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Sample records for suppress weed growth

  1. Fagopyrum esculentum Alters Its Root Exudation after Amaranthus retroflexus Recognition and Suppresses Weed Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfeller, Aurélie; Glauser, Gaétan; Etter, Clément; Signarbieux, Constant; Wirth, Judith

    2018-01-01

    Weed control by crops through growth suppressive root exudates is a promising alternative to herbicides. Buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum ) is known for its weed suppression and redroot pigweed ( Amaranthus retroflexus ) control is probably partly due to allelopathic root exudates. This work studies whether other weeds are also suppressed by buckwheat and if the presence of weeds is necessary to induce growth repression. Buckwheat and different weeds were co-cultivated in soil, separating roots by a mesh allowing to study effects due to diffusion. Buckwheat suppressed growth of pigweed, goosefoot and barnyard grass by 53, 42, and 77% respectively without physical root interactions, probably through allelopathic compounds. Root exudates were obtained from sand cultures of buckwheat (BK), pigweed (P), and a buckwheat/pigweed mixed culture (BK-P). BK-P root exudates inhibited pigweed root growth by 49%. Characterization of root exudates by UHPLC-HRMS and principal component analysis revealed that BK and BK-P had a different metabolic profile suggesting that buckwheat changes its root exudation in the presence of pigweed indicating heterospecific recognition. Among the 15 different markers, which were more abundant in BK-P, tryptophan was identified and four others were tentatively identified. Our findings might contribute to the selection of crops with weed suppressive effects.

  2. Weed Suppressing Potential and Isolation of Potent Plant Growth Inhibitors from Castanea crenata Sieb. et Zucc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phung Thi Tuyen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study isolated, determined, and quantified plant growth inhibitors in Japanese chestnut (Castanea crenata Sieb. et Zucc, a deciduous species native to Japan and Korea. In laboratory assays, C. crenata leaves showed strong inhibition on germination and seedling growth of Echinochloa crus-galli (barnyardgrass, Lactuca sativa (lettuce, and Raphanus sativus (radish. Laboratory and greenhouse trials showed that leaves of C. crenata appeared as a promising material to manage weeds, especially the dicot weeds. By GC-MS and HPLC analyses, gallic, protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, caffeic, ferulic, ellagic, and cinnamic acids were identified and quantified, of which ellagic acid was present in the highest quantity (2.36 mg/g dried leaves. By column chromatography and spectral data (1H- and 13C-NMR, IR, and LC-MS analysis, a compound identified as 2α,3β,7β,23-tetrahydroxyurs-12-ene-28-oic acid (1 was purified from the methanolic leaf extract of C. crenata (0.93 mg/g dried leaves. This constituent showed potent inhibition on growth of E. crus-galli, a problematic weed in agricultural practice. The inhibition of the compound 1 (IC50 = 2.62 and 0.41 mM was >5 fold greater than that of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (IC50 = 15.33 and 2.11 mM on shoot and root growth of E. crus-galli, respectively. Results suggest that the isolated the compound 1 has potential to develop natural herbicides to manage E. crus-galli. This study is the first to isolate and identify 2α,3β,7β,23-tetrahydroxyurs-12-ene-28-oic acid in a plant and report its plant growth inhibitory potential.

  3. A weed suppressive index for spring barley (Hordeum vulgare) varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P K; Kristensen, K; Willas, J

    2008-01-01

    A screening programme for crop variety competitiveness would ideally be based on only a few, non-destructive measurements of key growth traits. In this study we measured the weed suppressive ability of 79 varieties of spring barley in two ways: (i) directly, by weed coverage assessments under wee...

  4. Ecological weed management by cover cropping : effects on weed growth in autumn and weed establishment in spring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruidhof, H.M.; Bastiaans, L.; Kropff, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Cover crops grown in the period between two main crops have potential as an important component of a system-oriented ecological weed management strategy. In late summer and autumn, the cover crop can suppress growth and seed production of weeds, whereas the incorporation of cover crop residues in

  5. Seeding method and rate influence on weed suppression in aerobic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High weed pressure is amongst the major constraints to the extensive adoption of aerobic rice system as a water-wise technique. Towards developing a sustainable weed management strategy, seeding method and rate may substantially contribute to weed suppression and reduce herbicide use and weeding cost. A trough ...

  6. Can Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Reduce the Growth of Agricultural Weeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Rita S. L.; Jansa, Jan; Frossard, Emmanuel; van der Heijden, Marcel G. A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are known for their beneficial effects on plants. However, there is increasing evidence that some ruderal plants, including several agricultural weeds, respond negatively to AMF colonization. Here, we investigated the effect of AMF on the growth of individual weed species and on weed-crop interactions. Methodology/Principal Findings First, under controlled glasshouse conditions, we screened growth responses of nine weed species and three crops to a widespread AMF, Glomus intraradices. None of the weeds screened showed a significant positive mycorrhizal growth response and four weed species were significantly reduced by the AMF (growth responses between −22 and −35%). In a subsequent experiment, we selected three of the negatively responding weed species – Echinochloa crus-galli, Setaria viridis and Solanum nigrum – and analyzed their responses to a combination of three AMF (Glomus intraradices, Glomus mosseae and Glomus claroideum). Finally, we tested whether the presence of a crop (maize) enhanced the suppressive effect of AMF on weeds. We found that the growth of the three selected weed species was also reduced by a combination of AMF and that the presence of maize amplified the negative effect of AMF on the growth of E. crus-galli. Conclusions/Significance Our results show that AMF can negatively influence the growth of some weed species indicating that AMF have the potential to act as determinants of weed community structure. Furthermore, mycorrhizal weed growth reductions can be amplified in the presence of a crop. Previous studies have shown that AMF provide a number of beneficial ecosystem services. Taken together with our current results, the maintenance and promotion of AMF activity may thereby contribute to sustainable management of agroecosystems. However, in order to further the practical and ecological relevance of our findings, additional experiments should be performed under field conditions. PMID

  7. Quantifying the effect of crop spatial arrangement on weed suppression using functional-structural plant modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Jochem B; Bastiaans, Lammert

    2016-05-01

    Suppression of weed growth in a crop canopy can be enhanced by improving crop competitiveness. One way to achieve this is by modifying the crop planting pattern. In this study, we addressed the question to what extent a uniform planting pattern increases the ability of a crop to compete with weed plants for light compared to a random and a row planting pattern, and how this ability relates to crop and weed plant density as well as the relative time of emergence of the weed. To this end, we adopted the functional-structural plant modelling approach which allowed us to explicitly include the 3D spatial configuration of the crop-weed canopy and to simulate intra- and interspecific competition between individual plants for light. Based on results of simulated leaf area development, canopy photosynthesis and biomass growth of the crop, we conclude that differences between planting pattern were small, particularly if compared to the effects of relative time of emergence of the weed, weed density and crop density. Nevertheless, analysis of simulated weed biomass demonstrated that a uniform planting of the crop improved the weed-suppression ability of the crop canopy. Differences in weed suppressiveness between planting patterns were largest with weed emergence before crop emergence, when the suppressive effect of the crop was only marginal. With simultaneous emergence a uniform planting pattern was 8 and 15 % more competitive than a row and a random planting pattern, respectively. When weed emergence occurred after crop emergence, differences between crop planting patterns further decreased as crop canopy closure was reached early on regardless of planting pattern. We furthermore conclude that our modelling approach provides promising avenues to further explore crop-weed interactions and aid in the design of crop management strategies that aim at improving crop competitiveness with weeds.

  8. of different weed control methods on Weed infestation, growth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thinkexploitsint'l

    This weed control method also resulted in significantly better growth and ... proper management, it is possible to obtain 2,500 kg ha-1 (Onwueme and Sinha, 1991). ... however, time consuming, labour – intensive, strenuous and generally ...

  9. Quantifying the effect of crop spatial arrangement on weed suppression using functional-structural plant modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Jochem B.; Bastiaans, Lammert

    2016-01-01

    Suppression of weed growth in a crop canopy can be enhanced by improving crop competitiveness. One way to achieve this is by modifying the crop planting pattern. In this study, we addressed the question to what extent a uniform planting pattern increases the ability of a crop to compete with weed

  10. Impact of fungicides on weed growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordmeyer, Henning

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The study has shown that fungicides influence the growth of weeds. The competition against crops will be substantially reduced. Bioassays in a climate chamber variation in temperature as well as different lightning phases and microplot trials under semi field levels were carried out to investigate the influence of fungicides on weed growth. Selected weed species (Alopecurus myosuroides, Viola arvensis, Galium aparine, Stellaria media, Lamium purpureum have been examined with different dose rates of fungicides (Adexar, Bravo 500, Diamant, Crupozin flüssig. Weed species showed a different sensitivity. There were leaf discoloration, contractions and growth inhibition. In some cases using common practise dose rates of fungicides more than 70% growth inhibition could be estimated 14 days after application in comparison to the untreated control. Effects were much stronger in bioassays than in semi field trials.

  11. Weed suppression ability of spring barley varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Svend

    1995-01-01

    , Grit. Ranking varietal responses to weed competition in terms of grain yield loss corresponded well to ranking weed dry matter produced in crop weed mixtures. There was no correspondence between the varietal grain yields in pure stands and their competitiveness, suggesting that breeding to optimize...... both yielding and competitive ability may be possible. Non-linear regression models were fitted to canopy height and light interception data for each variety in all three years. The canopy height model provided a precise description of development and maximum canopy height of the varieties. A light...

  12. Crop characteristics and weed Interactions of diverse Rrecurrent Inbred Lines (RILs) from a weed-suppressive x non-suppressive rice mapping population

    Science.gov (United States)

    ndica rice genotypes with enhanced weed suppression traits have been previously identified as potentially useful in supplementing weed control efforts in drill-seeded systems in the southern USA. A particularly weed-suppressive indica genotype (PI 312777) that was also high tillering and high yield...

  13. Do cover crop mixtures have the same ability to suppress weeds as competitive monoculture cover crops?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brust, Jochen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of farmers use cover crop mixtures instead of monoculture cover crops to improve soil and crop quality. However, only little information is available about the weed suppression ability of cover crop mixtures. Therefore, two field experiments were conducted in Baden-Württemberg between 2010 and 2012, to compare growth and weed suppression of monoculture cover crops and cover crop mixtures. In the first experiment, heterogeneous results between yellow mustard and the cover crop mixture occurred. For further research, a field experiment was conducted in 2012 to compare monocultures of yellow mustard and hemp with three cover crop mixtures. The evaluated mixtures were: “MELO”: for soil melioration; “BETA”: includes only plant species with no close relation to main cash crops in Central Europe and “GPS”: for usage as energy substrate in spring. Yellow mustard, MELO, BETA and GPS covered 90% of the soil in less than 42 days and were able to reduce photosynthetically active radiation (PAR on soil surface by more than 96% after 52 days. Hemp covered 90% of the soil after 47 days and reduced PAR by 91% after 52 days. Eight weeks after planting, only BETA showed similar growth to yellow mustard which produced the highest dry matter. The GPS mixture had comparatively poor growth, while MELO produced similar dry matter to hemp. Yellow mustard, MELO and BETA reduced weed growth by 96% compared with a no cover crop control, while hemp and GPS reduced weeds by 85% and 79%. In spring, weed dry matter was reduced by more than 94% in plots with yellow mustard and all mixtures, while in hemp plots weeds were only reduced by 71%. The results suggest that the tested cover crop mixtures offer similar weed suppression ability until spring as the monoculture of the competitive yellow mustard.

  14. Biological weed control with soil fungi? Antagonistic effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth of weeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veiga, R.

    2012-01-01

    Excessive weed growth represents one of the major threats to crop production especially when reliance on herbicides is reduced. Biological weed control is an alternative, environmentally-sound method that, combined with other weed control practices, can contribute to an effective weed management in

  15. A digital photography and analysis system for estimation of root and shoot development in rice weed suppression studies in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice germplasm with an inherent ability to suppress weeds can potentially improve the economics and sustainability of weed control in rice. We devised a simple, rapid, and inexpensive digital imaging system to quantify several shoot and root growth characteristics in field-grown rice plants that ha...

