregonus artedi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, J.T.; Stockwell, J.D.; Yule, D.L.; Black, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    To improve our ability to assess larval cisco (Coregonus artedi) populations in Lake Superior, we conducted a study to compare several sampling strategies. First, we compared density estimates of larval cisco concurrently captured in surface waters with a 2 x 1-m paired neuston net and a 0.5-m (diameter) conical net. Density estimates obtained from the two gear types were not significantly different, suggesting that the conical net is a reasonable alternative to the more cumbersome and costly neuston net. Next, we assessed the effect of tow pattern (sinusoidal versus straight tows) to examine if propeller wash affected larval density. We found no effect of propeller wash on the catchability of larval cisco. Given the availability of global positioning systems, we recommend sampling larval cisco using straight tows to simplify protocols and facilitate straightforward measurements of volume filtered. Finally, we investigated potential trends in larval cisco density estimates by sampling four time periods during the light period of a day at individual sites. Our results indicate no significant trends in larval density estimates during the day. We conclude estimates of larval cisco density across space are not confounded by time at a daily timescale. Well-designed, cost effective surveys of larval cisco abundance will help to further our understanding of this important Great Lakes forage species.

  15. The Preventive Effect of Coffee Compounds on Dermatitis and Epidermal Pigmentation after Ultraviolet Irradiation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamate, Yurika; Hiramoto, Keiichi; Sato, Eisuke F

    2017-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is well known to promote inflammation and pigmentation of skin. UVB mainly affects dermatitis and pigmentation. Coffee contains a number of polyphenols, such as caffeic acid (CA) and chlorogenic acid (CGA) but their in vivo bioactivity for photobiology remains unclear. C57BL/6j male mice were irradiated with UVB (1.0 kJ/m2/day) for 3 days. Five days after the final session of UVB irradiation, the dorsal skin, ear epidermis, and blood samples were analyzed to investigate the inflammatory factors, melanogenesis factors and related hormones. After the oral administration of CA (100 mg/day) or CGA (100 mg/day) for 8 days, only CA was found to inhibit dermatitis and pigmentation. The pathway by which CA inhibits dermatitis is related to the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK)1/2/cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) pathway. Otherwise, the pathway by which CA inhibits pigmentation is related to the activation of the β-endorphin-μ-opioid receptor and suppresses the cAMP-microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) pathway. It is suggested that the oral administration of CA prevented dermatitis and pigmentation after UVB irradiation in mice. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Adaptive locomotor behavior in larval zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugues, Ruben; Engert, Florian

    2011-01-01

    In this study we report that larval zebrafish display adaptive locomotor output that can be driven by unexpected visual feedback. We develop a new assay that addresses visuomotor integration in restrained larval zebrafish. The assay involves a closed-loop environment in which the visual feedback a larva receives depends on its own motor output in a way that resembles freely swimming conditions. The experimenter can control the gain of this closed feedback loop, so that following a given motor output the larva experiences more or less visual feedback depending on whether the gain is high or low. We show that increases and decreases in this gain setting result in adaptive changes in behavior that lead to a generalized decrease or increase of motor output, respectively. Our behavioral analysis shows that both the duration and tail beat frequency of individual swim bouts can be modified, as well as the frequency with which bouts are elicited. These changes can be implemented rapidly, following an exposure to a new gain of just 175 ms. In addition, modifications in some behavioral parameters accumulate over tens of seconds and effects last for at least 30 s from trial to trial. These results suggest that larvae establish an internal representation of the visual feedback expected from a given motor output and that the behavioral modifications are driven by an error signal that arises from the discrepancy between this expectation and the actual visual feedback. The assay we develop presents a unique possibility for studying visuomotor integration using imaging techniques available in the larval zebrafish.

  17. The behavior of larval zebrafish reveals stressor-mediated anorexia during early vertebrate development

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Rodrigo J.; Groneberg, Antonia H.; Yeh, Chen-Min; Treviño, Mario; Ryu, Soojin

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between stress and food consumption has been well documented in adults but less so in developing vertebrates. Here we demonstrate that an encounter with a stressor can suppress food consumption in larval zebrafish. Furthermore, we provide indication that food intake suppression cannot be accounted for by changes in locomotion, oxygen consumption and visual responses, as they remain unaffected after exposure to a potent stressor. We also show that feeding reoccurs when basal levels of cortisol (stress hormone in humans and teleosts) are re-established. The results present evidence that the onset of stress can switch off the drive for feeding very early in vertebrate development, and add a novel endpoint for analyses of metabolic and behavioral disorders in an organism suitable for high-throughput genetics and non-invasive brain imaging. PMID:25368561

  18. Turbulence-enhanced prey encounter rates in larval fish : Effects of spatial scale, larval behaviour and size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; MacKenzie, Brian

    1995-01-01

    Turbulent water motion has several effects on the feeding ecology of larval fish and other planktivorous predators. In this paper, we consider the appropriate spatial scales for estimating relative velocities between larval fish predators and their prey, and the effect that different choices of s...... in the range in which turbulent intensity has an overall positive effect on larval fish ingestion rate probability. However, experimental data to test the model predictions are lacking. We suggest that the model inputs require further empirical study....

  19. Inhibitory effect of 5-iodotubercidin on pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Il; Jeong, Hae Bong; Ro, Hyunju; Lee, Jeung-Hoon; Kim, Chang Deok; Yoon, Tae-Jin

    2017-09-02

    Melanin pigments are the primary contributors for the skin color. They are produced in melanocytes and then transferred to keratinocytes, eventually giving various colors on skin surface. Although many depigmenting and/or skin-lightening agents have been developed, there is still a growing demand on materials for reducing pigmentation. We attempted to find materials for depigmentation and/or skin-lightening using the small molecule compounds commercially available, and found that 5-iodotubercidin had inhibitory potential on pigmentation. When HM3KO melanoma cells were treated with 5-iodotubercidin, pigmentation was dramatically reduced. The 5-iodotubercidin decreased the protein level for pigmentation-related molecules such as MITF, tyrosinase, and TRP1. In addition, 5-iodotubercidin decreased the phosphorylation of CREB, while increased the phosphorylation of AKT and ERK. These data suggest that 5-iodotubercidin inhibits melanogenesis via the regulation of intracellular signaling related with pigmentation. Finally, 5-iodotubercidin markedly inhibited the melanogenesis of zebrafish embryos, an in vivo evaluation model for pigmentation. Together, these data suggest that 5-iodotubercidin can be developed as a depigmenting and/or skin-lightening agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Extensive Pigmented Bowen's Disease of Genitalia

    OpenAIRE

    Şengezer, Mustafa; Şengezer, Naki; Deveci, Mustafa

    1993-01-01

    Genital bölgenin yaygın pigmente bowen hastalığı. Pigmente Bowen hastalığı oldukça nadirdir. Burada genital yörede yerleşimli yaygın bir bowen olgusu sunulmuş, klinik ve histolojik özellikleriyle pigmentasyon mekanizması ve tedavi yaklaşımları tartışılmıştır. Bowen hastalığı pigmente lezyonların ayrıca tanısında dikkate alınması gereken bir durumdur.

  1. A Major Facilitator Superfamily protein encoded by TcMucK gene is not required for cuticle pigmentation, growth and development in Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Seulgi; Noh, Mi Young; Osanai-Futahashi, Mizuko; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Kramer, Karl J; Arakane, Yasuyuki

    2014-06-01

    -regulate transcripts during subsequent stages of insect development until the adult stage. RNA interference of TcMucK had no observable effects on larval, pupal or adult pigmentation. In addition, it did not affect larval-larval, larval-pupal and pupal-adult molting or survival. Thus, in contrast to the results of Zhao et al. (2012), our study demonstrates that TcMucK is not essential for growth, development or cuticle pigmentation of T. castaneum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Temporal Variability and Vertical Structure in Larval Abundance: The Potential Roles of Biological and Physical Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garland, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    .... The focus of this thesis is on the temporal and spatial variability in larval supply, the extent to which planktonic larval distributions are determined by larval behaviors and physical processes...

  3. Larval fish feeding and turbulence : A case for the downside

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Theory states that small-scale turbulence decreases pursuit success of planktonic predators by advecting the encountered prey from the reactive zone of the predator during the pursuit event. We tested the quantitative predictions of a previously published model describing this phenomenon in larval...... explain the contradictory observations of how turbulence affects larval fish feeding, growth, and survival in the sea....

  4. Density-dependent growth and metamorphosis in the larval bronze ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    [Girish S and Saidapur S K 2002 Density-dependent growth and metamorphosis in the larval bronze frog Rana temporalis is influenced by genetic relatedness of the ... kin interaction during larval development in anurans seems to vary with the ... leaves were cut into small pieces of uniform size before boiling. Ten grams of ...

  5. The larval development of the red mangrove crab Sesarma meinerti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The larval stages of the red mangrove crab Sesarma meinerti de Man were reared in the laboratory. Larval development consists of five zoeal stages and one megalopa. Zoeal development lasts an average of 25 days at 25°C. The external morphology of larvae is described in detail and their relationship with larvae of ...

  6. Reduced larval feeding rate is a strong evolutionary correlate of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To answer the question, are preadult development time and larval feeding rate ... Keywords. life-history evolution; development time; larval feeding rate; competition; tradeoffs; Drosophila melanogaster. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No ..... financial assistance in the form of a senior research fellowship. N.A. thanks Jawaharlal ...

  7. Intraspecific larval competition in the olive fruit fly (Diptera: tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrack, Hannah Joy; Fornell, Angela M; Connell, Joseph H; O'Connell, Neil V; Phillips, Phil A; Vossen, Paul M; Zalom, Frank G

    2009-10-01

    Olive fruit flies [Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin)] occur at densities in California that can result in intraspecific larval competition within infested fruit. Larval B. oleae densities tracked in the field at six location were found to be highly variable and related to the proportion of fruit infested and adult densities. Egg and larval distribution within the field was generally aggregated early in the season and trended toward random and uniform as the season progressed. To determine whether B. oleae experienced fitness consequences at a range of larval densities observed in the field, olive fruits were infested with one, two, four, and six eggs, and larval and pupal developmental time, pupal weight, and pupal yield were compared. At the highest egg density, all measures of performance were negatively impacted, resulting in fewer and lighter pupae that took longer to pupate and emerge as adults, and even when only two larvae was present per olive, resulting pupae were significantly smaller. Density did not impact the sex ratio of the resulting flies or survive to adults. As field surveys showed, larval densities ranged from 1 to 11 B. oleae per fruit at some sites, and our results suggest that, at high densities, B. oleae do experience competition for larval resources. The impact of intraspecific larval competition North American in field populations of B. oleae is unknown, but the potential for competition is present.

  8. Reduced larval feeding rate is a strong evolutionary correlate of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 85; Issue 3. Reduced larval feeding rate is a strong evolutionary correlate of rapid development in Drosophila melanogaster. M. Rajamani N. Raghavendra ... Keywords. life-history evolution; development time; larval feeding rate; competition; tradeoffs; Drosophila melanogaster.

  9. Evolution of increased larval competitive ability in Drosophila ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    combination of reduced larval duration, faster attainment of minimum critical size for pupation, greater efficiency of food conversion ... results in the context of an hypothesis about how larval density and the height of the food column in culture vials might interact ...... since food runs out very fast over time in crowded vials with.

  10. Silk formation mechanisms in the larval salivary glands of Apis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Bee; electron microscopy; larval salivary gland; light microscopy; polarized light microscopy; silk gland. Abstract. The mechanism of silk formation in Apis mellifera salivary glands, during the 5th instar, was studied. Larval salivary glands were dissected and prepared for light and polarized light microscopy, as well ...

  11. Reduced larval feeding rate is a strong evolutionary correlate of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2001) was an arte- fact of extreme directional selection for rapid development that led to changes in the correlational structure of develop- ment time, larval feeding rate, dry weight at eclosion, and preadult survivorship. A positive genetic correlation between larval feeding rate and development time in the control pop-.

  12. Enhancement of larval immune system traits as a correlated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    rial load in larval food vials of the faster developing pop- ulations is substantially higher than in controls. Our results suggest that the evolution of reduced competitive ability in the faster developing populations is probably due to larval feeding rate trading off with ... The haemolymph of Drosophila larvae contains three types.

  13. Transcriptome analysis of integument differentially expressed genes in the pigment mutant (quail during molting of silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyi Nie

    Full Text Available In the silkworm Bombyx mori, pigment mutants with diverse body colors have been maintained throughout domestication for about 5000 years. The silkworm larval body color is formed through the mutual interaction of melanin, ommochromes, pteridines and uric acid. These pigments/compounds are synthesized by the cooperative action of various genes and enzymes. Previous reports showed that melanin, ommochrome and pteridine are increased in silkworm quail (q mutants. To understand the pigment increase and alterations in pigment synthesis in q mutant, transcriptome profiles of the silkworm integument were investigated at 16 h after head capsule slippage in the fourth molt in q mutants and wild-type (Dazao. Compared to the wild-type, 1161 genes were differentially expressed in the q mutant. Of these modulated genes, 62.4% (725 genes were upregulated and 37.6% (436 genes were downregulated in the q mutant. The molecular function of differently expressed genes was analyzed by Blast2GO. The results showed that upregulated genes were mainly involved in protein binding, small molecule binding, transferase activity, nucleic acid binding, specific DNA-binding transcription factor activity and chromatin binding, while exclusively down-expressed genes functioned in oxidoreductase activity, cofactor binding, tetrapyrrole binding, peroxidase activity and pigment binding. We focused on genes related to melanin, pteridine and ommochrome biosynthesis; transport of uric acid; and juvenile hormone metabolism because of their importance in integument coloration during molting. This study identified differently expressed genes implicated in silkworm integument formation and pigmentation using silkworm q mutant. The results estimated the number and types of genes that drive new integument formation.

  14. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors elicits pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium isolated from bluegill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crittenden Elizabeth L

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In fish, melanin pigment granules in the retinal pigment epithelium disperse into apical projections as part of the suite of responses the eye makes to bright light conditions. This pigment granule dispersion serves to reduce photobleaching and occurs in response to neurochemicals secreted by the retina. Previous work has shown that acetylcholine may be involved in inducing light-adaptive pigment dispersion. Acetylcholine receptors are of two main types, nicotinic and muscarinic. Muscarinic receptors are in the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily, and five different muscarinic receptors have been molecularly cloned in human. These receptors are coupled to adenylyl cyclase, calcium mobilization and ion channel activation. To determine the receptor pathway involved in eliciting pigment granule migration, we isolated retinal pigment epithelium from bluegill and subjected it to a battery of cholinergic agents. Results The general cholinergic agonist carbachol induces pigment granule dispersion in isolated retinal pigment epithelium. Carbachol-induced pigment granule dispersion is blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine, by the M1 antagonist pirenzepine, and by the M3 antagonist 4-DAMP. Pigment granule dispersion was also induced by the M1 agonist 4-[N-(4-chlorophenyl carbamoyloxy]-4-pent-2-ammonium iodide. In contrast the M2 antagonist AF-DX 116 and the M4 antagonist tropicamide failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion, and the M2 agonist arecaidine but-2-ynyl ester tosylate failed to elicit dispersion. Conclusions Our results suggest that carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion occurs through the activation of Modd muscarinic receptors, which in other systems couple to phosphoinositide hydrolysis and elevation of intracellular calcium. This conclusion must be corroborated by molecular studies, but suggests Ca2+-dependent pathways may be involved in light-adaptive pigment dispersion.

  15. Pigmentation Disorders: Diagnosis and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plensdorf, Scott; Livieratos, Maria; Dada, Nabil

    2017-12-15

    Pigmentation disorders are commonly diagnosed, evaluated, and treated in primary care practices. Typical hyperpigmentation disorders include postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, melasma, solar lentigines, ephelides (freckles), and café au lait macules. These conditions are generally benign but can be distressing to patients. Appropriate dermatologic history, skin examination, and skin biopsy, when appropriate, can help exclude melanoma and its precursors. In addition to addressing the underlying condition, hyperpigmentation is treated with topical agents, chemical peels, cryotherapy, light or laser therapy, or a combination of these methods. Café au lait macules are treated with surgical excision or laser therapy if treatment is desired. Hypopigmentation disorders include vitiligo, pityriasis alba, tinea versicolor, and postinflammatory hypopigmentation. Treatment of vitiligo depends on the distribution and extent of skin involvement, and includes topical corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors, ultraviolet A therapy (with or without psoralens), narrowband ultraviolet B therapy, and cosmetic coverage. Patients with stable, self-limited vitiligo may be candidates for surgical grafting techniques, whereas those with extensive disease may be candidates for depigmentation therapy to make skin tone appear more even. Other hypopigmentation disorders may improve or resolve with treatment of the underlying condition.

  16. New Directions in Phthalocyanine Pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandemark, Michael R.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives were the following: (1) investigation of the synthesis of new phthalocyanines; (2) characterization of the new phthalocyanines synthesized; (3) investigate the properties of the newly synthesized phthalocyanines with emphasis on UV protection of plastics and coatings; and (4) utilize quantum mechanics to evaluate the structural relationships with possible properties and synthetic approaches. The proposed research targeted the synthesis of phthalocyanines containing an aromatic bridge between two phthalocyanine rings. The goal was to synthesize pigments which would protect plastics when exposed to the photodegradation effects of the sun in space. The stability and extended conjugation of the phthalocyanines offer a unique opportunity for energy absorption and numerous radiative and non-radiative energy loss mechanisms. Although the original targeted phthalocyanines were changed early in the project, several new and unique phthalocyanine compounds were prepared. The basic goals of this work were met and some unique and unexpected outcomes of the work were the result of the integral use of quantum mechanics and molecular modeling with the synthetic effort.

  17. Similarities and Differences for Swimming in Larval and Adult Lampreys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Andrew D; Pale, Timothée; Messina, J Alex; Buso, Scott; Shebib, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    The spinal locomotor networks controlling swimming behavior in larval and adult lampreys may have some important differences. As an initial step in comparing the locomotor systems in lampreys, in larval animals the relative timing of locomotor movements and muscle burst activity were determined and compared to those previously published for adults. In addition, the kinematics for free swimming in larval and adult lampreys was compared in detail for the first time. First, for swimming in larval animals, the neuromechanical phase lag between the onsets or terminations of muscle burst activity and maximum concave curvature of the body increased with increasing distance along the body, similar to that previously shown in adults. Second, in larval lampreys, but not adults, absolute swimming speed (U; mm s(-1)) increased with animal length (L). In contrast, normalized swimming speed (U'; body lengths [bl] s(-1)) did not increase with L in larval or adult animals. In both larval and adult lampreys, U' and normalized wave speed (V') increased with increasing tail-beat frequency. Wavelength and mechanical phase lag did not vary significantly with tail-beat frequency but were significantly different in larval and adult animals. Swimming in larval animals was characterized by a smaller U/V ratio, Froude efficiency, and Strouhal number than in adults, suggesting less efficient swimming for larval animals. In addition, during swimming in larval lampreys, normalized lateral head movements were larger and normalized lateral tail movements were smaller than for adults. Finally, larval animals had proportionally smaller lateral surface areas of the caudal body and fin areas than adults. These differences are well suited for larval sea lampreys that spend most of the time buried in mud/sand, in which swimming efficiency is not critical, compared to adults that would experience significant selection pressure to evolve higher-efficiency swimming to catch up to and attach to fish for

  18. [Pigmented lesions of the oral mucosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck-Mannagetta, J; Hutarew, G

    2012-09-01

    The oral mucosa contains melanocytes, even though one might not suspect this when examining white subjects. Drug-induced pigmentation is usually irregularly distributed over the oral mucosa; typical causes are contraceptives and tetracyclines. Localized traumatic pigmentation can be due to injuries contaminated by foreign material (dust). Not infrequently an amalgam tattoo can be seen, caused by introduction of amalgam during dental treatment with rotating instruments. Focal melanosis is harmless. Neoplastic pigmentation is rare. Melanotic nevi are small with indistinct borders. Malignant melanoma occurs predominantly on the maxilla or hard palate. Frequently it has already metastasized by the time of diagnosis. Verification by biopsy is essential if a lesion has suddenly appeared, is extensive, elevated, with irregular pigmentation and has no obvious cause.

  19. Pigmented xerodermoid - Report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Jayanta Kumar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Pigmented xerodermoid, a rare genodermatosis, presents with clinical features and pathology similar to xeroderma pigmentosum, but at a later age. DNA repair replication is normal, but there is total depression of DNA synthesis after exposure to UV radiation. Two siblings in their teens and a man in his thirties with features of pigmented xerodermoid, e.g. photophobia, freckle-like lesions, keratoses, dryness of skin, and hypo- and hyper-pigmentation, are described. Although classically the onset of pigmented xerodermoid is said to be delayed till third to fourth decade of life, it seems the disease may appear earlier in the tropics. Early diagnosis and management could be life-saving.

  20. Pigment Production Analysis in Human Melanoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkin, Amelia Soto; Paterson, Elyse K; Ruiz, Rolando; Ganesan, Anand K

    2016-05-25

    The human epidermal melanocyte is a highly specialized pigmented cell that serves to protect the epidermis from ultraviolet (UV) damage through the production of melanin, or melanogenesis. Misregulation in melanogenesis leading to either hyper- or hypo-pigmentation is found in human diseases such as malasma and vitiligo. Current therapies for these diseases are largely unsuccessful and the need for new therapies is necessary. In order to identify genes and or compounds that can alter melanogenesis, methods are required that can detect changes in pigment production as well as expression of key melanogenesis transcription factors and enzymes. Here we describe methods to detect changes in melanogenesis in a human melanoma cell line, MNT-1, by (1) analyzing pigment production by measuring the absorbance of melanin present by spectrophotometry, (2) analyzing transcript expression of potent regulators of melanogenesis by qunatitative reverse-transcription (RT)PCR and (3) analyzing protein expression of potent regulators of melanogenesis by Western blot (WB).

  1. Preparation, characterization and application of some anti- corrosive molybdate pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Ghaffar, M.A.; El-Sawy, S.M.; Ahmed, N.M.

    2005-01-01

    Some molybdate pigments of single and mixed metal ions, namely, zinc, calcium and zinc-calcium molybdates were prepared, characterized and evaluated according to international standard methods. The evaluated pigments were incorporated in some paint formulations. The physicomechanical, chemical and corrosion protective properties of the paint films were measured; this was done in comparison with a commercial imported molybdate pigment. It was found that, the prepared pigments under investigation are fine white crystalline powders of suitable pigment properties. They can be successfully used as environmentally acceptable anti corrosive pigments. They can replace satisfactorily the similar commercial imported pigment and possess adequate or superior properties against corrosion

  2. Microbial Production of Food Grade Pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Dufossé

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The controversial topic of synthetic dyes in food has been discussed for many years. The scrutiny and negative assessment of synthetic food dyes by the modern consumer have raised a strong interest in natural colouring alternatives. Nature is rich in colours (minerals, plants, microalgae, etc., and pigment-producing microorganisms (fungi, yeasts, bacteria are quite common. Among the molecules produced by microorganisms are carotenoids, melanins, flavins, quinones, and more specifically monascins, violacein or indigo. The success of any pigment produced by fermentation depends upon its acceptability on the market, regulatory approval, and the size of the capital investment required to bring the product to market. A few years ago, some expressed doubts about the successful commercialization of fermentation-derived food grade pigments because of the high capital investment requirements for fermentation facilities and the extensive and lengthy toxicity studies required by regulatory agencies. Public perception of biotechnology-derived products also had to be taken into account. Nowadays some fermentative food grade pigments are on the market: Monascus pigments, astaxanthin from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous, Arpink Red from Penicillium oxalicum, riboflavin from Ashbya gossypii, b-carotene from Blakeslea trispora. The successful marketing of pigments derived from algae or extracted from plants, both as a food colour and a nutritional supplement, reflects the presence and importance of niche markets in which consumers are willing to pay a premium for »all natural ingredients«.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of Micrococcus luteus Cartenoid pigment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Z. Majeed

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cartenoids are group of pigments, with enormous types different structurally and functionally, have colors range from red to yellow found in a wide variety of plants, fungi, algae and bacteria. The animals took from food because they cannot make it, on contrary, the plants and microbes produce them due to subjection to environment. The aim of the study is to isolate and characterize the cartenoid pigment from Micrococcus luteus. The pigment extraction was done by acetone, and then was characterized with UltraViolet-Visible spectroscopy (UV–Vis and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. Then, it was tested for antibacterial activity against five different bacterial isolates and antifungal activity tests against six different fungal isolates by well diffusion method. The results found that, the extracted pigment having antibacterial activity and antifungal activity and having the ability to absorb UVA rays within the range of 300-500 nm. There was no significant difference in antimicrobial effect of pigment, even when the extraction and isolation were done by two culture mediums (Nutrient Broth and Luria Bertani Broth. There were considerable inhibition percentages of adhesion after subjection to Cartenoid pigment ranged between (5.71, 23.84 % for Klebsiella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively and all the 11 isolate changed from Biofilm producer to non-producer. The isolated compound can be used against different bacterial and fungal infections. So they had a great future in medicine, cosmetics and as a sun protecting agent.

  4. Proton beam modification of lead white pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, L.; Gutiérrez, P.C.; Miserque, F.; Thomé, L.

    2013-01-01

    Pigments and paint materials are known to be sensitive to particle irradiation. Occasionally, the analysis of paintings by PIXE can induce a slight or dark stain depending on the experimental conditions (beam current, dose, particle energy). In order to understand this discoloration, we have irradiated various types of art white pigments – lead white (hydrocerussite and basic lead sulfate), gypsum, calcite, zinc oxide and titanium oxide – with an external 3 MeV proton micro-beam commonly used for PIXE experiments. We have observed various sensitivities depending on the pigment. No visible change occurs for calcite and titanium oxide, whereas lead white pigments are very sensitive. For the majority of the studied compounds, the discoloration is proportional to the beam current and charge. The damage induced by proton beam irradiation in lead white pigments was studied by micro-Raman and XPS spectroscopies. Structural modifications and dehydration were detected. Damage recovery was investigated by thermal treatment and UV-light irradiation. The discoloration disappeared after one week of UV illumination, showing that PIXE experiments could be safely undertaken for pigments and paintings

  5. Proton beam modification of lead white pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, L., E-mail: lucile.beck@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique, Laboratoire JANNUS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Centre de recherche et de restauration des musées de France (C2RMF), Palais du Louvre – Porte des Lions, 14 quai François Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Gutiérrez, P.C. [Centre de recherche et de restauration des musées de France (C2RMF), Palais du Louvre – Porte des Lions, 14 quai François Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Centro de Micro-Análisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Miserque, F. [CEA, DEN, DPC/SCCME/LECA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Thomé, L. [Centre de Spectrométrie Nucléaire et de Spectrométrie de Masse (CSNSM), CNRS/IN2P3 et Université Paris-Sud, Bât. 108, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2013-07-15

    Pigments and paint materials are known to be sensitive to particle irradiation. Occasionally, the analysis of paintings by PIXE can induce a slight or dark stain depending on the experimental conditions (beam current, dose, particle energy). In order to understand this discoloration, we have irradiated various types of art white pigments – lead white (hydrocerussite and basic lead sulfate), gypsum, calcite, zinc oxide and titanium oxide – with an external 3 MeV proton micro-beam commonly used for PIXE experiments. We have observed various sensitivities depending on the pigment. No visible change occurs for calcite and titanium oxide, whereas lead white pigments are very sensitive. For the majority of the studied compounds, the discoloration is proportional to the beam current and charge. The damage induced by proton beam irradiation in lead white pigments was studied by micro-Raman and XPS spectroscopies. Structural modifications and dehydration were detected. Damage recovery was investigated by thermal treatment and UV-light irradiation. The discoloration disappeared after one week of UV illumination, showing that PIXE experiments could be safely undertaken for pigments and paintings.

  6. Sandeel ( Ammodytes marinus ) larval transport patterns in the North Sea from an individual-based hydrodynamic egg and larval model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Asbjørn; Jensen, Henrik; Mosegaard, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    is modelled by a stochastic, nonlinear degree-day model describing the extended hatch period. The larval growth model is parameterized by individually back-tracking the local physical environment of larval survivors from their catch location and catch time. Using a detailed map of sandeel habitats...

  7. Exploration of the "larval pool": development and ground-truthing of a larval transport model off leeward Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Johanna L K; Kobayashi, Donald R

    2016-01-01

    Most adult reef fish show site fidelity thus dispersal is limited to the mobile larval stage of the fish, and effective management of such species requires an understanding of the patterns of larval dispersal. In this study, we assess larval reef fish distributions in the waters west of the Big Island of Hawai'i using both in situ and model data. Catches from Cobb midwater trawls off west Hawai'i show that reef fish larvae are most numerous in offshore waters deeper than 3,000 m and consist largely of pre-settlement Pomacanthids, Acanthurids and Chaetodontids. Utilizing a Lagrangian larval dispersal model, we were able to replicate the observed shore fish distributions from the trawl data and we identified the 100 m depth strata as the most likely depth of occupancy. Additionally, our model showed that for larval shore fish with a pelagic larval duration longer than 40 days there was no significant change in settlement success in our model. By creating a general additive model (GAM) incorporating lunar phase and angle we were able to explain 67.5% of the variance between modeled and in situ Acanthurid abundances. We took steps towards creating a predictive larval distribution model that will greatly aid in understanding the spatiotemporal nature of the larval pool in west Hawai'i, and the dispersal of larvae throughout the Hawaiian archipelago.

  8. Studying the stabilization of vegetable pigments using 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inanejshvili, Zh.A.; Prokof'eva, M.C.

    1975-01-01

    With the help of labeled cathine tea-leaf substance it has been discovered that the later forms a specific complex with the red beet pigment. This obviously appears to be the reason for the pigment stability. An increase of the labeled cathine substance portion taken to stabilize the red pigment leads to lowering down the portion of the labeled pigment taking part in the reaction. The results from the experiment can be practically used in food industry for plant pigments

  9. Pigment Production from Immobilized Monascus sp. Utilizing Polymeric Resin Adsorption

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Patrick J.; Wang, Henry Y.

    1984-01-01

    Pigment production by the fungus Monascus sp. was studied to determine why Monascus sp. provides more pigment in solid culture than in submerged culture. Adding a sterilized nonionic polymeric adsorbent resin directly to the growing submerged culture did not enhance the pigment production, thus indicating that pigment extraction is probably not a factor. Monascus cells immobilized in hydrogel were studied and exhibited decreased pigment production as a result of immobilization. This result is...

  10. A new Synbranchus (Teleostei: Synbranchiformes: Synbranchidae from ilha de Marajó, Pará, Brazil, with notes on its reproductive biology and larval development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra E. Favorito

    Full Text Available Synbranchus lampreia, new species, is described from rio Goiapi, Marajó Island, Pará, northern Brazil. It differs from the other two described species of the genus by its color pattern, which consists of large roundish black blotches scattered over a light brown or yellowish ground pigmentation and presence of inconspicuous brown small spots distributed among the large dark spots. The species is further distinguished from S. marmoratus by a higher number of vertebrae and from S. madeira by a shorter postanal length. Information about reproductive aspects is provided and larval stages are described and illustrated.

  11. RNA-seq-based evaluation of bicolor tepal pigmentation in Asiatic hybrid lilies (Lilium spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kazuma; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Nakatsuka, Takashi; Dohra, Hideo; Yamagishi, Masumi; Matsuyama, Kohei; Matsuura, Hideyuki

    2016-08-11

    Color patterns in angiosperm flowers are produced by spatially and temporally restricted deposition of pigments. Identifying the mechanisms responsible for restricted pigment deposition is a topic of broad interest. Some dicots species develop bicolor petals, which are often caused by the post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) of chalcone synthase (CHS) genes. An Asiatic hybrid lily (Lilium spp.) cultivar Lollypop develops bicolor tepals with pigmented tips and white bases. Here, we analyzed the global transcription of pigmented and non-pigmented tepal parts from Lollypop, to determine the main transcriptomic differences. De novo assembly of RNA-seq data yielded 49,239 contigs (39,426 unigenes), which included a variety of novel transcripts, such as those involved in flavonoid-glycosylation and sequestration and in regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Additionally, 1258 of the unigenes exhibited significantly differential expression between the tepal parts (false discovery rates 2-fold higher in the pigmented parts. Thus, LhMYB12 should be involved in the transcriptional regulation of the biosynthesis genes in bicolor tepals. Other factors that potentially suppress or enhance the expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, including a WD40 gene, were identified, and their involvement in bicolor development is discussed. Our results indicate that the bicolor trait of Lollypop tepals is caused by the transcriptional regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes and that the transcription profile of LhMYB12 provides a clue for elucidating the mechanisms of the trait. The tepal transcriptome constructed in this study will accelerate investigations of the genetic controls of anthocyanin color patterns, including the bicolor patterns, of Lilium spp.

  12. Involvement of a novel p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in larval metamorphosis of the polychaete Hydroides elegans (Haswell)

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hao

    2010-04-19

    Hydroides elegans is a common marine fouling organism in most tropical and subtropical waters. The life cycle of H. elegans includes a planktonic larval stage in which swimming larvae normally take 5 days to attain competency to settle. Larval metamorphosis marks the beginning of its benthic life; however, the endogenous molecular mechanisms that regulate metamorphosis remain largely unknown. In this study, a PCR-based suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) library was constructed to screen the genes expressed in competent larvae but not in precompetent larvae. Among the transcripts isolated from the library, 21 significantly matched sequences in the GenBank. Many of these isolated transcripts have putative roles in the reactive oxygen species (ROS) signal transduction pathway or in response to ROS stress. A putative novel p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which was also isolated with SSH screen, was then cloned and characterized. The MAPK inhibitors assay showed that both p38 MAPK inhibitors SB202190 and SB203580 effectively inhibited the biofilm-induced metamorphosis of H. elegans. A cell stressors assay showed that H2O2 effectively induced larval metamorphosis of H. elegans, but the inductivity of H2O2 was also inhibited by both SB inhibitors. The catalase assay showed that the catalase could effetely inhibit H. elegans larvae from responding to inductive biofilm. These results showed that the p38 MAPK-dependent pathway plays critical role in controlling larval metamorphosis of the marine polychaete H. elegans, and the reactive oxygen radicals produced by biofilm could be the cue inducing larval metamorphosis. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Mosquito larval source management for controlling malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tusting, Lucy S; Thwing, Julie; Sinclair, David; Fillinger, Ulrike; Gimnig, John; Bonner, Kimberly E; Bottomley, Christian; Lindsay, Steven W

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria is an important cause of illness and death in people living in many parts of the world, especially sub-Saharan Africa. Long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) reduce malaria transmission by targeting the adult mosquito vector and are key components of malaria control programmes. However, mosquito numbers may also be reduced by larval source management (LSM), which targets mosquito larvae as they mature in aquatic habitats. This is conducted by permanently or temporarily reducing the availability of larval habitats (habitat modification and habitat manipulation), or by adding substances to standing water that either kill or inhibit the development of larvae (larviciding). Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of mosquito LSM for preventing malaria. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; CABS Abstracts; and LILACS up to 24 October 2012. We handsearched the Tropical Diseases Bulletin from 1900 to 2010, the archives of the World Health Organization (up to 11 February 2011), and the literature database of the Armed Forces Pest Management Board (up to 2 March 2011). We also contacted colleagues in the field for relevant articles. Selection criteria We included cluster randomized controlled trials (cluster-RCTs), controlled before-and-after trials with at least one year of baseline data, and randomized cross-over trials that compared LSM with no LSM for malaria control. We excluded trials that evaluated biological control of anopheline mosquitoes with larvivorous fish. Data collection and analysis At least two authors assessed each trial for eligibility. We extracted data and at least two authors independently determined the risk of bias in the included studies. We resolved all disagreements through discussion with a third author. We analyzed the data using Review Manager 5 software

  14. Betalain: a particular class of antioxidant pigment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gharras, Hasna

    2011-10-01

    We have analyzed the stability of betalains in juices prepared from Moroccan yellow cactus pears (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.) as a function of temperature and pH. The experiments were carried out at temperatures ranging from 80 to 100 degrees C with juices at pH 3.5, 5 and 6.5. The degree of pigment retention decreased when the temperature increased. The degradation constant rates were determined for thermal degradation rates of pseudo-first order. The Arrhenius plot obtained for the degradation of betaxanthin from the yellow fruits was not linear. Regardless of the temperature of treatment, the lowest degradation was obtained for pH 5. When some stabilizers were tested for the protection of pigments, the results showed that ascorbic acid was a better protective agent at pH 3.5, increasing the protection by 40%. The inhibitive action of betalain pigments extracted from cactus pears towards corrosion of stainless steel in phosphoric acid was investigated using electrochemical polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. It was found that the presence of natural pigments reduces the corrosion rate of the tested metal, especially on addition of the red pigments (97%). The inhibition efficiency increases as the pigment concentration of extracts increases. It was also found that the pigments tested act as mixed inhibitors. The inhibitive action of the extracts is discussed in term of adsorption and that such adsorption follows a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The calculated values of the free energy of adsorption indicated that the adsorption process is spontaneous.

  15. The other gastropod larvae: larval morphogenesis in a marine neritimorph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Louise R; Ferguson, Samuel J

    2013-04-01

    Two of the three major gastropod clades with feeding larvae are sister groups and larval morphogenesis for members of these clades, the Caenogastropoda and Heterobranchia, has been well studied. The third clade, the Neritimorpha, has an unstable phylogenetic position and little is known about development of their planktotrophic larvae. Information about larval morphology of neritimorphs and resolution of their controversial phylogenetic placement is critically important for understanding evolution of larval feeding within the Gastropoda. We describe larval morphogenesis to metamorphic competence for laboratory-reared larvae of Nerita melanotragus (Smith, 1884) (Neritimorpha: Neritidae). Preliminary observations suggest that prehatch larvae are capable of delayed hatching, possibly by entering a diapause state. Our description of larval morphogenesis, as based on tissue sections for light and transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, three-dimensional-reconstructions of sectioned tissue, and labeling of muscles with fluorphore-tagged phalloidin, revealed four features that are unprecedented among both feeding and nonfeeding gastropod larvae. Larvae of N. melanotragus have muscles on the left and right side that both meet current criteria of a larval retractor muscle; shell-anchored muscles with oblique striations that project inside the visceral nerve loop to insert mainly on the velar lobes. They also have left and right digestive glands of similar size and a left and right hypobranchial gland. A larval "heart" is absent, but water circulation through the mantle cavity may be facilitated by large circular orifices, lined by patches of motile cilia, leading in and out of the mantle cavity. Comparison of larval traits among all three groups of gastropods with feeding larvae indicates that larvae of N. melanotragus have many unique characteristics, but they show more similarities to caenogastropod than to heterobranch larvae. These results are a

  16. Iris pigment epithelial cysts in a newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zargar, Shabnam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We report a case of iris pigment epithelial cysts in a newborn and discuss the importance of an accurate diagnosis for prevention of amblyopia.Methods: We describe a case of an abnormal red reflex seen on a newborn exam.Results: A full-term female born via normal spontaneous vaginal delivery without any complications was seen in the newborn nursery. She was noted to have an abnormal eye exam. Pupils were large with circular dark excrescences of the iris pigment epithelium. She was referred to a pediatric ophthalmologist where she was noted to fixate and follow faces. No afferent pupillary defect was seen. OD red reflex was normal whereas OS red reflex was blocked mostly by dark excrescences. A 2– dark brown lesion was seen in the OD iris and a 3–5 mm dark brown lesion was seen in the OS iris, consistent with a pupillary iris pigment epithelial cyst. Central visual axis was clear OU. Glaucoma was not present and patching was not performed. Observations and clinical photographs were recommended with follow-up in three months.Conclusion: Iris pigment epithelial cysts are uncommonly seen in children. The primary care provider first seeing a newborn must be aware of lesions obscuring a red reflex with appropriate follow-up. Follow-up in three months with IOP measurements is recommended. Iris pigment epithelial cysts in children may be a cause of amblyopia, thus prompt evaluation is important for prognostic purposes and the prevention of amblyopia.

  17. Multiscale Pigment Analysis of Medieval Illuminated Manuscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestak, Erica; Manukyan, Khachatur; Wiescher, Michael; Gura, David

    2017-09-01

    Three medieval illuminated manuscripts (codd. Lat. b. 1; Lat. b. 2; Lat. e. 4), housed at the University of Notre Dame's Hesburgh Library, vary in style, pigments, scribes, and regions, despite all three being Psalters used in the Late Middle Ages. XRF and Raman spectroscopy, which provided the elemental and molecular composition of the pigments, respectively, were used to analyze the pigments' compositions in an attempt to narrow further the manuscripts' possible origins. This experimental investigation emphasizes the importance of understanding the history of the manuscript through their pigments. Codd. Lat. b. 1 and Lat. b. 2 are Latinate German Psalters from the fifteenth century likely used in Katharinenkloster in Nuremberg. While there are visible differences in style within each Psalter, the variations in some of the pigment compositions, such as the inconstant presence of zinc, suggest different admixtures. Cod. Lat. e. 4 is a Latinate English Psalter from the fourteenth century, and it was written by two scribes and illuminated by two distinct painters. It is currently being tested to determine whether there are any correlations between the scribes and painters. These physical analyses will clarify the origins and provenances of the manuscripts.

  18. Inadvertent polychlorinated biphenyls in commercial paint pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dingfei; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2010-04-15

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) that was not produced as part of the Aroclor mixtures banned in the 1980s was recently reported in air samples collected in Chicago, Philadelphia, the Arctic, and several sites around the Great Lakes. In Chicago, the congener 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl or PCB11 was found to be the fifth most concentrated congener and ubiquitous throughout the city. The congener exhibited strong seasonal concentration trends that suggest volatilization of this compound from common outdoor surfaces. Due to these findings and also the compound's presence in waters that received waste from paint manufacturing facilities, we hypothesized that PCB11 may be present in current commercial paint. In this study we measured PCBs in paint sold on the current retail market. We tested 33 commercial paint pigments purchased from three local paint stores. The pigment samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). More than 50 PCB congeners including several dioxin-like PCBs were detected, and the PCB profiles varied due to different types of pigments and different manufacturing processes. PCB congeners were detected in azo and phthalocyanine pigments which are commonly used in paint but also in inks, textiles, paper, cosmetics, leather, plastics, food and other materials. Our findings suggest several possible mechanisms for the inadvertent production of specific PCB congeners during the manufacturing of paint pigments.

  19. Fish pigmentation and the melanocortin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cal, Laura; Suarez-Bregua, Paula; Cerdá-Reverter, José Miguel; Braasch, Ingo; Rotllant, Josep

    2017-09-01

    The melanocortin system is a complex neuroendocrine signaling mechanism involved in numerous physiological processes in vertebrates, including pigmentation, steroidogenesis and metabolic control. This review focuses at one of its most fascinating function in fish, its regulatory role in the control of pigmentation, in which the melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r), its agonist α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-Msh), and the endogenous antagonist agouti signaling protein (Asip1) are the main players. Functional control of Mc1r, which is highly expressed in fish skin and whose activation stimulates melanin production and melanosome dispersion in fish melanophores, is considered a key mechanism for vertebrate pigment phenotypes. The α-Msh peptide, the most documented Mc1r agonist involved in pigmentation, is produced in the pituitary gland, activating melanin synthesis by binding to Mc1r in fish melanophores. Finally, Asip1 is the putative factor for establishing the evolutionarily conserved dorso-ventral pigment pattern found across vertebrates. However, we are just starting to understand how other melanocortin system components are acting in this complex regulatory network. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Synchrotron powder diffraction on Aztec blue pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez del Rio, M.; Gutierrez-Leon, A.; Castro, G.R.; Rubio-Zuazo, J.; Solis, C.; Sanchez-Hernandez, R.; Robles-Camacho, J.; Rojas-Gaytan, J.

    2008-01-01

    Some samples of raw blue pigments coming from an archaeological rescue mission in downtown Mexico City have been characterized using different techniques. The samples, some recovered as a part of a ritual offering, could be assigned to the late Aztec period (XVth century). The striking characteristic of these samples is that they seem to be raw pigments prior to any use in artworks, and it was possible to collect a few μg of pigment after manual grain selection under a microscopy monitoring. All pigments are made of indigo, an organic colorant locally known as anil or xiuhquilitl. The colorant is always found in combination with an inorganic matrix, studied by powder diffraction. In one case the mineral base is palygorskite, a rare clay mineral featuring micro-channels in its structure, well known as the main ingredient of the Maya blue pigment. However, other samples present the minerals sepiolite (a clay mineral of the palygorskite family) and calcite. Another sample contains barite, a mineral never reported in prehispanic paints. We present the results of characterization using high resolution powder diffraction recorded at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BM25A, SpLine beamline) complemented with other techniques. All of them gave consistent results on the composition. A chemical test on resistance to acids was done, showing a high resistance for the palygorskite and eventually sepiolite compounds, in good agreement with the excellent resistance of the Maya blue. (orig.)

