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Sample records for suppressed fusarium wilt

  1. Combining fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. strains to enhance suppression of fusarium wilt of radish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Marjan de; Sluis, Ientse van der; Loon, L.C. van; Bakker, P.A.H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Fusarium wilt diseases, caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum, lead to significant yield losses of crops. One strategy to control fusarium wilt is the use of antagonistic, root-colonizing Pseudomonas spp. It has been demonstrated that different strains of these bacteria suppress disease by

  2. Factors associated with Leguminous Green Manure Incorporation and Fusarium wilt suppression in watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fall planted Vicia villosa cover crop incorporated in spring as a green manure can suppress Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON)] of watermelon in Maryland and Delaware. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the mechanism of this suppression was general or specific, and ...

  3. Increasing Soil Suppressivity to Fusarium Wilt Of Banana Through Banana Intercropping with Allium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Wibowo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc, is one of the most destructive diseases of banana and has spread in many plantation areas in Indonesia. Until today, the effective ways to control banana fusarium wilt disease have not yet been found. Some studies indicated thatAllium spp. could be used to suppress plant diseases caused by Fusarium. Allium spp. are important horticultural crops which are generally cultivated in some areas in Indonesia. This research was conducted to determine the effect of several species ofAllium spp. intercropped with banana to improve soil suppressiveness against banana fusarium wilt disease. The results showed that up to 12 months after planting, from 3 species ofAllium spp. (A. tuberosum/ Chinese leek, A. fistulosum/ bunching onion, and A. cepa var. aggregatum/ shallot intercropped with banana Ambon Kuning (AAA cultivar, Chinese leek and shallot were able to suppress the incidence of fusarium wilt disease of banana by 46 and 33% respectively. Soil analysis on the rhizosphere of banana intercropped with Chinese leek and shallot had lower population of total Fusarium compared to the other treatments. Analysis of fluorescein diacetate (3’.6’-diacetylfluoerescein or FDA also showed that total microbial activity in the rhizosphere of banana intercropped withAllium spp. was also lower compared to control treatment (without intercropping. The observation of the effect ofAllium spp. extracts on Foc showed that Allium spp. extracts were able to suppress the development of the colony and spore germination of Foc in vitro.   INTISARI Layu Fusarium, yang disebabkan oleh Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc, merupakan salah satu penyakit tanaman pisang yang paling merusak dan telah tersebar di berbagai daerah di Indonesia. Sampai saat ini cara yang efektif untuk mengendalikan penyakit layu fusarium pisang belum ditemukan. Beberapa penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Allium spp. dapat dipergunakan

  4. Trichoderma harzianum in combination with sheep manure amendment enhances soil suppressiveness of Fusarium wilt of tomato

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    R. M. Barakat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect that the biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum (isolate Jn14 in combination with an amendment of sheep manure has on the soil suppressiveness of Fusarium wilt of tomato was investigated over a 28-month period. A combination of T. harzianum and organic amendment at concentrations (w:w of 6 and 10% reduced tomato wilt by 21–36 % and 29–36% respectively, after 0–28 months of soil incubation. When the amendment was added at concentration of 2%, the wilt was suppressed only after 18–28 months. A combination of T. harzianum and the amendment at 6% also increased tomato plant fresh weights by 52% after 28 months, and the 10% amendment increased fresh weights by 56, 40, and 63%, after 18, 24, and 28 months respectively, compared to the experimental controls. Organic amendment at the higher concentrations further stimulated T. harzianum populations, enhanced microbial activity against Fusarium oxysporum in the soil and reduced pathogen populations. Without T. harzianum, the organic amendment at a concentration of 10% reduced disease by only 22, 24, and 23% and only after 18, 24 and 28 months of soil incubation respectively, compared with the controls. However, tomato wilt was not reduced at a 2% manure concentration in less than 12 months of incubation. Organic amendment alone at 6 and 10% reduced the pathogen population by 25% and 37% respectively after 28 months of soil incubation compared with the control. T. harzianum produced fungitoxic metabolites that reduced mycelial growth of Fusarium by 37% and conidium germination by 55% when the pathogen was grown on potato dextrose agar amended with a T. harzianum culture filtrate.

  5. Fusarium Wilt of Orchids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium wilt of orchids is highly destructive and economically limiting to the production of quality orchids that has steadily increased in many production facilities. Important crops such as phalaenopsis, cattleyas, and oncidiums appear to be especially susceptible to certain Fusarium species. Fu...

  6. Fusarium Wilt of Banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Randy C

    2015-12-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is one of the world's most important fruits. In 2011, 145 million metric tons, worth an estimated $44 billion, were produced in over 130 countries. Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most destructive diseases of this crop. It devastated the 'Gros Michel'-based export trades before the mid-1900s, and threatens the Cavendish cultivars that were used to replace it; in total, the latter cultivars are now responsible for approximately 45% of all production. An overview of the disease and its causal agent, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, is presented below. Despite a substantial positive literature on biological, chemical, or cultural measures, management is largely restricted to excluding F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense from noninfested areas and using resistant cultivars where the pathogen has established. Resistance to Fusarium wilt is poor in several breeding targets, including important dessert and cooking cultivars. Better resistance to this and other diseases is needed. The history and impact of Fusarium wilt is summarized with an emphasis on tropical race 4 (TR4), a 'Cavendish'-killing variant of the pathogen that has spread dramatically in the Eastern Hemisphere.

  7. Soil Bacterial Community Was Changed after Brassicaceous Seed Meal Application for Suppression of Fusarium Wilt on Pepper

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    Gaidi Ren

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Application of Brassicaceous seed meal (BSM is a promising biologically based disease-control practice but BSM could directly and indirectly also affect the non-target bacterial communities, including the beneficial populations. Understanding the bacterial response to BSM at the community level is of great significance for directing plant disease management through the manipulation of resident bacterial communities. Fusarium wilt is a devastating disease on pepper. However, little is known about the response of bacterial communities, especially the rhizosphere bacterial community, to BSM application to soil heavily infested with Fusarium wilt pathogen and cropped with peppers. In this study, a 25-day microcosm incubation of a natural Fusarium wilt pathogen-infested soil supplemented with three BSMs, i.e., Camelina sativa ‘Crantz’ (CAME, Brassica juncea ‘Pacific Gold’ (PG, and a mixture of PG and Sinapis alba cv. ‘IdaGold’ (IG (PG+IG, 1:1 ratio, was performed. Then, a further 35-day pot experiment was established with pepper plants growing in the BSM treated soils. The changes in the bacterial community in the soil after 25 days of incubation and changes in the rhizosphere after an additional 35 days of pepper growth were investigated by 454 pyrosequencing technique. The results show that the application of PG and PG+IG reduced the disease index by 100% and 72.8%, respectively, after 35 days of pepper growth, while the application of CAME did not have an evident suppressive effect. All BSM treatments altered the bacterial community structure and decreased the bacterial richness and diversity after 25 days of incubation, although this effect was weakened after an additional 35 days of pepper growth. At the phylum/class and the genus levels, the changes in specific bacterial populations resulting from the PG and PG+IG treatments, especially the significant increase in Actinobacteria-affiliated Streptomyces and an unclassified genus and

  8. Fusarium wilt resistant bananas considered appropriate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be tried in areas witbout black Sigatoka while KMS appears a suitable replacement for the juice bananas ( Kisubi and. Kayinja). Key words: Fusarium wilt, Exotic bananas, Resistance, acceptability ·. Introduction. Fusarium wilt of bananas (Panama disease), caused by the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht.f.sp ...

  9. Reduction of Fusarium wilt in watermelon by Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1391 and P. fluorescens WCS365

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    G.T. Tziros

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum is a devastatine soil-borne disease that causes extensive losses throughout the world. Two known Pseudomonas biocontrol strains were used separately and in combination to assess their antagonistic effectiveness against F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum in pot experiments. P. chlororaphis PCL1391 signifi cantly reduced disease severity. P. fl uorescens WCS365 was less effective in disease suppression, while a combination of the two bacteria had intermediate effects. The biological control of Fusarium wilt with P. chlororaphis offers a potentially useful tool in an integrated pest management program to control Fusarium wilt of watermelon.

  10. First report of Fusarium wilt of alfalfa caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. medicaginis in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. medicaginis, is an economically important vascular disease of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) throughout the world. Alfalfa plants with foliar wilt symptoms and reddish-brown arcs in roots consistent with Fusarium wilt were observed in disease assessment ...

  11. Control of Fusarium Wilt of Chili With Chitinolytic Bacteria

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    DWI SURYANTO

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological control of plant disease using antagonistic microorganism has been obtaining much attention and implemented for decades. One of the potential microorganisms used in this strategy is chitinolytic bacteria. Utilization of this bacteria ranges from cell life, enzymes, genes, or other metabolites. In this study, we examined the ability of chitinolytic bacteria as a biocontrol agent of Fusarium wilt of red chili (Capsicum annuum L. seedlings. The ability of chitinolytic bacteria to suppress the disease was evaluated by soaking red chili seeds in the bacterial isolates solution for 30 minutes prior seedling. Percentage of seedling of treated chili seed at end of study (4-weeks ranging from 46 to 82.14%. Relative reduction of the seedling damping-off was observed in all bacterial treatment ranged from 28.57 to 60.71%. Furthermore, manifestation of bacterial suppression to Fusarium wilt was also exhibited by increasing of seedling height (ranged from 7.33 to 7.87 cm compared to 6.88 cm and dry-weight (ranged from 2.7 to 4.3 mg compared to 2.3 mg. However, no significant effect was observed in leaf number. Then, from all chitinolytic isolates tested, BK08 was the most potential candidate for biological control agent of Fusarium wilt in chili seedling.

  12. Genetic diversity of Fusarium wilt races of pigeonpea in major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fusarium wilt is a serious fungal disease in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) which causes severe yield loses (up to 90%). Genetic diversity in pigeonpea wilt pathogen [Fusarium udum (fud)] was characterised using 14 isolates collected from major pulse growing regions of India. Twenty four RAPD primers generated a total of ...

  13. Fusarium Wilt Caused by Fusarium oxysporum on Passionfruit in Korea

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    Jae-Ho Joa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available From 2014 to 2016, Fusarium wilt disease was found on fassionfruit in Iksan and Jeju, Korea. Symptoms included wilting of foliage, drying and withering of leaves, and stunting of the plants. The infected plants eventually died during growth. Colonies on potato dextrose agar were pinkish white, and felted with cottony and aerial mycelia with 35 mm after one week. Macroconidia were falcate to almost straight, thin-walled and usually 2-3 septate. Microconidia were usually formed on monophialides of the hyphae and were hyaline, smooth, oval to ellipsoidal, aseptate or medianly 1-septate, very occasionally 2-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 3-12 x 2.5-6 μm. On the basis of the morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analyses of two molecular markers, internal transcribed spacer rDNA and translation elongation factor 1α, the fungus was identified as Fusarium oxysporum. Pathogenicity of a representative isolate was proved by artificial inoculation, fulfilling Koch's postulates. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the occurrence of F. oxysporum on fassionfruit in Korea.

  14. Distinct roles for soil fungal and bacterial communities associated with the suppression of vanilla Fusarium wilt disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiong, Wu; Li, Rong; Ren, Yi; Liu, Chen; Zhao, Qingyun; Wu, Huasong; Jousset, Alexandre; Shen, Qirong

    2017-01-01

    Characterizing microbial communities associated with disease-suppressive soil is an important first step toward understanding the potential of microbiota to protect crops against plant pathogens. In the present study, we compared microbial communities in suppressive- and conducive-soils associated

  15. In vitro inhibition of tomato Fusarium wilt causative agent by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To find naturally occurring compounds for the control of Fusarium wilt disease of tomato in the farming fields, 200 fungal strains were cultured in liquid media and screened for antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporium f. sp. Lycosperci. The screening was carried out using in vitro antifungal assays and coincidentally a ...

  16. Integrated management of Fusarium wilt of chickpea (Cicer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-07-17

    Jul 17, 2013 ... Key words: Integrated management, Fusarium wilt, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris, chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), antagonists, botanicals, fungicides. INTRODUCTION. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is a vital source of plant- derived edible protein in many countries. Chickpea also has advantages in the ...

  17. First report of Fusarium redolens causing Fusarium yellowing and wilt of chickpea in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chickpea plants showing wilt symptoms in Tunisia have been attributed solely to race 0 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Foc) in the past. However, chickpea cultivars known to be resistant to race 0 of Foc recently also showed the wilting symptoms. To ascertain the race or species identities re...

  18. Fusarium Wilt Affecting Chickpea Crop

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    Warda Jendoubi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. contributes 18% of the global production of grain legume and serves as an important source of dietary protein. An important decrease in cropping area and production has been recorded during the last two decades. Several biotic and abiotic constraints underlie this decrease. Despite the efforts deployed in breeding and selection of several chickpea varieties with high yield potential that are tolerant to diseases, the situation has remained the same for the last decade. Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Foc is the major soilborne fungus affecting chickpeas globally. Fusarium wilt epidemics can devastate crops and cause up to 100% loss in highly infested fields and under favorable conditions. To date, eight pathogenic races of Foc (races 0, 1A, 1B/C, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 have been reported worldwide. The development of resistant cultivars is the most effective method to manage this disease and to contribute to stabilizing chickpea yields. Development of resistant varieties to fusarium wilt in different breeding programs is mainly based on conventional selection. This method is time‐consuming and depends on inoculum load and specific environmental factors that influence disease development. The use of molecular tools offers great potential for chickpea improvement, specifically by identifying molecular markers closely linked to genes/QTLs controlling fusarium wilt.

  19. Molecular identification of Fusarium spp. causing wilt of chickpea and the first report of Fusarium redolens in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important food legume crop and Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris is one of the most important diseases of chickpea in Turkey. Fusarium redolens is known to cause wilt-like disease of chickpea in other countries, but has not been reported fr...

  20. A review of coffee wilt disease, Gibberella xylarioides (Fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coffee is attacked by various disease-causing organisms such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, nematodes, insects and weeds. One of the limiting factors for coffee production ... Keywords/phrases: Biological control, Coffee, Coffee wilt disease, Fusarium xylarioides (Gibberella xylarioides) Ethiop. J. Biol. Sci. 11(1): 65-103, 2012 ...

  1. Integrated management of Fusarium wilt of chickpea ( Cicer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to assess the efficacy of an integrated management strategy for Fusarium wilt of chickpea that combined the use of microbial antagonist, botanical extract and fungicide. Before setting the experiment in field micro plots, a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted to select a ...

  2. Management of Fusarium Wilt using mycolytic enzymes produced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main aim of this study was to isolate the best chitinase and glucanase enzyme producing Trichoderma strain to manage the Fusarium wilt disease of Cicer aritenum under in vitro conditions. We also studied the effect of Trichoderma strains on the growth and development of C. aritenum plants. Seven strains of ...

  3. Environmental Influences on Pigeonpea-Fusarium udum Interactions and Stability of Genotypes to Fusarium Wilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mamta; Ghosh, Raju; Telangre, Rameshwar; Rathore, Abhishek; Saifulla, Muhammad; Mahalinga, Dayananda M.; Saxena, Deep R.; Jain, Yogendra K.

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt (Fusarium udum Butler) is an important biotic constraint to pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) production worldwide. Breeding for fusarium wilt resistance continues to be an integral part of genetic improvement of pigeonpea. Therefore, the study was aimed at identifying and validating resistant genotypes to fusarium wilt and determining the magnitude of genotype × environment (G × E) interactions through multi-environment and multi-year screening. A total of 976 genotypes including germplasm and breeding lines were screened against wilt using wilt sick plot at Patancheru, India. Ninety two genotypes resistant to wilt were tested for a further two years using wilt sick plot at Patancheru. A Pigeonpea Wilt Nursery (PWN) comprising of 29 genotypes was then established. PWN was evaluated at nine locations representing different agro-climatic zones of India for wilt resistance during two crop seasons 2007/08 and 2008/09. Genotypes (G), environment (E), and G × E interactions were examined by biplot which partitioned the main effect into G, E, and G × E interactions with significant levels (p ≤ 0.001) being obtained for wilt incidence. The genotype contributed 36.51% of resistance variation followed by the environment (29.32%). A GGE biplot integrated with a boxplot and multiple comparison tests enabled us to identify seven stable genotypes (ICPL 20109, ICPL 20096, ICPL 20115, ICPL 20116, ICPL 20102, ICPL 20106, and ICPL 20094) based on their performance across diverse environments. These genotypes have broad based resistance and can be exploited in pigeonpea breeding programs. PMID:27014287

  4. Induced Resistance to Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    However, plant pathogenic strains F. oxysporum causes destructive vascular wilt diseases on a wide variety of crops, often limiting crop production. (Nelson et. al. ... A number of biochemical and physiological changes have been associated with pathogen infection. These include cell death and the oxidative burst (Low and.

  5. Biological control of strawberry Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae using Bacillus velezensis BS87 and RK1 formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Myeong Hyeon; Park, Myung Soo; Kim, Hong Gi; Yoo, Sung Joon

    2009-05-01

    Two isolates, Bacillus sp. BS87 and RK1, selected from soil in strawberry fields in Korea, showed high levels of antagonism towards Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae in vitro. The isolates were identified as B. velezensis based on the homology of their gyrA sequences to reference strains. BS87 and RK1 were evaluated for control of Fusarium wilt in strawberries in pot trials and field trials conducted in Nonsan, Korea. In the pot trials, the optimum applied concentration of BS87 and RK1 for pre-plant root-dip application to control Fusarium wilt was 10(5) and 10(6) colony-forming units (CFU)/ml, respectively. Meanwhile, in the 2003 and 2005 field trials, the biological control efficacies of formulations of RK1 were similar to that of a conventional fungicide (copper hydroxide) when compared with a non-treated control. The RK1 formulation was also more effective than BS87 in suppressing Fusarium wilt under field conditions. Therefore, the results indicated that formulation of B.velezensis BS87 and RK1 may have potential to control Fusarium wilt in strawberries.

  6. Effectiveness of composts and Trichoderma strains for control of Fusarium wilt of tomato

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    Yousra TAGHDI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL is a major limiting disease in tomato production in Morocco. Commercial and locally produced Moroccan composts and peat were found to reduce Fusarium wilt in tomato plants. We explored the presence of Trichoderma strains in these materials, and in six soils sampled in the North West of Morocco, where a low incidence of Fusarium wilt had been previously observed. The most abundant Trichoderma-like fungus was selected from each soil, compost or peat sample. Twelve Trichoderma strains were isolated and identified molecularly. Trichoderma asperellum CT9 and Trichoderma virens ST11 showed the greatest overall antagonistic activity against FOL, Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea and Pythium ultimum. The three strains evaluated in in planta tests, CT9, ST11 and T. virens ST10, reduced tomato Fusarium wilt, and strain ST11  also promoted growth of tomato plants.

  7. VARIETAL RESISTANCE TO CONTROL FUSARIUM WILTS OF LEAFY VEGETABLES UNDER GREENHOUSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilardi, G; Demarchi, S; Gullino, M L; Garibaldi, A

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium wilts of leafy vegetables are difficult to manage under intensive cropping systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate, in three experimental trials, the susceptibility of commercial cultivars of lettuce, wild and cultivated rocket and lamb's lettuce to Fusarium wilts in orderto provide information to breeders, as well as to growers. Some of the cultivars of lettuce tested were completely resistant to the three races of Fusarium wilt. It is interesting to observe that most of the resistant cultivars were 'Batavia red'. Only few rocket cultivars commercially available show a partial resistant reaction to F. oxysporum f.sp. raphani, while, varietal resistance is not applicable at the moment to control Fusarium wilt of lamb's lettuce. The integration of cultural practices, use of resistant cultivars, when available, chemicals and biological control agents, permit to prevent and manage these important diseases on leafy vegetables for fresh-cut production.

  8. Temporal patterns of cotton Fusarium and Verticillium wilt in Jiangsu coastal areas of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Ya'nan; Ding, Changfeng; Xu, Wenhua; Wang, Xingxiang

    2017-10-03

    Cotton diseases caused by soil-borne pathogenic fungi present a major constraint to cotton production not only in China but also worldwide. A long-term field inventory was made of the prevalence of Fusarium and Verticillium wilt of cotton in the Jiangsu coastal area of China from 2000 to 2014. Various factors (crop varieties, rotation and weather) were analyzed to explore the dynamics of these diseases in cotton. The results showed that the prevalence of Fusarium and Verticillium wilt increased before 2005 and that Verticillium wilt remained at a high incidence over most of the past 10 years, while Fusarium wilt began to gradually decrease after 2005. The dynamics of Fusarium and Verticillium wilt were closely associated with the introduced cotton varieties and the intensive cropping history. In addition, weather conditions occurring during some of the years appeared to coincide with a substantial variation in the wilt diseases. Our study highlighted epidemiological dynamics of Fusarium and Verticillium wilt in a long-term survey.

  9. First Report of Fusarium Wilt Caused by Fusarium oxysporum on Kohlrabi in Korea

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    In-Young Choi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In April 2014, Fusarium wilt was found on kohlrabi seedlings in Iksan, Korea. Symptoms included wilting of foliage, drying and withering of older leaves, and stunting of the plants. The infected plants eventually died during growth. Colonies on potato dextrose agar were pinkish white, and felted with cottony and aerial mycelium. Macroconidia were falcate to almost straight, thin walled and usually 3-septate. Microconidia were usually formed abundantly in false-heads on short monophialides on the hyphae and were hyaline, smooth, oval to ellipsoidal, aseptate or medianly 1-septate, very occasionally 2-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 4-11 × 2.5-5 mm. On the basis of the morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analyses of molecular markers (internal transcribed spacer rDNA and translation elongation factor 1a, the fungus was identified as Fusarium oxysporum. Pathogenicity of a representative isolate was proved by artificial inoculation, fulfilling Koch’s postulates. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the occurrence of Fusarium oxysporum on kohlrabi in Korea.

  10. Comparative efficacy of different fungicides against fusarium wilt of chickpea (cicer arietinum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maitlo, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Foc) is the most serious and widespread disease of chickpea, causing a 100% loss under favorable conditions. Fourteen fungicides were evaluated against wilt pathogen In vitro with five different concentrations ranging from 1-10000 ppm. Among these only Carbendazim and Thiophanate-methyl was found as the most effective at all used concentrations. Other fungicides like Aliette, Nativo, Hombre-excel and Dividend star were found to be moderately effective. Whereas, remaining fungicides were ineffective against the targeted pathogen. Generally, a positive co-relation was observed between increasing concentrations of the tested fungicides and inhibition of Foc. Based on In vitro results Carbendazim, Thiophanate-methyl, Aliette, Dividend-star, Hombre-excel, Score and Nativo were selected for pot and field experiments. The higher concentrations of the few fungicides completely inhibited the pathogen as well as found to be phytotoxic and suppressed the plant growth while lower concentrations promoted the growth of chickpea plants. On over all bases, the Carbendazim and Thiophanate-methyl, followed by Aliette and Nativo were more effective in reducing the impact of pathogen as well as enhancing the plant growth in greenhouse experiment. Under field conditions, all fungicides except Score remarkably decreased the disease development and subsequently increased the plant growth as well as grain yield as compared to untreated plants. (author)

  11. Effect Of Salinization On Fusarium Wilt Disease In Tomato Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, B.M.; Fath El-Bab, T.S.

    2013-01-01

    Salinization of soils or waters is one of the serious environmental problems in agriculture. It is necessary to determine the environmental factors under which the plants give higher yields and better quality to solve this problem. The problem of salinity is characterized by disruption in the physiological processes in plant which lead to shorting in growth and decrease in yield. The study was carried out to control fusarium disease in tomato plant irrigated with salt water (500, 1500, 15000, 45000 and 100000 ppm). These treatments lead to excess in malic and citric acids i.e. from 21 mmol/g fresh weight in control to 38.8 mmol/g fresh weight at 100000 ppm for citric acid while for malic acid, the value was increased from 1.4 mmol/g fresh weight for control to 2.1 mmol/g fresh weight. The excess of malic and citric acids lead to increase in acidity and vitamin C in tomato fruits. On the other side, the plant may adapt to this stress by increasing its proline content from 0.59 µmol/g fresh weight to 6.56 µmol/g fresh weight at 100000 and abscisic acid from 0.49 µmol/g fresh weight to 20.7 µmol/g fresh weight. The results showed that the fusarium fungal growth was observed till 100000 ppm but did not form sclerotia spores at 45000 ppm. On the other hand, the electrical conductivity was found to be 0.46, 2.3, 23.1, 69.2 and 153.8 dS/m for salinity levels of 500, 1500, 15000, 45000 and 100000 ppm, respectively. This study aimed to control the fusarium wilt disease by irrigating the plant with water has high salinity

  12. Greater Fusarium wilt suppression after complex than after simple organic amendments as affected by soil pH, total carbon and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senechkin, I.V.; Overbeek, van L.S.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to compare effects of four types of organic amendments on soil chemical, microbiological and disease suppression characteristics in an organic farm. The amendments were plant-derived fresh compost (C), steer-derived slurry (S), slurry plus dung (SD) and slurry,

  13. Biological Control of Fusarium Wilt of Tomato – A Review | Monda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fusarium wilt of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici leads to high losses of tomatoes in many countries. Increasing restraints on the use of pesticides encourages adoption of use of alternative strategies of controlling the disease. Alternative strategies include use of biocontrol ...

  14. Linkage mapping in a watermelon population segregating for fusarium wilt resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh K. Hawkins; Fenny Dane; Thomas L. Kubisiak; Billy B. Rhodes; Robert L. Jarret

    2001-01-01

    Isozyme, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers were used to generate a linkage map in an F2 and F3 watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thumb.) Matsum. & Nakai) population derived from a cross between the fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f....

  15. Aerial remote sensing survey of Fusarium wilt of cotton in New Mexico and Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium wilt of cotton, caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV), is a widespread cotton disease, but the more virulent FOV race 4 (FOV4) has recently been identified in the New Mexico-Texas border area near El Paso, Texas. A preliminary aerial remote sensing survey was cond...

  16. Rhizobacteria induces resistance against Fusarium wilt of tomato by increasing the activity of defense enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélvio Gledson Maciel Ferraz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol, is one of the most important diseases that affect tomato yield worldwide. This study investigated the potential of three antagonists, Streptomyces setonii (UFV 618, Bacillus cereus (UFV 592 and Serratia marcescens (UFV 252, and as positive control the hormone jasmonic acid (JA, to reduce Fusarium wilt symptoms and to potentiate the defense enzymes in the stem tissues of tomato plants infected by Fol. The seeds were microbiolized with each antagonist, and the soil was also drenched with them. The plants were sprayed with JA 48 h before Fol inoculation. The area under the Fusarium wilt index progress curve was reduced by 54, 48, 47 and 45% for the UFV 618, JA, UFV 592 and UFV 252 treatments, respectively. The three antagonists, and even the JA spray, efficiently reduced the Fusarium wilt symptoms on the tomato plant stems, which can be explained by the lower malondialdehyde concentration (an indication of oxidative damage to lipids in the plasma membranes and the greater activities of peroxidases, polyphenoloxidases, glucanases, chitinases, phenylalanine ammonia-lyases and lipoxygenases, which are commonly involved in host resistance against fungal diseases. These results present a novel alternative that can be used in the integrated management of Fusarium wilt on tomatoes.

  17. Efficacy of Micro Nutrients on Banana fusarium Wilt. (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense) and it's Synergistic Action with Trichoderma viride

    OpenAIRE

    K. SANJEEV; A. ESWARAN

    2008-01-01

    In the present investigations, efficacy of micro nutrients viz., (calcium nitrate, ammonium sulphate, copper sulphate, potassium chloride, sodium chloride, borax, ferrous sulphate and zinc sulphate) against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense causing panama wilt of banana were studied. The results of experiment revealed that among the micro nutrients used, borax @ 500 and 750 ppm completely inhibited the mycelial growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense followed by zinc sulphate (47.3, 42.7,...

  18. Resistance selection on banana CV. Ambon Kuning Against Fusarium Wilt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutarto, Ismiyarti; Meldia, Yeni; Jumjunidang

    1998-01-01

    This research was conducted in order to study the occurrence of mutation on irradiated plantlets and their resistance of plants of banana cv. Ambon Kuning against Fusarium wilt. Plantlets of banana cv. Ambon Kuning sized 5 cm were exposed to gamma rays at the doses 5 - 35 Gy intervals, then were subcultured for obtained M 1 V 5 plantlets. More over, the planlets were acclimatized and were planted in the field was already infected by Fasarium (f).culbense (FOC). The result indicated that irradiated plantlets of the doses 20 - 35 Gy were not able to survive up to 6 months after exposing to gamma rays. Abnormalities of M 1 V 5 plantlets originated from irradiated plantlets at the doses 10 and 15 Gy were shown on rossette plantlets with rigid and dark green leaves, and the formation of smooth mass morphologically shaped like calculus. The appearance of plant height and number of suckers of suckers of M 1 V 5 plants in the field was quite various. The number of survival plants after 8 moths planting was 8, 7, 15, and 28, respectively originated from untreated plants and irradiated plantlets at the doses 5, 10, and 15 Gy. After one year planting , only 2 plants were able to survive from irradiated plantlet at the dose 15 Gy. The plants could produce 27 plantlets obtained from culturing their shoot tips. Further study of these plantlets was needed in order create the stability of their resistance to FOC. (author)

  19. Gamma ray induced Fusarium wilt resistance in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedi, S.; Faris, D.G.; Jain, K.C.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Seed of pigeonpea 'ICPL 265' susceptible to wilt (Fusarium udum) was irradiated with doses of gamma rays ranging from 5 to 40 kR. In the M 1 , untreated control and irradiated populations were all susceptible. Selfed seeds from surviving M 1 plants were grown in a wilt disease plot. Morphological variants of 40 kR treated seed showed the mutagen's impact. Nearly all check plants (99.3%) were killed by wilt; 3% of irradiated M2-plants survived. Selfed seeds were grown as M 3 bulks and as M 4 single plant progenies. The M 4 had several wilt resistant lines with yield and seed size better than 'ICPL 265'. One wilt resistant line was also resistant to Sterility Mosaic Disease and another one was shorter and earlier than 'ICPL 265'. (author)

  20. Differential Inhibitory Activities of Four Plant Essential Oils on In Vitro Growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae Causing Fusarium Wilt in Strawberry Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Young Park

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine inhibitory activities of four volatile plant essential oils (cinnamon oil, fennel oil, origanum oil and thyme oil on in vitro growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae causing Fusarium wilt of strawberry plants. Results showed that these essential oils inhibited in vitro conidial germination and mycelial growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. fragariae in a dose-dependent manner. Cinnamon oil was found to be most effective one in suppressing conidial germination while fennel oil, origanum oil and thyme oil showed moderate inhibition of conidial germination at similar levels. Cinnamon oil, origanum oil and thyme oil showed moderate antifungal activities against mycelial growth at similar levels while fennel oil had relatively lower antifungal activity against mycelial growth. Antifungal effects of these four plant essential oils in different combinations on in vitro fungal growth were also evaluated. These essential oils demonstrated synergistic antifungal activities against conidial germination and mycelial growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. fragariae in vitro. Simultaneous application of origanum oil and thyme oil enhanced their antimicrobial activities against conidial germination and fungal mycelial growth. These results underpin that volatile plant essential oils could be used in eco-friendly integrated disease management of Fusarium wilt in strawberry fields.

  1. Studies on disease suppressiveness of soils. III. - Effects of γ-rays on microorganisms of a soil and on its suppressiveness to fusarium of Muskmelon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alabouvette, C.; Rouxel, F.; Louvet, J.

    1977-01-01

    Soil suppressiveness to Fusarium wilt of Muskmelon persists after treatment by 50 krd in spite of 60-70% destruction of its microflora. From 50 to 250 krd, residual microflora is progressively reduced while suppressiveness sharply decreases between 50 and 100 krd. Soil becomes very receptive after 250-500 krd treatments in correlation with nearly total microflora breakdown [fr

  2. Success evaluation of the biological control of Fusarium wilts of cucumber, banana, and tomato since 2000 and future research strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Waseem; Ling, Ning; Zhang, Ruifu; Huang, Qiwei; Xu, Yangchun; Shen, Qirong

    2017-03-01

    The Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum strains is the most devastating disease of cucumber, banana, and tomato. The biological control of this disease has become an attractive alternative to the chemical fungicides and other conventional control methods. In this review, the research trends and biological control efficiencies (BCE) of different microbial strains since 2000 are reviewed in detail, considering types of microbial genera, inoculum application methods, plant growth medium and conditions, inoculum application with amendments, and co-inoculation of different microbial strains and how those affect the BCE of Fusarium wilt. The data evaluation showed that the BCE of biocontrol agents was higher against the Fusarium wilt of cucumber compared to the Fusarium wilts of banana and tomato. Several biocontrol agents mainly Bacillus, Trichoderma, Pseudomonas, nonpathogenic Fusarium, and Penicillium strains were evaluated to control Fusarium wilt, but still this lethal disease could not be controlled completely. We have discussed different reasons of inconsistent results and recommendations for the betterment of BCE in the future. This review provides knowledge of the biotechnology of biological control of Fusarium wilt of cucumber, banana, and tomato in a nut shell that will provide researchers a beginning line to start and to organize and plan research for the future studies.

  3. Biological control of fusarium wilt of tomato by antagonist fungi and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biological control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL) causing wilt disease of tomato was studied in vitro as well as under pot conditions. Dual culture technique showed that Aspergillus niger, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium sp. and Trichoderma harzianum inhibited the radial colony growth of the test pathogen.

  4. Evaluation of bio-agent formulations to control Fusarium wilt of tomato

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ED50 value of antagonistic substance from Chaetomium globosum N0802 extracted with hexane was 157 μg/ml. This gave the highest inhibition of conidial production of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici causing tomato wilt var Sida. Crude hexane from Chaetomium lucknowense CLT and crude methanol from ...

  5. Evaluation of bio-agent formulations to control Fusarium wilt of tomato

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... when compared to prochoraz and inoculated control. It is concluded ... studied with emphasis on biological control using fungi or bacteria to ...... (*and Other Methods). Version 4. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland,. Massachusetts. Yiğit F, Dikilitas M (2007). Control of Fusarium wilt of tomato by combination of ...

  6. Management of Fusarium Wilt using mycolytic enzymes produced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    by Fusarium udum with Trichoderma spp. Ann. Plant Prot. Sci. 7(1):46-50. Bunker RN, Mathur K (2001). Antagonism of local biocontrol agents to. Rhizoctonia solani inciting dry root-rot of chilli. J. Mycol. Plant Pathol. 31(1):50-53. Elad Y, Chet I (1983). Improved selective medium for isolation of. Trichoderma or Fusarium sp.

  7. Comparison of Fungal Community in Black Pepper-Vanilla and Vanilla Monoculture Systems Associated with Vanilla Fusarium Wilt Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Wu; Zhao, Qingyun; Xue, Chao; Xun, Weibing; Zhao, Jun; Wu, Huasong; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Long-term vanilla monocropping often results in the occurrence of vanilla Fusarium wilt disease, seriously affecting its production all over the world. In the present study, vanilla exhibited significantly less Fusarium wilt disease in the soil of a long-term continuously cropped black pepper orchard. The entire fungal communities of bulk and rhizosphere soils between the black pepper-vanilla system (i.e., vanilla cropped in the soil of a continuously cropped black pepper orchard) and vanilla...

  8. Fusarium oxysporum as Causal Agent of Tomato Wilt and Fruit Rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Ignjatov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes are parasitized by a number of pathogens, including Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, causal agent of fusarium wilt. Fresh vegetable fruits can be contaminated with variousfungi that produce mycotoxins, which is an important issue for human health. The objective of this paper was to isolate, determine, and identify causal organisms of tomato wilt and fruit rot, based on the pathogens morphological and molecular characteristics. Samples ofdiseased plants showing symptoms of tomato wilt were collected from different localities in the production region of Vojvodina. Fruits with symptoms of fusarium rot were collected from storage and warehouses. The isolation and morphological determination of the fungus were performed on PDA and Czapek’s nutrient media. Isolates from diseased plants growing in field,designated as TFW1-TFW12 and seven isolates from diseased tomato fruits (TFM1-TFM7 were chosen for further investigation. For identification of the fungal solates, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR was also used. The EF1/EF2 primer pair was used for molecular identification of Fusarium sp. Nine analyzed samples were found to contain DNA fragments 700 bp in size.

  9. Effector gene suites in some soil isolates of Fusarium oxysporum are not sufficient predictors of vascular wilt in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the first study examining the distribution of fungal effector genes among soil populations of Fusarium oxysporum in a tomato field undergoing a wilt disease epidemic. 74 F. oxysporum soil isolates were assayed for known effector genes present in a Race 3 tomato wilt strain (FOL MN-25) obtain...

  10. Evaluation of Cucumis ficifolius A. Rich. Accessions for Resistance to Fusarium Wilt

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Yuichi

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Fusarium wilt of melon (Cucumis melo L.), which is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis is regarded as a severe disease worldwide. Among the races (0, 1, 2 and 1,2), no gene conferringhigh resistance to race 1,2 has been identified in melon Wild Cucumis species have been reported to possess resistance to some melon diseases, and some of the methods of overcome to the reproductive barriers in genus Cucumis interspecific crosses were reported. We evaluated C. ficifolius for novel r...

  11. Thyme essential oil as a defense inducer of tomato against gray mold and Fusarium wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Jabeur, Maissa; Ghabri, Emna; Myriam, Machraoui; Hamada, Walid

    2015-09-01

    The potential of thyme essential oil in controlling gray mold and Fusarium wilt and inducing systemic acquired resistance in tomato seedlings and tomato grown in hydroponic system was evaluated. Thyme oil highly reduced 64% of Botrytis cinerea colonization on pretreated detached leaves compared to untreated control. Also, it played a significant decrease in Fusarium wilt severity especially at7 days post treatment when it was reduced to 30.76%. To explore the plant pathways triggered in response to thyme oil, phenolic compounds accumulation and peroxidase activity was investigated. Plant response was observed either after foliar spray or root feeding in hydroponics which was mostly attributed to peroxidases accumulation rather than phenolic compounds accumulation, and thyme oil seems to be more effective when applied to the roots. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. The Effects of Fungicide, Soil Fumigant, Bio-Organic Fertilizer and Their Combined Application on Chrysanthemum Fusarium Wilt Controlling, Soil Enzyme Activities and Microbial Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuang; Chen, Xi; Deng, Shiping; Dong, Xuena; Song, Aiping; Yao, Jianjun; Fang, Weimin; Chen, Fadi

    2016-04-21

    Sustained monoculture often leads to a decline in soil quality, in particular to the build-up of pathogen populations, a problem that is conventionally addressed by the use of either fungicide and/or soil fumigation. This practice is no longer considered to be either environmentally sustainable or safe. While the application of organic fertilizer is seen as a means of combating declining soil fertility, it has also been suggested as providing some control over certain soil-borne plant pathogens. Here, a greenhouse comparison was made of the Fusarium wilt control efficacy of various treatments given to a soil in which chrysanthemum had been produced continuously for many years. The treatments comprised the fungicide carbendazim (MBC), the soil fumigant dazomet (DAZ), the incorporation of a Paenibacillus polymyxa SQR21 (P. polymyxa SQR21, fungal antagonist) enhanced bio-organic fertilizer (BOF), and applications of BOF combined with either MBC or DAZ. Data suggest that all the treatments evaluated show good control over Fusarium wilt. The MBC and DAZ treatments were effective in suppressing the disease, but led to significant decrease in urease activity and no enhancement of catalase activity in the rhizosphere soils. BOF including treatments showed significant enhancement in soil enzyme activities and microbial communities compared to the MBC and DAZ, evidenced by differences in bacterial/fungi (B/F) ratios, Shannon-Wiener indexes and urease, catalase and sucrase activities in the rhizosphere soil of chrysanthemum. Of all the treatments evaluated, DAZ/BOF application not only greatly suppressed Fusarium wilt and enhanced soil enzyme activities and microbial communities but also promoted the quality of chrysanthemum obviously. Our findings suggest that combined BOF with DAZ could more effectively control Fusarium wilt disease of chrysanthemum.

  13. The Effects of Fungicide, Soil Fumigant, Bio-Organic Fertilizer and Their Combined Application on Chrysanthemum Fusarium Wilt Controlling, Soil Enzyme Activities and Microbial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Zhao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustained monoculture often leads to a decline in soil quality, in particular to the build-up of pathogen populations, a problem that is conventionally addressed by the use of either fungicide and/or soil fumigation. This practice is no longer considered to be either environmentally sustainable or safe. While the application of organic fertilizer is seen as a means of combating declining soil fertility, it has also been suggested as providing some control over certain soil-borne plant pathogens. Here, a greenhouse comparison was made of the Fusarium wilt control efficacy of various treatments given to a soil in which chrysanthemum had been produced continuously for many years. The treatments comprised the fungicide carbendazim (MBC, the soil fumigant dazomet (DAZ, the incorporation of a Paenibacillus polymyxa SQR21 (P. polymyxa SQR21, fungal antagonist enhanced bio-organic fertilizer (BOF, and applications of BOF combined with either MBC or DAZ. Data suggest that all the treatments evaluated show good control over Fusarium wilt. The MBC and DAZ treatments were effective in suppressing the disease, but led to significant decrease in urease activity and no enhancement of catalase activity in the rhizosphere soils. BOF including treatments showed significant enhancement in soil enzyme activities and microbial communities compared to the MBC and DAZ, evidenced by differences in bacterial/fungi (B/F ratios, Shannon–Wiener indexes and urease, catalase and sucrase activities in the rhizosphere soil of chrysanthemum. Of all the treatments evaluated, DAZ/BOF application not only greatly suppressed Fusarium wilt and enhanced soil enzyme activities and microbial communities but also promoted the quality of chrysanthemum obviously. Our findings suggest that combined BOF with DAZ could more effectively control Fusarium wilt disease of chrysanthemum.

  14. Deep convolutional neural network for classifying Fusarium wilt of radish from unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jin Gwan; Moon, Hyeonjoon; Kwak, Jin Tae; Hassan, Syed Ibrahim; Dang, Minh; Lee, O. New; Park, Han Yong

    2017-10-01

    Recently, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have gained much attention. In particular, there is a growing interest in utilizing UAVs for agricultural applications such as crop monitoring and management. We propose a computerized system that is capable of detecting Fusarium wilt of radish with high accuracy. The system adopts computer vision and machine learning techniques, including deep learning, to process the images captured by UAVs at low altitudes and to identify the infected radish. The whole radish field is first segmented into three distinctive regions (radish, bare ground, and mulching film) via a softmax classifier and K-means clustering. Then, the identified radish regions are further classified into healthy radish and Fusarium wilt of radish using a deep convolutional neural network (CNN). In identifying radish, bare ground, and mulching film from a radish field, we achieved an accuracy of ≥97.4%. In detecting Fusarium wilt of radish, the CNN obtained an accuracy of 93.3%. It also outperformed the standard machine learning algorithm, obtaining 82.9% accuracy. Therefore, UAVs equipped with computational techniques are promising tools for improving the quality and efficiency of agriculture today.

  15. Wilted cucumber plants infected by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum do not suffer from water shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuming; Wang, Min; Li, Yingrui; Gu, Zechen; Ling, Ning; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2017-09-01

    Fusarium wilt is primarily a soil-borne disease and results in yield loss and quality decline in cucumber (Cucumis sativus). The main symptom of fusarium wilt is the wilting of entire plant, which could be caused by a fungal toxin(s) or blockage of water transport. To investigate whether this wilt arises from water shortage, the physiological responses of hydroponically grown cucumber plants subjected to water stress using polyethylene glycol (PEG, 6000) were compared with those of plants infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC). Parameters reflecting plant water status were measured 8d after the start of treatment. Leaf gas exchange parameters and temperature were measured with a LI-COR portable open photosynthesis system and by thermal imaging. Chlorophyll fluorescence and chloroplast structures were assessed by imaging pulse amplitude-modulated fluorometry and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Cucumber water balance was altered after FOC infection, with decreased water absorption and hydraulic conductivity. However, the responses of cucumber leaves to FOC and PEG differed in leaf regions. Under water stress, measures of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) and chlorophyll fluorescence indicated that the leaf edge was more seriously injured, with a higher leaf temperature and disrupted leaf water status compared with the centre. Here, abscisic acid (ABA) and proline were negatively correlated with water potential. In contrast, under FOC infection, membrane damage and a higher temperature were observed in the leaf centre while ABA and proline did not vary with water potential. Cytologically, FOC-infected cucumber leaves exhibited circular chloroplasts and swelled starch grains in the leaf centre, in which they again differed from PEG-stressed cucumber leaves. This study illustrates the non-causal relationship between fusarium wilt and water transport blockage. Although leaf wilt occurred in both water stress and FOC infection, the

  16. Screening of resistance genes to fusarium root rot and fusarium wilt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fusarium diseases constitute most of the loss in tomato production worldwide, because it spreads on all geographic fields that it is so hard to find a place without fusarium infestation. Thus, the best way to produce tomato is developing resistant cultivars against Fusarium species. In cultivar developing, molecular marker ...

  17. Detailed mapping of a resistance locus against Fusarium wilt in cultivated eggplant (Solanum melongena).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyatake, Koji; Saito, Takeo; Negoro, Satomi; Yamaguchi, Hirotaka; Nunome, Tsukasa; Ohyama, Akio; Fukuoka, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    This is the first report on genetic mapping of a resistance locus against Fusarium wilt caused by the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melongenae in cultivated eggplant. Fusarium wilt, caused by the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melongenae, is a major soil-borne disease threatening stable production in eggplant (Solanum melongena). Although three eggplant germplasms, LS1934, LS174, and LS2436, are known to be highly resistant to the pathogen, their resistance loci have not been mapped. In this study, we performed quantitative trait locus analyses in F2:3 populations and detected a resistance locus, FM1, at the end of chromosome 2, with two alleles, Fm1(L) and Fm1(E), in the F2 populations LWF2 [LS1934 × WCGR112-8 (susceptible)] and EWF2 [EPL-1 (derived from LS174) × WCGR112-8], respectively. The percentage of phenotypic variance explained by Fm1(L) derived from LS1934 was 75.0% [Logarithm of the odds (LOD) = 29.3], and that explained by Fm1(E) derived from EPL-1 was 92.2% (LOD = 65.8). Using backcrossed inbred lines, we mapped FM1 between two simple sequence repeat markers located ~4.881 cM apart from each other. Comparing the location of the above locus to those of previously reported ones, the resistance locus Rfo-sa1 from an eggplant ally (Solanum aethiopicum gr. Gilo) was mapped very close to FM1, whereas another resistance locus, from LS2436, was mapped to the middle of chromosome 4. This is the first report of mapping of a Fusarium resistance locus in cultivated eggplant. The availability of resistance-linked markers will enable the application of marker-assisted selection to overcome problems posed by self-incompatibility and introduction of negative traits because of linkage drag, and will lead to clear understanding of genetic mechanism of Fusarium resistance.

  18. Development of SRAP, SRAP-RGA, RAPD and SCAR markers linked with a Fusarium wilt resistance gene in eggplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Nedim; Boyaci, Filiz Hatice; Göçmen, Münevver; Abak, Kazim

    2008-11-01

    Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. f. sp. melongenae) is a vascular disease of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). The objectives of this work were (1) to confirm the monogenic inheritance of fusarium wilt resistance in eggplant, (2) to identify molecular markers linked to this resistance, and (3) to develop SCAR markers from most informative markers. We report the tagging of the gene for resistance to fusarium wilt (FOM) in eggplant using SRAP, RGA, SRAP-RGA and RAPD markers. Analysis of segregation data confirmed the monogenic inheritance of resistance. DNA from F(2) and BC(1) populations of eggplant segregating for fusarium wilt resistance was screened with 2,316 primer combinations to detect polymorphism. Three markers were linked within 2.6 cM of the gene. The codominant SRAP marker Me8/Em5 and dominant SRAP-RGA marker Em12/GLPL2 were tightly linked to each other and mapped 1.2 cM from the resistance gene, whereas RAPD marker H12 mapped 2.6 cM from the gene and on the same side as the other two markers. The SRAP marker was converted into two dominant SCAR markers that were confirmed to be linked to the resistance gene in the F(2,) BC(1) and F(2) of BC(3) generations of the same cross. These markers provide a starting point for mapping the eggplant FOM resistance gene in eggplant and for exploring the synteny between solanaceous crops for fusarium wilt resistance genes. The SCAR markers will be useful for identifying fusarium wilt-resistant genotypes in marker-assisted selection breeding programs using segregating progenies of the resistant eggplant progenitor used in this study.

  19. Biological control of chickpea wilt caused by fusarium oxysporum f.sp.ciceris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousif, F. A.; Suliman, W. S.

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted in an attempt to control chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) wilt, caused by fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris, using antagonistic properties of soil microorganisms. It also aimed at avoiding problems resulting from the use of chemical fungicides. A trichoderma sp. was isolated from the rhizosphere of a resistant chickpea variety (ICCV-2) and a bacillus sp. from the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of the same variety. Both microorganisms proved to be effective in controlling the disease. In addition, trichoderma harzianum, which was obtained from Giza Research Station in Egypt, was also antagonistic to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris Wilt incidence was significantly reduced when chickpea was grown in posts containing soil mixed with any of the three antagonists or when chickpea seeds were initially treated with the seed-dressing fungicide vincit at 2 ml/kg seeds. Trichoderma harzianum proved to be the best bioagent as it gave the lowest disease incidence. In the field, the two trichoderma spp. were as effective as vincit in causing reduction in the wilt incidence. At the higher concentration of 140 g/m''2, the two antagonists were effective throughout the growth period, but they were less effective at the lower concentration of 70 g/m''2 particularly at the seedling stage.(Author)

  20. Identity and Toxicity of FUsarium Species Isolated from Wilted Chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gopalakrishnan

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Four cultures of fungi, identified as Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris, were received from the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT, India. The cultures were race 1, a race designated as V2, race 2, and an isolate from Jabalpur which, on geographical evidence, was probably race 4, the races being defined on the basis of the reaction to them of a set of differential cultivars of the host. A further isolate, also identified as Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris, but of unknown race was received from the Thal region of Pakistan. Culture filtrates of all the isolates, grown on a defined medium, were toxic to cells of chickpea leaflets, separated enzymatically from the plant, but filtrates of the Thal isolate were the most toxic. Isolate toxicity was affected by incubation temperature and time, the maximum toxicity for the Thal isolate being 72 units activity ml-1 cultural filtrate when it was grown at 20ºC for 12 days but only 7 units activity ml-1 when grown at 30ºC for the same period. When ribosomal DNA sequences of the four ICRISAT isolates were compared, those of race 1 and V2 were identical for all 392 bps, suggesting that V2 is a variant of race 1. The Jabalpur isolate was a 99% (390/392 bps match with race 1 and V2 and race 2 was a 97% (391/400 bps match with race 1 and V2. Although the Thal isolate gave a 99% match with the race 1 and V2 for the first 262 bps (one gap and a 89% match (59/66 bps for bps 338–403, there was considerable divergence in the region from 263 to 337 bps. Similar results were obtained when the Thal isolate was matched with race 2 and 4. The four ICRISAT isolates were confirmed as Fusarium oxysporum but various formae speciales in the GenBank database such as vasinfectum and vanillae were equally well matched. No sequence for F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris was present in the GenBank database. In contrast, the Thal isolate gave an almost exact match with Fusarium acutatum (407

  1. Effect of silicates and electrical conductivity on Fusarium wilt of hydroponically grown lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitarra, W; Pugliese, M; Gilardi, G; Gullino, M L; Garibaldi, A

    2013-01-01

    Silicon can stimulate natural defense mechanisms in plants, reducing foliar diseases like powdery arid downy mildew on several crops, including lettuce. The effect of silicate on Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae was evaluated under greenhouse conditions on lettuce grown in soilless systems. Silicon, as potassium silicate, was added at 100 mg L(-1) of nutrient solution at three levels of electrical conductivity; 1.5-1.6 mS cm(-1) (E.C.1), 3.0-3.2 mS cm(-1) (E.C.2) and 4-4.2 mS cm(-1) (E.C.3). Pots containing lettuce plants were first inoculated with F. oxysporum f. sp. lactucae (3x10(5) chlamidospores ml(-1)) 15-20 days before transplanting. Disease severity and physiological parameters, including chlorophyll content, were analyzed weekly after transplanting. The addition of potassium silicate slightly reduced Fusarium wilt, at all levels of electrical conductivity under study, compared to the control. On the contrary, the increase of electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution showed no effect on the disease. The use of silicon was previously demonstrated to significantly reduce downy mildew on lettuce in soilless systems, and in this trial it demonstrated to slightly reduce disease severity of an important soil-borne pathogen like F. oxysporum f. sp. lactucae, suggesting the possibility to apply it successfully in soilless crops.

  2. Assessment of compost for suppression of Fusarium oxysporum and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-08-28

    Aug 28, 2012 ... The present research was conducted to evaluate the compost effectiveness on Zea mays and Hibiscus sabdarriffa under Fusarium wilt disease. Compost physical, chemical and biological characters were monitored weekly during the ripening process. Both coliform and nematode were tested. Finally, the.

  3. Assessment of compost for suppression of Fusarium oxysporum and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present research was conducted to evaluate the compost effectiveness on Zea mays and Hibiscus sabdarriffa under Fusarium wilt disease. Compost physical, chemical and biological characters were monitored weekly during the ripening process. Both coliform and nematode were tested. Finally, the effect of compost ...

  4. GENETIC VARIABILITY ASSESSMENT OF FUSARIUM WILT PATHOGEN RACES AFFECTING CHICKPEA USING MOLECULAR MARKERS

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    Jhuma Datta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity in Chickpea wilt pathogen has been characterized using 14 isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri (foc collected from major pulse growing regions of India. Out of 247 bands produced by 24 Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD primers in Foc isolates, 210 (85% were polymorphic. A maximum of 14 amplicons were generated by primer OPF 05 whereas minimum 7 amplicons were generated by primer K7. A total of 24 alleles were produced by twelve simple sequence repeat (SSR primers with an average of two alleles per marker in foc isolates. The maximum number of 4 alleles was obtained with primer SSR 12. SSR amplicon size ranged from 100 to 400 bp. The Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA cluster analysis based on RAPD and SSR profiles grouped the fourteen foc isolates into four major clusters. The universal Inter Transcribed Spacer (ITS primer pair amplified 630 bp bands in all fourteen foc isolates while significant length polymorphism was obtained only when analysed by restriction digestion with EcoRI and MspI enzymes. The cluster analysis of ITS-RFLP grouped all 14 Foc isolates into three major clusters. The cluster analysis using RAPD, SSR and ITS-RFLP markers show the grouping of Fusarium isolates strictly according to their cultural characteristics and degree of pathogenicity and not the geographical origin. This information will be helpful for pathologists and plant breeders to design effective resistance breeding programs in chickpea taking into account the diversity in wilt pathogen.

  5. Marker-assisted selection of Fusarium wilt-resistant and gynoecious melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, P; Liu, S; Zhu, Q L; Luan, F S

    2015-12-08

    In this study, molecular markers were designed based on the sex determination genes ACS7 (A) and WIP1 (G) and the domain in the Fusarium oxysporum-resistant gene Fom-2 (F) in order to achieve selection of F. oxysporum-resistant gynoecious melon plants. Markers of A and F are cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences that distinguish alleles according to restriction analysis. Twenty F1 and 1863 F2 plants derived from the crosses between the gynoecious line WI998 and the Fusarium wilt-resistant line MR-1 were genotyped based on the markers. The results showed that the polymerase chain reaction and enzyme digestion results could be effectively used to identify plants with the AAggFF genotype in F2 populations. In the F2 population, 35 gynoecious wilt-resistant plants were selected by marker-assisted selection and were confirmed by disease infection assays, demonstrating that these markers can be used in breeding to select F. oxysporum-resistant gynoecious melon plants.

  6. Apoptosis-related genes confer resistance to Fusarium wilt in transgenic 'Lady Finger' bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Jean-Yves; Becker, Douglas K; Dickman, Martin B; Harding, Robert M; Khanna, Harjeet K; Dale, James L

    2011-12-01

    Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), is one of the most devastating diseases of banana (Musa spp.). Apart from resistant cultivars, there are no effective control measures for the disease. We investigated whether the transgenic expression of apoptosis-inhibition-related genes in banana could be used to confer disease resistance. Embryogenic cell suspensions of the banana cultivar, 'Lady Finger', were stably transformed with animal genes that negatively regulate apoptosis, namely Bcl-xL, Ced-9 and Bcl-2 3' UTR, and independently transformed plant lines were regenerated for testing. Following a 12-week exposure to Foc race 1 in small-plant glasshouse bioassays, seven transgenic lines (2 × Bcl-xL, 3 × Ced-9 and 2 × Bcl-2 3' UTR) showed significantly less internal and external disease symptoms than the wild-type susceptible 'Lady Finger' banana plants used as positive controls. Of these, one Bcl-2 3' UTR line showed resistance that was equivalent to that of wild-type Cavendish bananas that were included as resistant negative controls. Further, the resistance of this line continued for 23-week postinoculation at which time the experiment was terminated. Using TUNEL assays, Foc race 1 was shown to induce apoptosis-like features in the roots of wild-type 'Lady Finger' plants consistent with a necrotrophic phase in the life cycle of this pathogen. This was further supported by the observed reduction in these effects in the roots of the resistant Bcl-2 3' UTR-transgenic line. This is the first report on the generation of transgenic banana plants with resistance to Fusarium wilt. © 2011 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2011 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Identification of a Potential ISR Determinant from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PM12 against Fusarium Wilt in Tomato

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    Sabin Fatima

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Biocontrol of plant diseases through induction of systemic resistance is an environmental friendly substitute to chemicals in crop protection measures. Different biotic and abiotic elicitors can trigger the plant for induced resistance. Present study was designed to explore the potential of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PM12 in inducing systemic resistance in tomato against Fusarium wilt. Initially the bioactive compound, responsible for ISR, was separated and identified from extracellular filtrate of P. aeruginosa PM12. After that purification and characterization of the bacterial crude extracts was carried out through a series of organic solvents. The fractions exhibiting ISR activity were further divided into sub-fractions through column chromatography. Sub fraction showing maximum ISR activity was subjected to Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the identification of compounds. Analytical result showed three compounds in the ISR active sub-fraction viz: 3-hydroxy-5-methoxy benzene methanol (HMB, eugenol and tyrosine. Subsequent bioassays proved that HMB is the potential ISR determinant that significantly ameliorated Fusarium wilt of tomato when applied as soil drench method at the rate of 10 mM. In the next step of this study, GC-MS analysis was performed to detect changes induced in primary and secondary metabolites of tomato plants by the ISR determinant. Plants were treated with HMB and Fusarium oxysporum in different combinations showing intensive re- modulations in defense related pathways. This work concludes that HMB is the potential elicitor involved in dynamic reprogramming of plant pathways which functionally contributes in defense responses. Furthermore the use of biocontrol agents as natural enemies of soil borne pathogens besides enhancing production potential of crop can provide a complementary tactic for sustainable integrated pest management.