  16. Weed Growth Stage Estimator Using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teimouri, Nima; Dyrmann, Mads; Nielsen, Per Rydahl

    2018-01-01

    This study outlines a new method of automatically estimating weed species and growth stages (from cotyledon until eight leaves are visible) of in situ images covering 18 weed species or families. Images of weeds growing within a variety of crops were gathered across variable environmental conditi...... in estimating the number of leaves and 96% accuracy when accepting a deviation of two leaves. These results show that this new method of using deep convolutional neural networks has a relatively high ability to estimate early growth stages across a wide variety of weed species....

  17. Effects of seeding rate and poultry litter on weed suppression from a rolled cereal rye cover crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growing enough cover crop biomass to adequately suppress weeds is one of the primary challenges in reduced-tillage systems that rely on mulch-based weed suppression. We investigated two approaches to increasing cereal rye biomass for improved weed suppression: (1) increasing soil fertility and (2) i...

  18. A new method to evaluate the weed-suppressing effect of mulches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, B. W.; Ali, A.; Streibig, Jens Carl

    2013-01-01

    To suppress weeds in an apple (Malus sp.) orchard, we placed spruce (Picea spp.) bark mulch and cocoa (Theobroma cacao) husk mulch for 3 months in thicknesses of 0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 cm. To assess the development of weed cover, an innovative use of log-logistic dose–response models was applied...... (ED50 and ED90) differed significantly within and between mulch types. In all except one instance, the cocoa mulch was superior in suppressing weeds. This method was useful for the evaluation, but further research is needed to give a more general conclusion about the suppression ability of the two...

  19. Effects of Weed Control and Cow Dung Manure on Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN 0794-5698. Effects of Weed Control and Cow Dung Manure on Growth Performance of Quality Protein Maize in ... worldwide on over 159.5 million hectares in the year. 2010. ...... Fertilizer company of Nigeria, NAFCON, Port. Harcourt.

  20. An Economic Risk Analysis of Weed Suppressive Rice Cultivars in Rice Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeds are a major constraint to rice production. In the United States, most rice cultivars are not inherently weed-suppressive and require substantial herbicide inputs to achieve agronomic and economic viability. Intensive herbicide application in rice also has many potential drawbacks, resulting in...

  1. Contribution of allelopathy and competition to weed suppression by winter wheat, triticale and winter rye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiss, Antje; Fomsgaard, Inge S.; Mathiassen, Solvejg Kopp

    Above-ground competition and allelopathy are two of the most dominant mechanisms of plants to subdue their competitors in their closest surroundings. In an agricultural perspective, the suppression of weeds by the crop is of particular interest, as weeds represent the largest yield loss potential...... of competitive traits, such as early vigour, crop height and leaf area index and presence of phytotoxic compounds of the group of benzoxazinoids to weed suppression. Four cultivars of each of the winter cereals wheat, triticale and rye were grown in field experiments at two locations. Soil samples were taken...

  2. Reduced herbicide doses in combination with allelopathic plant extracts suppress weeds in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afridi, R.A.; Khan, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Allelopathy is gaining popularity worldwide probably for decreasing the cost of production and environment friendly weed suppressing approach. Repeated field studies conducted during 2011-12 and 2012-13 at Agricutural Research Institute Tarnab, Peshawar, Pakistan where allelopathic water extracts of Oryza sativa, Parthenium hysterophorus, Phragmites australis and Datura alba along with reduced doses of phenoxaprop-p-ethyl and bromoxinil+MCPA were tested for controlling weeds in wheat. It was observed that weed density was encouragly suppressed whereas spike length (cm), number of spikelets spike-1 and 1000 grain weight (g) of the wheat were improved when the allelopathic plant water extracts were used in combination with lower doses of herbicides. Thus, allelochemicals provide weed suppressing option in wheat. However, more studies are required to fully explore the possibility of weed management and isolation of the chemicals involved in weed suppression for environment friendly weed management in wheat. Such studies may decrease the cost of crop production and total use of herbicides. (author)

  3. Irradiation effects for the growth inhibition of weed seeds invaded from foreign countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatani, Yasuyuki; Ito, Hitoshi

    1999-01-01

    Weeds of foreign origin have been invaded through imported maize or dried grass which using for animal feeds, and causing serious damages to agricultural crops and farm animals in Japan. These weeds are spreading mainly through animal feeds to feces. For the purpose to decrease the damage from these weeds, we investigated the gamma-irradiation effect on 7 species of the weed seed to suppress the germination or elongation of stem and root. After the irradiation of the weed seeds, all species kept the ability of germination even at 4 kGy in petri dish cultivation, whereas decreased the germination ratio in some species. However, many species of weed decreased the ability on elongation of stem or root below l kGy irradiation. Furthermore, all of species lost the ability on the development of root hair and appearance of first leaf after germination of seeds below 1 kGy irradiation. From this study, necessary dose for growth inhibition was estimated to be 1 kGy which should be able to apply with combination treatment of the animal feeds for elimination of pathogenic bacteria such as salmonellae at 3 to 5 kGy irradiation. (author)

  4. MULCHES AND OTHER COVER MATERIALS TO REDUCE WEED GROWTH IN CONTAINER-GROWN NURSERY STOCK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rys, F; Van Wesemael, D; Van Haecke, D; Mechant, E; Gobin, B

    2014-01-01

    Due to the recent EU-wide implementation of Integrated Pest Management (IPM), alternative methods to reduce weed growth in container-grown nursery stock are needed to cut back the use of herbicides. Covering the upper layer of the substrate is known as a potential method to prevent or reduce weed growth in plant containers. As a high variety of mulches and other cover materials are on the market, however, it is no longer clear for growers which cover material is most efficient for use in containers. Therefore, we examined the effect on weed growth of different mulches and other cover materials, including Pinus maritima, P. sylvestris, Bio-Top Basic, Bio-Top Excellent, coco chips fine, hemp fibres, straw pellets, coco disk 180LD and jute disk. Cover materials were applied immediately after repotting of Ligustrum ovalifolium or planting of Fagus sylvatica. At regular times, both weed growth and side effects (e.g., plant growth, water status of the substrate, occurrence of mushrooms, foraging of birds, complete cover of the substrate and fixation) were assessed. All examined mulches or other cover materials were able to reduce weed growth on the containers during the whole growing season. Weed suppression was even better than that of a chemical treated control. Although all materials showed some side effects, the impact on plant growth is most important to the grower and depends not only on material characteristics (e.g., biodegradation, nutrient leaching and N-immobilisation) but also on container size and climatic conditions. In conclusion, mulches and other cover materials can be a valuable tool within IPM to lower herbicide use. To enable a deliberate choice of which cover material is best used in a specific situation more research is needed on lifespan and stability as well as on economic characteristics of the materials.

  5. Weed suppression greatly increased by plant diversity in intensively managed grasslands: A continental-scale experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, John; Sebastià, Maria-Teresa; Kirwan, Laura; Finn, John Anthony; Llurba, Rosa; Suter, Matthias; Collins, Rosemary P; Porqueddu, Claudio; Helgadóttir, Áslaug; Baadshaug, Ole H; Bélanger, Gilles; Black, Alistair; Brophy, Caroline; Čop, Jure; Dalmannsdóttir, Sigridur; Delgado, Ignacio; Elgersma, Anjo; Fothergill, Michael; Frankow-Lindberg, Bodil E; Ghesquiere, An; Golinski, Piotr; Grieu, Philippe; Gustavsson, Anne-Maj; Höglind, Mats; Huguenin-Elie, Olivier; Jørgensen, Marit; Kadziuliene, Zydre; Lunnan, Tor; Nykanen-Kurki, Paivi; Ribas, Angela; Taube, Friedhelm; Thumm, Ulrich; De Vliegher, Alex; Lüscher, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    Grassland diversity can support sustainable intensification of grassland production through increased yields, reduced inputs and limited weed invasion. We report the effects of diversity on weed suppression from 3 years of a 31-site continental-scale field experiment.At each site, 15 grassland communities comprising four monocultures and 11 four-species mixtures based on a wide range of species' proportions were sown at two densities and managed by cutting. Forage species were selected according to two crossed functional traits, "method of nitrogen acquisition" and "pattern of temporal development".Across sites, years and sown densities, annual weed biomass in mixtures and monocultures was 0.5 and 2.0 t  DM ha -1 (7% and 33% of total biomass respectively). Over 95% of mixtures had weed biomass lower than the average of monocultures, and in two-thirds of cases, lower than in the most suppressive monoculture (transgressive suppression). Suppression was significantly transgressive for 58% of site-years. Transgressive suppression by mixtures was maintained across years, independent of site productivity.Based on models, average weed biomass in mixture over the whole experiment was 52% less (95% confidence interval: 30%-75%) than in the most suppressive monoculture. Transgressive suppression of weed biomass was significant at each year across all mixtures and for each mixture.Weed biomass was consistently low across all mixtures and years and was in some cases significantly but not largely different from that in the equiproportional mixture. The average variability (standard deviation) of annual weed biomass within a site was much lower for mixtures (0.42) than for monocultures (1.77). Synthesis and applications . Weed invasion can be diminished through a combination of forage species selected for complementarity and persistence traits in systems designed to reduce reliance on fertiliser nitrogen. In this study, effects of diversity on weed suppression were

  6. Establishment and Early Growth of Willow at Different Levels of Weed Competition and Nitrogen Fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edelfeldt, Stina; Lundkvist, Anneli; Forkman, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of weed competition and nitrogen fertilization on the early growth performance of willow, cuttings of the clone Tora (Salix schwerinii x S. viminalis) were planted in buckets together with model weeds (spring barley or white mustard) sown 15, 26, and 30 days after willow...... gave higher willow biomass production in willow with weeds sown after 26 or 30 days. Type of model weed had no effect on willow performance. Weed biomass and maximum shoot height were higher in weeds planted without willows compared to the willow-weed mixtures. A high nitrogen level gave more weed...... biomass when planted without willows and in the willow-weed mixture with weeds sown after 15 days. We conclude that for the given high density of willow, competition from weeds emerging soon after willow planting had strong effect on early production. Furthermore, if there is a risk of weed infestation...

  7. Weed Growth Stage Estimator Using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teimouri, Nima; Dyrmann, Mads; Nielsen, Per Rydahl; Mathiassen, Solvejg Kopp; Somerville, Gayle J; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm

    2018-05-16

    This study outlines a new method of automatically estimating weed species and growth stages (from cotyledon until eight leaves are visible) of in situ images covering 18 weed species or families. Images of weeds growing within a variety of crops were gathered across variable environmental conditions with regards to soil types, resolution and light settings. Then, 9649 of these images were used for training the computer, which automatically divided the weeds into nine growth classes. The performance of this proposed convolutional neural network approach was evaluated on a further set of 2516 images, which also varied in term of crop, soil type, image resolution and light conditions. The overall performance of this approach achieved a maximum accuracy of 78% for identifying Polygonum spp. and a minimum accuracy of 46% for blackgrass. In addition, it achieved an average 70% accuracy rate in estimating the number of leaves and 96% accuracy when accepting a deviation of two leaves. These results show that this new method of using deep convolutional neural networks has a relatively high ability to estimate early growth stages across a wide variety of weed species.

  8. Weed Growth Stage Estimator Using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teimouri, Nima; Dyrmann, Mads; Nielsen, Per Rydahl

    2018-01-01

    conditions with regards to soil types, resolution and light settings. Then, 9649 of these images were used for training the computer, which automatically divided the weeds into nine growth classes. The performance of this proposed convolutional neural network approach was evaluated on a further set of 2516...... in estimating the number of leaves and 96% accuracy when accepting a deviation of two leaves. These results show that this new method of using deep convolutional neural networks has a relatively high ability to estimate early growth stages across a wide variety of weed species....

  9. An Experimental Test of a Biodynamic Method of Weed Suppression: The Biodynamic Seed Peppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Kenneth Kirchoff

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An experimental test of a biodynamic agriculture method of weed suppression was carried out in growth chambers to establish the feasibility of the method as a preliminary to field trials. Four generations of Brassica rapa plants were used in a randomized block design. Treated flats received ashed seeds prepared according to biodynamic indications. Seed weight and counts were measured at the end of each generation, and germination of the control and experimental seed was investigated at the end of generation four. The biodynamic seed peppers, created and applied as described here, had no effect on seed production or viability, and did not effectively inhibit reproduction of the targeted species over the course of four consecutive treatments.

