WorldWideScience

Sample records for suppressed cyp1a1-mrna induction

  1. Wireless Inductive Power Device Suppresses Blade Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Carlos R.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Choi, Benjamin B.; Bakhle, Milind A.; Min, James B.; Stefko, George L.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Fougers, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    Vibration in turbomachinery can cause blade failures and leads to the use of heavier, thicker blades that result in lower aerodynamic efficiency and increased noise. Metal and/or composite fatigue in the blades of jet engines has resulted in blade destruction and loss of lives. Techniques for suppressing low-frequency blade vibration, such as gtuned circuit resistive dissipation of vibratory energy, h or simply "passive damping," can require electronics incorporating coils of unwieldy dimensions and adding unwanted weight to the rotor. Other approaches, using vibration-dampening devices or damping material, could add undesirable weight to the blades or hub, making them less efficient. A wireless inductive power device (WIPD) was designed, fabricated, and developed for use in the NASA Glenn's "Dynamic Spin Rig" (DSR) facility. The DSR is used to simulate the functionality of turbomachinery. The relatively small and lightweight device [10 lb (approx.=4.5 kg)] replaces the existing venerable and bulky slip-ring. The goal is the eventual integration of this technology into actual turbomachinery such as jet engines or electric power generators, wherein the device will facilitate the suppression of potentially destructive vibrations in fan blades. This technology obviates slip rings, which require cooling and can prove unreliable or be problematic over time. The WIPD consists of two parts: a remote element, which is positioned on the rotor and provides up to 100 W of electrical power to thin, lightweight piezoelectric patches strategically placed on/in fan blades; and a stationary base unit that wirelessly communicates with the remote unit. The base unit supplies inductive power, and also acts as an input and output corridor for wireless measurement, and active control command to the remote unit. Efficient engine operation necessitates minimal disturbance to the gas flow across the turbine blades in any effort to moderate blade vibration. This innovation makes it

  2. Endogenous ACh suppresses LTD induction and nicotine relieves the suppression via different nicotinic ACh receptor subtypes in the mouse hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakauchi, Sakura; Sumikawa, Katumi

    2014-08-28

    Studying the normal role of nicotinic cholinergic systems in hippocampal synaptic plasticity is critical for understanding how cholinergic loss in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and tobacco use affect cognitive function. However, it is largely unknown how nicotinic cholinergic systems regulate the induction of long-term depression (LTD). Extracellular field potential recordings were performed in hippocampal slices prepared from wild-type, α2, α7, and β2 knockout (KO) mice. Effects of nicotine and nicotinic antagonists on LTD induction in wild-type, α2, α7, and β2 KO mice were compared. Activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) occurs during LTD-inducing stimulation to suppress LTD induction at CA3-CA1 synapses. Nicotine relieves this suppression, causing larger LTD. This nicotine effect was mediated by the activation of non-α7 nAChR subtypes, which were not activated by ACh released during LTD-inducing stimulation, and requires the presence of endogenous ACh-induced α7 nAChR activation. Furthermore, the effect of nicotine was prevented in the presence of mecamylamine, but not dihydro-β-erythroidine, and was still observed in both α2 KO and β2 KO mice. This is the first report to evaluate the involvement of different nAChR subtypes in LTD induction. Findings indicate the involvement of unique non-α7 nAChR subtypes, which have not been considered in the nicotinic modulation of hippocampal long-term potentiation, in the control of LTD induction. The implication of our results is that the loss of cholinergic projections to the hippocampus, which reduces ACh release as seen in AD patients, and nicotine from tobacco smoking can differentially affect LTD induction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Suppression of human monocyte tissue factor induction by red wine phenolics and synthetic derivatives of resveratrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurjeet; Roberti, Marinella; Raul, Francis; Pendurthi, Usha R.

    2010-01-01

    Prevention of cardiovascular disease through nutritional supplements is growing in popularity throughout the world. Multiple epidemiologic studies found that moderate consumption of alcohol, particularly red wine, lowers mortality rates from coronary heart diseases (CHD). Chronic inflammation and atherosclerosis associated with CHD culminate in aberrant intravascular expression of tissue factor (TF), which triggers blood coagulation leading to thrombosis, a major cause for heart attack. We showed earlier that two red wine phenolics, resveratrol and quercetin, suppressed TF induction in endothelial cells. In the present study, we investigated efficacy of seven resveratrol derivatives, which were shown to be effective in regulating cancer cell growth in vitro at much lower concentrations than the parent compound resveratrol, in inhibiting TF induction in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We also tested possible synergistic effects of resveratrol and quercetin with the other major red wine phenolics in suppression of lipopolysaccharide-induced TF expression in human PBMCs. We found that several resveratrol derivatives were 2- to 10-fold more efficient than resveratrol in inhibiting TF induction. Our study found no evidence for synergism among red wine polyphenolics. These data suggest that structural alterations of resveratrol can be effective in producing potent antithrombotic agents that will have therapeutic potential in the improvement of cardiovascular health and prevention of CHD. Among major red wine phenolics, quercetin appears to be the predominant suppressor of TF induction. PMID:16507316

  4. Singular and combined effects of thought suppression and anxiety induction on frequency of threatening thoughts: An experimental investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cougle, J.R.; Smits, J.A.J.; Lee, H.J.; Powers, M.B.; Telch, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The suppression of unwanted thoughts has been hypothesized to play an important role in the maintenance of clinical disorders such as OCD and PTSD. The present study sought to examine the singular and combined effects of thought suppression instructions and anxiety induction (as induced by an

  5. Redundant mechanisms are involved in suppression of default cell fates during embryonic mesenchyme and notochord induction in ascidians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Hitoshi; Miyata, Yoshimasa; Kuwajima, Mami; Izuchi, Ryoichi; Kobayashi, Ayumi; Gyoja, Fuki; Onuma, Takeshi A; Kumano, Gaku; Nishida, Hiroki

    2016-08-01

    During embryonic induction, the responding cells invoke an induced developmental program, whereas in the absence of an inducing signal, they assume a default uninduced cell fate. Suppression of the default fate during the inductive event is crucial for choice of the binary cell fate. In contrast to the mechanisms that promote an induced cell fate, those that suppress the default fate have been overlooked. Upon induction, intracellular signal transduction results in activation of genes encoding key transcription factors for induced tissue differentiation. It is elusive whether an induced key transcription factor has dual functions involving suppression of the default fates and promotion of the induced fate, or whether suppression of the default fate is independently regulated by other factors that are also downstream of the signaling cascade. We show that during ascidian embryonic induction, default fates were suppressed by multifold redundant mechanisms. The key transcription factor, Twist-related.a, which is required for mesenchyme differentiation, and another independent transcription factor, Lhx3, which is dispensable for mesenchyme differentiation, sequentially and redundantly suppress the default muscle fate in induced mesenchyme cells. Similarly in notochord induction, Brachyury, which is required for notochord differentiation, and other factors, Lhx3 and Mnx, are likely to suppress the default nerve cord fate redundantly. Lhx3 commonly suppresses the default fates in two kinds of induction. Mis-activation of the autonomously executed default program in induced cells is detrimental to choice of the binary cell fate. Multifold redundant mechanisms would be required for suppression of the default fate to be secure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Salmon cartilage proteoglycan suppresses mouse experimental colitis through induction of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsui, Toshihito; Sashinami, Hiroshi; Sato, Fuyuki; Kijima, Hiroshi; Ishiguro, Yoh; Fukuda, Shinsaku; Yoshihara, Shuichi; Hakamada, Ken-Ichi; Nakane, Akio

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Salmon proteoglycan suppresses IL-10 -/- cell transfer-induced colitis progression. → Salmon proteoglycan suppresses Th1- and Th17-related factors in colitis mice. → Salmon proteoglycan enhances Foxp3 expression. -- Abstract: Proteoglycans (PGs) are complex glycohydrates which are widely distributed in extracellular matrix (ECM). PGs are involved in the construction of ECM, cell proliferation and differentiation. ECM components are involved in transduction of proinflammatory responses, but it is still unknown whether PGs are involved in inflammatory response. In this study, we investigated the effect of PG extracted from salmon cartilage on the progression of experimental colitis-induced in severe combined immunodeficiency mice by cell transfer from interleukin-10 (IL-10) -/- mice. IL-10 -/- cell-transferred mice showed weight loss, colon shortening and histological appearance of mild colitis. Daily oral administration of PG attenuated the clinical progression of colitis in a dose-dependent manner. Colitis-induced mice showed the elevated expression of IFN-γ, IL-12, TNF-α, IL-21, IL-23p19, IL-6, IL-17A and retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt (RORγt) in lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) and oral administration of PG suppressed the expression of these factors. Conversely, expression of Foxp3 that induces CD4 + CD25 + regulatory T cells in LPMCs was enhanced by PG administration. These findings suggested that salmon PG attenuated the progression of colitis due to suppression of inflammatory response by enhancement of regulatory T cell induction.

  7. Supplement of 5-hydroxytryptophan before induction suppresses inflammation and collagen-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao-Hsiang; Hsu, Peng-Yang; Meng, Menghsiao; Su, Che-Chun

    2015-12-15

    Evidence is accumulating that a preclinical phase is present before the onset of clinical signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This phase represents an important therapeutic window within which interventions can dramatically modulate outcomes. An agent able to prevent RA for high risk individuals in this phase is therefore desired. In this study, we investigated whether tryptophan metabolite, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) or 5-methoxytryptophan (5-MTP), can act as such an agent for primary prevention of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Mouse splenocytes were pretreated with 5-HTP or 5-MTP and activated by anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28 antibodies in vitro. The percentages of interferon-γ (IFNγ)(+)CD4(+) T cells and interleukin-17 (IL-17)(+)CD4(+) T cells were measured by flow cytometry. The production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, serotonin and kynurenine was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A CIA model was used to investigate the in vivo effects of 5-HTP on the prevention of arthritis. 5-HTP decreased the percentages of IFNγ(+)CD4(+) T cells and IL-17(+)CD4(+) T cells and suppressed the production of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and IFNγ in activated splenocytes. 5-HTP administered before induction decreased the disease activities in CIA mice and suppressed the production of TNFα, IL-6 and cyclooxygenase-2 in arthritic joints. 5-HTP also increased serotonin, but decreased kynurenine in the CIA mice. 5-HTP suppresses inflammation and arthritis through decreasing the production of pro-inflammatory mediators. 5-HTP supplement before induction ameliorates arthritis in a CIA model.

  8. Mechanisms and ecological consequences of plant defence induction and suppression in herbivore communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, M. R.; Jonckheere, W.; Knegt, B.; Lemos, F.; Liu, J.; Schimmel, B. C. J.; Villarroel, C. A.; Ataide, L. M. S.; Dermauw, W.; Glas, J. J.; Egas, M.; Janssen, A.; Van Leeuwen, T.; Schuurink, R. C.; Sabelis, M. W.; Alba, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Plants are hotbeds for parasites such as arthropod herbivores, which acquire nutrients and energy from their hosts in order to grow and reproduce. Hence plants are selected to evolve resistance, which in turn selects for herbivores that can cope with this resistance. To preserve their fitness when attacked by herbivores, plants can employ complex strategies that include reallocation of resources and the production of defensive metabolites and structures. Plant defences can be either prefabricated or be produced only upon attack. Those that are ready-made are referred to as constitutive defences. Some constitutive defences are operational at any time while others require activation. Defences produced only when herbivores are present are referred to as induced defences. These can be established via de novo biosynthesis of defensive substances or via modifications of prefabricated substances and consequently these are active only when needed. Inducibility of defence may serve to save energy and to prevent self-intoxication but also implies that there is a delay in these defences becoming operational. Induced defences can be characterized by alterations in plant morphology and molecular chemistry and are associated with a decrease in herbivore performance. These alterations are set in motion by signals generated by herbivores. Finally, a subset of induced metabolites are released into the air as volatiles and function as a beacon for foraging natural enemies searching for prey, and this is referred to as induced indirect defence. Scope The objective of this review is to evaluate (1) which strategies plants have evolved to cope with herbivores and (2) which traits herbivores have evolved that enable them to counter these defences. The primary focus is on the induction and suppression of plant defences and the review outlines how the palette of traits that determine induction/suppression of, and resistance/susceptibility of herbivores to, plant defences can

  9. Mechanisms and ecological consequences of plant defence induction and suppression in herbivore communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, M R; Jonckheere, W; Knegt, B; Lemos, F; Liu, J; Schimmel, B C J; Villarroel, C A; Ataide, L M S; Dermauw, W; Glas, J J; Egas, M; Janssen, A; Van Leeuwen, T; Schuurink, R C; Sabelis, M W; Alba, J M

    2015-06-01

    Plants are hotbeds for parasites such as arthropod herbivores, which acquire nutrients and energy from their hosts in order to grow and reproduce. Hence plants are selected to evolve resistance, which in turn selects for herbivores that can cope with this resistance. To preserve their fitness when attacked by herbivores, plants can employ complex strategies that include reallocation of resources and the production of defensive metabolites and structures. Plant defences can be either prefabricated or be produced only upon attack. Those that are ready-made are referred to as constitutive defences. Some constitutive defences are operational at any time while others require activation. Defences produced only when herbivores are present are referred to as induced defences. These can be established via de novo biosynthesis of defensive substances or via modifications of prefabricated substances and consequently these are active only when needed. Inducibility of defence may serve to save energy and to prevent self-intoxication but also implies that there is a delay in these defences becoming operational. Induced defences can be characterized by alterations in plant morphology and molecular chemistry and are associated with a decrease in herbivore performance. These alterations are set in motion by signals generated by herbivores. Finally, a subset of induced metabolites are released into the air as volatiles and function as a beacon for foraging natural enemies searching for prey, and this is referred to as induced indirect defence. The objective of this review is to evaluate (1) which strategies plants have evolved to cope with herbivores and (2) which traits herbivores have evolved that enable them to counter these defences. The primary focus is on the induction and suppression of plant defences and the review outlines how the palette of traits that determine induction/suppression of, and resistance/susceptibility of herbivores to, plant defences can give rise to

  10. Salmon cartilage proteoglycan suppresses mouse experimental colitis through induction of Foxp3{sup +} regulatory T cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsui, Toshihito [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Zaifu-cho 5, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8562 (Japan); Department of Digestive Surgery, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8562 (Japan); Sashinami, Hiroshi [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Zaifu-cho 5, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8562 (Japan); Sato, Fuyuki; Kijima, Hiroshi [Department of Pathology and Bioscience, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8562 (Japan); Ishiguro, Yoh; Fukuda, Shinsaku [Department of Digestive Internal Medicine, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8562 (Japan); Yoshihara, Shuichi [Department of Glycomedicine, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8562 (Japan); Hakamada, Ken-Ichi [Department of Digestive Surgery, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8562 (Japan); Nakane, Akio, E-mail: a27k03n0@cc.hirosaki-u.ac.jp [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Zaifu-cho 5, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8562 (Japan)

    2010-11-12

    Research highlights: {yields} Salmon proteoglycan suppresses IL-10{sup -/-} cell transfer-induced colitis progression. {yields} Salmon proteoglycan suppresses Th1- and Th17-related factors in colitis mice. {yields} Salmon proteoglycan enhances Foxp3 expression. -- Abstract: Proteoglycans (PGs) are complex glycohydrates which are widely distributed in extracellular matrix (ECM). PGs are involved in the construction of ECM, cell proliferation and differentiation. ECM components are involved in transduction of proinflammatory responses, but it is still unknown whether PGs are involved in inflammatory response. In this study, we investigated the effect of PG extracted from salmon cartilage on the progression of experimental colitis-induced in severe combined immunodeficiency mice by cell transfer from interleukin-10 (IL-10){sup -/-} mice. IL-10{sup -/-} cell-transferred mice showed weight loss, colon shortening and histological appearance of mild colitis. Daily oral administration of PG attenuated the clinical progression of colitis in a dose-dependent manner. Colitis-induced mice showed the elevated expression of IFN-{gamma}, IL-12, TNF-{alpha}, IL-21, IL-23p19, IL-6, IL-17A and retinoic acid-related orphan receptor {gamma}t (ROR{gamma}t) in lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) and oral administration of PG suppressed the expression of these factors. Conversely, expression of Foxp3 that induces CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +} regulatory T cells in LPMCs was enhanced by PG administration. These findings suggested that salmon PG attenuated the progression of colitis due to suppression of inflammatory response by enhancement of regulatory T cell induction.

  11. Suppression of phytohemagglutinin-induction of thymidine uptake in guinea pig lymphocytes by methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, S; Matsui, I; Morisawa, S

    1977-10-18

    Treatment with methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), a specific inhibitor of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.50), suppressed the phytohemagglutinin-induction of [3H]thymidine uptake by guinea pig lymphocytes. The kinetics of [3H]thymidine uptake revealed that the Km value for thymidine was not changed, but the V value was markedly lowered by the methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) treatment. The induction of ATP: thymidine 5'-phosphotransferase (EC 2.7.1.75) (thymidine kinase) activity by phytohemagglutinin was suppressed to about the same extent as the induction of thymidine uptake. These suppressions were dependent on the methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) doses and on duration of the methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) treatment. Analysis of [3H]thymidine labelled compounds of the acid-soluble fraction showed that conversion of thymidine to thymidine 5'-triphosphate was inhibited by the methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) treatment. DNA polymerase activity was less inhibited by the methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) treatment in comparison with the methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) inhibition of thymidine uptake by whole cells. These results strongly suggested that blocking of polyamine accumulation by the methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) treatment influenced phytohemagglutinin induction of thymidine phosphorylation, resulting in a decrease of thymidine incorporation into DNA.

  12. Induction of bacterial lipoprotein tolerance is associated with suppression of toll-like receptor 2 expression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wang, Jiang Huai

    2012-02-03

    Tolerance to bacterial cell wall components including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) may represent an essential regulatory mechanism during bacterial infection. Two members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, TLR2 and TLR4, recognize the specific pattern of bacterial cell wall components. TLR4 has been found to be responsible for LPS tolerance. However, the role of TLR2 in bacterial lipoprotein (BLP) tolerance and LPS tolerance is unclear. Pretreatment of human THP-1 monocytic cells with a synthetic bacterial lipopeptide induced tolerance to a second BLP challenge with diminished tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 production, termed BLP tolerance. Furthermore, BLP-tolerized THP-1 cells no longer responded to LPS stimulation, indicating a cross-tolerance to LPS. Induction of BLP tolerance was CD14-independent, as THP-1 cells that lack membrane-bound CD14 developed tolerance both in serum-free conditions and in the presence of a specific CD14 blocking monoclonal antibody (MEM-18). Pre-exposure of THP-1 cells to BLP suppressed mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation and nuclear factor-kappaB activation in response to subsequent BLP and LPS stimulation, which is comparable with that found in LPS-tolerized cells, indicating that BLP tolerance and LPS tolerance may share similar intracellular pathways. However, BLP strongly enhanced TLR2 expression in non-tolerized THP-1 cells, whereas LPS stimulation had no effect. Furthermore, a specific TLR2 blocking monoclonal antibody (2392) attenuated BLP-induced, but not LPS-induced, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 production, indicating BLP rather than LPS as a ligand for TLR2 engagement and activation. More importantly, pretreatment of THP-1 cells with BLP strongly inhibited TLR2 activation in response to subsequent BLP stimulation. In contrast, LPS tolerance did not prevent BLP-induced TLR2 overexpression. These results demonstrate that BLP tolerance develops through down-regulation of TLR2

  13. Inhibition of KDM4A activity as a strategy to suppress interleukin-6 production and attenuate colitis induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Osamu; Nakamura, Masanao; Yamamura, Takeshi; Matsushita, Masanobu; Goto, Hidemi; Hirooka, Yoshiki

    2017-07-01

    4-Chloro-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (NBD-Cl) functions as a hapten and fluoresces upon binding to proteins. Therefore, fluorescence visualization of hapten-proteins is a feature of the colitis induced by NBD-Cl. Using this colitis model, we located activated fibroblasts in the vicinity of hapten-proteins upon colitis induction and observed interleukin (IL)-6 production in the activated fibroblasts. We screened herbal ingredients using primary fibroblasts stimulated with tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and found the suppressive action of Atractylodin on IL-6 production. Under TNF-α stimulation, Atractylodin induced the tri-methylation of histone H3 at lysine residue 9, which impaired the binding between NF-κB and the IL-6 promoter on the genomic DNA. Atractylodin inhibited KDM4A but not KDM6A activity. Atractylodin administration attenuated colitis induction. The KDM4A inhibitor ML324 showed similar actions on IL-6 production and colitis induction. We propose the inhibition of KDM4A activity as a strategy to suppress IL-6 production and attenuate colitis induction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Expression of Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylase Induction and Suppression of Tyrosine Aminotransferase Induction in Somatic-Cell Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, W. F.; Nebert, D. W.; Thompson, E. B.

    1972-01-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity is inducible in mouse 3T3 fibroblasts by benz[α]anthracene, whereas no detectable basal or inducible levels of this enzyme occur in rat-hepatoma tissue culture cells. Conversely, tyrosine aminotransferase activity is inducible in hepatoma cells by dexamethasone, whereas only low noninducible levels of this enzyme exist in 3T3 cells. In hybrids formed by fusion of these two parent lines, levels of inducible hydroxylase activity range from the same as, to more than 20-fold greater than, that in the 3T3 parent; aminotransferase levels remain very low and noninducible in all of these same hybrids. A majority of the 1S-chromosomal complement from each parent is retained in most of these hybrids. The kinetics of hydroxylase induction and degradation, responses of hydroxylase induction to actinomycin D and cycloheximide, and the relative thermolability of the control and induced activities are similar in the 3T3 parent and in the hybrids. Failure to inactivate any of the aminotransferase activity in the hybrids with antibody specific for the rat enzyme indicates that all of the basal noninducible aminotransferase activity is derived from the mouse 3T3 parent. Images PMID:4403306

  15. Costs of suppressing emotional sound and countereffects of a mindfulness induction: an experimental analog of tinnitus impact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Hesser

    Full Text Available Tinnitus is the experience of sounds without an appropriate external auditory source. These auditory sensations are intertwined with emotional and attentional processing. Drawing on theories of mental control, we predicted that suppressing an affectively negative sound mimicking the psychoacoustic features of tinnitus would result in decreased persistence in a mentally challenging task (mental arithmetic that required participants to ignore the same sound, but that receiving a mindfulness exercise would reduce this effect. Normal hearing participants (N = 119 were instructed to suppress an affectively negative sound under cognitive load or were given no such instructions. Next, participants received either a mindfulness induction or an attention control task. Finally, all participants worked with mental arithmetic while exposed to the same sound. The length of time participants could persist in the second task served as the dependent variable. As hypothesized, results indicated that an auditory suppression rationale reduced time of persistence relative to no such rationale, and that a mindfulness induction counteracted this detrimental effect. The study may offer new insights into the mechanisms involved in the development of tinnitus interference. Implications are also discussed in the broader context of attention control strategies and the effects of emotional sound on task performance. The ironic processes of mental control may have an analog in the experience of sounds.

  16. Histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid promotes the induction of pluripotency in mouse fibroblasts by suppressing reprogramming-induced senescence stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Yingying; Chen, Xi; Yu, Dehai [Stem Cell and Cancer Center, First Affiliated Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130061 (China); Stanford University Medical School, Palo Alto Veterans Institute for Research, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Li, Tao [Stanford University Medical School, Palo Alto Veterans Institute for Research, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Cui, Jiuwei; Wang, Guanjun [Stem Cell and Cancer Center, First Affiliated Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130061 (China); Hu, Ji-Fan, E-mail: jifan@stanford.edu [Stem Cell and Cancer Center, First Affiliated Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130061 (China); Stanford University Medical School, Palo Alto Veterans Institute for Research, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Li, Wei, E-mail: jdyylw@163.com [Stem Cell and Cancer Center, First Affiliated Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130061 (China)

    2015-09-10

    Histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) has been used to increase the reprogramming efficiency of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) from somatic cells, yet the specific molecular mechanisms underlying this effect is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that reprogramming with lentiviruses carrying the iPSC-inducing factors (Oct4-Sox2-Klf4-cMyc, OSKM) caused senescence in mouse fibroblasts, establishing a stress barrier for cell reprogramming. Administration of VPA protected cells from reprogramming-induced senescent stress. Using an in vitro pre-mature senescence model, we found that VPA treatment increased cell proliferation and inhibited apoptosis through the suppression of the p16/p21 pathway. In addition, VPA also inhibited the G2/M phase blockage derived from the senescence stress. These findings highlight the role of VPA in breaking the cell senescence barrier required for the induction of pluripotency. - Highlights: • Histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid enhances iPSC induction. • Valproic acid suppresses reprogramming-induced senescence stress. • Valproic acid downregulates the p16/p21 pathway in reprogramming. • This study demonstrates a new mechanistic role of valproic acid in enhancing reprogramming.

  17. Frequency, suppressive capacity, recruitment and induction mechanisms of regulatory T cells in sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma and nasal inverted papilloma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfei Lou

    Full Text Available Sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma (SSCC and nasal inverted papilloma (NIP represent the predominant type of malignant and benign tumors in sinonasal tract, respectively. CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ natural regulatory T (Treg cells might play critical role(s in the suppression of anti-tumor immune response and thus shed light on tumor progression from benign to malignant.This study aimed to evaluate the frequency and suppressive capacity of Treg cells in SSCC compared to NIP and further to explore the underlying mechanisms.Frequencies of Treg, Th1 and Th2 cells were evaluated by flow cytometry in tissue homogenate and peripheral blood from 31 SSCC patients, 32 NIP patients and 35 normal controls. Treg cells were tested for regulatory function by co-culture with effector T cells. CCR4 and its ligands, CCL22 and CCL17, were analyzed by flow cytometry and Luminex, respectively. The chemoattractant properties of CCR4/CCL22 and CCR4/CCL17 for Treg cells were assessed using the Boyden chamber technique, to elucidate the potential mechanisms of Treg recruitment in tumor microenvironment. Treg cells induction via TGF-β was assessed with transwells after local CD4+ Foxp3+ T cells were assessed by immunohistochemistry and TGF-β concentration was measured by Luminex.Tumor-infiltrating Treg cells increased significantly from normal to NIP to SSCC (P ≤ 0.001 for normal vs. NIP and P = 0.004 for NIP vs. SSCC. Significantly elevated frequency and enhanced suppression capacity of circulating Treg cells in SSCC were detected compared to NIP and healthy controls, concomitant with Th1 decrease and Th2 increase. Apparently increased CCL22 attracted CCR4-expressing Treg cells to tumor microenvironment in SSCC, compared to NIP. SSCC produced significantly more TGF-β than NIP and thus possessed greater potential for Treg cell induction.Frequency and suppressive capacity of Treg cells enhanced with progression of malignancy from NIP to SSCC. Circulating Treg cells were

  18. Induction of anergy or active suppression following oral tolerance is determined by antigen dosage.

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, A; Weiner, H L

    1994-01-01

    Oral tolerance was generated to hen egg white lysozyme in the mouse or to guinea pig myelin basic protein in the rat by a low-dose (1 mg) or a high-dose (5-20 mg) feeding regimen. High doses of antigen induced tolerance characterized by anergy with little or no active suppression and increased secretion of interleukin 4 (IL-4). Anergy was shown by an increase in frequency of IL-2-secreting cells following culture in recombinant IL-2. Low doses of antigen induced tolerance characterized by ant...

  19. Nod2 suppresses Borrelia burgdorferi mediated murine Lyme arthritis and carditis through the induction of tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Petnicki-Ocwieja

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The internalization of Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, by phagocytes is essential for an effective activation of the immune response to this pathogen. The intracellular, cytosolic receptor Nod2 has been shown to play varying roles in either enhancing or attenuating inflammation in response to different infectious agents. We examined the role of Nod2 in responses to B. burgdorferi. In vitro stimulation of Nod2 deficient bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM resulted in decreased induction of multiple cytokines, interferons and interferon regulated genes compared with wild-type cells. However, B. burgdorferi infection of Nod2 deficient mice resulted in increased rather than decreased arthritis and carditis compared to control mice. We explored multiple potential mechanisms for the paradoxical response in in vivo versus in vitro systems and found that prolonged stimulation with a Nod2 ligand, muramyl dipeptide (MDP, resulted in tolerance to stimulation by B. burgdorferi. This tolerance was lost with stimulation of Nod2 deficient cells that cannot respond to MDP. Cytokine patterns in the tolerance model closely paralleled cytokine profiles in infected Nod2 deficient mice. We propose a model where Nod2 has an enhancing role in activating inflammation in early infection, but moderates inflammation after prolonged exposure to the organism through induction of tolerance.

  20. New steroidal aromatase inhibitors: Suppression of estrogen-dependent breast cancer cell proliferation and induction of cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roleira Fernanda MF

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aromatase, the cytochrome P-450 enzyme (CYP19 responsible for estrogen biosynthesis, is an important target for the treatment of estrogen-dependent breast cancer. In fact, the use of synthetic aromatase inhibitors (AI, which induce suppression of estrogen synthesis, has shown to be an effective alternative to the classical tamoxifen for the treatment of postmenopausal patients with ER-positive breast cancer. New AIs obtained, in our laboratory, by modification of the A and D-rings of the natural substrate of aromatase, compounds 3a and 4a, showed previously to efficiently suppress aromatase activity in placental microsomes. In the present study we have investigated the effects of these compounds on cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and induction of cell death using the estrogen-dependent human breast cancer cell line stably transfected with the aromatase gene, MCF-7 aro cells. Results The new steroids inhibit hormone-dependent proliferation of MCF-7aro cells in a time and dose-dependent manner, causing cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and inducing cell death with features of apoptosis and autophagic cell death. Conclusion Our in vitro studies showed that the two steroidal AIs, 3a and 4a, are potent inhibitors of breast cancer cell proliferation. Moreover, it was also shown that the antiproliferative effects of these two steroids on MCF-7aro cells are mediated by disrupting cell cycle progression, through cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and induction of cell death, being the dominant mechanism autophagic cell death. Our results are important for the elucidation of the cellular effects of steroidal AIs on breast cancer.

  1. Melatonin suppresses thyroid cancer growth and overcomes radioresistance via inhibition of p65 phosphorylation and induction of ROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Wei Zou

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine carcinoma with increasing incidence worldwide and anaplastic subtypes are frequently associated with cancer related death. Radioresistance of thyroid cancer often leads to therapy failure and cancer-related death. In this study, we found that melatonin showed potent suppressive roles on NF-κB signaling via inhibition of p65 phosphorylation and generated redox stress in thyroid cancer including the anaplastic subtypes. Our data showed that melatonin significantly decreased cell viability, suppressed cell migration and induced apoptosis in thyroid cancer cell lines in vitro and impaired tumor growth in the subcutaneous mouse model in vivo. By contrast, irradiation of thyroid cancer cells resulted in elevated level of phosphorylated p65, which could be reversed by cotreatment with melatonin. Consequently, melatonin synergized with irradiation to induce cytotoxicity to thyroid cancer, especially in the undifferentiated subgroups. Taken together, our results suggest that melatonin may exert anti-tumor activities against thyroid carcinoma by inhibition of p65 phosphorylation and induction of reactive oxygen species. Radio-sensitization by melatonin may have clinical benefits in thyroid cancer. Keywords: Melatonin, Thyroid cancer, Radioresistance, p65, Reactive oxygen species

  2. Potential spawn induction and suppression agents in Caribbean Acropora cervicornis corals of the Florida Keys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Flint

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The enhanced ability to direct sexual reproduction may lead to improved restoration outcomes for Acropora cervicornis. Gravid fragments of A. cervicornis were maintained in a laboratory for two sequential trials in the seven days prior to natural spawning in the Florida Keys. Ten replicates of five chemicals known to affect spawning in various invertebrate taxa were tested. Hydrogen peroxide at 2 mM (70% and L-5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP at 5 (40% and 20 µM (30% induced spawning within 15.4 h, 38.8 h and 26.9 h of dosing at or above the rate of release of the control (30% within 14.6 h. Serotonin acetate monohydrate at 1 µM (20% and 10 µM (20%, naloxone hydrochloride dihydrate at 0.01 µM (10% and potassium phosphate monobasic at 0.25 µM (0% induced spawning at rates less than the control. Although the greatest number of fragments spawned using hydrogen peroxide, it was with 100% mortality. There was a significantly higher induction rate closer to natural spawn (Trial 2 compared with Trial 1 and no genotype effect. Mechanisms of action causing gamete release were not elucidated. In Caribbean staghorn corals, 5-HTP shows promise as a spawning induction agent if administered within 72 h of natural spawn and it will not result in excessive mortality. Phosphate chemicals may inhibit spawning. This is the first study of its kind on Caribbean acroporid corals and may offer an important conservation tool for biologists currently charged with restoring the imperiled Acropora reefs of the Florida Keys.

  3. Induction of Interleukin-10 Producing Dendritic Cells As a Tool to Suppress Allergen-Specific T Helper 2 Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Schülke

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are gatekeepers of the immune system that control induction and polarization of primary, antigen-specific immune responses. Depending on their maturation/activation status, the molecules expressed on their surface, and the cytokines produced DCs have been shown to either elicit immune responses through activation of effector T cells or induce tolerance through induction of either T cell anergy, regulatory T cells, or production of regulatory cytokines. Among the cytokines produced by tolerogenic DCs, interleukin 10 (IL-10 is a key regulatory cytokine limiting und ultimately terminating excessive T-cell responses to microbial pathogens to prevent chronic inflammation and tissue damage. Because of their important role in preventing autoimmune diseases, transplant rejection, allergic reactions, or in controlling chronic inflammation DCs have become an interesting tool to modulate antigen-specific immune responses. For the treatment of allergic inflammation, the aim is to downregulate allergen-specific T helper 2 (Th2 responses and the associated clinical symptoms [allergen-driven Th2 activation, Th2-driven immunoglobulin E (IgE production, IgE-mediated mast cell and basophil activation, allergic inflammation]. Here, combining the presentation of allergens by DCs with a pro-tolerogenic, IL-10-producing phenotype is of special interest to modulate allergen-specific immune responses in the treatment of allergic diseases. This review discusses the reported strategies to induce DC-derived IL-10 secretion for the suppression of allergen-specific Th2-responses with a focus on IL-10 treatment, IL-10 transduction, and the usage of both whole bacteria and bacteria-derived components. Interestingly, while IL-10-producing DCs induced either by IL-10 treatment or IL-10 transduction are arrested in an immature/semi-mature state, treatment of DCs with live or killed bacteria as well as isolated bacterial components results in the induction of

  4. Induction of endogenous tumor necrosis factor-alpha: suppression of centrally stimulated gastric motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, G E; Tovar, C A; Rogers, R C

    1999-01-01

    Gastric stasis is frequently seen in conjunction with critical infectious illness, chronic inflammatory disorders, radiation sickness, and carcinogenesis. These conditions are associated with elevated circulating levels of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). The present studies examined the relationship between endogenously produced TNF-alpha and the central neural mechanisms that augment gastric motility. Systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was employed to induce TNF-alpha production in thiobutabarbital-anesthetized rats. Sixty minutes after intravenous LPS injection, gastric motility could not be stimulated by a potent centrally acting gastrokinetic stimulant, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). This failure to elicit gastric motility via central mechanisms coincided with high circulating levels of TNF-alpha. However, intravenous injections of bethanecol, a peripherally acting cholinergic agonist with direct gastrokinetic effects, were still able to elicit normal increases in gastric motility in the presence of TNF-alpha and LPS. Therefore, the inability to stimulate gastric motility via central TRH could not be attributed to the direct inhibitory effects of either LPS or TNF-alpha on the stomach. If the production of endogenous TNF-alpha was suppressed via the use of urethan as the anesthetic agent, then intravenous injections of LPS were no longer effective in suppressing gastric motility. Thus these effects on gastric motility are not directly attributable to LPS nor are they due to direct effects on the gastric smooth muscle. Our previous study demonstrated that microinjection of femtomole quantities of TNF-alpha in the brain stem dorsal vagal complex (DVC) can modulate gastric motility. This central TNF-alpha effect on gastric motility was dose dependent and required an intact vagal efferent pathway. The results from these two studies suggest that systemically produced TNF-alpha may gain access to the DVC to modulate gastric function.

  5. Suppression of Mcl-1 via RNA interference sensitizes human hepatocellular carcinoma cells towards apoptosis induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze-Bergkamen, Henning; Fleischer, Binje; Schuchmann, Marcus; Weber, Achim; Weinmann, Arndt; Krammer, Peter H; Galle, Peter R

    2006-01-01

    Hepatocelluar carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and a major cause of cancer-related mortality. HCC is highly resistant to currently available chemotherapeutic drugs. Defects in apoptosis signaling contribute to this resistance. Myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) is an anti-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 protein family which interferes with mitochondrial activation. In a previous study we have shown that Mcl-1 is highly expressed in tissues of human HCC. In this study, we manipulated expression of the Mcl-1 protein in HCC cells by RNA interference and analyzed its impact on apoptosis sensitivity of HCC cells in vitro. RNA interference was performed by transfecting siRNA to specifically knock down Mcl-1 expression in HCC cells. Mcl-1 expression was measured by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. Induction of apoptosis and caspase activity after treatment with chemotherapeutic drugs and different targeted therapies were measured by flow cytometry and fluorometric analysis, respectively. Here we demonstrate that Mcl-1 expressing HCC cell lines show low sensitivity towards treatment with a panel of chemotherapeutic drugs. However, treatment with the anthracycline derivative epirubicin resulted in comparatively high apoptosis rates in HCC cells. Inhibition of the kinase PI3K significantly increased apoptosis induction by chemotherapy. RNA interference efficiently downregulated Mcl-1 expression in HCC cells. Mcl-1 downregulation sensitized HCC cells to different chemotherapeutic agents. Sensitization was accompanied by profound activation of caspase-3 and -9. In addition, Mcl-1 downregulation also increased apoptosis rates after treatment with PI3K inhibitors and, to a lower extent, after treatment with mTOR, Raf I and VEGF/PDGF kinase inhibitors. TRAIL-induced apoptosis did not markedly respond to Mcl-1 knockdown. Additionally, knockdown of Mcl-1 efficiently enhanced apoptosis sensitivity towards combined treatment modalities: Mcl-1

  6. Suppressing beam-centroid motion in a long-pulse linear induction accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Ekdahl

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The second axis of the dual-axis radiography of hydrodynamic testing (DARHT facility produces up to four radiographs within an interval of 1.6  μs. It does this by slicing four micropulses out of a 2-μs long electron beam pulse and focusing them onto a bremsstrahlung converter target. The 1.8-kA beam pulse is created by a dispenser cathode diode and accelerated to more than 16 MeV by the unique DARHT Axis-II linear induction accelerator (LIA. Beam motion in the accelerator would be a problem for multipulse flash radiography. High-frequency motion, such as from beam-breakup (BBU instability, would blur the individual spots. Low-frequency motion, such as produced by pulsed-power variation, would produce spot-to-spot differences. In this article, we describe these sources of beam motion, and the measures we have taken to minimize it. Using the methods discussed, we have reduced beam motion at the accelerator exit to less than 2% of the beam envelope radius for the high-frequency BBU, and less than 1/3 of the envelope radius for the low-frequency sweep.

  7. Androgens as double-edged swords: Induction and suppression of follicular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jie-Xue; Zhang, Jun-Yu; Ke, Zhang-Hong; Wang, Fang-Fang; Barry, John A; Hardiman, Paul J; Qu, Fan

    2015-01-01

    Androgens, which are mediated via the androgen receptor (AR), play important roles in normal follicular development and female fertility. However, just like a double-edged sword, besides the positive effects of androgen on follicular development, abnormal androgen levels, especially as in hyperandrogenism, seriously suppress normal follicular development. A crucial balance exists between the importance of androgens in follicular development and their negative effects when in excess. As the first meiotic division and epigenetic reprogramming are two critical events in oogenesis, abnormal androgen levels or deficiency in androgen/AR signaling in the ovary may affect these vital events. Oocytes have a tendency to develop genomic instability, thus resulting in an increasing incidence of unpredictable adult diseases. Although many studies have explored the effects of androgens and AR on follicular development, the conclusions are controversial and there has been no thorough review of this topic. This review focuses on the roles of androgens in the physiological process of follicular development, summarizes new insights into the roles of androgens in the arrested development of follicles, and discusses the potential risk of adult diseases originating from abnormal follicular androgen levels or androgen receptor signals, which may determine areas for future studies.

  8. EPO-dependent induction of erythroferrone drives hepcidin suppression and systematic iron absorption under phenylhydrazine-induced hemolytic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xingkang; Gao, Ming; Chen, Yue; Liu, Jing; Qi, Shiyong; Ma, Juan; Zhang, Zhihong; Xu, Yong

    2016-05-01

    Hemolytic anemia is a common form of anemia due to hemolysis, resulting in disordered iron homeostasis. In this study, a dose of 40mg/kg phenylhydrazine (PHZ) was injected into mice to successfully establish a pronounced anemia animal model, which resulted in stress erythropoiesis and iron absorption. We found that serum erythropoietin (EPO) concentration was dramatically elevated by nearly 5000-fold for the first 2days, and then drop to the basal level on day 6 after PHZ injection. Mirrored with serum EPO concentration, the mRNA expression of erythroferrone (ERFE) was rapidly increased in the bone marrow and spleen 3days after injection of PHZ, and then gradually decreased but was still higher than baseline on day 6. In addition, we also found that the hepcidin mRNA levels were gradually reduced almost up to 8-fold on day 5, and then was ameliorated compared to the untreated control. Mechanistic investigation manifested that the increase of serum EPO essentially determined the induction of ERFE expression particular at the first 3days after PHZ treatment. Lentiviral mediated ERFE knockdown significantly restrained hepcidin suppression under PHZ treatment. Thus, our data unearthed EPO-dependent ERFE expression acts as an erythropoiesis-driven regulator of iron metabolism under PHZ-induced hemolytic anemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Suppression of gastric cancer by extract from the tuber of amorphophallus konjac via induction of apoptosis and autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Yuan, Lin-Qing; Li, Lin-Jie; Lv, Yao; Chen, Pei-Feng; Pan, Lei

    2017-08-01

    The tuber of amorphophallus konjac (TuAK) is an antitumor herb used in traditional Chinese medicine. The present study investigated the inhibitory effect of TuAK against gastric cancer and the underlying mechanisms associated with two programmed cell death pathways, apoptosis and autophagy. TuAK was extracted by organic solvents including ethanol and ligarine. The extract of TuAK, shortened as TuAKe, significantly inhibited the growth of cultured gastric cancer cell lines SGC-7901 and AGS, with IC50 of 35-45 µg/ml. TuAKe could increase cell apoptosis and induce cell cycle arrest. For the apoptosis-associated proteins, expressions of survivin and Bcl-2 were decreased by treatment of TuAKe, and the expression of Bax and caspase-9 was increased. Furthermore, TuAKe could promote autophagy, and the antitumor efficacy of TuAKe was significantly hampered by targeted suppression of autophagy, suggesting that autophagy contributed to TuAKe-induced cell death. Furthermore, patients with gastric cancer who received TuAK-based medicinal decoction achieved improved scores in assessment of life quality compared with those without TuAK treatment. This study demonstrated the antitumor activity of TuAKe against gastric cancer, and is the first report to show that the underlying mechanism is associated with induction of autophagy. Our data provided support of the clinical use of amorphophallus konjac-based medication in combination with classical chemotherapy to achieve optimized outcome for gastric cancer.

  10. Propolis extracts from the northern region of Thailand suppress cancer cell growth through induction of apoptosis pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khacha-Ananda, Supakit; Tragoolpua, Khajornsak; Chantawannakul, Panuwan; Tragoolpua, Yingmanee

    2016-12-01

    The continual increase in mortality rates and number of cancer cases is a matter of serious concern in developing countries. The incorporation of natural products into classical cancer treatment approaches is a promising direction. The mechanisms of A549 and HeLa cancer cell death induction by ethanolic extracts of propolis samples from Phayao, Chiang Mai, and Nan provinces in northern Thailand were investigated in this study. The propolis extract from Chiang Mai showed the highest antioxidant activity and the greatest total phenolic content. The propolis extract from Nan also exhibited the highest total flavonoid content. The proliferation of A549 and HeLa cells grown in the presence of the propolis extracts was suppressed in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, treatment of both cancer cells with the propolis extracts showed DNA fragmentation and significantly increased the number of the apoptotic cells. On A549 cells, the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of caspase enzymes were activated by the propolis extracts from Phayao and Chiang Mai. In the case of the propolis extract from Nan, the mechanisms involved apoptosis on the A549 cells were caspase-independent pathway. The extrinsic pathway of the caspase enzyme was triggered by all of the propolis extracts on HeLa cells. Finally, oral administration of the propolis granule produced from the propolis extract from Nan resulted in extended survival of tumour-bearing mice. Therefore, propolis extracts from the northern region of Thailand demonstrated pharmacological properties, both antioxidant and anticancer activities. From these findings, it is evident that propolis extracts can be considered as a naturally obtained agent extremely useful in cancer treatment.

  11. LDH-A silencing suppresses breast cancer tumorigenicity through induction of oxidative stress mediated mitochondrial pathway apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Yu; Loo, Tjing Yung; Shen, Jian-Gang; Wang, Neng; Wang, Dong-Mei; Yang, De-Po; Mo, Sui-Lin; Guan, Xin-Yuan; Chen, Jian-Ping

    2012-02-01

    LDH-A, as the critical enzyme accounting for the transformation from pyruvate into lactate, has been demonstrated to be highly expressed in various cancer cells and its silencing has also been approved relating to increased apoptosis in lymphoma cells. In this study, we intend to investigate the correlation between LDH-A and other clinicopathological factors of breast cancer and whether LDH-A silencing could suppress breast cancer growth, and if so the potential mechanisms. 46 breast cancer specimens were collected to study the relation between LDH-A expression and clinicopathological characteristics including menopause, tumor size, node involvement, differentiation, and pathological subtypes classified by ER, PR, and Her-2. shRNAs were designed and applied to silence LDH-A expression in breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. The effects of LDH-A reduction on cancer cells were studied by a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments, including cell growth assay, apoptosis evaluation, oxidative stress detection, transmission electron microscopy observation, and tumor formation assay on nude mice. LDH-A expression was found to correlate significantly with tumor size and to be independent for other clinicopathological factors. LDH-A reduction resulted in an inhibited cancer cell proliferation, elevated intracellular oxidative stress, and induction of mitochondrial pathway apoptosis. Meanwhile, the tumorigenic ability of LDH-A deficient cancer cells was significantly limited in both breast cancer xenografts. The Ki67 positive cancer cells were significantly reduced in LDH-A deficiency tumor samples, while the apoptosis ratio was enhanced. Our results suggested that LDH-A inhibition might offer a promising therapeutic strategy for breast cancer.

  12. LyP-1-conjugated Fe3O4nanoparticles suppress tumor growth by magnetic induction hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Peishan; Wang, Xiaowen; Zhang, Jieying; Zhang, Han; Yang, Xin; Huang, Yun; Tang, Jintian

    2018-02-01

    To find a promising drug carrier to suppress tumor using magnetic induction hyperthermia (MIH) and targeted therapy, two superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and LyP-1, respectively, were prepared and compared. The particle size ranges of PEG-SPIONs and LyP-1-SPIONs were 10-15 nm, and 15-20 nm, respectively. In FTIR spectra, PEG-SPIONs and LyP-1-SPIONs had strong peaks between 575 and 1630 cm -1 . Specifically, the PEG-SPIONs mainly has peaks in 581 and 1630 cm -1 . The LyP-1-SPIONs mainly had peaks in 575, 1050 and 1625 cm -1 . The contents of Fe 3 O 4 in the PEG-SPIONs and LyP-1-SPIONs were about 94.24 and 89.26%, respectively. The iron contents in the MCF-7 and CT-26 cells were 33.1 ± 1.8 and 27.9 ± 0.95 pg, respectively, after co-incubation with LyP-1-SPIONs for 8 h. The LyP-1-SPIONs accumulated in the nucleus of MCF-7 cells while PEG-SPIONs in cytoplasma. In vitro, after 30 days we can found the tumor almost stopped to grow in Group LyP-1-SPIONs. LyP-1-SPIONs are promising in treating cancer as they accumulated in the nucleus of MCF-7 cells which expressed p32 and almost stopped tumor growth by combined MIH and targeted therapy.

  13. Anger management style moderates effects of emotion suppression during initial stress on pain and cardiovascular responses during subsequent pain-induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, John W; Quartana, Phillip J; Bruehl, Stephen

    2007-10-01

    Suppression of emotion, anger in particular, may be linked to heightened pain intensity during a subsequent painful event, but it is not clear whether an individual's anger management style (trait anger-out or trait anger-in) moderates effects on pain intensity and cardiovascular responses during pain. To determine whether (a) trait anger-out and/or trait anger-in moderate effects of Emotion-Induction (anger, anxiety)xEmotion Suppression (nonsuppression, experiential, expressive) manipulations during mental arithmetic on pain intensity and cardiovascular responses during and following a cold pressor pain task, such that "mismatch" relationships emerge (preferred anger management style is discrepant from situation demands), and (b) general emotional expressivity accounts for these effects. Healthy nonpatients (N=187) were assigned to 1 of 6 conditions for a mental arithmetic task. Cells were formed by crossing 2 Emotion-Induction (anxiety, anger)x3 Emotion Suppression (nonsuppression, experiential, expressive) conditions. After mental arithmetic, participants underwent a cold pressor followed by recovery. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), heart rate (HR), and pain intensity ratings were recorded. Spielberger Anger Expression Inventory tapped anger management style. General Linear Model procedures tested Emotion-Induction x Emotion SuppressionxAnger-Out or Anger-In (continuous)xPeriod (baseline, cold pressor, recovery) effects on pain intensity, SBP, DBP, and HR. A 4-way interaction emerged for pain intensity: Only for those in the anger-induction/experiential suppression condition, anger-out was related significantly to pain recovery. Three-way interactions emerged for SBP and DBP: Only for those in expressive suppression condition, anger-out was related significantly to SBP during and following cold pressor and to DBP following cold pressor. General emotion expressivity did not account for anger-out effects. A mismatch situation may apply for high

  14. A Human Trypanosome Suppresses CD8+ T Cell Priming by Dendritic Cells through the Induction of Immune Regulatory CD4+ Foxp3+ T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersching, Jonatan; Basso, Alexandre Salgado; Kalich, Vera Lucia Garcia; Bortoluci, Karina Ramalho; Rodrigues, Maurício M

    2016-06-01

    Although CD4+ Foxp3+ T cells are largely described in the regulation of CD4+ T cell responses, their role in the suppression of CD8+ T cell priming is much less clear. Because the induction of CD8+ T cells during experimental infection with Trypanosoma cruzi is remarkably delayed and suboptimal, we raised the hypothesis that this protozoan parasite actively induces the regulation of CD8+ T cell priming. Using an in vivo assay that eliminated multiple variables associated with antigen processing and dendritic cell activation, we found that injection of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells exposed to T. cruzi induced regulatory CD4+ Foxp3+ T cells that suppressed the priming of transgenic CD8+ T cells by peptide-loaded BMDC. This newly described suppressive effect on CD8+ T cell priming was independent of IL-10, but partially dependent on CTLA-4 and TGF-β. Accordingly, depletion of Foxp3+ cells in mice infected with T. cruzi enhanced the response of epitope-specific CD8+ T cells. Altogether, our data uncover a mechanism by which T. cruzi suppresses CD8+ T cell responses, an event related to the establishment of chronic infections.

  15. A Human Trypanosome Suppresses CD8+ T Cell Priming by Dendritic Cells through the Induction of Immune Regulatory CD4+ Foxp3+ T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersching, Jonatan; Basso, Alexandre Salgado; Kalich, Vera Lucia Garcia; Bortoluci, Karina Ramalho

    2016-01-01

    Although CD4+ Foxp3+ T cells are largely described in the regulation of CD4+ T cell responses, their role in the suppression of CD8+ T cell priming is much less clear. Because the induction of CD8+ T cells during experimental infection with Trypanosoma cruzi is remarkably delayed and suboptimal, we raised the hypothesis that this protozoan parasite actively induces the regulation of CD8+ T cell priming. Using an in vivo assay that eliminated multiple variables associated with antigen processing and dendritic cell activation, we found that injection of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells exposed to T. cruzi induced regulatory CD4+ Foxp3+ T cells that suppressed the priming of transgenic CD8+ T cells by peptide-loaded BMDC. This newly described suppressive effect on CD8+ T cell priming was independent of IL-10, but partially dependent on CTLA-4 and TGF-β. Accordingly, depletion of Foxp3+ cells in mice infected with T. cruzi enhanced the response of epitope-specific CD8+ T cells. Altogether, our data uncover a mechanism by which T. cruzi suppresses CD8+ T cell responses, an event related to the establishment of chronic infections. PMID:27332899

  16. Induction of non-apoptotic programmed cell death by oncogenic RAS in human epithelial cells and its suppression by MYC overexpression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dendo, Kasumi; Yugawa, Takashi; Nakahara, Tomomi; Ohno, Shin-Ichi; Goshima, Naoki; Arakawa, Hirofumi; Kiyono, Tohru

    2018-02-09

    Oncogenic mutations of RAS genes, found in about 30% of human cancers, are considered to play important roles in cancer development. However, oncogenic RAS can also induce senescence in mouse and human normal fibroblasts. In some cell lines, oncogenic RAS has been reported to induce non-apoptotic programed cell death (PCD). Here, we investigated effects of oncogenic RAS expression in several types of normal human epithelial cells. Oncogenic RAS but not wild-type RAS stimulated macropinocytosis with accumulation of large-phase lucent vacuoles in the cytoplasm, subsequently leading to cell death which was indistinguishable from a recently proposed new type of PCD, methuosis. A RAC1 inhibitor suppressed accumulation of macropinosomes and overexpression of MYC attenuated oncogenic RAS-induced such accumulation, cell cycle arrest and cell death. MYC suppression or rapamycin treatment in some cancer cell lines harbouring oncogenic mutations in RAS genes induced cell death with accumulation of macropinosomes. These results suggest that this type of non-apoptotic PCD is a tumour-suppressing mechanism acting against oncogenic RAS mutations in normal human epithelial cells, which can be overcome by MYC overexpression, raising the possibility that its induction might be a novel approach to treatment of RAS-mutated human cancers. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. Ceramide targets xIAP and cIAP1 to sensitize metastatic colon and breast cancer cells to apoptosis induction to suppress tumor progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschall, Amy V; Bielawska, Alicja; Liu, Kebin; Zimmerman, Mary A; Torres, Christina M; Yang, Dafeng; Chen, May R; Li, Xia; Bieberich, Erhard; Bai, Aiping; Bielawski, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Ceramide is a bioeffector that mediates various cellular processes, including apoptosis. However, the mechanism underlying ceramide function in apoptosis is apparently cell type-dependent and is not well-understood. We aimed at identifying molecular targets of ceramide in metastatic human colon and breast cancer cells, and determining the efficacy of ceramide analog in suppression of colon and breast cancer metastasis. The activity of and mechanism underlying ceramide as a cytotoxic agent, and as a sensitizer for Fas-mediated apoptosis was analyzed in human cell lines established from primary or metastatic colon and breast cancers. The efficacy of ceramide analog LCL85 in suppression of metastasis was examined in preclinical mouse tumor models. Exposure of human colon carcinoma cells to ceramide analog LCL85 results in apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, a sublethal dose of LCL85 increased C16 ceramide content and overcame tumor cell resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis. Subsequently, treatment of tumor cells with exogenous C16 ceramide resulted in increased tumor cell sensitivity to Fas-mediated apoptosis. LCL85 resembles Smac mimetic BV6 in sensitization of colon carcinoma cells to Fas-mediated apoptosis by inducing proteasomal degradation of cIAP1 and xIAP proteins. LCL85 also decreased xIAP1 and cIAP1 protein levels and sensitized metastatic human breast cancer cells to Fas-mediated apoptosis. Silencing xIAP and cIAP1 with specific siRNAs significantly increased the metastatic human colon carcinoma cell sensitivity to Fas-mediated apoptosis, suggesting that IAP proteins mediate apoptosis resistance in metastatic human colon carcinoma cells and ceramide induces IAP protein degradation to sensitize the tumor cells to apoptosis induction. Consistent with its apoptosis sensitization activity, subtoxic doses of LCL85 suppressed colon carcinoma cell metastatic potential in an experimental lung metastasis mouse model, as well as breast cancer growth

  18. Reciprocal effects of epidermal growth factor on key lipogenic enzymes in primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes. Induction of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and suppression of malic enzyme and lipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, K; Nakamura, T; Ichihara, A

    1983-10-25

    In primary cultured hepatocytes of adult rats epidermal growth factor (EGF) caused 2- to 3-fold induction of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.49, G6P dehydrogenase) within 2 days. The effect of EGF was additive with a similar effect of insulin. The half-maximum dose of EGF for the induction was 1 ng/ml. Induction of this enzyme by these hormones was shown by immunotitration to be due to increase of the amount of enzyme. Furthermore, this increase in the amount of enzyme was found to result from increase of syntheses of mRNA and enzyme protein. In contrast, the induction of malic enzyme (EC 1.1.1.40, L-malate:NADP+) oxidoreductase) by insulin plus triiodothyronine was strongly suppressed by the concomitant addition of EGF. Induction of G6P dehydrogenase by EGF, like that by insulin, was not suppressed by either glucagon or dibutyryl cAMP, whereas that of malic enzyme was suppressed additively by EGF and dibutyryl cAMP. EGF also suppressed stimulation of lipogenesis by insulin, measured as incorporation of [1-14C]acetate into triglycerides and phospholipids. Another difference between the inductions of G6P dehydrogenase and malic enzyme was in their dependence on cell density; G6P dehydrogenase induction by insulin and EGF was high at low cell density (3 X 10(4) cells/cm2) and less at higher cell density (13 X 10(4) cells/cm2), whereas induction of malic enzyme was high at higher cell density and less at lower cell density. These results are consistent with the dual role of G6P dehydrogenase in lipogenesis in resting cells and in synthesis of nucleic acid in growing cells. Malic enzyme plays a role only for lipogenesis in mature hepatocytes.