  8. Evaluation of Streptomyces spp. against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris for the management of chickpea wilt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amini Jahanshir

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, about 112 isolates of Streptomyces were isolated from chickpea rhizospheric soils. Among the isolated strains, five showed strong inhibitory effects against chickpea Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris in vitro using plate assay and selected for further studies. The selected strains were identified as Streptomyces spp. based on morphological and biochemical characterization as well as 16S rDNA sequences analysis. Our results assigned them to strains related to genus of Streptomyces. In vitro, antagonistic effects of Streptomyces strains against the disease were evaluated through the dual-culture method, volatile and non-volatile metabolites, siderophore, protease and chitinase production. All bacterial strains inhibited mycelial growth of the pathogen ranging from 26 to 44.2% in dual culture assay. The non-volatile extract of five of the Streptomyces strains inhibited more than 50% growth of the pathogen, whereas volatile compounds were less effective on mycelial growth inhibition (20.2 to 33.4%. The ability of the biocontrol agents to produce siderophore and protease were varied, whereas, production of chitinase was detected for all strains. Results of the greenhouse assay indicated that all biocontrol agents reduced disease severity (ranging from 38.7 to 54.8%. Accordingly, strain KS62 showed higher control efficacy (54.8%. In addition, the biomass of chickpea plants (plant height and dry weight significantly increased in plants treated with Streptomyces strains compared to non-bacterized control. The results of this study showed that it may be possible to manage chickpea Fusarium wilt disease effectively by using Streptomyces species, as biocontrol agents. Therefore, evaluating their efficiency under field conditions is needed.

  9. Discovery of a new source of resistance to Fusarium oxysporum, cause of Fusarium wilt in Allium fistulosum, located on chromosome 2 of Allium cepa Aggregatum group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Hoa Q; El-Sayed, Magdi A; Ito, Shin-Ichi; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2012-11-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the antifungal effect of Allium cepa Aggregatum group (shallot) metabolites on Fusarium oxysporum and to determine the shallot chromosome(s) related to Fusarium wilt resistance using a complete set of eight Allium fistulosum - shallot monosomic addition lines. The antifungal effects of hexane, butanol, and water extraction fractions from bulbs of shallot on 35 isolates of F. oxysporum were examined using the disc diffusion method. Only hexane and butanol fractions showed high antifungal activity. Shallot showed no symptom of disease after inoculation with F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae. The phenolic content of the roots and the saponin content of root exudates of inoculated shallot increased to much higher levels than those of the control at 3 days after inoculation. Application of freeze-dried shallot root exudates to seeds of A. fistulosum soaked in a spore suspension of F. oxysporum resulted in protection of seedlings against infection. Among eight monosomic addition lines and A. fistulosum, FF+2A showed the highest resistance to Fusarium wilt. This monosomic addition line also showed a specific saponin band derived from shallot on the thin layer chromatography profile of saponins in the eight monosomic addition lines. The chromosome 2A of shallot might possess some of the genes related to Fusarium wilt resistance.

  10. VEGETATIVE COMPATIBILITY GROUPS OF FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM, THE CAUSAL ORGANISM OF VASCULAR WILT ON ROSELLE IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.H. Ooi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty strains of Fusarium oxysporvm isolated from roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa var. sabdariffa showing vascular wilt symptoms in three states (Terengganu, Penang and Ipoh in the northern Malaysian Peninsula were used to investigate the vegetative co mpatibility. Nitrate-nonutilizing (nil mutants were recovered from all the strains tested and subsequently used to study vegetative compatibility groups (VCG within the population by nit mutants pairings on minimal medium. Thirteen VCGs were found and none were vegetatively compatible with those of other formae speciales (f. spp. such as asparagi and cubense, and non-pathogenic strains from paddy and oil palm. The results indicate that there is substantial genetic diversity in F. oxysporum that causes vascular wilt disease on roselle as reflected by multiple VCGs, but the distribution of strains into the VCGs is not even as there are 26 representatives in VCG-1001M, two in VCG-1003M and VCG-1013M and only one in the other VCGs. This study may provide new insight into the establishment of a new forma specialis off. oxysporum.

  11. The distribution and host range of the banana Fusarium wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Agustin B.; Daniells, Jeff; Fourie, Gerda; Hermanto, Catur; Chao, Chih-Ping; Fabregar, Emily; Sinohin, Vida G.; Masdek, Nik; Thangavelu, Raman; Li, Chunyu; Yi, Ganyun; Mostert, Lizel; Viljoen, Altus

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum formae specialis cubense (Foc) is a soil-borne fungus that causes Fusarium wilt, which is considered to be the most destructive disease of bananas. The fungus is believed to have evolved with its host in the Indo-Malayan region, and from there it was spread to other banana-growing areas with infected planting material. The diversity and distribution of Foc in Asia was investigated. A total of 594 F. oxysporum isolates collected in ten Asian countries were identified by vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) analysis. To simplify the identification process, the isolates were first divided into DNA lineages using PCR-RFLP analysis. Six lineages and 14 VCGs, representing three Foc races, were identified in this study. The VCG complex 0124/5 was most common in the Indian subcontinent, Vietnam and Cambodia; whereas the VCG complex 01213/16 dominated in the rest of Asia. Sixty-nine F. oxysporum isolates in this study did not match any of the known VCG tester strains. In this study, Foc VCG diversity in Bangladesh, Cambodia and Sri Lanka was determined for the first time and VCGs 01221 and 01222 were first reported from Cambodia and Vietnam. New associations of Foc VCGs and banana cultivars were recorded in all the countries where the fungus was collected. Information obtained in this study could help Asian countries to develop and implement regulatory measures to prevent the incursion of Foc into areas where it does not yet occur. It could also facilitate the deployment of disease resistant banana varieties in infested areas. PMID:28719631

  12. The distribution and host range of the banana Fusarium wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, in Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Mostert

    Full Text Available Fusarium oxysporum formae specialis cubense (Foc is a soil-borne fungus that causes Fusarium wilt, which is considered to be the most destructive disease of bananas. The fungus is believed to have evolved with its host in the Indo-Malayan region, and from there it was spread to other banana-growing areas with infected planting material. The diversity and distribution of Foc in Asia was investigated. A total of 594 F. oxysporum isolates collected in ten Asian countries were identified by vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs analysis. To simplify the identification process, the isolates were first divided into DNA lineages using PCR-RFLP analysis. Six lineages and 14 VCGs, representing three Foc races, were identified in this study. The VCG complex 0124/5 was most common in the Indian subcontinent, Vietnam and Cambodia; whereas the VCG complex 01213/16 dominated in the rest of Asia. Sixty-nine F. oxysporum isolates in this study did not match any of the known VCG tester strains. In this study, Foc VCG diversity in Bangladesh, Cambodia and Sri Lanka was determined for the first time and VCGs 01221 and 01222 were first reported from Cambodia and Vietnam. New associations of Foc VCGs and banana cultivars were recorded in all the countries where the fungus was collected. Information obtained in this study could help Asian countries to develop and implement regulatory measures to prevent the incursion of Foc into areas where it does not yet occur. It could also facilitate the deployment of disease resistant banana varieties in infested areas.

  13. Evaluation of fungicides and biopesticides for the control of fusarium wilt of tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, T.; Iftikhar, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium wilt is highly destructive soil borne pathogen in tomato. Current study was carried out to evaluate commercially available fungicides and bio-fungicides in-vitro and in-vivo, for their efficacy against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. Firstly four fungicides were evaluated under laboratory conditions. Three promising fungicides, two biopesticides and Trichoderma harzianum were further applied both in greenhouse and field experiments. During in-vitro studies PDA amended with fungicides with different treatments at the rate 1% almost completely inhibited the growth of Fol with varying degree of success whereas Nativo being the most effective treatment with 98% reduction in growth as compared to control. Nativo significantly reduced the disease incidence (32.75 %) at concentration of 1%. While Poly-beta-hydroxyl-butyric-acid effectively promoted the tomato growth. Maximum reduction in disease (30.14 %) was expressed by Nativo followed by Teagro (25.06 %) under field conditions. Nativo was found to be the most effective fungicide for management of Fol both In vitro and In vivo. Further field evaluations of the fungicides are required. (author)

  14. Physiological and biochemical aspects of the resistance of banana plants to Fusarium wilt potentiated by silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Alessandro Antonio; Rodrigues, Fabrício Ávila; do Nascimento, Kelly Juliane Teles

    2012-10-01

    Silicon amendments to soil have resulted in a decrease of diseases caused by several soilborne pathogens affecting a wide number of crops. This study evaluated the physiological and biochemical mechanisms that may have increased resistance of banana to Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, after treatment with silicon (Si) amendment. Plants from the Grand Nain (resistant to F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense) and "Maçã" (susceptible to F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense) were grown in plastic pots amended with Si at 0 or 0.39 g/kg of soil (-Si or +Si, respectively) and inoculated with race 1 of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense. Relative lesion length (RLL) and asymptomatic fungal colonization in tissue (AFCT) were evaluated at 40 days after inoculation. Root samples were collected at different times after inoculation with F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense to determine the level of lipid peroxidation, expressed as equivalents of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, and carotenoids), total soluble phenolics (TSP), and lignin-thioglycolic acid (LTGA) derivatives; the activities of the enzymes phenylalanine ammonia-lyases glucanases (PALs), peroxidases (POXs), polyphenoloxidases (PPOs), β-1,3-glucanases (GLUs), and chitinases (CHIs); and Si concentration in roots. Root Si concentration was significantly increased by 35.3% for the +Si treatment compared with the -Si treatment. For Grand Nain, the root Si concentration was significantly increased by 12.8% compared with "Maçã." Plants from Grand Nain and "Maçã" in the +Si treatment showed significant reductions of 40.0 and 57.2%, respectively, for RLL compared with the -Si treatment. For the AFCT, there was a significant reduction of 18.5% in the +Si treatment compared with the -Si treatment. The concentration of MDA significantly decreased for plants from Grand Nain and "Maçã" supplied with Si compared with the -Si treatment while the

  15. Reproducibility of suppression of Pythium wilt of cucumber by compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauritz Vilhelm Vestberg

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing global interest in using compost to suppress soil-borne fungal and bacterial diseases and nematodes. We studied the reproducibility of compost suppressive capacity (SC against Pythium wilt of cucumber using nine composts produced by the same composting plant in 2008 and 2009. A bioassay was set up in a greenhouse using cucumber inoculated with two strains of Pythium. The composts were used as 20% mixtures (v:v of a basic steam-sterilized light Sphagnum peat and sand (3:1, v:v. Shoot height was measured weekly during the 5-week experiment. At harvest, the SC was calculated as the % difference in shoot dry weight (DW between non-inoculated and inoculated cucumbers. The SC was not affected by year of production (2008 or 2009, indicating reproducibility of SC when the raw materials and the composting method are not changed. Differences in shoot height were not as pronounced as those for shoot DW. The results were encouraging, but further studies are still needed for producing compost with guaranteed suppressiveness properties.

  16. Combination of endophytic Bacillus and Beauveria for the management of Fusarium wilt and fruit borer in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhukarthikeyan, Rathinam; Saravanakumar, Duraisamy; Raguchander, Thiruvengadam

    2014-11-01

    Most of the approaches for biocontrol of pests and diseases have used a single biocontrol agent as antagonist to a single pest or pathogen. This accounts for the inconsistency in the performance of biocontrol agents. The development of a bioformulation possessing a mixture of bioagents could be a viable option for the management of major pests and diseases in crop plants. A bioformulation containing a mixture of Beauveria bassiana (B2) and Bacillus subtilis (EPC8) was tested against Fusarium wilt and fruit borer in tomato under glasshouse and field conditions. The bioformulation with B2 and EPC8 isolates effectively reduced the incidence of Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici) and fruit borer (Helicoverpa armigera) under glasshouse and field conditions compared with the individual application of B2 and EPC8 isolates and control treatments. In vitro studies showed a higher larval mortality of H. armigera when fed with B2 + EPC8-treated leaves. Further, plants treated with the B2 + EPC8 combination showed a greater accumulation of defence enzymes such as lipoxygenase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase against wilt pathogen and fruit borer pest than the other treatments. Moreover, a significant increase in growth parameters and yield was observed in tomato plants treated with B2 + EPC8 compared with the individual bioformulations and untreated control. The combined application of Beauveria and Bacillus isolates B2 and EPC8 effectively reduced wilt disease and fruit borer attack in tomato plants. Results show the possibility of synchronous management of tomato fruit borer pest and wilt disease in a sustainable manner. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. ''In vitro'' mutation breeding methodology for Fusarium wilt resistance in banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulmann Neto, A.; Domingues, E.T.; Mendes, B.M.J.; Ando, A.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Besides ''in vivo'' methods, the Radiation Genetics Section of CENA/USP is also using ''in vitro'' methods for mutation breeding to obtain resistance to Panama disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense in the banana cultivar ''Maca''. A protocol has been established for the ''in vitro'' development of shoot tips, obtained from plants in the field or already cultivated under i n vitro'' conditions. For both cases, only one culture medium was used during all steps of ''in vitro'' cultivation. New buds were formed and these buds grew and developed to form roots. The medium was composed of macro and micro nutrients, with added Morel vitamines, BAP (5 mg/l), saccharose (30 g/l) and agar (6.5 g/l), at pH 5.7. Cultures were allowed to grow in a controlled environment at 27 deg. C and 16 h illumination. Shoot tips which originated from ''in vitro'' plantlets, were cut longitudinally down the middle. This was done to avoid a tendency of regeneration of the original tissue instead of the formation of new lateral buds. To resolve the chimerism resulting when mutagenic treatment is applied to shoot tips, there is a need of vegetative propagation of new lateral buds. Selection can then be done at M 1 V 4 generation. Once the protocol was established, the gamma ray sensitivity was determined. The dose that produced a 50% decrease in the number of new lateral buds was around 40 Gy and this dose will be utilised. The methodology was completed by soil inoculation with Fusarium of young plants 15 cm in height, obtained from ''in vitro'' cultures. After 3 weeks all inoculated plants showed symptoms of wilt, demonstrating the possibility of screening. The method is now being utilised on a large scale in an attempt to induce a resistant mutant. (author)

  18. The Fusarium oxysporum effector Six6 contributes to virulence and suppresses I-2 mediated cell death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gawehns, F.; Houterman, P.M.; Ait Ichou, F.; Michielse, C.B.; Hijdra, M.; Cornelissen, B.J.C.; Rep, M.; Takken, F.

    2014-01-01

    Plant pathogens secrete effectors to manipulate their host and facilitate colonization. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is the causal agent of Fusarium wilt disease in tomato. Upon infection, F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici secretes numerous small proteins into the xylem sap (Six proteins).

  19. Comparison of Fungal Community in Black Pepper-Vanilla and Vanilla Monoculture Systems Associated with Vanilla Fusarium Wilt Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wu; Zhao, Qingyun; Xue, Chao; Xun, Weibing; Zhao, Jun; Wu, Huasong; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Long-term vanilla monocropping often results in the occurrence of vanilla Fusarium wilt disease, seriously affecting its production all over the world. In the present study, vanilla exhibited significantly less Fusarium wilt disease in the soil of a long-term continuously cropped black pepper orchard. The entire fungal communities of bulk and rhizosphere soils between the black pepper-vanilla system (i.e., vanilla cropped in the soil of a continuously cropped black pepper orchard) and vanilla monoculture system were compared through the deep pyrosequencing. The results showed that the black pepper-vanilla system revealed a significantly higher fungal diversity than the vanilla monoculture system in both bulk and rhizosphere soils. The UniFrac-weighted PCoA analysis revealed significant differences in bulk soil fungal community structures between the two cropping systems, and fungal community structures were seriously affected by the vanilla root system. In summary, the black pepper-vanilla system harbored a lower abundance of Fusarium oxysporum in the vanilla rhizosphere soil and increased the putatively plant-beneficial fungal groups such as Trichoderma and Penicillium genus, which could explain the healthy growth of vanilla in the soil of the long-term continuously cropped black pepper field. Thus, cropping vanilla in the soil of continuously cropped black pepper fields for maintaining the vanilla industry is executable and meaningful as an agro-ecological system.

  20. Association Mapping for Fusarium Wilt Resistance in Chinese Asparagus Bean Germplasm

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    Xinyi Wu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt (FW is an important vascular disease attacking asparagus bean [ (L. Walp. subsp. Sesquipedalis Group] in China. The level and genetic variability of FW resistance in the Chinese asparagus bean germplasm remains elusive. In the current study, FW resistance was assessed across a natural population consisting of 95 asparagus bean and four African cowpea [ (L. Walp. subsp. Unguiculata Group] accessions. The disease index (DI based on the severity of leaf damage (LFD and vascular discoloration (VD varied highly across the population and the highly resistant varieties used for vegetable are very limited. Genome-wide association study identified 11 and seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that are associated with LFD and VD traits, respectively. These SNPs were distributed on nine linkage groups of the asparagus bean genome and each accounted for less than 5% of the phenotypic variation. Overall, the nonstandard vegetable (NSV subgene pool harbors favorable alleles in a higher frequency than the standard vegetable (SV subgene pool. Individual NSV-type accessions tend to possess a greater number of favorable alleles than the SV-type ones. A SNP marker 1_0981 was converted to a cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS marker to facilitate future breeding. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an association mapping (AM study in asparagus bean. The results obtained suggests that resources for FW resistance is relatively limited in the SV subgene pool; hence, introducing resistant alleles from the NSV accessions into currently leading SV cultivars will be important to improve FW resistance of the latter.

  1. The Fusarium oxysporum effector Six6 contributes to virulence and suppresses I-2-mediated cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawehns, F; Houterman, P M; Ichou, F Ait; Michielse, C B; Hijdra, M; Cornelissen, B J C; Rep, M; Takken, F L W

    2014-04-01

    Plant pathogens secrete effectors to manipulate their host and facilitate colonization. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is the causal agent of Fusarium wilt disease in tomato. Upon infection, F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici secretes numerous small proteins into the xylem sap (Six proteins). Most Six proteins are unique to F. oxysporum, but Six6 is an exception; a homolog is also present in two Colletotrichum spp. SIX6 expression was found to require living host cells and a knockout of SIX6 in F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici compromised virulence, classifying it as a genuine effector. Heterologous expression of SIX6 did not affect growth of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves or susceptibility of Arabidopsis thaliana toward Verticillium dahliae, Pseudomonas syringae, or F. oxysporum, suggesting a specific function for F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici Six6 in the F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici- tomato pathosystem. Remarkably, Six6 was found to specifically suppress I-2-mediated cell death (I2CD) upon transient expression in N. benthamiana, whereas it did not compromise the activity of other cell-death-inducing genes. Still, this I2CD suppressing activity of Six6 does not allow the fungus to overcome I-2 resistance in tomato, suggesting that I-2-mediated resistance is independent from cell death.

  2. Identification of a Potential ISR Determinant fromPseudomonas aeruginosaPM12 against Fusarium Wilt in Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Sabin; Anjum, Tehmina

    2017-01-01

    Biocontrol of plant diseases through induction of systemic resistance is an environmental friendly substitute to chemicals in crop protection measures. Different biotic and abiotic elicitors can trigger the plant for induced resistance. Present study was designed to explore the potential of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PM12 in inducing systemic resistance in tomato against Fusarium wilt. Initially the bioactive compound, responsible for ISR, was separated and identified from extracellular filtrate of P. aeruginosa PM12. After that purification and characterization of the bacterial crude extracts was carried out through a series of organic solvents. The fractions exhibiting ISR activity were further divided into sub-fractions through column chromatography. Sub fraction showing maximum ISR activity was subjected to Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the identification of compounds. Analytical result showed three compounds in the ISR active sub-fraction viz: 3-hydroxy-5-methoxy benzene methanol (HMB), eugenol and tyrosine. Subsequent bioassays proved that HMB is the potential ISR determinant that significantly ameliorated Fusarium wilt of tomato when applied as soil drench method at the rate of 10 mM. In the next step of this study, GC-MS analysis was performed to detect changes induced in primary and secondary metabolites of tomato plants by the ISR determinant. Plants were treated with HMB and Fusarium oxysporum in different combinations showing intensive re- modulations in defense related pathways. This work concludes that HMB is the potential elicitor involved in dynamic reprogramming of plant pathways which functionally contributes in defense responses. Furthermore the use of biocontrol agents as natural enemies of soil borne pathogens besides enhancing production potential of crop can provide a complementary tactic for sustainable integrated pest management.

  3. Isolation of a potential biocontrol agent Paenibacillus polymyxa NSY50 from vinegar waste compost and its induction of host defense responses against Fusarium wilt of cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Nanshan; Shi, Lu; Yuan, Yinghui; Sun, Jin; Shu, Sheng; Guo, Shirong

    2017-09-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC) is one of the major destructive soil-borne diseases infecting cucumber. In this study, we screened 60 target strains isolated from vinegar waste compost, from which 10 antagonistic strains were identified to have the disease suppression capacity of bio-control agents. The 16S rDNA gene demonstrated that the biocontrol agents were Paenibacillus polymyxa (P. polymyxa), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (B. amyloliquefaciens) and Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis). Based on the results of antagonistic activity experiments and pot experiment, an interesting strain of P. polymyxa (named NSY50) was selected for further research. Morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics indicated that this strain was positive for protease and cellulase and produced indole acetic acid (22.21±1.27μg mL -1 ) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACCD). NSY50 can significantly up-regulate the expression level of defense related genes PR1 and PR5 in cucumber roots at the early stages upon challenge with FOC. However, the gene expression levels of a set of defense-related genes, such as the plant nucleotide-binding site (NBS)-leucine-rich repeat (LRR) gene family (e.g., Csa001236, Csa09775, Csa018159), 26kDa phloem protein (Csa001568, Csa003306), glutathione-S-transferase (Csa017734) and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (Csa002864) were suppressed by pretreatment with NSY50 compared with the single challenge with FOC after nine days of inoculation. Of particular interest was the reduced expression of these genes at disease progression stages, which may be required for F. oxysporum dependent necrotrophic disease development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Activation of salicylic acid metabolism and signal transduction can enhance resistance to Fusarium wilt in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuo; Jia, Caihong; Li, Jingyang; Huang, Suzhen; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubens (Foc) is the most serious disease that attacks banana plants. Salicylic acid (SA) can play a key role in plant-microbe interactions. Our study is the first to examine the role of SA in conferring resistance to Foc TR4 in banana (Musa acuminata L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish), which is the greatest commercial importance cultivar in Musa. We used quantitative real-time reverse polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to analyze the expression profiles of 45 genes related to SA biosynthesis and downstream signaling pathways in a susceptible banana cultivar (cv. Cavendish) and a resistant banana cultivar (cv. Nongke No. 1) inoculated with Foc TR4. The expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and downstream signaling pathways was suppressed in a susceptible cultivar and activated in a resistant cultivar. The SA levels in each treatment arm were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. SA levels were decreased in the susceptible cultivar and increased in the resistant cultivar. Finally, we examined the contribution of exogenous SA to Foc TR4 resistance in susceptible banana plants. The expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and signal transduction pathways as well as SA levels were significantly increased. The results suggest that one reason for banana susceptibility to Foc TR4 is that expression of genes involved in SA biosynthesis and SA levels are suppressed and that the induced resistance observed in banana against Foc TR4 might be a case of salicylic acid-dependent systemic acquired resistance.

  5. Molecular identification of pathogenic Fusarium species, the causal agents of tomato wilt in western Iran

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    Chehri Khosrow

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium species are causal agents of fungal diseases occurring frequently in numerous agriculturally important plants, including potato, garlic and are one of the common pathogens of tomato, causing root rot in the west part of Iran. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to isolate and identify disease-causing Fusarium species from infected tomatoes based on the morphological and molecular characteristics. Twenty-five isolates of Fusarium were obtained from infected root of tomato plants collected from the fields in different regions of western Iran. Based on morphological features, the strains were classified into four following Fusarium species: F. oxysporum, F. redolens, F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides. The phylogenetic trees based on tef1 and tub2 dataset clearly distinguished closely related species. All of the isolates were evaluated for their pathogenicity on healthy tomato seedlings in the greenhouse. This is the first report on molecular identification of Fusarium species isolated from tomato plants cultivated in Iran.

  6. Induction of Systematic Resistance in Soybean Plants against Fusarium Wilt Disease by Seed Treatment with Benzothiadiazole and Humic Acid

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    Montaser Fawzy ABDEL-MONAIM

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability of benzothiadiazole (BTH, humic acid (HA and their combination when used as seed soaking to induce systemic resistance against a pathogenic strain of Fusarium oxysporum was examined in four soybean cultivars under greenhouse conditions. Both inducers and their combination were able to protect soybean plants against damping-off and wilt diseases compared with check treatment. These results were confirmed under field conditions in two different locations i. e Minia and New Valley governorates. The tested treatments significantly reduced damping-off and wilt diseases and increased growth parameters, except number of branches plant-1, and seed yield. Application of BTH (0.25 + HA (4 g/l was the most potent in this respect treatment. Soybean seed soaking in BTH+ HA recorded the highest activities of the testes of oxidative enzymes followed by BTH in the four soybean cultivars. Whereas, HA treatment was recorded the lowest increased of these oxidative enzymes. Also, similar results were obtained in case of total phenol but HA increased the total phenol more than BTH in all tested cultivars.

  7. Fusarium oxysporum strains as biocontrol agents against Fusarium wilt: effects on soil microbial biomass and activity Linhagens de Fusarium oxysporum como agentes de biocontrole da murcha-de-Fusarium: efeitos na biomassa e atividade microbiana do solo

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    Raquel Ghini

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Before planning the large-scale use of nonpathogenic strains of Fusarium oxysporum as biocontrol agents of Fusarium wilt, their behaviour and potential impact on soil ecosystems should be carefully studied as part of risk assessment. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of antagonistic F. oxysporum strains, genetically manipulated (T26/6 or not (233/1, on soil microbial biomass and activity. The effects were evaluated, in North-western Italy, in two soils from different sites at Albenga, one natural and the other previously solarized, and in a third soil obtained from a 10-year-old poplar stand (Popolus sp., near Carignano. There were no detectable effects on ATP, fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis, and biomass P that could be attributed to the introduction of the antagonists. A transient increase of carbon dioxide evolution and biomass C was observed in response to the added inoculum. Although the results showed only some transient alterations, further studies are required to evaluate effects on specific microorganism populations.Antes do uso em larga escala de linhagens não-patogênicas de Fusarium oxysporum como agentes de biocontrole da murcha-de-Fusarium, o seu comportamento e seus impactos potenciais no solo devem ser estudados como parte da avaliação de riscos. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de linhagens antagonistas de F. oxysporum, geneticamente manipuladas (T26/6 ou não (233/1, na biomassa e atividade microbiana do solo. Os efeitos foram avaliados no noroeste da Itália em dois solos de Albenga, sendo um natural e outro previamente solarizado, e em um terceiro solo obtido numa plantação de 10 anos de Popolus sp., em Carignano. Não foram observados efeitos significativos na quantidade de ATP, hidrólise de diacetato de fluoresceina e biomassa P, após a introdução dos antagonistas. Um aumento transitório foi observado na evolução de dióxido de carbono e no carbono da biomassa em resposta

  8. Extrato etanólico de Senna alata no controle de Fusarium oxysporum, causador da murcha-de-fusarium do meloeiro Ethanolic extract of Senna alata in control of Fusarium oxysporum responsible for fusarium wilt in melon

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    Erika V. de Medeiros

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A murcha-de-fusarium, causada pelo fungo Fusarium oxysporum, vem-se tornando uma doença importante no meloeiro devido às grandes perdas em áreas de produção no Brasil e no mundo, razão pela qual o objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a eficácia de extratos etanólicos de partes de Senna alata no controle do crescimento micelial de F. oxysporum isolado de plantas de meloeiro. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, distribuído em esquema fatorial 4 x 6 + 1, sendo o primeiro fator partes da planta (caule, folha, raiz e vagem e, como segundo, seis concentrações (0,25; 0,50; 50; 75; 250; 500 µg mL-1 mais a testemunha, com quatro repetições por tratamento. As variáveis avaliadas foram: taxa de crescimento micelial inibição do crescimento micelial e área abaixo da curva do crescimento micelial. Extratos etanólicos de todas as partes de Senna alata foram eficazes no controle de F. oxysporum. Extratos de raiz e vagem foram os mais eficientes em inibir o crescimento micelial de F. oxysporum, na concentração 500 µg mL-1.Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum fungi has become an important melon disease, due to great losses in the production areas in Brazil and in the world. Therefore, the objective of the present work was to evaluate efficacy of ethanolic extracts of Senna alata parts in the control of F. oxysporum micelial growth, isolated of melon plants. The experimental design was entirely randomized distributed in factorial scheme 4 x 6 + 1, being the first factor parts of the plant (stalk, leaf, root, and green bean, and as second, six concentrations (0.25; 0.50, 50, 75, 250, 500 µg mL-1, plus the control, with four repetitions per treatment. The variables evaluated were: rate of mycelial growth, inhibition of the mycelial growth (IGM and area under the curve of the mycelia growth. Ethanolic extracts of all Senna alata parts were efficient in control of F. oxysporum. Extracts of root and string bean

  9. Identification and evaluation of two diagnostic markers linked to Fusarium wilt resistance (race 4) in banana (Musa spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Hu, Yulin; Sun, Dequan; Staehelin, Christian; Xin, Dawei; Xie, Jianghui

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4 (FOC4) results in vascular tissue damage and ultimately death of banana (Musa spp.) plants. Somaclonal variants of in vitro micropropagated banana can hamper success in propagation of genotypes resistant to FOC4. Early identification of FOC4 resistance in micropropagated banana plantlets is difficult, however. In this study, we identified sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers of banana associated with resistance to FOC4. Using pooled DNA from resistant or susceptible genotypes and 500 arbitrary 10-mer oligonucleotide primers, 24 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) products were identified. Two of these RAPD markers were successfully converted to SCAR markers, called ScaU1001 (GenBank accession number HQ613949) and ScaS0901 (GenBank accession number HQ613950). ScaS0901 and ScaU1001 could be amplified in FOC4-resistant banana genotypes ("Williams 8818-1" and Goldfinger), but not in five tested banana cultivars susceptible to FOC4. The two SCAR markers were then used to identify a somaclonal variant of the genotype "Williams 8818-1", which lost resistance to FOC4. Hence, the identified SCAR markers can be applied for a rapid quality control of FOC4-resistant banana plantlets immediately after the in vitro micropropagation stage. Furthermore, ScaU1001 and ScaS0901 will facilitate marker-assisted selection of new banana cultivars resistant to FOC4.

  10. Dynamics of Colonization and Expression of Pathogenicity Related Genes in Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri during Chickpea Vascular Wilt Disease Progression.

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    Medha L Upasani

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri (Foc is a constant threat to chickpea productivity in several parts of the world. Understanding the molecular basis of chickpea-Foc interaction is necessary to improve chickpea resistance to Foc and thereby the productivity of chickpea. We transformed Foc race 2 using green fluorescent protein (GFP gene and used it to characterize pathogen progression and colonization in wilt-susceptible (JG62 and wilt-resistant (Digvijay chickpea cultivars using confocal microscopy. We also employed quantitative PCR (qPCR to estimate the pathogen load and progression across various tissues of both the chickpea cultivars during the course of the disease. Additionally, the expression of several candidate pathogen virulence genes was analyzed using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR, which showed their characteristic expression in wilt-susceptible and resistant chickpea cultivars. Our results suggest that the pathogen colonizes the susceptible cultivar defeating its defense; however, albeit its entry in the resistant plant, further proliferation is severely restricted providing an evidence of efficient defense mechanism in the resistant chickpea cultivar.

  11. INFLUENCE OF ROOTSTOCKS ON Fusarium WILT, NEMATODE INFESTATION, YIELD AND FRUIT QUALITY IN WATERMELON PRODUCTION

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    Juan Carlos Álvarez-Hernández

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbita maxima x Cucurbita moschata rootstock are used to prevent infection with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum in watermelon production; however, this rootstock is not effective against nematode attack. Because of their vigor, the grafted plants can be planted at lower plant densities than the non-grafted plants. The tolerance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum and Meloidogyne incognita was assessed in watermelon plants grafted onto a hybrid of Citrullus lanatus cv Robusta or the Cucurbita maxima x Cucurbita moschata cv Super Shintoza rootstocks. The densities of plants were 2083 and 4166 plants ha-1. Non-grafted watermelons were the controls. The Crunchy Red and Sangría watermelon cultivars were used as the scions, it the latter as a pollinator. The experiments were performed for two production cycles in soils infested with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum and Meloidogyne incognita. The incidence of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum was significantly greater in the non-grafted than in the grafted plants. The grafted plants presented similar resistance to Fusarium regardless of the rootstock. The root-knot galling index for Meloidogyne incognita was significantly lower in plants grafted onto Citrullus lanatus cv Robusta than onto the other rootstock. The yields of plants grafted onto Citrullus lanatus cv Robusta grown at both plant densities were significantly higher than in the other treatments.

  12. Transgenic Cavendish bananas with resistance to Fusarium wilt tropical race 4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dale, James; James, Anthony; Paul, Jean Yves; Khanna, Harjeet; Smith, Mark; Peraza-Echeverria, Santy; Garcia-Bastidas, Fernando; Kema, Gert; Waterhouse, Peter; Mengersen, Kerrie; Harding, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is a staple food for more than 400 million people. Over 40% of world production and virtually all the export trade is based on Cavendish banana. However, Cavendish banana is under threat from a virulent fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (TR4) for which no

  13. A molecular diagnostic for tropical race 4 of the banana fusarium wilt pathogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dita Rodriguez, M.A.; Waalwijk, C.; Buddenhagen, I.W.; Souza, M.T.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    This study analysed genomic variation of the translation elongation factor 1a (TEF-1a) and the intergenic spacer region (IGS) of the nuclear ribosomal operon of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) isolates, from different banana production areas, representing strains within the known races,

  14. Fungal polygalacturonase activity reflects susceptibility of carnation cultivars to Fusarium wilt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baayen, R.P.; Schoffelmeer, E.A.M.; Toet, S.; Elgersma, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    Carnation cultivars with different levels of partial resistance were inoculated with race 2 of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi and monitored for accumulation of host phytoalexins, fungal escape from compartmentalization, production of fungal pectin-degrading enzymes and development of external

  15. CCR4-Not Complex Subunit Not2 Plays Critical Roles in Vegetative Growth, Conidiation and Virulence in Watermelon Fusarium Wilt Pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum

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    Yi Dai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available CCR4-Not complex is a multifunctional regulator that plays important roles in multiple cellular processes in eukaryotes. In the present study, the biological function of FonNot2, a core subunit of the CCR4-Not complex, was explored in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon, the causal agent of watermelon wilt disease. FonNot2 was expressed at higher levels in conidia and germinating conidia and during infection in Fon-inoculated watermelon roots than in mycelia. Targeted disruption of FonNot2 resulted in retarded vegetative growth, reduced conidia production, abnormal conidial morphology, and reduced virulence on watermelon. Scanning electron microscopy observation of infection behaviors and qRT-PCR analysis of in planta fungal growth revealed that the ΔFonNot2 mutant was defective in the ability to penetrate watermelon roots and showed reduced fungal biomass in root and stem of the inoculated plants. Phenotypic and biochemical analyses indicated that the ΔFonNot2 mutant displayed hypersensitivity to cell wall perturbing agents (e.g. Congo Red and Calcofluor White and oxidative stress (e.g. H2O2 and paraquat, and decreased fusaric acid content, and reduced ROS production during spore germination. Our data demonstrate that FonNot2 plays critical roles in regulating vegetable growth, conidiogenesis and conidia morphology, and virulence on watermelon via modulating cell wall integrity, oxidative stress response, ROS production and FA biosynthesis through the regulation of transcription of genes involved in multiple pathways.

  16. Improvement of Soil Properties, Growth of Cucumber and Protection against Fusarium Wilt by Piriformospora indica and Two Industrial Organic Wastes

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    Moustafa Hemdan Ahmed MOHARAM

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current work was focused on characterizing bagasse ash (BA and press mud (PM as soil amendments and to study their effect in combination with the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica on Fusarium wilt (FW of cucumber caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (Fo. Whereas BA and PM improved almost all physico-chemical properties of the soil evaluated, seed treatment with P. indica had no such effect. In shake culture in potato dextrose broth (PDB medium amended with aqueous extracts of BA and PM, alone or in combination, production mycelial mass of Fo was significantly decreased by PM extract, while production mycelial mass of P. indica was highly improved. The colonization rate of cucumber roots by P. indica as determined by microscopy was highly increased by increasing amounts of BA, PM and BA+PM added to the soil. Seed treatment of cucumber with P. indica before plant cultivation in non-amended soil significantly decreased the disease severity of FW and improved plant growth. When seed treated with P. indica was sown into soil amended with BA, PM or the combination of both, the disease severity was even more reduced than after seed treatment with P. indica alone. In this respect, amendment with PM was more effective than with BA, and the combinations were more effective than the single treatments. Hence, there is a scope to integrate PM and BA as soil amendments in combination with P. indica for eco-friendly FW management, improving soil properties and growth of cucumber plants.

  17. Transgenic Cavendish bananas with resistance to Fusarium wilt tropical race 4

    OpenAIRE

    Dale, James; James, Anthony; Paul, Jean-Yves; Khanna, Harjeet; Smith, Mark; Peraza-Echeverria, Santy; Garcia-Bastidas, Fernando; Kema, Gert; Waterhouse, Peter; Mengersen, Kerrie; Harding, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is a staple food for more than 400 million people. Over 40% of world production and virtually all the export trade is based on Cavendish banana. However, Cavendish banana is under threat from a virulent fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (TR4) for which no acceptable resistant replacement has been identified. Here we report the identification of transgenic Cavendish with resistance to TR4. In our 3-year field trial, two lines of transgenic Cavendish, ...

  18. Construction of cDNA expression library of watermelon for isolation of ClWRKY1 transcription factors gene involved in resistance to Fusarium wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing-Yan; Huo, Xiu-Ai; Li, Peng-Fei; Wang, Cui-Xia; Duan, Hui-Jun

    2014-08-01

    Full-length cDNAs are very important for genome annotation and functional analysis of genes. The number of full-length cDNAs from watermelon remains limited. Here we report first the construction of a full-length enriched cDNA library from Fusarium wilt stressed watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.) cultivar PI296341 root tissues using the SMART method. The titer of primary cDNA library and amplified library was 2.21 x 10(6) and 2.0 x 10(10) pfu/ml, respectively and the rate of recombinant was above 85%. The size of insert fragment ranged from 0.3 to 2.0 kb. In this study, we first cloned a gene named ClWRKY1, which was 1981 bp long and encoded a protein consisting of 394 amino acids. It contained two characteristic WRKY domains and two zinc finger motifs. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that ClWRKY1 expression levels reached maximum level at 12 h after inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum. The full-length cDNA library of watermelon root tissues is not only essential for the cloning of genes which are known, but also an initial key for the screening and cloning of new genes that might be involved in resistance to Fusarium wilt.

  19. Screening for Pseudomonas and Bacillus antagonistic rhizobacteria strains for the biocontrol of Fusarium wilt of chickpea

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    Hannane Abed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the ability of several isolates belonging to Rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas and Bacillus collected from several chickpea growing areas in Algeria, to control the mycelium growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris. Interesting isolates were characterized for their morphological characteristics, physiological and biochemical activities as potential bio-control agent. Fungal inhibition tests were performed using plate assay and each isolate were tested for the production of protease, cyanide hydrogen, indole acetic acid, antifungal volatile and extracellular compound. According to API 50 CH, we are able to identify six Bacillus species (B. subtilis, B. circulans, B. lentus, B. aneurinilyticus, B. firmus, B. licheniformis; and with API 20NE test we have identified three Pseudomonas species (P. aeruginosa, P. luteola, P. fluorescens. The ability of bacterial isolates was varied in production of Protease, Gelatinase, Amylase, Cellulase, Acid Indole acetic, Lipase, Catalase and Cyanid Hydrogen. This is traduced in different rate of inhibition growth due to various extracellular compounds, where B61 (Bacillus aneurinilyticus and P39 (Pseudomonas luteola and P70 (Pseudomonas fluorescens were the most efficient with 77 and 55.5% respectively, while B39 (Bacillus firmus and P41 (Pseudomonas luteola were the most efficient by volatile compounds with 70.5 and 77.5% respectively. Our results indicate that these bacteria isolates can be used in the biocontrol of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris.

  20. Rhizosphere Microbiome Recruited from a Suppressive Compost Improves Plant Fitness and Increases Protection against Vascular Wilt Pathogens of Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Anastasis; Tsolakidou, Maria-Dimitra; Stringlis, Ioannis A.; Pantelides, Iakovos S.

    2017-01-01

    Suppressive composts represent a sustainable approach to combat soilborne plant pathogens and an alternative to the ineffective chemical fungicides used against those. Nevertheless, suppressiveness to plant pathogens and reliability of composts are often inconsistent with unpredictable effects. While suppressiveness is usually attributed to the compost’s microorganisms, the mechanisms governing microbial recruitment by the roots and the composition of selected microbial communities are not fully elucidated. Herein, the purpose of the study was to evaluate the impact of a compost on tomato plant growth and its suppressiveness against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Foxl) and Verticillium dahliae (Vd). First, growth parameters of tomato plants grown in sterile peat-based substrates including 20 and 30% sterile compost (80P/20C-ST and 70P/30C-ST) or non-sterile compost (80P/20C and 70P/30C) were evaluated in a growth room experiment. Plant height, total leaf surface, and fresh and dry weight of plants grown in the non-sterile compost mixes were increased compared to the plants grown in the sterile compost substrates, indicating the plant growth promoting activity of the compost’s microorganisms. Subsequently, compost’s suppressiveness against Foxl and Vd was evaluated with pathogenicity experiments on tomato plants grown in 70P/30C-ST and 70P/30C substrates. Disease intensity was significantly less in plants grown in the non-sterile compost than in those grown in the sterile compost substrate; AUDPC was 2.3- and 1.4-fold less for Foxl and Vd, respectively. Moreover, fungal quantification in planta demonstrated reduced colonization in plants grown in the non-sterile mixture. To further investigate these findings, we characterized the culturable microbiome attracted by the roots compared to the unplanted compost. Bacteria and fungi isolated from unplanted compost and the rhizosphere of plants were sequence-identified. Community-level analysis revealed

  1. Diverse microbial communities in non-aerated compost teas suppress bacterial wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengesha, W K; Powell, S M; Evans, K J; Barry, K M

    2017-03-01

    Non-aerated compost teas (NCTs) are water extracts of composted organic materials and are used to suppress soil borne and foliar disease in many pathosystems. Greenhouse trials were used to test the effectiveness of NCTs to suppress potato bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum on plants grown in soils inoculated with a virulent isolate of the pathogen (biovar II). NCTs prepared from matured compost sources: agricultural waste (AWCT), vermicompost (VCT) and solid municipal waste (SMWCT) were evaluated at three initial application times (7 days before inoculation, at time of inoculation and 7 days after inoculation) prior to weekly applications, in a randomized complete-block design. AWCT applied initially at the time of inoculation resulted in the greatest disease suppression, with the disease severity index 2.5-fold less than the non-treated plants and the "area under the disease progress curve" (AUDPC) 3.2-fold less. VCT and SMWCT were less suppressive than AWCT regardless of initial application time. Next generation sequencing of the v4 region of 16S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1) revealed that diversity and composition of the bacterial and fungal communities across the NCTs varied significantly. Dominant bacterial phyla such as Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes, Acidobacteria, and a fungal phylum Ascomycota were detected in all NCTs. AWCT had optimum physico-chemical measurements with higher bacterial Shannon diversity indices (H) and fungal richness (S) than the other treatments. We conclude that bacterial wilt of potatoes grown in controlled conditions can be suppressed by a non-aerated compost tea with a high microbial diversity when applied at planting and weekly thereafter.

  2. Transgenic Cavendish bananas with resistance to Fusarium wilt tropical race 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, James; James, Anthony; Paul, Jean-Yves; Khanna, Harjeet; Smith, Mark; Peraza-Echeverria, Santy; Garcia-Bastidas, Fernando; Kema, Gert; Waterhouse, Peter; Mengersen, Kerrie; Harding, Robert

    2017-11-14

    Banana (Musa spp.) is a staple food for more than 400 million people. Over 40% of world production and virtually all the export trade is based on Cavendish banana. However, Cavendish banana is under threat from a virulent fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (TR4) for which no acceptable resistant replacement has been identified. Here we report the identification of transgenic Cavendish with resistance to TR4. In our 3-year field trial, two lines of transgenic Cavendish, one transformed with RGA2, a gene isolated from a TR4-resistant diploid banana, and the other with a nematode-derived gene, Ced9, remain disease free. Transgene expression in the RGA2 lines is strongly correlated with resistance. Endogenous RGA2 homologs are also present in Cavendish but are expressed tenfold lower than that in our most resistant transgenic line. The expression of these homologs can potentially be elevated through gene editing, to provide non-transgenic resistance.

  3. Phenylacetic Acid Is ISR Determinant Produced by Bacillus fortis IAGS162, Which Involves Extensive Re-modulation in Metabolomics of Tomato to Protect against Fusarium Wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Waheed; Anjum, Tehmina; Ali, Basharat

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus fortis IAGS162 has been previously shown to induce systemic resistance in tomato plants against Fusarium wilt disease. In the first phase of current study, the ISR determinant was isolated from extracellular metabolites of this bacterium. ISR bioassays combined with solvent extraction, column chromatography and GC/MS analysis proved that phenylacetic acid (PAA) was the potential ISR determinant that significantly ameliorated Fusarium wilt disease of tomato at concentrations of 0.1 and 1 mM. In the second phase, the biochemical basis of the induced systemic resistance (ISR) under influence of PAA was elucidated by performing non-targeted whole metabolomics through GC/MS analysis. Tomato plants were treated with PAA and fungal pathogen in various combinations. Exposure to PAA and subsequent pathogen challenge extensively re-modulated tomato metabolic networks along with defense related pathways. In addition, various phenylpropanoid precursors were significantly up-regulated in treatments receiving PAA. This work suggests that ISR elicitor released from B. fortis IAGS162 contributes to resistance against fungal pathogens through dynamic reprogramming of plant pathways that are functionally correlated with defense responses.

  4. Suppressive Effect of Trichoderma spp. on toxigenic Fusarium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczyk, Lidia; Basińska-Barczak, Aneta; Ćwiek-Kupczyńska, Hanna; Gromadzka, Karolina; Popiel, Delfina; Stępień, Łukasz

    2017-03-30

    The aim of the present study was to examine the abilities of twenty-four isolates belonging to ten different Trichoderma species (i.e., Trichoderma atroviride, Trichoderma citrinoviride, Trichoderma cremeum, Trichoderma hamatum, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma koningiopsis, Trichoderma longibrachiatum, Trichoderma longipile, Trichoderma viride and Trichoderma viridescens) to inhibit the mycelial growth and mycotoxin production by five Fusarium strains (i.e., Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium cerealis, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium temperatum). Dual-culture bioassay on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium clearly documented that all of the Trichoderma strains used in the study were capable of influencing the mycelial growth of at least four of all five Fusarium species on the fourth day after co-inoculation, when there was the first apparent physical contact between antagonist and pathogen. The qualitative evaluation of the interaction between the colonies after 14 days of co-culturing on PDA medium showed that ten Trichoderma strains completely overgrew and sporulated on the colony at least one of the tested Fusarium species. Whereas, the microscopic assay provided evidence that only T. atroviride AN240 and T. viride AN255 formed dense coils around the hyphae of the pathogen from where penetration took place. Of all screened Trichoderma strains, T. atroviride AN240 was also found to be the most efficient (69-100% toxin reduction) suppressors of mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, zearalenone, beauvericin, moniliformin) production by all five Fusarium species on solid substrates. This research suggests that T. atroviride AN240 can be a promising candidate for the biological control of toxigenic Fusarium species.

  5. Development of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris - wilt pathogen of chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Raju; Nagavardhini, Avuthu; Sengupta, Anindita; Sharma, Mamta

    2015-02-11

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Foc), the causal agent of Fusarium wilt is a devastating pathogen of chickpea. In chickpea, various soil borne pathogens produce (s) similar symptoms, therefore cannot be distinguished easily at field level. There is real need for a rapid, inexpensive, and easy to operate and maintain genotyping tool to facilitate accurate disease diagnosis and surveillance for better management of Fusarium wilt outbreaks. In this study, we developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the elongation factor 1 alpha gene sequence for visual detection of Foc. The LAMP reaction was optimal at 63°C for 60 min. When hydroxynaphthol blue (HNB) was added before amplification, samples with Foc DNA developed a characteristic sky blue colour but those without DNA or with the DNA of six other plant pathogenic fungi did not. Results obtained with LAMP and HNB were confirmed when LAMP products were subjected to gel electrophoresis. The detection limit of this LAMP assay for Foc was 10 fg of genomic DNA per reaction, while that of conventional PCR was 100 pg. In conclusion, it was found that a LAMP assay combined with HNB is simple, rapid, sensitive, and specific. The LAMP assay does not require specialized equipment, hence can be used in the field for the rapid detection of Foc. This is the first report of the use of LAMP assay for the detection of Foc. The presented LAMP method provides a specific, sensitive and rapid diagnostic tool for the distinction of Foc, with the potential to be standardized as a detection method for Foc in endemic areas and will be very useful for monitoring the disease complex in the field further suggesting the management strategies.

  6. Analysis of root-knot nematode and fusarium wilt disease resistance in cotton (Gossypium spp.) using chromosome substitution lines from two alien species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa, M; Wang, C; Saha, S; Hutmacher, R B; Stelly, D M; Jenkins, J N; Burke, J; Roberts, P A

    2016-04-01

    Chromosome substitution (CS) lines in plants are a powerful genetic resource for analyzing the contribution of chromosome segments to phenotypic variance. In this study, a series of interspecific cotton (Gossypium spp.) CS lines were used to identify a new germplasm resource, and to validate chromosomal regions and favorable alleles associated with nematode or fungal disease resistance traits. The CS lines were developed in the G. hirsutum L. TM-1 background with chromosome or chromosome segment substitutions from G. barbadense L. Pima 3-79 or G. tomentosum. Root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum) (races 1 and 4) resistance alleles and quantitative trait loci (QTL) previously placed on cotton chromosomes using SSR markers in two interspecific recombinant inbred line populations were chosen for testing. Phenotypic responses of increased resistance or susceptibility in controlled inoculation and infested field assays confirmed the resistance QTLs, based on substitution with the positive or negative allele for resistance. Lines CS-B22Lo, CS-B04, and CS-B18 showed high resistance to nematode root-galling, confirming QTLs on chromosomes 4 and 22 (long arm) with resistance alleles from Pima 3-79. Line CS-B16 had less fusarium race 1-induced vascular root staining and higher percent survival than the TM-1 parent, confirming a major resistance QTL on chromosome 16. Lines CS-B(17-11) and CS-B17 had high fusarium race 4 vascular symptoms and low survival due to susceptible alleles introgressed from Pima 3-79, confirming the localization on chromosome 17 of an identified QTL with resistance alleles from TM1 and other resistant lines. Analyses validated regions on chromosomes 11, 16, and 17 harboring nematode and fusarium wilt resistance genes and demonstrated the value of CS lines as both a germplasm resource for breeding programs and as a powerful genetic analysis tool for determining QTL effects for disease

  7. Zapobieganie infekcji glebowej lnu przez grzyby z rodzaju Fusarium za pomocą zaprawiania nasion [Seed dressing with fungicides a protection against soil borne Fusarium wilt of flax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zarzycka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The seed dressing with systemic fungicides decreased flax infection by soil borne Fusarium. The yield of strow, seed and fibre from treated plants was higher than from untreated plants. The weather conditions and degree of soil infection with Fusarium influenced on the effect of seed dressing.

  8. Fusarium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    The genus Fusarium is one of the most important mycotoxigenic fungal genera in food and feed. Nearly all species are able to produce mycotoxins of which many are under international regulation. Well-known Fusarium mycotoxins are fumonisins, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, and additional trichothecenes...

  9. Identification of predictor parameters to determine agro-industrial compost suppressiveness against Fusarium oxysporum and Phytophthora capsici diseases in muskmelon and pepper seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaya, Josefa; Lloret, Eva; Ros, Margarita; Pascual, Jose Antonio

    2015-05-01

    The lack of reliable prediction tools for evaluation of the level and specificity of compost suppressiveness limits its application. In our study, different chemical, biological and microbiological parameters were used to evaluate their potential use as a predictor parameter for the suppressive effect of composts against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (FOM) and Phytophthora capsici (P. capsici) in muskmelon and pepper seedlings respectively. Composts were obtained from artichoke sludge, chopped vineyard pruning waste and various agro-industrial wastes (C1: blanched artichokes; C2: garlic waste; C3: dry olive cake). Compost C3 proved to offer the highest level of resistance against FOM, and compost C2 the highest level of resistance against P. capsici. Analysis of phospholipid fatty acids isolated from compost revealed that the three composts showed different microbial community structures. Protease, NAGase and chitinase activities were significantly higher in compost C3, as was dehydrogenase activity in compost C2. The use of specific parameters such as general (dehydrogenase activity) and specific enzymatic activities (protease, NAGase and chitinase activities) may be useful to predict compost suppressiveness against both pathogens. The selection of raw materials for agro-industrial composts is important in controlling Fusarium wilt and Phytophthora root rot. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Marker-Assisted Backcrossing to Introgress Resistance to Fusarium Wilt Race 1 and Ascochyta Blight in C 214, an Elite Cultivar of Chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Varshney

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt (FW and Ascochyta blight (AB are two major constraints to chickpea (Cicer arietinum production,Fusarium wilt (FW and Ascochyta blight (AB are two major constraints to chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. production. Therefore, two parallel marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC programs by targeting foc1 locus and two quantitative trait loci (QTL regions, ABQTL-I and ABQTL-II, were undertaken to introgress resistance to FW and AB, respectively, in C 214, an elite cultivar of chickpea. In the case of FW, foreground selection (FGS was conducted with six markers (TR19, TA194, TAA60, GA16, TA110, and TS82 linked to foc1 in the cross C 214 × WR 315 (FW-resistant. On the other hand, eight markers (TA194, TR58, TS82, GA16, SCY17, TA130, TA2, and GAA47 linked with ABQTL-I and ABQTL-II were used in the case of AB by deploying C 214 × ILC 3279 (AB-resistant cross. Background selection (BGS in both crosses was employed with evenly distributed 40 (C 214 × WR 315 to 43 (C 214 × ILC 3279 SSR markers in the chickpea genome to select plant(s with higher recurrent parent genome (RPG recovery. By using three backcrosses and three rounds of selfing, 22 BC3F4 lines were generated for C 214 × WR 315 cross and 14 MABC lines for C 214 × ILC 3279 cross. Phenotyping of these lines has identified three resistant lines (with 92.7–95.2% RPG to race 1 of FW, and seven resistant lines (with 81.7–85.40% RPG to AB that may be tested for yield and other agronomic traits under multilocation trials for possible release and cultivation.

  11. Plant-derived Antibacterial Metabolites Suppressing Tomato Bacterial Wilt Caused by Ralstonia solanacearum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuy Thu Vu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ralstonia solanacearum species complex (RSSC causes bacterial wilt, and it is one of the most important soil-borne plant pathogenic bacteria. RSSC has a large host range of more than 50 botanical families, which represent more than 200 plant species, including tomato. It is difficult to control bacterial wilt due to following reasons: the bacterial wilt pathogen can grow inside the plant tissue, and it can also survive in soil for a long period; moreover, it has a wide host range and biological diversity. In most previous studies, scientists have focused on developing biological control agents, such as antagonistic microorganisms and botanical materials. However, biocontrol attempts are not successful. Plant-derived metabolites and extracts have been promising candidates to environmentally friendly control bacterial wilt diseases. Therefore, we review the plant extracts, essential oils, and secondary metabolites that show potent in vivo antibacterial activities (in potted plants or in field against tomato bacterial wilt, which is caused by RSSC.

  12. Genome-wide analysis of autophagy-related genes in banana highlights MaATG8s in cell death and autophagy in immune response to Fusarium wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yunxie; Liu, Wen; Hu, Wei; Liu, Guoyin; Wu, Chunjie; Liu, Wei; Zeng, Hongqiu; He, Chaozu; Shi, Haitao

    2017-08-01

    MaATG8s play important roles in hypersensitive-like cell death and immune response, and autophagy is essential for disease resistance against Foc in banana. Autophagy is responsible for the degradation of damaged cytoplasmic constituents in the lysosomes or vacuoles. Although the effects of autophagy have been extensively revealed in model plants, the possible roles of autophagy-related gene in banana remain unknown. In this study, 32 MaATGs were identified in the draft genome, and the profiles of several MaATGs in response to fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) were also revealled. We found that seven MaATG8s were commonly regulated by Foc. Through transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, we highlight the novel roles of MaATG8s in conferring hypersensitive-like cell death, and MaATG8s-mediated hypersensitive response-like cell death is dependent on autophagy. Notablly, autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) treatment resulted in decreased disease resistance in response to Foc4, and the effect of 3-MA treatment could be rescued by exogenous salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene, indicating the involvement of autophagy-mediated plant hormones in banana resistance to Fusarium wilt. Taken together, this study may extend our understanding the putative role of MaATG8s in hypersensitive-like cell death and the essential role of autophagy in immune response against Foc in banana.

  13. Cloning of disease-resistance homologues in end sequences of BAC clones linked to Fom-2, a gene conferring resistance to Fusarium wilt in melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Hong; Choi, Woobong; Thomas, Claude E; Dean, Ralph A

    2002-06-01

    Disease resistance has not yet been characterized at the molecular level in cucurbits, a group of high-value, nutritious, horticultural plants. Previously, we genetically mapped the Fom-2 gene that confers resistance to Fusarium wilt races 0 and I of melon. In this paper, two cosegregating codominant markers (AM, AFLP marker; FM, Fusarium marker) were used to screen a melon bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library. Identified clones were fingerprinted and end sequenced. Fingerprinting analysis showed that clones identified by each marker assembled into two separate contigs at high stringency. GenBank searches produced matches to leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) of resistance genes (R genes); to retroelements and to cellulose synthase in clones identified by FM; and to nucleotide-binding sites (NBSs) of R genes, retroelements, and cytochrome P-450 in clones identified by AM. A 6.5-kb fragment containing both NBS and LRR sequences was found to share high homology to TIR (Toll-interleukin-1 receptor)-NBS-LRR R genes, such as N, with 42% identity and 58% similarity in the TIR-NBS and LRR regions. The sequence information may be useful for identifying NBS-LRR class of R genes in other cucurbits.

  14. Development of DArT markers and assessment of diversity in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris, wilt pathogen of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mamta; Nagavardhini, Avuthu; Thudi, Mahendar; Ghosh, Raju; Pande, Suresh; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2014-06-10

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Foc), the causal agent of Fusarium wilt of chickpea is highly variable and frequent recurrence of virulent forms have affected chickpea production and exhausted valuable genetic resources. The severity and yield losses of Fusarium wilt differ from place to place owing to existence of physiological races among isolates. Diversity study of fungal population associated with a disease plays a major role in understanding and devising better disease control strategies. The advantages of using molecular markers to understand the distribution of genetic diversity in Foc populations is well understood. The recent development of Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) offers new possibilities to study the diversity in pathogen population. In this study, we developed DArT markers for Foc population, analysed the genetic diversity existing within and among Foc isolates, compared the genotypic and phenotypic diversity and infer the race scenario of Foc in India. We report the successful development of DArT markers for Foc and their utility in genotyping of Foc collections representing five chickpea growing agro-ecological zones of India. The DArT arrays revealed a total 1,813 polymorphic markers with an average genotyping call rate of 91.16% and a scoring reproducibility of 100%. Cluster analysis, principal coordinate analysis and population structure indicated that the different isolates of Foc were partially classified based on geographical source. Diversity in Foc population was compared with the phenotypic variability and it was found that DArT markers were able to group the isolates consistent with its virulence group. A number of race-specific unique and rare alleles were also detected. The present study generated significant information in terms of pathogenic and genetic diversity of Foc which could be used further for development and deployment of region-specific resistant cultivars of chickpea. The DArT markers were proved to be a powerful

  15. Cotton Wilt and the Environment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    as well as mature healthy plants growing in diseased soil. (2) Fusarium hyphae may not be present in the wilt-affected plants. (3) Superphosphate ... agencies, such as organic manure, aluminium salts, lime and water-logging. (8) Seedlings in the very first stages of wilt-infection, if transplanted into healthy soil, develop into ...