  10. Effects of Weed Control and Cow Dung Manure on Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field trials were conducted during the 2006, 2007 and 2008 rainy seasons at the Institute for Agricultural Research Samaru, in the Northern guinea savanna zone of Nigeria to evaluate the effects of weed control and cow dung manure treatments on growth of Quality Protein Maize. The trial consisted of factorial ...

  11. Combined use of Azolla and loach suppressed paddy weeds and increased organic rice yield: second season results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming uses alternatives to agricultural chemicals such as synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. The primary challenge in organic rice farming is controlling weeds without using herbicides and improving rice yield without chemical fertilizers. In our previous paper entitled as combined use of Azolla and loach suppressed weed Monochoria vaginalis and increased rice yield without agrochemicals, we reported the first year rice growth season results from an in situ container experiment. The experiment was designed with 4 treatments—control (with neither Azolla nor loach, Azolla (Azolla alone, loach (loach alone, and Az+Lo (combined Azolla and loach—with 3 replications each. The first year results showed that combined use of Azolla and loach was successful in weed suppression and increase in rice yield in 2012. In this paper, we report the second year results from the continuous container experiment in 2013. M.vaginalis emergences were very low in second year rice growth season on all treatments. Compared first year, the rice yields decreased in second year on all treatments due to different weather condition and with or without organic soybean oil cake application between two rice growth seasons. The second year results also showed the raising loach had a stronger effect to increase tiller and panicle numbers, and spikelet number per panicle, then improve rice yields to 2.3 times than control. The Azolla residues left from first year have weaker effect on rice growth and yield, but increase soil organic matter accumulation at second year. The two years study indicated that combined use of Azolla and loach can meet two of the greatest challenges in organic rice production: providing effective weed control and improving rice nutrition without agrochemicals.

  12. Weed diversity identification on growth phases of twelve maize varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, M.; Yudono, P.; Indradewa, D.; Hanudin, E.

    2018-03-01

    Weed is one of the factors that disturb maize cultivation. Each maize variety has specific characteristics which will lead to weeds diversity in particular farm. This study aimed to identify the effect of maize variety on weed diversity on maize’s growth phases. The research was conducted from March to July 2016 in Banguntapan, Bantul, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The field research was arranged by using Randomised Complete Block Design with three replications. The treatments were maize varieties, consist of 12 levels: ‘Bisi 18’, ‘Bisi 2’, ‘Pertiwi 3’, ‘NK 22’, ‘NK 33’, ‘DK 959’, ‘P23’, ‘DK 771’, ‘DK 95’, ‘Bima 19 Uri’, ‘Bisma’, and ‘Sukmaraga’. The results showed that at four weeks after planting (WAP) the most of weeds were growing on varieties ‘Bisi 18’, ‘NK 33’, ‘P 23’, and ‘DK 95’, there were 14 species. Bulbostylispuberula and Cyperusrotundus were growing on all maize varieties with the highest SDR on ‘Sukmaraga’ and ‘DK 959’. At six WAP, weeds that grew, most consists of four species of sedges, six species of grasses and 24 species of broadleaf. While at the age of eight WAP, the weeds that grow at least on ‘NK 33’ that were 13 species and the most on ‘P23’ that were 21 species. Dactyloctenium aeghypthium having highest SDR in all maize varieties except Bisi 18. The highest SDR value on Bisi 18 was Boerhaavia erecta about 16.23%.

  13. Effect of plant spacing on weed suppression and yield of fluted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The field study was conducted to evaluate the effect of plant spacing on weed suppression yield and economic benefit of fluted pumpkin (Telfeiria occidentalis Hook F). The experiment was carried out at the Department of Crop and Soil Science Demonstration Plot, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria ...

  14. Effect of Weed Management and Seed Rate on Crop Growth under Direct Dry Seeded Rice Systems in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sharif; Salim, Muhammad; Chauhan, Bhagirath S.

    2014-01-01

    Weeds are a major constraint to the success of dry-seeded rice (DSR). The main means of managing these in a DSR system is through chemical weed control using herbicides. However, the use of herbicides alone may not be sustainable in the long term. Approaches that aim for high crop competitiveness therefore need to be exploited. One such approach is the use of high rice seeding rates. Experiments were conducted in the aman (wet) seasons of 2012 and 2013 in Bangladesh to evaluate the effect of weed infestation level (partially-weedy and weed-free) and rice seeding rate (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 kg ha−1) on weed and crop growth in DSR. Under weed-free conditions, higher crop yields (5.1 and 5.2 t ha−1 in the 2012 and 2013 seasons, respectively) were obtained at the seeding rate of 40 kg ha−1 and thereafter, yield decreased slightly beyond 40 kg seed ha−1. Under partially-weedy conditions, yield increased by 30 to 33% (2.0–2.2 and 2.9–3.2 t ha−1 in the 2012 and 2013 seasons, respectively) with increase in seeding rate from 20 to 100 kg ha−1. In the partially-weedy plots, weed biomass decreased by 41–60% and 54–56% at 35 days after sowing and at crop anthesis, respectively, when seeding rate increased from 20 to 100 kg ha−1. Results from our study suggest that increasing seeding rates in DSR can suppress weed growth and reduce grain yield losses from weed competition. PMID:25000520

  15. Effect of weed management and seed rate on crop growth under direct dry seeded rice systems in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif Ahmed

    Full Text Available Weeds are a major constraint to the success of dry-seeded rice (DSR. The main means of managing these in a DSR system is through chemical weed control using herbicides. However, the use of herbicides alone may not be sustainable in the long term. Approaches that aim for high crop competitiveness therefore need to be exploited. One such approach is the use of high rice seeding rates. Experiments were conducted in the aman (wet seasons of 2012 and 2013 in Bangladesh to evaluate the effect of weed infestation level (partially-weedy and weed-free and rice seeding rate (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 kg ha(-1 on weed and crop growth in DSR. Under weed-free conditions, higher crop yields (5.1 and 5.2 t ha(-1 in the 2012 and 2013 seasons, respectively were obtained at the seeding rate of 40 kg ha(-1 and thereafter, yield decreased slightly beyond 40 kg seed ha(-1. Under partially-weedy conditions, yield increased by 30 to 33% (2.0-2.2 and 2.9-3.2 t ha(-1 in the 2012 and 2013 seasons, respectively with increase in seeding rate from 20 to 100 kg ha(-1. In the partially-weedy plots, weed biomass decreased by 41-60% and 54-56% at 35 days after sowing and at crop anthesis, respectively, when seeding rate increased from 20 to 100 kg ha(-1. Results from our study suggest that increasing seeding rates in DSR can suppress weed growth and reduce grain yield losses from weed competition.

  16. Effect of weed management and seed rate on crop growth under direct dry seeded rice systems in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sharif; Salim, Muhammad; Chauhan, Bhagirath S

    2014-01-01

    Weeds are a major constraint to the success of dry-seeded rice (DSR). The main means of managing these in a DSR system is through chemical weed control using herbicides. However, the use of herbicides alone may not be sustainable in the long term. Approaches that aim for high crop competitiveness therefore need to be exploited. One such approach is the use of high rice seeding rates. Experiments were conducted in the aman (wet) seasons of 2012 and 2013 in Bangladesh to evaluate the effect of weed infestation level (partially-weedy and weed-free) and rice seeding rate (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 kg ha(-1)) on weed and crop growth in DSR. Under weed-free conditions, higher crop yields (5.1 and 5.2 t ha(-1) in the 2012 and 2013 seasons, respectively) were obtained at the seeding rate of 40 kg ha(-1) and thereafter, yield decreased slightly beyond 40 kg seed ha(-1). Under partially-weedy conditions, yield increased by 30 to 33% (2.0-2.2 and 2.9-3.2 t ha(-1) in the 2012 and 2013 seasons, respectively) with increase in seeding rate from 20 to 100 kg ha(-1). In the partially-weedy plots, weed biomass decreased by 41-60% and 54-56% at 35 days after sowing and at crop anthesis, respectively, when seeding rate increased from 20 to 100 kg ha(-1). Results from our study suggest that increasing seeding rates in DSR can suppress weed growth and reduce grain yield losses from weed competition.

  17. The effect of soil tillage system and weeding time on the growth of weed and yield of soybean (Glycine max (L. Merril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husni Thamrin Sebayang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The growth and yield of soybeans can decrease due to competition from weeds. Various efforts have been made to control the growth of weeds such as land preparation and weeding periods. An experiment to study the effect of soil tillage systems and weeding time on the growth of weeds and soybean crop yield (Glycine max (L. Merril has been done in Wringinsongo Village, Tumpang Sub-District, Malang Regency from February to May 2017. The split-plot design with three replicates was used with the soil tillage system as the main plot consisting of three levels, T0: no tillage, T1: minimum tillage, and T2: conventional tillage, and weeding time as the sub plot consisting of 4 levels, P0: no weeding, P1: weeding 1 time, P2: weeding two times and P3: weeding three times. The results showed that the dominant weed species before treatment were Amaranthus spinosus (Spiny amaranth, Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass, Cyperus rotundus (Purple nutsedge, Ageratum conyzoides (Billygoat weed, and Portulaca oleracea (Common purslane. After treatment, the dominant weed species were Cyperus rotundus (Purple nutsedge, Amaranthus spinosus (Spiny amaranth, Ageratum conyzoides (Billygoat weed, Physalis peruviana (Cape gooseberry, and Eclipta alba (False daisy. There was no significant difference of the dry weight of weeds in conventional tillage followed by weeding 3 times at 15, 30 and 45 days after planting, and minimum tillage and no tillage. For the yield of soybeans, conventional tillage followed by weeding 3 times at 15, 30 and 45 days after planting were not significant with that of minimum tillage. The yield of soybeans was lower than that of with no tillage and no weeding.

  18. Evolutionary Agroecology: the potential for cooperative, high density, weed-suppressing cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Jacob; Andersen, Sven B; Wille, Wibke K-M; Griepentrog, Hans W; Olsen, Jannie M

    2010-09-01

    Evolutionary theory can be applied to improve agricultural yields and/or sustainability, an approach we call Evolutionary Agroecology. The basic idea is that plant breeding is unlikely to improve attributes already favored by millions of years of natural selection, whereas there may be unutilized potential in selecting for attributes that increase total crop yield but reduce plants' individual fitness. In other words, plant breeding should be based on group selection. We explore this approach in relation to crop-weed competition, and argue that it should be possible to develop high density cereals that can utilize their initial size advantage over weeds to suppress them much better than under current practices, thus reducing or eliminating the need for chemical or mechanical weed control. We emphasize the role of density in applying group selection to crops: it is competition among individuals that generates the 'Tragedy of the Commons', providing opportunities to improve plant production by selecting for attributes that natural selection would not favor. When there is competition for light, natural selection of individuals favors a defensive strategy of 'shade avoidance', but a collective, offensive 'shading' strategy could increase weed suppression and yield in the high density, high uniformity cropping systems we envision.

  19. Weed-Suppressive Soil Bacteria to Reduce Cheatgrass and Improve Vegetation Diversity on ITD Rights-of-Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Transportation departments are challenged by the invasion of downy brome (cheatgrass) and medusahead. The reduction of downy brome (cheat grass) by Weed Suppressive Bacteria (WSB) Pseudomonas fluorescens strain ACK55 was evaluated on roadsides of I-8...

  20. Effect of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) cutting date and planting density on weed suppression in Georgia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, J Bradley; Chase, Carlene; Treadwell, Danielle; Koenig, Rosie; Cho, Alyssa; Morales-Payan, Jose Pable; Murphy, Tim; Antonious, George F

    2015-01-01

    A field study was conducted in 2008 and 2009 at the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit in Griffin, GA, to investigate weed suppression by sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L). The objectives were to (1) evaluate the effects of apical meristem removal (AMR) at three dates [5, 6, and 7 wks after planting (WAP) on May 14, 2008 and May 21, 2009] and (2) assess the impact of seeding rates (11, 28, and 45 kg ha(-1)) on weed biomass reduction. Weed species were identified at 4, 8, and 12 wks after sunn hemp planting. Sunn hemp cutting date had no significant effect on weed suppression in 2008 but significant differences for grass weeds at 4, 8, and 12 WAP and for yellow nutsedge at 8 and 12 WAP did occur when compared to the control in 2009. In comparison to the sunn hemp-free control plot in 2009, all three seeding rates had reduced grass weed dry weights at 4, 8, and 12 WAP. The total mass of yellow nutsedge when grown with sunn hemp was reduced compared to the total mass of yellow nutsedge grown in the weedy check for all seeding rates at 8 and 12 WAP. Lower grass weed biomass was observed by 12 WAP for cutting dates and seeding rates during 2008 and 2009. Sunn hemp cutting date and seeding rate reduced branch numbers in both years. The reduction in sunn hemp seeding rates revealed a decrease in weed populations.