  19. The induction of heme oxygenase-1 suppresses heat shock protein 90 and the proliferation of human breast cancer cells through its byproduct carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wen-Ying [Department of Pathology, Chi-Mei Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yen-Chou [Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shih, Chwen-Ming; Lin, Chun-Mao; Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Chen, Ku-Chung [Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Cheng-Wei, E-mail: cwlin@tmu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 is an oxidative stress-response enzyme which catalyzes the degradation of heme into bilirubin, ferric ion, and carbon monoxide (CO). Induction of HO-1 was reported to have antitumor activity; the inhibitory mechanism, however, is still unclear. In the present study, we found that treatment with [Ru(CO){sub 3}Cl{sub 2}]{sub 2} (RuCO), a CO-releasing compound, reduced the growth of human MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Analysis of growth-related proteins showed that treatment with RuCO down-regulated cyclinD1, CDK4, and hTERT protein expressions. Interestingly, RuCO treatment resulted in opposite effects on wild-type and mutant p53 proteins. These results were similar to those of cells treated with geldanamycin (a heat shock protein (HSP)90 inhibitor), suggesting that RuCO might affect HSP90 activity. Moreover, RuCO induced mutant p53 protein destabilization accompanied by promotion of ubiquitination and proteasome degradation. The induction of HO-1 by cobalt protoporphyrin IX (CoPP) showed consistent results, while the addition of tin protoporphyrin IX (SnPP), an HO-1 enzymatic inhibitor, diminished the RuCO-mediated effect. RuCO induction of HO-1 expression was reduced by a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor (SB203580). Additionally, treatment with a chemopreventive compound, curcumin, induced HO-1 expression accompanied with reduction of HSP90 client protein expression. The induction of HO-1 by curcumin inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-acetate (TPA)-elicited matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression and tumor invasion. In conclusion, we provide novel evidence underlying HO-1's antitumor mechanism. CO, a byproduct of HO-1, suppresses HSP90 protein activity, and the induction of HO-1 may possess potential as a cancer therapeutic. - Highlights: • CO and HO-1 inhibited the growth of human breast cancer cells. • CO and HO-1 attenuated HSP90 and its client proteins expression. • CO induced mutant p53 protein

  20. Berberine Activates Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor but Suppresses CYP1A1 Induction through miR-21-3p Stimulation in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Nan Lo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Berberine and the methylenedioxy ring-opening derivatives palmatine and jatrorrhizine are active ingredients in immunomodulatory plants, such as goldenseal. This study aimed to illustrate the effects of protoberberines on aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR activation and cytochrome P450 (CYP 1 in the estrogen receptor (ERα(+ MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Among protoberberines at non-cytotoxic concentrations (≤10 μM, berberine had the most potent and statistically significant effects on AhR activation and CYP1A1/1A2/1B1 mRNA induction. The 24-h exposure to 10 μM berberine did not change CYP1A1 mRNA stability, protein level and function. Berberine significantly increased micro RNA (miR-21-3p by 36% and the transfection of an inhibitor of miR-21-3p restored the induction of CYP1A1 protein with a 50% increase. These findings demonstrate that the ring opening of the methylenedioxyl moiety in berberine decreased AhR activation in MCF-7 cells. While CYP1A1 mRNA was elevated, berberine-induced miR-21-3p suppressed the increase of functional CYP1A1 protein expression.

  1. PPAR-γ overexpression selectively suppresses insulin secretory capacity in isolated pancreatic islets through induction of UCP-2 protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Eisuke; Ozawa, Sachihiko; Takahashi, Kazuto; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Katsuta, Hidenori; Yamaguchi, Shinya; Maruyama, Masahiro; Takizawa, Makoto; Katahira, Hiroshi; Yoshimoto, Katsuhiko; Nagamatsu, Shinya; Ishida, Hitoshi

    2004-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) regulates several cellular functions, but its physiological role in pancreatic islet cells remains to be investigated. In this study, we confirmed the presence of PPAR-γ in rat isolated islets and examined its role on insulin and glucagon secretion by using PPAR-γ-overexpressed islets. PPAR-γ overexpression significantly suppressed insulin secretion induced by stimulatory concentration of glucose (p < 0.05). In addition, insulin secretion evoked by high potassium depolarization also was significantly decreased from PPAR-γ-overexpressed islets (p < 0.05). On the other hand, no significant change in glucagon release was observed after high potassium depolarization between PPAR-γ-overexpressed and control islets. Insulin and glucagon content in islets was not statistically different between the two groups. In addition, the expression of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2) was found to be induced in PPAR-γ-overexpressed islets. This result clearly indicates that the deteriorative effect of PPAR-γ overexpression on the secretory machinery is selective for pancreatic β-cells. And it is possible that its site of action can be located in the energy-consuming exocytotic process of insulin secretory granules, and that the reduction of ATP production through increased UCP-2 reduces insulin exocytosis

  2. Heme Oxygenase-1 Induction by Carbon Monoxide Releasing Molecule-3 Suppresses Interleukin-1β-Mediated Neuroinflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chung Lin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative disorders and brain damage are initiated by excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, which leads to tissue injury, cellular death and inflammation. In cellular anti-oxidant systems, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is an oxidative-sensor protein induced by ROS generation or carbon monoxide (CO release. CO releasing molecules (CORMs, including CORM-3, exert anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the molecular mechanisms of CORM-3-induced HO-1 expression and protection against interleukin (IL-1β-induced inflammatory responses have not been fully elucidated in rat brain astrocytes (RBA-1. To study the regulation of CORM-3-induced HO-1 expression, signaling pathways, promoter activity, mRNA and protein expression were assessed following treatment with pharmacological inhibitors and gene-specific siRNA knockdown. We found that CORM-3 mediated HO-1 induction via transcritional and translational processes. Furthermore, CORM-3-induced HO-1 expression was mediated by phosphorylation of several protein kinases, such as c-Src, Pyk2, protein kinase Cα (PKCα and p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, which were inhibited by respective pharmacological inhibitors or by gene-specific knockdown with siRNA transfections. Next, we found that CORM-3 sequentially activated the c-Src/Pyk2/PKCα/p42/p44 MAPK pathway, thereby up-regulating mRNA for the activator protein (AP-1 components c-Jun and c-Fos; these effects were attenuated by an AP-1 inhibitor (Tanshinone IIA; TSIIA and other relevant inhibitors. Moreover, CORM-3-induced upregulation of HO-1 attenuated the IL-1β-induced cell migration and matrix metallopeptidase-9 mRNA expression in RBA-1 cells. These effects were reversed by an matrix metalloproteinase (MMP2/9 inhibitor or by transfection with HO-1 siRNA.

  3. Trehalose Liposomes Suppress the Growth of Tumors on Human Lung Carcinoma-bearing Mice by Induction of Apoptosis In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Hideaki; Kuwabara, Keiji; Matsumoto, Yoko

    2017-11-01

    Previous evidence demonstrates that trehalose liposomes (DMTreC14) composed of L-α-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and α-D-glycopyranosyl-α-D-glucopyranoside monomyristate (TreC14) inhibit proliferation and invasion on lung carcinoma (A549 cells) in vitro. Here, we aimed to investigate suppressive effects of DMTreC14 on the growth of tumor on human lung carcinoma bearing mice. DMTreC14 composed of 30 mol% DMPC and 70 mol% TreC14 were prepared by the sonication method. Anti-tumor activities of DMTreC14 using the subcutaneous and orthotopic graft-bearing mice of A549 cells were investigated in vivo. The remarkable reduction of volume and weight in subcutaneous tumors on subcutaneous lung carcinoma-bearing mice topically administrated with DMTreC14 were obtained. Apoptotic-positive cells in the subcutaneous tumor slice of subcutaneous lung carcinoma-bearing mice topically administrated with DMTreC14 were observed using TUNEL staining. Lung weights on the orthotopic graft-bearing mice of lung carcinoma intravenously administrated with DMTreC14 were markedly decreased compared to those of the control group. Remarkable decrease in dimensions of tumor area of lung on the orthotopic graft-bearing mice of lung carcinoma intravenously administrated with DMTreC14 was obtained in histological analysis using the hematoxylin and eosin staining. Remarkably high anti-tumor activities of DMTreC14 for the subcutaneous and orthotopic graft-bearing mice of lung carcinoma accompanied with apoptosis were revealed for the first time in vivo. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  4. Ginkgolic Acid C 17:1, Derived from Ginkgo biloba Leaves, Suppresses Constitutive and Inducible STAT3 Activation through Induction of PTEN and SHP-1 Tyrosine Phosphatase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Ho Baek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgolic acid C 17:1 (GAC 17:1 extracted from Ginkgo biloba leaves, has been previously reported to exhibit diverse antitumor effect(s through modulation of several molecular targets in tumor cells, however the detailed mechanism(s of its actions still remains to be elucidated. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 is an oncogenic transcription factor that regulates various critical functions involved in progression of diverse hematological malignancies, including multiple myeloma, therefore attenuating STAT3 activation may have a potential in cancer therapy. We determined the anti-tumor mechanism of GAC 17:1 with respect to its effect on STAT3 signaling pathway in multiple myeloma cell lines. We found that GAC 17:1 can inhibit constitutive activation of STAT3 through the abrogation of upstream JAK2, Src but not of JAK1 kinases in U266 cells and also found that GAC can suppress IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation in MM.1S cells. Treatment of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP inhibitor blocked suppression of STAT3 phosphorylation by GAC 17:1, thereby indicating a critical role for a PTP. We also demonstrate that GAC 17:1 can induce the substantial expression of PTEN and SHP-1 at both protein and mRNA level. Further, deletion of PTEN and SHP-1 genes by siRNA can repress the induction of PTEN and SHP-1, as well as abolished the inhibitory effect of drug on STAT3 phosphorylation. GAC 17:1 down-regulated the expression of STAT3 regulated gene products and induced apoptosis of tumor cells. Overall, GAC 17:1 was found to abrogate STAT3 signaling pathway and thus exert its anticancer effects against multiple myeloma cells.

  5. 1,25D3 differentially suppresses bladder cancer cell migration and invasion through the induction of miR-101-3p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingyu; Luo, Wei; Bunch, Brittany L; Pratt, Rachel N; Trump, Donald L; Johnson, Candace S

    2017-09-01

    Metastasis is the major cause of bladder cancer death. 1,25D 3 , the active metabolite of vitamin D, has shown anti-metastasis activity in several cancer model systems. However, the role of 1,25D 3 in migration and invasion in bladder cancer is unknown. To investigate whether 1,25D 3 affects migration and invasion, four human bladder cell lines with different reported invasiveness were selected: low-invasive T24 and 253J cells and highly invasive 253J-BV and TCCSUP cells. All of the four bladder cancer cells express endogenous and inducible vitamin D receptor (VDR) as examined by immunoblot analysis. 1,25D 3 had no effect on the proliferation of bladder cancer cells as assessed by MTT assay. In contrast, 1,25D 3 suppressed migration and invasion in the more invasive 253J-BV and TCCSUP cells, but not in the low-invasive 253J and T24 cells using "wound" healing, chemotactic migration and Matrigel-based invasion assays. 1,25D 3 promoted the expression of miR-101-3p and miR-126-3p in 253J-BV cells as examined by qRT-PCR. miR-101-3p inhibitor partially abrogated and pre-miR-101-3p further suppressed the inhibition of 1,25D 3 on migration and invasion in 253J-BV cells. Further, 1,25D 3 enhanced VDR recruitment to the promoter region of miR-101-3p using ChIP-qPCR assay. 1,25D 3 enhanced the promoter activity of miR-101-3p as evaluated by luciferase reporter assay. Taken together, 1,25D 3 suppresses bladder cancer cell migration and invasion in two invasive/migration competent lines but not in two less invasive/motile lines, which is partially through the induction of miR-101-3p expression at the transcriptional level.

  6. Dienogest, a selective progestin, reduces plasma estradiol level through induction of apoptosis of granulosa cells in the ovarian dominant follicle without follicle-stimulating hormone suppression in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasagawa, S; Shimizu, Y; Nagaoka, T; Tokado, H; Imada, K; Mizuguchi, K

    2008-07-01

    Dienogest is a selective progestin that has been shown to arrest ovarian follicular development in women, without affecting gonadotropin secretion. As luteal progesterone or exogeneous progestins are known to suppress ovarian folliculogenesis via the inhibition of gonadotropin secretion, this action of dienogest on ovaries seems to be unique. To examine the underlying mechanism of the antifolliculogenic effect of dienogest, female cynomolgus monkeys were treated with a single oral dose of 0.1 mg/kg dienogest on day 7 of the menstrual cycle. Plasma FSH, estradiol (E2), and progesterone levels were measured up to 15 days after dosing. In an additional experiment, ovaries were excised 24 h after dosing for histological examinations. As a result, plasma E2 level declined within 24 h after dosing, while dienogest did not decreased FSH level prior to E2 decline. After decline of E2 level, the low level of E2 was sustained for more than 11 days. It is considered that a single oral dose of dienogest induced atresia of the dominant follicle. In the histological examination, two out of three animals showed decline in E2 level. The ovarian dominant follicles from these animals showed apoptotic changes in granulosa cells with scattered aromatase expression within 24 h after dosing. These results indicate that the induction of atresia of the ovarian dominant follicle by direct action would be a possible mechanism of dienogest to inhibit plasma E2 level.

  7. In vitro ischemia suppresses hypoxic induction of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α by inhibition of synthesis and not enhanced degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppagounder, Saravanan S; Basso, Manuela; Sleiman, Sama F; Ma, Thong C; Speer, Rachel E; Smirnova, Natalya A; Gazaryan, Irina G; Ratan, Rajiv R

    2013-08-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) mediates a broad, conserved adaptive response to hypoxia, and the HIF pathway is a potential therapeutic target in cerebral ischemia. This study investigated the mechanism by which in vitro ischemia (oxygen-glucose deprivation; OGD) affects canonical hypoxic HIF-1α stabilization. We validated the use of a reporter containing the oxygen-dependent degradation domain of HIF-1α fused to firefly luciferase (ODD-luc) to monitor quantitatively distinct biochemical events leading to hypoxic HIF-1α expression or stabilization in a human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y). When OGD was imposed following a 2-hr hypoxic stabilization of ODD-luc, the levels of the reporter were reduced, consistent with prior models proposing that OGD enhances HIF prolylhydroxylase (PHD) activity. Surprisingly, PHD inhibitors and proteasome inhibitors do not stabilize ODD-luc in OGD. Furthermore, OGD does not affect the half-life of ODD-luc protein following hypoxia, suggesting that OGD abrogates hypoxic HIF-1α induction by reducing HIF-1α synthesis rather than by enhancing its degradation. We observed ATP depletion under OGD vs. hypoxia and propose that ATP depletion enhances translational suppression, overcoming the selective synthesis of HIF concurrent with global decreases in protein synthesis in hypoxia. Taken together, these findings biochemically characterize a practical reporter for monitoring HIF-1α levels and support a novel model for HIF regulation in an in vitro model of human ischemia. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Effect of inter-train interval on the induction of repetition suppression of motor-evoked potentials using transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Pitkänen

    Full Text Available Repetition suppression (RS is evident as a weakened response to repeated stimuli after the initial response. RS has been demonstrated in motor-evoked potentials (MEPs induced with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. Here, we investigated the effect of inter-train interval (ITI on the induction of RS of MEPs with the attempt to optimize the investigative protocols. Trains of TMS pulses, targeted to the primary motor cortex by neuronavigation, were applied at a stimulation intensity of 120% of the resting motor threshold. The stimulus trains included either four or twenty pulses with an inter-stimulus interval (ISI of 1 s. The ITI was here defined as the interval between the last pulse in a train and the first pulse in the next train; the ITIs used here were 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 12, and 17 s. RS was observed with all ITIs except with the ITI of 1 s, in which the ITI was equal to ISI. RS was more pronounced with longer ITIs. Shorter ITIs may not allow sufficient time for a return to baseline. RS may reflect a startle-like response to the first pulse of a train followed by habituation. Longer ITIs may allow more recovery time and in turn demonstrate greater RS. Our results indicate that RS can be studied with confidence at relatively short ITIs of 6 s and above.

  9. Effect of inter-train interval on the induction of repetition suppression of motor-evoked potentials using transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkänen, Minna; Kallioniemi, Elisa; Julkunen, Petro

    2017-01-01

    Repetition suppression (RS) is evident as a weakened response to repeated stimuli after the initial response. RS has been demonstrated in motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) induced with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Here, we investigated the effect of inter-train interval (ITI) on the induction of RS of MEPs with the attempt to optimize the investigative protocols. Trains of TMS pulses, targeted to the primary motor cortex by neuronavigation, were applied at a stimulation intensity of 120% of the resting motor threshold. The stimulus trains included either four or twenty pulses with an inter-stimulus interval (ISI) of 1 s. The ITI was here defined as the interval between the last pulse in a train and the first pulse in the next train; the ITIs used here were 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 12, and 17 s. RS was observed with all ITIs except with the ITI of 1 s, in which the ITI was equal to ISI. RS was more pronounced with longer ITIs. Shorter ITIs may not allow sufficient time for a return to baseline. RS may reflect a startle-like response to the first pulse of a train followed by habituation. Longer ITIs may allow more recovery time and in turn demonstrate greater RS. Our results indicate that RS can be studied with confidence at relatively short ITIs of 6 s and above.

  10. Feline Panleucopenia Virus NS2 Suppresses the Host IFN-β Induction by Disrupting the Interaction between TBK1 and STING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Kang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Feline panleucopenia virus (FPV is a highly infectious pathogen that causes severe diseases in pets, economically important animals and wildlife in China. Although FPV was identified several years ago, little is known about how it overcomes the host innate immunity. In the present study, we demonstrated that infection with the FPV strain Philips-Roxane failed to activate the interferon β (IFN-β pathway but could antagonize the induction of IFN stimulated by Sendai virus (SeV in F81 cells. Subsequently, by screening FPV nonstructural and structural proteins, we found that only nonstructural protein 2 (NS2 significantly suppressed IFN expression. We demonstrated that the inhibition of SeV-induced IFN-β production by FPV NS2 depended on the obstruction of the IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3 signaling pathway. Further, we verified that NS2 was able to target the serine/threonine-protein kinase TBK1 and prevent it from being recruited by stimulator of interferon genes (STING protein, which disrupted the phosphorylation of the downstream protein IRF3. Finally, we identified that the C-terminus plus the coiled coil domain are the key domains of NS2 that are required for inhibiting the IFN pathway. Our study has yielded strong evidence for the FPV mechanisms that counteract the host innate immunity.

  11. Lebein, a snake venom disintegrin, suppresses human colon cancer cells proliferation and tumor-induced angiogenesis through cell cycle arrest, apoptosis induction and inhibition of VEGF expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakraoui, Ons; Marcinkiewicz, Cezary; Aloui, Zohra; Othman, Houcemeddine; Grépin, Renaud; Haoues, Meriam; Essafi, Makram; Srairi-Abid, Najet; Gasmi, Ammar; Karoui, Habib; Pagès, Gilles; Essafi-Benkhadir, Khadija

    2017-01-01

    Lebein, is an heterodimeric disintegrin isolated from Macrovipera lebetina snake venom that was previously characterized as an inhibitor of ADP-induced platelet aggregation. In this study, we investigated the effect of Lebein on the p53-dependent growth of human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. We found that Lebein significantly inhibited LS174 (p53wt), HCT116 (p53wt), and HT29 (p53mut) colon cancer cell viability by inducing cell cycle arrest through the modulation of expression levels of the tumor suppression factor p53, cell cycle regulating proteins cyclin D1, CDK2, CDK4, retinoblastoma (Rb), CDK1, and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27. Interestingly, Lebein-induced apoptosis of colon cancer cells was dependent on their p53 status. Thus, in LS174 cells, cell death was associated with PARP cleavage and the activation of caspases 3 and 8 while in HCT116 cells, Lebein induced caspase-independent apoptosis through increased expression of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF). In LS174 cells, Lebein triggers the activation of the MAPK ERK1/2 pathway through induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). It also decreased cell adhesion and migration to fibronectin through down regulation of α5β1 integrin. Moreover, Lebein significantly reduced the expression of two angiogenesis stimulators, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and Neuropilin 1 (NRP1). It inhibited the VEGF-induced neovascularization process in the quail embryonic CAM system and blocked the development of human colon adenocarcinoma in nude mice. Overall, our work indicates that Lebein may be useful to design a new therapy against colon cancer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Prior Activation of Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptors Suppresses the Subsequent Induction of Long-Term Potentiation in Hippocampal CA1 Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko; Goto, Jun-Ichi; Fujiwara, Hiroki; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the role of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) activated by preconditioning low-frequency afferent stimulation (LFS) in the subsequent induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in CA1 neurons in hippocampal slices from mature guinea pigs. Induction of LTP in the field excitatory postsynaptic potential or the population…

  13. Fructose suppresses uric acid excretion to the intestinal lumen as a result of the induction of oxidative stress by NADPH oxidase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Chihiro; Ogura, Jiro; Sasaki, Shunichi; Okamoto, Keisuke; Kobayashi, Masaki; Kuwayama, Kaori; Narumi, Katsuya; Iseki, Ken

    2017-03-01

    A high intake of fructose increases the risk for hyperuricemia. It has been reported that long-term fructose consumption suppressed renal uric acid excretion and increased serum uric acid level. However, the effect of single administration of fructose on excretion of uric acid has not been clarified. We used male Wistar rats, which were orally administered fructose (5g/kg). Those rats were used in each experiment at 12h after administration. Single administration of fructose suppressed the function of ileal uric acid excretion and had no effect on the function of renal uric acid excretion. Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) predominantly contributes to intestinal excretion of uric acid as an active homodimer. Single administration of fructose decreased BCRP homodimer level in the ileum. Moreover, diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (Nox), recovered the suppression of the function of ileal uric acid excretion and the Bcrp homodimer level in the ileum of rats that received single administration of fructose. Single administration of fructose decreases in BCRP homodimer level, resulting in the suppression the function of ileal uric acid excretion. The suppression of the function of ileal uric acid excretion by single administration of fructose is caused by the activation of Nox. The results of our study provide a new insight into the mechanism of fructose-induced hyperuricemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Induction of suppression of delayed type hypersensitivity to herpes simplex virus by epidermal cells exposed to UV-irradiated urocanic acid in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, J.A.; Howie, S.E.; Norval, M.; Maingay, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    Urocanic acid (UCA), the putative photoreceptor for ultraviolet radiation (UV)-induced suppression, undergoes a UV-dependent trans to cis isomerisation. Epidermal cells from mice painted with UCA, containing a known proportion of the cis-isomer, generate suppression of the delayed type hypersensitivity response to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) when transferred to naive syngeneic recipients at the same time and site as infection with HSV-1. One T suppressor cell subset, of phenotype (Thy1+, L3T4+, Ly2-), is induced by the cis-UCA modified epidermal cell transfer. Flow cytometric analysis of the epidermal cells from skin treated with UV or cis-UCA indicates an overall reduction from normal in the number of cells expressing MHC Class II antigens, but no alteration in the number expressing I-J antigens

  15. Sublingual tolerance induction with antigen conjugated to cholera toxin B subunit induces Foxp3+CD25+CD4+ regulatory T cells and suppresses delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J-B; Cuburu, N; Blomquist, M; Li, B-L; Czerkinsky, C; Holmgren, J

    2006-09-01

    Although sublingual (s.l.) immunotherapy with selected allergens is safe and often effective for treating patients with allergies, knowledge of the immunological mechanisms involved remains limited. Can s.l. administration of antigen (Ag) induce peripheral immunological tolerance and also suppress delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses? To what extent can s.l.-induced tolerance be explained by the generation of Foxp3+CD25+CD4+ regulatory T cells (T(reg))? This study addressed these questions in mice and compared the relative efficacy of administering ovalbumin (OVA) conjugated to cholera toxin B (CTB) subunit with administration of the same Ag alone. We found that s.l. administration of a single or even more efficiently three repeated 40-mug doses of OVA/CTB conjugate suppressed T-cell proliferative responses to OVA by cervical lymph node (CLN), mesenteric lymph node (MLN) and spleen cells and concurrently strongly increased the frequency of Ag-specific T(reg) in CLN, MLN and spleen and also transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) levels in serum. The CLN and splenic cells from OVA/CTB-treated BALB/c mice efficiently suppressed OVA-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) transgenic (DO11.10) CD25-CD4+ effector T-cell proliferation in vitro. Further, s.l. treatment with OVA/CTB completely suppressed OVA-specific DTH responses in vivo and T-cell proliferative responses in mice immunized subcutaneously with OVA in Freund's complete adjuvant. The intracellular expression of Foxp3 was strongly increased in OVA-specific (KJ1-26+) CD4+ T cells from OVA/CTB-treated mice. Thus, s.l. administration of CTB-conjugated Ag can efficiently induce peripheral T-cell tolerance associated with strong increases in serum TGF-beta levels and in Ag-specific Foxp3+CD25+CD4+ T(reg) cells.

  16. Trichostatin A Suppresses EGFR Expression through Induction of MicroRNA-7 in an HDAC-Independent Manner in Lapatinib-Treated Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yen Tu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lapatinib, a dual EGFR/HER2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been shown to improve the survival rate of patients with advanced HER2-positive breast cancers. However, the off-target activity of lapatinib in inducing EGFR expression without tyrosine kinase activity was demonstrated to render HER2-negative breast cancer cells more metastatic, suggesting a limitation to the therapeutic effectiveness of this dual inhibitor in HER2-heterogeneous tumors. Therefore, targeting EGFR expression may be a feasible approach to improve the anticancer efficiency of lapatinib-based therapy. Inhibition of HDAC has been previously reported to epigenetically suppress EGFR protein expression. In this study, however, our data indicated that treatment with HDAC inhibitors trichostatin A (TSA, but not suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA or HDAC siRNA, can attenuate both protein and mRNA expressions of EGFR in lapatinib-treated triple-negative breast cancer cells, suggesting that TSA may suppress EGFR expression independently of HDAC inhibition. Nevertheless, TSA reduced EGFR 3′UTR activity and induced the gene expression of microRNA-7, a known EGFR-targeting microRNA. Furthermore, treatment with microRNA-7 inhibitor attenuated TSA-mediated EGFR suppression. These results suggest that TSA induced microRNA-7 expression to downregulate EGFR expression in an HDAC-independent manner.

  17. EGCG Inhibits Proliferation, Invasiveness and Tumor Growth by Up-Regulation of Adhesion Molecules, Suppression of Gelatinases Activity, and Induction of Apoptosis in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yeu Fang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available (−-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, a major green tea polyphenol, has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of a variety of tumor cells. Epidemiological studies have shown that drinking green tea can reduce the incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC, yet the underlying mechanism is not well understood. In this study, the inhibitory effect of EGCG was tested on a set of Epstein Barr virus-negative and -positive NPC cell lines. Treatment with EGCG inhibited the proliferation of NPC cells but did not affect the growth of a non-malignant nasopharyngeal cell line, NP460hTert. Moreover, EGCG treated cells had reduced migration and invasive properties. The expression of the cell adhesion molecules E-cadherin and β-catenin was found to be up-regulated by EGCG treatment, while the down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9 were found to be mediated by suppression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK phosphorylation and AP-1 and Sp1 transactivation. Spheroid formation by NPC cells in suspension was significantly inhibited by EGCG. Oral administration of EGCG was capable of suppressing tumor growth in xenografted mice bearing NPC tumors. Treatment with EGCG was found to elevate the expression of p53 and p21, and eventually led to apoptosis of NPC cells via caspase 3 activation. The nuclear translocation of NF-κB and β-catenin was also suppressed by EGCG treatment. These results indicate that EGCG can inhibit the proliferation and invasiveness, and induce apoptosis, of NPC cells, making it a promising agent for chemoprevention or adjuvant therapy of NPC.

  18. Suppressing Farnesyl Diphosphate Synthase Alters Chloroplast Development and Triggers Sterol-Dependent Induction of Jasmonate- and Fe-Related Responses1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Paola; Caudepón, Daniel; Arró, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPS) catalyzes the synthesis of farnesyl diphosphate from isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contains two genes (FPS1 and FPS2) encoding FPS. Single fps1 and fps2 knockout mutants are phenotypically indistinguishable from wild-type plants, while fps1/fps2 double mutants are embryo lethal. To assess the effect of FPS down-regulation at postembryonic developmental stages, we generated Arabidopsis conditional knockdown mutants expressing artificial microRNAs devised to simultaneously silence both FPS genes. Induction of silencing from germination rapidly caused chlorosis and a strong developmental phenotype that led to seedling lethality. However, silencing of FPS after seed germination resulted in a slight developmental delay only, although leaves and cotyledons continued to show chlorosis and altered chloroplasts. Metabolomic analyses also revealed drastic changes in the profile of sterols, ubiquinones, and plastidial isoprenoids. RNA sequencing and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction transcriptomic analysis showed that a reduction in FPS activity levels triggers the misregulation of genes involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses, the most prominent one being the rapid induction of a set of genes related to the jasmonic acid pathway. Down-regulation of FPS also triggered an iron-deficiency transcriptional response that is consistent with the iron-deficient phenotype observed in FPS-silenced plants. The specific inhibition of the sterol biosynthesis pathway by chemical and genetic blockage mimicked these transcriptional responses, indicating that sterol depletion is the primary cause of the observed alterations. Our results highlight the importance of sterol homeostasis for normal chloroplast development and function and reveal important clues about how isoprenoid and sterol metabolism is integrated within plant physiology and development. PMID

  19. The flame retardants tetrabromobisphenol A and tetrabromobisphenol A-bisallylether suppress the induction of interleukin-2 receptor α chain (CD25) in murine splenocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pullen, Sabine; Boecker, Ronald; Tiegs, Gisa

    2003-01-01

    Polybrominated flame retardants (PBF) are frequently used additives in electronical equipment. They are ubiquitous environmental contaminants which bioaccumulate with several health effects for humans and the environment. This study investigated immunotoxic effects of the PBF tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBP A), tetrabromobisphenol A-bisallylether (TBBP A-AE), tetrabromobisphenol A-bis-(2,3-dibromopropyl-ether) (TBBP A-PE), decabromodiphenylether (DBDE), and 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP) in vitro. The structurally related polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbon 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB77) and dioxins mediate their immunotoxicity via the Ah-receptor gene complex. A highly relevant function of the Ah receptor, the induction of CYP 1A1 in hepatocytes of C57BL/6 mice by the established inducers 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) and PCB77 was compared to the effect of PBF by measurement of ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) activity. The PBF did not show any induction of CYP 1A1, while EROD activity of hepatocytes exposed to MC and PCB77 was induced 10.8- and 8.7-fold, respectively. To investigate immunotoxic effects of the flame retardants, splenocytes of C57BL/6 mice were incubated with subtoxic doses of the flame retardants and PCB77 and activated by concanavalin A (Con A). The flame retardants TBBP A and TBBP A-AE significantly inhibited the expression of interleukin-2 receptor α chain (CD25) in contrast to TBBP A-PE, DBDE, TBP, and PCB77 as shown by immunohistochemistry and quantitative analysis by laser scanning cytometry. None of the substances had any effect on the Con A-induced production of cytokines. Hence, TBBP A and TBBP A-AE may act as immunotoxic compounds by specifically inhibiting the expression of CD25

  20. A food contaminant ochratoxin A suppresses pregnane X receptor (PXR)-mediated CYP3A4 induction in primary cultures of human hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doricakova, Aneta; Vrzal, Radim

    2015-11-04

    Ochratoxin A (OCHA) is a mycotoxin, which can be found in food such as coffee, wine, cereals, meat, nuts. Since it is absorbed via gastrointestinal tract, it is reasonable to anticipate that the liver will be the first organ to which OCHA comes into the contact before systemic circulation. Many xenobiotics are metabolically modified after the passage of the liver to biologically more active substances, sometimes with more harmful activity. Promoting own metabolism is often achieved via transcriptional regulation of biotransformation enzymes through ligand-activated transcription factors. Pregnane X receptor (PXR) belongs to such a group of regulators and it was demonstrated to be activated by many compounds of synthetic as well as natural origin. Our intention was to investigate if OCHA is capable of activating the PXR with consequent induction of PXR-regulated CYP3A4 gene. We found that OCHA does not activate PXR but displays antagonist-like behavior when combined with rifampicin (RIF) in gene reporter assay in human embryonal kidney cells (Hek293T). It was very weak inducer of CYP3A4 mRNA in primary cultures of human hepatocytes and it antagonized RIF-mediated CYP3A4 induction of mRNA as well as protein. In addition, it caused the decline of PXR protein as well as mRNA which was faster than that with actinomycin D, a transcription inhibitor. Since we found that OCHA induced the expression of miR-148a, which was described to regulate PXR expression, we conclude that antagonist-like behavior of OCHA is not due to the antagonism itself but due to the downregulation of PXR gene expression. Herein we provide important findings which bring a piece of puzzle into the understanding of mechanism of toxic action of ochratoxin A. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Erdosteine protects HEI-OC1 auditory cells from cisplatin toxicity through suppression of inflammatory cytokines and induction of Nrf2 target proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Se-Jin; Park, Channy; Lee, Joon No; Lim, Hyewon; Hong, Gi-yeon; Moon, Sung K.; Lim, David J.; Choe, Seong-Kyu; Park, Raekil

    2015-01-01

    Cisplatin has many adverse effects, which are a major limitation to its use, including ototoxicity, neurotoxicity, and nephrotoxicity. This study aims to elucidate the protective mechanisms of erdosteine against cisplatin in HEI-OC1 cells. Pretreatment with erdosteine protects HEI-OC1 cells from cisplatin-medicated apoptosis, which is characterized by increase in nuclear fragmentation, DNA laddering, sub-G 0 /G 1 phase, H2AX phosphorylation, PARP cleavage, and caspase-3 activity. Erdosteine significantly suppressed the production of reactive nitrogen/oxygen species and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 in cisplatin-treated cells. Studies using pharmacologic inhibitors demonstrated that phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases (PI3K) and protein kinase B (Akt) have protective roles in the action of erdosteine against cisplatin in HEI-OC1 cells. In addition, pretreatment with erdosteine clearly suppressed the phosphorylation of p53 (Ser15) and expression of p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis. Erdosteine markedly induces expression of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which may contribute to the increase in expression of glutathione redox genes γ-L-glutamate-L-cysteine-ligase catalytic and γ-L-glutamate-L-cysteine-ligase modifier subunits, as well as in the antioxidant genes HO-1 and SOD2 in cisplatin-treated HEI-OC1 cells. Furthermore, the increase in expression of phosphorylated p53 induced by cisplatin is markedly attenuated by pretreatment with erdosteine in the mitochondrial fraction. This increased expression may inhibit the cytosolic expression of the apoptosis-inducing factor, cytochrome c, and Bax/Bcl-xL ratio. Thus, our results suggest that treatment with erdosteine is significantly attenuated cisplatin-induced damage through the activation of Nrf2-dependent antioxidant genes, inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines, activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling, and mitochondrial-related inhibition of pro

  2. Inhibitory Effects of Palmultang on Inflammatory Mediator Production Related to Suppression of NF-κB and MAPK Pathways and Induction of HO-1 Expression in Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Chang Oh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Palmultang (PM is an herbal decoction that has been used to treat anorexia, anemia, general prostration, and weakness due to chronic illness since medieval times in Korea, China, and Japan. The present study focused on the inhibitory effects of PM on the production of inflammatory factors and on the activation of mechanisms in murine macrophages. PM suppressed the expression of nitric oxide (NO, inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory proteins by inhibiting nuclear factor (NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathways and by inducing heme oxygenase (HO-1 expression. Collectively, our results explain the anti-inflammatory effect and inhibitory mechanism of PM in macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS.

  3. Acteoside suppresses RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis by inhibiting c-Fos induction and NF-κB pathway and attenuating ROS production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Youp Lee

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have reported that inflammatory cytokines are important mediators for osteoclastogenesis, thereby causing excessive bone resorption and osteoporosis. Acteoside, the main active compound of Rehmannia glutinosa, which is used widely in traditional Oriental medicine, has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potentials. In this study, we found that acteoside markedly inhibited osteoclast differentiation and formation from bone marrow macrophages (BMMs and RAW264.7 macrophages stimulated by the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB ligand (RANKL. Acteoside pretreatment also prevented bone resorption by mature osteoclasts in a dose-dependent manner. Acteoside (10 µM attenuated RANKL-stimulated activation of p38 kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinases, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and also suppressed NF-κB activation by inhibiting phosphorylation of the p65 subunit and the inhibitor κBα. In addition, RANKL-mediated increases in the expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1 and in the production of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL-1β, and IL-6 were apparently inhibited by acteoside pretreatment. Further, oral acteoside reduced ovariectomy-induced bone loss and inflammatory cytokine production to control levels. Our data suggest that acteoside inhibits osteoclast differentiation and maturation from osteoclastic precursors by suppressing RANKL-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and transcription factors such as NF-κB, c-Fos, and NFATc1. Collectively, these results suggest that acteoside may act as an anti-resorptive agent to reduce bone loss by blocking osteoclast activation.

  4. Interferon gamma suppresses collagen-induced arthritis by regulation of Th17 through the induction of indoleamine-2,3-deoxygenase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeseon Lee

    Full Text Available C57BL/6 mice are known to be resistant to the development of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA. However, they show a severe arthritic phenotype when the Ifng gene is deleted. Although it has been proposed that IFN-γ suppresses inflammation in CIA via suppressing Th17 which is involved in the pathogenesis of CIA, the exact molecular mechanism of the Th17 regulation by IFN-γ is poorly understood. This study was conducted to 1 clarify that arthritogenic condition of IFN-γ knockout (KO mice is dependent on the disinhibition of Th17 and 2 demonstrate that IFN-γ-induced indoleamine-2,3-dioxgenase (IDO is engaged in the regulation of Th17. The results showed that the IFN-γ KO mice displayed increased levels of IL-17 producing T cells and the exacerbation of arthritis. Also, production of IL-17 by the splenocytes of the IFN-γ KO mice was increased when cultured with type II collagen. When Il17 was deleted from the IFN-γ KO mice, only mild arthritis developed without any progression of the arthritis score. The proportion of CD44(highCD62L(low memory-like T cells were elevated in the spleen, draining lymph node and mesenteric lymph node of IFN-γ KO CIA mice. Meanwhile, CD44(lowCD62L(high naïve T cells were increased in IFN-γ and IL-17 double KO CIA mice. When Th17 polarized CD4+ T cells of IFN-γ KO mice were co-cultured with their own antigen presenting cells (APCs, a greater increase in IL-17 production was observed than in co-culture of the cells from wild type mice. In contrast, when APCs from IFN-γ KO mice were pretreated with IFN-γ, there was a significant reduction in IL-17 in the co-culture system. Of note, pretreatment of 1-methyl-DL- tryptophan, a specific inhibitor of IDO, abolished the inhibitory effects of IFN-γ. Given that IFN-γ is a potent inducer of IDO in APCs, these results suggest that IDO is involved in the regulation of IL-17 by IFN-γ.

  5. Alkaline phosphatase expression in cultured endothelial cells of aorta and brain microvessels: induction by interleukin-6-type cytokines and suppression by transforming growth factor betas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazato, H; Deguchi, M; Fujimoto, M; Fukushima, H

    1997-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity is markedly high in endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) type but absent from or low in those of the non-BBB type. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) has been identified as a glial cell line-derived factor that induces high ALP activity in cultured aortic endothelial cells. In the present study, we examined the effect of IL-6-type cytokines and transforming growth factor betas (TGF-betas) on ALP expression in cultures of calf pulmonary aortic endothelial (CPAE) cells and porcine brain microvascular endothelial (PBME) cells. Leukemia inhibitory factor, ciliary neurotrophic factor, and oncostatin M, which are known as IL-6-type cytokines, induced high ALP expression in the CPAE cells but not in the PBME cells. ALP levels in these cells were markedly suppressed by culture with TGF-betas. However, in cultured PBME cells, IL-6 and a derivative of cyclic adenosine monophosphate significantly increased ALP activity. Our findings raise the posibility that local concentrations of IL-6, IL-6-type cytokines, and TGF-betas affect the ALP levels in the endothelial cells of aorta and brain microvessels under normal development and also under inflammatory conditions.

  6. 1400W ameliorates acute hypobaric hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced cognitive deficits by suppressing the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase in rat cerebral cortex microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qinghai; Liu, Xin; Wang, Ning; Zheng, Xinchuan; Ran, Jihua; Liu, Zhengxiang; Fu, Jianfeng; Zheng, Jiang

    2017-02-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in neuronal modifications, and overproduction of NO contributes to memory deficits after acute hypobaric hypoxia-reoxygenation. This study investigated the ability of the iNOS inhibitor 1400W to counteract spatial memory deficits following acute hypobaric hypoxia-reoxygenation, and to affect expression of NOS, NO, 3-NT and MDA production, and apoptosis in rat cerebral cortex. We also used primary rat microglia to investigate the effect of 1400W on expression of NOS, NO, 3-NT and MDA production, and apoptosis. Acute hypobaric hypoxia-reoxygenation impaired spatial memory, and was accompanied by activated microglia, increased iNOS expression, NO, 3-NT and MDA production, and neuronal cell apoptosis in rat cerebral cortex one day post-reoxygenation. 1400W treatment inhibited iNOS expression without affecting nNOS or eNOS. 1400W also reduced NO, 3-NT and MDA production, and prevented neuronal cell apoptosis in cerebral cortex, in addition to reversing spatial memory impairment after acute hypobaric hypoxia-reoxygenation. Hypoxia-reoxygenation activated primary microglia, and increased iNOS and nNOS expression, NO, 3-NT, and MDA production, and apoptosis. Treatment with 1400W inhibited iNOS expression without affecting nNOS, reduced NO, 3-NT and MDA production, and prevented apoptosis in primary microglia. Based on the above findings, we concluded that the highly selective iNOS inhibitor 1400W inhibited iNOS induction in microglial cells, and reduced generation of NO, thereby mitigating oxidative stress and neuronal cell apoptosis in the rat cerebral cortex, and improving the spatial memory dysfunction caused by acute hypobaric hypoxia-reoxygenation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Lichen Secondary Metabolites in Flavocetraria cucullata Exhibit Anti-Cancer Effects on Human Cancer Cells through the Induction of Apoptosis and Suppression of Tumorigenic Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh Thi; Yoon, Somy; Yang, Yi; Lee, Ho-Bin; Oh, Soonok; Jeong, Min-Hye; Kim, Jong-Jin; Yee, Sung-Tae; Crişan, Florin; Moon, Cheol; Lee, Kwang Youl; Kim, Kyung Keun; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Kim, Hangun

    2014-01-01

    Lichens are symbiotic organisms which produce distinct secondary metabolic products. In the present study, we tested the cytotoxic activity of 17 lichen species against several human cancer cells and further investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying their anti-cancer activity. We found that among 17 lichens species, F. cucullata exhibited the most potent cytotoxicity in several human cancer cells. High performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that the acetone extract of F. cucullata contains usnic acid, salazinic acid, Squamatic acid, Baeomycesic acid, d-protolichesterinic acid, and lichesterinic acid as subcomponents. MTT assay showed that cancer cell lines were more vulnerable to the cytotoxic effects of the extract than non-cancer cell lines. Furthermore, among the identified subcomponents, usnic acid treatment had a similar cytotoxic effect on cancer cell lines but with lower potency than the extract. At a lethal dose, treatment with the extract or with usnic acid greatly increased the apoptotic cell population and specifically activated the apoptotic signaling pathway; however, using sub-lethal doses, extract and usnic acid treatment decreased cancer cell motility and inhibited in vitro and in vivo tumorigenic potentials. In these cells, we observed significantly reduced levels of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers and phosphor-Akt, while phosphor-c-Jun and phosphor-ERK1/2 levels were only marginally affected. Overall, the anti-cancer activity of the extract is more potent than that of usnic acid alone. Taken together, F. cucullata and its subcomponent, usnic acid together with additional component, exert anti-cancer effects on human cancer cells through the induction of apoptosis and the inhibition of EMT. PMID:25360754

  8. Herbal extract of Artemisia vulgaris (mugwort) induces antitumor effects in HCT-15 human colon cancer cells via autophagy induction, cell migration suppression and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Guanghui; Li, Fujun; Yin, Yani; Chen, Linlin; Yang, Junwen

    2018-01-01

    Artemisia vulgaris (A.vulgaris) belonging to family Compositae, commonly known as mugwort, has been used as a medicinal herb in Chinese traditional medicine for treatment of diseases. Studies have reported a diversity of activities for this plant which include antiseptic, antispasmodic, antigastric, anticancer and nervous system diseases. However, the anticancer activity of A.vulgaris in HCT-15 human colon cancer cells has not been scientifically validated. Therefore the present study aimed at evaluating the anticancer activity of methanolic extract of A.vulgaris against HCT-15 human colon cancer cell line. Cell cytotoxicity effects of the extract were evaluated by MTT cell viability assay, while clonogenic assay assessed the effects on cancer cell colony formation. Effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were evaluated by flow cytometry. In vitro wound healing assay was used to evaluate the effects on cell migration. To confirm autophagy, we evaluated the expression of several autophagy-associated proteins using Western blot assay. Results indicated that the methanolic extract of A.vulgaris exhibited an IC50 value of 50 μg/ml and exerted its cytotoxic effects in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, it was observed that the extract inhibits colony formation and induces autophagy dose-dependently. The underlying mechanism for the induction of autophagy was found to be ROS-mediated MMP and significant inhibition of cell migration potential of colon cancer cells at the IC50 was observed. These results strongly stress that the methanolic extract may prove a source for the isolation of novel anticancer lead molecules for the management of colon cancer.

  9. Systemic IL-2/anti-IL-2Ab complex combined with sublingual immunotherapy suppresses experimental food allergy in mice through induction of mucosal regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaldini, Paola L; Trejo, Fernando; Cohen, José L; Piaggio, Eliane; Docena, Guillermo H

    2018-01-10

    Therapeutic tolerance restoration has been proven to modify food allergy in patients and animal models and although sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) has showed promise, combined therapy may be necessary to achieve a strong and long-term tolerance. In this work, we combined SLIT with systemic administration of IL-2 associated with an anti-IL-2 monoclonal antibody (IL-2/anti-IL-2Ab complex or IL-2C) to reverse the IgE-mediated experimental allergy. Balb/c mice were sensitized with cholera toxin and milk proteins and orally challenged with allergen to elicit hypersensitivity reactions. Then, allergic mice were treated with a sublingual administration of very low amounts of milk proteins combined with intraperitoneal injection of low doses of IL-2C. The animals were next re-exposed to allergens and mucosal as well as systemic immunological parameters were assessed in vivo and in vitro. The treatment reduced serum specific IgE, IL-5 secretion by spleen cells and increased IL-10 and TGF-β in the lamina propria of buccal and duodenal mucosae. We found an augmented frequency of IL-10-secreting CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + regulatory T cells (Treg) in the submaxilar lymph nodes and buccal lamina propria. Tregs were sorted, characterized and adoptively transferred to naïve mice, which were subsequently sensitized. No allergy was experienced in these mice and we encouragingly discovered a faster and more efficient tolerance induction with the combined therapy compared with SLIT. In conclusion, the combination of two therapeutic strategies rendered Treg-mediated tolerance more efficient compared to individual treatments and reversed the established IgE-mediated food allergy. This approach highlights the ability of IL-2C to expand Tregs, and it may represent a promising disease-modifying therapy for managing food allergy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. MicroRNA-148a-3p enhances cisplatin cytotoxicity in gastric cancer through mitochondrial fission induction and cyto-protective autophagy suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bowen; Wang, Weizhi; Li, Zheng; Chen, Zheng; Zhi, Xiaofei; Xu, Jianghao; Li, Qing; Wang, Lu; Huang, Xiaoxu; Wang, Linjun; Wei, Song; Sun, Guangli; Zhang, Xuan; He, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Diancai; Xu, Hao; El-Rifai, Wael; Xu, Zekuan

    2017-12-01

    Cisplatin (CDDP) resistance is a major clinical problem associated with poor prognosis in gastric cancer (GC) patients. In this study, we performed integrated analysis of TCGA data from microRNAs (miRNAs) expression matrix of GC patients who received CDDP-based chemotherapy with GEO dataset which contains differential miRNAs expression profiles in CDDP-resistant and -sensitive cell lines. We identified miR-148a-3p downregulation as a key step involved in CDDP resistance. Using a cohort consisting 105 GC patients who received CDDP-based therapy, we found that miR-148a-3p downregulation was associated with a decrease in patients' disease-free survival (DFS, P = 0.0077). A series of experiment data demonstrated that: 1) miR-148a-3p was downregulated in CDDP-resistant GC cell lines; 2) miR-148a-3p reconstitution sensitized CDDP-resistant cells to CDDP treatment through promoting mitochondrial fission and decreasing AKAP1 expression level; 3) AKAP1 played a novel role in CDDP resistance by inhibiting P53-mediated DRP1 dephosphorylation; 4) miR-148a-3p reconstitution in CDDP-resistant cells inhibits the cyto-protective autophagy by suppressing RAB12 expression and mTOR1 activation. Taken together, our study demonstrates that miR-148a-3p could be a promising prognostic marker or therapeutic candidate for overcoming CDDP resistance in GC. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Labor Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ154 LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE Labor Induction • What is labor induction? • Why is labor induced? • What is the Bishop score? • What is “ripening ...

  12. Induction cooking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosbety, Y. [Ugine Aciers, 73 (France)

    1994-10-01

    The principles of heating by electromagnetic induction, the large families of induction hobs and key figures of the rapidity developing market. Performances and interests of induction (energy savings, rapidity and precision of heating, safety). Steels used: ferritic stainless steels alone or three-layer materials. (author). 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    The principle of linear induction acceleration is described, and examples are given of practical configurations for induction linacs. These examples include the Advanced Technology Accelerator, Long Pulse Induction Linac, Radial Line Accelerator (RADLAC), and Magnetically-Insulated Electron-Focussed Ion Linac. A related concept, the auto accelerator, is described in which the high-current electron-beam technology in the sub-10 MeV region is exploited to produce electron beams at energies perhaps as high as the 100 to 1000 MeV range. Induction linacs for ions are also discussed. The efficiency of induction linear acceleration is analyzed

  14. Inductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Brett K; Heit, Evan; Swendsen, Haruka

    2010-03-01

    Inductive reasoning entails using existing knowledge or observations to make predictions about novel cases. We review recent findings in research on category-based induction as well as theoretical models of these results, including similarity-based models, connectionist networks, an account based on relevance theory, Bayesian models, and other mathematical models. A number of touchstone empirical phenomena that involve taxonomic similarity are described. We also examine phenomena involving more complex background knowledge about premises and conclusions of inductive arguments and the properties referenced. Earlier models are shown to give a good account of similarity-based phenomena but not knowledge-based phenomena. Recent models that aim to account for both similarity-based and knowledge-based phenomena are reviewed and evaluated. Among the most important new directions in induction research are a focus on induction with uncertain premise categories, the modeling of the relationship between inductive and deductive reasoning, and examination of the neural substrates of induction. A common theme in both the well-established and emerging lines of induction research is the need to develop well-articulated and empirically testable formal models of induction. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Suppressed Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarine Romdenh-Romluc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Moran’s revised conception of conscious belief requires us to reconceptualise suppressed belief. The work of Merleau-Ponty offers a way to do this. His account of motor-skills allows us to understand suppressed beliefs as pre-reflective ways of dealing with the world.

  16. Induction period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, C.E.; Tokunaga, M.

    1984-01-01

    Induction period is the temporal aspect of the excess cancer risk that follows an exposure to ionizing radiation. Operationally, it can be thought of as the time from an exposure of brief duration to the diagnosis of any resultant cancer. Whereas the magnitude of excess risk can be described by a single number, such as the average yearly excess risk over some fixed time interval after exposure, the temporal distribution requires a histogram or a curve, that is, an array or continuum of numbers. The study of induction period involves a search for a simple way of describing the temporal distribution of risk, that is, a way of describing a continuum by using only one or two numbers. In other words, the goal is to describe induction period probabilistically, using a parametric model with a few parameters

  17. Induction Brazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul

    Induction brazing is a fast and appropriate method for industrial joining of complex geometries and metal combinations. In all types of brazing processes it is important to heat the joint interface of the two materials to the same, high temperature. If one of the specimens is warmer than the other...... materials has large influence on the heating time and temperature distribution in induction heating. In order to ensure high and uniform temperature distribution near the interface of a joint between dissimilar materials the precise coil geometry and position is of great importance. The present report...... presents a combined numerical and experimental method for determination of appropriate/optimiged coil geometry and position in induction brazing tube-to-plate joints of different ratios between tube and plate thickness and different combinations of the materials stainless steel, brass and copper...

  18. Induction accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Takayama, Ken

    2011-01-01

    A broad class of accelerators rests on the induction principle whereby the accelerating electrical fields are generated by time-varying magnetic fluxes. Particularly suitable for the transport of bright and high-intensity beams of electrons, protons or heavy ions in any geometry (linear or circular) the research and development of induction accelerators is a thriving subfield of accelerator physics. This text is the first comprehensive account of both the fundamentals and the state of the art about the modern conceptual design and implementation of such devices. Accordingly, the first part of the book is devoted to the essential features of and key technologies used for induction accelerators at a level suitable for postgraduate students and newcomers to the field. Subsequent chapters deal with more specialized and advanced topics.

  19. Induction practice -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Nicolas; Sprogøe, Jonas

    2007-01-01

    Research on induction of newcomers is primarily focused on individual processes, such as acquisition of knowledge and socialization in order to create a smooth and frictionless entry period. The interest of our research, however, is the processes that happen on the organizational level. We claim...... that induction potentially triggers both individual and organizational learning and by drawing on practice-based theory we discuss how the interplay between individual and the organization, what we call agenerative dance, ignites both kinds of learning. We focus on and describe the interplay , ignites both kinds...... of learning. We focus on and describe the interplay that takes place in particular induction events and analyze the "dance" through the lens of learning. The paper concludes with a brief discussion about the implications for practitioners and the challenges and future research prospects we have encountered...

  20. Suppression of PTEN/AKT signaling decreases the expression of TUBB3 and TOP2A with subsequent inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells via ATP and caspase-3 signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenhua; Liu, Ying; Shi, Changzheng; Zhang, Yuqin; Lv, Rongzhao; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Qian; Wang, Yiming

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of PTEN/AKT signaling on TUBB3 and TOP2A expression and on the subsequent cell growth of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. We found that the disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) of breast cancer patients with TUBB3‑positive tumors were lower than these rates in the patients with TUBB3-negative tumors. Meanwhile, DFS and OS of breast cancer patients with TOP2A-positive tumors were also lower than these rates in patients with TOP2A-negative tumors. Suppression of PTEN reduced the protein expression of TUBB3 and TOP2A in MCF-7 cells. Suppression of PTEN also reduced cell proliferation and induced apoptosis and caspase-3 activity in MCF-7 cells. Moreover, an increase in ATP also reduced TUBB3 and TOP2A protein expression, reduced cell proliferation and induced apoptosis and caspase-3 activity in the MCF-7 cells following suppression of PTEN. Suppression of phosphorylation-AKT (p-AKT) reduced the protein expression of TUBB3 and TOP2A in the MCF-7 cells. Suppression of p-AKT also reduced cell proliferation and induced apoptosis and caspase-3 activity in the MCF-7 cells. Then, ATP also reduced TUBB3 and TOP2A protein expression, reduced cell proliferation and induced apoptosis and caspase-3 activity in MCF-7 cells following suppression of p-AKT. These results suggest that PTEN/AKT signaling affects the expression of TUBB3 and TOP2A reducing cell growth and inducing apoptosis of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells through ATP and caspase-3 signaling pathways. TUBB3 and TOP2A may be promising prognostic markers for the efficacy of adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy.

  1. Suppression chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Akio.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To miniaturize the storage tank of condensated water in BWR reactor. Constitution: A diaphragm is provided in a suppression chamber thereby to partition the same into an inner compartment and an outer compartment. In one of said compartments there is stored clean water to be used for feeding at the time of separating the reactor and for the core spray system, and in another compartment there is stored water necessary for accomplishing the depressurization effect at the time of coolant loss accident. To the compartment in which clean water is stored there is connected a water cleaning device for constantly maintaining water in clean state. As this cleaning device an already used fuel pool cleaning device can be utilized. Further, downcomers for accomplishing the depressurization function are provided in both inner compartment and outer compartment. The capacity of the storage tank can be reduced by the capacity of clean water within the suppression chamber. (Ikeda, J.)