  1. Cushing syndrome in a young woman due to primary pigmented nodular adrenal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackman, Kathryn L; Davis, Anna L; Curnow, Paul A; Serpell, Jonathan W; McLean, Catriona A; Topliss, Duncan J

    2010-01-01

    To report a case of Cushing syndrome due to apparently sporadic primary pigmented nodular adrenal disease in a young woman. We describe the clinical, biochemical, radiologic, and histologic findings of Cushing syndrome due to the rare condition of primary pigmented nodular adrenal disease. A 30-year-old woman presented with a 2-year history of worsening itch without rash over her shoulders and arms and weight gain, particularly around the abdomen and face. Careful questioning did not elicit any history of exogenous glucocorticoid use (systemic or topical), including hydrocortisone. On examination, the patient had a slightly rounded and plethoric face, a small buffalo hump, central adiposity, and thin skin with a few small striae on her inner thighs. No features of the Carney complex were observed. Investigations showed hypercortisolism with suppressed corticotropin and normal adrenal imaging despite documentation of enlarged adrenal glands at removal. High-dose dexamethasone administration was followed by a decrease in urinary free cortisol excretion rather than a paradoxical rise as previously reported in primary pigmented nodular adrenal disease. No mutations were detected in the PRKAR1A gene. Primary pigmented nodular adrenal disease should be suspected in patients with corticotropin-independent Cushing syndrome who have normal adrenal imaging. The role of genetic testing in apparently sporadic cases is not established, but cumulative experience may be helpful in defining the frequency of PRKAR1A mutations.

  2. Embryonic, larval, and juvenile development of the sea biscuit Clypeaster subdepressus (Echinodermata: Clypeasteroida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno C Vellutini

    Full Text Available Sea biscuits and sand dollars diverged from other irregular echinoids approximately 55 million years ago and rapidly dispersed to oceans worldwide. A series of morphological changes were associated with the occupation of sand beds such as flattening of the body, shortening of primary spines, multiplication of podia, and retention of the lantern of Aristotle into adulthood. To investigate the developmental basis of such morphological changes we documented the ontogeny of Clypeaster subdepressus. We obtained gametes from adult specimens by KCl injection and raised the embryos at 26 degrees C. Ciliated blastulae hatched 7.5 h after sperm entry. During gastrulation the archenteron elongated continuously while ectodermal red-pigmented cells migrated synchronously to the apical plate. Pluteus larvae began to feed in 3 d and were 20 d old at metamorphosis; starved larvae died 17 d after fertilization. Postlarval juveniles had neither mouth nor anus nor plates on the aboral side, except for the remnants of larval spicules, but their bilateral symmetry became evident after the resorption of larval tissues. Ossicles of the lantern were present and organized in 5 groups. Each group had 1 tooth, 2 demipyramids, and 2 epiphyses with a rotula in between. Early appendages consisted of 15 spines, 15 podia (2 types, and 5 sphaeridia. Podial types were distributed in accordance to Lovén's rule and the first podium of each ambulacrum was not encircled by the skeleton. Seven days after metamorphosis juveniles began to feed by rasping sand grains with the lantern. Juveniles survived in laboratory cultures for 9 months and died with wide, a single open sphaeridium per ambulacrum, aboral anus, and no differentiated food grooves or petaloids. Tracking the morphogenesis of early juveniles is a necessary step to elucidate the developmental mechanisms of echinoid growth and important groundwork to clarify homologies between irregular urchins.

  3. Embryonic, Larval, and Early Juvenile Development of the Tropical Sea Urchin, Salmacis sphaeroides (Echinodermata: Echinoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aminur Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmacis sphaeroides (Linnaeus, 1758 is one of the regular echinoids, occuring in the warm Indo-West Pacific, including Johor Straits, between Malaysia and Singapore. In order to investigate the developmental basis of morphological changes in embryos and larvae, we documented the ontogeny of S. sphaeroides in laboratory condition. Gametes were obtained from adult individuals by 0.5 M KCl injection into the coelomic cavity. Fertilization rate at limited sperm concentration (10−5 dilution was 96.6±1.4% and the resulting embryos were reared at 24°C. First cleavage (2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, 16-cell, 32-cell, and multicell (Morulla stages were achieved 01.12, 02.03, 02.28, 02.51, 03.12, and 03.32 h postfertilization. Ciliated blastulae with a mean length of 174.72±4.43 μm hatched 08.45 h after sperm entry. The gastrulae formed 16.15 h postfertilization and the archenteron elongated constantly while ectodermal red-pigmented cells migrated synchronously to the apical plate. Pluteus larva started to feed unicellular algae in 2 d, grew continuously, and finally attained metamorphic competence in 35 d after fertilization. Metamorphosis took approximately 1 h 30 min from attachment to the complete resorption of larval tissues and the development of complete juvenile structure with adult spines, extended tubefeet and well-developed pedicellaria, the whole event of which usually took place within 1 d postsettlement. This study represents the first successful investigation on embryonic, larval, and early juvenile development of S. sphaeroides. The findings would greatly be helpful towards the understanding of ontogeny and life-history strategies, which will facilitate us to develop the breeding, seed production, and culture techniques of sea urchins in captive condition.

  4. Platelet-Rich Plasma Increases Pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Cagri A; Ertas, Nilgun Markal

    2017-11-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous solution of plasma containing 4 to 7 times the baseline concentration of human platelets. Platelet-rich plasma has been widely popular in facial rejuvenation to attenuate wrinkles and has been practically used. The authors have been encountering various patients of increased hiperpigmentation following PRP applications that were performed to attenuate the postinflammatory hiperpigmentation especially after laser treatment. The authors have been using PRP for facial rejuvenation in selected patients and in 1 patient the authors have encountered increased pigmentation over the pigmented skin lesions that were present before the application. The authors recommend that the PRP might increase pigmentation especially in the face region and precautions might be taken before and after the application. Platelet-rich plasma should not be used for the treatment of post inflammatory hiperpigmentation.

  5. Nanomechanical analysis of pigmented human melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarna, Michal; Zadlo, Andrzej; Pilat, Anna; Olchawa, Magdalena; Gkogkolou, Paraskevi; Burda, Kvetoslava; Böhm, Markus; Sarna, Tadeusz

    2013-09-01

    Based on hitherto measurements of elasticity of various cells in vitro and ex vivo, cancer cells are generally believed to be much softer than their normal counterparts. In spite of significant research efforts on the elasticity of cancer cells, only few studies were undertaken with melanoma cells. However, there are no reports concerning pigmented melanoma cells. Here, we report for the first time on the elasticity of pigmented human melanoma cells. The obtained data show that melanin significantly increases the stiffness of pigmented melanoma cells and that the effect depends on the amount of melanin inside the cells. The dramatic impact of melanin on the nanomechanical properties of cells puts into question widely accepted paradigm about all cancer cells being softer than their normal counterparts. Our findings reveal significant limitations of the nanodiagnosis approach for melanoma and contribute to better understanding of cell elasticity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, Paul H.

    1998-01-01

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer (.mu.m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 .mu.m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 .mu.m to about 16 .mu.m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 .mu.m to about 2 .mu.m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments.

  7. An intracellular anion channel critical for pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellono, Nicholas W; Escobar, Iliana E; Lefkovith, Ariel J; Marks, Michael S; Oancea, Elena

    2014-12-16

    Intracellular ion channels are essential regulators of organellar and cellular function, yet the molecular identity and physiological role of many of these channels remains elusive. In particular, no ion channel has been characterized in melanosomes, organelles that produce and store the major mammalian pigment melanin. Defects in melanosome function cause albinism, characterized by vision and pigmentation deficits, impaired retinal development, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. The most common form of albinism is caused by mutations in oculocutaneous albinism II (OCA2), a melanosome-specific transmembrane protein with unknown function. Here we used direct patch-clamp of skin and eye melanosomes to identify a novel chloride-selective anion conductance mediated by OCA2 and required for melanin production. Expression of OCA2 increases organelle pH, suggesting that the chloride channel might regulate melanin synthesis by modulating melanosome pH. Thus, a melanosomal anion channel that requires OCA2 is essential for skin and eye pigmentation.

  8. Gingival pigmentation beneath a metallic crown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, T.; Hirayasu, R.; Sakai, H.; Hashimoto, N.

    1988-01-01

    Light and electron microscopic studies and energy dispersive X-ray analysis disclosed that the essential cause of gingival discoloration following the placement of a metallic crown, was marked deposition of melanin pigment. Deposition of melanin pigment was observed in epithelial cells, on basement membranes, and in fibroblasts, macrophages and among intercellular ground substance of the proprial layer. Brown or dark brown colored granules were observed in the deep portion of the proprial layer. Some metallic elements as silver and sulfur were detected. It was presumed that these materials were dental metals accidentally implanted in gingival tissues during the therapeutic procedure. The deposition of melanin pigment closely corresponded with mucosal tissue where these materials were present in the deep portion of the proprial layer. These findings suggested that these materials influenced the physiological metabolism of melanin and induced its pathological deposition in the proprial tissue. (author)

  9. Effects of ozone on plant pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouchi, I.; Odaira, T.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of ozone on plants were studied, with emphasis on leaf bleaching, chlorosis, and appearance of reddish flecks on leaves. Leaves were analyzed with emphasis on ozone-induced destruction of chlorophyll and the formation of red anthrocyanin pigments. Leaves were exposed to 20 pphm to O/sub 3/. Pigments in Brassica pekinensis, morning glory, Zelkova serrata, and Prunus yedonensis were analyzed. Exposure to O/sub 3/ decreased the amount of chlorophyll, lowered the ratio of chlorophyll a to chlorophyll b, and caused anthrocyanin to form. From these results and from symptoms of O/sub 3/ injury to broad leaves (such as early appearance of yellow or red pigments in the leaves and premature fall of leaves), and published microscopic observations of chloroplast, it was deduced that O/sub 3/ accelerated the senescence of leaves and of the plant itself. 15 references.

  10. Behavioral analysis of the escape response in larval zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ruopei; Girdhar, Kiran; Chemla, Yann; Gruebele, Martin

    The behavior of larval zebrafish is of great interest because the limited number of locomotor neurons in larval zebrafish couples with its rich repertoire of movements as a vertebrate animal. Current research uses a priori-selected parameters to describe their swimming behavior while our lab has built a parameter-free model based on singular value decomposition analysis to characterize it. Our previous work has analyzed the free swimming of larval zebrafish and presented a different picture from the current classification of larval zebrafish locomotion. Now we are extending this work to the studies of their escape response to acoustic stimulus. Analysis has shown intrinsic difference in the locomotion between escape response and free swimming.

  11. Measurements and Counts for Larval and Juvenile Beryx Specimens

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Larval alfonsin (Beryx species) were collected in the vicinity of the Southeast Hancock Seamount. A three-net Tucker trawl (I m2 effective mouth opening and 0.333 mm...

  12. Gypsy moth larval defense mechanisms against pathogenic microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen S. Shields; Tariq M. Butt

    1991-01-01

    We investigated the response of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, larval hemocytes to L. dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdMNPV) administered per os and by injection, and to injected hyphal bodies and natural protoplasts of some entomopathogenic, entomophthoralean fungi.

  13. UV-B affects the immune system and promotes nuclear abnormalities in pigmented and non-pigmented bullfrog tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Belussi, Lilian; Fanali, Lara Zácari; De Oliveira, Classius

    2018-03-01

    Ultra-Violet (UV) radiation is a stressor of the immune system and causes DNA damage. Leukocytes can change in response to environmental changes in anurans, making them an important biomarker of stressful situations. The initial barrier against UV in ectothermic animals is melanin-containing cells in skin and in their internal organs. Here, we tested the effects of UV exposure on immune cells and DNA integrity in pigmented and non-pigmented tadpoles of Lithobates catesbeianus. We used an inflammation model with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Escherichia coli to test synergic effects of UV and LPS. We tested the following hypotheses: 1) DNA damage caused by UV will be more pronounced in non-pigmented than in pigmented animals; 2) LPS increases leukocytes in both pigmented and non-pigmented animals by systemic inflammation; 3) The combined LPS and UV exposure will decrease the number of leukocytes. We found that the frequency of immune cells differed between pigmented and non-pigmented tadpoles. UV exposure increased mast cells and DNA damage in erythrocytes in both pigmented and non-pigmented tadpoles, while leukocytes decreased after UV exposure. Non-pigmented tadpoles experienced DNA damage and a lower lymphocyte count earlier than pigmented tadpoles. UV altered immune cells likely as a consequence of local and systemic inflammation. These alterations were less severe in pigmented than in non-pigmented animals. UV and LPS increased internal melanin in pigmented tadpoles, which were correlated with DNA damage and leukocytes. Here, we described for the first time the effects of UV and LPS in immune cells of pigmented and non-pigmented tadpoles. In addition, we demonstrated that internal melanin in tadpoles help in these defenses, since leukocyte responses were faster in non-pigmented animals, supporting the hypothesis that melanin is involved in the initial innate immune response. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Contributions for larval development optimization of Homarus gammarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Tiago Fonseca Sá

    2014-06-01

    The seawater rising temperature resulted in a decrease of intermoult period in all larval development stages and at all tested temperatures, ranging from 4.77 (Z1 to 16.5 days (Z3 at 16°C, whereas at 23°C, ranged from 3:02 (Z1 and 9.75 days (Z3. The results obtained are an extremely useful guide for future optimization of protocols on larval development of H. gammarus.

  15. Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia in a Red Pigment Tattoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia

    2015-01-01

    Red pigment tattoos are known to cause pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in the skin, frequently simulating squamous cell carcinoma or keratoacanthoma. Herein, the authors present two additional cases of red pigment tattoo pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in which they noted a lichenoid tissue reaction. They reviewed the previously published cases and observed a lichenoid reaction in the histopathological images similar to hypertrophic lichen planus. The authors suggest that these reactions might best be referred to as “lichenoid reaction with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia” or “hypertrophic lichen planus-like reaction.” Accordingly, recognition of an inflammatory component may allow additional treatment options. PMID:26705448

  16. RISK ASSESSMENT FOR THE DYE AND PIGMENT ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This risk assessment calculates the maximum loadings of constituents found in dyes and pigment industries waste streams which can be disposed in different types of waste management units without causing health benchmarks to be exceeded at plausible receptor locations. The assessment focuses on potential risks from volatilization and leaching to groundwater of constituents disposed in surface impoundments and landfills with either clay liners or composite liners. This product will be used by EPA decision makers to assist in determining whether certain waste streams generated by the dyes and pigments industries should be designated as hazardous.

  17. Growth hormone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003376.htm Growth hormone suppression test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone suppression test determines whether growth hormone production is ...

  18. A constitutively active G protein-coupled acetylcholine receptor regulates motility of larval Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Kevin; Kimber, Michael J; Day, Tim A; Ribeiro, Paula

    2015-07-01

    The neuromuscular system of helminths controls a variety of essential biological processes and therefore represents a good source of novel drug targets. The neuroactive substance, acetylcholine controls movement of Schistosoma mansoni but the mode of action is poorly understood. Here, we present first evidence of a functional G protein-coupled acetylcholine receptor in S. mansoni, which we have named SmGAR. A bioinformatics analysis indicated that SmGAR belongs to a clade of invertebrate GAR-like receptors and is related to vertebrate muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Functional expression studies in yeast showed that SmGAR is constitutively active but can be further activated by acetylcholine and, to a lesser extent, the cholinergic agonist, carbachol. Anti-cholinergic drugs, atropine and promethazine, were found to have inverse agonist activity towards SmGAR, causing a significant decrease in the receptor's basal activity. An RNAi phenotypic assay revealed that suppression of SmGAR activity in early-stage larval schistosomulae leads to a drastic reduction in larval motility. In sum, our results provide the first molecular evidence that cholinergic GAR-like receptors are present in schistosomes and are required for proper motor control in the larvae. The results further identify SmGAR as a possible candidate for antiparasitic drug targeting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of sampling mortality of larval fishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cada, G.F.; Hergenrader, G.L.

    1978-01-01

    A study was initiated to assess the mortality of larval fishes that were entrained in the condenser cooling systems of two nuclear power plants on the Missouri River in Nebraska. High mortalities were observed not only in the discharge collections but also in control samples taken upriver from the plants where no entrainment effects were possible. As a result, entrainment mortality generally could not be demonstrated. A technique was developed which indicated that (1) a significant portion of the observed mortality above the power plants was the result of net-induced sampling mortality, and (2) a direct relationship existed between observed mortality and water velocity in the nets when sampling at the control sites, which was described by linear regression equations. When these equations were subsequently used to remove the effects of wide differences in sampling velocities between control and discharge collections, significant entrainment mortality was noted in all cases. The equations were also used to derive estimates of the natural mortality of ichthyoplankton in this portion of the Missouri River

  20. Helminths parasitizing larval fish from Pantanal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, A C F; Santin, M; Takemoto, R M; Pavanelli, G C; Bialetzki, A; Tavernari, F C

    2009-03-01

    Fish larvae of 'corvinas' (Pachyurus bonariensis and Plagioscion ternetzi) from Sinhá Mariana Lagoon, Mato Grosso State, were collected from March 2000 to March 2004, in order to determine the parasitic fauna of fishes. Larvae from the two species were parasitized by the same endoparasites: Contracaecum sp. Type 2 (larvae) (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in the mesentery and Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) paraguayensis (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) in the stomach and the terminal portion of the intestine. Statistical analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation between the standard length of hosts and the abundance of acanthocephalans and nematodes, and that the prevalence of nematodes presented a significant positive correlation with the standard length of the two species of hosts, indicating the presence of a cumulative process of infection. The present study constitutes the first record of nematodes and acanthocephalans parasitizing larval fish, as well as the first record of endoparasites in fish larvae in Brazil. In addition, it lists a new locality and two species of hosts for Contracaecum sp. Type 2 (larva) and N. (N.) paraguayensis.

  1. Arrested larval development in cattle nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J; Duncan, M

    1987-06-01

    Most economically important cattle nematodes are able to arrest their larval development within the host - entering a period of dormancy or hypobiosis. Arrested larvae have a low death rate, and large numbers can accumulate in infected cattle during the grazing season. Because of this, outbreaks of disease caused by such nematodes can occur at times when recent infection with the parasites could not have occurred, for example during winter in temperature northern climates when cattle are normally housed. The capacity to arrest is a heritable trait. It is seen as an adaptation by the parasite to avoid further development to its free-living stages during times when the climate is unsuitable for free-living survival. But levels of arrestment can vary markedly in different regions, in different cattle, and under different management regimes. Climatic factors, previous conditioning, host immune status, and farm management all seem to affect arrestment levels. In this article, James Armour and Mary Duncan review the biological basis of the phenomenon, and discuss the apparently conflicting views on how it is controlled.

  2. Imaging fictive locomotor patterns in larval Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayley, Timothy G.; Taylor, Adam L.; Berni, Jimena; Bate, Michael; Hedwig, Berthold

    2015-01-01

    We have established a preparation in larval Drosophila to monitor fictive locomotion simultaneously across abdominal and thoracic segments of the isolated CNS with genetically encoded Ca2+ indicators. The Ca2+ signals closely followed spiking activity measured electrophysiologically in nerve roots. Three motor patterns are analyzed. Two comprise waves of Ca2+ signals that progress along the longitudinal body axis in a posterior-to-anterior or anterior-to-posterior direction. These waves had statistically indistinguishable intersegmental phase delays compared with segmental contractions during forward and backward crawling behavior, despite being ∼10 times slower. During these waves, motor neurons of the dorsal longitudinal and transverse muscles were active in the same order as the muscle groups are recruited during crawling behavior. A third fictive motor pattern exhibits a left-right asymmetry across segments and bears similarities with turning behavior in intact larvae, occurring equally frequently and involving asymmetry in the same segments. Ablation of the segments in which forward and backward waves of Ca2+ signals were normally initiated did not eliminate production of Ca2+ waves. When the brain and subesophageal ganglion (SOG) were removed, the remaining ganglia retained the ability to produce both forward and backward waves of motor activity, although the speed and frequency of waves changed. Bilateral asymmetry of activity was reduced when the brain was removed and abolished when the SOG was removed. This work paves the way to studying the neural and genetic underpinnings of segmentally coordinated motor pattern generation in Drosophila with imaging techniques. PMID:26311188

  3. Basic Gravitational Reflexes in the Larval Frog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Stephen L.

    1996-01-01

    This investigation was designed to determine how a primitive vertebrate, the bullfrog tadpole, is able to sense and process gravitational stimuli. Because of the phylogenetic similarities of the vestibular systems in all vertebrates, the understanding of the gravitational reflexes in this relatively simple vertebrate should elucidate a skeletal framework on a elementary level, upon which the more elaborate reflexes of higher vertebrates may be constructed. The purpose of this study was to understand how the nervous system of the larval amphibian processes gravitational information. This study involved predominantly electrophysiological investigations of the isolated, alert (forebrain removed) bullfrog tadpole head. The focus of these experiments is threefold: (1) to understand from whole extraocular nerve recordings the signals sent to the eye following static gravitational tilt of the head; (2) to localize neuronal centers responsible for generating these signals through reversible pharmacological ablation of these centers; and (3) to record intracellularly from neurons within these centers in order to determine the single neuron's role in the overall processing of the center. This study has provided information on the mechanisms by which a primitive vertebrate processes gravitational reflexes.

  4. Turbulence-enhanced prey encounter rates in larval fish : Effects of spatial scale, larval behaviour and size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; MacKenzie, Brian

    1995-01-01

    Turbulent water motion has several effects on the feeding ecology of larval fish and other planktivorous predators. In this paper, we consider the appropriate spatial scales for estimating relative velocities between larval fish predators and their prey, and the effect that different choices...... of scales might have on encounter and ingestion rates. Four possible scaling choices have been used in the literature, giving rise to varying estimates of the effect of turbulence on encounter rate. We argue that the correct scale is that based on the larval reactive distance, and that this interpretation...... are more likely to benefit from turbulence-increased encounter than larger larvae. Overall ingestion rate probability (= probability of encounter x probability of successful pursuit) is likely to be highest at moderate-high levels of turbulence. In most larval fish habitats, turbulence levels appear to lie...

  5. Kauri seeds and larval somersaults: the larval trunk of the seed mining basal moth Agathiphaga vitensis (Lepidoptera: Agathiphagidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Steen

    2012-09-01

    The trunk morphology of the larvae of the kauri pine (Agathis) seed infesting moth Agathiphaga is described using conventional, polarization, and scanning electron microscopy. The pine seed chamber formed by the larva is also described and commented on. The simple larval chaetotaxy includes more of the minute posture sensing setae, proprioceptors, than expected from the lepidopteran larval ground plan. The excess of proprioceptors is suggested to be necessary for sensory input concerning the larval posture within the seed chamber. The trunk musculature includes an autapomorphic radial ventral musculature made up of unique multisegmental muscles. The combined presence of additional proprioceptors and the unique ventral musculature is proposed to be related to the larval movement within the confined space of the seed chamber, especially to a proposed somersault movement that allows the larva to orientate itself within the chamber. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. EMBRYONIC AND LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF A RED STRAIN OF THE EGYPTIAN AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Iswanto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Egyptian African catfish is one of several African catfish (Clarias gariepinus strains introduced to Indonesia. Several breeding activities using that strain in Sukamandi resulted in some individuals with redish-yellow body colour (a red strain. Biological informations related to aquacultural aspects of that red strain were still scarce. The present study aimed to elucidate the embryonic and larval developments of the red strain compared to those of the black (normal coloured one, using the progenies obtained from artificial spawning of each red and black coloured brooders. Results of the present study revealed that embryonic developments of the red and black strains were similar. Their larval development were also quite similar, however, both larvae could be distinguished based on the pigmentation. The red strain larvae were golden-red-yellowish in colour, while the black strain larvae were greyish covered with dense melanophores. Total length of the red strain larvae tended to be lower than those of the black strain.

  7. Neoplasia versus hyperplasia of the retinal pigment epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen; Larsen, J.N.B.; Fledelius, Hans C.

    2001-01-01

    ophthalmology, retinal pigment epithelium, adenoma, tumor-like hyperplasia, histology, immunohistochemistry, tumor, neoplasm, ultrasonography......ophthalmology, retinal pigment epithelium, adenoma, tumor-like hyperplasia, histology, immunohistochemistry, tumor, neoplasm, ultrasonography...

  8. Skin Pigmentation Kinetics after Exposure to Ultraviolet A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbak, M.H.; Philipsen, P.A.; Wiegell, S.R.

    2009-01-01

    Scandinavians and 12 Indians/Pakistanis after 6 and 12 exposures on the back using broadband UVA and UVA1 with equal sub-minimal melanogenic doses (individually predetermined). Pigmentation was measured by skin reflectance at 555 and 660 urn. The UV dose to minimal pigmentation was higher in dark......Multiple exposures to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) are the norm in nature and phototherapy. However, studies of the kinetics of pigmentation following UVA exposure have included only fair-skinned persons. The aim of this study was to investigate steady-state pigmentation and fading in 12......-fold, respectively. The absolute increase in pigmentation was independent of pre-exposure pigmentation; therefore the percentage increase in pigmentation was higher in fair-skinned subjects. The absolute increase in pigmentation was higher and it took 2-3 days longer to reach steady-state after 12 UV exposures...

  9. Photoacclimation in microphytobenthos and the role of xanthophyll pigments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Leeuwe, Maria A.; Brotas, Vanda; Consalvey, Mireille; Forster, Rodney M.; Gillespie, David; Jesus, Bruno; Roggeveld, Jan; Gieskes, Winfried W. C.

    2008-01-01

    Estuarine microphytobenthos are frequently exposed to excessively high irradiances. Photoinhibition in microalgae is prevented by various photophysiological responses. We describe here the role of the xanthophyll pigments in photoacclimation. The pigment composition of the microphytobenthos was

  10. The influence of larval migration and dispersal depth on potential larval trajectories of a deep-sea bivalve

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVeigh, Doreen M.; Eggleston, David B.; Todd, Austin C.; Young, Craig M.; He, Ruoying

    2017-09-01

    Many fundamental questions in marine ecology require an understanding of larval dispersal and connectivity, yet direct observations of larval trajectories are difficult or impossible to obtain. Although biophysical models provide an alternative approach, in the deep sea, essential biological parameters for these models have seldom been measured empirically. In this study, we used a biophysical model to explore the role of behaviorally mediated migration from two methane seep sites in the Gulf of Mexico on potential larval dispersal patterns and population connectivity of the deep-sea mussel ;Bathymodiolus; childressi, a species for which some biological information is available. Three possible larval dispersal strategies were evaluated for larvae with a Planktonic Larval Duration (PLD) of 395 days: (1) demersal drift, (2) dispersal near the surface early in larval life followed by an extended demersal period before settlement, and (3) dispersal near the surface until just before settlement. Upward swimming speeds varied in the model based on the best data available. Average dispersal distances for simulated larvae varied between 16 km and 1488 km. Dispersal in the upper water column resulted in the greatest dispersal distance (1173 km ± 2.00), followed by mixed dispersal depth (921 km ± 2.00). Larvae originating in the Gulf of Mexico can potentially seed most known seep metapopulations on the Atlantic continental margin, whereas larvae drifting demersally cannot (237 km ± 1.43). Depth of dispersal is therefore shown to be a critical parameter for models of deep-sea connectivity.

  11. Dermoscopy Clues in Pigmented Bowen's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gutiérrez-Mendoza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pigmented tumors have similar clinical features that overlap and hamper diagnosis. Dermoscopy increases the diagnostic accuracy of doubtful melanocytic lesions and has been used as a noninvasive tool in the detection of pigmented lesions (PLs like melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and pigmented Bowen's disease (pBD. Our objective was to show the dermoscopic features of 2 cases of pBD and compare with the findings reported in the literature. Two dermoscopic images of biopsy proven pBD were retrospectively analyzed for dermoscopic patterns. Both cases showed brown regular globules, structureless brown and blue pigmentation, glomerular vessels, hypopigmented regression-like areas, and keratosis. These findings were similar to the cases reported previously. The dermoscopic diagnosis of pBD is based on the absence of criteria for a melanocytic lesion in the presence of glomerular vessels, regular brown globules and keratosis. Although pBD is rare, it should be included in the differential diagnosis of PLs, especially melanoma.

  12. Gingival pigmentation reduction: A novel therapeutic modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H V Mahesh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the present clinical study was to compare the effectiveness of radiofrequency de-epithelialization and conventional (slicing method in reducing gingival pigmentation on long term basis by split mouth design. Materials and Methods: A total of 28 maxillary gingival units from 4 subjects aged between 15-30 years were considered for this clincal study and the selected gingival units were made plaque free and clinically healthy before subjectiing these sites to one of the procedures. The selected sites were abraded by either the conventional (slicing method (14 gingival units of 21, 22, 23, 24 or by radiofrequency (14 gingival units of 11, 12, 13, 14. After the procedure periodontal dressing was applied to protect the operated area. After 1 week periodontal dressing was removed and the area was irrigated with saline. Follow up examination was done on 30th, 60th and 90 th days to evaluate the recurrence of pigmentation, if any. Results: It was obsereved that, sites operated with conventional (slicing method, showed higher mean pigmentation than the sites treated with the radioablation during the follow up period of 90 days. Conclusion: When used judiciously, radiofrequency can be clinically valuable, safe and effective method to reduce pigmentation of gingiva.

  13. Gingival Pigmentation Reduction: A Novel Therapeutic Modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, H V; Harish, M R; Shashikumar, B M; Ramya, K S

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The objective of the present clinical study was to compare the effectiveness of radiofrequency de-epithelialization and conventional (slicing) method in reducing gingival pigmentation on long term basis by split mouth design. Materials and Methods: A total of 28 maxillary gingival units from 4 subjects aged between 15-30 years were considered for this clincal study and the selected gingival units were made plaque free and clinically healthy before subjectiing these sites to one of the procedures. The selected sites were abraded by either the conventional (slicing) method (14 gingival units of 21, 22, 23, 24) or by radiofrequency (14 gingival units of 11, 12, 13, 14). After the procedure periodontal dressing was applied to protect the operated area. After 1 week periodontal dressing was removed and the area was irrigated with saline. Follow up examination was done on 30th, 60th and 90th days to evaluate the recurrence of pigmentation, if any. Results: It was obsereved that, sites operated with conventional (slicing) method, showed higher mean pigmentation than the sites treated with the radioablation during the follow up period of 90 days. Conclusion: When used judiciously, radiofrequency can be clinically valuable, safe and effective method to reduce pigmentation of gingiva. PMID:23060709

  14. The mechanism of gingiva metallic pigmentations formation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Joska, L.; Venclíková, Z.; Poddaná, M.; Benada, Oldřich

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2009), s. 1-7 ISSN 1432-6981 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR9124 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : pigmentation * gingiva * electrochemistry Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.233, year: 2009

  15. Production of Monascus-like pigments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for producing one or more Monascus-like pigment composition from Penicillium species comprising: a) providing a cultivation medium comprising a high concentration of C-and N-sources and a high C/N molar ratio, b) adjusting pH to about 5 to 8, c) inoculati...

  16. Water permeability of pigmented waterborne coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, P.A.J.; Huinink, H.P.; Erich, S.J.F.; Reuvers, N.J.W.; Adan, O.C.G.

    2013-01-01

    Coatings are used in a variety of applications. Last decades more and more coating systems are transforming from solvent to waterborne coating systems. In this study the influence of pigments on the water permeability of a waterborne coating system is studied, with special interest in the possible

  17. Fluorescent pigment distinguishes between sibling snail species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Keiichi; Wiwegweaw, Amporn; Asami, Takahiro

    2008-12-01

    Traditional taxonomy of shell-bearing molluscs does not generally use soft-body coloration. However, the land snails Bradybaena pellucida and B. similaris have been distinguished only on the basis of the color of the soft-body visible through the shell. Thus, the taxonomic status of the two species has traditionally been questionable. We found that dense spots of pigments embedded in the dorsal mantle are responsible for the yellow coloration of B. pellucida . Similar spots in B. similaris are white and less densely aggregated in whorls further from the apex, and the brown color of the hepatopancreas is visible through the shell. The yellow pigments of B. pellucida seep out with mucus from the body in natural and laboratory conditions. The two species became externally indistinguishable after 30 days of laboratory feeding, because the yellow spots disappeared in B. pellucida and the color of the hepatopancreas changed from dark brown to pale brown in both species. Irradiation with ultraviolet A demonstrated that the yellow pigment of B. pellucida fluoresces. Adult specimens of the two species were distinct in penial microsculpture, with F(1) hybrids intermediate in form. Populations of the two species differed significantly in allelic frequencies at four allozyme loci. Therefore, B. pellucida and B. similaris are morphologically and genetically distinct. The fluorescent yellow pigment distinguishes B. pellucida from B. similaris under natural conditions despite its environmental dependence.

  18. INHERITANCE OF PIGMENTATION PATTERNS IN TALINUM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biologia Plantarum42, 621-624. Maekawa, M. 1996. Recent information on anthocyanin pigmentation. Rice Genetics. Newsletter13, 25-26. Mustapha, Y. 2007. Inheritance of flower colour in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). International Journal of Pure and Applied. Sciences1(1), 10-19. Nya, E.J. and Eka M.J. 2007.

  19. "Dry-column" chromatography of plant pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woeller, F. H.; Lehwalt, M. F.; Oyama, V. I.

    1973-01-01

    Separation of plant pigments which can be accomplished on thin-layer silica plates with mixture of petroleum ether, halocarbon, acetone, and polar solvent can be readily translated into dry-column technique that yields reproducible chromatograms after elution in fashion of liquid chromatography with fluorimeter as detector. Best solvent system was found to be mixture of petroleum ether, dichloromethane, acetone, and ethyl acetate.

  20. Renal cell carcinoma with melanin pigment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Jayaprakash; Chandrika; Laxman, Prabhu

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of renal cell carcinoma has been steadily increasing. There are several morphological types of renal cell carcinoma. Recognizing histologic patterns of renal cell carcinoma is important for correct diagnosis and subsequent medical care for the patient. Melanotic tumors in the kidney are very rare. Here, we present an unusual case of renal cell carcinoma with melanin pigment. PMID:20877613

  1. Generation and characterization of pigment mutants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    formation of photo-electrons; this can cause a variety of chemical reactions leading to mutations. Upon irradiation, the cells begin to synthsise carotenoids and quantity of carotenoids produced depends on the intensity of UV radiation. Concerning UV effect on the photosynthetic pigments of plants and algae, some studies ...

  2. Flower pigment analysis of Melastoma malabathricum | Janna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study is to analyse the colour pigment, anthocyanin, that can be detected in flower and their stability in extracted form. All the analysed results will be used in the next study for the production of new food colouring material. From the observation, it shows that S3 flower developmental stage contains the ...

  3. New applications for polychromatic effect pigments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maile, F. J.; Filip, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 2 (2016), s. 35-38 ISSN 1468-1412 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-02652S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : pigments * texture * appearance * effect * polychromatic Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/RO/filip-0458988.pdf

  4. Quantitative X-ray analysis of pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, M. Marrocos de

    1987-01-01

    The 'matrix-flushing' and the 'adiabatic principle' methods have been applied for the quantitative analysis through X-ray diffraction patterns of pigments and extenders mixtures, frequently used in paint industry. The results obtained have shown the usefulness of these methods, but still ask for improving their accuracy. (Author) [pt

  5. Generation and characterization of pigment mutants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result of bio-test, using the resulting pigment mutant of C. reinhardtii 124y-1 showed that mutagenic activity was observed significantly in both Tekeli River and Pavlodar Oil Refinery in Kazakhstan; the waste water of the Pavlodar Oil Refinery had high-toxicity while the water of the Tekeli River had medium-toxicity.

  6. Generation and characterization of pigment mutants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... genic pollution of the natural environment. Therefore, detection of mutagenic compounds in .... offers many advantages such as less pollution, simple operation and sterile cultivation condition ..... UV radiation on photothynsis and pigment composition of the alpine snow alga Chlamydomonas nivalis and the.

  7. Generation and characterization of pigment mutants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compared to the wild CC-124, these mutants are characterized by a decrease in chlorophyll a & b content and an increase in carotenoids. The lowest decrease in chlorophyll a was 3 to 4 folds, while the highest increase in carotenoids was 2 to 4 folds. The result of bio-test, using the resulting pigment mutant of C. reinhardtii ...

  8. Pigments produced by the bacteria belonging to the genus Arthrobacter

    OpenAIRE

    Sutthiwong , Nuthathai; Caro , Yanis; Fouillaud , Mireille; Laurent , Philippe; Valla , A.; Dufossé , Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Poster communication, 7th International Congress of Pigments in Food – New technologies towards health, through colors, Novara, Italy, June 18-21, 2013.; International audience; Since several decades, pigments have been used as a taxonomic tool for the identification and classification of bacteria. Nowadays, pigment producing microorganisms have been also widely interested in scientific disciplines because of their biotechnological potential. With the growing interest in microbial pigments be...

  9. Melanophore migration and survival during zebrafish adult pigment stripe development require the immunoglobulin superfamily adhesion molecule Igsf11.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Seok Eom

    Full Text Available The zebrafish adult pigment pattern has emerged as a useful model for understanding the development and evolution of adult form as well as pattern-forming mechanisms more generally. In this species, a series of horizontal melanophore stripes arises during the larval-to-adult transformation, but the genetic and cellular bases for stripe formation remain largely unknown. Here, we show that the seurat mutant phenotype, consisting of an irregular spotted pattern, arises from lesions in the gene encoding Immunoglobulin superfamily member 11 (Igsf11. We find that Igsf11 is expressed by melanophores and their precursors, and we demonstrate by cell transplantation and genetic rescue that igsf11 functions autonomously to this lineage in promoting adult stripe development. Further analyses of cell behaviors in vitro, in vivo, and in explant cultures ex vivo demonstrate that Igsf11 mediates adhesive interactions and that mutants for igsf11 exhibit defects in both the migration and survival of melanophores and their precursors. These findings identify the first in vivo requirements for igsf11 as well as the first instance of an immunoglobulin superfamily member functioning in pigment cell development and patterning. Our results provide new insights into adult pigment pattern morphogenesis and how cellular interactions mediate pattern formation.

  10. Pigment patterns in adult fish result from superimposition of two largely independent pigmentation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceinos, Rosa M; Guillot, Raúl; Kelsh, Robert N; Cerdá-Reverter, José M; Rotllant, Josep

    2015-03-01

    Dorso-ventral pigment pattern differences are the most widespread pigmentary adaptations in vertebrates. In mammals, this pattern is controlled by regulating melanin chemistry in melanocytes using a protein, agouti-signalling peptide (ASIP). In fish, studies of pigment patterning have focused on stripe formation, identifying a core striping mechanism dependent upon interactions between different pigment cell types. In contrast, mechanisms driving the dorso-ventral countershading pattern have been overlooked. Here, we demonstrate that, in fact, zebrafish utilize two distinct adult pigment patterning mechanisms - an ancient dorso-ventral patterning mechanism, and a more recent striping mechanism based on cell-cell interactions; remarkably, the dorso-ventral patterning mechanism also utilizes ASIP. These two mechanisms function largely independently, with resultant patterns superimposed to give the full pattern. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Immunosuppressive PAS-1 is an excretory/secretory protein released by larval and adult worms of the ascarid nematode Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, M F P; Titz, T O; Batista, I F C; Marques-Porto, R; Oliveira, C F; Alves de Araujo, C A; Macedo-Soares, M F

    2015-05-01

    Helminths use several strategies to evade and/or modify the host immune response, including suppression or inactivation of the host antigen-specific response. Several helminth immunomodulatory molecules have been identified. Our studies have focused on immunosuppression induced by the roundworm Ascaris suum and an A. suum-derived protein named protein 1 from A. suum (PAS-1). Here we assessed whether PAS-1 is an excretory/secretory (E/S) protein and whether it can suppress lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation. Larvae from infective eggs were cultured in unsupplemented Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) for 2 weeks. PAS-1 was then measured in the culture supernatants and in adult A. suum body fluid at different time points by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with the monoclonal antibody MAIP-1. Secreted PAS-1 was detected in both larval culture supernatant and adult body fluid. It suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced leucocyte migration and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and stimulated interleukin (IL)-10 secretion, indicating that larval and adult secreted PAS-1 suppresses inflammation in this model. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory activity of PAS-1 was abolished by treatment with MAIP-1, a PAS-1-specific monoclonal antibody, confirming the crucial role of PAS-1 in suppressing LPS-induced inflammation. These findings demonstrate that PAS-1 is an E/S protein with anti-inflammatory properties likely to be attributable to IL-10 production.

  12. Taurine inhibits interleukin-6 expression and release induced by ultraviolet B exposure to human retinal pigment epithelium cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayang, Wu; Jinsong, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The massive uptake of compatible osmolytes is a self-protective response shared by retina exposed to hypertonic stress and ultraviolet stress. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of taurine against ultraviolet damage in human retinal pigment epithelium cells. Real-time PCR, radioimmunoassay, ELISA and immunoassay were used to measure osmolyte uptake and IL-6 expression. Compared with normotonic stress, hypertonic stress led to an induction of osmolyte uptake including betaine, myoinositol and taurine. UVB exposure upregulated osmolyte transporter mRNA expression and increased osmolyte uptake respectively. Especially, taurine suppressed UVB-induced IL-6 mRNA expression significantly. The accumulation of IL-6 in UVB-exposed human retinal pigment epithelial cells supernatant was much slower when the cells were preincubated with taurine. Moreover, taurine suppressed IL-6 concentration in aqueous humour. The effect of compatible osmolyte taurine on IL-6 expression and release may play an important role in cell resistance and adaption to UVB exposure.

  13. 21 CFR 73.1350 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mica-based pearlescent pigments. 73.1350 Section... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1350 Mica-based pearlescent pigments. (a...-based pearlescent pigments may contain only those diluents listed in this subpart as safe and suitable...

  14. 21 CFR 73.3128 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mica-based pearlescent pigments. 73.3128 Section... pigments. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive is formed by depositing titanium or iron... pigments listed in paragraph (a) of this section may be used as a color additive in contact lenses in...

  15. 21 CFR 73.350 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mica-based pearlescent pigments. 73.350 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.350 Mica-based pearlescent pigments. (a... pearlescent pigments may contain only those diluents listed in this subpart as safe and suitable for use in...

  16. Effect of pigment concentration on fastness and color values of thermal and UV curable pigment printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysal, Gulcin; Kalav, Berdan; Karagüzel Kayaoğlu, Burçak

    2017-10-01

    In the current study, it is aimed to determine the effect of pigment concentration on fastness and colour values of thermal and ultraviolet (UV) curable pigment printing on synthetic leather. For this purpose, thermal curable solvent-based and UV curable water-based formulations were prepared with different pigment concentrations (3, 5 and 7%) separately and applied by screen printing technique using a screen printing machine. Samples printed with solvent-based formulations were thermally cured and samples printed with water-based formulations were cured using a UV curing machine equipped with gallium and mercury (Ga/Hg) lamps at room temperature. The crock fastness values of samples printed with solvent-based formulations showed that increase in pigment concentration was not effective on both dry and wet crock fastness values. On the other hand, in samples printed with UV curable water-based formulations, dry crock fastness was improved and evaluated as very good for all pigment concentrations. However, increasing the pigment concentration affected the wet crock fastness values adversely and lower values were observed. As the energy level increased for each irradiation source, the fastness values were improved. In comparison with samples printed with solvent-based formulations, samples printed with UV curable water-based formulations yielded higher K/S values at all pigment concentrations. The results suggested that, higher K/S values can be obtained in samples printed with UV curable water-based formulations at a lower pigment concentration compared to samples printed with solvent-based formulations.

  17. Desenvolvimento larval de Brycon hilarii (Characiformes, Characidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando G. de Oliveira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo caracterizou o desenvolvimento inicial de Brycon hilarii (Valenciennes, 1850 através de caracteres morfométricos e merísticos e analisou as relações entre as características morfométricas das larvas ao longo do desenvolvimento usando modelos de regressão linear, quadrática e linear por partes. O material foi obtido nas bacias dos rios Cuiabá e Manso, Mato Grosso, Brasil, entre março de 2000 e março de 2004. Os indivíduos foram identificados e separados de acordo com o grau de desenvolvimento da notocorda e, posteriormente, medidos e contados os caracteres morfométricos e merísticos, respectivamente. O comprimento padrão variou entre 3,25 e 26,00 mm. Inicialmente, as larvas apresentaram maior concentração de pigmentos dendríticos ao longo do intestino e, em flexão e pós-flexão, intensificaram-se no dorso do corpo. Uma mancha umeral e outra no pedúnculo caudal foram observadas no final do estágio de pós-flexão. O intestino apresentou-se longo, o focinho curto, o órgão adesivo presente em larval vitelino e pré-flexão e a boca terminal por todo o desenvolvimento. O número total de miômeros variou de 41 a 50 (23 a 30 pré e 16 a 24 pós-anal. O número de raios das nadadeiras foi: dorsal 11; anal 30; peitoral 15 e ventral oito. A análise do crescimento indicou maior metamorfose no estágio de flexão.

  18. The regulatory role of the NO/cGMP signal transduction cascade during larval attachment and metamorphosis of the barnacle Balanus (=Amphibalanus) amphitrite

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Y.