  1. Impact of fertilizing pattern on the biodiversity of a weed community and wheat growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Leilei; Cheng, Chuanpeng; Wan, Kaiyuan; Li, Ruhai; Wang, Daozhong; Tao, Yong; Pan, Junfeng; Xie, Juan; Chen, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Weeding and fertilization are important farming practices. Integrated weed management should protect or improve the biodiversity of farmland weed communities for a better ecological environment with not only increased crop yield, but also reduced use of herbicides. This study hypothesized that appropriate fertilization would benefit both crop growth and the biodiversity of farmland weed communities. To study the effects of different fertilizing patterns on the biodiversity of a farmland weed community and their adaptive mechanisms, indices of species diversity and responses of weed species and wheat were investigated in a 17-year field trial with a winter wheat-soybean rotation. This long term field trial includes six fertilizing treatments with different N, P and K application rates. The results indicated that wheat and the four prevalent weed species (Galium aparine, Vicia sativa, Veronica persica and Geranium carolinianum) showed different responses to fertilizer treatment in terms of density, plant height, shoot biomass, and nutrient accumulations. Each individual weed population exhibited its own adaptive mechanisms, such as increased internode length for growth advantages and increased light interception. The PK treatment had higher density, shoot biomass, Shannon-Wiener and Pielou Indices of weed community than N plus P fertilizer treatments. The N1/2PK treatment showed the same weed species number as the PK treatment. It also showed higher Shannon-Wiener and Pielou Indices of the weed community, although it had a lower wheat yield than the NPK treatment. The negative effects of the N1/2PK treatment on wheat yield could be balanced by the simultaneous positive effects on weed communities, which are intermediate in terms of the effects on wheat and weeds.

  2. EFFECT OF SOWING DATE AND WEED CONTROL METHOD ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF SOYBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Akter

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sowing date and weed management play a significant role in determining soybean growth, development and seed yield. Results showed that different sowing date and weed control methods had significant effect on relative weed density, weed biomass, weed control efficiency, plant height, dry weight plant-1 and seed yield of soybean. Among the infested weed species in the experimental field the dominant weeds were Lindernia procumbens (44.78%, Echinochloa colonum (26.39% and Cynodon dactylon (16.30%. The results also revealed that early sowing (2 January brought about the highest seed yield (2.17 t ha-1 and sowing delay (1 February resulted in the lowest yield (1.64 t ha-1. Two times hand weeding (20 and 40 DAS controlled the weeds most effectively and led to highest seed yield (2.23 t ha-1 which was statistically similar (2.19 t ha-1 with herbicide application. Combination effect showed that the highest seed yield (2.50 t ha-1 was obtained from 2 January sowing when the crop was weeded by hand at 20 and 40 DAS.

  3. Evaluating of Physiological Indices of Weed Species at Different Density on Corn (Zea mays L. Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh Mahmodi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Crop density is one of the usage tools in sustainable agriculture to carry out integrated weed management. Weed species response varied according to diversity and density of species in agricultural ecosystems. This study was conducted in research field of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. Four levels of corn densities (5, 6, 7 and 9 plant m-2 and four levels of species diversity were used including complete control, broad leaved control (corn and narrow leaves, grass control (corn and broad leaves and without control (corn, broadleaves and grass weeds by weeding. All species sampling were done at five stages from 42 days after planting up to the end of growth period. Crop growth rate, total dry matter of weed (TDMw and total dry matter of corn (TDMc were measured. Results showed that TDMc was minimum at 9 and 5 plant m-2 in the early growth period, while it was highest at 9 plant m-2 by the end of the growth period. Also, TDMc increased with increasing density in the weed free control, but (TDMc decreased about 46% in compare with complete control. The same trends were observed for CGR. It was found that broad leaves weeds were more effective than narrow leaves (causing 60 and 34% lower CGR reduction, respectively on corn growth.

  4. Effect of different weed management techniques on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The weed management techniques included slashing at 8-weekly intervals, mulching alone, glyphosate + slashing, glyphosate + mulching, glyphosate alone and a weed-free control. Glyphosate + mulching proved to have the greatest positive influence on plant height, plant girth, leaf area and number of leaves throughout ...

  5. Selective weed suppression by cover crop residues: effects of seed mass and timing of species’sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruidhof, H.M.; Gallandt, E.R.; Haramoto, E.R.; Bastiaans, L.

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory bioassays have shown that large-seeded species better tolerate cover crop residue–mediated stress than small-seeded species. This provides the potential for selective suppression of small-seeded weeds in large-seeded crops. We conducted two field experiments in which seedling emergence of

  6. Chemical Weed Control Increases Survival and Growth in Hardwood Plantings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayne G. Erdmann

    1967-01-01

    In a plantation of four hardwood species on a silt loam soil planted to 1-0 stock, 4 pounds of active atrazine or simazine controlled weeds effectively without injuring the trees. Chemical weed control was better on plowed and disked ground than on unprepared ground. Yellow-poplar and white ash grew faster on prepared ground. Black walnut and red oak did not respond...

  7. Acidulocompost, a food waste compost with thermophilic lactic acid fermentation: its effects on potato production and weed growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Asagi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acidulocomposting recycles food wastes by means of thermophilic lactic acid fermentation. This process can decrease ammonia volatilization and odor emission during processing and produce compost with high nitrogen (N content. To compare the yield of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. ‘Dansyakuimo’ and the suppression of weeds with acidulocompost (AC and those with conventional composts and inorganic fertilizer (IF, we conducted field experiments in Miyagi Prefecture, northeastern Japan. Potatoes were cultivated in 2008 and 2009 in an Andosol field treated with AC, conventional food waste compost (FWC, poultry manure compost (PMC, cattle manure compost (CMC, IF, or no fertilizer (NF. AC, but not the other treatments, delayed the emergence of potatoes, and suppressed the emergence of weeds, but it did not inhibit potato growth during the late growth stage or yield. Potato N uptake and tuber yield with AC were significantly higher than those with NF and similar to those with FWC, PMC, and IF. The N uptake efficiencies (ratio of difference between N uptake in the treatment and the control to added N for AC (10.4–12.7% in 2008 and 2009 were similar to those for FWC and PMC (10.2–13.1%, higher than those for CMC (–1.3 to 6.3%, but significantly lower than those for IF (30.2–42.3%. Our findings indicate that AC has an N supply capacity similar to those of FWC and PMC and additionally suppresses the emergence and growth of weeds.

  8. Economics of weed suppressive rice cultivars in flood- and furrow-irrigated systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeds are a major constraint to rice production. In the U.S, weeds in rice are controlled primarily with synthetic herbicides. Intensive herbicide application in rice also has many potential drawbacks, resulting in environmental pollution, human health concerns, and development of weed resistance. B...

  9. Performance of weed Extracts on Growth Characteristics and Biochemical Activities in Salt Stressed Soybean Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, H.R.; Khodary, S.E.A.

    2004-01-01

    The changes induced in the growth parameters and certain metabolic activities in response to both salt (NaCI) shock treatments and foliar spray of weed extracts (jungle rice, cocklebur and purslane) plus salinity were studied, using soybean seedlings grown in Hoagland's nutrient solution supplemented with various concentrations of NaCI. When seedlings were subjected to high salinity (100 and 200 mM NaCI), their growth criteria, the photosynthetic capacity, pigment contents and carbohydrate metabolism were significantly decreased. Under salinized conditions and weed extract treatments, the growth pattern,''1''4CO 2 -fixation rate, pigment as well as carbohydrate contents of soybean plants were significantly increased comparable to NaCI-treated samples. It was suggested that weed extract and in particular jungle rice might oppose the harsh effect of salinity in soybean plants

  10. Development of a testing system for the documentation and evaluation of the weed-suppressing ability of blue lupins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Böhm, Herwart

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of a joint research project for breeding advancement of blue and yellow lupins, which is being conducted in cooperation with the Julius Kühn-Institute, Institute for Breeding Research on Agricultural Crops (coordinator, Saatzucht Steinach and the IPK Gatersleben, in a sub-project at the Thünen-Institute of Organic Farming 1. a test system for detection and assessment of weed-suppressing effect of blue lupins will be developed, and 2. this test system will be tested to pre-breeding lines of blue lupin. In the first year of the project, plot trials were conducted in 3-fold field repetition with two phenological widely differing varieties (cv. Boruta [terminated type], cv. Boregine [branched type] in combination with selected partners with four different seed rates. As partners, monocotyledonous species (e.g., cereals and dicotyledonous species (false flax or resp., a mixture of oil seed rape, phacelia and buckwheat, are used. Twice during the growing season and at harvest, the aboveground biomass, separated by lupin, partners and weeds, were recorded. The results of the first project year show that all the partner plants which should serve as artificial weeds were successfully established. False flax leads to the strongest effect on the development of lupins, which showed the lowest biomass production in these variants. In comparison to the sown partners, the false flax variants also showed the highest biomass production, while the lowest biomass production was recorded for the natural weeds occurring at the site. The species mixture of oil seed rape, phacelia and buckwheat, however, led to the lowest biomass production; contemporaneously the biomass production of lupins in these variants was only affected slightly. Comparing the two cultivated lupin varieties, Boruta showed a better weed suppressive effect.

  11. Weed-crop competition effects on growth and yield of sugarcane planted using two methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, M.; Tanveer, A.; Cheema, Z.A.; Ashraf, M.

    2010-01-01

    Effect of planting techniques and weed-crop competition periods on yield potential of spring planted sugarcane variety HSF-240 was studied at the Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad, Pakistan. The experiment was laid out in RCBD with a split-plot arrangement, with four replications and net plot size of 3.6m x 10m. In the experiment, two planting techniques viz., 60 cm apart rows in flat sowing technique and 120 cm apart rows in trench sowing technique were randomized in main plots. Seven weed-crop competition periods viz., Zero (weed free), weed-crop competition for 45, 60, 75, 90, 105 days after sowing (DAS) and weedy check (full season weed-crop competition) were randomized in sub-plots. Sugarcane sown by trench method exhibited more leaf area index (LAI), average crop growth rate (ACGR) and yield contributing attributes. Trench sowing by yielding 72.22 and 75.08 t ha/sup -1/ stripped cane yields, significantly showed superiority over the flat sowing, which gave 64.13 and 66.04 t ha/sup -1/ stripped cane yields in 2005-06 and 2006- 07, respectively. Generally, there was an increase in weed population and biomass but decrease in leaf area index, crop growth rate and yield components with an increase in weed-crop competition period. A decrease of 10.06, 17.90, 22.42, 28.65, 37.64 and 56.89% in stripped cane yield was observed for weed-crop competition periods of 45, 60, 75, 90, 105 DAS and weedy check as compared with zero competition in 2005-06, respectively. In 2006-07, the respective decrease in stripped cane yield was 9.84, 18.76, 22.92, 27.98, 38.75, and 54.98%. Trench sowing at 1.2 m row spacing proved better sowing technique and 45 DAS was the critical period of weed-crop competition. (author)

  12. effects of weed control and cow dung manure on growth indices

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2012-12-02

    Dec 2, 2012 ... ABSTRACT. Field trials were conducted during the 2006, 2007 and 2008 rainy seasons at the Institute for. Agricultural Research farm Samaru, in the Northern guinea savanna zone of Nigeria to evaluate the effects of weed control and cow dung manure treatments on growth of quality protein maize. The.

  13. Influence of intra-row spacing and mulching on weed growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two field experiments were conducted during 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 dry seasons under irrigation at Kwalkwalawa Research Fadama Farm of Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto to investigate the response of weed growth and bulb yield of garlic to intra-row spacing and mulching. The treatments consisted of three ...