  2. Inhibition of class I histone deacetylases in non-small cell lung cancer by honokiol leads to suppression of cancer cell growth and induction of cell death in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tripti; Prasad, Ram; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2013-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents approximately 80% of all types of lung cancer. Here, we report the chemotherapeutic effect of honokiol, a phytochemical from Magnolia grandiflora, on NSCLC cells and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects using in vitro and in vivo models. Treatment of NSCLC cells (A549, H1299, H460 and H226) with honokiol (20, 40 and 60 µM) inhibited histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity, reduced the levels of class I HDAC proteins and enhanced histone acetyltransferase activity in a dose-dependent manner. These effects of honokiol were associated with a significant reduction in the viability of NSCLC cells. Concomitant treatment of cells with a proteasome inhibitor, MG132, prevented honokiol-induced degradation of class I HDACs, suggesting that honokiol reduced the levels of HDACs in NSCLC cells through proteasomal degradation. Valproic acid, an inhibitor of HDACs, exhibited a similar pattern of reduced viability and induction of death of NSCLC cells. Treatment of A549 and H1299 cells with honokiol resulted in an increase in G 1 phase arrest, and a decrease in the levels of cyclin D1, D2 and cyclin dependent kinases. Further, administration of honokiol by oral gavage significantly inhibited the growth of subcutaneous A549 and H1299 tumor xenografts in athymic nude mice, which was associated with the induction of apoptotic cell death and marked inhibition of class I HDACs proteins and HDAC activity in the tumor xenograft tissues. Together, our study provides new insights into the role of class I HDACs in the chemotherapeutic effects of honokiol on lung cancer cells.

  3. Induction of cellular accessibility and inaccessibility and suppression and potentiation of cell death in oat attacked by ¤Blumeria graminis¤ f.sp. ¤avenae¤

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carver, T.L.W.; Lyngkjær, M.F.; Neyron, L.

    1999-01-01

    , suggesting that induced changes in (in)accessibility may be a common consequence of B. graminis attack in cereals. As expected, in Maldwyn, cell death was a consistent but infrequent response to attack (5-20%, of attacks caused cell death in controls). Here, the successful formation of an inducer haustorium......, or of a papilla due to failed attack, totally suppressed the cell death response to later challenge attack on D0 cells, but had less effect on neighbouring cells. Conversely, death of a Maldwyn epidermal cell due to inducer attack potentiated cell death in adjacent cells where up to 80% of challenge attacks...... caused death. This effect was transmitted to some extent to two cells distance. (C) 1999 Academic Press....

  4. Iodine-131 treatment of thyroid cancer cells leads to suppression of cell proliferation followed by induction of cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by regulation of B-cell translocation gene 2-mediated JNK/NF-κB pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, L.M.; Pang, A.X., E-mail: zhaoliming515@126.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Linyi People' s Hospital, Linyi (China); Department of Urology, Linyi People' s Hospital, Linyi (China)

    2017-10-01

    Iodine-131 ({sup 131}I) is widely used for the treatment of thyroid-related diseases. This study aimed to investigate the expression of p53 and BTG2 genes following {sup 131}I therapy in thyroid cancer cell line SW579 and the possible underlying mechanism. SW579 human thyroid squamous carcinoma cells were cultured and treated with {sup 131}I. They were then assessed for {sup 131}I uptake, cell viability, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, p53 expression, and BTG2 gene expression. SW579 cells were transfected with BTG2 siRNA, p53 siRNA and siNC and were then examined for the same aforementioned parameters. When treated with a JNK inhibitor of SP600125 and {sup 131}I or with a NF-kB inhibitor of BMS-345541 and {sup 131}I, non-transfected SW579 cells were assessed in JNK/NFkB pathways. It was observed that {sup 131}I significantly inhibited cell proliferation, promoted cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Both BTG2 and p53 expression were enhanced in a dose-dependent manner. An increase in cell viability by up-regulation in Bcl2 gene, a decrease in apoptosis by enhanced CDK2 gene expression and a decrease in cell cycle arrest at G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase were also observed in SW579 cell lines transfected with silenced BTG2 gene. When treated with SP600125 and {sup 131}I, the non transfected SW579 cell lines significantly inhibited JNK pathway, NF-kB pathway and the expression of BTG2. However, when treated with BMS-345541 and {sup 131}I, only the NF-kB pathway was suppressed. {sup 131}I suppressed cell proliferation, induced cell apoptosis, and promoted cell cycle arrest of thyroid cancer cells by up-regulating B-cell translocation gene 2-mediated activation of JNK/NF--κB pathways. (author)

  5. Lexicographic Path Induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Sarnat, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    an induction principle that combines the comfort of structural induction with the expressive strength of transfinite induction. Using lexicographic path induction, we give a consistency proof of Martin-Löf’s intuitionistic theory of inductive definitions. The consistency of Heyting arithmetic follows directly...

  6. Burst suppression probability algorithms: state-space methods for tracking EEG burst suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemali, Jessica; Ching, ShiNung; Purdon, Patrick L.; Solt, Ken; Brown, Emery N.

    2013-10-01

    Objective. Burst suppression is an electroencephalogram pattern in which bursts of electrical activity alternate with an isoelectric state. This pattern is commonly seen in states of severely reduced brain activity such as profound general anesthesia, anoxic brain injuries, hypothermia and certain developmental disorders. Devising accurate, reliable ways to quantify burst suppression is an important clinical and research problem. Although thresholding and segmentation algorithms readily identify burst suppression periods, analysis algorithms require long intervals of data to characterize burst suppression at a given time and provide no framework for statistical inference. Approach. We introduce the concept of the burst suppression probability (BSP) to define the brain's instantaneous propensity of being in the suppressed state. To conduct dynamic analyses of burst suppression we propose a state-space model in which the observation process is a binomial model and the state equation is a Gaussian random walk. We estimate the model using an approximate expectation maximization algorithm and illustrate its application in the analysis of rodent burst suppression recordings under general anesthesia and a patient during induction of controlled hypothermia. Main result. The BSP algorithms track burst suppression on a second-to-second time scale, and make possible formal statistical comparisons of burst suppression at different times. Significance. The state-space approach suggests a principled and informative way to analyze burst suppression that can be used to monitor, and eventually to control, the brain states of patients in the operating room and in the intensive care unit.

  7. Induction of somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A high frequency of callus induction was observed at relatively low concentrations (0.5 and 1 mg L-1) of both 2,4-D or 4-FA. However, high concentrations (3, 4 and 5 mg L-1) of either auxin suppressed callus induction. When applied for the first time, 1.0 mg L-1 4-FA markedly improved the frequency of callus induction (up ...

  8. Mechanism of Action of Nigella sativa on Human Colon Cancer Cells: the Suppression of AP-1 and NF-κB Transcription Factors and the Induction of Cytoprotective Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkady, Ayman I; Hussein, Rania A; El-Assouli, Sufian M

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the world. The aim of this study was to investigate the growth-suppression potentiality of a crude saponin extract (CSENS) prepared from medicinal herb, Nigella sativa, on human colon cancer cells, HCT116. HCT116 cells were subjected to increasing doses of CSENS for 24, 48 and 72 h, and then harvested and assayed for cell viability by WST-1. Flow cytometry analyses, cell death detection ELISA, fluorescent stains (Hoechst 33342 and acridine orange/ethidium bromide), DNA laddering and comet assays were carried out to confirm the apoptogenic effects of CSENS. Luciferase reporter gene assays, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses were performed to assess the impact of CAERS and CFEZO on the expression levels of key regulatory proteins in HCT116 cells. The results demonstrated that CSENS inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis. Apoptosis was confirmed by flow cytometry analyses, while CSENS-treated cells exhibited morphological hallmarks of apoptosis including cell shrinkage, irregularity in cellular shape, cellular detachment and chromatin condensation. Biochemical signs of apoptosis, such as DNA degradation, were observed by comet assay and gel electrophoresis. The pro-apoptotic effect of CSENS was caspase-3-independent and associated with increase of the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. CSENS treatment down-regulated transcriptional and DNA-binding activities of NF-κB and AP-1 proteins, associated with down-regulation of their target oncogenes, c-Myc, cyclin D1 and survivin. On the other hand, CSENS up-regulated transcriptional and DNA-binding activities of Nrf2 and expression of cytoprotective genes. In addition, CSENS modulated the expression levels of ERK1/2 MAPK, p53 and p21. These findings suggest that CSENS may be a valuable agent for treatment of colon cancer.

  9. Therapeutic Treatment of Arthritic Mice with 15-Deoxy Δ12,14-Prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2 Ameliorates Disease through the Suppression of Th17 Cells and the Induction of CD4+CD25−FOXP3+ Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Carregaro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The prostaglandin, 15-deoxy Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2, is a lipid mediator that plays an important role in the control of chronic inflammatory disease. However, the role of prostanoid in rheumatoid arthritis (RA is not well determined. We demonstrated the therapeutic effect of 15d-PGJ2 in an experimental model of arthritis. Daily administration of 15d-PGJ2 attenuated the severity of CIA, reducing the clinical score, pain, and edema. 15d-PGJ2 treatment was associated with a marked reduction in joint levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Although the mRNA expression of ROR-γt was profoundly reduced, FOXP3 was enhanced in draining lymph node cells from 15d-PGJ2-treated arthritic mice. The specific and polyclonal CD4+ Th17 cell responses were limited during the addition of prostaglandin to cell culture. Moreover, in vitro 15d-PGJ2 increased the expression of FOXP3, GITR, and CTLA-4 in the CD4+CD25− population, suggesting the induction of Tregs on conventional T cells. Prostanoid addition to CD4+CD25− cells selectively suppressed Th17 differentiation and promoted the enhancement of FOXP3 under polarization conditions. Thus, 15d-PGJ2 ameliorated symptoms of collagen-induced arthritis by regulating Th17 differentiation, concomitant with the induction of Tregs, and, consequently, protected mice from diseases aggravation. Altogether, these results indicate that 15d-PGJ2 may represent a potential therapeutic strategy in RA.

  10. Inductive Monitoring System (IMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IMS: Inductive Monitoring System The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) is a tool that uses a data mining technique called clustering to extract models of normal...

  11. Induction and suppression of innate antiviral responses by picornaviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Qian; Langereis, Martijn A; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M

    2014-01-01

    The family Picornaviridae comprises of small, non-enveloped, positive-strand RNA viruses and contains many human and animal pathogens including enteroviruses (e.g. poliovirus, coxsackievirus, enterovirus 71 and rhinovirus), cardioviruses (e.g. encephalomyocarditis virus), hepatitis A virus and

  12. Andrographolide inhibits TNFα-induced ICAM-1 expression via suppression of NADPH oxidase activation and induction of HO-1 and GCLM expression through the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 and PI3K/Akt/AP-1 pathways in human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chia-Yang; Yang, Ya-Chen; Li, Chien-Chun; Liu, Kai-Li; Lii, Chong-Kuei; Chen, Haw-Wen

    2014-09-01

    Andrographolide, the major bioactive component of Andrographis paniculata, has been demonstrated to have various biological properties including anti-inflammation, antioxidation, and anti-hepatotoxicity. Oxidative stress is considered a major risk factor in aging, inflammation, cancer, atherosclerosis, and diabetes mellitus. NADPH oxidase is a major source of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we used EA.hy926 endothelial-like cells to explore the anti-inflammatory activity of andrographolide. Andrographolide attenuated TNFα-induced ROS generation, Src phosphorylation, membrane translocation of the NADPH oxidase subunits p47(phox) and p67(phox), and ICAM-1 gene expression. In the small hairpin RNA interference assay, shp47(phox) abolished TNFα-induced p65 nuclear translocation, ICAM-1 gene expression, and adhesion of HL-60 cells. Andrographolide induced the gene expression of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLM) in a time-dependent manner. Cellular glutathione (GSH) content was increased by andrographolide. shGCLM attenuated the andrographolide-induced increase in GSH content and reversed the andrographolide inhibition of HL-60 adhesion. shHO-1 showed a similar effect on andrographolide inhibition of HL-60 adhesion to shGCLM. The mechanism underlying the up-regulation of HO-1 and GCLM by andrographolide was dependent on the PI3K/Akt pathway, and both the Nrf2 and AP-1 transcriptional factors were involved. Our results suggest that andrographolide attenuates TNFα-induced ICAM-1 expression at least partially through suppression of NADPH oxidase activation and induction of HO-1 and GCLM expression, which is PI3K/Akt pathway-dependent. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Induction machine handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2002-01-01

    Often called the workhorse of industry, the advent of power electronics and advances in digital control are transforming the induction motor into the racehorse of industrial motion control. Now, the classic texts on induction machines are nearly three decades old, while more recent books on electric motors lack the necessary depth and detail on induction machines.The Induction Machine Handbook fills industry's long-standing need for a comprehensive treatise embracing the many intricate facets of induction machine analysis and design. Moving gradually from simple to complex and from standard to

  14. Growth hormone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003376.htm Growth hormone suppression test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone suppression test determines whether growth hormone production is ...

  15. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-dependent tryptophan metabolites contribute to tolerance induction during allergen immunotherapy in a mouse model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taher, Yousef A.; Piavaux, Benoit J. A.; Gras, Renee; van Esch, Betty C. A. M.; Hofman, Gerard A.; Bloksma, Nanne; Henricks, Paul A. J.; van Oosterhout, Antoon J. M.

    Background: The tryptophan-catabolizing enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) has been implicated in immune suppression and tolerance induction. Objective: We examined (1) whether IDO activity is required during tolerance induction by allergen immunotherapy or for the subsequent suppressive

  16. Arsenite suppression of BMP signaling in human keratinocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Marjorie A.; Qin, Qin [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616-8588 (United States); Hu, Qin; Zhao, Bin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Rice, Robert H., E-mail: rhrice@ucdavis.edu [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616-8588 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Arsenic, a human skin carcinogen, suppresses differentiation of cultured keratinocytes. Exploring the mechanism of this suppression revealed that BMP-6 greatly increased levels of mRNA for keratins 1 and 10, two of the earliest differentiation markers expressed, a process prevented by co-treatment with arsenite. BMP also stimulated, and arsenite suppressed, mRNA for FOXN1, an important transcription factor driving early keratinocyte differentiation. Keratin mRNAs increased slowly after BMP-6 addition, suggesting they are indirect transcriptional targets. Inhibition of Notch1 activation blocked BMP induction of keratins 1 and 10, while FOXN1 induction was largely unaffected. Supporting a requirement for Notch1 signaling in keratin induction, BMP increased levels of activated Notch1, which was blocked by arsenite. BMP also greatly decreased active ERK, while co-treatment with arsenite maintained active ERK. Inhibition of ERK signaling mimicked BMP by inducing keratin and FOXN1 mRNAs and by increasing active Notch1, effects blocked by arsenite. Of 6 dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSPs) targeting ERK, two were induced by BMP unless prevented by simultaneous exposure to arsenite and EGF. Knockdown of DUSP2 or DUSP14 using shRNAs greatly reduced FOXN1 and keratins 1 and 10 mRNA levels and their induction by BMP. Knockdown also decreased activated Notch1, keratin 1 and keratin 10 protein levels, both in the presence and absence of BMP. Thus, one of the earliest effects of BMP is induction of DUSPs, which increases FOXN1 transcription factor and activates Notch1, both required for keratin gene expression. Arsenite prevents this cascade by maintaining ERK signaling, at least in part by suppressing DUSP expression. - Highlights: • BMP induces FOXN1 transcription. • BMP induces DUSP2 and DUSP14, suppressing ERK activation. • Arsenite suppresses levels of phosphorylated Smad1/5 and FOXN1 and DUSP mRNA. • These actions rationalize arsenite suppression of keratinocyte

  17. Sequential inductive learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratch, J. [Univ. of Southern California, Marina del Rey, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This article advocates a new model for inductive learning. Called sequential induction, it helps bridge classical fixed-sample learning techniques (which are efficient but difficult to formally characterize), and worst-case approaches (which provide strong statistical guarantees but are too inefficient for practical use). Learning proceeds as a sequence of decisions which are informed by training data. By analyzing induction at the level of these decisions, and by utilizing the only enough data to make each decision, sequential induction provides statistical guarantees but with substantially less data than worst-case methods require. The sequential inductive model is also useful as a method for determining a sufficient sample size for inductive learning and as such, is relevant to learning problems where the preponderance of data or the cost of gathering data precludes the use of traditional methods.

  18. Maxwell's inductions from Faraday's induction law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redžić, D. V.

    2018-03-01

    In article 598 of his Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism (Maxwell 1891 A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism (Oxford: Clarendon)), Maxwell gives a seminal analysis of Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction. We present a detailed account of the analysis, attempting to reconstruct the missing steps, and discuss some related matters.

  19. Induction Therapy for Mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Isabelle; Weder, Walter

    2015-01-01

    One particular approach of multimodality treatment for mesothelioma is induction therapy followed by surgery. Among its several advantages, the most important is downstaging of the tumor into a resectable stage, although morbidity and mortality might be increased. In this article we review the principles and outcome of different modalities for induction treatment of mesothelioma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Urofollitropin and ovulation induction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wely, Madelon; Yding Andersen, Claus; Bayram, Neriman; van der Veen, Fulco

    2005-01-01

    Anovulation is a common cause of female infertility. Treatment for women with anovulation is aimed at induction of ovulation. Ovulation induction with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is indicated in women with WHO type II anovulation in whom treatment with clomifene citrate (clomifene) has

  1. Half Bridge Inductive Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán GERMÁN-SALLÓ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Induction heating performs contactless, efficient and fast heating of conductive materials, therefore became one of the preferred heating procedure in industrial, domestic and medical applications. During induction heating the high-frequency alternating currents that heat the material are induced by means of electromagnetic induction. The material to be heated is placed inside the time-varying magnetic field generated by applying a highfrequency alternating current to an induction coil. The alternating electromagnetic field induces eddy currents in the workpiece, resulting resistive losses, which then heat the material. This paper describes the design of a power electronic converter circuit for induction heating equipment and presents the obtained results. The realized circuit is a low power half bridge resonant inverter which uses power MOS transistors and adequate driver circuits.

  2. Pressure suppression device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Tadaharu; Funahashi, Toshihiro.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a structure which permits the absorption of shocks and vibratory load produced on the floor of a pressure suppression chamber due to nitrogen gas or the like discharged into pool water in the pressure suppression chamber at the time of a loss-of-coolant accident. Constitution: A pressure suppression chamber accommodating pool water is comprised of a bottom wall and side walls constructed of concrete on the inner side of a liner. By providing concrete on the bottom surface and side wall surfaces of a pressure suppression chamber, it is possible to prevent non-condensing gas and steam exhausted from the vent duct and exhaust duct of a main vapor escapement safety valve exhaust duct from exerting impact forces and vibratory forces upon the bottom and side surfaces of the pressure suppression chamber. (Horiuchi, T.)

  3. Thermal kinetic inductance detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Thomas; Gades, Lisa; Miceli, Antonio; Quaranta, Orlando

    2016-12-20

    A microcalorimeter for radiation detection that uses superconducting kinetic inductance resonators as the thermometers. The detector is frequency-multiplexed which enables detector systems with a large number of pixels.

  4. Doubly fed induction machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeist, S. Merrill; Baker, Richard H.

    2005-10-11

    An electro-mechanical energy conversion system coupled between an energy source and an energy load including an energy converter device having a doubly fed induction machine coupled between the energy source and the energy load to convert the energy from the energy source and to transfer the converted energy to the energy load and an energy transfer multiplexer coupled to the energy converter device to control the flow of power or energy through the doubly fed induction machine.

  5. Linear induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, R.J.

    1986-06-01

    The development of linear induction accelerators has been motivated by applications requiring high-pulsed currents of charged particles at voltages exceeding the capability of single-stage, diode-type accelerators and at currents too high for rf accelerators. In principle, one can accelerate charged particles to arbitrarily high voltages using a multi-stage induction machine, but the 50-MeV, 10-kA Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) at LLNL is the highest voltage machine in existence at this time. The advent of magnetic pulse power systems makes sustained operation at high-repetition rates practical, and this capability for high-average power is very likely to open up many new applications of induction machines in the future. This paper surveys the US induction linac technology with primary emphasis on electron machines. A simplified description of how induction machines couple energy to the electron beam is given, to illustrate many of the general issues that bound the design space of induction linacs

  6. Induction of labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Dean; Biringer, Anne; Lee, Lily; Dy, Jessica

    2013-09-01

    To review the most current literature in order to provide evidence-based recommendations to obstetrical care providers on induction of labour. Intervention in a pregnancy with induction of labour. Appropriate timing and method of induction, appropriate mode of delivery, and optimal maternal and perinatal outcomes. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in 2010 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., labour, induced, labour induction, cervical ripening) and key words (e.g., induce, induction, augmentation). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to the end of 2010. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The evidence in this document was rated using criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventative Health Care (Table 1). SUMMARY STATEMENTS: 1. Prostaglandins E(2) (cervical and vaginal) are effective agents of cervical ripening and induction of labour for an unfavourable cervix. (I) 2. Intravaginal prostaglandins E(2) are preferred to intracervical prostaglandins E(2) because they results in more timely vaginal deliveries. (I).

  7. Linear induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    The development of linear induction accelerators has been motivated by applications requiring high-pulsed currents of charged particles at voltages exceeding the capability of single-stage, diode-type accelerators and at currents too high for r.f. accelerators. In principle, one can accelerate charged particles to arbitrarily high voltages using a multi-stage induction machine, but the 50-MeV, 10-kA Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) at LLNL is the highest voltage machine in existence at this time. The advent of magnetic pulse power systems makes sustained operation at high-repetition rates practical, and this capability for high-average power in very likely to open up many new applications of induction machines in the future. The US induction linac technology is surveyed with primary emphasis on electron machines. A simplified description of how induction machines couple energy to the electron beam is given, to illustrate many of the general issues that bound the design space of induction linacs. A key issue in all high-intensity linacs is that of beam instability

  8. Menstrual suppression for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, Anna Lea; Hillard, Paula J Adams

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this review is to highlight the recent literature and emerging data describing clinical situations in which menstrual suppression may improve symptoms and quality of life for adolescents. A variety of conditions occurring frequently in adolescents and young adults, including heavy menstrual bleeding, and dysmenorrhea as well as gynecologic conditions such as endometriosis and pelvic pain, can safely be improved or alleviated with appropriate menstrual management. Recent publications have highlighted the efficacy and benefit of extended cycle or continuous combined oral contraceptives, the levonorgestrel intrauterine device, and progestin therapies for a variety of medical conditions. This review places menstrual suppression in an historical context, summarizes methods of hormonal therapy that can suppress menses, and reviews clinical conditions for which menstrual suppression may be helpful.

  9. Cryogenic Acoustic Suppression Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A proof-of-concept method utilizing a cryogenic fluid for acoustic suppression in rocket engine testing environments will be demonstrated. It is hypothesized that...

  10. Sodium fire suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  11. Oral tolerance induction with altered forms of ovalbumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stransky B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available As a T cell-dependent phenomenon, oral tolerance is not expected to depend necessarily on native configuration of antigens. We investigated the induction of oral tolerance with modified ovalbumin (Ova. Oral administration of heat-denatured (HD-Ova and cyanogen bromide-degraded ovalbumin was less effective than native Ova in inducing oral tolerance in B6D2F1 mice. HD-Ova was effective in suppressing delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH reactions but did not suppress specific antibody formation. Injection of Ova directly into the stomach, but not into the ileum or cecum, suppressed subsequent immunization to DTH reactions. Gavage with protease inhibitors (aprotinin or ovomucoid before gavage with Ova was ineffective in blocking tolerance induction. Treatment with hydroxyurea to destroy cycling cells 24 h before gavage with Ova blocked oral tolerance induction and also the possibility to passively transfer tolerance to naive recipients with the serum of mice gavaged with Ova 1 h before. The implications of these findings about oral tolerance induction are discussed

  12. Pressure suppression device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumachi, Wataru; Fukuda, Akira; Kitaguchi, Hidemi; Shimizu, Toshiaki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To relieve and absorb impact wave vibrations caused by steam and non-condensed gases releasing into the pressure suppression chamber at the time of an accident. Structure: The reactor container is filled with inert gases. A safety valve attached main steam pipe is provided to permit the excessive steam to escape, the valve being communicated with the pressure suppression chamber through an exhaust pipe. In the pressure suppression chamber, a doughnut-like cylindrical outer wall is filled at its bottom with pool water to condense the high temperature vapor released through the exhaust pipe. A head portion of a vent tube which leads the exhaust pipe is positioned at the top, and a down comer and an exhaust vent tube are locked by means of steady rests. At the bottom is mounted a pressure adsorber device which adsorbs a pressure from the pool water. (Kamimura, M.)

  13. Electron Induction Linacs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaso, George J.; Chen, Yu-Jiuan

    Electron induction linacs have been used for over four decades for a variety of applications. As discussed in Chap. 8, these include basic studies in magnetically confined fusion, transport of intense electron beams in various gases, the generation of electromagnetic radiation from free electron lasers, radiation processing of materials and food, and flash X-ray radiography sources.

  14. Lexicographic Path Induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Sarnat, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Programming languages theory is full of problems that reduce to proving the consistency of a logic, such as the normalization of typed lambda-calculi, the decidability of equality in type theory, equivalence testing of traces in security, etc. Although the principle of transfinite induction...

  15. Modeling Induction Motor Imbalances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armah, Kabenla; Jouffroy, Jerome; Duggen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a study into the development of a generalized model for a three-phase induction motor that offers flexibility of simulating balanced and unbalanced parameter scenarios. By analyzing the interaction of forces within the motor, we achieve our main objective of deriving the system...

  16. Thyroxin hormone suppression treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    One of the important modalities of treatment of thyroid cancer (TC) after surgery is the administration of thyroxin as an adjuvant treatment. The analysis supports the theory that thyroid suppression plays an important role in patient management. 300 μg of thyroxin, as this is an adequate dose for suppression is given. Ideally the dose should be tailored by testing s-TSH levels. However, since a large number of the patients come from out station cities and villages this is impractical. We therefore depend on clinical criteria of hyperthyroid symptoms and adjust the dose. Very few patients need such adjustment

  17. Plasma suppression of beamstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittum, D.H.; Sessler, A.M.; Stewart, J.J.; Yu, S.S.

    1988-06-01

    We investigate the use of a plasma at the interaction point of two colliding beams to suppress beamsstrahlung and related phenomena. We derive conditions for good current cancellation via plasma return currents and report on numerical simulations conducted to confirm our analytic results. 10 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Inductive Communication System Design Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-01

    The report documents the experience obtained during the design and development of the Inductive Communications System used in the Morgantown People Mover. The Inductive Communications System is used to provide wayside-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-waysid...

  19. Inductive energy storage commutator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilov, I.M.

    1987-01-01

    An inductive energy storage commutator is described. The value of commutated current is up to 800 A, the voltage amplitude in the load is up to 50 kV, the working frequency is equal to 1-50 Hz, the commutated power is up to 40 MW. The commutating device comprises of the first stage commutator having two in-series connected modules of the BTSV - 800/235 high-voltage thyristor unit, the second stage commutator containing three GMI-43A parallel connected powerful pulsed triodes, a commutating capacitor, an induction coil, two supplementary high-voltage thyristor keys (20 in-series connected thyristors T2-300 (13 class)), load, control pulse shapers, thyristor keys, power supply

  20. Induction motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1990-01-01

    Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly ultilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilized induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high-frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high-frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

  1. Induction motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1990-01-01

    Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly utilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilizes induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

  2. Inductive Supervised Quantum Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monràs, Alex; Sentís, Gael; Wittek, Peter

    2017-05-01

    In supervised learning, an inductive learning algorithm extracts general rules from observed training instances, then the rules are applied to test instances. We show that this splitting of training and application arises naturally, in the classical setting, from a simple independence requirement with a physical interpretation of being nonsignaling. Thus, two seemingly different definitions of inductive learning happen to coincide. This follows from the properties of classical information that break down in the quantum setup. We prove a quantum de Finetti theorem for quantum channels, which shows that in the quantum case, the equivalence holds in the asymptotic setting, that is, for large numbers of test instances. This reveals a natural analogy between classical learning protocols and their quantum counterparts, justifying a similar treatment, and allowing us to inquire about standard elements in computational learning theory, such as structural risk minimization and sample complexity.

  3. Induction technology optimization code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caporaso, G.J.; Brooks, A.L.; Kirbie, H.C.

    1992-01-01

    A code has been developed to evaluate relative costs of induction accelerator driver systems for relativistic klystrons. The code incorporates beam generation, transport and pulsed power system constraints to provide an integrated design tool. The code generates an injector/accelerator combination which satisfies the top level requirements and all system constraints once a small number of design choices have been specified (rise time of the injector voltage and aspect ratio of the ferrite induction cores, for example). The code calculates dimensions of accelerator mechanical assemblies and values of all electrical components. Cost factors for machined parts, raw materials and components are applied to yield a total system cost. These costs are then plotted as a function of the two design choices to enable selection of an optimum design based on various criteria. (Author) 11 refs., 3 figs

  4. Intravenous lidocaine suppresses fentanyl-induced cough in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Gecaj-Gashi, Agreta; Nikolova-Todorova, Zorica; Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora; Gashi, Musli

    2013-01-01

    Objective Fentanyl-induced cough is usually mild and transitory, but it can be undesirable in patients with increased intracranial pressure, open wounds of the eye, dissecting aortic aneurism, pneumothorax, and reactive airway disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of lidocaine in suppressing fentanyl-induced cough in children during induction in general anesthesia. Methods One hundred and eighty-six children of both sexes, aged between 4?10?years, ASA physical status I an...

  5. J/Ψ suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giubellino, P.; Abreu, M.C.; Alessandro, B.; Alexa, C.; Arnaldi, R.; Astruc, J.; Atayan, M.; Baglin, C.; Baldit, A.; Bedjidian, M.; Bellaiche, F.; Beole, S.; Boldea, V.; Bordalo, P.; Bussiere, A.; Capony, V.; Casagrande, L.; Castor, J.; Chambon, T.; Chaurand, B.; Chevrot, I.; Cheynis, B.; Chiavassa, E.; Cicalo, C.; Comets, M.P.; Constantinescu, S.; Cruz, J.; De Falco, A.; De Marco, N.; Dellacasa, G.; Devaux, A.; Dita, S.; Drapier, O.; Espagnon, B.; Fargeix, J.; Filippov, S.N.; Fleuret, F.; Force, P.; Gallio, M.; Gavrilov, Y.K.; Gerschel, C.; Giubellino, P.; Golubeva, M.B.; Gonin, M.; Grigorian, A.A.; Grossiord, J.Y.; Guber, F.F.; Guichard, A.; Gulkaninan, H.; Hakobyan, R.; Haroutunian, R.; Idzik, M.; Jouan, D.; Karavitcheva, T.L.; Kluberg, L.; Kurepin, A.B.; Le Bornec, Y.; Lourenco, C.; Mac Cormick, M.; Macciotta, P.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Mehrabyan, S.; Mourgues, S.; Musso, A.; Ohlsson-Malek, F.; Petiau, P.; Piccotti, A.; Pizzi, J.R.; Prado da Silva, W.L.; Puddu, G.; Quintans, C.; Racca, C.; Ramello, L.; Ramos, S.; Rato-Mendes, P.; Riccati, L.; Romana, A.; Sartori, S.; Saturnini, P.; Scomparin, E.; Serci, S.; Shahoyan, R.; Silva, S.; Soave, C.; Sonderegger, P.; Tarrago, X.; Temnikov, P.; Topilskaya, N.S.; Usai, G.; Vale, C.; Vercellin, E.; Willis, N.

    1999-01-01

    The cross section for J/Ψ production in Pb-Pb interactions at 158 GeV per nucleon is measured at the CERN SPS by the NA50 experiment. The final results from the 1995 run are presented here together with preliminary ones from the high-statistics 1996 run. An anomalous J/Ψ suppression is observed in Pb-Pb collisions as compared to extrapolations of the previous results obtained by the NA38 experiment with proton and lighter ion beams. The results of the two runs are in good agreement. The results from the 1996 run allow the study of the onset of the anomalous suppression within the same set of data, showing evidence of a sharp change of behaviour around a value of neutral transverse energy, as measured by our electromagnetic calorimeter, of about 50 GeV

  6. Mechanisms underlying UV-induced immune suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, Stephen E. [Department of Immunology, University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, South Campus Research Building 1, 7455 Fannin St., P.O. Box 301402, Houston, TX 77030-1903 (United States)]. E-mail: sullrich@mdanderson.org

    2005-04-01

    Skin cancer is the most prevalent form of human neoplasia. Estimates suggest that in excess of one million new cases of skin cancer will be diagnosed this year alone in the United States (www.cancer.org/statistics). Fortunately, because of their highly visible location, skin cancers are more rapidly diagnosed and more easily treated than other types of cancer. Be that as it may, approximately 10,000 Americans a year die from skin cancer. The cost of treating non-melanoma skin cancer is estimated to be in excess of US$ 650 million a year [J.G. Chen, A.B. Fleischer, E.D. Smith, C. Kancler, N.D. Goldman, P.M. Williford, S.R. Feldman, Cost of non-melanoma skin cancer treatment in the United States, Dermatol. Surg. 27 (2001) 1035-1038], and when melanoma is included, the estimated cost of treating skin cancer in the United States is estimated to rise to US$ 2.9 billion annually (www.cancer.org/statistics). Because the morbidity and mortality associated with skin cancer is a major public health problem, it is important to understand the mechanisms underlying skin cancer development. The primary cause of skin cancer is the ultraviolet (UV) radiation found in sunlight. In addition to its carcinogenic potential, UV radiation is also immune suppressive. In fact, data from studies with both experimental animals and biopsy proven skin cancer patients suggest that there is an association between the immune suppressive effects of UV radiation and its carcinogenic potential. The focus of this manuscript will be to review the mechanisms underlying the induction of immune suppression following UV exposure. Particular attention will be directed to the role of soluble mediators in activating immune suppression.

  7. Mechanisms underlying UV-induced immune suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, Stephen E.

    2005-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most prevalent form of human neoplasia. Estimates suggest that in excess of one million new cases of skin cancer will be diagnosed this year alone in the United States (www.cancer.org/statistics). Fortunately, because of their highly visible location, skin cancers are more rapidly diagnosed and more easily treated than other types of cancer. Be that as it may, approximately 10,000 Americans a year die from skin cancer. The cost of treating non-melanoma skin cancer is estimated to be in excess of US$ 650 million a year [J.G. Chen, A.B. Fleischer, E.D. Smith, C. Kancler, N.D. Goldman, P.M. Williford, S.R. Feldman, Cost of non-melanoma skin cancer treatment in the United States, Dermatol. Surg. 27 (2001) 1035-1038], and when melanoma is included, the estimated cost of treating skin cancer in the United States is estimated to rise to US$ 2.9 billion annually (www.cancer.org/statistics). Because the morbidity and mortality associated with skin cancer is a major public health problem, it is important to understand the mechanisms underlying skin cancer development. The primary cause of skin cancer is the ultraviolet (UV) radiation found in sunlight. In addition to its carcinogenic potential, UV radiation is also immune suppressive. In fact, data from studies with both experimental animals and biopsy proven skin cancer patients suggest that there is an association between the immune suppressive effects of UV radiation and its carcinogenic potential. The focus of this manuscript will be to review the mechanisms underlying the induction of immune suppression following UV exposure. Particular attention will be directed to the role of soluble mediators in activating immune suppression

  8. Role of intercellular communication on LH receptor induction in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi Pour HR

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available The cyclical changes in the gonadotropins stimulate ovarian follicular development either to the ovulatory stage or to undergo atresia. One such intrafollicular factor may be inter-cellular communication via gap junctions. We have examined the effects of two agents (retinoids and alkanols, known to disrupt or uncouple gap junction, on FSH-stimulated LH receptor induction and progestrone synthesis in granulosa cells. Granulosa cells from diethylstilbestrol-treated immature rats were isolated and cultured in serum-free medium containing either FSH (15 ng/ml or FSH and estradiol (30 nM, various doses (0.1-1000 nM of either retinoic acid were added to the cultures at the time of seeding. Additional cultures containing the same concentrations of either FSH, or FSH and estradiol, were treated with 0.01-10 nM heptanol or octanol. The results of this study showed that: 1 Retinol, at all of the concentrations tested, had no effect on either FSH-stimulated LH receptor induction or progesterone accumulation by the granulosa cells. 2 Retinoic acid suppressed both LH receptor induction and progesterone accumulation by the cells. 3 Heptanol and octanol suppressed LH receptor induction but did not have inhibitory effect on the progesterone accumulation.

  9. The role of epidermal cytokines in the generation of cutaneous immune reactions and ultraviolet radiation-induced immune suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    The immune suppression generated by UV exposure is a major risk factor for skin cancer patients. This finding has fuelled efforts to understand the mechanisms involved in the immune suppression induced by exposure to UV radiation. This article reviews the recent findings on the role of epidermal cytokines in the generation of an immune response and their role in the induction of immune suppression induced by UV exposure. (UK)

  10. Linear induction motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkman, W.E.; Adams, W.Q.; Berrier, B.R.

    1978-01-01

    A linear induction motor has been operated on a test bed with a feedback pulse resolution of 5 nm (0.2 μin). Slewing tests with this slide drive have shown positioning errors less than or equal to 33 nm (1.3 μin) at feedrates between 0 and 25.4 mm/min (0-1 ipm). A 0.86-m (34-in)-stroke linear motor is being investigated, using the SPACO machine as a test bed. Initial results were encouraging, and work is continuing to optimize the servosystem compensation

  11. Low inductance gas switching.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Ray; Harjes, Henry Charles III; Wallace, Zachariah; Elizondo, Juan E.

    2007-10-01

    The laser trigger switch (LTS) is a key component in ZR-type pulsed power systems. In ZR, the pulse rise time through the LTS is > 200 ns and additional stages of pulse compression are required to achieve the desired <100 ns rise time. The inductance of the LTS ({approx}500nH) in large part determines the energy transfer time through the switch and there is much to be gained in improving system performance and reducing system costs by reducing this inductance. The current path through the cascade section of the ZR LTS is at a diameter of {approx} 6-inches which is certainly not optimal from an inductance point of view. The LTS connects components of much greater diameter (typically 4-5 feet). In this LDRD the viability of switch concepts in which the diameter of cascade section is greatly increased have been investigated. The key technical question to be answered was, will the desired multi-channel behavior be maintained in a cascade section of larger diameter. This LDRD proceeded in 2 distinct phases. The original plan for the LDRD was to develop a promising switch concept and then design, build, and test a moderate scale switch which would demonstrate the key features of the concept. In phase I, a switch concept which meet all electrical design criteria and had a calculated inductance of 150 nH was developed. A 1.5 MV test switch was designed and fabrication was initiated. The LDRD was then redirected due to budgetary concerns. The fabrication of the switch was halted and the focus of the LDRD was shifted to small scale experiments designed to answer the key technical question concerning multi-channel behavior. In phase II, the Multi-channel switch test bed (MCST) was designed and constructed. The purpose of MCST was to provide a versatile, fast turn around facility for the study the multi-channel electrical breakdown behavior of a ZR type cascade switch gap in a parameter space near that of a ZR LTS. Parameter scans on source impedance, gap tilt, gap spacing and

  12. How to suppress obsessive thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, Eric; Diepstraten, Philip

    2003-01-01

    Thought suppression (i.e. consciously trying to avoid certain thoughts from entering consciousness) has been argued to be an inadequate strategy in case of unwanted intrusions. That is, thought suppression seems to result in more rather than less intrusions. Although this experimental finding has been explained in terms of failing attempts to distract oneself from the target thought, the White Bear Suppression Inventory (WBSI; a scale that measures chronic thought suppression tendencies) does not address the means by which respondents try to suppress unwanted thoughts. To examine which strategies of mental control people use to suppress unwanted thoughts, obsessive-compulsive disorder patients (N=47) completed the WBSI, the Thought Control Questionnaire, and two measures of psychopathology. Results suggest that the crucial mechanism in thought suppression may not be distraction, but self-punishment.

  13. Unihemispheric burst suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C. Mader Jr.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Burst suppression (BS consists of bursts of high-voltage slow and sharp wave activity alternating with periods of background suppression in the electroencephalogram (EEG. When induced by deep anesthesia or encephalopathy, BS is bihemispheric and is often viewed as a non-epileptic phenomenon. In contrast, unihemispheric BS is rare and its clinical significance is poorly understood. We describe here two cases of unihemispheric BS. The first patient is a 56-year-old woman with a left temporoparietal tumor who presented in convulsive status epilepticus. EEG showed left hemispheric BS after clinical seizure termination with lorazepam and propofol. The second patient is a 39-year-old woman with multiple medical problems and a vague history of seizures. After abdominal surgery, she experienced a convulsive seizure prompting treatment with propofol. Her EEG also showed left hemispheric BS. In both cases, increasing the propofol infusion rate resulted in disappearance of unihemispheric BS and clinical improvement. The prevailing view that typical bihemispheric BS is non-epileptic should not be extrapolated automatically to unihemispheric BS. The fact that unihemispheric BS was associated with clinical seizure and resolved with propofol suggests that, in both cases, an epileptic mechanism was responsible for unihemispheric BS.

  14. Vector control of induction machines

    CERN Document Server

    Robyns, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    After a brief introduction to the main law of physics and fundamental concepts inherent in electromechanical conversion, ""Vector Control of Induction Machines"" introduces the standard mathematical models for induction machines - whichever rotor technology is used - as well as several squirrel-cage induction machine vector-control strategies. The use of causal ordering graphs allows systematization of the design stage, as well as standardization of the structure of control devices. ""Vector Control of Induction Machines"" suggests a unique approach aimed at reducing parameter sensitivity for

  15. Borehole induction coil transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Gale; Wilt, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A borehole induction coil transmitter which is a part of a cross-borehole electromagnetic field system that is used for underground imaging applications. The transmitter consists of four major parts: 1) a wound ferrite or mu-metal core, 2) an array of tuning capacitors, 3) a current driver circuit board, and 4) a flux monitor. The core is wound with several hundred turns of wire and connected in series with the capacitor array, to produce a tuned coil. This tuned coil uses internal circuitry to generate sinusoidal signals that are transmitted through the earth to a receiver coil in another borehole. The transmitter can operate at frequencies from 1-200 kHz and supplies sufficient power to permit the field system to operate in boreholes separated by up to 400 meters.

  16. Electromagnetic induction spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, I. J.; Keiswetter, Dean A.

    1998-09-01

    An object, made partly or wholly of metals, has a distinct combination of electrical conductivity, magnetic permeability, and geometrical shape and size. When the object is exposed to a low-frequency electromagnetic field, it produces a secondary magnetic field. By measuring the secondary field in a broadband spectrum, we obtain a distinct spectral signature that may uniquely identify the object. Based on the response spectrum, we attempt to 'fingerprint' the object. This is the basic concept of Electromagnetic Induction Spectroscopy (EMIS). EMIS technology may be particularly useful for detecting buried landmines and unexploded ordnance. By fully characterizing and identifying an object without excavation. We should be able to reduce significantly the number of false targets. EMIS should be fully applicable to many other problems where target identification and recognition (without intrusive search) are important. For instance, an advanced EMIS device at an airport security gate may be able to recognize a particular weapon by its maker and type.

  17. Induction heating using induction coils in series-parallel circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsen, Marc Rollo; Geren, William Preston; Miller, Robert James; Negley, Mark Alan; Dykstra, William Chet

    2017-11-14

    A part is inductively heated by multiple, self-regulating induction coil circuits having susceptors, coupled together in parallel and in series with an AC power supply. Each of the circuits includes a tuning capacitor that tunes the circuit to resonate at the frequency of AC power supply.

  18. Induction of pluripotency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Corey; Liu, Jun; Sumer, Huseyin; Malaver-Ortega, Luis F; Verma, Rajneesh; Carvalho, Edmund; Verma, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    The molecular and phenotypic irreversibility of mammalian cell differentiation was a fundamental principle of developmental biology at least until the 1980s, despite numerous reports dating back to the 1950s of the induction of pluripotency in amphibian cells by nuclear transfer (NT). Landmark reports in the 1980s and 1990s in sheep progressively challenged this dogmatic assumption; firstly, embryonic development of reconstructed embryos comprising whole (donor) blastomeres fused to enucleated oocytes, and famously, the cloning of Dolly from a terminally differentiated cell. Thus, the intrinsic ability of oocyte-derived factors to reverse the differentiated phenotype was confirmed. The concomitant elucidation of methods for human embryonic stem cell isolation and cultivation presented opportunities for therapeutic cell replacement strategies, particularly through NT of patient nuclei to enucleated oocytes for subsequent isolation of patient-specific (autologous), pluripotent cells from the resulting blastocysts. Associated logistical limitations of working with human oocytes, in addition to ethical and moral objections prompted exploration of alternative approaches to generate autologous stem cells for therapy, utilizing the full repertoire of factors characteristic of pluripotency, primarily through cell fusion and use of pluripotent cell extracts. Stunningly, in 2006, Japanese scientists described somatic cell reprogramming through delivery of four key factors (identified through a deductive approach from 24 candidate genes). Although less efficient than previous approaches, much of current stem cell research adopts this focused approach to cell reprogramming and (autologous) cell therapy. This chapter is a quasi-historical commentary of the various aforementioned approaches for the induction of pluripotency in lineage-committed cells, and introduces transcriptional and epigenetic changes occurring during reprogramming.

  19. Antibody induction versus corticosteroid induction for liver transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penninga, Luit; Wettergren, André; Wilson, Colin H

    2014-01-01

    . OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of T-cell specific antibody induction versus corticosteroid induction for prevention of acute rejection in liver transplant recipients. SEARCH METHODS: We searched The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register...... to identify additional trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all randomised clinical trials assessing immunosuppression with T-cell specific antibody induction versus corticosteroid induction in liver transplant recipients. Our inclusion criteria stated that participants within each included trial should...... (bias) using bias risk domains with definitions. We used trial sequential analysis to control for random errors (play of chance). MAIN RESULTS: We included 10 randomised trials with a total of 1589 liver transplant recipients, which studied the use of T-cell specific antibody induction versus...

  20. Suppression of sympathetic detonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J. C., Jr.; Gunger, M. E.; Craig, B. G.; Parsons, G. H.

    1984-08-01

    There are two basic approaches to suppression of sympathetic detonation. Minimizing the shock sensitivity of the explosive to long duration pressure will obviously reduce interround separation distances. However, given that the explosive sensitivity is fixed, then much can be gained through the use of simple barriers placed between the rounds. Researchers devised calculational methods for predicting shock transmission; experimental methods have been developed to characterize explosive shock sensitivity and observe the response of acceptors to barriers. It was shown that both EAK and tritonal can be initiated to detonation with relatively low pressure shocks of long durations. It was also shown that to be an effective barrier between the donor and acceptor, the material must attenuate shock and defect fragments. Future actions will concentrate on refining the design of barriers to minimize weight, volume, and cost.

  1. Covariation in Natural Causal Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Patricia W.; Novick, Laura R.

    1991-01-01

    Biases and models usually offered by cognitive and social psychology and by philosophy to explain causal induction are evaluated with respect to focal sets (contextually determined sets of events over which covariation is computed). A probabilistic contrast model is proposed as underlying covariation computation in natural causal induction. (SLD)

  2. Sampling Assumptions in Inductive Generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Daniel J.; Dry, Matthew J.; Lee, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Inductive generalization, where people go beyond the data provided, is a basic cognitive capability, and it underpins theoretical accounts of learning, categorization, and decision making. To complete the inductive leap needed for generalization, people must make a key "sampling" assumption about how the available data were generated.…

  3. Induction Hardening of Ferromagnetic Bodies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barglik, J.; Doležel, Ivo; Škopek, M.; Ulrych, B.

    č. 1 (2002), s. 28-29 ISSN 0340-3521 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/01/0184; GA MŠk ME 542 Grant - others:PSC(PL) 7T08603716 Keywords : Induction heating * induction hardening * ferromagnetic bodies Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  4. Economic implications of labor induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Simon, Raquel; Montañes, Antonio; Clemente, Jesús; Del Pino, María D; Romero, Manuel A; Fabre, Ernesto; Oros, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    To assess health service costs associated with labor induction according to different clinical situations in a tertiary-level hospital. In a prospective study, individual patient cost data were assessed for women admitted for induction of labor at a tertiary hospital in Spain between November 1, 2012, and August 31, 2013. The costs of labor induction were estimated according to maternal and neonatal outcomes, method of delivery, cervical condition at admission, and obstetric indication. Direct costs including professional fees, epidural, maternal stay, consumables, and drugs were calculated. Overall, 412 women were included in the final cost analysis. The mean total cost of labor induction was €3589.87 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3475.13-3704.61). Cesarean delivery after labor induction (€4830.45, 95% CI 4623.13-5037.58) was significantly more expensive than spontaneous delivery (€3037.45, 95% CI 2966.91-3179.99) and instrumental vaginal delivery (€3344.31, 95%CI 3151.69-3536.93). The total cost for patients with a very unfavorable cervix (Bishop score Labor induction for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy was the most expensive obstetric indication for induction of labor (€4347.32, 95% CI 3890.45-4804.18). Following the induction of labor, a number of patient- and treatment-related factors influence costs associated with delivery. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Induction: The Early Years of Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Edi; Davis, Douglas; Colarusso, Ron; Grainger, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    Addresses the need for induction programs for beginning teachers and discusses the theoretical and research support for them. Develops the notion of induction as a community responsibility and describes a university-school induction consortium, a university induction program, an induction program at a middle school, and the role of the principal…

  6. Inductively generating Euler diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Gem; Rodgers, Peter; Howse, John; Zhang, Leishi

    2011-01-01

    Euler diagrams have a wide variety of uses, from information visualization to logical reasoning. In all of their application areas, the ability to automatically layout Euler diagrams brings considerable benefits. In this paper, we present a novel approach to Euler diagram generation. We develop certain graphs associated with Euler diagrams in order to allow curves to be added by finding cycles in these graphs. This permits us to build Euler diagrams inductively, adding one curve at a time. Our technique is adaptable, allowing the easy specification, and enforcement, of sets of well-formedness conditions; we present a series of results that identify properties of cycles that correspond to the well-formedness conditions. This improves upon other contributions toward the automated generation of Euler diagrams which implicitly assume some fixed set of well-formedness conditions must hold. In addition, unlike most of these other generation methods, our technique allows any abstract description to be drawn as an Euler diagram. To establish the utility of the approach, a prototype implementation has been developed. © 2011 IEEE Published by the IEEE Computer Society

  7. An Alternative to Thought Suppression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boice, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Setting free the bears: Escape from thought suppression," by D. M. Wegner (see record 2011-25622-008). While Wegner supposed that we might have to learn to live with bad thoughts, the present author discusses the use of imagination and guided imagery as an alternative to forced thought suppression.

  8. Burn injury suppresses human dermal dendritic cell and Langerhans cell function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Linda M.; de Jong, Marein A. W. P.; Witte, Lot de; Ulrich, Magda M. W.; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.

    2011-01-01

    Human skin contains epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) and dermal dendritic cells (DCs) that are key players in induction of adaptive immunity upon infection. After major burn injury, suppressed adaptive immunity has been observed in patients. Here we demonstrate that burn injury affects adaptive

  9. Survival of Stenocarpella spp. in maize debris and soil suppressiveness to maize ear rot pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moretti Ferreira Pinto, Felipe; Novaes Medeiros, H.; Biazzotto Correia Porto, V.; Silva Siqueira, da C.; Cruz Machado, da J.; Köhl, J.; Vasconcelos de Medeiros, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    Stenocarpella species (S. maydis and S. macrospora) overwinter saprophytically in maize stubble but little is known about the factors that contribute to its survival and to the induction of suppressiveness of pathogen colonization. We aimed at determining the role of crop rotation on the survival of

  10. Silicon oxynitride: A field emission suppression coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Nimel D.

    We have studied coatings deposited using our inductively-coupled RF plasma ion implantation and desposition system to suppress field emission from large, 3-D electrode structures used in high voltage applications, like those used by Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in their DC-field photoelectron gun. Currently time and labor-intensive hand-polishing procedures are used to minimize field emission from these structures. Previous work had shown that the field emission from polished stainless steel (27 muA of field-emitted current at 15 MV/m) could be drastically reduced with simultaneous deposition of sputtered silicon dioxide during nitrogen implantation (167 pA of field-emitted current at 30 MV/m). We have determined that this unique implantation and deposition procedure produces high-purity silicon oxynitride films that can suppress field emission from stainless steel regardless of their initial surface polish. However, when this implantation procedure was applied to large, 3-D substrates, arcs occurred, damaging the coating and causing unreliable and unrepeatable field emission suppression. We have developed a novel reactive sputtering procedure to deposit high-purity silicon oxynitride coatings without nitrogen ion implantation. We can control the stoichometry and deposition rate of these coatings by adjusting the nitrogen pressure and incident RF-power. Using profilometry, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, elastic recoil detection analysis, and current-voltage measurements, we have determined that the elemental composition, chemical bonding, density, and electrical properties of the reactively-sputtered silicon oxynitride coatings are similar to those produced by nitrogen implantation during silicon dioxide deposition. Furthermore, high voltage tests determined that both coatings similarly suppress field emission from 6" diameter, polished

  11. Overview of Bearingless Induction Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bearingless induction motors combining functions of both torque generation and noncontact magnetic suspension together have attracted more and more attention in the past decades due to their definite advantages of compactness, simple structure, less maintenance, no wear particles, high rotational speed, and so forth. This paper overviews the key technologies of the bearingless induction motors, with emphasis on motor topologies, mathematical models, and control strategies. Particularly, in the control issues, the vector control, independent control, direct torque control, nonlinear decoupling control, sensorless control, and so forth are investigated. In addition, several possible development trends of the bearingless induction motors are also discussed.

  12. Optimal control of induction heating processes

    CERN Document Server

    Rapoport, Edgar

    2006-01-01

    This book introduces new approaches to solving optimal control problems in induction heating process applications. Optimal Control of Induction Heating Processes demonstrates how to apply and use new optimization techniques for different types of induction heating installations. Focusing on practical methods for solving real engineering optimization problems, the text features a variety of specific optimization examples for induction heater modes and designs, particularly those used in industrial applications. The book describes basic physical phenomena in induction heating and induction

  13. Fault diagnosis of induction motors

    CERN Document Server

    Faiz, Jawad; Joksimović, Gojko

    2017-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive, structural approach to fault diagnosis strategy. The different fault types, signal processing techniques, and loss characterisation are addressed in the book. This is essential reading for work with induction motors for transportation and energy.

  14. Menstrual suppression in the adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantartzis, Kelly L; Sucato, Gina S

    2013-06-01

    Menstrual suppression, the use of contraceptive methods to eliminate or decrease the frequency of menses, is often prescribed for adolescents to treat menstrual disorders or to accommodate patient preference. For young women using hormonal contraceptives, there is no medical indication for menstruation to occur monthly, and various hormonal contraceptives can be used to decrease the frequency of menstruation with different side effect profiles and rates of amenorrhea. This article reviews the different modalities for menstrual suppression, common conditions in adolescents which may improve with menstrual suppression, and strategies for managing common side effects. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Global analysis of host response to induction of a latent bacteriophage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keasling Jay D

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transition from viral latency to lytic growth involves complex interactions among host and viral factors, and the extent to which host physiology is buffered from the virus during induction of lysis is not known. A reasonable hypothesis is that the virus should be evolutionarily selected to ensure host health throughout induction to minimize its chance of reproductive failure. To address this question, we collected transcriptional profiles of Escherichia coli and bacteriophage lambda throughout lysogenic induction by UV light. Results We observed a temporally coordinated program of phage gene expression, with distinct early, middle and late transcriptional classes. Our study confirmed known host-phage interactions of induction of the heat shock regulon, escape replication, and suppression of genes involved in cell division and initiation of replication. We identified 728 E. coli genes responsive to prophage induction, which included pleiotropic stress response pathways, the Arc and Cpx regulons, and global regulators crp and lrp. Several hundred genes involved in central metabolism, energy metabolism, translation and transport were down-regulated late in induction. Though statistically significant, most of the changes in these genes were mild, with only 140 genes showing greater than two-fold change. Conclusion Overall, we observe that prophage induction has a surprisingly low impact on host physiology. This study provides the first global dynamic picture of how host processes respond to lambda phage induction.

  16. ATM promotes apoptosis and suppresses tumorigenesis in response to Myc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusapati, Raju V.; Rounbehler, Robert J.; Hong, Sungki; Powers, John T.; Yan, Mingshan; Kiguchi, Kaoru; McArthur, Mark J.; Wong, Paul K.; Johnson, David G.

    2006-01-01

    Overexpression of the c-myc oncogene contributes to the development of a significant number of human cancers. In response to deregulated Myc activity, the p53 tumor suppressor is activated to promote apoptosis and inhibit tumor formation. Here we demonstrate that p53 induction in response to Myc overexpression requires the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase, a major regulator of the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks. In a transgenic mouse model overexpressing Myc in squamous epithelial tissues, inactivation of Atm suppresses apoptosis and accelerates tumorigenesis. Deregulated Myc expression induces DNA damage in primary transgenic keratinocytes and the formation of H2AX and phospho-SMC1 foci in transgenic tissue. These findings suggest that Myc overexpression causes DNA damage in vivo and that the ATM-dependent response to this damage is critical for p53 activation, apoptosis, and the suppression of tumor development. p53 | DNA damage

  17. Compton suppression gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberger, S.; Iskander, F.Y.; Niset, M.; Heydorn, K.