  16. Phenotypic evaluation of the resistance in F1 carnation populations to vascular wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johana Carolina Soto-Sedano

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important phytosanitary problems of the carnation crops in Colombia and in the entire world is vascular wilting produced by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi. Currently, an effective treatment against the pathogen does not exist; the search for resistant varieties has been the most successful method for control of this disease. Breeding programs are vital to solving the problem of the carnation fusariosis. The objective of this research was the phenotypic evaluation of carnation F1 populations, products of contrasting crossing, resistant per susceptible to F. oxysporum f.sp. dianthi, in order to determine if the resistance is inherited in the lines. This information will contribute to the selection of material and to the successful introduction of the resistant characteristic, whose expression is commercially acceptable, to the gene pool. The methodology adopted was a phenotypic evaluation of the response to the parasite in the population (450 individuals and in the parental. This evaluation estimated the area under the curve (AU DPC, using a scale of symptoms reported for carnation vascular wilt. Three different phenotypes were established with this evaluation. The moderately susceptible one is the predominant phenotype and an analysis of phenotypic frequencies was carried out on it. The results show that the individuals of the evaluated F1 population were distributed between two extreme ranges, resistant and susceptible; this shows that there is segregation for the trait resistant to F. oxysporum f.sp dianthi. We did not observe clearly differentiated classes, i.e. with complete absence or presence of the disease, indicating a possible control of the resistance in the evaluated carnation material, governed by more than one gene and with a possible additive genetic action

  17. Different mechanisms of Trichoderma virens-mediated resistance in tomato against Fusarium wilt involve the jasmonic and salicylic acid pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogaiah, Sudisha; Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Tran, Lam-Son Phan; Ito, Shin-Ichi

    2018-04-01

    In the present study, we investigated the role of Trichoderma virens (TriV_JSB100) spores or cell-free culture filtrate in the regulation of growth and activation of the defence responses of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici by the development of a biocontrol-plant-pathogen interaction system. Two-week-old tomato seedlings primed with TriV_JSB100 spores cultured on barley grains (BGS) or with cell-free culture filtrate (CF) were inoculated with Fusarium pathogen under glasshouse conditions; this resulted in significantly lower disease incidence in tomato Oogata-Fukuju plants treated with BGS than in those treated with CF. To dissect the pathways associated with this response, jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) signalling in BGS- and CF-induced resistance was evaluated using JA- and SA-impaired tomato lines. We observed that JA-deficient mutant def1 plants were susceptible to Fusarium pathogen when they were treated with BGS. However, wild-type (WT) BGS-treated tomato plants showed a higher JA level and significantly lower disease incidence. SA-deficient mutant NahG plants treated with CF were also found to be susceptible to Fusarium pathogen and displayed low SA levels, whereas WT CF-treated tomato plants exhibited moderately lower disease levels and substantially higher SA levels. Expression of the JA-responsive defensin gene PDF1 was induced in WT tomato plants treated with BGS, whereas the SA-inducible pathogenesis-related protein 1 acidic (PR1a) gene was up-regulated in WT tomato plants treated with CF. These results suggest that TriV_JSB100 BGS and CF differentially induce JA and SA signalling cascades for the elicitation of Fusarium oxysporum resistance in tomato. © 2017 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  18. Linking land management, the soil microbiome and suppression of Fusarium wilt disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiong, Wu

    2018-01-01

    Plant pathogens cause great loss of food production across the world. This problem is even more important given the need to produce more food for a growing human population. Given the negative effects of current pesticide-based management strategies, there is an urgent need to develop more

  19. Comparative Agronomic Performance and Reaction to Fusarium wilt of Lens culinaris × L. orientalis and L. culinaris × L. ervoides derivatives

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    Mohar Singh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of transgressive phenotype in the segregating populations has been speculated to contribute to niche divergence of hybrid lineages, which occurs most frequently at larger genetic distances. Wild Lens species are considered to be more resistant against major biotic and abiotic stresses than that of the cultivated species. In the present study, we assessed the comparative agronomic performance of lentil (Lens culinaris subsp. culinaris inter-sub-specific (L. culinaris subsp. orientalis and interspecific (L. ervoides derivatives, also discussed its probable basis of occurrence. The F3, F4, and F5 inter sub-specific and interspecific populations of ILL8006 × ILWL62 and ILL10829 × ILWL30, respectively revealed a substantial range of variation for majority of agro-morphological traits as reflected by the range, mean and coefficient of variation. A high level of fruitful heterosis was also observed in F3 and F4 progeny for important traits of interest. Phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV was higher in magnitude than genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV in all generations for several quantitative characters. The results showed high heritability estimates for majority of traits in conjunction with low to high genetic advance in F3 and F4 generations. Further, F5 progeny of ILL10829 × ILWL30, manifested resistant disease reaction for fifteen recombinant inbred lines (RILs against (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lentis (Vasd. Srin. Gord.. The multilocation agronomic evaluation of both crosses showed better results for earliness, desirable seed yield and Fusarium wilt resistance under two agro-ecological regions of north-western India. These better performing recombinants of ILL8006 × ILWL62 and ILL10829 × ILWL30 can be advanced for further genetic improvement and developing high yielding disease resistant cultivars of lentil.

  20. Identification, transcriptional and functional analysis of heat-shock protein 90s in banana (Musa acuminata L.) highlight their novel role in melatonin-mediated plant response to Fusarium wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yunxie; Hu, Wei; Wang, Qiannan; Zeng, Hongqiu; Li, Xiaolin; Yan, Yu; Reiter, Russel J; He, Chaozu; Shi, Haitao

    2017-01-01

    As one popular fresh fruit, banana (Musa acuminata) is cultivated in the world's subtropical and tropical areas. In recent years, pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) has been widely and rapidly spread to banana cultivated areas, causing substantial yield loss. However, the molecular mechanism of banana response to Foc remains unclear, and functional identification of disease-related genes is also very limited. In this study, nine 90 kDa heat-shock proteins (HSP90s) were genomewide identified. Moreover, the expression profile of them in different organs, developmental stages, and in response to abiotic and fungal pathogen Foc were systematically analyzed. Notably, we found that the transcripts of 9 MaHSP90s were commonly regulated by melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) and Foc infection. Further studies showed that exogenous application of melatonin improved banana resistance to Fusarium wilt, but the effect was lost when cotreated with HSP90 inhibitor (geldanamycin, GDA). Moreover, melatonin and GDA had opposite effect on auxin level in response to Foc4, while melatonin and GDA cotreated plants had no significant effect, suggesting the involvement of MaHSP90s in the cross talk of melatonin and auxin in response to fungal infection. Taken together, this study demonstrated that MaHSP90s are essential for melatonin-mediated plant response to Fusarium wilt, which extends our understanding the putative roles of MaHSP90s as well as melatonin in the biological control of banana Fusarium wilt. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Application of molecular markers for genetic discrimination of Fusarium wilt pathogen races affecting chickpea and pigeonpea in major regions of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, J; Lal, N

    2012-12-22

    (foc) and Fusarium udum (Fud) collected from major pulse growing regions of India. Out of 247 bands produced by 24 Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers in Foc isolates, 210 (85%) were polymorphic. A maximum of 14 amplicons were generated by primer OPF 05 whereas minimum 7 amplicons were generated by primer K7. A total of 24 alleles were produced by twelve Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) primers with an average of two alleles per marker in foc isolates. The maximum number of 4 alleles was obtained with primer SSR 12. SSR amplicon size ranged from 100 to 400 bp. The Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic average (UPGMA) cluster analysis based on RAPD and SSR profiles grouped the fourteen foc isolates into four major clusters. The universal Inter Transcribed Spacer (ITS) primer pair amplified 630 bp bands in all fourteen foc isolates while significant length polymorphism was obtained only when analysed by restriction digestion with EcoRI and MspI enzymes. The cluster analysis of ITS—RFLP grouped all 14 Foc isolates into three major clusters. Twenty four RAPD primers generated a total of 226 bands (ranging 0.3 to 3.0 kb) in Fusarium udum with an average of 9.4 bands per primer and a total of 27 alleles were produced by twelve SSR primers with an average of 2.25 alleles per marker. All isolates amplified a single band ranging from 100 to 450 bp. The universal ITS primer pair amplified 650 bp bands in all fourteen fud isolates while significant length polymorphism was obtained only when analysed by restriction digestion with EcoRI and Hind III enzymes. The cluster analysis of ITS—RFLP grouped all 14 Fud isolates into three major clusters. The cluster analysis using various markers show the grouping of Fusarium isolates strictly according to their cultural characteristics and degree of pathogenicity and not the geographical origin. This information will be helpful for pathologists and plant breeders to design effective resistance breeding programs in

  2. Petunia floral defensins with unique prodomains as novel candidates for development of fusarium wilt resistance in transgenic banana plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhesh B Ghag

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides are a potent group of defense active molecules that have been utilized in developing resistance against a multitude of plant pathogens. Floral defensins constitute a group of cysteine-rich peptides showing potent growth inhibition of pathogenic filamentous fungi especially Fusarium oxysporum in vitro. Full length genes coding for two Petunia floral defensins, PhDef1 and PhDef2 having unique C-terminal 31 and 27 amino acid long predicted prodomains, were overexpressed in transgenic banana plants using embryogenic cells as explants for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. High level constitutive expression of these defensins in elite banana cv. Rasthali led to significant resistance against infection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense as shown by in vitro and ex vivo bioassay studies. Transgenic banana lines expressing either of the two defensins were clearly less chlorotic and had significantly less infestation and discoloration in the vital corm region of the plant as compared to untransformed controls. Transgenic banana plants expressing high level of full-length PhDef1 and PhDef2 were phenotypically normal and no stunting was observed. In conclusion, our results suggest that high-level constitutive expression of floral defensins having distinctive prodomains is an efficient strategy for development of fungal resistance in economically important fruit crops like banana.

  3. Antifungal Activity and Action Mode of Cuminic Acid from the Seeds of Cuminum cyminum L. against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Niveum (FON Causing Fusarium Wilt on Watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Sun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop a novel biofungicide, the antifungal activity and action mode of cuminic acid from the seed of Cuminum cyminum L. against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON on watermelon was determined systematically. In this study, the median effective concentration (EC50 value for cuminic acid in inhibiting mycelial growth of FON was 22.53 μg/mL. After treatment with cuminic acid, the mycelial morphology was seriously influenced; cell membrane permeability and glycerol content were increased markedly, but pigment and mycotoxin (mainly fusaric acid were significantly decreased. Synthesis genes of bikaverin (Bike1, Bike2 and Bike3 and fusaric acid (FUB1, FUB2, FUB3 and FUB4 both were downregulated compared with the control, as confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. In greenhouse experiments, cuminic acid at all concentrations displayed significant bioactivities against FON. Importantly, significant enhancement of activities of SOD, POD, CAT and decrease of MDA content were observed after in vivo cuminic acid treatment on watermelon leaves. These indicated that cuminic acid not only showed high antifungal activity, but also could enhance the self-defense system of the host plant. Above all, cuminic acid showed the potential as a biofungicide to control FON.

  4. Antifungal Activity and Action Mode of Cuminic Acid from the Seeds of Cuminum cyminum L. against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Niveum (FON) Causing Fusarium Wilt on Watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yang; Wang, Yong; Han, Li Rong; Zhang, Xing; Feng, Jun Tao

    2017-11-30

    In order to develop a novel biofungicide, the antifungal activity and action mode of cuminic acid from the seed of Cuminum cyminum L. against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON) on watermelon was determined systematically. In this study, the median effective concentration (EC 50 ) value for cuminic acid in inhibiting mycelial growth of FON was 22.53 μg/mL. After treatment with cuminic acid, the mycelial morphology was seriously influenced; cell membrane permeability and glycerol content were increased markedly, but pigment and mycotoxin (mainly fusaric acid) were significantly decreased. Synthesis genes of bikaverin ( Bike1 , Bike2 and Bike3 ) and fusaric acid ( FUB1 , FUB2 , FUB3 and FUB4 ) both were downregulated compared with the control, as confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. In greenhouse experiments, cuminic acid at all concentrations displayed significant bioactivities against FON. Importantly, significant enhancement of activities of SOD, POD, CAT and decrease of MDA content were observed after in vivo cuminic acid treatment on watermelon leaves. These indicated that cuminic acid not only showed high antifungal activity, but also could enhance the self-defense system of the host plant. Above all, cuminic acid showed the potential as a biofungicide to control FON.

  5. SUPPRESSION ABILITY OF CRUDE EXTRACT DERIVED FROM MARINE BIOTA AGAINST FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F.SP. VANILLAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Suada

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to investigate suppression ability of marine biota extracts against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vanillae of vanilla stem rot. Samples were collected at intertidal zones and in the depth of 1-7 m from seven beaches in Bali. Screening of active compounds of biota extracts were conducted using inhibition zone of well diffusion method on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA. The extract was tested in-vitro in PDA medium using completely randomized design with three replicates. The methanolic extract of Aglaophenia sp. was able to suppress the growth of F. oxysporum f.sp. vanillae effectively, with minimum inhibition concentration (MIC of 0.05 %. The extract inhibited colony growth diameter and total mycelial dry weight.

  6. Bacterial endophytes from wild maize suppress Fusarium graminearum in modern maize and inhibit mycotoxin accumulation

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    Walaa Kamel Mousa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wild maize (teosinte has been reported to be less susceptible to pests than their modern maize (corn relatives. Endophytes, defined as microbes that inhabit plants without causing disease, are known for their ability to antagonize plant pests and pathogens. We hypothesized that the wild relatives of modern maize may host endophytes that combat pathogens. Fusarium graminearum is the fungus that causes Gibberella Ear Rot (GER in modern maize and produces the mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON. In this study, 215 bacterial endophytes, previously isolated from diverse maize genotypes including wild teosintes, traditional landraces and modern varieties, were tested for their ability to antagonize F. graminearum in vitro. Candidate endophytes were then tested for their ability to suppress GER in modern maize in independent greenhouse trials. The results revealed that three candidate endophytes derived from wild teosintes were most potent in suppressing F. graminearum in vitro and GER in a modern maize hybrid. These wild teosinte endophytes could suppress a broad spectrum of fungal pathogens of modern crops in vitro. The teosinte endophytes also suppressed DON mycotoxin during storage to below acceptable safety threshold levels. A fourth, less robust anti-fungal strain was isolated from a modern maize hybrid. Three of the anti-fungal endophytes were predicted to be Paenibacillus polymyxa, along with one strain of Citrobacter. Microscopy studies suggested a fungicidal mode of action by all four strains. Molecular and biochemical studies showed that the P. polymyxa strains produced the previously characterized anti-Fusarium compound, fusaricidin. Our results suggest that the wild relatives of modern crops may serve as a valuable reservoir for endophytes in the ongoing fight against serious threats to modern agriculture. We discuss the possible impact of crop evolution and domestication on endophytes in the context of plant defense.

  7. Seleção do algodoeiro para resistência à fusariose em área onde ocorre doença semelhante em plantas de labelabe (Dolichos lablab L. Selection of cotton plants resistant to fusarium wilt in a plot where similar disease occurs on hyacinth bean (Dolichos lablab L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre L. Gridi-Papp

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available Em área de Latossolo Roxo, localizada na Estação Experimental "Theodureto de Camargo", em Campinas, verificou-se incidência de doença provocando "murcha", com sintomas internos caracterizados pelo escurecimento dos vasos, sucessivamente em plantas de labelabe e em algodoeiro. Em ambas as espécies vegetais determinou-se a presença de fungos do gênero Fusarium, mediante isolamento feito em plantas doentes. Seleções, feitas na referida área, de plantas pertencentes a linhagem de algodoeiro suscetível à murcha de Fusariumderam origem a linhagens que revelaram apreciável resistência quando testadas em solo infestado por Fusarium oxysporum f.vasinfectum (Atk. Snyder & Hansen. São discutidos aspectos relacionados com a possível descoberta de nova fonte genética de resistência à doença e com a existência desse fungo sob infestação natural na Estação Experimental mencionada. Também é apontada a possibilidade de serem o algodoeiro e a leguminosa em questão hospedeiras do mesmo agente patogênico.The occurrence of wilt disease, successively in plants of hyacinth bean (Dolichos lablab L. and cotton, was observed in a plot of latosolic B (Terra Roxa soil at the "Theodureto de Camargo" Experiment Station at Campinas, where no Fusarium wilt has been recorded before. Both species presented internal symptoms consisting in darkened vessels. Fungi of the genus Fusarium were isolated from these plants. Plant selection for wilt resistance was made in the above mentioned area where a Fusarium - susceptible variety (IAG 51/1104 of cotton had been planted. The progenies when tested in soils infested by Fusarium oxysporum f. vasinfectum Atk. Snyder & Hansen revealed fair resistance to wilt. IAG 51/1104 comes from a cross between the varieties Delfos and Delta Pineland-10, both wilt susceptible under field conditions of the State of São Paulo. It is likely that the wilt resistance of some of its progeny might have originated by recombination

  8. Pengaruh Pemberian Mikoriza Vesikula Arbuskula (MVA Campuran terhadap Kemunculan Penyakit Layu Fusarium pada Tanaman Melon (Cucumis melo L.

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    Najmah Farhati

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Melon (Cucumis melo L. has economic potential to be cultivated because the fruit contains protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphor, fiber, iron, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin C, and niacin. Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum will decrease melon crop production. One of controlling method to Fusarium wilt diseases on melon plants which safe for environtmental by using biological control. One of microorganisms which can be biological control agent is Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM. This research use experimental method with a Completely Randomized Design (CRD. The experimental treatment consists of two types of treatment which combine 5 doses of VAM mixture ( 0 g/plant, 10 g/plant, 12,5 g/plant, 15 g/plant, 17,5 g/plant and two inoculation method VAM is inoculated when seeds are planted and inoculation when the seedlings are replanted. Each treatment was repeated 3 times and each unit consist of three plant, so there are 30 units of experiments or 90 plants. The main variabels are observed consist of the incubation periode of the disease and the intensity of fusarium wilt and the supporting variabels consist of pH, temperature, humidity, and the scale of infection. The mixed MVA 15 g/plant dosage inoculated when seeds are planted and 15 g/plant dosage inoculated when the seedlings are replanted is the most effective to suppress incubation period of Fusarium wilt disease.

  9. Development and utility of cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS) and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) linked to the Fom-2 fusarium wilt resistance gene in melon (Cucumis melo L.).

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    Zheng, X Y; Wolff, D W; Baudracco-Arnas, S; Pitrat, M

    1999-08-01

    Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht f. sp. melonis Snyder & Hans, is a worldwide soil-borne disease of melon (Cucumis melo L.). Resistance to races 0 and 1 of Fusarium wilt is conditioned by the dominant gene Fom-2. To facilitate marker-assisted backcrossing with selection for Fusarium wilt resistance, we developed cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS) and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) markers by converting RAPD markers E07 (a 1.25-kb band) and G17 (a 1.05-kb band), respectively. The RAPD-PCR polymorphic fragments from the susceptible line 'Vedrantais' were cloned and sequenced in order to construct primers that would amplify only the target fragment. The derived primers, E07SCAR-1/E07SCAR-2 from E07 and G17SCAR-1/G17SCAR-2 from G17, yielded a single 1.25-kb fragment (designated SCE07) and a 1.05-kb fragment (designated SCG17) (the same as RAPD markers E07 and G17), respectively, from both resistant and susceptible melon lines, thus demonstrating locus-specific associated primers. Potential CAPS markers were first revealed by comparing sequence data between fragments amplified from resistant (PI 161375) and susceptible ('Vedrantais') lines and were then confirmed by electrophoresis of restriction endonuclease digestion products. Twelve restriction endonucleases were evaluated for their potential use as CAPS markers within the SCE07 fragment. Three (BclI, MspI, and BssSI) yielded ideal CAPS markers and were subsequently subjected to extensive testing using an additional 88 diverse melon cultigens, 93 and 119 F(2) individuals from crosses of 'Vedrantais' x PI 161375 and 'Ananas Yokneam'×MR-1 respectively, and 17 families from a backcross BC(1)S(1) population derived from the breeding line 'MD8654' as a resistance source. BclI- and MspI-CAPS are susceptible-linked markers, whereas the BssSI-CAPS is a resistant-linked marker. The CAPS markers that resulted from double digestion by BclI and BssSI are co-dominant. Results

  10. Structure-function analysis of the Fusarium oxysporum Avr2 effector allows uncoupling of its immune-suppressing activity from recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Xiaotang; Cao, Lingxue; Hughes, Richard K; Tintor, Nico; Banfield, Mark J; Takken, Frank L W

    2017-11-01

    Plant pathogens employ effector proteins to manipulate their hosts. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol), the causal agent of tomato wilt disease, produces effector protein Avr2. Besides being a virulence factor, Avr2 triggers immunity in I-2 carrying tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Fol strains that evade I-2 recognition carry point mutations in Avr2 (e.g. Avr2 R45H ), but retain full virulence. Here we investigate the virulence function of Avr2 and determine its crystal structure. Transgenic tomato and Arabidopsis expressing either wild-type ΔspAvr2 (deleted signal-peptide) or the ΔspAvr2 R45H variant become hypersusceptible to fungal, and even bacterial infections, suggesting that Avr2 targets a conserved defense mechanism. Indeed, Avr2 transgenic plants are attenuated in immunity-related readouts, including flg22-induced growth inhibition, ROS production and callose deposition. The crystal structure of Avr2 reveals that the protein shares intriguing structural similarity to ToxA from the wheat pathogen Pyrenophora tritici-repentis and to TRAF proteins. The I-2 resistance-breaking Avr2 V41M , Avr2 R45H and Avr2 R46P variants cluster on a surface-presented loop. Structure-guided mutagenesis enabled uncoupling of virulence from I-2-mediated recognition. We conclude that I-2-mediated recognition is not based on monitoring Avr2 virulence activity, which includes suppression of immune responses via an evolutionarily conserved effector target, but by recognition of a distinct epitope. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. First report of Fusarium decemcellulare causing inflorescence wilt, vascular and flower necrosis of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum), longan (Dimocarpus longan) and mango (Mangifera indica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longan, mango and rambutan are very important fruit crops in Puerto Rico. During a disease survey in Puerto Rico conducted from 2008 to 2010, 50% of the inflorescences were affected with inflorescence wilt, flower and vascular necrosis at 70% of the fields of rambutan and longan at the USDA-ARS Rese...

  12. Response of African eggplants to Fusarium spp. and identification of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-03-16

    Mar 16, 2016 ... Eggplant (Solanum spp.) production in Arumeru district and other parts of Africa is severely affected by wilting diseases of unknown etiology. Fusarium spp. characterized through morphological and sequence analysis of the translation elongation factor associated with Fusarium wilt of eggplants was.

  13. Molecular genetic characterization of the koa-wilt pathogen (Fusarium oxysporum): Application of molecular genetic tools toward improving koa restoration in Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee-Sook Kim; Jane E. Stewart; Nicklos Dudley; John Dobbs; Tyler Jones; Phil G. Cannon; Robert L. James; Kas Dumroese; Ned B. Klopfenstein

    2015-01-01

    Several forest diseases are causing serious threats to the native Hawaiian forest. Among them, koawilt disease (caused by Fusarium oxysporum) is damaging to native populations of koa (Acacia koa), and it also hinders koa restoration/reforestation. Because F. oxysporum likely represents a complex of species with distinct pathogenic activities, more detailed...

  14. The tomato I gene for Fusarium wilt resistance encodes an atypical leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein whose function is nevertheless dependent on SOBIR1 and SERK3/BAK1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzariti, Ann-Maree; Do, Huong T T; Bru, Pierrick; de Sain, Mara; Thatcher, Louise F; Rep, Martijn; Jones, David A

    2017-03-01

    We have identified the tomato I gene for resistance to the Fusarium wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) and show that it encodes a membrane-anchored leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein (LRR-RLP). Unlike most other LRR-RLP genes involved in plant defence, the I gene is not a member of a gene cluster and contains introns in its coding sequence. The I gene encodes a loopout domain larger than those in most other LRR-RLPs, with a distinct composition rich in serine and threonine residues. The I protein also lacks a basic cytosolic domain. Instead, this domain is rich in aromatic residues that could form a second transmembrane domain. The I protein recognises the Fol Avr1 effector protein, but, unlike many other LRR-RLPs, recognition specificity is determined in the C-terminal half of the protein by polymorphic amino acid residues in the LRRs just preceding the loopout domain and in the loopout domain itself. Despite these differences, we show that I/Avr1-dependent necrosis in Nicotiana benthamiana depends on the LRR receptor-like kinases (RLKs) SERK3/BAK1 and SOBIR1. Sequence comparisons revealed that the I protein and other LRR-RLPs involved in plant defence all carry residues in their last LRR and C-terminal LRR capping domain that are conserved with SERK3/BAK1-interacting residues in the same relative positions in the LRR-RLKs BRI1 and PSKR1. Tyrosine mutations of two of these conserved residues, Q922 and T925, abolished I/Avr1-dependent necrosis in N. benthamiana, consistent with similar mutations in BRI1 and PSKR1 preventing their interaction with SERK3/BAK1. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Fusarium spp. suppress germination and parasitic establishment of bean and hemp broomrapes

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    Mohamed A. Abouzeid

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-nine Fusarium isolates were obtained from newly emerged infected bean broomrape (Orobanche crenata and hemp broomrape (O. ramosa collected from infested fields of faba bean (Vicia faba and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum respectively, in two governorates located south of Giza, Egypt. All Fusarium isolates were identified to species level and the effect of their culture filtrates on the germination of seeds from the two Orobanche species was tested in vitro. The inhibition of seed germination differed between the tested Fusarium isolates, depending on the plant part from which they were isolated, with isolates from the shoots of Orobanche inhibiting seed germination more than isolates from the inflorescences. The culture filtrates of Fusarium species from O. crenata were more toxic to the seeds of both Orobanche species than the Fusarium filtrates from O. ramosa. Seeds of O. crenata were more resistant to Fusarium culture filtrates than seeds of O. ramosa. The highest inhibition of Orobanche seed germination was achieved by six Fusarium isolates, one of which was identified as F. oxysporum, one as F. equiseti, whilst the other four were all F. compactum. Aqueous mixtures of mycelia and conidia of all the Fusarium isolates were directly sprayed on O. ramosa tubercles attached to the roots of tomato plants grown in transparent plastic bags, and were also used to infest soil in pots seeded with both faba bean and O. crenata. Two of the four F. compactum isolates (22 and 29 were significantly more pathogenic against O. crenata and O. ramosa, respectively, than the other Fusarium isolates tested in the pots and plastic bags. The study clearly shows the potential of biocontrol agents originating in one Orobanche sp. (e.g. O. crenata to control another Orobanche sp. (e.g. O. ramosa, as many Fusarium isolates deriving from O. crenata were found to be more pathogenic to O. ramosa seeds than the isolates from O. ramosa themselves. This may widen the

  16. Identification of a novel small cysteine-rich protein in the fraction from the biocontrol Fusarium oxysporum strain CS-20 that mitigates Fusarium wilt symptoms and triggers defense responses in tomato

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    Larisa A. Shcherbakova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The biocontrol effect of the nonpathogenic F. oxysporum strain CS-20 against the tomato wilt pathogen F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL has been previously reported to be primarily plant-mediated. This study shows that CS-20 produces proteins, which elicit defense responses in tomato plants. Three protein-containing fractions were isolated from CS-20 biomass using size exclusion chromatography. Exposure of seedling roots to one of these fractions prior to inoculation with pathogenic FOL strains significantly reduced wilt severity. This fraction initiated an ion exchange response in cultured tomato cells resulting in a reversible alteration of extracellular pH; increased tomato chitinase activity, and induced systemic resistance by enhancing PR-1 expression in tomato leaves. Two other protein fractions were inactive in seedling protection. The main polypeptide (designated CS20EP, which was specifically present in the defense-inducing fraction and was not detected in inactive protein fractions, was identified. The nucleotide sequence encoding this protein was determined, and its complete amino acid sequence was deduced from direct Edman degradation (25 N-terminal amino acid residues and DNA sequencing. The CS20EP was found to be a small basic cysteine-rich protein with a pI of 9.87 and 23.43% of hydrophobic amino acid residues. BLAST search in the NCBI database showed that the protein is new; however, it displays 48% sequence similarity with a hypothetical protein FGSG_10784 from F. graminearum strain PH-1. The contribution of CS20EP to elicitation of tomato defense responses resulting in wilt mitigating is discussed.

  17. A morel improved growth and suppressed Fusarium infection in sweet corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dan; Bu, Fangfang; Hou, Jiaojiao; Kang, Yongxiang; Yu, Zhongdong

    2016-12-01

    A post-fire morel collected from Populus simonii stands in Mt. Qingling was identified as Morchella crassipes Mes-20 by using nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer phylogeny. It was inoculated into sweet corn to observe colonized roots in purified culture and in greenhouse experiments. The elongation and maturation zones of sweet corn were remarkably colonized at the cortex intercellular and intracellular cells, vessel cells, and around the Casparian strip, forming ectendomycorrhiza-like structures. Colonization was also observed in the zone of cell division proximal to the root cap. Greenhouse assays with sweet corn showed that this morel stimulated the development of the root system and significantly increased the dry root biomass. M. crassipes also significantly reduced the incidence of Fusarium verticillioides in the kernels of mature ears when inoculated into young ears before Fusarium inoculation and prevented Fusarium infection in corn ears compared with that of the control in the greenhouse. When grown under axenic conditions, M. crassipes produced the phytohormones abscisic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, and salicylic acid. The benefits to plants elicited by M. crassipes may result from these phytohormones which may improve the drought resistance, biomass growth and resistance to Fusarium.

  18. Down with DON: Strategies for precise transgene delivery and rnai-based suppression of fusarium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic strategies can effectively supplement other methods for controlling Fusarium head blight (FHB). Impediments to deploying FHB-resistant transgenic barley include a long time-frame for creating and testing transgenes in barley, imprecise transgene insertions that lead to unstable gene expre...

  19. Rhizosphere Microbiome Recruited from a Suppressive Compost Improves Plant Fitness and Increases Protection against Vascular Wilt Pathogens of Tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antoniou, Anastasis; Tsolakidou, Maria; Stringlis, I.; Pantelides, Iakovos

    2017-01-01

    Suppressive composts represent a sustainable approach to combat soilborne plant pathogens and an alternative to the ineffective chemical fungicides used against those. Nevertheless, suppressiveness to plant pathogens and reliability of composts are often inconsistent with unpredictable effects.

  20. Effect of nozzle type on the fungicide efficacy for fusarium head blight suppression on wheat

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    Šterbik Ildiko R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of fungicide treatments on Fusarium head blight (FHB and grain yield of wheat depending on application technique i.e. use of different nozzle types, was evaluated in the study. Nozzles types TJ 11004, Albuz ATR 8004 and Arag TFA 11004 were used for application of systemic fungicide Duett Ultra (0.5 l/ha. FHB intensity (% was determined on the basis of a visual assessment of the number of infected heads and the perecentage of the disease symptoms on the individual head. Differences in grain yield between the treated variants, as well as between the treated and untreated variants, were determined after hand threshing. The lowest percentage of FHB development in wheat and the highest yield were recorded in variants where fungicides were applied by nozzle type ATR 8004. Application technique directly affects the reduction of fusarium head blight in wheat and indirectly it also reduces yield loss.

  1. Desirable Traits of a Good Biocontrol Agent against Verticillium Wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deketelaere, Silke; Tyvaert, Lien; França, Soraya C; Höfte, Monica

    2017-01-01

    The soil-borne fungus Verticillium causes serious vascular disease in a wide variety of annual crops and woody perennials. Verticillium wilt is notoriously difficult to control by conventional methods, so there is great potential for biocontrol to manage this disease. In this study we aimed to review the research about Verticillium biocontrol to get a better understanding of characteristics that are desirable in a biocontrol agent (BCA) against Verticillium wilt. We only considered studies in which the BCAs were tested on plants. Most biocontrol studies were focused on plants of the Solanaceae, Malvaceae , and Brassicaceae and within these families eggplant, cotton, and oilseed rape were the most studied crops. The list of bacterial BCAs with potential against Verticillium was dominated by endophytic Bacillus and Pseudomonas isolates, while non-pathogenic xylem-colonizing Verticillium and Fusarium isolates topped the fungal list. Predominant modes of action involved in biocontrol were inhibition of primary inoculum germination, plant growth promotion, competition and induced resistance. Many BCAs showed in vitro antibiosis and mycoparasitism but these traits were not correlated with activity in vivo and there is no evidence that they play a role in planta . Good BCAs were obtained from soils suppressive to Verticillium wilt, disease suppressive composts, and healthy plants in infested fields. Desirable characteristics in a BCA against Verticillium are the ability to (1) affect the survival or germination of microsclerotia, (2) colonize the xylem and/or cortex and compete with the pathogen for nutrients and/or space, (3) induce resistance responses in the plant and/or (4) promote plant growth. Potential BCAs should be screened in conditions that resemble the field situation to increase the chance of successful use in practice. Furthermore, issues such as large scale production, formulation, preservation conditions, shelf life, and application methods should be

  2. Desirable Traits of a Good Biocontrol Agent against Verticillium Wilt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Deketelaere

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The soil-borne fungus Verticillium causes serious vascular disease in a wide variety of annual crops and woody perennials. Verticillium wilt is notoriously difficult to control by conventional methods, so there is great potential for biocontrol to manage this disease. In this study we aimed to review the research about Verticillium biocontrol to get a better understanding of characteristics that are desirable in a biocontrol agent (BCA against Verticillium wilt. We only considered studies in which the BCAs were tested on plants. Most biocontrol studies were focused on plants of the Solanaceae, Malvaceae, and Brassicaceae and within these families eggplant, cotton, and oilseed rape were the most studied crops. The list of bacterial BCAs with potential against Verticillium was dominated by endophytic Bacillus and Pseudomonas isolates, while non-pathogenic xylem-colonizing Verticillium and Fusarium isolates topped the fungal list. Predominant modes of action involved in biocontrol were inhibition of primary inoculum germination, plant growth promotion, competition and induced resistance. Many BCAs showed in vitro antibiosis and mycoparasitism but these traits were not correlated with activity in vivo and there is no evidence that they play a role in planta. Good BCAs were obtained from soils suppressive to Verticillium wilt, disease suppressive composts, and healthy plants in infested fields. Desirable characteristics in a BCA against Verticillium are the ability to (1 affect the survival or germination of microsclerotia, (2 colonize the xylem and/or cortex and compete with the pathogen for nutrients and/or space, (3 induce resistance responses in the plant and/or (4 promote plant growth. Potential BCAs should be screened in conditions that resemble the field situation to increase the chance of successful use in practice. Furthermore, issues such as large scale production, formulation, preservation conditions, shelf life, and application methods

  3. Transferência da resistência a Fusarium oxysporum f. vasinfectum baseada em inoculações durante a germinação de sementes de algodoeiro e em testes sob condições naturais Transfer of Fusarium wilt resistance based on inoculation of germinating cotton seeds and on field tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Lajos Gridi-Papp

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available No programa de melhoramento da Seção de Algodão do Instituto Agronômico, freqüentemente são obtidas linhagens melhoradas que não podem ser lançadas na lavoura do Estado de São Paulo por serem suscetíveis ao fungo da murcha de Fusarium. Tal foi o caso da IAC 67/59, híbrido entre variedades paulistas e mocó. Foi projetada a transferência de resistência ao patógeno para essa linhagem a partir da variedade 'IAC 17'. Realizaram-se cinco retrocruzamentos para a IAC 67/59, sem passagem por gerações autofecundadas, assegurando-se a retenção dos heterozigotos para resistência através de uma técnica de inoculação em caixas de germinação, nas gerações retrocruzadas. Estas e as gerações F1 e F2 foram comparadas em testes de campo com infestação natural pelo agente patogênico, e avaliadas em função das populações paternais e da testemunha resistente, através de índices relativos de tolerância e de resistência. A seleção em caixas foi eficiente em aumentar o índice de tolerância, o vigor e a uniformidade das populações, conferindo ao material resistência do tipo horizontal. A técnica de "dipping" pareceu ser mais eficiente na seleção de genes específicos para resistência. Foram isoladas linhagens promissoras, tanto por seleção em F2 quanto pelo processo de retrocruzamentos seguidos de autofecundação e seleção em condições de campo.Due to the importance of Fusarium oxysporum, F. vasinfectum (Atk. Snyder & Hansen in the State of São Paulo, improved strains, obtained by the cotton breeders of the "Instituto Agronômico", are often discarded because they are susceptible to Fusarium. This was the case of IAC 67/59. Wilt resistance was transfered to this line from 'IAC 17' by five backcrosses, without passing through selfed generations. The selection of the.

  4. Host specificity in Fusarium oxysporum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, P.

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is a fungal pathogen that can cause severe wilt disease and root rot in various plant species. Every individual strain is restricted to causing disease in only one or a few plant species. In this thesis, we focused on identifying novel virulence factors (‘effectors’) secreted by

  5. Endophytic Bacteria Suppress Bacterial Wilt of Tomato Caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and Activate Defense-related Metabolites

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    Fahime Safdarpour

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phytopathogenic microorganisms affect plant health and burden a major threat to food production and ecosystem stability. Increasing the use of chemical pesticides for plant diseases control causes several negative effects on human and environment health. Furthermore, increasing public awareness about the side effects of them led to a research to find alternatives for these products. One of the alternative methods is bio-control utilizing plant associated antagonistic microorganisms. Materials and methods: In this study, 80 endophytic bacteria were isolated from tomato tissues. Their antagonistic activity screened based on agar diffusion test, against tomato bacterial wilt disease (Ralstonia solanacearum. They were identified based on the morphological, biochemical properties and 16s rRNA sequence analyses. These strains were evaluated in greenhouse and tested for their ability to induce the production of defense-related enzymes in plants e.g. Peroxidase (PO, polyphenoloxidase (PPO and phenolics based on spectrophotometer method. Results: Results showed FS67, FS167 and FS184 strains had maximum inhibition zone forming. They identified as Pseudomonas mossellii, P. fuorescence and P. brassicacearum respectively. FS67 and FS167 strains significantly reduced disease in greenhouse. There was a significant increase in the activity of PO, PPO and phenolics in tomato plants treated with FS67, FS167 and pathogen. Discussion and conclusion: The present study has shown that P. mosselli and P. fuorescence might have the potential to control R. solanacearum. However, the good results obtained in vitro cannot be gained the same as those in greenhouse or field conditions. So, further experiments are needed to determine the effectiveness of these isolates under field conditions.This work support the view that increased defense enzymes activities could be involved, at least in part, in the beneficial effects of endophytic bacteria on plants growth

  6. The Role of Pathogen-Secreted Proteins in Fungal Vascular Wilt Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Sain, M.; Rep, M.

    2015-01-01

    A limited number of fungi can cause wilting disease in plants through colonization of the vascular system, the most well-known being Verticillium dahliae and Fusarium oxysporum. Like all pathogenic microorganisms, vascular wilt fungi secrete proteins during host colonization. Whole-genome sequencing

  7. Mating Test and In Vitro Production of Perithecia by the Coffee Wilt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gibberella xylarioides Heim & Saccas, the teleomorphic state of Fusarium xylarioides Steyaert, is a fungal pathogen causing a vascular wilt disease of coffee known as tracheomycosis. Coffee wilt disease has been one of the endemic diseases of Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica) with increasing outbreaks and prevalence in ...

  8. Illumina-based analysis of the rhizosphere microbial communities associated with healthy and wilted Lanzhou lily (Lilium davidii var. unicolor) plants grown in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Qianhan; Yang, Guo; Wang, Yun; Wu, Xiukun; Zhao, Xia; Hao, Haiting; Li, Yuyao; Xie, Zhongkui; Zhang, Yubao; Wang, Ruoyu

    2016-06-01

    Lanzhou lily (Liliumdavidii var. unicolor) is the best edible lily as well as a traditional medicinal plant in China. The microbes associated with plant roots play crucial roles in plant growth and health. However, little is known about the differences of rhizosphere microbes between healthy and wilted Lanzhou lily (Lilium davidii var. unicolor) plants. The objective of this study was to compare the rhizosphere microbial community and functional diversity of healthy and wilted plants, and to identify potential biocontrol agents with significant effect. Paired end Illumina Mi-Seq sequencing of 16S rRNA and ITS gene amplicons was employed to study the bacterial and fungal communities in the rhizosphere soil of Lanzhou lily plants. BIOLOG technology was adopted to investigate the microbial functional diversity. Our results indicated that there were major differences in the rhizosphere microbial composition and functional diversity of wilted samples compared with healthy samples. Healthy Lanzhou lily plants exhibited lower rhizosphere-associated bacterial diversity than diseased plants, whereas fungi exhibited the opposite trend. The dominant phyla in both the healthy and wilted samples were Proteobacteria and Ascomycota, i.e., 34.45 and 64.01 %, respectively. The microbial functional diversity was suppressed in wilted soil samples. Besides Fusarium, the higher relative abundances of Rhizoctonia, Verticillium, Penicillium, and Ilyonectria (Neonectria) in the wilted samples suggest they may pathogenetic root rot fungi. The high relative abundances of Bacillus in Firmicutes in healthy samples may have significant roles as biological control agents against soilborne pathogens. This is the first study to find evidence of major differences between the microbial communities in the rhizospheric soil of healthy and wilted Lanzhou lily, which may be linked to the health status of plants.

  9. How to conquer a tomato plant? Fusarium oxysporum effector targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Sain, M.

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens secrete small proteins, called effectors, to alter the environment in their host to facilitate infection. The causal agent of Fusarium wilt on tomato, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol), secretes these proteins in the xylem sap of infected plants and hence they have been called

  10. Biochemical characterization of Fusarium oxysporum f . sp. cubense ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxyspoum f. sp. cubense (Foc) is a major biotic constraint for banana production. The characteristics of F. oxyspoum f. sp. cubense isolates were investigated using electrophoretic studies of isozyme and whole-cell protein. The morphological characteristics of the isolates were very ...

  11. Biochemical characterization of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-01-25

    Jan 25, 2010 ... Department of Studies in Biotechnology, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore – 570 006, India. Accepted 24 November, 2009. The Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxyspoum f. sp. cubense (Foc) is a major biotic constraint for banana production. The characteristics of F. oxyspoum f. sp. cubense ...

  12. Multiple faces of Fusarium oxysporum effector protein Avr2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di, X.

    2017-01-01

    Plant pathogens, and specifically fungi, form a major threat for our crops. Fusarium oxysporum (Fo), belonging to the top ten fungal pathogens, causes vascular wilt disease in over 120 different species. This study focuses on the interaction between tomato and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici

  13. Response of pigeon pea genotypes to different races of Fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To develop high yielding Fusarium wilt resistant varieties, it is essential to identify new sources of resistance that can withstand multiple races of the pathogen. The aim of this study was to identify [Fusarium udum (L.) Millsp.] races occurring in the study fields, determine reaction of pigeon pea hybrids to the different isolates ...

  14. Rosemary wilting disease and its management by soil solarization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three fungal pathogens including Phytophthora citrophthora, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum were determined, whereas Helicotylenchus spp. was also associated. Pathogenicity tests proved that they were wilting pathogens, although P. citrophthora was the major pathogen in the field and glasshouses. This is ...

  15. Ozone and Eusarium: effects on the growth and development of a wilt-susceptible tomato and a wilt-resistant tomato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, W.J.; Vardaro, P.M.

    1976-01-01

    Seedlings of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivars Rutgers (Fusarium-susceptible) and Supersonic (Fusarium-resistant) were transplanted into 20 cm diam. pots of either steamed soil or steamed soil infested with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (race 1) and grown for 45 days in 2 paired greenhouses. One contained charcoal-filtered air and the other filtered air plus ozone at 0.06-0.08 ppm for 6 hr/day 5 day/week. Slight to moderate white stippling was observed on the older leaves of all plants exposed to ozone. Fusarium wilt symptoms were noted in Rutgers plants grown in filtered air 14-18 days before they were noted in comparable plants exposed to ozone. Symptom expression and death of plants progressed more rapidly in filtered air. Ozone retarded growth and delayed wilt symptoms in Rutgers plants. Supersonic plants did not develop wilt symptoms, but fusarium significantly reduced (P=0.05) root and top dry weights of plants grown in filtered air. Plant height and root and top dry weights for Supersonic plants in Fusarium-infested soil were further significantly (P-0.05) reduced by ozone. Ozone and Fusarium, singly or together in an additive manner, significantly reduced the growth and development of a Fusarium-resistant tomato.

  16. Pengaruh Pemberian Mikoriza Vesikula Arbuskula (MVA) Campuran terhadap Kemunculan Penyakit Layu Fusarium pada Tanaman Melon (Cucumis melo L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Najmah Farhati; Purnomowati Purnomowati; Uki Dwiputranto

    2017-01-01

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) has economic potential to be cultivated because the fruit contains protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphor, fiber, iron, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin C, and niacin. Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum will decrease melon crop production. One of controlling method to Fusarium wilt diseases on melon plants which safe for environtmental by using biological control. One of microorganisms which can be biological control agent is Vesicular Arbuscul...

  17. Uji Antagonis Trichoderma harzianum Terhadap Fusarium spp. Penyebab Penyakit Layu pada Tanaman Cabai (Capsicum annum) Secara In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Mukarlina; Khotimah, Siti; Rianti, Reny

    2010-01-01

    Fusarium spp., the causal agent of Fusarium wilt disease, infect sweet pepper inflicting damages on the roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruits. Infection of Fusarium spp. on some crops can be controlled by using Trichoderma harzianum as a biological control agent. The aims of this study were to determine: 1) the species of Fusarium infecting sweet pepper; and 2) the in vitro antagonistic potential of T. harzianum in controlling Fusarium spp. in vitro. The study was conducted fr...

  18. Enhanced Control of Cucumber Wilt Disease by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9 by Altering the Regulation of Its DegU Phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhihui; Zhang, Ruifu; Wang, Dandan; Qiu, Meihua; Feng, Haichao; Zhang, Nan

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain SQR9, isolated from the cucumber rhizosphere, suppresses the growth of Fusarium oxysporum in the cucumber rhizosphere and protects the host plant from pathogen invasion through efficient root colonization. In the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus, the response regulator DegU regulates genetic competence, swarming motility, biofilm formation, complex colony architecture, and protease production. In this study, we report that stepwise phosphorylation of DegU in B. amyloliquefaciens SQR9 can influence biocontrol activity by coordinating multicellular behavior and regulating the synthesis of antibiotics. Results from in vitro and in situ experiments and quantitative PCR (qPCR) studies demonstrate the following: (i) that the lowest level of phosphorylated DegU (DegU∼P) (the degQ mutation) impairs complex colony architecture, biofilm formation, colonization activities, and biocontrol efficiency of Fusarium wilt disease but increases the production of macrolactin and bacillaene, and (ii) that increasing the level of DegU∼P by degQ and degSU overexpression significantly improves complex colony architecture, biofilm formation, colonization activities, production of the antibiotics bacillomycin D and difficidin, and efficiency of biocontrol of Fusarium wilt disease. The results offer a new strategy to enhance the biocontrol efficacy of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9. PMID:24584252

  19. Induced Resistance to Fusarium wilt ( Fusarium oxysporum ) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accession II) were used. This study assessed the resistance of two accessions of ASM-treated tomato to FOL, identified the most effective method of ASM application and examined the influence of applied ASM on yield indices of the accessions.

  20. A Detection Method for Tropical Race 4 of the Banana Pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waalwijk, C.; Dita Rodriguez, M.A.; Buddenhagen, I.; Paiva, L.V.; Souza, M.T.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) is the causal agent of Fusarium wilt, the devastating disease that ruined the ‘Gros Michel’ (AAA)-based banana production in the first half of the 20th century. The occurrence of a new variant in Southeast Asia that overcomes the resistance in Cavendish clones

  1. Comparative transcriptome analyses and genome assembly of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dita, M.A.; Herai, R.; Waalwijk, C.; Yamagishi, M.; Giachetto, P.; Ferreira, G.; Souza, de M.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), the causal agent of Fusarium wilt of banana, is a highly destructive and genetically diverse pathogen. Despite its economic importance, genomic information about Foc is limited and no transcriptomic analyses have been reported so far. By using 454 sequencing

  2. Detoxification of the Fusarium toxin fusaric acid by the soil fungus Aspergillus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov) causes Fusarium wilt in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and produces the toxin fusaric acid (FA). Previous research indicates that in the high producing strains of Fov, FA plays an important role in virulence. To address the problems o...

  3. Analysis of microbial taxonomical groups present in maize stalks suppressive to colonization by toxigenic Fusarium spp.: A strategy for the identification of potential antagonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhl, J.; Lombaers-van der Plas, C.H.; Moretti, A.; Bandyopadhyay, R.; Somma, S.; Kastelein, P.

    2015-01-01

    Pink ear rot of maize caused by Fusarium verticillioides, Fusariumproliferatum and Fusariumgraminearumcan lead to severe yield losses and contamination of grain with a range of mycotoxins. Maize stalks colonized by Fusarium spp. are the main primary inoculum source for Fusarium incited epidemics in

  4. Virulence of Fusarium species to alfalfa seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjaja Vesna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In in vitro conditions, virulence of 91 isolates of species Fusarium genus (F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. acuminatum, F. equiseti, F. arthrosporioides, F. prolifera- tum, F. avenaceum, F. semitectum, F. tricinctum, F. sporotrichioides and F. graminearum towards alfalfa seedlings was investigated. Isolates of investigated species originated from diseased alfalfa plants collected at four locations in Serbia based on symptoms of wilting caused by Fusarium and root rotting. Pathogenicity and virulence of investigated isolates of Fusarium spp. were determined by visual evaluation of inoculated seedlings of cultivar K28 in laboratory conditions. All isolated of investigated species had pathogenic effect on alfalfa seedlings which expressed symptoms such as necrosis of root, moist rotting and "melting of seedlings". Colour of necrotic root tissue varied from light brown, brown lipstick red to explicit black, depending on the Fusarium species. Strong virulence was established in 48 isolates, medium virulence in 31 and weak virulence in 12 isolates.

  5. Virulence of Fusarium species to alfalfa seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjaja Vesna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In in vitro conditions, virulence of 91 isolates of species Fusarium genus (F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. acuminatum, F. equiseti, F. arthrosporioides, F. proliferatum, F. avenaceum, F. semitectum, F. tricinctum, F. sporotrichioides and F. graminearum towards alfalfa seedlings was investigated. Isolates of investigated species originated from diseased alfalfa plants collected on four locations in Serbia based on symptoms of wilting caused by fusarium and root rotting. Pathogenicity and virulence of investigated isolates of Fusarium spp. were determined by visual evaluation of inoculated seedlings of cultivars K28 in laboratory conditions. All isolated of investigated species had pathogenic effect on alfalfa seedlings, which expressed symptoms such as necrosis of root, moist rotting and "melting of seedlings". Colour of necrotic root tissue varied from light brown, brown, lipstick red to explicit black, depending on the Fusarium species. Strong virulence was established in 48 isolates, medium virulence in 31 and weak virulence in 12 isolates.

  6. Multiple faces of Fusarium oxysporum effector protein Avr2

    OpenAIRE

    Di, X.

    2017-01-01

    Plant pathogens, and specifically fungi, form a major threat for our crops. Fusarium oxysporum (Fo), belonging to the top ten fungal pathogens, causes vascular wilt disease in over 120 different species. This study focuses on the interaction between tomato and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol). First, the role of the major phytohormones, including salicylic acid (SA), ethylene (ET) and jasmonic acid (JA) for the interaction between Fol and tomato was investigated. Second, like other ...

  7. Development of Efficient Screening Method for Resistance of Cabbage to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Yi Baik

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to establish the efficient screening method for resistant cabbage to Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans. The resistance degrees of nine commercial cabbage cultivars to the disease were evaluated. Among them, five cultivars (YR-honam, Ogane, Greenhot, Redmat, and Ccoccoma showing different resistance to the fungus were selected. Then development of Fusarium wilt of the cultivars according to several conditions including root wounding, dipping period of roots in spore suspension, inoculum concentration, and incubation temperature to develop the disease was investigated. Highly resistant cultivars such as ``YR-honam`` and ``Ogane`` hardly showed change of resistance to the disease by root wounding, dipping period, and inoculum concentration, while disease severity of Fusarium wilt on the cultivars was changed with incubation temperatures (20℃, 25℃ and 30℃. When the cabbage cultivars were incubated at 25℃, they represented the most difference of resistance and susceptibility to Fusarium wilt. From above results, we suggest that an efficient screening method for resistant cabbage to F. oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans is to dip the non-cut roots of 14-day-old seedlings in spore suspension of 1×107 conidia/ml for 0.5 hr and to transplant the seedlings to plastic pots with a fertilized soil, and then to cultivate the plants in a growth chamber at 25℃ for 3 weeks to develop Fusarium wilt.

  8. Antagonistic activity of Bacillus subtilis SB1 and its biocontrol effect on tomato bacterial wilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    A potential biocontrol agent of bacterial wilt, Bacillus subtilis SB1, isolated from tomato roots, showed a broad-spectrum of antimicrobial activity in in vitro experiments. It inhibited the growth of many plant pathogens, including Ralstonia solanacearum, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Fusarium ox...

  9. Characterization of Fusarium oxysporum F. sp. elaeidis (Fofse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of Fusarium oxysporum F. sp. elaeidis (Fofse) causal agent of vascular wilt disease of oil palm. SMA Tagoe, PNL Lamptey, KA Oduro. Abstract. No Abstract. Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science No. 1, 2005: 181-185. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  10. Cytotoxicity and Phytotoxicity of Trichothecene Mycotoxins Produced by Fusarium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichothecenes, a major class of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium, Myrothecium, and Stachybotrys species, are toxic to plants, causing blights, wilts and other economically-important plant diseases, and to mammals, for example feed-refusal caused by deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin). Macrocyclic trichothec...

  11. A Greenhouse Bioassay for the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense x ‘Grand Naine’ (Musa, AAA, Cavendish Subgroup) Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dita Rodriguez, M.A.; Waalwijk, C.; Paiva, L.V.; Souza, M.T.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Several disease resistance screening protocols for Fusarium wilt of banana (causal agent Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense - Foc) under greenhouse conditions have been reported. Here, we report a standardised rapid and reliable greenhouse bioassay for this pathosystem. This is indispensable for

  12. Occurrence of Root Rot and Vascular Wilt Diseases in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in Upper Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Naglaa; Shimizu, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) family Malvaceae is an important crop used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutics industries. Roselle is cultivated mainly in Upper Egypt (Qena and Aswan governorates) producing 94% of total production. Root rot disease of roselle is one of the most important diseases that attack both seedlings and adult plants causing serious losses in crop productivity and quality. The main objective of the present study is to identify and characterize pathogens associated with root rot and wilt symptoms of roselle in Qena, Upper Egypt and evaluate their pathogenicity under greenhouse and field condition. Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium semitectum were isolated from the natural root rot diseases in roselle. All isolated fungi were morphologically characterized and varied in their pathogenic potentialities. They could attack roselle plants causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in different pathogenicity tests. The highest pathogenicity was caused by F. oxysporum and M. phaseolina followed by F. solani. The least pathogenic fungi were F. equiseti followed by F. semitectum. It obviously noted that Baladi roselle cultivar was more susceptible to infection with all tested fungi than Sobhia 17 under greenhouse and field conditions. This is the first report of fungal pathogens causing root rot and vascular wilt in roselle in Upper Egypt. PMID:24808737

  13. Genetic mapping and identification of quantitative trait loci associated with resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum races 1 and 2 in watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium wilt is a major disease of watermelon caused by the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend.:Fr. f. sp. niveum (E.F. Sm.) W.C. Snyder & H.N. Hans (Fon). Fon race 1 is most prevalent throughout the U.S. while race 2 is more virulent. Our overall objective is to identify and utilize ...

  14. Fusarium species as pathogen on orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shikha; Kadooka, Chris; Uchida, Janice Y

    2018-03-01

    The recent surge in demand for exotic ornamental crops such as orchids has led to a rise in international production, and a sharp increase in the number of plant and plant products moving between countries. Along with the plants, diseases are also being transported and introduced into new areas. Fusarium is one of the major diseases causing pathogens infecting orchids that is spreading through international trade. Studies have identified several species of Fusarium associated with orchids, some are pathogenic and cause symptoms such as leaf and flower spots, leaf or sheath blights, pseudostem or root rots, and wilts. Infection and damage caused by Fusarium reduces the quality of plants and flowers, and can cause severe economic losses. This review documents the current status of the Fusarium-orchid interaction, and illustrates challenges and future perspectives based on the available literature. This review is the first of Fusarium and orchid interactions, and integrates diverse results that both furthers the understanding and knowledge of this disease complex, and will enable the development of effective disease management practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. IAA-producing Penicillium sp. NICS01 triggers plant growth and suppresses Fusarium sp.-induced oxidative stress in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Shim, Kang-Bo; Lee, Byeong-Won; Hwang, Chung-Dong; Pae, Suk-Bok; Park, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Sung-Up; Lee, Choon-Ki; Baek, In-Youl

    2013-06-28

    Application of rhizospheric fungi is an effective and environmentally friendly method of improving plant growth and controlling many plant diseases. The current study was aimed to identify phytohormone-producing fungi from soil, to understand their roles in sesame plant growth, and to control Fusarium disease. Three predominant fungi (PNF1, PNF2, and PNF3) isolated from the rhizospheric soil of peanut plants were screened for their growth-promoting efficiency on sesame seedlings. Among these isolates, PNF2 significantly increased the shoot length and fresh weight of seedlings compared with controls. Analysis of the fungal culture filtrate showed a higher concentration of indole acetic acid in PNF2 than in the other isolates. PNF2 was identified as Penicillium sp. on the basis of phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequence similarity. The in vitro biocontrol activity of Penicillium sp. against Fusarium sp. was exhibited by a 49% inhibition of mycelial growth in a dual culture bioassay and by hyphal injuries as observed by scanning electron microscopy. In addition, greenhouse experiments revealed that Fusarium inhibited growth in sesame plants by damaging lipid membranes and reducing protein content. Co-cultivation with Penicillium sp. mitigated Fusarium-induced oxidative stress in sesame plants by limiting membrane lipid peroxidation, and by increasing the protein concentration, levels of antioxidants such as total polyphenols, and peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase activities. Thus, our findings suggest that Penicillium sp. is a potent plant growthpromoting fungus that has the ability to ameliorate damage caused by Fusarium infection in sesame cultivation.

  16. PENGARUH INOKULASI MIKORIZA VESIKULA ARBUSKULA (MVA CAMPURAN TERHADAP KEMUNCULAN PENYAKIT LAYU FUSARIUM PADA TANAMAN TOMAT (Solanum lycopersicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uswatun Hasanah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tomato has an important role to fullfil the nutrition of society. The most important problem in the cultivation of tomatoes is fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum it will attacking the plants from nursery to adult. One of the alternative control is use the Vesicles Arbuscular Mycorrhizae (VAM. The success of VAM infection in plants is determined by the dose and the inoculation. The aim of this research is to determine the effect of dose and mixture VAM inoculation to against the emergence of fusarium wilt in tomato plants and to determine the dosage mixture VAM inoculation as the most effective way for controlling fusarium wilt in tomato plants. The method of this research used experimental with completely randomized design. The experimental treatment consists of two types of treatment that are combined with used 5 doses of VAM mixture (0 g/plant, 10 g/plant, 12,5 g/plant, 15 g/plant, 17,5 g/plant and used two ways of inoculation ( inoculation when the seed is planted and inoculation when transplanting the seeds. Each treatment was repeated 3 times and each test are three plants. The parameters was observed the incubation period of the disease and the intensity of fusarium wilt as the main parameter and the measurement of pH, temperature, humidity room, and the degree of infection as supporting parameters. The results of this research showed that the dosage and inoculation of VAM mixture is not able to reduce the emergence of fusarium wilt on tomatoes, but it was able to extend the incubation period of fusarium wilt on tomato plants a dose with 10 g /plant inoculated plants when the seeds are planted and inoculation when transplanting the seeds.