  14. Effects of weed control and cow dung manure on growth indices of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field trials were conducted during the 2006, 2007 and 2008 rainy seasons at the Institute for Agricultural Research farm Samaru, in the Northern guinea savanna zone of Nigeria to evaluate the effects of weed control and cow dung manure treatments on growth of quality protein maize. The trials consisted of factorial ...

  15. Influence of intra-row spacing and mulching on weed growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2006-02-02

    Feb 2, 2006 ... Two field experiments were conducted during 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 dry seasons under irrigation at. Kwalkwalawa Research Fadama Farm of Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto to investigate the response of weed growth and bulb yield of garlic to intra-row spacing and mulching. The treatments.

  16. Influence of intra-row spacing and mulching on weed growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2006-02-02

    Feb 2, 2006 ... response of weed growth and bulb yield of garlic to intra-row spacing and mulching. ... advantageous effects on the growth and yield of this crop. ... Portulaca oleracea L x xx .... 50DAP. 60DAP. Spacing (cm). 20 x 10. 2.60b. 4.69. 6.34b. 12.54b. 2.68. 3.90 .... Effect of plant spacing and nitrogen fertilization on.

  17. Bioherbicides: Current knowledge on weed control mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Alqarawi, Abdulaziz A; Abd Allah, Elsayed Fathi

    2018-04-17

    Weed control is a challenging event during crop cultivation. Integrated management, including the application of bioherbicides, is an emerging method for weed control in sustainable agriculture. Plant extracts, allelochemicals and some microbes are utilized as bioherbicides to control weed populations. Bioherbicides based on plants and microbes inhibit the germination and growth of weeds; however,few studies conducted in weed physiology. This review ascribes the current knowledge of the physiological changes in weeds that occur during the exposure to bioherbicides. Plant extracts or metabolites are absorbed by weed seeds, which initiates damage to the cell membrane, DNA, mitosis, amylase activity and other biochemical processes and delays or inhibits seed germination. The growth of weeds is also retarded due to low rates of root-cell division, nutrient uptake, photosynthetic pigment synthesis, and plant growth hormone synthesis, while the productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and stress-mediated hormones increase, including irregular antioxidant activity. However, lytic enzymes and toxic substances secreted from microbes degrade the weed seed coat and utilize the endosperm for survival, which inhibits seed germination. The microbes grow through the intercellular spaces to reach the root core, and the deposition of toxins in the cells affects cell division and cellular functions. Some of the metabolites of deleterious microbes cause disease, necrosis and chlorosis,which inhibit the germination and growth of weed seeds by suppressing photosynthesis and gibberellin activities and enhancing ROS, abscisic acid and ethylene. This review explains the effects of bioherbicides (derived from plants and microbes) on weed-plant physiology to elucidate their modes of action. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Allelopathy in two species of Chenopodium -inhibition of germination and seedling growth of certain weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash C. Datta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity of washed leaf and inflorescence material of Chenopodium ambrosioides and C. murale, decaying leaves and inflorescences, and field soils collected beneath Chenopodium plants were examined in terms of the inhibition of seed germination and seedling growth of five weeds, viz. Abutilon indicum, Cassia sophera var. purpurea, C. tora, Evolvulus numularius and Tephrosia hamiltonii. The allelopathic pattern varied in each of the two test species and this depended on the type of test matter. However, the germination as well as the root and hypocotyl growth of A. indicum and E. nummularius were more hampered by phytotoxins or inhibitors from Chenopodium than were the other weeds. Since the leaf and inflorescence of Chenopodium formed the source of inhibitors, the respective plant-parts from the two species were chemically analysed and the presence of three terpenes (p-cymene, ascaridole and aritazone from C. ambrosioides and an organic acid (oxalic acid from C. murale were implicated in the allelopathic effect.

  19. The effect of crude oil on growth of the weed (Paspalum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of grasses for phytoremediation of crude oil polluted soils especially in the tropics is a new area of study with a lot of potentials. The effect of different levels (0.00, 2.50, 5.00, 7.50, 10.00, 12.50 and 15.00%) of crude oil contamination on the growth of Paspalum scrobiculatum, a common weed in Nigeria was ...

  20. Evaluating Rimsulforon Efficiency on Controlling Weeds in Potato at Different Growth Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khatami

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Potato is globally the fourth important food crop after rice, wheat, and maize and is cultivated in several countries worldwide like Iran. Weeds are the most important restriction factor for crop development in agricultural systems and the absence of weed control lead to crop yield reduction between 10 to 100 percent and this reduction could be a serious threat for a growing world population to be considered. Rimsulfuron is a sulfonylurea herbicide for control of weeds in potato, corn, wheat, barley and canola. It can be used as pre or post emergence in potato. These herbicide act through inhibition of enzyme acetolactate synthase (ALS, which catalyzes key reactions in the biosynthesis of basic branched-chain amino acids that are essential components of the growth process in plant cell division such as valine, leucine, and isoleucine Materials and methods In order to study rimsulfuron (Titus 25% DF effect on weed biomass as a postemergence herbicide, a field experiment was carried out in the farm located 3 km out the city of Ardabil during 2014. The factorial experiment was performed based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Potato cultivar was Agria (common cultivar in Ardabil. The first factor was rimsulfuron doses with six levels (5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 gr a.i. / ha, and the second factor was time of application based on different potato growth stages, (Potato emergence, stoloning and tuber bulking. Also two treatment (with and without weeding were considered as control. Tubers were hand sown on 22th May in rows 75 cm apart and 20 cm in the rows at 10 cm depth. Rimsulfuron was applied by backpack sprayer fitted with 8001 flat fan nozzles. Three weeks after treatment, weed sampling was carried out by a quadrate sized 0.375 m2. Tubers were harvested from two center rows to determine total tuber yield per hectare. Two models fitted to the data were three parameter logistic and three parameter sigmoid. Data

  1. Abnormal Grain Growth Suppression in Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Stephen J. (Inventor); Claytor, Harold Dale (Inventor); Alexa, Joel A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for suppressing abnormal grain growth in friction stir welded aluminum alloys by inserting an intermediate annealing treatment ("IAT") after the welding step on the article. The IAT may be followed by a solution heat treatment (SHT) on the article under effectively high solution heat treatment conditions. In at least some embodiments, a deformation step is conducted on the article under effective spin-forming deformation conditions or under effective superplastic deformation conditions. The invention further provides a welded article having suppressed abnormal grain growth, prepared by the process above. Preferably the article is characterized with greater than about 90% reduction in area fraction abnormal grain growth in any friction-stir-welded nugget.

  2. Growth and control of invasive weeds under elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmospheric concentrations of CO2 have been increasing since the onset of the industrial revolution. Regardless of the debate on the effects of this rise on climate, most plants exhibit a positive growth response to elevated CO2 due to increased photosynthesis, resource use efficiency, and/or alloca...

  3. Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Weeds Growth and Emergence and Yield and Yield Components of Corn (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gholamshahi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Corn is one of the important crops of poaceae family which has important role in supplying food for human societies. Corn is third food crop in world and it has high potential compare to other crops because of its C4 photosynthetic pathway. In addition, corn is a strong and fast growing plant but it is sensitive to competition with weeds. According studies, there are 25 to 30 problematic weeds in corn farms which they include annual and perennial species. Annual weeds life cycle is similar to corn life cycle, there for the most problem of weeds in corn is summer annual weeds. Damage of weeds is different and it depends on weeds density, species composition, time of emergence, crop variety and other factors. While non control of weeds depending on those density and Variety, corn yeild may be decrease of 15 to 90 percent. Weeds which germinate in a short time can compete with crop on light, water and nutrition sources. Most of the weeds show better reaction to fertilizers compare with crops. This subject is due to weeds ability to nutrition absorption and aggregation and their high performances. Most of the weeds species are more responsive than crops to application of nitrogen fertilizer. Furthermore, the growth of most of the weed species increases with increasing nitrogen. Therefore, the increase of nitrogen in farming systems can have impacts on weeds and crops competitiveness. However, weeds compete with crop about using light, nutrient, water and soil space and the result of this competition is yield losses. Moreover, nitrogen is necessary to increase yield and nitrogen fertilizer enhances corn competitiveness, especially early in the season due to the slow growth of the plant and is necessary to achieve optimal performance. Excessive of nitrogen fertilizer during the growing season is benefit for weeds. Therefore, in order to study the effects of nitrogen fertilizer in combination with weeds management on yield and yield

  4. Evaluation of Oxadiargyl Efficiency on Weed Control of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. at Different Growth Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Samadi Kalkhoran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. is one of the most important root crops in the world. Weed is biotic stress that reduces yield and quality of crops through competition. Chemical weed control seems indispensable and has proved efficient in controlling weeds. Metribuzin and Paraquat are registered herbicides for potato production in Iran which are using early in the growing season. Metribuzin and Paraquat are dual purpose herbicides and destruct photosystem sites of action (Metribuzin is photosystem Ⅱ inhibitor and Paraquat is photosystem Ⅰ inhibitor which are not control summer weeds. Oxadiargyl belongs to the oxidiazole chemical group and acts as a protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor and primarily has been developed for general weed control in rice and sugar cane. It is commonly used in rice, potato, sunflower, onion, cabbage, chickpea, spanish and lettuce and lavender. Weed control obtained with oxadiargyl at rates above 0.30 kg a.i/ ha was comparable to the standard metribuzin at 1.0 kg a.i/ ha; Oxadiargyl was superior comparing to the standard on Solanum nigrum, a weed of common occurrence in potato plantations, and Panicum subalbidum. The objective of our research was to evaluate the efficacy of Oxadiargyl for weed control and determination of appropriate application time in potato fields. Materials and Methods: Trials were conducted in Ardabil Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Station during 2013. The factorial experiment with control (with and without weeding was performed based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Potato cultivar was Agria (common cultivar in Ardabil. The first factor was Oxadiargyl dosages with six levels (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 Lit a.i/ ha, and the second factor was time of application (at different potato growth stages; potato emergence, stoloning and tuber bulking, as well as two treatments (with and without weeding were considered as control. Tubers were hand

  5. Growth and physiological characteristics of the weed false johnsongrass ( Sorghum arundinaceum (Desv. Stapf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Amorim Martins

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sorghum arundinaceum (Desv. Stapf is a weed that belongs to the Poaceae family and is widespread throughout Brazil. Despite the frequent occurrence, infesting cultivated areas, there is little research concerning the biology and physiology of this species. The objective of this research was to evaluate the growth, carbon partitioning and physiological characteristics of the weed Sorghum arundinaceum in greenhouse. Plants were collected at regular intervals of seven days, from 22 to 113 days after transplanting (DAT. In each sample, we determined plant height, root volume, leaf area and dry matter, and subsequently we perfomed the growth analysis, we have determined the dry matter partitioning among organs, the accumulation of dry matter, the specific leaf area, the relative growth rate and leaf weight ratio. At 36, 78 and 113 DAT, the photosynthetic and transpiration rates, stomatal conductance, CO2 concentration and chlorophyll fluorescence were evaluated. The Sorghum arundinaceum reached 1.91 in height, with slow initial growth and allocated much of the biomass in the roots. The photosynthetic rate and the maximum quantum yield of FSII are similar throughout the growth cycle. At maturity the Sorghum arundinaceum presents higher values of transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ.

  6. Bio-herbicide effect of salt marsh tolerant Enterobacter sp. I-3 on weed seed germination and seedling growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhakrishan, R.; Lee, I.J.