    2002-01-01

    In the past decade there have been many studies to use Compton suppression methods in routine neutron activation analysis as well as in the traditional role of low level gamma ray counting of environmental samples. On a separate path there have been many new PC based software packages that have been developed to enhance photopeak fitting. Although the newer PC based algorithms have had significant improvements, they still suffer from being effectively used in weak gamma ray lines in natural samples or in neutron activated samples that have very high Compton backgrounds. We have completed a series of experiments to show the usefulness of Compton suppression. As well we have shown the pitfalls when using Compton suppression methods for high counting deadtimes as in the case of neutron activated samples. We have also investigated if counting statistics are the same both suppressed and normal modes. Results are presented in four separate experiments. (author)

  18. Thyroid suppression test with dextrothyroxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, D.; Fridman, J.; Ribeiro, H.B.

    1978-01-01

    The classic thyroid suppression test with triiodothyronine (l-T 3 ) has been shown to be efficient as an auxiliary method in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases, but should not be performed on elderly patients or on those with heart disease or a tendency to tachycardia. Since these subjects seem able to support a short period of dextro-thyronine (d-T 4 ) feeding, we compared the effect of d-T 4 and l-T 3 on the 24 hours thyroid uptake in euthyroid and hyperthyroid subjects. After basal radio-iodine uptake determination, 99 patients without hyperthyroidism and 27 with Graves' disease were randomly divided in 2 groups; one received 100μg of l-T 3 per day and the other 4 mg of d-T 4 per day, both groups being treated for a period of 10 days. At the end of this suppression period the 24 hours radio-iodine uptake was measured again and the percentual suppression index (S.I.) calculated. Since the comparison of the two groups showed no difference between the suppressive effect of l-T 3 and d-T 4 in euthyroid subjects, while dextro-thyronine, as levo-triiodothyronine, did not suppress the 24 hours uptake of hyperthyroid patients, l-T 3 or d-T 4 can be used interchangeably to test thyroid suppressibility. In the euthyroid subjects the normal range for the post-suppression uptake was 0-17.1% and for the suppression index 54,7.100% [pt

  19. In vivo Treg suppression assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Creg J; Collison, Lauren W; Bettini, Maria; Pillai, Meenu R; Rehg, Jerold E; Vignali, Dario A A

    2011-01-01

    To fully examine the functionality of a regulatory T cell (T(reg)) population, one needs to assess their ability to suppress in a variety of in vivo models. We describe five in vivo models that examine the suppressive capacity of T(regs) upon different target cell types. The advantages and disadvantages of each model including resources, time, and technical expertise required to execute each model are also described.

  20. In Vivo Treg Suppression Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Workman, Creg J.; Collison, Lauren W.; Bettini, Maria; Pillai, Meenu R.; Rehg, Jerold E.; Vignali, Dario A.A.

    2011-01-01

    To fully examine the functionality of a regulatory T cell (Treg) population, one needs to assess their ability to suppress in a variety of in vivo models. We describe five in vivo models that examine the suppressive capacity of Tregs upon different target cell types. The advantages and disadvantages of each model includ ing resources, time, and technical expertise required to execute each model are also described.

  1. Hypnosis for induction of labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Daisuke; Shirakawa, Miyako N; Ota, Erika; Hanada, Nobutsugu; Mori, Rintaro

    2014-08-14

    Induction of labour using pharmacological and mechanical methods can increase complications. Complementary and alternative medicine methods including hypnosis may have the potential to provide a safe alternative option for the induction of labour. However, the effectiveness of hypnosis for inducing labour has not yet been fully evaluated. To assess the effect of hypnosis for induction of labour compared with no intervention or any other interventions. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 January 2014), handsearched relevant conference proceedings, contacted key personnel and organisations in the field for published and unpublished references. All published and unpublished randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs of acceptable quality comparing hypnosis with no intervention or any other interventions, in which the primary outcome is to assess whether labour was induced. Two review authors assessed the one trial report that was identified (but was subsequently excluded). No RCTs or cluster-RCTs were identified from the search strategy. There was no evidence available from RCTs to assess the effect of hypnosis for induction of labour. Evidence from RCTs is required to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of this intervention for labour induction. As hypnosis may delay standard care (in case standard care is withheld during hypnosis), its use in induction of labour should be considered on a case-by-case basis.Future RCTs are required to examine the effectiveness and safety of hypnotic relaxation for induction of labour among pregnant women who have anxiety above a certain level. The length and timing of the intervention, as well as the staff training required, should be taken into consideration. Moreover, the views and experiences of women and staff should also be included in future RCTs.

  2. Components of Streptococcus pneumoniae suppress allergic airways disease and NKT cells by inducing regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorburn, Alison N; Foster, Paul S; Gibson, Peter G; Hansbro, Philip M

    2012-05-01

    Asthma is an allergic airways disease (AAD) caused by dysregulated immune responses and characterized by eosinophilic inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). NKT cells have been shown to contribute to AHR in some mouse models. Conversely, regulatory T cells (Tregs) control aberrant immune responses and maintain homeostasis. Recent evidence suggests that Streptococcus pneumoniae induces Tregs that have potential to be harnessed therapeutically for asthma. In this study, mouse models of AAD were used to identify the S. pneumoniae components that have suppressive properties, and the mechanisms underlying suppression were investigated. We tested the suppressive capacity of type-3-polysaccharide (T3P), isolated cell walls, pneumolysoid (Ply) and CpG. When coadministered, T3P + Ply suppressed the development of: eosinophilic inflammation, Th2 cytokine release, mucus hypersecretion, and AHR. Importantly, T3P + Ply also attenuated features of AAD when administered during established disease. We show that NKT cells contributed to the development of AAD and also were suppressed by T3P + Ply treatment. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of NKT cells induced AHR, which also could be reversed by T3P + Ply. T3P + Ply-induced Tregs were essential for the suppression of NKT cells and AAD, which was demonstrated by Treg depletion. Collectively, our results show that the S. pneumoniae components T3P + Ply suppress AAD through the induction of Tregs that blocked the activity of NKT cells. These data suggest that S. pneumoniae components may have potential as a therapeutic strategy for the suppression of allergic asthma through the induction of Tregs and suppression of NKT cells.

  3. Burst Suppression for ICP Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiler, Frederick A; Akoth, Eva; Gillman, Lawrence M; West, Michael

    2017-02-01

    The goal of our study was to perform a systematic review of the literature to determine the effect that burst suppression has on intracranial pressure (ICP) control. All articles from MEDLINE, BIOSIS, EMBASE, Global Health, Scopus, Cochrane Library, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (inception to January 2015), reference lists of relevant articles, and gray literature were searched. The strength of evidence was adjudicated using both the Oxford and the Grading of Recommendation Assessment Development and Education (GRADE) methodology. Seven articles were considered for review. A total of 108 patients were studied, all receiving burst suppression therapy. Two studies failed to document a decrease in ICP with burst suppression therapy. There were reports of severe hypotension and increased infection rates with barbiturate-based therapy. Etomidate-based suppressive therapy was linked to severe renal dysfunction. There currently exists both Oxford level 2b and GRADE C evidence to support that achieving burst suppression reduces ICP, and also has no effect on ICP, in severe traumatic brain injury. The literature suggests burst suppression therapy may be useful for ICP reduction in certain cases, although these situations are currently unclear. In addition, the impact on patient functional outcome is unclear. Further prospective study is warranted.

  4. Estimation of physical parameters in induction motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, H.; Knudsen, Morten; Rasmussen, Henrik

    1994-01-01

    Parameter estimation in induction motors is a field of great interest, because accurate models are needed for robust dynamic control of induction motors......Parameter estimation in induction motors is a field of great interest, because accurate models are needed for robust dynamic control of induction motors...

  5. 14 CFR 27.1091 - Air induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 27.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine must supply the air required by that engine under the operating conditions... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction. 27.1091 Section 27.1091...

  6. Suppressed Charmed B Decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoek, Hella Leonie [Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-06-02

    This thesis describes the measurement of the branching fractions of the suppressed charmed B0 → D*- a0+ decays and the non-resonant B0 → D*- ηπ+ decays in approximately 230 million Υ(4S) → B$\\bar{B}$ events. The data have been collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in California. Theoretical predictions of the branching fraction of the B0 → D*- a{sub 0}+ decays show large QCD model dependent uncertainties. Non-factorizing terms, in the naive factorization model, that can be calculated by QCD factorizing models have a large impact on the branching fraction of these decay modes. The predictions of the branching fractions are of the order of 10-6. The measurement of the branching fraction gives more insight into the theoretical models. In general a better understanding of QCD models will be necessary to conduct weak interaction physics at the next level. The presence of CP violation in electroweak interactions allows the differentiation between matter and antimatter in the laws of physics. In the Standard Model, CP violation is incorporated in the CKM matrix that describes the weak interaction between quarks. Relations amongst the CKM matrix elements are used to present the two relevant parameters as the apex of a triangle (Unitarity Triangle) in a complex plane. The over-constraining of the CKM triangle by experimental measurements is an important test of the Standard Model. At this moment no stringent direct measurements of the CKM angle γ, one of the interior angles of the Unitarity Triangle, are available. The measurement of the angle γ can be performed using the decays of neutral B mesons. The B0 → D*- a0+ decay is sensitive to the angle γ and, in comparison to the current decays that are being employed, could significantly

  7. Blue and near ultraviolet reversible photoreaction in the induction of fungal conidiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, T.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of blue light and near UV light on the induction of conidiation in the fungus, Alternaria tomato, were investigated. Induction of conidiation was repeatedly controlled by alternating doses of near UV light and blue light. When the final light was near UV, conidiation was induced and conidia developed in the following darkness; when it was blue, the induction of conidiation was suppressed. When conidiation was induced by irradiation with a light mixed with near UV and blue, not only the time lag for inducing conidiation but also the amount of conidia formed were regulated by the fluence rates of both those lights. Thus, 'mycochrome' is considered to function as a photoreceptor system in the induction of conidiation of this fungus. (author)

  8. Induction interview form in EDH

    CERN Multimedia

    Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group

    2007-01-01

    As part of the efforts to rationalise administrative procedures, the IT and HR Departments have developed a new EDH form for induction interviews, which can be accessed using the link below. In accordance with Administrative Circular No. 2 ('Recruitment, Appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of Staff Members', Rev. 3), the work and training objectives to be achieved during the probation period shall be specified in writing to all new staff members during an induction interview. The interview shall take place between the new staff member and his supervisor within six weeks of his taking up his duties at the latest. https://edh.cern.ch/Document/MAPS/Induction1) (or from the EDH desktop, by clicking on 'Other Tasks' and going to the 'HR & Training' heading) Please note that this form is to be used exclusively for new staff members. A separate EDH form will be developed for fellows.Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group Human Re...

  9. Induction interview form in EDH

    CERN Multimedia

    Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group,

    2007-01-01

    As part of the efforts to rationalise administrative procedures, the IT and HR Departments have developed a new EDH form for induction interviews, which can be accessed using the link below. In accordance with Administrative Circular No. 2 ('Recruitment, Appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of Staff Members', Rev. 3), the work and training objectives to be achieved during the probation period shall be specified in writing to all new staff members during an induction interview. The interview shall take place between the new staff member and his supervisor within six weeks of him taking up his duties at the latest. https://edh.cern.ch/Document/MAPS/Induction (or from the EDH desktop, by clicking on 'Other Tasks' and going to the 'HR & Training' heading) Please note that this form is to be used exclusively for new staff members. A separate EDH form will be developed for fellows. Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group Human...

  10. Induction brazing of complex joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul; Zhang, Wenqi; Bay, Niels

    2003-01-01

    Induction brazing is a fast and appropriate method for industrial joining of complex geometries and metal combinations. In all types of brazing processes it is important to heat the joint interface of the two materials to the same, high temperature. If one of the specimens is warmer than the other...... materials has large influence on the heating time and temperature distribution in induction heating. In order to ensure high and uniform temperature distribution near the interface of a joint between dissimilar materials the precise coil geometry and position is of great importance. The present paper...... presents a combined numerical and experimental method for fast determination of appropriate coil geometry and position in induction brazing tube-to-plate joints of different ratios between tube and plate thickness and different combinations of the materials stainless steel, brass and copper. The method has...

  11. Road infrastructure and demand induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Hovgesen, Henrik Harder; Lahrmann, Harry

    2006-01-01

    a long screenline is used to measure the development in aggregate demand in selected corridors. The paper analyses demand induction by establishing time series of aggregate demand that is compared with the national traffic index. Significant trend breaks in the association between aggregate demand...... in the corridors and the national index, following the opening of motorways or bridges, indicates demand induction by infrastructure expansion in a number of instances. Lack of significant trend breaks following opening year is found in peripheral areas where major population centres are missing. This indicates...... the necessity of some latent demand within suitable travel range for new infrastructure elements to produce significant amounts of induced demand. Estimates of demand induction as a percentage of the realised demand five years after opening are between 10% and 67% for new motorway sections depending...

  12. Induction and deduction in morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dullemeijer, P

    1987-01-01

    Professor de Wilde's scientific contributions can be divided into two separate areas based on the applied methods: induction and deduction. The first method is used in the investigation of the finger ridge pattern and the second in that of the branching of bloodvessels. It is shown that with induction alternative classifications and explanations remain always possible and that the ultimate choice of the classification depends on supposed biological meanings or practical applicability. In the case of the finger ridge patterns the latter criterion is decisive. With the deductive method a sufficient logical explanation within the boundary conditions can be reached. Alternatives can be presented if the boundary conditions are changed or the functional parameters have to be chosen differently, which is necessary when direct observation (induction) "shows" that other functions are involved. A number of advantages and problematic points in both methods are analysed and their relationship and function in morphology are demonstrated in the mentioned research topics.

  13. Technological inductive power transfer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzharov, Nikolay D.; Nemkov, Valentin S.

    2017-05-01

    Inductive power transfer is a very fast expanding technology with multiple design principles and practical implementations ranging from charging phones and computers to bionic systems, car chargers and continuous power transfer in technological lines. Only a group of devices working in near magnetic field is considered. This article is devoted to overview of different inductive power transfer (IPT) devices. The review of literature in this area showed that industrial IPT are not much discussed and examined. The authors have experience in design and implementation of several types of IPTs belonging to wireless automotive chargers and to industrial application group. Main attention in the article is paid to principles and design of technological IPTs

  14. A relevance theory of induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medin, Douglas L; Coley, John D; Storms, Gert; Hayes, Brett K

    2003-09-01

    A framework theory, organized around the principle of relevance, is proposed for category-based reasoning. According to the relevance principle, people assume that premises are informative with respect to conclusions. This idea leads to the prediction that people will use causal scenarios and property reinforcement strategies in inductive reasoning. These predictions are contrasted with both existing models and normative logic. Judgments of argument strength were gathered in three different countries, and the results showed the importance of both causal scenarios and property reinforcement in category-based inferences. The relation between the relevance framework and existing models of category-based inductive reasoning is discussed in the light of these findings.

  15. Induction linacs and pulsed power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caporaso, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    Progress in electronic power conversion technology is making possible a new class of induction linacs that can operate at extremely high repetition rates. Advances in insulator technology, pulse forming line design and switching may also lead to a new type of high current accelerator with accelerating gradients at least an order of magnitude greater than those attainable today. The evolution of the induction accelerator pulsed power system will be discussed along with some details of these emerging technologies which are at the frontiers of accelerator technology

  16. Development of induction current acquisition device based on ARM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yanju; Liu, Xiyang; Huang, Wanyu; Yao, Jiang; Yuan, Guiyang; Hui, Luan; Guan, Shanshan

    2018-03-01

    We design an induction current acquisition device based on ARM in order to realize high resolution and high sampling rate of acquisition for the induction current in wire-loop. Considering its characteristics of fast attenuation and small signal amplitude, we use the method of multi-path fusion for noise suppression. In the paper, the design is carried out from three aspects of analog circuit and device selection, independent power supply structure and the electromagnetic interference suppression of high frequency. DMA and ping-pong buffer, as a new data transmission technology, solves real time storage problem of massive data. The performance parameters of ARM acquisition device are tested. The comparison test of ARM acquisition device and cRIO acquisition device is performed at different time constants. The results show that it has 120dB dynamic range, 47kHz bandwidth, 96kHz sampling rate, 5μV the smallest resolution, and its average error value is not more than 4%, which proves the high accuracy and stability of the device.

  17. Beyond viral suppression of HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V.; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Barton, Simon E

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) adopted a new Global Health Sector Strategy on HIV for 2016-2021. It establishes 15 ambitious targets, including the '90-90-90' target calling on health systems to reduce under-diagnosis of HIV, treat a greater number of those diagnosed......, and ensure that those being treated achieve viral suppression. DISCUSSION: The WHO strategy calls for person-centered chronic care for people living with HIV (PLHIV), implicitly acknowledging that viral suppression is not the ultimate goal of treatment. However, it stops short of providing an explicit target...... for health-related quality of life. It thus fails to take into account the needs of PLHIV who have achieved viral suppression but still must contend with other intense challenges such as serious non-communicable diseases, depression, anxiety, financial stress, and experiences of or apprehension about HIV...

  18. Resonance suppression from color reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acconcia, R.; Chinellato, D. D.; de Souza, R. Derradi; Takahashi, J.; Torrieri, G.; Markert, C.

    2018-02-01

    We present studies that show how multi-parton interaction and color reconnection affect the hadro-chemistry in proton-proton (pp) collisions with special focus on the production of resonances using the pythia8 event generator. We find that color reconnection suppresses the relative production of meson resonances such as ρ0 and K* , providing an alternative explanation for the K*/K decrease observed in proton-proton collisions as a function of multiplicity by the ALICE collaboration. Detailed studies of the underlying mechanism causing meson resonance suppression indicate that color reconnection leads to shorter, less energetic strings whose fragmentation is less likely to produce more massive hadrons for a given quark content, therefore reducing ratios such as K*/K and ρ0/π in high-multiplicity pp collisions. In addition, we have also studied the effects of allowing string junctions to form and found that these may also contribute to resonance suppression.

  19. Phonotactics in inductive logic programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nerbonne, J.; Konstantopoulos, S.; Klopotek, M.A.; Wierzchon, S.T.; Trojanowski, K.

    2004-01-01

    We examine the results of applying inductive logic programming (ILP) to a relatively simple linguistic task, that of recognizing monosyllables in one language. ILP is suited to linguistic problems given linguists' preference for formulating their theories in discrete rules, and because of ILP's

  20. Inductively coupled helium plasma torch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaser, Akbar; Chan, Shi-Kit; Van Hoven, Raymond L.

    1989-01-01

    An inductively coupled plasma torch including a base member, a plasma tube and a threaded insert member within the plasma tube for directing the plasma gas in a tangential flow pattern. The design of the torch eliminates the need for a separate coolant gas tube. The torch can be readily assembled and disassembled with a high degree of alignment accuracy.

  1. Teaching Inductive Reasoning with Puzzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanko, Jeffrey J.

    2017-01-01

    Working with language-independent logic structures can help students develop both inductive and deductive reasoning skills. The Japanese publisher Nikoli (with resources available both in print and online) produces a treasure trove of language-independent logic puzzles. The Nikoli print resources are mostly in Japanese, creating the extra…

  2. Mathematical Induction: Deductive Logic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Hamide

    2016-01-01

    Many studies mentioned the deductive nature of Mathematical Induction (MI) proofs but almost all fell short in explaining its potential role in the formation of the misconceptions reported in the literature. This paper is the first of its kind looking at the misconceptions from the perspective of the abstract of the deductive logic from one's…

  3. Induction of formaldehyde contact sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Boman, A; Vølund, A

    1985-01-01

    , and formaldehyde 1% and 0.1% was used for challenge. The incidence of contact sensitivity depended on the intradermal, but not on the topical induction dose. Statistical analyses showed a non-monotonous (non-linear) dose response relationship. The estimated maximal sensitization rate in Copenhagen was 80% after...

  4. High average power induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swingle, J.C.

    1985-10-01

    The induction accelerator is discussed with respect to general background and concept, beam transport, scaling, pulse power technology, and the electron beam injector. A discussion of the factors which affect the scaling of the intensity of the beam is given. Limiting factors include collective forces in the beam, virtual cathode formation, surroundings, and beam breakup instability. 24 refs., 11 figs

  5. Teaching to suppress Polglish processes

    OpenAIRE

    Dziubalska-Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Balas, Anna; Schwartz, Geoffrey; Rojczyk, Arkadiusz; Wrembel, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Advanced second language (henceforth L2) learners in a formal setting can suppress many first language (henceforth L1) processes in L2 pronunciation when provided with sufficient exposure to L2 and meta competence (see Sect. 4 for a definition of this term). This paper shows how imitation in L2 teaching can be enhanced on the basis of current phonetic research and how complex allophonic processes such as nasal vocalization and glottal stop insertion can be suppressed using “repair”—a method o...

  6. Conditioned suppression, punishment, and aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme-Johnson, D. W.; Yarczower, M.

    1974-01-01

    The aversive action of visual stimuli was studied in two groups of pigeons which received response-contingent or noncontingent electric shocks in cages with translucent response keys. Presentation of grain for 3 sec, contingent on key pecking, was the visual stimulus associated with conditioned punishment or suppression. The responses of the pigeons in three different experiments are compared.

  7. Plasma suppression of beamstrahlung: Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittum, D.H.; Sessler, A.M.; Stewart, J.J.; Yu, S.S.

    1988-06-01

    We investigate the use of a plasma at the interaction point of two colliding beams to suppress beamstrahlung and related phenomena. We derive conditions for good current cancellation via plasma return currents and report on numerical simulations conducted to confirm our analytic results. 17 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  8. Silymarin Suppresses Cellular Inflammation By Inducing Reparative Stress Signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovelace, Erica S.; Wagoner, Jessica; MacDonald, James; Bammler, Theo; Bruckner, Jacob; Brownell, Jessica; Beyer, Richard; Zink, Erika M.; Kim, Young-Mo; Kyle, Jennifer E.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Waters, Katrina M.; Metz, Thomas O.; Farin, Federico; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Polyak, Steve

    2015-08-28

    Silymarin (SM), a natural product, is touted as a liver protectant and preventer of both chronic inflammation and diseases. To define how SM elicits these effects at a systems level, we performed transcriptional profiling, metabolomics, and signaling studies in human liver and T cell lines. Multiple pathways associated with cellular stress and metabolism were modulated by SM treatment within 0.5 to four hours: activation of Activating Transcription Factor 4 (ATF-4) and adenosine monophosphate protein kinase (AMPK) and inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, the latter being associated with induction of DNA-damage-inducible transcript 4 (DDIT4). Metabolomics analyses revealed suppression of glycolytic, TCA cycle, and amino acid metabolism by SM treatment. Antiinflammatory effects arose with prolonged (i.e. 24 hours) SM exposure, with suppression of multiple proinflammatory mRNAs and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and forkhead box O (FOXO) signaling. Studies with murine knock out cells revealed that SM inhibition of both mTOR and NF-κB was partially AMPK dependent, while SM inhibition of the mTOR pathway in part required DDIT4. Thus, SM activates stress and repair responses that culminate in an anti-inflammatory phenotype. Other natural products induced similar stress responses, which correlated with their ability to suppress inflammation. Therefore, natural products like SM may be useful as tools to define how metabolic, stress, and repair pathways regulate cellular inflammation.

  9. Induction Processed Separable Tubular Brazed Connectors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hunt, V

    1966-01-01

    .... The induction process was selected for brazing the separable tube connectors. Special plier-type induction brazing tools were made to permit the brazing of M-1 thrust chamber transition tube joints to the fuel torus. An 82% gold-18...

  10. What makes a good induction supporter?

    OpenAIRE

    Rippon, J.H.; Martin, M.

    2006-01-01

    The Teacher Induction Scheme, introduced in 2002, marked the first major change to new teacher induction in Scotland in 37 years. This paper gives an outline of these changes set against developments in mentoring theory in the wider context. It argues that the personal qualities of the induction supporter are crucial to developing an effective mentoring relationship. The views of student teachers are used to describe preferred characteristics of effective mentors and effective induction provi...

  11. Development of induction cells at CAEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huacen; Zhang Kaizhi; Cheng Nian'an; Zhang Wenwei; Lai Qinggui; Wen Long; Zhang Linwen; Deng Jianjun; Ding Bonan

    2002-01-01

    The effects to develop induction cells for induction linac and radiography at CAEP are introduced and reviewed in this paper. During the past two decades, several kinds of cells have been designed and tested, and some of them have been used for construction of induction linac, such as Dragon-1 and 12 MeV, and a Synthetic Test Stand (STS) for comprehensive linac technology study. The structure, test results and performance in the induction linac of these cells are given

  12. The induction on a continuous variable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingzhong.

    1989-06-01

    Mathematical induction is a useful tool. But it could be used to prove only the proposition with form P(n) for the natural number n. Could the natural number n be replaced by a continuous variable x? Yes, and then we have the continuous induction. The continuous induction is very easy to grasp by the students who have learned mathematical induction. And it can be used to prove many basic propositions in the elementary calculus. (author)

  13. Induction Motors by Electric Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej M. Trzynadlowski

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an overview of the issues and means of detection of mechanical abnormalities in induction motors by electric measurements. If undetected and untreated, the worn or damaged bearings, rotor imbalance and eccentricity, broken bars of the rotor cage, and torsional and lateral vibration lead to roughly a half of all failures of induction motor drives. The detection of abnormalities is based on the fact that they cause periodic disturbance of motor variables, such as the speed, torque, current, and magnetic flux. Thus, spectral analysis of those or related quantities may yield a warning about an incipient failure of the drive system. Although the traditional non-invasive diagnostics has mostly been based on the signature analysis of the stator current, other media can also be employed. In particular, the partial instantaneous input power is shown, theoretically and experimentally, to offer distinct advantages under noisy operating conditions. Use of torque and flux estimates is also discussed.

  14. Online Monitoring of Induction Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McJunkin, Timothy R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Agarwal, Vivek [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lybeck, Nancy Jean [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The online monitoring of active components project, under the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Technologies Pathway of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program, researched diagnostic and prognostic models for alternating current induction motors (IM). Idaho National Laboratory (INL) worked with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to augment and revise the fault signatures previously implemented in the Asset Fault Signature Database of EPRI’s Fleet Wide Prognostic and Health Management (FW PHM) Suite software. Induction Motor diagnostic models were researched using the experimental data collected by Idaho State University. Prognostic models were explored in the set of literature and through a limited experiment with 40HP to seek the Remaining Useful Life Database of the FW PHM Suite.

  15. Non-carbon induction furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, C.E.; Masters, D.R.; Pfeiler, W.A.

    1984-01-06

    The present invention is directed to an induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of non-carbon materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloys. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an rf induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650/sup 0/C for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials.

  16. Induction studies with satellite data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils

    1999-01-01

    The natural variations of the Earth's magnetic field of periods spanning from milliseconds to decades can be used to infer the conductivity-depth profile of the Earth's interior. Satellites provide a good spatial coverage of magnetic measurements, and forthcoming missions will probably allow....... This paper reviews and discusses the possibilities for induction studies using high-precision magnetic measurements from low-altitude satellites. The different methods and various transfer functions are presented, with special emphasis on the differences in analysing data from ground stations and from...... satellites. The results of several induction studies with scalar satellite data (from the POGO satellites) and with vector data (from the Magsat mission) demonstrate the ability to probe the Earth's conductivity from space. However, compared to the results obtained with ground data the satellite results...

  17. 14 CFR 25.1091 - Air induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply— (1) The air required by that engine... matter during takeoff, landing, and taxiing. (e) If the engine induction system contains parts or... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction. 25.1091 Section 25.1091...

  18. 14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply the air required by that engine and... distribution with the induction system valves in any position. (c) No air intake may open within the engine... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section 29.1091...

  19. Segmented rail linear induction motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Jr., Maynard; Marder, Barry M.

    1996-01-01

    A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces.

  20. Segmented rail linear induction motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, M. Jr.; Marder, B.M.

    1996-09-03

    A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces. 6 figs.

  1. Blackout cloth for dormancy induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Jopson

    2007-01-01

    The use of blackout cloth to create long night photoperiods for the induction of dormancy in certain conifer species has been an established practice for a long time. Its use was suggested by Tinus and McDonald (1979) as an effective technique, and the practice has been commonly used in Canadian forest nurseries for a number of years. Cal-Forest Nursery installed its...

  2. Inductive, Analogical, and Communicative Generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adri Smaling

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Three forms of inductive generalization - statistical generalization, variation-based generalization and theory-carried generalization - are insufficient concerning case-to-case generalization, which is a form of analogical generalization. The quality of case-to-case generalization needs to be reinforced by setting up explicit analogical argumentation. To evaluate analogical argumentation six criteria are discussed. Good analogical reasoning is an indispensable support to forms of communicative generalization - receptive and responsive (participative generalization — as well as exemplary generalization.

  3. Induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serment G, J.; Brena V, M.

    2000-01-01

    At the incidence on biological systems, the ionizing radiation can affect so much its structural components as the genetic material since in a direct form or by the free radicals produced mainly the water radiolysis via (indirect effect). The alpha particles produce a great quantity of leisures in sites very near of them, by consequence results in a major RDB frequency. For establish the influence that would be the leisures concentration (specifically RDB) it was decided to research what occur when is irradiated with high LET corpuscular radiation and major power of ionization using for this alpha particles of an Americium 241 source and Escherichia coli stubs with different defects in reparation genes, recombination and protection to the radiation damage. (Author)

  4. Mechanisms and ecological consequences of plant defence induction and suppression in herbivore communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kant, M.R.; Jonckheere, W.; Knegt, B.; Lemos, F.; Liu, J.; Schimmel, B.C.J.; Villarroel, C.A.; Ataide, L.M.S.; Dermauw, W.; Glas, J.J.; Egas, M.; Janssen, A.; Van Leeuwen, T.; Schuurink, R.C.; Sabelis, M.W.; Alba, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plants are hotbeds for parasites such as arthropod herbivores, which acquire nutrients and energy from their hosts in order to grow and reproduce. Hence plants are selected to evolve resistance, which in turn selects for herbivores that can cope with this resistance. To preserve their

  5. Combined pharmacological induction of Hsp70 suppresses prion protein neurotoxicity in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are rare and aggressive neurodegenerative disorders caused by the accumulation of misfolded, toxic conformations of the prion protein (PrP. Therapeutic strategies directed at reducing the levels of PrP offer the best chance of delaying or halting disease progression. The challenge, though, is to define pharmacologic targets that result in reduced PrP levels. We previously reported that expression of wild type hamster PrP in flies induces progressive locomotor dysfunction and accumulation of pathogenic PrP conformations, while co-expression of human Hsp70 delayed these changes. To validate the therapeutic potential of Hsp70, we treated flies with drugs known to induce Hsp70 expression, including the Hsp90 inhibitor 17-DMAG and the glucocorticoid dexamethasone. Although the individual treatment with these compounds produced no significant benefits, their combination significantly increased the level of inducible Hsp70, decreased the level of total PrP, reduced the accumulation of pathogenic PrP conformers, and improved locomotor activity. Thus, the combined action of two pharmacological activators of Hsp70 with distinct targets results in sustained high levels of inducible Hsp70 with improved behavioral output. These findings can have important therapeutic applications for the devastating prion diseases and other related proteinopathies.

  6. Induction and suppression of tick cell antiviral RNAi responses by tick-borne flaviviruses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schnettler, E.; Tykalová, Hana; Watson, M.; Sharma, M.; Sterken, M.G.; Obbard, D.J.; Lewis, S.H.; McFarlane, M.; Bell-Sakyi, L.; Barry, G.; Weisheit, S.; Best, S.M.; Kuhn, R.J.; Pijlman, G.P.; Chase-Topping, M.E.; Gould, E. A.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Fazakerley, J.K.; Kohl, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 14 (2014), s. 9436-9446 ISSN 0305-1048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP302/12/2490 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Forest-virus replicon * interferon antagonist * immunity * replication * Drosophila * identification * mosquitos Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 9.112, year: 2014

  7. Topically applied standardized aqueous extract of Curcuma longa Linn. suppresses endotoxin-induced uveal inflammation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Renu; Gupta, S K; Agarwal, Puneet; Srivastava, Sushma

    2013-10-01

    Aqueous extract of C. longa when administered 4 h after induction of E. coli lipopolysaccharide-induced uveitis in rats showed significantly suppressed inflammation with a significantly lower mean clinical grade, histopathological grade and aqueous humor (AH) protein level compared to vehicle treated group. Although, prednisolone group showed significantly lower clinical grade, histopathological grades and AH protein levels compared to C. longa group, TNF-alpha levels did not differ significantly. Moreover, when the aqueous extract was administered starting from 3 days before induction of uveitis, the mean clinical and histopathological grade as well as AH protein and TNF-alpha levels were comparable to C. longa group when treatment was administered 4 h after induction of uveitis. It is concluded that topically applied standardized aqueous extract of C. longa suppresses endotoxin-induced uveitis in rats by reducing TNF-alpha activity.

  8. Voltage harmonic variation in three-phase induction motors with different coil pitches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshmukh, Ram; Moses, Anthony John; Anayi, Fatih

    2006-01-01

    A pulse-width modulation (PWM) inverter feeding four different chorded three-phase induction motors was tested for low-order odd harmonic voltage component and efficiency at different loads. Total harmonic distortion (THD) due to 3rd, 5th and 9th harmonics was less in a motor with 160 o coil pitch. Particular harmonic order for each coil pitch was suppressed and the efficiency of a 120 o coil pitch motor was increased by 7.5%

  9. Citrus nobiletin suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression in interleukin-1β-treated hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshigai, Emi [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization (R-GIRO), Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Machida, Toru [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Okuyama, Tetsuya [Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization (R-GIRO), Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Mori, Masatoshi; Murase, Hiromitsu; Yamanishi, Ryota [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Okumura, Tadayoshi [Research Organization of Science and Technology, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Department of Surgery, Kansai Medical University, Hirakata, Osaka (Japan); Ikeya, Yukinobu [Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Nishino, Hoyoku [Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization (R-GIRO), Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Department of Biochemistry, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Nishizawa, Mikio, E-mail: nishizaw@sk.ritsumei.ac.jp [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan)

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •Nobiletin is a polymethoxylated flavone that is abundant in citrus peels. •Nobiletin is a major constituent of the Citrus unshiu peel extract. •Nobiletin suppresses induction of NO and reduces iNOS expression in hepatocytes. •Nobiletin reduces the iNOS promoter activity and the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB. -- Abstract: Background: Nobiletin is a polymethoxylated flavone that is abundant in the peels of citrus fruits, such as Citrus unshiu (Satsuma mandarin) and Citrus sinensis. The dried peels of C. unshiu (chinpi) have been included in several formulae of Japanese Kampo medicines. Nobiletin may suppress the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which synthesizes the inflammatory mediator nitric oxide (NO) in hepatocytes. Methods: A C. unshiu peel (CUP) extract was prepared. Primary cultured rat hepatocytes were treated with the CUP extract or nobiletin in the presence of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), which induces iNOS expression. NO production and iNOS gene expression were analyzed. Results: High-performance liquid chromatography analyses revealed that the nobiletin content in the CUP extract was 0.14%. Nobiletin dose-dependently reduced the NO levels and decreased iNOS expression at the protein, mRNA and antisense transcript levels. Flavone, which does not contain any methoxy groups, also suppressed iNOS induction. Nobiletin reduced the transcriptional activity of iNOS promoter-luciferase constructs and the DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) in the nuclei. Conclusions: The suppression of iNOS induction by nobiletin suggests that nobiletin may be responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of citrus peels and have a therapeutic potential for liver diseases.

  10. Strangeness Suppression and Color Deconfinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satz, Helmut

    2018-02-01

    The relative multiplicities for hadron production in different high energy collisions are in general well described by an ideal gas of all hadronic resonances, except that under certain conditions, strange particle rates are systematically reduced. We show that the suppression factor γs, accounting for reduced strange particle rates in pp, pA and AA collisions at different collision energies, becomes a universal function when expressed in terms of the initial entropy density s0 or the initial temperature T of the produced thermal medium. It is found that γs increases from about 0.5 to 1.0 in a narrow temperature range around the quark-hadron transition temperature Tc ≃ 160 MeV. Strangeness suppression thus disappears with the onset of color deconfinement; subsequently, full equilibrium resonance gas behavior is attained.

  11. Suppression of stratified explosive interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, M.K.; Shamoun, B.I.; Bonazza, R.; Corradini, M.L. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics

    1998-01-01

    Stratified Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI) experiments with Refrigerant-134a and water were performed in a large-scale system. Air was uniformly injected into the coolant pool to establish a pre-existing void which could suppress the explosion. Two competing effects due to the variation of the air flow rate seem to influence the intensity of the explosion in this geometrical configuration. At low flow rates, although the injected air increases the void fraction, the concurrent agitation and mixing increases the intensity of the interaction. At higher flow rates, the increase in void fraction tends to attenuate the propagated pressure wave generated by the explosion. Experimental results show a complete suppression of the vapor explosion at high rates of air injection, corresponding to an average void fraction of larger than 30%. (author)

  12. Suppressing Quantum Fluctuations in Classicalization

    CERN Document Server

    Vikman, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We study vacuum quantum fluctuations of simple Nambu-Goldstone bosons - derivatively coupled single scalar-field theories possessing shift-symmetry in field space. We argue that quantum fluctuations of the interacting field can be drastically suppressed with respect to the free-field case. Moreover, the power-spectrum of these fluctuations can soften to become red for sufficiently small scales. In quasiclassical approximation, we demonstrate that this suppression can only occur for those theories that admit such classical static backgrounds around which small perturbations propagate faster than light. Thus a quasiclassical softening of quantum fluctuations is only possible for theories which classicalize instead of having a usual Lorentz invariant and local Wilsonian UV- completion. We illustrate our analysis by estimating the quantum fluctuations for the DBI-like theories.

  13. Efficacy of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Suppression of Hepatocarcinorigenesis in Rats: Possible Role of Wnt Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabry Dina

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study was conducted to evaluate the tumor suppressive effects of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs in an experimental hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC model in rats and to investigate the possible role of Wnt signaling in hepato-carcinogenesis. Methods Ninety rats were included in the study and were divided equally into: Control group, rats which received MSCs only, rats which received MSCs vehicle only, HCC group induced by diethylnitroseamine (DENA and CCl4, rats which received MSCs after HCC induction, rats which received MSCs before HCC induction. Histopathological examination and gene expression of Wnt signaling target genes by real time, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR in rat liver tissue, in addition to serum levels of ALT, AST and alpha fetoprotein were performed in all groups. Results Histopathological examination of liver tissue from animals which received DENA-CCl4 only, revealed the presence of anaplastic carcinoma cells and macro-regenerative nodules type II with foci of large and small cell dysplasia. Administration of MSCs into rats after induction of experimental HCC improved the histopathological picture which showed minimal liver cell damage, reversible changes, areas of cell drop out filled with stem cells. Gene expression in rat liver tissue demonstrated that MSCs downregulated β-catenin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, cyclin D and survivin genes expression in liver tissues after HCC induction. Amelioration of the liver status after administration of MSCs has been inferred by the significant decrease of ALT, AST and Alpha fetoprotein serum levels. Administration of MSCs before HCC induction did not show any tumor suppressive or protective effect. Conclusions Administration of MSCs in chemically induced HCC has tumor suppressive effects as evidenced by down regulation of Wnt signaling target genes concerned with antiapoptosis, mitogenesis, cell

  14. Efficacy of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Suppression of Hepatocarcinorigenesis in Rats: Possible Role of Wnt Signaling

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abdel Aziz, Mohamed T

    2011-05-05

    Abstract Background The present study was conducted to evaluate the tumor suppressive effects of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in an experimental hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) model in rats and to investigate the possible role of Wnt signaling in hepato-carcinogenesis. Methods Ninety rats were included in the study and were divided equally into: Control group, rats which received MSCs only, rats which received MSCs vehicle only, HCC group induced by diethylnitroseamine (DENA) and CCl 4 , rats which received MSCs after HCC induction, rats which received MSCs before HCC induction. Histopathological examination and gene expression of Wnt signaling target genes by real time, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in rat liver tissue, in addition to serum levels of ALT, AST and alpha fetoprotein were performed in all groups. Results Histopathological examination of liver tissue from animals which received DENA-CCl4 only, revealed the presence of anaplastic carcinoma cells and macro-regenerative nodules type II with foci of large and small cell dysplasia. Administration of MSCs into rats after induction of experimental HCC improved the histopathological picture which showed minimal liver cell damage, reversible changes, areas of cell drop out filled with stem cells. Gene expression in rat liver tissue demonstrated that MSCs downregulated β-catenin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cyclin D and survivin genes expression in liver tissues after HCC induction. Amelioration of the liver status after administration of MSCs has been inferred by the significant decrease of ALT, AST and Alpha fetoprotein serum levels. Administration of MSCs before HCC induction did not show any tumor suppressive or protective effect. Conclusions Administration of MSCs in chemically induced HCC has tumor suppressive effects as evidenced by down regulation of Wnt signaling target genes concerned with antiapoptosis, mitogenesis, cell proliferation

  15. Antibody induction versus placebo, no induction, or another type of antibody induction for liver transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penninga, Luit; Wettergren, André; Wilson, Colin H

    2014-01-01

    errors (bias) using bias risk domains with definitions. We used trial sequential analysis to control for random errors (play of chance). We presented outcome results in a summary of findings table. MAIN RESULTS: We included 19 randomised clinical trials with a total of 2067 liver transplant recipients......, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension - when the T-cell specific antibody induction agents were analysed together or separately. Limited data were available for meta-analysis on drug-specific adverse events such as haematological adverse events for antithymocyte globulin. No data were found on quality......, and hypertension. No data were found on quality of life. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The effects of T-cell antibody induction remain uncertain because of the high risk of bias of the randomised clinical trials, the small number of randomised clinical trials reported, and the limited numbers of participants and outcomes...

  16. Inhibiting HSP90 prevents the induction of myeloid-derived suppressor cells by melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Nicole; Speigl, Lisa; Pawelec, Graham; Niessner, Heike; Shipp, Christopher

    2018-02-21

    Metastatic melanoma is the most dangerous form of skin cancer, with an ever-increasing incidence worldwide. Despite encouraging results with immunotherapeutic approaches, long-term survival is still poor. This is likely partly due to tumour-induced immune suppression mediated by myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), which were shown to be associated with response to therapy and survival. Thus, identifying pathways responsible for MDSC differentiation may provide new therapeutic targets and improve efficacy of existing immunotherapies. Therefore, we've analysed mechanisms by which tumour cells contribute to the induction of MDSCs. Established melanoma cell lines were pre-treated with inhibitors of different pathways and tested for their capacity to alleviate T cell suppression via MDSC differentiation in vitro. Targeting HSP70/90 in melanoma cells resulted in reduced induction of immune suppressive cells on a phenotypic and functional basis, for which a more potent effect was observed when HSP90 was inhibited under hypoxic conditions. This initial study suggests a novel mechanism in tumour cells responsible for the induction of MDSC in melanoma. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Patient education to reduce elective labor inductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Kathleen Rice; Newman, Gloria; Chirino, Octavio R

    2010-01-01

    To reduce elective inductions among nulliparous women in a community hospital by adding standardized education regarding induction risks to prepared childbirth classes. Elective induction rates were compared between class attendees and nonattendees before and after the standardized content was added to prepared childbirth classes. A survey of nulliparous women's decisions regarding elective induction was conducted. Elective induction rates of 3,337 nulliparous women were evaluated over a 14-month period (n = 1,694, 7 months before adding content to classes; n = 1,643, 7 months after). Rates did not differ between class attendees (35.2%, n = 301) and nonattendees (37.2%, n = 312, p = .37) before the content was included. However, after standardized education was added, class attendees were less likely to have elective induction (27.9%, n = 239) than nonattendees (37%, n = 292, p beneficial in reducing elective inductions.

  18. Induction of chromosome aberrations in vitro by phenolphthalein: mechanistic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, M J; Gara, J P; Gealy, R; Greenwood, S K; Hilliard, C A; Laws, G M; Galloway, S M

    2000-12-20

    Phenolphthalein induces tumors in rodents but because it is negative in assays for mutation in Salmonella and in mammalian cells, for DNA adducts and for DNA strand breaks, its primary mechanism does not seem to be DNA damage. Chromosome aberration (Ab) induction by phenolphthalein in vitro is associated with marked cytotoxicity. At very high doses, phenolphthalein induces weak increases in micronuclei (MN) in mouse bone marrow; a larger response is seen with chronic treatment. All this suggests genotoxicity is a secondary effect that may not occur at lower doses. In heterozygous TSG-p53((R)) mice, phenolphthalein induces lymphomas and also MN, many with kinetochores (K), implying chromosome loss. Induction of aneuploidy would be compatible with the loss of the normal p53 gene seen in the lymphomas. Here we address some of the postulated mechanisms of genotoxicity in vitro, including metabolic activation, inhibition of thymidylate synthetase, cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, DNA damage and aneuploidy. We show clearly that phenolphthalein does not require metabolic activation by S9 to induce Abs. Inhibition of thymidylate synthetase is an unlikely mechanism, since thymidine did not prevent Ab induction by phenolphthalein. Phenolphthalein dramatically inhibited DNA synthesis, in common with many non-DNA reactive chemicals that induce Abs at cytotoxic doses. Phenolphthalein strongly enhances levels of intracellular oxygen radicals (ROS). The radical scavenger DMSO suppresses phenolphthalein-induced toxicity and Abs whereas H(2)O(2) potentiates them, suggesting a role for peroxidative activation. Phenolphthalein did not produce DNA strand breaks in rat hepatocytes or DNA adducts in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. All the evidence points to an indirect mechanism for Abs that is unlikely to operate at low doses of phenolphthalein. We also found that phenolphthalein induces mitotic abnormalities and MN with kinetochores in vitro. These are also enhanced by H(2)O(2) and

  19. Platelet activating factor receptor binding plays a critical role in jet fuel-induced immune suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Gerardo; Kazimi, Nasser; Nghiem, Dat X.; Walterscheid, Jeffrey P.; Ullrich, Stephen E.

    2004-01-01

    Applying military jet fuel (JP-8) or commercial jet fuel (Jet-A) to the skin of mice suppresses the immune response in a dose-dependant manner. The release of biological response modifiers, particularly prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ), is a critical step in activating immune suppression. Previous studies have shown that injecting selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors into jet fuel-treated mice blocks immune suppression. Because the inflammatory phospholipid mediator, platelet-activating factor (PAF), up-regulates cyclooxygenase-2 production and PGE 2 synthesis by keratinocytes, we tested the hypothesis that PAF-receptor binding plays a role in jet fuel-induced immune suppression. Treating keratinocyte cultures with PAF and/or jet fuel (JP-8 and Jet-A) stimulates PGE 2 secretion. Jet fuel-induced PGE 2 production was suppressed by treating the keratinocytes with specific PAF-receptor antagonists. Injecting mice with PAF, or treating the skin of the mice with JP-8, or Jet-A, induced immune suppression. Jet fuel-induced immune suppression was blocked when the jet fuel-treated mice were injected with PAF-receptor antagonists before treatment. Jet fuel treatment has been reported to activate oxidative stress and treating the mice with anti-oxidants (Vitamins C, or E or beta-hydroxy toluene), before jet fuel application, interfered with immune suppression. These findings confirm previous studies showing that PAF-receptor binding can modulate immune function. Furthermore, they suggest that PAF-receptor binding may be an early event in the induction of immune suppression by immunotoxic environmental agents that target the skin

  20. In the suppression of regge cut contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chia, S.P.

    1975-07-01

    It is shown that contributions of reggeon-pomeron cuts are suppressed in amplitudes with opposite natural to the reggeon. This suppression grows logarithmically with energy. The suppression in the πP cut is, however, found to be weak. Consequence on conspiracy is discussed

  1. Secretoneurin suppresses cardiac hypertrophy through suppression of oxidant stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua-Li; Liu, Yan; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Xiao-Xiao; Yuan, Guo-Lin; Zhao, Yi-Lin; Yu, Chao

    2018-03-05

    The neuropeptide secretoneurin (SN) plays protective roles in myocardial ischemia. In the present study, the effect of SN in cardiac hypertrophy was investigated. We observed that, in isoproterenol (ISO) treatment induced cardiac or cardiomyocytes hypertrophy, a marked increase in the expression of endogenous SN in mouse plasma, myocardium and primary-cultured cardiomyocytes occurs. In hypertrophic mice, the heart size, heart weight/body weight (HW/BW) ratio, cardiomyocyte size, and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) expression were significantly higher than those in controls but were effectively suppressed by SN gene therapy. Similarly, the protective effects of SN were also observed in cultured cardiomyocytes following ISO treatment. SN significantly increased the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in parallel with the decrease in reactive oxygen species levels in cardiomyocytes. We observed that SN evoked the activation of all of the AMPK, P38/MAPK and ERK/MAPK pathways in cardiomyocytes, but pretreatment with only AMPK inhibitor (compound C) and ERK1/2/MAPK inhibitor (PD98059) counteracted the protective effects of SN against cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and the suppressive effects of SN on oxidant stress in cardiomyocytes. These results indicated that endogenous SN is induced in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes, and may play a protective role in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy. These results suggest that exogenous SN supplementation protects the cardiac hypertrophy induced by ISO treatment through the activation of AMPK and ERK/MAPK pathways, thus upregulating antioxidants and suppressing oxidative stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Lessons for Inductive Germline Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seervai, Riyad N.H.; Wessel, Gary M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Formation of the germline in an embryo marks a fresh round of reproductive potential, yet the developmental stage and location within the embryo where the primordial germ cells (PGCs) form differs wildly among species. In most animals, the germline is formed either by an inherited mechanism, in which maternal provisions within the oocyte drive localized germ-cell fate once acquired in the embryo, or an inductive mechanism that involves signaling between cells that directs germ-cell fate. The inherited mechanism has been widely studied in model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, Xenopus laevis, and Danio rerio. Given the rapid generation time and the effective adaptation for laboratory research of these organisms, it is not coincidental that research on these organisms has led the field in elucidating mechanisms for germline specification. The inductive mechanism, however, is less well understood and is studied primarily in the mouse (Mus musculus). In this review, we compare and contrast these two fundamental mechanisms for germline determination, beginning with the key molecular determinants that play a role in the formation of germ cells across all animal taxa. We next explore the current understanding of the inductive mechanism of germ-cell determination in mice, and evaluate the hypotheses for selective pressures on these contrasting mechanisms. We then discuss the hypothesis that the transition between these determination mechanisms, which has happened many times in phylogeny, is more of a continuum than a binary change. Finally, we propose an analogy between germline determination and sex determination in vertebrates—two of the milestones of reproduction and development—in which animals use contrasting strategies to activate similar pathways. PMID:23450642

  3. Elementary induction on abstract structures

    CERN Document Server

    Moschovakis, Yiannis N

    2008-01-01

    Hailed by the Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society as ""easy to use and a pleasure to read,"" this research monograph is recommended for students and professionals interested in model theory and definability theory. The sole prerequisite is a familiarity with the basics of logic, model theory, and set theory.The author, Professor of Mathematics at UCLA and Emeritus Professor of Mathematics,University of Athens, Greece, begins with a focus on the theory of inductive and hyperelementary sets. Subsequent chapters advance to acceptable structures and countable acceptable structures, concl

  4. Induction Hardening of External Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukanin, V. A.; Ivanov, A. N.; Zenkov, A. E.; Vologdin, V. V.; Vologdin, V. V., Jr.

    2018-03-01

    Problems and solution of gear induction hardening are described. Main attention is paid to the parameters of heating and cooling systems. ELTA 7.0 program has been used to obtain the required electrical parameters of inductor, power sources, resonant circuits, as well as to choose the quenching media. Comparison of experimental and calculated results of investigation is provided. In order to compare advantages and disadvantages of single- and dual-frequency heating processes, many variants of these technologies were simulated. The predicted structure and hardness of steel gears are obtained by use of the ELTA data base taken into account the Continuous Cooling Transformation diagrams.

  5. An Induction Linac Test Stand

    CERN Document Server

    De Hope, William; Kihara, Ron; Ong, Mike; Vogtlin, George; Zentler, Jan-Mark

    2005-01-01

    A single-cell test stand has been constructed to facilitate study and guide improvements of the induction electron linac at the FXR radiographic facility at LLNL.* This paper will discuss how modifications in pulse compression and shaping, pulse power transmission, initial ferrite state, and accelerator cell loading have been performed on the test stand and can be applied to the entire accelerator. Some of the specialized diagnostics being used will be described. Finally, the paper will discuss how computer modeling and judicious timing control can be used to optimize accelerator performance by making only selective changes that can be accomplished at minimal cost.

  6. Background Suppression Effects on Signal Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burr, Tom [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Gamma detectors at border crossings are intended to detect illicit nuclear material. One performance challenge involves the fact that vehicles suppress the natural background, thus potentially reducing detection probability for threat items. Methods to adjust for background suppression have been considered in related but different settings. Here, methods to adjust for background suppression are tested in the context of signal estimation. Adjustment methods include several clustering options. We find that for the small-to-moderate suppression magnitudes exhibited in the analyzed data, suppression adjustment is only moderatel helpful in locating the signal peak, and in estimating its width or magnitude.

  7. Programmed Death Ligand 2 in Cancer-Induced Immune Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esdy N. Rozali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitory molecules of the B7/CD28 family play a key role in the induction of immune tolerance in the tumor microenvironment. The programmed death-1 receptor (PD-1, with its ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2, constitutes an important member of these inhibitory pathways. The relevance of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in cancer has been extensively studied and therapeutic approaches targeting PD-1 and PD-L1 have been developed and are undergoing human clinical testing. However, PD-L2 has not received as much attention and its role in modulating tumor immunity is less clear. Here, we review the literature on the immunobiology of PD-L2, particularly on its possible roles in cancer-induced immune suppression and we discuss the results of recent studies targeting PD-L2 in cancer.

  8. Supersonic induction plasma jet modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selezneva, S.E.; Boulos, M.I.

    2001-01-01

    Numerical simulations have been applied to study the argon plasma flow downstream of the induction plasma torch. It is shown that by means of the convergent-divergent nozzle adjustment and chamber pressure reduction, a supersonic plasma jet can be obtained. We investigate the supersonic and a more traditional subsonic plasma jets impinging onto a normal substrate. Comparing to the subsonic jet, the supersonic one is narrower and much faster. Near-substrate velocity and temperature boundary layers are thinner, so the heat flux near the stagnation point is higher in the supersonic jet. The supersonic plasma jet is characterized by the electron overpopulation and the domination of the recombination over the dissociation, resulting into the heating of the electron gas. Because of these processes, the supersonic induction plasma permits to separate spatially different functions (dissociation and ionization, transport and deposition) and to optimize each of them. The considered configuration can be advantageous in some industrial applications, such as plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition of diamond and polymer-like films and in plasma spraying of nanoscaled powders

  9. Supersonic induction plasma jet modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selezneva, S.E. E-mail: svetlana2@hermes.usherbS_Selezneva2@hermes.usherb; Boulos, M.I

    2001-06-01

    Numerical simulations have been applied to study the argon plasma flow downstream of the induction plasma torch. It is shown that by means of the convergent-divergent nozzle adjustment and chamber pressure reduction, a supersonic plasma jet can be obtained. We investigate the supersonic and a more traditional subsonic plasma jets impinging onto a normal substrate. Comparing to the subsonic jet, the supersonic one is narrower and much faster. Near-substrate velocity and temperature boundary layers are thinner, so the heat flux near the stagnation point is higher in the supersonic jet. The supersonic plasma jet is characterized by the electron overpopulation and the domination of the recombination over the dissociation, resulting into the heating of the electron gas. Because of these processes, the supersonic induction plasma permits to separate spatially different functions (dissociation and ionization, transport and deposition) and to optimize each of them. The considered configuration can be advantageous in some industrial applications, such as plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition of diamond and polymer-like films and in plasma spraying of nanoscaled powders.

  10. Beam dynamics for induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Edward P.

    2014-01-01

    An induction linac uses pulsed power that is applied directly, without any intervening resonant cavities, to accelerate a charged particle pulse. This approach can accommodate a large multiple-beam focusing lattice capable of transporting a large total beam current with a long pulse duration, which may be compressed while accelerating as well as afterward. The mean accelerating gradient is relatively low (less than about 1.5 MV/m), but the potential efficiency of energy transfer can be large up to about 50%. A multiple-beam induction linac is therefore a natural candidate accelerator for a heavy ion fusion (HIF) driver. However, the accelerated beams must meet stringent requirements on occupied phase space volume in order to be focused accurately and with small radius onto the fusion target. Dynamical considerations in the beam injector and linac, as well as in the final compression, final focus, and the fusion chamber, determine the quality of the driver beams as they approach the target. Requirements and tolerances derived from beam dynamics strongly influence the linac configuration and component design. After a summary of dynamical considerations, two major topics are addressed here: transportable current limits, which determine the choice of focal system for the linac, and longitudinal control of the beams, which are potentially destabilized by their interaction with the pulsed power system

  11. Suppression effects on musical and verbal memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schendel, Zachary A; Palmer, Caroline

    2007-06-01

    Three experiments contrasted the effects of articulatory suppression on recognition memory for musical and verbal sequences. In Experiment 1, a standard/comparison task was employed, with digit or note sequences presented visually or auditorily while participants remained silent or produced intermittent verbal suppression (saying "the") or musical suppression (singing "la"). Both suppression types decreased performance by equivalent amounts, as compared with no suppression. Recognition accuracy was lower during suppression for visually presented digits than during that for auditorily presented digits (consistent with phonological loop predictions), whereas accuracy was equivalent for visually presented notes and auditory tones. When visual interference filled the retention interval in Experiment 2, performance with visually presented notes but not digits was impaired. Experiment 3 forced participants to translate visually presented music sequences by presenting comparison sequences auditorily. Suppression effects for visually presented music resembled those for digits only when the recognition task required sensory translation of cues.