  17. The secreted antifungal protein thionin 2.4 in Arabidopsis thaliana suppresses the toxicity of a fungal fruit body lectin from Fusarium graminearum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoya Asano

    Full Text Available Plants possess active defense systems and can protect themselves from pathogenic invasion by secretion of a variety of small antimicrobial or antifungal proteins such as thionins. The antibacterial and antifungal properties of thionins are derived from their ability to induce open pore formation on cell membranes of phytopathogens, resulting in release of potassium and calcium ions from the cell. Wheat thionin also accumulates in the cell walls of Fusarium-inoculated plants, suggesting that it may have a role in blocking pathogen infection at the plant cell walls. Here we developed an anti-thionin 2.4 (Thi2.4 antibody and used it to show that Thi2.4 is localized in the cell walls of Arabidopsis and cell membranes of F. graminearum, when flowers are inoculated with F. graminearum. The Thi2.4 protein had an antifungal effect on F. graminearum. Next, we purified the Thi2.4 protein, conjugated it with glutathione-S-transferase (GST and coupled the proteins to an NHS-activated column. Total protein from F. graminearum was applied to GST-Thi2.4 or Thi2.4-binding columns, and the fungal fruit body lectin (FFBL of F. graminearum was identified as a Thi2.4-interacting protein. This interaction was confirmed by a yeast two-hybrid analysis. To investigate the biological function of FFBL, we infiltrated the lectin into Arabidopsis leaves and observed that it induced cell death in the leaves. Application of FFBL at the same time as inoculation with F. graminearum significantly enhanced the virulence of the pathogen. By contrast, FFBL-induced host cell death was effectively suppressed in transgenic plants that overexpressed Thi2.4. We found that a 15 kD Thi2.4 protein was specifically expressed in flowers and flower buds and suggest that it acts not only as an antifungal peptide, but also as a suppressor of the FFBL toxicity. Secreted thionin proteins are involved in this dual defense mechanism against pathogen invasion at the plant-pathogen interface.

  18. The secreted antifungal protein thionin 2.4 in Arabidopsis thaliana suppresses the toxicity of a fungal fruit body lectin from Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Tomoya; Miwa, Akihiro; Maeda, Kazuyuki; Kimura, Makoto; Nishiuchi, Takumi

    2013-01-01

    Plants possess active defense systems and can protect themselves from pathogenic invasion by secretion of a variety of small antimicrobial or antifungal proteins such as thionins. The antibacterial and antifungal properties of thionins are derived from their ability to induce open pore formation on cell membranes of phytopathogens, resulting in release of potassium and calcium ions from the cell. Wheat thionin also accumulates in the cell walls of Fusarium-inoculated plants, suggesting that it may have a role in blocking pathogen infection at the plant cell walls. Here we developed an anti-thionin 2.4 (Thi2.4) antibody and used it to show that Thi2.4 is localized in the cell walls of Arabidopsis and cell membranes of F. graminearum, when flowers are inoculated with F. graminearum. The Thi2.4 protein had an antifungal effect on F. graminearum. Next, we purified the Thi2.4 protein, conjugated it with glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and coupled the proteins to an NHS-activated column. Total protein from F. graminearum was applied to GST-Thi2.4 or Thi2.4-binding columns, and the fungal fruit body lectin (FFBL) of F. graminearum was identified as a Thi2.4-interacting protein. This interaction was confirmed by a yeast two-hybrid analysis. To investigate the biological function of FFBL, we infiltrated the lectin into Arabidopsis leaves and observed that it induced cell death in the leaves. Application of FFBL at the same time as inoculation with F. graminearum significantly enhanced the virulence of the pathogen. By contrast, FFBL-induced host cell death was effectively suppressed in transgenic plants that overexpressed Thi2.4. We found that a 15 kD Thi2.4 protein was specifically expressed in flowers and flower buds and suggest that it acts not only as an antifungal peptide, but also as a suppressor of the FFBL toxicity. Secreted thionin proteins are involved in this dual defense mechanism against pathogen invasion at the plant-pathogen interface.

  19. Management of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. capsici by leaf extract of Eucalyptus citriodora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafique, S.; Asif, M.; Shafique, S.

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium wilt of chili (Capsicum annum L.) is an important disease in Pakistan that causes significant yield losses. In the present study, pathogenicity test was conducted using four strains of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. capsici and ten chili varieties. It revealed that strain B was the most pathogenic strain and variety sky red was the most susceptible while variety Anchal was the most resistant against F. oxysporum strain B. Antifungal bioassays were conducted to find out antimycotic effect of extracts of fruit, bark and leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora (Hook.) against F. oxysporum. Ten concentrations (0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 5%) of methanolic extracts of each plant part were employed against the target pathogen. Leaf extract imparted the maximum (up to 98%) and significant suppression in fungal growth while fruit and bark extracts proved less effective exhibiting only 50-60% reduction in fungal mycelial growth. The work concludes that methanolic extract of leaves of E. citriodora have potential to restrain the disastrous effects of the pathogenic fungus as the plant extracts of Eucalyptus conferred about 85% disease control in chilli plants with significantly high intensity of defense related enzymes under pathogenic stress. (author)

  20. The Role of Pathogen-Secreted Proteins in Fungal Vascular Wilt Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sain, Mara; Rep, Martijn

    2015-10-09

    A limited number of fungi can cause wilting disease in plants through colonization of the vascular system, the most well-known being Verticillium dahliae and Fusarium oxysporum. Like all pathogenic microorganisms, vascular wilt fungi secrete proteins during host colonization. Whole-genome sequencing and proteomics screens have identified many of these proteins, including small, usually cysteine-rich proteins, necrosis-inducing proteins and enzymes. Gene deletion experiments have provided evidence that some of these proteins are required for pathogenicity, while the role of other secreted proteins remains enigmatic. On the other hand, the plant immune system can recognize some secreted proteins or their actions, resulting in disease resistance. We give an overview of proteins currently known to be secreted by vascular wilt fungi and discuss their role in pathogenicity and plant immunity.

  1. The Use of Antioxidants to Control Root Rot and Wilt Diseases of Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montaser Fawzy ABDEL-MONAIM

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ten isolates of Fusarium spp were isolated from pepper plants collected from different locations in New Valley Governorate, Egypt. Fusarium solani isolate FP2 and F. oxysporum isolate FP4 were highly pathogenic isolates but the other isolates moderate or less pathogenic to pepper plants (cv. Anaheim-M. The four antioxidant compounds (coumaric acid, citric acid, propylgalate and salicylic acid each at 100 and 200 ppm were evaluated for their in vitro and in vivo agonist to Fusarium pathogenic isolates caused root rot and wilt diseases in pepper plants. All tested antioxidant compounds reduced damping-off, root rot/wilt and area under root rot/wilt progress curve when used as seed soaking, seedling soaking, and soil drench especially at 200 ppm under greenhouse and field conditions compared with untreated plants. All chemicals increased fresh and dry weight of seedling grown in soil drenching or seed treatment with any antioxidants. At the same time, all tested chemicals significantly increase plant growth parameters i.e plant length, plant branching, and total yield per plant in case of seedling soaking or soil drench. In general, propylgalate at 200 ppm was more efficient in reducing infection with damping-off, root rot and wilt diseases as well as increasing the seedling fresh weight, dry weight, plant length, plant branching, number of pod plant-1 and pod yield plant-1. On the other hand, all tested antioxidants had less or no effect on mycelial dry weight and mycelial leaner growth. On the contrary, all chemicals much reduced spore formation in both Fusarium species at 100 or 200 ppm and the inhibitory effect of antioxidants increased with increasing their concentrations.

  2. ( Elaeis guineensis Jacq ) vascular wilt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effet de la jachére sur l'expérimentation de la fusariose vasculaire du palmier à huile ( Elaeis guineensis Jacq ) : Effects of the fallow in the expression of oil-palm ( Elaeis guineensis Jacq ) vascular wilt.

  3. Immunodiagnostic potential of a 27 kDa protein of Fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Immunodiagnostic potential of a 27 kDa protein of Fusarium xylarioides , the cause of coffee wilt disease in Robusta coffee in Uganda. ... that of F. xylarioides. Protein bands that appeared peculiar to F. xylarioides were cut and injected into rabbits to produce polyclonal antibodies. Dot blot and Western blot analyses showed ...

  4. Detoxification of the fusarium toxin fusaric acid by the soil fungus aspergillus tubingensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (F.o.v.) causes cotton wilt and produces the toxin fusaric acid (FA). Previous research indicates that in the high producing strains of F.o.v., FA plays an important role in virulence. To address the problems of emerging virulent isolates su...

  5. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF Fusarium WILT RACES OF PIGEONPEA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Repeat motifs, number of alleles and allele size from the SSR markers used in the fingerprinting of F.udumisolates ... RNA was degraded with the treatment of RNase A (50 µg ml-1) for 30 min at 37 °C. Proteins were removed by phenol- chloroform extraction. Equal volume of .... eukaryotic genomes, and co-dominant. These ...

  6. Survey of diseases caused by Fusarium spp. on palm trees in the Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Hernández-Hernández

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Between 2006 and 2007, palm trees growing in both gardens and public parks and natural palm groves in the Canary Islands (Spain, and showing symptoms of wilt and dieback, were surveyed. Isolates were recovered from affected tissues of the crowns, leaves and vascular fragments on potato dextrose agar (PDA. After incubation, the Fusarium spp. colonies recovered were single-spored. They were transferred to PDA and Spezieller Nahrstoffarmer Agar (SNA for morphological identification. Identification of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Canariensis was confirmed by PCR with the specific primers HK66 and HK67, which amplified a fragment of 567 bp. Fusarium wilt caused by F. oxysporum f. sp. canariensis was found on 54 Phoenix canariensis trees growing on four islands: Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura, La Palma and Tenerife. F. proliferatum occurred on fifteen palms (10 P. canariensis, 1 P. dactylifera, 3 Roystonea regia and 1 Veitchia joannis located in Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura and Tenerife. Both these Fusarium species were found only in diseased palms from gardens and public parks, but not in natural palm groves. The results show that Fusarium wilt of P. canariensis is common in the Canary Islands and for the first time report F. proliferatum affecting different palm species in those islands.

  7. A Greenhouse Bioassay for the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense x ‘Grand Naine’ (Musa, AAA, Cavendish Subgroup) Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Dita Rodriguez, M.A.; Waalwijk, C.; Paiva, L.V.; Souza, M.T.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Several disease resistance screening protocols for Fusarium wilt of banana (causal agent Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense - Foc) under greenhouse conditions have been reported. Here, we report a standardised rapid and reliable greenhouse bioassay for this pathosystem. This is indispensable for banana phenotyping, particularly since the occurrence of tropical race 4 (TR4), which is a significant threat for the global Cavendish-based banana export industry. Using a double-pot system, hardened ...

  8. Fusarium rot of onion and possible use of bioproduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klokočar-Šmit Zlata

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Several species of Fusarium are causal agents of onion rot in field and storage. Most prevalent are F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae and F. solani, and recently F. proliferatum, a toxigenic species. Most frequently isolated fungi in our field experiments were F. solani and F. proliferatum with different pathogenicity. Certain differences in antagonistic activity of Trichoderma asperellum on different isolates of F. proliferatum and F. solani have been found in in vitro study in dual culture, expressed as a slower inhibition of growth of the former, and faster of the latter pathogen. Antagonistic abilities of species from genus Trichoderma (T. asperellum are important, and have already been exploited in formulated biocontrol products in organic and conventional production, in order to prevent soil borne pathogens inducing fusarium wilt and rot. The importance of preventing onion infection by Fusarium spp., possible mycotoxin producers, has been underlined.

  9. Aspects of resistance of flax and linseed (Linum usitatissimum) to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lini = Aspecten van de resistentie in vezel- en olievlas (Linum usitatissimum) tegen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lini

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, I.

    1997-01-01

    In the thesis aspects have been described of the flax and linseed interaction to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lini, the causal agent of flax wilt. Two in vitro tests were established to screen for resistance, to investigate race specificity

  10. Improving tolerance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis in melon using tissue culture and mutation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantoglu, Y.; Secer, E.; Tutluer, I.; Kunter, B.; Peskircioglu, H.; Sagel, Z.; Erzurum, K.

    2010-01-01

    Fusarium wilt is a vascular disease of the Cucurbitaceae family, especially in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), caused by the soil fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (FOM). This pathogen persists in the soil for extended periods of time, and the only effective control is the use of resistant cultivars. During the last three decades, tissue culture techniques have been utilised in crop improvement to generate changes in the genetic material of plants via in vitro somaclonal variations (by organogenesis or somatic embryogenesis) and induced mutagenesis. More recently, researchers have been using in vitro techniques to investigate the effects of fungal culture filtrates or toxins on susceptible and resistant genotypes of different plant species or cultivars to assess disease resistance. This method is effectively used for cucumber and melon. There are various in vitro culture techniques that can be used for cucumber (Malepszy, 1988). In this chapter, we show a method for mass-selection of melon mutants resistant to Fusarium wilt. In vitro selection of resistant cells, from both irradiated and non- irradiated explants, is performed using culture filtrates of different FOM races. This research could lead to the development of new melon cultivars resistant to Fusarium wilt. (author)

  11. Screening of resistance genes to fusarium root rot and fusarium wilt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-10

    May 10, 2010 ... sequence for UBC 194 primer is: 5'-AGGACGTGCC-3'. The marker was amplified in 15 µL reaction volume containing 0.8 mM dNTPs,. 0.067 mM of primer, 2.6 mM MgSO4, 100 mM KCl, 100 mM. (NH4)2SO4, 200 mM Tris HCl (pH 8.75), 1% Triton X-100, 1 mg/ml. BSA and , 0.2 units of Taq polymerase with ...

  12. Recent Trends in Control Methods for Bacterial Wilt Diseases Caused by Ralstonia solanacearum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliar; Nion, Yanetri Asi; Toyota, Koki

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have described the development of control methods against bacterial wilt diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. This review focused on recent advances in control measures, such as biological, physical, chemical, cultural, and integral measures, as well as biocontrol efficacy and suppression mechanisms. Biological control agents (BCAs) have been dominated by bacteria (90%) and fungi (10%). Avirulent strains of R. solanacearum, Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus spp., and Streptomyces spp. are well-known BCAs. New or uncommon BCAs have also been identified such as Acinetobacter sp., Burkholderia sp., and Paenibacillus sp. Inoculation methods for BCAs affect biocontrol efficacy, such as pouring or drenching soil, dipping of roots, and seed coatings. The amendment of different organic matter, such as plant residue, animal waste, and simple organic compounds, have frequently been reported to suppress bacterial wilt diseases. The combined application of BCAs and their substrates was shown to more effectively suppress bacterial wilt in the tomato. Suppression mechanisms are typically attributed to the antibacterial metabolites produced by BCAs or those present in natural products; however, the number of studies related to host resistance to the pathogen is increasing. Enhanced/modified soil microbial communities are also indirectly involved in disease suppression. New promising types of control measures include biological soil disinfection using substrates that release volatile compounds. This review described recent advances in different control measures. We focused on the importance of integrated pest management (IPM) for bacterial wilt diseases. PMID:25762345

  13. Recent trends in control methods for bacterial wilt diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliar; Nion, Yanetri Asi; Toyota, Koki

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have described the development of control methods against bacterial wilt diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. This review focused on recent advances in control measures, such as biological, physical, chemical, cultural, and integral measures, as well as biocontrol efficacy and suppression mechanisms. Biological control agents (BCAs) have been dominated by bacteria (90%) and fungi (10%). Avirulent strains of R. solanacearum, Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus spp., and Streptomyces spp. are well-known BCAs. New or uncommon BCAs have also been identified such as Acinetobacter sp., Burkholderia sp., and Paenibacillus sp. Inoculation methods for BCAs affect biocontrol efficacy, such as pouring or drenching soil, dipping of roots, and seed coatings. The amendment of different organic matter, such as plant residue, animal waste, and simple organic compounds, have frequently been reported to suppress bacterial wilt diseases. The combined application of BCAs and their substrates was shown to more effectively suppress bacterial wilt in the tomato. Suppression mechanisms are typically attributed to the antibacterial metabolites produced by BCAs or those present in natural products; however, the number of studies related to host resistance to the pathogen is increasing. Enhanced/modified soil microbial communities are also indirectly involved in disease suppression. New promising types of control measures include biological soil disinfection using substrates that release volatile compounds. This review described recent advances in different control measures. We focused on the importance of integrated pest management (IPM) for bacterial wilt diseases.

  14. [Differential gene expression in incompatible interaction between Lilium regale Wilson and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lilii revealed by combined SSH and microarray analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, J; Liu, D; Zhang, N; He, H; Ge, F; Chen, C

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium wilt, caused by a soilborne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lilii, is the major disease of lily (Lilium L.). In order to isolate the genes differentially expressed in a resistant reaction to F. oxysporum in L. regale Wilson, a cDNA library was constructed with L. regale root during F. oxysporum infection using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH), and a total of 585 unique expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were obtained. Furthermore, the gene expression profiles in the incompatible interaction between L. regale and F. oxysporum were revealed by oligonucleotide microarray analysis of 585 unique ESTs comparison to the compatible interaction between a susceptible Lilium Oriental Hybrid 'Siberia' and F. oxysporum. The result of expression profile analysis indicated that the genes encoding pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs), antioxidative stress enzymes, secondary metabolism enzymes, transcription factors, signal transduction proteins as well as a large number of unknown genes were involved in early defense response of L. regale to F. oxysporum infection. Moreover, the following quantitative reverse transcription PCR (QRT-PCR) analysis confirmed reliability of the oligonucleotide microarray data. In the present study, isolation of differentially expressed genes in L. regale during response to F. oxysporum helped to uncover the molecular mechanism associated with the resistance of L. regale against F. oxysporum.

  15. Association analysis for disease resistance to Fusarium oxysporum in cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L)

    OpenAIRE

    Osorio-Guar?n, Jaime A.; Enciso-Rodr?guez, Felix E.; Gonz?lez, Carolina; Fern?ndez-Pozo, No?; Mueller, Lukas A.; Barrero, Luz Stella

    2016-01-01

    Background Vascular wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum is the most important disease in cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) in Colombia. The development of resistant cultivars is considered one of the most cost-effective means to reduce the impact of this disease. In order to do so, it is necessary to provide breeders with molecular markers and promising germplasm for introgression of different resistance loci as part of breeding schemes. Here we described an association mapping study in c...

  16. Soil Acidification Aggravates the Occurrence of Bacterial Wilt in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil acidification is a major problem in modern agricultural systems and is an important factor affecting the soil microbial community and soil health. However, little is known about the effect of soil acidification on soil-borne plant diseases. We performed a 4-year investigation in South China to evaluate the correlation between soil acidification and the occurrence of bacterial wilt. The results showed that the average soil pH in fields infected by bacterial wilt disease was much lower than that in non-disease fields. Moreover, the proportion of infected soils with pH lower than 5.5 was much higher than that of non-infected soils, and this phenomenon became more obvious as the area of bacterial wilt disease increased at soil pH lower than 5.5 from 2011 to 2014. Then, in a field pot experiment, bacterial wilt disease developed more quickly and severely in acidic conditions of pH 4.5, 5.0, and 5.5. These results indicate that soil acidification can cause the outbreak of bacterial wilt disease. Further experiments showed that acidic conditions (pH 4.5–5.5 favored the growth of the pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum but suppressed the growth and antagonistic activity of antagonistic bacteria of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus cereus. Moreover, acidic conditions of pH 5.5 were conducive to the expression of the virulence genes PopA, PrhA, and SolR but restrained resistance gene expression in tobacco. Finally, application of wood ash and lime as soil pH amendments improved soil pH and reduced the occurrence of bacterial wilt. Together, these findings improve our understanding of the correlation between soil acidification and soil-borne plant diseases and also suggest that regulation of soil acidification is the precondition and foundation of controlling bacterial wilt.

  17. Effects of wilting and molasses addition on fermentation and bacterial community in guinea grass silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, N; Li, Y; Wang, C; Parvin, S

    2012-03-01

    Acetic acid is considered an important preservative in tropical grass ensiling. The objective of the current experiments was to follow the ensiling fermentation of low dry matter (DM) tropical grass as a model to study changes in bacterial communities during acetic acid fermentation. Direct-cut and wilted guinea grass silage was prepared with and without molasses. A high acetic acid level was observed during the fermentation of direct-cut silage, and long storage increased the butyric acid and ethanol content if molasses was not added. The lactic acid production in wilted silage was greater than the acetic acid production, but prolonged ensiling decreased the lactic to acetic acid ratio regardless of molasses addition. Adding molasses enhanced the lactic acid content in both direct-cut and wilted silage. The bacterial community, identified by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, was affected by wilting and molasses addition. Bands for Pantoea sp. and Morganella sp. became faint when acetic acid fermentation was suppressed, and those for Pediococcus pentosaceus and Lactococcus garvieae were detected when lactic acid fermentation was enhanced by wilting and molasses addition. Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis were found throughout the ensiling process in all silage types. Distinct changes occurred in the bacterial community in guinea grass silage because of wilting and molasses addition. These changes could explain how lactic acid fermentation was enhanced but could not help determine which bacteria were associated with enhanced acetic acid fermentation. The study reveals the effects of wilting and molasses during ensiling of low DM tropical grasses and the associated bacteria. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Combating Fusarium Infection Using Bacillus-Based Antimicrobials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Khan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite efforts to control toxigenic Fusarium species, wilt and head-blight infections are destructive and economically damaging diseases that have global effects. The utilization of biological control agents in disease management programs has provided an effective, safe, and sustainable means to control Fusarium-induced plant diseases. Among the most widely used microbes for biocontrol agents are members of the genus Bacillus. These species influence plant and fungal pathogen interactions by a number of mechanisms such as competing for essential nutrients, antagonizing pathogens by producing fungitoxic metabolites, or inducing systemic resistance in plants. The multivariate interactions among plant-biocontrol agent-pathogen are the subject of this study, in which we survey the advances made regarding the research on the Bacillus-Fusarium interaction and focus on the principles and mechanisms of action among plant-growth promoting Bacillus species. In particular, we highlight their use in limiting and controlling Fusarium spread and infestations of economically important crops. This knowledge will be useful to define strategies for exploiting this group of beneficial bacteria for use as inoculants by themselves or in combination with other microbes for enhanced crop protection.

  19. Biotechnological approaches to control the crop pathogen Fusarium and development of nanotechnology-based diagnostic methods for detection of plant diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Botella, José Ramón

    2014-01-01

    The plant fungal pathogen Fusarium is the causal agent of ‘Fusarium wilt’ and results in large losses on a wide range of crops including vegetables, flowers, trees and field crops. Control methods for Fusarium wilt are very limited. Crop rotations are ineffective because F. oxysporum has such a large host range and is able to survive in the soil for long periods of time and genetic resistance is very scarce or on-existent in many crops. I will describe the development of two biotechnological ...

  20. Penggunaan Jamur Antagonis Trichoderma SP. Dan Gliocladium SP. Untuk Mengendalikan Penyakit Layu Fusarium Pada Tanaman Bawang Merah (Allium Ascalonicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Arie Ramadhina, Arie Ramadhina; Lisnawita, Lisnawita; Lubis, Lahmuddin

    2013-01-01

    The use of antagonism fungus of Trichoderma sp. and Gliocladium sp. for controlling wilt(Fusarium oxysporum) in red onion plants. The aim of the research was to know the effectiviness ofantagonism fungus of Trichoderma sp. and Gliocladium sp. in controlling wilt in red onion plants.The research used non-factorial RAK (random group design) with eight treatments: control, 10grams of F. oxysporum, 12 grams of Trichoderma sp., 18 grams of Trichoderma sp., 24 grams ofTrichoderma sp., and 12 grams ...

  1. 2,4-Dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIMBOA) inhibits trichothecene production by Fusarium graminearum through suppression of Tri6 expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etzerodt, Thomas; Maeda, Kazuyuki; Nakajima, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) caused by a mycotoxigenic fungus Fusarium graminearum resulting in significantly decreased yields and accumulation of toxic trichothecenes in grains. We tested 7 major secondary metabolites from wheat for their ef...... role against the accumulation of trichothecenes in wheat grain. Breeding or engineering of wheat with increased levels of benzoxazinoids could provide varieties with increased resistance against trichothecene contamination of grain and lower susceptibility to FHB...

  2. Evaluation of Alternatives to an Organophosphate Insecticide with Selected Cultural Practices: Effects on Thrips, Frankliniella fusca, and Incidence of Spotted Wilt in Peanut Farmscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasigan, K; Toews, M; Kemerait, R; Abney, M R; Culbreath, A; Srinivasan, R

    2018-04-07

    Peanut growers use a combination of tactics to manage spotted wilt disease caused by thrips-transmitted Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). They include planting TSWV-resistant cultivars, application of insecticides, and various cultural practices. Two commonly used insecticides against thrips are aldicarb and phorate. Both insecticides exhibit broad-spectrum toxicity. Recent research has led to the identification of potential alternatives to aldicarb and phorate. In this study, along with reduced-risk, alternative insecticides, we evaluated the effect of conventional versus strip tillage; single versus twin row seeding pattern; and 13 seed/m versus 20 seed/m on thips density, feeding injury, and spotted wilt incidence. Three field trials were conducted in Georgia in 2012 and 2013. Thrips counts, thrips feeding injuriy, and incidence of spotted wilt were less under strip tillage than under conventional tillage. Reduced feeding injury from thrips was observed on twin-row plots compared with single-row plots. Thrips counts, thrips feeding injury, and incidence of spotted wilt did not vary by seeding rate. Yield from twin-row plots was greater than yield from single-row plots only in 2012. Yield was not affected by other cultural practices. Alternative insecticides, including imidacloprid and spinetoram, were as effective as phorate in suppressing thrips and reducing incidence of spotted wilt in conjunction with cultural practices. Results suggest that cultural practices and reduced-risk insecticides (alternatives to aldicarb and phorate) can effectively suppress thrips and incidence of spotted wilt in peanut.

  3. Differential triazole sensitivity among members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex infecting barley grains in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is an important disease of small grains and is caused mainly by members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC). Barley growers in Brazil rely on fungicides, especially triazoles, to suppress the disease and limit mycotoxin contamination of grain. Information on...

  4. Morphological and molecular characterization of Fusarium spp. associated with olive trees dieback in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Rahma; Sellami, Hanen; Gharbi, Yâakoub; Krid, Samira; Cheffi, Manel; Kammoun, Sonia; Dammak, Mariem; Mseddi, Aymen; Gdoura, Radhouane; Triki, Mohamed Ali

    2017-05-01

    Dieback and wilting symptoms caused by complex soilborne fungi are nowadays the most serious threatening disease affecting olive trees (Olea europaea) in Tunisia and presumably in many Mediterranean basin countries. Fusarium is one of the important phytopathogenic genera associated with dieback symptoms of olive trees. The objective of the present study was to confirm the pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. isolated from several olive-growing areas in Tunisia. According to the pathogenic test done on young olive trees (cv. Chemlali), 23 out of 104 isolates of Fusarium spp. were found to be pathogenic and the others were weakly or not pathogenic. The pathogenic Fusarium spp. isolates were characterized using molecular methods based on ITS PCR. Isolation results revealed the predominance of Fusarium solani (56.5%) and F. oxysporum species (21.7%) compared to F. chalmydosporum (8.7%), F. brachygibbosum (8.7%) and F. acuminatum (4.34%). Based on pathogenicity test, disease severity was highly variable among the 23 pathogenic isolates tested (P Fusarium spp. might be a major agent causing dieback disease of olive trees in Tunisia.

  5. Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Fusarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Avalos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Many fungi of the genus Fusarium stand out for the complexity of their secondary metabolism. Individual species may differ in their metabolic capacities, but they usually share the ability to synthesize carotenoids, a family of hydrophobic terpenoid pigments widely distributed in nature. Early studies on carotenoid biosynthesis in Fusarium aquaeductuum have been recently extended in Fusarium fujikuroi and Fusarium oxysporum, well-known biotechnological and phytopathogenic models, respectively. The major Fusarium carotenoid is neurosporaxanthin, a carboxylic xanthophyll synthesized from geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate through the activity of four enzymes, encoded by the genes carRA, carB, carT and carD. These fungi produce also minor amounts of β-carotene, which may be cleaved by the CarX oxygenase to produce retinal, the rhodopsin’s chromophore. The genes needed to produce retinal are organized in a gene cluster with a rhodopsin gene, while other carotenoid genes are not linked. In the investigated Fusarium species, the synthesis of carotenoids is induced by light through the transcriptional induction of the structural genes. In some species, deep-pigmented mutants with up-regulated expression of these genes are affected in the regulatory gene carS. The molecular mechanisms underlying the control by light and by the CarS protein are currently under investigation.

  6. [Evaluation of Fusarium spp. pathogenicity in plant and murine models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero-Reyes, Consuelo M; Alvarado-Fernández, Angela M; Ceballos-Rojas, Ana M; González-Carmona, Lady C; Linares-Linares, Melva Y; Castañeda-Salazar, Rubiela; Pulido-Villamarín, Adriana; Góngora-Medina, Manuel E; Cortés-Vecino, Jesús A; Rodríguez-Bocanegra, María X

    The genus Fusarium is widely recognized for its phytopathogenic capacity. However, it has been reported as an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Thus, it can be considered a microorganism of interest in pathogenicity studies on different hosts. Therefore, this work evaluated the pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. isolates from different origins in plants and animals (murine hosts). Twelve isolates of Fusarium spp. from plants, animal superficial mycoses, and human superficial and systemic mycoses were inoculated in tomato, passion fruit and carnation plants, and in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed BALB/c mice. Pathogenicity tests in plants did not show all the symptoms associated with vascular wilt in the three plant models; however, colonization and necrosis of the vascular bundles, regardless of the species and origin of the isolates, showed the infective potential of Fusarium spp. in different plant species. Moreover, the pathogenicity tests in the murine model revealed behavioral changes. It was noteworthy that only five isolates (different origin and species) caused mortality. Additionally, it was observed that all isolates infected and colonized different organs, regardless of the species and origin of the isolates or host immune status. In contrast, the superficial inoculation test showed no evidence of epidermal injury or colonization. The observed results in plant and murine models suggest the pathogenic potential of Fusarium spp. isolates in different types of hosts. However, further studies on pathogenicity are needed to confirm the multihost capacity of this genus. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Thermographic visualization of leaf response in cucumber plants infected with the soil-borne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Ling, Ning; Dong, Xian; Zhu, Yiyong; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2012-12-01

    Infection with the soil-borne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC), which causes Fusarium wilt of cucumber plants, might result in changes in plant transpiration and water status within leaves. To monitor leaf response in cucumber infected with FOC, digital infrared thermography (DIT) was employed to detect changes in leaf temperature. During the early stages of FOC infection, stomata closure was induced by ABA in leaves, resulting in a decreased transpiration rate and increased leaf temperature. Subsequently, cell death occurred, accompanied by water loss, resulting in a little decrease in leaf temperature. A negative correlation between transpiration rate and leaf temperature was existed. But leaf temperature exhibited a special pattern with different disease severity on light-dark cycle. Lightly wilted leaves had a higher temperature in light and a lower temperature in dark than did in healthy leaves. We identified that the water loss from wilted leaves was regulated not by stomata but rather by cells damage caused by pathogen infection. Finally, water balance in infected plants became disordered and dead tissue was dehydrated, so leaf temperature increased again. These data suggest that membrane injury caused by FOC infection induces uncontrolled water loss from damaged cells and an imbalance in leaf water status, and ultimately accelerate plant wilting. Combining detection of the temperature response of leaves to light-dark conditions, DIT not only permits noninvasive detection and indirect visualization of the development of the soil-borne disease Fusarium wilt, but also demonstrates certain internal metabolic processes correlative with water status. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. [Suppression of three soil-borne diseases of cucumber by a rhizosphere fungal strain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Heng; Niu, Yong-chun; Deng, Hui; Lin, Xiao-min; Jin, Chun-li

    2015-12-01

    To understand the effect of rhizosphere fungi on soil-borne diseases of cucumber, 16 fungal, strains from rhizosphere soil were investigated for the antagonistic activity to three soilborne pathogenic fungi with dual culture method and for suppression of cucumber diseases caused by the pathogens in pot experiments. Four strains showed antagonism to one or more pathogenic fungi tested. The strain JCL143, identified as Aspergillus terreus, showed strong antagonistic activity to the three pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. In greenhouse pot experiments, inoculation with strain JCL143 provided 74% or more of relative control effect to all the three diseases of cucumber seedling caused by the above three pathogenic fungi, and provided 85% or more of relative control effect to Rhizoctonia root rot and Sclerotinia root and stem rot in pot experiment with non-sterilized substrate. In pot experiment with natural soil as substrate, inoculation with strain JCL143 provided average 84.1% of relative control effect to Fusarium wilt of cucumber at vine elongation stage. The fermentation broth of strain JCL143 showed inhibitory effect in different degrees on the colonial growth of the three pathogenic fungi tested, and reached 63.3% of inhibitory rate of colonial growth to S. sclerotiorum. The inhibitory activity of the fermentation broth decreased with increasing treatment temperature, was liable to decrease to alkaline pH than acid pH, and stable to protease treatment. The results indicated that A. terreus is an important factor in suppression of plant soil-borne diseases, and strain JCL143 with stable disease suppression is potential in biocontrol application.

  9. Diversity in metabolite production by Fusarium langsethiae, Fusarium poae, and Fusarium sporotrichioides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Ulf; Adler, A.; Clasen, P.E.

    2004-01-01

    The production of mycotoxins and other metabolites by 109 strains of Fusarium langsethiae, Fusarium poae, Fusarium sporotrichioides, and F. kyushuense was investigated independently in four laboratories by liquid or gas chromatography analyses of cultural extracts with UV diode array, electron ca...

  10. PENGIMBASAN KETAHANAN BIBIT PISANG AMBON KUNING TERHADAP PENYAKIT LAYU FUSARIUM DENGAN BEBERAPA JAMUR ANTAGONIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loekas Soesanto dan Ruth Feti Rahayunia .

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Induced resistance of Ambon Kuning cultivar banana seedling to fusarium wilt with antagonistic fungi.  A research aiming at knowing the effect of antagonistic fungi supernatant on banana induced resistance, Fusarium wilt development, and banana growth was carried out from July up to December 2008. Randomized Block Design was used with four replicates. Treatments tested were control, with supernatant of Gliocladium virens, Trichoderma harzianum isolated from banana, ginger, and ginseng, Trichoderma koningii, and Fusarium equiseti, applied by injection to banana seedling corm and soaked for five minutes. Variables observed were incubation period, disease severity, Foc population density, germination inhibition, growth component, phenolic compound content, and supporting component. Result of the research indicated that the supernatant of G. virens, T. harzianum, and T. koningii could significantly induce resistance of the seedling showed by increasing the phenolic content such as glycoside, saponin, and tannin. The supernatant of all antagonistic fungi could effectively control the disease showed by lengthening incubation period as 48.71%, decreasing the disease severity as 53.57%, decreasing infection rate as 61.48%, increasing the antagonistic effectivity as 51.26%, decreasing the late population density as 45.35%, and decreasing the inoculum inside the plant as 60-100%. The extract could improve the seedling growth.

  11. Contamination of bananas with beauvericin and fusaric acid produced by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyu; Zuo, Cunwu; Deng, Guiming; Kuang, Ruibin; Yang, Qiaosong; Hu, Chunhua; Sheng, Ou; Zhang, Sheng; Ma, Lijun; Wei, Yuerong; Yang, Jing; Liu, Siwen; Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Viljoen, Altus; Yi, Ganjun

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium wilt, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), is one of the most destructive diseases of banana. Toxins produced by Foc have been proposed to play an important role during the pathogenic process. The objectives of this study were to investigate the contamination of banana with toxins produced by Foc, and to elucidate their role in pathogenesis. Twenty isolates of Foc representing races 1 and 4 were isolated from diseased bananas in five Chinese provinces. Two toxins were consistently associated with Foc, fusaric acid (FA) and beauvericin (BEA). Cytotoxicity of the two toxins on banana protoplast was determined using the Alamar Blue assay. The virulence of 20 Foc isolates was further tested by inoculating tissue culture banana plantlets, and the contents of toxins determined in banana roots, pseudostems and leaves. Virulence of Foc isolates correlated well with toxin deposition in the host plant. To determine the natural occurrence of the two toxins in banana plants with Fusarium wilt symptoms, samples were collected before harvest from the pseudostems, fruit and leaves from 10 Pisang Awak 'Guangfen #1' and 10 Cavendish 'Brazilian' plants. Fusaric acid and BEA were detected in all the tissues, including the fruits. The current study provides the first investigation of toxins produced by Foc in banana. The toxins produced by Foc, and their levels of contamination of banana fruits, however, were too low to be of concern to human and animal health. Rather, these toxins appear to contribute to the pathogenicity of the fungus during infection of banana plants.

  12. Induced resistance by cresotic acid (3-hydroxy-4-methyl methylbenzoic acid) against wilt disease of melon and cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, H.; Li, Z.; Zhang, D.; Li, W.; Tang, W.

    2004-01-01

    Cresotic acid (3-hydroxy-4-methylbenzoic acid) was proved be active in controlling wilt diseases of melon and cotton plants grown in the house. Soil drench with 200-1000 ppm cresotic acid induced 62-77 %, 69-79 % and 50-60 % protection against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp melonis (FOM) in melon, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp vasinfectum (FOV) and Verticillium dahliae in cotton, respectively. Since no inhibitory effect of cresotic acid on mycelial growth of these three fungual pathogens was observed in vitro, it is suggested that control of these wilt diseases with cresotic acid resulted from induced resistance. Cresotic acid induced resistance in melon plants not only against race 0, race 1, race 2 and race 1,2, but also against a mixture of these four races of FOM, suggesting a non-race- specific resistance. Level of induced resistance by cresotic acid against FOM depended on inoculum pressure applied to melon plants. At 25 day after inoculation with FOM, percentage protection induced by cresotic acid under low inoculum pressure retained a level of 51 %, while under high inoculum pressure percentage protection decreased to only 10 %. High concentrations of cresotic acid significantly reduced plant growth. Reduction in fresh weight of melon (36-51%) and cotton (42-71%) was obtained with 500-1000 ppm cresotic acid, while only less than 8% reduction occurred with 100-200 ppm. (author)

  13. Interaction of Fusarium oxysporum with Meloidogyne incognita on Roselle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Ooi

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Forty isolates of Fusarium oxysporum were tested for their pathogenicity to roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. var. sabdariffa in a plant house. The most virulent isolate was later used in a disease complex experiment with a root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Disease severity of roselle seedlings inoculated with a combination of fungus and nematode was higher than those inoculated with either fungus or nematode individually. Seedlings that were inoculated with fungus two weeks after nematode inoculation showed the highest disease severity compared to that inoculated with nematode two weeks after fungal inoculation or that inoculated simultaneously with both pathogens. It seems that root infections by M. incognita increased the colonization of roselle by F. oxysporum and subsequently caused higher damage to the roselle seedlings. The high wilt incidence in the presence of M. incognita and F. oxysporum may be due to the synergistic relationship between these two pathogens.

  14. Quantitative and microscopic assessment of compatible and incompatible interactions between chickpea cultivars and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Jiménez-Fernández

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris, a main threat to global chickpea production, is managed mainly by resistant cultivars whose efficiency is curtailed by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races. METHODOLOGY: We characterized compatible and incompatible interactions by assessing the spatial-temporal pattern of infection and colonization of chickpea cvs. P-2245, JG-62 and WR-315 by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races 0 and 5 labeled with ZsGreen fluorescent protein using confocal laser scanning microscopy. FINDINGS: The two races colonized the host root surface in both interactions with preferential colonization of the root apex and subapical root zone. In compatible interactions, the pathogen grew intercellularly in the root cortex, reached the xylem, and progressed upwards in the stem xylem, being the rate and intensity of stem colonization directly related with the degree of compatibility among Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races and chickpea cultivars. In incompatible interactions, race 0 invaded and colonized 'JG-62' xylem vessels of root and stem but in 'WR-315', it remained in the intercellular spaces of the root cortex failing to reach the xylem, whereas race 5 progressed up to the hypocotyl. However, all incompatible interactions were asymptomatic. CONCLUSIONS: The differential patterns of colonization of chickpea cultivars by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races may be related to the operation of multiple resistance mechanisms.

  15. Eugenol oil nanoemulsion: antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum and phytotoxicity on cottonseeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elsalam, Kamel A.; Khokhlov, Alexei R.

    2015-02-01

    The current research deals with the formulation and characterization of bio-based oil-in-water nanoemulsion. The formulated eugenol oil nanoemulsion was characterized by dynamic light scattering, stability test, transmission electron microscopy and thin layer chromatography. The nanoemulsion droplets were found to have a Z-average diameter of 80 nm and TEM study reveals the spherical shape of eugenol oil nanoemulsion (EON). The size of the nanoemulsion was found to be physically stable up to more than 1-month when it was kept at room temperature (25 °C). The TEM micrograph showed that the EON was spherical in shape and moderately mono or di-dispersed and was in the range of 50-110 nm. Three concentrations of the nanoformulation were used to evalute the anti-fusarium activity both in vitro and in vivo experiments. SDS-PAGE results of total protein from the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV) isolate before and after treatment with eugenol oil nanoemulsion indicate that the content of extra cellular soluble small molecular proteins decreased significantly in EON-treated fungus. Light micrographs of mycelia and spores treated with EON showed the disruption of the fungal structures. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) for Fusarium wilt incidence indicated highly significant ( p = 0.000) effects of concentration, genotype, and their interaction. The difference in wilt incidence between concentrations and control was not the same for each genotype, that is, the genotypes responded differently to concentrations. Effects of three EON concentration on germination percentage, and radicle length, were determined in the laboratory. One very interesting finding in the current study is that cotton genotypes was the most important factors in determining wilt incidence as it accounted for 93.18 % of the explained (model) variation. In vitro experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential phytotoxic effect of three EON concentrations. Concentration, genotype and

  16. VEGETATIVE COMPATIBILITY OF Fusarium oxysporum ISOLATED FROM WEEDS IN EASTERN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Ilić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Different formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum are the main causal agent of Fusarium wilts. In 2008 and 2009 we collected F. oxysporum samples from symptomless Abutilon theophrasti, Xanthium strumarium, Chenopodium album, Matricaria perforata, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Polygonum lapathifolium, Sonchus arvensis, Amaranthus blitoides, Amaranthus retroflexus, Datura stramonium, Sorghum halepense and Hibiscus trionum. Only 16 out of 41 isolates of F. oxysporum yielded nit mutants. The frequency of nit3 mutants was higher (43% than the frequency of nit1 (35% and NitM (22% mutants. Two vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs of F. oxysporum were determined in the complementation tests. These results stress out the problem with isolation of nit mutants and show a high genetic diversity of F. oxysporum isolated from weeds.

  17. Pengimbasan Ketahanan Pisang terhadap Penyakit Layu Fusarium dengan Asam Salisilat In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryanti Suryanti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid (SA is an important signal in plant defense. It is used as induced resistance agent against Fusarium wilt. An artificial induction was conducted by shaking the shoot groups of banana tissue culture in liquid medium of Murashige-Skoog (MS. MS medium was added with 0 ppm (as control, ⅛ LC50, ¼ LC50, ½ LC50, and LC50 concentration of SA. Alive shoot groups were subcultured for about three months and were acclimated. Resistance test had been conducted in glass house by inoculated six months old banana seedlings with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc. Leaves symptom were observed based on Leaf Symptom Index (LSI and corm discoloration based on Rhizome Discoloration Index (RDI. The result of this research showed that induced banana seedlings had higher plant resistance to Fusarium wilt than control.   Asam salisilat (SA merupakan signal penting dalam ketahanan tanaman, digunakan sebagaisenyawa pengimbas ketahanan tanaman pisang terhadap penyakit layu Fusarium. Pengimbasan dilakukan pada kelompok tunas kultur jaringan pisang dalam medium kultur jaringan MS cair dengan konsentrasi SA 0 ppm (sebagai kontrol, ⅛ LC50, ¼ LC50,½LC50 danLC50.Tunas yang bertahan hidup ditumbuhkan sebagai bibit dan uji ketahanan dilakukan dirumah kaca dengan inokulasiFusariumoxysporumf.sp. cubense (Foc pada bibit pisang umur enambulan pasca aklimatisasi. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap gejala layu pada daun (Leaf Symptom Index = LSI dan diskolorasi pada bonggol (Rhizome Discoloration Index=RDI. Hasil penelitianmenunjukkan bahwa bibit pisang hasil pengimbasanmemiliki ketahanan yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan perlakuan kontrol.

  18. Development of DNA marker for Fusarium resistance in Pisang Berangan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affrida Abu Hassan; Mohd Nazir Basiran; Rosmawati Shaharuddin

    2000-01-01

    Fusarium wilt (Panama disease), a disease caused by a soil-bome fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, is regarded as one of the most significant threats to banana (Musa spp.) production worldwide. In Malaysia, it is affecting the Cavendish as well as Pisang Berangan which are widely planted for export as well as for local consumption. Pisang Berangan mutant line (MB96) which was obtained through induced mutation by gamma irradiation has showed certain degree of tolerance towards the disease. Attempts were made to utilise Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based techniques i.e. RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) to screen for unique DNA sequences that are associated or closely linked to these tolerance characteristics. Four single 1 Obp primers and five duplex 1 Obp primers combinations were used to detect polymorphism between the DNA of control and 4 mutant lines micropropagated from MB96. As further control, DNA of Pisang Mas was included. Duplex arbitrary primer combinations 11-89 and single primer OPA-3 have produced DNA fragments that are polymorphic between cultivar, Pisang Berangan and Pisang Mas. However the RAPD analysis failed to show any polymorphism between the control and the mutant lines or in between the mutant lines

  19. Biological control agent against verticillium wilt

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gumede, WHN

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Verticillium wilt Presented at the 14th Biennial congress of the South African Society for Microbiology WHN Gumede CSIR Biosciences 11-04-06 Slide 2 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za INTRODUCTION • Historical background • Application... activity and demonstrate product efficacy over the period Slide 8 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Material and Methods • Proof of concept • Screening isolate for activity against Vertillium spp • Cultivation at Bench scale...

  20. Production of fusarielins by Fusarium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Akk, Elina; Thrane, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    species fusarielins were identified only in extracts from Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium tricinctum. The influence of different carbon sources on fusarielin biosynthesis was examined and the results showed that disaccharides and dextrin in combination with arginine as sole nitrogen source increased...

  1. Fusariose em Mudas de Pinus taeda Fusarium disease on Pinus taeda seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Grigoletti Júnior

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Viveiros comerciais têm apresentado mudas de Pinus taeda com sintomas de murcha e seca de ponteiros e morte, na Região Sul do Brasil. Isolamento em meio BDA e câmara úmida, teste de patogenicidade e microcultivo foram feitos para identificar o patógeno. Uma espécie de Fusarium foi isolada, cuja identificação encontra-se em andamento. Verificou-sepelos postulados de Koch que Fusarium sp. foi o agente causal dessa doença.
    Nurseries has presented Pinus taeda seedling with symptoms of wilt, tip blight and death, in Southern Region of Brazil. Isolation on PDA medium, moist chamber, pathogenicity test and microculture were made to identify the pathogen. A species of Fusarium was isolated, which is under identification. It was verified by Koch postulates that Fusarium sp. was the causal agent of this disease.

  2. Investigation about selecting strong type of melons by using melon paleness factor fusarium oxysporum f.sp.melonis and mutation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantoglu, Y.; Secer, E.; Kunter, B.; Erzurum, K.; Maden, S.; Yanmaz, R.

    2009-01-01

    Fusarium wilt is a vascular disease of the Cucurbitaceae family, especially in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), caused by the soil fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (FOM). This pathogen persists in the soil for extended periods of time, and the only effective control is the use of resistant varieties. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis is a very serious disease factor for farmers in Turkey. In this research, we show a method for mass-selection of melon mutants resistant to Fusarium wilt. In vitro selection of resistant cells, which are come from irradiated and non-irradiated explants, is done using culture filtrates of different FOM races. According to our results we determined effective irradiation doses and filtrate treatment dose by Linear Regression Analysis. According to our results 21.75 Gy is effective dose for in vitro Yuva cv. explants to induce mutation and for filtrate treatment 6.73% is the proper dose to select survive calluses and plantlets. We recommended using 10 and 20 Gy gamma ray doses for in vitro melon plantlets to induce mutation by our results. We succeed to regenerate 6% plantlets which were obtained and selected from irradiated plantlets and regenerated in in vitro medias which were include 6.73 % filtrate. Although 16.7% of resistant or tolerant plantlets can continue their viability in greenhouse conditions after disease inoculation treatment, we observed 4 plants had a surviving capability in a limited time. That is very important for breeding cycle and this research can lead to the development of new melon cultivars that will be resistant to Fusarium wilt.

  3. Differential Control Efficacies of Vitamin Treatments against Bacterial Wilt and Grey Mould Diseases in Tomato Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeum Kyu Hong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial wilt and grey mould in tomato plants are economically destructive bacterial and fungal diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and Botrytis cinerea, respectively. Various approaches including chemical and biological controls have been attempted to arrest the tomato diseases so far. In this study, in vitro growths of bacterial R. solanacearum and fungal B. cinerea were evaluated using four different vitamins including thiamine (vitamin B1, niacin (vitamin B3, pyridoxine (vitamin B6, and menadione (vitamin K3. In planta efficacies of the four vitamin treatments on tomato protection against both diseases were also demonstrated. All four vitamins showed different in vitro antibacterial activities against R. solanacearum in dose-dependent manners. However, treatment with 2 mM thiamine was only effective in reducing bacterial wilt of detached tomato leaves without phytotoxicity under lower disease pressure (10⁶ colony-forming unit [cfu]/ml. Treatment with the vitamins also differentially reduced in vitro conidial germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea. The four vitamins slightly reduced the conidial germination, and thiamine, pyridoxine and menadione inhibited the mycelial growth of B. cinerea. Menadione began to drastically suppress the conidial germination and mycelial growth by 5 and 0.5 mM, respectively. Grey mould symptoms on the inoculated tomato leaves were significantly reduced by pyridoxine and menadione pretreatments one day prior to the fungal challenge inoculation. These findings suggest that disease-specific vitamin treatment will be integrated for eco-friendly management of tomato bacterial wilt and grey mould.

  4. Deteksi Pengimbasan Ketahanan Pisang terhadap Penyakit Layu Fusarium dengan Asam Fusarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christanti Sumardiyono

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc is the most destructive disease of banana. Until today this disease has not been successfully controlled. Fusaric acid is a toxin produced by Foc. Tyloses produced in xylem that caused wilting and yellowing of banana plants, inhibit soil nutrition and water stream. The study carried out previously showed that enriched fusaric acid in banana culture induced the resistance of banana seedlings against Foc. The signal of induced resistance increased the phenolic compounds. One of the phenolic compounds is salicylic acid. The aim of this study was to detect induced resistance of banana plant from tissue cultured enriched with fusaric acid. The experiment was done in the field highly infected with Foc. Observation of resistance was done by measuring disease percentage of yellowing and wilting leaves.Tyloses produced in xylem was observed microscopically from cross section of root. Root damage intensity was counted using tyloses score. Salicylic acid content of root was analyzed with phenolic compounds method using HPLC. The results showed that banana plants from enriched tissues culture with 1.165 ppm of fusaric acid increased the resistance against Foc, but salicylic acid was not detected. Salicylic acid was only detected at low concentration (2 ppb in moderate resistant banana roots from induced plants with 9.32 ppm of fusaric acid. The chromatogram showed three peaks of unknown phenolic compounds. Tyloses intensity was not related with induced resistance of banana against fusarium wilt. Advanced research is needed with more plants samples. It was suggested to identify the phenolic compounds which were detected in induced resistant plant. INTISARI Layu fusarium yang disebabkan oleh Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc adalah penyakit yang sangat merusak pada pisang dan belum dapat dikendalikan secara tuntas. Gejala berupa kelayuan daun karena tersumbatnya xilem karena pembentukan

  5. Development of a Simple and Effective Bioassay Method to Evaluate Resistance of Watermelon Plants to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Ju Jo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Root-dipping inoculation method has been widely used to determine the resistance of watermelon to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum causing Fusarium wilt. Although this method leads to the precise results of plant disease responses, more rapid and efficient assay methods have been still required because the root-dipping inoculation method is labor-intensive and time-consuming. In this study, we established a simple and effective bioassay method based on the comparison of various inoculation methods and growth conditions. To develop the system, the occurrence of Fusarium wilt on four resistant and susceptible cultivars was investigated by four different inoculation methods, root-dipping, scalpel, tip and soil-drenching methods. Of these inoculation methods, scalpel method resulted in clear plant disease resistance responses with the simplicity. With the use of scalpel method, we also explored the disease development of the cultivars depending on inoculum concentration, growth stage of seedlings, and incubation temperature after inoculation. Furthermore, we found that the resistance degrees of 23 cultivars derived by scalpel inoculation method were similar to the results by root-dipping method established previously.

  6. Inheritance and identification of SCAR marker linked to bacterial wilt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present work, the combinations (F1) were crossed between highly resistant and susceptible to bacterial wilt eggplant parents and its F2, BC1 segregation population plants were inoculated with race1 of Ralstonia solanacearum in greenhouse. In this paper, we reported that the inheritance of bacterial wilt resistance in ...

  7. Reactions of selected eggplant cultivars and lines to verticillium wilt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Verticillium wilt caused by the fungus Verticillium dahliae Kleb. leads to decrease in the yield and quality of eggplant, an economically important vegetable in Turkey. To develop eggplant lines that are resistant to or tolerant to verticillium wilt, this study used cultivars K-1, K-2, K-3, K-4, K-5, K-6, K-7 and K-8 in the studies ...

  8. Effect of selected essential oil plants on bacterial wilt disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Bacterial wilt disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is a major constrain to production of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum). Control of bacterial wilt is very difficult as there are no effective curative chemicals. This study was aimed at investigating the potential roles of essential oil plants in control of the disease.

  9. Association mapping of resistance to Verticillium wilt in Gossypium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Verticillium wilt is a major disease affecting the growth of cotton. For screening the resistant genes, 320 Gossypium hirsutum germplasms were evaluated in Verticillium nursery, and association mapping was used to detect the markers associated with the Verticillium wilt resistance. 106 microsatellite marker primer pairs ...

  10. How to identify and manage oak wilt in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.N. Appel; R.S. Cameron; A.D. Wilson; J.D. Johnson

    2008-01-01

    Transporting unseasoned firewood from diseased red oaks is a potential means of spreading the oak wilt fungus. Oak wilt cannot be transmitted by burning infected firewood, but fungal mats may form on firewood in storage. Presently, no vectors have been proven to transmit the fungus from live oaks to other oak trees, but diseased wood fromany oak species should never be...

  11. Oak Wilt: People and Trees, A Community Approach to Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Juzwik; S. Cook; L. Haugen; J. Elwell

    2004-01-01

    Version 1.3. This self-paced short course on CD-ROM was designed as a learning tool for urban and community foresters, city administrators, tree inspectors, parks and recreation staff, and others involved in oak wilt management.Click the "View or print this publication" link below to request your Oak Wilt: People and...

  12. Ambrosia beetles associated with laurel wilt of avocado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an exotic wood-boring pest first detected in 2002 near Savannah, Georgia. The beetle’s dominant fungal symbiont, Raffaelea lauricola, is the pathogen that causes laurel wilt, a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae. Laurel wilt has since spr...

  13. Insertional mutagenesis in the vascular wilt pathogen Verticillium dahliae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santhanam, P.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular wilt diseases caused by soil-borne pathogens are among the most

    devastating plant diseases worldwide. The ascomycete fungus Verticillium dahliae

    causes vascular wilt diseases in hundreds of dicotyledonous plant species, including

    important crops such as eggplant,

  14. Construction of a genome-anchored, high-density genetic map for melon (Cucumis melo L.) and identification of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis race 1 resistance QTL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branham, Sandra E; Levi, Amnon; Katawczik, Melanie; Fei, Zhangjun; Wechter, W Patrick

    2018-04-01

    Four QTLs and an epistatic interaction were associated with disease severity in response to inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis race 1 in a recombinant inbred line population of melon. The USDA Cucumis melo inbred line, MR-1, harbors a wealth of alleles associated with resistance to several major diseases of melon, including powdery mildew, downy mildew, Alternaria leaf blight, and Fusarium wilt. MR-1 was crossed to an Israeli cultivar, Ananas Yok'neam, which is susceptible to all of these diseases, to generate a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 172 lines. In this study, the RIL population was genotyped to construct an ultra-dense genetic linkage map with 5663 binned SNPs anchored to the C. melo genome and exhibits the overall high quality of the assembly. The utility of the densely genotyped population was demonstrated through QTL mapping of a well-studied trait, resistance to Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (Fom) race 1. A major QTL co-located with the previously validated resistance gene Fom-2. In addition, three minor QTLs and an epistatic interaction contributing to Fom race 1 resistance were identified. The MR-1 × AY RIL population provides a valuable resource for future QTL mapping studies and marker-assisted selection of disease resistance in melon.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF FUSARIUM DISEASE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY WITH BIOLOGICAL AGENT IN MAS CULTIVAR BANANA IN LAND INFECTED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Shofiyani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the data of General Director of Production and Horticulture, the damage of plantation areas in banana plantation centers in Indonesia always increases in years, this is due to Fusarium attack caused by fungus Fusarium oxisphorum and causing damage of 30- 70 % banana plantation areas.The aim of this empirically for due to biological control technology Fusarium wilt effective and environmentally friendly to the infected area in District Baturaden, Banyumas through soil solarization treatments and utilization of biological agents..The Research was conducted at the wilt disease endemic Fusarium land located in the village Pamijen, District Baturraden, Banyumas. The research design was a Split Plot Design consisting of 2 treatments, the main plot treatments is soil solarization, whereas treatment subplot is the type and dose of biological agents antagonist. The results showed that the treatment given soil solarization proved to increase the temperature of the surface of the soil up to 8.8 ° C compared with without solarization and reduces demand Fussarium population at ground level up to 53.61%, whereas without solarization Fussarium population decline by 22, 33%. Provision of biological agents Trichoderma, Gliocladium and P. Fluoroscens during the study proved to provide inhibition of the development of Fussarium on seedling disease, indicated by the appearance of symptoms of the disease until the end of the study. This is possible due to the formation of phenolic compounds such as tannins, saponins and glicosida and colonization between biological agents with the root system of plants in which the contact between pathogen inhibition with banana plant seedlings root system so that it protects the roots of the disease-causing pathogen infection Fussarium wilt. Treatment of biological agents proved capable of providing better vegetative growth when compared to the untreated biological agents (control in which had significant effect on the

  16. MÉTODOS DE DETECÇÃO, TRANSMISSÃO E PATOGENICIDADE DE Fusarium spp. EM SEMENTES DE Pinus taeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaisa Wendhausen Ramos da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The root rots (RR, caused by the Fusarium spp., causes loss of seedling in the nursery that show, initially, discoloration of the needles to a yellowish-green tone followed by apical curvature, wilt and the consequent death of the seedling. The objectives of this work were to: a define the most appropriate and efficient method to detect Fusarium spp. in Pinus taeda seeds; b verify if there is transmission of Fusarium spp. from seeds to Pinus taeda seedlings; c develop a descriptive scale to evaluate the severity of the RR in Pinus taeda seedlings; d evaluate the pathogenicity, aggressiveness and area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC of isolated Fusarium subglutinans . For detection three treatments were applied to six lots of Pinus taeda seeds, bein four repetitions of 25 seeds: blotter test, paper card and selective medium. The transmission was evaluated in seeds from six lots of Pinus taeda during 60 days counting the percentage of emerged plantlet (EP, non-germinated seeds (NGS and from NGS seeds with Fusarium spp. A descriptive scale of grades was developed to evaluate the severity of RR in Pinus taeda seedlings. The severity and the incidence of the illness were evaluated at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after the inoculation from Pinus taeda seedlings of six months of age. The pathogenicity, severity and incidence of twelve isolated Fusarium subglutinans obtained in the detection test. To test for pathogenicity and aggressiveness 13 treatments with 15 replications were applied. The most sensitive detection method to detect Fusarium spp. on Pinus taeda seeds was the selective medium; transmission was not observed of Fusarium spp. from seeds to the seedlings; the descriptive scale allowed evaluating the progression of RR symptoms; nine isolated of Fusarium spp. were found to be pathogenic to Pinus taeda seedlings, reproducing typical symptoms of RR, being isolated L3R2, the most aggressive and that exhibited higher AUDPC.