    2017-01-01

    Weeds are major challenges in crop cultivation and cause yield loss. The bacteria based bio-herbicides are emerging against chemical herbicides. This study was aimed to explore the bio-herbicide effect of salt marsh tolerant Enterobacter sp. I-3 on various weed species. The efficacy of I-3 bacterial isolates against weed growth was compared with I-4-5 bacterial strain. The bacterial strains, I-3 and I-4-5 inhibited the seed germination of Cyperus microiria Maxim. Enterobacter sp. I-3 showed higher weed control activity than I-4-5. It was confirmed with growth reduction of C. microiria Maxim. The seed germination of Digitaria sanguinalis L. weed was accelerated during the interaction of I-4-5 and it was drastically declined by I-3 bacterial culture. However, Alopecurus aequalis Sobol. seeds treated with either I-3 or I-4-5 bacterial culture showed no significant germination inhibition. The results of this study suggested that salt marsh tolerant Enterobacter sp. I-3 can be applied as bacterial herbicides to control weeds in agricultural fields. (author)

  7. Void growth suppression by dislocation impurity atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weertman, J.; Green, W.V.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed calculation is given of the effect of an impurity atmosphere on void growth under irradiation damage conditions. Norris has proposed that such an atmosphere can suppress void growth. The hydrostatic stress field of a dislocation that is surrounded by an impurity atmosphere was found and used to calculate the change in the effective radius of a dislocation line as a sink for interstitials and vacancies. The calculation of the impurity concentration in a Cottrell cloud takes into account the change in hydrostatic pressure produced by the presence of the cloud itself. It is found that void growth is eliminated whenever dislocations are surrounded by a condensed atmosphere of either oversized substitutional impurity atoms or interstitial impurity atoms. A condensed atmosphere will form whenever the average impurity concentration is larger than a critical concentration

  8. Microarray and growth analyses identify differences and similarities of early corn response to weeds, shade, and nitrogen stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed interference with crop growth is often attributed to water, nutrient, or light competition; however, specific physiological responses to these stresses are not well described. This study’s objective was to compare growth, yield, and gene expression responses of corn to nitrogen (N), low light (...

  9. Weed flora, yield losses and weed control in cotton crop

    OpenAIRE

    Jabran, Khawar

    2016-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the most important fiber crop of world and provides fiber, oil, and animals meals. Weeds interfere with the growth activities of cotton plants and compete with it for resources. All kinds of weeds (grasses, sedges, and broadleaves) have been noted to infest cotton crop. Weeds can cause more than 30% decrease in cotton productivity. Several methods are available for weed control in cotton. Cultural control carries significance for weed control up to a certain extent....

  10. Effect of Non-chemical Procedures of Weed Management on Growth Characteristics and Yield of Cumin (Cuminnum cyminum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surur Khorramdel

    2018-02-01

    weed infested control. Operation of tillage at night performed with moon light. Seed bed prepared, irrigated and weed removed at 28th February by using surface cultivation for false seed bed treatment. Cover crops removed and added to the soil at 5th March. After land preparation, 2.5 t.ha-1 crop residues of each species added to the soil. Cover crops planted as dense at 5th November then all plots irrigated and then seeding operation was done. Plant height, yield components, biological yield, seed yield, essential oil content and essential oil yield of cumin were measured accordingly. The treatments were run as an analysis of variance (ANOVA to determine if significant differences existed among treatments means. Multiple comparison tests were conducted for significant effects using the LSD test. Results and Discussion The results showed that the growth characteristics, yield components, biological yield, seed yield and essential oil yield of cumin were significantly affected by non-chemical management procedures (p≤0.01. The maximum biological and seed yield were observed in hairy vetch with 220.7 and 103.1 g. m-2 and these minimum were for control with 72.4 and 28.6 g. m-2, respectively. These traits enhanced more than 100% for all management treatments compared to control. The highest essential oil yield of cumin was recorded in hairy vetch (2.8 g. m-2 and the lowest was for control (0.6 g.m-2. Conclusion Non-chemical weed management strategies had significantly effect on plant height, yield components and yield of cumin. Cover crops and crop residues enhanced cumin yield due to physical and chemical soil characteristics, moisture conservation and cell swelling improvement that they increased growth and production of photosynthetic matters. Generally, cover crop is a safe and effective technique for weed control that may decrease the necessity for chemical approaches to crop and soil. Acknowledgement This research (24119.2 was funded by Vice Chancellor for

  11. Acidulocompost, a food waste compost with thermophilic lactic acid fermentation: its effects on potato production and weed growth

    OpenAIRE

    Naomi Asagi; Keisuke Minamide; Toru Uno; Masanori Saito; Toyoaki Ito

    2016-01-01

    Acidulocomposting recycles food wastes by means of thermophilic lactic acid fermentation. This process can decrease ammonia volatilization and odor emission during processing and produce compost with high nitrogen (N) content. To compare the yield of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. ‘Dansyakuimo’) and the suppression of weeds with acidulocompost (AC) and those with conventional composts and inorganic fertilizer (IF), we conducted field experiments in Miyagi Prefecture, northeastern Japan. Potat...

  12. Crop–weed competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallandt, Eric R.; Weiner, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    importantly, weed density and time of emergence relative to the crop. Practices that (1) reduce the density of weeds, (2) maximise occupation of space or uptake of resources by the crop or (3) establish an early-season size advantage of the crop over the weeds will minimise the competitive effects of weeds...... on crops. Longer term management of crop–weed competition can be achieved through crop rotations, specifically crop sequences that reduce the weed seed bank, and therefore seedling density, and prevent proliferation of perennial weeds. Key ConceptsKey Concepts * Plant growth requires sunlight, water...... an early-season competitive advantage to the crop and (3) maximising resource capture by the crop using competitive species, competitive cultivars, high sowing densities, optimal spatial arrangement, intercropping complimentary species or transplanting....

  13. Selective weed control using laser techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Marx, Christian; Pastrana-Perez, Julio; Hustedt, Michael; Barcikowski, Stephan; Haferkamp, Heinz; Rath, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This contribution discusses technical and growth relevant aspects of using laser techniques for weed control. The research on thermal weed control via laser first focused on the interaction of laser beams and weed plants. Due to preliminary studies, a CO2-laser was selected for further studies with regard to the process factors laser energy, laser spot area, coverage of the weeds meristem, weed species (Amaranthus retroflexus), and weed growth stage. Thereby, the laser damage was modeled in o...

  14. Yielding ability and weed suppression of potato and wheat under organic nitrogen management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delden, van A.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords: chickweed, early growth, leaf area expansion, light interception, light use efficiency, manure, mineralisation, modelling, organic farming, organic matter, soil nitrogen content , Solanum tuberosum L., specific leaf area , Stellaria media

  15. De novo transcriptome assembly analysis of weed Apera spica-venti from seven tissues and growth stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babineau, Marielle; Mahmood, Khalid; Mathiassen, Solvejg Kopp

    2017-01-01

    Background Loose silky bentgrass (Apera spica-venti) is an important weed in Europe with a recent increase in herbicide resistance cases. The lack of genetic information about this noxious weed limits its biological understanding such as growth, reproduction, genetic variation, molecular ecology ...

  16. Weeding method and pre-sowing tillage effects on weed growth and pearl millet yield in a sandy soil of the West African Sahelian zone.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaij, M.C.; Hoogmoed, W.B.

    1996-01-01

    Weed control for the West African Sahel rainfed crops is done mainly manually, resulting in high labor requirements. Because of the seasonality of rainfed farming, weed control is often late and incomplete, resulting in considerable losses in crop yield. We examined the case of weed control in

  17. INFLUENCE OF CROPPING SYSTEM AND WEED MANAGEMENT PRACTICE ON EMERGENCE, GROWTH OF WEEDS, YIELD OF MAIZE (Zea mays L. AND COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Ogar Takim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of cropping system and weed management practice on weed seedling emergence, weed biomass production and yield of maize and cowpea were examined at Ilorin, in the southern Guinea savanna (9°29' N, 4°35' E and 307 m ASL of Nigeria. Weed emergence occurred throughout the 3-15 weeks after planting (WAP. Forty-three weed species belonging to 38 genera within 20 families were encountered. Fimbristylis littoralis Gaudet, Tridax procumbens L and Eleusine indica Gaertn were the most prevalent weed species. Cropping system and weed management practice significantly affected weed emergence. Significantly (p≤0.05 lower number of weeds emerged in the intercropped and herbicide treated plots while higher weed densities and weed biomass were recorded in the uncropped and unweeded control plots than in the other plots. While aggregate crop yields were significantly higher in the intercropped than in the sole plots, component crop yields were higher under the sole cropping than in the intercrop. The implication of the results on weed management is discussed.

  18. Fish growth, yield and economics of conventional feed and weed based polyculture in ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Asadujjaman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish growth, yield and economics of polyculture were evaluated for six months from April to September, 2011 in ponds of Kushtia district, Bangladesh under 4 treatments of feeds and weeds as T0: rice bran, wheat bran and mustard oilcake; T1: Azolla; T2: Grass and T3: Banana leaf. Each treatment had 3 replications. Mean initial stocking weight of fishes like Hypophthalmichthyes molitrix, Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala, Cyprinus carpio, Ctenopharyngodon idella and Barbonymus gonionotus was 62, 64, 57, 54, 63, 65 and 25 g, respectively. Stocking density (11,115 fishes/ha, liming (250 kg/ha, basal fertilization (Cowdung, 1,500 kg/ha; urea, 60 kg/ha; and Triple Super Phosphate, TSP 60 kg/ha and periodic fertilization (Urea, 2.5 kg/ha/day; and TSP, 2.5 kg/ha/day were same for all the treatments. Water quality parameters (water temperature, transparency, dissolved oxygen, pH, alkalinity and free carbon dioxide were monitored fortnightly and fish growth parameters (weight gain and Specific Growth Rate, SGR were monitored monthly. Treatments did not vary significantly for the mean water quality parameters. Treatment T0 varied more significantly (P<0.05 for the mean final weight, weight gain, SGR, survival rate and yield for almost all the species except C. idella and B. gonionotus. Significantly highest CBR was recorded with treatment T1.

  19. Annual glyphosate treatments alter growth of unaffected bentgrass (Agrostis weeds and plant community composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin W Ahrens

    Full Text Available Herbicide resistance is becoming more common in weed ecotypes and crop species including turfgrasses, but current gaps in knowledge limit predictive ecological risk assessments and risk management plans. This project examined the effect of annual glyphosate applications on the vegetative growth and reproductive potential of two weedy bentgrasses, creeping bentgrass (CB and redtop (RT, where the glyphosate resistance (GR trait was mimicked by covering the bentgrass plants during glyphosate application. Five field plots were studied in habitats commonly inhabited by weedy bentgrasses including an agricultural hayfield, natural meadow, and wasteland. Results showed that annual glyphosate treatment improved bentgrass survivorship, vegetative growth, and reproductive potential compared with bentgrass in unsprayed subplots. In the second year of growth, RT plants had an 86-fold increase in flower number in glyphosate-treated subplots versus controls, while CB plants had a 20-fold increase. At the end of the three year study, plant community composition had changed in glyphosate-treated subplots in hayfield and meadow plots compared to controls. Soils in subplots receiving glyphosate had higher nitrate concentrations than controls. This is the first study to mimic the GR trait in bentgrass plants with the goal of quantifying bentgrass response to glyphosate selection pressure and understanding the impacts on surrounding plant communities.

  20. Effect of Aqueous Extracts from Weed Species on Germination and Initial Growth in Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisoara STRATU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents the results of a study on the effects of aqueous extracts from five weed species (Amaranthus retroflexus, Cirsium arvense, Convolvulus arvensis, Echinochloa crus-galii, Setaria verticillata on germination and initial growth in Raphanus sativus L. The following indicators have been analyzed: indices of germination (the germination percentage; the speed of germination; the speed of accumulated germination and the coefficient of germination rate, the length of the root and hypocotyls, the pH of aqueous extracts, the UV-Vis absorption spectra of aqueous extracts. The results of the investigations showed the following aspects: the aqueous extracts reduced the values of calculated germination indices and root growth in the first ontogenetic stages of the test species; the pH of the extracts was slightly acid to neutral. Qualitative spectrophotometric analysis indicated the possible presence of phenolic and organic compounds in the extracts. C. arvense, S. verticillata and E. crus-galii presented the most pronounced effect on germination and growth processes.

  1. Effects of vermicompost and nitrogen fertilizers on growth of Jimson weed (Datura stramonium L. as a medicinal plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Abbaspour

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in order to evaluate the effect of organic (3 and 6 ton/ha vermicompost and chemical (150 and 300 kg/ha nitrogen fertilizers on growth, seed dispersal and heteroblasty of jimson weed at green house of Shiraz University in 2012. The results showed that the highest and the lowest plant growth, seed production and seed dispersal was in 300 kg/ha N and 6 ton/ha vermicompost, respectively. Position of the seeds on maternal plant had an important influence on the emergence percentage. Seeds on the middle and lowest parts of the plants had less emergence percentage compared with those on the higher parts. In general, application of 300 kg/ha nitrogen accelerated the growth of jimson weed and increase dispersal and heteroblasty of the jimson seed.