  12. Nuclear reactor scram suppression device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshi, Hiroshi; Ozawa, Hisamitsu.

    1993-01-01

    The device of the present invention suppresses reactor scram due to increase of neutrons caused by pressure elevation in the reactor even when a portion of main steam pipes is closed by some or other causes such as closure of a main steam isolation valve in a BWR type power plant. That is, when a flow channel is closed, such as upon closure of a main steam isolation valve, a flow rate signal sent from each of main steam flow rate detection means is inputted to a selective circuit of a pressure control device, from which a normal value is obtained. A deviation value for each of the main steam flow rate values is determined from the value described above and a flow rate average value obtained in an averaging circuit. Abnormality in the main steam pipelines is judged if a level for each of the deviation values is greater than a predetermined value. Further, the insertion of selective control rods and trip and run back instructions for recycling pumps are controlled by output signals of the deviation value detection circuit, to decrease the reactor power and prevent elevation in the reactor. As a result, reactor scram due to increase of neutron fluxes is suppressed. (I.S.)

  13. State plane analysis of induction hob generators

    OpenAIRE

    Carthy, Sean

    1994-01-01

    Induction cooking hobs have greatly gained in popularity m Europe during the 1980's. This fact has focused attention on the particular problems encountered in their design. To this day, the design approaches remain largely empirical This thesis presents an analysis technique specially adapted to the induction hob generator The series resonant converter is seen to be widely used in the induction cooking application. As a first step, a technique for determining steady-state operation of the...

  14. Magnetic Field Measurement of induction Hobs

    OpenAIRE

    森, 秀樹||モリ, ヒデキ||Mori, Hideki; 松井, 景樹||マツイ, ケイジュ||Matsui, Keiju; 山本, 勇||ヤマモト, イサム||Yamamoto, Isamu

    2004-01-01

    Recently domestic induction hobs have rapidly come into wide use in Japan. When cooking a strong high frequency magnetic field is generated in the area of induction hob. However, there are few reports of the measurement of the magnetic field during actual cooking. The magnetic field resulting from various working conditions of several types of induction hobs are reported here. Measurements of the magnetic field due to differences in various types of converter, the size and materials of the co...

  15. Induction of differentiation of murine embryonal carcinoma cells by ouabain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, B.T.

    1986-01-01

    Embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells can be induced to differentiate by ouabain at concentrations which inhibit Na + , K + -ATPase activity as measured by inhibition of 86 Rb + uptake. Since the pharmacologic action of ouabain is thought to be specific, the authors investigated the role of Na + , K + -ATPase inhibition and specific metabolic consequences of this inhibition in the induction of EC differentiation, and explored whether this might be a common mode of action for a variety of structurally diverse inducers. The Na + , K + -ATPase maintains ionic gradients in cells. However, results of studies utilizing specific ionophores, channel blockers, and media deficient in specific components failed to demonstrate a consistent role for ion flux or concentration in the differentiation process. The Na + , K + -ATPase is a major consumer of ATP. They therefore examined the effect of Na + , K + -ATPase inhibition on the adenylate energy charge as measured by high performance liquid chromatography of adenylate nucleotides. Ouabain was found to significantly decrease the energy charge in sensitive cells suggesting a role for suppression of ATP turnover is triggering differentiation. However, direct inhibition of glycolysis also induced differentiation without decreasing the energy charge, suggesting that reduction of the energy charge is not a common mechanism for induction of differentiation of EC

  16. The Regulation of Induced Depression during a Frustrating Situation: Benefits of Expressive Suppression in Chinese Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Nanxiang; Yang, Jiemin

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies from European-American cultures consistently reported that expressive suppression was associated with worse emotional consequence (e.g. depression) in comparison with acceptance. However, this conclusion may not apply to Chinese, as suppressing emotional displays to maintain relational harmony is culturally valued in East Asian countries. Thus, the present study examined the effects of suppression and acceptance on the depressive mood induced by a frustrating task in a Chinese sample. Method Sixty-four subjects were randomly assigned to one of three instructions: suppression, acceptance or no-regulation during a frustrating arithmetic task. The experience of depressive emotion and skin conductance response (SCR) were recorded during pre-frustration baseline, frustration induction and post-frustration recovery phases, respectively. Results Compared with the control and acceptance instructions, suppression instruction was associated with decreased depressive experiences and smaller SCR activity during frustration. There were no significant differences between acceptance and control groups in both subjective depression and SCR activity during frustration. Moreover, the suppression group showed a better emotional recovery after the frustrating task, in comparison with the acceptance and control groups. Correlation analyses verified that SCR reactivity was a reliable index of experienced depression during the frustration. Conclusions Expressive suppression is effective in reducing depressive experiences and depression-related physiological activity (SCR) when Chinese people are involved. By contrast, the acceptance of depressive emotion in Chinese people does not produce a similar regulation effect. These findings suggest that cultural context should be considered in understanding the emotional consequences of suppression and acceptance strategies. PMID:24827934

  17. Polish Gynecological Society Recommendations for Labor Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomba-Opoń, Dorota; Drews, Krzysztof; Huras, Hubert; Laudański, Piotr; Paszkowski, Tomasz; Wielgoś, Mirosław

    2017-01-01

    Labor induction involves artificial stimulation of childbirth before the natural, spontaneous onset of labor. It is one of the most common procedures in modern obstetrics. The frequency of labor induction has doubled in recent decades due to the development of perinatology and methods of monitoring fetal well-being in particular. Currently, one in five pregnant women and 30-40% of women delivering vaginally undergo this procedure. Reasons for induction include reduction of the perinatal mortality and morbidity of the fetus and newborn, as well as the reduction of maternal complications. However, as every medical intervention, labor induction is associated with a risk of complications.

  18. Open switching of current varying inductance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubkov, P.I.; Lukyanchikov, L.A.; Ten, K.A.

    1990-01-01

    The electromotive force of induction occurs in a varying inductance of a current circuit part. It can be used to control and switch the current. The effect, occurring under the forced inductance decrease, is used widely for explosive magnetic generators to produce high currents, to store high-density energy and to generate superhigh magnetic fields. This paper gives an analysis of open switching of the currents by varying inductance in some simple electrotechnical models of circuits used in pulse power engineering to obtain high energies

  19. Experimental Demonstration of the Induction Synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayama, Ken; Nakamura, Eiji; Arakida, Yoshio; Iwashita, Taiki; Kono, Tadaaki; Shimosaki, Yoshito; Wake, Masayoshi; Dixit, Tanuja; Otsuka, Kazunori; Torikai, Kota

    2007-01-01

    We report an experimental demonstration of the induction synchrotron, the concept of which has been proposed as a future accelerator for the second generation of neutrino factory or hadron collider. The induction synchrotron supports a superbunch and a superbunch permits more charge to be accelerated while observing the constraints of the transverse space-charge limit. By using a newly developed induction acceleration system instead of radio-wave acceleration devices, a single proton bunch injected from the 500 MeV booster ring and captured by the barrier bucket created by the induction step voltages was accelerated to 6 GeV in the KEK proton synchrotron

  20. Interleukin-35 induces regulatory B cells that suppress autoimmune disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ren-Xi; Yu, Cheng-Rong; Dambuza, Ivy M; Mahdi, Rashid M; Dolinska, Monika B; Sergeev, Yuri V; Wingfield, Paul T; Kim, Sung-Hye; Egwuagu, Charles E

    2014-06-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10)-producing regulatory B (Breg) cells suppress autoimmune disease, and increased numbers of Breg cells prevent host defense to infection and promote tumor growth and metastasis by converting resting CD4(+) T cells to regulatory T (Treg) cells. The mechanisms mediating the induction and development of Breg cells remain unclear. Here we show that IL-35 induces Breg cells and promotes their conversion to a Breg subset that produces IL-35 as well as IL-10. Treatment of mice with IL-35 conferred protection from experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU), and mice lacking IL-35 (p35 knockout (KO) mice) or defective in IL-35 signaling (IL-12Rβ2 KO mice) produced less Breg cells endogenously or after treatment with IL-35 and developed severe uveitis. Adoptive transfer of Breg cells induced by recombinant IL-35 suppressed EAU when transferred to mice with established disease, inhibiting pathogenic T helper type 17 (TH17) and TH1 cells while promoting Treg cell expansion. In B cells, IL-35 activates STAT1 and STAT3 through the IL-35 receptor comprising the IL-12Rβ2 and IL-27Rα subunits. As IL-35 also induced the conversion of human B cells into Breg cells, these findings suggest that IL-35 may be used to induce autologous Breg and IL-35(+) Breg cells and treat autoimmune and inflammatory disease.

  1. Neisseria gonorrhoeae suppresses the oxidative burst of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criss, Alison K; Seifert, H Steven

    2008-11-01

    Symptomatic infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gc) results in a potent polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN)-driven inflammatory response, but the mechanisms by which Gc withstands PMN attack are poorly defined. Here we report that Gc can suppress the PMN oxidative burst, a central component of the PMN antimicrobial arsenal. Primary human PMNs remained viable after exposure to liquid-grown, exponential-phase, opacity-associated protein (Opa)-negative Gc of strains FA1090 and MS11 but did not generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), even after bacterial opsonization. Liquid-grown FA1090 Gc expressing OpaB, an Opa protein previously correlated with PMN ROS production, elicited a minor PMN oxidative burst. PMN ROS production in response to Opa(-) and OpaB+ Gc was markedly enhanced if bacteria were agar-grown or if liquid-grown bacteria were heat-killed. Liquid-grown Opa(-) Gc inhibited the PMN oxidative burst elicited by isogenic dead bacteria, formylated peptides or Staphylococcus aureus but did not inhibit PMN ROS production by OpaB+ Gc or phorbol esters. Suppression of the oxidative burst required Gc-PMN contact and bacterial protein synthesis but not phagocytosis. These results suggest that viable Gc directly inhibits PMN signalling pathways required for induction of the oxidative burst, which may contribute to gonococcal pathogenesis during inflammatory stages of gonorrhoeal disease.

  2. BACKWARD INDUCTION: MERITS AND FLAWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamiński Marek M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Backward induction (BI was one of the earliest methods developed for solving finite sequential games with perfect information. It proved to be especially useful in the context of Tom Schelling’s ideas of credible versus incredible threats. BI can be also extended to solve complex games that include an infinite number of actions or an infinite number of periods. However, some more complex empirical or experimental predictions remain dramatically at odds with theoretical predictions obtained by BI. The primary example of such a troublesome game is Centipede. The problems appear in other long games with sufficiently complex structure. BI also shares the problems of subgame perfect equilibrium and fails to eliminate certain unreasonable Nash equilibria.

  3. Selective Induction of Optical Magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Uttam; Lee, Jung-Hoon; Deng, Tian-Song; Parker, John; Shepherd, Nolan; Weizmann, Yossi; Scherer, Norbert F

    2017-12-13

    An extension of the Maxwell-Faraday law of electromagnetic induction to optical frequencies requires spatially appropriate materials and optical beams to create resonances and excitations with curl. Here we employ cylindrical vector beams with azimuthal polarization to create electric fields that selectively drive magnetic responses in dielectric core-metal nanoparticle "satellite" nanostructures. These optical frequency magnetic resonances are induced in materials that do not possess spin or orbital angular momentum. Multipole expansion analysis of the scattered fields obtained from electrodynamics simulations show that the excitation with azimuthally polarized beams selectively enhances magnetic vs electric dipole resonances by nearly 100-fold in experiments. Multipolar resonances (e.g., quadrupole and octupole) are enhanced 5-fold by focused azimuthally versus linearly polarized beams. We also selectively excite electric multipolar resonances in the same identical nanostructures with radially polarized light. This work opens new opportunities for spectroscopic investigation and control of "dark modes", Fano resonances, and magnetic modes in nanomaterials and engineered metamaterials.

  4. sox2 and sox3 cooperate to regulate otic/epibranchial placode induction in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Yunzi; Guo, Jinbai; Maulding, Kirstin; Riley, Bruce B

    2018-03-01

    Expression of sox3 is one of the earliest markers of Fgf-dependent otic/epibranchial placode induction. We report here that sox2 is also expressed in the early otic/epibranchial placode in zebrafish. To address functions of sox2 and sox3, we generated knockouts and heat shock-inducible transgenes. Mutant analysis, and low-level misexpression, showed that sox2 and sox3 act redundantly to establish a full complement of otic/epibranchial cells. Disruption of pax8, another early regulator, caused similar placodal deficiencies to sox3 mutants or pax8-sox3 double mutants, suggesting that sox3 and pax8 operate in the same pathway. High-level misexpression of sox2 or sox3 during early stages cell-autonomously blocked placode induction, whereas misexpression several hours later could not reverse placodal differentiation. In an assay for ectopic placode-induction, we previously showed that misexpression of fgf8 induces a high level of ectopic sox3, but not pax8. Partial knockdown of sox3 significantly enhanced ectopic induction of pax8, whereas full knockdown of sox3 inhibited this process. Together these findings show that sox2 and sox3 are together required for proper otic induction, but the level of expression must be tightly regulated to avoid suppression of differentiation and maintenance of pluripotency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Limits of Linked Suppression for Regulatory T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiro eIto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: We have previously found that CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (T regs can adoptively transfer tolerance after its induction with co-stimulatory blockade in a mouse model of murine cardiac allograft transplantation. In these experiments, we tested an hypothesis with three components: 1 the T regs that transfer tolerance have the capacity for linked suppression, 2 the determinants that stimulate the T regs are expressed by the indirect pathway, and 3 the donor peptides contributing to these indirect determinants are derived from donor MHC antigens. Methods: 1st heart transplants were performed from the indicated donor strain to B10.D2 recipients along with co-stimulatory blockade treatment (250μg i.p. injection of MR1 on day 0 and 250μg i.p. injection of CTLA-4 Ig on day 2. At least 8 weeks later a 2nd heart transplant was performed to a new B10.D2 recipient that had been irradiated with 450 cGy. This recipient was given 40 x 106 naïve B10.D2 spleen cells plus 40 x 106 B10.D2 spleen cells from the first (tolerant recipient. We performed 3 different types of heart transplants with using various donor.Results: 1. T regs suppress the graft rejection in an antigen-specific manner. 2. T regs generated in the face of MHC disparities suppress the rejection of grafts expressing third party MHC along with tolerant MHC. Conclusion:The limits of linkage appear to be quantitative and not universally determined by either the indirect pathway or by peptides of donor MHC antigens.

  6. Safety system for pressure suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, L.E.; Ludwig, G.J.; Tulsa, O.

    1975-01-01

    The rupture disk with rated breaking points is constrained by two supporting elements and has a convex-concave shape. For pressure suppression, it is reversable inversely to its bulging. Its surface has notches which are the rated breaking points and respond to higher pressures. The centre of the rupture disk contains an area of relatively smaller thickness that will burst at lower pressure and thus makes it applicable for lower pressures. For the response of the rupture disk centre, a thrust ring with a central opening may also be used. Its edge is formed into a convex-concave section supported on the edge of the rupture disk on the exit side. The free centre of the rupture disk is then the area of relative weakness. (RW/AK) [de

  7. MEK5 suppresses osteoblastic differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneshiro, Shoichi [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Japan Community Health Care Organization Osaka Hospital, 4-2-78 Fukushima, Fukushima Ward, Osaka City, Osaka 553-0003 (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Otsuki, Dai; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Higuchi, Chikahisa, E-mail: c-higuchi@umin.ac.jp [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2015-07-31

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family and is activated by its upstream kinase, MAPK kinase 5 (MEK5), which is a member of the MEK family. Although the role of MEK5 has been investigated in several fields, little is known about its role in osteoblastic differentiation. In this study, we have demonstrated the role of MEK5 in osteoblastic differentiation in mouse preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and bone marrow stromal ST2 cells. We found that treatment with BIX02189, an inhibitor of MEK5, increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the gene expression of ALP, osteocalcin (OCN) and osterix, as well as it enhanced the calcification of the extracellular matrix. Moreover, osteoblastic cell proliferation decreased at a concentration of greater than 0.5 μM. In addition, knockdown of MEK5 using siRNA induced an increase in ALP activity and in the gene expression of ALP, OCN, and osterix. In contrast, overexpression of wild-type MEK5 decreased ALP activity and attenuated osteoblastic differentiation markers including ALP, OCN and osterix, but promoted cell proliferation. In summary, our results indicated that MEK5 suppressed the osteoblastic differentiation, but promoted osteoblastic cell proliferation. These results implied that MEK5 may play a pivotal role in cell signaling to modulate the differentiation and proliferation of osteoblasts. Thus, inhibition of MEK5 signaling in osteoblasts may be of potential use in the treatment of osteoporosis. - Highlights: • MEK5 inhibitor BIX02189 suppresses proliferation of osteoblasts. • MEK5 knockdown and MEK5 inhibitor promote differentiation of osteoblasts. • MEK5 overexpression inhibits differentiation of osteoblasts.

  8. Oroxin B selectively induces tumor-suppressive ER stress and concurrently inhibits tumor-adaptive ER stress in B-lymphoma cells for effective anti-lymphoma therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping; Fu, Shilong; Cao, Zhifei; Liao, Huaidong; Huo, Zihe; Pan, Yanyan; Zhang, Gaochuan; Gao, Aidi; Zhou, Quansheng

    2015-10-15

    Cancer cells have both tumor-adaptive and -suppressive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress machineries that determine cell fate. In malignant tumors including lymphoma, constant activation of tumor-adaptive ER stress and concurrent reduction of tumor-suppressive ER stress favors cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. Current ER stress-based anti-tumor drugs typically activate both tumor-adaptive and -suppressive ER stresses, resulting in low anti-cancer efficacy; hence, selective induction of tumor-suppressive ER stress and inhibition of tumor-adaptive ER stress are new strategies for novel anti-cancer drug discovery. Thus far, specific tumor-suppressive ER stress therapeutics have remained absent in clinical settings. In this study, we explored unique tumor-suppressive ER stress agents from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Oroxylum indicum, and found that a small molecule oroxin B selectively induced tumor-suppressive ER stress in malignant lymphoma cells, but not in normal cells, effectively inhibited lymphoma growth in vivo, and significantly prolonged overall survival of lymphoma-xenografted mice without obvious toxicity. Mechanistic studies have revealed that the expression of key tumor-adaptive ER-stress gene GRP78 was notably suppressed by oroxin B via down-regulation of up-stream key signaling protein ATF6, while tumor-suppressive ER stress master gene DDIT3 was strikingly activated through activating the MKK3-p38 signaling pathway, correcting the imbalance between tumor-suppressive DDIT3 and tumor-adaptive GRP78 in lymphoma. Together, selective induction of unique tumor-suppressive ER stress and concurrent inhibition of tumor-adaptive ER stress in malignant lymphoma are new and feasible approaches for novel anti-lymphoma drug discovery and anti-lymphoma therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Arsenic Induction of Metallothionein and Metallothionein Induction Against Arsenic Cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Tariqur; De Ley, Marc

    Human exposure to arsenic (As) can lead to oxidative stress that can become evident in organs such as the skin, liver, kidneys and lungs. Several intracellular antioxidant defense mechanisms including glutathione (GSH) and metallothionein (MT) have been shown to minimize As cytotoxicity. The current review summarizes the involvement of MT as an intracellular defense mechanism against As cytotoxicity, mostly in blood. Zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se) supplements are also proposed as a possible remediation of As cytotoxicity. In vivo and in vitro studies on As toxicity were reviewed to summarize cytotoxic mechanisms of As. Intracellular antioxidant defense mechanisms of MT are linked in relation to As cytotoxicity. Arsenic uses a different route, compared to major metal MT inducers such as Zn, to enter/exit blood cells. A number of in vivo and in vitro studies showed that upregulated MT biosynthesis in blood components are related to toxic levels of As. Despite the cysteine residues in MT that aid to bind As, MT is not the preferred binding protein for As. Nonetheless, intracellular oxidative stress due to As toxicity can be minimized, if not eliminated, by MT. Thus MT induction by essential metals such as Zn and Se supplementation could be beneficial to fight against As toxicity.

  10. Inductive Reasoning About Effectful Data Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filinski, Andrzej; Støvring, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    We present a pair of reasoning principles, definition and proof by rigid induction, which can be seen as proper generalizations of lazy-datatype induction to monadic effects other than partiality. We further show how these principles can be integrated into logical-relations arguments, and obtain...

  11. A Philosophical Treatise of Universal Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Rathmanner

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding inductive reasoning is a problem that has engaged mankind for thousands of years. This problem is relevant to a wide range of fields and is integral to the philosophy of science. It has been tackled by many great minds ranging from philosophers to scientists to mathematicians, and more recently computer scientists. In this article we argue the case for Solomonoff Induction, a formal inductive framework which combines algorithmic information theory with the Bayesian framework. Although it achieves excellent theoretical results and is based on solid philosophical foundations, the requisite technical knowledge necessary for understanding this framework has caused it to remain largely unknown and unappreciated in the wider scientific community. The main contribution of this article is to convey Solomonoff induction and its related concepts in a generally accessible form with the aim of bridging this current technical gap. In the process we examine the major historical contributions that have led to the formulation of Solomonoff Induction as well as criticisms of Solomonoff and induction in general. In particular we examine how Solomonoff induction addresses many issues that have plagued other inductive systems, such as the black ravens paradox and the confirmation problem, and compare this approach with other recent approaches.

  12. The Tower of Hanoi and Inductive Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrotsy, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In the "Australian Curriculum," the concept of mathematical induction is first met in the senior secondary subject Specialist Mathematics. This article details an example, the Tower of Hanoi problem, which provides an enactive introduction to the inductive process before moving to more abstract and cognitively demanding representations.…

  13. INTERNATIONAL COMPARISON OF STANDARDS OF MUTUAL INDUCTANCE,

    Science.gov (United States)

    from the metre and second by the use of similar Campbell standards of mutual inductance. A direct comparison of the units of inductance derived in...the two laboratories has been made, using a third Campbell standard whose value was determined electrically. Comparison of the results established by

  14. Influence on rod-pinch diode performance of suppressing electron emission from different cathode surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yi; Lv Min; Qiu Aici; Yang Hailiang; Liang Tianxue; Zhang Zhong

    2010-01-01

    The electron pinching process of a rod-pinch diode is simulated with UNIPIC. It indicates that the pinching characteristics of the electrons emitted from different cathode surfaces differ significantly. The electrons emitted from the downstream surface pinch worst, with large amount of electrons hitting upstream of the rod, which increases the axial bremsstrahlung X-ray spot size. The simulation results show that suppressing electron emission from the downstream surface will reduce the axial X-ray spot size and improve the pinching quality. Composite cathodes are designed to investigate the influence of suppressing electron emission from the upstream or downstream surface. Experiments are performed on the new-built IVA (Inductive Voltage Adder) device at the peak voltage of ∼1.5 MV, and the peak current of ∼44 kA. It is shown that the composite cathode is effective in suppressing electron emission from the specific surface, the axial X-ray spot size in the case of downstream suppression is about 14.5% less than the case of upstream suppression and in both cases, the axis-on X-ray dose at 1 meter from the rod tip is ∼1.9rads, validating the simulation results. (authors)

  15. Effects of mindfulness, reappraisal, and suppression on sad mood and cognitive resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keng, Shian-Ling; Tan, Elysia Li Yan; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A; Smoski, Moria J

    2017-04-01

    The present study investigated the relative effects of mindfulness, reappraisal and suppression in reducing sadness, and the extent to which implementation of these strategies affects cognitive resources in a laboratory context. A total of 171 Singaporean undergraduate participants were randomly assigned to receive brief training in mindfulness, reappraisal, or suppression prior to undergoing a sad mood induction. Individual adherence to Asian cultural values was assessed as a potential moderator of strategy effectiveness. Participants rated their mood and completed a Color-Word Stroop task before and after mood regulation instructions. Analyses using multi-level modelling showed that the suppression condition caused less robust declines in sadness over time compared to mindfulness. There was also a nonsignificant trend in which mindfulness was associated with greater sadness recovery compared to reappraisal. Suppression resulted in lower average sadness compared to mindfulness among those high on Asian cultural values, but not those low on Asian cultural values. Both mindfulness and reappraisal buffered against increases in Stroop interference from pre-to post-regulation compared to suppression. The findings highlight the advantage of mindfulness as a strategy effective not only in the regulation of sad mood, but also in the preservation of cognitive resources in the context of mood regulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Modeling and analysis with induction generators

    CERN Document Server

    Simões, M Godoy

    2014-01-01

    ForewordPrefaceAcknowledgmentsAuthorsPrinciples of Alternative Sources of Energy and Electric GenerationScope of This ChapterLegal DefinitionsPrinciples of Electrical ConversionBasic Definitions of Electrical PowerCharacteristics of Primary SourcesCharacteristics of Remote Industrial, Commercial, and Residential Sites and Rural EnergySelection of the Electric GeneratorInterfacing Primary Source, Generator, and LoadExample of a Simple Integrated Generating and Energy-Storing SystemSolved ProblemsSuggested ProblemsReferencesSteady-State Model of Induction GeneratorsScope of This ChapterInterconnection and Disconnection of the Electric Distribution NetworkRobustness of Induction GeneratorsClassical Steady-State Representation of the Asynchronous MachineGenerated PowerInduced TorqueRepresentation of Induction Generator LossesMeasurement of Induction Generator ParametersBlocked Rotor Test (s = 1)No-Load Test (s = 0)Features of Induction Machines Working as Generators Interconnected to the Distribution NetworkHigh-...

  17. On line protection systems for induction motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colak, I.; Celik, H.; Sefa, I.; Demirbas, S.

    2005-01-01

    Protection of induction motors is very important since they are widely used in industry for many applications due to their high robustness, reliability, low cost and maintenance, high efficiency and long service life. So, protecting these motors is crucial for operations. This paper presents a combined protection approach for induction motors. To achieve this, the electrical values of the induction motor were measured with sensitivity ±1% through a data acquisition card and processed with software developed in Visual C++. An on line protection system for induction motors was achieved easily and effectively. The experimental results have shown that the induction motor was protected against the possible problems faced during the operation. The software developed for this protection provides flexible and reliable media for operators and their motors. It is expected that the motor protection achieved in this study might be faster than the classical techniques and also may be applied to larger motors easily after small modifications of the software

  18. Video luminescent barometry - The induction period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uibel, Rory H.; Khalil, Gamal; Gouterman, Martin; Gallery, Jean; Callis, James B.

    1993-01-01

    Video monitoring of oxygen quenching of the photoluminescence of platinum octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP) in silicone polymer resin may be used to measure pressure distribution over an airfoil. A continuous increase of the luminescence intensity of PtOEP on exposure to the exciting light is known as the induction effect. The effect of several factors on PtOEP photoluminescence and the induction effect was investigated. The experimental apparatus is described and results are presented. It was observed that the relative induction amplitude and induction time increase at higher oxygen pressure and with thicker films. These observations may be explained if the singlet oxygen produced by oxygen quenching is consumed by the polymer and is therefore unavailable for further quenching. Researchers using this method for measuring pressure distribution on airfoil surfaces should be aware of the induction effect and its implications.

  19. Reasoning about modular datatypes with Mendler induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Torrini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In functional programming, datatypes a la carte provide a convenient modular representation of recursive datatypes, based on their initial algebra semantics. Unfortunately it is highly challenging to implement this technique in proof assistants that are based on type theory, like Coq. The reason is that it involves type definitions, such as those of type-level fixpoint operators, that are not strictly positive. The known work-around of impredicative encodings is problematic, insofar as it impedes conventional inductive reasoning. Weak induction principles can be used instead, but they considerably complicate proofs. This paper proposes a novel and simpler technique to reason inductively about impredicative encodings, based on Mendler-style induction. This technique involves dispensing with dependent induction, ensuring that datatypes can be lifted to predicates and relying on relational formulations. A case study on proving subject reduction for structural operational semantics illustrates that the approach enables modular proofs, and that these proofs are essentially similar to conventional ones.

  20. Induction accelerator test module for HIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltens, A.

    1991-04-01

    An induction linac test module suitable for investigating the drive requirements and the longitudinal coupling impedance of a high-power ion induction linac has been constructed by the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) group at LBL. The induction linac heavy ion driver for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) as presently envisioned uses multiple parallel beams which are transported in separate focusing channels but accelerated together in the induction modules. The resulting induction modules consequently have large beam apertures-1--2 meters in diameter- and correspondingly large outside diameters. The module geometry is related to a low-frequency ''gap capacity'' and high-frequency structural resonances, which are affected by the magnetic core loading and the module pulser impedance. A description of the test module and preliminary results are presented. 3 figs

  1. Single induction dose of etomidate versus other induction agents for endotracheal intubation in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Eric A; Ball, Ian M; Ridi, Stacy; Pickett, William; Hohl, Corinne

    2015-01-08

    The use of etomidate for emergency airway interventions in critically ill patients is very common. In one large registry trial, etomidate was the most commonly used agent for this indication. Etomidate is known to suppress adrenal gland function, but it remains unclear whether or not this adrenal gland dysfunction affects mortality. The primary objective was to assess, in populations of critically ill patients, whether a single induction dose of etomidate for emergency airway intervention affects mortality.The secondary objectives were to address, in populations of critically ill patients, whether a single induction dose of etomidate for emergency airway intervention affects adrenal gland function, organ dysfunction, or health services utilization (as measured by intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS), duration of mechanical ventilation, or vasopressor requirements).We repeated analyses within subgroups defined by the aetiologies of critical illness, timing of adrenal gland function measurement, and the type of comparator drug used. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; CINAHL; EMBASE; LILACS; International Pharmaceutical Abstracts; Web of Science; the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE); and ISI BIOSIS Citation index(SM) on 8 February 2013. We reran the searches in August 2014. We will deal with any studies of interest when we update the review.We also searched the Scopus database of dissertations and conference proceedings and the US Food and Drug Administration Database. We handsearched major emergency medicine, critical care, and anaesthesiology journals.We handsearched the conference proceedings of major emergency medicine, anaesthesia, and critical care conferences from 1990 to current, and performed a grey literature search of the following: Current Controlled Trials; National Health Service - The National Research Register; ClinicalTrials.gov; NEAR website. We included randomized controlled

  2. Inductive cooling in quantum magnetomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Sanchez, Erick; Twamley, Jason; Bowen, Warwick P.; Vanner, Michael R.

    Coupling to light or microwave fields allows quantum control of the motion of a mechanical oscillator, and offers prospects for precision sensing, quantum information systems, and tests of fundamental physics. In cavity electromechanics ground state cooling has been achieved using resolved sideband cooling. Here we present an alternative approach based on a magnetomechanical system that inductively couples an LC resonator to a mechanical oscillator. The experimental setup consists of a micro cantilever with a pyramidal magnetic tip attached at the end of the beam. The sharp end of the magnetic tip is positioned close to the planar microfabricated inductor of the LC resonator. The displacement in the position of the end of the cantilever generates a change in flux through the coil inducing an electromotive force in the circuit. The current in the LC resonator generates a magnetic field, and then a force between the tip and the coil. When they are strongly coupled and the mechanical resonance frequency ωm exceeds the electrical decay rate of the resonator γe, resolved sideband cooling can be used to cool the mechanics. We present estimations for the coupling rates and the experimental parameters required for these experiments. E. Romero acknowledges to CONACyT.

  3. Involvement of TRPV3 and TRPM8 ion channel proteins in induction of mammalian cold-inducible proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Takanori; Liu, Yu; Higashitsuji, Hiroaki; Itoh, Katsuhiko; Shibasaki, Koji; Fujita, Jun; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki

    2018-01-01

    Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP), RNA-binding motif protein 3 (RBM3) and serine and arginine rich splicing factor 5 (SRSF5) are RNA-binding proteins that are transcriptionally upregulated in response to moderately low temperatures and a variety of cellular stresses in mammalian cells. Induction of these cold-inducible proteins (CIPs) is dependent on transient receptor potential (TRP) V4 channel protein, but seems independent of its ion channel activity. We herein report that in addition to TRPV4, TRPV3 and TRPM8 are necessary for the induction of CIPs. We established cell lines from the lung of TRPV4-knockout (KO) mouse, and observed induction of CIPs in them by western blot analysis. A TRPV4 antagonist RN1734 suppressed the induction in wild-type mouse cells, but not in TRPV4-KO cells. A TRPV3 channel blocker S408271 and a TRPM8 channel blocker AMTB as well as siRNAs against TRPV3 and TRPM8 suppressed the CIP induction in mouse TRPV4-KO cells and human U-2 OS cells. A TRPV3 channel agonist 2-APB induced CIP expression, but camphor did not. Neither did a TRPM8 channel agonist WS-12. These results suggest that TRPV4, TRPV3 and TRPM8 proteins, but not their ion channel activities are necessary for the induction of CIPs at 32 °C. Identification of proteins that differentially interact with these TRP channels at 37 °C and 32 °C would help elucidate the underlying mechanisms of CIP induction by hypothermia. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Photoperiodic suppression of drug reinstatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorg, B A; Stark, G; Sergeeva, A; Jansen, H T

    2011-03-10

    The rewarding influence of drugs of abuse varies with time of day and appears to involve interactions between the circadian and the mesocorticolimbic dopamine systems. The circadian system is also intimately involved in measuring daylength. Thus, the present study examined the impact of changing daylength (photoperiod) on cocaine-seeking behaviors. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained and tested on a 12L:12D light:dark schedule for cocaine-induced reinstatement of conditioned place preference (CPP) at three times of day (Zeitgeber time (ZT): 4, 12, and 20) to determine a preference score. Rats were then shifted to either shorter (6L:18D) or longer (18L:6D) photoperiods and then to constant conditions, re-tested for cocaine-induced reinstatement under each different condition, and then returned to their original photoperiod (12L:12D) and tested once more. Rats exhibited a circadian profile of preference score in constant darkness with a peak at 12 h after lights-off. At both ZT4 and ZT20, but not at ZT12, shorter photoperiods profoundly suppressed cocaine reinstatement, which did not recover even after switching back to 12L:12D. In contrast, longer photoperiods did not alter reinstatement. Separate studies showed that the suppression of cocaine reinstatement was not due to repeated testing. In an additional experiment, we examined the photoperiodic regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine transporter (DAT) proteins in drug-naive rats. These results revealed photoperiodic modulation of proteins in the prefrontal cortex and dorsal striatum, but not in the nucleus accumbens or ventral tegmental area. Together, these findings add further support to the circadian genesis of cocaine-seeking behaviors and demonstrate that drug-induced reinstatement is modulated by photoperiod. Furthermore, the results suggest that photoperiod partly contributes to the seasonal expression of certain drug-related behaviors in humans living at different latitudes and thus our

  5. SIGNAL MEDIATORS AT INDUCTION OF HEAT RESISTANCE OF WHEAT PLANTLETS BY SHORT-TERM HEATING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpets, Yu V; Kolupaev, Yu E; Yastreb, T O

    2015-01-01

    The effects of functional interplay of calcium ions, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) in the cells of wheat plantlets roots (Triticum aestivum L.) at the induction of their heat resistance by a short-term influence of hyperthermia (heating at the temperature of 42 degrees C during 1 minute) have been investigated. The transitional increase of NO and H2O2 content, invoked by heating, was suppressed by the treatment of plantlets with the antagonists of calcium EGTA (chelator of exocellular calcium), lanthanum chloride (blocker of calcium channels of various types) and neomycin (inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol-dependent phospholipase C). The rise of hydrogen peroxide content, caused by hardening, was partially suppressed by the action of inhibitors of nitrate reductase (sodium wolframate) and NO-synthase (N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester--L-NAME), and the increasing of nitric oxide content was suppressed by the treatment of plants with the antioxidant ionol and with the scavenger of hydrogen peroxide (dimethylthiourea). These compounds and antagonists of calcium also partially removed the effect of the rise of plantlets' heat resistance, invoked by hardening heating. The conclusion on calcium's role in the activation of enzymatic systems, generating reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide, and on the functional interplay of these signal mediators at the induction of heat resistance of plantlets by hardening heating is made.

  6. Signal mediators at induction of heat resistance of wheat plantlets by short-term heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Karpets

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of functional interplay of calcium ions, reactive oxygen species (ROS and nitric oxide (NO in the cells of wheat plantlets roots (Triticum aestivum L. at the induction of their heat resistance by a short-term influence of hyperthermia (heating at the temperature of 42 °С during 1 minute have been investigated. The transitional increase of NO and H2O2 content, invoked by heating, was suppressed by the treatment of plantlets with the antagonists of calcium EGTA (chelator of exocellular calcium, lanthanum chloride (blocker of calcium channels of various types and neomycin (inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol-dependent phospholipase C. The rise of hydrogen peroxide content, caused by hardening, was partially suppressed by the action of inhibitors of nitrate reductase (sodium wolframate and NO-synthase (NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester – L-NAME, and the increasing of nitric oxide content was suppressed by the treatment of plants with the antioxidant ionol and with the scavenger of hydrogen peroxide (dimethylthiourea. These compounds and antagonists of calcium also partially removed the effect of the rise of plantlets’ heat resistance, invoked by hardening heating. The conclusion on calcium’s role in the activation of enzymatic systems, generating reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide, and on the functional interplay of these signal mediators at the induction of heat resistance of plantlets by hardening heating is made.

  7. Energy balance in a Z pinch with suppressed Rayleigh–Taylor instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksht, R. B.; Oreshkin, V. I.; Rousskikh, A. G.; Zhigalin, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    At present Z-pinch has evolved into a powerful plasma source of soft x-ray. This paper considers the energy balance in a radiating metallic gas-puff Z pinch. In this type of Z pinch, a power-law density distribution is realized, promoting suppression of Rayleigh–Taylor (RT) instabilities that occur in the pinch plasma during compression. The energy coupled into the pinch plasma, is determined as the difference between the total energy delivered to the load from the generator and the magnetic energy of the load inductance. A calibrated voltage divider and a Rogowski coil were used to determine the coupled energy and the load inductance. Time-gated optical imaging of the pinch plasma showed its stable compression up to the stagnation phase. The pinch implosion was simulated using a 1D two-temperature radiative magnetohydrodynamic code. Comparison of the experimental and simulation results has shown that the simulation adequately describes the pinch dynamics for conditions in which RT instability is suppressed. It has been found that the proportion of the Ohmic heating in the energy balance of a Z pinch with suppressed RT instability is determined by Spitzer resistance and makes no more than ten percent.

  8. Adiponectin Suppresses UVB-Induced Premature Senescence and hBD2 Overexpression in Human Keratinocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MinJeong Kim

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed that adiponectin can suppress cellular inflammatory signaling pathways. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of adiponectin on the unregulated production of hBD2 in UVB-induced premature senescent keratinocytes. We constructed an in vitro model of premature senescent keratinocytes through repeated exposure to low energy UVB. After repeated low energy UVB exposure, there was significant generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and induction of senescence-associated markers, including senescence associated beta-galactosidase activity and expression of p16INK4a and histone H2AX. In addition, the present clinical study showed higher expression of hBD2 in sun-exposed skin of elderly group, and the overexpression of hBD2 was observed by c-Fos activation in vitro. Adiponectin has the ability to scavenge ROS and consequently inhibit MAPKs and SA-markers in UVB-exposed keratinocytes. An inhibitor study demonstrated that adiponectin downregulated hBD2 mRNA expression through suppression of the AP-1 transcription factor components c-Fos via inactivation of p38 MAPK. Collectively, the dysregulated production of hBD2 by the induction of oxidative stress was attenuated by adiponectin through the suppression of p38 and JNK/SAPK MAPK signaling in UVB-mediated premature senescent inducible conditions. These results suggest the feasibility of adiponectin as an anti-photoaging and anti-inflammatory agent in the skin.

  9. Quercetin suppressed CYP2E1-dependent ethanol hepatotoxicity via depleting heme pool and releasing CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuhan; Tian, Hongtao; Shi, Yanru; Gao, Chao; Xing, Mingyou; Yang, Wei; Bao, Wei; Wang, Di; Liu, Liegang; Yao, Ping

    2013-06-15

    Naturally occuring quercetin protects hepatocytes from ethanol-induced oxidative stress, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction and carbon monoxide (CO) metabolite may be implicated in the beneficial effect. However, the precise mechanism by which quercetin counteracts CYP2E1-mediated ethanol hepatotoxicity through HO-1 system is still remained unclear. To explore the potential mechanism, herein, ethanol (4.0 g/kg.bw.) was administrated to rats for 90 days. Our data showed that chronic ethanol over-activated CYP2E1 but suppressed HO-1 with concurrent hepatic oxidative damage, which was partially normalized by quercetin (100mg/kg.bw.). Quercetin (100 μM) induced HO-1 and depleted heme pool when incubated to human hepatocytes. Ethanol-stimulated (100mM) CYP2E1 upregulation was suppressed by quercetin but further enhanced by HO-1 inhibition with resultant heme accumulation. CO scavenging blocked the suppression of quercetin only on CYP2E1 activity. CO donor dose-dependently inactivated CYP2E1 of ethanol-incubated microsome, which was mimicked by HO-1 substrate but abolished by CO scavenger. Thus, CYP2E1-mediated ethanol hepatotoxicity was alleviated by quercetin through HO-1 induction. Depleted heme pool and CO releasing limited protein synthesis and inhibited enzymatic activity of CYP2E1, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Menstrual suppression for adolescents with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savasi, I; Spitzer, R F; Allen, L M; Ornstein, M P

    2009-06-01

    The approach to menstrual suppression for adolescents with developmental disabilities has evolved considerably over the years due to changing philosophies and evolving treatment options. We review the medical management options available for menstrual suppression with a focus on the needs and treatment of adolescents with developmental disabilities.

  11. Suppression of fertility in adult cats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goericke-Pesch, Sandra Kathrin; Wehrend, A.; Georgiev, P.

    2014-01-01

    and clinical options are available for the suppression of fertility in adult cats and the decision as to which should be chosen - independent of the legal registration of any state - depends on different facts: (i) feral or privately owned animal? (ii) temporary or permanent suppression of fertility wanted...

  12. Simulation analysis of a wildfire suppression system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abílio Pereira Pacheco; João Claro; Tiago. Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Rekindles and false alarms are unusually high in the Portuguese wildfire management system, representing a high burden on suppression resources in particular, and fire management resources in general. In 20,049 occurrences that the suppression system handled in the summer of 2010, 12.5% were false alarms and 15.0% were rekindles. We present a discreteevent simulation...

  13. Suppression of Aspergillus by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Guillaume; Jelsbak, Lars; Søndergaard, Ib

    Objectives: Cystic fibrosis patients are commonly infected by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but Aspergilli are also frequently isolated. Our aim was to examine the possible interaction between P. aeruginosa and different Aspergillus. Methods: A suspension of 106 fungal spores/ml was streaked onto WATM......, here among 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone (PQS). An unidentified green pseudomonas compound was also observed. Interestingly the P. aeruginosa mutant rpoN was unable to suppress A. fumigatus, but suppressed A. flavus, A. oryzae and A. niger. However several other P. aeruginosa mutants suppressed A....... fumigatus including flif, pilA, lasR, PVDA, PQSC and rhlA mutants indicating that phenazines may be involved in the suppressed growth of A. fumigatus. All pseudomonas mutants suppressed A. oryzae, A. niger and A. flavus. Conclusions: An increase in phenazine production by P. aeruginosa may contribute...

  14. Emotion suppression, not reappraisal, predicts psychotherapy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Anne; Boecker, Maren; Pawelzik, Markus; Gauggel, Siegfried; Forkmann, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify whether trait emotion regulation strategies predict successful or unsuccessful psychotherapy outcomes in cognitive behaviour therapy. Three emotion regulation strategies (reappraisal, suppression, and externalizing behaviour) were assessed in 358 in- and outpatients. Patients were then grouped by therapy outcome. Emotion regulation strategies and confounding variables were entered as predictors in multinomial logistic regression analyses. Emotion suppression, but not reappraisal, was found to predict therapy outcomes for in- and outpatients, with patients high in suppression experiencing worse outcomes. Externalizing behaviour was only relevant in inpatient treatment. High suppression might be detrimental to psychotherapy outcome and should be assessed early on. Further research should investigate the influence of suppression on the mechanisms that facilitate change in psychotherapy.

  15. Andrographolide downregulates the v-Src and Bcr-Abl oncoproteins and induces Hsp90 cleavage in the ROS-dependent suppression of cancer malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng-Hung; Lin, Chao-Hsiung; Liang, Fong-Ping; Chen, Pei-Fen; Kuo, Cheng-Deng; Alam, Mohd Mujahid; Maiti, Barnali; Hung, Shih-Kai; Chi, Chin-Wen; Sun, Chung-Ming; Fu, Shu-Ling

    2014-01-15

    Andrographolide is a diterpenoid compound isolated from Andrographis paniculata that exhibits anticancer activity. We previously reported that andrographolide suppressed v-Src-mediated cellular transformation by promoting the degradation of Src. In the present study, we demonstrated the involvement of Hsp90 in the andrographolide-mediated inhibition of Src oncogenic activity. Using a proteomics approach, a cleavage fragment of Hsp90α was identified in andrographolide-treated cells. The concentration- and time-dependent induction of Hsp90 cleavage that accompanied the reduction in Src was validated in RK3E cells transformed with either v-Src or a human truncated c-Src variant and treated with andrographolide. In cancer cells, the induction of Hsp90 cleavage by andrographolide and its structural derivatives correlated well with decreased Src levels, the suppression of transformation, and the induction of apoptosis. Moreover, the andrographolide-induced Hsp90 cleavage, Src degradation, inhibition of transformation, and induction of apoptosis were abolished by a ROS inhibitor, N-acetyl-cysteine. Notably, Hsp90 cleavage, decreased levels of Bcr-Abl (another known Hsp90 client protein), and the induction of apoptosis were also observed in human K562 leukemia cells treated with andrographolide or its active derivatives. Together, we demonstrated a novel mechanism by which andrographolide suppressed cancer malignancy that involved inhibiting Hsp90 function and reducing the levels of Hsp90 client proteins. Our results broaden the molecular basis of andrographolide-mediated anticancer activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Linear Parameter Varying Control of Induction Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, Klaus

    The subject of this thesis is the development of linear parameter varying (LPV) controllers and observers for control of induction motors. The induction motor is one of the most common machines in industrial applications. Being a highly nonlinear system, it poses challenging control problems...... for high performance applications. This thesis demonstrates how LPV control theory provides a systematic way to achieve good performance for these problems. The main contributions of this thesis are the application of the LPV control theory to induction motor control as well as various contributions...

  17. Vaccination with DNA Encoding an Immunodominant Myelin Basic Protein Peptide Targeted to Fc of Immunoglobulin G Suppresses Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Lobell, Anna; Weissert, Robert; Storch, Maria K.; Svanholm, Cecilia; de Graaf, Katrien L.; Lassmann, Hans; Andersson, Roland; Olsson, Tomas; Wigzell, Hans

    1998-01-01

    We explore here if vaccination with DNA encoding an autoantigenic peptide can suppress autoimmune disease. For this purpose we used experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), which is an autoaggressive disease in the central nervous system and an animal model for multiple sclerosis. Lewis rats were vaccinated with DNA encoding an encephalitogenic T cell epitope, guinea pig myelin basic protein peptide 68–85 (MBP68–85), before induction of EAE with MBP68–85 in complete Freund's adjuvant....

  18. Inductance calculation system for superconducting circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoya, M.; Shimizu, N.; Miyamoto, N.; Harada, Y.; Goto, E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a method for calculating the inductance of complicated three-dimensional superconducting circuits. In this method, current distribution is obtained by solving the simultaneous linear equation which satisfies both Maxwell's and london's equations. Inductance is calculated from magnetic energy caused by the current. Extrapolations are used to reduce the computational resources and to increase the accuracy of the results. Based upon the method, a CAD system was developed to design superconducting circuits. The inductance of complicated 3D superconducting circuits, which was unattainable except by experiments, can be easily calculated by this system. Coupling inductance of a dc-SQUID is calculated using the CAD system. The result agrees well with the experiment

  19. Validity of a frustration-induction procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henna, Elaine; Zilberman, Monica L; Gentil, Valentim; Gorenstein, Clarice

    2008-03-01

    To test a reliable and easily administered frustration-induction procedure for experimental research. One hundred volunteers (81 women, mean age +/- SD 34.2 +/- 8 years) physically and psychiatrically healthy submitted to the frustration induction procedure were prevented from reaching reward level scores. Subjective aggressiveness feelings related to frustration were self-rated in a 13-item visual analogue scale before and after the procedure. Significant increases in aggressiveness-related feelings were detected in 12 of the 13 items. This was consistent with the observed overt behavior of the subjects during the task. The frustration-induction procedure is a simple, easy to administer frustration-induction procedure that can be used in experimental studies in normal subjects.

  20. Parthenogenesis induction by Wolbachia in parasitoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The maternally inherited intracellular bacterium, Wolbachia pipientis, induces reproductive alterations in host arthropod populations such as male-killing, feminization, parthenogenesis induction (PI, or reproduction without males) and cytoplasmic incompatibility. Here we report that PI in Mexican O...

  1. Induction Motor Diagnosis in Variable Speed Drives

    OpenAIRE

    Stefani, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Several diagnostic techniques are presented for the detection of electrical fault in induction motor variable speed drives. These techinques are developed taking into account the impact of the control system on machine variables and non stationary operating conditions.

  2. Induction of labor in the obese patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhstaller, Kelly

    2015-10-01

    Obese women are at an increased risk of antepartum pregnancy complications and are therefore more likely to require an induction of labor than normal weight women. They also have an increased rate of failing an induction of labor, a rate that rises significantly with increasing body mass index, and subsequent surgical and neonatal complications of an intrapartum cesarean delivery. This increase in induction failure may be due to differences in the myometrium of obese women resulting in decreased contraction strength. There have been only a few studies comparing the efficacy of the various cervical ripening agents in obese women and at this point no recommendation can be made as to what method may result in the greatest chance of a successful induction. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Failed labor induction: toward an objective diagnosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rouse, Dwight J

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate maternal and perinatal outcomes in women undergoing labor induction with an unfavorable cervix according to duration of oxytocin administration in the latent phase of labor after ruptured membranes.

  4. Relations between premise similarity and inductive strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, Evan; Feeney, Aidan

    2005-04-01

    According to the diversity principle, diverse evidence is strong evidence. There has been considerable evidence that people respect this principle in inductive reasoning. However, exceptions may be particularly informative. Medin, Coley, Storms, and Hayes (2003) introduced a relevance theory of inductive reasoning and used this theory to predict exceptions, including the nondiversity-by-property-reinforcement effect. A new experiment in which this phenomenon was investigated is reported here. Subjects made inductive strength judgments and similarity judgments for stimuli from Medin et al. (2003). The inductive strength judgments showed the same pattern as that in Medin et al. (2003); however, the similarity judgments suggested that the pattern should be interpreted as a diversity effect, rather than as a nondiversity effect. It is concluded that the evidence regarding the predicted nondiversity-by-property-reinforcement effect does not give distinctive support for relevance theory, although this theory does address other results.

  5. Progress in antenna coupled kinetic inductance detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baryshev, A.; Baselmans, J.J.A.; Freni, A.; Gerini, G.; Hoevers, H.; Iacono, A.; Neto, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the combined Dutch efforts toward the development of large wideband focal plane array receivers based on kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs). Taking into account strict electromagnetic and detector sensitivity requirements for future ground and space based observatories, this

  6. CORELESS INDUCTION FURNACE. CONSTRUCTIVE DIFFERENCES, OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Saharevich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main tendencies of development of induction crucible furnaces are considered. constructive differences of crucible furnaces in comparison with fuel furnaces are given. The area of their application is specified.

  7. Superconducting Resonant Inductive Power Coupling, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort will develop a technology to wirelessly and efficiently transfer power over hundreds of meters via resonant inductive coupling. The key...

  8. An experimental reexamination of Faradayan electrogravitational induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    Motivated by a reexamination of Faraday's conjectures and experiments on electrogravitational induction of 130 years ago, a new experimental approach to the exploration of such hypothetical coupling is suggested. It consists of sharply accelerating a metal sample with a mass of the order of 10 3 g and checking to see if a transient 'effective' electric charge is induced in the sample during the acceleration-as is expected on the basis of the Faraday electrogravitational induction hypothesis. Apparatus capable of discriminating electrogravitational induction effects to several orders of magnitude greater accuracy than hitherto achieved is described. The results of such an experiment, in which signals conforming to expectation are obtained, are reported. Tests that appear to rule out conventional charge generation mechanisms as the source of the observed signals are considered. Several other experiments where one might expect electrogravitational induction effects to manifest themselves, especially in the muon magnetic moment, are considered. (author)

  9. Psychopathology and Thought Suppression: A Quantitative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Joshua C.; Harden, K. Paige; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent theories of psychopathology have suggested that thought suppression intensifies the persistence of intrusive thoughts, and proposed that difficulty with thought suppression may differ between groups with and without psychopathology. The current meta-analytic review evaluates empirical evidence for difficulty with thought suppression as a function of the presence and specific type of psychopathology. Based on theoretical proposals from the psychopathology literature, diagnosed and analogue samples were expected to show greater recurrence of intrusive thoughts during thought suppression attempts than non-clinical samples. However, results showed no overall differences in the recurrence of thoughts due to thought suppression between groups with and without psychopathology. There was, nevertheless, variation in the recurrence of thoughts across different forms of psychopathology, including relatively less recurrence during thought suppression for samples with symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, compared to non-clinical samples. However, these differences were typically small and provided only mixed support for existing theories. Implications for cognitive theories of intrusive thoughts are discussed, including proposed mechanisms underlying thought suppression. PMID:22388007

  10. Volatile suppressing method for radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Atsushi; Haruguchi, Keiko.

    1997-01-01

    In the present invention, a metal plate is disposed above the pool water surface of a suppression chamber disposed to a reactor container in order to reduce evaporation of radioactive iodine released from a suppression pool. A metal plate is disposed above the pool water surface of the suppression chamber disposed to the reactor container. In addition, a metal plate is disposed around the space connecting a bent tube extending from a dry well to underwater of suppression pool water and a gas bent tube extending from the suppression chamber to an emergency gas processing system. Spray water is supplied for cooling the suppression chamber d as a means for cooling the metal plate. Then, among iodine released to the suppression chamber, elemental iodine liberated from the pool water is deposited on the surface of the metal plate, and the amount of iodine to be flown into and processed by an emergency gas processing system or a filter bent system can be reduced. (T.M.)

  11. Estimation of rare earth elements in gadolinium oxide by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sanjukta A.; Venkataramani, B.; Kotekar, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    A method was developed for the direct determination of trace quantities of rare earth elements (REEs) in gadolinium oxide dissolved in nitric acid by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The matrix suppression effect of Gd on the ion peak signals of REEs impurities was effectively compensated with spiking In as an internal standard. The recoveries of spiked sample for REEs were found to be in the range of 91-109% by using the proposed method. The relative standard deviation varied between 1.5 to 6%. The methodology had been found to be suitable for the direct determination of trace REEs in Gd 2 O 3 and the results obtained from this method keep in good agreement with that acquired from inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry. (author)

  12. High density growth of T7 expression strains with auto-induction option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studier, F. William (Stony Brook, NY)

    2010-07-20

    A bacterial growth medium for promoting auto-induction of transcription of cloned DNA in cultures of bacterial cells grown batchwise is disclosed. The transcription is under the control of a lac repressor. Also disclosed is a bacterial growth medium for improving the production of a selenomethionine-containing protein or polypeptide in a bacterial cell, the protein or polypeptide being produced by recombinant DNA techniques from a lac or T7lac promoter, the bacterial cell encoding a vitamin B12-dependent homocysteine methylase. Finally, disclosed is a bacterial growth medium for suppressing auto-induction of expression in cultures of bacterial cells grown batchwise, said transcription being under the control of lac repressor.

  13. On the relevance of source effects in geomagnetic pulsations for induction soundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neska, Anne; Tadeusz Reda, Jan; Leszek Neska, Mariusz; Petrovich Sumaruk, Yuri

    2018-03-01

    This study is an attempt to close a gap between recent research on geomagnetic pulsations and their usage as source signals in electromagnetic induction soundings (i.e., magnetotellurics, geomagnetic depth sounding, and magnetovariational sounding). The plane-wave assumption as a precondition for the proper performance of these methods is partly violated by the local nature of field line resonances which cause a considerable portion of pulsations at mid latitudes. It is demonstrated that and explained why in spite of this, the application of remote reference stations in quasi-global distances for the suppression of local correlated-noise effects in induction arrows is possible in the geomagnetic pulsation range. The important role of upstream waves and of the magnetic equatorial region for such applications is emphasized. Furthermore, the principal difference between application of reference stations for local transfer functions (which result in sounding curves and induction arrows) and for inter-station transfer functions is considered. The preconditions for the latter are much stricter than for the former. Hence a failure to estimate an inter-station transfer function to be interpreted in terms of electromagnetic induction, e.g., because of field line resonances, does not necessarily prohibit use of the station pair for a remote reference estimation of the impedance tensor.