    2012-08-01

    The barnacle Balanus amphitrite is among the most dominant fouling species on intertidal rocky shores in tropical and subtropical areas and is thus a target organism in antifouling research. After being released from adults, the swimming nauplius undertakes six molting cycles and then transforms into a cyprid. Using paired antennules, a competent cyprid actively explores and selects a suitable substratum for attachment and metamorphosis (collectively known as settlement). This selection process involves the reception of exogenous signals and subsequent endogenous signal transduction. To investigate the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) and cyclic GMP (cGMP) during larval settlement of B. amphitrite, we examined the effects of an NO donor and an NO scavenger, two nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors and a soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) inhibitor on settling cyprids. We found that the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) inhibited larval settlement in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, both the NO scavenger carboxy-PTIO and the NOS inhibitors aminoguanidine hemisulfate (AGH) and S-methylisothiourea sulfate (SMIS) significantly accelerated larval settlement. Suppression of the downstream guanylyl cyclase (GC) activity using a GC-selective inhibitor ODQ could also significantly accelerate larval settlement. Interestingly, the settlement inhibition effects of SNP could be attenuated by ODQ at all concentrations tested. In the developmental expression profiling of NOS and sGC, the lowest expression of both genes was detected in the cyprid stage, a crucial stage for the larval decision to attach and metamorphose. In summary, we concluded that NO regulates larval settlement via mediating downstream cGMP signaling.

  19. Comprehensive microarray-based analysis for stage-specific larval camouflage pattern-associated genes in the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futahashi Ryo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body coloration is an ecologically important trait that is often involved in prey-predator interactions through mimicry and crypsis. Although this subject has attracted the interest of biologists and the general public, our scientific knowledge on the subject remains fragmentary. In the caterpillar of the swallowtail butterfly Papilio xuthus, spectacular changes in the color pattern are observed; the insect mimics bird droppings (mimetic pattern as a young larva, and switches to a green camouflage coloration (cryptic pattern in the final instar. Despite the wide variety and significance of larval color patterns, few studies have been conducted at a molecular level compared with the number of studies on adult butterfly wing patterns. Results To obtain a catalog of genes involved in larval mimetic and cryptic pattern formation, we constructed expressed sequence tag (EST libraries of larval epidermis for P. xuthus, and P. polytes that contained 20,736 and 5,376 clones, respectively, representing one of the largest collections available in butterflies. A comparison with silkworm epidermal EST information revealed the high expression of putative blue and yellow pigment-binding proteins in Papilio species. We also designed a microarray from the EST dataset information, analyzed more than five stages each for six markings, and confirmed spatial expression patterns by whole-mount in situ hybridization. Hence, we succeeded in elucidating many novel marking-specific genes for mimetic and cryptic pattern formation, including pigment-binding protein genes, the melanin-associated gene yellow-h3, the ecdysteroid synthesis enzyme gene 3-dehydroecdysone 3b-reductase, and Papilio-specific genes. We also found many cuticular protein genes with marking specificity that may be associated with the unique surface nanostructure of the markings. Furthermore, we identified two transcription factors, spalt and ecdysteroid signal-related E75, as genes

  20. Inhibitor of differentiation-4 (Id4) stimulates pigmentation in melanoma leading to histiocyte infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiVito, Kyle A; Trabosh, Valerie A; Chen, You-Shin; Simbulan-Rosenthal, Cynthia M; Rosenthal, Dean S

    2015-02-01

    TGF-β and the inhibitors of differentiation (Id) are linked. Smad7 and other TGF-β inhibitors can potently suppress melanomagenesis; however, little work examining Ids has been reported in melanoma, particularly for Id4. Here, we report that Id4, but not Id2 or Id3 expression, surprisingly, activated robust melanin production in xenografts of previously amelanotic (lacking pigment) 1205Lu/Smad7 (S7) cells. Fontana-Masson stain and de-novo expression of MART-1 and tyrosinase proteins confirmed melanin production. Additionally, pigment-laden CD163+ mouse histiocytes with areas of extensive necrosis were found throughout S7/Id4 tumors, but not in parental 1205Lu, S7/Id2 or S7Id3-derived tumors. Mechanistic investigation revealed increased nuclear M-microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and MART-1 promoter activation following Id4 expression in 1205Lu and WM852 melanoma cells, suggesting broader implications for Id4 in melanin synthesis. In human tumors, melanin colocalized with Id4 expression establishing a correlation. Current chemotherapeutics for melanoma are only marginally effective. Immunotherapy provides the most promise, yet the role of innate immunity is poorly understood. Here, TGF-β suppression followed by Id4 expression results in extensive melanin synthesis and robust histiocyte recruitment following tumorigenesis, a novel role for Id4. Our results suggest that TGF-β suppression coupled with pigment overproduction triggers an innate immune response resulting in tumor necrosis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Wing-Pigments of Butterflies as Reviewed from the Systematic and Taxonomic Points of View

    OpenAIRE

    梅鉢, 幸重; Yoshishige, UMEBACHI; 金沢大学理学部生物学教室; Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Kanazawa University

    1988-01-01

    Wing-pigments of butterflies are reviewed especially from the standpoint of distribution. The pigments include pteridine pigments, ommochromes, papiliochromes, tetrapyrrolic pigments, flavonoids, and others. Chemistry and biochemistry of these pigments are briefly described, and their distributions are described in detail, especially in the Pieridae, Papilionidae, Nymphalidae, and Satyridae. Interestingly, some pigments are characteristic of some taxonomic groups such as family, subsfamily, a...

  2. Desarrollo embrionario-larval del pez tropical Hemirhamphus brasiliensis (Beloniformes: Hemirhamphidae a partir de huevos recolectados del medio natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Rosas

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la formación del embrión y el desarrollo larval del pez Hemirhamphus brasiliensis Linnaeus, 1758, a partir de huevos en estado de mórula, recolectados en el alga parda Sargassum sp. Los huevos eran esféricos con un diámetro de 1923.54 ±72.35 µm, con numerosos filamentos coriónicos y estrías en su superficie. Durante las primeras 48 h, el embrión desarrolló la vesícula cefálica, los miomeros y el corazón, el cual se ubicó en el exterior de cuerpo impulsando sangre incolora, la cual se pigmentó de rojo posteriormente. Antes de la eclosión se desarrollaron el riñón, estómago, hígado y la vesícula biliar, las aletas pectorales, cuatro pares de arcos branquiales y la boca. Las larvas eclosionaron a la 114 h, presentando el cuerpo robusto en forma de torpedo, verde-amarillo con melanoforos dendriformes. Al nacer ingirieron metanauplios de Artemia. A las 72 h después de la eclosión se observó el esbozo de la aleta pélvica y a las 240 h se completó la metamorfosis.Embrionary-larval development of the tropical fish Hemirhamphus brasiliensis (Beloniformes: Hemirhamphidae from eggs collected in the wild. The embryo formation and larval development of Hemirhamphus brasiliensis Linnaeus, 1758 (Pisces: Hemirhamphidae is described from morula stage eggs collected on Sargassum sp. Thalii in the field (10°50’55.2" N y 64°09’467" W. The eggs were spherical, 1 923.54 ±72.35 µm diameter with several corionic filaments, and are striated. During the first 48 h the embryo developed cephalic vesicle, miomers, and a heart located on the external body surface, beating strongly and circulating colorless blood which became pigmented red later. Before hatching, the larva developed kidney, gut tract, liver and biliar vesicle, pectoral fins, four pairs of gill arches and the mouth. The larva hatched at 114 h, the body was torpedo-shaped, yellow-green, with several dendriform melanophores; the pelvic fin was observed 72 h post

  3. Sublethal effects of Cry 1F Bt corn and clothianidin on black cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larval development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullik, Sigrun A; Sears, Mark K; Schaafsma, Arthur W

    2011-04-01

    Black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an occasional pest of maize (corn), Zea mays L., that may cause severe stand losses and injury to corn seedlings. The efficacy of the neonicotinoid seed treatment clothianidin at two commercially available rates and their interaction with a transgenic corn hybrid (Bt corn), trait expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis variety aizawai insecticidal toxin Cry 1Fa2, against black cutworm larvae was investigated. Clothianidin at a rate of 25 mg kernel(-1) on Bt corn increased larval mortality and reduced larval weight gains additively. In contrast, weights of larvae fed non-Bt corn seedlings treated with clothianidin at a rate of 25 mg kernel(-1) increased significantly, suggesting either compensatory overconsumption, hormesis, or hormoligosis. Both Bt corn alone and clothianidin at a rate of 125 mg kernel(-1) applied to non-Bt corn seedlings caused increased mortality and reduced larval weight gains. In two field trials, plots planted with Bt corn hybrids consistently had the highest plant populations and yields, regardless of whether they were treated with clothianidin at the lower commercial rate of 25 mg kernel(-1) The use of Bt corn alone or in combination with the low rate of clothianidin (25 mg kernel(-1)) seems suitable as a means of suppressing black cutworm in no-tillage cornfields, although rescue treatments may still be necessary under severe infestations. Clothianidin alone at the low rate of 25 mg kernel(-1) is not recommended for black cutworm control until further studies of its effects on larval physiology and field performance have been completed.

  4. Impact of ocean warming and ocean acidification on larval development and calcification in the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard Brennand, Hannah; Soars, Natalie; Dworjanyn, Symon A; Davis, Andrew R; Byrne, Maria

    2010-06-29

    As the oceans simultaneously warm, acidify and increase in P(CO2), prospects for marine biota are of concern. Calcifying species may find it difficult to produce their skeleton because ocean acidification decreases calcium carbonate saturation and accompanying hypercapnia suppresses metabolism. However, this may be buffered by enhanced growth and metabolism due to warming. We examined the interactive effects of near-future ocean warming and increased acidification/P(CO2) on larval development in the tropical sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla. Larvae were reared in multifactorial experiments in flow-through conditions in all combinations of three temperature and three pH/P(CO2) treatments. Experiments were placed in the setting of projected near future conditions for SE Australia, a global change hot spot. Increased acidity/P(CO2) and decreased carbonate mineral saturation significantly reduced larval growth resulting in decreased skeletal length. Increased temperature (+3 degrees C) stimulated growth, producing significantly bigger larvae across all pH/P(CO2) treatments up to a thermal threshold (+6 degrees C). Increased acidity (-0.3-0.5 pH units) and hypercapnia significantly reduced larval calcification. A +3 degrees C warming diminished the negative effects of acidification and hypercapnia on larval growth. This study of the effects of ocean warming and CO(2) driven acidification on development and calcification of marine invertebrate larvae reared in experimental conditions from the outset of development (fertilization) shows the positive and negative effects of these stressors. In simultaneous exposure to stressors the dwarfing effects of acidification were dominant. Reduction in size of sea urchin larvae in a high P(CO2) ocean would likely impair their performance with negative consequent effects for benthic adult populations.

  5. Introduction of a rod pigment aromatic cluster does not improve the structural stability of the human green cone pigment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesbers, M.E.; Bosman, G.J.C.G.M.; Bovee-Geurts, P.H.M.; Grip, W.J. de

    2007-01-01

    In the course of our studies on the structure/function relationship of visual pigments, we have expressed the human green cone pigment in the baculovirus/insect cell expression system. Purification of the human green cone pigment, however, has so far proven to be severely hampered by the low thermal

  6. Transmembrane channel-like (tmc) gene regulates Drosophila larval locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanmeng; Wang, Yuping; Zhang, Wei; Meltzer, Shan; Zanini, Damiano; Yu, Yue; Li, Jiefu; Cheng, Tong; Guo, Zhenhao; Wang, Qingxiu; Jacobs, Julie S; Sharma, Yashoda; Eberl, Daniel F; Göpfert, Martin C; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh Nung; Wang, Zuoren

    2016-06-28

    Drosophila larval locomotion, which entails rhythmic body contractions, is controlled by sensory feedback from proprioceptors. The molecular mechanisms mediating this feedback are little understood. By using genetic knock-in and immunostaining, we found that the Drosophila melanogaster transmembrane channel-like (tmc) gene is expressed in the larval class I and class II dendritic arborization (da) neurons and bipolar dendrite (bd) neurons, both of which are known to provide sensory feedback for larval locomotion. Larvae with knockdown or loss of tmc function displayed reduced crawling speeds, increased head cast frequencies, and enhanced backward locomotion. Expressing Drosophila TMC or mammalian TMC1 and/or TMC2 in the tmc-positive neurons rescued these mutant phenotypes. Bending of the larval body activated the tmc-positive neurons, and in tmc mutants this bending response was impaired. This implicates TMC's roles in Drosophila proprioception and the sensory control of larval locomotion. It also provides evidence for a functional conservation between Drosophila and mammalian TMCs.

  7. Does skipping a meal matter to a butterfly's appearance? Effects of larval food stress on wing morphology and color in monarch butterflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haley Johnson

    Full Text Available In animals with complex life cycles, all resources needed to form adult tissues are procured at the larval stage. For butterflies, the proper development of wings involves synthesizing tissue during metamorphosis based on the raw materials obtained by larvae. Similarly, manufacture of pigment for wing scales also requires resources acquired by larvae. We conducted an experiment to test the effects of food deprivation in the larval stage on multiple measures of adult wing morphology and coloration of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus, a species in which long-distance migration makes flight efficiency critical. In a captive setting, we restricted food (milkweed from late-stage larvae for either 24 hrs or 48 hrs, then after metamorphosis we used image analysis methods to measure forewing surface area and elongation (length/width, which are both important for migration. We also measured the brightness of orange pigment and the intensity of black on the wing. There were correlations between several wing features, including an unexpected association between wing elongation and melanism, which will require further study to fully understand. The clearest effect of food restriction was a reduction in adult wing size in the high stress group (by approximately 2%. Patterns observed for other wing traits were ambiguous: monarchs in the low stress group (but not the high had less elongated and paler orange pigmentation. There was no effect on wing melanism. Although some patterns obtained in this study were unclear, our results concerning wing size have direct bearing on the monarch migration. We show that if milkweed is limited for monarch larvae, their wings become stunted, which could ultimately result in lower migration success.

  8. Prevalence and clinical features of pigmented oral lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassona, Yazan; Sawair, Faleh; Al-Karadsheh, Omar; Scully, Crispian

    2016-09-01

    To examine the relative prevalence, types, and clinical features of pigmented lesions of the oral mucosa in 1275 patients attending a university hospital for dental care. Patients attending dental clinics at The University of Jordan Hospital over a 1-year period were examined for the presence of oral pigmentations. Histopathological examination was performed on focally pigmented lesions with a suspicious or uncertain clinical diagnosis. A total of 386 (30.2%) patients were found to have oral pigmentations. Of these, racial pigmentation (39.9%) and smokers' melanosis (32.9%) were the most common causes of oral pigmentations. Other causes included amalgam tattoo (18.9%), focal melanotic macules (5.7%), postinflammatory pigmentation (1.6%), pigmentation due to medications or systemic disease (0.52%), heavy metal deposits (0.26%), and oral nevus (0.26%). Gingivae and buccal mucosae were the most common sites for oral pigmentations. Pigmentations of the oral mucosa are common. Gingivae and buccal mucosae are the most common sites for oral pigmentations. Proper history and recognition of clinical features are important for effective management. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  9. Comparative study on the incidence and outcomes of pigmented versus non pigmented keratomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabyasachi Sengupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the incidence, outcomes and establish factors determining visual prognosis of keratomycosis due to pigmented fungi in comparison with nonpigmented fungi. Materials and Methods: All culture-proven cases of fungal keratitis from January 2006 to August 2008 were drawn from a computerized database and cases with adequate documentation were analyzed for predisposing factors, clinical characteristics, microbiology and treatment methods. Outcomes of keratitis due to pigmented and nonpigmented fungi were compared using t-test and χ2 test. Results: Of 373 cases of keratomycosis during the study period, pigmented fungi were etiological agents in 117 eyes (31.3% and nonpigmented fungi in 256 eyes (68.7%. Eyes with nonpigmented keratitis had significantly larger ulcers (14.96 mm 2 and poorer vision (1.42 logMAR at presentation compared to those with keratomycosis due to pigmented fungi (P=0.01. The characteristic macroscopic pigmentation was seen in only 14.5% in the pigmented keratitis group. Both groups responded favorably to medical therapy (78.1% vs. 69.1% with scar formation (P=0.32 and showed a significant improvement in mean visual acuity compared with that at presentation (P<0.01. Visual improvement in terms of line gainers and losers in the subgroup of eyes that experienced healing was also similar. Location of the ulcer was the only factor that had significant predictive value for visual outcome (P=0.021. Conclusion: Incidence of keratomycosis due to pigmented fungi may be increasing as compared to previous data. These eyes have similar response to medical therapy and similar visual outcome compared to nonpigmented keratitis. Central ulcers have a poor visual outcome.

  10. [Larval stages of Ascaris lumbricoides: hyaluronan-binding capacity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-León, Patricia; Foresto, Patricia; Valverde, Juana

    2009-03-01

    Hyaluronic acid has important functions in inflammatory and tissue reparation processes. Owing to the varied strategies of the parasites to evade the host's immune response, as well as the multiple functions and physiological importance of hyaluronic acid, the aim was to study the hyaluronan binding capacity by Ascaris lumbricoides larval stages. Larval concentrates were prepared by hatching A. lumbricoides eggs. The larvae were collected by the Baermann method. The test of serum soluble CD44 detection by Agregation Inhibition was modified. All the larval concentrates presented hyaluronan binding capacity. The obtained results allow to suppose the existence of an hyaluronic acid specific receptor in A. lumbricoides. This receptor eventually might compete with the usual receptors of the host. The parasite might use this mechanism to evade the immune response.

  11. Measurement of larval activity in the Drosophila activity monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McParland, Aidan L; Follansbee, Taylor L; Ganter, Geoffrey K

    2015-04-30

    Drosophila larvae are used in many behavioral studies, yet a simple device for measuring basic parameters of larval activity has not been available. This protocol repurposes an instrument often used to measure adult activity, the TriKinetics Drosophila activity monitor (MB5 Multi-Beam Activity Monitor) to study larval activity. The instrument can monitor the movements of animals in 16 individual 8 cm glass assay tubes, using 17 infrared detection beams per tube. Logging software automatically saves data to a computer, recording parameters such as number of moves, times sensors were triggered, and animals' positions within the tubes. The data can then be analyzed to represent overall locomotion and/or position preference as well as other measurements. All data are easily accessible and compatible with basic graphing and data manipulation software. This protocol will discuss how to use the apparatus, how to operate the software and how to run a larval activity assay from start to finish.

  12. Effects of two stressors on amphibian larval development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Karolina; Scott, David E; Tsyusko, Olga; Coughlin, Daniel P; Hinton, Thomas G

    2012-05-01

    In parallel with a renewed interest in nuclear power and its possible environmental impacts, a new environmental radiation protection system calls for environmental indicators of radiological stress. However, because environmental stressors seldom occur alone, this study investigated the combined effects of an ecological stressor (larval density) and an anthropogenic stressor (ionizing radiation) on amphibians. Scaphiopus holbrookii tadpoles reared at different larval densities were exposed to four low irradiation dose rates (0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d(-1)) from (137)Cs during the sensitive period prior to and throughout metamorphosis. Body size at metamorphosis and development rate served as fitness correlates related to population dynamics. Results showed that increased larval density decreased body size but did not affect development rate. Low dose rate radiation had no impact on either endpoint. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Angiostrongylus vasorum: Experimental Infection and Larval Development in Omalonyx matheroni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Mozzer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility and suitability of Omalonyx matheroni as an intermediate host of Angiostrongylus vasorum and the characteristics of larval recovery and development were investigated. Mollusks were infected, and from the 3rd to the 25th day after infection, larvae were recovered from groups of 50 individuals. The first observation of L2 was on the 5th day, and the first observation of L3 was on the 10th day. From the 22nd day on, all larvae were at the L3 stadium. Larval recovery varied from 78.2% to 95.2%. We found larval development to be faster in O. matheroni than in Biomphalaria glabrata. Our findings indicate that this mollusk is highly susceptible to A. vasorum. Infective L3 were orally inoculated into a dog, and the prepatent period was 39 days. This is the first study to focus on O. matheroni as an intermediate host of A. vasorum.

  14. Animal pigment bilirubin discovered in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirone, Cary; Quirke, J Martin E; Priestap, Horacio A; Lee, David W

    2009-03-04

    The bile pigment bilirubin-IXalpha is the degradative product of heme, distributed among mammals and some other vertebrates. It can be recognized as the pigment responsible for the yellow color of jaundice and healing bruises. In this paper we present the first example of the isolation of bilirubin in plants. The compound was isolated from the brilliant orange-colored arils of Strelitzia nicolai, the white bird of paradise tree, and characterized by HPLC-ESMS, UV-visible, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, as well as comparison with an authentic standard. This discovery indicates that plant cyclic tetrapyrroles may undergo degradation by a previously unknown pathway. Preliminary analyses of related plants, including S. reginae, the bird of paradise, also revealed bilirubin in the arils and flowers, indicating that the occurrence of bilirubin is not limited to a single species or tissue type.

  15. UVR: sun, lamps, pigmentation and vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, C M; Philipsen, P A; Wulf, H C

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has important and significant consequences on human health. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the beneficial effects of UVR. This perspective gives an introduction to the solar spectrum, UV lamps, UV dosimetry, skin pigment and vitamin D. The hea......Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has important and significant consequences on human health. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the beneficial effects of UVR. This perspective gives an introduction to the solar spectrum, UV lamps, UV dosimetry, skin pigment and vitamin D....... The health benefits of UVR exposure through vitamin D production or non-vitamin D pathways will be discussed in this themed issue in the following articles....

  16. Sequences associated with human iris pigmentation.

    OpenAIRE

    Frudakis, Tony; Thomas, Matthew; Gaskin, Zach; Venkateswarlu, K; Chandra, K Suresh; Ginjupalli, Siva; Gunturi, Sitaram; Natrajan, Sivamani; Ponnuswamy, Viswanathan K; Ponnuswamy, K N

    2003-01-01

    To determine whether and how common polymorphisms are associated with natural distributions of iris colors, we surveyed 851 individuals of mainly European descent at 335 SNP loci in 13 pigmentation genes and 419 other SNPs distributed throughout the genome and known or thought to be informative for certain elements of population structure. We identified numerous SNPs, haplotypes, and diplotypes (diploid pairs of haplotypes) within the OCA2, MYO5A, TYRP1, AIM, DCT, and TYR genes and the CYP1A2...

  17. The analysis of pigments on rock surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fankhauser, B.; O'Connor, S.; Pittelkow, Y.

    1997-01-01

    A limestone slab of roof fall coated with a red pigment was recovered from a Rockshelter in the Napier Ranges of the Kimberley region, Western Australia. Next to the roof fall fragment in the same stratigraphic layer was a piece of ochre. Three questions were presented: (1) is the red substance an ochre? (2) is the piece of ochre identical to the red substance on the roof fall? and (3) are the layers of pigment on the top and bottom of the limestone slab the same? In addition, as an extension from these questions, a general method was developed for the in situ analysis of ochre pigments on substrates to determine likely compositions and ochre sources. The analysis of the red pigment presented an analytical problem because the substance was intimately associated with the rock slab and therefore the analysis had to be done in situ. Not only was the red layer thin, but on a micro level it was uneven. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXA) penetrated the red layer, simultaneously analysing this layer and the rock substrate to different degrees depending upon the thickness of the red layer. Determining if the substance was actually ochre involved a comparison of elemental analyses between the background (slab) and background with red coating. Coatings of other ochres with known elemental concentrations on the same limestone background gave a comparison of the effect of simultaneously analysing a thin layer and background with different compositions. Three graphical methods useful for insitu analysis are demeonstrated. The find dates (around 40,000 BP) add to a growing body of data in support of the widespread use of ochre accompanying the earliest documented use of widely separated and environmentally diverse regions of Australia by Aboriginal people

  18. Characterization of anopheline (Diptera: Culicidae) larval habitats in Nouakchott, Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, O Ahmedou Salem Mohamed; Khadijetou, M Lekweiry; Moina, M Hasni; Lassana, Konate; Sébastien, Briolant; Ousmane, Faye; Ali, O Mohamed Salem Boukhary

    2013-12-01

    Despite the increasing number of reported autochthonous malaria cases in Nouakchott and the identification of Anopheles arabiensis as the major malaria vector in this Saharan city, anopheline larval habitats have never been identified so far. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize anopheline larval habitats in Nouakchott. During September and October 2012, samples from pools of rainwater, water discharged from standpipes and household drinking water tanks in the districts of Dar Naim, Teyarett and Arafat were analyzed for the presence/absence of anopheline larvae and physicochemical characterization of breeding habitats. Of the 51 prospected water bodies, eight consisting of seven water discharged from standpipes and one household drinking water tank were productive for Anopheles sp. All emerged anopheline mosquitoes from the positive dipping were morphologically identified as members of the An. gambiae complex. Multivariate regression analyses showed that a salinity up to 0.1 g/l and a shaded situation were respectively protective factors against high larval density in breeding sites (adjusted odds ratio = 0.62, 95% CI [0.44-0.87], p = 0.0052 and adjusted odds ratio = 0.56, 95% CI [0.44-0.71, p <0.0001] and a pH up to 7.61 was a risk factor for high larval density in breeding sites (adjusted odds ratio = 1.56, 95% CI [1.25-1.95], p = 0.0001). The study demonstrated in Nouakchott that despite an arid and dry climate, human practices have contributed to the establishment of favourable environmental conditions for the development of anopheline mosquitoes and, therefore, maintaining malaria transmission in this Saharan city. The core malaria vector control intervention as the use of long-lasting insecicidal nets (LLINs) could be complemented in Nouakchott by larval source control. In this area, appropriate larval control measures may be recommended in line with an integrated vector management (IVM) approach.

  19. Histone Deacetylase Inhibition Restores Retinal Pigment Epithelium Function in Hyperglycemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Desjardins

    Full Text Available In diabetic individuals, macular edema is a major cause of vision loss. This condition is refractory to insulin therapy and has been attributed to metabolic memory. The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE is central to maintaining fluid balance in the retina, and this function is compromised by the activation of advanced glycation end-product receptors (RAGE. Here we provide evidence that acute administration of the RAGE agonist, glycated-albumin (gAlb or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, increased histone deacetylase (HDAC activity in RPE cells. The administration of the class I/II HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin-A (TSA, suppressed gAlb-induced reductions in RPE transepithelial resistance (in vitro and fluid transport (in vivo. Systemic TSA also restored normal RPE fluid transport in rats with subchronic hyperglycemia. Both gAlb and VEGF increased HDAC activity and reduced acetyl-α-tubulin levels. Tubastatin-A, a relatively specific antagonist of HDAC6, inhibited gAlb-induced changes in RPE cell resistance. These data are consistent with the idea that RPE dysfunction following exposure to gAlb, VEGF, or hyperglycemia is associated with increased HDAC6 activity and decreased acetyl-α-tubulin. Therefore, we propose inhibiting HDAC6 in the RPE as a potential therapy for preserving normal fluid homeostasis in the hyperglycemic retina.

  20. An intracellular anion channel critical for pigmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellono, Nicholas W; Escobar, Iliana E; Lefkovith, Ariel J; Marks, Michael S; Oancea, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular ion channels are essential regulators of organellar and cellular function, yet the molecular identity and physiological role of many of these channels remains elusive. In particular, no ion channel has been characterized in melanosomes, organelles that produce and store the major mammalian pigment melanin. Defects in melanosome function cause albinism, characterized by vision and pigmentation deficits, impaired retinal development, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. The most common form of albinism is caused by mutations in oculocutaneous albinism II (OCA2), a melanosome-specific transmembrane protein with unknown function. Here we used direct patch-clamp of skin and eye melanosomes to identify a novel chloride-selective anion conductance mediated by OCA2 and required for melanin production. Expression of OCA2 increases organelle pH, suggesting that the chloride channel might regulate melanin synthesis by modulating melanosome pH. Thus, a melanosomal anion channel that requires OCA2 is essential for skin and eye pigmentation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04543.001 PMID:25513726

  1. Tetrapyrrole pigments in the geologic record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louda, J.W.; Baker, E.W.

    1985-01-01

    This paper is a synthesis of our ongoing studies on the fossilization of biotic tetrapyrrole pigments and is directed at revealing the utility of such study in assessing pre-, syn- and post-depositional processes. Diagenesis is found to become fated during oxic or anoxic deposition as to pigment destruction or fossilization, respectively. The progress of organic maturation has been followed in suited of oceanic sediments as well as shales and petroleum crudes from various basins in the US and Canada. Early catagenesis is witnessed by the release (ex kerogen.) of large quantities, re bitumen, of C28 to C34 V=O porphyrins. As catagenesis continues pigment concentration decreases, due to dilution, and higher C number porphyrins (C34-C45+) are added. Once the source is depleted or divorced from the bitumen, maturation leads to dealkylation which ends in the destruction of all tetrapyrrole structure. These changes are in concert with a shift from DPEP to ETIO dominance and parallel overall organic maturation in strict fashions. Organic source and paleoenvironment may also be addressed through porphyrin studies. Patterns of tetrapyrroles can differentiate the more allochthonous nature of black shale OM in the N. Atlantic from the autochthonous materials in these sequences in the margins of N.W. Africa and the S. Atlantic (high yield, DPEP).

  2. Treatment of gingival pigmentation : A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Deepak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A smile expresses a feeling of joy, success, sensuality, affection and courtesy, and reveals self confidence and kindness. The harmony of the smile is determined not only by the shape, the position and the color of the teeth but also by the gingival tissues. Gingival health and appearance are essential components of an attractive smile. Gingival pigmentation results from melanin granules, which are produced by melanoblasts. The degree of pigmentation depends on melanoblastic activity. Although melanin pigmentation of the gingiva is completely benign and does not present a medical problem, complaints of ′black gums′ are common particularly in patients having a very high smile line (gummy smile. For depigmentation of gingiva different treatment modalities have been reported like- Bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap, cryotherapy, electrosurgery and laser. In the present case series bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap (epithelial excision cryotherapy and electrosurgery have been tried for depigmentation, which are simple, effective and yield good results, along with good patient satisfaction. The problems encountered with some of these techniques have also been discussed.

  3. Organogénesis durante el periodo larval en peces

    OpenAIRE

    Zavala-Leal, I; Dumas, Silvie; Peña Martínez, Renato

    2011-01-01

    La presencia de un periodo larval caracteriza a los peces con ontogenia indirecta. Este periodo de desarrollo implica una serie de transformaciones encaminadas a la adquisición de las características biológicas y ecológicas propias de la especie; y en muchos casos culmina con cambios de distribución y hábitos alimenticios. El periodo larval incluye cuatro estadios de desarrollo: larva vitelina, larva pre-flexión, larva flexión y larva post-flexión. Cada estadio de desarrollo presenta caracter...

  4. The neural basis of visual behaviors in the larval zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugues, Ruben; Engert, Florian

    2009-12-01

    We review visually guided behaviors in larval zebrafish and summarise what is known about the neural processing that results in these behaviors, paying particular attention to the progress made in the last 2 years. Using the examples of the optokinetic reflex, the optomotor response, prey tracking and the visual startle response, we illustrate how the larval zebrafish presents us with a very promising model vertebrate system that allows neurocientists to integrate functional and behavioral studies and from which we can expect illuminating insights in the near future. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Aspects of larval, post-larval and juvenile ecology of Macrobrachium petersi (Hilgendorf) in the Keiskamma estuary, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, G. H. L.

    1985-10-01

    Although Macrobrachium petersi has nine larval stages, only stage I and a minimal number of stage II M. petersi larvae were caught in the Keiskamma estuary. Stage I larvae undergo a vertical migration at night which is markedly influenced by salinity, especially under stratified conditions. Larvae remain in the water column on the ebb tide, a behavioural pattern which effectively carried them to favourable salinities for growth and development. Stage I larvae show an association with salt front regions. The sudden decline in larval abundance from stage I to stage II downstream from the front suggests a change from a pelagic to an epibenthic existence. Later larval stages failed to appear in the plankton. However, post-larvae were caught in the estuary and a juvenile migration from the estuary to freshwater was monitored.

  6. Factors affecting fungus-induced larval mortality in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukhari, S.T.; Middelman, A.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Takken, W.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Entomopathogenic fungi have shown great potential for the control of adult malaria vectors. However, their ability to control aquatic stages of anopheline vectors remains largely unexplored. Therefore, how larval characteristics (Anopheles species, age and larval density), fungus (species

  7. Larval myogenesis in Echinodermata: conserved features and morphological diversity between class-specific larval forms of Echinoidae, Asteroidea, and Holothuroidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyachuk, Vyacheslav; Odintsova, Nelly

    2013-01-01

    The myogenesis of class-specific larval forms of three classes belonging to the phylum Echinodermata (Echinoidae, Asteroidea, and Holothuroidea) was investigated via gross-anatomy and comparative morphology of larval muscles. Using staining with phalloidin and antibodies against the muscle proteins, with subsequent CLSM and 3D imaging, we have examined myogenesis in the larvae from the gastrula stage to pre-metamorphosis larval stages. We have shown that temporal and spatial expression of muscle proteins is similar in echinoidea and asteroidea larvae but differs in holothuroidea larvae at early developmental stages. New insights regarding the protein composition of maturing muscular fibrils during development in echinoderm larvae were detected. The first differentiating muscle structures in all tested classes have been found to be circular esophageal muscles that are associated with larval feeding. During early differentiation of echinoderm larval muscle cells, we observed that the expression patterns of the muscle proteins were not uniform but with a characteristic diffuse distribution, which is typical for smooth muscle. An unusual pattern of expression of the muscle proteins was detected in larval sphincters: the thick muscle proteins were first expressed during the early developmental stages, whereas F-actin appeared at later stages. In addition, paired star-shaped muscles were revealed in the mature Echinoidae plutei, but were absent in the Asteroidea, and Holothuroidea larvae. All tested species of Echinodermata exhibited both conserved features of muscle morphology during development indicating a common life history strategy and a planktonic habitat, and also an extensive morphological diversity representing specific anatomical adaptations during development. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Interaction between Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. leaf pigment and rice proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Xu, Yuan; Zhou, Sumei; Qian, Haifeng; Zhang, Hui; Qi, Xiguang; Fan, Meihua

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the interaction of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. leaf (VBTL) pigment and rice proteins. In the presence of rice protein, VBTL pigment antioxidant activity and free polyphenol content decreased by 67.19% and 68.11%, respectively, and L(∗) of the protein-pigment complex decreased significantly over time. L(∗) values of albumin, globulin and glutelin during 60-min pigment exposure decreased by 55.00, 57.14, and 54.30%, respectively, indicating that these proteins had bound to the pigment. A significant difference in protein surface hydrophobicity was observed between rice proteins and pigment-protein complexes, indicating that hydrophobic interaction is a major binding mechanism between VBTL pigment and rice proteins. A significant difference in secondary structures between proteins and protein-pigment complexes was also uncovered, indicating that hydrogen bonding may be another mode of interaction between VBTL pigment and rice proteins. Our results indicate that VBTL pigment can stain rice proteins with hydrophobic and hydrogen interactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pressure suppression device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Tadaharu; Funahashi, Toshihiro.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a structure which permits the absorption of shocks and vibratory load produced on the floor of a pressure suppression chamber due to nitrogen gas or the like discharged into pool water in the pressure suppression chamber at the time of a loss-of-coolant accident. Constitution: A pressure suppression chamber accommodating pool water is comprised of a bottom wall and side walls constructed of concrete on the inner side of a liner. By providing concrete on the bottom surface and side wall surfaces of a pressure suppression chamber, it is possible to prevent non-condensing gas and steam exhausted from the vent duct and exhaust duct of a main vapor escapement safety valve exhaust duct from exerting impact forces and vibratory forces upon the bottom and side surfaces of the pressure suppression chamber. (Horiuchi, T.)

  10. Origins of adult pigmentation: diversity in pigment stem cell lineages and implications for pattern evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parichy, David M; Spiewak, Jessica E

    2015-01-01

    Teleosts comprise about half of all vertebrate species and exhibit an extraordinary diversity of adult pigment patterns that function in shoaling, camouflage, and mate choice and have played important roles in speciation. Here, we review studies that have identified several distinct neural crest lineages, with distinct genetic requirements, that give rise to adult pigment cells in fishes. These lineages include post-embryonic, peripheral nerve-associated stem cells that generate black melanophores and iridescent iridophores, cells derived directly from embryonic neural crest cells that generate yellow-orange xanthophores, and bipotent stem cells that generate both melanophores and xanthophores. This complexity in adult chromatophore lineages has implications for our understanding of adult traits, melanoma, and the evolutionary diversification of pigment cell lineages and patterns. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Ozone Sensitivity and Catalase Activity in Pigmented and Non-Pigmented Strains of Serratia Marcescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ondarza, José

    2017-01-01

    Background: Ozone exposure rapidly leads to bacterial death, making ozone an effective disinfectant in food industry and health care arena. However, microbial defenses may moderate this effect and play a role in the effective use of oxidizing agents for disinfection. Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic pathogen, expressing genes differentially during infection of a human host. A better understanding of regulatory systems that control expression of Serratia’s virulence genes and defenses is therefore valuable. Objective: Here, we investigated the role of pigmentation and catalase in Serratia marcescens on survival to ozone exposure. Method: Pigmented and non-pigmented strains of Serratia marcescens were cultured to exponential or stationary phase and exposed to 5 ppm of gaseous ozone for 2.5 – 10 minutes. Survival was calculated via plate counts. Catalase activity was measured photometrically and tolerance to hydrogen peroxide was assayed by disk-diffusion. Results: Exposure of S. marcescens to 5 ppm gaseous ozone kills > 90% of cells within 10 minutes in a time and concentration-dependent manner. Although pigmented Serratia (grown at 28°C) survived ozonation better than unpigmented Serratia (grown at 35°C), non-pigmented mutant strains of Serratia had similar ozone survival rates, catalase activity and H2O2 tolerance as wild type strains. Rather, ozone survival and catalase activity were elevated in 6 hour cultures compared to 48 hour cultures. Conclusion: Our studies did not bear out a role for prodigiosin in ozone survival. Rather, induction of oxidative stress responses during exponential growth increased both catalase activity and ozone survival in both pigmented and unpigmented S. marcescens. PMID:28567147

  12. Carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium requires Ca2+ and calcineurin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Dana M

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inside bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus retinal pigment epithelial cells, pigment granules move in response to extracellular signals. During the process of aggregation, pigment motility is directed toward the cell nucleus; in dispersion, pigment is directed away from the nucleus and into long apical processes. A number of different chemicals have been found to initiate dispersion, and carbachol (an acetylcholine analog is one example. Previous research indicates that the carbachol-receptor interaction activates a Gq-mediated pathway which is commonly linked to Ca2+ mobilization. The purpose of the present study was to test for involvement of calcium and to probe calcium-dependent mediators to reveal their role in carbachol-mediated dispersion. Results Carbachol-induced pigment granule dispersion was blocked by the calcium chelator BAPTA. In contrast, the calcium channel antagonist verapamil, and incubation in Ca2+-free medium failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion. The calcineurin inhibitor cypermethrin blocked carbachol-induced dispersion; whereas, two protein kinase C inhibitors (staurosporine and bisindolylmaleimide II failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion, and the protein kinase C activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate failed to elicit dispersion. Conclusion A rise in intracellular calcium is necessary for carbachol-induced dispersion; however, the Ca2+ requirement is not dependent on extracellular sources, implying that intracellular stores are sufficient to enable pigment granule dispersion to occur. Calcineurin is a likely Ca2+-dependent mediator involved in the signal cascade. Although the pathway leads to the generation of diacylglycerol and calcium (both required for the activation of certain PKC isoforms, our evidence does not support a significant role for PKC.

  13. Ozone Sensitivity and Catalase Activity in Pigmented and Non-Pigmented Strains of Serratia Marcescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ondarza, José

    2017-01-01

    Ozone exposure rapidly leads to bacterial death, making ozone an effective disinfectant in food industry and health care arena. However, microbial defenses may moderate this effect and play a role in the effective use of oxidizing agents for disinfection. Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic pathogen, expressing genes differentially during infection of a human host. A better understanding of regulatory systems that control expression of Serratia 's virulence genes and defenses is therefore valuable. Here, we investigated the role of pigmentation and catalase in Serratia marcescens on survival to ozone exposure. Pigmented and non-pigmented strains of Serratia marcescens were cultured to exponential or stationary phase and exposed to 5 ppm of gaseous ozone for 2.5 - 10 minutes. Survival was calculated via plate counts. Catalase activity was measured photometrically and tolerance to hydrogen peroxide was assayed by disk-diffusion. Exposure of S. marcescens to 5 ppm gaseous ozone kills > 90% of cells within 10 minutes in a time and concentration-dependent manner. Although pigmented Serratia (grown at 28°C) survived ozonation better than unpigmented Serratia (grown at 35°C), non-pigmented mutant strains of Serratia had similar ozone survival rates, catalase activity and H 2 O 2 tolerance as wild type strains. Rather, ozone survival and catalase activity were elevated in 6 hour cultures compared to 48 hour cultures. Our studies did not bear out a role for prodigiosin in ozone survival. Rather, induction of oxidative stress responses during exponential growth increased both catalase activity and ozone survival in both pigmented and unpigmented S. marcescens .

  14. Vegetative substrates used by larval northern pike in Rainy and Kabetogama Lakes, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne L. Timm; Rodney B. Pierce

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to identify characteristics of aquatic vegetative communities used as larval northern pike nursery habitat in Rainy and Kabetogama lakes, glacial shield reservoirs in northern Minnesota. Quatrefoil light traps fished at night were used to sample larval northern pike in 11 potential nursery areas. Larval northern pike were most commonly sampled among...

  15. The composition of larval food and the significance of exocrine secretions in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereboom, J.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a study on the relation between the composition of larval food and the development of female castes in bumblebees. The first aim was to evaluate the significance of glandular secretions in the larval diet as a possible factor involved in larval feeding and caste

  16. File list: ALL.Lar.20.AllAg.Larval_brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lar.20.AllAg.Larval_brain dm3 All antigens Larvae Larval brain SRX1426944,SRX14...26943,SRX1426945,SRX1426946 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Lar.20.AllAg.Larval_brain.bed ...

  17. File list: InP.Lar.50.AllAg.Larval_brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Lar.50.AllAg.Larval_brain dm3 Input control Larvae Larval brain SRX1426944,SRX1...426946 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.Lar.50.AllAg.Larval_brain.bed ...

  18. File list: ALL.Lar.10.AllAg.Larval_brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lar.10.AllAg.Larval_brain dm3 All antigens Larvae Larval brain SRX1426945,SRX14...26944,SRX1426943,SRX1426946 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Lar.10.AllAg.Larval_brain.bed ...

  19. File list: His.Lar.50.AllAg.Larval_brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Lar.50.AllAg.Larval_brain dm3 Histone Larvae Larval brain SRX1426943,SRX1426945... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Lar.50.AllAg.Larval_brain.bed ...

  20. File list: His.Lar.20.AllAg.Larval_brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Lar.20.AllAg.Larval_brain dm3 Histone Larvae Larval brain SRX1426943,SRX1426945... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Lar.20.AllAg.Larval_brain.bed ...

  1. File list: His.Lar.10.AllAg.Larval_brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Lar.10.AllAg.Larval_brain dm3 Histone Larvae Larval brain SRX1426945,SRX1426943... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/His.Lar.10.AllAg.Larval_brain.bed ...

  2. File list: InP.Lar.20.AllAg.Larval_brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Lar.20.AllAg.Larval_brain dm3 Input control Larvae Larval brain SRX1426944,SRX1...426946 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.Lar.20.AllAg.Larval_brain.bed ...

  3. File list: ALL.Lar.50.AllAg.Larval_brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lar.50.AllAg.Larval_brain dm3 All antigens Larvae Larval brain SRX1426944,SRX14...26943,SRX1426945,SRX1426946 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Lar.50.AllAg.Larval_brain.bed ...

  4. File list: ALL.Lar.05.AllAg.Larval_brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lar.05.AllAg.Larval_brain dm3 All antigens Larvae Larval brain SRX1426945,SRX14...26944,SRX1426946,SRX1426943 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Lar.05.AllAg.Larval_brain.bed ...

  5. File list: InP.Lar.05.AllAg.Larval_brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Lar.05.AllAg.Larval_brain dm3 Input control Larvae Larval brain SRX1426944,SRX1...426946 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.Lar.05.AllAg.Larval_brain.bed ...

  6. File list: InP.Lar.10.AllAg.Larval_brain [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Lar.10.AllAg.Larval_brain dm3 Input control Larvae Larval brain SRX1426944,SRX1...426946 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.Lar.10.AllAg.Larval_brain.bed ...

  7. Study on Silkworm Bed Cleaning Frequency during Larval Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study on Silkworm Bed Cleaning Frequency during Larval Growth Period. Abiy Tilahun, Kedir Shifa, Ahmed Ibrahim, Metasebia Terefe. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/star.v4i2.5 · AJOL African ...

  8. Effects of Vegetation Microclimate on Larval Cattle Fever Tick Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattle Fever Ticks (CFT), Rhipicephalus annulatus and R. microplus, have been a threat to the livestock industry for many years. These ticks are vectors of cattle fever, a disease produced by the hemoparasite Babesia bovis and B. bigemina. Laboratory research on CFT larval survival has shown that co...

  9. Adaptations to host infection and larval parasitism in Unionoida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher M. Barnhart; Wendell R. Haag; William N. Roston

    2008-01-01

    Freshwater mussel larval parasitism of fish is unique among bivalves. The relationship is primarily phoretic rather than nutritive; only the smallest glochidia and the haustorial larva grow substantially while on the host. Growth of the smallest larvae suggests a lower functional size limit of -150 )um for the juvenile stage. Most Ambleminae, the most diverse North...

  10. Density-dependent growth and metamorphosis in the larval bronze ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 28; Issue 4. Density-dependent growth and metamorphosis in the larval bronze frog Rana temporalis is influenced by genetic relatedness of the cohort. S Girish S K Saidapur. Articles Volume 28 Issue 4 June 2003 pp 489-496 ...