  2. Meta-analysis of crop and weed growth responses to arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have long been regarded as beneficial soil microorganisms, but have been reported to have detrimental effects on several non-mycorrhizal agricultural weed species. If AMF have negative effects on weeds but neutral or positive effects on crops under certain cropping...

  3. Study of allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus erythrocorys L. crude extracts against germination and seedling growth of weeds and wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ghnaya, Asma; Hamrouni, Lamia; Amri, Ismail; Ahoues, Haifa; Hanana, Mohsen; Romane, Abderrahmane

    2016-09-01

    Allelopathic materials inside a tree can produce positive or negative change in the survival, growth, reproduction and behaviour of other organisms if they escape into the environment. To assess these effects, this work was carried out to evaluate the allelopathic impact of Eucalyptus erythrocorys L. on seed germination and seedling growth of two weeds: Sinapis arvensis L. and Phalaris canariensis L.; on one cultivated crop: Triticum durum L. Aqueous; and on ethanolic leaf extracts of E. erythrocorys L. The study was effected using four concentrations (10, 20, 25 and 30 μL/mL) while distilled water was used as a control. The results showed that the E. erythrocorys L. crude extracts had an inhibitory effect on seed germination and seedling growth of both studied weeds and wheat. The inhibition rate was increased by the increase in extract concentration. Only ethanolic extracts of E. erythrocorys L. induced a significant inhibition of seed germination of durum wheat. The effect of E. erythrocorys L. crude extracts was more severe on weeds than on durum wheat. These results indicate that the seedling growth, especially radicle elongation, was the more sensitive indicator to evaluate the effects of extracts than was the seed germination.

  4. Allelopathic effects of Sonchus oleraceus L. on the germination and seedling growth of crop and weed species

    OpenAIRE

    Gomaa,Nasr Hassan; Hassan,Mahmoud Omar; Fahmy,Gamal Mohammad; González,Luís; Hammouda,Ola; Atteya,Atteya Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of Sonchus oleraceus dry shoots on the germination and seedling growth of Trifolium alexandrinum, three weed species (Brassica nigra, Chenopodium murale and Melilotus indicus) and S. oleraceus itself. We assayed four different concentrations of the aqueous extract (w v-1): 1%, 2%, 3% and 4%. To determine whether the effects of the extract were attributable to the presence of allelopathic compounds, its osmotic potential or both, we p...

  5. Biocontrol Ability of Puccinia abrupta var. partheniicola on Different Growth Stages of Parthenium Weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMAD TAUFIK FAUZI

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A research was conducted to investigate the biological control ability of Puccinia abrupta var. partheniicola infected to parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L. at different stages of growth in a glasshouse. The study also investigated the combined effect of the infection and the competitor plant, i.e. buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L., a pasture species usually found in the weed habitat in Central Queensland. The 2 × 3 factorial experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with six replicates in each treatment. The parthenium weeds were planted with or without buffel grass. The plants were inoculated with P. abrupta var. partheniicola urediniospores either at the rosette, flowering or mature growth stage of development. As controls, an additional six non inoculated plants with and without buffel grass were planted. The results showed that P. abrupta var. partheniicola affected more on the younger plants than on the older ones. Its infection decreased the plant height. A higher reduction in plant above ground biomass was recorded because of the rust when the plants were inoculated at the rosette growth stage of development in the presence of competition. The impact of the rust was greatest on the ability of parthenium to produce seeds.

  6. Tolerance and selectivity of cereal species and cultivars to postemergence weed harrowing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jesper; Nielsen, Helle Højland; Gundersen, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    POST weed harrowing and other cultivation methods to control weeds in early crop growth stages may result in crop damage due to low selectivity between crop and weeds. Crop tolerance to cultivation plays an important role but it has not been clearly defined and analyzed. We introduce a procedure...... for analyzing crop tolerance on the basis of digital image analysis. Crop tolerance is defined as the ability of the crop to avoid yield loss from cultivation in the absence of weeds, and it has two components: resistance and recovery. Resistance is the ability of the crop to resist soil covering and recovery...... abilities to suppress weeds. The order of species' tolerance to weed harrowing was triticale > wheat > barley > oat and the differences were mainly caused by different abilities to recover from soil covering. At 25% soil covering, grain yield loss in triticale was 0.5%, in wheat 2.5%, in barley 3...

  7. [Effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on weeds growth and nitrogen uptake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qiqing; Tang, Jianjun; Chen, Xin; Chen, Jing; Yang, Ruyi; Hu, S

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the responses of different functional groups weeds to simulated nitrogen deposition (4.0 g N.m(-2).yr(-1)). Native weed species Poa annua, Lolium perenne, Avena fatua, Medicago lupulina, Trifolium repens, Plantago virginica, Veronica didyma, Echinochloa crusgalli var. mitis, Eleusine indica and Amaranthus spinosus in orchard ecosystem were used test materials, and their above-and underground biomass and nitrogen uptake were measured. The results showed that under simulated N deposition, the total biomass, shoot biomass and root biomass of all weed species tended increase, while the total biomass was differed for different functional groups of weeds. The biomass of C4 grass, legumes and C3 grass was significantly increased under N deposition, while that of C3 and C4 forbs was not significantly impacted. The root/shoot biomass ratio of Avena fatua and Plantago virginica was enhanced by N deposition, but that of Poa annu, Lolium perenne, Medicago lupulina, Trifolium repens and Amarathus spinosus was not impacted significantly. N deposition had no significant effect on plant N concentration, but significantly enhanced the N uptake of all test weed species except Amarathus spinosus, Poa annua and Veronica didyma. was suggested that the further increase of N deposition might speed up the changes of the community structure weed species due to their different responses to N deposition.

  8. Allelopathic Effect of Echinochloa colona L. and Cyperus iria L. Weed Extracts on the Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Rice and Soyabean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Chopra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to assess the allelopathic effect of Echinochloa colona L. and Cyperus iria L. in relation to the germination and primary growth of Oryza sativa L. (rice and Glycine max L. (soyabean. Effects of dichloromethane (DCM and double distilled water soluble (DDW fractions of E. colona L. and C. iria L. root and aerial part extracts reduced germination and suppressed early seedling growth of rice and soyabean. With increase in extract concentration from 1 to 100 mg/mL, a gradual decrease in seed germination and seedling length occurred. The highest growth of G. max seedling was recorded in DDW fraction of E. colona aerial part extract at 1 mg/mL concentration with 94% germination and the lowest length was found in DCM fraction of C. iria root extract at 100 mg/mL concentration with 65% germination. In O. sativa, the highest length was noted at 1 mg/mL concentration in DDW fraction of E. colona aerial part extract with 82% germination and the lowest length was found in DCM fraction of C. iria and E. colona root extracts with germination 57% and 62%, respectively, at 100 mg/mL concentration. The results suggested that these weeds had good allelopathic potential which reduces germination and plant growth.

  9. Weed competitiveness and yielding ability of aerobic rice genotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords:    Broad-sense heritability; Crop vigour; Genetic correlation; Indirect selection index; Plant erectness; Rice germplasm; Seeding rate; Vegetative growth; Weed-suppressive ability.

  10. WEED INTERFERENCE IN EGGPLANT CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIZ JUNIOR PEREIRA MARQUES

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled weed growth interferes with the growth eggplants and crop yields. To control weeds, the main weed species must be identified in crop growing areas and during weed control periods, as weed species might vary in relation to management practices. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the main weed species and determine the periods of weed interference in the eggplant cultivar Nápoli when grown under certain cultural practices, including plant staking and sprout thinning. The experiment was carried out in 2014 using a randomized complete block design, with 3 replications. The treatments consisted of 11 periods of (1 increasing weed control and (2 increasing coexistence of eggplant with weeds from the first day of transplanting (0-14, 0-28, 0-42, 0-56, 0-70, 0-84, 0-98, 0-112, 0-126, 0-140, and up do day 154. Eggplant staking and sprout thinning were performed 42 days after transplanting (DAT. Weed identification and crop yield assessments were performed to determine the Period Before Interference (PBI, Total Period of Interference Prevention (TPIP, and the Critical Period of Interference Prevention (CPIP. The major weeds found in the eggplant cultivar Nápoli were Eleusine indica, Portulaca oleracea, and Cyperus rotundus. Coexistence between the weed community and the eggplant throughout the entire crop production cycle reduced eggplant fruit yield by 78%. The PBI was 29 DAT and the TPIP was 48 DAT, resulting in 19 days of CPIP.

  11. Phytotoxic Effects of Nepeta meyeri Benth. Extracts and Essential Oil on Seed Germinations and Seedling Growths of Four Weed Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saban Kordali

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil isolated from the aerial parts of Nepeta meyeri Benth. by hydrodistilation was analysed by GC and GC-MS methods. A total 18 components were identified in the oil representing 100.0% of the oil. Main components were 4aα,7α,7aβ-nepetalactone (80.3%, 4aα,7α,7aα–nepetalactone (10.3%, trans-pulegol (3.1%, 1, 8-cineole (3.0% and β-bourbonene (2.0%. In addition, n-hexane extract of N. meyeri was analysed by using GC and GC-MS methods and 18 components were identified. Likewise, nepetalactones, 4aα,7α,7aβ-nepetalactone (83.7%, 4aα,7α,7aα–nepetalactone (3.6%, 1, 8-cineole (1.9% and α-terpinene (1.5% were the predominat compounds in the hexane extract. Three concentrations (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/mL of the essential oil and n-hexane, chloroform, acetone and methanol extracts isolated from the aerial partsand roots were tested for the herbicidal effects on the germination of the seeds of four weed species including Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L., Cirsium arvense L. and Sinapsis arvensis L. The essential oil of N. meyeri completely inhibited the germination of all weed seeds whereas the extracts showed various inhibition effects on the germination of the weed species. Herbicidal effect was increased with the increasing application concentrations of the extracts. In general, the acetone extract was found to be more effective as compared to the other extracts. All extracts also exhibited various inhibition effects on the seedling growths of the weed species. All extracts also tested for their phytotoxic effects on the weeds at greenhouse condition and the results showed that the oil and extracts caused mortality with 22.00-66.00% 48h after the treatments. These findings suggest that the essential oil and the extracts of N. meyeri have potentials for use as herbicides against those weed species.

  12. IAA Producing Enterobacter sp. I-3 as a Potent Bio-herbicide Candidate for Weed Control: A Special Reference with Lettuce Growth Inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jae-Man; Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Kang, Sang-Mo; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Development of bio-herbicides is an emerging method to weed management in agricultural field. Very few studies were conducted on identification of microbial bio-herbicides to weed control. The present study was aimed to isolate and identify the effective bio-herbicide potential bacterium from soil and assess their role on plant growth inhibition. Three-hundred and one rhizobacteria were isolated from agriculture field soil samples collected from various parts of Republic of Korea. Two bacteri...

  13. High-residue cultivation timing impact on organic no-till soybean weed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    A cereal rye cover crop mulch can suppress summer annual weeds early in the soybean growing season. However, a multi-tactic weed management approach is required when annual weed seedbanks are large or perennial weeds are present. In such situations, the weed suppression from a cereal rye mulch can b...

  14. Allelopathic effects of Sonchus oleraceus L. on the germination and seedling growth of crop and weed species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr Hassan Gomaa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of Sonchus oleraceus dry shoots on the germination and seedling growth of Trifolium alexandrinum, three weed species (Brassica nigra, Chenopodium murale and Melilotus indicus and S. oleraceus itself. We assayed four different concentrations of the aqueous extract (w v-1: 1%, 2%, 3% and 4%. To determine whether the effects of the extract were attributable to the presence of allelopathic compounds, its osmotic potential or both, we prepared concentrations of polyethylene glycol (PEG with osmotic potentials equivalent to those of the aqueous extract. All concentrations of the plant extract completely inhibited the germination and seedling growth of C. murale. The lowest concentration of the plant extract partially inhibited germination and seedling growth of B. nigra, M. indicus and S. oleraceus, whereas the higher concentrations inhibited those parameters completely. The germination of T. alexandrinum was not affected by the aqueous extract at 1% or 2%. In general, the aqueous extracts were more effective in inhibiting seed germination and seedling growth than were the PEG solutions. Phytochemical analyses revealed that phenols and alkaloids were the most abundant compounds in S. oleraceus dry matter. Our results suggest that the aqueous extract of S. oleraceus has an allelopathic effect on some weeds, and its usefulness as a bioherbicide therefore merits further study.