  14. First deliveries after estrus induction using deslorelin and endoscopic transcervical insemination in the queen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambelli, Daniele; Bini, Costanza; Küster, Daniel Gerhard; Molari, Valeria; Cunto, Marco

    2015-09-15

    The present study consists of two distinct parts, experiment 1 and experiment 2. In experiment 1, 13 anestrous queens were treated with a 4.7-mg deslorelin subcutaneous implant to assess its effectiveness in inducing estrus in the domestic cat. Deslorelin is currently used for the reversible suppression of ovarian and testicular activity in dogs and cats and for estrus induction in the bitch. Estrus induction is also reported in the queen but never reported with a targeted study. All the queens showed a positive response to the induction protocol, and estrus was detected within an average of 5.0 ± 2.2 days after the implant placement in 13 out of 13 subjects (100%). Seven of 13 queens exhibited behavioral manifestations of estrus, and the mean number of follicles detected at ultrasound examination was 4.8 ± 1.6 per subject. In experiment 2, three of the queens previously treated with deslorelin for estrus induction were submitted to artificial insemination through endoscopic transcervical catheterization, a new nonsurgical technique for intrauterine sperm deposition. All of them (100%) were pregnant after insemination and they gave birth to healthy litters. The study, as a whole, proves the effectiveness of the 4.7-mg deslorelin subcutaneous implants in inducing estrus in the domestic cat and is, to our knowledge, the first study assessing fertility of the induced estruses. Moreover, it shows the effectiveness of endoscopic transcervical catheterization for artificial insemination in the queen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of caffeine on induction of endogenous type C virus in mouse cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwa, O.; Sugahara, T.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of caffeine on the expression of murine endogenous virus in mouse cells induced by radiation and chemicals was studied. Postirradiation treatment of K-BALB cells with caffeine enhanced cell killing as well as the induction of xenotropic virus after ultraviolet light irradiation. The degree of enhancement for the virus induction was comparable to that for cell killing. On the other hand, colony-forming ability and the expression of xenotropic virus of K-BALB cells after X-irradiation were unaffected by caffeine. These data suggest a linear relationship between the degree of endogenous virus expression and the amount of lethal damages after irradiation. For induction by halogenated pyrimidines, a 24-hr incubation of AKR2B cells with caffeine after 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine treatment resulted in marked suppression of the expression of ecotropic virus. On the contrary, in K-BALB cells, caffeine exerted only a small effect on 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine-induced expression of ecotropic and xenotropic viruses. These results indicate that, although using the same inducing agent, the pathway of endogenous virus induction may be different for AKR2B cells and for K-BALB cells

  16. Finite Element Model of Gear Induction Hardening

    OpenAIRE

    Hodek, J; Zemko, M; Shykula, P

    2015-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents a finite element model of a gear induction hardening process. The gear was surface-heated by an induction coil and quickly cooled by spraying water. The finite element model was developed as a three-dimensional model. The electromagnetic field, temperature field, stress distribution and microstructure distribution were examined. Temperature and microstructural characteristics were measured and used. The gear material data was obtained in part by mea...

  17. Pyrrhonism and Hume's rejection of induction

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanovski, Mašan

    2012-01-01

    Sextus' rejection of induction poses a serious problem for Charlotte Stough's classical interpretation of Pyrrhonism. Her explanation of Pyrrhonist action is not available to the classical interpretation, because it implies that a Pyrrhonean has beliefs about his future impressions. In this article, the main premises of Hume's rejection of induction are reconstructed from Sextus' account of commemorative and indicative signs. The Pyrrhonean is not entitled to hold rational beliefs about his f...

  18. A Metric Observer for Induction Motors Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Benbouzid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with metric observer application for induction motors. Firstly, assuming that stator currents and speed are measured, a metric observer is designed to estimate the rotor fluxes. Secondly, assuming that only stator currents are measured, another metric observer is derived to estimate rotor fluxes and speed. The proposed observer validity is checked throughout simulations on a 4 kW induction motor drive.

  19. Diagnostics of internal inductance in HT-7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Li; Wan Baonian; Qian Jinping; Fan Hengyu

    2001-01-01

    Two arrays of Mirnov coils and a pair of concentric loops have been installed to superconducting tokamak HT-7. Software compensation and digital Fourier series expansion are the two techniques that have been applied successfully in measuring diamagnetic flux of concentric loops and internal inductance. The internal inductance of plasma l i , poloidal beta β p , Grad Shafranov parameter Λ, plasma minor radius α p and the center of the outermost magnetic flux surface Δ g are determined

  20. Physic basis of electromagnetic induction low

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.J. Kutkovetskyy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The statement on the macro level of EMF dependence on change in magnetic flux in time wrong reflects the physical phenomenon of electromagnetic induction low by Faraday, because EMF can be inducted if the magnetic flux of the circuit does not change. Changing magnetic flux of the circuit when the electromotive force arises is only a result of crossing the magnetic field lines by conductor and is an exception, which applies only to certain classes of electric machines.

  1. Advances in the Understanding of ELM Suppression by Resonant Magnetic Perturbations (RMPs) in DIII-D and Implications for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazikian, R. [PPPL

    2014-09-01

    Experiments on DIII-D have expanding the operating window for RMP ELM suppression to higher q95 with dominant electron heating and fully non-inductive current drive relevant to advanced modes of ITER operation. Robust ELM suppression has also been obtained with a reduced coil set, mitigating the risk of coil failure in maintaining ELM suppression in ITER. These results significantly expand the operating space and reduce risk for obtaining RMP ELM suppression in ITER. Efforts have also been made to search for 3D cause of ELM suppression. No internal non-axisymmetric structure is detected at the top of the pedestal, indicating that the dominant effect of the RMP is to produce an n=0 transport modification of the profiles. Linear two fluid MHD simulations using M3D-C1 indicate resonant field penetration and significant magnetic stochasticity at the top of the pedestal, consistent with the absence of detectable 3D structure in that region. A profile database was developed to compare the scaling of the pedestal and global confinement with the applied 3D field strength in ELM suppressed and ELM mitigated plasmas. The EPED pedestal model accurately predicts the measured pedestal pressure at the threshold of ELM suppression, increasing confidence in theoretical projections to ITER pedestal conditions. Both the H-factor (H(sub)98y2) and thermal energy confinement time do not degrade substantially with applied RMP fields near the threshold of ELM suppression, enhancing confidence in the compatibility of ITER high performance operation with RMP ELM suppression.

  2. Stator Current Harmonic Control with Resonant Controller for Doubly Fed Induction Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Changjin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Wenjie

    2012-01-01

    Voltage harmonics in the grid can introduce stator current harmonics in a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbine system, which may potentially impact the generated power quality. Therefore, wind turbine current controllers need to be designed to eliminate the impact of grid voltage...... harmonics, especially low-order harmonics. This paper proposes a stator current harmonic suppression method using a sixth-order resonant controller to eliminate negative sequence fifth- and positive sequence seventh-order current harmonics. A stator current harmonic control loop is added to the conventional...... rotor current control loop for harmonic suppression. The overall control scheme is implemented in dq frame. Based on a mathematical model of the DFIG control system, the effects on system stability using the resonant controller, an analysis of the steady-state error, and the dynamic performance...

  3. Hepatitis C Virus Frameshift/Alternate Reading Frame Protein Suppresses Interferon Responses Mediated by Pattern Recognition Receptor Retinoic-Acid-Inducible Gene-I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Bum Park

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV actively evades host interferon (IFN responses but the mechanisms of how it does so are not completely understood. In this study, we present evidence for an HCV factor that contributes to the suppression of retinoic-acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I-mediated IFN induction. Expression of frameshift/alternate reading frame protein (F/ARFP from HCV -2/+1 frame in Huh7 hepatoma cells suppressed type I IFN responses stimulated by HCV RNA pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP and poly(IC. The suppression occurred independently of other HCV factors; and activation of interferon stimulated genes, TNFα, IFN-λ1, and IFN-λ2/3 was likewise suppressed by HCV F/ARFP. Point mutations in the full-length HCV sequence (JFH1 genotype 2a strain were made to introduce premature termination codons in the -2/+1 reading frame coding for F/ARFP while preserving the original reading frame, which enhanced IFNα and IFNβ induction by HCV. The potentiation of IFN response by the F/ARFP mutations was diminished in Huh7.5 cells, which already have a defective RIG-I, and by decreasing RIG-I expression in Huh7 cells. Furthermore, adding F/ARFP back via trans-complementation suppressed IFN induction in the F/ARFP mutant. The F/ARFP mutants, on the other hand, were not resistant to exogenous IFNα. Finally, HCV-infected human liver samples showed significant F/ARFP antibody reactivity, compared to HCV-uninfected control livers. Therefore, HCV F/ARFP likely cooperates with other viral factors to suppress type I and III IFN induction occurring through the RIG-I signaling pathway. This study identifies a novel mechanism of pattern recognition receptor modulation by HCV and suggests a biological function of the HCV alternate reading frame in the modulation of host innate immunity.

  4. Suppression of saccharin-induced mutagenicity by interferon-alpha in human RSa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, N; Suzuki, H

    1995-10-01

    Saccharin is an artificial sweetener commonly used in the formulation of foods and beverages. Sodium saccharin-induced mutagenicity is detectable in human RSa cells by estimation of cloning efficiency of ouabain-resistant mutant cells and determination of K-ras codon 12 mutation in genomic DNA, analyzed by PCR and differential dot-blot hybridization. However, in this study no phenotypic or genetic mutations were detected in RSa cells cultured with human IFN (HuIFN)-alpha before sodium saccharin treatment. The suppressive effect was lessened by transient treatment with antipain immediately after sodium saccharin treatment. Elevation of antipain-sensitive protease activity was found, furthermore, in RSa cells cultured with HuIFN-alpha and subsequently treated with sodium saccharin. Thus, antipain-sensitive protease induction in cells tested here may be involved in suppression of the mutagenicity of saccharin by HuIFN-alpha.

  5. MEK guards proteome stability and inhibits tumor-suppressive amyloidogenesis via HSF1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zijian; Dai, Siyuan; He, Yishu; Doty, Rosalinda A.; Shultz, Leonard D.; Sampson, Stephen B.; Dai, Chengkai

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Signaling through RAS/MAP kinase pathway is central to biology. ERK has long been perceived as the only substrate for MEK. Herein we report that HSF1, the master regulator of the proteotoxic stress response, is a new MEK substrate. Beyond mediating cell-environment interactions, the MEK-HSF1 regulation impacts malignancy. In tumor cells, MEK blockade inactivates HSF1 and thereby provokes proteomic chaos, presented as protein destabilization, aggregation, and, strikingly, amyloidogenesis. Unlike their non-transformed counterparts, tumor cells are particularly susceptible to proteomic perturbation and amyloid induction. Amyloidogenesis is tumor-suppressive, reducing in vivo melanoma growth and contributing to the potent anti-neoplastic effects of proteotoxic stressors. Our findings unveil a key biological function of the oncogenic RAS-MEK signaling in guarding proteostasis and suppressing amyloidogenesis. Thus, proteomic instability is an intrinsic feature of malignant state and, disrupting the fragile tumor proteostasis to promote amyloidogenesis may be a feasible therapeutic strategy. PMID:25679764

  6. Helicobacter pylori cag Pathogenicity Island's Role in B7-H1 Induction and Immune Evasion

    OpenAIRE

    Lina, Taslima T.; Alzahrani, Shatha; House, Jennifer; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Sharpe, Arlene H.; Rampy, Bill A.; Pinchuk, Irina V.; Reyes, Victor E.

    2015-01-01

    During Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection CD4+ T cells in the gastric lamina propria are hyporesponsive and polarized by Th1/Th17 cell responses controlled by Treg cells. We have previously shown that H. pylori upregulates B7-H1 expression on GEC, which, in turn, suppress T cell proliferation, effector function, and induce Treg cells in vitro. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanisms and the functional relevance of B7-H1 induction by H. pylori infection to chronic infec...

  7. Matrix effects in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaoshan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-07-07

    The inductively coupled plasma is an electrodeless discharge in a gas (usually Ar) at atmospheric pressure. Radio frequency energy generated by a RF power source is inductively coupled to the plasma gas through a water cooled load coil. In ICP-MS the "Fassel" TAX quartz torch commonly used in emission is mounted horizontally. The sample aerosol is introduced into the central flow, where the gas kinetic temperature is about 5000 K. The aerosol is vaporized, atomized, excited and ionized in the plasma, and the ions are subsequently extracted through two metal apertures (sampler and skimmer) into the mass spectrometer. In ICP-MS, the matrix effects, or non-spectroscopic interferences, can be defined as the type of interferences caused by dissolved concomitant salt ions in the solution. Matrix effects can be divided into two categories: (1) signal drift due to the deposition of solids on the sampling apertures; and/or (2) signal suppression or enhancement by the presence of the dissolved salts. The first category is now reasonably understood. The dissolved salts, especially refractory oxides, tend to deposit on the cool tip of the sampling cone. The clogging of the orifices reduces the ion flow into the ICP-MS, lowers the pressure in the first stage of ICP-MS, and enhances the level of metal oxide ions. Because the extent of the clogging increases with the time, the signal drifts down. Even at the very early stage of the development of ICP-MS, matrix effects had been observed. Houk et al. found out that the ICP-MS was not tolerant to solutions containing significant amounts of dissolved solids.

  8. Matrix effects in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiaoshan.

    1995-01-01

    The inductively coupled plasma is an electrodeless discharge in a gas (usually Ar) at atmospheric pressure. Radio frequency energy generated by a RF power source is inductively coupled to the plasma gas through a water cooled load coil. In ICP-MS the open-quotes Fasselclose quotes TAX quartz torch commonly used in emission is mounted horizontally. The sample aerosol is introduced into the central flow, where the gas kinetic temperature is about 5000 K. The aerosol is vaporized, atomized, excited and ionized in the plasma, and the ions are subsequently extracted through two metal apertures (sampler and skimmer) into the mass spectrometer. In ICP-MS, the matrix effects, or non-spectroscopic interferences, can be defined as the type of interferences caused by dissolved concomitant salt ions in the solution. Matrix effects can be divided into two categories: (1) signal drift due to the deposition of solids on the sampling apertures; and/or (2) signal suppression or enhancement by the presence of the dissolved salts. The first category is now reasonably understood. The dissolved salts, especially refractory oxides, tend to deposit on the cool tip of the sampling cone. The clogging of the orifices reduces the ion flow into the ICP-MS, lowers the pressure in the first stage of ICP-MS, and enhances the level of metal oxide ions. Because the extent of the clogging increases with the time, the signal drifts down. Even at the very early stage of the development of ICP-MS, matrix effects had been observed. Houk et al. found out that the ICP-MS was not tolerant to solutions containing significant amounts of dissolved solids

  9. Leakage Current Suppression with A Novel Six-Switch Photovoltaic Grid-Connected Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Baoze; Guo, Xiaoqiang; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    of unmatched inductances. And the stray capacitor voltage of the non-isolated photovoltaic system is free of high frequency ripples. Theoretical analysis and simulation are carried out to verify the proposed topology and its control strategy. Results indicate that the leakage current suppression can......In order to solve the problem of the leakage current in non-isolated photovoltaic (PV) systems, a novel six-switch topology and control strategy are proposed in this paper. The inductor-bypass strategy solves the common-mode voltage limitation of the conventional six-switch topology in case...

  10. Xyloketal B Exhibits Its Antioxidant Activity through Induction of HO-1 in Vascular Endothelial Cells and Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Lei Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that a novel marine compound, xyloketal B, has strong antioxidative actions in different models of cardiovascular diseases. Induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, an important endogenous antioxidant enzyme, has been considered as a potential therapeutic strategy for cardiovascular diseases. We here investigated whether xyloketal B exhibits its antioxidant activity through induction of HO-1. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, xyloketal B significantly induced HO-1 gene expression and translocation of the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2 in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The protection of xyloketal B against angiotensin II-induced apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS production could be abrogated by the HO-1 specific inhibitor, tin protoporphyrin-IX (SnPP. Consistently, the suppressive effects of xyloketal B on NADPH oxidase activity could be reversed by SnPP in zebrafish embryos. In addition, xyloketal B induced Akt and Erk1/2 phosphorylation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and Erk1/2 inhibitor U0126 suppressed the induction of HO-1 and translocation of Nrf-2 by xyloketal B, whereas P38 inhibitor SB203580 did not. In conclusion, xyloketal B can induce HO-1 expression via PI3K/Akt/Nrf-2 pathways, and the induction of HO-1 is mainly responsible for the antioxidant and antiapoptotic actions of xyloketal B.

  11. Assessment of Electrical Influence of Multiple Piezoelectric Transducers' Connection on Actual Satellite Vibration Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Shimose

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We conduct comprehensive investigation of a semiactive vibration suppression method using piezoelectric transducers attached to structures. In our system, piezoelectric transducers are connected to an electric circuit composed of the diodes, an inductance, and a selective switch. Our method (SSDI makes better use of counterelectromotive force to suppress the vibration, instead of simple dissipation of vibration energy. We use an actual artificial satellite to verify their high performance compared to conventional semi-active methods. As a consequence, we demonstrate that our semi-active switching method can suppress the vibration of the real artificial satellite to as much as 50% amplitude reduction. In our experiment, we reveal that the suppression performance depends on how multiple piezoelectric transducers are connected, namely, their series or parallel connection. We draw two major conclusions from theoretical analysis and experiment, for constructing effective semi-active controller using piezoelectric transducers. This paper clearly proves that the performance of the method is the connection (series or parallel of multiple piezoelectric transducers and the their resistances dependent on frequency.

  12. Suppressing effect of low-dose gamma-ray irradiation on collagen-induced arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsukasa, Hiroko; Tsukimoto, Mitsutoshi; Ohshima, Yasuhiro; Tago, Fumitoshi; Masada, Ayako; Kojima, Shuji

    2008-01-01

    We previously reported attenuation of autoimmune disease by low-dose gamma-ray irradiation in MRL-lpr/lpr mice. Here, we studied the effect of low-dose gamma-ray irradiation on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in DBA/1J mice. Mice were immunized with type II collagen, and exposed to low-dose gamma-rays (0.5 Gy per week for 5 weeks). Paw swelling, redness, and bone degradation were suppressed by irradiation, which also delayed the onset of pathological change and reduced the severity of the arthritis. Production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma, and interleukin-6, which play important roles in the onset of CIA, was suppressed by the irradiation. The level of anti-type II collagen antibody, which is essential for the onset of CIA, was also lower in irradiated CIA mice. The population of plasma cells was increased in CIA mice, but irradiation blocked this increase. Since regulatory T cells are known to be involved in suppression of autoimmune disease, the population of CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + regulatory T cells was measured. Intriguingly, a significant increase of these regulatory T cells was found in irradiated CIA mice. Overall, our data suggest that low-dose gamma-ray irradiation could attenuate CIA through suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and autoantibody production, and induction of regulatory T cells. (author)

  13. Suppression factors in diffractive photoproduction of dijets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasen, Michael; Kramer, Gustav

    2010-06-01

    After new publications of H1 data for the diffractive photoproduction of dijets, which overlap with the earlier published H1 data and the recently published data of the ZEUS collaboration, have appeared, we have recalculated the cross sections for this process in next-to-leading order (NLO) of perturbative QCD to see whether they can be interpreted consistently. The results of these calculations are compared to the data of both collaborations. We find that the NLO cross sections disagree with the data, showing that factorization breaking occurs at that order. If direct and resolved contributions are both suppressed by the same amount, the global suppression factor depends on the transverse-energy cut. However, by suppressing only the resolved contribution, also reasonably good agreement with all the data is found with a suppression factor independent of the transverse-energy cut. (orig.)

  14. Attention modulates sensory suppression during back movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hulle, Lore; Juravle, Georgiana; Spence, Charles; Crombez, Geert; Van Damme, Stefaan

    2013-06-01

    Tactile perception is often impaired during movement. The present study investigated whether such sensory suppression also occurs during back movements, and whether this would be modulated by attention. In two tactile detection experiments, participants simultaneously engaged in a movement task, in which they executed a back-bending movement, and a perceptual task, consisting of the detection of subtle tactile stimuli administered to their upper or lower back. The focus of participants' attention was manipulated by raising the probability that one of the back locations would be stimulated. The results revealed that tactile detection was suppressed during the execution of the back movements. Furthermore, the results of Experiment 2 revealed that when the stimulus was always presented to the attended location, tactile suppression was substantially reduced, suggesting that sensory suppression can be modulated by top-down attentional processes. The potential of this paradigm for studying tactile information processing in clinical populations is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Quadratic dynamical decoupling with nonuniform error suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiroz, Gregory; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze numerically the performance of the near-optimal quadratic dynamical decoupling (QDD) single-qubit decoherence errors suppression method [J. West et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 130501 (2010)]. The QDD sequence is formed by nesting two optimal Uhrig dynamical decoupling sequences for two orthogonal axes, comprising N 1 and N 2 pulses, respectively. Varying these numbers, we study the decoherence suppression properties of QDD directly by isolating the errors associated with each system basis operator present in the system-bath interaction Hamiltonian. Each individual error scales with the lowest order of the Dyson series, therefore immediately yielding the order of decoherence suppression. We show that the error suppression properties of QDD are dependent upon the parities of N 1 and N 2 , and near-optimal performance is achieved for general single-qubit interactions when N 1 =N 2 .

  16. Combustion suppressing device for leaked sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooto, Akihiro.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To suppress the atmospheric temperature to secure the building safety and shorten the recovery time after the leakage in a chamber for containing sodium leaked from coolant circuit equipments or pipeways of LMFBR type rector by suppressing the combustion of sodium contained in the chamber. Constitution: To the inner wall of a chamber for containing sodium handling equipments, are vertically disposed a panel having a coolant supply port at the upper portion and a coolant discharge port at the lower portion thereof and defined with a coolant flowing channel and a panel for sucking the coolant discharged from the abovementioned panel and exhausting the same externally. Further, a corrugated combustion suppressing plate having apertures for draining the condensated leaked sodium is disposed near the sodium handling equipments. If ruptures are resulted to the sodium handling equipments or pipeway, leaked sodium is passed through the drain apertures in the suppressing plate and stored at the bottom of the containing chamber. (Horiuchi, T.)

  17. Inhibiting TGFβ1 has a protective effect on mouse bone marrow suppression following ionizing radiation exposure in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Heng; Yan Hao; Wang Xinzhuo; Niu Jingxiu; Wang Hui; Wang Yingai; Meng Aimin; Li Jin

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) causes not only acute tissue damage but also residual bone marrow (BM) suppression. The induction of residual BM injury is primarily attributable to the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) pressure in hematopoietic cells. In this study, we examined if SB431542, a transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) inhibitor, can mitigate IR-induced BM suppression in vitro. Our results showed that treatment with SB431542 protected mice bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs), hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from IR-induced suppression using cell viability assays, clonogenic assays and competitive repopulation assays. Moreover, expression of gene-related ROS production in hematopoietic cells was analyzed. The expression of NADPH oxidative 1 (NOX1), NOX2 and NOX4 was increased in irradiated BMMNCs, and that of NOX2 and NOX4 was reduced by SB431542 treatment. Therefore, the results from this study suggest that SB431542, a TGFβ1 inhibitor, alleviates IR-induced BM suppression at least in part via inhibiting IR-induced NOX2 and NOX4 expression. (author)

  18. Osteoclast activated FoxP3+ CD8+ T-cells suppress bone resorption in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary S Buchwald

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Osteoclasts are the body's sole bone resorbing cells. Cytokines produced by pro-inflammatory effector T-cells (T(EFF increase bone resorption by osteoclasts. Prolonged exposure to the T(EFF produced cytokines leads to bone erosion diseases such as osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. The crosstalk between T-cells and osteoclasts has been termed osteoimmunology. We have previously shown that under non-inflammatory conditions, murine osteoclasts can recruit naïve CD8 T-cells and activate these T-cells to induce CD25 and FoxP3 (Tc(REG. The activation of CD8 T-cells by osteoclasts also induced the cytokines IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 and IFN-γ. Individually, these cytokines can activate or suppress osteoclast resorption. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To determine the net effect of Tc(REG on osteoclast activity we used a number of in vitro assays. We found that Tc(REG can potently and directly suppress bone resorption by osteoclasts. Tc(REG could suppress osteoclast differentiation and resorption by mature osteoclasts, but did not affect their survival. Additionally, we showed that Tc(REG suppress cytoskeletal reorganization in mature osteoclasts. Whereas induction of Tc(REG by osteoclasts is antigen-dependent, suppression of osteoclasts by Tc(REG does not require antigen or re-stimulation. We demonstrated that antibody blockade of IL-6, IL-10 or IFN-γ relieved suppression. The suppression did not require direct contact between the Tc(REG and osteoclasts. SIGNIFICANCE: We have determined that osteoclast-induced Tc(REG can suppress osteoclast activity, forming a negative feedback system. As the CD8 T-cells are activated in the absence of inflammatory signals, these observations suggest that this regulatory loop may play a role in regulating skeletal homeostasis. Our results provide the first documentation of suppression of osteoclast activity by CD8 regulatory T-cells and thus, extend the purview of osteoimmunology.

  19. A Computer Model of Saccadic Suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Implications of sustained and transient channels for theories of visul pattern masking, saccadic suppression, and information processing...suppression. Because information available to the retina during saccades is a dynamic event in space and in time, the spatio-temporal properties of the...t), use is made of the convolution integral: In the context of the model, g(x,t) is the information supplied to a psychophysical detector and f(x,t

  20. Suppression mental questionnaire: a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore Settineri; Emanuele Maria Merlo; Irene Pagano Dritto; Maria Midili; Antonio Bruno; Carmela Mento

    2016-01-01

    Authors postulate that the difference between suppression and repression, highlighted in particular by the Societè Psychanalitique de Paris, enables the development of a quantitative instrument, since suppression is a defense accessible to consciousness and therefore quantifiable like scales and questionnaires. The idea of constructing a questionnaire, included the identification of thirty variables having somehow a plausible relationship with this mechanism. The factor exploratory analysis w...

  1. Suppressing Tsetse Flies to Improve Lives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potterton, Louise; Pavlicek, Petr; Parker, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the government-run Southern Tsetse Eradication Project (STEP) in Ethiopia, with the support of the IAEA, started to carry out intensive activities to suppress the fly population using insecticides. The fly population is now down by 90%. The benefits of tsetse suppression can be seen all over the region. Diary produce is now widely available at markets and healthy animals can be seen everywhere in farming and transport

  2. Pressure suppression chamber for a reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Masami

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the safety of a pressure suppression device by floating shock absorbers on the surface of pressure suppression pool water in a pressure suppression chamber opposing to vent headers of a reactor container. Constitution: Vent pipes of a reactor container are provided with vent headers, vacuum valves which are actuated upon excessively high pressure resulted in the space of a pressure suppression chamber, and downcomers for supplying water, vapor, etc. from the container to the pressure suppression pool. Shock absorbers are floated on the surface of pool water opposing to the headers. Accordingly, if gaseous nitrogen or air sealed in the container is compressed upon loss of coolant accidents to rapidly form gas bubbles in the pool and thereby generate impact pressure to the pool water, the pressure are absorbed by the shock absorbers and not transmitted directly to the vent pies or headers, whereby the improved stability can be attained for the pressure suppression device of the reactor container. (Seki, T.)

  3. Suppression sours sacrifice: emotional and relational costs of suppressing emotions in romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impett, Emily A; Kogan, Aleksandr; English, Tammy; John, Oliver; Oveis, Christopher; Gordon, Amie M; Keltner, Dacher

    2012-06-01

    What happens when people suppress their emotions when they sacrifice for a romantic partner? This multimethod study investigates how suppressing emotions during sacrifice shapes affective and relationship outcomes. In Part 1, dating couples came into the laboratory to discuss important romantic relationship sacrifices. Suppressing emotions was associated with emotional costs for the partner discussing his or her sacrifice. In Part 2, couples participated in a 14-day daily experience study. Within-person increases in emotional suppression during daily sacrifice were associated with decreases in emotional well-being and relationship quality as reported by both members of romantic dyads. In Part 3, suppression predicted decreases in relationship satisfaction and increases in thoughts about breaking up with a romantic partner 3 months later. In the first two parts of the study, authenticity mediated the costly effects of suppression. Implications for research on close relationships and emotion regulation are discussed.

  4. 14 CFR 23.1103 - Induction system ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... engine installations, each induction system duct must be— (1) Strong enough to prevent induction system... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system ducts. 23.1103 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System...

  5. 14 CFR 25.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1093 Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction system... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system icing protection. 25.1093...

  6. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction system. 23.1091 Section 23...

  7. 14 CFR 29.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1093 Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction system... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system icing protection. 29.1093...

  8. 14 CFR 23.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Induction System § 23.1093 Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction system must have means to prevent and eliminate icing. Unless this is done by other... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system icing protection. 23.1093...

  9. 14 CFR 27.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 27.1093 Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction system... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system icing protection. 27.1093...

  10. 32 CFR 1624.9 - Induction into the Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Induction into the Armed Forces. 1624.9 Section... INDUCTIONS § 1624.9 Induction into the Armed Forces. Registrants in classes 1-A and 1-A-0, who have been... inducted at the MEPS into the Armed Forces. ...

  11. Acrolein exposure suppresses antigen-induced pulmonary inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Adverse health effects of tobacco smoke arise partly from its influence on innate and adaptive immune responses, leading to impaired innate immunity and host defense. The impact of smoking on allergic asthma remains unclear, with various reports demonstrating that cigarette smoke enhances asthma development but can also suppress allergic airway inflammation. Based on our previous findings that immunosuppressive effects of smoking may be largely attributed to one of its main reactive electrophiles, acrolein, we explored the impact of acrolein exposure in a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma. Methods C57BL/6 mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) by intraperitoneal injection with the adjuvant aluminum hydroxide on days 0 and 7, and challenged with aerosolized OVA on days 14–16. In some cases, mice were also exposed to 5 ppm acrolein vapor for 6 hrs/day on days 14–17. Lung tissues or brochoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) were collected either 6 hrs after a single initial OVA challenge and/or acrolein exposure on day 14 or 48 hrs after the last OVA challenge, on day 18. Inflammatory cells and Th1/Th2 cytokine levels were measured in BALF, and lung tissue samples were collected for analysis of mucus and Th1/Th2 cytokine expression, determination of protein alkylation, cellular thiol status and transcription factor activity. Results Exposure to acrolein following OVA challenge of OVA-sensitized mice resulted in markedly attenuated allergic airway inflammation, demonstrated by decreased inflammatory cell infiltrates, mucus hyperplasia and Th2 cytokines. Acrolein exposure rapidly depleted lung tissue glutathione (GSH) levels, and induced activation of the Nrf2 pathway, indicated by accumulation of Nrf2, increased alkylation of Keap1, and induction of Nrf2-target genes such as HO-1. Additionally, analysis of inflammatory signaling pathways showed suppressed activation of NF-κB and marginally reduced activation of JNK in acrolein

  12. Two-Phase Induction Motor Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza Arab Markadeh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The lack of variable-speed drives for two (single induction motor is a reality. This article attempts mainly to investigate the reasons for this lack of variable – speed drives. This paper deals with literature survey of various existing converter topologies, which have been proposed for adjustable speed single phase induction motor drives. Various converter topologies have been compared in this paper. Among these converter topologies, the adjustable frequency PWM inverter is the best choice for single-phase induction motor drives. However, adjustable-frequency drives have not been widely used with single-phase Induction motors. The open-loop constant V/F control law cannot be used with the single-phase induction motor drives as it is used with three phase motors. The variation of the operating frequency at lower speed range with constant load torque causes variation in motor's slip. A constant V/F control is suitable only over the upper speed range.

  13. What Can a Hypnotic Induction Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Erik; Sadler, Pamela

    2016-10-01

    In contrast to how recent definitions of hypnosis describe the induction, a work-sample perspective is advocated that characterizes the induction as an initial, stage-setting phase encompassing everything in a hypnotic session up to the first hypnotic suggestion of particular relevance to the therapeutic or research goals at hand. Four major ways are then discussed in which the induction could affect subsequent hypnotic responses: It may provide information about how subsequent behaviors are to be enacted; it may provide cues about the nature of the interpersonal interaction to be expected in hypnosis; it may provide meta-suggestions, defined as suggestive statements intended to enhance responses to subsequent hypnotic suggestions; and it may provide a clear transition to help allow new behaviors and experiences to emerge. Several ideas for future research are advanced, such as mapping hypnosis style onto the interpersonal circumplex, evaluating whether attentional-state changes measured at the end of the induction actually mediate subsequent hypnotic responsiveness, and systematically examining the impact of ritual-like aspects of inductions.

  14. Induction of labour in postdates pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, A.N.; Ahsan, S.; Sher, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To differentiate the effect of gestation on the mode of delivery by analysing the difference in the mode of induction, length of labour and the difference in parity or Bishop score and their effect on the mode of delivery of postdates women. Study Design: A cross-sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study: PAEC General Hospital, Islamabad, from July 2006 to July 2008. Methodology:Patients were induced at 41 weeks (Group B) and > 40 weeks (Group A) of gestation. Tab misoprostol and PGE2 tablets were administered according to amniotic fluid index (AFI) and parity . Study variables included duration of gestation, mode of induction, length of labour, difference in parity and Bishop score assessed before induction in each group. The outcome was assessed by applying Chi-square test by comparing mode of delivery with the study variables in both groups. Results: A total of 78 patients were inducted in the study. They were divided in group B (n = 39) induced 41 weeks and group A (n = 39) induced at 40 weeks. Eighty four percent (n = 35) patients in group B delivered vaginally as compared to 71% (n = 28) in the 40 weeks group (p < 0.0001). The higher number of vaginal deliveries in 41 weeks group was independent of association between the induction agent, parity and mode of delivery. Conclusion: The mean length of gestation was the single most important factor among the studied variables in predicting a vaginal delivery. (author)

  15. In vivo evidence for CD4+ and CD8+ suppressor T cells in vaccination-induced suppression of murine experimental autoimmune thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, J.C.; Kong, Y.C.

    1991-01-01

    In several experimental autoimmune diseases, including experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT), vaccination with attenuated autoantigen-specific T cells has provided protection against subsequent induction of disease. However, the mechanism(s) of vaccination-induced suppression remains to be clarified. Since the authors have previously shown that suppression generated by pretreatment with mouse thyroglobulin (MTg) or thyroid-stimulating hormone in EAT is mediated by CD4+, not CD8+, suppressor T cells, they examined the role of T cell subsets in vaccination-induced suppression of EAT. Mice were vaccinated with irradiated, MTg-primed, and MTg-activated spleen cells and then challenged. Pretreatment with these cells suppressed EAT induced by immunization with MTg and adjuvant, but not by adoptive transfer of thyroiditogenic cells, suggesting a mechanism of afferent suppression. The activation of suppressor mechanisms did not require CD8+ cells, since mice depleted of CD8+ cells before vaccination showed reduced EAT comparable to control vaccinated mice. Furthermore, depletion of either the CD4+ or the CD8+ subset after vaccination did not significantly abrogate suppression. However, suppression was eliminated by the depletion of both CD4+ and CD8+ cells in vaccinated mice. These results provide evidence for the cooperative effects of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in vaccination-induced suppression of EAT

  16. Induction of Protective Genes Leads to Islet Survival and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjun Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Islet transplantation is the most valid approach to the treatment of type 1 diabetes. However, the function of transplanted islets is often compromised since a large number of β cells undergo apoptosis induced by stress and the immune rejection response elicited by the recipient after transplantation. Conventional treatment for islet transplantation is to administer immunosuppressive drugs to the recipient to suppress the immune rejection response mounted against transplanted islets. Induction of protective genes in the recipient (e.g., heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, A20/tumor necrosis factor alpha inducible protein3 (tnfaip3, biliverdin reductase (BVR, Bcl2, and others or administration of one or more of the products of HO-1 to the donor, the islets themselves, and/or the recipient offers an alternative or synergistic approach to improve islet graft survival and function. In this perspective, we summarize studies describing the protective effects of these genes on islet survival and function in rodent allogeneic and xenogeneic transplantation models and the prevention of onset of diabetes, with emphasis on HO-1, A20, and BVR. Such approaches are also appealing to islet autotransplantation in patients with chronic pancreatitis after total pancreatectomy, a procedure that currently only leads to 1/3 of transplanted patients being diabetes-free.

  17. Mechanism of oral tolerance induction to therapeutic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaomei; Sherman, Alexandra; Liao, Gongxian; Leong, Kam W; Daniell, Henry; Terhorst, Cox; Herzog, Roland W

    2013-06-15

    Oral tolerance is defined as the specific suppression of humoral and/or cellular immune responses to an antigen by administration of the same antigen through the oral route. Due to its absence of toxicity, easy administration, and antigen specificity, oral tolerance is a very attractive approach to prevent unwanted immune responses that cause a variety of diseases or that complicate treatment of a disease. Many researchers have induced oral tolerance to efficiently treat autoimmune and inflammatory diseases in different animal models. However, clinical trials yielded limited success. Thus, understanding the mechanisms of oral tolerance induction to therapeutic proteins is critical for paving the way for clinical development of oral tolerance protocols. This review will summarize progress on understanding the major underlying tolerance mechanisms and contributors, including antigen presenting cells, regulatory T cells, cytokines, and signaling pathways. Potential applications, examples for therapeutic proteins and disease targets, and recent developments in delivery methods are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Rotor Mass Eccentricity Vibration Compensation Control in Bearingless Induction Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zebin Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the process of motor rotation, the vibration caused by the rotor mass eccentricity seriously affects the dynamic characteristics and safety operation of system. So rotor mass eccentricity vibration compensation control on rotating machine has great significance, especially for the high speed bearing less induction motor (BIM. A rotor mass eccentricity compensation control strategy was presented to restrain the vibration of suspended rotor for BIM. Firstly, the suspension rotor dynamical model was deduced and unbalanced vibration mechanism was analyzed. Secondly, based on decoupling control between electromagnetic torque and radial force, the obtained vibration signal from the displacement sensor was put into the original radial force control system. Then, a feedforward compensator was set up to increase the same period component of the given radial force signal and enlarge the stiffness of the vibration signal. Finally, the compensation control of rotor vibration was realized by forcing the rotor shaft rotation around its geometric center. The simulation results show that the presented feedforward compensator can suppress the vibration of rotor under different speed and improve the precision of rotor suspension. The further experimental results also show that the control method can obviously reduce the peak-peak value of rotor radial displacement and effectively restrain rotor vibration.

  19. Identification of formaldehyde-responsive genes by suppression subtractive hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Min-Ho; Kim, Young-Ae; Na, Tae-Young; Kim, Sung-Hye; Shin, Young Kee; Lee, Byung-Hoon; Shin, Ho-Sang; Lee, Mi-Ock

    2008-01-01

    Formaldehyde is frequently used in indoor household and occupational environments. Inhalation of formaldehyde invokes an inflammatory response, including a variety of allergic signs and symptoms. Therefore, formaldehyde has been considered as the most prevalent cause of sick building syndrome, which has become a major social problem, especially in developing urban areas. Further formaldehyde is classified as a genotoxicant in the respiratory tract of rats and humans. To better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in formaldehyde intoxication, we sought differentially regulated genes by formaldehyde exposure to Hs 680.Tr human trachea cells, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based suppression subtractive hybridization. We identified 27 different formaldehyde-inducible genes, including those coding for the major histocompatibility complex, class IA, calcyclin, glutathione S-transferase pi, mouse double minute 2 (MDM2), platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha, and which are known to be associated with cell proliferation and differentiation, immunity and inflammation, and detoxification. Induction of these genes by formaldehyde treatment was confirmed by reverse transcription PCR and western blot analysis. Further, the expression of calcyclin, glutathione S-transferase pi, PDGFRA and MDM2 were significantly induced in the tracheal epithelium of Sprague Dawley rats after formaldehyde inhalation. Our results suggest that the elevated levels of these genes may be associated with the formaldehyde-induced toxicity, and that they deserve evaluation as potential biomarkers for formaldehyde intoxication

  20. Induction linacs for heavy ion fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1984-05-01

    The new features of employing an induction linac as a driver for inertial fusion involve (1) transport of high-current low-emittance heavy ion beams, (2) multiple independently-focussed beams threading the same accelerator structure, and (3) synthesis of voltage waveforms to accomplish beam current amplification. A research program is underway at LBL to develop accelerators that test all these features with the final goal of producing an ion beam capable of heating matter to approx. 70 eV. This paper presents a discussion of some properties of induction linacs and how they may be used for HIF research. Physics designs of the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) and the Multiple Beam Experiment (MBE) accelerators are presented along with initial concepts of the MBE induction units.

  1. Prophage induction and inactivation by uv light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnhart, B.J.; Cox, S.H.; Jett, J.H.

    1976-01-01

    Analysis of the induction curves for uv light-irradiated Haemophilus influenzae lysogens and the distribution of pyrimidine dimers in a repair-deficient lysogen suggests that one dimer per prophage-size segment of the host bacterial chromosome is necessary as a preinduction event. The close correlations obtained prompted a renewed consideration of the possibility that direct prophage induction occurs when one dimer is stabilized within the prophage genome. The host excision-repair system apparently functions to reduce the probability of stabilizing within the prophage those dimers that are necessary for induction and inactivation. The presence of the inducible defective prophage in strain Rd depresses the inducibility of prophage HP1c1

  2. Stator Fault Modelling of Induction Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Sandberg; Kallesøe, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a model of an induction motor affected by stator faults is presented. Two different types of faults are considered, these are; disconnection of a supply phase, and inter-turn and turn-turn short circuits inside the stator. The output of the derived model is compared to real measurem......In this paper a model of an induction motor affected by stator faults is presented. Two different types of faults are considered, these are; disconnection of a supply phase, and inter-turn and turn-turn short circuits inside the stator. The output of the derived model is compared to real...... measurements from a specially designed induction motor. With this motor it is possible to simulate both terminal disconnections, inter-turn and turn-turn short circuits. The results show good agreement between the measurements and the simulated signals obtained from the model. In the tests focus...

  3. Energy Optimal Control of Induction Motor Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Flemming

    This thesis deals with energy optimal control of small and medium-size variable speed induction motor drives for especially Heating, Ventilation and Air-Condition (HVAC) applications. Optimized efficiency is achieved by adapting the magnetization level in the motor to the load, and the basic...... improvement by energy optimal control for any standard induction motor drive between 2.2 kW and 90 kW. A simple method to evaluate the robustness against load disturbances was developed and used to compare the robustness of different motor types and sizes. Calculation of the oscillatory behavior of a motor...... demonstrated that energy optimal control will sometimes improve and sometimes deteriorate the stability. Comparison of small and medium-size induction motor drives with permanent magnet motor drives indicated why, and in which applications, PM motors are especially good. Calculations of economical aspects...

  4. Application and Perspectives of Multiphase Induction Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benas Kundrotas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the areas of applying multiphase induction motors. Their advantages against three phase motors have become the main reason for employing them in multiphase drives. The paper deals with the six-phase induction motor having two similar three phase windings in the stator shifted by 30 degrees in space and three phase windings in the rotor. Differential equations for this motor are presented and transformed to dq synchronous reference frame. The transformed equations are expressed in a matrix form and solved by MATLAB software using the Dormand-Prince (ode45 method. The transient characteristics of the torque, speed and current of the six-phase induction motor are calculated and discussed.Article in Lithuanian

  5. Pulmonary Hypertensive Crisis on Induction of Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schisler, Travis; Marquez, Jose M; Hilmi, Ibtesam; Subramaniam, Kathirvel

    2017-03-01

    Anesthesia for lung transplantation remains one of the highest risk surgeries in the domain of the cardiothoracic anesthesiologist. End-stage lung disease, pulmonary hypertension, and right heart dysfunction as well as other comorbid disease factors predispose the patient to cardiovascular, respiratory and metabolic dysfunction during general anesthesia. Perhaps the highest risk phase of surgery in the patient with severe pulmonary hypertension is during the induction of anesthesia when the removal of intrinsic sympathetic tone and onset of positive pressure ventilation can decompensate a severely compromised cardiovascular system. Severe hypotension, cardiac arrest, and death have been reported previously. Here we present 2 high-risk patients for lung transplantation, their anesthetic induction course, and outcomes. We offer suggestions for the safe management of anesthetic induction to mitigate against hemodynamic and respiratory complications.

  6. Determination of Coil Inductances Cylindrical Iron Nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azeddine Mazouz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the investigation and development of a structure and performance characteristics of a coil iron nucleus cylindrical (C.I.N.C. The coil iron nucleus cylindrical is a nonlinear electro radio in which the moving of the nucleus in a sense or in other causes change in inductance and can reach extreme values at the superposition of nucleus and coil centers. The variation of the inductance and the degree of freedom of movement of the nucleus can lead to a device with electromechanical conversion The aim of this paper is the determination and visualization of self inductance and mutual of the (C.I.N.C based on geometric dimensions and the displacement of the nucleus.  

  7. Compact inductive energy storage pulse power system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K, Senthil; Mitra, S; Roy, Amitava; Sharma, Archana; Chakravarthy, D P

    2012-05-01

    An inductive energy storage pulse power system is being developed in BARC, India. Simple, compact, and robust opening switches, capable of generating hundreds of kV, are key elements in the development of inductive energy storage pulsed power sources. It employs an inductive energy storage and opening switch power conditioning techniques with high energy density capacitors as the primary energy store. The energy stored in the capacitor bank is transferred to an air cored storage inductor in 5.5 μs through wire fuses. By optimizing the exploding wire parameters, a compact, robust, high voltage pulse power system, capable of generating reproducibly 240 kV, is developed. This paper presents the full details of the system along with the experimental data.

  8. A theory evaluation of an induction programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenrick Hendricks

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: An induction programme is commonly used to help new employees understand their job within the organisation. Research purpose: The main aim of this study was to examine whether or not the programme theory of an induction programme was plausible and would lead to the intended outcomes as described by the programme manager. Motivation for the study: Induction training is one of the most common training programmes in an organisation. However, there is little research to evaluate whether or not the activities of an induction programme will lead to the intended outcomes of such a programme. Research design, approach and method: This theory evaluation used a descriptive design. One hundred and thirteen employees of a media company completed a ten-item, five-point Likert scale which measured their perceptions of the programme’s outcome, identification with the organisation and intentions to stay with the organisation. Main findings: From this theory evaluation it was apparent that an induction programme based on an implausible programme theory could be problematic. An implausible programme theory affects the design of the programme activities and unsuitable activities may not deliver the desired outcomes. Practical/managerial implications: The intention of the evaluation is to guide human resource managers through a process of replacing an implausible programme theory with one that is plausible, and which ensures better alignment of programme activities and outcomes. Contribution/value-add: The evaluators showed how a plausible programme theory could improve programme design. This redesigned induction programme may lead to benefits, such as staff retention and company identification, rather than the vague assumption that it has been conforming to a legal obligation.

  9. Synthesis of semiconductor polymers by inductive plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, G.; Cruz, G.; Olayo, M.G.; Morales, J.

    2003-01-01

    When carrying out the synthesis of semiconductor polymers by plasma it is important to consider the electric arrangement of the discharge since this it influences in the distribution of the energy of the particles in the reactor. The main electric arrangements in those that are developed the brightness discharges of radio frequency are resistive, capacitive and inductive. In the Laboratory of Materials processing by plasma of the ININ its have been worked different synthesis of polymers with resistive arrangements with good results. In this work the results of the synthesis and characterization of poly aniline and chlorate polyethylene by inductive plasma are presented. (Author)

  10. Induction generator models in dynamic simulation tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans; Akhmatov, Vladislav

    1999-01-01

    For AC network with large amount of induction generators (windmills) the paper demonstrates a significant discrepancy in the simulated voltage recovery after fault in weak networks when comparing dynamic and transient stability descriptions and the reasons of discrepancies are explained. It is fo......For AC network with large amount of induction generators (windmills) the paper demonstrates a significant discrepancy in the simulated voltage recovery after fault in weak networks when comparing dynamic and transient stability descriptions and the reasons of discrepancies are explained...... to a tunny generator through a shaft....

  11. About Eddy Currents in Induction Melting Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gafiţa Nicolae-Bogdan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a method forcomputing the eddy currents in induction meltingprocesses for non-ferrous alloys. We take intoconsideration the situation when only the crucible ismoving, inside the coils. This fact makes differentialcomputation methods to be hard to apply, because isnecessary to generate a new mesh and a new systemmatrix for every for every new position of the cruciblerelated to the coils. Integral methods cancel thisdrawback because the mesh is generated only for thedomains with eddy currents. For integral methods, themesh and the inductance matrix remain unchangedduring the movement of the crucible; only the free termsof the equation system will change.

  12. Oroxin B selectively induces tumor-suppressive ER stress and concurrently inhibits tumor-adaptive ER stress in B-lymphoma cells for effective anti-lymphoma therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ping; Fu, Shilong; Cao, Zhifei; Liao, Huaidong; Huo, Zihe; Pan, Yanyan; Zhang, Gaochuan; Gao, Aidi; Zhou, Quansheng

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells have both tumor-adaptive and -suppressive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress machineries that determine cell fate. In malignant tumors including lymphoma, constant activation of tumor-adaptive ER stress and concurrent reduction of tumor-suppressive ER stress favors cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. Current ER stress-based anti-tumor drugs typically activate both tumor-adaptive and -suppressive ER stresses, resulting in low anti-cancer efficacy; hence, selective induction of tumor-suppressive ER stress and inhibition of tumor-adaptive ER stress are new strategies for novel anti-cancer drug discovery. Thus far, specific tumor-suppressive ER stress therapeutics have remained absent in clinical settings. In this study, we explored unique tumor-suppressive ER stress agents from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Oroxylum indicum, and found that a small molecule oroxin B selectively induced tumor-suppressive ER stress in malignant lymphoma cells, but not in normal cells, effectively inhibited lymphoma growth in vivo, and significantly prolonged overall survival of lymphoma-xenografted mice without obvious toxicity. Mechanistic studies have revealed that the expression of key tumor-adaptive ER-stress gene GRP78 was notably suppressed by oroxin B via down-regulation of up-stream key signaling protein ATF6, while tumor-suppressive ER stress master gene DDIT3 was strikingly activated through activating the MKK3-p38 signaling pathway, correcting the imbalance between tumor-suppressive DDIT3 and tumor-adaptive GRP78 in lymphoma. Together, selective induction of unique tumor-suppressive ER stress and concurrent inhibition of tumor-adaptive ER stress in malignant lymphoma are new and feasible approaches for novel anti-lymphoma drug discovery and anti-lymphoma therapy. - Highlights: • Oroxin B selectively induces tumor-suppressive ER stress in B-lymphoma cells. • Oroxin B significantly prolonged overall survival of lymphoma-xenografted mice.

  13. Suppression and ritualistic behaviour in normal participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, E; Merckelbach, H; Muris, P; Stapert, S

    1999-06-01

    Previous research has shown that normal and abnormal ritualistic behaviours do not differ in content. Rather, the differences between both categories of rituals pertain to characteristics such as frequency, intensity, discomfort and resistance. This study sought to investigate whether thought suppression is linked to these characteristics. Cross-sectional; questionnaires on thought suppression and rituals were administered to a sample of undergraduate students (N = 166). Habitual suppressors (N = 20) and non-suppressors (N = 20), as measured by the White Bear Suppression Inventory, were selected and compared with regard to the characteristics of their rituals. Suppressors experienced their rituals as more intense, discomforting and resistance-provoking than did non-suppressors. There were no group differences in the content, frequency, and perceived senselessness of rituals. Although the cross-sectional nature of the present study precludes causal inferences, its findings are consistent with the view that chronic thought suppression may promote ritualistic behaviour. Clearly, the details of the link between thought suppression and rituals require further examination.

  14. Interocular suppression in children with deprivation amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Lisa; Chen, Zidong; Li, Jinrong; Black, Joanna; Dai, Shuan; Yuan, Junpeng; Yu, Minbin; Thompson, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    In patients with anisometropic or strabismic amblyopia, interocular suppression can be minimized by presenting high contrast stimulus elements to the amblyopic eye and lower contrast elements to the fellow eye. This suggests a structurally intact binocular visual system that is functionally suppressed. We investigated whether suppression can also be overcome by contrast balancing in children with deprivation amblyopia due to childhood cataracts. To quantify interocular contrast balance, contrast interference thresholds were measured using an established dichoptic global motion technique for 21 children with deprivation amblyopia, 14 with anisometropic or mixed strabismic/anisometropic amblyopia and 10 visually normal children (mean age mean=9.9years, range 5-16years). We found that interocular suppression could be overcome by contrast balancing in most children with deprivation amblyopia, at least intermittently, and all children with anisometropic or mixed anisometropic/strabismic amblyopia. However, children with deprivation amblyopia due to early unilateral or bilateral cataracts could tolerate only very low contrast levels to the stronger eye indicating strong suppression. Our results suggest that treatment options reliant on contrast balanced dichoptic presentation could be attempted in a subset of children with deprivation amblyopia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells mediate tolerance induction in autoimmune disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Anja; Verhagen, Johan; Wraith, David C

    2017-05-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS) T cells aberrantly recognize self-peptides of the myelin sheath and attack the central nervous system (CNS). Antigen-specific peptide immunotherapy, which aims to restore tolerance while avoiding the use of non-specific immunosuppressive drugs, is a promising approach to combat autoimmune disease, but the cellular mechanisms behind successful therapy remain poorly understood. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) have been studied intensively in the field of cancer and to a lesser extent in autoimmunity. Because of their suppressive effect on the immune system in cancer, we hypothesized that the development of MDSCs and their interaction with CD4 + T cells could be beneficial for antigen-specific immunotherapy. Hence, changes in the quantity, phenotype and function of MDSCs during tolerance induction in our model of MS were evaluated. We reveal, for the first time, an involvement of a subset of MDSCs, known as polymorphonuclear (PMN)-MDSCs, in the process of tolerance induction. PMN-MDSCs were shown to adopt a more suppressive phenotype during peptide immunotherapy and inhibit CD4 + T-cell proliferation in a cell-contact-dependent manner, mediated by arginase-1. Moreover, increased numbers of tolerogenic PMN-MDSCs, such as observed over the course of peptide immunotherapy, were demonstrated to provide protection from disease in a model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Oral Tolerance Induction in Hemophilia B Dogs Fed with Transplastomic Lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Roland W; Nichols, Timothy C; Su, Jin; Zhang, Bei; Sherman, Alexandra; Merricks, Elizabeth P; Raymer, Robin; Perrin, George Q; Häger, Mattias; Wiinberg, Bo; Daniell, Henry

    2017-02-01

    Anti-drug antibodies in hemophilia patients substantially complicate treatment. Their elimination through immune tolerance induction (ITI) protocols poses enormous costs, and ITI is often ineffective for factor IX (FIX) inhibitors. Moreover, there is no prophylactic ITI protocol to prevent anti-drug antibody (ADA) formation. Using general immune suppression is problematic. To address this urgent unmet medical need, we delivered antigen bioencapsulated in plant cells to hemophilia B dogs. Commercial-scale production of CTB-FIX fusion expressed in lettuce chloroplasts was done in a hydroponic facility. CTB-FIX (∼1 mg/g) in lyophilized cells was stable with proper folding, disulfide bonds, and pentamer assembly after 30-month storage at ambient temperature. Robust suppression of immunoglobulin G (IgG)/inhibitor and IgE formation against intravenous FIX was observed in three of four hemophilia B dogs fed with lyophilized lettuce cells expressing CTB-FIX. No side effects were detected after feeding CTB-FIX-lyophilized plant cells for >300 days. Coagulation times were markedly shortened by intravenous FIX in orally tolerized treated dogs, in contrast to control dogs that formed high-titer antibodies to FIX. Commercial-scale production, stability, prolonged storage of lyophilized cells, and efficacy in tolerance induction in a large, non-rodent model of human disease offer a novel concept for oral tolerance and low-cost production and delivery of biopharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Acetylsalicylic Acid Inhibits IL-18-Induced Cardiac Fibroblast Migration Through the Induction of RECK

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIDDESHA, JALAHALLI M.; VALENTE, ANTHONY J.; SAKAMURI, SIVA S.V.P.; GARDNER, JASON D.; DELAFONTAINE, PATRICE; NODA, MAKOTO; CHANDRASEKAR, BYSANI

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of cardiac fibrosis and adverse remodeling is thought to involve the ROS-dependent induction of inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and the activation and migration of cardiac fibroblasts (CF). Here we investigated the role of RECK (reversion-inducing-cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs), a unique membrane-anchored MMP regulator, on IL-18 induced CF migration, and the effect of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on this response. In a Matrigel invasion assay, IL-18 induced migration of primary mouse CF was dependent on both IKK/NF-κB- and JNK/AP-1-mediated MMP9 induction and Spl-mediated RECK suppression, mechanisms that required Nox4-dependent H2O2 generation. Notably, forced expression of RECK attenuated IL-18 induced MMP9 activation and CF migration. Further, therapeutic concentrations of ASA inhibited IL-18 induced H2O2 generation, MMP9 activation, RECK suppression, and CF migration. The salicylic acid moiety of ASA similarly attenuated IL-18 induced CF migration. Thus, ASA may exert potential beneficial effect in cardiac fibrosis through multiple protective mechanisms. PMID:24265116

  18. Inductive Loops for Sensing Position as Signature Signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larbani, Sofiane; Malik, Noreha Abdul; Nordin, Anis Norashikin; Khan, Sheroz; Shobaki, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, an inductive sensing technique made of a special shaped inductive loop is proposed. The inductive loop has an inner turn fitted within an outer turn, making a total inductance value 100μH. This loop is made to be shown with balanced response using three capacitance values of 0.068μF each when a sinusoidal voltage source of 5V peak-to-peak is applied. The variation of the relative permeability of the inductance of the inductive loop (AL) results in a variation of the overall inductance value (L+AL), that causes the output signal to change in term of shape and amplitude for variation of total inductance sweep over a given period of time. As a result of change in inductance value (lμH) there is a correspondence increase of 300mV. Theoretical derivations have showed in close agreement with the simulation plots obtained using Multisim software

  19. Inductive Loops for Sensing Position as Signature Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larbani, Sofiane; Malik, Noreha Abdul; Norashikin Nordin, Anis; Khan, Sheroz; Shobaki, Mohammad

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, an inductive sensing technique made of a special shaped inductive loop is proposed. The inductive loop has an inner turn fitted within an outer turn, making a total inductance value 100μH. This loop is made to be shown with balanced response using three capacitance values of 0.068μF each when a sinusoidal voltage source of 5V peak-to-peak is applied. The variation of the relative permeability of the inductance of the inductive loop (AL) results in a variation of the overall inductance value (L+AL), that causes the output signal to change in term of shape and amplitude for variation of total inductance sweep over a given period of time. As a result of change in inductance value (lμH) there is a correspondence increase of 300mV. Theoretical derivations have showed in close agreement with the simulation plots obtained using Multisim software.