  11. Adaptation to larval crowding in Drosophila ananassae and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... tion at high density should result in the increase of efficiency of conversion of food to biomass, and were better interpreted through the lens of α-selection. We show here that populations of D. ananassae and D. n. nasuta subjected to extreme larval crowding evolve greater competitive ability and pre-adult ...

  12. Population dynamics and management implications of larval dispersal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strong advective fields in coastal shelf ecosystems, particularly in eastern boundary currents, lead to significant longshore dispersal of the larval phase of meroplanktonic benthic invertebrates. Field observations of larvae and settlement in the California Current by recent workers are an example of the increasing research ...

  13. Investigating phenology of larval fishes in St. Louis River ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the development of an early detection monitoring strategy for non-native fishes, larval fish surveys have been conducted since 2012 in the St. Louis River estuary. Survey data demonstrates there is considerable variability in fish abundance and species assemblages across different habitats and at multiple temporal scales. To optimize early detection monitoring we need to understand temporal and spatial patterns of larval fishes related to their development and dispersion, as well as the environmental factors that influence them. In 2016 we designed an experiment to assess the phenological variability in larval fish abundance and assemblages amongst shallow water habitats. Specifically, we sought to contrast different thermal environments and turbidity levels, as well as assess the importance of vegetation in these habitats. To evaluate phenological differences we sampled larval fish bi-weekly at nine locations from mid-May to mid-July. Sampling locations were split between upper estuary and lower estuary to contrast river versus seiche influenced habitats. To assess differences in thermal environments, temperature was monitored every 15 minutes at each sampling location throughout the study, beginning in early April. Our design also included sampling at both vegetated (or pre-vegetated) and non-vegetated stations within each sampling location throughout the study to assess the importance of this habitat variable. Hydroacoustic surveys (Biosonics) were

  14. Phenology of larval fish in the St. Louis River estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little work has been done on the phenology of fish larvae in Great Lakes coastal wetlands. As part of an aquatic invasive species early detection study, we conducted larval fish surveys in the St. Louis River estuary (SLRE) in 2012 and 2013. Using multiple gears in a spatially ba...

  15. The role of individual variation in marine larval dispersal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Berend Nanninga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The exchange of individuals among patchy habitats plays a central role in spatial ecology and metapopulation dynamics. Dispersal (e.g. short vs. long is frequently observed to vary non-randomly within populations, indicating that variability among individuals may shape heterogeneity in patterns of connectivity. The concept of context- and condition-dependent dispersal describes the balance between the costs and benefits of dispersal that arises from the interaction of temporal and spatial landscape heterogeneity (the context with phenotypic variability among individuals (the condition. While this hypothesis is widely accepted terrestrial theory, it remains questionable to what extent the concept of adaptive dispersal strategies may apply to marine larval dispersal, a process that is largely determined by stochastic forces. Yet, larvae of many taxa exhibit strong navigational capabilities and there is mounting evidence of widespread intra-specific variability in biological traits that are potentially correlated with dispersal potential. While so far there are few known examples of real larval dispersal polymorphisms, intra-specifically variable dispersal strategies may be common in marine systems. Whether adaptive or not, it is becoming apparent that inter-individual heterogeneity in morphology, behaviour, condition, and life history traits may have critical effects on population-level heterogeneity in dispersal. Here, we explore the eco-evolutionary causes and consequences of intrinsic and extrinsic variability on larval dispersal by synthesizing the existing literature and drawing conceptual parallels from terrestrial theory. We emphasize the potential importance of larval dispersal polymorphisms in marine population dynamics.

  16. The larval development and population dynamics of Derocheilocaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seven larval stages of Derocheilocaris algoensis have been described and appear to be identical with those of D. typica from North America. This stresses the remarkable conservativeness of this subclass of Crustacea. The population biology of D. algoensis has been studied over 16 months and reproduction has been ...

  17. Crustacean biodiversity as an important factor for mosquito larval control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Iris; Duquesne, Sabine; Liess, Matthias

    2013-12-01

    Newly established ponds, which are highly dynamic systems with changing levels of biological interactions among species, are common larval mosquito habitats. We investigated the impact of crustacean abundance and taxa diversity on mosquito oviposition and larval development. The effects of the biological larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) on mosquito larvae were monitored according to fluctuations in crustacean communities. Populations of the mosquito Culex pipiens colonized artificial ponds that contained crustacean communities at different time points of colonization by crustaceans: 1) 'no colonization' (no crustaceans), 2) 'simultaneous colonization' by crustaceans and mosquitoes, and 3) 'head-start colonization' by crustaceans (preceding colonization by mosquitoes). All types of ponds were treated with three concentrations of Bti (10, 100, or 1,000 µg/liter). Colonization of all ponds by Cx. pipiens (in terms of oviposition, larval abundance, and larval development) decreased significantly with increasing diversity of crustacean taxa. The total abundance of crustaceans had a minor effect on colonization by Cx. pipiens. The presence of crustaceans increased the sensitivity of Cx. pipiens larvae to Bti treatment by a factor of 10 and delayed the time of recolonization. This effect of Bti was relevant in the short term. In the long term, the presence of Cx. pipiens was determined by crustacean biodiversity. © 2013 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  18. Larval development of Hypsophrys nicaraguensis (Pisces: Cichlidae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Molina Arias

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The cichlid Hypsophrys nicaraguensis is a popular fish known as butterfly, and despite its widespread use as pets, little is known about its reproductive biology. In order to contribute to this knowledge, the study describes the relevant larval development characteristics, from adult and larval cultures in captivity. Every 12h, samples of larvae were collected and observed under the microscope for larval stage development, and every 24h morphometric measurements were taken. Observations showed that at 120h, some larvae had swimming activity and the pectoral fins development was visible; at 144h, the dorsal fin appear and all larvae started food intake; at 168h, the formation of anal fins begins, small rudiments of pelvic fins emerge, the separation of caudal fin from anal and dorsal fins starts, and the yolk sac is reabsorbed almost completely; at 288h, the pelvic fins starts to form; at 432h, the rays and spines of dorsal and anal fins can be distinguished, both the anal and the dorsal fins have the same number of spines and rays as in adults. After 480h larvae have the first scales, ending the larval stages and starting the transformation to fingerlings. Larvae were successfully fed with commercial diet. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4: 1679-1684. Epub 2011 December 01.

  19. Stretch-activated cation channel from larval bullfrog skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillyard, Stanley D; Willumsen, Niels J; Marrero, Mario B

    2010-01-01

    Cell-attached patches from isolated epithelial cells from larval bullfrog skin revealed a cation channel that was activated by applying suction (-1 kPa to -4.5 kPa) to the pipette. Activation was characterized by an initial large current spike that rapidly attenuated to a stable value and showed...... was markedly reduced with N-methyl-D-glucamide (NMDG)-Cl Ringer's solution in the pipette. Neither amiloride nor ATP, which are known to stimulate an apical cation channel in Ussing chamber preparations of larval frog skin, produced channel activation nor did these compounds affect the response to suction....... Stretch activation was not affected by varying the pipette concentrations of Ca(2+) between 0 mmol l(-1) and 4 mmol l(-1) or by varying pH between 6.8 and 8.0. However, conductance was reduced with 4 mmol l(-1) Ca(2+). Western blot analysis of membrane homogenates from larval bullfrog and larval toad skin...

  20. Larval development of the congrid eel, Gnathophis capensis (Kaup)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    area on the marine fauna of southern Africa is indeed a considerable one and is demonstrated clearly in the eels. ... Although the composition of the eel fauna of the western Indian Ocean is now fairly well established, very ... The extensive larval material of Barnard's Congermuraena australis now available from the above ...

  1. Mosquito larval habitats and public health implications in Abeokuta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The larval habitats of mosquitoes were investigated in Abeokuta, Nigeria in order to determine the breeding sites of the existing mosquito fauna and its possible public health implications on the residents of the City. The habitats were sampled between August 2005 and July 2006 using plastic dippers and a pipette.

  2. Evolution of increased larval competitive ability in Drosophila ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present results clearly suggest that the suite of phenotypes through which the evolution of greater competitive ability is achieved in fruitflies depends critically not just on larval density per unit volume of food, but also on the total amount of food available in the culture vials. We discuss these results in the context of an ...

  3. Silk formation mechanisms in the larval salivary glands of Apis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The mechanism of silk formation in Apis mellifera salivary glands, during the 5th instar, was studied. Larval salivary glands were dissected and prepared for light and polarized light microscopy, as well as for scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that silk formation starts at the middle of the 5th ...

  4. Development of environmental tools for anopheline larval control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imbahale, S.S.; Mweresa, C.K.; Takken, W.; Mukabana, W.R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Malaria mosquitoes spend a considerable part of their life in the aquatic stage, rendering them vulnerable to interventions directed to aquatic habitats. Recent successes of mosquito larval control have been reported using environmental and biological tools. Here, we report the effects

  5. A larval hunger signal in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Den Boer, Susanne Petronella A; Duchateau, Marie-Jose

    2006-01-01

    Larvae of Bombus terrestris, a pollen-storing bumblebee, are dependent on progressive provisioning by workers. We test the hypothesis that larval cuticular chemicals can act as a hunger signal. We first show with a new classical conditioning experiment, using a Y-shaped tube, that workers can...

  6. Reproduction and larval rearing of the fresh water prawn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macrobrachium vollenhovenii is a crustacean decapod distributed on the rivers of African west coast from Senegal to Angola. This species occurred abundantly in Senegal River during the past but the population decreased drastically after erection of a dam. The aim of this study is to master the reproduction and larval ...

  7. Hypothalamic Projections to the Optic Tectum in Larval Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Lucy A.; Vanwalleghem, Gilles C.; Thompson, Andrew W.; Favre-Bulle, Itia; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina; Scott, Ethan K.

    2018-01-01

    The optic tectum of larval zebrafish is an important model for understanding visual processing in vertebrates. The tectum has been traditionally viewed as dominantly visual, with a majority of studies focusing on the processes by which tectal circuits receive and process retinally-derived visual information. Recently, a handful of studies have shown a much more complex role for the optic tectum in larval zebrafish, and anatomical and functional data from these studies suggest that this role extends beyond the visual system, and beyond the processing of exclusively retinal inputs. Consistent with this evolving view of the tectum, we have used a Gal4 enhancer trap line to identify direct projections from rostral hypothalamus (RH) to the tectal neuropil of larval zebrafish. These projections ramify within the deepest laminae of the tectal neuropil, the stratum album centrale (SAC)/stratum griseum periventriculare (SPV), and also innervate strata distinct from those innervated by retinal projections. Using optogenetic stimulation of the hypothalamic projection neurons paired with calcium imaging in the tectum, we find rebound firing in tectal neurons consistent with hypothalamic inhibitory input. Our results suggest that tectal processing in larval zebrafish is modulated by hypothalamic inhibitory inputs to the deep tectal neuropil. PMID:29403362

  8. The role of individual variation in marine larval dispersal

    KAUST Repository

    Nanninga, Gerrit B.

    2014-12-08

    The exchange of individuals among patchy habitats plays a central role in spatial ecology and metapopulation dynamics. Dispersal is frequently observed to vary non-randomly within populations (e.g., short vs. long), indicating that variability among individuals may shape heterogeneity in patterns of connectivity. The concept of context- and condition-dependent dispersal describes the balance between the costs and benefits of dispersal that arises from the interaction of temporal and spatial landscape heterogeneity (the context) with phenotypic variability among individuals (the condition). While this hypothesis is widely accepted in terrestrial theory, it remains questionable to what extent the concept of adaptive dispersal strategies may apply to marine larval dispersal, a process that is largely determined by stochastic forces. Yet, larvae of many taxa exhibit strong navigational capabilities and there is mounting evidence of widespread intra-specific variability in biological traits that are potentially correlated with dispersal potential. While so far there are few known examples of real larval dispersal polymorphisms, intra-specifically variable dispersal strategies may be common in marine systems. Whether adaptive or not, it is becoming apparent that inter-individual heterogeneity in morphology, behavior, condition, and life history traits may have critical effects on population-level heterogeneity in dispersal. Here, we explore the eco-evolutionary causes and consequences of intrinsic and extrinsic variability on larval dispersal by synthesizing the existing literature and drawing conceptual parallels from terrestrial theory. We emphasize the potential importance of larval dispersal polymorphisms in marine population dynamics.

  9. Enhancement of larval immune system traits as a correlated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    our fast developing populations of D. melanogaster. We also investigated whether there was any difference between faster developing populations and controls in the bacterial load in the larval food medium of their respective culture vials. Materials and methods. Experimental populations. We studied eight populations of D.

  10. Body shape, burst speed and escape behavior of larval anurans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage H. Dayton; Daniel Saenz; Kristen A. Baum; R. Brian Langerhans; Thomas J. DeWitt

    2005-01-01

    Variation in behavior, morphology and life history traits of larval anurans across predator gradients, and consequences of that variation, have been abundantly studied. Yet the functional link between morphology and burst-swimming speed is largely unknown. We conducted experiments with two divergent species of anurans, Scaphiopus holbrookii and

  11. Environmental factors limiting fertilisation and larval success in corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Rachael M.; Baird, Andrew H.; Mizerek, Toni L.; Madin, Joshua S.

    2016-12-01

    Events in the early life history of reef-building corals, including fertilisation and larval survival, are susceptible to changes in the chemical and physical properties of sea water. Quantifying how changes in water quality affect these events is therefore important for understanding and predicting population establishment in novel and changing environments. A review of the literature identified that levels of salinity, temperature, pH, suspended sediment, nutrients and heavy metals affect coral early life-history stages to various degrees. In this study, we combined published experimental data to determine the relative importance of sea water properties for coral fertilisation success and larval survivorship. Of the water properties manipulated in experiments, fertilisation success was most sensitive to suspended sediment, copper, salinity, phosphate and ammonium. Larval survivorship was sensitive to copper, lead and salinity. A combined model was developed that estimated the joint probability of both fertilisation and larval survivorship in sea water with different chemical and physical properties. We demonstrated the combined model using water samples from Sydney and Lizard Island in Australia to estimate the likelihood of larvae surviving through both stages of development to settlement competency. Our combined model could be used to recommend targets for water quality in coastal waterways as well as to predict the potential for species to expand their geographical ranges in response to climate change.

  12. Silk formation mechanisms in the larval salivary glands of Apis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    the silks produced by Embiidina, larval Symphyta and spiders (Oribiculariae) have 60% of their composition consisting of a combination of two of the amino acids: alanine, glycine and serine plus either proline or glutamine;. (iii) that in Diptera, Trichoptera and Coleoptera larvae, adult Mantoidea, adult Hymenoptera and the ...

  13. Hypothalamic Projections to the Optic Tectum in Larval Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy A. Heap

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The optic tectum of larval zebrafish is an important model for understanding visual processing in vertebrates. The tectum has been traditionally viewed as dominantly visual, with a majority of studies focusing on the processes by which tectal circuits receive and process retinally-derived visual information. Recently, a handful of studies have shown a much more complex role for the optic tectum in larval zebrafish, and anatomical and functional data from these studies suggest that this role extends beyond the visual system, and beyond the processing of exclusively retinal inputs. Consistent with this evolving view of the tectum, we have used a Gal4 enhancer trap line to identify direct projections from rostral hypothalamus (RH to the tectal neuropil of larval zebrafish. These projections ramify within the deepest laminae of the tectal neuropil, the stratum album centrale (SAC/stratum griseum periventriculare (SPV, and also innervate strata distinct from those innervated by retinal projections. Using optogenetic stimulation of the hypothalamic projection neurons paired with calcium imaging in the tectum, we find rebound firing in tectal neurons consistent with hypothalamic inhibitory input. Our results suggest that tectal processing in larval zebrafish is modulated by hypothalamic inhibitory inputs to the deep tectal neuropil.

  14. Estimation of larval density of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to develop sequential sampling plans to estimate larval density of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) at three precision levels in cucumber greenhouse. The within- greenhouse spatial patterns of larvae were aggregated. The slopes and intercepts of both Iwao's patchiness ...

  15. Evolution of increased larval competitive ability in Drosophila ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    combination of reduced larval duration, faster attainment of minimum critical size for pupation, greater efficiency of food conversion to biomass ..... Type of food. Cornmeal. Cornmeal. Banana–molasses. Type of culture vial. 8 dram (2.4 cm diameter. 8 dram (2.4 cm diameter. 6 dram (2.2 cm diameter. × 9.5 cm height).

  16. Fruit Fly Liquid Larval Diet Technology Transfer and Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since October 2006, USDA-ARS has been implementing a fruit fly liquid larval diet technology transfer, which has proceeded according to the following steps: (1) Recruitment of interested groups through request; (2) Establishment of the Material Transfer Agreement (MTA) with ARS; (3) Fruit fly liquid...

  17. Identification of Larval Pacific Lampreys (Lampetra Tridentata), River Lampreys (L. Ayresi) and Western Brook Lampreys (L. Richardson) and Thermal Requirements of Early Life History Stages of Lampreys : Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeuwig, Michael H.

    2003-02-01

    Two fundamental aspects of lamprey biology were examined to provide tools for population assessment and determination of critical habitat needs of Columbia River Basin lampreys (the Pacific lamprey, Lampetra tridentata, and the western brook lamprey, L. richardsoni). In particular: (1) we examined the usefulness of current diagnostic characteristics in identification of larval lampreys, specifically pigmentation patterns, and collected material for development of meristic and morphometric descriptions of early life stages of lampreys, and (2) we examined the effects of temperature on survival and development of early life stages of Columbia River Basin lampreys.

  18. Pigment and terracotta analyses of Hellenistic figurines in Crete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maravelaki-Kalaitzaki, P.; Kallithrakas-Kontos, N.

    2003-01-01

    The results of the analyses performed on blue, black, brown, orange, white and purple pigments decorating Hellenistic figurines, excavated in a rock-cut tomb in the archaeological zone of Chania, Crete, Greece, are presented. Different spectroscopic techniques, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence identified the compounds present in the chromatic layers. X-ray diffraction analysis gave complementary information and further support to the spectral assignments. Optical microscopy revealed the nature and sequence of the pigmented layer on the terracotta. Several precious pigments, such as Egyptian blue for the bluish areas, Tyrian purple for the purple ones, and the rare huntite for the white-pigmented areas were identified among the studied pigmented areas. The pigment analysis provides information on the technical aspects related to terracotta manufacture and preservation, and promotes historical indications on cultural and commercial changes among the Mediterranean civilisations

  19. Analytical Raman spectroscopic discrimination between yellow pigments of the Renaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G. M.

    2011-10-01

    The Renaissance represented a major advance in painting techniques, subject matter, artistic style and the use of pigments and pigment mixtures. However, most pigments in general use were still mineral-based as most organic dyes were believed to be fugitive; the historical study of artists' palettes and recipes has assumed importance for the attribution of art works to the Renaissance period. Although the application of diagnostic elemental and molecular spectroscopic techniques play vital and complementary roles in the analysis of art works, elemental techniques alone cannot definitively provide the data needed for pigment identification. The advantages and limitations of Raman spectroscopy for the definitive diagnostic characterisation of yellow pigments that were in use during the Renaissance is demonstrated here in consideration of heavy metal oxides and sulphides; these data will be compared with those obtained from analyses of synthetic yellow pigments that were available during the eighteenth and nineteenth Centuries which could have been used in unrecorded restorations of Renaissance paintings.

  20. Remotely Sensing Larval Population Dynamics of Rice Field Anophelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Louisa R.; Dister, Sheri W.; Wood, Byron L.; Washino, Robert K.

    1997-01-01

    The primary objective of both studies was to determine if RS and GIS techniques could be used to distinguish between high and low larval-producing rice fields in California. Results of the first study suggested that early-season green-up and proximity to livestock pastures were positively correlated with high larval abundance. Based on the early-season spectral differences between high and low larval-producing fields, it appeared that canopy development and tillering influenced mosquito habitat quality. At that time, rice fields consisted of a mixture of plants and water, a combination that allowed An. freeborni females to lay eggs in partial sunlight, protected from both predators and wind. This established a population earlier in the season than in other, 'less-green' fields where tillering and plant emergence was too minimal for ovipositioning. The study also indicated the importance of the distance that a mosquito would have to fly in order to take a bloodmeal prior to ovipositing. These associations were fully explored in an expanded study two years later. The second study confirmed the positive relationship between early season canopy development and larval abundance, and also demonstrated the relationship between abundance and distance-to-pasture. The association between greenness (as measured using NDVI), distance-to-pasture, and abundance is illustrated. The second study also indicated the siginificance of the landscape context of rice fields for larval production. Fields that included opportunities for feeding and resting within the flight range of the mosquito had higher abundances than did fields that were in a homogeneous rice area.

  1. Food selection in larval fruit flies: dynamics and effects on larval development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Sebastian; Durisko, Zachary; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-01-01

    Selecting food items and attaining a nutritionally balanced diet is an important challenge for all animals including humans. We aimed to establish fruit fly larvae ( Drosophila melanogaster) as a simple yet powerful model system for examining the mechanisms of specific hunger and diet selection. In two lab experiments with artificial diets, we found that larvae deprived of either sucrose or protein later selectively fed on a diet providing the missing nutrient. When allowed to freely move between two adjacent food patches, larvae surprisingly preferred to settle on one patch containing yeast and ignored the patch providing sucrose. Moreover, when allowed to move freely between three patches, which provided either yeast only, sucrose only or a balanced mixture of yeast and sucrose, the majority of larvae settled on the yeast-plus-sucrose patch and about one third chose to feed on the yeast only food. While protein (yeast) is essential for development, we also quantified larval success on diets with or without sucrose and show that larvae develop faster on diets containing sucrose. Our data suggest that fruit fly larvae can quickly assess major nutrients in food and seek a diet providing a missing nutrient. The larvae, however, probably prefer to quickly dig into a single food substrate for enhanced protection over achieving an optimal diet.

  2. Atmospheric effects in the remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, H. R.; Clark, D. K.

    1980-01-01

    The accuracy with which relevant atmospheric parameters must be estimated to derive photoplankton pigment concentrations of a given accuracy, from measurements of the ocean's apparent spectral radiance at satellite altitudes, is examined. A phytoplankton pigment algorithm is developed which relates the pigment concentration (c) to the three ratios of upwelling radiance just beneath the sea surface which can be formed from wavelengths (lambda) 440, 520 and 550 nm.

  3. Thyroid hormone-regulated Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling is essential for dedifferentiation of larval epithelial cells into adult stem cells in the Xenopus laevis intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuko Ishizuya-Oka

    Full Text Available Amphibian intestinal remodeling, where thyroid hormone (T3 induces some larval epithelial cells to become adult stem cells analogous to the mammalian intestinal ones, serves as a unique model for studying how the adult stem cells are formed. To clarify its molecular mechanisms, we here investigated roles of non-canonical Wnt signaling in the larval-to-adult intestinal remodeling during Xenopus laevis metamorphosis.Our quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR and immunohistochemical analyses indicated that the expressions of Wnt5a and its receptors, frizzled 2 (Fzd2 and receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (Ror2 are up-regulated by T3 and are spatiotemporally correlated with adult epithelial development in the X. laevis intestine. Notably, changes in morphology of larval absorptive epithelial cells expressing Ror2 coincide well with formation of the adult stem cells during metamorphosis. In addition, by using organ cultures of the tadpole intestine, we have experimentally shown that addition of exogenous Wnt5a protein to the culture medium causes morphological changes in the larval epithelium expressing Ror2 even in the absence of T3. In contrast, in the presence of T3 where the adult stem cells are formed in vitro, inhibition of endogenous Wnt5a by an anti-Wnt5a antibody suppressed the epithelial morphological changes, leading to the failure of stem cell formation.Our findings strongly suggest that the adult stem cells originate from the larval absorptive cells expressing Ror2, which require Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling for their dedifferentiation accompanied by changes in cell morphology.

  4. Aging of the hair follicle pigmentation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Desmond J

    2009-07-01

    Skin and hair phenotypes are powerful cues in human communication. They impart much information, not least about our racial, ethnic, health, gender and age status. In the case of the latter parameter, we experience significant change in pigmentation in our journey from birth to puberty and through to young adulthood, middle age and beyond. The hair follicle pigmentary unit is perhaps one of our most visible, accessible and potent aging sensors, with marked dilution of pigment intensity occurring long before even subtle changes are seen in the epidermis. This dichotomy is of interest as both skin compartments contain melanocyte subpopulations of similar embryologic (i.e., neural crest) origin. Research groups are actively pursuing the study of the differential aging of melanocytes in the hair bulb versus the epidermis and in particular are examining whether this is in part linked to the stringent coupling of follicular melanocytes to the hair growth cycle. Whether some follicular melanocyte subpopulations are affected, like epidermal melanocytes, by UV irradiation is not yet clear. A particular target of research into hair graying or canities is the nature of the melanocyte stem compartment and whether this is depleted due to reactive oxygen species-associated damage, coupled with an impaired antioxidant status, and a failure of melanocyte stem cell renewal. Over the last few years, we and others have developed advanced in vitro models and assay systems for isolated hair follicle melanocytes and for intact anagen hair follicle organ culture which may provide research tools to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of hair follicle pigmentation. Long term, it may be feasible to develop strategies to modulate some of these aging-associated changes in the hair follicle that impinge particularly on the melanocyte populations.

  5. Aging of the Hair Follicle Pigmentation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Desmond J

    2009-01-01

    Skin and hair phenotypes are powerful cues in human communication. They impart much information, not least about our racial, ethnic, health, gender and age status. In the case of the latter parameter, we experience significant change in pigmentation in our journey from birth to puberty and through to young adulthood, middle age and beyond. The hair follicle pigmentary unit is perhaps one of our most visible, accessible and potent aging sensors, with marked dilution of pigment intensity occurring long before even subtle changes are seen in the epidermis. This dichotomy is of interest as both skin compartments contain melanocyte subpopulations of similar embryologic (i.e., neural crest) origin. Research groups are actively pursuing the study of the differential aging of melanocytes in the hair bulb versus the epidermis and in particular are examining whether this is in part linked to the stringent coupling of follicular melanocytes to the hair growth cycle. Whether some follicular melanocyte subpopulations are affected, like epidermal melanocytes, by UV irradiation is not yet clear. A particular target of research into hair graying or canities is the nature of the melanocyte stem compartment and whether this is depleted due to reactive oxygen species-associated damage, coupled with an impaired antioxidant status, and a failure of melanocyte stem cell renewal. Over the last few years, we and others have developed advanced in vitro models and assay systems for isolated hair follicle melanocytes and for intact anagen hair follicle organ culture which may provide research tools to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of hair follicle pigmentation. Long term, it may be feasible to develop strategies to modulate some of these aging-associated changes in the hair follicle that impinge particularly on the melanocyte populations. PMID:20927229

  6. Development of waste-based ceramic pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa, G.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the preparation of ceramic pigments using industrial wastes as primary sources. In this context, the use of Al-rich sludge generated in the wastewater treatment unit of an anodising or surface coating industrial plant, and a galvanizing sludge from the Cr/Ni plating process, will be detailed. The ceramic pigments reported here were prepared using typical solid state reactions involving the metal rich sludge. The main focus will be on the synthesis of chrome-tin orchid cassiterite (Sn,CrO2, chrome-tin red malayaite Ca(Cr,SnSiO5, victoria green garnet Ca3Cr2Si3O12, and chrome alumina pink/green corundum (Cr,Al2O3 pigments. The pigments were fully characterised and then were tested in a standard ceramic glaze after. Typical working conditions and colour development will be reported.

    Se presenta la preparación de pigmentos cerámicos empleando residuos industriales como fuente de materias primas. Se detallan el uso de barros ricos en aluminio obtenidos en los tratamientos de depuración de aguas de plantas industriales de anodizado y barros de galvanizados de chapados de Cr/Ni. Los pigmentos cerámicos se prepararon empleando reacción en estados sólido a partir del barro rico en metal. Los principales pigmentos estudiados son orquídea casiterita de cromo-estaño (Sn,CrO2, malayita rojo de cromo-estaño Ca(Sn,CrSiO3, granate verde victoria Ca3Cr2Si3O12, y corindón rosa/verde de cromo alúmina (Cr,Al2O3. Los pigmentos fueron caracterizados y ensayados después de ser vidriados en cerámicas estándares. Se presentan las condiciones de trabajo y el desarrollo de color.

  7. Pigment Production by the Edible Filamentous Fungus Neurospora Intermedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Gmoser

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The production of pigments by edible filamentous fungi is gaining attention as a result of the increased interest in natural sources with added functionality in the food, feed, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and textile industries. The filamentous fungus Neurospora intermedia, used for production of the Indonesian food “oncom”, is one potential source of pigments. The objective of the study was to evaluate the fungus’ pigment production. The joint effect from different factors (carbon and nitrogen source, ZnCl2, MgCl2 and MnCl2 on pigment production by N. intermedia is reported for the first time. The scale-up to 4.5 L bubble column bioreactors was also performed to investigate the effect of pH and aeration. Pigment production of the fungus was successfully manipulated by varying several factors. The results showed that the formation of pigments was strongly influenced by light, carbon, pH, the co-factor Zn2+ and first- to fourth-order interactions between factors. The highest pigmentation (1.19 ± 0.08 mg carotenoids/g dry weight biomass was achieved in a bubble column reactor. This study provides important insights into pigmentation of this biotechnologically important fungus and lays a foundation for future utilizations of N. intermedia for pigment production.

  8. Pigments and oligomers for inks - moving towards the best combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, I.; Smith, S.; Grierson, W.; Devine, E.

    1999-01-01

    The formulation of UV curable printing inks depends on several complex factors. If the individual components of the ink are not complementary, then performance problems can arise. One critical combination is that between the pigment and the oligomer. In a new approach to improve understanding of pigment/oligomer interactions, the resources of a pigment manufacturer and an oligomer manufacturer have been combined to investigate the problem. Initial screening of process yellow pigments and several oligomer types highlighted performance variations which were then examined in more detail

  9. Abnormal pigmentation within cutaneous scars: A complication of wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Chadwick

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormally pigmented scars are an undesirable consequence of cutaneous wound healing and are a complication every single individual worldwide is at risk of. They present a challenge for clinicians, as there are currently no definitive treatment options available, and render scars much more noticeable making them highly distressing for patients. Despite extensive research into both wound healing and the pigment cell, there remains a scarcity of knowledge surrounding the repigmentation of cutaneous scars. Pigment production is complex and under the control of many extrinsic and intrinsic factors and patterns of scar repigmentation are unpredictable. This article gives an overview of human skin pigmentation, repigmentation following wounding and current treatment options.

  10. Predicting hair cortisol levels with hair pigmentation genes: A possible hair pigmentation bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, A. (Alexander); G. Noppe (Gerard); F. Liu; M.H. Kayser (Manfred); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); E.F.C. van Rossum (Liesbeth); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractCortisol concentrations in hair are used to create hormone profiles spanning months. This method allows assessment of chronic cortisol exposure, but might be biased by hair pigmentation: dark hair was previously related to higher concentrations. It is unclear whether this association

  11. Menstrual suppression for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, Anna Lea; Hillard, Paula J Adams

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this review is to highlight the recent literature and emerging data describing clinical situations in which menstrual suppression may improve symptoms and quality of life for adolescents. A variety of conditions occurring frequently in adolescents and young adults, including heavy menstrual bleeding, and dysmenorrhea as well as gynecologic conditions such as endometriosis and pelvic pain, can safely be improved or alleviated with appropriate menstrual management. Recent publications have highlighted the efficacy and benefit of extended cycle or continuous combined oral contraceptives, the levonorgestrel intrauterine device, and progestin therapies for a variety of medical conditions. This review places menstrual suppression in an historical context, summarizes methods of hormonal therapy that can suppress menses, and reviews clinical conditions for which menstrual suppression may be helpful.

  12. Cryogenic Acoustic Suppression Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A proof-of-concept method utilizing a cryogenic fluid for acoustic suppression in rocket engine testing environments will be demonstrated. It is hypothesized that...

  13. N-Nicotinoyl dopamine inhibits skin pigmentation by suppressing of melanosome transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bora; Hwang, Jae Sung; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2015-12-15

    We investigated the inhibitory effects of a niacinamide derivative, N-Nicotinoyl dopamine (NND) on melanogenesis. NND inhibits melanosome transfer in a normal human melanocyte-keratinocyte co-culture system and through phagocytic ability without affecting viability of cells while it did not show inhibitory effects of tyrosinase and melanin synthesis in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. In addition, safety of NND was verified through performing neural stem cell morphology assay. Our findings indicate that NND may potentially be used for cosmetic industry for improvement of skin whitening and therapies related with several skin disorders, and the effect of NND may be acquired via reduction of melanosome transfer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sodium fire suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  15. Zinc deficiency leads to lipofuscin accumulation in the retinal pigment epithelium of pigmented rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Julien

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is associated with lipofuscin accumulation whereas the content of melanosomes decreases. Melanosomes are the main storage of zinc in the pigmented tissues. Since the elderly population, as the most affected group for AMD, is prone to zinc deficit, we investigated the chemical and ultrastructural effects of zinc deficiency in pigmented rat eyes after a six-month zinc penury diet. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Adult Long Evans (LE rats were investigated. The control animals were fed with a normal alimentation whereas the zinc-deficiency rats (ZD-LE were fed with a zinc deficient diet for six months. Quantitative Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX microanalysis yielded the zinc mole fractions of melanosomes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. The lateral resolution of the analysis was 100 nm. The zinc mole fractions of melanosomes were significantly smaller in the RPE of ZD-LE rats as compared to the LE control rats. Light, fluorescence and electron microscopy, as well as immunohistochemistry were performed. The numbers of lipofuscin granules in the RPE and of infiltrated cells (Ø>3 µm found in the choroid were quantified. The number of lipofuscin granules significantly increased in ZD-LE as compared to control rats. Infiltrated cells bigger than 3 µm were only detected in the choroid of ZD-LE animals. Moreover, the thickness of the Bruch's membrane of ZD-LE rats varied between 0.4-3 µm and thin, rangy ED1 positive macrophages were found attached at these sites of Bruch's membrane or even inside it. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In pigmented rats, zinc deficiency yielded an accumulation of lipofuscin in the RPE and of large pigmented macrophages in the choroids as well as the appearance of thin, rangy macrophages at Bruch's membrane. Moreover, we showed that a zinc diet reduced the zinc mole fraction of melanosomes in the RPE and modulated the thickness of the Bruch's membrane.

  16. Stem Cell Derived Retinal Pigment Epithelium: The Role of Pigmentation as Maturation Marker and Gene Expression Profile Comparison with Human Endogenous Retinal Pigment Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennis, A; Jacobs, J G; Catsburg, L A E; Ten Brink, J B; Koster, C; Schlingemann, R O; van Meurs, J; Gorgels, T G M F; Moerland, P D; Heine, V M; Bergen, A A

    2017-10-01

    In age-related macular degeneration (AMD) the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) deteriorates, leading to photoreceptor decay and severe vision loss. New therapeutic strategies aim at RPE replacement by transplantation of pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived RPE. Several protocols to generate RPE have been developed where appearance of pigmentation is commonly used as indicator of RPE differentiation and maturation. It is, however, unclear how different pigmentation stages reflect developmental stages and functionality of PSC-derived RPE cells. We generated human embryonic stem cell-derived RPE (hESC-RPE) cells and investigated their gene expression profiles at early pigmentation (EP) and late pigmentation (LP) stages. In addition, we compared the hESC-RPE samples with human endogenous RPE. We used a common reference design microarray (44 K). Our analysis showed that maturing hESC-RPE, upon acquiring pigmentation, expresses markers specific for human RPE. Interestingly, our analysis revealed that EP and LP hESC-RPE do not differ much in gene expression. Our data further showed that pigmented hESC-RPE has a significant lower expression than human endogenous RPE in the visual cycle and oxidative stress pathways. In contrast, we observed a significantly higher expression of pathways related to the process adhesion-to-polarity model that is typical of developing epithelial cells. We conclude that, in vitro, the first appearance of pigmentation hallmarks differentiated RPE. However, further increase in pigmentation does not result in much significant gene expression changes and does not add important RPE functionalities. Consequently, our results suggest that the time span for obtaining differentiated hESC-RPE cells, that are suitable for transplantation, may be greatly reduced.

  17. Photoinduced changes in photosystem II pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreeva, Atanaska S; Busheva, Mira C; Stoitchkova, Katerina V; Tzonova, Iren K, E-mail: katys@phys.uni-sofia.b

    2010-11-01

    The photosynthetic apparatus in higher plants performs two seemingly opposing tasks: efficient harvest of sunlight, but also rapid and harmless dissipation of excess light energy as heat to avoid deleterious photodamage. In order to study this process in pigment-protein supercomplexes of photosystem II (PSII), 77 K fluorescence and room temperature resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy were applied to investigate the changes in structure and spectral properties of the pigments in spinach PSII membranes. The high-light treatment results in a strong quenching of the fluorescence (being largest when the excitation is absorbed by carotenoids) and a red-shift of the main maximum. Decomposition of the fluorescence spectra into four bands revealed intensive quenching of F685 and F695 bands, possible bleaching of chlorophyll a, enhanced extent of light harvesting complexes (LHCII) aggregation and increased energy transfer to aggregated LHCII. The analysis of RR spectra revealed the predominant contribution of ss-carotene (ss-Car) upon 457.8 and 488 nm excitations and lutein (Lut) at 514.5 nm. During prolonged exposure to strong light no significant bleaching of ss-Car and weak photobleaching of Lut is observed. The results will contribute to the efforts to produce more efficient and robust solar cells when exposed to fluctuations in light intensity.

  18. Enamel ultrastructure in pigmented hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J T; Lord, V; Robinson, C; Shore, R

    1992-10-01

    Hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a hereditary condition of enamel that is presumed to result from defects during the maturation stage of enamel development. This study characterized the enamel ultrastructure and enamel crystallite morphology, as well as the distribution of organic material in enamel affected with pigmented hypomaturation AI. Enamel exhibiting autosomal recessive pigmented hypomaturation AI was sectioned or fractured and examined using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Enamel samples were treated with 30% NaOCl or 8 M urea to remove organic components and determine the effect of deproteinization on crystallite morphology. These were compared with untreated normal enamel samples. The enamel crystallites in hypomaturation AI exhibited considerable variability in size and morphology. Examination of deproteinized tissue indicated that the AI crystallites had a thick coating, presumably of organic or partially mineralized material, which was not visible in normal enamel. The results of this investigation provide further evidence that hypomaturation AI is associated with the retention of organic material that is most probably enamel protein. Enamel protein retention is likely to be involved in the inhibition of normal crystallite growth resulting in the morphological crystallite abnormalities associated with this disorder.

  19. Bile pigments in pulmonary and vascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan W. Ryter

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The bile pigments, biliverdin and bilirubin, are endogenously-derived substances generated during enzymatic heme degradation. These compounds have been shown to act as chemical antioxidants in vitro. Bilirubin formed in tissues circulates in the serum, prior to undergoing hepatic conjugation and biliary excretion. The excess production of bilirubin has been associated with neurotoxicity, in particular to the newborn. Nevertheless, clinical evidence suggests that mild states of hyperbilirubinemia may be beneficial in protecting against cardiovascular disease in adults. Pharmacological application of either bilirubin and/or its biological precursor biliverdin, can provide therapeutic benefit in several animal models of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease. Furthermore, biliverdin and bilirubin can confer protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury and graft rejection secondary to organ transplantation in animal models. Several possible mechanisms for these effects have been proposed, including direct antioxidant and scavenging effects, and modulation of signaling pathways regulating inflammation, apoptosis, cell proliferation, and immune responses. The practicality and therapeutic-effectiveness of bile pigment application to humans remains unclear.

  20. Epigenetic’s role in fish pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cal Delgado

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The agouti coat colour gene encodes a paracrine signalling molecule whose differential expression produces the characteristic dorsal-ventral pigment pattern observed in most mammals. We have recently demonstrated that this well-characterised mechanism from mammals also applies to fish with their much more complex pigment patterns. However, the developmental mechanism through which agouti acts to establish these colour differences remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to explore the molecular mechanisms that regulate agouti gene expression by in-vivo functional characterization of the agouti promoter and identification of possible putative regulatory elements that govern basal promoter activity. Specifically, the investigation was focused on the occurrence and role of CpG dinucleotides methylation in the agouti putative promoter sequence and on a possible epigenetic level of regulation of agouti expression. We report here expression analyses of eGFP expression from transgenic zebrafish containing an 8kb-agouti-Tol2-eGFP construct. eGFP expression was specifically found in the brain area and neural tube of Tol2 transposon vector transgenic embryos. Computer-based analysis revealed a putative CpG island immediately proximal to the translation start site. Global inhibition of methylation with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine promoted agouti production in association with decreasing CpG methylation. Taken together, these data identify a contributory role for DNA methylation in regulating agouti expression in zebrafish embryogenesis.

  1. Spontaneous Large Serous Retinal Pigment Epithelial Tear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voraporn Chaikitmongkol

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report cases of spontaneous retinal pigment epithelial (RPE tear complicating serous pigment epithelial detachment (PED. Methods: The records of 3 Asian patients with spontaneous giant RPE tear were reviewed retrospectively by including clinical presentation, angiography, optical coherence tomography, fundus autofluorescence imaging, and visual outcome. Results: Three patients (4 eyes were included in this study, with a mean age of 48.3 (42–56 years, and a mean follow-up period of 7.75 (4–18 months. Fundus examination in all patients showed giant RPE tear associated with bullous PED. Two cases had a history of prior corticosteroid use, and 1 had no history of medication use. All 3 patients developed spontaneous resolution of subretinal fluid with no treatment. However, in patients who used corticosteroids, initial progression of the tear and subretinal fluid were observed despite ceasing medication. On subsequent follow-up, an incomplete RPE regeneration was demonstrated by fundus autofluorescence imaging, and choroidal neovascularization developed in 1 patient. Conclusion: Large PED with RPE tear is a rare manifestation. When the fovea is spared, visual prognosis is favorable. No specific treatment is required, but careful choroidal neovascularization monitoring should be performed.

  2. Dimorphic development in Streblospio benedicti: genetic analysis of morphological differences between larval types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakas, Christina; Rockman, Matthew V

    2014-01-01

    The marine polychaete Streblospio benedicti exhibits two distinct larval types, making it a model for the study of developmental evolution. Females produce either large eggs or small ones, which develop into distinct lecithotrophic or planktotrophic larvae with concomitant morphological and life-history differences. Here, we investigate the inheritance of key morphological traits that distinguish the larval types. We used genetic crosses to establish the influence of maternal and zygotic differences on larval phenotypes. We found a large maternal effect on larval size and the number of larval chaetae, while the number and length of these chaetae were also strongly influenced by zygotic genotype. Interestingly, the distribution of larval phenotypes produced by these crosses suggests traits intermediate to the two parental types should not be uncommon. Yet, despite gene flow between the types in natural populations, such intermediates are rarely found in nature, suggesting that selection may be maintaining distinct larval modes.

  3. The gecko visual pigments. The behavior of opsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescitelli, F

    1979-05-01

    The 521-pigment extracted out of the retina of the Tokay gecko has the typical stereospecificity of the vertebrate visual pigments. This is true for the pigment in the chloride-depleted, "blue-shifted" state as well as for the normal pigment with added chloride. While in the chloride-deficient state, pigment regeneration occurred with both 11-cis- and 9-cis-retinals and the regenerated photopigments were also in the blue-shifted, chloride-depleted state. As with the native pigment, these regenerated pigments were bathochromically shifted to their normal positions by the addition of chloride. Chloride-deficient opsin by itself also responded to chloride for the pigment regenerated with 11-cis-retinal from such chloride-treated opsin was in the normal 521-position. Regeneration was always rapid, reaching completion in less than 5 min, and was significantly faster than for cow rhodopsin regenerating under the same conditions. This rapid rate was found with or without chloride, with both 11-cis- and 9-cis-retinals and in the presence of the sulfhydryl poison, p-hydroxymercuribenzoate (PMB). Like the native chloride-deficient pigment, the regenerated chloride-depleted photopigments responded to PMB by a blue shift beyond the position of the chloride-deficient state. The addition of chloride to these "poisoned" regenerated pigments caused a bathochromic shift of such magnitude as to indicate a repair of both the PMB and chloride-deficient blue shift. In this discussion the possible implications of these results to phylogenetic considerations are considered as well as to some molecular properties of the 521-pigment.