  17. Competition Between Fusarium pseudograminearum and Cochliobolus sativus Observed in Field and Greenhouse Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troth, Erin E Gunnink; Johnston, Jeffrey A; Dyer, Alan T

    2018-02-01

    Among root pathogens, one of the most documented antagonisms is the suppression of Cochliobolus sativus by Fusarium (roseum) species. Unfortunately, previous studies involved single isolates of each pathogen and thus, provided no indication of the spectrum of responses that occur across the respective species. To investigate the variability in interactions between Cochliobolus sativus and Fusarium pseudograminearum, field and greenhouse trials were conducted that included monitoring of spring wheat plant health and monitoring of pathogen populations via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The interactions between two isolates of C. sativus and four isolates of F. pseudograminearum were explored in three geographically distinct wheat fields. To complement field trials and to limit potentially confounding environmental variables that are often associated with field studies, greenhouse trials were performed that investigated the interactions among and between three isolates of C. sativus and four isolates of F. pseudograminearum. Across field locations, C. sativus isolate Cs2344 consistently and significantly reduced Fusarium populations by an average of 20.1%. Similarly, F. pseudograminearum isolate Fp2228 consistently and significantly reduced C. sativus field populations by an average of 30.9%. No interaction was detected in the field between pathogen species with regards to disease or crop losses. Greenhouse results confirmed a powerful (>99%), broadly effective suppression of Fusarium populations by isolate Cs2344. Among greenhouse trials, additional isolate-isolate interactions were observed affecting Fusarium populations. Due to lower C. sativus population sizes in greenhouse trials, significant Fusarium suppression of C. sativus was only detected in one isolate-isolate interaction. This study is the first to demonstrate suppression of Fusarium spp. by C. sativus in field and greenhouse settings. These findings also reveal a complex competitive

  18. Evaluation of bio-agent formulations to control Fusarium wilt of tomato

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... 2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand. 3College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Biotechnology Institute, .... was ground to fine powder with mortar and pestle using liquid nitro- gen and mixed with 280 µl of lysis buffer. Protinase K (20 mg/ml).

  19. Non-fumigant approaches for controlling Fusarium wilt and charcoal rot of strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soilborne disease management without chemical fumigants is a major challenge for strawberry production in California. Current re-registrations and regulations are likely to intensify this obstacle by severely limiting availability of fumigants on a large percentage of strawberry acreage. Anaerobic s...

  20. Biological control of fusarium wilt of tomato by antagonist fungi and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-16

    Jan 16, 2012 ... inhibited the growth of phytopathogenic fungi (Biondi et al., 2004; Zulpa et al., 2006; Tassara et al., 2008). Cyanobacteria produce biologically active compounds that have antifungal activity (Kulik, 1995; Schlegel et al.,. 1998) and antibiotic and toxic activity against plant pathogens (Bonjouklian et al., 1991; ...

  1. Tolerance of banana for fusarium wilt is associated with early H 2 O ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of O2•− , H2O2 and MDA, as well as changes in enzyme activities, and transcript levels of SOD and CAT in root extracts were monitored every 24 h over 4 days. The histochemical location of H2O2 was also detected. In the resistant iso-line, the accumulation of O2•− and H2O2, and the activation of SOD occurred ...

  2. Transcriptome Profiling of Resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea Roots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaomiao Xing

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans (FOC is a destructive disease of Brassica crops, which results in severe yield losses. There is little information available about the mechanism of disease resistance. To obtain an overview of the transcriptome profiles in roots of R4P1, a Brassica oleracea variety that is highly resistant to fusarium wilt, we compared the transcriptomes of samples inoculated with FOC and samples inoculated with distilled water. RNA-seq analysis generated more than 136 million 100-bp clean reads, which were assembled into 62,506 unigenes (mean size = 741 bp. Among them, 49,959 (79.92% genes were identified based on sequence similarity searches, including SwissProt (29,050, 46.47%, Gene Ontology (GO (33,767, 54.02%, Clusters of Orthologous Groups (KOG (14,721, 23.55% and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG (12,974, 20.76% searches; digital gene expression analysis revealed 885 differentially expressed genes (DEGs between infected and control samples at 4, 12, 24 and 48 hours after inoculation. The DEGs were assigned to 31 KEGG pathways. Early defense systems, including the MAPK signaling pathway, calcium signaling and salicylic acid-mediated hypersensitive response (SA-mediated HR were activated after pathogen infection. SA-dependent systemic acquired resistance (SAR, ethylene (ET- and jasmonic (JA-mediated pathways and the lignin biosynthesis pathway play important roles in plant resistance. We also analyzed the expression of defense-related genes, such as genes encoding pathogenesis-related (PR proteins, UDP-glycosyltransferase (UDPG, pleiotropic drug resistance, ATP-binding cassette transporters (PDR-ABC transporters, myrosinase, transcription factors and kinases, which were differentially expressed. The results of this study may contribute to efforts to identify and clone candidate genes associated with disease resistance and to uncover the molecular mechanism underlying

  3. Contamination of bananas with beauvericin and fusaric acid produced by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyu Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fusarium wilt, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc, is one of the most destructive diseases of banana. Toxins produced by Foc have been proposed to play an important role during the pathogenic process. The objectives of this study were to investigate the contamination of banana with toxins produced by Foc, and to elucidate their role in pathogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twenty isolates of Foc representing races 1 and 4 were isolated from diseased bananas in five Chinese provinces. Two toxins were consistently associated with Foc, fusaric acid (FA and beauvericin (BEA. Cytotoxicity of the two toxins on banana protoplast was determined using the Alamar Blue assay. The virulence of 20 Foc isolates was further tested by inoculating tissue culture banana plantlets, and the contents of toxins determined in banana roots, pseudostems and leaves. Virulence of Foc isolates correlated well with toxin deposition in the host plant. To determine the natural occurrence of the two toxins in banana plants with Fusarium wilt symptoms, samples were collected before harvest from the pseudostems, fruit and leaves from 10 Pisang Awak 'Guangfen #1' and 10 Cavendish 'Brazilian' plants. Fusaric acid and BEA were detected in all the tissues, including the fruits. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNFICANCE: The current study provides the first investigation of toxins produced by Foc in banana. The toxins produced by Foc, and their levels of contamination of banana fruits, however, were too low to be of concern to human and animal health. Rather, these toxins appear to contribute to the pathogenicity of the fungus during infection of banana plants.

  4. Biocontrol of verticillium wilt and colonization of cotton plants by an endophytic bacterial isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C-H; Shi, L; Han, Q; Hu, H-L; Zhao, M-W; Tang, C-M; Li, S-P

    2012-09-01

    To explore biocontrol potential of 39 DAEB isolates (doubly antagonistic towards both Verticillium dahliae Kleb and Fusarium oxysporum) against verticillium wilt of cotton and to elucidate colonization and category characteristics of an endophytic bacterium with significant biocontrol activity. Thirty-nine antagonistic endophytic bacteria strains were tested for their ability to control verticillium wilt in cotton plants caused by a defoliating pathotype of V. dahliae 107 in cotton under controlled conditions. The biocontrol trial revealed that an endophytic bacterium, designated HA02, showed a significant biocontrol activity to V. dahliae 107. After cotton seedlings were inoculated with a gfp gene-tagged HA02 (HA02-gfp), HA02-gfp populations were higher in the root than in the stem; in addition, the HA02-gfp was distributed in the maturation zone of cotton root. Furthermore, HA02-gfp also colonized seedlings of maize, rape and soybean after the bacteria inoculation. Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rDNA sequences combined with morphological, physiological and identification showed that the bacterium belongs to the Enterobacter genus. Our results showed that only 1 of 39 DAEB isolates demonstrated more efficient biocontrol potential towards V. dahliae 107 in greenhouse and field trials. HA02-gfp mainly colonized cotton in roots. In addition, we quantitatively observed HA02 colonization in other hosts. HA02 belongs to the Enterobacter genus. This is the first study on biocontrol to defoliating pathotype of V. dahliae Kleb by endophytic bacteria. The HA02 showed effective biocontrol to V. dahliae 107 in greenhouse and field trials. Furthermore, we assessed the quantitative and qualitative colonization of HA02 in cotton seedlings. Our study provides basic information to further explore managing strategies to control this critical disease. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Fusarium species: The occurrence and the importance in agriculture of Serbia

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    Lević Jelena T.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium species have been isolated from over 100 plant species in Serbia. From the economic aspect, they have been and still are the most important for the production and storage of small grains and maize, and are exceptionally important for some other species. Total of 63 species, 35 varieties (var. and 19 specialised forms (f. sp. of basic species, particularly of F. oxysporum (4 var. and 12 f. sp. and F. solani (7 var. and 3 f. sp. were identified. Species F. langsethiae and F. thapsinum, recently identified, have been isolated from wheat and s o r g h u m seeds, respectively. F. graminearum is the most important pathogen for wheat, barely and maize, while F. poae is also important for wheat and barely. Furthermore, species of the section Liseola (F. verticillioides, F. subglutinans and F. proliferatum are important for maize and sorghum. In recent years, species of the section Liseola have been increasingly occurring in wheat and barley. The June-October period in Serbia is the most critical period for quality maintenance of stored maize, as the abundance and frequency of fungi, particularly of toxigenic species of the genus Fusarium, are the greatest during that period. In general, there is a lack of data about fusarioses of industrial crops in Serbia. There are mere descriptions of specific cases in which the development of Fusarium species was mostly emphasised by agroecological conditions. The presence of recently determined Fusarium species in kernels of these plant species indicates their importance from the aspect of the yield reduction and grain quality debasement and the mycotoxin contamination. Root rot and plant wilt are characteristic symptoms of fusarioses for forage and vegetable crops, while pathological changes in fruits provoked by Fusarium species are less frequent. F. oxysporum and its specialised forms prevail in these plant species.

  6. Response of germinating barley seeds to Fusarium graminearum: The first molecular insight into Fusarium seedling blight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Svensson, Birte; Finnie, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Fusarium seedling blight in cereals can result in significant reductions in plant establishment but has not received much attention. The disease often starts during seed germination due to sowing of the seeds infected by Fusarium spp. including Fusarium graminearum. In order to gain the first...... provides the first molecular insight into Fusarium seedling blight....

  7. SELEKSI DAN PEMANFAATAN ACTINOMYCETES SEBAGAI MIKROBA ANTAGONIS YANG RAMAH LINGKUNGAN TERHADAP Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense SECARA IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I MADE SUDARMA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 119 different actinomycete isolate were recovered from banana crop habitats with and without Fusarium wilt disease symptom. These were than assessed for their antagonist ability against Fusarium oxysporum £sp. cubense (Foe in vitro. Results indicated that four of all actinomycete isolate active against Foe. The four of actinomycete isolates were Streptomyces sp. l (AAo4, Streptomyces sp.2 (AAo32 , Streptomyces sp.3 (AAo33 and Streptomyces sp. 4 (AAo35. It was can inhibit the Foe mycelium growth, 79,63%, 72,22%, 78,89% and 72,22% respectively. After tested with the 3 times replication, the four Streptomyces spp. isolate effective to control the Foe that attack Bali banana cultivars, such as Susu, Saba, Raja and Ketip.

  8. Selection and Characterization of Endophytic Bacteria as Biocontrol Agents of Tomato Bacterial Wilt Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDJAD ASIH NAWANGSIH

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological control of bacterial wilt pathogen (Ralstonia solanacearum of tomato using endophytic bacteria is one of the alternative control methods to support sustainable agriculture. This study was conducted to select and characterize endophytic bacteria isolated from healthy tomato stems and to test their ability to promote plant growth and suppress bacterial wilt disease. Among 49 isolates successfully isolated, 41 were non-plant pathogenic. Green house test on six selected isolates based on antagonistic effect on R. solanacearum or ability to suppress R. solanacearum population in dual culture assays obtained BC4 and BL10 isolates as promising biocontrol agents. At six weeks after transplanting, plants treated with BC4 isolate showed significantly lower disease incidence (33% than that of control (83%. Plants height was not significantly affected by endophytic bacterial treatments. Based on 16S rRNA sequence, BC4 isolate had 97% similarity with Staphylococcus epidermidis (accession number EU834240.1, while isolate BL10 had 98% similarity with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain JK-SD002 (accession number AB547229.1.

  9. Native cell-death genes as candidates for developing wilt resistance in transgenic banana plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghag, Siddhesh B; Shekhawat, Upendra K Singh; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

    2014-07-04

    In order to feed an ever-increasing world population, there is an urgent need to improve the production of staple food and fruit crops. The productivity of important food and fruit crops is constrained by numerous biotic and abiotic factors. The cultivation of banana, which is an important fruit crop, is severely threatened by Fusarium wilt disease caused by infestation by an ascomycetes fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc). Since there are no established edible cultivars of banana resistant to all the pathogenic races of Foc, genetic engineering is the only option for the generation of resistant cultivars. Since Foc is a hemibiotrophic fungus, investigations into the roles played by different cell-death-related genes in the progression of Foc infection on host banana plants are important. Towards this goal, three such genes namely MusaDAD1, MusaBAG1 and MusaBI1 were identified in banana. The study of their expression pattern in banana cells in response to Foc inoculation (using Foc cultures or fungal toxins like fusaric acid and beauvericin) indicated that they were indeed differentially regulated by fungal inoculation. Among the three genes studied, MusaBAG1 showed the highest up-regulation upon Foc inoculation. Further, in order to characterize these genes in the context of Foc infection in banana, we generated transgenic banana plants constitutively overexpressing the three genes that were later subjected to Foc bioassays in a contained greenhouse. Among the three groups of transgenics tested, transformed banana plants overexpressing MusaBAG1 demonstrated the best resistance towards Foc infection. Further, these plants also showed the highest relative overexpression of the transgene (MusaBAG1) among the three groups of transformed plants generated. Our study showed for the first time that native genes like MusaBAG1 can be used to develop transgenic banana plants with efficient resistance towards pathogens like Foc. Published by Oxford University Press

  10. Fusarium basal rot in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de C.L.M.; Broek, van den R.C.F.M.; Brink, van den L.

    2006-01-01

    Fusarium basal rot of onion, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cepae, is a steadily increasing problem in The Netherlands. Financial losses for Dutch farmers confronted with Fusarium basal rot is substantial, due to yield reduction and high storage costs. This paper describes the development and

  11. The effects of wilting, molasses and inoculants on the fermentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective was to determine the effects of wilting, molasses and inoculants on the biochemistry and in vitro and in situ digestion of lucerne silage. Lucerne containing 200 g/kg of dry matter (DM) was ensiled as fresh or wilted (370 g/kg DM). Molasses, at application rates of 0, 50 and 100 g molasses/kg DM, was added to ...

  12. Fusarium proliferatum and fumonisin B1 co-occur with Fusarium species causing Fusarium Head Blight in durum wheat in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Amato, Barbara; Pfohl, Katharina; Tonti, Stefano; Nipoti, Paola; Dastjerdi, Raana; Pisi, Annamaria; Karlovsky, Petr; Prodi, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium Head Blight caused by phytopathogenic Fusarium spp. with Fusarium graminearum as main causal agent is a major disease of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.). Mycotoxins in wheat are dominated by trichothecenes B. Fumonisins have only occasionally been reported from wheat; their occurrence was attributed to Fusarium proliferatum and Fusarium verticillioides. We investigated kernels of durum wheat grown in Italy in 2008 - 2010 for colonization with Fusarium spp. and for the content o...

  13. Fusarium verticillioides gene clusters associated with biotransformation of maize allelopathic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize produces the benzoxazinones DIMBOA and DIBOA, which naturally transform into the more stable benzoxazolinones MBOA and BOA, respectively. These weed-suppressive allelopathic compounds are also implicated in resistance to microbial diseases and insect feeding. Fusarium verticillioides is able t...

  14. New Geographical Insights of the Latest Expansion of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense Tropical Race 4 Into the Greater Mekong Subregion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Jun Zheng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Banana is the most popular and most exported fruit and also a major food crop for millions of people around the world. Despite its importance and the presence of serious disease threats, research into this crop is limited. One of those is Panama disease or Fusarium wilt. In the previous century Fusarium wilt wiped out the “Gros Michel” based banana industry in Central America. The epidemic was eventually quenched by planting “Cavendish” bananas. However, 50 years ago the disease recurred, but now on “Cavendish” bananas. Since then the disease has spread across South-East Asia, to the Middle-East and the Indian subcontinent and leaped into Africa. Here, we report the presence of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense Tropical Race 4 (Foc TR4 in “Cavendish” plantations in Laos, Myanmar, and Vietnam. A combination of classical morphology, DNA sequencing, and phenotyping assays revealed a very close relationship between the Foc TR4 strains in the entire Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS, which is increasingly prone to intensive banana production. Analyses of single-nucleotide polymorphisms enabled us to initiate a phylogeography of Foc TR4 across three geographical areas—GMS, Indian subcontinent, and the Middle East revealing three distinct Foc TR4 sub-lineages. Collectively, our data place these new incursions in a broader agroecological context and underscore the need for awareness campaigns and the implementation of validated quarantine measures to prevent further international dissemination of Foc TR4.

  15. Antifungal Screening of Bioprotective Isolates against Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium pallidoroseum and Fusarium moniliforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinette de Senna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The fungi Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium pallidoroseum, and Fusarium moniliforme are the causative agents of several plant diseases and can cause significant crop loss both before and after harvest. Fungicides are employed to control these phytopathogens, but fungicide use has led to an increase in resistance and may negatively affect the environment and human health. Hence, more environmentally sustainable solutions such as biological control methods are needed. The purpose of this study was to screen 22 bacterial isolates for inhibitory activity against fungal phytopathogens. To evaluate antifungal activity, the bacterial isolates were individually spot-inoculated onto Tryptic Soy Agar or de Man, Rogosa, Sharpe agar, and then a plug of fungal-colonized agar was placed onto the center of the isolate-inoculated plate. Plates were incubated at 24 °C for 10 days and fungal growth was evaluated. Nine of the 22 isolates screened inhibited all three fungi; inhibition by these isolates ranged from 51–62%, 60–68%, and 40–61% for B. cinerea, F. pallidoroseum, and F. moniliforme, respectively. Isolates were also screened for biosurfactant activity using the drop-collapse test. Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus thuringiensis and three Bacillus amyloliquefaciens isolates demonstrated strong biosurfactant activity and suppression of all three fungi, and therefore are recommended for further study.

  16. Common toxigenic Fusarium species in maize grain in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of toxigenic species of Fusarium in maize samples collected in Ethiopia was investigated. The three toxigenic species of Fusarium most often associated with Ethiopian maize grain were Fusarium verticillioides [= F. moniliforme] (51.7%), Fusarium subglutinans (24.2%) and Fusarium graminearum (13.9%).

  17. A Review of Control Options and Externalities for Verticillium Wilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Christine L; Carter, Colin A; Goodhue, Rachael E; Lawell, C-Y Cynthia Lin; Subbarao, Krishna V

    2018-02-01

    Plant pathogens migrate to new regions through human activities such as trade, where they may establish themselves and cause disease on agriculturally important crops. Verticillium wilt of lettuce, caused by Verticillium dahliae, is a soilborne fungus that was introduced to coastal California via infested spinach seeds. It has caused significant losses for lettuce growers. Once introduced, Verticillium wilt could be managed by fumigating with methyl bromide and chloropicrin, but this option is no longer available. Growers can also manage the disease by planting broccoli or not planting spinach. These control options require long-term investments for future gain. Verticillium wilt can also be prevented or controlled by testing and providing spinach seeds with little or no V. dahliae infestation. However, seed companies have been reluctant to test or clean spinach seeds, as spinach crops are not affected by Verticillium wilt. Thus, available control options are affected by externalities. Renters and other producers with short time horizons will not undertake long-term investments and seed companies do not take into account the effect of their decision not to test on lettuce producers. We review the literature on the economics of managing crop disease; discuss the economics of managing Verticillium wilt; and review the recent research on the externalities that arise with short-term growers, and between seed companies and growers due to Verticillium wilt. An externality arises whenever the actions of one individual or firm affects the payoffs to another individual or firm not involved in a specific transaction. These externalities have important implications for the management of Verticillium wilt and, more broadly, for the management of migratory pathogens and the diseases they cause in agriculture in general. This review is of interest to policy-makers, the producers, marketers, seed companies, and researchers.

  18. Identification of pathogenicity‐related genes in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vágány, Viktória; Jackson, Alison C.; Harrison, Richard J.; Rainoni, Alessandro; Clarkson, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Pathogenic isolates of Fusarium oxysporum, distinguished as formae speciales (f. spp.) on the basis of their host specificity, cause crown rots, root rots and vascular wilts on many important crops worldwide. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC) is particularly problematic to onion growers worldwide and is increasing in prevalence in the UK. We characterized 31 F. oxysporum isolates collected from UK onions using pathogenicity tests, sequencing of housekeeping genes and identification of effectors. In onion seedling and bulb tests, 21 isolates were pathogenic and 10 were non‐pathogenic. The molecular characterization of these isolates, and 21 additional isolates comprising other f. spp. and different Fusarium species, was carried out by sequencing three housekeeping genes. A concatenated tree separated the F. oxysporum isolates into six clades, but did not distinguish between pathogenic and non‐pathogenic isolates. Ten putative effectors were identified within FOC, including seven Secreted In Xylem (SIX) genes first reported in F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Two highly homologous proteins with signal peptides and RxLR motifs (CRX1/CRX2) and a gene with no previously characterized domains (C5) were also identified. The presence/absence of nine of these genes was strongly related to pathogenicity against onion and all were shown to be expressed in planta. Different SIX gene complements were identified in other f. spp., but none were identified in three other Fusarium species from onion. Although the FOC SIX genes had a high level of homology with other f. spp., there were clear differences in sequences which were unique to FOC, whereas CRX1 and C5 genes appear to be largely FOC specific. PMID:26609905

  19. Fusarium polycaprolactone depolymerase is cutinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, C A; Cameron, J A; Huang, S J; Vinopal, R T

    1996-01-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL), a synthetic polyester, is degraded by a variety of microorganisms, including some phytopathogens. Many phytopathogens secrete cutinase, a serine hydrolase that degrades cutin, the structural polymer of the plant cuticle. We compared wild-type strains and a cutinase-negative gene replacement mutant strain of Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi (D. J. Stahl and W. Schäfer, Plant Cell 4:621-629, 1992) and a wild-type strain of Fusarium moniliforme to show that Fusarium cutinase is a PCL depolymerase. The wild-type strains, but not the mutant strain, (i) degraded PCL and used it as a source of carbon and energy, (ii) showed induction of secreted PCL depolymerase and an esterase activity of cutinase when grown in the presence of cutin, and (iii) showed induction of PCL depolymerase and an esterase activity of cutinase when grown in the presence of a hydrolysate of PCL, which contains PCL oligomers that are structurally similar to the natural inducers of cutinase. These results together with other details of regulation and conditions for optimal enzyme activity indicate that the Fusarium PCL depolymerase, required for degradation and utilization of PCL, is cutinase. PMID:8593048

  20. Significant relationship between soil bacterial community structure and incidence of bacterial wilt disease under continuous cropping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Siyuan; Niu, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Chao; Xiao, Yunhua; Chen, Wu; Dai, Linjian; Liu, Xueduan; Yin, Huaqun

    2017-03-01

    Soil bacteria are very important in biogeochemical cycles and play significant role in soil-borne disease suppression. Although continuous cropping is responsible for soil-borne disease enrichment, its effect on tobacco plant health and how soil bacterial communities change are yet to be elucidated. In this study, soil bacterial communities across tobacco continuous cropping time-series fields were investigated through high-throughput sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA genes. The results showed that long-term continuous cropping could significantly alter soil microbial communities. Bacterial diversity indices and evenness indices decreased over the monoculture span and obvious variations for community structures across the three time-scale tobacco fields were detected. Compared with the first year, the abundances of Arthrobacter and Lysobacter showed a significant decrease. Besides, the abundance of the pathogen Ralstonia spp. accumulated over the monoculture span and was significantly correlated with tobacco bacterial wilt disease rate. Moreover, Pearson's correlation demonstrated that the abundance of Arthrobacter and Lysobacter, which are considered to be beneficial bacteria had significant negative correlation with tobacco bacterial wilt disease. Therefore, after long-term continuous cropping, tobacco bacterial wilt disease could be ascribed to the alteration of the composition as well as the structure of the soil microbial community.

  1. Disjunct population of redbay ambrosia beetle and laurel wilt disease discovered in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.J. Riggins; M. Hughes; J.A. Smith; R. Chapin

    2011-01-01

    Laurel wilt is an aggressive, non-native vascular wilt disease of redbay trees (Persea borbonia), sassafras (Sassafras albidum), and other plants within the Lauraceae family. The laurel wilt pathogen, (Raffaelea lauricola), is vectored by the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus), which...

  2. Fusarium oxysporum protects Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) seedlings from root disease caused by Fusarium commune

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Mee-Sook Kim; Robert L. James

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium root disease can be a serious problem in forest and conservation nurseries in the western United States. Fusarium inoculum is commonly found in most container and bareroot nurseries on healthy and diseased seedlings, in nursery soils, and on conifer seeds. Fusarium spp. within the F. oxysporum species complex have been recognized as pathogens for more than a...

  3. Biochemical indices of hop resistance to Verticillium albo-atrum and Fusarium sambucinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Piotrowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The contents of total phenolic compounds, chlorogenic acid and peroxidase activity as well as monophenols to polyphenols ratio were studies in the suckers of the hops as indices of resistance to Verticillium albo-atrum and Fusarium sambucinum. The suckers of hop taken in the early spring from the healthy and infected plots were used in the experiments. As a research material were included cv. 'Northern Brewer' - a wilt tolerant variety, two wild susceptible varieties - cv. 'Lubelski' and cv. 'Brewers Gold', four breeding clones and one male plant. It was found that, 'Northern Brewer' contains more total phenolic compounds, rnonophenols and chlorogenic acid, and in particular considerably higher peroxidase activity as compared to cv. 'Lubelski'. Taking into consideration the contents of these compounds, in the majority of cases, the new breeding clones were similar to the mother variety 'Northern Brewer'. It seems resonable to assume, that the new clones should be more wilt tolerant than varieties and populations cultivated in our country.

  4. An investigation of a defensive chitinase against Fusarium oxysporum in pepper leaf tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khemika S. Lomthaisong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant chitinase is classified as a PR-protein involved in a defense mechanism against a pathogen. This research aims to investigate a specific type of chitinase which is produced by pepper in response to an early defense against Fusarium oxysporum, which causes wilt disease. The changes of chitinase isozyme patterns in the inter- and intracellular fluids in the leaf of four cultivars of pepper (Capsicum annuum L. at day 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 from fungal inoculation were analysed using SDS-PAGE in polyacrylamide gel supplemented with glycol chitin as a substrate. The levels of disease severity in the four varieties of pepper were also compared with the isozyme patterns. The results showed that the resistance of pepper to F. oxysporum attack corresponded to the expression of ~70 kDa chitinase band (Chi-3 in the intercellular fluid. Therefore, such chitinase could possibly be used as a protein marker to identify the tolerant line and as a springboard for further study of wilt disease control.

  5. Root exudates from grafted-root watermelon showed a certain contribution in inhibiting Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Ling

    Full Text Available Grafting watermelon onto bottle gourd rootstock is commonly used method to generate resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON, but knowledge of the effect of the root exudates of grafted watermelon on this soil-borne pathogen in rhizosphere remains limited. To investigate the root exudate profiles of the own-root bottle gourd, grafted-root watermelon and own-root watermelon, recirculating hydroponic culture system was developed to continuously trap these root exudates. Both conidial germination and growth of FON were significantly decreased in the presence of root exudates from the grafted-root watermelon compared with the own-root watermelon. HPLC analysis revealed that the composition of the root exudates released by the grafted-root watermelon differed not only from the own-root watermelon but also from the bottle gourd rootstock plants. We identified salicylic acid in all 3 root exudates, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in root exudates from own-root bottle gourd and grafted-root watermelon but not own-root watermelon, and abundant cinnamic acid only in own-root watermelon root exudates. The chlorogenic and caffeic acid were candidates for potentiating the enhanced resistance of the grafted watermelon to FON, therefore we tested the effects of the two compounds on the conidial germination and growth of FON. Both phenolic acids inhibited FON conidial germination and growth in a dose-dependent manner, and FON was much more susceptible to chlorogenic acid than to caffeic acid. In conclusion, the key factor in attaining the resistance to Fusarium wilt is grafting on the non-host root stock, however, the root exudates profile also showed some contribution in inhibiting FON. These results will help to better clarify the disease resistance mechanisms of grafted-root watermelon based on plant-microbe communication and will guide the improvement of strategies against Fusarium-mediated wilt of watermelon plants.

  6. Fusarium head blight of cereals in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærgaard Nielsen, Linda; Jensen, Jens Due; Nielsen, Ghita Cordsen

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction differentiating 10 Fusarium spp. and Microdochium nivale or M. majus was applied to a total of 396 grain samples of wheat, barley, triticale, oat, and rye sampled across Denmark from 2003 to 2007, along with selected samples of wheat and barley from...... 1957 to 2000, to determine incidence and abundance of individual Fusarium spp. The mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol, zearalenone, T-2, and HT-2 were quantified using liquid chromatography–double mass spectrometry. Major differences in the Fusarium species complex among the five cereals....... Biomass and mycotoxin data exhibited good correlations between Fusarium spp. and their corresponding mycotoxins under field conditions....

  7. Arabidopsis thaliana resistance to fusarium oxysporum 2 implicates tyrosine-sulfated peptide signaling in susceptibility and resistance to root infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunping Shen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs, including RFO2, account for the strong resistance of accession Columbia-0 (Col-0 and relative susceptibility of Taynuilt-0 (Ty-0 to the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum forma specialis matthioli. We find that RFO2 corresponds to diversity in receptor-like protein (RLP genes. In Col-0, there is a tandem pair of RLP genes: RFO2/At1g17250 confers resistance while RLP2 does not. In Ty-0, the highly diverged RFO2 locus has one RLP gene conferring weaker resistance. While the endogenous RFO2 makes a modest contribution to resistance, transgenic RFO2 provides strong pathogen-specific resistance. The extracellular leucine-rich repeats (eLRRs in RFO2 and RLP2 are interchangeable for resistance and remarkably similar to eLRRs in the receptor-like kinase PSY1R, which perceives tyrosine-sulfated peptide PSY1. Reduced infection in psy1r and mutants of related phytosulfokine (PSK receptor genes PSKR1 and PSKR2 shows that tyrosine-sulfated peptide signaling promotes susceptibility. The related eLRRs in RFO2 and PSY1R are not interchangeable; and expression of the RLP nPcR, in which eLRRs in RFO2 are replaced with eLRRs in PSY1R, results in constitutive resistance. Counterintuitively, PSY1 signaling suppresses nPcR because psy1r nPcR is lethal. The fact that PSK signaling does not similarly affect nPcR argues that PSY1 signaling directly downregulates the expression of nPcR. Our results support a speculative but intriguing model to explain RFO2's role in resistance. We propose that F. oxysporum produces an effector that inhibits the normal negative feedback regulation of PSY1R, which stabilizes PSY1 signaling and induces susceptibility. However, RFO2, acting as a decoy receptor for PSY1R, is also stabilized by the effector and instead induces host immunity. Overall, the quantitative resistance of RFO2 is reminiscent of the better-studied monogenic resistance traits.

  8. Genetic and Pathogenic Variability of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae Isolated from Onion and Welsh Onion in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kazunori; Nakahara, Katsuya; Tanaka, Shuhei; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Ito, Shin-ichi

    2015-04-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae causes Fusarium basal rot in onion (common onion) and Fusarium wilt in Welsh onion. Although these diseases have been detected in various areas in Japan, knowledge about the genetic and pathogenic variability of F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae is very limited. In this study, F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae was isolated from onion and Welsh onion grown in 12 locations in Japan, and a total of 55 F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae isolates (27 from onion and 28 from Welsh onion) were characterized based on their rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS) and translation elongation factor-1α (EF-1α) nucleotide sequences, vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs), and the presence of the SIX (secreted in xylem) homologs. Phylogenetic analysis of IGS sequences showed that these isolates were grouped into eight clades (A to H), and 20 onion isolates belonging to clade H were monophyletic and assigned to the same VCG. All the IGS-clade H isolates possessed homologs of SIX3, SIX5, and SIX7. The SIX3 homolog was located on a 4 Mb-sized chromosome in the IGS-clade H isolates. Pathogenicity tests using onion seedlings showed that all the isolates with high virulence were in the IGS-clade H. These results suggest that F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae isolates belonging to the IGS-clade H are genetically and pathogenically different from those belonging to the other IGS clades.

  9. Use of the Plant Defense Protein Osmotin To Identify Fusarium oxysporum Genes That Control Cell Wall Properties

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, H.

    2010-02-26

    Fusarium oxysporum is the causative agent of fungal wilt disease in a variety of crops. The capacity of a fungal pathogen such as F. oxysporum f. sp. nicotianae to establish infection on its tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) host depends in part on its capacity to evade the toxicity of tobacco defense proteins, such as osmotin. Fusarium genes that control resistance to osmotin would therefore reflect coevolutionary pressures and include genes that control mutual recognition, avoidance, and detoxification. We identified FOR (Fusarium Osmotin Resistance) genes on the basis of their ability to confer osmotin resistance to an osmotin-sensitive strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FOR1 encodes a putative cell wall glycoprotein. FOR2 encodes the structural gene for glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase, the first and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of hexosamine and cell wall chitin. FOR3 encodes a homolog of SSD1, which controls cell wall composition, longevity, and virulence in S. cerevisiae. A for3 null mutation increased osmotin sensitivity of conidia and hyphae of F. oxysporum f. sp. nicotianae and also reduced cell wall β-1,3-glucan content. Together our findings show that conserved fungal genes that determine cell wall properties play a crucial role in regulating fungal susceptibility to the plant defense protein osmotin.

  10. Cerebroside elicitor confers resistance to fusarium disease in various plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Kenji; Tanino, Shigeki; Nagatsuka, Tadako; Koga, Jinichiro; Iwata, Michiaki; Nagashima, Kenji; Amemiya, Yoshimiki

    2004-08-01

    ABSTRACT In the rice blast fungus pathosystem, cerebroside, a compound categorized as a sphingolipid, was found in our previous study to be a non-racespecific elicitor, which elicits defense responses in rice. Here we describe that cerebroside C is produced in diverse strains of Fusarium oxysporum, a common soilborne agent of wilt disease affecting a wide range of plant species. In addition, some type of cerebroside elicitor involving cerebroside A, B, or C was detected in other soilborne phytopathogens, such as Pythium and Botrytis. Treatment of lettuce (Lactuca sativa), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), melon (Cucumis melo), and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) with cerebroside B resulted in resistance to infection by each pathogenic strain of F. oxysporum. Induction of pathogenesis-related genes and H(2)O(2) production by treatment with cerebroside B were observed in tomato root tissues. The cerebroside elicitor showed no antifungal activity against F. oxysporum in vitro, indicating that the cerebroside elicitor activates defense mechanisms to confer resistance to Fusarium disease. These results suggest that cerebroside functions as a non-race-specific elicitor in a wide range of plant-phytopathogenic fungus interactions. Additionally, cerebroside elicitor serves as a potential biologically derived control agent.

  11. Preliminary evaluation of guava selections for guava wilt disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guava wilt disease (GWD), caused by Nalanthamala psidii, is a serious disease occurring in the guava-producing areas of the Mpumalanga and Limpopo provinces of South Africa. Two resistant guava rootstocks, TS-G1 and 'TS-G2', were developed by the ARC-ITSC in 1995. In 2009, a renewed outbreak of GWD was ...

  12. Strategies for resistance to bacterial wilt disease of bananas through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The livelihoods of millions of Ugandan farmers have been threatened by current outbreak of a banana bacterial wilt disease caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum, which is very destructive and rapidly spreading in Uganda. Bananas are the highest value staple food and source of income for millions of ...

  13. Fungal diversity associated with verticillium wilt of cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaskheli, M.I.; Sun, J.L.; Li, F.

    2014-01-01

    The association of fungal diversity with Verticillium wilt is rarely known, which is important to know for the control of this detrimental disease. Our study is the preliminary attempt to find the associations of fungal diversity with Verticillium wilt and provides the baseline information for biological control. About 30 different fungi from soil and 23 from cotton plants were isolated and confirmed through molecular characterization. The colony forming unit (CFU)/g dry soil of fungi before and after planting cotton showed significant variation among all the fungi. The overall frequency of all fungi for soil after sowing was significantly higher than before sowing. A. alternata, F. equiseti, F. concentricum, A. flavus, F. proliferatum, and Chaetomium sp. associated with high resistance (Arcot-1) to Verticillium wilt, whereas, V. dahliae, A.niger and Paecilomyces sp., with high susceptible (Arcot-438) germplasm. However, T. basicola, C. ramotenellum and G. intermedia were isolated from both. Soil plating was comparatively easiest than soil dilution method for the determination of frequency percentage, however, later method is useful for the screening of single spore isolation. Most of the antagonistic species were screened from soil; nevertheless, Paecilomyces and Chaetomium spp. were screened from plant and soil. In vitro test of T. longibrachiatum. T. atroviride, Paecilomyces and T. viride showed the strongest efficacy against V. dahliae. These efficient bio-agents can be used as an effective tool for other future studies regarding to Verticillium wilt of cotton. (author)

  14. Marker assisted characterization of chickpea genotypes for wilt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Further, the sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE) analysis of seed storage protein showed a difference in protein profile among studied genotypes but none of polypeptide fragment was specific to wilt resistance or susceptibility. In present study, the reported markers linked to susceptibility ...

  15. Perception of Mealybug Wilt Effect and Management among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    have not been extensively studied in the country. The study was conducted to determine pineapple farmers' perception of the effect and management of the ..... colour. 100. The leaf tip die back. 96.9. Affected leaves dry up. 100. New central leaf growth. 100. Presence of mealybug underneath. 100. How other wilting ...

  16. Transgenic tomato hybrids resistant to tomato spotted wilt virus infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de P.; Ultzen, T.; Prins, M.; Gielen, J.; Goldbach, R.; Grinsven, van M.

    1996-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) infections cause significant economic losses in the commercial culture of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Culture practices have only been marginally effective in controlling TSWV. The ultimate way to minimize losses caused by TSWV is resistant varieties. These can

  17. (SRAP) markers linked to bacterial wilt resistance genes i

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-19

    Mar 19, 2014 ... Bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most economically important diseases affecting potato (Solanum tuberosum). It is necessary to develop more molecular markers for potential use in potato genetic research. A highly resistant primitive cultivated species Solanum phureja was.

  18. Biocontrol of potato wilt by selective rhizospheric and endophytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ralstonia solanacearum is the causative agent of wilt disease in plants, which constitutes a severe problem to agricultural crops, particularly for potato production in Madagascar. The present study focuses on the isolation, in vitro and in vivo assays of potential rhizospheric and endophytic bacteria associated with healthy ...

  19. Effect of selected essential oil plants on bacterial wilt disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-03-25

    Mar 25, 2014 ... This study was aimed at investigating the potential roles of essential oil plants in control of the ... disease management includes the use of plant ..... Gathuru, E.M. and Mukunya, D.M. (1984). Effect of latent infection on the spread of bacterial wilt of potatoes in Kenya. Tropical Pest. Management, 30:163-165.

  20. Banana Xanthomonas wilt in Ethiopia: Occurrence and insect vector ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial wilt caused by Xanthomonas vasicola pv. musacearum (Xvm) is an important disease of enset and banana in south and south-western Ethiopia where, the diversity of the insect fauna on banana inflorescences was unknown and the role of insects as vectors of the disease had not been studied. The objectives of ...

  1. Banana Xanthomonas wilt: a review of the disease, management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Banana Xanthomonas wilt: a review of the disease, management strategies and future research directions. M Biruma, M Pillay, L Tripathi, G Blomme, S Abele, M Mwangi, R Bandyopadhyay, P Muchunguzi, S Kassim, M Nyine, L Turyagyenda, S Eden-Green ...

  2. Determining the Field Capacity, Wilting point and Available Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water is a unique material resource which plays a vital role in nature and in agriculture. The objective of this study was to find out the applicability of saturation percentage (SP) to estimate field capacity (FC) and permanent wilting point (PWP) of soils across different texture in southeast Nigeria. Top 0-20 cm soil sample were ...

  3. The changing spread dynamics of banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Banana Xanthomonas wilt still remains a serious threat to banana production in Uganda. Although the desired long term control strategy would have been use of resistance, no sources of resistance have been found. Further the transgenic resistance under development will only be deployed in the long run. In the meantime ...

  4. Fermentative attributes of wilted vs. unwilted Digitaria eriantha silage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Silages made from directly cut or wilted Digitaria eriantha treated with or without molasses were evaluated to determine fermentative characteristics. The grass was harvested at the boot stage of growth and the material was ensiled in 1 kg mini-silos. Treatments were arranged in a factorial design of two moisture levels ...

  5. Mechanical transmission and survival of bacterial wilt on enset ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The transmission of enset bacterial wilt with contaminated knives and the survival of the causal agent in soil and enset plant debris was studied at the Awassa Agricultural Research Center, Awassa, Ethiopia. Contaminated knives were found to transmit the pathogen from infected to healthy plants. Disease symptoms were ...

  6. Evaluation of enset clones against enset bacterial wilt | Welde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A large number of enset clones collected from the Sidama, Gurage, Kembata Tembaro and Hadyia zones were assessed for resistance/tolerance to enset bacterial wilt, Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm) at the Awassa Agricultural Research Center, Awassa in Ethiopia, during the period 1994 to 2000.

  7. Laurel wilt in avocado: Review of an emerging disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    aurel wilt, caused by the vascular fungus Raffaelea lauricola, is transmitted by the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, and affects many plants in the family Lauraceae. It was introduced into the United States around 2002 through infested packing material arriving in Georgia. In Florida, t...

  8. Evaluation of Tomato Culktivar for resistance to wilt disease and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and 2.7 kg) respectively in both trials. Tomato-Marina recorded statistically the lowest numbers (9.6 and 11.17) and weights (0.23 kg and 0.73 kg) of fruits respectively in both evaluations. Keywords:Meloidogyne incognita Resistance, Tomato, Wilt disease. Nigerian Journal of Horticultural Science Vol. 10 2005: pp. 30-37 ...

  9. Inheritance and identification of SCAR marker linked to bacterial wilt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... In the present work, the combinations (F1) were crossed between highly resistant and susceptible to bacterial wilt eggplant parents and its F2, BC1 segregation population plants were inoculated with race1 of Ralstonia solanacearum in greenhouse. In this paper, we reported that the inheritance of bacterial ...

  10. The origin of Ceratocystis fagacearum, the oak wilt fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Juzwik; Thomas C. Harrington; William L. MacDonald; David N. Appel

    2008-01-01

    The oak wilt pathogen, Ceratocystis fagacearum, may be another example of a damaging, exotic species in forest ecosystems in the United States. Though C. fagacearum has received much research attention, the origin of the fungus is unknown. The pathogen may have been endemic at a low incidence until increased disturbances, changes...

  11. REACTION OF Musa balbisiana TO BANANA BACTERIAL WILT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    2Makerere University, Department of Agricultural Production, P. O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda. Corresponding author: kumalfred@gmail.com. (Received 7 February, 2012; accepted 3 September, 2013). ABSTRACT. Banana bacterial wilt (Xanthomonas campestris) is an emerging disease of bananas in Uganda.

  12. Effect of solarization with fresh chicken manure on verticillium wilt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of reducing wilt disease through the medium of fresh chicken manure (FCM) mixed with soil before solarized and then artificial Verticillium dahliae (V.d) inoculation on yield of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) under field conditions. According to the splitplot design, ...

  13. Effect of solarization with fresh chicken manure on verticillium wilt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BİM

    2016-12-28

    Dec 28, 2016 ... The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of reducing wilt disease through the medium of fresh chicken manure (FCM) mixed with soil before solarized and then artificial Verticillium dahliae (V.d) inoculation on yield of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) under field conditions. According to the ...

  14. Combined effects of biocontrol agents and soil amendments on soil microbial populations, plant growth and incidence of charcoal rot of cowpea and wilt of cumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijeta SINGH

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted for 2 years to determine the effectiveness of combined use of two biocontrol agents, Bacillus firmus and Aspergillus versicolor for control of Macrophomina phaseolina induced charcoal rot of cowpea and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cumini induced wilt of cumin. The lowest level of plant mortality (3‒4% due to charcoal rot of cowpea was recorded when bacterium coated seeds were sown in radish compost amended soil compared to the non-amended soil (13.8‒20.5%, but this was not significantly better than some other treatments. Cowpea roots from B. firmus coated seeds had better nodulation than any of the individual A. versicolor treatments. Although B. firmus coated seeds + A. versicolor + farmyard manure resulted in maximum nodulation this was not significantly different to B. firmus seed coating. Root colonization by the combined biocontrol agent treatments was better than the individual biocontrol agent treatments. Combining A. versicolor with farmyard manure supported the maximum populations of total fungi and actinomycetes. In both winter seasons, the lowest incidence of wilt (1.0‒5.2% on cumin was recorded when A. versicolor was amended with neem compost compared to the non-amended soil (5.7‒10.5%. Maximum colonization of A. versicolor on roots was observed in B. firmus + A. versicolor + farmyard manure amended plots. During both years, the treatment combination of A. versicolor in neem compost amended plots resulted in maximum populations of fungi, bacteria and A. versicolor in the soil, which was greater than in the non-amended soil. Significant increases in disease control were not recorded after single or repeated delivery of A. versicolor. These results suggest that combining B. firmus as seed coatings with A. versicolor as soil applications gives improved control of M. phaseolina and Fusarium induced diseases on legume and seed spice crops in arid soils.

  15. Morphological and molecular detection of Fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fusarium has a cosmopolitan distribution, with some species able to cause diseases in agricultural crops. A number of isolates of endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy roots of Dendrobium crumenatum (Orchidaceae) at Universiti Putra Malaysia campus. The isolates were primarily identified as Fusarium ...

  16. Identification and pathogenicity assessment of Fusarium spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Durum wheat is the major cereal crop cultivated in Tunisia; covering over 40% of the cereal growing areas. Durum wheat production remains below expectation due to its low productivity that is attributed to the chronically abiotic and biotic stresses. Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium spp. has become an ...

  17. Fatal Disseminated Infection with Fusarium petroliphilum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ersal, Tuba; Al-Hatmi, Abdullah S M; Dalyan Cilo, Burcu; Curfs-Breuker, Ilse; Meis, Jacques F; Ozkalemkaş, Fahir; Ener, Beyza; van Diepeningen, Anne D

    2014-01-01

    Members of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) are causing the majority of the fusariosis in humans. Disseminated fusariosis has a high mortality and is predominantly observed in patients with leukemia. Here, we present the case of a fatal infection by a Fusarium strain with a degenerated

  18. Morphological and molecular detection of Fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-28

    Jun 28, 2010 ... Fusarium chlamydosporum based on morphological characteristics. The cultures were produced in a range of chicory pink to red and brown pigmentation. Only morphological studies of Fusarium can not give any guarantee at the species levels of identification but key the putative species names. Therefore,.

  19. Sorne aspects of Fusarium genus and the Fusarium oxysporum species Algunos aspectos de los hongos del genero Fusarium y de la especie Fusarium oxysporum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbeláez Torres Germán

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the proposal of the utilization of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum for biological control of coca plants in Colombia, there is a serious discussion on different Colombian meetings about the advantages and disadvantages of its application. However in these discussions there was not enough knowledge of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. This paper presents sorne biological and pathological aspects ofthe genus Fusarium and the species Fusarium oxysporum.Ante la propuesta de utilizar el hongo Fusarium oxysporum
    f.sp. erythoxyli para el control biológico de las plantas de
    coca en Colombia, se ha abierto una amplia discusión en distintos ámbitos nacionales sobre las bondades y los aspectos
    negativos de su aplicación. Sin embargo, en dicha discusión
    se ha notado un gran desconocimiento sobre el hongo
    Fusarium oxysporum. En este artículo se presentan diversos
    aspectos biológicos y patológicos del género Fusarium y de
    la especie Fusarium oxysporum.

  20. Evaluating Genetic Association between Fusarium and Pythium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resistance to Fusarium root rot (Fusarium solani f.s.p phaseoli) has been reported in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) sources and is usually associated with Pythium root rot resistance. Pythium root rot (Pythium ultimum var ultimum) resistance is controlled by a single dominant gene, marked by a SCAR marker ...

  1. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi virus 1 accumulation is correlated with changes in virulence and other phenotypic traits of its fungal host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemus-Minor, Carlos German; Cañizares-Nolasco, Carmen; García-Pedrajas, Maria D D; Pérez-Artés, Encarnación

    2018-03-08

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi virus 1 (FodV1) was detected in isolate Fod 116 (Fod 116V + ) of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi (Fod), reaching such a high accumulation level that it was clearly visible after agarose gel electrophoresis of total DNA extracts. FodV1 consists of four double-stranded RNA segments, that correspond to a new mycovirus in the Chrysoviridae family. We obtained an isolate of Fod 116 (Fod 116V - ) with only a residual level of FodV1 RNA accumulation by single-conidia selection. Compared to the Fod 116V - , isolate Fod 116V + showed significant phenotypic alterations in vegetative growth and virulence. The presence of a high titer of mycovirus FodV1 thus associated with a modified morphology and a reduced growth of the colonies on solid medium, and with a diminished conidiation in liquid medium. Inoculation of four susceptible carnation cultivars with either Fod 116V - or Fod 116V + showed that the presence of a high titer of FodV1 was also correlated with a significantly reduced virulence of its fungal host. All the results suggest that FodV1 could be associated with hypovirulence, identifying it as a potential biocontrol agent against Fusarium wilt of carnation. This is the first report of a mycovirus potentially associated to the induction of hypovirulence in the species Fusarium oxysporum.

  2. Soil Populations of Fusarium Species at Lobamba Lomdzala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fusarium species whose members have telomorphs in the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex are one of the major groups of pathogens that cause diseases of maize. Mating population A (pink Fusarium m moniliforme) and mating population f (yellow fusarium moniliforme) which had shared the Fusarium Moniliforme and ...

  3. Metabolomics of tomato xylem sap during bacterial wilt reveals Ralstonia solanacearum produces abundant putrescine, a metabolite that accelerates wilt disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lowe-Power, Tiffany M.; Hendrich, Connor G.; Roepenack-Lahaye, von Edda; Li, Bin; Wu, Dousheng; Mitra, Raka; Dalsing, Beth L.; Ricca, Patrizia; Naidoo, Jacinth; Cook, David; Jancewicz, Amy; Masson, Patrick; Thomma, Bart; Lahaye, Thomas; Michael, Anthony J.; Allen, Caitilyn

    2017-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum thrives in plant xylem vessels and causes bacterial wilt disease despite the low nutrient content of xylem sap. We found that R. solanacearum manipulates its host to increase nutrients in tomato xylem sap, enabling it to grow better in sap from infected plants than in sap from

  4. Transforming a NEP1 toxin gene into two Fusarium spp. to enhance mycoherbicide activity on Orobanche--failure and success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meir, Sagit; Amsellem, Ziva; Al-Ahmad, Hani; Safran, Einat; Gressel, Jonathan

    2009-05-01

    The NEP1 gene encoding a fungal toxin that successfully conferred hypervirulence when transformed into Colletotrichum coccodes (Wallr.) Hughes attacking Abutilon theophrasti (L.) Medic. was tested to ascertain if it would enhance pathogenicity of Fusarium species to Orobanche aegyptiaca Pers. parasitising crops. None of the Fusarium oxysporum (#CNCM I-1622) NEP1 transformants was hypervirulent. NEP1 transformants of a new but unnamed Fusarium sp. (#CNCM I-1621--previously identified as F. arthrosporioides) killed Orobanche more rapidly than the wild type. Transformed lines of both species were NEP1 PCR positive, as was the wild type of F. oxysporum #CNCM I-1622 and five other formae speciales of F. oxysporum. All six wild-type formae speciales of F. oxysporum tested excrete minute amounts of immunologically and bioassay-detectable NEP1-like protein. NEP1 expression of most F. oxysporum transformants was suppressed, suggesting that the native gene and the transgene silence each other. The sequence of the putative NEP1 gene in Fusarium oxysporum #CNCM I-1622 differs from the sequence in the toxin-overproducing strain of F. oxysporum f. sp. erythroxyli in four or five amino acids in the first exon. Wild-type Fusarium sp. #CNCM I-1621 does not contain a NEP1-like gene, explaining why it seemed amenable to transformation with high expression, and its virulence was probably enhanced by not cosuppressing the endogenous gene as occurred with Fusarium oxysporum #CNCM I-1622.

  5. Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides infection on maize seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana Portes Ramos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The previous knowledge of the infection process and pathogens behavior, for evaluating the physiological potential of maize seeds, is essential for decision making on the final destination of lots that can endanger sowing. This research was carried out in order to study the minimum period required for maize seeds contamination by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe and Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc. Nirenberg, as well as these pathogens influence on seed germination and vigor, by using the cold test. Three maize seeds hybrids, kept in contact with the pathogens for different periods, were evaluated with and without surface disinfection. After determining the most suitable period, new samples were contaminated by F. graminearum and F. verticillioides, under different infection levels, and subjected to germination tests in sand. The cold test was conducted with healthy and contaminated seeds, at different periods, in a cold chamber. The contact of maize seeds with F. graminearum and F. verticillioides for 16 hours was enough to cause infection. F. graminearum and F. verticillioides did not affect the maize seeds germination, however, F. graminearum reduced the vigor of seeds lots.

  6. IDENTIFICATION OF DIFFERENT FUSARIUM SPP. IN ALLIUM SPP. IN GERMANY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, B; Karlovsky, P; Pfohl, K; Gamliel, A; Isack, Y; Dehne, H W

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 Allium cepa bulbs from different fields in Northern and Southern Germany, seeds and sets from onion breeders were analysed for infestation with Fusarium species. The same investigation was done in 2014 with different edible Allium spp. from local markets. Different Fusarium spp. were isolated and identified by morphological characterisation. 24 different Fusarium spp. were identified. The diversity of Fusarium spp. and the intensity of infestation was higher on edible bulbs compared to the younger sets and seeds. The analysed onions and other edible Allium spp. from local markets showed also high contents of different Fusarium species. The most prevalent identified Fusarium sp. in the analysed Allium spp. in Germany was Fusarium oxysporum which can cause the Fusarium Basal Rot, followed by Fusarium solani. Fusarium proliferatum, which can cause the Fusarium Salmon Blotch in onions, could be detected in about half of the sampled onion fields and in approximately 10% of all analysed onions from fields. Also in the onion sets, on the surface of the seeds and in other edible Allium spp. F. proliferatum could be identified. Besides F. proliferatum, further mycotoxin producing Fusarium spp. like Fusarium equiseti or Fusarium tricinctum were identified. Other Fusarium spp. like Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium poae were first described in Allium sp. in this study. The two most prevalent Fusarium spp. F. oxysporum and F. solani are able to produce mycotoxins like enniatins, fumonisins, moniliformin and T-2 toxins. Fusarium sp. like F. proliferatum, F. equiseti and F. tricinctum are able to produce additional toxins like beauvericins, zearalenone and diacetoscirpenol. This high number of Fusarium spp., which are able to produce a broad spectrum of different mycotoxins, could be a potential health risk for human beings and livestock.

  7. Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov.--a symbiotic fungus of Euwallacea sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, S; Sharon, M; Maymon, M; Mendel, Z; Protasov, A; Aoki, T; Eskalen, A; O'Donnell, K

    2013-01-01

    The invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) and a novel Fusarium sp. that it farms in its galleries as a source of nutrition causes serious damage to more than 20 species of live trees and pose a serious threat to avocado production (Persea americana) in Israel and California. Adult female beetles are equipped with mandibular mycangia in which its fungal symbiont is transported within and from the natal galleries. Damage caused to the xylem is associated with disease symptoms that include sugar or gum exudates, dieback, wilt and ultimately host tree mortality. In 2012 the beetle was recorded on more than 200 and 20 different urban landscape species in southern California and Israel respectively. Euwallacea sp. and its symbiont are closely related to the tea shot-hole borer (E. fornicatus) and its obligate symbiont, F. ambrosium occurring in Sri Lanka and India. To distinguish these beetles, hereafter the unnamed xyleborine in Israel and California will be referred to as Euwallacea sp. IS/CA. Both fusaria exhibit distinctive ecologies and produce clavate macroconidia, which we think might represent an adaption to the species-specific beetle partner. Both fusaria comprise a genealogically exclusive lineage within Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) that can be differentiated with arbitrarily primed PCR. Currently these fusaria can be distinguished only phenotypically by the abundant production of blue to brownish macroconidia in the symbiont of Euwallacea sp. IS/CA and their rarity or absence in F. ambrosium. We speculate that obligate symbiosis of Euwallacea and Fusarium, might have driven ecological speciation in these mutualists. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to describe and illustrate the novel, economically destructive avocado pathogen as Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov. S. Freeman et al.

  8. Isolation and Heterologous Expression of a Polygalacturonase Produced by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Race 1 and 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangyong Dong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt (Panama disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC represents a significant threat to banana (Musa spp. production. Musa AAB is susceptible to Race 1 (FOC1 and Race 4 (FOC4, while Cavendish Musa AAA is found to be resistant to FOC1 but still susceptible to Race 4. A polygalacturonase (PGC3 was purified from the supernatant of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4 (FOC4, which is the pathogen of Fusarium wilt. PGC3 had an apparent molecular weight of 45 kDa according to SDS-PAGE. The enzyme hydrolyzed polygalacturonic acid in an exo-manner, as demonstrated by analysis of degradation products. The Km and Vmax values of PGC3 from FOC4 were determined to be 0.70 mg·mL−1 and 101.01 Units·mg·protein−1·min−1, respectively. Two pgc3 genes encoding PGC3 from FOC4 and FOC1, both genes of 1368 bp in length encode 456 amino-acid residues with a predicted signal peptide sequence of 21 amino acids. There are 16 nucleotide sites difference between FOC4-pgc3 and FOC1-pgc3, only leading to four amino acid residues difference. In order to obtain adequate amounts of protein required for functional studies, two genes were cloned into the expression vector pPICZaA and then expressed in Pichia pastoris strains of SMD1168. The recombinant PGC3, r-FOC1-PGC3 and r-FOC4-PGC3, were expressed and purified as active proteins. The optimal PGC3 activity was observed at 50 °C and pH 4.5. Both recombinant PGC3 retained >40% activity at pH 3–7 and >50% activity in 10–50 °C. Both recombinant PGC3 proteins could induce a response but with different levels of tissue maceration and necrosis in banana plants. In sum, our results indicate that PGC3 is an exo-PG and can be produced with full function in P. pastoris.