  20. Modeling induction heater temperature distribution in polymeric material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, A. G.; Filimonova, O. V.

    2017-10-01

    An induction heating system has a number of inherent benefits compared to traditional heating systems due to a non-contact heating process. The main interesting area of the induction heating process is the efficiency of the usage of energy, choice of the plate material and different coil configurations based on application. Correctly designed, manufactured and maintained induction coils are critical to the overall efficiency of induction heating solutions. The paper describes how the induction heating system in plastic injection molding is designed. The use of numerical simulation in order to get the optimum design of the induction coil is shown. The purpose of this work is to consider various coil configurations used in the induction heating process, which is widely used in plastic molding. Correctly designed, manufactured and maintained induction coils are critical to the overall efficiency of induction heating solutions. The results of calculation are in the numerical model.

  1. Modeling extreme ultraviolet suppression of electrostatic analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershman, Daniel J.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    In addition to analyzing energy-per-charge ratios of incident ions, electrostatic analyzers (ESAs) for spaceborne time-of-flight mass spectrometers must also protect detectors from extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons from the Sun. The required suppression rate often exceeds 1:10 7 and is generally established in tests upon instrument design and integration. This paper describes a novel technique to model the EUV suppression of ESAs using photon ray tracing integrated into SIMION, the most commonly used ion optics design software for such instruments. The paper compares simulation results with measurements taken from the ESA of the Mass instrument flying onboard the Wind spacecraft. This novel technique enables an active inclusion of EUV suppression requirements in the ESA design process. Furthermore, the simulation results also motivate design rules for such instruments.

  2. Quantum-mechanical suppression of bremsstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker-Szendy, R.; Keller, L.; Niemi, G.; Perl, M.; Rochester, L. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Anthony, P. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Bosted, P. [American Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Kelley, L.; Klein, S. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-01

    The authors have studied quantum-mechanical suppression of bremsstrahlung of low-energy 1-500 MeV photons from high-energy 25 GeV electrons. They have measured the LPM effect, where multiple scattering of the radiating electron destroys coherence required for the emission of low-energy photons, and the dielectric effect, where the emitted photon traveling in the radiator medium interferes with itself. For the experiment, the collaboration developed a novel method of extracting a parasitic low-intensity high-energy electron beam into the fixed target area during normal SLC operation of the accelerator. The results agree quantitatively with Migdal`s calculation of the LPM effect. Surface effects, for which there is no satisfactory theoretical prediction, are visible at low photon energies. For very thin targets, the suppression disappears, as expected. Preliminary results on dielectric suppression of bremsstrahlung are in qualitative agreement with the expectation.

  3. Effects of thought suppression on episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, E; Merckelbach, H; Muris, P

    1997-11-01

    Subjects were shown a short film fragment. Following this, one group of subjects (n = 26) was instructed to suppress their thoughts about the film, while the other group (n = 24) received no instructions. After 5 hrs subjects returned to the laboratory and completed a questionnaire testing their memory about the film. Results showed that suppression subjects reported a higher frequency of thoughts about the film than control subjects. No evidence was obtained for Wegner, Quillian, and Houston's (1996; Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 680-691) claim that suppression has an undermining effect on memory for chronology. Possible causes for the differences between the results as obtained by Wegner et al., and those found in the present study are discussed. These causes may pertain to the experimental design, but also to differences in emotional impact of the stimulus material that was used in both studies.

  4. Star formation suppression in compact group galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alatalo, K.; Appleton, P. N.; Lisenfeld, U.

    2015-01-01

    We present CO(1-0) maps of 12 warm H-2-selected Hickson Compact Groups (HCGs), covering 14 individually imaged warm H2 bright galaxies, with the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter Astronomy. We found a variety of molecular gas distributions within the HCGs, including regularly rotating disks......, bars, rings, tidal tails, and possibly nuclear outflows, though the molecular gas morphologies are more consistent with spirals and earlytype galaxies than mergers and interacting systems. Our CO-imaged HCG galaxies, when plotted on the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, shows star formation (SF) suppression......-to-dust ratios of these galaxies to determine if an incorrect LCO-M(H2) conversion caused the apparent suppression and find that HCGs have normal gas-to-dust ratios. It is likely that the cause of the apparent suppression in these objects is associated with shocks injecting turbulence into the molecular gas...

  5. Weed suppression ability of spring barley varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Svend

    1995-01-01

    Three years of experiments with spring barley showed significant differences in weed suppression ability among varieties. Weed dry matter in the most suppressive variety, Ida, was 48% lower than the mean weed dry matter of all varieties, whereas it was 31% higher in the least suppressive variety......, Grit. Ranking varietal responses to weed competition in terms of grain yield loss corresponded well to ranking weed dry matter produced in crop weed mixtures. There was no correspondence between the varietal grain yields in pure stands and their competitiveness, suggesting that breeding to optimize...... interception model was developed to describe the light interception profiles of the varieties. A study of the estimated parameters showed significant correlation between weed dry matter, rate of canopy height development and the light interception profile. However, when estimates were standardized to eliminate...

  6. Kallikrein–Kinin System Suppresses Type I Interferon Responses: A Novel Pathway of Interferon Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alecia Seliga

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Kallikrein–Kinin System (KKS, comprised of kallikreins (klks, bradykinins (BKs angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE, and many other molecules, regulates a number of physiological processes, including inflammation, coagulation, angiogenesis, and control of blood pressure. In this report, we show that KKS regulates Type I IFN responses, thought to be important in lupus pathogenesis. We used CpG (TLR9 ligand, R848 (TLR7 ligand, or recombinant IFN-α to induce interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs and proteins, and observed that this response was markedly diminished by BKs, klk1 (tissue kallikrein, or captopril (an ACE inhibitor. BKs significantly decreased the ISGs induced by TLRs in vitro and in vivo (in normal and lupus-prone mice, and in human PBMCs, especially the induction of Irf7 gene (p < 0.05, the master regulator of Type I IFNs. ISGs induced by IFN-α were also suppressed by the KKS. MHC Class I upregulation, a classic response to Type I IFNs, was reduced by BKs in murine dendritic cells (DCs. BKs decreased phosphorylation of STAT2 molecules that mediate IFN signaling. Among the secreted pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines analyzed (IL-6, IL12p70, and CXCL10, the strongest suppressive effect was on CXCL10, a highly Type I IFN-dependent cytokine, upon CpG stimulation, both in normal and lupus-prone DCs. klks that break down into BKs, also suppressed CpG-induced ISGs in murine DCs. Captopril, a drug that inhibits ACE and increases BK, suppressed ISGs, both in mouse DCs and human PBMCs. The effects of BK were reversed with indomethacin (compound that inhibits production of PGE2, suggesting that BK suppression of IFN responses may be mediated via prostaglandins. These results highlight a novel regulatory mechanism in which members of the KKS control the Type I IFN response and suggest a role for modulators of IFNs in the pathogenesis of lupus and interferonopathies.

  7. Antimycotics suppress the Malassezia extract-induced production of CXC chemokine ligand 10 in human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, Carren S; Kanda, Naoko; Makimura, Koichi; Watanabe, Shinichi

    2014-02-01

    Malassezia, a lipophilic yeast, exacerbates atopic dermatitis. Malassezia products can penetrate the disintegrated stratum corneum and encounter subcorneal keratinocytes in the skin of atopic dermatitis patients. Type 1 helper T (Th1) cells infiltrate chronic lesions with atopic dermatitis, and antimycotic agents improve its symptoms. We aimed to identify Malassezia-induced chemokines in keratinocytes and examine whether antimycotics suppressed this induction. Normal human keratinocytes were incubated with a Malassezia restricta extract and antimycotics. Chemokine expression was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)1 activity was examined by luciferase assays. The tyrosine-phosphorylation of STAT1 was analyzed by western blotting. The M. restricta extract increased the mRNA and protein expression of Th1-attracting CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)10 and STAT1 activity and phosphorylation in keratinocytes, which was suppressed by a Janus kinase inhibitor. The antimycotics itraconazole, ketoconazole, luliconazole, terbinafine, butenafine and amorolfine suppressed M. restricta extract-induced CXCL10 mRNA and protein expression and STAT1 activity and phosphorylation. These effects were similarly induced by 15-deoxy-Δ-(12,14) -prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2 ), a prostaglandin D2 metabolite. Antimycotics increased the release of 15d-PGJ2 from keratinocytes. The antimycotic-induced suppression of CXCL10 production and STAT1 activity was counteracted by a lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase inhibitor. The antimycotics itraconazole, ketoconazole, luliconazole, terbinafine, butenafine and amorolfine may suppress the M. restricta-induced production of CXCL10 by inhibiting STAT1 through an increase in 15d-PGJ2 production in keratinocytes. These antimycotics may block the Th1-mediated inflammation triggered by Malassezia in the chronic phase of atopic dermatitis. © 2014

  8. Male reproductive suppression: not a social affair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizzari, Z Valentina; Jessen, Andrea; Koene, Joris M

    2017-10-01

    In the animal kingdom there are countless strategies via which males optimize their reproductive success when faced with male-male competition. These male strategies typically fall into two main categories: pre- and post-copulatory competition. Within these 2 categories, a set of behaviors, referred to as reproductive suppression, is known to cause inhibition of reproductive physiology and/or reproductive behavior in an otherwise fertile individual. What becomes evident when considering examples of reproductive suppression is that these strategies conventionally encompass reproductive interference strategies that occur between members of a hierarchical social group. However, mechanisms aimed at impairing a competitor's reproductive output are also present in non-social animals. Yet, current thinking emphasizes the importance of sociality as the primary driving force of reproductive suppression. Therefore, the question arises as to whether there is an actual difference between reproductive suppression strategies in social animals and equivalent pre-copulatory competition strategies in non-social animals. In this perspective paper we explore a broad taxonomic range of species whose individuals do not repeatedly interact with the same individuals in networks and yet, depress the fitness of rivals. Examples like alteration of male reproductive physiology, female mimicry, rival spermatophore destruction, and cementing the rival's genital region in non-social animals, highlight that male pre-copulatory reproductive suppression and male pre-copulatory competition overlap. Finally, we highlight that a distinction between male reproductive interference in animals with and without a social hierarchy might obscure important similarities and does not help to elucidate why different proximate mechanisms evolved. We therefore emphasize that male reproductive suppression need not be restricted to social animals.

  9. Lysogenic induction in Lex Al Escherichia coli mutants: characterization of the induction and prophage repressor influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, R.E.S.

    1982-01-01

    SOS functions require new synthesis of protein and have been described as dependent on both the rec A and lex A genes. The induction of prophage was studied in bacterial strains lysogenic for a series of phages which synthesize different levels of repressor (λ, λ i m m 4 3 4 J and λ i m m 4 3 4 T ) and was compared to W-reactivation. Prophage induction was detected in lex Al mutants although at a slightly lower level and requiring two times longer when compared with wild-type. The optimum UV-dose for induction differed for each lysogenic strain and correlated with the level of repressor

  10. Helical chirality induction of expanded porphyrin analogues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2,2 -Bipyridine was readily obtained from 6,6 - dibromo-2,2 -bipyridine and then used for synthesizing cyclotetrapyrroletetrapyridine O3.18. 3. Helical chirality induction. 3.1 Chirality sensing of carboxylic acids by O1. Facile methods for the determination of molecular chi- rality are of increasing interest in view of the role of.

  11. Is spacing really the 'friend of induction'?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.J.L. Verkoeijen (Peter); S. Bouwmeester (Samantha)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractInductive learning takes place when people learn a new concept or category by observing a variety of exemplars. Kornell and Bjork (2008) asked participants to learn new painting styles either by presenting different paintings of the same artist consecutively (massed presentation) or by

  12. Eleusis: complexity and interaction in inductive inference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurzen, L.; Arrazola, X.; Ponte, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the computational complexity of the inductive inference game Eleusis. Eleusis is a card game in which one player constructs a secret rule which has to be discovered by the other players. We determine the complexity of various decision problems that arise in Eleusis. We show that

  13. Save power in AC induction motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, F. J.

    1977-01-01

    Relatively simple and inexpensive circuitry improves power factor and reduces power dissipation in induction motors operating below full load. Electronic control loop conserves energy by reducing voltage applied to lightly loaded motor. Circuit forces motor to run at constant predetermined optimum power factor, regardless of load or line voltage variations. Solid-state switch varies voltage.

  14. Four quadrant control of induction motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1991-01-01

    Induction motors are the nation's workhorse, being the motor of choice in most applications due to their simple rugged construction. It has been estimated that 14 to 27 percent of the country's total electricity use could be saved with adjustable speed drives. Until now, induction motors have not been suited well for variable speed or servo-drives, due to the inherent complexity, size, and inefficiency of their variable speed controls. Work at NASA Lewis Research Center on field oriented control of induction motors using pulse population modulation method holds the promise for the desired drive electronics. The system allows for a variable voltage to frequency ratio which enables the user to operate the motor at maximum efficiency, while having independent control of both the speed and torque of an induction motor in all four quadrants of the speed torque map. Multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of machine. The pulse population technique, results to date, and projections for implementation of this existing new motor control technology are discussed.

  15. atriplex halimus (amarantacees) callogenesis induction from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Y. Halfaoui

    1 janv. 2018 ... callogenesis from adult walnut leaves (Juglans Regia L.). Chilean J. Agric. Res., 2009, 69 (3),. 460-466. [32] Haouala F., Farhat N. & Chabchoub L. Effets du type et de la position de l'explant sur l'induction de cals chez le gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii Bolus). Tropicultura, 2010, 28 (1),. 57-60. [33] Naz S.

  16. Thyristor stack for pulsed inductive plasma generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teske, C; Jacoby, J; Schweizer, W; Wiechula, J

    2009-03-01

    A thyristor stack for pulsed inductive plasma generation has been developed and tested. The stack design includes a free wheeling diode assembly for current reversal. Triggering of the device is achieved by a high side biased, self supplied gate driver unit using gating energy derived from a local snubber network. The structure guarantees a hard firing gate pulse for the required high dI/dt application. A single fiber optic command is needed to achieve a simultaneous turn on of the thyristors. The stack assembly is used for switching a series resonant circuit with a ringing frequency of 30 kHz. In the prototype pulsed power system described here an inductive discharge has been generated with a pulse duration of 120 micros and a pulse energy of 50 J. A maximum power transfer efficiency of 84% and a peak power of 480 kW inside the discharge were achieved. System tests were performed with a purely inductive load and an inductively generated plasma acting as a load through transformer action at a voltage level of 4.1 kV, a peak current of 5 kA, and a current switching rate of 1 kA/micros.

  17. Adventitious shoots induction and plant regeneration from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A highly efficient regeneration system is a prerequisite step for successful genetic transformation of watermelon cultivars (Citrullus lanatus L.). The objective of this study was to establish efficient in vitro plant regeneration for three watermelon cultivars. To achieve optimal conditions for adventitious shoot induction, the ...

  18. Between autobiography and reality : Popper's inductive years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Hark, M.R.M.

    On the basis of his unpublished thesis 'Gewohnheit und Gesetzerlebnis in der Erziehung' (1926-7) a historical reconstruction is given of the genesis of Popper's ideas on induction and demarcation which differs radically from his own account in Unended quest. It is shown not only that he

  19. Inductive ionospheric solver for magnetospheric MHD simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Vanhamäki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new scheme for solving the ionospheric boundary conditions required in magnetospheric MHD simulations. In contrast to the electrostatic ionospheric solvers currently in use, the new solver takes ionospheric induction into account by solving Faraday's law simultaneously with Ohm's law and current continuity. From the viewpoint of an MHD simulation, the new inductive solver is similar to the electrostatic solvers, as the same input data is used (field-aligned current [FAC] and ionospheric conductances and similar output is produced (ionospheric electric field. The inductive solver is tested using realistic, databased models of an omega-band and westward traveling surge. Although the tests were performed with local models and MHD simulations require a global ionospheric solution, we may nevertheless conclude that the new solution scheme is feasible also in practice. In the test cases the difference between static and electrodynamic solutions is up to ~10 V km−1 in certain locations, or up to 20-40% of the total electric field. This is in agreement with previous estimates. It should also be noted that if FAC is replaced by the ground magnetic field (or ionospheric equivalent current in the input data set, exactly the same formalism can be used to construct an inductive version of the KRM method originally developed by Kamide et al. (1981.

  20. Harmonic analysis of Doubly Fed Induction Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholm, Morten; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the frequency spectrum of the stator and rotor currents in a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) used in wind power applications. The paper also presents a method to eliminate higher harmonics and interharmonics in the DFIG stator current. The method is implemented...

  1. Analysis of induction phenomena in thermonuclear experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeds, W.E.; Dodd, C.V.

    1976-01-01

    Many of the problems involving transients induced by changing currents in the large coils of thermonuclear machines are identical to those arising in nondestructive testing by eddy currents. There are three chief methods used for calculating such induction phenomena: analytical boundary-value solutions, relaxation or iteration techniques, and model experiments. Some of the results obtained by each of these methods are described below

  2. A model of annular linear induction pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momozaki, Yoichi [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-27

    The present work explains how the magnetic field and the induced current are obtained when the distributed coils are powered by a 3 phase power supply.  From the magnetic field and the induced current, the thrust and the induction losses in the pump can be calculated to estimate the pump performance.

  3. Combined Approach for Solving the Electromagnetic Induction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inverse electromagnetic induction is an imaging technique for reconstructing the conductivity and permeability distributions in a region of interest from measurements of impedance made at its boundary. In general, there are two approaches to the reconstruction problem: the pixel-based approach and the parameter-based ...

  4. The differential induction machine: Theory and performance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    differential mode. This paper presents the construction of the above machine and performance of the same based on experimental results from a laboratory prototype. The equivalent circuit of the motor has been presented and verified experimentally. Keywords. Differential drive; electric vehicle drive; induction machine. 1.

  5. A logic for inductive probabilistic reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2005-01-01

    Inductive probabilistic reasoning is understood as the application of inference patterns that use statistical background information to assign (subjective) probabilities to single events. The simplest such inference pattern is direct inference: from '70% of As are Bs" and "a is an A" infer that a...

  6. Open Problems in Universal Induction & Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Hutter

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Specialized intelligent systems can be found everywhere: finger print, handwriting, speech, and face recognition, spam filtering, chess and other game programs, robots, et al. This decade the first presumably complete mathematical theory of artificial intelligence based on universal induction-prediction-decision-action has been proposed. This informationtheoretic approach solidifies the foundations of inductive inference and artificial intelligence. Getting the foundations right usually marks a significant progress and maturing of a field. The theory provides a gold standard and guidance for researchers working on intelligent algorithms. The roots of universal induction have been laid exactly half-a-century ago and the roots of universal intelligence exactly one decade ago. So it is timely to take stock of what has been achieved and what remains to be done. Since there are already good recent surveys, I describe the state-of-the-art only in passing and refer the reader to the literature. This article concentrates on the open problems in universal induction and its extension to universal intelligence.

  7. Investigation of an Electromagnetic Induction Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    generated in accor- dance with the hardware specification. The range of ζ for estimation is chosen such that log(ζ̃min) and log(ζ̃max) are 2.45 and 6.62...T. H. Bell, J. Soukup, and D. Keiswet- ter, “Simple phenomenological models for wideband frequency-domain electromagnetic induction,” IEEE Trans

  8. IT induction and information security awareness

    CERN Document Server

    Maddock, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    This pocket guide offers practical advice on how to develop an IT Induction programme for staff that can help safeguard business information. By providing employees with simple instruction in good IT working practices, and by making sure they know what is expected of them, a company can strengthen their information security and reduce the risk that data will be stolen or lost.

  9. Frequency characteristics of geomagnetic induction anomalies in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P V Vijaya Kumar

    2017-10-07

    Oct 7, 2017 ... (BAG) consists of 8 km thick sediments and named as Ulva basin (UB). The thickness of the sediments in south and SW are less due to extensive volcanic .... period range of 8–128 min using robust regression technique (Egbert and Booker 1993). The mag- nitude (S) and azimuth (φ) of these induction.

  10. Single phase induction motor with starting performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, M.; Demeter, E. [Research Institute for Electrical Machines, ICPE-ME, Bucharest (Romania); Navrapescu, V. [University `Politehnica` Bucharest, Electrical Engineering Faculty Splaiul Independentei, Bucharest (Romania)

    1997-12-31

    The paper presents problems related to a special type of single phase induction motor. The main novelty consists in the use of a conducting (aluminium casted) shell distributed on the periferic region of the rotor. As a result the starting performance, as well as the rated ones, is much improved in comparison with the conventional construction. (orig.) 4 refs.

  11. Relations between Inductive Reasoning and Deductive Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, Evan; Rotello, Caren M.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important open questions in reasoning research is how inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning are related. In an effort to address this question, we applied methods and concepts from memory research. We used 2 experiments to examine the effects of logical validity and premise-conclusion similarity on evaluation of arguments.…

  12. Induction and Deduction in Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseey, M. N.

    1970-01-01

    A clarification of induction and deduction as the types of logic behind educational methodology. Dialectical logic, a form of the deductive method, is a very effective research methodological approach because it reveals the inner nature of the subject under investigation. (CB)

  13. Free positioning for inductive wireless power system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waffenschmidt, E.

    2012-01-01

    In inductive wireless power transmission system a lateral displacement of the receiver coil to the transmitter coil leads to a change ofthe coupling factor and thus an unwanted variation of the power transfer. Here, an algorithm to determine the turn distribution to achieve homogeneous coupling

  14. Electromagnetic induction phenomena in plasma systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlovitz, B.

    1982-01-01

    The phenomenon of electromagnetic induction is considered in complex high temperature plasma systems. Thermal energy of such fully ionized plasma is really energy of the magnetic vortex fields surrounding the randomly moving ions and electrons. In an expanding plasma stream, moving across the containing magnetic field, random thermal motion of the ions and electrons is converted into ordered motion and thereby random magnetic energy of the plasma into magnetic energy of an ordered field. Consequently, in contrast to simple systems consisting of coils and magnets only, an expanding plasma stream can maintain net outflow of ordered magnetic energy from a closed volume for an indefinite length of time. Conversion of thermal energy of plasma into ordered magnetic energy by the thermodynamic expansion process leads to the expectation of a new induction phenomenon: the generation of a unidirectional induced electromotive force of unlimited duration, measured in a closed loop at rest relative to the magnetic field, by the expansion work of the plasma stream. No change is required in the differential form of Maxwell's equations for the existence of this induction phenomenon, only the definition of the concept of rate of change of magnetic flux needs to be modified in the macroscopic equations to correspond to the rate of flow of magnetic energy across a closed surface. An experimental test of the predicted induction phenomenon is proposed

  15. impedance calculations of induction machine rotor conductors.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    ABSTRACT. The exact calculation of the impedance of induction machine rotor conductors at several operating frequencies are necessary if the dynamic behaviour of the machine is to give a good correlation between the simulated starting torque and current and the experimental results. This paper describes a method of'.

  16. Induction accelerator development for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reginato, L.L.

    1993-05-01

    For approximately a decade, the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) group at LBL has been exploring the use of induction accelerators with multiple beams as the driver for inertial fusion targets. Scaled experiments have investigated the transport of space charge dominated beams (SBTE), and the current amplification and transverse emittance control in induction linacs (MBE-4) with very encouraging results. In order to study many of the beam manipulations required by a driver and to further develop economically competitive technology, a proposal has been made in partnership with LLNL to build a 10 MeV accelerator and to conduct a series of experiments collectively called the Induction Linac System Experiments (ILSE).The major components critical to the ILSE accelerator are currently under development. We have constructed a full scale induction module and we have tested a number of amorphous magnetic materials developed by Allied Signal to establish an overall optimal design. The electric and magnetic quadrupoles critical to the transport and focusing of heavy ion beams are also under development. The hardware is intended to be economically competitive for a driver without sacrificing any of the physics or performance requirements. This paper will concentrate on the recent developments and tests of the major components required by the ILSE accelerator

  17. Induction accelerator development for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reginato, L.L.

    1993-05-01

    For approximately a decade, the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) group at LBL has been exploring the use of induction accelerators with multiple beams as the driver for inertial fusion targets. Scaled experiments have investigated the transport of space charge dominated beams (SBTE), and the current amplification and transverse emittance control in induction linacs (MBE-4) with very encouraging results. In order to study many of the beam manipulations required by a driver and to further develop economically competitive technology, a proposal has been made in partnership with LLNL to build a 10 MeV accelerator and to conduct a series of experiments collectively called the Induction Linac System Experiments (ILSE). The major components critical to the ILSE accelerator are currently under development. We have constructed a full scale induction module and we have tested a number of amorphous magnetic materials developed by Allied Signal to establish an overall optimal design. The electric and magnetic quadrupoles critical to the transport and focusing of heavy ion beams are also under development The hardware is intended to be economically competitive for a driver without sacrificing any of the physics or performance requirements. This paper will concentrate on the recent developments and tests of the major components required by the ILSE accelerator

  18. Induction inserts at the Los Alamos PSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King-Yuen Ng

    2002-01-01

    Ferrite-loaded induction tuners installed in the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring have been successful in compensating space-charge effects. However, the resistive part of the ferrite introduces unacceptable microwave instability and severe bunch lengthening. An effective cure was found by heating the ferrite cores up to ∼ 130 C. An understanding of the instability and cure is presented

  19. Jet suppression measurement with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00443411; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A hot medium with a high density of unscreened color charges is produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions. Jets are produced at the early stages of this collision and are known to become attenuated as they propagate through the hot matter. One manifestation of this energy loss is a lower yield of jets emerging from the medium than expected in the absence of medium effects. Another manifestation of the energy loss is the modification of the dijet balance and the modification of fragmentation functions. In these proceedings, the latest ATLAS results on single jet suppression, dijet suppression, and modification of the jet internal structure in \\PbPb~collisions are presented.

  20. Suppression mental questionnaire: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Settineri

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Authors postulate that the difference between suppression and repression, highlighted in particular by the Societè Psychanalitique de Paris, enables the development of a quantitative instrument, since suppression is a defense accessible to consciousness and therefore quantifiable like scales and questionnaires. The idea of constructing a questionnaire, included the identification of thirty variables having somehow a plausible relationship with this mechanism. The factor exploratory analysis were identified three factors, named respectly “repressive function”,  “regression to the ego service” and “rationalization”, the first of which is the closest to the theoretical construct postulated.

  1. Feedback suppression in digital hearing instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Guilin

    . Methods to extract the fixed model are proposed and proved to be effective in representing the invariant part of the feedback path. Based on the investigation of the dynamic changes of the feedback path in adverse situations, for example when the user picks up the telephone handset, a reflection model...... is developed as one type of the fast varying models. The techniques to suppress the feedback are then reviewed. To improve the existing feedback suppression systems, two approaches are proposed to address the so-called “bias problem”. The first approach improves the performance of the adaptive feedback...... of the proposed feedback path models in the feedback cancellation systems is presented....

  2. Performing Implicit Induction Reasoning with Certifying Proof Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Stratulat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Largely adopted by proof assistants, the conventional induction methods based on explicit induction schemas are non-reductive and local, at schema level. On the other hand, the implicit induction methods used by automated theorem provers allow for lazy and mutual induction reasoning. In this paper, we present a new tactic for the Coq proof assistant able to perform automatically implicit induction reasoning. By using an automatic black-box approach, conjectures intended to be manually proved by the certifying proof environment that integrates Coq are proved instead by the Spike implicit induction theorem prover. The resulting proofs are translated afterwards into certified Coq scripts.

  3. In vivo induction of apoptosis in human lymphocytes by therapeutic fractionated total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delic, J.; Magdelenat, H.; Barbaroux, C.; Chaillet, M.-P.; Dubray, B.; Fourquet, A.; Cosset, J.-M.; Gluckman, E.; Girinsky, T.

    1995-01-01

    Ionizing radiations have been reported as an in vitro apoptosis initiating stimulus in human lymphocytes. As the cytotoxicity of ionizing radiations and chemotherapeutic agents appears to be dependent on the efficacy of cell death induction, the manipulation of apoptosis initiation might be used as a means to suppress some pathological process. In the present study the in vivo induction of γ-ray mediated programmed cell death in humans is reported. The in vivo induction of apoptosis in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) by ionizing radiations was investigated in 33 patients after each of two sessions (2 Gy and 4 Gy) of fractionated total body irradiation (FTBI) as part of their conditioning regimen before bone marrow transplantation. PBL committed to apoptosis were scored before irradiation (S1), 4 h (S2) and 24 h after 2 Gy (S3, 14-17 h after the second 2 Gy fraction). Nuclear morphology and chromatin-DNA were analysed by fluorescence microscopy immediately after blood sample withdrawal (I) and after 24 h in cell culture medium (II). (author)

  4. Mechanisms for the induction of gastric cancer by Helicobacter pylori infection: aberrant DNA methylation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Masahiro; Moro, Hiroshi; Ushijima, Toshikazu

    2017-03-01

    Multiple pathogenic mechanisms by which Helicobacter pylori infection induces gastric cancer have been established in the last two decades. In particular, aberrant DNA methylation is induced in multiple driver genes, which inactivates them. Methylation profiles in gastric cancer are associated with specific subtypes, such as microsatellite instability. Recent comprehensive and integrated analyses showed that many cancer-related pathways are more frequently altered by aberrant DNA methylation than by mutations. Aberrant DNA methylation can even be present in noncancerous gastric mucosae, producing an "epigenetic field for cancerization." Mechanistically, H. pylori-induced chronic inflammation, but not H. pylori itself, plays a direct role in the induction of aberrant DNA methylation. The expression of three inflammation-related genes, Il1b, Nos2, and Tnf, is highly associated with the induction of aberrant DNA methylation. Importantly, the degree of accumulated aberrant DNA methylation is strongly correlated with gastric cancer risk. A recent multicenter prospective cohort study demonstrated the utility of epigenetic cancer risk diagnosis for metachronous gastric cancer. Suppression of aberrant DNA methylation by a demethylating agent was shown to inhibit gastric cancer development in an animal model. Induction of aberrant DNA methylation is the major pathway by which H. pylori infection induces gastric cancer, and this can be utilized for translational opportunities.

  5. RAG-induced DNA lesions activate proapoptotic BIM to suppress lymphomagenesis in p53-deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Marco J.

    2016-01-01

    Neoplastic transformation is driven by oncogenic lesions that facilitate unrestrained cell expansion and resistance to antiproliferative signals. These oncogenic DNA lesions, acquired through errors in DNA replication, gene recombination, or extrinsically imposed damage, are thought to activate multiple tumor suppressive pathways, particularly apoptotic cell death. DNA damage induces apoptosis through well-described p53-mediated induction of PUMA and NOXA. However, loss of both these mediators (even together with defects in p53-mediated induction of cell cycle arrest and cell senescence) does not recapitulate the tumor susceptibility observed in p53−/− mice. Thus, potentially oncogenic DNA lesions are likely to also trigger apoptosis through additional, p53-independent processes. We found that loss of the BH3-only protein BIM accelerated lymphoma development in p53-deficient mice. This process was negated by concomitant loss of RAG1/2-mediated antigen receptor gene rearrangement. This demonstrates that BIM is critical for the induction of apoptosis caused by potentially oncogenic DNA lesions elicited by RAG1/2-induced gene rearrangement. Furthermore, this highlights the role of a BIM-mediated tumor suppressor pathway that acts in parallel to the p53 pathway and remains active even in the absence of wild-type p53 function, suggesting this may be exploited in the treatment of p53-deficient cancers. PMID:27621418

  6. T2 relaxation measurement with solvent suppression and implications to solvent suppression in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Markus M; Sobstyl, Hanna S; Badali, Vincent A

    2009-07-01

    A number of suppression pulse sequences including Excitation Sculpting and WATERGATE were incorporated into the standard Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) program for T(2) measurement and experimentally evaluated. The chosen suppression schemes were of varying complexity encompassing pulse program elements, such as presaturation, gradients, and selective pulses, which are typically utilized for solvent suppression. The quality of the spectral data and the accuracy of T(2) measurements of the investigated suppression schemes were evaluated using three aqueous samples with increasing proton content in the water solvent, i.e. by volume 100% D(2)O, 80/20% D(2)O/H(2)O, and 20/80% D(2)O/H(2)O. For signals removed from the water signal, the T(2) values were generally very consistent between all pulse sequences tested. T(2) measurements can be unreliable for signals too close to the water signal such that they are significantly suppressed as well. Their intensity may actually grow initially through cross relaxation that transfers magnetization back to the solute signal. In turn, this relaxation phenomenon can be exploited to improve the spectral quality of conventional solvent suppression schemes. In favorable cases, even signals that are completely masked by the water signal can be recovered by adding a carefully chosen number of spin echoes with optimized evolution time to conventional water suppression pulse programs, such as Excitation Sculpting or WATERGATE. 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Reappraising suppression: subjective and physiological correlates of experiential suppression in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu eLemaire

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotion regulation strategies based on suppressing behavioural expressions of emotion have been considered maladaptive. However this may not apply to suppressing the emotional experience (experiential suppression. The aim of this study was to define the effect of experiential suppression on subjective and physiological emotional responses. Methods: Healthy adults (N=101 were characterized in terms of the temperament, personality, and hedonic capacity using the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, the Fawcett-Clark Pleasure Scale and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Participants were shown positive, negative and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System under two conditions, passive viewing and experiential suppression. During both conditions, subjective ratings of the intensity and duration of emotional responses and physiological measures of skin conductance (SC and cardiac inter-beat interval (IBI to each picture were recorded.Results: Negative pictures elicited the most intense physiological and emotional responses regardless of experimental condition. Ratings of emotional intensity were not affected by condition. In contrast, experiential suppression, compared to passive viewing, was associated with decreased duration of the emotional response, reduced maximum SC amplitude and longer IBIs independent of age, picture valence, personality traits, hedonic capacity and anxiety. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that experiential suppression may represent an adaptive emotion regulation mechanism associated with reduced arousal and cardiovascular activation.

  8. Reappraising suppression: subjective and physiological correlates of experiential suppression in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Mathieu; El-Hage, Wissam; Frangou, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    Emotion regulation strategies based on suppressing behavioral expressions of emotion have been considered maladaptive. However, this may not apply to suppressing the emotional experience (experiential suppression). The aim of this study was to define the effect of experiential suppression on subjective and physiological emotional responses. Healthy adults (N = 101) were characterized in terms of the temperament, personality, and hedonic capacity using the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, the Fawcett-Clark Pleasure Scale, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Participants were shown positive, negative, and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System under two conditions, passive viewing, and experiential suppression. During both conditions, subjective ratings of the intensity and duration of emotional responses and physiological measures of skin conductance (SC) and cardiac inter-beat interval (IBI) to each picture were recorded. Negative pictures elicited the most intense physiological and emotional responses regardless of experimental condition. Ratings of emotional intensity were not affected by condition. In contrast, experiential suppression, compared to passive viewing, was associated with decreased duration of the emotional response, reduced maximum SC amplitude and longer IBIs independent of age, picture valence, personality traits, hedonic capacity, and anxiety. These findings demonstrate that experiential suppression may represent an adaptive emotion regulation mechanism associated with reduced arousal and cardiovascular activation.

  9. Assessment and modeling of inductive and non-inductive scenarios for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, D.; Vayakis, G.; Moreau, D.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents recent developments in modeling and simulations of ITER performances and scenarios. The first part presents an improved modeling of coupled divertor/main plasma operation including the simulation of the measurements involved in the control loop. The second part explores the fusion performances predicted under non-inductive operation with internal transport barrier. The final part covers a detailed scenario for non-inductive operation using a reverse shear configuration with lower hybrid and fast wave current drive. (author)

  10. Efflux inhibitor suppresses Streptococcus mutans virulence properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huihui; Liu, Jia; Ling, Junqi

    2017-04-01

    It is well established that efflux pumps play important roles in bacterial pathogenicity and efflux inhibitors (EIs) have been proved to be effective in suppressing bacterial virulence properties. However, little is known regarding the EI of Streptococcus mutans, a well-known caries-inducing bacterium. In this study, we identified the EI of S. mutans through ethidium bromide efflux assay and investigated how EI affected S. mutans virulence regarding the cariogenicity and stress response. Results indicated that reserpine, the identified EI, suppressed acid tolerance, mutacin production and transformation efficiency of S. mutans, and modified biofilm architecture and extracellular polysaccharide distribution. Suppressed glycosyltransferase activity was also noted after reserpine exposure. The data from quantitative real-time-PCR demonstrated that reserpine significantly altered the expression profile of quorum-sensing and virulence-associated genes. These findings suggest that reserpine represents a promising adjunct anticariogenic agent in that it suppresses virulence properties of S. mutans. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Evaluation of nematode suppression and yield improvement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2017-11-30

    Nov 30, 2017 ... Objective: To investigate nematode suppression and yield improvement potential of two organic materials; poultry manure ... region of Ghana. The organic materials were applied on two sweet potato varieties; Apomuden and Santom ..... but a trend similar to what happened in 2014 occurred at. Atebubu.

  12. Genetic sequences derived from suppression subtractive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaf scald disease (LSD) is caused by the Gram-negative bacterium, Xanthomonas albilineans. Genomic DNA from X. albilineans and Xanthomonas hyacinthi were analyzed by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) using X. albilineans as the tester from which unique sequences were sought and X. hyacinthi as the ...

  13. Suppressive competition: how sounds may cheat sight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Christoph; Remedios, Ryan

    2012-02-23

    In this issue of Neuron, Iurilli et al. (2012) demonstrate that auditory cortex activation directly engages local GABAergic circuits in V1 to induce sound-driven hyperpolarizations in layer 2/3 and layer 6 pyramidal neurons. Thereby, sounds can directly suppress V1 activity and visual driven behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Suppression of Quantum Corrections by Classical Backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Brouzakis, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    We use heat-kernel techniques in order to compute the one-loop effective action in the cubic Galileon theory for a background that realizes the Vainshtein mechanism. We find that the UV divergences are suppressed relative to the predictions of standard perturbation theory at length scales below the Vainshtein radius.

  15. Emotions shape memory suppression in trait anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa eMarzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The question that motivated this study was to investigate the relation between trait anxiety, emotions and memory control. To this aim, memory suppression was explored in high and low trait anxiety individuals with the Think/No-think paradigm. After learning associations between neutral words and emotional scenes (negative, positive and neutral, participants were shown a word and were requested either to think about the associated scene or to block it out from mind. Finally, in a test phase, participants were again shown each word and asked to recall the paired scene. The results show that memory control is influenced by high trait anxiety and emotions. Low trait anxiety individuals showed a memory suppression effect, whereas there was a lack of memory suppression in high trait anxious individuals, especially for emotionally negative scenes. Thus, we suggest that individuals with anxiety may have difficulty exerting cognitive control over memories with a negative valence. These findings provide evidence that memory suppression can be impaired by anxiety thus highlighting the crucial relation between cognitive control, emotions and individual differences in regulating emotions.

  16. Quarkonium suppression: Gluonic dissociation vs. colour screening

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mechanism comes into play for the initial conditions taken from the self screened parton cascade model in these studies. Keywords. Quark gluon plasma; J ψ; suppression; dissociation; colour screening. PACS No. 12.38.M. 1. Introduction. The last two decades have seen hectic activity towards identifying unique signatures ...

  17. Methanol Extract of Polyopes lancifolius Suppresses Tumor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The expression and activity of MMP-9 were significantly increased in response to TNF-α, but MEPL suppressed TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression and activity. MEPL also inhibited TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression at the transcriptional level by blocking the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Furthermore ...

  18. Genetic sequences derived from suppression subtractive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    Jun 17, 2008 ... Genomic DNA from X. albilineans and Xanthomonas hyacinthi were analyzed by suppression subtractive ... Clone X. albilineans 12 showed 92% homology to the acetate repressor proteins and clone. X. albilineans 18 .... stranded DNA will be enriched for tester-specific DNA, as DNA fragments that are not ...

  19. Contour detection by surround suppression of texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkov, Nicolai; Tavares, JMRS; Jorge, RMN

    2007-01-01

    Based on a keynote lecture at Complmage 2006, Coimbra, Oct. 20-21, 2006, an overview is given of our activities in modelling and using surround inhibition for contour detection. The effect of suppression of a line or edge stimulus by similar surrounding stimuli is known from visual perception

  20. Are Patents used to Suppress Useful Technology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    2006-01-01

    suppression of innovation in the historical record (Dunford 1987; Merges and Nelson 1990). This paper shows that there are many errors of interpretation, both in the historical papers and in Dunford and Merges and Nelson's writing. Most important are confusions about the nature of technological competition...

  1. Induction of tolerance to one determinant on a synthetic peptide does not affect the response to a second linked determinant. Implications for the mechanism of neonatal tolerance induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism underlying neonatal T cell tolerance, we used synthetic peptides to induce tolerance. We found that induction of tolerance to one determinant on a 23-amino acid peptide did not affect the response to an adjacent determinant on the same peptide. There was no evidence of suppression of the response to the second determinant. Furthermore, even small peptides near the minimal size for a determinant, which would be very unlikely to possess a suppressor T cell-inducing determinant as well as a proliferative T cell-inducing determinant, could induce tolerance. These studies provide in vivo experiments supporting clonal inactivation as the mechanism of neonatal tolerance to immunogenic peptides. PMID:2425038

  2. Local induction of immunosuppressive CD8+ T cells in the gut-associated lymphoid tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleissner, Diana; Hansen, Wiebke; Geffers, Robert; Buer, Jan; Westendorf, Astrid M

    2010-10-20

    In contrast to intestinal CD4(+) regulatory T cells (T(regs)), the generation and function of immunomodulatory intestinal CD8(+) T cells is less well defined. To dissect the immunologic mechanisms of CD8(+) T cell function in the mucosa, reactivity against hemagglutinin (HA) expressed in intestinal epithelial cells of mice bearing a MHC class-I-restricted T-cell-receptor specific for HA was studied. HA-specific CD8(+) T cells were isolated from gut-associated tissues and phenotypically and functionally characterized for the expression of Foxp3(+) and their suppressive capacity. We demonstrate that intestinal HA expression led to peripheral induction of HA-specific CD8(+)Foxp3(+) T cells. Antigen-experienced CD8(+) T cells in this transgenic mouse model suppressed the proliferation of CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells in vitro. Gene expression analysis of suppressive HA-specific CD8(+) T cells revealed a specific up-regulation of CD103, Nrp1, Tnfrsf9 and Pdcd1, molecules also expressed on CD4(+) T(reg) subsets. Finally, gut-associated dendritic cells were able to induce HA-specific CD8(+)Foxp3(+) T cells. We demonstrate that gut specific antigen presentation is sufficient to induce CD8(+) T(regs)in vivo which may maintain intestinal homeostasis by down-modulating effector functions of T cells.

  3. Local induction of immunosuppressive CD8+ T cells in the gut-associated lymphoid tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Fleissner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In contrast to intestinal CD4(+ regulatory T cells (T(regs, the generation and function of immunomodulatory intestinal CD8(+ T cells is less well defined. To dissect the immunologic mechanisms of CD8(+ T cell function in the mucosa, reactivity against hemagglutinin (HA expressed in intestinal epithelial cells of mice bearing a MHC class-I-restricted T-cell-receptor specific for HA was studied. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HA-specific CD8(+ T cells were isolated from gut-associated tissues and phenotypically and functionally characterized for the expression of Foxp3(+ and their suppressive capacity. We demonstrate that intestinal HA expression led to peripheral induction of HA-specific CD8(+Foxp3(+ T cells. Antigen-experienced CD8(+ T cells in this transgenic mouse model suppressed the proliferation of CD8(+ and CD4(+ T cells in vitro. Gene expression analysis of suppressive HA-specific CD8(+ T cells revealed a specific up-regulation of CD103, Nrp1, Tnfrsf9 and Pdcd1, molecules also expressed on CD4(+ T(reg subsets. Finally, gut-associated dendritic cells were able to induce HA-specific CD8(+Foxp3(+ T cells. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that gut specific antigen presentation is sufficient to induce CD8(+ T(regsin vivo which may maintain intestinal homeostasis by down-modulating effector functions of T cells.

  4. Nanoparticle curcumin ameliorates experimental colitis via modulation of gut microbiota and induction of regulatory T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Ohno

    Full Text Available Curcumin is a hydrophobic polyphenol derived from turmeric, a traditional Indian spice. Curcumin exhibits various biological functions, but its clinical application is limited due to its poor absorbability after oral administration. A newly developed nanoparticle curcumin shows improved absorbability in vivo. In this study, we examined the effects of nanoparticle curcumin (named Theracurmin on experimental colitis in mice.BALB/c mice were fed with 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS in water. Mucosal cytokine expression and lymphocyte subpopulation were analyzed by real-time PCR and flow cytometry, respectively. The profile of the gut microbiota was analyzed by real-time PCR.Treatment with nanoparticle curcumin significantly attenuated body weight loss, disease activity index, histological colitis score and significantly improved mucosal permeability. Immunoblot analysis showed that NF-κB activation in colonic epithelial cells was significantly suppressed by treatment with nanoparticle curcumin. Mucosal mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators was significantly suppressed by treatment with nanoparticle curcumin. Treatment with nanoparticle curcumin increased the abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria and fecal butyrate level. This was accompanied by increased expansion of CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells and CD103+ CD8α- regulatory dendritic cells in the colonic mucosa.Treatment with nanoparticle curcumin suppressed the development of DSS-induced colitis potentially via modulation of gut microbial structure. These responses were associated with induction of mucosal immune cells with regulatory properties. Nanoparticle curcumin is one of the promising candidates as a therapeutic option for the treatment of IBD.

  5. The skin microbiome: Is it affected by UV-induced immune suppression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaykumar Patra

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Human skin apart from functioning as a physical barricade to stop the entry of pathogens, also hosts innumerable commensal organisms. The skin cells and the immune system constantly interact with microbes, to maintain cutaneous homeostasis, despite the challenges offered by various environmental factors. A major environmental factor affecting the skin is ultraviolet radiation UV-R from sunlight. UV-R is well known to modulate the immune system, which can be both beneficial and deleterious. By targeting the cells and molecules within skin, UV-R can trigger the production and release of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs, affect the innate immune system and ultimately suppress the adaptive cellular immune response. This can contribute to skin carcinogenesis and the promotion of infectious agents such as herpes simplex virus and possibly others. On the other hand, a UV-established immunosuppressive environment may protect against the induction of immunologically mediated skin diseases including some of photodermatoses such as polymorphic light eruption. In this article, we share our perspective about the possibility that UV-induced immune suppression may alter the landscape of the skin's microbiome and its components. Alternatively, or in concert with this, direct UV-induced DNA and membrane damage to the microbiome may result in pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs that interfere with UV-induced immune suppression.

  6. Trichostatin A Promotes the Generation and Suppressive Functions of Regulatory T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Doñas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells are a specific subset of lymphocytes that suppress immune responses and play a crucial role in the maintenance of self-tolerance. They can be generated in the thymus as well as in the periphery through differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells. The forkhead box P3 transcription factor (Foxp3 is a crucial molecule regulating the generation and function of Tregs. Here we show that the foxp3 gene promoter becomes hyperacetylated in in vitro differentiated Tregs compared to naïve CD4+ T cells. We also show that the histone deacetylase inhibitor TSA stimulated the in vitro differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells into Tregs and that this induction was accompanied by a global increase in histone H3 acetylation. Importantly, we also demonstrated that Tregs generated in the presence of TSA have phenotypical and functional differences from the Tregs generated in the absence of TSA. Thus, TSA-generated Tregs showed increased suppressive activities, which could potentially be explained by a mechanism involving the ectonucleotidases CD39 and CD73. Our data show that TSA could potentially be used to enhance the differentiation and suppressive function of CD4+Foxp3+ Treg cells.

  7. PPARγ ligands suppress the feedback loop between E2F2 and cyclin-E1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Yoko; Ito, Ichiaki; Wayama, Mitsutoshi; Fujimura, Akiko; Akaogi, Kensuke; Machida, Hikaru; Nakajima, Yuka; Kuroda, Takao; Ohmori, Kazuji; Murayama, Akiko; Kimura, Keiji; Yanagisawa, Junn

    2008-01-01

    PPARγ is a nuclear hormone receptor that plays a key role in the induction of peroxisome proliferation. A number of studies showed that PPARγ ligands suppress cell cycle progression; however, the mechanism remains to be determined. Here, we showed that PPARγ ligand troglitazone inhibited G1/S transition in colon cancer cells, LS174T. Troglitazone did not affect on either expression of CDK inhibitor (p18) or Wnt signaling pathway, indicating that these pathways were not involved in the troglitazone-dependent cell cycle arrest. GeneChip and RT-PCR analyses revealed that troglitazone decreased mRNA levels of cell cycle regulatory factors E2F2 and cyclin-E1 whose expression is activated by E2F2. Down-regulation of E2F2 by troglitazone results in decrease of cyclin-E1 transcription, which could inhibit phosphorylation of Rb protein, and consequently evoke the suppression of E2F2 transcriptional activity. Thus, we propose that troglitazone suppresses the feedback loop containing E2F2, cyclin-E1, and Rb protein

  8. The SIRT1 deacetylase suppresses intestinal tumorigenesis and colon cancer growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Firestein

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerous longevity genes have been discovered in model organisms and altering their function results in prolonged lifespan. In mammals, some have speculated that any health benefits derived from manipulating these same pathways might be offset by increased cancer risk on account of their propensity to boost cell survival. The Sir2/SIRT1 family of NAD(+-dependent deacetylases is proposed to underlie the health benefits of calorie restriction (CR, a diet that broadly suppresses cancer in mammals. Here we show that CR induces a two-fold increase SIRT1 expression in the intestine of rodents and that ectopic induction of SIRT1 in a beta-catenin-driven mouse model of colon cancer significantly reduces tumor formation, proliferation, and animal morbidity in the absence of CR. We show that SIRT1 deacetylates beta-catenin and suppresses its ability to activate transcription and drive cell proliferation. Moreover, SIRT1 promotes cytoplasmic localization of the otherwise nuclear-localized oncogenic form of beta-catenin. Consistent with this, a significant inverse correlation was found between the presence of nuclear SIRT1 and the oncogenic form of beta-catenin in 81 human colon tumor specimens analyzed. Taken together, these observations show that SIRT1 suppresses intestinal tumor formation in vivo and raise the prospect that therapies targeting SIRT1 may be of clinical use in beta-catenin-driven malignancies.

  9. The SIRT1 Deacetylase Suppresses Intestinal Tumorigenesis and Colon Cancer Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberdoerffer, Philipp; Ogino, Shuji; Campbell, Jennifer; Bhimavarapu, Anupama; Luikenhuis, Sandra; de Cabo, Rafael; Fuchs, Charles; Hahn, William C.; Guarente, Leonard P.; Sinclair, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous longevity genes have been discovered in model organisms and altering their function results in prolonged lifespan. In mammals, some have speculated that any health benefits derived from manipulating these same pathways might be offset by increased cancer risk on account of their propensity to boost cell survival. The Sir2/SIRT1 family of NAD+-dependent deacetylases is proposed to underlie the health benefits of calorie restriction (CR), a diet that broadly suppresses cancer in mammals. Here we show that CR induces a two-fold increase SIRT1 expression in the intestine of rodents and that ectopic induction of SIRT1 in a β-catenin-driven mouse model of colon cancer significantly reduces tumor formation, proliferation, and animal morbidity in the absence of CR. We show that SIRT1 deacetylates β-catenin and suppresses its ability to activate transcription and drive cell proliferation. Moreover, SIRT1 promotes cytoplasmic localization of the otherwise nuclear-localized oncogenic form of β-catenin. Consistent with this, a significant inverse correlation was found between the presence of nuclear SIRT1 and the oncogenic form of β−catenin in 81 human colon tumor specimens analyzed. Taken together, these observations show that SIRT1 suppresses intestinal tumor formation in vivo and raise the prospect that therapies targeting SIRT1 may be of clinical use in β−catenin-driven malignancies. PMID:18414679

  10. Interleukin 35: A Key Mediator of Suppression and the Propagation of Infectious Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian M Olson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The importance of regulatory T cells in balancing the effector arm of the immune system is well documented, playing a central role in preventing autoimmunity, facilitating graft tolerance following organ transplantation, and having a detrimental impact on the development of anti-tumor immunity. These regulatory responses use a variety of mechanisms to mediate suppression, including soluble factors. While IL-10 and TGF-β are the most commonly studied immunosuppressive cytokines, the recently identified IL-35 has been shown to have potent suppressive function in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, not only does IL-35 have the ability to directly suppress effector T cell responses, it is also able to expand regulatory responses by propagating infectious tolerance and generating a potent population of IL-35-expressing inducible regulatory T cells. In this review, we summarize research characterizing the structure and function of IL-35, examine its role in disease, and discuss how it can contribute to the induction of a distinct population of inducible regulatory T cells.

  11. Protectin DX suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis through AMPK-HO-1-mediated inhibition of ER stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Tae Woo; Kim, Hyung-Chun; Abd El-Aty, A M; Jeong, Ji Hoon

    2017-06-01

    Several studies have shown that protectins, which are ω-3 fatty acid-derived proresolution mediators, may improve insulin resistance. Recently, protectin DX (PDX) was documented to attenuate insulin resistance by stimulating IL-6 expression in skeletal muscle, thereby regulating hepatic gluconeogenesis. These findings made us investigate the direct effects of PDX on hepatic glucose metabolism in the context of diabetes. In the current study, we show that PDX regulates hepatic gluconeogenesis in a manner distinct from its indirect glucoregulatory activity via IL-6. We found that PDX stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation, thereby inducing heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression. This induction blocked hepatic gluconeogenesis by suppressing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in hepatocytes under hyperlipidemic conditions. These effects were significantly dampened by silencing AMPK or HO-1 expression with small interfering RNA (siRNA). We also demonstrated that administration of PDX to high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice resulted in increased hepatic AMPK phosphorylation and HO-1 expression, whereas hepatic ER stress was substantially attenuated. Furthermore, PDX treatment suppressed the expression of gluconeogenic genes, thereby decreasing blood glucose levels in HFD-fed mice. In conclusion, our findings suggest that PDX inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis via AMPK-HO-1-dependent suppression of ER stress. Thus, PDX may be an effective therapeutic target for the treatment of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes through the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Suppression, subversion and escape: the role of regulatory T cells in cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleinika, K; Nibbs, R J; Graham, G J; Fraser, A R

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (T(regs) ) are crucial in mediating immune homeostasis and promoting the establishment and maintenance of peripheral tolerance. However, in the context of cancer their role is more complex, and they are thought to contribute to the progress of many tumours. As cancer cells express both self- and tumour-associated antigens, T(regs) are key to dampening effector cell responses, and therefore represent one of the main obstacles to effective anti-tumour responses. Suppression mechanisms employed by T(regs) are thought to contribute significantly to the failure of current therapies that rely on induction or potentiation of anti-tumour responses. This review will focus on the current evidence supporting the central role of T(regs) in establishing tumour-specific tolerance and promoting cancer escape. We outline the mechanisms underlying their suppressive function and discuss the potential routes of T(regs) accumulation within the tumour, including enhanced recruitment, in-situ or local proliferation, and de-novo differentiation. In addition, we review some of the cancer treatment strategies that act, at least in part, to eliminate or interfere with the function of T(regs) . The role of T(regs) is being recognized increasingly in cancer, and controlling the function of these suppressive cells in the tumour microenvironment without compromising peripheral tolerance represents a significant challenge for cancer therapies. © 2012 British Society for Immunology.