  4. Dietary blue pigments derived from genipin, attenuate inflammation by inhibiting LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression via the NF-κB inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang-Song; Xiang, Yaozu; Cui, Yuan-Lu; Lin, Ke-Ming; Zhang, Xin-Fang

    2012-01-01

    The edible blue pigments produced by gardenia fruits have been used as value-added colorants for foods in East Asia for 20 years. However, the biological activity of the blue pigments derived from genipin has not been reported. The anti-inflammatory effect of blue pigments was studied in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage in vitro. The secretions of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) were inhibited in concentration-dependent manner by blue pigments. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (Real-time RT-PCR) analyses demonstrated that the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was inhibited, moreover, ELISA results showed that the productions of IL-6 and TNF-α were inhibited. Cell-based ELISA revealed the COX-2 protein expression was inhibited. The proteome profiler array showed that 12 cytokines and chemokines involved in the inflammatory process were down-regulated by blue pigments. Blue pigments inhibited the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation induced by LPS, and this was associated with decreasing the DNA-binding activity of p65 and p50. Furthermore, blue pigments suppressed the degradation of inhibitor of κB (IκB) α, Inhibitor of NF-κB Kinase (IKK) α, IKK-β, and phosphorylation of IκB-α. The anti-inflammatory effect of blue pigments in vivo was studied in carrageenan-induced paw edema and LPS-injecting ICR mice. Finally, blue pigments significantly inhibited paw swelling and reduced plasma TNF-α and IL-6 production in vivo. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory properties of blue pigments might be the results from the inhibition of iNOS, COX-2, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α expression through the down-regulation of NF-κB activation, which will provide strong scientific evidence for the edible blue pigments to be developed as a new health-enhancing nutritional food

  5. Dietary blue pigments derived from genipin, attenuate inflammation by inhibiting LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression via the NF-κB inactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang-Song Wang

    Full Text Available The edible blue pigments produced by gardenia fruits have been used as value-added colorants for foods in East Asia for 20 years. However, the biological activity of the blue pigments derived from genipin has not been reported.The anti-inflammatory effect of blue pigments was studied in lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage in vitro. The secretions of nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E(2 (PGE(2 were inhibited in concentration-dependent manner by blue pigments. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (Real-time RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, interleukin (IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α was inhibited, moreover, ELISA results showed that the productions of IL-6 and TNF-α were inhibited. Cell-based ELISA revealed the COX-2 protein expression was inhibited. The proteome profiler array showed that 12 cytokines and chemokines involved in the inflammatory process were down-regulated by blue pigments. Blue pigments inhibited the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB activation induced by LPS, and this was associated with decreasing the DNA-binding activity of p65 and p50. Furthermore, blue pigments suppressed the degradation of inhibitor of κB (IκB α, Inhibitor of NF-κB Kinase (IKK α, IKK-β, and phosphorylation of IκB-α. The anti-inflammatory effect of blue pigments in vivo was studied in carrageenan-induced paw edema and LPS-injecting ICR mice. Finally, blue pigments significantly inhibited paw swelling and reduced plasma TNF-α and IL-6 production in vivo.These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory properties of blue pigments might be the results from the inhibition of iNOS, COX-2, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α expression through the down-regulation of NF-κB activation, which will provide strong scientific evidence for the edible blue pigments to be developed as a new health-enhancing nutritional

  6. The Paleozoic evolution of the gastropod larval shell: larval armor and tight coiling as a result of predation-driven heterochronic character displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuss, Barbara; Nützel, Alexander; Scholz, Henning; Frýda, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Early and middle Paleozoic gastropod protoconchs generally differ strongly from their corresponding adult morphologies, that is, most known protoconchs are smooth and openly coiled, whereas the majority of adult shells are ornamented and tightly coiled. In contrast, larval and adult shells of late Paleozoic gastropods with planktotrophic larval development (Caenogastropoda, Neritimorpha) commonly resemble each other in shape and principle ornamentation. This is surprising because habitat and mode of life of planktonic larvae and benthic adults differ strongly from each other. Generally, late Paleozoic to Recent protoconchs are tightly coiled. This modern type of larval shell resembles the adult shell morphology and was obviously predisplaced onto the larval stage during the middle Paleozoic. The oldest known planktonic-armored (strongly ornamented) larval shells are known from the late Paleozoic. However, smooth larval shells are also common among the studied late Paleozoic gastropods. The appearance of larval armor at the beginning of the late Paleozoic could reflect an increase of predation pressure in the plankton. Although there are counter examples in which larval and adult shell morphology differ strongly from each other, there is statistical evidence for a heterochronic predisplacement of adult characters onto the larval stage. Larval and adult shells are built in the same way, by accretionary secretion at the mantle edge. It is likely that the same underlying gene expression is responsible for that. If so, similarities of larval and adult shell may be explained by gene sharing, whereas differences may be due to different (planktic vs. benthic life) epigenetic patterns. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Structures and colour properties of new red wine pigments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkansson, Anders Eckart; Pardon, K.; Hayasaka, Y.

    2003-01-01

    the colour properties of the pigments were characterized; it could be demonstrated that the pyranoanthocyanins retained their red colour at pH 3.6 in model wine and were resistant to bisulfite-mediated bleaching. Finally, HPLC-MS analysis confirmed the presence of both anthocyanin-derived pigments in red...... wine....

  8. Free radical scavenging activities of pigment extract from Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The macroporous resin adsorption method was used to purify the pigment from Hibiscus syriacus L. petals. Through the comparison of the adsorption and desorption rates of six types of macroporous resins including AB-8, S-8, NKA-9, DM-130, D101 and 860021 to the pigment, 860021 resin was selected as the most ...

  9. Skin Pigmentation Kinetics after Exposure to Ultraviolet A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbak, M.H.; Philipsen, P.A.; Wiegell, S.R.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple exposures to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) are the norm in nature and phototherapy. However, studies of the kinetics of pigmentation following UVA exposure have included only fair-skinned persons. The aim of this study was to investigate steady-state pigmentation and fading in 12...

  10. The role of pigmentation on the development of chloroquine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... administered and duration of therapy. It is concluded that the effect of chloroquine on pigmentation depends on total amount of drug used, which would predispose to retinal pathology. Keywords: Chloroquine, pigmentation, melanin, retinopathy, retinotoxic. West African Journal of Pharmacology and Drug Research Vol.

  11. Growth of cultured porcine retinal pigment epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiencke, A.K.; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Nicolini, Jair

    2003-01-01

    To establish and characterize cultures of porcine retinal pigment epithelial (pRPE) cells in order to produce confluent monolayers of cells for transplantation.......To establish and characterize cultures of porcine retinal pigment epithelial (pRPE) cells in order to produce confluent monolayers of cells for transplantation....

  12. Internal pigment cells respond to external UV radiation in frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Belussi, Lilian; Nilsson Sköld, Helen; de Oliveira, Classius

    2016-05-01

    Fish and amphibians have pigment cells that generate colorful skins important for signaling, camouflage, thermoregulation and protection against ultraviolet radiation (UVR). However, many animals also have pigment cells inside their bodies, on their internal organs and membranes. In contrast to external pigmentation, internal pigmentation is remarkably little studied and its function is not well known. Here, we tested genotoxic effects of UVR and its effects on internal pigmentation in a neotropical frog, Physalaemus nattereri We found increases in body darkness and internal melanin pigmentation in testes and heart surfaces and in the mesenterium and lumbar region after just a few hours of UVR exposure. The melanin dispersion in melanomacrophages in the liver and melanocytes in testes increased after UV exposure. In addition, the amount of melanin inside melanomacrophages cells also increased. Although mast cells were quickly activated by UVR, only longer UVR exposure resulted in genotoxic effects inside frogs, by increasing the frequency of micronuclei in red blood cells. This is the first study to describe systemic responses of external UVR on internal melanin pigmentation, melanomacrophages and melanocytes in frogs and thus provides a functional explanation to the presence of internal pigmentation. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Eggshell pigmentation in the blue tit : Male quality matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badas, E. P.; Martinez, J.; Rivero-de Aguilar, J.; Stevens, M.; van der Velde, M.; Komdeur, J.; Merino, S.

    Many passerines lay protoporphyrin-pigmented eggs, and the degree of spotting seems to be related to female condition and environmental characteristics. However, most studies have ignored the relationship between the male's quality and eggshell pigmentation. Because ornaments can act as honest

  14. Microscopic Analysis of Pigments Extracted from Spalting Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Gutierrez, Sarath M.; Robinson, Sara C.

    2017-01-01

    Pigments that are currently available in the market usually come from synthetic sources, or, if natural, often need mordants to bind to the target substrate. Recent research on the fungal pigment extracts from Scytalidium cuboideum, Scytalidium ganodermophthorum, Chlorociboria aeruginosa, and Chlorociboria aeruginascens have been shown to successfully dye materials, like wood, bamboo, and textiles, however, there is no information about their binding mechanisms. Due to this, a microscopic study was performed to provide information to future manufacturers interested in these pigments. The results of this study show that S. ganodermophthorum and C. aeruginosa form an amorphous layer on substrates, while S. cuboideum forms crystal-like structures. The attachment and morphology indicate that there might be different chemical and physical interactions between the extracted pigments and the materials. This possibility can explain the high resistance of the pigments to UV light and color fastness that makes them competitive against synthetic pigments. These properties make these pigments a viable option for an industry that demands natural pigments with the properties of the synthetic ones. PMID:29371533

  15. An Unexpectedly Complex Architecture for Skin Pigmentation in Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Alicia R; Lin, Meng; Granka, Julie M; Myrick, Justin W; Liu, Xiaomin; Sockell, Alexandra; Atkinson, Elizabeth G; Werely, Cedric J; Möller, Marlo; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Kingsley, David M; Hoal, Eileen G; Liu, Xiao; Daly, Mark J; Feldman, Marcus W; Gignoux, Christopher R; Bustamante, Carlos D; Henn, Brenna M

    2017-11-30

    Approximately 15 genes have been directly associated with skin pigmentation variation in humans, leading to its characterization as a relatively simple trait. However, by assembling a global survey of quantitative skin pigmentation phenotypes, we demonstrate that pigmentation is more complex than previously assumed, with genetic architecture varying by latitude. We investigate polygenicity in the KhoeSan populations indigenous to southern Africa who have considerably lighter skin than equatorial Africans. We demonstrate that skin pigmentation is highly heritable, but known pigmentation loci explain only a small fraction of the variance. Rather, baseline skin pigmentation is a complex, polygenic trait in the KhoeSan. Despite this, we identify canonical and non-canonical skin pigmentation loci, including near SLC24A5, TYRP1, SMARCA2/VLDLR, and SNX13, using a genome-wide association approach complemented by targeted resequencing. By considering diverse, under-studied African populations, we show how the architecture of skin pigmentation can vary across humans subject to different local evolutionary pressures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Anti-corrosion properties of coatings with manganese compounds pigmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziganshina, M.; Nurislamova, E.

    2018-02-01

    Work investigates properties of corrosion-resistant coatings based on organic-aqueous emulsion and pigmented compounds of manganese, obtained by ceramic method. It is found that the inclusion of synthesized pigments in the composition of the coating increases their ability to inhibit underfilm corrosion of steel.

  17. Seasonal and interannual variations in pigments in the Adriatic Sea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    which lead to the higher chlorophyll production can be advected in the surface layer, together with dissolved colored substances, carried by the runoff, where both can increase pigment concentra- tions. This can explain relatively higher pigment in August in the Middle Adriatic. The influence of the Northern Italian waters ...

  18. Seasonal and interannual variability of phytoplankton pigment in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    seasonal cycle of phytoplankton pigment in the upper part of the euphotic zone is established for the offshore Laccadive Sea. ... Laccadive sea; Lakshadweep sea; CZCS; phytoplankton pigment; seasons; 1979-1981. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. ...... ton dynamics and production in the Arabian Sea dur- ing the 1995 southwest ...

  19. Optimization of fermentation conditions for red pigment production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An extracellular pigment-producing ascomycetous filamentous fungi belonging to the genera Penicillium was obtained from soil and its optimal culture conditions investigated. The optimal culture conditions for pigment production were as follows; soluble starch 2% (670 units), peptone (880 units), pH 9.0 (900 units); ...

  20. Intraclutch variation in avian eggshell pigmentation: the anaemia hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Coster, Greet; De Neve, Liesbeth; Lens, Luc

    2012-10-01

    Many passerine species lay eggs that are speckled with dark protoporphyrin pigmentation. Because protoporphyrin is mainly derived from the blood, we here formulate and test a new hypothesis that links an increase in anaemia along the laying sequence to within-clutch variation in egg pigmentation. More intense pigmentation is expected if pigments accumulate during enhanced red blood cell production in response to anaemia. Reduced pigmentation is expected if pigments are derived from the degradation of red blood cells that circulate in smaller numbers due to blood loss. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated anaemia in great tit (Parus major) females by infesting the nests with hen fleas (Ceratophyllus gallinae) prior to egg laying. Polychromatophil (i.e., immature red blood cells) percentage, as a measure of blood cell production, was positively correlated with parasite load confirming that female great tits experienced stronger anaemia when infested with haematophagous parasites during egg laying. We found a positive relationship between spot darkness and laying order that weakened under high parasite load. This result suggests that anaemia in females due to blood-sucking parasites led to diminished protoporphyrin from disintegrated red blood cells and hence a decreased deposition of protoporphyrin. However, the overall increase in pigment darkness along the laying sequence suggests that pigments also accumulate by enhanced red blood cell production caused by anaemia due to egg production itself.

  1. Analysis of basidiomycete pigments in situ by Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, James P; Matthäus, Christian; Lenz, Claudius; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Popp, Jürgen

    2018-02-07

    Basidiomycetes, that is, mushroom-type fungi, are known to produce pigments in response to environmental impacts. As antioxidants with a high level of unsaturation, these compounds can neutralize highly oxidative species. In the event of close contact with other microbes, the enzymatically controlled pigment production is triggered and pigment secretion is generated at the interaction zone. The identification and analysis of these pigments is important to understand the defense mechanism of fungi, which is essential to counteract an uncontrolled spread of harmful species. Usually, a detailed analysis of the pigments is time consuming as it depends on laborious sample preparation and isolation procedures. Furthermore, the applied protocols often influence the chemical integrity of the compound of interest. A possibility to noninvasively investigate the pigmentation is Raman microspectroscopy. The methodology has the potential to analyze the chemical composition of the sample spatially resolved at the interaction zone. After the acquisition of a representative spectroscopic library, the pigment production by basidiomycetes was monitored for during response to different fungi and bacteria. The presented results describe a very efficient noninvasive way of pigment analysis which can be applied with minimal sample preparation. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Characterization of three novel pigment-producing Penicillium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungal pigments are used in diverse industries such as food, pharmaceuticals, textile, among others. The need of new organic pigments involves the search for new microbial sources. In this study, three fungal strains isolated from Quercus sp and Larrea tridentata were morphological, physiological and molecularly ...

  3. Microscopic Analysis of Pigments Extracted from Spalting Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarath M. Vega Gutierrez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pigments that are currently available in the market usually come from synthetic sources, or, if natural, often need mordants to bind to the target substrate. Recent research on the fungal pigment extracts from Scytalidium cuboideum, Scytalidium ganodermophthorum, Chlorociboria aeruginosa, and Chlorociboria aeruginascens have been shown to successfully dye materials, like wood, bamboo, and textiles, however, there is no information about their binding mechanisms. Due to this, a microscopic study was performed to provide information to future manufacturers interested in these pigments. The results of this study show that S. ganodermophthorum and C. aeruginosa form an amorphous layer on substrates, while S. cuboideum forms crystal-like structures. The attachment and morphology indicate that there might be different chemical and physical interactions between the extracted pigments and the materials. This possibility can explain the high resistance of the pigments to UV light and color fastness that makes them competitive against synthetic pigments. These properties make these pigments a viable option for an industry that demands natural pigments with the properties of the synthetic ones.

  4. Changes in pigment, spectral transmission and element content of pink chicken eggshells with different pigment intensity during incubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yue; Li, Zhanming; Pan, Jinming

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in pigment, spectral transmission and element content of chicken eggshells with different intensities of pink pigment during the incubation period. We also investigated the effects of the region (small pole, equator and large pole) and pink pigment intensity of the chicken eggshell on the percent transmission of light passing through the chicken eggshells. Method. Eggs of comparable weight from a meat-type breeder (Meihuang) were used, and divided based on three levels of pink pigment (light, medium and dark) in the eggshells. During the incubation (0-21 d), the values of the eggshell pigment (ΔE, L (∗), a (∗), b (∗)) were measured. The percent transmission of light for different regions and intensities of eggshell pigmentation was measured by using the visible wavelength range of 380-780 nm. Result. Three measured indicators of eggshell color, ΔE, L (∗) and a (∗), did not change significantly during incubation. Compared with other regions and pigment intensities, eggshell at the small pole and with light pigmentation intensity showed the highest percent transmission of light. The transmission value varied significantly (P pink pigment showed that the potassium content of the eggshells for all pigment levels decreased significantly during incubation. Conclusion. In summary, pigment intensity and the region of the eggshell influenced the percent transmission of light of eggshell. Differences in the spectral characteristics of different eggshells may influence the effects of photostimulation during the incubation of eggs. All of these results will be applicable for perfecting the design of light intensity for lighted incubation to improve productivity.

  5. Learning the specific quality of taste reinforcement in larval Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleyer, Michael; Miura, Daisuke; Tanimura, Teiichi; Gerber, Bertram

    2015-01-27

    The only property of reinforcement insects are commonly thought to learn about is its value. We show that larval Drosophila not only remember the value of reinforcement (How much?), but also its quality (What?). This is demonstrated both within the appetitive domain by using sugar vs amino acid as different reward qualities, and within the aversive domain by using bitter vs high-concentration salt as different qualities of punishment. From the available literature, such nuanced memories for the quality of reinforcement are unexpected and pose a challenge to present models of how insect memory is organized. Given that animals as simple as larval Drosophila, endowed with but 10,000 neurons, operate with both reinforcement value and quality, we suggest that both are fundamental aspects of mnemonic processing-in any brain.

  6. Larval development of certain gamete-spawning scleractinian corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, R. C.; Heyward, A. J.

    1986-12-01

    Embryogenesis and larval development were documented in 19 species of hermatypic scleractinians which release gametes during the summer coral spawning season on the Great Barrier Reef. Cleavage of fertilized eggs began approximately 2 h after spawning in all species, and gave rise to blastulae after 7 10 h. Endoderm formation in Platygyra sinensis was by invagination, and this appeared to occur in all species studied. All species observed at 36 h after spawing were mobile and full mobility was reached by 48 h. Settlement of planulae placed in aquaria occurred between 4 and 7 days after fertilization. These results suggest that larval corals produced by most gamete-releasing coral species are likely to be dispersed away from the parent reef.

  7. Effects of moisture content of food waste on residue separation, larval growth and larval survival in black soldier fly bioconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jack Y K; Chiu, Sam L H; Lo, Irene M C

    2017-09-01

    In order to foster sustainable management of food waste, innovations in food waste valorization technologies are crucial. Black soldier fly (BSF) bioconversion is an emerging technology that can turn food waste into high-protein fish feed through the use of BSF larvae. The conventional method of BSF bioconversion is to feed BSF larvae with food waste directly without any moisture adjustment. However, it was reported that difficulty has been experienced in the separation of the residue (larval excreta and undigested material) from the insect biomass due to excessive moisture. In addition to the residue separation problem, the moisture content of the food waste may also affect the growth and survival aspects of BSF larvae. This study aims to determine the most suitable moisture content of food waste that can improve residue separation as well as evaluate the effects of the moisture content of food waste on larval growth and survival. In this study, pre-consumer and post-consumer food waste with different moisture content (70%, 75% and 80%) was fed to BSF larvae in a temperature-controlled rotary drum reactor. The results show that the residue can be effectively separated from the insect biomass by sieving using a 2.36mm sieve, for both types of food waste at 70% and 75% moisture content. However, sieving of the residue was not feasible for food waste at 80% moisture content. On the other hand, reduced moisture content of food waste was found to slow down larval growth. Hence, there is a trade-off between the sieving efficiency of the residue and the larval growth rate. Furthermore, the larval survival rate was not affected by the moisture content of food waste. A high larval survival rate of at least 95% was achieved using a temperature-controlled rotary drum reactor for all treatment groups. The study provides valuable insights for the waste management industry on understanding the effects of moisture content when employing BSF bioconversion for food waste recycling

  8. Clinical features of acute retinal pigment epitheltis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Yao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze of the clinical features of acute retinal pigment epitheltis(ARPE. METHODS: The clinical data of 36 ARPE patients(40 eyesattending this center from January 2008 to January 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. Of them, 21 patients(58.3%were male(male:female=1:0.71. The mean age was 40.92±7.13 years old(range:17~60y. The mean best-corrected visual acuity(BCVAwas 0.50±0.26 with a range of 0.3~1.0. Thirty-two patients were unilateral cases. All the patients were examined for BCVA, funds photography, fluorescein fundus angiography(FFA, optical coherence tomography(OCT. FFA was shown as three types: type Ⅰ to multiple "black light" or "grape variety" fluorescent spot; Type Ⅱ for I lesions visible fluorescence leakage; Type Ⅲ lesions with choroid neovascularization(CNV. OCT was the following three forms: multiple RPE lesions layer reflection intermittent, proliferation(type Ⅰ; pigment epithelial detachment with limitations neural epithelium(type Ⅱ; types I and II with CNV(type Ⅲ.RESULTS: Ocular fundus showed that the lesions were multiple dark-gray spots with a dark circumscribed area at the macular or nearby in all 40 eyes. FFA showed: 21 eyes were type Ⅰ, 17 eyes were type Ⅱ and 2 eyes were type Ⅲ, BCVA between type Ⅰ and type Ⅱ was statistically significant(PP>0.05. OCT showed 21 eyes wwere type Ⅰ, 17 eyes were type Ⅱ and type Ⅲ 2 eyes. BCVA average between type Ⅰ and Ⅱ was statistically significant(PP>0.05.CONCLUSION: ARPE fundus demonstrated the multiple dark gray discrete lesions, the degree of visual impairment related with the presence of pigment epithelial barrier and lesion location. OCT and FFA characterized three types. FFA is shown as "black light" or "grape variety" fluorescent spot, and is the basis of diagnosis. OCT can display the lesions organization form of each layer clearly. It plays a more and more important role in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of ARPE.

  9. Dispersal pathways, seed rains, and the dynamics of larval behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Richard K; Fingerut, Jonathan T; Zimmer, Cheryl Ann

    2009-07-01

    Dispersing propagules (larvae, seeds, and spores) establish and maintain populations, which serve as templates for subsequent species interactions. Connectivity among demes derives, in large part, from connectivity between consecutive steps, release, transport, and settlement, in dispersal pathways. Concurrent measurements of individuals in each step are a necessary precursor to identifying governing mechanisms. Here we directly and definitively resolved the roles of physics and behavior in mediating dispersal pathways of an estuarine parasite between its intermediate hosts. Planktonic cercariae of Himasthla rhigedana, a parasitic flatworm, are functionally similar to lecithotrophic larvae of many free-living marine invertebrates. The combination of parasite life cycle characteristics and the relatively simple tidal flows in their habitat renders this system an effective model for dispersal studies. Simultaneous field measurements of larval release, transport, settlement, and the flow regime, together with mechanistic experiments, led to empirical understanding of host colonization. All dispersal steps were highly and significantly correlated over time and in space. This tight coupling resulted, unequivocally, from a suite of larval behaviors. Cercariae emerged from first intermediate host snails only during daytime flood tides, enhancing larval retention in the marsh. Daylight triggered downward swimming, and within seconds, cercariae overpowered turbulent mixing, landing in benthic habitat of second intermediate host snails and crabs. Larvae settled (encysted) on external regions of snails/crabs that, presumably, were most vulnerable to ingestion by definitive host shorebirds. In total, cercarial behaviors greatly foreshortened dispersal distances, magnified local parasite prevalence, and increased the likelihood of large-scale transmission by definitive hosts. Cracking open the black box of dispersal thus revealed mechanisms, connectivity, and ecological

  10. Social coercion of larval development in an ant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalta, Irene; Amor, Fernando; Cerdá, Xim; Boulay, Raphaël

    2016-04-01

    Ants provide one of the best examples of the division of labor in animal societies. While the queens reproduce, workers generally refrain from laying eggs and dedicate themselves exclusively to domestic tasks. In many species, the small diploid larvae are bipotent and can develop either into workers or queens depending mostly on environmental cues. This generates a conflicting situation between the adults that tend to rear a majority of larvae into workers and the larvae whose individual interest may be to develop into reproductive queens. We tested the social regulation of larval caste fate in the fission-performing ant Aphaenogaster senilis. We first observed interactions between resident workers and queen- and worker-destined larvae in presence/absence of the queen. The results show that workers tend to specifically eliminate queen-destined larvae when the queen is present but not when she is absent or imprisoned in a small cage allowing for volatile pheromone exchanges. In addition, we found that the presence of already developed queen-destined larvae does not inhibit the development of younger still bipotent larvae into queens. Finally, we analyzed the cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of queen- and worker-destined larvae and found no significant quantitative or qualitative difference. Interestingly, the total amount of hydrocarbons on both larval castes is extremely low, which lends credence on the chemical insignificance hypothesis of larval ants. Overall, our results suggest that workers control larval development and police larvae that would develop into queens instead of workers. Such policing behavior is similar in many aspects to what is known of worker policing among adults.

  11. Rapid effects of marine reserves via larval dispersal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Cudney-Bueno

    Full Text Available Marine reserves have been advocated worldwide as conservation and fishery management tools. It is argued that they can protect ecosystems and also benefit fisheries via density-dependent spillover of adults and enhanced larval dispersal into fishing areas. However, while evidence has shown that marine reserves can meet conservation targets, their effects on fisheries are less understood. In particular, the basic question of if and over what temporal and spatial scales reserves can benefit fished populations via larval dispersal remains unanswered. We tested predictions of a larval transport model for a marine reserve network in the Gulf of California, Mexico, via field oceanography and repeated density counts of recently settled juvenile commercial mollusks before and after reserve establishment. We show that local retention of larvae within a reserve network can take place with enhanced, but spatially-explicit, recruitment to local fisheries. Enhancement occurred rapidly (2 yrs, with up to a three-fold increase in density of juveniles found in fished areas at the downstream edge of the reserve network, but other fishing areas within the network were unaffected. These findings were consistent with our model predictions. Our findings underscore the potential benefits of protecting larval sources and show that enhancement in recruitment can be manifested rapidly. However, benefits can be markedly variable within a local seascape. Hence, effects of marine reserve networks, positive or negative, may be overlooked when only focusing on overall responses and not considering finer spatially-explicit responses within a reserve network and its adjacent fishing grounds. Our results therefore call for future research on marine reserves that addresses this variability in order to help frame appropriate scenarios for the spatial management scales of interest.

  12. Spawning and Larval Development Dog Conch (Strombus Turturella)

    OpenAIRE

    Dody, Safar

    2012-01-01

    Dog conch (Strombus turturella) is considered one of fishery commodities in Bangka Belitung Islands. This conch is often exploited and result in their populations are increasingly threatened. The aim of study to observe the reproduction and larval development of dog conch were studied under laboratory conditions. For the treatment of spawning the dog conch were placed in spawning tanks with a capacity of 1 ton. Stimulation of spawning is done by replacing the water in the tank as much as 90% ...

  13. Ultraviolet radiation effects on pigmentation in the cyanobacterium ''Phormidium uncinatum''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donkor, V.A.; Haeder, D.P.

    1997-01-01

    The Baikal strain of the cyanobacterium Phormidium uncinatum was found to possess the photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a, carotenoids, phycocyanin and allophycocyanin, while the Tuebingen strain of Phormidium contained, in addition to these, the biliprotein phycoerythrin. Sucrose gradient centrifugation of the pigment extracts resulted in a separation of the phycobiliproteins into several bands, which according to their absorption and fluorescence properties, were identified as monomers, trimers and hexamers. With increasing UV-B irradiation the heavier aggregates were broken down into smaller components. Photobleaching of these accessory pigments also occurred. FPLC gel filtration analyses of the pigments also showed loss of heavier aggregates of the phycobilins and bleaching of the pigments. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the sucrose gradient and FPLC fractions indicated loss of the biliproteins with increasing UV-B irradiation. The loss of the β- were more rapid than that of the α- subunits. Increasing levels of ultraviolet irradiation is therefore deleterious to these organism. (author)

  14. Light pigmentation phenotype is correlated with increased substantia nigra echogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpf, Jost-Julian; Schirmer, Maria; Fricke, Christopher; Weise, David; Wagner, Justinus Aspasios; Simon, Jan; Classen, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    This study was undertaken to address the question of whether pigmentation may be mechanistically linked with Parkinson's disease. In a cross-sectional, observational study, 116 healthy subjects received transcranial sonography of the substantia nigra. Pigmentation phenotype was assessed using the Fitzpatrick skin phototype classification, and five additional phenotypic pigmentation traits as well as a photographic method (Melanin index) in a subgroup of 46 subjects. Lighter skin phototype was associated with larger echogenic substantia nigra area and increased prevalence of abnormally enlarged echogenic substantia nigra area. The strongest association of substantia nigra echogenicity and phenotypic pigmentation traits was found for hair color and facial tanning. Findings suggest an increasing prevalence of structural abnormality of substantia nigra with decreasing darkness of skin and thus may provide additional evidence in favor of a pathogenic link of pigmentation and Parkinson's disease. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  15. Optimization and design of pigments for heat-insulating coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guang-Hai; Zhang Yue

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports that heat insulating property of infrared reflective coatings is obtained through the use of pigments which diffuse near-infrared thermal radiation. Suitable structure and size distribution of pigments would attain maximum diffuse infrared radiation and reduce the pigment volume concentration required. The optimum structure and size range of pigments for reflective infrared coatings are studied by using Kubelka—Munk theory, Mie model and independent scattering approximation. Taking titania particle as the pigment embedded in an inorganic coating, the computational results show that core-shell particles present excellent scattering ability, more so than solid and hollow spherical particles. The optimum radius range of core-shell particles is around 0.3 ∼ 1.6 μm. Furthermore, the influence of shell thickness on optical parameters of the coating is also obvious and the optimal thickness of shell is 100–300 nm. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  16. Pigmentation and behavior: potential association through pleiotropic genes in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Aya

    2013-01-01

    The molecular basis of pigmentation variation within and among Drosophila species is largely attributed to genes in melanin biosynthesis pathway, which involves dopamine metabolism. Most of the genetic changes underlying pigmentation variations reported to date are changes at the expression levels of the structural genes in the pathway. Within D. melanogaster, changes in cis-regulatory regions of a gene, ebony, are responsible for the naturally occurring variation of the body pigmentation intensity. This gene is also known to be expressed in glia, and many visual and behavioral abnormalities of its mutants have been reported. This implies that the gene has pleiotropic functions in the nervous systems. In this review, current knowledge on pigmentation variation and melanin biosynthesis pathway are summarized, with some focus on pleiotropic features of ebony and other genes in the pathway. A potential association between pigmentation and behavior through such pleiotropic genes is discussed in light of cis-regulatory structure and pleiotropic mutations.

  17. Co-deposition of Pigment Particles with Nickel through Electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do Yoon

    This research focuses on the synthesis of a nickel-pigment composite coating in an effort to produce coloured nickel electrodeposits via the codeposition approach. A blue pigment, Copper Phthalocyanine (CuPc) Blue was codeposited to create Ni-CuPc composite coatings. Top surface and cross-sectional Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images confirmed the codeposition of pigment particles within the nickel matrix throughout the entire coating thickness. The top surface of the Ni-CuPc composite coating showed an unexpected metallic copper colour. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicates the presence of metallic copper confined to the top surface. It was speculated that this phenomenon is due to the galvanic displacement reaction between copper from the pigment and nickel from the matrix. Upon removing the copper surface layer the colour of the composite remained metallic silver despite the presence of the pigment particles.

  18. Studies on the bio production of monascus red pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emam, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    there is an increasing interest on natural pigments to replace some currently used synthetic dyes, since the latter have been associated with toxic effects in foods. the red pigment of the fungus Monascus is widely used in all the world as food additives or pharmaceuticals. although pigment production by Monascus spp.in chemically defined media is well documented, very few information is available about the use of agro-industrial wastes. in this regard, the present study has been devoted to investigate the effect of different parameters on red pigment production by the local isolated strain of M. purpureu, in an attempt to maximize the production, and also to develop a potential fermentation process for the production of red pigment using potato processing wastewater (PPW,waters used to wash the potato slices prior to cooking in chips and crisp manufacture) as cheap production medium

  19. Heterotrophic cultivation of microalgae for pigment production: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianjun; Nagarajan, Dillirani; Zhang, Quanguo; Chang, Jo-Shu; Lee, Duu-Jong

    Pigments (mainly carotenoids) are important nutraceuticals known for their potent anti-oxidant activities and have been used extensively as high end health supplements. Microalgae are the most promising sources of natural carotenoids and are devoid of the toxic effects associated with synthetic derivatives. Compared to photoautotrophic cultivation, heterotrophic cultivation of microalgae in well-controlled bioreactors for pigments production has attracted much attention for commercial applications due to overcoming the difficulties associated with the supply of CO 2 and light, as well as avoiding the contamination problems and land requirements in open autotrophic culture systems. In this review, the heterotrophic metabolic potential of microalgae and their uses in pigment production are comprehensively described. Strategies to enhance pigment production under heterotrophic conditions are critically discussed and the challenges faced in heterotrophic pigment production with possible alternative solutions are presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fly ash based zeolitic pigments for application in anticorrosive paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, Ruchi; Tiwari, Sangeeta

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the utilization of waste fly ash in anticorrosive paints. Zeolite NaY was synthesized from waste fly ash and subsequently modified by exchanging its nominal cation Na + with Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ ions. The metal ion exchanged zeolite was then used as anticorrosive zeolitic pigments in paints. The prepared zeolite NaY was characterized using X-Ray diffraction technique and Scanning electron microscopy. The size, shape and density of the prepared fly ash based pigments were determined by various techniques. The paints were prepared by using fly ash based zeolitic pigments in epoxy resin and the percentages of pigments used in paints were 2% and 5%. These paints were applied to the mild steel panels and the anticorrosive properties of the pigments were assessed by the electrochemical spectroscopy technique (EIS).

  1. Chemical characterisation of zircon-cadmium sulfoselenide ceramic pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazulla Barreda, M. F.; Rodrigo Edo, M.; Blasco Roca, E.; Orduna Cordero, M.

    2013-01-01

    The present paper addresses the development of a methodology that allows the complete chemical characterisation of zircon cadmium sulfoselenide ceramic pigments including minor and major elements. To develop the methodology, five zircon-cadmium sulfoselenide pigments with different hues were selected, studying the different measurement process steps, from sample preparation to the optimisation of the measurement of the different components of the pigments by spectroscopic techniques (WD-XRF and elemental analysis by combustion and IR detection). The chemical characterisation method developed was validated with synthetic standards prepared from the mixture of certified reference materials and pure oxides because no certified referenced materials of this type of pigments were commercially available. The developed method can be used for a complete chemical characterization of zircon-cadmium sulfoselenide ceramic pigments with a very low uncertainty for all the elements analysed. (Author)

  2. Single Molecule Spectroscopy on Photosynthetic Pigment-Protein Complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Jelezko, F; Schuler, S; Thews, E; Tietz, C; Wechsler, A; Wrachtrup, J

    2001-01-01

    Single molecule spectroscopy was applied to unravel the energy transfer pathway in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes. Detailed analysis of excitation and fluorescence emission spectra has been made for peripheral plant antenna LHC II and Photosystem I from cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus. Optical transitions of individual pigments were resolved under nonselective excitation of antenna chlorophylls. High-resolution fluorescence spectroscopy of individual plant antenna LHC II indicates that at low temperatures, the excitation energy is localized on the red-most Chl a pool absorbing at 680 nm. More than one pigment molecule is responsible for the fluorescence emission of the LHC II trimer. The spectral lines of single Chl a molecules absorbing at 675 nm are broadened because of the Foerster energy transfer towards the red-most pigments. Low-temperature spectroscopy on single PS I trimers indicates that two subgroups of pigments, which are present in the red antenna pool, differ by the strength of t...

  3. Impacts of Silver Nanoparticle Ingestion on Pigmentation and Developmental Progression in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Catherine Silver Key

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the advent of nanomaterial use has increased exposure rates and raised health concerns. However, the toxicology profiles of many nanomaterials are far from complete for various reasons. In this study, Drosophila melanogaster, commonly called fruit flies, were exposed to one of the most widely used nanomaterials, silver nanopowder (Ag NP, to assess its toxicity and determine if D. melanogaster would be a good model organism for nanotoxicology studies. Comparison of developmental progression amongst groups of flies ingesting different Ag NP concentrations (0.05%/~90 ppm-5.0%/~9000 ppm, revealed that hatch rates were unaffected, but that larval progression was impeded at any dosage of Ag NP. At 0.3% Ag NP an approximate LD50 was observed. Additionally, a distinctive phenotype was observed among emergent adults (F1 generation that arose from larvae exposed to Ag NP which included reduced body pigmentation accompanied by shortened life span and abnormal climbing behavior. The phenotype prompted speculation that Ag NPs may affect the dopamine and/or the stress response pathway(s.

  4. Models for positional signalling, the threefold subdivision of segments and the pigmentation pattern of molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, H

    1984-11-01

    Models of biological pattern formation are discussed. The regulatory features expected from the models are compared to those observed experimentally. It will be shown that: (i) Stable gradients appropriate to supply positional information can be produced by local autocatalysis and long-range inhibition. (ii) Spatially ordered sequences of differentiated cell states can emerge if these cell states mutually activate each other on long range but exclude each other locally. Segmentation results from the repetition of three such cell states, S, A and P (and not of only two, as is usually assumed). With a repetition of three states, each segment has a defined polarity. The confrontation of P cells and S cells lead to the formation of a segment border (...P/SAP/SAP/S...) while the A-P confrontation is a prerequisite for appendage formation. Mutations of Drosophila affecting larval segmentation are discussed in terms of this model. (iii) The two models for the generation of sequences of structures in space (positional information including interpretation versus mutual activation) lead to different predictions with respect to intercalary regeneration. This allows a distinction between the two models on the basis of experiments. (iv) The pigmentation patterns of certain molluscs emerge from a coupled oscillation of cells (that is, a lateral inhibition in time, instead of space). The oblique lines result from a chain of triggering events.

  5. Apical atrophy of retinal pigment epithelial detachments in central serous chorioretinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Anders; Hamann, Steffen; Larsen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    compatible with CSC. RESULTS: A juxtafoveal retinal pigment epithelial detachment with apical atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium with corresponding severe attenuation of the pigmentation of the retinal pigment epithelium was observed in both patients. One of the patients presented with a serous...... neurosensory retinal detachment with smokestack leakage 7 years after first being seen. The other patient was never seen with a neurosensory detachment. CONCLUSION: Isolated pigment epithelial detachment with apical retinal pigment epithelial atrophy may represent a precursor stage of CSC....

  6. Larval connectivity in an effective network of marine protected areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R Christie

    Full Text Available Acceptance of marine protected areas (MPAs as fishery and conservation tools has been hampered by lack of direct evidence that MPAs successfully seed unprotected areas with larvae of targeted species. For the first time, we present direct evidence of large-scale population connectivity within an existing and effective network of MPAs. A new parentage analysis identified four parent-offspring pairs from a large, exploited population of the coral-reef fish Zebrasoma flavescens in Hawai'i, revealing larval dispersal distances ranging from 15 to 184 km. In two cases, successful dispersal was from an MPA to unprotected sites. Given high adult abundances, the documentation of any parent-offspring pairs demonstrates that ecologically-relevant larval connectivity between reefs is substantial. All offspring settled at sites to the north of where they were spawned. Satellite altimetry and oceanographic models from relevant time periods indicated a cyclonic eddy that created prevailing northward currents between sites where parents and offspring were found. These findings empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of MPAs as useful conservation and management tools and further highlight the importance of coupling oceanographic, genetic, and ecological data to predict, validate and quantify larval connectivity among marine populations.

  7. A subset of interneurons required for Drosophila larval locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Shingo; Long, Hong; Thomas, John B

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to define the neural circuits generating locomotor behavior have produced an initial understanding of some of the components within the spinal cord, as well as a basic understanding of several invertebrate motor pattern generators. However, how these circuits are assembled during development is poorly understood. We are defining the neural circuit that generates larval locomotion in the genetically tractable fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to study locomotor circuit development. Forward larval locomotion involves a stereotyped posterior-to-anterior segmental translocation of body wall muscle contraction and is generated by a relatively small number of identified muscles, motor and sensory neurons, plus an unknown number of the ~270 bilaterally-paired interneurons per segment of the 1st instar larva. To begin identifying the relevant interneurons, we have conditionally inactivated synaptic transmission of interneuron subsets and assayed for the effects on locomotion. From this screen we have identified a subset of 25 interneurons per hemisegment, called the lateral locomotor neurons (LLNs), that are required for locomotion. Both inactivation and constitutive activation of the LLNs disrupt locomotion, indicating that patterned output of the LLNs is required. By expressing a calcium indicator in the LLNs, we found that they display a posterior-to-anterior wave of activity within the CNS corresponding to the segmental translocation of the muscle contraction wave. Identification of the LLNs represents the first step toward elucidating the circuit generating larval locomotion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Exploration of the “larval pool”: development and ground-truthing of a larval transport model off leeward Hawai‘i

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna L.K. Wren

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Most adult reef fish show site fidelity thus dispersal is limited to the mobile larval stage of the fish, and effective management of such species requires an understanding of the patterns of larval dispersal. In this study, we assess larval reef fish distributions in the waters west of the Big Island of Hawai‘i using both in situ and model data. Catches from Cobb midwater trawls off west Hawai‘i show that reef fish larvae are most numerous in offshore waters deeper than 3,000 m and consist largely of pre-settlement Pomacanthids, Acanthurids and Chaetodontids. Utilizing a Lagrangian larval dispersal model, we were able to replicate the observed shore fish distributions from the trawl data and we identified the 100 m depth strata as the most likely depth of occupancy. Additionally, our model showed that for larval shore fish with a pelagic larval duration longer than 40 days there was no significant change in settlement success in our model. By creating a general additive model (GAM incorporating lunar phase and angle we were able to explain 67.5% of the variance between modeled and in situ Acanthurid abundances. We took steps towards creating a predictive larval distribution model that will greatly aid in understanding the spatiotemporal nature of the larval pool in west Hawai‘i, and the dispersal of larvae throughout the Hawaiian archipelago.

  9. Characterisation of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae larval habitats at ground level and temporal fluctuations of larval abundance in Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Grech

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to characterise the ground-level larval habitats of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus, to determine the relationships between habitat characteristics and larval abundance and to examine seasonal larval-stage variations in Córdoba city. Every two weeks for two years, 15 larval habitats (natural and artificial water bodies, including shallow wells, drains, retention ponds, canals and ditches were visited and sampled for larval mosquitoes. Data regarding the water depth, temperature and pH, permanence, the presence of aquatic vegetation and the density of collected mosquito larvae were recorded. Data on the average air temperatures and accumulated precipitation during the 15 days prior to each sampling date were also obtained. Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae were collected throughout the study period and were generally most abundant in the summer season. Generalised linear mixed models indicated the average air temperature and presence of dicotyledonous aquatic vegetation as variables that served as important predictors of larval densities. Additionally, permanent breeding sites supported high larval densities. In Córdoba city and possibly in other highly populated cities at the same latitude with the same environmental conditions, control programs should focus on permanent larval habitats with aquatic vegetation during the early spring, when the Cx. quinquefasciatus population begins to increase.

  10. Pressure suppression device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumachi, Wataru; Fukuda, Akira; Kitaguchi, Hidemi; Shimizu, Toshiaki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To relieve and absorb impact wave vibrations caused by steam and non-condensed gases releasing into the pressure suppression chamber at the time of an accident. Structure: The reactor container is filled with inert gases. A safety valve attached main steam pipe is provided to permit the excessive steam to escape, the valve being communicated with the pressure suppression chamber through an exhaust pipe. In the pressure suppression chamber, a doughnut-like cylindrical outer wall is filled at its bottom with pool water to condense the high temperature vapor released through the exhaust pipe. A head portion of a vent tube which leads the exhaust pipe is positioned at the top, and a down comer and an exhaust vent tube are locked by means of steady rests. At the bottom is mounted a pressure adsorber device which adsorbs a pressure from the pool water. (Kamimura, M.)

  11. Pickering emulsions stabilized by coloured organic pigment particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Bernard P; Olusanya, Samuel O

    2017-01-01

    The possibility of stabilizing emulsions of water and non-polar alkane with pure, coloured organic pigment particles is explored. Seven pigment types each possessing a primary colour of the rainbow were selected. Their solubility in water or heptane was determined using a spectrophotometric method and their surface energies were derived from the contact angles of probe liquids on compressed disks of the particles. As expected, most of the pigments are relatively hydrophobic but pigment orange is quite hydrophilic. At equal volumes of oil and water, preferred emulsions were water-in-oil (w/o) for six pigment types and oil-in-water (o/w) for pigment orange. The emulsion type is in line with calculated contact angles of the particles at the oil-water interface being either side of 90°. Their stability to coalescence increases with particle concentration. Emulsions are shown to undergo limited coalescence from which the coverage of drop interfaces by particles has been determined. In a few cases, close-packed primary particles are visible around emulsion droplets. At constant particle concentration, the influence of the volume fraction of water ( φ w ) on emulsions was also studied. For the most hydrophilic pigment orange, emulsions are o/w at all φ w , whereas they are w/o for the most hydrophobic pigments (red, yellow, green and blue). For pigments of intermediate hydrophobicity however (indigo and violet), catastrophic phase inversion becomes possible with emulsions inverting from w/o to o/w upon increasing φ w . For the first time, we link the pigment surface energy to the propensity of emulsions to phase invert transitionally or catastrophically.