  9. Isolation and heterologous expression of a polygalacturonase produced by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 1 and 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhangyong; Wang, Zhenzhong

    2015-04-03

    Fusarium wilt (Panama disease) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC) represents a significant threat to banana (Musa spp.) production. Musa AAB is susceptible to Race 1 (FOC1) and Race 4 (FOC4), while Cavendish Musa AAA is found to be resistant to FOC1 but still susceptible to Race 4. A polygalacturonase (PGC3) was purified from the supernatant of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4 (FOC4), which is the pathogen of Fusarium wilt. PGC3 had an apparent molecular weight of 45 kDa according to SDS-PAGE. The enzyme hydrolyzed polygalacturonic acid in an exo-manner, as demonstrated by analysis of degradation products. The Km and Vmax values of PGC3 from FOC4 were determined to be 0.70 mg·mL-1 and 101.01 Units·mg·protein-1·min-1, respectively. Two pgc3 genes encoding PGC3 from FOC4 and FOC1, both genes of 1368 bp in length encode 456 amino-acid residues with a predicted signal peptide sequence of 21 amino acids. There are 16 nucleotide sites difference between FOC4-pgc3 and FOC1-pgc3, only leading to four amino acid residues difference. In order to obtain adequate amounts of protein required for functional studies, two genes were cloned into the expression vector pPICZaA and then expressed in Pichia pastoris strains of SMD1168. The recombinant PGC3, r-FOC1-PGC3 and r-FOC4-PGC3, were expressed and purified as active proteins. The optimal PGC3 activity was observed at 50 °C and pH 4.5. Both recombinant PGC3 retained >40% activity at pH 3-7 and >50% activity in 10-50 °C. Both recombinant PGC3 proteins could induce a response but with different levels of tissue maceration and necrosis in banana plants. In sum, our results indicate that PGC3 is an exo-PG and can be produced with full function in P. pastoris.

  10. Meta-analysis Reveals That the Genus Pseudomonas Can Be a Better Choice of Biological Control Agent against Bacterial Wilt Disease Caused by Ralstonia solanacearum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Chandrasekaran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological control agents (BCAs from different microbial taxa are increasingly used to control bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. However, a quantitative research synthesis has not been conducted on the role of BCAs in disease suppression. Therefore, the present study aimed to meta-analyze the impacts of BCAs on both Ralstonia wilt disease suppression and plant (host growth promotion. The analysis showed that the extent of disease suppression by BCAs varied widely among studies, with effect size (log response ratio ranging from −2.84 to 2.13. The disease incidence and severity were significantly decreased on average by 53.7% and 49.3%, respectively. BCAs inoculation also significantly increased fresh and dry weight by 34.4% and 36.1%, respectively on average. Also, BCAs inoculation significantly increased plant yield by 66%. Mean effect sizes for genus Pseudomonas sp. as BCAs were higher than for genus Bacillus spp. Among antagonists tested, P. fluorescens, P. putida, B. cereus, B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens were found to be more effective in general for disease reduction. Across studies, highest disease control was found for P. fluorescens, annual plants, co-inoculation with more than one BCA, soil drench and greenhouse condition were found to be essential in understanding plant responses to R. solanacearum. Our results suggest that more efforts should be devoted to harnessing the potential beneficial effects of these antagonists, not just for plant growth promoting traits but also in mode of applications, BCAs formulations and their field studies should be considered in the future for R. solanacearum wilt disease suppression.

  11. Endogenous Fusarium Endophthalmitis in Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Balamurugan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous endophthalmitis accounts for 2% to 8% of cases of endophthalmitis. Immunocompromised state and intravenous drug use are the 2 most common causes of endogenous endophthalmitis due to molds fungi. Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Scedosporium are the common organisms in mold endophthalmitis. We report a case of Fusarium endophthalmitis in a patient with uncontrolled diabetes. While diabetes mellitus is a well-known risk factor for endogenous endophthalmitis, we did not find any reported case of Fusarium endophthalmitis in a case of diabetes mellitus. The patient presented with granulomatous uveitis masquerading as noninfectious uveitis with a very good response to steroids. The characteristic clinical features were established late in the clinical course associated with poor outcome. This case highlights the significance of uncontrolled diabetes as a risk factor for Fusarium endophthalmitis and also the presentation of endophthalmitis as a masquerade syndrome. The clinician should have high index of suspicion as these cases have poor outcomes.

  12. The fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol can inhibit plant apoptosis-like programmed cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Diamond

    Full Text Available The Fusarium genus of fungi is responsible for commercially devastating crop diseases and the contamination of cereals with harmful mycotoxins. Fusarium mycotoxins aid infection, establishment, and spread of the fungus within the host plant. We investigated the effects of the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON on the viability of Arabidopsis cells. Although it is known to trigger apoptosis in animal cells, DON treatment at low concentrations surprisingly did not kill these cells. On the contrary, we found that DON inhibited apoptosis-like programmed cell death (PCD in Arabidopsis cells subjected to abiotic stress treatment in a manner independent of mitochondrial cytochrome c release. This suggested that Fusarium may utilise mycotoxins to suppress plant apoptosis-like PCD. To test this, we infected Arabidopsis cells with a wild type and a DON-minus mutant strain of F. graminearum and found that only the DON producing strain could inhibit death induced by heat treatment. These results indicate that mycotoxins may be capable of disarming plant apoptosis-like PCD and thereby suggest a novel way that some fungi can influence plant cell fate.

  13. Isolation and Characterization of Antifungal Metabolites from Pterocarpus santalinus against Fusarium graminearum Causing Fusarium Head Blight on Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-In Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium head bight (FHB is a devastating disease on major cereal crops worldwide which causes primarily by Fusarium graminearum. Synthetic fungicides are generally used in conventional agriculture to control FHB. Their prolonged usage has led to environmental issues and human health problems. This has prompted interest in developing environmentally friendly biofungicides, including botanical fungicides. In this study, a total 100 plant extracts were tested for antifungal activity against F. graminearum. The crude extract of Pterocarpus santalinus heartwood showed the strongest antifungal activity and contained two antifungal metabolites which were identified as α-cedrol and widdrol by GC-MS analysis. α-Cedrol and widdrol isolated from P. santalinus heartwood extract had 31.25 mg/l and 125 mg/l of minimal inhibitory concentration against the spore germination of F. graminearum, and also showed broad spectrum antifungal activities against various plant pathogens. In addition, the wettable powder type formulation of heartwood extract of P. santalinus decreased FHB incidence in dose-dependent manner and suppressed the development of FHB with control values of 87.2% at 250-fold dilution, similar to that of chemical fungicide (92.6% at 2,000-fold dilution. This study suggests that the heartwood extract of P. santalinus could be used as an effective biofungicide for the control of FHB.

  14. Uji Lapangan Formula Cair Pseudomonas fluorescens P60 terhadap Layu Fusarium pada Tanaman Tomat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loekas Soesanto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A research aimed at knowing 1 the effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens P60 in liquid formula on Fusarium wilt of tomato, 2 the effect of P. fluorescens P60 in the formula on tomato growth and yield, and 3 P. fluorescens P60 mechanisms on tomata was carried out at tomato field of Selomoyo Village, Kaliangkrik Subdistrict, Magelang Regency at altitude of 826 m above sea level. Randomized block design was used with seven treatments and four replicates. The treatments were control, with P. fluorescens P60 soaked for 15 min and without fungicide, pathogen without P. fluorescens P60 with fungicide (PBG1, pathogen with P. fluorescens P60 without fungicide, pathogen with pouring P. fluorescens P60 1, 3, and 5 times. Result indicated that application of formulated P. fluorescens P60 for 5 times decreased the disease intensity as high as 26.77%, and late population of the pathogen but increased P. fluorescens P60 as high as 4.54×1010 cfu ml-1. P. fluorescens P60 affected growth and yield of tomato. P. Fluorescens P60 induced tomato resistance by increasing qualitatively its phenolic compound content (saponin, tannin, glycoside.   Penelitian dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui: 1 pengaruh Pseudomonas fluorescens P60 dalam formula cair terhadap penyakit layu fusarium pada tanaman tomat, 2 pengaruh P. fluorescens P60 dalam formula cair terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi tanaman tomat, dan 3 mekanisme P. fluorescens P60 pada tanaman tomat dilakukan di lahan Desa Selomoyo, Kecamatan Kaliangkrik, Kabupaten Magelang dengan ketinggian 826 m di atas permukaan laut. Penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK, dengan 7 perlakuan dan jumlah ulangan 4 kali, dan setiap unit terdiri atas 8 tanaman. Perlakuan tersebut meliputi kontrol; dengan P. fluorescens P60 rendam 15 menit dan tanpa fungisida; dengan patogen; tanpa P. fluorescens P60; dengan fungisida (PBG1; patogen, tanpa P. fluorescens P60, tanpa fungisida; patogen, dengan penyiraman P. fluorescens P60 1 kali

  15. Aspects of resistance to fusarium head blight caused by Fusarium culmorum in wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, C.H.A.

    1990-01-01

    In the Netherlands, Fusarium head blight of wheat is predominantly caused by Fusarium culmorum . A low infection level leads to important yield losses and contaminates the grain with mycotoxins, particularly deoxynivalenol. This mycotoxin is suggested to have toxic

  16. Conjunctively screening of biocontrol agents (BCAs) against fusarium root rot and fusarium head blight caused by Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu-Yao; Xie, Yue-Shen; Cui, Yuan-Yu; Xu, Jianjun; He, Wei; Chen, Huai-Gu; Guo, Jian-Hua

    2015-08-01

    Fusarium root-rot and fusarium head blight are plant diseases caused by Fusarium sp. in different growth periods of wheat, bring heavy losses to crop production in China. This research is aiming to screen biocontrol agents conjunctively for controlling these two diseases at the same time, as well as evaluate our previous BCAs (Biological Control Agents) screening strategies in more complex situation, considering biocontrol is well concerned as an environmental-friendly plant disease controlling method. Totally 966 bacterial isolates were screened from different parts of wheat tissues, of which potential biocontrol values were detected according to their abilities in antagonism inhibition and secreting extracellular hydrolytic enzyme. Biocontrol tests against fusarium root rot and fusarium head blight were carried out on 37 bacterial isolates with potential biocontrol capacity after pre-selection through ARDRA- and BOX-PCR analysis on strains with high assessment points. We acquired 10 BCAs with obvious biocontrol efficacy (more than 40%) in greenhouse and field tests. Pseudomonas fluorescens LY1-8 performed well in both two tests (biocontrol efficacy: 44.62% and 58.31%), respectively. Overall, correlation coefficient is 0.720 between assessment values of 37 tested BCA strains and their biocontrol efficacy in trails against fusarium root rot; correlation coefficient is 0.806 between their assessment values and biocontrol efficacy in trails against fusarium head blight. We acquired 10 well-performed potential BCAs, especially P. fluorescens LY1-8 displayed good biocontrol capacity against two different diseases on wheat. Biocontrol efficacies results in both greenhouse and field tests showed high positive correlation with assessment values (0.720 and 0.806), suggesting that the BCAs screening and assessing strategy previously developed in our lab is also adaptable for conjunctively screening BCAs for controlling both root and shoot diseases on wheat caused by same

  17. Effects of Fusarium Head Blight on Wheat Grain and Malt Infected by Fusarium culmorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Spanic

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight is a destructive disease of cereals worldwide. The aim of this research was to study the effect of heavy Fusarium infection with Fusarium culmorum and biosynthesis of mycotoxins on different wheat varieties during malting by setting up field trials with control and Fusarium-inoculated treatments at the Agricultural Institute Osijek. The highest occurrence of Fusarium mycotoxins was expectedly recorded in susceptible variety in grain and malt (3247 and 1484 µg kg−1 for deoxynivalenol (DON, 735 and 1116 µg kg−1 for 3-acetyl deoxynivalenol (3-ADON, 37 and 233 µg kg−1 for zearalenone (ZEN, respectively. Based on published information, complemented by our own results, the following conclusions can be drawn: The presence of 3-ADON in different wheat varieties might be the result of its conversion into DON by deacetylation during the malting process. The detection of the mycotoxin ZEN indicated that this mycotoxin is only specific for wheat malt.

  18. Disease interactions in a shared host plant: effects of pre-existing viral infection on cucurbit plant defense responses and resistance to bacterial wilt disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori R Shapiro

    Full Text Available Both biotic and abiotic stressors can elicit broad-spectrum plant resistance against subsequent pathogen challenges. However, we currently have little understanding of how such effects influence broader aspects of disease ecology and epidemiology in natural environments where plants interact with multiple antagonists simultaneously. In previous work, we have shown that healthy wild gourd plants (Cucurbita pepo ssp. texana contract a fatal bacterial wilt infection (caused by Erwinia tracheiphila at significantly higher rates than plants infected with Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV. We recently reported evidence that this pattern is explained, at least in part, by reduced visitation of ZYMV-infected plants by the cucumber beetle vectors of E. tracheiphila. Here we examine whether ZYMV-infection may also directly elicit plant resistance to subsequent E. tracheiphila infection. In laboratory studies, we assayed the induction of key phytohormones (SA and JA in single and mixed infections of these pathogens, as well as in response to the feeding of A. vittatum cucumber beetles on healthy and infected plants. We also tracked the incidence and progression of wilt disease symptoms in plants with prior ZYMV infections. Our results indicate that ZYMV-infection slightly delays the progression of wilt symptoms, but does not significantly reduce E. tracheiphila infection success. This observation supports the hypothesis that reduced rates of wilt disease in ZYMV-infected plants reflect reduced visitation by beetle vectors. We also documented consistently strong SA responses to ZYMV infection, but limited responses to E. tracheiphila in the absence of ZYMV, suggesting that the latter pathogen may effectively evade or suppress plant defenses, although we observed no evidence of antagonistic cross-talk between SA and JA signaling pathways. We did, however, document effects of E. tracheiphila on induced responses to herbivory that may influence host

  19. Disease Interactions in a Shared Host Plant: Effects of Pre-Existing Viral Infection on Cucurbit Plant Defense Responses and Resistance to Bacterial Wilt Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauck, Kerry E.; Pulido, Hannier; De Moraes, Consuelo M.; Stephenson, Andrew G.; Mescher, Mark C.

    2013-01-01

    Both biotic and abiotic stressors can elicit broad-spectrum plant resistance against subsequent pathogen challenges. However, we currently have little understanding of how such effects influence broader aspects of disease ecology and epidemiology in natural environments where plants interact with multiple antagonists simultaneously. In previous work, we have shown that healthy wild gourd plants (Cucurbita pepo ssp. texana) contract a fatal bacterial wilt infection (caused by Erwinia tracheiphila) at significantly higher rates than plants infected with Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV). We recently reported evidence that this pattern is explained, at least in part, by reduced visitation of ZYMV-infected plants by the cucumber beetle vectors of E. tracheiphila. Here we examine whether ZYMV-infection may also directly elicit plant resistance to subsequent E. tracheiphila infection. In laboratory studies, we assayed the induction of key phytohormones (SA and JA) in single and mixed infections of these pathogens, as well as in response to the feeding of A. vittatum cucumber beetles on healthy and infected plants. We also tracked the incidence and progression of wilt disease symptoms in plants with prior ZYMV infections. Our results indicate that ZYMV-infection slightly delays the progression of wilt symptoms, but does not significantly reduce E. tracheiphila infection success. This observation supports the hypothesis that reduced rates of wilt disease in ZYMV-infected plants reflect reduced visitation by beetle vectors. We also documented consistently strong SA responses to ZYMV infection, but limited responses to E. tracheiphila in the absence of ZYMV, suggesting that the latter pathogen may effectively evade or suppress plant defenses, although we observed no evidence of antagonistic cross-talk between SA and JA signaling pathways. We did, however, document effects of E. tracheiphila on induced responses to herbivory that may influence host-plant quality for (and

  20. Wilt, crown, and root rot of common rose mallow (Hibiscus moscheutos) caused by a novel Fusarium sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new crown and root rot disease of landscape plantings of the malvaceous ornamental common rose mallow (Hibiscus moscheutos) was first detected in Washington State in 2012. The main objectives of this study were to complete Koch's postulates, document the disease sypmtoms photographically, and iden...

  1. Detection of tolerant and susceptible fusarium wilt somaclones of banana cultivar rastali (Musa AAB) by RAPD and retrotransposon markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asif, M.J.; Fatimah, K.; Rofina Yasmin Othman; Tan, S.H.

    2002-01-01

    This study was aimed to use DNA markers i.e. RAPD - random amplified polymorphic DNA and retrotransposon - IRAP - inter retrotransposons amplified polymorphism polymerase reaction - to study somaclonal variation in banana. The usefulness of retrotransposons as genetic markers to study somaclonal variability in bananas was further discussed

  2. Use of AFLPs to differentiate between Fusarium species causing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Fusarium spp. and. Helmintosporium sativum) diseases are common. The aim of this study was to use the AFLP technique to determine variation and genetic relationships between Syrian Fusarium isolates; and compare them.

  3. Verticillium wilt resistance in Arabidopsis and tomato: identification and functional characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yadeta, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    Vascular wilt pathogens, which comprise bacteria, fungi and oomycetes, are among the most destructive plant pathogens that affect annual crops as well as woody perennials, thus not only impacting world food and feed production but also natural ecosystems. Vascular wilt pathogens colonize the

  4. A review of oak wilt management: a summary of treatment options and their efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrie A. Koch; Gina L. Quiram; Robert C. Venette

    2010-01-01

    Oak wilt, caused by the invasive fungal pathogen Ceratocystis fagacearum (Bretz) Hunt, is a serious and fatal disease of oaks, Quercus spp., with red oaks (section Lobatae) generally being more susceptible than white oaks (section Quercus). Oak wilt was first recognized in North America in 1944...

  5. First report of laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola, on sassafras (Sassafras albidum) in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.A. Bates; Stephen Fraedrich; T.C. Harrington; R.S. Cameron; R.D. Menard; Susan Best

    2013-01-01

    Laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola, a fungal symbiont of the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is responsible for extensive mortality of native redbays (Persea borbonia and P. Palustris) in the coastal plains of the southeastern United States. The wilt also affect the more...

  6. Progression and Impact of Laurel Wilt Disease within Redbay and Sassafras Populations in Southeast Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Scott Cameron; James Hanula; Stephen Fraedrich; Chip Bates

    2015-01-01

    Laurel wilt disease (LWD), caused by the fungus Raffaelea lauricola and transmitted by Xyleborus glabratus (Redbay Ambrosia Beetle [RAB]), has killed millions of Persea borbonia (Redbay) trees throughout the southeastern Coastal Plain. Laurel wilt also has been...

  7. Verticillium wilt in nursery trees: damage thresholds, spatial and temporal aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goud, J.C.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2011-01-01

    Verticillium wilt can cause high losses in tree nurseries. To be able to predict disease and unravel disease dynamics over time and space, the relationship between verticillium wilt and soil inoculum densities of Verticillium dahliae and the nematode Pratylenchus fallax was studied in two 4-year

  8. Molecular research and genetic engineering of resistance to Verticillium wilt in cotton: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verticillium dahliae, a soil-borne pathogen, causes Verticillium wilt, one of the most serious diseases in cotton, deleteriously influencing the crop’s production and quality. Verticillium wilt has become a major obstacle in cotton production since Helicoverpa armigera, the cotton bollworm, became e...

  9. Verticillium wilt resistance in Arabidopsis and tomato: identification and functional characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yadeta, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    Vascular wilt pathogens, which comprise bacteria, fungi and oomycetes, are among the most destructive plant pathogens that affect annual crops as well as woody perennials, thus not only impacting world food and feed production but also natural ecosystems. Vascular wilt pathogens colonize the xylem

  10. Oak Wilt in Minnesota: It's Still Here and We're Doing Something About It!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Juzwik; Gary Johnson

    1999-01-01

    Yes, oak wilt is still around and killing large numbers of oaks annually in Minnesota. Although the progress of oak wilt has been slowed through the concerted efforts of State agencies, private contractors, and determined homeowners, the battle to "control" this infectious disease is ongoing and will continue to be as long as there are oaks in Minnesota....

  11. Recovery plan for laurel wilt of avocado, caused by Raffaelea lauricola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurel wilt kills American members of the Lauraceae plant family, including avocado (Persea americana), an important commercial fruit crop. The disease threatens commercial production in the US and other countries, and currently impacts the avocado industry in Florida. As laurel wilt spreads, the N...

  12. Sulfuryl fluoride fumigation of red oak logs eradicates the oak wilt fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer L. Schmidt; Jennifer Juzwik; Brian Schneider

    1997-01-01

    Preliminary field trials using red oak logs from trees dying from oak wilt disease were successful in eliminating oak wilt fungus from sapwood after fumigation with sulfuryl fluoride for 72 h under tarp. These results support earlier laboratory data on the fungitoxicity of sulfuryl fluoride as a potential replacement for methyl bromide of exported red oak veneer logs....

  13. Molecular and metabolic changes of cherelle wilt of cacao and its effect on Moniliophthora roreri

    Science.gov (United States)

    The seeds of Theobroma cacao L. pods are processed into cocoa products. Cherelle wilt is physiological thinning of young pods that result in loss of potential pods. Cherelle wilt first occurs 50 days after pollination (DAP) and a second thinning occurs around 70 DAP. Cherelles are also highly sus...

  14. Biocontrol potential of salinity tolerant mutants of Trichoderma harzianum against Fusarium oxysporum Potencial de biocontrole de mutantes sal-tolerantes de Trichoderma harzianum contra Fusarium oxysporum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Abdel-Latif A. Mohamed

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Exposing a wild-type culture of Trichoderma harzianum to gamma irradiation induced two stable salt-tolerant mutants (Th50M6 and Th50M11. Under saline conditions, both mutants greatly surpassed their wild type strain in growth rate, sporulation and biological proficiency against Fusarium oxysporum, the causal agent of tomato wilt disease. Tolerant T. harzianum mutants detained a capability to grow and convinced sporulation in growth media containing up to 69 mM NaCl. In comparison with their parent strain, characterization of both mutants confirmed that they have reinforced contents of proline and hydroxyproline, relatively higher sodium content compared to potassium, calcium or magnesium contents, higher level of total phenols. Electrophoretic analysis of total soluble proteins in the salt tolerance mutant Th50M6 showed different bands accumulated in response to 69 mM NaCl. Data also showed that mutants produce certain active metabolites, such as chitinases, cellulases, beta-galactosidases, as well as, some antibiotics i.e., trichodermin, gliotoxin and gliovirin. Trichoderma mutants significantly reduced wilt disease incidence and improved yield and mineral contents of tomato plants under both saline and non-saline soil conditions, as well as, under infested and natural conditions. T. harzianum mutants were also more efficient in dropping the F. oxysporum growth in rhizosphere compared to the wild type strain. Population density of both mutants in rhizosphere far exceeded that of T. harzianum wild type strain.A exposição de uma cepa selvagem de Trichoderma harzianum à irradiação gama induziu dois mutantes tolerantes a sal (Th50M6 e Th50M11. Em condições salinas, os dois mutantes foram muito superiores à cepa selvagem em relação à velocidade de multiplicação, esporulação e eficiência contra Fusarium oxysporum, o agente causador da doença wilt do tomate. Os mutantes tolerantes foram capazes de multiplicação e esporulação em

  15. Effect of mixed and single crops on disease suppressiveness of soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiddink, G.A.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Raaijmakers, J.M.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of mixed cropping on disease suppressiveness of soils was tested for two cropping systems, Brussels sprouts¿barley and triticale¿white clover. Disease suppressiveness of field soils was evaluated in bioassays for the soilborne pathogens Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini,

  16. Development of a thematic collection of Musa spp accessions using SCAR markers for preventive breeding against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp cubense tropical race 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, P R O; de Jesus, O N; Bragança, C A D; Haddad, F; Amorim, E P; Ferreira, C F

    2016-03-11

    Bananas are one of the most consumed fruits worldwide, but are affected by many pests and diseases. One of the most devastating diseases is Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp cubense (Foc). Recently, Fusarium tropical race 4 (Foc TR4) has been causing irreparable damage, especially in Asia and Africa where it has devastated entire plantations, including areas with Cavendish, which is known to be resistant to Foc race 1. Although this race is not yet present in Brazil, results obtained by Embrapa in partnership with the University of Wageningen, The Netherlands, indicate that 100% of the cultivars used by Brazilian growers are susceptible to Foc TR 4. In our study, 276 banana accessions were screened with sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers that have been linked to the resistance of Foc TR 4. Two SCAR primers were tested and the results revealed that SCAR ScaU1001 was efficient at discriminating accessions with possible resistance in 36.6% of the evaluated accessions. This is the first attempt to develop a thematic collection of possible Foc TR 4 resistant banana accessions in Brazil, which could be tested in Asian or African countries to validate marker-assisted selection (MAS), and for use in the preventive breeding of the crop to safeguard our banana plantations against Foc TR 4. We believe that this is an important step towards the prevention of this devastating disease, especially considering that our banana plantations are at risk.

  17. Effet des extraits de compost sur la croissance mycélienne et l'agressivité du Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Mahjoub M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of compost tea on mycelial growth and disease severity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici. Simultaneous addition, on culture media, of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici and compost teas revealed that the latest induced the inhibition of the mycelial growth of the pathogen. This inhibition, noted after an incubation period of about six days at 25°C, was more important when compost teas were enriched in PDB (Potato Dextrose Broth, where it may reach 70% compared to the control. Transplantation of tomato seedlings, previously inoculated by a conidial suspension of F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, in a container media (peat, perlite or the mixture of the two substrates treated by compost teas has signifi cantly reduced Fusarium crown and root rot incidence compared to inoculated and untreated control seedlings. Disease incidence is more reduced when tomato inoculated plants are transplanted in peat treated by compost teas; indeed, these plants donʼt show any wilting and present a vigorous root system and a better vegetative growth.

  18. Researches about selecting resistant melon types to fusarium oxyporum f. sp.melonis race 1,2 by using tissue culture and mutation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Fusarium wilt is a vascular disease of the Cucurbitaceae family caused by the soil fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (FOM), which is very detrimental to muskmelons (Cucumis melo L.). Fusarium wilt of melon is prevalent in temperate and tropical regions and causes a worldwide problem. FOM can survive in the soil for extended periods of time as chlamydospores, and is capable of colonizing crop residues and roots of most crops grown in rotation with melon. The only effective control is the use of resistant varieties. Four races of FOM have been identified, namely 0, 1, 2 and 1.2. Race 1.2 was further subdivided into race 1.2y and 1.2w, which cause yellowing and wilt symptoms, respectively. Two resistance genes (Fom-1 and Fom-2) have been identified in melons. Fom-1 confers resistance to FOM races 0 and 2, and Fom-2 confers resistance to races 0 and 1. These two genes are extensively used in breeding programmes, which can be assisted by marker assisted selection using markers linked to these resistance genes. No genes have been identified that confer resistance to race 1.2. However, polygenic recessive genes have been found to confer resistance to race 1.2 in Piboule genotypes. Melon production in Turkey is 1,700,000 tons and it is declining the year after year because of Fusarium wilt. Therefore, Fusarium wilt has a high economic importance in the cultivation of muskmelon in Turkey. In some parts of Turkey the prevalent races of this pathogen were determined. FOM has caused severe losses for farmers as our native cultivars are not resistant to this disease. It is believed our native cultivars will disappear if resistance to FOM is not introduced into the cultivated material. For this reason, many scientists in Turkey are focusing on research to develop new resistant cultivars via conventional and biotechnological breeding methods. In vitro techniques became widely spread during the 20th century, and their potential to make important contributions to plant

  19. Inflorescence rot disease of date palm is caused by Fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zulfiqar-Ali

    2012-05-01

    May 1, 2012 ... inflorescence rot disease in southern part of Iraq is Fusarium proliferatum. Pathogenecity test confirmed the ... Key words: Fusarium proliferatum, ITS1, ITS4, pathogenecity, PCR, isolates, phylogeny. INTRODUCTION ..... ITS rRNA Region for Identification of Fusarium spp. from Ocular. Sources. Investigative ...

  20. Physical and Chemical Barriers in Root Tissues Contribute to Quantitative Resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi in Pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Bani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi (Fop is one of the most destructive diseases of pea worldwide. Control of this disease is difficult and it is mainly based on the use of resistant cultivars. While monogenic resistance has been successfully used in the field, it is at risk of breakdown by the constant evolution of the pathogen. New sources of quantitative resistance have been recently identified from a wild relative Pisum spp. collection. Here, we characterize histologically the resistance mechanisms occurring in these sources of quantitative resistance. Detailed comparison, of the reaction at cellular level, of eight pea accessions with differential responses to Fop race 2, showed that resistant accessions established several barriers at the epidermis, exodermis, cortex, endodermis and vascular stele efficiently impeding fungal progression. The main components of these different barriers were carbohydrates and phenolic compounds including lignin. We found that these barriers were mainly based on three defense mechanisms including cell wall strengthening, formation of papilla-like structures at penetration sites and accumulation of different substances within and between cells. These defense reactions varied in intensity and localization between resistant accessions. Our results also clarify some steps of the infection process of F. oxysporum in plant and support the important role of cell wall-degrading enzymes in F. oxysporum pathogenicity.

  1. Hubungan Antara Aktivitas Poligalakturonase Dengan Virulensi RAS 4 Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Wibowo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the major constraints of banana plantation in Indonesia is the occurrence of fusarium wilt disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense. The pathogen produced series of cell wall degradation extracellular enzymes which have important roles in pathogenicity. Many studies have been conducted to know the role of degrading enzyme banana pectin is the major component of cell wall. Many pectinolytic enzymes such as polygalacturonase and others have been isolated from many fungal plant pathogens. The study was aimed to know the role of polygalacturonase towards the virulence of race 4 of F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense. The result showed that from 10 isolates of race 4 of F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense, the most virulent isolate was Lmp1 followed by Srg1, Bgl6, Mln1, Bgl3, A13, Bnt2, Gnk3, Kjg1 dan Wsb5. This was indicated by high and low percentage of wilting leaves of banana cultivar Cavendish when they were inoculated with these isolates. Incubation period varied from 3 to 6 weeks after inoculation SDS-PAGE showed that polygalacturonase, mostly PG1 and PG2, was secreted by these isolates, whereas PG3 was only found in growing cultures of Gnk3 and Wsb5 isolates. Detection of polygalacturonase activity with diffusion agar and reducing sugar methods showed that the activity of polygalacturonase secreted by F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense in the growing culture had no correlation with the virulence of the fungal pathogen.   Salah satu kendala utama dalam budidaya pisang di Indonesia adalah gangguan penyakit layu fusarium yang disebabkan oleh jamur Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense. Jamur patogen ini menghasilkan serangkaian enzim ekstraselular pendegradasi dinding sel yang berperan dalam patogenesis. Beberapa penelitian telah dilakukan untuk mengetahui peran enzim yang mendegradasi pektin, yang merupakan komponen penting dinding sel tanaman. Beberapa enzim pektinolitik seperti poligalakturonase dan yang lainnya telah berhasil diisolasi dari berbagai

  2. Pathogenicity associated genes in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Sutherland

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc is a fungus that infects banana roots and causes a destructive plant disease called Fusarium wilt. Foc consists of three pathogenic races (Foc races 1, 2 and 4, classified according to their selective impairment of banana cultivars. Foc race 4 is economically important as it comprises strains that infect Cavendish bananas, which are the most widely planted variety of bananas in the world, in both the tropics (Foc TR4 and subtropics (Foc STR4. The aim of this study was to investigate which genes are potentially involved in fungal pathogenicity by comparing transcript-derived cDNA fragments (TDFs from Foc STR4 and TR4 to those from non-pathogenic F. oxysporum using cDNA-AFLP analysis. This comparison resulted in the identification of 229 unique gene fragments which include the putative pathogenicity-related TDFs encoding chitinase class V (chsV, GTPase activating protein, Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS multidrug transporter and serine/threonine protein kinase (ste12 genes. Quantitative analysis of transcript abundance showed a significant increase in expression of chsV, MFS multidrug transporter and ste12 genes in Foc STR4 and TR4 compared with the non-pathogenic F. oxysporum. These genes play a role in escaping host defence responses and in cell wall degradation. In addition, pathogenicity-related genes from other formae speciales of F. oxysporum, such as the sucrose non-fermenting, cytochrome P450 and F-box protein required for pathogenicity genes, were significantly up-regulated in Foc STR4 and TR4 but not in F. oxysporum isolates non-pathogenic to banana. This study provides the first in vitro comparative analysis of TDFs expressed in pathogenic Foc race 4 isolates and non-pathogenic F. oxysporum isolates from banana.

  3. Identification and Characterization of Wilt and Salt Stress-Responsive MicroRNAs in Chickpea through High-Throughput Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deokar, Amit Atmaram; Bhardwaj, Ankur R.; Agarwal, Manu; Katiyar-Agarwal, Surekha; Srinivasan, Ramamurthy; Jain, Pradeep Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) is the second most widely grown legume worldwide and is the most important pulse crop in the Indian subcontinent. Chickpea productivity is adversely affected by a large number of biotic and abiotic stresses. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in the regulation of plant responses to several biotic and abiotic stresses. This study is the first attempt to identify chickpea miRNAs that are associated with biotic and abiotic stresses. The wilt infection that is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris is one of the major diseases severely affecting chickpea yields. Of late, increasing soil salinization has become a major problem in realizing these potential yields. Three chickpea libraries using fungal-infected, salt-treated and untreated seedlings were constructed and sequenced using next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 12,135,571 unique reads were obtained. In addition to 122 conserved miRNAs belonging to 25 different families, 59 novel miRNAs along with their star sequences were identified. Four legume-specific miRNAs, including miR5213, miR5232, miR2111 and miR2118, were found in all of the libraries. Poly(A)-based qRT-PCR (Quantitative real-time PCR) was used to validate eleven conserved and five novel miRNAs. miR530 was highly up regulated in response to fungal infection, which targets genes encoding zinc knuckle- and microtubule-associated proteins. Many miRNAs responded in a similar fashion under both biotic and abiotic stresses, indicating the existence of cross talk between the pathways that are involved in regulating these stresses. The potential target genes for the conserved and novel miRNAs were predicted based on sequence homologies. miR166 targets a HD-ZIPIII transcription factor and was validated by 5′ RLM-RACE. This study has identified several conserved and novel miRNAs in the chickpea that are associated with gene regulation following exposure to wilt and salt stress. PMID:25295754

  4. Transcriptome profiling of resistant and susceptible Cavendish banana roots following inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chun-yu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fusarium wilt, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (Foc TR4, is considered the most lethal disease of Cavendish bananas in the world. The disease can be managed in the field by planting resistant Cavendish plants generated by somaclonal variation. However, little information is available on the genetic basis of plant resistance to Foc TR4. To a better understand the defense response of resistant banana plants to the Fusarium wilt pathogen, the transcriptome profiles in roots of resistant and susceptible Cavendish banana challenged with Foc TR4 were compared. Results RNA-seq analysis generated more than 103 million 90-bp clean pair end (PE reads, which were assembled into 88,161 unigenes (mean size = 554 bp. Based on sequence similarity searches, 61,706 (69.99% genes were identified, among which 21,273 and 50,410 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology (GO categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG, respectively. Searches in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG mapped 33,243 (37.71% unigenes to 119 KEGG pathways. A total of 5,008 genes were assigned to plant-pathogen interactions, including disease defense and signal transduction. Digital gene expression (DGE analysis revealed large differences in the transcriptome profiles of the Foc TR4-resistant somaclonal variant and its susceptible wild-type. Expression patterns of genes involved in pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP recognition, activation of effector-triggered immunity (ETI, ion influx, and biosynthesis of hormones as well as pathogenesis-related (PR genes, transcription factors, signaling/regulatory genes, cell wall modification genes and genes with other functions were analyzed and compared. The results indicated that basal defense mechanisms are involved in the recognition of PAMPs, and that high levels of defense-related transcripts may contribute to Foc TR4 resistance in

  5. Transcriptome profiling of resistant and susceptible Cavendish banana roots following inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Yu; Deng, Gui-Ming; Yang, Jing; Viljoen, Altus; Jin, Yan; Kuang, Rui-Bin; Zuo, Cun-Wu; Lv, Zhi-Cheng; Yang, Qiao-Song; Sheng, Ou; Wei, Yue-Rong; Hu, Chun-Hua; Dong, Tao; Yi, Gan-Jun

    2012-08-05

    Fusarium wilt, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (Foc TR4), is considered the most lethal disease of Cavendish bananas in the world. The disease can be managed in the field by planting resistant Cavendish plants generated by somaclonal variation. However, little information is available on the genetic basis of plant resistance to Foc TR4. To a better understand the defense response of resistant banana plants to the Fusarium wilt pathogen, the transcriptome profiles in roots of resistant and susceptible Cavendish banana challenged with Foc TR4 were compared. RNA-seq analysis generated more than 103 million 90-bp clean pair end (PE) reads, which were assembled into 88,161 unigenes (mean size = 554 bp). Based on sequence similarity searches, 61,706 (69.99%) genes were identified, among which 21,273 and 50,410 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology (GO) categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG), respectively. Searches in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG) mapped 33,243 (37.71%) unigenes to 119 KEGG pathways. A total of 5,008 genes were assigned to plant-pathogen interactions, including disease defense and signal transduction. Digital gene expression (DGE) analysis revealed large differences in the transcriptome profiles of the Foc TR4-resistant somaclonal variant and its susceptible wild-type. Expression patterns of genes involved in pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) recognition, activation of effector-triggered immunity (ETI), ion influx, and biosynthesis of hormones as well as pathogenesis-related (PR) genes, transcription factors, signaling/regulatory genes, cell wall modification genes and genes with other functions were analyzed and compared. The results indicated that basal defense mechanisms are involved in the recognition of PAMPs, and that high levels of defense-related transcripts may contribute to Foc TR4 resistance in banana. This study generated a

  6. Systemic acquired resistance in Cavendish banana induced by infection with an incompatible strain of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuanli; Yi, Ganjun; Peng, Xinxiang; Huang, Bingzhi; Liu, Ee; Zhang, Jianjun

    2013-07-15

    Fusarium wilt of banana is caused by the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc). The fact that there are no economically viable biological, chemical, or cultural measures of controlling the disease in an infected field leads to search for alternative strategies involving activation of the plant's innate defense system. The mechanisms underlying systemic acquired resistance (SAR) are much less understood in monocots than in dicots. Since systemic protection of plants by attenuated or avirulent pathogens is a typical SAR response, the establishment of a biologically induced SAR model in banana is helpful to investigate the mechanism of SAR to Fusarium wilt. This paper described one such model using incompatible Foc race 1 to induce resistance against Foc tropical race 4 in an in vitro pathosystem. Consistent with the observation that the SAR provided the highest level of protection when the time interval between primary infection and challenge inoculation was 10d, the activities of defense-related enzymes such as phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5), peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7), polyphenol oxidase (PPO, EC 1.14.18.1), and superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) in systemic tissues also reached the maximum level and were 2.00-2.43 times higher than that of the corresponding controls on the tenth day. The total salicylic acid (SA) content in roots of banana plantlets increased from about 1 to more than 5 μg g⁻¹ FW after the second leaf being inoculated with Foc race 1. The systemic up-regulation of MaNPR1A and MaNPR1B was followed by the second up-regulation of PR-1 and PR-3. Although SA and jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET) signaling are mostly antagonistic, systemic expression of PR genes regulated by different signaling pathways were simultaneously up-regulated after primary infection, indicating that both pathways are involved in the activation of the SAR. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Diversity of endophytic fungi from different Verticillium-wilt-resistant Gossypium hirsutum and evaluation of antifungal activity against Verticillium dahliae in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Fang; Wang, Ling-Fei; Feng, Zi-Li; Zhao, Li-Hong; Shi, Yong-Qiang; Zhu, He-Qin

    2014-09-01

    Cotton plants were sampled and ranked according to their resistance to Verticillium wilt. In total, 642 endophytic fungi isolates representing 27 genera were recovered from Gossypium hirsutum root, stem, and leaf tissues, but were not uniformly distributed. More endophytic fungi appeared in the leaf (391) compared with the root (140) and stem (111) sections. However, no significant difference in the abundance of isolated endophytes was found among resistant cotton varieties. Alternaria exhibited the highest colonization frequency (7.9%), followed by Acremonium (6.6%) and Penicillium (4.8%). Unlike tolerant varieties, resistant and susceptible ones had similar endophytic fungal population compositions. In three Verticillium-wilt-resistant cotton varieties, fungal endophytes from the genus Alternaria were most frequently isolated, followed by Gibberella and Penicillium. The maximum concentration of dominant endophytic fungi was observed in leaf tissues (0.1797). The evenness of stem tissue endophytic communities (0.702) was comparatively more uniform than the other two tissues. Eighty endophytic fungi selected from 27 genera were evaluated for their inhibition activity against highly virulent Verticillium dahliae isolate Vd080 in vitro. Thirty-nine isolates exhibited fungistasis against the pathogen at varying degrees. Seven species, having high growth inhibition rates (≥75%), exhibited strong antifungal activity against V. dahliae. The antifungal activity of both volatile and nonvolatile metabolites was also investigated. The nonvolatile substances produced by CEF-818 (Penicillium simplicissimum), CEF-325 (Fusarium solani), CEF-714 (Leptosphaeria sp.), and CEF-642 (Talaromyces flavus) completely inhibited V. dahliae growth. These findings deepen our understanding of cotton-endophyte interactions and provide a platform for screening G. hirsutum endophytes with biocontrol potential.

  8. Mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. associated with Fusarium head blight of wheat in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Diana C; Flematti, Gavin R; Ghisalberti, Emilio L; Sivasithamparam, Krishnapillai; Chakraborty, Sukumar; Obanor, Friday; Jayasena, Kithsiri; Barbetti, Martin J

    2012-05-01

    An isolated occurrence of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat was detected in the south-west region of Western Australia during the 2003 harvest season. The molecular identity of 23 isolates of Fusarium spp. collected from this region during the FHB outbreak confirmed the associated pathogens to be F. graminearum, F. acuminatum or F. tricinctum. Moreover, the toxicity of their crude extracts from Czapek-Dox liquid broth and millet seed cultures to brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) was associated with high mortality levels. The main mycotoxins detected were type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol), enniatins, chlamydosporol and zearalenone. This study is the first report on the mycotoxin profiles of Fusarium spp. associated with FHB of wheat in Western Australia. This study highlights the need for monitoring not just for the presence of the specific Fusarium spp. present in any affected grain but also for their potential mycotoxin and other toxic secondary metabolites.

  9. Inhibitory effects of antimicrobial agents against Fusarium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Hideaki; Inuzuka, Hiroko; Hori, Nobuhide; Takahashi, Nobumichi; Ishida, Kyoko; Mochizuki, Kiyofumi; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Muraosa, Yasunori; Watanabe, Akira; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the inhibitory effects of antibacterial, biocidal, and antifungal agents against Fusarium spp. Seven Fusarium spp: four F. falciforme (Fusarium solani species complex), one Fusarium spp, one Fusarium spp. (Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex), and one F. napiforme (Gibberella fujikuroi species complex), isolated from eyes with fungal keratitis were used in this study. Their susceptibility to antibacterial agents: flomoxef, imipenem, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, gentamicin, tobramycin, and Tobracin® (contained 3,000 μg/ml of tobramycin and 25 μg/ml of benzalkonium chloride (BAK), a biocidal agent: BAK, and antifungal agents: amphotericin B, pimaricin (natamycin), fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, voriconazole, and micafungin, was determined by broth microdilution tests. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50), 100% inhibitory concentration (IC100), and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the Fusarium isolates were determined. BAK had the highest activity against the Fusarium spp. except for the antifungal agents. Three fluoroquinolones and two aminoglycosides had inhibitory effects against the Fusarium spp. at relatively high concentrations. Tobracin® had a higher inhibitory effect against Fusarium spp. than tobramycin alone. Amphotericin B had the highest inhibitory effect against the Fusarium spp, although it had different degrees of activity against each isolate. Our findings showed that fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and BAK had some degree of inhibitory effect against the seven Fusarium isolates, although these agents had considerably lower effect than amphotericin B. However, the inhibitory effects of amphotericin B against the Fusarium spp. varied for the different isolates. Further studies for more effective medications against Fusarium, such as different combinations of antibacterial, biocidal, and antifungal agents are needed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on

  10. Occurrence of Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium musae on banana fruits marketed in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Orsolya; Bartók, Tibor; Szécsi, Árpád

    2015-06-01

    Fusarium strains were isolated from rotten banana fruit imported into Hungary from some African and some Neotropical countries. The strains were identified using morphological features, 2-benzoxazolinone tolerance, translation elongation factor (EF-1α) sequences and inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis. All strains from Africa proved to be F. verticillioides whereas the strains from the Neotropics are Fusarium musae. According to the PCR proof and the fumonisin toxin measurement F. musae strains cannot produce any fumonisins (FB1-4).

  11. Metabolomics of tomato xylem sap during bacterial wilt reveals Ralstonia solanacearum produces abundant putrescine, a metabolite that accelerates wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe-Power, Tiffany M; Hendrich, Connor G; von Roepenack-Lahaye, Edda; Li, Bin; Wu, Dousheng; Mitra, Raka; Dalsing, Beth L; Ricca, Patrizia; Naidoo, Jacinth; Cook, David; Jancewicz, Amy; Masson, Patrick; Thomma, Bart; Lahaye, Thomas; Michael, Anthony J; Allen, Caitilyn

    2017-12-07

    Ralstonia solanacearum thrives in plant xylem vessels and causes bacterial wilt disease despite the low nutrient content of xylem sap. We found that R. solanacearum manipulates its host to increase nutrients in tomato xylem sap, enabling it to grow better in sap from infected plants than in sap from healthy plants. Untargeted GC/MS metabolomics identified 22 metabolites enriched in R. solanacearum-infected sap. Eight of these could serve as sole carbon or nitrogen sources for R. solanacearum. Putrescine, a polyamine that is not a sole carbon or nitrogen source for R. solanacearum, was enriched 76-fold to 37 µM in R. solanacearum-infected sap. R. solanacearum synthesized putrescine via a SpeC ornithine decarboxylase. A ΔspeC mutant required ≥ 15 µM exogenous putrescine to grow and could not grow alone in xylem even when plants were treated with putrescine. However, co-inoculation with wildtype rescued ΔspeC growth, indicating R. solanacearum produced and exported putrescine to xylem sap. Intriguingly, treating plants with putrescine before inoculation accelerated wilt symptom development and R. solanacearum growth and systemic spread. Xylem putrescine concentration was unchanged in putrescine-treated plants, so the exogenous putrescine likely accelerated disease indirectly by affecting host physiology. These results indicate that putrescine is a pathogen-produced virulence metabolite. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Long noncoding RNAs that respond to Fusarium oxysporum infection in 'Cavendish' banana (Musa acuminata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenbin; Li, Chunqiang; Li, Shuxia; Peng, Ming

    2017-12-05

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a class of genes that influence a variety of biological functions through acting as signal, decoy, guide, and scaffold molecules. In banana (Musa spp.), an important economic fruit crop, particularly in Southeast Asia, the wilt disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), especially strain Foc TR4, is disastrous. In banana, how the biogenesis of these lncRNAs is regulated in response to pathogen infection is still largely unknown. In this study, strand-specific paired-end RNA sequencing of banana samples was performed on susceptible and resistant cultivars inoculated with Foc, with three biological replicates and at two different times after infection. Overall, 5,294 lncRNAs were predicted with high confidence through strict filtration, including long intergenic ncRNA (lincRNA) and antisense lncRNA. Differentially expressed (DE) lncRNAs were identified in response to Foc infection in the inoculated versus the mock-inoculated banana of the susceptible 'BX' and resistant 'NK' cultivars. Through KEGG, GO, and the expression levels of the DE lncRNAs, some DE lncRNAs were predicted to be involved in plant-pathogen interactions and phytohormone signal transduction. In this study, this catalog of lncRNAs and their properties will facilitate further experimental studies and functional classifications of these genes.

  13. Cytogenetics of Physalis peruviana L. and Physalis floridana Rydb. genotypes with differential response to Fusarium oxysporum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara A. Liberato G.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporumis considered the main constraint of cape gooseberry, Physalis peruviana, production in Colombia. P. peruvianaand P. floridana genotypes with differential resistance responses against F. oxysporum have been identified previously. In the present study, the genotypes were evaluated in order to complement the knowledge of cytogenetics diversity in Physalisand to design hybridization strategies to support breeding of cape gooseberry crop. The chromosome number in mitotic dividing cells from root-tips of tissue culture plantlets was determined, from which the average mitotic hour was estimated at 12:00 hours for P. peruviana and 10:00 for P. floridana. Chromosomic complements of 2n = 4x = 48 and 2n = 2x = 24 were found for each one of the two species. Additionally, flow cytometry analyses detected variation within P. peruviana with a nuclear DNA content of 2.33 pg for the 2n = 24 genotype and variations ranged from 5.77 to 8.12 pg for 2n = 48 genotypes. In P. floridanaDNA content was 2.29 pg in the 2n = 24 genotype and 4.03 pg in the 2n = 48 genotype. There was a significant effect (α = 0.01 of the number of chromosomes on nuclear DNA content for the two species.

  14. Rapid molecular technique to distinguish Fusarium species

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lodolo, EJ

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear DNA (nDNA) of different isolates of three closely related, toxin-producing Fusarium species, F. moniliforme, F. nygamai and F. napiforme, was compared to ascertain the sensitivity of a molecular method to distinguish these three species...

  15. Keratitis by Fusarium temperatum , a novel opportunist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Hatmi, Abdullah; Bonifaz, Alexandro; de Hoog, G; Vazquez-Maya, Leticia; Garcia-Carmona, Karla; Meis, Jacques F; van Diepeningen, Anne D

    2014-01-01

    Background Fusarium species are among the most common fungi present in the environment and some species have emerged as major opportunistic fungal infection in human. However, in immunocompromised hosts they can be virulent pathogens and can cause death. The pathogenesis of this infection relies on

  16. Occurrence of Fusarium Oxysporum and Ralstonia (Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The microflora associated with the root-surface of five tomato cultivars commonly cultivated in Edo State Nigeria, was investigated by inoculating serially washed 5 mm tomato root segments on potato dextrose agar (PDA) incubated at room temperature (28-30oC). Fusarium oxysporum and Ralstonia (pseudomonas) ...

  17. Biosynthesis of fusarielins in Fusarium graminearum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saei, Wagma; Søndergaard, Teis; Giese, Henriette

    Polyketide synthase 9 (PKS9) is one of the 15 identified polyketide synthase (PKS) genes in Fusarium graminearum. The gene is coregulated along with five neighboring genes by a single transcription factor (TF). An overexpression of the transcription factor led to production of three novel...

  18. Characterization and intraspecific variation of Fusarium semitectum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 79 isolates of Fusarium semitectum were characterized by morphological and IGS-RFLP analysis to assess its intraspecific variation. Based on morphological characteristics, the isolates of F. semitectum were classified into 2 distinct groups, morphotypes I and II. Morphotype I was characterized by longer ...

  19. Identification of Ina proteins from Fusarium acuminatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Jan Frederik; Kunert, Anna Theresa; Pöschl, Ulrich; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2015-04-01

    Freezing of water above -36° C is based on ice nucleation activity (INA) mediated by ice nucleators (IN) which can be of various origins. Beside mineral IN, biological particles are a potentially important source of atmospheric IN. The best-known biological IN are common plant-associated bacteria. The IN activity of these bacteria is induced by a surface protein on the outer cell membrane, which is fully characterized. In contrast, much less is known about the nature of fungal IN. The fungal genus Fusarium is widely spread throughout the earth. It belongs to the Ascomycota and is one of the most severe fungal pathogens. It can affect a variety of organisms from plants to animals including humans. INA of Fusarium was already described about 30 years ago and INA of Fusarium as well as other fungal genera is assumed to be mediated by proteins or at least to contain a proteinaceous compound. Although many efforts were made the precise INA machinery of Fusarium and other fungal species including the proteins and their corresponding genes remain unidentified. In this study preparations from living fungal samples of F. acuminatum were fractionated by liquid chromatography and IN active fractions were identified by freezing assays. SDS-page and de novo sequencing by mass spectrometry were used to identify the primary structure of the protein. Preliminary results show that the INA protein of F. acuminatum is contained in the early size exclusion chromatography fractions indicating a high molecular size. Moreover we could identify a single protein band from IN active fractions at 130-145 kDa corresponding to sizes of IN proteins from bacterial species. To our knowledge this is for the first time an isolation of a single protein from in vivo samples, which can be assigned as IN active from Fusarium.

  20. A Review of the Interactions between Wheat and Wheat Pathogens: Zymoseptoria tritici, Fusarium spp. and Parastagonospora nodorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Duba

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Zymoseptoria tritici is a hemibiotrophic pathogen which causes Septoria leaf blotch in wheat. The pathogenesis of the disease consists of a biotrophic phase and a necrotrophic phase. The pathogen infects the host plant by suppressing its immune response in the first stage of infection. Hemibiotrophic pathogens of the genus Fusarium cause Fusarium head blight, and the necrotrophic Parastagonospora nodorum is responsible for Septoria nodorum blotch in wheat. Cell wall-degrading enzymes in plants promote infections by necrotrophic and hemibiotrophic pathogens, and trichothecenes, secondary fungal metabolites, facilitate infections caused by fungi of the genus Fusarium. There are no sources of complete resistance to the above pathogens in wheat. Defense mechanisms in wheat are controlled by many genes encoding resistance traits. In the wheat genome, the characteristic features of loci responsible for resistance to pathogenic infections indicate that at least several dozen genes encode resistance to pathogens. The molecular interactions between wheat and Z. tritici, P. nodorum and Fusarium spp. pathogens have been insufficiently investigated. Most studies focus on the mechanisms by which the hemibiotrophic Z. tritici suppresses immune responses in plants and the role of mycotoxins and effector proteins in infections caused by P. nodorum and Fusarium spp. fungi. Trichothecene glycosylation and effector proteins, which are involved in defense responses in wheat, have been described at the molecular level. Recent advances in molecular biology have produced interesting findings which should be further elucidated in studies of molecular interactions between wheat and fungal pathogens. The Clustered Regularly-Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/ CRISPR associated (CRISPR/Cas system can be used to introduce targeted mutations into the wheat genome and confer resistance to selected fungal diseases. Host-induced gene silencing and spray-induced gene

  1. Tomato spotted wilt virus infection improves host suitability for its vector Frankliniella occidentalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maris, P.C.; Joosten, N.N.; Goldbach, R.W.; Peters, D.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) infection on plant attractiveness for the western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) was studied. Significantly more thrips were recovered on infected than were recovered on noninfected pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants in different preference

  2. Distribution of Tomato spotted wilt virus in dahlia plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, S; Hirayama, Y; Matsushita, Y

    2017-04-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) causes significant losses in the production of the ornamental plant Dahlia variabilis in Japan. The purpose of this study was to examine the distribution of TSWV in dahlia plants and identify plant parts that can be used in the selection of TSWV-free plants. The distribution of TSWV was investigated using reverse transcriptional polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and tissue blot immunoassay. The detection rate of TSWV in latent infected compound leaves was the highest in the petiole, and it decreased from the veins and rachis to the lamina. The tissue blot immunoassays of the leaflets showed an uneven distribution of TSWV, especially along the edge of the leaf blade. In stems, the detection rate of TSWV was high partway up the stem compared to that in the upper and the lower parts of the stem during the vegetative growth stage. A highly uneven distribution was observed in the bulb. Our results indicated that middle parts of the stem as well as the petioles, rachis, and veins of compound leaves are suitable for detection of TSWV in dahlias. This study is the first to report uneven distribution of TSWV in dahlia plants. In this study, the distribution of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in various parts of dahlia plants was investigated for the first time. The distribution of TSWV was uneven in compound leaves, leaflets, stems, and bulbs. The middle parts of the stem or the petiole and leaf veins should be sampled to detect TSWV when selecting healthy plants. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Bacteriophage-Based Bacterial Wilt Biocontrol for an Environmentally Sustainable Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    ?lvarez, Bel?n; Biosca, Elena G.

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial wilt diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, R. pseudosolanacearum, and R. syzygii subsp. indonesiensis (former R. solanacearum species complex) are among the most important plant diseases worldwide, severely affecting a high number of crops and ornamentals. Difficulties of bacterial wilt control by non-biological methods are related to effectiveness, bacterial resistance and environmental impact. Alternatively, a great many biocontrol strategies have been carried out, with the a...

  4. BREEDING OF TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM RESISTANT TO TOMATO SPOTTED WILT VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. Monakhos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of tomato lines resistance test to tomato spotted wilt virus and its comparison to molecular marker SCAR Sw421 genotyping data is shown. A molecular marker SCAR Sw421 analysis allowed identifying homozygous and heterozygous tomato genotypes possessing Sw5 alleles in segregating populations. Selected tomato lines possessing dominant homozygous alleles of Sw5 gene represent a tomato germplasm resistant to tomato spotted wilt virus and would be useful for following crop improvement.

  5. Mycological survey of Korean cereals and production of mycotoxins by Fusarium isolates.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, U S; Jang, H S; Tanaka, T; Toyasaki, N; Sugiura, Y; Oh, Y J; Cho, C M; Ueno, Y

    1986-01-01

    The fungal species isolated from Korean cereals (barley, polished barley, wheat, rye, and malt) were Alternaria spp., Aspergillus spp., Chaetomium spp., Drechslera spp., Epicoccum sp., Fusarium spp., and Penicillium spp., etc. The number of Fusarium strains isolated was 36, and their ability to produce Fusarium mycotoxins on rice was tested. Nivalenol (NIV) was produced by Fusarium graminearum (7 of 9 isolates), Fusarium oxysporum (3 of 10 isolates), and Fusarium spp. (7 of 15 isolates). Of 1...

  6. FRG3, a Target of slmiR482e-3p, Provides Resistance against the Fungal Pathogen Fusarium oxysporum in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Min Ji

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of plant disease resistance (R genes encode nucleotide binding site–leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR proteins, which specifically determine the plant immune response and have been demonstrated to be targets of several microRNA (miRNA families. The fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL causes vascular wilt disease in tomato worldwide. Here, we explored a possible role for FGR3 in tomato defense against FOL. FRG3 is a predicted NBS-LRR like gene that is targeted by slmiR482e-3p, a member of slmiR482 miRNA family. Northern blot data demonstrated that all seven members of the slmiR482 family were regulated in diverse ways after infection by FOL. The ability of FRG3 to be regulated by slmiR482e-3p was confirmed at the transcript level by co-expression studies in Nicotiana benthamiana. A virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS approach revealed that FRG3 confers resistance to the Motelle tomato cultivar. Taken together, our study has identified a novel R gene, FRG3, which is targeted by slmiR482e-3p at the transcript level, and is necessary for resistance to tomato wilt disease in planta.