  13. Alisertib Induces Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis, Autophagy and Suppresses EMT in HT29 and Caco-2 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Bao-Jun; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Zhu, Da-Jian; Ju, Yong-Le; Wu, Jin-Hao; Ouyang, Man-Zhao; Chen, Xiao-Wu; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide with substantial mortality and morbidity. Alisertib (ALS) is a selective Aurora kinase A (AURKA) inhibitor with unclear effect and molecular interactome on CRC. This study aimed to evaluate the molecular interactome and anticancer effect of ALS and explore the underlying mechanisms in HT29 and Caco-2 cells. ALS markedly arrested cells in G2/M phase in both cell lines, accompanied by remarkable alterations in the expression level of key cell cycle regulators. ALS induced apoptosis in HT29 and Caco-2 cells through mitochondrial and death receptor pathways. ALS also induced autophagy in HT29 and Caco-2 cells, with the suppression of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), but activation of 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathways. There was a differential modulating effect of ALS on p38 MAPK signaling pathway in both cell lines. Moreover, induction or inhibition of autophagy modulated basal and ALS-induced apoptosis in both cell lines. ALS potently suppressed epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in HT29 and Caco-2 cells. Collectively, it suggests that induction of cell cycle arrest, promotion of apoptosis and autophagy, and suppression of EMT involving mitochondrial, death receptor, PI3K/Akt/mTOR, p38 MAPK, and AMPK signaling pathways contribute to the cancer cell killing effect of ALS on CRC cells. PMID:26729093

  14. Alisertib Induces Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis, Autophagy and Suppresses EMT in HT29 and Caco-2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Jun Ren

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the most common malignancies worldwide with substantial mortality and morbidity. Alisertib (ALS is a selective Aurora kinase A (AURKA inhibitor with unclear effect and molecular interactome on CRC. This study aimed to evaluate the molecular interactome and anticancer effect of ALS and explore the underlying mechanisms in HT29 and Caco-2 cells. ALS markedly arrested cells in G2/M phase in both cell lines, accompanied by remarkable alterations in the expression level of key cell cycle regulators. ALS induced apoptosis in HT29 and Caco-2 cells through mitochondrial and death receptor pathways. ALS also induced autophagy in HT29 and Caco-2 cells, with the suppression of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/protein kinase B (Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, but activation of 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK signaling pathways. There was a differential modulating effect of ALS on p38 MAPK signaling pathway in both cell lines. Moreover, induction or inhibition of autophagy modulated basal and ALS-induced apoptosis in both cell lines. ALS potently suppressed epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT in HT29 and Caco-2 cells. Collectively, it suggests that induction of cell cycle arrest, promotion of apoptosis and autophagy, and suppression of EMT involving mitochondrial, death receptor, PI3K/Akt/mTOR, p38 MAPK, and AMPK signaling pathways contribute to the cancer cell killing effect of ALS on CRC cells.

  15. Sliding Mode Control of Induction Motor Phase Currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, R.B.; Hattel, T.; Bork, J

    1995-01-01

    Sliding mode control of induction motor phase currents are investigated through development of two control concepts.......Sliding mode control of induction motor phase currents are investigated through development of two control concepts....

  16. Recent Declines in Induction of Labor by Gestational Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... induction rates at 35–38 weeks varied by race and Hispanic origin. The largest changes for all ... 4 ). Induction rates were down for all three race and ethnicity groups: non-Hispanic white (down 19%), ...

  17. Factors influencing callus induction and plant regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2012-01-12

    ). Effect of basal medium on callus induction and plant regeneration. Three different kinds of basal mediums (MS, N6 and SH) were used to investigate their effects on callus induction and regeneration. Significant differences ...

  18. Self-Tuning Speed Regulator for CVC Induction Motor Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, N.; Rasmussen, Henrik; Knudsen, Torben

    1994-01-01

    A self-tuning speed regulator for a current vector controlled induction motor drive has been designed.......A self-tuning speed regulator for a current vector controlled induction motor drive has been designed....

  19. Interleukin-2 receptor antagonists as induction therapy after heart transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Christian H; Gustafsson, Finn; Gluud, Christian

    2008-01-01

    About half of the transplantation centers use induction therapy after heart transplantation. Interleukin-2 receptor antagonists (IL-2Ras) are used increasingly for induction therapy. We conducted a systematic review of randomized trials assessing IL-2Ras.......About half of the transplantation centers use induction therapy after heart transplantation. Interleukin-2 receptor antagonists (IL-2Ras) are used increasingly for induction therapy. We conducted a systematic review of randomized trials assessing IL-2Ras....

  20. Pulsed Inductive Plasma Acceleration: Performance Optimization Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.

    2014-01-01

    Optimization criteria for pulsed inductive plasma acceleration are developed using an acceleration model consisting of a set of coupled circuit equations describing the time-varying current in the thruster and a one-dimensional momentum equation. The model is nondimensionalized, resulting in the identification of several scaling parameters that are varied to optimize the performance of the thruster. The analysis reveals the benefits of underdamped current waveforms and leads to a performance optimization criterion that requires the matching of the natural period of the discharge and the acceleration timescale imposed by the inertia of the working gas. In addition, the performance increases when a greater fraction of the propellant is initially located nearer to the inductive acceleration coil. While the dimensionless model uses a constant temperature formulation in calculating performance, the scaling parameters that yield the optimum performance are shown to be relatively invariant if a self-consistent description of energy in the plasma is instead used.

  1. Multichannel simultaneous magnetic induction measurement system (MUSIMITOS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, Matthias; Leonhardt, Steffen; Heimann, Konrad; Bernstein, Nina

    2008-01-01

    Non-contact heart and lung activity monitoring would be a desirable supplement to conventional monitoring techniques. Based on the potential of non-contact magnetic induction measurements, requirements for an adequate monitoring system were estimated. This formed the basis for the development of the presented extendable multichannel simultaneous magnetic induction measurement system (MUSIMITOS). Special focus was given to the dynamic behaviour and simultaneous multichannel measurements, so that the system allows for up to 14 receiver coils working simultaneously at 6 excitation frequencies. Moreover, a real-time software concept for online signal processing visualization in combination with a fast software demodulation is presented. Finally, first steps towards a clinical application are pointed out and technical performance as well as first in vivo measurements are presented. This paper covers some aspects previously presented in Steffen and Leonhardt (2007 Proc. 13th Int. Conf. on Electrical Bioimpedance and the 8th Conf. on Electrical Impedance Tomography, Graz 2007)

  2. Mutation induction by ion beams in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Atsushi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The effect of ion beams such as C, He, and Ne ions was investigated on the mutation induction in plants with the expectation that ion beams of high linear energy transfer (LET) can frequently produce large DNA alternation such as inversion, translocation and large deletion rather than point mutation. Mutation frequency was investigated using Arabidopsis visible phenotype loci and was 8 to 33 fold higher for 220 MeV carbon ions than for electrons. Mutation spectrum was investigated on the flower color of chrysanthemum cv to find that flower mutants induced by ion beams show complex and stripe types rather than single color. Polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to investigate DNA alteration of mutations. In conclusion, the characteristics of ion beams for the mutation induction are 1) high frequency, 2) broad mutation spectrum, and 3) novel mutants. (S. Ohno)

  3. Meta-learning in decision tree induction

    CERN Document Server

    Grąbczewski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The book focuses on different variants of decision tree induction but also describes  the meta-learning approach in general which is applicable to other types of machine learning algorithms. The book discusses different variants of decision tree induction and represents a useful source of information to readers wishing to review some of the techniques used in decision tree learning, as well as different ensemble methods that involve decision trees. It is shown that the knowledge of different components used within decision tree learning needs to be systematized to enable the system to generate and evaluate different variants of machine learning algorithms with the aim of identifying the top-most performers or potentially the best one. A unified view of decision tree learning enables to emulate different decision tree algorithms simply by setting certain parameters. As meta-learning requires running many different processes with the aim of obtaining performance results, a detailed description of the experimen...

  4. Induction surface hardening of hard coated steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Kessler, Olaf; Hoffmann, Franz

    1999-01-01

    after the deposition of TiN hard coatings on steel substrates. Influences of both the coating properties and the substrate properties are discussed in dependence on the parameters of induction heating. Thereby the heating time, heating atmosphere and the power input into the specimen are changed......The deposition of hard coatings with CVD-processes is commonly used to improve the wear resistance e.g. of tool steels in forming. The advantages of CVD are undisputed (high deposition rates with simple equipment, excellent coating properties). Nevertheless, the disadvantage of the CVD....... The effect of induction surface hardening on the properties of the coating-substrate-systems is mainly characterized using investigations of microstructure and chemical composition as well as measurements of hardness and residual stresses in dependence on the distance from the surface. Furthermore...

  5. Induction soldering of photovoltaic system components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaria, Shashwat; de Leon, Briccio

    2015-11-17

    A method comprises positioning a pair of photovoltaic wafers in a side-by-side arrangement. An interconnect is placed on the pair of wafers such that the interconnect overlaps both wafers of the pair, solder material being provided between the interconnect and the respective wafers. A solder head is then located adjacent the interconnect, and the coil is energized to effect inductive heating of the solder material. The solder head comprises an induction coil shaped to define an eye, and a magnetic field concentrator located at least partially in the eye of the coil. The magnetic field concentrator defines a passage extending axially through the eye of the coil, and may be of a material with a high magnetic permeability.

  6. Backstepping Strategy for Induction Motor Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Vadstrup, P.; Børsting, H.

    2000-01-01

    Using backstepping, which is a recursive nonlinear design method, a novel approach to control of induction motors is developed. The resulting scheme leads to a nonlinear controller for the torque and the amplitude of the field. A combination of nonlinear damping and observer backstepping with a s......Using backstepping, which is a recursive nonlinear design method, a novel approach to control of induction motors is developed. The resulting scheme leads to a nonlinear controller for the torque and the amplitude of the field. A combination of nonlinear damping and observer backstepping...... with a simple flux observer is used in the design. Assuming known motor parameters the design achieves stability with guaranteed region of attraction. It is also shown how a conventional field oriented controller may be obtained by omitting parts of the nonlinear controller....

  7. Linear induction accelerators for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, R.J.; Bayless, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Electron beams and x-rays have a variety of industrial and commercial applications including the sterilization of food, medical products and sludge, the detoxification of pollutant gases, the crosslinking and polymerization of plastics, the alteration of gemstone color, oil well logging, and cancer therapy. These requirements are presently met by chemical techniques, radioisotopes, electrostatic accelerators, or RF accelerators. Induction accelerators can be used in a number of these applications, with significant advantages in cost, efficiency, reliability and power handling capability. In this paper, the authors briefly discuss the principles of the induction accelerator and describe the development program. The goals of their program are to improve system reliability and to reduce system cost. An accelerator presently under construction which embodies a number of industrial improvements will be described. Unique features are a low cost accelerator design, and an SCR switched, tubeless pulsed power system

  8. Benchmark enclosure fire suppression experiments - phase 1 test report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, Victor G.; Nichols, Robert Thomas; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2007-06-01

    A series of fire benchmark water suppression tests were performed that may provide guidance for dispersal systems for the protection of high value assets. The test results provide boundary and temporal data necessary for water spray suppression model development and validation. A review of fire suppression in presented for both gaseous suppression and water mist fire suppression. The experimental setup and procedure for gathering water suppression performance data are shown. Characteristics of the nozzles used in the testing are presented. Results of the experiments are discussed.

  9. Induction of Labour at Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Induction of labour is always a therapeutic challenge in obstetrics. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the incidence, indications and outcome of induction of labour in our obstetric unit. Study Design and Setting: Descriptive study involving 205 patients admitted for induction of labour between January ...

  10. Calculation of Leakage Inductance for High Frequency Transformers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouyang, Ziwei; Jun, Zhang; Hurley, William Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Frequency dependent leakage inductance is often observed. High frequency eddy current effects cause a reduction in leakage inductance. The proximity effect between adjacent layers is responsible for the reduction of leakage inductance. This paper gives a detailed analysis of high frequency leakag...

  11. 14 CFR 125.181 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Requirements § 125.181 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air induction system must be provided for each airplane. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 125.181...

  12. 14 CFR 23.1107 - Induction system filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 23.1107 Induction system filters. If an air filter is used to protect the engine against foreign... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system filters. 23.1107 Section...

  13. 14 CFR 121.283 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air induction system must be provided for each airplane. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 121.283...

  14. Prophage Induction by Ultraviolet Light in Acinetobacter calcoaceticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berenstein, D.

    1986-01-01

    UV-induction of prophage P78 of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus increased with the UV-dose given to the lysogenic strain from the spontaneous induction frequency of about 0.8% to a maximal frequency of 10%. This 10- to 20-fold increase of induction frequency, as measured by the number of infective ce...

  15. Is spacing really the "friend of induction"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkoeijen, Peter P J L; Bouwmeester, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    Inductive learning takes place when people learn a new concept or category by observing a variety of exemplars. Kornell and Bjork (2008) asked participants to learn new painting styles either by presenting different paintings of the same artist consecutively (massed presentation) or by mixing paintings of different artists (spaced presentation). In their second experiment, Kornell and Bjork (2008) showed with a final style recognition test, that spacing resulted in better inductive learning than massing. Also, by using this style recognition test, they ruled out the possibility that spacing merely resulted in a better memory for the labels of the newly learned painting styles. The findings from Kornell and Bjork's (2008) second experiment are important because they show that the benefit of spaced learning generalizes to complex learning tasks and outcomes, and that it is not confined to rote memory learning. However, the findings from Kornell and Bjork's (2008) second experiment have never been replicated. In the present study we performed an exact and high-powered replication of Kornell and Bjork's (2008) second experiment with a Web-based sample. Such a replication contributes to establish the reliability of the original finding and hence to more conclusive evidence of the spacing effect in inductive learning. The findings from the present replication attempt revealed a medium-sized advantage of spacing over massing in inductive learning, which was comparable to the original effect in the experiment by Kornell and Bjork (2008). Also, the 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the effect sizes from both experiments overlapped considerably. Hence, the findings from the present replication experiment and the original experiment clearly reinforce each other.

  16. Is spacing really the friend of induction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eVerkoeijen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Inductive learning takes place when people learn a new concept or category by observing a variety of exemplars. Kornell and Bjork (2008 asked participants to learn new painting styles either by presenting different paintings of the same artist consecutively (massed presentation or by mixing paintings of different artists (spaced presentation. In their second experiment, Kornell and Bjork showed with a final style recognition test, that spacing resulted in better inductive learning than massing. Also, by using this style recognition test, they ruled out the possibility that spacing merely resulted in a better memory for the labels of the newly learned painting styles. The findings from Kornell and Bjork’s second experiment are important because they show that the benefit of spaced learning generalizes to complex learning tasks and outcomes, and that it is not confined to rote memory learning. However, the findings from Kornell and Bjork’s second experiment have never been replicated. In the present study we performed an exact and high-powered replication of Kornell and Bjork’s second experiment with a Web-based sample. Such a replication contributes to establish the reliability of the original finding and hence to more conclusive evidence of the spacing effect in inductive learning. The findings from the present replication attempt revealed a medium-sized advantage of spacing over massing in inductive learning, which was comparable to the original effect in the experiment by Kornell and Bjork. Also, the 95% confidence intervals of the effect sizes from both experiments overlapped considerably. Hence, the findings from the present replication experiment and the original experiment clearly reinforce each other.

  17. FORTRAN program for induction motor analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollenbacher, G.

    1976-01-01

    A FORTRAN program for induction motor analysis is described. The analysis includes calculations of torque-speed characteristics, efficiency, losses, magnetic flux densities, weights, and various electrical parameters. The program is limited to three-phase Y-connected, squirrel-cage motors. Detailed instructions for using the program are given. The analysis equations are documented, and the sources of the equations are referenced. The appendixes include a FORTRAN symbol list, a complete explanation of input requirements, and a list of error messages.

  18. Conformal mapping calculation of railgun skin inductance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerta, M.A.; Nearing, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper considers the common rail arrangement consisting of two long, parallel, rectangular rails. The authors calculate the inductance per unit length L' in the short flight time limit where the skin depth is much smaller than any rail dimensions, the current is all on the rail surface, and the magnetic field does not penetrate the rails. The authors give the solution based on the Schwartz-Christoffel transformation that maps the boundaries of the problem into a simpler shape

  19. Low-Inductance Capacitor For Low Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, David B.; Jones, Stephen B.; Franke, John M.

    1989-01-01

    Planar capacitor made on epoxy/fiberglass printed-circuit board. Planar design and flat copper plates ensure low inductance and low series resistance. Planar construction minimized effects of thermal contraction, and epoxy/fiberglass substrate ensured high breakdown voltage. Design is simple, and this type of capacitor easy for any printed-circuit-board facility to fabricate. Design suitable for any small-capacitance, high-voltage capacitor, whether operating at low or high temperature.

  20. NDT of railway components using induction thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzelmann, U.; Walle, G.; Ehlen, A.; Lugin, S.; Finckbohner, M.; Bessert, S.

    2016-02-01

    Induction or eddy current thermography is used to detect surface cracks in ferritic steel. The technique is applied to detect surface cracks in rails from a moving test car. Cracks were detected at a train speed between 2 and 15 km/h. An automated demonstrator system for testing railway wheels after production is described. While the wheel is rotated, a robot guides the detection unit consisting of inductor and infrared camera over the surface.

  1. Antibody induction therapy for lung transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penninga, Luit; Møller, Christian H; Penninga, Ida Elisabeth Irene

    2013-01-01

    Lung transplantation has become a valuable and well-accepted treatment option for most end-stage lung diseases. Lung transplant recipients are at risk of transplanted organ rejection, and life-long immunosuppression is necessary. Clear evidence is essential to identify an optimal, safe...... and effective immunosuppressive treatment strategy for lung transplant recipients. Consensus has not yet been achieved concerning use of immunosuppressive antibodies against T-cells for induction following lung transplantation....

  2. Vacuum induction melting of uranium ingots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.M.; Bagchi, S.N.; Singh, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    Massive uranium ingot is produced from green salt (UF 4 ) using calciothermic reduction (CTR) or magnesiothermic reduction (MTR) process. CTR process has been replaced by MTR process at Trombay due to economic considerations. This paper highlights problems associated with the vacuum induction melting of MTR ingots and the remedial measures taken to produce good quality billets. Details of metallographic examination of inclusions in ingots and billets have been incorporated. (author). 3 figs

  3. Inductance, electrically adjusted by semiconductor structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenov А. А.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical model of a passive flat inductor with electronic control is offered. Design charts of tank inductance and Q factor dependence on the forward bias voltage of n—i—p—i—n-structure, used as a specific core, the characteristics of which are regulated under the influence of an applied electric field, are presented. The comparison of design values with experimental features has shown their good correspondence with each other.

  4. Induction and Deduction in Baysian Data Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Gelman

    2011-01-01

    The classical or frequentist approach to statistics (in which inference is centered on significance testing), is associated with a philosophy in which science is deductive and follows Popperis doctrine of falsification. In contrast, Bayesian inference is commonly associated with inductive reasoning and the idea that a model can be dethroned by a competing model but can never be directly falsified by a significance test. The purpose of this article is to break these associations, which I think...

  5. Stator Fault Modelling of Induction Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Sandberg; Kallesøe, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a model of an induction motor affected by stator faults is presented. Two different types of faults are considered, these are; disconnection of a supply phase, and inter-turn and turn-turn short circuits inside the stator. The output of the derived model is compared to real...... is on the phase currents and the star point voltage as these signals are often used for fault detection....

  6. Character drawing style in cartoons on empathy induction: an eye-tracking and EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Il; Choi, Yeojeong; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2017-01-01

    In its most basic form, empathy refers to the ability to understand another person's feelings and emotions, representing an essential component of human social interaction. Owing to an increase in the use of mass media, which is used to distribute high levels of empathy-inducing content, media plays a key role in individual and social empathy induction. We investigated empathy induction in cartoons using eye movement, EEG and behavioral measures to explore whether empathy factors correlate with character drawing styles. Two different types of empathy-inducing cartoons that consisted of three stages and had the same story plot were used. One had an iconic style, while the other was realistic style. Fifty participants were divided into two groups corresponding to the individual cartoon drawing styles and were presented with only one type of drawing style. We found that there were no significant differences of empathy factors between iconic and realistic style. However, the Induced Empathy Score (IES) had a close relationship with subsequent attentional processing (total fixation length for gaze duration). Furthermore, iconic style suppressed the fronto-central area more than realistic style in the gamma power band. These results suggest that iconic cartoons have the advantage of abstraction during empathy induction, because the iconic cartoons induced the same level of empathy as realistic cartoons while using the same story plot (top-down process), even though lesser time and effort were required by the cartoon artist to draw them. This also means that the top-down process (story plot) is more important than the bottom-up process (drawing style) in empathy induction when viewing cartoons.

  7. Character drawing style in cartoons on empathy induction: an eye-tracking and EEG study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-il Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In its most basic form, empathy refers to the ability to understand another person’s feelings and emotions, representing an essential component of human social interaction. Owing to an increase in the use of mass media, which is used to distribute high levels of empathy-inducing content, media plays a key role in individual and social empathy induction. We investigated empathy induction in cartoons using eye movement, EEG and behavioral measures to explore whether empathy factors correlate with character drawing styles. Two different types of empathy-inducing cartoons that consisted of three stages and had the same story plot were used. One had an iconic style, while the other was realistic style. Fifty participants were divided into two groups corresponding to the individual cartoon drawing styles and were presented with only one type of drawing style. We found that there were no significant differences of empathy factors between iconic and realistic style. However, the Induced Empathy Score (IES had a close relationship with subsequent attentional processing (total fixation length for gaze duration. Furthermore, iconic style suppressed the fronto-central area more than realistic style in the gamma power band. These results suggest that iconic cartoons have the advantage of abstraction during empathy induction, because the iconic cartoons induced the same level of empathy as realistic cartoons while using the same story plot (top-down process, even though lesser time and effort were required by the cartoon artist to draw them. This also means that the top-down process (story plot is more important than the bottom-up process (drawing style in empathy induction when viewing cartoons

  8. Standardizing therapeutic parameters of acupuncture for pain suppression in rats: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Sujung; Lim, Hyungtaeck; Choe, Ilwhan; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lim, Sabina

    2014-01-15

    Despite acupuncture's wide and successful use, it is still considered as lacking scientifically rigorous evidence, especially with respect to its effectiveness. To address this problem, it is necessary to re-examine the practice of acupuncture using scientific methodology. The standardization of acupuncture practices may offer a solution. As a preliminary step towards the standardization of acupuncture stimulation in animal experiments, this study attempted to clarify the various therapeutic parameters that contribute to acupuncture's efficacy. This study identified specific acupoints, temporal point of needling, rotation of the needle, duration of acupuncture, and diameter of the needle as the parameters, through formalin test. In this test, acupuncture was performed on either the ST36 or LR2 point immediately after pain induction and 5 minutes after pain induction. The formalin test yielded no significant suppression of pain in the case of ST36 and LR2 acupuncture stimulation immediately following pain induction. When acupuncture was applied 5 minutes after pain induction, however, the ST36 stimulation resulted in a significant decrease in pain, while the LR2 stimulation produced no change. The duration of acupuncture, but not the diameter of the needle, was also significant. As for the rotation of the needle, there was no significant difference in the pain reduction achieved in the rotation and non-rotation groups. We determined that specific acupoint, temporal point of needling, and duration of treatment are important factors in the inhibition of pain. These finding strongly suggest that in animal experiments, the application of a set of appropriate therapeutic parameters can significantly influence the outcome.

  9. Field oriented control of induction motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Linda M.; Roth, Mary Ellen; Zinger, Don S.

    1990-01-01

    Induction motors have always been known for their simple rugged construction, but until lately were not suitable for variable speed or servo drives due to the inherent complexity of the controls. With the advent of field oriented control (FOC), however, the induction motor has become an attractive option for these types of drive systems. An FOC system which utilizes the pulse population modulation method to synthesize the motor drive frequencies is examined. This system allows for a variable voltage to frequency ratio and enables the user to have independent control of both the speed and torque of an induction motor. A second generation of the control boards were developed and tested with the next point of focus being the minimization of the size and complexity of these controls. Many options were considered with the best approach being the use of a digital signal processor (DSP) due to its inherent ability to quickly evaluate control algorithms. The present test results of the system and the status of the optimization process using a DSP are discussed.

  10. Scalable conditional induction variables (CIV) analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Oancea, Cosmin E.

    2015-02-01

    Subscripts using induction variables that cannot be expressed as a formula in terms of the enclosing-loop indices appear in the low-level implementation of common programming abstractions such as Alter, or stack operations and pose significant challenges to automatic parallelization. Because the complexity of such induction variables is often due to their conditional evaluation across the iteration space of loops we name them Conditional Induction Variables (CIV). This paper presents a flow-sensitive technique that summarizes both such CIV-based and affine subscripts to program level, using the same representation. Our technique requires no modifications of our dependence tests, which is agnostic to the original shape of the subscripts, and is more powerful than previously reported dependence tests that rely on the pairwise disambiguation of read-write references. We have implemented the CIV analysis in our parallelizing compiler and evaluated its impact on five Fortran benchmarks. We have found that that there are many important loops using CIV subscripts and that our analysis can lead to their scalable parallelization. This in turn has led to the parallelization of the benchmark programs they appear in.

  11. EVALUATION OF INDUCTANCE WITH ELECTRICAL WIRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kudry

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper proved the possibility of developing passive electronic inductive elements based replace metal wire that is wound inductor, the wire is made of electret. The relative permeability of the electret S  10 000, several orders of magnitude greater than the permeability of conventional insulation materials, i < 10, resulting current in the wire acquires properties bias current. The essence of innovation is to replace the source of of magnetic induction flow that pervades the core of the coil. According to the theory of electrodynamics, current bias, in contrast to conduction current, generated no movement of charge along the wire, but the change of the charge in the local volume.Equivalence bias current and conduction current is manifested in the possibility of forming a magnetic field. The flow through magnetic induction coil core regardless of the current it generates, creates voltage at its ends.The paper also shows the numeric characteristics that determine the effective frequency range, specified the reason why electric a wire with і < 10 can not generate magnetic flux through the core and serve as a passive reactive component.

  12. Cybernetic systems based on inductive logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Robert L.

    2001-05-01

    Recent work in the area of inductive logic suggests that cybernetics might be quantified and reduced to engineering practice. If so, then there are considerable implications for engineering, science, and other fields. This paper attempts to capture the essential ideas of cybernetics cast in the light of inductive logic. The described inductive logic extends conventional logic by adding a conjugate logical domain of questions to the logical domain of assertions intrinsic to Boolean Algebra with which most are familiar. This was first posited and developed by Richard Cox. Interestingly enough, these two logical domains, one of questions and the other of assertions, only exist relative to one another with each possessing natural measures of entropy and probability, respectively. Examples are given that highlight the utility of cybernetic approaches to neuroscience, algorithm design, system engineering, and the design and understanding of defensive and offensive systems. For example, the application of cybernetic approaches to defense systems suggests that these systems possess a wavefunction which like quantum mechanics, collapses when we ``look'' through the eyes of the system sensors such as radars and optical sensors. .

  13. Induction of protein X in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, J.W.; Hanawalt, P.C.

    1977-01-01

    The authors have examined some of the treatments that might induce protein X and they have, in particular, tested the hypothesis that DNA degradation products play an essential role in the induction process. UV irradiation, nalidixic acid treatment, or thymine starvation result in protein X synthesis in wild type strains. However, UV irradiation, unlike nalidixic acid, also induced protein X in recB strains, in which little DNA degradation occurs. The presence of DNA fragments resulting from hostcontrolled restriction of phage lambda DNA did not affect protein X synthesis. It was concluded that no causal relationship exists bewteen the production of DNA fragments and induction of protein X. The presence of the plasmid R 46, which confers enhanced mutagenesis and UV resistance on its host, did not affect protein X synthesis. Growth in the presence of 5-bromouracil, which does not result in production of degradation fragments, resulted eventually in a low rate of protein X synthesis. In dnaA mutants, deficient in the initiation of new rounds of replication, UV irradiation induced protein X, again unlike nalidixic acid. Thus, the inhibition of active replication forks is not an essential requirement for protein X induction. (orig./MG) [de

  14. NLC Hybrid Solid State Induction Modulator

    CERN Document Server

    Cassel, R L; Pappas, G C; Delamare, J E

    2004-01-01

    The Next Linear Collider accelerator proposal at SLAC requires a high efficiency, highly reliable, and low cost pulsed power modulator to drive the X-band klystrons. The original NLC envisions a solid state induction modulator design to drive up to 8 klystrons to 500 kV for 3 μs at 120 PPS with one modulator delivering greater than 1,000 MW pulse, at 500 kW average. A change in RF compression techniques resulted in only two klystrons needed pulsing per modulator at a reduced pulse width of 1.6 μsec or approximately 250 MW of the pulsed power and 80 kW of average powers. A prototype Design for Manufacturability (DFM) 8-pack modulator was under construction at the time of the change, so a redirection of modulator design was in order. To utilities the equipment which had already be fabricated, a hybrid modulator was designed and constructed using the DFM induction modulator parts and a conventional pulse transformer. The construction and performance of this hybrid two klystron Induction modul...

  15. Induction heat treatment of laser welds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove; Sørensen, Joakim Ilsing

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach based on induction heat-treatment of flat laser welded sheets is presented. With this new concept, the ductility of high strength steels GA260 with a thickness of 1.8 mm and CMn with a thickness of 2.13 mm is believed to be improved by prolonging the cooling time from...... 750º to 450º C. Initially, a simple analytical model was used to calculate the ideal energy contributions from a CO2 high power laser source together with an induction heat source such that the temperature can be kept at 600º C for 2.5 seconds. This knowledge was then used for the design...... of an induction coil. A number of systematic laboratory tests were then performed in order to study the effects of the coil on bead-on-plate laser welded samples. In these tests, important parameters such as coil current and distance between coil and sample were varied. Temperature measurements were made...

  16. Cybernetic systems based on inductive logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, Robert L.

    2001-01-01

    Recent work in the area of inductive logic suggests that cybernetics might be quantified and reduced to engineering practice. If so, then there are considerable implications for engineering, science, and other fields. This paper attempts to capture the essential ideas of cybernetics cast in the light of inductive logic. The described inductive logic extends conventional logic by adding a conjugate logical domain of questions to the logical domain of assertions intrinsic to Boolean Algebra with which most are familiar. This was first posited and developed by Richard Cox. Interestingly enough, these two logical domains, one of questions and the other of assertions, only exist relative to one another with each possessing natural measures of entropy and probability, respectively. Examples are given that highlight the utility of cybernetic approaches to neuroscience, algorithm design, system engineering, and the design and understanding of defensive and offensive systems. For example, the application of cybernetic approaches to defense systems suggests that these systems possess a wavefunction which like quantum mechanics, collapses when we 'look' through the eyes of the system sensors such as radars and optical sensors

  17. Automated Induction Thermography of Generator Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldammer, M.; Mooshofer, H.; Rothenfusser, M.; Bass, J.; Vrana, J.

    2010-02-01

    Using Active Thermography defects such as cracks can be detected fast and reliably. Choosing from a wide range of excitation techniques the method can be adapted to a number of tasks in non-destructive evaluation. Induction thermography is ideally suited for testing metallic components for cracks at or close to the surface. In power generation a number of components are subjected to high loads and stresses—therefore defect detection is crucial for a safe operation of the engines. Apart from combustion turbines this also applies to generators: At regular inspection intervals even small cracks have to be detected to avoid crack growth and consequently failure of the component. As an imaging technique thermography allows for a fast 100% testing of the complete surface of all relevant parts. An automated setup increases the cost effectiveness of induction thermography significantly. Time needed to test a single part is reduced, the number of tested parts per shift is increased, and cost for testing is reduced significantly. In addition, automation guarantees a reliable testing procedure which detects all critical defects. We present how non-destructive testing can be automated using as an example an industrial application at the Siemens sector Energy, and a new induction thermography setup for generator components.

  18. Combating photoaging with percutaneous collagen induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Desmond; Signorini, Massimo

    2008-01-01

    Medical clinicians are used to being consulted by patients who want to restore their youthful appearance. Although structural changes to the face and body may be achieved with surgery, for example, face lifts, the impression of youth also relies heavily on young-looking skin. It is desirable to have thicker and tighter skin to properly fulfill the desire for youth. Percutaneous collagen induction offers an antiaging effect to improve the appearance of old skin. It allows us to improve our patients' skin from the inside outward as well as from the surface. Experience has shown that percutaneous collagen induction works optimally when combined with a scientific skin care program to restore a youthful appearance. In addition, the same technique has proven to be very effective in minimizing acne scars and burn scars by removing scar collagen and replacing it with normal collagen. Consequently, scar contractures and depressed scars are improved. With the introduction of percutaneous collagen induction therapy in 1997, a simple and fast method was developed with regard to safely treating wrinkles and scars and producing lasting smoothness. As opposed to ablative laser treatments, the epidermis remains intact and is not damaged. For this reason, the operation can be safely repeated if needed, and it can be also applicable to regions where laser treatments or deep peelings cannot be done.

  19. Kinetic Inductance Parametric Up-Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kher, A.; Day, P. K.; Eom, B. H.; Zmuidzinas, J.; Leduc, H. G.

    2016-07-01

    We describe a novel class of devices based on the nonlinearity of the kinetic inductance of a superconducting thin film. By placing a current-dependent inductance in a microwave resonator, small currents can be measured through their effect on the resonator's frequency. By using a high-resistivity material for the film and nanowires as kinetic inductors, we can achieve a large coefficient of nonlinearity to improve device sensitivity. We demonstrate a current sensitivity of 8{ {pA/}}√{{ {Hz}}}, making this device useful for transition-edge sensor (TES) readout and other cutting-edge applications. An advantage of these devices is their natural ability to be multiplexed in the frequency domain, enabling large detector arrays for TES-based instruments. A traveling-wave version of the device, consisting of a thin-film microwave transmission line, is also sensitive to small currents as they change the phase length of the line due to their effect on its inductance. We demonstrate a current sensitivity of 5{ {pA/}}√{{ {Hz}}} for this version of the device, making it also suitable for TES readout as well as other current-detection applications. It has the advantage of multi-GHz bandwidth and greater dynamic range, offering a different approach to the resonator version of the device.

  20. Induction of thyroid carcinoma by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roedler, H.D.

    1987-01-01

    The risk of thyroid carcinoma induction, due to external or internal exposure of the thyroid, is described and quantified. A modified absolute risk model is used. The assessment is based on a risk coefficient of 2.5 induced cases per million persons per cGy per year of risk, derived from US-investigations in persons who had received external radiation therapy during childhood for treatment of benign diseases. This value is considered to be suitable for a dose range of 0.06-15 Gy. Modifying factors are given for age at exposure, gender and relative effectiveness of various radiation sources. The minimum induction period is taken to be 5 years; the remaining life expectancy minus minimum induction period is considered as the number of years at risk. For external exposure of the general public, a calculated incidence for lethal thyroid carcinoma of 7.5 cases per million persons per cGy thyroid dose for the total life time may be derived from the average life expectancy, the age distribution of the population and a mortality of radiation induced thyroid carcinoma of 10%. This figure is in good agreement with earlier estimates. (orig./ECB) [de

  1. Novel induction therapies for pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahoe, Laura; Cho, John; de Perrot, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is becoming increasingly common, and rates of diagnosis are expected to continue to increase in the coming years because of the extensive use of asbestos in industrialized countries and the long time interval between exposure and onset of disease. Although much research has been done on the optimal treatment for this disease, the overall prognosis remains grim. The main components of therapy are surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, but there is controversy in the literature about the optimal inclusion and sequencing of these treatments, as each has unique risk profiles. We have developed a new Surgery for Mesothelioma After Radiation Therapy protocol consisting of induction-accelerated hemithoracic radiation followed by extrapleural pneumonectomy. The rationale behind this protocol is to maximize both the tumoricidal and immunogenic potential of the radiotherapy while minimizing the radiation toxicity to the ipsilateral lung. Our initial trial demonstrated the feasibility of this approach and has shown encouraging results in patients with epithelial histology. In this article, we reviewed the current literature on induction chemotherapy for mesothelioma as well as described the Surgery for Mesothelioma After Radiation Therapy protocol and upcoming studies of novel induction therapies for mesothelioma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Parametric approach to linear induction accelerator design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresie, D.A.; Andrews, J.A.; Ingram, S.W.

    1991-01-01

    Past work on the design of linear induction accelerators has centered on the development of computer codes to analyze accelerator designs, using the current filament method. While these filament models are a very valuable tool for evaluating the performance of an induction launcher design, they provide little insight into the selection of dimensions, materials, and operation points for accelerators with interesting performance. Described in this paper is a parametric approach to defining effective accelerator designs. This method uses a computer optimization routine to iteratively seek out effective designs. The optimization routine is forced to search within a parameter space restricted to interesting and realistic parameters such as size, weight, voltage, and temperature rises. A filament model is used as the filter for the optimizer. Several linear induction accelerators have been designed using this method. The accelerators designed all used a switched capacitor power supply. While the run time of this code on The University of Texas' CRAY XMP-24 computer is moderately long, the resulting designs have good predicted performance. With realistic power supplies and materials, accelerator efficiencies in the 20 to 40% range were easily obtained. This paper describes the effect of armature diameter, length-to-diameter ratio, and weight, as well as other parameters, on the optimum accelerator design

  3. Imaging by electromagnetic induction with resonant circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilizzoni, Roberta; Watson, Joseph C.; Bartlett, Paul; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2015-05-01

    A new electromagnetic induction imaging system is presented which is capable of imaging metallic samples of different conductivities. The system is based on a parallel LCR circuit made up of a cylindrical ferrite-cored coil and a capacitor bank. An AC current is applied to the coil, thus generating an AC magnetic field. This field is modified when a conductive sample is placed within the magnetic field, as a consequence of eddy current induction inside the sample. The electrical properties of the LCR circuit, including the coil inductance, are modified due to the presence of this metallic sample. Position-resolved measurements of these modifications should then allow imaging of conductive objects as well as enable their characterization. A proof-of-principle system is presented in this paper. Two imaging techniques based on Q-factor and resonant frequency measurements are presented. Both techniques produced conductivity maps of 14 metallic objects with different geometries and values of conductivity ranging from 0.54х106 to 59.77х106 S/m. Experimental results highlighted a higher sensitivity for the Q-factor technique compared to the resonant frequency one; the respective measurements were found to vary within the following ranges: ΔQ=[-11,-2]%, Δf=[-0.3,0.7]%. The analysis of the images, conducted using a Canny edge detection algorithm, demonstrated the suitability of the Q-factor technique for accurate edge detection of both magnetic and non-magnetic metallic samples.

  4. Coulomb suppression of the stellar enhancement factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, G.G.; Gyuerky, Gy.; Simon, A.; Fueloep, Zs.; Somorjai, E.

    2008-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Modern p process studies require large reaction networks, often including hundreds and thousands of nuclei and their respective reactions with light particles. Astrophysical reaction rates employed in reaction network calculations are determined either directly from cross sections or from the rate for the inverse reaction by applying detailed balance. The cross sections are known from experiment or predicted by theory. However, even when a reaction is experimentally accessible, often astrophysical rates cannot be directly measured. Excited states are thermally populated in an astrophysical plasma whereas only reactions on the ground state of the target can be investigated in the laboratory. A measure of the influence of the excited target states is given by the stellar enhancement factor f = r stellar /r g.s. , defined by the ratio of the stellar rate to the ground state rate. The enhancement factor f rev for the reverse reaction B(b,a)A (defined by having negative reaction Q value) is usually larger than the enhancement f forw of the forward reaction A(a,b)B (being the one with positive Q value) because more excited states are energetically accessible in nucleus B than in nucleus A. Therefore, it was assumed so far that more astrophysically relevant transitions are neglected when experimentally studying a reaction with negative Q value. However, there are cases for which f rev forw due to Coulomb suppression of a part of the energetically allowed transitions. This effect will be most pronounced in reactions with a charged particle in one and a neutral particle in the other channel, e.g. (n,p), but it can also appear when the entrance channel and exit channel have Coulomb barriers of different height, e.g. (p,α). Transitions from excited states to the same state in a compound nucleus are proceeding at smaller relative energy and are stronger suppressed by the Coulomb barrier. Thus, a prerequisite is that /Q/ is low compared to

  5. Antibody-mediated allotype suppression in adult mice: the role of antigen, effector isotype and regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curling, E M; Dresser, D W

    1984-10-01

    It has been reported (Contemp. Top. Immunobiol. 1974. 3:41) that allotype-specific T suppressor cells can be induced after monoclonal anti-allotype treatment of neonatal (BALB/c X SJL)F1 (Igha/b) mice. Here we show that (BALB/c X CB20)F1 adult-derived spleen cells (SC) are, by contrast, potently suppressed by monoclonal allotype-specific reagents, (when transferred into irradiated BALB/c recipients) in the absence of primary T suppressor cell induction. Such suppression is only induced in activated B cells [exposed to lipopolysaccharide or sheep red blood cells (SRBC)], and is probably dependent on the isotype of the anti-allotype sera administered. For example, two independently produced IgG1 monoclonal reagents raised against the Igh-1b allotype were poorly suppressive or nonsuppressive, whereas an IgG3 and an IgG2a monoclonal antibody induced a 90% suppression of the target allotype in transferred adult SC. It was found that suppression was not due to a depletion of antigen-specific T cell help since: (a) the addition of SRBC-educated T cells did not break suppression and (b) suppressed SC were as good a source of T cell help as normal SC, in the response of virgin or memory B cell (Thy-1-depleted) responses to SRBC in vivo. Suppression was maintained in suppressed cells which had been rechallenged with SRBC after transfer into a second irradiated recipient, but was not induced in normal SC when these were admixed with an equal number from this suppressed SC population. These findings point to a possible mechanism for the regulation of B cell expression, through the formation of an antibody-Ig receptor complex at the surface of the B lymphocyte. After complexing the target cell is either deleted or inactivated. The response to SRBC was reduced or ablated for at least 70 days after treatment with a single dose of anti-allotype serum.

  6. Demethoxycurcumin from Curcuma longa rhizome suppresses iNOS induction in an in vitro inflamed human intestinal mucosa model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somchit, Mayura; Changtam, Chatchawan; Kimseng, Rungruedi; Utaipan, Tanyarath; Lertcanawanichakul, Monthon; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Chunglok, Warangkana

    2014-01-01

    It is known that inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)/nitric oxide (NO) plays an integral role during intestinal inflammation, an important factor for colon cancer development. Natural compounds from Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae) have long been a potential source of bioactive materials with various beneficial biological functions. Among them, a major active curcuminoid, demethoxycurcumin (DMC) has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages or microglia cells. However, the role of DMC on iNOS expression and NO production in an in vitro inflamed human intestinal mucosa model has not yet been elucidated. This study concerned inhibitory effects on iNOS expression and NO production of DMC in inflamed human intestinal Caco-2 cells. An in vitro model was generated and inhibitory effects on NO production of DMC at 65 μM for 24-96 h were assessed by monitoring nitrite levels. Expression of iNOS mRNA and protein was also investigated. DMC significantly decreased NO secretion by 35-41% in our inflamed cell model. Decrease in NO production by DMC was concomitant with down-regulation of iNOS at mRNA and protein levels compared to proinflammatory cytokine cocktail and LPS-treated controls. Mechanism of action of DMC may be partly due to its potent inhibition of the iNOS pathway. Our findings suggest that DMC may have potential as a therapeutic agent against inflammation-related diseases, especially in the gut.

  7. The Growth Suppressing Effects of Girinimbine on Hepg2 Involve Induction of Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Sook Wah

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Murraya koenigii is an edible herb widely used in folk medicine. Here we report that girinimbine, a carbazole alkaloid isolated from this plant, inhibited the growth and induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma, HepG2 cells. The MTT and LDH assay results showed that girinimbine decreased cell viability and increased cytotoxicity in a dose-and time-dependent manner selectively. Girinimbine-treated HepG2 cells showed typical morphological features of apoptosis, as observed from normal inverted microscopy and Hoechst 33342 assay. Furthermore, girinimbine treatment resulted in DNA fragmentation and elevated levels of caspase-3 in HepG2 cells. Girinimbine treatment also displayed a time-dependent accumulation of the Sub-G0/G1 peak (hypodiploid and caused G0/G1-phase arrest. Together, these results demonstrated for the first time that girinimbine could effectively induce programmed cell death in HepG2 cells and suggests the importance of conducting further investigations in preclinical human hepatocellular carcinoma models, especially on in vivo efficacy, to promote girinimbine for use as an anticancer agent against hepatocellular carcinoma.

  8. Pure non-dioxin-like PCB congeners suppress induction of the AhR-dependent endpoints in rat liver cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenerová, J.; Hamers, T.; Kamstra, J.H.; Vondráček, J.; Strapáčová, S.; Andersson, P.L.; Machala, M.

    2016-01-01

    The relative potencies of non-ortho-substituted coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners to activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and to cause the AhR-dependent toxic events are essential for their risk assessment. Since some studies suggested that abundant non-dioxin-like PCB

  9. Pure non-dioxin-like PCB congeners suppress induction of AhR-dependent endpoints in rat liver cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brenerová, P.; Hamers, T.; Kamstra, J.H.; Vondráček, Jan; Střapacova, S.; Andersson, P.L.; Machala, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 3 (2016), s. 2099-2107 ISSN 0944-1344 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP503/12/G147 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : NDL-PCBs * Aryl hydrocarbon receptor * DR-CALUX (R) assay Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.741, year: 2016

  10. Extracellular adenosine controls NKT-cell-dependent hepatitis induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Meenakshi; Kini, Radhika; Madasu, Manasa; Ohta, Akiko; Nowak, Michael; Exley, Mark; Sitkovsky, Michail; Ohta, Akio

    2014-04-01

    Extracellular adenosine regulates inflammatory responses via the A2A adenosine receptor (A2AR). A2AR deficiency results in much exaggerated acute hepatitis, indicating nonredundancy of adenosine-A2AR pathway in inhibiting immune activation. To identify a critical target of immunoregulatory effect of extracellular adenosine, we focused on NKT cells, which play an indispensable role in hepatitis. An A2AR agonist abolished NKT-cell-dependent induction of acute hepatitis by concanavalin A (Con A) or α-galactosylceramide in mice, corresponding to downregulation of activation markers and cytokines in NKT cells and of NK-cell co-activation. These results show that A2AR signaling can downregulate NKT-cell activation and suppress NKT-cell-triggered inflammatory responses. Next, we hypothesized that NKT cells might be under physiological control of the adenosine-A2AR pathway. Indeed, both Con A and α-galactosylceramide induced more severe hepatitis in A2AR-deficient mice than in WT controls. Transfer of A2AR-deficient NKT cells into A2AR-expressing recipients resulted in exaggeration of Con A-induced liver damage, suggesting that NKT-cell activation is controlled by endogenous adenosine via A2AR, and this physiological regulatory mechanism of NKT cells is critical in the control of tissue-damaging inflammation. The current study suggests the possibility to manipulate NKT-cell activity in inflammatory disorders through intervention to the adenosine-A2AR pathway. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Gene expression profiling in the inductive human hematopoietic microenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongjun; Chen, Edwin; Li Liheng; Gong Baiwei; Xie Wei; Nanji, Shaherose; Dube, Ian D.; Hough, Margaret R.

    2004-01-01

    Human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and their progenitors can be maintained in vitro in long-term bone marrow cultures (LTBMCs) in which constituent HSCs can persist within the adherent layers for up to 2 months. Media replenishment of LTBMCs has been shown to induce transition of HSCs from a quiescent state to an active cycling state. We hypothesize that the media replenishment of the LTBMCs leads to the activation of important regulatory genes uniquely involved in HSC proliferation and differentiation. To profile the gene expression changes associated with HSC activation, we performed suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) on day 14 human LTBMCs following 1-h media replenishment and on unmanipulated controls. The generated SSH library contained 191 differentially up-regulated expressed sequence tags (ESTs), the majority corresponding to known genes related to various intracellular processes, including signal transduction pathways, protein synthesis, and cell cycle regulation. Nineteen ESTs represented previously undescribed sequences encoding proteins of unknown function. Differential up-regulation of representative genes, including IL-8, IL-1, putative cytokine 21/HC21, MAD3, and a novel EST was confirmed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Levels of fibronectin, G-CSF, and stem cell factor also increased in the conditioned media of LTBMCs as assessed by ELISA, indicating increased synthesis and secretion of these factors. Analysis of our library provides insights into some of the immediate early gene changes underlying the mechanisms by which the stromal elements within the LTBMCs contribute to the induction of HSC activation and provides the opportunity to identify as yet unrecognized factors regulating HSC activation in the LTBMC milieu

  12. Lipopolysaccharide suppresses IgE-mast cell-mediated reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N; McKell, M; Dang, A; Yamani, A; Waggoner, L; Vanoni, S; Noah, T; Wu, D; Kordowski, A; Köhl, J; Hoebe, K; Divanovic, S; Hogan, S P

    2017-12-01

    Clinical and experimental analyses have identified a central role for IgE/FcεRI/mast cells in promoting IgE-mediated anaphylaxis. Recent data from human studies suggest that bacterial infections can alter susceptibility to anaphylaxis. We examined the effect of LPS exposure on the induction of IgE-mast cell (MC) mediated reactions in mice. C57BL/6 WT, tlr4 -/- and IL10 -/- mice were exposed to LPS, and serum cytokines (TNF and IL-10) were measured. Mice were subsequently treated with anti-IgE, and the symptoms of passive IgE-mediated anaphylaxis, MC activation, Ca 2+ -mobilization and the expression of FcεRI on peritoneal MCs were quantitated. We show that LPS exposure of C57BL/6 WT mice constraints IgE-MC-mediated reactions. LPS-induced suppression of IgE-MC-mediated responses was TLR-4-dependent and associated with increased systemic IL-10 levels, decreased surface expression of FcεRI on MCs and loss of sensitivity to IgE activation. Notably, LPS-induced desensitization of MCs was short term with MC sensitivity to IgE reconstituted within 48 hours, which was associated with recapitulation of FcεRI expression on the MCs. Mechanistic analyses revealed a requirement for IL-10 in LPS-mediated decrease in MC FcεRI surface expression. Collectively, these studies suggest that LPS-induced IL-10 promotes the down-regulation of MC surface FcεRI expression and leads to desensitization of mice to IgE-mediated reactions. These studies indicate that targeting of the LPS-TLR-4-IL-10 pathway may be used as a therapeutic approach to prevent adverse IgE-mediated reactions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. An electromagnetic inerter-based vibration suppression device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Buelga, A; Clare, L R; Neild, S A; Jiang, J Z; Inman, D J

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes how an inerter-based device for structural vibration suppression can be realized using an electromagnetic transducer such as a linear motor. When the motor shaft moves, a difference of voltage is generated across the transducer coil. The voltage difference is proportional to the relative velocity between its two terminals. The electromagnetic transducer will exert a force proportional to current following the Lorentz principle if the circuit is closed around the transducer coil. If an electronic circuit consisting of a capacitor, an inductance and a resistance with the appropriate configuration is connected, the resulting force reflected back into the mechanical domain is equivalent to that achieved by a mechanical inerter-based device. The proposed configuration is easy to implement and very versatile, provided a high quality conversion system with negligible losses. With the use of electromagnetic devices, a new generation of vibration absorbers can be realized, for example in the electrical domain it would be relatively uncomplicated to synthesize multi-frequency or real time tunable vibration absorbers by adding electrical components in parallel. In addition by using resistance emulators in the electrical circuits, part of the absorbed vibration energy can be converted into usable power. Here an electromagnetic tuned inerter damper (E-TID) is tested experimentally using real time dynamic substructuring. A voltage compensation unit was developed in order to compensate for coil losses. This voltage compensation unit requires power, which is acquired through harvesting from the vibration energy using a resistance emulator. A power balance analysis was developed in order to ensure the device can be self sufficient. Promising experimental results, using this approach, have been obtained and are presented in this paper. The ultimate goal of this research is the development of autonomous electromagnetic vibration absorbers, able to harvest energy

  14. Dual regulation of cadmium-induced apoptosis by mTORC1 through selective induction of IRE1 branches in unfolded protein response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Kato

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd causes generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS that trigger renal tubular injury. We found that rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTORC1, attenuated Cd-induced apoptosis in renal tubular cells. Knockdown of Raptor, a positive regulator of mTORC1, also had the similar effect. However, rapamycin did not alter generation of ROS, suggesting that mTORC1 is a target downstream of ROS. Indeed, ROS caused activation of mTORC1, which contributed to induction of a selective branch of the unfolded protein response (UPR; i.e., the IRE1 pathway. Although Cd triggered three major UPR pathways, activation of mTORC1 by Cd did not contribute to induction of the PERK-eIF2α and ATF6 pathways. Consistently, knockdown of Raptor caused suppression of JNK without affecting the PERK-eIF2α pathway in Cd-exposed cells. Knockdown of TSC2, a negative regulator of mTORC1, caused activation of mTORC1 and enhanced Cd induction of the IRE1-JNK pathway and apoptosis without affecting other UPR branches. Inhibition of IRE1α kinase led to suppression of JNK activity and apoptosis in Cd-treated cells. Dominant-negative inhibition of JNK also suppressed Cd-induced apoptosis. In contrast, inhibition of IRE1α endoribonuclease activity or downstream XBP1 modestly enhanced Cd-induced apoptosis. In vivo, administration with rapamycin suppressed activation of mTORC1 and JNK, but not eIF2α, in the kidney of Cd-treated mice. It was correlated with attenuation of tubular injury and apoptotic cell death in the tubules. These results elucidate dual regulation of Cd-induced renal injury by mTORC1 through selective induction of IRE1 signaling.

  15. Managing for soil health can suppress pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Hodson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A “healthy” soil can be thought of as one that functions well, both agronomically and ecologically, and one in which soil biodiversity and crop management work in synergy to suppress pests and diseases. UC researchers have pioneered many ways of managing soil biology for pest management, including strategies such as soil solarization, steam treatment and anaerobic soil disinfestation, as well as improvements on traditional methods, such as reducing tillage, amending soil with organic materials, and cover cropping. As managing for soil health becomes more of an explicit focus due to restrictions on the use of soil fumigants, integrated soil health tests will be needed that are validated for use in California. Other research needs include breeding crops for disease resistance and pest suppressive microbial communities as well as knowledge of how beneficial organisms influence plant health.

  16. Suppression of Poxvirus Replication by Resveratrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Cao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Poxviruses continue to cause serious diseases even after eradication of the historically deadly infectious human disease, smallpox. Poxviruses are currently being developed as vaccine vectors and cancer therapeutic agents. Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol stilbenoid found in plants that has been shown to inhibit or enhance replication of a number of viruses, but the effect of resveratrol on poxvirus replication is unknown. In the present study, we found that resveratrol dramatically suppressed the replication of vaccinia virus (VACV, the prototypic member of poxviruses, in various cell types. Resveratrol also significantly reduced the replication of monkeypox virus, a zoonotic virus that is endemic in Western and Central Africa and causes human mortality. The inhibitory effect of resveratrol on poxviruses is independent of VACV N1 protein, a potential resveratrol binding target. Further experiments demonstrated that resveratrol had little effect on VACV early gene expression, while it suppressed VACV DNA synthesis, and subsequently post-replicative gene expression.

  17. Glucose Suppresses Biological Ferroelectricity in Aortic Elastin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanming; Wang, Yunjie; Chow, Ming-Jay; Chen, Nataly Q.; Ma, Feiyue; Zhang, Yanhang; Li, Jiangyu

    2013-04-01

    Elastin is an intriguing extracellular matrix protein present in all connective tissues of vertebrates, rendering essential elasticity to connective tissues subjected to repeated physiological stresses. Using piezoresponse force microscopy, we show that the polarity of aortic elastin is switchable by an electrical field, which may be associated with the recently discovered biological ferroelectricity in the aorta. More interestingly, it is discovered that the switching in aortic elastin is largely suppressed by glucose treatment, which appears to freeze the internal asymmetric polar structures of elastin, making it much harder to switch, or suppressing the switching completely. Such loss of ferroelectricity could have important physiological and pathological implications from aging to arteriosclerosis that are closely related to glycation of elastin.

  18. Sleep deprivation suppresses aggression in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Matthew S; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances negatively impact numerous functions and have been linked to aggression and violence. However, a clear effect of sleep deprivation on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. We find that acute sleep deprivation profoundly suppresses aggressive behaviors in the fruit fly, while other social behaviors are unaffected. This suppression is recovered following post-deprivation sleep rebound, and occurs regardless of the approach to achieve sleep loss. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches suggest octopamine signaling transmits changes in aggression upon sleep deprivation, and reduced aggression places sleep-deprived flies at a competitive disadvantage for obtaining a reproductive partner. These findings demonstrate an interaction between two phylogenetically conserved behaviors, and suggest that previous sleep experiences strongly modulate aggression with consequences for reproductive fitness. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07643.001 PMID:26216041

  19. Suppression of friction by mechanical vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozza, Rosario; Vanossi, Andrea; Vezzani, Alessandro; Zapperi, Stefano

    2009-08-21

    Mechanical vibrations are known to affect frictional sliding and the associated stick-slip patterns causing sometimes a drastic reduction of the friction force. This issue is relevant for applications in nanotribology and to understand earthquake triggering by small dynamic perturbations. We study the dynamics of repulsive particles confined between a horizontally driven top plate and a vertically oscillating bottom plate. Our numerical results show a suppression of the high dissipative stick-slip regime in a well-defined range of frequencies that depends on the vibrating amplitude, the normal applied load, the system inertia and the damping constant. We propose a theoretical explanation of the numerical results and derive a phase diagram indicating the region of parameter space where friction is suppressed. Our results allow to define better strategies for the mechanical control of friction.

  20. Abnormal Grain Growth Suppression in Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Stephen J. (Inventor); Claytor, Harold Dale (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for suppressing abnormal grain growth in friction stir welded aluminum alloys by inserting an intermediate annealing treatment ("IAT") after the welding step on the article. The IAT may be followed by a solution heat treatment (SHT) on the article under effectively high solution heat treatment conditions. In at least some embodiments, a deformation step is conducted on the article under effective spin-forming deformation conditions or under effective superplastic deformation conditions. The invention further provides a welded article having suppressed abnormal grain growth, prepared by the process above. Preferably the article is characterized with greater than about 90% reduction in area fraction abnormal grain growth in any friction-stir-welded nugget.