  12. Fixed pigmented erythema due to cimetidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almamy Diabaté

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fixed pigmented erythema (EPF is pathognomonic of drug-induced toxicity. Antisecretory drugs are among the most commonly not responsible drugs. EPF secondary to cimetidine administration has rarely been described. We report an EPF case during a cimetidine-based treatment in Bouake. A 43-year-old patient, HIV negative, consults for an EPF located on both sides of the breasts, on the 5th day of an antiulcer treatment comprising compressed cimetidine and gastric dressing based on phosphatase d ‘aluminum. The diagnosis is made in front of the characteristic aspect of the lesion of EPF and the early reappearance of lesions recurring exactly in the same places, after the reintroduction of cimetidine. The discovery of an EPF imposes a strict etiological approach in search of the responsible drug. During anti-ulcer treatment, the practitioner should bear in mind the potential role of cimetidine.

  13. Knee tuberculosis masquerading as pigmented villonodular synovitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Meena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB, once a disease confined to undeveloped or developing nations is currently in resurgence, which is attributable to pandemic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and immigration from endemic areas. Tuberculous arthritis is difficult to diagnose early because of its atypical insidious clinical manifestations and nonspecific imaging findings. TB is also known as the ′great mimicker′. Specifically, monoarticular tuberculosis of the knee may mimic pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS. The present report describes a young patient with tuberculous arthritis of knee joint. Accurate diagnosis and appropriate management was delayed due to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings, such as, hemosiderin deposits and a nodular mass around the knee joint, suggestive of a diffuse type of PVNS. Our findings suggest that the first step in the diagnosis of tuberculous knee arthritis is to have a high index of suspicion.

  14. Laser treatment for pigmented lesions: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christina E; Nouri, Keyvan

    2006-03-01

    Just a few decades ago, before lasers were introduced into dermatologic practice, many cutaneous lesions were untreatable. Since the introduction of lasers in dermatology in the 1960s and its revolution by Anderson and Parrish in the 1980s based on the selective photothermolysis theory, lasers have become a main component of many dermatology practices. With the advent of these selective lasers and their constant technological advancements, many lesions can now be easily removed with a low incidence of complications, creating a high demand for laser surgery. Aims This paper will review current laser systems used for pigmented lesions. An English-language literature search and review through Medline from January 1994 to October 2004. Review of the latest techniques and lasers used in treating pigmentary disorders and possible future applications and treatment options. Laser technique and technology has greatly advanced producing more effacious treatment with minimal complications.

  15. Strong links between metal contamination, habitat modification and estuarine larval fish distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, Andrew C.; Miskiewicz, Anthony; Taylor, Matthew D.; Johnston, Emma L.

    2011-01-01

    Changes to larval fish assemblages may have far reaching ecological impacts. Correlations between habitat modification, contamination and marine larval fish communities have rarely been assessed in situ. We investigated links between the large-scale distribution of stressors and larval fish assemblages in estuarine environments. Larval fish communities were sampled using a benthic sled within the inner and outer zones of three heavily modified and three relatively unmodified estuaries. Larval abundances were significantly greater in modified estuaries, and there were trends towards greater diversity in these systems. Differences in larval community composition were strongly related to sediment metal levels and reduced seagrass cover. The differences observed were driven by two abundant species, Paedogobius kimurai and Ambassis jacksoniensis, which occurred in large numbers almost exclusively in highly contaminated and pristine locations respectively. These findings suggest that contamination and habitat alteration manifest in substantial differences in the composition of estuarine larval fish assemblages. - Highlights: → We examine contamination/habitat modification impacts on larval fish. → Larvae communities differ between modified/unmodified estuaries. → Larvae are more abundant/diverse in modified areas. → Trends are strongly related to sediment metals/seagrass cover. → Larval impacts have wider ecological importance. - We describe strong links between sediment metals contamination, habitat modification and substantial differences in the composition of the estuarine larval fish assemblage.

  16. Strong links between metal contamination, habitat modification and estuarine larval fish distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinley, Andrew C., E-mail: andrew.mckinley@hotmail.com [Evolution and Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); Miskiewicz, Anthony [Environment and Recreation, Wollongong City Council, 41 Burelli Street, Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); Taylor, Matthew D.; Johnston, Emma L. [Evolution and Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia)

    2011-06-15

    Changes to larval fish assemblages may have far reaching ecological impacts. Correlations between habitat modification, contamination and marine larval fish communities have rarely been assessed in situ. We investigated links between the large-scale distribution of stressors and larval fish assemblages in estuarine environments. Larval fish communities were sampled using a benthic sled within the inner and outer zones of three heavily modified and three relatively unmodified estuaries. Larval abundances were significantly greater in modified estuaries, and there were trends towards greater diversity in these systems. Differences in larval community composition were strongly related to sediment metal levels and reduced seagrass cover. The differences observed were driven by two abundant species, Paedogobius kimurai and Ambassis jacksoniensis, which occurred in large numbers almost exclusively in highly contaminated and pristine locations respectively. These findings suggest that contamination and habitat alteration manifest in substantial differences in the composition of estuarine larval fish assemblages. - Highlights: > We examine contamination/habitat modification impacts on larval fish. > Larvae communities differ between modified/unmodified estuaries. > Larvae are more abundant/diverse in modified areas. > Trends are strongly related to sediment metals/seagrass cover. > Larval impacts have wider ecological importance. - We describe strong links between sediment metals contamination, habitat modification and substantial differences in the composition of the estuarine larval fish assemblage.

  17. Sequences associated with human iris pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frudakis, Tony; Thomas, Matthew; Gaskin, Zach; Venkateswarlu, K; Chandra, K Suresh; Ginjupalli, Siva; Gunturi, Sitaram; Natrajan, Sivamani; Ponnuswamy, Viswanathan K; Ponnuswamy, K N

    2003-12-01

    To determine whether and how common polymorphisms are associated with natural distributions of iris colors, we surveyed 851 individuals of mainly European descent at 335 SNP loci in 13 pigmentation genes and 419 other SNPs distributed throughout the genome and known or thought to be informative for certain elements of population structure. We identified numerous SNPs, haplotypes, and diplotypes (diploid pairs of haplotypes) within the OCA2, MYO5A, TYRP1, AIM, DCT, and TYR genes and the CYP1A2-15q22-ter, CYP1B1-2p21, CYP2C8-10q23, CYP2C9-10q24, and MAOA-Xp11.4 regions as significantly associated with iris colors. Half of the associated SNPs were located on chromosome 15, which corresponds with results that others have previously obtained from linkage analysis. We identified 5 additional genes (ASIP, MC1R, POMC, and SILV) and one additional region (GSTT2-22q11.23) with haplotype and/or diplotypes, but not individual SNP alleles associated with iris colors. For most of the genes, multilocus gene-wise genotype sequences were more strongly associated with iris colors than were haplotypes or SNP alleles. Diplotypes for these genes explain 15% of iris color variation. Apart from representing the first comprehensive candidate gene study for variable iris pigmentation and constituting a first step toward developing a classification model for the inference of iris color from DNA, our results suggest that cryptic population structure might serve as a leverage tool for complex trait gene mapping if genomes are screened with the appropriate ancestry informative markers.

  18. Clinicoepidemiological study of pigmented purpuric dermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lata Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pigmented purpuric dermatoses (PPD are a group of vascular disorders with varied manifestations which cause concern and are resistant to treatment. The literature is still lacking in clinicoepidemiological studies. Aim: To study the epidemiology, etiological, host and environmental factors, clinical manifestations, its variations, and the type prevalent in this part of the world. Materials and Methods: All cases of PPD were selected for the study from Skin and Venereal Disease, Out Patient Department between January 2008 and June 2009. Their history, examination, hematological investigations, and, in a few, histopathology findings were also recorded and data obtained were evaluated statistically. Results: There were 100 cases of PPD of total 55 323 patients (0.18%. There were 79 males and 21 females between 11 and 66 years. They were working as police men, security guards, barber, chemist, teachers, students, farmers, businessmen, and housewives. In a majority, there was a history of prolonged standing in day-to-day work. Purpuric, brownish pigmented, lichenoid or atrophic lesions were seen depending upon the type of PPD on lower parts of one or both lower limbs. Blood investigations were normal. Schamberg′s disease was seen in ninety five, Lichen aureus in three, lichenoid dermatosis and Majocchi′s disease in one case each. Discussion: Three clinical types of PPD were diagnosed which may represent different features of the same disease. Cell-mediated immunity, immune complexes, capillary fragility, gravitational forces, venous hypertension, focal infection, clothing, contact allergy to dyes, and drug intake have been incriminating factors in the past. Patient′s occupation and environmental factors may also be considered contributory in precipitating the disease. Conclusions: The study revealed the problem of PPD in this geographical area, its magnitude, clinical presentation, the type prevalent, and possible aggravating

  19. The biogeochemistry of tetrapyrrole pigments, emphasizing chlorophyll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louda, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Electronic absorption spectra recorded on native geopigments and on in vitro derivatives, obtained with combinations of copper insertion and borohydride reduction reactions, allowed a sensitive chromophore identification' scheme to be developed. Quantitation of the Ni and VO geoporphyrins, as well as the benzo-forms of each, was tested and precisions at the level of 100 [+-] 5% found. An overall methodology for obtaining repeatable low-voltage mass spectra on geoporphyrin arrays is presented. Repeatabilities for the various mass spectral-derived indices were; %DPEP ([+-]2%), X ([+-]2%), A.I.([+-]5%) and % BENZ ([+-]10%). Quantitation of the metallobenzoporphyrins was much better ([+-]2%) with UV/VIS techniques. Tetrapyrrole geochemistry was investigated at all stages of organic evolution. Thus, viable and senescent/dead uni-algal cultures, sediment trap material, surface (<1m) sediments, deep ocean long cores (DSDP), oil shales and petroleum crudes were investigated. Results indicate that the chlorophylls can serve as sources for a variety of geoporphyrins. Early in diagenesis two competing reactions dictate further fossilization.' First is the loss of the carbomethoxy group. This produces pyropheophorbides which can either lead to the true DPEP series, via a sequence of defunctionaliation reactions or, via intramolecular cyclization (dehydration), to certain 13[sup 2], 17[sup 3]-cyclopheophorbide enols. The latter, following defunctionalization, give rise to DiDPEP and/or DPEP-type pigments with a 7-membered exocyclic ring. Second, chlorophyll nuclei which have undergone oxidative scission of the isocyclic ring can, through purpurins and chlorins, theoretically yield C28-C30 ETIO-series porphyrins. Bacteriochlorophyll-a was found to be a dominant pigment in several anoxic sediments and is suggested as an important and highly specific precursor for certain geoporphyrins (i.e 3-methyl-desethyl-DPEP).

  20. Thyroxin hormone suppression treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    One of the important modalities of treatment of thyroid cancer (TC) after surgery is the administration of thyroxin as an adjuvant treatment. The analysis supports the theory that thyroid suppression plays an important role in patient management. 300 μg of thyroxin, as this is an adequate dose for suppression is given. Ideally the dose should be tailored by testing s-TSH levels. However, since a large number of the patients come from out station cities and villages this is impractical. We therefore depend on clinical criteria of hyperthyroid symptoms and adjust the dose. Very few patients need such adjustment

  1. Transplantation of retinal pigment epithelial cells - a possible future treatment for age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiencke, Anne Katrine

    2001-01-01

    ophthalmology, age-related macular degeneration, retinal pigment epithelial cells, transplantation, treatment......ophthalmology, age-related macular degeneration, retinal pigment epithelial cells, transplantation, treatment...

  2. Transplantation of retinal pigment epithelial cells - a possible future treatment for age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiencke, Anne Katrine

    2001-01-01

    ophthalmology, age-related macular degeneration, transplantation, retinal pigment epithelial cells, treatment......ophthalmology, age-related macular degeneration, transplantation, retinal pigment epithelial cells, treatment...

  3. Efficiency of selection methods for increased ratio of pupal-larval to adult-larval weight gains in Tribolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, J L; Cobos, P

    1994-01-12

    Four lines of Tribolium castaneum were selected in each of three replicates for increased ratio of (pupal-larval) to (adult-larval) weight gains, using selection for increased (pupal-larval) weight gain (PL), selection for decreased (adult-larval) weight gain (AL), direct selection for the ratio (R) and linear selection index of larval, pupal and adult weights (I), respectively, for four generations. Linear index was calculated with economic weights of m(2) -m(3) , m(3) -m(1) and m(1) -m(2) , respectively, with m(1) , m(2) and m(3) being the means for larval, pupal and adult weights. Selection to increase the ratio is considered to be a method to maximize the mean response in (adult-larval) weight while controlling the response in (pupal-adult) weight, and as a form of antagonistic selection to increase the weight gain during a given age period relative to the gain at another age period. Larval, pupal and adult weights were measured at 14, 21 and 28 days after adult emergence, respectively. The selected proportion was 20 % in all lines. The response observed for the ratio differed significantly among lines (p el cociente entre la ganancia en peso de pupa-peso de larva y la ganancia en peso de adulto-peso de larva en Tribolium Cuatro líneas de Tribolium castaneum fueron seleccionadas en cada una de tres repeticiones para incrementar el cociente (peso de pupa-peso de larva)/(peso de adulto-peso de larva); la línea PL fue seleccionada para aumentar la diferencia (peso de pupa-pesp de larva), la línea AL fue seleccionada para disminuir la diferencia (peso de adulto-peso de larva), fa línea R fue seleccionada directamente para el cociente, y la línea I fue seleccionada por medio de un índice lineal basado en los pesos de larva, pupa y adulto, durante cuatro generaciones. El índice lineal se calculó con pesos económicos de (m(2) -m(3) ), (m(3) -m(1) ), y (m(1) -m(2) ) respectivamentee, siendo m(1) , m(2) , y m(3) los valores medios para el peso de larva, pupa y

  4. Isolation and culture of larval cells from C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihui Zhang

    Full Text Available Cell culture is an essential tool to study cell function. In C. elegans the ability to isolate and culture cells has been limited to embryonically derived cells. However, cells or blastomeres isolated from mixed stage embryos terminally differentiate within 24 hours of culture, thus precluding post-embryonic stage cell culture. We have developed an efficient and technically simple method for large-scale isolation and primary culture of larval-stage cells. We have optimized the treatment to maximize cell number and minimize cell death for each of the four larval stages. We obtained up to 7.8×10(4 cells per microliter of packed larvae, and up to 97% of adherent cells isolated by this method were viable for at least 16 hours. Cultured larval cells showed stage-specific increases in both cell size and multinuclearity and expressed lineage- and cell type-specific reporters. The majority (81% of larval cells isolated by our method were muscle cells that exhibited stage-specific phenotypes. L1 muscle cells developed 1 to 2 wide cytoplasmic processes, while L4 muscle cells developed 4 to 14 processes of various thicknesses. L4 muscle cells developed bands of myosin heavy chain A thick filaments at the cell center and spontaneously contracted ex vivo. Neurons constituted less than 10% of the isolated cells and the majority of neurons developed one or more long, microtubule-rich protrusions that terminated in actin-rich growth cones. In addition to cells such as muscle and neuron that are high abundance in vivo, we were also able to isolate M-lineage cells that constitute less than 0.2% of cells in vivo. Our novel method of cell isolation extends C. elegans cell culture to larval developmental stages, and allows use of the wealth of cell culture tools, such as cell sorting, electrophysiology, co-culture, and high-resolution imaging of subcellular dynamics, in investigation of post-embryonic development and physiology.

  5. Larval and post-larval stages of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas are resistant to elevated CO2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko W K Ginger

    Full Text Available The average pH of surface oceans has decreased by 0.1 unit since industrialization and is expected to decrease by another 0.3-0.7 units before the year 2300 due to the absorption of anthropogenic CO2. This human-caused pH change is posing serious threats and challenges to the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas, especially to their larval stages. Our knowledge of the effect of reduced pH on C. gigas larvae presently relies presumptively on four short-term (<4 days survival and growth studies. Using multiple physiological measurements and life stages, the effects of long-term (40 days exposure to pH 8.1, 7.7 and 7.4 on larval shell growth, metamorphosis, respiration and filtration rates at the time of metamorphosis, along with the juvenile shell growth and structure of the C. gigas, were examined in this study. The mean survival and growth rates were not affected by pH. The metabolic, feeding and metamorphosis rates of pediveliger larvae were similar, between pH 8.1 and 7.7. The pediveligers at pH 7.4 showed reduced weight-specific metabolic and filtration rates, yet were able to sustain a more rapid post-settlement growth rate. However, no evidence suggested that low pH treatments resulted in alterations to the shell ultrastructures (SEM images or elemental compositions (i.e., Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios. Thus, larval and post-larval forms of the C. gigas in the Yellow Sea are probably resistant to elevated CO2 and decreased near-future pH scenarios. The pre-adapted ability to resist a wide range of decreased pH may provide C. gigas with the necessary tolerance to withstand rapid pH changes over the coming century.

  6. A new East-Asian species in the Chrysoperla carnea-group of cryptic lacewing species (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) based on distinct larval morphology and a unique courtship song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Charles S; Brooks, Stephen J; Johnson, James B; Haruyama, Naoto; Duelli, Peter; Mochizuki, Atsushi

    2015-02-11

    Larval morphology and substrate-borne vibrational courtship songs have been hypothesized to distinguish and isolate Chrysoperla 'nipponensis-B' from true 'Type A' Chrysoperla nipponensis (Okamoto), both of which occur sympatrically in eastern Asia. Here, we formally describe C. 'nipponensis-B' as Chrysoperla nigrocapitata sp.n., based on populations sampled throughout Japan and at two sites in South Korea. Behavioral playback experiments show that males and females of each species reject the duetting songs of non-conspecifics, supporting the existence in nature of strong premating reproductive isolation between the two species. Detailed morphological analysis substantiates that the adults of the two species are nearly identical. However, the dorsum of the larval head of C. nigrocapitata is usually darkly and heavily pigmented, in striking contrast to the condition seen in C. nipponensis; if available, it is probably the best trait for distinguishing the two species morphologically. Other aspects of life history, ecology, geographic distribution, and molecular systematics of the new species are briefly considered.

  7. The influence of different salinity conditions on egg buoyancy and development and yolk sac larval survival and morphometric traits of Baltic Sea sprat (Sprattus sprattus balticus Schneider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Petereit

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The small pelagic sprat (Sprattus sprattus is a key ecologic player in the Baltic Sea. However, there is long-term variability in recruitment which is thought to be influenced by fluctuations in abiotic and biotic conditions experienced during the early life stages. This study concentrates on the influence of different ambient salinities on sprat egg development, egg buoyancy and survival as well as early yolk sac larval morphometric traits. Egg buoyancy significantly decreased with increasing salinity experienced during fertilization and/or incubation experiments. Field egg buoyancy measurements in 2007 and 2008 exhibited annual and seasonal differences in specific gravity, potentially associated with changes in adult sprat vertical distribution. Neither egg development time nor the duration of the yolk sac phase differed among salinity treatments. At eye pigmentation, larval standard length exhibited high variance among individuals but did not differ among treatments. The largest ecological impact of salinity experienced during spawning was the modification the buoyancy of eggs and yolk sac larvae, which determines their vertical habitat in the Baltic Sea. There are strong thermo- and oxyclines in the Baltic Sea, and thus salinity can indirectly impact the survival of these early life stages by modifying the ambient temperatures and oxygen conditions experienced.

  8. A morphohistological and histochemical study of hatchery-reared European hake, Merluccius merluccius (Linnaeus, 1758, during the lecitho-exotrophic larval phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan B. Ortiz-Delgado

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The larval development of reared European hake, Merluccius merluccius (Linnaeus, 1758, during the lecithotrophic phase, from hatching until 5 days post-hatching (dph, and throughout the endo-exotrophic feeding phase (6-10 dph was studied by histology and histochemistry. Many crucial morphological, cellular and tissular changes were observed during both feeding phases, mostly those related to digestive and visual ontogenetic events, such as differentiation of buccopharyngeal cavity and eye development (at hatching; pigmentation and differentiation of cone-photoreceptors (4 dph; opening of the mouth and anus, appearance of intestinal valves (5-6 dph; presence of buccopharyngo-esophageal (5-6 dph and intestinal (9 dph mucous cells; folding of intestinal mucosa (6 dph; development of regional specific digestive musculature (6 dph; typical structure and functionality of the liver (sinusoids, biliary and pancreatic ducts, glycogen, protein and lipid reserves (4-6 dph; and characteristic acinar distribution pattern of eosinophilic zymogen granules of the exocrine pancreas (6 dph. Between 9 and 10 dph, the hake larvae showed evident signs of lipid absorption within enterocytes of the anterior intestinal region and a remarkable process of pynocitosis and intracellular digestion was detected in the posterior intestine (supranuclear inclusions or acidophilic protein vesicles. In hake larvae at 10 dph, a proliferation of renal tubules, spleen differentiation and gill development, as well as the presence of the first thyroid follicle, were clearly distinguished. At this time, stomach gastric gland differentiation was not detected and endocrine pancreas and gill lamellae were not evidenced. However, and interestingly, swim bladder and eyes (developing rods were well differentiated in larval development from 9 dph onwards. In summary, in European hake larval development during the endo-exogenous feeding phase and especially at 9 to 10 dph, most systems, organs

  9. Pharmacological implications from the adhesion-induced signaling profiles in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chuan Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular matrix (ECM plays an active and complex role in regulating cellular behaviors, including proliferation and adhesion. This study aimed at delineating the adhesion-induced signaling profiles in cultured human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE cells and investigating the antiadhesion effect of antiproliferative drugs in this context. RPE R-50 cells grown on various ECM molecules, such as type I and IV collagens, fibronectin, and laminin, were used for adhesion assay and for examining the phosphorylation profiles of signaling mediators including Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK 1/2, and integrin-linked kinase (ILK using Western blotting. The cells receiving antiproliferative drug treatment at subtoxic doses were used to evaluate their antiadhesive and suppressive effects on kinase activities. ECM coating enhanced adhesion and spreading of RPE cells significantly. The cellular attachment onto ECM-coated surfaces differentially induced Akt, ERK1/2, and ILK phosphorylation, and concomitantly increased p53 phosphorylation and cyclin D1 expression, but decreased Bcl-2/Bax ratios. Treatment with antiproliferative agents, including 5-fluorouracil, mitomycin C, and daunomycin, at subtoxic doses suppressed the ability of RPE cells to adhere to ECM substratum significantly. This suppression was in part mediated through reduction of integrin β1 and β3 expressions and interfering Akt-ILK signaling activity. Mechanistically, blockade of PI3K/Akt signaling resulted in the suppressed adhesion of RPE cells to ECM. These findings support the hypothesis that, in addition to their antimitogenic effect, antiproliferative agents also exhibit suppressive effect on the adhesiveness of cultured RPE cells. Moreover, inhibitors of the PI3K/Akt signaling mediator can potentially be used as therapeutic agents for proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

  10. Plasma suppression of beamstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittum, D.H.; Sessler, A.M.; Stewart, J.J.; Yu, S.S.

    1988-06-01

    We investigate the use of a plasma at the interaction point of two colliding beams to suppress beamsstrahlung and related phenomena. We derive conditions for good current cancellation via plasma return currents and report on numerical simulations conducted to confirm our analytic results. 10 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  11. The retinal pigment epithelium undergoes massive apoptosis during early differentiation and pigmentation of the optic cup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pequignot, M O; Provost, A C; Sallé, S; Menasche, M; Saule, S; Jaïs, J-P; Abitbol, M

    2011-04-20

    The aim of our work was to study apoptosis during the development of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in mice between embryonic day (E) 10.5 and E12.5 and to examine a possible link between apoptosis and pigmentation. We collected mouse embryos at E10.5, E11.5, and E12.5 and labeled apoptotic cells in 5-µm paraffin sections, using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling technique. We counted the total number of cells and the number of apoptotic cells in the early developing RPE and calculated the percentage of apoptosis at each stage. In the C57BL/6J mouse, 17% of the RPE cells were apoptotic at E10.5 compared to 0.9% at E12.5. At E11.5, three-quarters of the RPE cells began to pigment, and apoptotic cells were located mostly in the nonpigmented part. In contrast, in the BALB/c mouse (tyrosinase-deficient) and pJ mouse (carrying mutations in the p gene) hypopigmented strains, the RPE contained significantly fewer apoptotic cells (7.5% and 10.1%, respectively) at E10.5 than controls. Subsequently at E11.5 and E12.5, the two hypopigmented strains displayed different apoptotic patterns; the BALB/c RPE had a similar percentage of apoptotic cells to controls (1.5% and 1.1%, respectively, for BALB/c versus 3.0% and 0.9%, respectively, for C57BL/6J), whereas the pJ RPE contained significantly more apoptosis (7.5% and 3.5%, respectively). Overall we observed differences in the evolution of the relative total number of RPE cells between the three strains. Apoptosis is a main event during the first stages of normal RPE development, indicating an essential role during RPE differentiation. Moreover, the early apoptotic pattern and possibly the whole early development of the RPE is different between hypopigmented and pigmented strains, as well as between BALB/c and pJ mice. This suggests the existence of regulatory and developmental differences with a more complex origin than just differing pigmentation levels.

  12. Pigment characterization and lovastatin content of Monascus purpureus isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERNAWATI KASIM

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on characterization of pigment and lovastatin content of M. purpureus had been done. The aim of the research was to select 19 isolates of M. purpureus which produced the highest lovastatin content, and whether there was any correlation between pigment content and the lovastatin content. The isolates were grown on slant agar of bean sprout extract agar for 14 days. The spores suspension was inoculated to sterile cooked rice IR 42, then incubated for 14 days at 27-32oC. The fermented rice called “angkak”, dried in oven at 40-45oC for two weeks. The dried “angkak” was powdered to measure the content of the pigment and lovastatin. By using spectrophotometer the content of the yellow pigment and the red pigment at 390 nm and 500 nm wavelength respectively, could be detected. The content of lovastatin could be measured by using HPLC. The result showed that all the tested isolates could produce lovastatin compound, the yellow and the red pigment. The highest lovastatin content was 0.92% which produced by JmbA isolate. There was no correlation between the pigment and the lovastatin content.

  13. Synthesis of chromium containing pigments from chromium galvanic sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreola, F.; Barbieri, L.; Bondioli, F.; Cannio, M.; Ferrari, A.M.; Lancellotti, I.

    2008-01-01

    In this work the screening results of the scientific activity conducted on laboratory scale to valorise chromium(III) contained in the galvanic sludge as chromium precursor for ceramic pigments are reported. The valorisation of this waste as a secondary raw material (SRM) is obtained by achievement of thermal and chemical stable crystal structures able to color ceramic material. Two different pigments pink CaCr 0.04 Sn 0.97 SiO 5 and green Ca 3 Cr 2 (SiO 4 ) 3 were synthesized by solid-state reactions using dried Cr sludge as chromium oxide precursor. The obtained pigments were characterized by X-ray diffraction and SEM analysis. Furthermore the color developed in a suitable ceramic glaze was investigated in comparison with the color developed by the pigments prepared from pure Cr 2 O 3 . The characterization carried out corroborates the thermal and chemical stability of the synthesized pigments and, especially for the Cr-Sn pink pigment, the powders develop an intense color that is very similar to the color developed by the pigments obtained starting from pure Cr 2 O 3

  14. Fe K-edge XANES of Maya blue pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, M. Sanchez del; Sodo, A.; Eeckhout, S.G.; Neisius, T.; Martinetto, P.; Dooryhee, E.; Reyes-Valerio, C.

    2005-01-01

    The utilization of techniques used in Materials Science for the characterization of artefacts of interest for cultural heritage is getting more and more attention nowadays. One of the products of the ancient Maya chemistry is the 'Maya blue' pigment, made with natural indigo and palygorskite. This pigment is different from any other pigment used in other parts of the world. It is durable and acid-resistant, and still keeps many secrets to scientists even though it has been studied for more than 50 years. Although the pigment is basically made of palygorskite Si 8 (Mg 2 Al 2 )O 20 (OH) 2 (OH 2 ) 4 .4H 2 O and an organic colourant (indigo: C 16 H 10 N 2 O 2 ), a number of other compounds have been found in previous studies on archaeological samples, like other clays and minerals, iron nanoparticles, iron oxides, impurities of transition metals (Cr, Mn, Ti, V), etc. We measured at the ESRF ID26 beamline the Fe K-edge XANES spectra of the blue pigment in ancient samples. They are compared to XANES spectra of Maya blue samples synthesized under controlled conditions, and iron oxides usually employed as pigments (hematite and goethite). Our results show that the iron found in ancient Maya blue pigment is related to the Fe exchanged in the palygorskite clay. We did not find iron in metallic form or goethite in archaeological Maya blue

  15. Optimizing Angkak Pigments and Lovastatin Production By Monascus purpureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASIM DANURI

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Angkak pigments and lovastatin had been reported very useful as natural coloring agents, as an agent to increase thrombocyte level in Dengue hemorrhagic fever, and also as a compound that was able to control blood cholesterol level. Three strains of fungus Monascus purpureus AKI, AKII, and 915 were selected to produce angkak pigments and lovastatin in potato dextrose agar (PDA medium. The best fungus strain, which is AKII, was then applied in three kinds of rice media (white rice IR-42, red rice BP-1804-IF-9, and a combination of 1:1 (w/w white IR-42 and red rice BP-1804-IF-9 for solid fermentation. The best medium and fermentation times were determined for the production of angkak pigments and lovastatin separately. Results showed that strains, media, and duration of fermentations gave significant effect on the amount of pigment produced. Strain AKII produced highest concentration of angkak pigments. The combination of rice (White IR-42 and red rice BP-1804-IF-9 produced the highest pigment than the individual white and red rie it self. The optimum duration of fermentation was 16 days for strains AKI and AKII, but only 15 days for strain 915. Therefore the strain AKII with media combination of rice and a fermentation time of 16 days were used to investigate the additional effect of various minerals. Addition of the mineral individually gave significant increased on angkak pigment production by AKII, where as the addition of minerals mixture in the forth tube did not.

  16. DNA damage in isolated rat hepatocytes exposed to C.I. pigment orange 5 and C.I. pigment yellow 12 by the alkaline comet assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, P; Wallin, Håkan; Grunnet, N

    1998-01-01

    , and C.I. pigment orange 5 is a naphthol-azo pigment. The pigments are virtually insoluble in aqueous solutions, and they have not been tested extensively for toxicological effects. C.I. pigment orange 5 increased the levels of DNA damage at 5 microg/ml (P .../ml (P effect of incubation time (20, 40, and 80 min) of the same concentrations of the pigments was tested. The levels of DNA damage were increased up to 80 min. Both pigments produced DNA damage that was in the same range as the food carcinogen 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f......]quinoxaline. Our data indicate that both C.I. pigment orange 5 and C.I. pigment yellow 12 are genotoxic in hepatocytes with metabolizing capacities. However, further investigation of the metabolism and disposition are required for the evaluation of the safety of these pigments....

  17. Increased Larval Density Induces Accelerated Metamorphosis Independently of Growth Rate in the FrogRana sphenocephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Janel; Martin, Lincoln; Beachy, Christopher K

    2009-01-01

    We grew larval Rana sphenocephala at different densities but maintained equal mean growth rates among density treatments (via equal per capita food levels) to test the hypothesis that larval density can influence metamorphic timing independently of larval growth rate. Tadpoles at high density metamorphosed earlier than tadpoles at low density despite growing at similar rates. Food reductions did not accelerate metamorphosis. These results support the hypothesis that density can be a sufficient cue to initiate metamorphosis independently of growth rate.

  18. Barnacle larval transport in the Mandovi–Zuari estuarine system, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    George, G.; Desai, D.V.; Gaonkar, C.A.; Aboobacker, V.M.; Vethamony, P.; Anil, A.C.

    organisms includes a pelagic larval phase important in dispersal. The key factor that influences the final destination of the larvae during dispersal is their Planktonic Larval Duration (PLD) phase, which depends on both genetic and environmental... etc during planktonic life indicates the approximate duration of planktonic larval life (Anil and Kurian 1996; Anil et al. 2001; Desai and Anil 2004; Desai and Prakash 2009). A sufficient retention time in an estuarine basin could trap larvae (Lobel...

  19. The extraction of pigments from fresh Laminaria japonica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liqun; Li, Pengcheng; Fan, Shoujin

    2008-05-01

    The pigments in Laminaria japonica was extracted with six organic solvents and analyzed in spectroscopy analysis. The extractions conditions were screened by an orthogonal test and the quantity of extracted pigments was determined spectroscopically. The results show that: (1) among the six organic solvents, acetone was the most effective one for the extraction; (2) the optimum extraction conditions were as follows: the ratio of S/M (solvent volume/ material weight) was 30 ml/g; fresh seaweed was extracted 2 times in 2 h; (3) the average total content of pigments was 1.85 mg/g (calculated with dry L. japonica).

  20. Visual pigments of the box jellyfish species Chiropsella bronzie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O*Connor, Megan; Garm, Anders Lydik; Marshall, Justin

    2010-01-01

    Box jellyfish (Cubomedusae) possess a unique visual system comprising 24 eyes of four morphological types. Moreover, box jellyfish display several visually guided behaviours, including obstacle avoidance and light-shaft attractance. It is largely unknown what kind of visual information box jellyf...... results strongly indicate that only one type of visual pigment is present in the upper and lower lens eyes with a peak absorbance of approximately 510 nm. Additionally, the visual pigment appears to undergo bleaching, similar to that of vertebrate visual pigments....

  1. Combustion synthesis of cobalt pigments: Blue and pink

    OpenAIRE

    Mimani, T; Ghosh, Samrat

    2000-01-01

    Idiochromatic blue cobalt aluminate (CoAl2O4) and purple pyroborate Co2B2O5 were prepared by solution combustion method using corresponding metal nitrates, boric acid and carbohydrazide mixtures. Allochromatic Co2+ doped in Al2O3/ZnAl2O4 and Mg2B2O5 pigments having the same colour intensity as idiochromatic pigments were obtained similarly. All the pigments are voluminous, homogeneously coloured with a large surface area. The products are characterized by their characteristic colours, XRD, IR...

  2. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma mimicking a superficial spreading melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbún Acuña, Paula; Cullen Aravena, Roberto; Maturana Donaire, César; Ares Mora, Raúl; Porras Kusmanic, Ninoska

    2016-12-20

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common form of skin cancer, especially in elderly people. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma is a rare subtype and has been described in the literature as a nodular and hyperpigmented lesion; rarely, it can appear as an extensive pigmented plate, which may be clinically indistinguishable from superficial spreading melanoma and Bowen disease. Dermatoscopy has a high sensitivity in the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma. When Menzies criteria are used; however, the final diagnosis is made by histopathology. The objective of the present report is to analyze the case of a patient with pigmented basal cell carcinoma simulating a superficial spreading melanoma.

  3. The genetic, morphological, and physiological characterization of a dark larval cuticle mutation in the butterfly, Bicyclus anynana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Bear

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies on insect melanism have greatly contributed to our understanding of natural selection and the ultimate factors influencing the evolution of darkly pigmented phenotypes. Research on several species of melanic lepidopteran larvae have found that low levels of circulating juvenile hormone (JH titers are associated with a melanic phenotype, suggesting that genetic changes in the JH biosynthetic pathway give rise to increased deposition of melanin granules in the cuticle in this group. But does melanism arise through different molecular mechanisms in different species? The present study reports on a Bicyclus anynana (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae dark larvae single locus mutation, in which larvae exhibit a darker cuticle relative to wild type. Unlike other lepidopteran melanic larvae mutations, this one is autosomal recessive and does not appear to involve a deficiency in JH titers. Unlike JH deficiency mutants, dark larvae mutants display similar growth rates and sexual behaviors as wild type, and topical application of a JH analogue failed to rescue the wild type cuticular coloration. Finally, transmission electron microscopy showed that sclerotization or deposition of diffuse melanin, rather than deposition of melanin granules, produces the dark coloration found in the cuticle of this species. We conclude that different molecular mechanisms underlie larval melanism in different species of Lepidoptera.

  4. Gingival Pigmentation Affected by Smoking among Different Age Groups: A Quantitative Analysis of Gingival Pigmentation Using Clinical Oral Photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Tomotaka; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Takiuchi, Hiroya; Sugiyama, Seiichi; Hanioka, Takashi; Naito, Toru

    2017-08-04

    The presence of any age-related differences in gingival pigmentation associated with smoking, particularly in a young population, remains to be fully investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine the age-related differences in smoking gingival pigmentation. Gingival pigmentation was analyzed using the gingival melanosis record (GMR) and Hedin's classification with frontal oral photographs taken at 16 dental offices in Japan. Participants were categorized into 10-year age groups, and their baseline photographs were compared. In addition, to evaluate the effect of smoking cessation on gingival pigmentation, subjects were divided into a former smoker group (stopped smoking) and current smoker group. A total of 259 patients 19 to 79 years of age were analyzed. People in their 30s showed the most widespread gingival pigmentation. In addition, subjects in their 20s showed a weak effect of smoking cessation on gingival pigmentation. These findings suggested that the gingival pigmentation induced by smoking was more remarkable in young people than in middle-aged people. This information may be useful for anti-smoking education, especially among young populations with a high affinity for smoking.

  5. The penetration depth and lateral distribution of pigment related to the pigment grain size and the calendering of paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelow, K.; Kristiansson, P.; Schueler, B.; Tullander, E.; Oestling, S.; Elfman, M.; Malmqvist, K.; Pallon, J.; Shariff, A.

    2002-01-01

    The interaction of ink and newspaper has been investigated and the specific question of penetration of ink into the paper has been addressed with a nuclear microprobe using particle induced X-ray emission. The penetration depth of the newsprint is a critical factor in terms of increasing the quality of newsprint and minimising the amount of ink used. The objective of the experiment was to relate the penetration depth of pigment with the calendering of the paper. The dependence of the penetration depth on the pigment grain size was also studied. To study the penetration depth of pigment in paper, cyan ink with Cu as a tracer of the coloured pigment was used. For the study of the penetration depth dependence of pigment size, specially grounded Japanese ink with well-defined pigment grain size was used. This was compared to Swedish ink with pigment grains with normal size-distribution. The results show that the calendering of the paper considerably affects the penetration depth of ink

  6. Expression and light-triggered movement of rhodopsins in the larval visual system of mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Manuel; Kimler, Kyle J; Leming, Matthew T; Hu, Xiaobang; Whaley, Michelle A; O'Tousa, Joseph E

    2015-05-01

    During the larval stages, the visual system of the mosquito Aedes aegypti contains five stemmata, often referred to as larval ocelli, positioned laterally on each side of the larval head. Here we show that stemmata contain two photoreceptor types, distinguished by the expression of different rhodopsins. The rhodopsin Aaop3 (GPROP3) is expressed in the majority of the larval photoreceptors. There are two small clusters of photoreceptors located within the satellite and central stemmata that express the rhodopsin Aaop7 (GPROP7) instead of Aaop3. Electroretinogram analysis of transgenic Aaop7 Drosophila indicates that Aaop3 and Aaop7, both classified as long-wavelength rhodopsins, possess similar but not identical spectral properties. Light triggers an extensive translocation of Aaop3 from the photosensitive rhabdoms to the cytoplasmic compartment, whereas light-driven translocation of Aaop7 is limited. The results suggest that these photoreceptor cell types play distinct roles in larval vision. An additional component of the larval visual system is the adult compound eye, which starts to develop at the anterior face of the larval stemmata during the 1st instar stage. The photoreceptors of the developing compound eye show rhodopsin expression during the 4th larval instar stage, consistent with indications from previous reports that the adult compound eye contributes to larval and pupal visual capabilities. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Application of Elemental Fingerprinting to Evaluate the Dynamics of Larval Exchange

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levin, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    ... of connectivity that results from larval dispersal. This study seeks to develop trace elemental fingerprinting methods to assess patterns of exchange among mytilid mussel populations in southern California...

  8. Larval descriptions of the family Porcellanidae: A worldwide annotated compilation of the literature (Crustacea, Decapoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, María José; González-Gordillo, Juan Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract For most of the family Porcellanidae, which comprises 283 species, larval development remains to be described. Full development has been only described for 52 species, while part of the larval cycle has been described for 45 species. The importance of knowing the complete larval development of a species goes beyond allowing the identification of larval specimens collected in the plankton. Morphological larval data also constitute a support to cladistic techniques used in the establishment of the phylogenetic status (see Hiller et al. 2006, Marco-Herrero et al. 2013). Nevertheless, the literature on the larval development of this family is old and widely dispersed and in many cases it is difficult to collect the available information on a particular taxon. Towards the aim of facilitating future research, all information available on the larval development of porcellanids has been compiled. Following the taxonomic checklist of Porcellanidae proposed by Osawa and McLaughlin (2010), a checklist has been prepared that reflects the current knowledge about larval development of the group including larval stages and the method used to obtain the larvae, together with references. Those species for which the recognised names have been changed according to Osawa and McLaughlin (2010) are indicated. PMID:27081332

  9. Ocean acidification alters temperature and salinity preferences in larval fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistevos, Jennifer C A; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Rossi, Tullio; Connell, Sean D

    2017-02-01

    Ocean acidification alters the way in which animals perceive and respond to their world by affecting a variety of senses such as audition, olfaction, vision and pH sensing. Marine species rely on other senses as well, but we know little of how these might be affected by ocean acidification. We tested whether ocean acidification can alter the preference for physicochemical cues used for dispersal between ocean and estuarine environments. We experimentally assessed the behavioural response of a larval fish (Lates calcarifer) to elevated temperature and reduced salinity, including estuarine water of multiple cues for detecting settlement habitat. Larval fish raised under elevated CO 2 concentrations were attracted by warmer water, but temperature had no effect on fish raised in contemporary CO 2 concentrations. In contrast, contemporary larvae were deterred by lower salinity water, where CO 2 -treated fish showed no such response. Natural estuarine water-of higher temperature, lower salinity, and containing estuarine olfactory cues-was only preferred by fish treated under forecasted high CO 2 conditions. We show for the first time that attraction by larval fish towards physicochemical cues can be altered by ocean acidification. Such alterations to perception and evaluation of environmental cues during the critical process of dispersal can potentially have implications for ensuing recruitment and population replenishment. Our study not only shows that freshwater species that spend part of their life cycle in the ocean might also be affected by ocean acidification, but that behavioural responses towards key physicochemical cues can also be negated through elevated CO 2 from human emissions.

  10. Do effects of mercury in larval amphibians persist after metamorphosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Brian D; Willson, John D; Bergeron, Christine M; Hopkins, William A

    2012-01-01

    Despite widespread concern about the role of environmental contaminants in global amphibian declines, and evidence that post-metamorphic life stages contribute disproportionately to amphibian population dynamics, most studies in amphibian ecotoxicology focus on larval life stages. Studies that focus solely on early life stages may miss important effects of contaminant exposure, such as latent effects that manifest some time after previous exposure. Moreover, it is often assumed that effects observed in amphibian larvae will persist to affect survival or reproduction later in life. We used terrestrial enclosures to determine whether exposure to mercury (Hg) through maternal transfer and/or larval diet had any adverse effects in post-metamorphic American toads (Bufo americanus). We found a 5% difference in size at metamorphosis that was attributed to maternal Hg exposure persisted for 1 year in the terrestrial environment, resulting in a 7% difference at the conclusion of the study. Although patterns of survival differed among treatments through time, we found no overall difference in survival after 1 year. We also found no evidence of emergent latent effects in the terrestrial toads that could be attributed to earlier exposure. Our results indicate that adverse effects of maternal Hg exposure that were observed in larval amphibians may persist to affect later terrestrial life stages but that no novel adverse effects developed when animals were raised in a semi-natural environment. Moreover, we found no evidence of persistent effects of dietary Hg exposure in larvae, highlighting a need for greater focus on maternal effects in amphibian ecotoxicology. Finally, we suggest an increase in the use of longitudinal studies to better understand contaminant impacts to amphibian populations via effects in both aquatic and terrestrial life stages.

  11. J/Ψ suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giubellino, P.; Abreu, M.C.; Alessandro, B.; Alexa, C.; Arnaldi, R.; Astruc, J.; Atayan, M.; Baglin, C.; Baldit, A.; Bedjidian, M.; Bellaiche, F.; Beole, S.; Boldea, V.; Bordalo, P.; Bussiere, A.; Capony, V.; Casagrande, L.; Castor, J.; Chambon, T.; Chaurand, B.; Chevrot, I.; Cheynis, B.; Chiavassa, E.; Cicalo, C.; Comets, M.P.; Constantinescu, S.; Cruz, J.; De Falco, A.; De Marco, N.; Dellacasa, G.; Devaux, A.; Dita, S.; Drapier, O.; Espagnon, B.; Fargeix, J.; Filippov, S.N.; Fleuret, F.; Force, P.; Gallio, M.; Gavrilov, Y.K.; Gerschel, C.; Giubellino, P.; Golubeva, M.B.; Gonin, M.; Grigorian, A.A.; Grossiord, J.Y.; Guber, F.F.; Guichard, A.; Gulkaninan, H.; Hakobyan, R.; Haroutunian, R.; Idzik, M.; Jouan, D.; Karavitcheva, T.L.; Kluberg, L.; Kurepin, A.B.; Le Bornec, Y.; Lourenco, C.; Mac Cormick, M.; Macciotta, P.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Mehrabyan, S.; Mourgues, S.; Musso, A.; Ohlsson-Malek, F.; Petiau, P.; Piccotti, A.; Pizzi, J.R.; Prado da Silva, W.L.; Puddu, G.; Quintans, C.; Racca, C.; Ramello, L.; Ramos, S.; Rato-Mendes, P.; Riccati, L.; Romana, A.; Sartori, S.; Saturnini, P.; Scomparin, E.; Serci, S.; Shahoyan, R.; Silva, S.; Soave, C.; Sonderegger, P.; Tarrago, X.; Temnikov, P.; Topilskaya, N.S.; Usai, G.; Vale, C.; Vercellin, E.; Willis, N.