  7. PCR-based analysis of disease in tomato singly or mixed inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici races 1 and 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLUSEGUN SAMUEL BALOGUN

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenic response of two tomato cultivars to races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp.. lycopersici (cv. Momotaro, insensitive to race 1 of the pathogen, and cv. Ponderosa sensitive to race 1, was studied in greenhouse and laboratory experiments by inoculating the cultivars singly with race 1 or race 2, and in mixed inoculation with the two races of the pathogen. A pre-symptom PCR assay two weeks after inoculation showed that a fragment of the intergenic spacer region (IGS of ribosomal DNA was amplifi ed by DNA templates from leaf samples of cv. Momotaro tomato plants inoculated with only race 2, or with race 1+2, but in the cv. Ponderosa the fragment was amplifi ed only in plants inoculated with race 1+2. Race-specifi c analysis using the sp13 and sp23 primers confi rmed that the amplifi ed fragment was from race 2 in cv. Momotaro and from races 1+2 in cv. Ponderosa. Later wilt symptoms mirrored the pre-symptom and post-symptom molecular analytical results: cv. Momotaro plants inoculated with only race 1 remained symptomless, while the ‘Momotaro’ plants inoculated with both races (1+2 did not manifest more severe wilt symptoms than plants inoculated with race 2 alone; cv. Ponderosa plants that were mixed-inoculated with race 1+2 manifested more severe symptoms, and at an earlier date than plants inoculated with only race 2. Growth parameters such as number of leaves and plant height showed the race 1+2 infected cv. Ponderosa were significantly retarded in growth, suggesting that significant synergism between the fungal races in tomato pathosystem can occur only when the host cultivar is sensitive to both races. An additional important finding is that pre-symptom leaf sampling of apparently healthy plants is useful in PCR diagnostic analysis to predict impending fusarial wilt outbreaks in tomato especially in infested soil.

  8. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Different Isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici to Exploit the Differentially Expressed Proteins Responsible for Virulence on Tomato Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendran Manikandan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The vascular wilt of tomato caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici is an important soil borne pathogen causes severe yield loss. The molecular characterization and their interaction with its host is necessary to develop a protection strategy. 20 isolates of F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (FOL were isolated from wilt infected tomato plants across Tamil Nadu. They were subjected to cultural, morphological, molecular and virulence studies. The results revealed that all the isolates produced both micro and macro conidia with different size, number of cells. The colors of the culture and growth pattern were also varied. In addition, chlamydospores were observed terminally and intercalary. The PCR analysis with F. oxysporum species-specific primer significantly amplified an amplicon of 600 bp fragment in all the isolates. Based on the above characters and pathogenicity, isolate FOL-8 was considered as virulent and FOL-20 was considered as least virulent. Proteomics strategy was adopted to determine the virulence factors between the isolates of FOL-8 and FOL-20. The 2D analyses have showed the differential expression of 17 different proteins. Among them, three proteins were down regulated and 14 proteins were significantly up regulated in FOL-8 than FOL-20 isolate. Among the 17 proteins, 10 distinct spots were analyzed by MALDI-TOF. The functions of the analyzed proteins, suggested that they were involved in pathogenicity, symptom expression and disease development, sporulation, growth, and higher penetration rate on tomato root tissue. Overall, these experiments proves the role of proteome in pathogenicity of F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici in tomato and unravels the mechanism behinds the virulence of the pathogen in causing wilt disease.

  9. Divergent Expression Patterns in Two Vernicia Species Revealed the Potential Role of the Hub Gene VmAP2/ERF036 in Resistance to Fusarium oxysporum in Vernicia montana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiyan Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tung oil tree (Vernicia fordii is a promising industrial oil crop; however, this tree is highly susceptible to Fusarium wilt disease. Conversely, Vernicia montana is resistant to the pathogen. The APETALA2/ethylene-responsive element binding factor (AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily has been reported to play a significant role in resistance to Fusarium oxysporum. In this study, comprehensive analysis identified 75 and 81 putative Vf/VmAP2/ERF transcription factor-encoding genes in V. fordii and V. montana, respectively, which were divided into AP2, ERF, related to ABI3 and VP1 (RAV and Soloist families. After F. oxysporum infection, a majority of AP2/ERF superfamily genes showed strong patterns of repression in both V. fordii and V. montana. We then identified 53 pairs of one-to-one orthologs in V. fordii and V. montana, with most pairs of orthologous genes exhibiting similar expression in response to the pathogen. Further investigation of Vf/VmAP2/ERF gene expression in plant tissues indicated that the pairs of genes with different expression patterns in response to F. oxysporum tended to exhibit different tissue profiles in the two species. In addition, VmAP2/ERF036, showing the strongest interactions with 666 genes, was identified as a core hub gene mediating resistance. Moreover, qRT-PCR results indicated VmAP2/ERF036 showed repressed expression while its orthologous gene VfAP2/ERF036 had the opposite expression pattern during pathogen infection. Overall, comparative analysis of the Vf/VmAP2/ERF superfamily and indication of a potential hub resistance gene in resistant and susceptible Vernicia species provides valuable information for understanding the molecular basis and selection of essential functional genes for V. fordii genetic engineering to control Fusarium wilt disease.

  10. Investigations on Fusarium spp. and their mycotoxins causing Fusarium ear rot of maize in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shala-Mayrhofer, Vitore; Varga, Elisabeth; Marjakaj, Robert; Berthiller, Franz; Musolli, Agim; Berisha, Defrime; Kelmendi, Bakir; Lemmens, Marc

    2013-01-01

    After wheat, maize (Zea mays L.) is the second most important cereal crop in Kosovo and a major component of animal feed. The purpose of this study was to analyse the incidence and identity of the Fusarium species isolated from naturally infected maize kernels in Kosovo in 2009 and 2010, as well as the mycotoxin contamination. The disease incidence of Fusarium ear rot (from 0.7% to 40% diseased ears) on maize in Kosovo is high. The most frequently Fusarium spp. identified on maize kernels were Fusarium subglutinans, F. verticillioides/F. proliferatum and F. graminearum. Maize kernel samples were analysed by LC-MS/MS and found to be contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON), DON-3-glucoside, 3-acetyl-DON, 15-acetyl-DON, zearalenone, zearalenone-14-sulphate, moniliformin, fumonisin B1 and fumonisin B2. This is the first report on the incidence and identification of Fusarium species isolated from naturally infected maize as well as the mycotoxin contamination in Kosovo.

  11. Diversity of Fusarium Species from Highland Areas in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Manshor, Nurhazrati; Rosli, Hafizi; Ismail, Nor Azliza; Salleh, Baharuddin; Zakaria, Latiffah

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium is a cosmopolitan and highly diversified genus of saprophytic, phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi. However, the existence and diversity of a few species of Fusarium are restricted to a certain area or climatic condition. The present study was conducted to determine the occurrence and diversity of Fusarium species in tropical highland areas in Malaysia and to compare with those in temperate and subtropical regions. A series of sampling was carried out in 2005 to 2009 at several tropi...

  12. Wilting and biological additive effect on in situ degradability and chemical composition of Arachis pintoi cv Belomonte silage

    OpenAIRE

    Rosana Aparecida Possenti; Evaldo Ferrari Júnior; Valdinei Tadeu Paulino; Ivani Pozar Otsuk; Patrícia Brás

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of wilting and biological additive amendment on chemical composition, fermentation and ruminal degradability of Arachis pintoi cv Belmonte silage. The following treatments were analysed: T1- Arachis pintoi cv Belmonte fresh forage; T2 - Arachis pintoi cv Belmonte fresh forage plus bacterial additive added to the forage prior to the ensilage; T3- Arachis pintoi cv Belmonte wilted by the sun for 4 hours; T4- Arachis pintoi cv Belmonte wilted b...

  13. Detection of laurel wilt disease in avocado using low altitude aerial imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana I de Castro

    Full Text Available Laurel wilt is a lethal disease of plants in the Lauraceae plant family, including avocado (Persea americana. This devastating disease has spread rapidly along the southeastern seaboard of the United States and has begun to affect commercial avocado production in Florida. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the potential to discriminate laurel wilt-affected avocado trees using aerial images taken with a modified camera during helicopter surveys at low-altitude in the commercial avocado production area. The ability to distinguish laurel wilt-affected trees from other factors that produce similar external symptoms was also studied. RmodGB digital values of healthy trees and laurel wilt-affected trees, as well as fruit stress and vines covering trees were used to calculate several vegetation indices (VIs, band ratios, and VI combinations. These indices were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA and an M-statistic was performed in order to quantify the separability of those classes. Significant differences in spectral values among laurel wilt affected and healthy trees were observed in all vegetation indices calculated, although the best results were achieved with Excess Red (ExR, (Red-Green and Combination 1 (COMB1 in all locations. B/G showed a very good potential for separate the other factors with symptoms similar to laurel wilt-affected trees, such as fruit stress and vines covering trees, from laurel wilt-affected trees. These consistent results prove the usefulness of using a modified camera (RmodGB to discriminate laurel wilt-affected avocado trees from healthy trees, as well as from other factors that cause the same symptoms and suggest performing the classification in further research. According to our results, ExR and B/G should be utilized to develop an algorithm or decision rules to classify aerial images, since they showed the highest capacity to discriminate laurel wilt-affected trees. This methodology may allow the

  14. Detection of laurel wilt disease in avocado using low altitude aerial imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Ana I; Ehsani, Reza; Ploetz, Randy C; Crane, Jonathan H; Buchanon, Sherrie

    2015-01-01

    Laurel wilt is a lethal disease of plants in the Lauraceae plant family, including avocado (Persea americana). This devastating disease has spread rapidly along the southeastern seaboard of the United States and has begun to affect commercial avocado production in Florida. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the potential to discriminate laurel wilt-affected avocado trees using aerial images taken with a modified camera during helicopter surveys at low-altitude in the commercial avocado production area. The ability to distinguish laurel wilt-affected trees from other factors that produce similar external symptoms was also studied. RmodGB digital values of healthy trees and laurel wilt-affected trees, as well as fruit stress and vines covering trees were used to calculate several vegetation indices (VIs), band ratios, and VI combinations. These indices were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and an M-statistic was performed in order to quantify the separability of those classes. Significant differences in spectral values among laurel wilt affected and healthy trees were observed in all vegetation indices calculated, although the best results were achieved with Excess Red (ExR), (Red-Green) and Combination 1 (COMB1) in all locations. B/G showed a very good potential for separate the other factors with symptoms similar to laurel wilt-affected trees, such as fruit stress and vines covering trees, from laurel wilt-affected trees. These consistent results prove the usefulness of using a modified camera (RmodGB) to discriminate laurel wilt-affected avocado trees from healthy trees, as well as from other factors that cause the same symptoms and suggest performing the classification in further research. According to our results, ExR and B/G should be utilized to develop an algorithm or decision rules to classify aerial images, since they showed the highest capacity to discriminate laurel wilt-affected trees. This methodology may allow the rapid detection

  15. Suppressed Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarine Romdenh-Romluc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Moran’s revised conception of conscious belief requires us to reconceptualise suppressed belief. The work of Merleau-Ponty offers a way to do this. His account of motor-skills allows us to understand suppressed beliefs as pre-reflective ways of dealing with the world.

  16. RNA-seq Transcriptome Response of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L. to the Pathogenic Fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Miguel Galindo-González

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini is a hemibiotrophic fungus that causes wilt in flax. Along with rust, fusarium wilt has become an important factor in flax production worldwide. Resistant flax cultivars have been used to manage the disease, but the resistance varies, depending on the interactions between specific cultivars and isolates of the pathogen. This interaction has a strong molecular basis, but no genomic information is available on how the plant responds to attempted infection, to inform breeding programs on potential candidate genes to evaluate or improve resistance across cultivars. In the current study, disease progression in two flax cultivars (CDC Bethune and Lutea, showed earlier disease symptoms and higher susceptibility in the later cultivar. Chitinase gene expression was also divergent and demonstrated and earlier molecular response in Lutea. The most resistant cultivar (CDC Bethune was used for a full RNA-seq transcriptome study through a time-course at 2, 4, 8 and 18 days post-inoculation (DPI. While over 100 genes were significantly differentially expressed at both 4 and 8 DPI, the broadest deployment of plant defense responses was evident at 18 DPI with transcripts of more than 1,000 genes responding to the treatment. These genes evidenced a reception and transduction of pathogen signals, a large transcriptional reprogramming, induction of hormone signalling, activation of pathogenesis-related (PR genes, and changes in secondary metabolism. Among these several key genes, that consistently appear in studies of plant-pathogen interactions, had increased transcript abundance in our study, and constitute suitable candidates for resistance breeding programs. These included: an induced RPMI-induced protein kinase (RIPK; transcription factors WRKY3, WRKY70, WRKY75, MYB113 and MYB108; the ethylene response factors ERF1 and ERF14; two genes involved in auxin/glucosinolate precursor synthesis (CYP79B2 and CYP79B3; the flavonoid

  17. Distinct colonization patterns and cDNA-AFLP transcriptome profiles in compatible and incompatible interactions between melon and different races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delledonne Massimo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis Snyd. & Hans. (FOM causes Fusarium wilt, the most important infectious disease of melon (Cucumis melo L.. The four known races of this pathogen can be distinguished only by infection on appropriate cultivars. No molecular tools are available that can discriminate among the races, and the molecular basis of compatibility and disease progression are poorly understood. Resistance to races 1 and 2 is controlled by a single dominant gene, whereas only partial polygenic resistance to race 1,2 has been described. We carried out a large-scale cDNA-AFLP analysis to identify host genes potentially related to resistance and susceptibility as well as fungal genes associated with the infection process. At the same time, a systematic reisolation procedure on infected stems allowed us to monitor fungal colonization in compatible and incompatible host-pathogen combinations. Results Melon plants (cv. Charentais Fom-2, which are susceptible to race 1,2 and resistant to race 1, were artificially infected with a race 1 strain of FOM or one of two race 1,2 w strains. Host colonization of stems was assessed at 1, 2, 4, 8, 14, 16, 18 and 21 days post inoculation (dpi, and the fungus was reisolated from infected plants. Markedly different colonization patterns were observed in compatible and incompatible host-pathogen combinations. Five time points from the symptomless early stage (2 dpi to obvious wilting symptoms (21 dpi were considered for cDNA-AFLP analysis. After successful sequencing of 627 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs differentially expressed in infected plants, homology searching retrieved 305 melon transcripts, 195 FOM transcripts expressed in planta and 127 orphan TDFs. RNA samples from FOM colonies of the three strains grown in vitro were also included in the analysis to facilitate the detection of in planta-specific transcripts and to identify TDFs differentially expressed among races

  18. Distinct colonization patterns and cDNA-AFLP transcriptome profiles in compatible and incompatible interactions between melon and different races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestili, Sara; Polverari, Annalisa; Luongo, Laura; Ferrarini, Alberto; Scotton, Michele; Hussain, Jamshaid; Delledonne, Massimo; Ficcadenti, Nadia; Belisario, Alessandra

    2011-02-21

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis Snyd. & Hans. (FOM) causes Fusarium wilt, the most important infectious disease of melon (Cucumis melo L.). The four known races of this pathogen can be distinguished only by infection on appropriate cultivars. No molecular tools are available that can discriminate among the races, and the molecular basis of compatibility and disease progression are poorly understood. Resistance to races 1 and 2 is controlled by a single dominant gene, whereas only partial polygenic resistance to race 1,2 has been described. We carried out a large-scale cDNA-AFLP analysis to identify host genes potentially related to resistance and susceptibility as well as fungal genes associated with the infection process. At the same time, a systematic reisolation procedure on infected stems allowed us to monitor fungal colonization in compatible and incompatible host-pathogen combinations. Melon plants (cv. Charentais Fom-2), which are susceptible to race 1,2 and resistant to race 1, were artificially infected with a race 1 strain of FOM or one of two race 1,2 w strains. Host colonization of stems was assessed at 1, 2, 4, 8, 14, 16, 18 and 21 days post inoculation (dpi), and the fungus was reisolated from infected plants. Markedly different colonization patterns were observed in compatible and incompatible host-pathogen combinations. Five time points from the symptomless early stage (2 dpi) to obvious wilting symptoms (21 dpi) were considered for cDNA-AFLP analysis. After successful sequencing of 627 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) differentially expressed in infected plants, homology searching retrieved 305 melon transcripts, 195 FOM transcripts expressed in planta and 127 orphan TDFs. RNA samples from FOM colonies of the three strains grown in vitro were also included in the analysis to facilitate the detection of in planta-specific transcripts and to identify TDFs differentially expressed among races/strains. Our data suggest that resistance against FOM

  19. Malting and Brewing Industries Encounter Fusarium spp. Related Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Mastanjević

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Versatile microbiota are inevitably naturally present on cereals. Fungi, yeasts and bacteria and their metabolites all contribute to the quality and safety of the final products derived from most common beer cereals—barley and wheat. The microorganisms that are most often associated with the safety and quality of cereals for beer production belong to the Fusarium spp. They greatly influence yields from the field, and can modify and diminish economic success for farmers. However, the real problem is their harmful metabolites—mycotoxins—that affect the health of humans and animals. In the era of emerging analytical methodologies, the spectrum of known toxins originating from microorganisms that can pose a threat to humans has grown tremendously. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor microflora throughout the productive “barley to beer” chain and to act suppressive on the proliferation of unwanted microorganisms, before and during malting, preventing the occurrence of mycotoxins in final products and by-products. Multi-mycotoxin analyses are very advanced and useful tools for the assessment of product safety, and legislation should follow up and make some important changes to regulate as yet unregulated, but highly occurring, microbial toxins in malt and beer.

  20. Comparative Digital Gene Expression Analysis of Tissue-Cultured Plantlets of Highly Resistant and Susceptible Banana Cultivarsin Response to Fusarium oxysporum

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    Yuqing Niu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Banana Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc is one of the most destructive soil-borne diseases. In this study, young tissue-cultured plantlets of banana (Musa spp. AAA cultivars differing in Foc susceptibility were used to reveal their differential responses to this pathogen using digital gene expression (DGE. Data were evaluated by various bioinformatic tools (Venn diagrams, gene ontology (GO annotation and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG pathway analyses and immunofluorescence labelling method to support the identification of gene candidates determining the resistance of banana against Foc. Interestingly, we have identified MaWRKY50 as an important gene involved in both constitutive and induced resistance. We also identified new genes involved in the resistance of banana to Foc, including several other transcription factors (TFs, pathogenesis-related (PR genes and some genes related to the plant cell wall biosynthesis or degradation (e.g., pectinesterases, β-glucosidases, xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase and endoglucanase. The resistant banana cultivar shows activation of PR-3 and PR-4 genes as well as formation of different constitutive cell barriers to restrict spreading of the pathogen. These data suggest new mechanisms of banana resistance to Foc.

  1. Distribution and Genetic Variability of Fusarium oxysporum Associated with Tomato Diseases in Algeria and a Biocontrol Strategy with Indigenous Trichoderma spp.

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    Ali Debbi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Fifty fungal isolates were sampled from diseased tomato plants as result of a survey conducted in seven tomato crop areas in Algeria from 2012 to 2015. Morphological criteria and PCR-based identification, using the primers PF02 and PF03, assigned 29 out of 50 isolates to Fusarium oxysporum (Fo. The banding patterns amplified for genes SIX1, SIX3 and SIX4 served to identify races 2 and 3 of Fo f. sp. lycopersici (FOL, and Fo f. sp. radicis lycopersici (FORL among the Algerian isolates. All FOL isolates showed pathogenicity on the susceptible tomato cv. “Super Marmande,” while nine of out 10 Algerian FORL isolates were pathogenic on tomato cv. “Rio Grande.” Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR fingerprints showed high genetic diversity among Algerian Fo isolates. Seventeen Algerian Trichoderma isolates were also obtained and assigned to the species T. asperellum (12 isolates, T. harzianum (four isolates and T. ghanense (one isolate based on ITS and tef1α gene sequences. Different in vitro tests identified the antagonistic potential of native Trichoderma isolates against FORL and FOL. Greenhouse biocontrol assays performed on “SM” tomato plants with T. ghanense T8 and T. asperellum T9 and T17, and three Fo isolates showed that isolate T8 performed well against FORL and FOL. This finding was based on an incidence reduction of crown and root rot and Fusarium wilt diseases by 53.1 and 48.3%, respectively.

  2. Effect of Methyl Jasmonate on Phytoalexins Biosynthesis and Induced Disease Resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Vasinfectum in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

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    Yao Kouakou François Konan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA sprayed on cotton healthy leaves was evaluated in terms of inherent bioactive chemicals induction. The total phenolic content significantly increased after MeJA 5.0 mM treatments compared to the other tested concentrations (0; 2.5; 10; 15; 20 mM. Among the eleven phenolic compounds which were found except for ferulic acid, gossypetin, gossypol, 3-p-coumaroylquinic acid, and piceatannol were identified as major phenolic constituents of cotton. Their content also significantly increased after the MeJA treatment. In addition, gossypol increased 64 times compared to the control, in the 5.0 mM MeJA treatment. Furthermore, cichoric acid, chlorogenic acid, and pterostilbene are synthesized de novo in leaves of MeJA-treated plant. Treatment of cotton leaves with MeJA 5.0 mM followed 72 h of incubation hampered the expression of Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporium f. sp. vasinfectum (FOV. MeJA efficiency was concentration and incubation time dependent. Disease severity on MeJA-treated leaves was significantly lower as compared to the control. Therefore, the high content of gossypetin, gossypol, 3-p-coumaroylquinic acid, ferulic acid, and piceatannol and the presence of cichoric acid, chlorogenic acid, and pterostilbene in plants treated with MeJA, contrary to the control, are essential to equip the cotton compounds with defences or phytoalexins against FOV.

  3. Fusarium oxysporum and its bacterial consortium promote lettuce growth and expansin A5 gene expression through microbial volatile organic compound (MVOC) emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minerdi, Daniela; Bossi, Simone; Maffei, Massimo E; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Garibaldi, Angelo

    2011-05-01

    Fusarium oxysporum MSA 35 [wild-type (WT) strain] is a nonpathogenic Fusarium strain, which exhibits antagonistic activity to plant pathogenic F. oxysporum isolates. The fungus lives in association with a consortium of ectosymbiotic bacteria. The WT strain, when cured of the bacterial symbionts [the cured (CU) form], is pathogenic, causing wilt symptoms similar to those of pathogenic F. oxysporum f. sp. lactucae. Both WT and CU MSA 35 strains produce microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs), but with a different spectrum. In vitro dual culture assays were used to assess the effects of the MVOCs produced by WT and CU strains of F. oxysporum MSA 35 on the growth and expansin gene expression of lettuce seedlings. An increase in the root length (95.6%), shoot length (75.0%) and fresh weight (85.8%) was observed only after WT strain MVOCs exposure. Leaf chlorophyll content was significantly enhanced (68%) in WT strain MVOC-treated seedlings as compared with CU strain volatiles and nontreated controls. β-Caryophyllene was found to be one of the volatiles released by WT MSA 35 responsible for the plant growth promotion effect. Semi-quantitative and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assays indicated a significant difference in the expansin gene expression level between leaf (6.7-fold) and roots (4.4-fold) exposed to WT strain volatiles when compared with the CU strain volatiles and those that were nonexposed. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Distribution and Genetic Variability of Fusarium oxysporum Associated with Tomato Diseases in Algeria and a Biocontrol Strategy with Indigenous Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbi, Ali; Boureghda, Houda; Monte, Enrique; Hermosa, Rosa

    2018-01-01

    Fifty fungal isolates were sampled from diseased tomato plants as result of a survey conducted in seven tomato crop areas in Algeria from 2012 to 2015. Morphological criteria and PCR-based identification, using the primers PF02 and PF03, assigned 29 out of 50 isolates to Fusarium oxysporum (Fo). The banding patterns amplified for genes SIX1, SIX3 and SIX4 served to identify races 2 and 3 of Fo f. sp. lycopersici (FOL), and Fo f. sp. radicis lycopersici (FORL) among the Algerian isolates. All FOL isolates showed pathogenicity on the susceptible tomato cv. “Super Marmande,” while nine of out 10 Algerian FORL isolates were pathogenic on tomato cv. “Rio Grande.” Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) fingerprints showed high genetic diversity among Algerian Fo isolates. Seventeen Algerian Trichoderma isolates were also obtained and assigned to the species T. asperellum (12 isolates), T. harzianum (four isolates) and T. ghanense (one isolate) based on ITS and tef1α gene sequences. Different in vitro tests identified the antagonistic potential of native Trichoderma isolates against FORL and FOL. Greenhouse biocontrol assays performed on “SM” tomato plants with T. ghanense T8 and T. asperellum T9 and T17, and three Fo isolates showed that isolate T8 performed well against FORL and FOL. This finding was based on an incidence reduction of crown and root rot and Fusarium wilt diseases by 53.1 and 48.3%, respectively. PMID:29515557

  5. Avaliação de genótipos tetraploides de bananeira cultivados em área infestada pelo agente causal do mal-do-Panamá Evaluation of tetraploid banana genotypes cultivated in fusarium infested area

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    Sebastião de Oliveira e Silva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O mal-do-Panamá é uma doença que causa grandes prejuízos à bananicultura no Brasil, uma vez que as principais cultivares em uso são suscetíveis ao Fusarium. Este trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar características agronômicas e resistência ao mal-do-Panamá de híbridos tetraploides de bananeira. O experimento foi conduzido no campo experimental da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical, em delineamento casualizado, com 14 tratamentos e 10 repetições, nos anos de 2000 e 2001. Foram avaliados 14 tetraploides (FHIA-03, PV03-44, PC42-01, PV42-53, PV42-68, PV42-81, PV42-85, PV42-129, PV42-142, PV42-143, SH3640, ST12-31, ST42-08 e YB42-21 e a cultivar Maçã, usada como testemunha. Avaliaram-se as características altura da planta (m e diâmetro do pseudocaule (cm a 30 cm do solo, peso da massa do cacho (kg, penca (kg e fruto (g, número de pencas por cacho, de frutos por penca e de dias do florescimento à colheita, e a incidência do mal-do-Panamá. As médias dos genótipos foram agrupadas pelo teste de Scott e Knott, a 5% de probabilidade. Observa-se uma ampla variação genética nos caracteres avaliados. Os genótipos FHIA 03, ST12-31, SH3640, PV42-142, PV42-53 e PV42-68apresentam boas características agronômicas e resistência ao mal-do-Panamá.Fusarium wilt is one of the major diseases leading to great losses in banana crop in Brazil since most cultivars used are susceptible. The objective of the present work was to evaluate agronomical characteristics and resistance to Fusarium wilt in tetraploid banana hybrids. The experiment was carried out in the experimental field at Embrapa Cassava and Tropical Fruits in complete randomized design with 10 replicates of one plant each in the years 2000 and 2001. Fourteen tetraploids were evaluated: FHIA-03, PV03-44, PC42-01, PV42-53, PV42-68, PV42-81, PV42-85, PV42-129, PV42-142, PV42-143, SH3640, ST12-31, ST42-08 and YB42-21 and the Silk cultivar used as the control. The following

  6. Improvement of resistance to Fusarium root rot through gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fusarium root rot (FRR), caused by Fusarium solani f.sp. , is one of the most serious root rot diseases of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) throughout the world. Yield losses of up to 84% have been attributed to the disease. Development and deployment of resistant materials is the most feasible approach to managing ...

  7. Molecular phylogeny of Fusarium species by AFLP fingerprint ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high-resolution genotyping method of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was used to study the genetic relationships within and between natural populations of five Fusarium spp. AFLP templates were prepared by the digestion of Fusarium DNA with EcoRI and MseI restriction endonucleases and ...

  8. Disseminated Fusarium infection in autologous stem cell transplant recipient

    OpenAIRE

    Avelino-Silva, Vivian Iida; Ramos, Jessica Fernandes; Leal, Fabio Eudes; Testagrossa, Leonardo; Novis, Yana Sarkis

    2015-01-01

    Disseminated infection by Fusarium is a rare, frequently lethal condition in severely immunocompromised patients, including bone marrow transplant recipients. However, autologous bone marrow transplant recipients are not expected to be at high risk to develop fusariosis. We report a rare case of lethal disseminated Fusarium infection in an autologous bone marrow transplant recipient during pre-engraftment phase.

  9. Disseminated Fusarium infection in autologous stem cell transplant recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Iida Avelino-Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated infection by Fusarium is a rare, frequently lethal condition in severely immunocompromised patients, including bone marrow transplant recipients. However, autologous bone marrow transplant recipients are not expected to be at high risk to develop fusariosis. We report a rare case of lethal disseminated Fusarium infection in an autologous bone marrow transplant recipient during pre-engraftment phase.

  10. Insurgence of Fusarium keratitis associated with contact lens wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Eduardo C; Cantu-Dibildox, Jorge; Munir, Wuqaas M; Miller, Darlene; O'Brien, Terrence P; Karp, Carol L; Yoo, Sonia H; Forster, Richard K; Culbertson, William W; Donaldson, Kendall; Rodila, Jill; Lee, Yunhee

    2006-07-01

    To describe the clinical presentation and course of patients who developed keratitis due to Fusarium while wearing nontherapeutic soft contact lenses. A retrospective review of microbiologic records from January 1, 2004, through April 15, 2006, was performed, identifying all patients with corneal ulceration and a culture positive for Fusarium species. Medical records of 34 patients were reviewed for clinical characteristics, treatment regimens, and microbiologic features. The most common antimicrobial medications administered prior to Fusarium diagnosis were antibacterials in 31 of 34 patients. No distinct preponderance of any one brand of either contact lens or solution was identified. The microbiologic corneal cultures found Fusarium oxysporum in 20 cases, Fusarium solani in 3 cases, Fusarium species not further identifiable in 10 cases, and no growth in 1 case. Patients with a delayed onset of treatment had a tendency for prolonged treatment until cure. Fusarium has previously been an unusual organism in the etiology of infectious keratitis in the setting of nontherapeutic soft contact lens wear. A delay in proper diagnosis and intervention may contribute to a prolonged treatment course. The microbial spectrum of contact lens-related keratitis may be evolving with higher participation of Fusarium species compared with prior reports.

  11. Plant diversity and plant identity influence Fusarium communities in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium communities play important functional roles in soil and in-planta as pathogens, endophytes, and saprotrophs. This study tests how rhizosphere Fusarium communities may vary according to plant species, differences in species richness of the surrounding plant community, and soil physiochemical...

  12. [Interdigital tinea pedis resulting from Fusarium spp. in Dakar, Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diongue, K; Diallo, M A; Ndiaye, M; Seck, M C; Badiane, A S; Ndiaye, D

    2018-03-01

    Fungal interdigital tinea pedis (ITP) is a common pathology mainly due to dermatophytes and yeasts. Fusarium sp. is rarely incriminated in the genesis of intertrigo. In Dakar, a recent study conducted in 2016 on fungal ITP showed that Fusarium were more involved in the etiology of ITP than dermatophytes, coming just after yeasts dominated by Candida. Following this, we wanted to draw attention to the increasing incidence of ITP resulting from Fusarium spp., in Dakar, Senegal, and to analyze the epidemiological and mycological particularities of these ITP due to Fusarium spp. A retrospective study including all patients received at the laboratory for suspicion of ITP between January 1st, 2014 and June 30th, 2017 was conducted. Diagnosis was based on mycological examination, including direct examination and culture. Mycological analysis was considered positive when direct examination and culture were positive after at least one repeat. Twenty-nine cases of Fusarium ITP accounting for 44.6% of all ITP in the study period were diagnosed in 15 men and 14 women. The mean age of the patients was 48.4 years. Fusarium ITP were diagnosed in immunocompetent patients except in two diabetics. The mean duration of the lesions was 6.83 years. The most frequent species isolated belonged to the Fusarium solani complex with 19 cases. Fusarium ITP in a healthy subject requires regular monitoring because any subsequent decrease in immune defenses could lead to fatal hematogenous spread. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. PCR identification of Fusarium genus based on nuclear ribosomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PCR sensitivity ranged from 100 fg to 10 ng for DNA extracted from Fusarium oxysporum mycelium. No amplification products were detected with PCR of DNA from Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina isolates using these primers. The assay is useful for rapid identification of Fusarium spp. cultures.

  14. Diversity of fusarium species from highland areas in malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manshor, Nurhazrati; Rosli, Hafizi; Ismail, Nor Azliza; Salleh, Baharuddin; Zakaria, Latiffah

    2012-12-01

    Fusarium is a cosmopolitan and highly diversified genus of saprophytic, phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi. However, the existence and diversity of a few species of Fusarium are restricted to a certain area or climatic condition. The present study was conducted to determine the occurrence and diversity of Fusarium species in tropical highland areas in Malaysia and to compare with those in temperate and subtropical regions. A series of sampling was carried out in 2005 to 2009 at several tropical highland areas in Malaysia that is: Cameron Highlands, Fraser Hills and Genting Highlands in Pahang; Penang Hill in Penang; Gunung Jerai in Kedah; Kundasang and Kinabalu Park in Sabah; Kubah National Park and Begunan Hill in Sarawak. Sampling was done randomly from various hosts and substrates. Isolation of Fusarium isolates was done by using pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) agar and 1449 isolates of Fusarium were successfully recovered. Based on morphological characteristics, 20 species of Fusarium were identified. The most prevalent species occurring on the highlands areas was F. solani (66.1%) followed by F. graminearum (8.5%), F. oxysporum (7.8%), F. semitectum (5.7%), F. subglutinans (3.5%) and F. proliferatum (3.4%). Other Fusarium species, namely F. avenaceum, F. camptoceras, F. chlamydosporum, F. compactum, F. crookwellense, F. culmorum, F. decemcellulare, F. equiseti, F. nygamai, F. poae, F. proliferatum, F. sacchari, F. sporotrichioides, F. sterilihyphosum and F. verticillioides accounted for 1% recoveries. The present study was the first report on the occurrences of Fusarium species on highland areas in Malaysia.

  15. Harnessing the microbiome to reduce Fusarium head blight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium graminearum (Fg), the primary fungal pathogen responsible for Fusarium head blight (FHB), reduces crop yield and contaminates grain with trichothecene mycotoxins that are deleterious to plant, human and animal health. In this presentation, we will discuss two different research projects tha...

  16. Genomics and evolution of secondary metabolism in Fusarium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium is a species-rich genus that causes disease on virtually all plant crops and produces diverse secondary metabolites (SMs), including pigments, plant hormones, and some of the mycotoxins of greatest concern to food and feed safety. To better understand the potential SM diversity in Fusarium ...

  17. Fungitoxic properties of four crude plant extacts on fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungitoxic properties of four crude plant extacts on fusarium oxysporum schl. F. sp phaseoli. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Crude plant extracts from Azadirachta indica, Tagetes minuta, Nicotiana tobacum and Vinca rosea were tested against Fusarium oxysporum Schl. F. sp. phaseoli.

  18. Toxin production by Fusarium solani from declining citrus plants and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The highest Fusarium sp. followed by Aspergillus, Phytophthora, Pythium, Penicillium and Alternaria species were remote from the collected samples of roots and soil from the four tehsils of Sargodha district of Pakistan. The maximum Fusarium sp. was isolated from the roots of declining citrus trees from tehsil Bhalwal ...

  19. Advances in molecular diagnosis of toxigenic Fusarium species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulé, G.; Gonzalez-Jaen, M.T.; Hornok, L.; Nicholson, P.; Waalwijk, C.

    2005-01-01

    The development of advanced molecular diagnosis for the critical toxigenic Fusarium species is considered in this review. The specific topics discussed are (1) isolation of mating type genes of Gibberella complex, (2) molecular detection of Fusarium-producing fumonisins, (3) molecular detection of

  20. Phylogenetic and recombination analysis of tomato spotted wilt virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Lian

    Full Text Available Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV severely damages and reduces the yield of many economically important plants worldwide. In this study, we determined the whole-genome sequences of 10 TSWV isolates recently identified from various regions and hosts in Korea. Phylogenetic analysis of these 10 isolates as well as the three previously sequenced isolates indicated that the 13 Korean TSWV isolates could be divided into two groups reflecting either two different origins or divergences of Korean TSWV isolates. In addition, the complete nucleotide sequences for the 13 Korean TSWV isolates along with previously sequenced TSWV RNA segments from Korea and other countries were subjected to phylogenetic and recombination analysis. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that both the RNA L and RNA M segments of most Korean isolates might have originated in Western Europe and North America but that the RNA S segments for all Korean isolates might have originated in China and Japan. Recombination analysis identified a total of 12 recombination events among all isolates and segments and five recombination events among the 13 Korea isolates; among the five recombinants from Korea, three contained the whole RNA L segment, suggesting reassortment rather than recombination. Our analyses provide evidence that both recombination and reassortment have contributed to the molecular diversity of TSWV.

  1. SOIL FUNGISTASIS AGAINST FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM UNDER DIFFERENT CROP MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

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    Bruno Brito Lisboa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil management, in terms of tillage and cropping systems, strongly influences the biological properties of soil involved in the suppression of plant diseases. Fungistasis mediated by soil microbiota is an important component of disease-suppressive soils. We evaluated the influence of different management systems on fungistasis against Fusarium graminearum, the relationship of fungistasis to the bacterial profile of the soil, and the possible mechanisms involved in this process. Samples were taken from a long-term experiment set up in a Paleudult soil under conventional tillage or no-tillage management and three cropping systems: black oat (Avena strigose L. + vetch (Vicia sativa L./maize (Zea mays L. + cowpea (Vigna sinensis L., black oat/maize, and vetch/maize. Soil fungistasis was evaluated in terms of reduction of radial growth of F. graminearum, and bacterial diversity was assessed using ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA. A total of 120 bacterial isolates were obtained and evaluated for antibiosis, and production of volatile compounds and siderophores. No-tillage soil samples showed the highest level of F. graminearum fungistasis by sharply reducing the development of this pathogen. Of the cropping systems tested, the vetch + black oat/maize + cowpea system showed the highest fungistasis and the oat/maize system showed the lowest. The management system also affected the genetic profile of the bacteria isolated, with the systems from fungistatic soils showing greater similarity. Although there was no clear relationship between soil management and the characteristics of the bacterial isolates, we may conclude that antibiosis and the production of siderophores were the main mechanisms accounting for fungistasis.

  2. Towards allele mining of bacterial wilt disease resistance gene in tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvez, H.F.; Narciso, J.O.; Opina, N.L.; Canama, A.O.; Colle, M.G.; Latiza, M.A.; Caspillo, C.L.; Bituin, J.L.; Frankie, R.B.; Hautea, D.M.

    2005-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is the most important vegetable commodity of the Philippines. Bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one serious constraint in tomato production particularly during off-season planting. A major locus derived from H7996 that confers resistance to bacterial wilt has been mapped in the tomato genome. To validate the biological function of the resistance locus and generate multiple allele -mimics-, targeted mutation was induced in tomato using gamma ray and ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) mutagens. Suitable mutagen treatment was established by evaluating a wide range of mutagen doses/concentrations for a) percent seed germination, b) reduction in plant height, and c) loss of resistance. Six hundred Gy and 1.0% EMS were identified to generate large M1 families of H7996. From 10,000 initial seeds treated with either gamma ray or EMS, a total of 3,663 M1 plants were generated. M2 seeds were harvested from all surviving M1 plants. Several DNA markers have been resourced and are being developed specific to the bacterial wilt resistant gene. In the large M2 population, of H7996, both the phenotypic manifestation of bacterial wilt susceptibility and nucleotide changes in the resistance locus will be evaluated. Large M3 families for the different allele series of the bacterial wilt resistance gene will be established for future high throughput TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes) analysis in the gene region

  3. Bacteriophage-Based Bacterial Wilt Biocontrol for an Environmentally Sustainable Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Belén; Biosca, Elena G.

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial wilt diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, R. pseudosolanacearum, and R. syzygii subsp. indonesiensis (former R. solanacearum species complex) are among the most important plant diseases worldwide, severely affecting a high number of crops and ornamentals. Difficulties of bacterial wilt control by non-biological methods are related to effectiveness, bacterial resistance and environmental impact. Alternatively, a great many biocontrol strategies have been carried out, with the advantage of being environmentally friendly. Advances in bacterial wilt biocontrol include an increasing interest in bacteriophage-based treatments as a promising re-emerging strategy. Bacteriophages against the bacterial wilt pathogens have been described with either lytic or lysogenic effect but, they were proved to be active against strains belonging to R. pseudosolanacearum and/or R. syzygii subsp. indonesiensis, not to the present R. solanacearum species, and only two of them demonstrated successful biocontrol potential in planta. Despite the publication of three patents on the topic, until now no bacteriophage-based product is commercially available. Therefore, there is still much to be done to incorporate valid bacteriophages in an integrated management program to effectively fight bacterial wilt in the field. PMID:28769942

  4. The xylem as battleground for plant hosts and vascular wilt pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koste eYadeta

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Vascular wilts are among the most destructive plant diseases that occur in annual crops as well as in woody perennials. These diseases are generally caused by soil-borne bacteria, fungi and oomycetes that infect through the roots and enter the water-conducting xylem vessels where they proliferate and obstruct the transportation of water and minerals. As a consequence, leaves wilt and die, which may lead to impairment of the whole plant and eventually to death of the plant. Cultural, chemical and biological measures to control this group of plant pathogens are generally ineffective, and the most effective control strategy is the use of genetic resistance. Owing to the fact that vascular wilt pathogens live deep in the interior of their host plants, studies into the biology of vascular pathogens are complicated. However, to design novel strategies to combat vascular wilt diseases, understanding the (molecular biology of vascular pathogens and the molecular mechanisms underlying plant defense against these pathogens is crucial. In this review we discuss the current knowledge on interactions of vascular wilt pathogens with their host plants, with emphasis on host defense responses against this group of pathogens.

  5. Bacteriophage-Based Bacterial Wilt Biocontrol for an Environmentally Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Álvarez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial wilt diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, R. pseudosolanacearum, and R. syzygii subsp. indonesiensis (former R. solanacearum species complex are among the most important plant diseases worldwide, severely affecting a high number of crops and ornamentals. Difficulties of bacterial wilt control by non-biological methods are related to effectiveness, bacterial resistance and environmental impact. Alternatively, a great many biocontrol strategies have been carried out, with the advantage of being environmentally friendly. Advances in bacterial wilt biocontrol include an increasing interest in bacteriophage-based treatments as a promising re-emerging strategy. Bacteriophages against the bacterial wilt pathogens have been described with either lytic or lysogenic effect but, they were proved to be active against strains belonging to R. pseudosolanacearum and/or R. syzygii subsp. indonesiensis, not to the present R. solanacearum species, and only two of them demonstrated successful biocontrol potential in planta. Despite the publication of three patents on the topic, until now no bacteriophage-based product is commercially available. Therefore, there is still much to be done to incorporate valid bacteriophages in an integrated management program to effectively fight bacterial wilt in the field.

  6. Bacteriophage-Based Bacterial Wilt Biocontrol for an Environmentally Sustainable Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Belén; Biosca, Elena G

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial wilt diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum , R. pseudosolanacearum , and R. syzygii subsp. indonesiensis (former R. solanacearum species complex) are among the most important plant diseases worldwide, severely affecting a high number of crops and ornamentals. Difficulties of bacterial wilt control by non-biological methods are related to effectiveness, bacterial resistance and environmental impact. Alternatively, a great many biocontrol strategies have been carried out, with the advantage of being environmentally friendly. Advances in bacterial wilt biocontrol include an increasing interest in bacteriophage-based treatments as a promising re-emerging strategy. Bacteriophages against the bacterial wilt pathogens have been described with either lytic or lysogenic effect but, they were proved to be active against strains belonging to R. pseudosolanacearum and/or R. syzygii subsp. indonesiensis , not to the present R. solanacearum species, and only two of them demonstrated successful biocontrol potential in planta . Despite the publication of three patents on the topic, until now no bacteriophage-based product is commercially available. Therefore, there is still much to be done to incorporate valid bacteriophages in an integrated management program to effectively fight bacterial wilt in the field.

  7. Ag doped hollow TiO2 nanoparticles as an effective green fungicide against Fusarium solani and Venturia inaequalis phytopathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boxi, Siddhartha Sankar; Mukherjee, Khushi; Paria, Santanu

    2016-01-01

    Chemical-based pesticides are widely used in agriculture to protect crops from insect infestation and diseases. However, the excessive use of highly toxic pesticides causes several human health (neurological, tumor, cancer) and environmental problems. Therefore nanoparticle-based green pesticides have become of special importance in recent years. The antifungal activities of pure and Ag doped (solid and hollow) TiO 2 nanoparticles are studied against two potent phytopathogens, Fusarium solani (which causes Fusarium wilt disease in potato, tomato, etc) and Venturia inaequalis (which causes apple scab disease) and it is found that hollow nanoparticles are more effective than the other two. The antifungal activities of the nanoparticles were further enhanced against these two phytopathogens under visible light exposure. The fungicidal effect of the nanoparticles depends on different parameters, such as particle concentration and the intensity of visible light. The minimum inhibitory dose of the nanoparticles for V. inaequalis and F. solani are 0.75 and 0.43 mg/plate. The presence of Ag as a dopant helps in the formation of stable Ag–S and disulfide bonds (R–S–S–R) in cellular protein, which leads to cell damage. During photocatalysis generated • OH radicals loosen the cell wall structure and this finally leads to cell death. The mechanisms of the fungicidal effect of nanoparticles against these two phytopathogens are supported by biuret and triphenyl tetrazolium chloride analyses and field emission electron microscopy. Apart from the fungicidal effect, at a very low dose (0.015 mg/plate) the nanoparticles are successful in arresting production of toxic napthoquinone pigment for F. solani which is related to the fungal pathogenecity. The nanoparticles are found to be effective in protecting potatoes affected by F. solani or other fungi from spoiling. (paper)

  8. Ag doped hollow TiO2 nanoparticles as an effective green fungicide against Fusarium solani and Venturia inaequalis phytopathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar Boxi, Siddhartha; Mukherjee, Khushi; Paria, Santanu

    2016-02-01

    Chemical-based pesticides are widely used in agriculture to protect crops from insect infestation and diseases. However, the excessive use of highly toxic pesticides causes several human health (neurological, tumor, cancer) and environmental problems. Therefore nanoparticle-based green pesticides have become of special importance in recent years. The antifungal activities of pure and Ag doped (solid and hollow) TiO2 nanoparticles are studied against two potent phytopathogens, Fusarium solani (which causes Fusarium wilt disease in potato, tomato, etc) and Venturia inaequalis (which causes apple scab disease) and it is found that hollow nanoparticles are more effective than the other two. The antifungal activities of the nanoparticles were further enhanced against these two phytopathogens under visible light exposure. The fungicidal effect of the nanoparticles depends on different parameters, such as particle concentration and the intensity of visible light. The minimum inhibitory dose of the nanoparticles for V. inaequalis and F. solani are 0.75 and 0.43 mg/plate. The presence of Ag as a dopant helps in the formation of stable Ag-S and disulfide bonds (R-S-S-R) in cellular protein, which leads to cell damage. During photocatalysis generated •OH radicals loosen the cell wall structure and this finally leads to cell death. The mechanisms of the fungicidal effect of nanoparticles against these two phytopathogens are supported by biuret and triphenyl tetrazolium chloride analyses and field emission electron microscopy. Apart from the fungicidal effect, at a very low dose (0.015 mg/plate) the nanoparticles are successful in arresting production of toxic napthoquinone pigment for F. solani which is related to the fungal pathogenecity. The nanoparticles are found to be effective in protecting potatoes affected by F. solani or other fungi from spoiling.

  9. Development of a Selective Medium for the Fungal Pathogen Fusarium graminearum Using Toxoflavin Produced by the Bacterial Pathogen Burkholderia glumae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boknam Jung

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum is a major causal agent for Fusarium head blight in cereals and produces mycotoxins such as trichothecenes and zearalenone. Isolation of the fungal strains from air or cereals can be hampered by various other airborne fungal pathogens and saprophytic fungi. In this study, we developed a selective medium specific to F. graminearum using toxoflavin produced by the bacterial pathogen Burkholderia glumae. F. graminearum was resistant to toxoflavin, while other fungi were sensitive to this toxin. Supplementing toxoflavin into medium enhanced the isolation of F. graminearum from rice grains by suppressing the growth of saprophytic fungal species. In addition, a medium with or without toxoflavin exposed to wheat fields for 1 h had 84% or 25%, respectively, of colonies identified as F. graminearum. This selection medium provides an efficient tool for isolating F. graminearum, and can be adopted by research groups working on genetics and disease forecasting.

  10. Soybean SDS in South Africa is caused by Fusarium brasiliense and a novel undescribed Fusarium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS) was detected in South Africa for the first time during pathogen surveys conducted in 2013-2014. The primary objective of this study was to characterize the 16 slow-growing Fusarium strains that were isolated from the roots of symptomatic plants. Molecular phylogen...

  11. Response of germinating barley seeds to Fusarium graminearum: The first molecular insight into Fusarium seedling blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fen; Svensson, Birte; Finnie, Christine

    2011-11-01

    Fusarium seedling blight in cereals can result in significant reductions in plant establishment but has not received much attention. The disease often starts during seed germination due to sowing of the seeds infected by Fusarium spp. including Fusarium graminearum. In order to gain the first molecular insights into the response of the germinating barley seeds to F. graminearum for controlling the disease, germinating seeds were treated with water as control or inoculated with F. graminearum conidia and samples were harvested at 1, 2 and 3 days after inoculation (dai). Although germination rates were not significantly different between F. graminearum-inoculated and control samples, albumins and hydrogen peroxide were accumulated in the inoculated samples at 1-3 dai, indicating that there was an interaction between the germinating seeds and F. graminearum. Subsequently, a gel-based proteomic approach was employed to identify differentially expressed proteins in the seeds responding to fungal infection at 3 dai, which revealed 42 protein spots, 41 of which were identified by mass spectrometry. The up-regulated proteins mainly included heat shock proteins, antioxidant enzymes and the proteins involved in primary metabolism and detoxification whereas the majority of down-regulated proteins were plant protease inhibitors. The results suggest that there is a link between increased energy metabolism and oxidative stress in the germinating barley seeds in response to F. graminearum infection, which provides the first molecular insight into Fusarium seedling blight. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Fusarium in zaaizaad tarwe. Oplossing voor fusarium-probleem pas op termijn beschikbaar.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, S.P.C.

    2003-01-01

    Fusarium-besmetting van tarwezaaizaad kan de opkomst van het gewas ernstig belemmeren. In de biologische tarweteelt is behandeling van het zaad met een fungicide niet mogelijk. Een beknopt overzicht van mogelijke alternatieven voor chemische ontsmetting: warm water, stoom (Zweedse sauna), elektronen

  13. Comparative genomics reveals mobile pathogenicity chromosomes in Fusarium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li-Jun; van der Does, H. Charlotte; Borkovich, Katherine A.; Coleman, Jeffrey J.; Daboussi, Marie-Josée; Di Pietro, Antonio; Dufresne, Marie; Freitag, Michael; Grabherr, Manfred; Henrissat, Bernard; Houterman, Petra M.; Kang, Seogchan; Shim, Won-Bo; Woloshuk, Charles; Xie, Xiaohui; Xu, Jin-Rong; Antoniw, John; Baker, Scott E.; Bluhm, Burton H.; Breakspear, Andrew; Brown, Daren W.; Butchko, Robert A. E.; Chapman, Sinead; Coulson, Richard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Danchin, Etienne G. J.; Diener, Andrew; Gale, Liane R.; Gardiner, Donald M.; Goff, Stephen; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E.; Hilburn, Karen; Hua-Van, Aurélie; Jonkers, Wilfried; Kazan, Kemal; Kodira, Chinnappa D.; Koehrsen, Michael; Kumar, Lokesh; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Li, Liande; Manners, John M.; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego; Mukherjee, Mala; Park, Gyungsoon; Park, Jongsun; Park, Sook-Young; Proctor, Robert H.; Regev, Aviv; Ruiz-Roldan, M. Carmen; Sain, Divya; Sakthikumar, Sharadha; Sykes, Sean; Schwartz, David C.; Turgeon, B. Gillian; Wapinski, Ilan; Yoder, Olen; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Zhou, Shiguo; Galagan, James; Cuomo, Christina A.; Kistler, H. Corby; Rep, Martijn

    2011-01-01

    Fusarium species are among the most important phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi. To understand the molecular underpinnings of pathogenicity in the genus Fusarium, we compared the genomes of three phenotypically diverse species: Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Our analysis revealed lineage-specific (LS) genomic regions in F. oxysporum that include four entire chromosomes and account for more than one-quarter of the genome. LS regions are rich in transposons and genes with distinct evolutionary profiles but related to pathogenicity, indicative of horizontal acquisition. Experimentally, we demonstrate the transfer of two LS chromosomes between strains of F. oxysporum, converting a non-pathogenic strain into a pathogen. Transfer of LS chromosomes between otherwise genetically isolated strains explains the polyphyletic origin of host specificity and the emergence of new pathogenic lineages in F. oxysporum. These findings put the evolution of fungal pathogenicity into a new perspective. PMID:20237561

  14. Adventitious sporulation in Fusarium: The yeast that were not

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B. Lockwood

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In immunocompromised patients, Fusarium species cause infections that lead to high mortality. Our case report describes a case of disseminated fusariosis in a neutropenic patient with AML after myelosuppressive chemotherapy, and a neutropenic multiple myeloma patient with Fusarium fungemia awaiting stem cell collection. Both cases highlight the fact that Fusarium can grow as yeast-like structures in the blood causing a delay in diagnosis, and that Fusarium has a tendency to be a resistant organism. Fusarium was only susceptible to amphotericin B in both cases, but we chose to continue treatment with voriconazole in the first case with disseminated infection, despite culture results, in view of his good clinical response. Despite high mortality rates in disseminated infection, our two patients had good outcomes.

  15. Prospects of molecular markers in Fusarium species diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nayaka, S. Chandra; Wulff, Ednar Gadelha; Udayashankar, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments in genomics have opened up for newer opportunities to study the diversity and classification of fungi. The genus Fusarium contains many plant pathogens that attack diverse agricultural crops. Fusarium spp. are not only pathogenic to plants but are also known as toxin producers...... for generation of probes and their use in phylogeny of Fusarium spp. are also presented. The concluding part emphasizes the value of molecular markers for assessing genetic variability and reveals that molecular tools are indispensable for providing information not only of one Fusarium species but on whole...... that negatively affect animal and human health. The identification of Fusarium species still remains one of the most critical issues in fungal taxonomy, given that the number of species recognized in the genus has been constantly changing in the last century due to the different taxonomic systems. This review...

  16. Potensi Trichoderma Spp. Sebagai Agens Pengendali Fusarium Spp. Penyebab Penyakit Layu Pada Tanaman Stroberi

    OpenAIRE

    Dwiastuti, Mutia Erti; Fajri, Melisa N; Yunimar, Yunimar

    2015-01-01

    Layu yang disebabkan oleh Fusarium spp. merupakan salah satu penyakit penting tanaman stroberi (Fragaria x ananassa Dutch.) di daerah subtropika, yang dapat menggagalkan panen. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mempelajari potensi Trichoderma spp. dalam mengendalikan Fusarium spp. Isolat Trichoderma spp. diisolasi dari rizosfer tanaman stroberi dan Fusarium spp. diisolasi dari tanaman stroberi yang mengalami layu fusarium. Isolat cendawan dimurnikan, dikarakterisasi, dan dibandingkan dengan isolat c...

  17. Genetic variation in native populations of the laurel wilt pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola , in Taiwan and Japan and the introduced population in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroline E. Wuest; Thomas C. Harrington; Stephen W. Fraedrich; Hye-Young Yun; Sheng-Shan Lu

    2017-01-01

    Laurel wilt is a vascular wilt disease caused by Raffaelea lauricola, a mycangial symbiont of an ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus. The fungus and vector are native to Asia but were apparently introduced to the Savannah, GA, area 15 or more years ago. Laurel wilt has caused widespread mortality on redbay (Persea borbonia) and other members of the Lauraceae in the...

  18. Phenylpropanoid pathway is potentiated by silicon in the roots of banana plants during the infection process of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Alessandro Antônio; da Silva, Washington Luís; Rodrigues, Fabrício Ávila

    2014-06-01

    Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, is a disease that causes large reductions in banana yield worldwide. Considering the importance of silicon (Si) to potentiate the resistance of several plant species to pathogen infection, this study aimed to investigate, at the histochemical level, whether this element could enhance the production of phenolics on the roots of banana plants in response to F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense infection. Plants of cultivar Maçã, which is susceptible to F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense, were grown in plastic pots amended with 0 (-Si) or 0.39 g of Si (+Si) per kilogram of soil and inoculated with race 1 of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense. The root Si concentration was increased by 35.6% for +Si plants in comparison to the -Si plants, which contributed to a 27% reduction in the symptoms of Fusarium wilt on roots. There was an absence of fluorescence for the root sections of the -Si plants treated with the Neu and Wilson's reagents. By contrast, for the root sections obtained from the +Si plants treated with Neu's reagent, strong yellow-orange fluorescence was observed in the phloem, and lemon-yellow fluorescence was observed in the sclerenchyma and metaxylem vessels, indicating the presence of flavonoids. For the root sections of the +Si plants treated with Wilson's reagent, orange-yellowish autofluorescence was more pronounced around the phloem vessels, and yellow fluorescence was more pronounced around the metaxylem vessels, also indicating the presence of flavonoids. Lignin was more densely deposited in the cortex of the roots of the +Si plants than for the -Si plants. Dopamine was barely detected in the roots of the -Si plants after using the lactic and glyoxylic acid stain, but was strongly suspected to occur on the phloem and metaxylem vessels of the roots of the +Si plants as confirmed by the intense orange-yellow fluorescence. The present study provides new evidence of the pivotal role of the phenylpropanoid pathway in

  19. Meta-analysis to refine map position and reduce confidence intervals for delayed canopy wilting QTLs in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slow canopy wilting in soybean has been identified as a potentially beneficial trait for ameliorating drought effects on yield. Previous research identified QTLs for slow wilting from two different bi-parental populations and this information was combined with data from three other populations to id...

  20. Infection Courts in Watermelon Plants Leading to Seed Infestation by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkar, Aparna; Ji, Pingsheng

    2017-07-01

    Fusarium wilt incited by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum is a seed-transmitted disease that causes significant yield loss in watermelon production. The pathogen may infect watermelon seeds latently, which can be an important inoculum source and contribute to severe disease outbreak. However, information regarding infection courts of F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum leading to infestation of watermelon seeds is limited. To determine how seeds in watermelon fruit can be infested by F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum during the watermelon growing season, greenhouse and field experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 where watermelon flowers and immature fruit were inoculated with F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum. Seeds were extracted from mature watermelon fruit, and infestation of watermelon seeds was determined by isolation of F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum and further confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Inoculation of the pericarp of immature fruit resulted in 17.8 to 54.4% of infested seeds under field conditions and 0.6 to 12.8% of infested seeds under greenhouse conditions when seeds were not surface disinfested prior to isolation. Seed infestation was also detected in 0 to 4.5% of the seeds when seeds were surface disinfested prior to isolation. Inoculation of pistil resulted in 0 to 7.2% and 0 to 18.3% of infested seeds under greenhouse and field conditions when seeds were surface disinfested or not disinfested before isolation, respectively. Inoculation of peduncle resulted in 0.6 to 6.1% and 0 to 10.0% of infested seeds in the greenhouse and field experiments when seeds were surface disinfested or not disinfested before isolation, respectively. Seed infestation was also detected in all the experiments using real-time PCR assay when pericarp or pistil was inoculated, and in three of four experiments when peduncle was inoculated, regardless of whether seeds were surface disinfested or not disinfested. Pericarp and peduncle of immature watermelon fruit

  1. Identification of Genes Induced in Lolium multiflorum by Bacterial Wilt Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wichmann, Fabienne; Asp, Torben; Widmer, Franco

    2010-01-01

    expressed upon infection will serve as the basis for the identification of key genes involved in bacterial wilt resistance and to develop molecular markers for marker assisted breeding. Fluorescently labelled cDNA prepared from plant leaves collected at four different time points after infection......Xanthomonas translucens pv. graminis(Xtg) causes bacterial wilt in many forage grasses including Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam), seriously reducing yield and quality. Breeding for resistance is currently the only practicable means of disease control. Molecular markers closely linked...... to resistance genes or QTL could complement and support phenotypic selection. We used comparative gene expression analysis of a partially resistant L. multiflorum genotype infected and not infected with Xtg to identify genes involved in the control of resistance to bacterial wilt. The genes differentially...