    1999-01-01

    The cross section for J/Ψ production in Pb-Pb interactions at 158 GeV per nucleon is measured at the CERN SPS by the NA50 experiment. The final results from the 1995 run are presented here together with preliminary ones from the high-statistics 1996 run. An anomalous J/Ψ suppression is observed in Pb-Pb collisions as compared to extrapolations of the previous results obtained by the NA38 experiment with proton and lighter ion beams. The results of the two runs are in good agreement. The results from the 1996 run allow the study of the onset of the anomalous suppression within the same set of data, showing evidence of a sharp change of behaviour around a value of neutral transverse energy, as measured by our electromagnetic calorimeter, of about 50 GeV

  12. Larval habitats of anopheline mosquitoes in the Upper Orinoco, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejmánková, E; Rubio-Palis, Y; Villegas, L

    1999-12-01

    Survey of larval habitats of anopheline mosquitoes was conducted in Ocamo in the State of Amazonas, southern Venezuela. The sampled habitats belonged to three different hydrological types: lagoons (26 habitats), forest pools including flooded forest (16 habitats), and forest streams (4 habitats). Out of 46 habitats surveyed, 31 contained anopheline larvae. Six species were found: Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles triannulatus, Anopheles oswaldoi, Anopheles peryassui, Anopheles punctimacula, and Anopheles mediopunctatus. Anopheles triannulatus was the most abundant species. Significantly higher numbers of anopheline larvae, in general, and of An. triannulatus specifically were found in lagoons with submersed macrophytes and sparse emergent graminoids than in forest pools with detritus.

  13. Parasites of larval black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanae Jitklang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Parasites of larval black flies are reported for the first time from Thailand, including mermithid nematodes(Mermithidae, microsporidian fungi (Zygomycota, and the fungus Coelomycidium simulii Debaisieux (Blastocladiomycetes.The following nine species of black flies were infected with one or more parasites: Simulium asakoae, S. chamlongi,S. chiangmaiense, S. fenestratum, S. feuerborni, S. nakhonense, S. nodosum, S. quinquestriatum, and S. tani. The prevalenceof patent infections per host species per season was 0.1–7.1% for mermithids, 0.1–6.0% for microsporidia, and 0.1–3.0% forC. simulii.

  14. Neutrophils Compromise Retinal Pigment Epithelial Barrier Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiehao Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that neutrophils and their secreted factors mediate breakdown of the integrity of the outer blood-retina-barrier by degrading the apical tight junctions of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. The effect of activated neutrophils or neutrophil cell lysate on apparent permeability of bovine RPE-Choroid explants was evaluated by measuring [H] mannitol flux in a modified Ussing chamber. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP- 9 in murine peritoneal neutrophils, and the effects of neutrophils on RPE tight-junction protein expression were assessed by confocal microscopy and western blot. Our results revealed that basolateral incubation of explants with neutrophils decreased occludin and ZO-1 expression at 1 and 3 hours and increased the permeability of bovine RPE-Choroid explants by >3-fold (P<.05. Similarly, basolateral incubation of explants with neutrophil lysate decreased ZO-1 expression at 1 and 3 hours (P<.05 and increased permeability of explants by 75%. Further, we found that neutrophils prominently express MMP-9 and that incubation of explants with neutrophils in the presence of anti-MMP-9 antibody inhibited the increase in permeability. These data suggest that neutrophil-derived MMP-9 may play an important role in disrupting the integrity of the outer blood-retina barrier.

  15. Age-related hair pigment loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Desmond J

    2015-01-01

    Humans are social animals that communicate disproportionately via potent genetic signals imbued in the skin and hair, including racial, ethnic, health, gender, and age status. For the vast majority of us, age-related hair pigment loss becomes the inescapable signal of our disappearing youth. The hair follicle (HF) pigmentary unit is a wonderful tissue for studying mechanisms generally regulating aging, often before this becomes evident elsewhere in the body. Given that follicular melanocytes (unlike those in the epidermis) are regulated by the hair growth cycle, this cycle is likely to impact the process of aging in the HF pigmentary unit. The formal identification of melanocyte stem cells in the mouse skin has spurred a flurry of reports on the potential involvement of melanocyte stem cell depletion in hair graying (i.e., canities). Caution is recommended, however, against simple extrapolation of murine data to humans. Regardless, hair graying in both species is likely to involve an age-related imbalance in the tissue's oxidative stress handling that will impact not only melanogenesis but also melanocyte stem cell and melanocyte homeostasis and survival. There is some emerging evidence that the HF pigmentary unit may have regenerative potential, even after it has begun to produce white hair fibers. It may therefore be feasible to develop strategies to modulate some aging-associated changes to maintain melanin production for longer. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Electrical estimulation of retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa, Olga Lucia; Pu, Jin; Townend, John; Forrester, John V; Zhao, Min; McCaig, Colin; Lois, Noemi

    2010-08-01

    We investigated and characterized the effect of externally applied electric fields (EF) on retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells by exposing primary cultures of human RPE cells (hRPE) and those from the ARPE19 immortalized cell line to various strengths of EF (EF-treated cells) or to no EF (control cells) under different conditions including presence or absence of serum and gelatin and following wounding. We evaluated changes in RPE cell behavior in response to EF by using a computer based image capture and analysis system (Metamorph). We found that RPE cells responded to externally applied EFs by preferential orientation perpendicular to the EF vector, directed migration towards the anode, and faster translocation rate than control, untreated cells. These responses were voltage-dependent. Responses were observed even at low voltages, of 50-300 mV. Furthermore, the migration of hRPE cell sheets generated by wounding of confluent monolayers of cells at early and late confluence could be manipulated by the application of EF, with directed migration towards the anode observed at both sides of the wounded hRPE. In conclusion, RPE cell behaviour can be controlled by an externally applied EF. The potential for externally applied EF to be used as a therapeutic strategy in the management of selected retinal diseases warrants further investigation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Polyketides, toxins and pigments in Penicillium marneffei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Emily W T; Tsang, Chi-Ching; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2015-10-30

    Penicillium marneffei (synonym: Talaromyces marneffei) is the most important pathogenic thermally dimorphic fungus in China and Southeastern Asia. The HIV/AIDS pandemic, particularly in China and other Southeast Asian countries, has led to the emergence of P. marneffei infection as an important AIDS-defining condition. Recently, we published the genome sequence of P. marneffei. In the P. marneffei genome, 23 polyketide synthase genes and two polyketide synthase-non-ribosomal peptide synthase hybrid genes were identified. This number is much higher than those of Coccidioides immitis and Histoplasma capsulatum, important pathogenic thermally dimorphic fungi in the Western world. Phylogenetically, these polyketide synthase genes were distributed evenly with their counterparts found in Aspergillus species and other fungi, suggesting that polyketide synthases in P. marneffei did not diverge from lineage-specific gene duplication through a recent expansion. Gene knockdown experiments and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector/electrospray ionization-quadruple time of flight-mass spectrometry analysis confirmed that at least four of the polyketide synthase genes were involved in the biosynthesis of various pigments in P. marneffei, including melanin, mitorubrinic acid, mitorubrinol, monascorubrin, rubropunctatin, citrinin and ankaflavin, some of which were mycotoxins and virulence factors of the fungus.

  18. Polyketides, Toxins and Pigments in Penicillium marneffei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily W. T. Tam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Penicillium marneffei (synonym: Talaromyces marneffei is the most important pathogenic thermally dimorphic fungus in China and Southeastern Asia. The HIV/AIDS pandemic, particularly in China and other Southeast Asian countries, has led to the emergence of P. marneffei infection as an important AIDS-defining condition. Recently, we published the genome sequence of P. marneffei. In the P. marneffei genome, 23 polyketide synthase genes and two polyketide synthase-non-ribosomal peptide synthase hybrid genes were identified. This number is much higher than those of Coccidioides immitis and Histoplasma capsulatum, important pathogenic thermally dimorphic fungi in the Western world. Phylogenetically, these polyketide synthase genes were distributed evenly with their counterparts found in Aspergillus species and other fungi, suggesting that polyketide synthases in P. marneffei did not diverge from lineage-specific gene duplication through a recent expansion. Gene knockdown experiments and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector/electrospray ionization-quadruple time of flight-mass spectrometry analysis confirmed that at least four of the polyketide synthase genes were involved in the biosynthesis of various pigments in P. marneffei, including melanin, mitorubrinic acid, mitorubrinol, monascorubrin, rubropunctatin, citrinin and ankaflavin, some of which were mycotoxins and virulence factors of the fungus.

  19. Glucose metabolism in rat retinal pigment epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffe, Víctor; Carbajal, Raymundo C; Salceda, Rocío

    2006-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is the major transport pathway for exchange of metabolites and ions between choroidal blood supply and the neural retina. To gain insight into the mechanisms controlling glucose metabolism in RPE and its possible relationship to retinopathy, we studied the influence of different glucose concentrations on glycogen and lactate levels and CO(2) production in RPE from normal and streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats. Incubation of normal RPE in the absence of glucose caused a decrease in lactate production and glycogen content. In normal RPE, increasing glucose concentrations from 5.6 mM to 30 mM caused a four-fold increase in glucose accumulation and CO(2) yield, as well as reduction in lactate and glycogen production. In RPE from diabetic rats glucose accumulation did not increase in the presence of high glucose substrate, but it showed a four- and a seven-fold increase in CO(2) production through the mitochondrial and pentose phosphate pathways, respectively. We found high glycogen levels in RPE which can be used as an energy reserve for RPE itself and/or neural retina. Findings further show that the RPE possesses a high oxidative capacity. The large increase in glucose shunting to the pentose phosphate pathway in diabetic retina exposed to high glucose suggests a need for reducing capacity, consistent with increased oxidative stress.

  20. Expressions of visual pigments and synaptic proteins in neonatal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    related macular degeneration inhuman. Some animal species show drastic retinal changes when exposed to intense light (e.g. albino rats). Althoughbirds have a pigmented retina, few reports indicated its susceptibility to light damage. To know ...

  1. Microanalysis study of archaeological mural samples containing Maya blue pigment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, M. [ESRF, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble (France)]. E-mail: srio@esrf.fr; Martinetto, P. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP166 F-30842 Grenoble (France); Somogyi, A. [ESRF, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Reyes-Valerio, C. [INAH, Mexico DF (Mexico); Dooryhee, E. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP166 F-30842 Grenoble (France); Peltier, N. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP166 F-30842 Grenoble (France); Alianelli, L. [INFM-OGG c/o ESRF, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Moignard, B. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Pichon, L. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Calligaro, T. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Dran, J.-C. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France)

    2004-10-08

    Elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence and particle induced X-ray emission is applied to the study of several Mesoamerican mural samples containing blue pigments. The most characteristic blue pigment is Maya blue, a very stable organo-clay complex original from Maya culture and widely used in murals, pottery and sculptures in a vast region of Mesoamerica during the pre-hispanic time (from VIII century) and during the colonization until 1580. The mural samples come from six different archaeological sites (four pre-hispanic and two from XVI century colonial convents). The correlation between the presence of some elements and the pigment colour is discussed. From the comparative study of the elemental concentration, some conclusions are drawn on the nature of the pigments and the technology used.

  2. Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of oral amalgam pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Sirera, Beatriz; Risueño-Mata, Presentación; Ricart-Vayá, José M; Baquero Ruíz de la Hermosa, Carmen; Vera-Sempere, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Amalgam tattoo, the most common exogenous oral pigmentation, can sometimes be confused with melanotic lesions, being then biopsied. We present the clinicopathological characteristics of 6 biopsied cases (5 females and 1 male) of oral amalgam pigmentation. The most common location was the gingival mucosa, followed by the buccal and palatal mucosa. Morphology and distribution (stromal, perivascular, perineural, endomysial) of pigmentation was variable; there was only 1 case with fibrous capsular reaction and likewise only a single case of granulomatous foreign body reaction. Morphological variability is conditioned by the timing and amount of the pigment deposit, which is often associated with infiltration by mast cells (CD117+), as well as overexpression of metallothionein and HLA-DR at different tissue levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  3. Pigmented Bowen's disease presenting with a "starburst" pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maione, Vincenzo; Errichetti, Enzo; Roussel, Sara Laurent; Lebbé, Celeste

    2016-10-01

    Pigmented Bowen's disease (pBD) is an uncommon in situ squamous cell carcinoma of the skin usually presenting as a dark scaly plaque involving chronically exposed sites, which is not uncommonly mistaken for other similar pigmented lesions, such as melanoma, pigmented basal cell carcinoma or seborrheic keratosis [1,2]. Dermoscopy has been proven to improve its diagnosis by showing several findings, i.e., gray/brownish dots in linear arrangement, scales, coiled vessels, focal/multifocal amorphous hypopigmentation and bluish structureless areas [1,2]. However, pBD may sometimes display dermoscopic features which are typical of other pigmented lesions, thus making its recognition quite troublesome despite the use of dermoscopy [1,2]. We report a case of pBD with a "starburst" pattern, discussing its dermoscopic differential diagnosis.

  4. Microanalysis study of archaeological mural samples containing Maya blue pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez del Rio, M.; Martinetto, P.; Somogyi, A.; Reyes-Valerio, C.; Dooryhee, E.; Peltier, N.; Alianelli, L.; Moignard, B.; Pichon, L.; Calligaro, T.; Dran, J.-C.

    2004-01-01

    Elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence and particle induced X-ray emission is applied to the study of several Mesoamerican mural samples containing blue pigments. The most characteristic blue pigment is Maya blue, a very stable organo-clay complex original from Maya culture and widely used in murals, pottery and sculptures in a vast region of Mesoamerica during the pre-hispanic time (from VIII century) and during the colonization until 1580. The mural samples come from six different archaeological sites (four pre-hispanic and two from XVI century colonial convents). The correlation between the presence of some elements and the pigment colour is discussed. From the comparative study of the elemental concentration, some conclusions are drawn on the nature of the pigments and the technology used

  5. Pigmented villonodular synovitis of the knee: a case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    traumatic left knee pain and swelling. Radiography and histology were in keeping with Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis (PVNS). This case highlights the clinical presentation of this rare disorder and emphasizes its consideration as a differential ...

  6. Ion beam induced luminescence on white inorganic pigments for paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaranta, A.; Dran, J.C.; Salomon, J.; Tonezzer, M.; Scian, C.; Beck, L.; Carturan, S.; Maggioni, G.; Della Mea, G.

    2008-01-01

    Ion beam induced luminescence (IBIL) has been used for studying the emission features and the radiation hardness of white pigments. In particular, ZnO, gypsum and basic lead sulphate pigments have been analyzed with a 3.0 MeV H + beam at the AGLAE Louvre laboratory. The same pigments mixed with different binders have been also analyzed on a canvas, in order to evaluate the contribution of the binders both to the IBIL spectra and to the radiation hardness. It turns out that the binder affects both the IBIL spectra and the radiation hardness of pigments when the emission bands are related to point defects, as occurs for ZnO

  7. Pigmented villonodular synovitis of the knee: a case report | Sitati ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    traumatic left knee pain and swelling. Radiography and histology were in keeping with Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis (PVNS). This case highlights the clinical presentation of this rare disorder and emphasizes its consideration as a differential ...

  8. The relationship between pyrethrins and the yellow pigmentation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various clones and varieties of Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium flowers originating from various localities were used in this study to establish the link between pyrethrins and the yellow pigments in pyrethrum. Pyrethrins content was determined using spectrophotometric, AOAC and HPLC analytical techniques.

  9. Organic coatings containing polyaniline and inorganic pigments as corrosion inhibitors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalendová, A.; Veselý, D.; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 1 (2008), s. 105-116 ISSN 0300-9440 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : pigment * coating * corrosion Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.375, year: 2008

  10. The Assessment of Natural Pigmentation in Archaeological Wool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharff, Annemette Bruselius

    2018-01-01

    , transmitted light microscopy of cross-sections dyed with Toluidine Blue O, and transmission electron microscopy of cross-sections. The results showed that it was difficult to detect any pigments by transmitted light microscopy of whole mounts of the fibres. Transmitted light microscopy of dyed cross......, the majority of the grains are eumel¬anin, whereas red and yellow wool contain mainly pheomelanin. Transmitted light microscopy of whole mounts of the fibres is commonly used for the detection of natural pigment grains. However, it can be difficult to detect the pigment grains exclusively by transmitted light...... patterned fragments were selected for analyses. Earlier dyestuff analyses of the red-brown yarns gave no results, and it was therefore necessary to test the yarns for natural pigmentation. Three different methods were used for the analy¬ses. Transmitted light microscopy of whole mounts of the fibres...

  11. Epiphytic marine pigmented bacteria : A prospective source of natural antioxidants

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pawar, R.T.; Mohandass, C.; Sivaperumal, E.; Sabu, E.; Rajasabapathy, R.; Jagtap, T.G.

    Awareness on antioxidants and its significance in human healthcare has increased many folds in recent time. Increased demand requisite on welcoming newer and alternative resources for natural antioxidants. Seaweed associated pigmented bacteria...

  12. Fungal polyketide azaphilone pigments as future natural food colorants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mapari, Sameer Shamsuddin; Thrane, Ulf; Meyer, Anne S.

    2010-01-01

    The recent approval of fungal carotenoids as food colorants by the European Union has strengthened the prospects for fungal cell factories for the production of polyketide pigments. Fungal production of colorants has the main advantage of making the manufacturer independent of the seasonal supply...... of raw materials, thus minimizing batch-to-batch variations. Here, we review the potential of polyketide pigments produced from chemotaxonomically selected non-toxigenic fungal strains (e.g. Penicillium and Epicoccum spp.) to serve as food colorants. We argue that the production of polyketide azaphilone...... pigments from such potentially safe hosts is advantageous over traditional processes that involve Monascus spp., which risks co-production of the mycotoxin citrinin. Thus, there is tremendous potential for the development of robust fungal production systems for polyketide pigments, both to tailor...

  13. Phototrophic pigment production with microalgae: biological constraints and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, K.J.M.; Lamers, P.P.; Martens, D.E.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing interest in naturally produced colorants, and microalgae represent a bio-technologically interesting source due to their wide range of colored pigments, including chlorophylls (green), carotenoids (red, orange and yellow), and phycobiliproteins (red and blue). However, the

  14. A zebrafish larval model reveals early tissue-specific innate immune responses to Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelz, Kerstin; Gratacap, Remi L; Wheeler, Robert T

    2015-11-01

    Mucormycosis is an emerging fungal infection that is clinically difficult to manage, with increasing incidence and extremely high mortality rates. Individuals with diabetes, suppressed immunity or traumatic injury are at increased risk of developing disease. These individuals often present with defects in phagocytic effector cell function. Research using mammalian models and phagocytic effector cell lines has attempted to decipher the importance of the innate immune system in host defence against mucormycosis. However, these model systems have not been satisfactory for direct analysis of the interaction between innate immune effector cells and infectious sporangiospores in vivo. Here, we report the first real-time in vivo analysis of the early innate immune response to mucormycete infection using a whole-animal zebrafish larval model system. We identified differential host susceptibility, dependent on the site of infection (hindbrain ventricle and swim bladder), as well as differential functions of the two major phagocyte effector cell types in response to viable and non-viable spores. Larval susceptibility to mucormycete spore infection was increased upon immunosuppressant treatment. We showed for the first time that macrophages and neutrophils were readily recruited in vivo to the site of infection in an intact host and that spore phagocytosis can be observed in real-time in vivo. While exploring innate immune effector recruitment dynamics, we discovered the formation of phagocyte clusters in response to fungal spores that potentially play a role in fungal spore dissemination. Spores failed to activate pro-inflammatory gene expression by 6 h post-infection in both infection models. After 24 h, induction of a pro-inflammatory response was observed only in hindbrain ventricle infections. Only a weak pro-inflammatory response was initiated after spore injection into the swim bladder during the same time frame. In the future, the zebrafish larva as a live whole

  15. Kingfisher feathers - colouration by pigments, spongy nanostructures and thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Stavenga, Doekele G.; Tinbergen, Jan; Leertouwer, Hein L.; Wilts, Bodo D.

    2011-01-01

    The colours of the common kingfisher, Alcedo atthis, reside in the barbs of the three main types of feather: the orange breast feathers, the cyan back feathers and the blue tail feathers. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the orange barbs contain small pigment granules. The cyan and blue barbs contain spongy nanostructures with slightly different dimensions, causing different reflectance spectra. Imaging scatterometry showed that the pigmented barbs create a diffuse orange scattering a...

  16. Vision system for auto-detection of cashmere pigmented fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhenwei; Dehghani, Abbas A.; Zhang, Liwei; King, Tim; Greenwood, Barry

    2003-05-01

    The traditional method for the evaluation of cashmere quality is subjective and low in accuracy. In this paper, a computer vision system is presented for the objective identification and classification of pigmented fibres, which consists of a web maker, an image acquisition system and a computer for image processing. The techniques of fibre preparation, image acquisition and the development of suitable algorithm together with software for removal of the background fibres and counting of pigmented fibres, are described in detail.

  17. Monodisperse Hollow Tricolor Pigment Particles for Electronic Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Xianwei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A general approach has been designed to blue, green, and red pigments by metal ions doping hollow TiO 2. The reaction involves initial formation of PS at TiO2 core–shell nanoparticles via a mixed-solvent method, and then mixing with metal ions solution containing PEG, followed calcining in the atmosphere. The as-prepared hollow pigments exhibit uniform size, bright color, and tunable density, which are fit for electronic paper display.

  18. Malayaite ceramic pigments prepared with galvanic sludge as colouring agent

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Gracia; Ribeiro, Manuel J.; Labrincha, Joao A.; Dondi, Michele; Matteucci, Francesco; Cruciani, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis and characterisation of chrome?-tin red malayaite Ca(Cr,Sn)SiO5 pigments are reported. The novel approach of using a galvanizing sludge from the Cr/Ni plating process as colouring agent is investigated. The ceramic pigments were prepared using common solid state reaction process, with optimisation of milling and firing conditions. Characterisation was done by x-?ray powder diffraction, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and application in standard ceramic glazes. The ceramic pigm...

  19. A simple test for flexirubin-type pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fautz, E.; Reichenbach, H.

    1980-01-01

    A new test for flexirubin-type pigments has been developed based on the incorporation of labelled biosynthetic precursors into the pigments and autoradiographic analysis of chromatograms. The test is simple enough to allow the screening of a large number of organisms, and it can be applied directly or in a modified form to discover colorless building blocks or structural variants not easily found with former methods. (Auth.)

  20. The power of pigments, calibrating chemoclines with chlorophylls and carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junium, C. K.; Uveges, B. T.

    2017-12-01

    Phototrophic organisms produce a diversity of pigments that serve a broad range of specific biochemical functions. Pigments are either directly associated with the photosynthetic apparatus, the most notable being chlorophyll a, or are accessory pigments such as the carotenoid lutein. Their functions can also be categorized into roles that are related to light harvesting (e.g. fucoxanthin) or for photoprotection (e.g. scytonemin). The abundances of these two classes of pigments from environmental samples can provide specific information about photointensity and how it relates to environmental changes. For example, a deepening of the chemo/nutricline can result in the increased production of light gathering relative to photoprotective pigments. Here we apply a relatively simple approach that utilizes the abundance of photosynthetic relative to photoprotective pigments to help constrain changes in the water column position of the chemocline. To test the efficacy of this approach we have utilized the sedimentary record of the anoxic Lake Kivu in the East African Rift. Recent Lake Kivu sediments are punctuated by a series of sapropels that may be associated with overturn of the lake, and release of carbon dioxide and sulfide during potential limnic eruptions. Carbon and nitrogen isotopes decrease significantly at the onset of sapropel deposition and suggest that 13C-depleted dissolved inorganic carbon was upwelled into surface waters and was accompanied by high concentrations of ammonium, that allowed for 15N-depletion during incomplete nitrogen utilization. The pigment record, specifically the ratio of the photoprotective carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin to chlorophyll a increases significantly at the onset of sapropel deposition. This suggests that the chemocline shallowed, displacing phototrophic communities toward the surface of the lake where light intensities required production of photoprotective pigments. This approach can easily be applied to a wide variety of

  1. Synthetic pigments for Japanese quail fed diets with sorghum

    OpenAIRE

    Moura, A.M.A.; Melo, T.V.; Miranda, D.J.A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Corn is the major energy ingredient in diets, and many ingredients have been tested aiming to replace it. In this regard, sorghum stands out for its chemical profile similar to that of corn. However, because it is low in carotenoids, its inclusion in diets reduces the egg yolk color pigmentation, which can be corrected by the addition of synthetic pigments. This study aimed to evaluate the performance and egg quality of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) supplemented with red (cantha...

  2. The red pigment prodigiosin is not an essential virulence factor in entomopathogenic Serratia marcescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Li, JingHua; Chen, Jie; Liu, XiaoYuan; Xiang, TingTing; Zhang, Lin; Wan, YongJi

    2016-05-01

    Although pigments produced by pathogenic microbes are generally hypothesized as essential virulence factors, the role of red pigment prodigiosin in the pathogenesis of entomopathogenic Serratia marcescens is not clear. In this study, we analyzed the pathogenicity of different pigmented S. marcescens strains and their non-pigmented mutants in silkworms. Each pigmented strain and the corresponding non-pigmented mutants showed very similar LD50 value (statistically no difference), but caused very different symptom (color of the dead larva). Our results clearly indicated that the red pigment prodigiosin is not an essential virulence factor in entomopathogenic S. marcescens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The importance of accounting for larval detectability in mosquito habitat-association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Matthew; Tsegaye, Admasu Tassew; Ignell, Rickard; Hill, Sharon; Elleby, Rasmus; Feltelius, Vilhelm; Hopkins, Richard

    2016-05-04

    Mosquito habitat-association studies are an important basis for disease control programmes and/or vector distribution models. However, studies do not explicitly account for incomplete detection during larval presence and abundance surveys, with potential for significant biases because of environmental influences on larval behaviour and sampling efficiency. Data were used from a dip-sampling study for Anopheles larvae in Ethiopia to evaluate the effect of six factors previously associated with larval sampling (riparian vegetation, direct sunshine, algae, water depth, pH and temperature) on larval presence and detectability. Comparisons were made between: (i) a presence-absence logistic regression where samples were pooled at the site level and detectability ignored, (ii) a success versus trials binomial model, and (iii) a presence-detection mixture model that separately estimated presence and detection, and fitted different explanatory variables to these estimations. Riparian vegetation was consistently highlighted as important, strongly suggesting it explains larval presence (-). However, depending on how larval detectability was estimated, the other factors showed large variations in their statistical importance. The presence-detection mixture model provided strong evidence that larval detectability was influenced by sunshine and water temperature (+), with weaker evidence for algae (+) and water depth (-). For larval presence, there was also some evidence that water depth (-) and pH (+) influenced site occupation. The number of dip-samples needed to determine if larvae were likely present at a site was condition dependent: with sunshine and warm water requiring only two dips, while cooler water and cloud cover required 11. Environmental factors influence true larval presence and larval detectability differentially when sampling in field conditions. Researchers need to be more aware of the limitations and possible biases in different analytical approaches used to

  4. Effect of Larval Density on Food Utilization Efficiency of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ramos, Juan A; Rojas, M Guadalupe

    2015-10-01

    Crowding conditions of larvae may have a significant impact on commercial production efficiency of some insects, such as Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Although larval densities are known to affect developmental time and growth in T. molitor, no reports were found on the effects of crowding on food utilization. The effect of larval density on food utilization efficiency of T. molitor larvae was studied by measuring efficiency of ingested food conversion (ECI), efficiency of digested food conversion (EDC), and mg of larval weight gain per gram of food consumed (LWGpFC) at increasing larval densities (12, 24, 36, 48, 50, 62, 74, and 96 larvae per dm(2)) over four consecutive 3-wk periods. Individual larval weight gain and food consumption were negatively impacted by larval density. Similarly, ECI, ECD, and LWGpFC were negatively impacted by larval density. Larval ageing, measured as four consecutive 3-wk periods, significantly and independently impacted ECI, ECD, and LWGpFC in a negative way. General linear model analysis showed that age had a higher impact than density on food utilization parameters of T. molitor larvae. Larval growth was determined to be responsible for the age effects, as measurements of larval mass density (in grams of larvae per dm(2)) had a significant impact on food utilization parameters across ages and density treatments (in number of larvae per dm(2)). The importance of mass versus numbers per unit of area as measurements of larval density and the implications of negative effects of density on food utilization for insect biomass production are discussed. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  5. Pigment from Streptomyces bellus MSA1 isolated from marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, M.; Merlyn Keziah, S.; Hemalatha, M.; Subathra Devi, C.

    2017-11-01

    The existing study is purposeful on the intracellular pigment extraction from actinomycetes isolated from Kovalam Beach regions of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Only one actinobacterial isolate showed pigmented growth out of total 4 isolates. Ethyl acetate as the solvent was used in cell disruption technique for the extraction of intracellular pigments. UV-Visible spectrophotometry, FT-IR spectroscopy, HPLC and GC-MS were used for the partial characterization of the pigment. The extracted pigment was applied for the preparation of lip balm and assessing its textile dyeing property. In addition, the extracted pigment was analysed for antioxidant, antibacterial activity, MTT assay and haemolytic activity. On optimization, dextrose and maltose were the best carbon sources. The finest nitrogen sources were found to be casein and peptone. The optimum temperature range was 35°C -40°C and optimal pH was found to be between 6.0 and 8.0. The obtained results showed potent antioxidant activity and found to be non-toxic to human erythrocytes.

  6. [Synthesis and characterization of mixed metal oxide pigments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jie; Yue, Shi-juan; Liu, Cui-ge; Wei, Yong-ju; Meng, Tao; Jiang, Han-jie; Shi, Yong-zheng; Xu, Yi-zhuang; Yu, Jiang; Wu, Jin-guang

    2012-03-01

    In the present work, aluminum chloride and various soluble salts of doping ions were dissolved in water. In addition, urea and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) were also dissolved in the above aqueous solution under supersonic treatments. Then the solutions were heated to induce the hydrolysis of urea so that soluble aluminum and doping ions convert into insoluble hydroxide or carbonate gels. After calcinations, the obtained gels change to mixed metal oxide pigments whose color is related to type and concentrations of the doping ions. XRD characterization demonstrates that the diffraction patterns of the products are the same as that of alpha-alumina. Diffuse reflectance spectra of samples of the samples in UV-Vis regions show that the absorption bands for d-d transitions of the doping ions undergo considerable change as the coordinate environments change. In addition, L*, a* and b* values of the pigments were measured by using UV-Vis densitometer. SEM results indicate that the size of the pigment powders is in the range 200-300 nm. The pigments are quite stable since no evidence of dissolution was observed after the synthesized pigment is soaked for 24 hours. ICP test shows that very little amount of doped metal occurs in the corresponding filtrate. The above results suggest that these new kinds of mixed metal oxide pigments are stable, non-toxic, environmental friendly and they may be applicable in molten spinning process and provide a new chance for non-aqueous printing and dyeing industry.

  7. The Solvent Effectiveness on Extraction Process of Seaweed Pigment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warkoyo Warkoyo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Eucheuma cottonii seaweed is a species of seaweed cultured in Indonesian waters, because its cultivation is relatively easy and inexpensive. It has a wide variety of colors from green to yellow green, gray, red and brown, indicating photosynthetic pigments, such as chlorophyll and carotenoids. An important factor in the effectiveness of pigment extraction is the choice of solvent. The correct type of solvent in the extraction method of specific natural materials is important so that a pigment with optimum quality that is also benefical to the society can be produced. The target of this research is to obtain a high quality solvent type of carotenoid pigment. This research was conducted using a randomized block design with three (3 replications involving two factors namely solvent type (4 levels: aceton, ethanol, petroleum benzene, hexan & petroleum benzene and seaweed color (3 levels: brown, green and red. Research results indicated that each solvent reached a peak of maximal absorbance at  410-472 nm, namely carotenoids. The usage of acetone solvent gave the best pigment quality. Brown, green and red seaweed have pigment content of 1,28 mg/100 g; 0,98 mg/100 g; 1,35 mg/100 g and rendement of 6,24%; 4,85% and 6,65% respectively.

  8. The gecko visual pigment: the anion hypsochromic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescitelli, F; Karvaly, B

    1991-01-01

    The 521-pigment in the retina of the Tokay gecko (Gekko gekko) readily responds to particular physical and chemical changes in its environment. When solubilized in chloride deficient state the addition of Class I anions (Cl-, Br-) induces a bathochromic shift of the absorption spectrum. Class II anions (NO3-, IO3-, N3-, OCN-, SCN-, SeCN-, N(CN)2-), which exhibit ambidental properties, cause an hypsochromic shift. Class III anions (F-, I-, NO2-, CN-, AsO3-, SO2(4-), S2O2(3-) have no spectral effect on the 521-pigment. Cations appear to have no influence on the pigment absorption and Class I anions prevent or reverse the hypsochromic shift caused by Class II anions. It is suggested that the spectral displacements reflect specific changes in the opsin conformation, which alter the immediate (dipolar) environment of the retinal chromophore. The protein conformation seems to promote excited-state processes most in the native 521-pigment state and least in the presence of Class II anions. This in turn suggests that the photosensitivity of the 521-pigment is controlled by the excited rather than by the ground-state properties of the pigment.

  9. Endothelial Cells Promote Pigmentation through Endothelin Receptor B Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regazzetti, Claire; De Donatis, Gian Marco; Ghorbel, Houda Hammami; Cardot-Leccia, Nathalie; Ambrosetti, Damien; Bahadoran, Philippe; Chignon-Sicard, Bérengère; Lacour, Jean-Philippe; Ballotti, Robert; Mahns, Andre; Passeron, Thierry

    2015-12-01

    Findings of increased vascularization in melasma lesions and hyperpigmentation in acquired bilateral telangiectatic macules suggested a link between pigmentation and vascularization. Using high-magnification digital epiluminescence dermatoscopy, laser confocal microscopy, and histological examination, we showed that benign vascular lesions of the skin have restricted but significant hyperpigmentation compared with the surrounding skin. We then studied the role of microvascular endothelial cells in regulating skin pigmentation using an in vitro co-culture model using endothelial cells and melanocytes. These experiments showed that endothelin 1 released by microvascular endothelial cells induces increased melanogenesis signaling, characterized by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor phosphorylation, and increased tyrosinase and dopachrome tautomerase levels. Immunostaining for endothelin 1 in vascular lesions confirmed the increased expression on the basal layer of the epidermis above small vessels compared with perilesional skin. Endothelin acts through the activation of endothelin receptor B and the mitogen-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, and p38, to induce melanogenesis. Finally, culturing of reconstructed skin with microvascular endothelial cells led to increased skin pigmentation that could be prevented by inhibiting EDNRB. Taken together these results demonstrated the role of underlying microvascularization in skin pigmentation, a finding that could open new fields of research for regulating physiological pigmentation and for treating pigmentation disorders such as melasma.

  10. Engineered pigments based on iridescent cellulose nanocrystal films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardet, Raphael; Roussel, Francine; Coindeau, Stéphane; Belgacem, Naceur; Bras, Julien

    2015-05-20

    A simple method to produce biobased iridescent pigments from cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) films is reported. The process consists of forming nanostructured films from a CNC liquid-crystalline suspension and an appropriate dry grinding. The features of the iridescent pigments are described; they have a flake-like morphology with a thickness of 25 μm. However, because of the presence of sulfate groups, thermal degradation and high redispersion in water occur, which affect the iridescent property of these biobased pigments. To overcome such limitations, two post-treatments are proposed. The sulfate ester groups are removed from the iridescent pigments with vacuum overdrying. The mass loss of iridescent pigment in water is reduced with an increase of the ionic strength in the aqueous medium by NaCl addition. These post-treatments have proven to be efficient and engineered pigments based on CNC films can be used to add anticounterfeiting features to packaging manufactured by classical paper techniques or extrusion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of Minoan white pigments used on pottery from Palaikastro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swann, Charles P.; Ferrence, Susan; Betancourt, Phlip P.

    2000-01-01

    Previous analyses of Early Minoan (ca. 2200-2000 BC) and Middle Minoan (ca. 2000-1700 BC) white pigments from Crete have revealed a complex situation in which several different substances were used for the ornament on pottery. The technological situation and the nature of these pigments is still not fully understood. A high-magnesium paint has been tentatively identified as talc, and a high-calcium paint has been tentatively identified as calcium silicate, but the distribution of these pigments is still not known. A new program of analysis by PIXE at the Bartol Research Institute of the University of Delaware has examined several white pigments from Palaikastro, a site in Eastern Crete, with interesting results. Three different materials or mixtures of materials can be identified. None of the pigments is rich in magnesium. All of the paints tested contain substantial amounts of aluminum and silica, with a variable calcium content. One class is high in calcium, and the second is substantially lower in calcium, but both contain appreciable amounts of iron. The third substance is an iron free white pigment. The materials can be tentatively identified as mixtures of calcium silicates and aluminosilicates, probably with admixed quartz

  12. Production and chemical characterization of pigments in filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Patrícia Nirlane da Costa; Grigoletto, Tahuana Luiza Bim; de Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo; Abreu, Lucas M; Guimarães, Luís Henrique Souza; Santos, Cledir; Galvão, Luciano Ribeiro; Cardoso, Patrícia Gomes

    2016-01-01

    Production of pigments by filamentous fungi is gaining interest owing to their use as food colourants, in cosmetics and textiles, and because of the important biological activities of these compounds. In this context, the objectives of this study were to select pigment-producing fungi, identify these fungi based on internal transcribed spacer sequences, evaluate the growth and pigment production of the selected strains on four different media, and characterize the major coloured metabolites in their extracts. Of the selected fungal strains, eight were identified as Aspergillus sydowii (CML2967), Aspergillus aureolatus (CML2964), Aspergillus keveii (CML2968), Penicillium flavigenum (CML2965), Penicillium chermesinum (CML2966), Epicoccum nigrum (CML2971), Lecanicillium aphanocladii (CML2970) and Fusarium sp. (CML2969). Fungal pigment production was influenced by medium composition. Complex media, such as potato dextrose and malt extract, favoured increased pigment production. The coloured compounds oosporein, orevactaene and dihydrotrichodimerol were identified in extracts of L. aphanocladii (CML2970), E. nigrum (CML2971), and P. flavigenum (CML2965), respectively. These results indicate that the selected fungal strains can serve as novel sources of pigments that have important industrial applications.

  13. Analytical Raman spectroscopic discrimination between yellow pigments of the Renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G M

    2011-10-01

    The Renaissance represented a major advance in painting techniques, subject matter, artistic style and the use of pigments and pigment mixtures. However, most pigments in general use were still mineral-based as most organic dyes were believed to be fugitive; the historical study of artists' palettes and recipes has assumed importance for the attribution of art works to the Renaissance period. Although the application of diagnostic elemental and molecular spectroscopic techniques play vital and complementary roles in the analysis of art works, elemental techniques alone cannot definitively provide the data needed for pigment identification. The advantages and limitations of Raman spectroscopy for the definitive diagnostic characterisation of yellow pigments that were in use during the Renaissance is demonstrated here in consideration of heavy metal oxides and sulphides; these data will be compared with those obtained from analyses of synthetic yellow pigments that were available during the eighteenth and nineteenth Centuries which could have been used in unrecorded restorations of Renaissance paintings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Pigment dispersion syndrome associated with spontaneous subluxation of crystalline lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Veerwal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS is an ocular condition characterized by a dispersion of iris pigment throughout the eye. This pigment is deposited in a characteristic manner on the corneal endothelium as Krukenberg's spindle, anterior surface of the iris, in the trabecular meshwork, on the lens and zonule and occasionally on the anterior hyaloid face. Even with deposition of pigment on zonular fibers, no zonular weakness, or zonular dehiscence has been reported in these cases. We report a unique case of PDS with bilateral spontaneous subluxation of crystalline lens. With characteristic findings of pigment distribution in both his eyes, the patient had concave iris configuration with heavily pigmented trabecular meshwork confirming the diagnosis of PDS. The patient had bilateral 180° temporal subluxation of crystalline lens in both his eyes. The usual cause of lens subluxation such as Marfan's Syndrome and Ehler's Danlos Syndrome was ruled out. The patient underwent right eye followed by left eye intracapsular cataract extraction with ab-interno technique with postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA of 6/9 in both eyes. Spontaneous subluxation of crystalline lens in isolated PDS is not known to occur and has been reported by means of this case. We recommend a thorough assessment of zonular status in all cases of PDS.

  15. Effect of Various Compounds Blocking the Colony Pigmentation on the Aflatoxin B1 Production by Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhavakhiya, Vitaly G; Voinova, Tatiana M; Popletaeva, Sofya B; Statsyuk, Natalia V; Limantseva, Lyudmila A; Shcherbakova, Larisa A

    2016-10-28

    Aflatoxins and melanins are the products of a polyketide biosynthesis. In this study, the search of potential inhibitors of the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) biosynthesis was performed among compounds blocking the pigmentation in fungi. Four compounds-three natural (thymol, 3-hydroxybenzaldehyde, compactin) and one synthetic (fluconazole)-were examined for their ability to block the pigmentation and AFB1 production in Aspergillus flavus . All compounds inhibited the mycelium pigmentation of a fungus growing on solid medium. At the same time, thymol, fluconazole, and 3-hydroxybenzaldehyde stimulated AFB1 accumulation in culture broth of A. flavus under submerged fermentation, whereas the addition of 2.5 μg/mL of compactin resulted in a 50× reduction in AFB1 production. Moreover, compactin also suppressed the sporulation of A. flavus on solid medium. In vivo treatment of corn and wheat grain with compactin (50 μg/g of grain) reduced the level of AFB1 accumulation 14 and 15 times, respectively. Further prospects of the compactin study as potential AFB1 inhibitor are discussed.

  16. Larval and post-larval stages of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) are resistant to elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginger, Ko W K; Vera, Chan B S; R, Dineshram; Dennis, Choi K S; Adela, Li J; Yu, Ziniu; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen

    2013-01-01

    The average pH of surface oceans has decreased by 0.1 unit since industrialization and is expected to decrease by another 0.3-0.7 units before the year 2300 due to the absorption of anthropogenic CO2. This human-caused pH change is posing serious threats and challenges to the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas), especially to their larval stages. Our knowledge of the effect of reduced pH on C. gigas larvae presently relies presumptively on four short-term (filtration rates at the time of metamorphosis, along with the juvenile shell growth and structure of the C. gigas, were examined in this study. The mean survival and growth rates were not affected by pH. The metabolic, feeding and metamorphosis rates of pediveliger larvae were similar, between pH 8.1 and 7.7. The pediveligers at pH 7.4 showed reduced weight-specific metabolic and filtration rates, yet were able to sustain a more rapid post-settlement growth rate. However, no evidence suggested that low pH treatments resulted in alterations to the shell ultrastructures (SEM images) or elemental compositions (i.e., Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios). Thus, larval and post-larval forms of the C. gigas in the Yellow Sea are probably resistant to elevated CO2 and decreased near-future pH scenarios. The pre-adapted ability to resist a wide range of decreased pH may provide C. gigas with the necessary tolerance to withstand rapid pH changes over the coming century.

  17. Lutein Inhibits the Migration of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells via Cytosolic and Mitochondrial Akt Pathways (Lutein Inhibits RPE Cells Migration)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ching-Chieh; Chan, Chi-Ming; Chen, Han-Min; Wu, Chia-Chun; Hsiao, Chien-Yu; Lee, Pei-Lan; Lin, Victor Chia-Hsiang; Hung, Chi-Feng

    2014-01-01

    During the course of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells will de-differentiate, proliferate, and migrate onto the surfaces of the sensory retina. Several studies have shown that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) can induce migration of RPE cells via an Akt-related pathway. In this study, the effect of lutein on PDGF-BB-induced RPE cells migration was examined using transwell migration assays and Western blot analyses. We found that both phosphorylation of Akt and mitochondrial translocation of Akt in RPE cells induced by PDGF-BB stimulation were suppressed by lutein. Furthermore, the increased migration observed in RPE cells with overexpressed mitochondrial Akt could also be suppressed by lutein. Our results demonstrate that lutein can inhibit PDGF-BB induced RPE cells migration through the inhibition of both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial Akt activation. PMID:25110866

  18. Lutein Inhibits the Migration of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells via Cytosolic and Mitochondrial Akt Pathways (Lutein Inhibits RPE Cells Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chieh Su

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available During the course of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE cells will de-differentiate, proliferate, and migrate onto the surfaces of the sensory retina. Several studies have shown that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF can induce migration of RPE cells via an Akt-related pathway. In this study, the effect of lutein on PDGF-BB-induced RPE cells migration was examined using transwell migration assays and Western blot analyses. We found that both phosphorylation of Akt and mitochondrial translocation of Akt in RPE cells induced by PDGF-BB stimulation were suppressed by lutein. Furthermore, the increased migration observed in RPE cells with overexpressed mitochondrial Akt could also be suppressed by lutein. Our results demonstrate that lutein can inhibit PDGF-BB induced RPE cells migration through the inhibition of both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial Akt activation.

  19. Do larval types affect genetic connectivity at sea? Testing hypothesis in two sibling marine gastropods with contrasting larval development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modica, Maria Vittoria; Russini, Valeria; Fassio, Giulia; Oliverio, Marco

    2017-06-01

    In marine environments, connectivity among populations of benthic invertebrates is provided primarily by dispersion of larvae, with the duration of pelagic larval phase (PLD) supposed to represent one of the major factor affecting connectivity. In marine gastropods, PLD is linked to specific larval development types, which may be entirely intracapsular (thus lacking a pelagic dispersal), or include a short pelagic lecithotrophic or a long planktotrophic phase. In the present study, we investigated two sibling species of the cosmopolitan neogastropod genus Columbella (commonly known as dove shells): Columbella adansoni Menke, 1853, from the Macaronesian Atlantic archipelagos, with planktotrophic development, and Columbella rustica Linnaeus, 1758, from the Mediterranean Sea, with intracapsular development. We expected to find differences between these two sister species, in terms of phylogeographic structure, levels of genetic diversification and spatial distribution of genetic diversity, if PLD was actually a relevant factor affecting connectivity. By analysing the sequence variation at the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) in 167 specimens of the two species, collected over a comparable geographic range, we found that Columbella adansoni, the species with planktotrophic development, and thus longer PLD, showed no phylogeographic structure, lower levels of genetic diversity, interpopulational variance lower than the intrapopulational one and no spatial structure in the distribution of the genetic diversity; Columbella rustica, the species with intracapsular development, thus with evidently lower dispersal abilities, showed a clear phylogeographic structure, higher levels of genetic diversity, high interpopulational and low intrapopulational variance, and a clear signature of global spatial structure in the distribution of the genetic diversity. Thus, in this study, two sibling species differing almost only in their larval ecology (and PLD), when compared for

  20. The Romanomermis iyengari parasite for Anopheles pseudopunctipennis suppression in natural habitats in Oaxaca State, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santamarina Mijares Alberto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In September and November 1996 Romanomermis iyengari Welch, a parasite of larval mosquitoes, was released in 44 natural larval habitat sites of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis Theobald in an attempt to reduce the larval populations of this important malaria vector. The selected treatment sites ranged in size from 5 to 500 m². The study was carried out in Pochutla District of Oaxaca State, on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Chemical pesticides to reduce vector populations have been the principal tool in malaria suppression campaigns. However, the excessive use of these chemicals has created pesticide resistance and other serious collateral problems. Therefore, a biological control project using agents that are pathogens of Anopheles larvae was initiated in 1996. The principal objective was to establish mass rearing capacities for R. iyengari. Detailed methodology for rearing and introducing these nematodes into mosquito larval habitats was established at the National Polytechnic Institute of Oaxaca State. Before application of the parasites to larval habitats, site characteristics were determined, including size, depth, aquatic vegetation, salinity, pH, conductivity, temperature, and pretreatment larval density. With a compressed air sprayer, infective mermithid parasites were released at rates of either 2000 or 3000/m², and the parasites produced high levels of infection. Anopheles populations were sampled 72 h posttreatment, and the larvae obtained were taken to the laboratory and examined through microscopic dissection to determine infection levels and mean parasitism. Nematode parasitism ranged from 85 to 100% at all the treatment sites, even though no previous information concerning field parasitism of An. pseudopunctipennis by R. iyengari has been reported. In addition, a significant reduction of mosquito larval density at the treatment sites was found five days after the nematode application. Levels of parasitism were indicative of the number

  1. Larval feeding inhibition assay – need for optimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azuhnwi, Blasius; Desrues, O.; Hoste, H.

    2013-01-01

    Data inconsistencies have been reported with the larval feeding inhibition assay (LFIA), an in vitro parasitological technique which measures the reduction of food ingestion by first stage larvae (L1) incubated in serial dilutions of a test substance. Possible factors that can account for this ob......Data inconsistencies have been reported with the larval feeding inhibition assay (LFIA), an in vitro parasitological technique which measures the reduction of food ingestion by first stage larvae (L1) incubated in serial dilutions of a test substance. Possible factors that can account...... substances with LFIA conducted in winter. Weekly rectal faecal samples collected during the patency period from a 4-month-old Jersey calf previously orally infected with L3 larvae of Cooperia onchophora, were used for the LFIA with subsamples used for faecal egg counts (FEC) by McMaster Technique. Serial...... dilutions (range: 0-160 μg/ml) in water of lyophilised sainfoin Cotswold Common Var; 12.5 g/100g of freeze-dried acetone water extract and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, range: 0-320 μg/ml), were used to incubate 100 L1/100 μl in Eppendorf tubes. Also, controls consisting of L1 in purified water (negative...

  2. Olfactory memories are intensity specific in larval Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Dushyant; Chen, Yi-Chun; Yarali, Ayse; Oguz, Tuba; Gerber, Bertram

    2013-05-01

    Learning can rely on stimulus quality, stimulus intensity, or a combination of these. Regarding olfaction, the coding of odour quality is often proposed to be combinatorial along the olfactory pathway, and working hypotheses are available concerning short-term associative memory trace formation of odour quality. However, it is less clear how odour intensity is coded, and whether olfactory memory traces include information about the intensity of the learnt odour. Using odour-sugar associative conditioning in larval Drosophila, we first describe the dose-effect curves of learnability across odour intensities for four different odours (n-amyl acetate, 3-octanol, 1-octen-3-ol and benzaldehyde). We then chose odour intensities such that larvae were trained at an intermediate odour intensity, but were tested for retention with either that trained intermediate odour intensity, or with respectively higher or lower intensities. We observed a specificity of retention for the trained intensity for all four odours used. This adds to the appreciation of the richness in 'content' of olfactory short-term memory traces, even in a system as simple as larval Drosophila, and to define the demands on computational models of associative olfactory memory trace formation. We suggest two kinds of circuit architecture that have the potential to accommodate intensity learning, and discuss how they may be implemented in the insect brain.

  3. Larval habitats of mosquito fauna in Osogbo metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleke, Monsuru Adebayo; Adebimpe, Wasiu Olalekan; Hassan, AbdulWasiu Oladele; Oladejo, Sunday Olukayode; Olaoye, Ismail; Olatunde, Ganiyu Olatunji; Adewole, Taiwo

    2013-09-01

    To determine the larval habitats of mosquito fauna and possible impact of land use/ land cover changes on the epidemiology of mosquito-borne diseases in Osogbo metropolis, Southwestern, Nigeria. All accessible larval habitats were surveyed between May and September, 2011 in Osogbo metropolis while Land Use/ Land cover of the city was analyzed using 2 Lansat Multispectral Scanner satellite imagery of SPOT 1986 and LANDSAT TM 2009. A total of six species namely, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Aedes vittatus, Anopheles gambiae complex, Culex quinquefasciatus and Eretmapodite chrysogaster were encountered during the study. The occurrence and contribution of disused tyres was significantly higher (P0.05). The accessible land use/ land covered of the study area between 1986 and 2009 showed that the wet land coverage and settlement area increased from 0.19 to 9.09 hectare and 1.00 to 2.01 hectare respectively while the forest area decreased from 60.18 to 50.14 hectare. The contribution of the habitats coupled with the increasing rate of flooded environment which could provide ample breeding sites for mosquitoes call for sustained environmental sanitation and management in Osogbo metropolis.

  4. Mosquito population regulation and larval source management in heterogeneous environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Smith

    Full Text Available An important question for mosquito population dynamics, mosquito-borne pathogen transmission and vector control is how mosquito populations are regulated. Here we develop simple models with heterogeneity in egg laying patterns and in the responses of larval populations to crowding in aquatic habitats. We use the models to evaluate how such heterogeneity affects mosquito population regulation and the effects of larval source management (LSM. We revisit the notion of a carrying capacity and show how heterogeneity changes our understanding of density dependence and the outcome of LSM. Crowding in and productivity of aquatic habitats is highly uneven unless egg-laying distributions are fine-tuned to match the distribution of habitats' carrying capacities. LSM reduces mosquito population density linearly with coverage if adult mosquitoes avoid laying eggs in treated habitats, but quadratically if eggs are laid in treated habitats and the effort is therefore wasted (i.e., treating 50% of habitat reduces mosquito density by approximately 75%. Unsurprisingly, targeting (i.e. treating a subset of the most productive pools gives much larger reductions for similar coverage, but with poor targeting, increasing coverage could increase adult mosquito population densities if eggs are laid in higher capacity habitats. Our analysis suggests that, in some contexts, LSM models that accounts for heterogeneity in production of adult mosquitoes provide theoretical support for pursuing mosquito-borne disease prevention through strategic and repeated application of modern larvicides.

  5. An accurate method for measuring triploidy of larval fish spawns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Draugelis-Dale, Rassa O.; Glennon, Robert; Kelly, Anita; Brown, Bonnie L.; Morrison, John

    2017-01-01

    A standard flow cytometric protocol was developed for estimating triploid induction in batches of larval fish. Polyploid induction treatments are not guaranteed to be 100% efficient, thus the ability to quantify the proportion of triploid larvae generated by a particular treatment helps managers to stock high-percentage spawns and researchers to select treatments for efficient triploid induction. At 3 d posthatch, individual Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella were mechanically dissociated into single-cell suspensions; nuclear DNA was stained with propidium iodide then analyzed by flow cytometry. Following ploidy identification of individuals, aliquots of diploid and triploid cell suspensions were mixed to generate 15 levels (0–100%) of known triploidy (n = 10). Using either 20 or 50 larvae per level, the observed triploid percentages were lower than the known, actual values. Using nonlinear regression analyses, quadratic equations solved for triploid proportions in mixed samples and corresponding estimation reference plots allowed for predicting triploidy. Thus, an accurate prediction of the proportion of triploids in a spawn can be made by following a standard larval processing and analysis protocol with either 20 or 50 larvae from a single spawn, coupled with applying the quadratic equations or reference plots to observed flow cytometry results. Due to the universality of triploid DNA content being 1.5 times the diploid level and because triploid fish consist of fewer cells than diploids, this method should be applicable to other produced triploid fish species, and it may be adapted for use with bivalves or other species where batch analysis is appropriate.

  6. Proteomic analysis through larval development of Solea senegalensis flatfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicano-Gálvez, Eduardo; Asensio, Esther; Cañavate, José Pedro; Alhama, José; López-Barea, Juan

    2015-12-01

    The post-embryonic development of the Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis, a flatfish of growing interest in fisheries and aquaculture, is associated with drastic morpho-physiological changes during metamorphosis. Although in the last two decades knowledge on sole culture has notably increased, especially in Southern Europe, its progress was restricted due to lack of methods to control reproduction, improve larval quality and increase juvenile disease resistance. A limited knowledge of the physiological, molecular and genetic mechanisms involved is at the base of such limitation. A proteomic study was carried out to explore the molecular events that occur during S. senegalensis ontogenesis. Protein expression changes were monitored in larvae from 5 to 21 dph by combining 2DE and protein identification with de novo MS/MS sequencing. An average of 6177 ± 282 spots was resolved in 2DE gels. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the 705 selected spots grouped them in eight patterns. Thirty-four proteins were identified and assigned biological functions including structure, metabolism highlighting energy metabolism, transport, protein folding, stress response, chromatin organization and regulation of gene expression. These changes provide a sequential description of the molecular events associated with the biochemical and biological transformations that occur during sole larval development. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Larval fish dispersal in a coral-reef seascape

    KAUST Repository

    Almany, Glenn R.

    2017-05-23

    Larval dispersal is a critical yet enigmatic process in the persistence and productivity of marine metapopulations. Empirical data on larval dispersal remain scarce, hindering the use of spatial management tools in efforts to sustain ocean biodiversity and fisheries. Here we document dispersal among subpopulations of clownfish (Amphiprion percula) and butterflyfish (Chaetodon vagabundus) from eight sites across a large seascape (10,000 km2) in Papua New Guinea across 2 years. Dispersal of clownfish was consistent between years, with mean observed dispersal distances of 15 km and 10 km in 2009 and 2011, respectively. A Laplacian statistical distribution (the dispersal kernel) predicted a mean dispersal distance of 13–19 km, with 90% of settlement occurring within 31–43 km. Mean dispersal distances were considerably greater (43–64 km) for butterflyfish, with kernels declining only gradually from spawning locations. We demonstrate that dispersal can be measured on spatial scales sufficient to inform the design of and test the performance of marine reserve networks.

  8. Effect of propolis extract on angelfish larval performance and transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas da Cruz Mattos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the influence propolis extract inclusion to the feed mixture for juvenile angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare on larval performance and transport. Levels of propolis extract inclusion consisted of 0, 300, 600, 900, and 1200 mg.kg-1 of feed. After 14 days of hatching, unmetamorphosed larvae with a total length of 18.4 mm and 0.11 g initial weight were used. Six-hundred larvae were divided into 20 experimental units, totalizing 30 larvae each. Experimental units consisted of polythene containers with independent water input and output and a level controller. Each unit was controlled for maintenance of 40 L water within a recirculation system. After offering feed containing propolis extract, five fish from each experimental unit were packed in bags for transportation only with atmospheric air, without pure oxygen addition. The bags were filled with 300 mL water on a 2:1 basis of air and water respectively. The total transport time was considered until the death of the third fish in package. At the end of the experiment, data underwent statistical analysis through Statistical Analysis System (SAS, 2001. Results showed there was no significant difference (P < 0.05 neither for any of the studied zootechnical variables (standard length, total length, height, and weight nor for the transport of juveniles. In conclusion, propolis extract addition to angelfish feed was ineffective for larval performance and for transportation of juveniles, at the levels tested here.

  9. Lipid Uptake, Metabolism, and Transport in the Larval Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa H. Quinlivan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The developing zebrafish is a well-established model system for studies of energy metabolism, and is amenable to genetic, physiological, and biochemical approaches. For the first 5 days of life, nutrients are absorbed from its endogenous maternally deposited yolk. At 5 days post-fertilization, the yolk is exhausted and the larva has a functional digestive system including intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and intestinal microbiota. The transparency of the larval zebrafish, and the genetic and physiological similarity of its digestive system to that of mammals make it a promising system in which to address questions of energy homeostasis relevant to human health. For example, apolipoprotein expression and function is similar in zebrafish and mammals, and transgenic animals may be used to examine both the transport of lipid from yolk to body in the embryo, and the trafficking of dietary lipids in the larva. Additionally, despite the identification of many fatty acid and lipid transport proteins expressed by vertebrates, the cell biological processes that mediate the transport of dietary lipids from the intestinal lumen to the interior of enterocytes remain to be elucidated. Genetic tractability and amenability to live imaging and a range of biochemical methods make the larval zebrafish an ideal model in which to address open questions in the field of lipid transport, energy homeostasis, and nutrient metabolism.

  10. The influence of substrate material on ascidian larval settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Anna L; Dijkstra, Jennifer A; Harris, Larry G

    2016-05-15

    Submerged man-made structures present novel habitat for marine organisms and often host communities that differ from those on natural substrates. Although many factors are known to contribute to these differences, few studies have directly examined the influence of substrate material on organism settlement. We quantified larval substrate preferences of two species of ascidians, Ciona intestinalis (cryptogenic, formerly C. intestinalis type B) and Botrylloides violaceus (non-native), on commonly occurring natural (granite) and man-made (concrete, high-density polyethylene, PVC) marine materials in laboratory trials. Larvae exhibited species-specific settlement preferences, but generally settled more often than expected by chance on concrete and HDPE. Variation in settlement between materials may reflect preferences for rougher substrates, or may result from the influence of leached chemicals on ascidian settlement. These findings indicate that an experimental plate material can influence larval behavior and may help us understand how substrate features may contribute to differences in settlement in the field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Resource Limitation, Controphic Ostracod Density and Larval Mosquito Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raylea Rowbottom

    Full Text Available Aquatic environments can be restricted with the amount of available food resources especially with changes to both abiotic and biotic conditions. Mosquito larvae, in particular, are sensitive to changes in food resources. Resource limitation through inter-, and intra-specific competition among mosquitoes are known to affect both their development and survival. However, much less is understood about the effects of non-culicid controphic competitors (species that share the same trophic level. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated and compared mosquito larval development, survival and adult size in two experiments, one with different densities of non-culicid controphic conditions and the other with altered resource conditions. We used Aedes camptorhynchus, a salt marsh breeding mosquito and a prominent vector for Ross River virus in Australia. Aedes camptorhynchus usually has few competitors due to its halo-tolerance and distribution in salt marshes. However, sympatric ostracod micro-crustaceans often co-occur within these salt marshes and can be found in dense populations, with field evidence suggesting exploitative competition for resources. Our experiments demonstrate resource limiting conditions caused significant increases in mosquito developmental times, decreased adult survival and decreased adult size. Overall, non-culicid exploitation experiments showed little effect on larval development and survival, but similar effects on adult size. We suggest that the alterations of adult traits owing to non-culicid controphic competition has potential to extend to vector-borne disease transmission.

  12. Cone pigment polymorphism in New World monkeys: are all pigments created equal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Mickey P; Jacobs, Gerald H

    2004-01-01

    Most platyrrhine monkeys have a triallelic M/L opsin gene polymorphism that underlies significant individual variations in color vision. A survey of the frequencies of these polymorphic genes suggests that the three alleles occur with equal frequency among squirrel monkeys (subfamily Cebinae), but are not equally frequent in a number of species from the subfamily Callitrichinae. This departure from equal frequency in the Callitrichids should slightly increase the ratio of dichromats to trichromats in the population and significantly alter the relative representation of the three possible dichromatic and trichromatic phenotypes. A particular feature of the inequality is that it leads to a relative increase in the number of trichromats whose M/L pigments have the largest possible spectral separation. To assess whether these trichromatic phenotypes are equally well equipped to make relevant visual discriminations, psychophysical experiments were run on human observers. A technique involving the functional substitution of photopigments was used to simulate the discrimination between fruits among a background of leaves. The goal of the simulation was to reproduce in the cones of human observers excitations equivalent to those produced in monkey cones as the animals view fruit. Three different viewing conditions were examined involving variations in the relative luminances of fruit and leaves and the spectrum of the illuminant. In all cases, performance was best for simulated trichromacies including M/L pigments with the largest spectral separation. Thus, the inequality of opsin gene frequency in Callitrichid monkeys may reflect adaptive pressures.

  13. Desarrollo larval de Palaemonetes mexicanus y P. hobbsi (Caridea: Palaemonidae cultivadas en el laboratorio Larval development of Palaemonetes mexicanus and P. hobbsi (Caridea: Palaemonidae reared in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabino A. Rodríguez-Almaráz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Los langostinos del género Palaemonetes ocupan una amplia variedad de hábitats, desde condiciones marinas hasta agua dulce. El desarrollo larval de las especies marinas o salobres es prolongado, mientras que el de las especies de agua dulce es breve. En este estudio se compararon aspectos reproductivos y del desarrollo larval de P. mexicanus y P. hobbsi, especies residentes en cuerpos de agua dulce del noreste de México. Las hembras grávidas de cada especie fueron recolectadas en la localidad tipo y mantenidas en el laboratorio a temperaturas de 22 a 24oC. Las larvas recién eclosionadas obtenidas de estas hembras fueron cultivadas individualmente bajo las mismas condiciones de temperatura y suministrando como alimento larvas de Artemia recién eclosionadas y hojuelas para peces. Tanto P. mexicanus como P. hobbsi, tienen 3 estadios larvales y 2 etapas postlarvales. El tiempo de desarrollo promedio desde zoea I hasta la postlarva II fue de 12 días en P. hobbsi y 16 días en P. mexicanus. La morfología larval de ambas especies es casi idéntica. Sin embargo, existen caracteres morfológicos de cada estadio larval que permiten diferenciar las especies. Se discuten aspectos de fecundidad, biometría de hembras, huevecillos y larvas.The caridean genus Palaemonetes occupies a wide variety of habitats from marine conditions to fresh-water. The marine and brackish species have an extended larval development, while fresh-water species have an abbreviated larval cycle. In this study reproductive aspects and type of larval development were compared between P. mexicanus and P. hobbsi, both fresh-water species from northeast Mexico. Ovigerous females of each species were collected at the type locality and maintained in the laboratory at temperatures between 22 a 24oC. The larvae were reared individually at the same temperature conditions, and newly hatched nauplii of Artemia and fish flakes were provided as food. P. mexicanus and P. hobbsi have an

  14. The relationship between the violet pigment PP-V production and intracellular ammonium level in Penicillium purpurogenum

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Ryo; Arai, Teppei; Matsufuji, Hiroshi; Kasumi, Takafumi; Watanabe, Taisuke; Ogihara, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Penicillium purpurogenum is the fungus that produces an azaphilone pigment. However, details about the pigment biosynthesis pathway are unknown. The violet pigment PP-V is the one of the main pigments biosynthesized by this fungus. This pigment contains an amino group in a pyran ring as its core structure. We focused on this pigment and examined the relationship between intracellular ammonium concentration and pigment production using glutamine as a nitrogen source. The intracellular ammonium...

  15. Diel and Lunar Variations in Larval Fish Supply in Malindi Marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    concentrations, regardless of tidal regime. The dominant fish families in the larval pool were Engraulidae, Labridae, Blenniidae and Gobiidae. Spectral time-series analysis revealed that larval fish supply occurred in a 30-day cyclical pattern associated with the new moon and was synchronised in the long-term with the.

  16. Diel and lunar variations in larval supply to Malindi Marine Park ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... than day-time concentrations independent of tidal regime.The dominant families in the larval pool were Engraulidae, Labridae, Blenniidae and Gobiidae. A spectral time-series analysis showed larval supply occurred after a 30 day cyclical pattern associated with the new moon phase and northeast monsoon season.

  17. The wings of Bombyx mori develop from larval discs exhibiting an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    and meta-thoracic discs continue to grow in size with larval age and do not display any massive cell rearrangement during metamor- phosis (compare c with d, and h with i) during the larval to pupal .... to surgery. The conspicuous absence of wing blades and presence of wound healing marks on one side are evident.

  18. Spatial patterns and trends in abundance of larval saneels in the North Sea: 1950 - 2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lynam, C.P.; Halliday, N.C.; Hoffle, H.; Wright, P.J.; Damme, van C.J.G.; Pitois, S.G.

    2013-01-01

    Early recruitment indices based on larval fish data from the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) have the potential to inform stock assessments of Ammodytes marinus in the North Sea. We evaluate whether the CPR data are reliable for sandeel larvae. Spatially, CPR larval data were comparable with

  19. Penaeid prawns in the St Lucia Lake System: Post-larval recruitment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recruitment of post-larval penaeid prawns and the bait prawn fishery in the St Lucia Lake System were monitored for two years before and one year after Cyclone Domoina. Post-larval Penaeus indicus Milne-Edwards, P. monodon Fabricius, P. japonicus Bate, P. semisulcatus de Haan and Metapenaeus monoceros ...

  20. Analysis of feeding of Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum, 1792 larval stages in the central Cantabrian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itziar Munuera Fernandez

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Diet analysis of larval fish may clarify the role that zooplankton—not only its abundance but also its size structure and taxonomic composition—may have on larval growth and subsequent recruitment levels. Taking into account the increase in size during larval stages, we followed a larval size-dependent approach for the analysis of prey size in the diet of larval sardine (Sardina pilchardus. Studies on feeding patterns of clupeid larvae typically involve a problem due to regurgitation and defecation of gut contents during capture. Therefore, an alternative sampling method was tested in this study, but no significant differences from conventional methods were found. Despite the low feeding incidence observed (23%, we found a circadian feeding pattern with the highest mean gut contents after dawn, decreasing during the day and with the lowest values at night. Diet was mostly composed of copepod developmental stages, mainly nauplii, and prey size increased with larval size following a power function. Maximum and mean prey size were related to larval mouth gape, though other factors may be restricting the maximum prey size ingested, since most prey width values were between 20 and 40% of larval mandible width.

  1. Effects of intraspecific larval competition on adult longevity in the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiskind, M H; Lounibos, L P

    2009-03-01

    Larval competition is common in container-breeding mosquitoes. The impact of competition on larval growth has been thoroughly examined and findings that larval competition can lead to density-dependent effects on adult body size have been documented. The effects of larval competition on adult longevity have been less well explored. The effects of intraspecific larval densities on the longevity of adults maintained under relatively harsh environmental conditions were tested in the laboratory by measuring the longevity of adult Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) that had been reared under a range of larval densities and subsequently maintained in high- or low-humidity regimes (85% or 35% relative humidity [RH], respectively) as adults. We found significant negative effects of competition on adult longevity in Ae. aegypti, but not in Ae. albopictus. Multivariate analysis of variance suggested that the negative effect of the larval environment on the longevity of Ae. aegypti adults was most strongly associated with increased development time and decreased wing length as adults. Understanding how larval competition affects adult longevity under a range of environmental conditions is important in establishing the relationship between models of mosquito population regulation and epidemiological models of vector-borne disease transmission.

  2. Clutch size in a larval-pupal endoparasitoid: Consequences for fitness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vet, L.E.M.; Datema, A.; Janssen, A.; Snellen, H.

    1994-01-01

    1. Aphaereta minuta (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a gregarious larval-pupal endoparasitoid of many Diptera species. Several larval instars can be parasitized and the size differences between host species can be considerable. After parasitization, however, the host larva continues to grow and the

  3. Spatial and temporal variability in the larval fish assemblage of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatial and temporal variability in the larval fish assemblage of a warm temperate South African estuary, with notes on the effects of artificial channelling. ... Larval fishes were sampled within the estuary and marina for a period of two years. Samples were collected seasonally at 14 different sampling stations along the main ...

  4. Influence of larval diet and population density on pre-adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of larval diet and population density on pre-adult developmental rate, adult population sizes, pre-adult survival and sex ratio was investigated. Mean developmental period varied significantly with low larval densities. Similarly, there were significant variations of developmental periods with different diets.

  5. How to suppress obsessive thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, Eric; Diepstraten, Philip

    2003-01-01

    Thought suppression (i.e. consciously trying to avoid certain thoughts from entering consciousness) has been argued to be an inadequate strategy in case of unwanted intrusions. That is, thought suppression seems to result in more rather than less intrusions. Although this experimental finding has been explained in terms of failing attempts to distract oneself from the target thought, the White Bear Suppression Inventory (WBSI; a scale that measures chronic thought suppression tendencies) does not address the means by which respondents try to suppress unwanted thoughts. To examine which strategies of mental control people use to suppress unwanted thoughts, obsessive-compulsive disorder patients (N=47) completed the WBSI, the Thought Control Questionnaire, and two measures of psychopathology. Results suggest that the crucial mechanism in thought suppression may not be distraction, but self-punishment.

  6. Simple extraction methods that prevent the artifactual conversion of chlorophyll to chlorophyllide during pigment isolation from leaf samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xueyun; Tanaka, Ayumi; Tanaka, Ryouichi

    2013-06-19

    When conducting plant research, the measurement of photosynthetic pigments can provide basic information on the physiological status of a plant. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) is becoming widely used for this purpose because it provides an accurate determination of a variety of photosynthetic pigments simultaneously. This technique has a drawback compared with conventional spectroscopic techniques, however, in that it is more prone to structural modification of pigments during extraction, thus potentially generating erroneous results. During pigment extraction procedures with acetone or alcohol, the phytol side chain of chlorophyll is sometimes removed, forming chlorophyllide, which affects chlorophyll measurement using HPLC. We evaluated the artifactual chlorophyllide production during chlorophyll extraction by comparing different extraction methods with wild-type and mutant Arabidopsis leaves that lack the major isoform of chlorophyllase. Several extraction methods were compared to provide alternatives to researchers who utilize HPLC for the analysis of chlorophyll levels. As a result, the following three methods are recommended. In the first method, leaves are briefly boiled prior to extraction. In the second method, grinding and homogenization of leaves are performed at sub-zero temperatures. In the third method, N, N'-dimethylformamide (DMF) is used for the extraction of pigments. When compared, the first two methods eliminated almost all chlorophyllide-forming activity in Arabidopsis thaliana, Glebionis coronaria, Pisum sativum L. and Prunus sargentii Rehd. However, DMF effectively suppressed the activity of chlorophyllase only in Arabidopsis leaves. Chlorophyllide production in leaf extracts is predominantly an artifact. All three methods evaluated in this study reduce the artifactual production of chlorophyllide and are thus suitable for pigment extraction for HPLC analysis. The boiling method would be a practical choice when leaves are not too

  7. A Marriage Of Larval Modeling And Empirical Data: Linking Adult, Larval And Juvenile Scallops In An Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, S.; Wahle, R.; Brooks, D. A.; Brady, D. C.

    2016-02-01

    The giant sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus, is a commercially valuable sedentary broadcast spawner that occupies offshore banks and coastal bays and estuaries in the Northwest Atlantic. Although area closures have helped repopulate depleted scallop populations, little is known about whether populations at densities that yield larvae supply local or distant populations. Surveying scallop populations in the Damariscotta River estuary in Maine during the 2013 and 2014 spawning seasons, and settling out spat bags to collect settling larvae along the gradient of the estuary, we were able to compare adult densities to newly settled juvenile (`spat') abundance. Using the location where we found a high density of adults, we incorporated previously published behavior, pelagic larval duration, wind and current data into a particle dispersal model within the estuary to determine likely sinks for larvae from the 2013 and 2014 spawning seasons. Preliminary model simulations demonstrate where in the estuary swimming is effective in affecting water column position for larvae, and that most larvae are retained much closer to the mouth of the estuary than previously expected. Combining larval dispersal modeling with empirical data on adult densities and spat settlement on the scale of an embayment or estuary may be helpful in determining sources, sinks and areas that are both sources and sinks for shellfish species that are endangered or economically critical. This may aid in determining small area closures or Marine Protected Areas along coastal regions in the Gulf of Maine and beyond.

  8. Descriptions of four larval forms of Nilodosis Kieffer from East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongqu Tang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Larval material putatively assigned to the genus Nilodosis Kieffer from Korea, China and Japan has been compared. The results show that the Japanese larval form has the club- to balloon-shaped cephalic setae S7 and S9 in common with the Korean larval form, but it can be separated from the latter by the shape of the inner mandibular teeth and the premandibular teeth. The larval forms from China (Guangdong and Yunnan apparently consist of two independent species. It is most likely that there will be more species in this genus found in Asia. Larvae are mud-sandy bottom-dwellers that can occur in the littoral of lakes and the potamal of larger rivers, up to a maximum depth of 5 meters. The specific larval characters show that it probably is a semi-psammorheophilic predator. doi: 10.5324/fn.v31i0.1406.Published online: 17 October 2012. 

  9. Soundscape manipulation enhances larval recruitment of a reef-building mollusk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillis, Ashlee; Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R; Eggleston, David B

    2015-01-01

    Marine seafloor ecosystems, and efforts to restore them, depend critically on the influx and settlement of larvae following their pelagic dispersal period. Larval dispersal and settlement patterns are driven by a combination of physical oceanography and behavioral responses of larvae to a suite of sensory cues both in the water column and at settlement sites. There is growing evidence that the biological and physical sounds associated with adult habitats (i.e., the "soundscape") influence larval settlement and habitat selection; however, the significance of acoustic cues is rarely tested. Here we show in a field experiment that the free-swimming larvae of an estuarine invertebrate, the eastern oyster, respond to the addition of replayed habitat-related sounds. Oyster larval recruitment was significantly higher on larval collectors exposed to oyster reef sounds compared to no-sound controls. These results provide the first field evidence that soundscape cues may attract the larval settlers of a reef-building estuarine invertebrate.

  10. [Relationships among Cyrtotrachelus buqueti larval density and wormhole number and bamboo shoot damage degree].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yao-Jun; Wang, Shu-Fang; Gong, Jia-Wen; Liu, Chao; Mu, Chi; Qin, Hong

    2009-08-01

    In August of 2007 and 2008, a field investigation was made to study the relationships among Cyrtotrachelus buqueti larval density and wormhole number and bamboo shoot damage degree in Sichuan Province. The three pairs of variables, i. e., C. buqueti larval density and wormhole number, C. buqueti larval density and bamboo shoot damage degree, and C. buqueti wormhole number and bamboo shoot damage degree, fitted cubic equations well, with the correlation coefficients at P = 0.001. Based on these mathematical models, the forecast tables for C. buqueti larval density and bamboo shoot damage degree were established, and the thresholds of C. buqueti larval density and wormhole number were 0.13 and 0.40 individual per bamboo, respectively.

  11. DNA damage in isolated rat hepatocytes exposed to C.I. pigment orange 5 and C.I. pigment yellow 12 by the alkaline comet assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, P; Wallin, Håkan; Grunnet, N

    1998-01-01

    , and C.I. pigment orange 5 is a naphthol-azo pigment. The pigments are virtually insoluble in aqueous solutions, and they have not been tested extensively for toxicological effects. C.I. pigment orange 5 increased the levels of DNA damage at 5 microg/ml (P pigment yellow 12 at 20 microg....../ml (P effect of incubation time (20, 40, and 80 min) of the same concentrations of the pigments was tested. The levels of DNA damage were increased up to 80 min. Both pigments produced DNA damage that was in the same range as the food carcinogen 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f......The induction of DNA damage by commonly used printing ink pigments, C.I. pigment orange 5 (C.I. 12075) and C.I. pigment yellow 12 (C.I. 21090), was investigated in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes with the comet assay. C.I. pigment yellow 12 is a 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine-based diarylide pigment...

  12. Suppressing the Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Nanoparticles by Extremely Thin Al2O3 Films Grown by Gas-Phase Deposition at Ambient Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, J.; Bui, H.V.; Valdesueiro Gonzalez, D.; Yuan, Shaojun; Liang, Bin; van Ommen, J.R.

    2018-01-01

    This work investigated the suppression of photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) pigment powders by extremely thin aluminum oxide (Al2O3) films deposited via an atomic-layer-deposition-type process using trimethylaluminum (TMA) and H2O as precursors. The deposition was performed on

  13. Unihemispheric burst suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C. Mader Jr.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Burst suppression (BS consists of bursts of high-voltage slow and sharp wave activity alternating with periods of background suppression in the electroencephalogram (EEG. When induced by deep anesthesia or encephalopathy, BS is bihemispheric and is often viewed as a non-epileptic phenomenon. In contrast, unihemispheric BS is rare and its clinical significance is poorly understood. We describe here two cases of unihemispheric BS. The first patient is a 56-year-old woman with a left temporoparietal tumor who presented in convulsive status epilepticus. EEG showed left hemispheric BS after clinical seizure termination with lorazepam and propofol. The second patient is a 39-year-old woman with multiple medical problems and a vague history of seizures. After abdominal surgery, she experienced a convulsive seizure prompting treatment with propofol. Her EEG also showed left hemispheric BS. In both cases, increasing the propofol infusion rate resulted in disappearance of unihemispheric BS and clinical improvement. The prevailing view that typical bihemispheric BS is non-epileptic should not be extrapolated automatically to unihemispheric BS. The fact that unihemispheric BS was associated with clinical seizure and resolved with propofol suggests that, in both cases, an epileptic mechanism was responsible for unihemispheric BS.

  14. Correlated evolution between mode of larval development and habitat in muricid gastropods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Pappalardo

    Full Text Available Larval modes of development affect evolutionary processes and influence the distribution of marine invertebrates in the ocean. The decrease in pelagic development toward higher latitudes is one of the patterns of distribution most frequently discussed in marine organisms (Thorson's rule, which has been related to increased larval mortality associated with long pelagic durations in colder waters. However, the type of substrate occupied by adults has been suggested to influence the generality of the latitudinal patterns in larval development. To help understand how the environment affects the evolution of larval types we evaluated the association between larval development and habitat using gastropods of the Muricidae family as a model group. To achieve this goal, we collected information on latitudinal distribution, sea water temperature, larval development and type of substrate occupied by adults. We constructed a molecular phylogeny for 45 species of muricids to estimate the ancestral character states and to assess the relationship between traits using comparative methods in a Bayesian framework. Our results showed high probability for a common ancestor of the muricids with nonpelagic (and nonfeeding development, that lived in hard bottoms and cold temperatures. From this ancestor, a pelagic feeding larva evolved three times, and some species shifted to warmer temperatures or sand bottoms. The evolution of larval development was not independent of habitat; the most probable evolutionary route reconstructed in the analysis of correlated evolution showed that type of larval development may change in soft bottoms but in hard bottoms this change is highly unlikely. Lower sea water temperatures were associated with nonpelagic modes of development, supporting Thorson's rule. We show how environmental pressures can favor a particular mode of larval development or transitions between larval modes and discuss the reacquisition of feeding larva in

  15. Influence of source and ratio of xanthophyll pigments on broiler chicken pigmentation and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Vendrell, A M; Hernández, J M; Llauradó, L; Schierle, J; Brufau, J

    2001-03-01

    One experiment was conducted using 960 1-d-old, sexed broilers of Ross 308 strain from 1 to 43 d to evaluate if one type of chemically isomerized marigold with 25% of xanthophylls as zeaxanthin (SME-25) could produce pigmentation equivalent to the current addition of conventional marigold with 10% of xanthophylls as zeaxanthin (SME-10) plus canthaxanthin (CTX) in practical broiler diets (maize-wheat-soybean). Birds were allocated in 32 pens, in a randomized complete block design (four blocks x four treatments). The treatments consisted of a nonpigmented control (T1), a combination of 35 ppm of yellow xanthophylls (YX) from SME-10 + 5 ppm of CTX (T2), a combination of 32 ppm of YX from SME-10 + 2 ppm of CTX (T4), and one treatment with 40 ppm of YX from a new SME-25 (T3). There were no significant treatment effects on chicken performance. All color parameters (Minolta coordinates, Roche color fan scores, Rank test) presented significant differences (P pigments on shanks and breast skin. Birds fed the SME-25 diet had less pigmentation than those fed equivalent quantities of a combination of SME-10 + CTX. The Minolta coordinate "b" measured in breast skin was a good indicator of YX content in feed, whereas the "a" coordinate measured on the shank showed a linear relationship with the dietary CTX level (r = 0.61, P < 0.0001). The same visual color classification of chickens was achieved irrespective of the rank test performed (by shank or carcass color). Lutein and zeaxanthin from the SME-25 product had lower deposition rates in skin and fat tissues than those from the SME-10 product. This finding seems to be related to the ratio of zeaxanthin stereoisomer RR (optically active) vs. RS that was found in tissues from the SME-10 product (97.8%:2.2%), whereas with SME-25 this ratio was 16.0:84.0%. These results suggest that inclusion of only the SME-25 product could not replace the current addition of SME-10 and CTX combinations.

  16. Coral Pigments: Quantification Using HPLC and Detection by Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottone, Mary C.

    1995-01-01

    Widespread coral bleaching (loss of pigments of symbiotic dinoflagellates), and the corresponding decline in coral reef health worldwide, mandates the monitoring of coral pigmentation. Samples of the corals Porites compressa and P. lobata were collected from a healthy reef at Puako, Hawaii, and chlorophyll (chl) a, peridinin, and Beta-carotene (Beta-car) were quantified using reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Detailed procedures are presented for the extraction of the coral pigments in 90% acetone, and the separation, identification, and quantification of the major zooxanthellar pigments using spectrophotometry and a modification of the HPLC system described by Mantoura and Llewellyn (1983). Beta-apo-8-carotenal was found to be inadequate as in internal standard, due to coelution with chl b and/or chl a allomer in the sample extracts. Improvements are suggested, which may result in better resolution of the major pigments and greater accuracy in quantification. Average concentrations of peridinin, chl a, and Beta-car in corals on the reef were 5.01, 8.59, and 0.29, micro-grams/cm(exp 2), respectively. Average concentrations of peridinin and Beta-car did not differ significantly between the two coral species sampled; however, the mean chl a concentration in P. compressa specimens (7.81 ,micro-grams/cm(exp 2) was significantly lower than that in P. lobata specimens (9.96 11g/cm2). Chl a concentrations determined spectrophotometrically were significantly higher than those generated through HPLC, suggesting that spectrophotometry overestimates chl a concentrations. The average ratio of chl a-to-peridinin concentrations was 1.90, with a large (53%) coefficient of variation and a significant difference between the two species sampled. Additional data are needed before conclusions can be drawn regarding average pigment concentrations in healthy corals and the consistency of the chl a/peridinin ratio. The HPLC pigment concentration values

  17. New Natural Pigment Fraction Isolated from Saw Palmetto: Potential for Adjuvant Therapy of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hor-Yue Tan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, we discovered a small proportion of aqueous fraction from Saw Palmetto apart from the fatty acid-rich fraction exhibited pharmacological activity. Therefore, this study aims to explore the anti-tumor potential of red pigmented aqueous fraction of Saw Palmetto, NYG on human hepatocellular carcinoma and its possible targets. Subcutaneous xenograft and orthotopic implantation models of HCC were used to evaluate the tumor inhibitory effect of NYG. Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC cell lines and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC were used as in vitro model. The mRNA expression was conducted by qPCR. Protein expression was monitored by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Cell migration and blood vessel formation were determined by chamber assay and tube formation assay, respectively. Significant tumor inhibition of NYG in dose-dependent manner was observed on subcutaneous xenograft and orthotopic HCC model. NYG has no direct action on cell viability or VEGF secretion of HCC cells. However, NYG reduced in vitro migration and vessel formation activities of HUVEC cells, as well as in vivo intratumoral neovascularization. NYG attenuated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK activation in endothelial cells, which may be associated with the suppression of migration and tube formation of HUVEC. NYG suppressed tumor expansion of HCC via inhibiting neovascularization, and may be potential adjuvant treatment for HCC.

  18. Tolerance of Micronized Mineral Pigments for Intrastromal Keratopigmentation: A Histopathology and Immunopathology Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amesty, Maria A; Rodriguez, Alejandra E; Hernández, Enrique; De Miguel, Maria P; Alio, Jorge L

    2016-09-01

    To study the tolerance and biocompatibility of mineral pigments for corneal pigmentation histopathologically and immunologically in an experimental animal model. Manual intralamellar keratopigmentation was performed in 28 New Zealand white rabbits using micronized mineral pigments. Histopathological examination was performed 3 months after the surgery to determine the level of pigment diffusion, the level of inflammation, and the presence/absence of neovascularization. An immunological analysis was also performed. No pigment diffusion or changes in color, inflammation, or neovascularization were detected in the treated eyes. Histopathological examination corroborated clinical results regarding inflammation. Pigmented corneas showed a good cosmetic appearance without signs of ocular toxicity. From the immunological perspective, the pigments do not generate an inflammatory response in the rabbit cornea or in vitro. Micronized mineral pigments could be a valid alternative treatment for corneal pigmentation. Manual intralamellar keratopigmentation technique presented good cosmetic appearance without adverse effects in the treated eyes.

  19. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone selectively stimulates human hair follicle pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gáspár, Erzsébet; Nguyen-Thi, Kim T; Hardenbicker, Celine; Tiede, Stephan; Plate, Christian; Bodó, Eniko; Knuever, Jana; Funk, Wolfgang; Bíró, Tamás; Paus, Ralf

    2011-12-01

    In amphibians, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulates skin melanophores by inducing secretion of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in the pituitary gland. However, it is unknown whether this tripeptide neurohormone exerts any direct effects on pigment cells, namely, on human melanocytes, under physiological conditions. Therefore, we have investigated whether TRH stimulates pigment production in organ-cultured human hair follicles (HFs), the epithelium of which expresses both TRH and its receptor, and/or in full-thickness human skin in situ. TRH stimulated melanin synthesis, tyrosinase transcription and activity, melanosome formation, melanocyte dendricity, gp100 immunoreactivity, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor expression in human HFs in a pituitary gland-independent manner. TRH also stimulated proliferation, gp100 expression, tyrosinase activity, and dendricity of isolated human HF melanocytes. However, intraepidermal melanogenesis was unaffected. As TRH upregulated the intrafollicular production of "pituitary" neurohormones (proopiomelanocortin transcription and ACTH immunoreactivity) and as agouti-signaling protein counteracted TRH-induced HF pigmentation, these pigmentary TRH effects may be mediated in part by locally generated melanocortins and/or by MC-1 signaling. Our study introduces TRH as a novel, potent, selective, and evolutionarily highly conserved neuroendocrine factor controlling human pigmentation in situ. This physiologically relevant and melanocyte sub-population-specific neuroendocrine control of human pigmentation deserves clinical exploration, e.g., for preventing or reversing hair graying.

  20. The importance of tattoo pigment in sentinel lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soran, Atilla; Menekse, Ebru; Kanbour-Shakir, Amal; Tane, Kaori; Diego, Emilia; Bonaventura, Marguerite; Johnson, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    The presence of pigment in axillary lymph nodes (LN) secondary to migration of tattoo ink can imitate the appearance of a blue sentinel lymph node (SLN) on visual inspection, causing the operator to either miss the true SLN or excise more than is needed. We present patients with tattoos ipsilateral to an early stage breast cancer who underwent a SLN biopsy. Patients were retrospectively reviewed from medical records and clinicopathologic data was collected. A total of 52 LNs were retrieved from 15 patients for sentinel mapping and 29 of them had tattoo pigmentation on pathologic evaluation. Of those 29 SLNs, 2 of them (6.9%) were pigmented, but did not contain either blue dye or Tc-99m (pseudopigmented SLN). Two (3.8%) SLNs were positive for metastasis; both of these had either blue dye or Tc99m uptake, and 1 demonstrated tattoo pigment in the node. In this cohort of patients with ipsilateral tattoos, removed more LNs lead to unnecessary excision which may important for increasing the risk of arm morbidity from SLN biopsy. However, the presence of tattoo pigment did not interfere with understaging for axillary mapping and it did not effect of pathological identification of SLNs positivity.