  2. Spatial Pattern of Verticillium dahliae Microsclerotia and Cotton Plants with Wilt Symptoms in Commercial Plantations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wei

    Full Text Available Spatial patterns of pathogen inoculum in field soils and the resulting patterns of disease may reflect the underlying mechanisms of pathogen dispersal. This knowledge can be used to design more efficient sampling schemes for assessing diseases. Spatial patterns of Verticillium dahliae microsclerotia were characterized in commercial cotton fields through quadrat and point sampling in 1994 and 2013, respectively. Furthermore, cotton plants with wilt symptoms, caused by V. dahliae, were assessed in six commercial cotton fields in 2013. Soil samples were assayed for the density of microsclerotia (expressed as CFU g-1 of soil using a wet-sieving plating method and a real-time quantitative PCR method for the 1994 and 2013 study, respectively. The estimated inoculum threshold for causing wilt development on individual plants varied with the three fields: ca. 1.6 CFU g-1 of soil for one field, and 7.2 CFU g-1 of soil for the other two. Both quadrat and point sampling spatial analyses showed that aggregation of V. dahliae inoculum in soils was usually not detected beyond 1.0 m. Similarly, the spatial patterns of wilted cotton plants indicated that spatial aggregation of diseased plants were only observed below the scale of 1.0 m in six commercial cotton plantations. Therefore, spatial aggregation of both V. dahliae inoculum and cotton plants with wilt symptoms is not likely to be detected above the scale of 1.0 m for most commercial cotton plantations. When designing schemes for assessing wilt inoculum and wilt development, this scale needs to be taken into consideration.

  3. Adaptive potential of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster populations to the emerging pitch canker pathogen, Fusarium circinatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Elvira-Recuenco

    Full Text Available There is a concern on how emerging pests and diseases will affect the distribution range and adaptability of their host species, especially due to different conditions derived from climate change and growing globalization. Fusarium circinatum, which causes pitch canker disease in Pinus species, is an exotic pathogen of recent introduction in Spain that threatens its maritime pine (P. pinaster stands. To predict the impact this disease will have on the species, we examine host resistance traits and their genetic architecture. Resistance phenotyping was done in a clonal provenance/progeny trial, using three-year-old cuttings artificially inoculated with the pathogen and maintained under controlled environmental conditions. A total number of 670 ramets were assessed, distributed in 10 populations, with a total of 47 families, 2 to 5 half-sibs per family, and 3-7 ramets per clone. High genetic variation was found at the three hierarchical levels studied: population, family and clone, being both additive and non-additive effects important. Narrow-sense and broad-sense heritability estimates were relatively high, with respective values of 0.43-0.58 and 0.51-0.8, depending on the resistance traits measured (lesion length, lesion length rate, time to wilting, and survival. These values suggest the species' high capacity of evolutionary response to the F. circinatum pathogen. A population originated in Northern Spain was the most resistant, while another from Morocco was the most susceptible. The total number of plants that did not show lesion development or presented a small lesion (length<30 mm was 224 out of 670, indicating a high proportion of resistant trees in the offspring within the analyzed populations. We found large differences among populations and considerable genetic variation within populations, which should allow, through natural or artificial selection, the successful adaptation of maritime pine to pitch canker disease.

  4. Adaptive potential of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) populations to the emerging pitch canker pathogen, Fusarium circinatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvira-Recuenco, Margarita; Iturritxa, Eugenia; Majada, Juan; Alia, Ricardo; Raposo, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    There is a concern on how emerging pests and diseases will affect the distribution range and adaptability of their host species, especially due to different conditions derived from climate change and growing globalization. Fusarium circinatum, which causes pitch canker disease in Pinus species, is an exotic pathogen of recent introduction in Spain that threatens its maritime pine (P. pinaster) stands. To predict the impact this disease will have on the species, we examine host resistance traits and their genetic architecture. Resistance phenotyping was done in a clonal provenance/progeny trial, using three-year-old cuttings artificially inoculated with the pathogen and maintained under controlled environmental conditions. A total number of 670 ramets were assessed, distributed in 10 populations, with a total of 47 families, 2 to 5 half-sibs per family, and 3-7 ramets per clone. High genetic variation was found at the three hierarchical levels studied: population, family and clone, being both additive and non-additive effects important. Narrow-sense and broad-sense heritability estimates were relatively high, with respective values of 0.43-0.58 and 0.51-0.8, depending on the resistance traits measured (lesion length, lesion length rate, time to wilting, and survival). These values suggest the species' high capacity of evolutionary response to the F. circinatum pathogen. A population originated in Northern Spain was the most resistant, while another from Morocco was the most susceptible. The total number of plants that did not show lesion development or presented a small lesion (length<30 mm) was 224 out of 670, indicating a high proportion of resistant trees in the offspring within the analyzed populations. We found large differences among populations and considerable genetic variation within populations, which should allow, through natural or artificial selection, the successful adaptation of maritime pine to pitch canker disease.

  5. Evaluation of two systerns of soil desinfection and its interaction with sorne rnicronutrient formulations on the incidence of Fusarium oxysporum in two carnation varieties Evaluación de dos sistemas de desinfección del suelo y su interacción con algunas formulaciones de microelementos sobre la incidencia de Fusarium oxysporum en dos variedades de clavel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orozco de Amézquita Martha

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available A research was done in a commercial greenhouse in order to evaluate two soil treatments before planting and foliar application of Zinc, Cooper, Manganese, Boron and Molybdenum in the control of vascular wilt of Carnation caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi. A greater reduction ofthe fungus population in the seil and disease incidence was observed with
    the soil treatment with Dazomet + steam. The application of micronutrients to the foliage of the plants did not produce a significant control of the disease.
    La investigación se realizó en un cultivo comercial de clavel con el objeto de evaluar el tratamiento del suelo con una mezcla de un fumigante + vapor y la aplicación foliar de Zinc, Cobre, Manganeso, Boro y Molibdeno en las variedades New Pink y Scania, para el control del marchitamiento vascular ocasionado por Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi. La mayor población del hongo en el suelo y la menor incidencia de la enfermedad se obtuvo con la aplicación de Dazomet + Vapor. La aplicación de micronutrientes al follaje de las plantas no produjo una disminución significativa de la enfermedad, ni un aumento en la producción de flores. Evaluation of two systems of soil desinfection and their interaction with some formulation of micronutrients on the incidence of Fusetium oxysporum in two carnation varieties.

  6. Fusarium pathogenesis investigated using Galleria mellonella as a heterologous host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jeffrey J.; Muhammed, Maged; Kasperkovitz, Pia V.; Vyas, Jatin M.; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2011-01-01

    Members of the fungal genus Fusarium are capable of manifesting in a multitude of clinical infections, most commonly in immunocompromised patients. In order to better understand the interaction between the fungus and host, we have developed the larvae of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, as a heterologous host for fusaria. When conidia are injected into the hemocoel of this Lepidopteran system, both clinical and environmental isolates of the fungus are able to kill the larvae at 37°C, although killing occurs more rapidly when incubated at 30°C. This killing was dependent on several other factors besides temperature, including the Fusarium strain, the number of conidia injected, and the conidia morphology, where macroconidia are more virulent than their microconidia counterpart. There was a correlation in the killing rate of Fusarium spp. when evaluated in G. mellonella and a murine model. In vivo studies indicated G. mellonella hemocytes were capable of initially phagocytosing both conidial morphologies. The G. mellonella system was also used to evaluate antifungal agents, and amphotericin B was able to confer a significant increase in survival to Fusarium infected-larvae. The G. mellonella-Fusarium pathogenicity system revealed that virulence of Fusarium spp. is similar, regardless of the origin of the isolate, and that mammalian endothermy is a major deterrent for Fusarium infection and therefore provides a suitable alternative to mammalian models to investigate the interaction between the host and this increasingly important fungal pathogen. PMID:22115447

  7. Identification and diversity of Fusarium species isolated from tomato fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad Nur Baiti Abd

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fruit rot of tomato is a serious disease caused by Fusarium species. Sampling was conducted throughout Selangor, Malaysia and fungal species identification was conducted based on morphological and gene encoding translation elongation factor 1-α (tef1-α sequence analysis. Five species of Fusarium were discovered namely F. oxysporum (including F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, F. solani, F. equiseti, F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides. Our results provide additional information regarding the diversity of Fusarium species associated with fruit rot disease of tomato.

  8. Fusarium head blight (FHB and Fusarium populations in grain of winter wheat grown in different cultivation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenc Leszek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB incidence, and colonisation of grain by Fusarium species on winter wheat grown in organic, integrated, and conventional systems as well as in monoculture, were studied locally in Poland, from 2002 to 2010. Fusarium head blight incidence differed throughout the study years. It was found to occur the most where rainfall was highest and where rainfall was the most prolonged before, during, and after flowering of wheat. Fusarium head blight incidence was generally less on wheat grown organically than on wheat grown in other systems. In some years, FHB was noted more in monocultures than in other systems. Fusarium poae was the most common species of FHB populations in wheat kernels, followed by F. avenaceum and F. tricinctum. Other species which occurred more rarely or sporadically were: F. culmorum, F. equiseti, F. graminearum, F. langsethiae, F. oxysporum, and F. sporotrichioides. There were found to be significant effects of the cropping system on grain colonisation by Fusarium in some years. There was a positive correlation between FHB incidence and number of kernels colonised and damaged by Fusarium, in all four systems. Inferences were drawn concerning the effects of different procedures in different production systems and the possible value for controlling FHB

  9. Biological Control of Fusarium Stalk Rot of Maize Using Bacillus spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon-Hee Han

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L. is an economically important crop in worldwide. While the consumption of the maize is steadily increasing, the yield is decreasing due to continuous mono-cultivation and infection of soil-borne fungal pathogens such as Fusarium species. Recently, stalk rot disease in maize, caused by F. subglutinans and F. temperatum has been reported in Korea. In this study, we isolated bacterial isolates in rhizosphere soil of maize and subsequently tested for antagonistic activities against F. subglutinans and F. temperatum. A total of 1,357 bacterial strains were isolated from rhizosphere. Among them three bacterial isolates (GC02, GC07, GC08 were selected, based on antagonistic effects against Fusarium species. The isolates GC02 and GC07 were most efficient in inhibiting the mycelium growth of the pathogens. The three isolates GC02, GC07 and GC08 were identified as Bacillus methylotrophicus, B. amyloliquefaciens and B. thuringiensis using 16S rRNA sequence analysis, respectively. GC02 and GC07 bacterial suspensions were able to suppress over 80% conidial germination of the pathogens. GC02, GC07 and GC08 were capable of producing large quantities of protease enzymes, whereas the isolates GC07 and GC08 produced cellulase enzymes. The isolates GC02 and GC07 were more efficient in phosphate solubilization and siderophore production than GC08. Analysis of disease suppression revealed that GC07 was most effective in suppressing the disease development of stalk rot. It was also found that B. methylotrophicus GC02 and B. amyloliquefaciens GC07 have an ability to inhibit the growth of other plant pathogenic fungi. This study indicated B. methylotrophicus GC02 and B. amyloliquefaciens GC07 has potential for being used for the development of a biological control agent.

  10. Systematic discovery of regulatory motifs in Fusarium graminearum by comparing four Fusarium genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kistler Corby

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fusarium graminearum (Fg, a major fungal pathogen of cultivated cereals, is responsible for billions of dollars in agriculture losses. There is a growing interest in understanding the transcriptional regulation of this organism, especially the regulation of genes underlying its pathogenicity. The generation of whole genome sequence assemblies for Fg and three closely related Fusarium species provides a unique opportunity for such a study. Results Applying comparative genomics approaches, we developed a computational pipeline to systematically discover evolutionarily conserved regulatory motifs in the promoter, downstream and the intronic regions of Fg genes, based on the multiple alignments of sequenced Fusarium genomes. Using this method, we discovered 73 candidate regulatory motifs in the promoter regions. Nearly 30% of these motifs are highly enriched in promoter regions of Fg genes that are associated with a specific functional category. Through comparison to Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc and Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Sp, we observed conservation of transcription factors (TFs, their binding sites and the target genes regulated by these TFs related to pathways known to respond to stress conditions or phosphate metabolism. In addition, this study revealed 69 and 39 conserved motifs in the downstream regions and the intronic regions, respectively, of Fg genes. The top intronic motif is the splice donor site. For the downstream regions, we noticed an intriguing absence of the mammalian and Sc poly-adenylation signals among the list of conserved motifs. Conclusion This study provides the first comprehensive list of candidate regulatory motifs in Fg, and underscores the power of comparative genomics in revealing functional elements among related genomes. The conservation of regulatory pathways among the Fusarium genomes and the two yeast species reveals their functional significance, and provides new insights in their

  11. Genetic diversity and pathogenicity of Fusarium species associated with fruit rot disease in banana across Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Murad, N B; Mohamed Nor, N M I; Shohaimi, S; Mohd Zainudin, N A I

    2017-12-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the Fusarium isolates based on translation elongation factor (tef) 1α sequence, to determine the genetic diversity among isolates and species using selected microsatellite markers and to examine the pathogenicity of Fusarium isolates causing fruit rot disease of banana. One-hundred and thirteen microfungi isolates were obtained from fruit rot infected banana in Peninsular Malaysia. However, this study was focused on the dominant number of the discovered microfungi that belongs to the genus Fusarium; 48 isolates of the microfungi have been identified belonging to 11 species of Fusarium, namely Fusarium incarnatum, Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium camptoceras, Fusarium solani, Fusarium concolor, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium verticillioides, Fusarium sacchari, Fusarium concentricum and Fusarium fujikuroi. All Fusarium isolates were grouped into their respective clades indicating their similarities and differences in genetic diversity among isolates. Out of 48 Fusarium isolates tested, 42 isolates caused the fruit rot symptom at different levels of severity based on Disease Severity Index (DSI). The most virulent isolate was F. proliferatum B2433B with DSI of 100%. All the isolated Fusarium species were successfully identified and some of them were confirmed as the causal agents of pre- and postharvest fruit rot in banana across Peninsular Malaysia. Our results will provide additional information regarding new report of Fusarium species in causing banana fruit rot and in the search of potential biocontrol agent of the disease. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Cutinase of Fusarium solani F. sp. pisi: mechanism of induction and relatedness to other Fusarium species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woloshuk, C.P.

    1986-01-01

    Three studies were made on the extracellular cutinase of the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi. I. The production of cutinase was found to be induced in spores of F. solani f. sp. pisi, strain T-8, by cutin and cutin hydrolysate. Fractionation and analysis of the cutin hydrolysate indicated that dihydroxy-C 16 acid and trihydroxy-C 18 acid were the cutin monomers most active for inducing cutinase. Measurement of cutinase-specific RNA levels by dot-blot hybridization with a [ 32 P]-labeled cutinase cDNA showed that the cutinase gene transcripts could be detected within 15 min after addition of the inducers. The results indicated that the fungal spores have the capacity to recognize the unique monomer components of the plant cuticle and rapidly respond by the synthesis of cutinase. II. Analysis of the genomic DNA's of seven strains of F. solani f. sp. pisi indicated that both high and low cutinase-producing strains contain at least one copy of the cutinase structural gene and a homologous promoter region. The data suggest a different promoter sequence exists in these additional copies. III. Relatedness of five phytopathogenic Fusarium species to F. solani f. sp. pisi was determined by their cutinase antigenic properties and gene homologies of cutinase cDNA from F. solani f. sp. pisi. The results suggest that formae specialis of F. solani are phylogenetically identical and that F. solani is quite distinct from the other Fusarium species tested

  13. SNP association analysis of resistance to Verticillium wilt (Verticillium dahliae Kleb.) in spinach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verticillium wilt, caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb. is one of important fungus diseases in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and the most economical method of control this disease is through the use of genetic resistance, especially for organic growers. The objective of this research is to evaluate...

  14. Cultivation of the Pine Wilt Nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, in Axenic Culture Media

    OpenAIRE

    Bolla, R. I.; Jordan, W.

    1982-01-01

    The pine wilt nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, has been cultured axenically in vitro on soy peptone/yeast extract or modified Caenorhabditis medium supplemented with cholesterol and hemoglobin. Although growth, development and reproduction were best in soy peptone/yeast extract medium, satisfactory population size increases were observed in the chemically defined Caenorhaditis medium.

  15. Ranking of grass species according to visible wilting order and rate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaf water potential and soil water content at which each grass species wilted were recorded. Keywords: availability; digitaria argyrograpta; digitaria eriantha; grasses; leaf water potential; moisture stress; neutron probe; orange free state; panicum stapfianum; soil water; soil water content; soil water potential; south africa ...

  16. Characterization of two biologically distinct variants of Tomato spotted wilt virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant economic losses result on a wide range of crops due to infection with Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). In this study, two TSWV isolates, one from basil and a second from tomato, were established in a common plant host. Viral proteins were monitored over time, plant host ranges were comp...

  17. Using genetic information to inform Redbay restoration in Laurel Wilt epidemic areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.E. Smith; M.A. Hughes; C.S. Echt; S.A. Josserand; C.D. Nelson; J.M. Davis; J.A. Smith

    2017-01-01

    Laurel wilt disease is incited by the exotic fungus Raffaelea lauricola and transmitted by the Asian redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus). The disease has spread from Savannah, Georgia in 2002 across the coastal southeast as far south as the Everglades, and in 2014 was discovered as far west as Texas. Mortality is severe, with locations in...

  18. Recent advances in the control of oak wilt in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan A. Wilson

    2005-01-01

    Oak wilt, caused by Ceratocystis fagacearum (T.W.Bretz) J. Hunt, is probably the most destructive disease of oak trees (Quercus species) in the United States, and is currently causing high morality at epiphytotic proportions in central Texas. The serious potential for damage pro,pted an increase in federal funding within the past...

  19. Transmission of tomato spotted wilt tospovirus by Thrips tabaci populations originating from leek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatzivassiliou, E.K.; Nagata, T.; Katis, N.I.; Peters, D.

    1999-01-01

    The transmission of tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) by Thrips tabaci collected from leek was studied using the petunia local-lesion leaf-disc assay. After an acquisition-access period of 72 h given to newborn larvae up to 8 h old, the efficiency of transmission by adults was determined in

  20. The route of tomato spotted wilt virus inside the thrips body in relation to transmission efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kritzman, A.; Gera, A.; Raccah, B.; Lent, van J.W.M.; Peters, D.

    2002-01-01

    The route of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in the body of its vectors, Frankliniella occidentalis and Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) was studied during their development. First instar larvae were allowed, immediately upon hatching, to acquire virus from mechanically infected Datura

  1. Silage of white oat under nitrogen fertilization and pre-wilting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Zamarchi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The forage conservation as silage is a way to provide good quality forage during grazing scarcity periods, in this way, the objective was to evaluate the effect of pre-wilting and nitrogen fertilization on the fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of white oat silage, in two harvest stages. The experiment was conducted in 2011 at UTFPR, Dois Vizinhos-PR, Brazil. The experimental design was in a randomized blocks with two factorial arrangement and three replicates. The main treatments were six nitrogen doses: 0, 40, 80, 120, 160 and 200 kg ha-1, and secondary the stages of cutting for silage: early flowering with and without pre-wilting, and at blooming without pre-wilting. It was observed that nitrogen fertilization promoted a reduction in pH and mineral content of the silage, reducing fiber content and increasing crude protein content (CP, when made at oat early flowering. The effect of pre-wilting in early flowering inhibits the production of effluents and has higher levels of CP, without any effect on the fermentation and nutritional value. The silage at blooming stage features better standards of fermentation, with lower pH and buffering capacity, but with lower nutritional value.

  2. The xylem as battleground for plant hosts and vascular wilt pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yadeta, K.A.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Vascular wilts are among the most destructive plant diseases that occur in annual crops as well as in woody perennials. These diseases are generally caused by soil-borne bacteria, fungi, and oomycetes that infect through the roots and enter the water-conducting xylem vessels where they proliferate

  3. Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae in woody plants with emphasis on olive and shade trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keykha Saber, Mojtaba; Thomma, Bart P.H.J.; Hiemstra, Jelle A.

    2018-01-01

    Olive plantations and tree nurseries are economically and ecologically important agricultural sectors. However, Verticillium wilt, caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb., is a serious problem in olive-growing regions and in tree nurseries worldwide. In this review we describe common and

  4. Controlling spread of the oak wilt pathogen (Ceratocystis fagacearum) in a Minnesota urban forest park reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Juzwik; Joseph O' Brien; Charles Evenson; Paul Castillo; Graham. Mahal

    2010-01-01

    Effectiveness of oak wilt control actions taken between 1997 and 1999 were evaluated for an urban forest park reserve in Minnesota, U.S. A high level of success (84% of evaluated disease centers) was achieved in controlling belowground spread of the vascular pathogen for four to six years by mechanically disrupting inter-tree root connections with the blade of a cable...

  5. Role of the envelope glycoproteins in the infection cycle of tomato spotted wilt virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikkert, M.

    1999-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) forms the type member of the genus Tospovirus , which today harbors more than twelve different species. TSWV is able to infect an enormous variety of different plants, to which it often causes devastating effects,

  6. Impact of soil amendments and weather factors on bacterial wilt and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tomato bacterial wilt, caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, leads to tomato yield losses of up to 80% in southwestern Nigeria. Soil amendments and weather conditions are important in the management of the disease. Field experiments were conducted at the Research Farm of the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, ...

  7. First report of laurel wilt disease caused by Raffaelea lauricola on pondspice in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Hughes; J.A. Smith; A.E. Mayfield III; M.C. Minno; K. Shin

    2011-01-01

    Laurel wilt is a fungal vascular disease of redbay (Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng) and other plants in the family Lauraceae in the southeastern United States (1). The disease is caused by Raffaelea lauricola T. C. Harr., Fraedrich & Aghayeva, which is vectored by the exotic redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus...

  8. Ambrosia beetle communities in forest and agriculture ecosystems with laurel wilt disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an exotic wood-boring pest first detected in 2002 near Savannah, Georgia. The beetle’s dominant fungal symbiont, Raffaelea lauricola, is the pathogen that causes laurel wilt, a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae. Redbay ambro...

  9. First report of Laurel Wilt caused by Rafffaelea lauricola on sassafras in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.J. Riggins; S.W. Fraedrich; T.C. Harrington

    2011-01-01

    Laurel wilt is caused by the fungus Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harrin., Aghayeva & Fraedrich and is lethal to redbay (Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng.), sassafras (Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees), and other species in the Lauraceae (1). The fungus is carried by the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus Eichh.), which is native to Asia.

  10. First report of laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola , on Sassafras ( Sassafras albidum ) in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiu Olatinwo; C. Barton; Stephen Fraedrich; W. Johnson; J. Hwang

    2016-01-01

    Laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harrin., Aghayeva & Fraedrich, is a lethal disease that affects members of the laurel family (Lauraceae) including avocado (Persea americana Mill), redbay (Persea borbonia [L.] Spreng., Nees), and sassafras (Sassafras albidum [Nutt.]). The fungus is a symbiont of an exotic ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus...

  11. First report of laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola, on redbay (Persea borbonia) in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. D. Menard; S. R. Clarke; Stephen Fraedrich; T. C. Harrington

    2016-01-01

    Laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola T.C.Harr., Aghayeva, & Fraedrich, a fungal symbiont of the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff), is responsible for extensive mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng) and other Lauraceae native to the United States (Fraedrich et al. 2008). The beetle and fungus were introduced into the United...

  12. First report of laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola , on spicebush ( Lindera benzoin ) in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. W. Fraedrich; T. C. Harrington; B. A. McDaniel; G. S. Best

    2016-01-01

    Most members of the laurel family (Lauraceae) indigenous to the United States appear to be highly susceptible to laurel wilt, a disease caused by Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harr., Aghayeva & Fraedrich, a fungal symbiont of the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff) (Fraedrich et al. 2008; Harrington et al. 2008). The beetle and fungus were...

  13. Towards the development of a laurel wilt screening program in redbay (Persea borbonia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc Hughes; Jason Smith

    2012-01-01

    Laurel wilt is a highly destructive disease of redbay (Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng.) and other Lauraceous natives in the southeastern United States. The disease and associated vector, the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus), has spread through the United States coastal plain. The presence of surviving and...

  14. evaluation of enset clones against enset bacterial wilt abstract résumé

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jen

    plants, preventing animals from browsing infected plants, fencing infected sites and the rigorous ..... Phase 1 Report. Awassa, Ethiopia. Anonymous, 1996. Awassa Agricultural Research. Center Progress Report of Plant Protection. Research Division for 1995. Awassa, Ethiopia. Ashagari, D. 1985. Studies on bacterial wilt of.

  15. Breeding and genetics of lettuce for resistance against race 2 Verticillium wilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verticillium wilt, caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb., is an economically important disease of lettuce in central coastal California. Most isolates of the pathogen detected in the Salinas Valley belong to race 1 for which complete resistance exists. However, adequate level of resistance is not ava...

  16. In vitro transcription of Tomato spotted wilt virus is independent of translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knippenberg, van I.C.; Goldbach, R.W.; Kormelink, R.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Ongoing transcription in vitro of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has previously been demonstrated to require the presence of reticulocyte lysate. This dependence was further investigated by testing the occurrence of transcription in the presence of two translation inhibitors: edeine, an inhibitor

  17. Structure and expression of the tomato spotted wilt virus genome : a plant-infecting bunyavirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kormelink, R.J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This thesis describes studies which are aimed at the elucidation of the genetic organisation and expression strategy of the tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) RNA genome.

    Using specific cDNA clones, corresponding to all three genomic RNA segments, the synthesis of virus specific RNA

  18. Polygenic Inheritance of Canopy Wilting in Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    As water demand for agriculture exceeds water availability, cropping systems need to become more efficient in water usage, such as deployment of cultivars that sustain yield under drought conditions. Soybean cultivars differ in how quickly they wilt during water-deficit stress, and this trait may l...

  19. The history and epidemiology of Cape St Paul wilt disease of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The history of the spread of the Cape St. Paul Wilt (lethal yellowing) disease of coconut in Ghana is presented. Epidemiological studies showed that the disease starts slowly, then progresses (accelerate) rapidly before levelling off. In a farm, the disease first appears randomly on single trees, foci then develop around these ...

  20. On-farm successes and challenges of producing bacterial wilt-free ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shortage, unavailability and high cost of disease-free seed potato and Ralstonia solanacearum-infested soils have remained key limitations in the management of potato bacterial wilt in Kenya. Attempts to reduce yield losses caused by the disease have been made through on-farm development and promotion of a ...

  1. Occurrence of Tomato spotted wilt virus in Stevia rebaudiana and Solanum tuberosum in Northern Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatzivassiliou, E.K.; Peters, D.; Lolas, P.

    2007-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) was first reported in Greece during 1972 (3) and currently is widespread in the central and northern part of the country infecting several cultivated and wild plant species (1,2). In June 2006, virus-like symptoms similar to

  2. APPLICATION OF PROPICONAZOLE IN MANAGEMENT OF LAUREL WILT DISEASE IN AVOCADO (Persea americana Mill.) TREES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurel wilt is a vascular disease of Lauraceous plants caused by a fungus (Raffaelea spp.) that is carried by a recently introduced, nonnative ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus). The disease is devastating to Persea species including redbay (Persea borbonia) and avocado (Persea americana) trees i...

  3. Comparative RNA-seq for the investigation of tolerance to Verticillium wilt in black raspberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verticillium dahliae Kleb., a cause of verticillium wilt, is a wide-spread, soil-borne fungal pathogen with a wide host range that includes many fruit and vegetable crops. Verticillium dahliae has been isolated from Rubus species showing symptoms of the disease. Very little is known about the intera...

  4. Evaluation of deoxynivalenol production in dsRNA Carrying and Cured Fusarium graminearum isolates by AYT1 expressing transformed tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasan shahhosseiny

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fusarium head blight (FHB, is the most destructive disease of wheat, producing the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol, a protein synthesis inhibitor, which is harmful to humans and livestock. dsRNAmycoviruses-infected-isolates of Fusariumgraminearum, showed changes in morphological and pathogenicity phenotypes including reduced virulence towards wheat and decreased production of trichothecene mycotoxin (deoxynivalenol: DON. Materials and methods: Previous studies indicated that over expression of yeast acetyl transferase gene (ScAYT1 encoding a 3-O trichothecene acetyl transferase that converts deoxynivalenol to a less toxic acetylated form, leads to suppression of the deoxynivalenol sensitivity in pdr5 yeast mutants. To identify whether ScAYT1 over-expression in transgenic tobacco plants can deal with mycotoxin (deoxynivalenol in fungal extract and studying the effect of dsRNA contamination on detoxification and resistance level, we have treated T1 AYT1 transgenic tobacco seedlings with complete extraction of normal F. graminearum isolate carrying dsRNA metabolites. First, we introduced AYT1into the model tobacco plants through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in an attempt to detoxify deoxynivalenol. Results: In vitro tests with extraction of dsRNA carrying and cured isolates of F. graminearum and 10 ppm of deoxynivalenol indicated variable resistance levels in transgenic plants. Discussion and conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the transgene expression AYT1 and Fusarium infection to dsRNA can induce tolerance to deoxynivalenol, followed by increased resistance to Fusarium head blight disease of wheat.

  5. Incidence of zearalenol (Fusarium mycotoxin) in animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirocha, C J; Schauerhamer, B; Christensen, C M; Niku-Paavola, M L; Nummi, M

    1979-01-01

    Zearalenol, the reduction product of zearalenone produced by Fusarium roseum growing in cereals, was found for the first time naturally occurring in oats and corn. This metabolite is three to four times more active estrogenically than zearalenone. PMID:161492

  6. Response of African eggplants to Fusarium spp. and identification of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Response of African eggplants to Fusarium spp. and identification of sources of resistance. Phoebe Kirigo Mwaniki, Mathew Musumbale Abang, Isabel Nyokabi Wagara, Joseph Ngwela Wolukau, Schroers Hans-Josef ...

  7. OCCURRENCE OF FUSARIUM SPECIES ON SMALL CEREALS IN LATVIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treikale, O; Javoisha, B; Feodorova-Fedotova, L; Grantina-Ievina, L; Volkova, J

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to assess the infection level of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in different spring barley and oat cultivars and to specify the spectrum of Fusarium species of Latvian population found in the ear samples of spring barley and oat. Molecular analysis of single-conidium isolates of Fusarium species from the grain samples in different sites of Latvia revealed the presence of F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, F. boothii, F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. poae, F. sporotrichioides, and F. tricinctum in Latvian population of Fusarium species associated with FHB in spring barley. F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. equiseti, F. graminearum, F. langsethiae, F. oxysporum, F. poae, F. redolens and F. sporotrichioides were identified in the samples of oat. Further investigations are required.

  8. Analysis of Iranian isolates of Fusarium solani using morphological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many economically important phytopathogenic species are nested within Fusarium solani species complex. Since most of them lack Latin binomials, morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses were conducted on strains selected to represent the known pathogenic and genetic diversity of this pathogen.

  9. Association of the pitch canker pathogen Fusarium circinatum with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Association of the pitch canker pathogen Fusarium circinatum with grass hosts in commercial pine production areas of South Africa. Cassandra L Swett, Bernice Porter, Gerda Fourie, Emma T Steenkamp, Thomas R Gordon, Michael J Wingfield ...

  10. Re-use of seedling containers and Fusarium circinatum association ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Re-use of seedling containers and Fusarium circinatum association with asymptomatic Pinus patula planting stock. Andrew R Morris, Gerda Fourie, Izette Greyling, Emma T Steenkamp, Nicoletta B Jones ...

  11. Suppression chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Akio.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To miniaturize the storage tank of condensated water in BWR reactor. Constitution: A diaphragm is provided in a suppression chamber thereby to partition the same into an inner compartment and an outer compartment. In one of said compartments there is stored clean water to be used for feeding at the time of separating the reactor and for the core spray system, and in another compartment there is stored water necessary for accomplishing the depressurization effect at the time of coolant loss accident. To the compartment in which clean water is stored there is connected a water cleaning device for constantly maintaining water in clean state. As this cleaning device an already used fuel pool cleaning device can be utilized. Further, downcomers for accomplishing the depressurization function are provided in both inner compartment and outer compartment. The capacity of the storage tank can be reduced by the capacity of clean water within the suppression chamber. (Ikeda, J.)

  12. Possibility of biological control of primocane fruiting raspberry disease caused by Fusarium sambucinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shternshis, Margarita V; Belyaev, Anatoly A; Matchenko, Nina S; Shpatova, Tatyana V; Lelyak, Anastasya A

    2015-10-01

    Biological control agents are a promising alternative to chemical pesticides for plant disease suppression. The main advantage of the natural biocontrol agents, such as antagonistic bacteria compared with chemicals, includes environmental pollution prevention and a decrease of chemical residues in fruits. This study is aimed to evaluate the impact of three Bacillus strains on disease of primocane fruiting raspberry canes caused by Fusarium sambucinum under controlled infection load and uncontrolled environmental factors. Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens were used for biocontrol of plant disease in 2013 and 2014 which differed by environmental conditions. The test suspensions were 10(5) CFU/ml for each bacterial strain. To estimate the effect of biological agents on Fusarium disease, canes were cut at the end of vegetation, and the area of outer and internal lesions was measured. In addition to antagonistic effect, the strains revealed the ability to induce plant resistance comparable with chitosan-based formulation. Under variable ways of cane treatment by bacterial strains, the more effective were B. subtilis and B. licheniformis demonstrating dual biocontrol effect. However, environmental factors were shown to impact the strain biocontrol ability; changes in air temperature and humidity led to the enhanced activity of B. amyloliquefaciens. For the first time, the possibility of replacing chemicals with environmentally benign biological agents for ecologically safe control of the raspberry primocane fruiting disease was shown.

  13. Development of mango wilt in mango cultivars submitted to salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Cristina Vieccelli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mango wilt, caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata, is one of the most important diseases affecting mango yield worldwide. Salt stress can affect host defense responses against pathogens infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the development of mango wilt in 2 mango cultivars submitted to salt stress. Mango plants from cultivars Tommy Atkins and Ubá, considered to be moderately resistant and resistant to mango wilt, respectively, were grown in plastic pots which contained 20 kg of washed sand and daily irrigated with 3 L of a modified Hoagland solution during 40 days before being submitted to salinization. For this process of salinization, the plants received nutrient solution containing 0, 30, 60, and 90 mmol∙L–1 of sodium chloride (NaCl during 50 days. At the 50th day, the plants were inoculated with C. fimbriata, and disease development was evaluated at 42 days after inoculation. During this period, the plants were also submitted to salinization. After disease evaluation, the stems of plants from each treatment were collected to determine the concentrations of chlorine (Cl and sodium (Na. Plants from the 2 cultivars showed reduced mango wilt symptoms as the NaCl doses increased from 0 to 90 mmol∙L–1. Plants submitted to the highest NaCl doses showed greater Cl and Na concentrations on the stem. In conclusion, the resistance of plants against C. fimbriata infection can be potentiated when submitted to salt stress regardless of their basal level of resistance to mango wilt.

  14. Action and reaction of host and pathogen during Fusarium head blight disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Stephanie; Nicholson, Paul; Doohan, Fiona M

    2010-01-01

    The Fusarium species Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum, Which are responsible for Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease, reduced world-wide cereal crop yield and, as a consequence of their mycotoxin production in cereal grain, impact on both human and animal health. Their study is greatly...... involved in Fusarium infection, penetration and colonization of host tissues, and host avoidance thereof. This reviewer Illuminate and Integrates emerging knowledge regarding the molecular crosstalk between Fusarium and its small-grain cereal hosts. An understanding of the complexity of the host......-pathogen interactions will be instrumental in designing new efficient strategies for the control of FHB disease....

  15. Extracellular enzymes of Fusarium graminearum isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Eleonora Kikot

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium graminearum isolates from three different agroecological regions in Argentina were examined according to the production of different extracellular enzyme activities of potential biotechnological interest: pectinases (PGase: polygalacturonase and PMGase: polymethylgalacturonase, cellulase (CMCase: carboxymethylcellulase and hemicellulase (xylanase. The isolates were grown in minimum salt medium supplemented with 0.25% glucose, 0.125% citric pectin and 0.125% oat bran as carbon sources and/or enzyme inducers. PGase activity was detected early (after two days of incubation in all the cultures; it was found to be the highest for all the isolates. PMGase was high only for those isolates of the II region. CMCase and endoxylanase activities were particularly found at late stages (after four and seven days of incubation, respectively and the maximum values were lower than pectinase activities.

  16. Identification and characterization of a highly variable region in mitochondrial genomes of fusarium species and analysis of power generation from microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzah, Haider Mousa

    In the microbial fuel cell (MFC) project, power generation from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 was analyzed looking for a novel system for both energy generation and sustainability. The results suggest the possibility of generating electricity from different organic substances, which include agricultural and industrial by-products. Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 generates usable electrons at 30°C using both submerged and solid state cultures. In the MFC biocathode experiment, most of the CO2 generated at the anodic chamber was converted into bicarbonate due the activity of carbonic anhydrase (CA) of the Gluconobacter sp.33 strain. These findings demonstrate the possibility of generation of electricity while at the same time allowing the biomimetic sequestration of CO2 using bacterial CA. In the mitochondrial genomes project, the filamentous fungal species Fusarium oxysporum was used as a model. This species causes wilt of several important agricultural crops. A previous study revealed that a highly variable region (HVR) in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of three species of Fusarium contained a large, variable unidentified open reading frame (LV-uORF). Using specific primers for two regions of the LV-uORF, six strains were found to contain the ORF by PCR and database searches identified 18 other strains outside of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex. The LV-uORF was also identified in three isolates of the F. oxysporum species complex. Interestingly, several F. oxysporum isolates lack the LV-uORF and instead contain 13 ORFs in the HVR, nine of which are unidentified. The high GC content and codon usage of the LV-uORF indicate that it did not co-evolve with other mt genes and was horizontally acquired and was introduced to the Fusarium lineage prior to speciation. The nonsynonymous/synonymous (dN/dS) ratio of the LV-uORFs (0.43) suggests it is under purifying selection and the putative polypeptide is predicted to be located in the mitochondrial membrane. Growth assays

  17. Comparative genomics and prediction of conditionally dispensable sequences in legume-infecting Fusarium oxysporum formae speciales facilitates identification of candidate effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Angela H; Sharma, Mamta; Thatcher, Louise F; Azam, Sarwar; Hane, James K; Sperschneider, Jana; Kidd, Brendan N; Anderson, Jonathan P; Ghosh, Raju; Garg, Gagan; Lichtenzveig, Judith; Kistler, H Corby; Shea, Terrance; Young, Sarah; Buck, Sally-Anne G; Kamphuis, Lars G; Saxena, Rachit; Pande, Suresh; Ma, Li-Jun; Varshney, Rajeev K; Singh, Karam B

    2016-03-05

    Soil-borne fungi of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex cause devastating wilt disease on many crops including legumes that supply human dietary protein needs across many parts of the globe. We present and compare draft genome assemblies for three legume-infecting formae speciales (ff. spp.): F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Foc-38-1) and f. sp. pisi (Fop-37622), significant pathogens of chickpea and pea respectively, the world's second and third most important grain legumes, and lastly f. sp. medicaginis (Fom-5190a) for which we developed a model legume pathosystem utilising Medicago truncatula. Focusing on the identification of pathogenicity gene content, we leveraged the reference genomes of Fusarium pathogens F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (tomato-infecting) and F. solani (pea-infecting) and their well-characterised core and dispensable chromosomes to predict genomic organisation in the newly sequenced legume-infecting isolates. Dispensable chromosomes are not essential for growth and in Fusarium species are known to be enriched in host-specificity and pathogenicity-associated genes. Comparative genomics of the publicly available Fusarium species revealed differential patterns of sequence conservation across F. oxysporum formae speciales, with legume-pathogenic formae speciales not exhibiting greater sequence conservation between them relative to non-legume-infecting formae speciales, possibly indicating the lack of a common ancestral source for legume pathogenicity. Combining predicted dispensable gene content with in planta expression in the model legume-infecting isolate, we identified small conserved regions and candidate effectors, four of which shared greatest similarity to proteins from another legume-infecting ff. spp. We demonstrate that distinction of core and potential dispensable genomic regions of novel F. oxysporum genomes is an effective tool to facilitate effector discovery and the identification of gene content possibly linked to host

  18. An Interspecies Signaling System Mediated by Fusaric Acid Has Parallel Effects on Antifungal Metabolite Production by Pseudomonas protegens Strain Pf-5 and Antibiosis of Fusarium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quecine, Maria Carolina; Kidarsa, Teresa A; Goebel, Neal C; Shaffer, Brenda T; Henkels, Marcella D; Zabriskie, T Mark; Loper, Joyce E

    2015-12-11

    Pseudomonas protegens strain Pf-5 is a rhizosphere bacterium that suppresses soilborne plant diseases and produces at least seven different secondary metabolites with antifungal properties. We derived mutants of Pf-5 with single and multiple mutations in biosynthesis genes for seven antifungal metabolites: 2,4-diacetylphoroglucinol (DAPG), pyrrolnitrin, pyoluteorin, hydrogen cyanide, rhizoxin, orfamide A, and toxoflavin. These mutants were tested for inhibition of the pathogens Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi. Rhizoxin, pyrrolnitrin, and DAPG were found to be primarily responsible for fungal antagonism by Pf-5. Previously, other workers showed that the mycotoxin fusaric acid, which is produced by many Fusarium species, including F. verticillioides, inhibited the production of DAPG by Pseudomonas spp. In this study, amendment of culture media with fusaric acid decreased DAPG production, increased pyoluteorin production, and had no consistent influence on pyrrolnitrin or orfamide A production by Pf-5. Fusaric acid also altered the transcription of biosynthetic genes, indicating that the mycotoxin influenced antibiotic production by Pf-5 at the transcriptional level. Addition of fusaric acid to the culture medium reduced antibiosis of F. verticillioides by Pf-5 and derivative strains that produce DAPG but had no effect on antibiosis by Pf-5 derivatives that suppressed F. verticillioides due to pyrrolnitrin or rhizoxin production. Our results demonstrated the importance of three compounds, rhizoxin, pyrrolnitrin, and DAPG, in suppression of Fusarium spp. by Pf-5 and confirmed that an interspecies signaling system mediated by fusaric acid had parallel effects on antifungal metabolite production and antibiosis by the bacterial biological control organism. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Fumigant activity of volatiles from Streptomyces alboflavus TD-1 against Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhifang; Wang, Changlu; Li, Fengjuan; Li, Zhenjing; Chen, Mianhua; Wang, Yurong; Qiao, Xi; Zhang, Hong

    2013-08-01

    The fumigant activity of volatiles generated by Streptomyces alboflavus TD-1 against Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon was investigated. The results showed that the mycelial growth, sporulation, and spore germination of F. moniliforme were significantly suppressed, and that membrane permeability was disrupted in the presence of the volatiles. Gas chromatography-mass Spectrometry analysis revealed 31 kinds of volatile organic compound from the volatiles. Among them, two earthy-smelling substances, namely, 2-methylisoborneol (50.97%) and trans-1,10-dimethyl-trans-9-decalinol (3.10%) were found. The most abundant compound, 2-methylisoborneol, exhibited inhibitory activity against F. moniliforme by fumigation. All these results suggested that S. alboflavus TD-1 can be a promising starter for the inhibition of F. moniliforme through fumigant action.

  20. First report of Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and laurel wilt in Louisiana, USA: The disease continues westward on sassafras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen W. Fraedrich; C. Wood Johnson; Roger D. Menard; Thomas C. Harrington; Rabiu Olatinwo; G. Susan Best

    2015-01-01

    Laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola Harrington, Fraedrich & Aghayeva (Ophiostomatales: Ophiostomataceae), has spread rapidly through the coastal plains forests of the southeastern United States (USA) with devastating effects on redbay (Persea borbonia [L.] Spreng.; Laurales: Lauraceae) populations (Fraedrich et...

  1. Effects of stage of maturity at harvest, wilting and LAB inoculant on aerobic stability of wheat silages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinberg, Z.G.; Khanal, Prabhat; Chen, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to study effects of cultivar, stage of maturity at harvest, wilting, and addition of lactic acid bacterial (LAB) inoculant at ensiling, and their interactions, on the aerobic stability of wheat silages. Wheat of two cultivars, harvested at the flowering or the milk stage...... of maturity were ensiled in mini-silos, either directly after cutting (DC) or after wilting (W). After 2-7 months of storage, silages were subjected to a 7-day aerobic stability test during which changes in chemical composition, dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (aNDF) digestibility, and temperature...... to the results with cultivar, stage of maturity, wilting and inoculant as main effects, as well as their interactions. Cultivar and LAB inoculant had effects on silage composition and aerobic stability, with stage of maturity having an effect on aerobic losses, whereas wilting did not have effects on aerobic...

  2. Analysis of root proteome unravels differential molecular responses during compatible and incompatible interaction between chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri Race1 (Foc1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Moniya; Gupta, Sumanti; Bhar, Anirban; Chakraborti, Dipankar; Basu, Debabrata; Das, Sampa

    2014-11-03

    Vascular wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri Race 1 (Foc1) is a serious disease of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) accounting for approximately 10-15% annual crop loss. The fungus invades the plant via roots, colonizes the xylem vessels and prevents the upward translocation of water and nutrients, finally resulting in wilting of the entire plant. Although comparative transcriptomic profiling have highlighted some important signaling molecules, but proteomic studies involving chickpea-Foc1 are limited. The present study focuses on comparative root proteomics of susceptible (JG62) and resistant (WR315) chickpea genotypes infected with Foc1, to understand the mechanistic basis of susceptibility and/or resistance. The differential and unique proteins of both genotypes were identified at 48 h, 72 h, and 96 h post Foc1 inoculation. 2D PAGE analyses followed by MALDI-TOF MS and MS/MS identified 100 differentially (>1.5 foldproteins. These proteins were further categorized into 10 functional classes and grouped into GO (gene ontology) categories. Network analyses of identified proteins revealed intra and inter relationship of these proteins with their neighbors as well as their association with different defense signaling pathways. qRT-PCR analyses were performed to correlate the mRNA and protein levels of some proteins of representative classes. The differential and unique proteins identified indicate their involvement in early defense signaling of the host. Comparative analyses of expression profiles of obtained proteins suggest that albeit some common components participate in early defense signaling in both susceptible and resistant genotypes, but their roles and regulation differ in case of compatible and/or incompatible interactions. Thus, functional characterization of identified PR proteins (PR1, BGL2, TLP), Trypsin protease inhibitor, ABA responsive protein, cysteine protease, protein disulphide isomerase, ripening related protein and albumins are

  3. Fusarium ründab igast asendist / Elina Akk, Heino Lõiveke

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Akk, Elina, 1968-

    2012-01-01

    Seeneperekond Fusarium spp. toodab toksilisi mükotoksiine ja põhjustab üle maailma suuri saagikadusid. Uute ning ohtlikumate Fusarium'i liikide levik teraviljakasvatuses üha laieneb, ka Põhja- ja Baltimaades

  4. Potential of Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Cotton Roots for Biological Control against Verticillium Wilt Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingfei; Li, Zhifang; Shi, Yongqiang; Zhao, LiHong; Feng, Zili; Zhu, Heqin

    2017-01-01

    Verticillium wilt is a soil-borne disease, and severely limits the development of cotton production. To investigate the role of endophytic fungi on Verticillium wilt, CEF-818 (Penicillium simplicissimum), CEF-714 (Leptosphaeria sp.), CEF-642 (Talaromyces flavus.) and CEF-193 (Acremonium sp.) isolated from cotton roots were used to assess their effects against cotton wilt disease caused by a defoliating V. dahliae strain Vd080. In the greenhouse, all treatments significantly reduced disease incidence and disease index, with the control efficacy ranging from 26% (CEF-642) to 67% (CEF-818) at 25 days (d) after inoculation. In the disease nursery, compared to controls (with disease incidence of 33.8% and disease index of 31), CEF-818, CEF-193, CEF-714 and CEF-642 provided a protection effect of 69.5%, 69.2%, 54.6% and 45.7%, respectively. Especially, CEF-818 and CEF-714 still provided well protection against Verticillium wilt with 46.9% and 56.6% or 14.3% and 33.7% at the first peak of the disease in heavily infected field, respectively (in early July). These results indicated that these endophytes not only delayed but also reduced wilt symptoms on cotton. In the harvest, the available cotton bolls of plant treated with CEF-818 and CEF-714 increased to 13.1, and 12.2, respectively. And the seed cotton yield significantly increased after seed bacterization with CEF-818 (3442.04 kg/ha) compared to untreated control (3207.51 kg/ha) by 7.3%. Furtherly, CEF-818 and CET-714 treatment increased transcript levels for PAL, PPO, POD, which leads to the increase of cotton defense reactions. Our results indicate that seed treatment of cotton plants with CEF-818 and CET-714 can help in the biocontrol of V. dahliae and improve seed cotton yield in cotton fields. This study provided a better understanding of cotton-endophyte interactions which will aid in developing effective biocontrol agents for Verticillium wilt of cotton in futhre. PMID:28107448

  5. Fusarium semitectum, a potential mycopathogen against thrips and mites in chilli, Capsicum annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikunthan, G; Manjunatha, M

    2006-01-01

    . Fusarium formulation sprayed plots were recorded low damage index than NSKE, water sprayed plots including control. Oil-emulsion formulation treated plot adjusted the highest benefit cost ratio of 6.07:1. Oil emulsion formulation (refined sunflower oil-Safola) was next best to the dust water formulation of F. semitectum. and monocrotophos combination and more-over equal to the monocrotophos 0.05% alone in suppressing the thrips and mite population. These results revealed that dust water formulation in combination with monocrotophos (0.05%) was able to suppress the population of thrips and mites and thus was able to give highest dry chilli yield. Oil emulsion formulation of F. semitectum can also be used as the next best choice in an environment friendly integrated chilli pest management programme.

  6. Bilateral endogenous Fusarium solani endophthalmitis in a liver-transplanted patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jesper Skovlund; Prause, Jan Ulrik; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous Fusarium endophthalmitis is a rare disease predominantly described in immunocompromised patients often due to leukemia. We report a case of bilateral endogenous Fusarium solani endophthalmitis in a liver-transplanted patient.......Endogenous Fusarium endophthalmitis is a rare disease predominantly described in immunocompromised patients often due to leukemia. We report a case of bilateral endogenous Fusarium solani endophthalmitis in a liver-transplanted patient....

  7. Wildly Growing Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) Hosts Pathogenic Fusarium Species and Accumulates Their Mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępień, Łukasz; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Urbaniak, Monika

    2016-05-01

    Asparagus officinalis L. is an important crop in many European countries, likely infected by a number of Fusarium species. Most of them produce mycotoxins in plant tissues, thus affecting the physiology of the host plant. However, there is lack of information on Fusarium communities in wild asparagus, where they would definitely have considerable environmental significance. Therefore, the main scientific aim of this study was to identify the Fusarium species and quantify their typical mycotoxins present in wild asparagus plants collected at four time points of the season. Forty-four Fusarium strains of eight species--Fusarium acuminatum, Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium sporotrichioides, and Fusarium tricinctum--were isolated from nine wild asparagus plants in 2013 season. It is the first report of F. sporotrichioides isolated from this particular host. Fumonisin B1 was the most abundant mycotoxin, and the highest concentrations of fumonisins B1-B3 and beauvericin were found in the spears collected in May. Moniliformin and enniatins were quantified at lower concentrations. Mycotoxins synthesized by individual strains obtained from infected asparagus tissues were assessed using in vitro cultures on sterile rice grain. Most of the F. sporotrichioides strains synthesized HT-2 toxin and F. equiseti strains were found to be effective zearalenone producers.

  8. A European Database of Fusarium graminearum and F-culmorum Trichothecene Genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasquali, Matias; Beyer, Marco; Logrieco, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium species, particularly Fusarium graminearum and F culmorum, are the main cause of trichothecene type B contamination in cereals. Data on the distribution of Fusarium trichothecene genotypes in cereals in Europe are scattered in time and space. Furthermore, a common core set of related var...

  9. Identification of the infection route of a Fusarium seed pathogen into nondormant Bromus tectorum seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    JanaLynn Franke; Brad Geary; Susan E. Meyer

    2014-01-01

    The genus Fusarium has a wide host range and causes many different forms of plant disease. These include seed rot and seedling blight diseases of cultivated plants. The diseases caused by Fusarium on wild plants are less well-known. In this study, we examined disease development caused by Fusarium sp. n on nondormant seeds of the important rangeland weed Bromus...

  10. Fusarium Osteomyelitis in a Patient With Pearson Syndrome: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Rachael M; Welliver, Robert C; Yu, Zhongxin

    2016-10-01

    Fusarium species are ubiquitous fungi causing a wide array of infections, including invasive disease in the immunosuppressed. We present a fusarium bone infection in a child with Pearson syndrome and review the literature. Ten cases of fusarium osteomyelitis were reported in the past 40 years, and we review the treatments.

  11. Virulence of Fusarium oxysporum and F. commune to Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. E. Stewart; Z. Abdo; R. K. Dumroese; N. B. Klopfenstein; M. -S. Kim

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium species can cause damping-off and root rot of young conifer seedlings, resulting in severe crop and economic losses in forest nurseries. Disease control within tree nurseries is difficult because of the inability to characterize and quantify Fusarium spp. populations with regard to disease potential because of high variability in isolate virulence. Fusarium...

  12. First report of Fusarium proliferatum causing dry rot in Michigan commercial potato (Solanum tuberosum) production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium dry rot of potato is a postharvest disease caused by several Fusarium spp. and is of worldwide importance. Thirteen Fusarium spp. have been implicated in fungal dry rots of potatoes worldwide. Among them, 11 species have been reported causing potato dry rot of seed tubers in the northern Un...

  13. Effect of soil biochar amendment on grain crop resistance to Fusarium mycotoxin contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycotoxin contamination of food and feed is among the top food safety concerns. Fusarium spp. cause serious diseases in cereal crops reducing yield and contaminating grain with mycotoxins that can be deleterious to human and animal health. Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides infect whe...

  14. First report of Fusarium redolens causing crown rot of wheat (Triticum spp.) in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium crown rot, caused by a complex of Fusarium spp., is a yield-limiting disease of wheat world-wide, especially in dry Mediterranean climates. In order to identify Fusarium species associated with crown rot of wheat, a survey was conducted in summer 2013 in the major wheat growing regions of T...

  15. Fusarium spp. causing dry rot of seed potato tubers in Michigan and their sensitivity to fungicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium dry rot of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a postharvest disease that can be caused by several Fusarium spp. A survey was conducted to establish the composition of Fusarium species causing dry rot of seed tubers in Michigan. A total of 370 dry rot symptomatic tubers were collected in 2009 ...

  16. Comparison of Fusarium oxysporum fsp lycopersici races 1, 2 and 3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr J. T. Ekanem

    Fusarium oxysporum fsp lycoperisci and fsp radicis lycopersici was carried out using the big dye terminator ... types, or forma speciales and races of Fusarium ..... Yamaguchi, I. (1997) Gel Penetrate- blotted immunobinding assay, a novel method for serological detection of. Fusarium spp in soil. J. Pestic. Sci. 22:321-. 325. 6.

  17. Food safety of cereals: a chain wide approach to reduce Fusarium mycotoxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, O.E.; Ruckenbauer, P.; Visconti, A.; Osenburggen, W.A.; Nijs, den A.P.M.

    2002-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat and barley and Fusarium ear rot in maize is caused by several Fusarium species. The disease reduces the quality of the seed since several of these fungi produce mycotoxins. From a food safety point of view, consumption of mycotoxin-infected cereals is dangerous as

  18. Structural and Functional Characterization of the TRI101 Trichothecene 3-O-Acetyltransferase from Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium graminearum: KINETIC INSIGHTS TO COMBATING FUSARIUM HEAD BLIGHT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garvey, Graeme S.; McCormick, Susan P.; Rayment, Ivan (UWASH); (UW); (NCAUR)

    2008-06-30

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a plant disease with serious economic and health impacts. It is caused by fungal species belonging to the genus Fusarium and the mycotoxins they produce. Although it has proved difficult to combat this disease, one strategy that has been examined is the introduction of an indigenous fungal protective gene into cereals such as wheat barley and rice. Thus far the gene of choice has been tri101 whose gene product catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl coenzyme A to the C3 hydroxyl moiety of several trichothecene mycotoxins. In vitro this has been shown to reduce the toxicity of the toxins by {approx}100-fold but has demonstrated limited resistance to FHB in transgenic cereal. To understand the molecular basis for the differences between in vitro and in vivo resistance the three-dimensional structures and kinetic properties of two TRI101 orthologs isolated from Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium graminearum have been determined. The kinetic results reveal important differences in activity of these enzymes toward B-type trichothecenes such as deoxynivalenol. These differences in activity can be explained in part by the three-dimensional structures for the ternary complexes for both of these enzymes with coenzyme A and trichothecene mycotoxins. The structural and kinetic results together emphasize that the choice of an enzymatic resistance gene in transgenic crop protection strategies must take into account the kinetic profile of the selected protein.

  19. Fusarium head blight: distribution in wheat in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treikale, O; Priekule, I; Javoisha, B; Lazareva, L

    2010-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat has, in recent years, been a very important worldwide disease in intensive growing of cereal. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the occurrence of FHB in wheat in Latvia and to identify the Fusarium species involved. This paper describes the distribution of Fusarium species that were isolated from samples representing winter and spring wheat varieties in Latvia, identified both by the classical morphological analyses of J. Leslie and B. Summerell (2006) and by PCR. The FHB incidence range in winter wheat was 1-20%, in spring wheat was 1-42%. The most significant factor affecting the incidence of fusarial head blight in wheat in Latvia was heightened temperature at the time of an thesis of wheat. In winter wheat 9 Fusarium species caused FHB: F. culmorum, F. avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. equiseti, F. poae, F. oxysporum, F. cerealis, F. sporotrichoides and F. verticillioides were identified by morphological characterization, and 5 were confirmed by PCR-analysis. After experience of 5 years, it can be concluded that the most frequent in winter wheat were F. poae and F. culmorum. In spring wheat from F. culmorum was dominant among 8 Fusarium species. Among 13 varieties of spring wheat, three were sensitive ('Chamsin', 'W 166', 'Azurite') and one was resistant ('Granny') to FHB in conditions of high natural infection in 2009. The monitoring surveys demonstrate a significant presence of FHB in spring wheat in conditions of heightened temperature at the time of flowering in Latvia.

  20. Mortality due to Japanese oak wilt disease and surrounding forest compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michio Oguro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Japanese oak wilt (Raffaelea quercivora is a vector-borne disease transmitted by the flying ambrosia beetle, Platypus quercivorus, and causes mass mortality in the fagaceous species of Japan. The data described in this article are available in Mendeley Data, DOI: 10.17632/xwj98nb39r.1 [1] and include the mortality status of 1089 Quercus crispula and 846 Quercus serrata trees and surrounding forest conditions. The findings using this dataset were published in M. Oguro, S. Imahiro, S. Saito, T. Nakashizuka, Relative importance of multiple scale factors to oak tree mortality due to Japanese oak wilt disease, For. Ecol. Manag. (2015 doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2015.07.016 [2].