  15. Economical Evaluation of Faba bean (Vicia faba and Maize (Zea mays L. Intercropping Based on Total Relative Value Index and Weeds Growth Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hamzei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical control of weeds raises serious concerns about food safety and environmental quality, which have necessitated the need for non chemical weed management techniques such as intercropping. Intercropping can suppress weeds and reduce the use of herbicides in production systems. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of intercropping of faba bean and maize, as well as hand-weeding on maize grain yield and total grain yield. The experiment was carried out during growing season of 2010 as a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran. Sole cropping of maize with weed control (MWF, sole cropping of maize without weed control (MWI, intercropping of 15% faba bean+maize (M+15%F, 30% faba bean+maize (M+30%F, 45% faba bean+maize (M+45%F  and sole cropping of faba bean were the experimental treatments. Weed biomass and density were affected by treatments. With increasing faba bean density in the intercropping treatments, weed biomass and density decreased significantly from 85 plants and 310 g m-2 for MWI treatment to 22 plants and 63 g m-2 for M+45%F treatment, respectively. The greatest number of seed row per ear, seed number per ear and grain and biological yields (8033 and 17933 kg ha-1, respectively were achieved at MWF treatment and the smallest values for these attributes were revealed at MWI treatment. There was no significant difference between MWF and M+45%F treatments for total grain yield (i.e. grain yield of maize + faba bean. Sole cropping of faba bean led to the greatest yield components and grain and biological yields. With increasing faba bean density in intercropping treatments, above mentioned traits (except number of pods per plant were increased significantly. The great values for weed control efficiency (73% and total relative value (1.14 were achieved at M+45%F treatment. Results of

  16. Parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) and climate change: the effect of CO2 concentration, temperature, and water deficit on growth and reproduction of two biotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi; Bajwa, Ali Ahsan; Navie, Sheldon; O'Donnell, Chris; Adkins, Steve

    2017-04-01

    Climate change will have a considerable impact upon the processes that moderate weed invasion, in particular to that of parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.). This study evaluated the performance of two Australian biotypes of parthenium weed under a range of environmental conditions including soil moisture (100 and 50% of field capacity), atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentration (390 and 550 ppm), and temperature (35/20 and 30/15 °C/day/night). Measurements were taken upon growth, reproductive output, seed biology (fill, viability and dormancy) and soil seed longevity. Parthenium weed growth and seed output were significantly increased under the elevated CO 2 concentration (550 ppm) and in the cooler (30/15 °C) and wetter (field capacity) conditions. However, elevated CO 2 concentration could not promote growth or seed output when the plants were grown under the warmer (35/20 °C) and wetter conditions. Warm temperatures accelerated the growth of parthenium weed, producing plants with greater height biomass but with a shorter life span. Warm temperatures also affected the reproductive output by promoting both seed production and fill, and promoting seed longevity. Dryer soil conditions (50% of field capacity) also promoted the reproductive output, but did not retain high seed fill or promote seed longevity. Therefore, the rising temperatures, the increased atmospheric CO 2 concentration and the longer periods of drought predicted under climate change scenarios are likely to substantially enhance the growth and reproductive output of these two Australian parthenium weed biotypes. This may facilitate the further invasion of this noxious weed in tropical and sub-tropical natural and agro-ecosystems.

  17. Competition for soil nitrate and invasive weed resistance of three shrub-steppe growth forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eamonn D. Leonard

    2007-01-01

    Determining mechanisms responsible for weed resistance and invasion success are two issues that have potential in aiding successful land management decisions. The first experiment evaluates the competitive effects of an invasive annual grass downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.), an invasive biennial forb dyer's woad (Isatis tinctoria...

  18. Phosphate fertilizer and weed control effects on growth and yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil acidity and the associated low phosphorus availability and poor crop management practices are among the major factors constraining field pea productivity in the highlands of Ethiopia. The effect of phosphate fertilizer and weed control on yield and yield components of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) were studied on ...

  19. Precise tillage systems for enhanced non-chemical weed management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurstjens, D.A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Soil and residue manipulation can assist weed management by killing weeds mechanically, interfering in weed lifecycles, facilitating operations and enhancing crop establishment and growth. Current tillage systems often compromise these functions, resulting in heavy reliance on herbicides,

  20. Potential risk of weed outbreak by increasing biochar's application rates in slow-growth legume, lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei Khorram, Mahdi; Fatemi, Akram; Khan, Md Asaduzzaman; Kiefer, Rudolf; Jafarnia, Sasan

    2018-04-01

    Biochar amendment is a promising tool to improve the soil quality and, consequently, higher crop yield has received more attention during last decades. The positive effects of biochar have been attracting more attention especially in the areas with low precipitation rates, such as the Middle East, due to low soil organic carbon content, higher drought intensity, and increasing demands for food production. However, biochar can lead to lower herbicide efficacy, resulting in higher consumption of herbicides. In this study, the impact of two biochars on soil properties, plant growth, and fomesafen efficacy under rain-fed condition was investigated. Biochar amendment at the rate of 5 t ha -1 improved soil quality and plant growth by 40-200% and 46-57%, respectively, compared to the control. The increase of biochar application rate from 5 t ha -1 to 15 t ha -1 showed small additional positive effects on soil and lentil as the tested crop plant, whereas the growth of weeds elevated by 200% in this case. Albeit biochar application could be an effective way to improve the soil fertility, the potential risk of weed outbreak in the long term should be evaluated carefully before the use of biochar amendment at field scale. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Effects of allelopathic chemicals extracted from various plant leaves on weed control and wheat crop productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, E.A.; Khakwani, A.A.; Ghazanfarullah, A.

    2015-01-01

    A study on allelopathic effect of leaf water extracts of Eucalyptus, Acacia, Sorghum, Shishum, Sunflower, Poplar, Tobacco and Congress grass on weeds control and growth of wheat cv. Hashim-8 was conducted at Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan during 2012-2013. The findings of this study revealed that allelopathic chemicals in leaf water extracts of these plants significantly suppressed weeds growth by reducing weed density, fresh and dry weed biomass, and encouraged wheat yield and yield components such as days to 50% heading, plant height, tillers m-2, grain spike-1, 1000-gain weight, biological and grain yield. Even though minimum fresh and dry weed biomass and highest wheat grain yield and yield related components were observed in twice hand weeding treatment which is economically less feasible on large scale. However, our findings showed an alternative allelopathic technique to minimize weed infestation and boost wheat growth and yield using natural plant material. On the basis of present results, it is recommended that leaf water extracts of Sorghum, Sunflower and Congress grass can be applied twice (30 and 60 DAS) during the growing season to control weeds and to enhance wheat grain yield. (author)

  2. Growth stage of Phalaris minor Retz. and wheat determines weed control and crop tolerance of four post-emergence herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubia Rasool

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Phalaris minor Retz. has evolved multiple herbicide resistance in wheat growing areas in northwestern India. An understanding of the effect of growth stage on herbicide tolerance of wheat and control of P. minor will help in selecting the most appropriate herbicide for different situations. The weed control and crop safety of four commonly used wheat herbicides (sulfosulfuron, pinoxaden, fenoxaprop plus metribuzin and mesosulfuron plus iodosulfuron, each applied at four different wheat growth stages was investigated in field studies for two years. P. minor plants were at 1, 2-3, 3-4 and 7-8 leaf stages when the herbicides were applied at Zadok 12-Z12, Z13, Z21 and Z23 stages of wheat, respectively. Sulfosulfuron application at Z12 and Z13 wheat stages (before first irrigation, provided >80% control of P. minor and produced wheat grain yield (4.5-4.7 t/ha similar to the weed-free check (4.9 t/ha in both years. Pinoxaden, fenoxaprop plus metribuzin and mesosulfuron plus iodosulfuron application at Z12 and Z13 wheat stages recorded significantly lower wheat grain yield (3.62-3.95 t/ha due to poor weed control, crop toxicity or both. All the four herbicides were equally effective on P. minor when applied at Z21 wheat stage. At Z23 wheat stage, pinoxaden gave >90% control of P. minor and the highest wheat grain yield (4.82 t/ha. The results are expected to allow changes in the current recommendation of the timing of post-emergence herbicides for the management of P. minor in wheat.

  3. Characterisation of the weed suppressive potential of winter cereal cultivars: the role of above-ground competition versus allelopathy in wheat, triticale and rye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiss, Antje; Fomsgaard, Inge S.; Mathiassen, Solvejg Kopp

    2016-01-01

    Current weed management practices in Northern Europe are based primarily on the use of effective herbicides but an increase in the number of herbicide resistant weed phenotypes and a complete lack of new modes of action have led to an urgent need for more integrated weed management tactics. A bet...

  4. Evaluating the Competitive Ability of Different Common Bean Genotypes Against The Weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Amini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of weeds interference on yield and yield components of different genotypes of common bean, an experiment was conducted as split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications at Agricultural Research Station of Tabriz University, in 2011. The main plots were eight genotypes of different types of common bean including red bean, (cv. Gholi, Sayad, Derakhshan and Akhtar; pinto bean, (cv. Khomein and Sadri and white bean (cv. Shokufa and Pak and the sub-plots were two levels of weed including weed-free and weed-infested. Results indicated that the effect of bean genotype was significant on yield and yield components. The effect of weed treatment was significant on all traits of common bean, except 100-seeds weight. The pod number per plant of all common bean genotypes reduced significantly under weed-infested treatment. The interaction effect of weed treatment× genotype was significant on bean seed number per pod, grain and biological yield. Among the genotype, the cv. Gholi had the highest pod number per plant and the cultivars Gholi and Shokufa had the highest seed number per pod. The cultivars of Gholi and Khomein produced the highest and lowest seed yield, respectively in both weed-free and weed-infested treatment. The common bean genotype showed different competitive ability as the genotypes Gholi and Pak had the higher competitive ability against the weeds than other genotypes. Therefore by cultivating the bean genotypes with high competitive ability against the weeds, the yield loss of common bean could be reduced as well as the growth of weed species will be suppressed.

  5. Amending Subsoil with Composted Poultry Litter-II: Effects on Kentucky Bluegrass (Poa pratensis Establishment, Root Growth, and Weed Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mili Mandal

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Turfgrasses established on a soil deprived of the topsoil during construction disturbance often have low levels of density and uniformity making them susceptible to weeds. Field experiments evaluated composted poultry litter incorporation into subsoil on Kentucky bluegrass growth attributes and subsequent effects on weed populations. Top 20 cm of topsoil was removed and composted poultry litter was incorporated at 0.1, or 0.2, or 0.4 cm/cm-soil into the exposed subsoil to a depth of 12.7 cm before seeding or sodding, and was compared to N-fertilized (50 × 10−4 kg m−2 and control plots. A greenhouse experiment was also conducted to determine the effect of compost incorporation rates on turfgrass rooting depth. Turfgrass yield from seeded plots with compost incorporation rates of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 cm/cm-soil, were 200%, 300%, and 500% more, respectively, compared to control plots. Composted poultry litter incorporated at 0.1 cm/cm-soil resulted in at least 70 seedlings in 7.6 cm−2, which was sufficient to attain 100% turf cover. Higher incorporation rates in seeded plots maintained lower numbers of buckhorn plantain and red clover than untreated plots. Rooting depth also increased linearly with compost rates. Overall, compost treatments were able to maintain superior turf cover and quality compared to conventionally fertilized or control plots.

  6. Evaluation of Growth and Species Composition of Weeds in Maize-Cowpea Intercropping based on Additive Series under Organic Farming Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdollah Eskandari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Weeds are main factors reducing crops yield, especially under organic farming conditions (. It has been reported that weed populations are more in organic farming compared to conventional cropping systems, resulting in more reduction of growth and yield. Although the chemical control is a fast and effective way for controlling weed populations, some negative impacts of the recent weed management on public health and the natural environment, increased the concerns of using weed chemical compositions. Thus, non-chemical weed control is in high importance. Intercropping, an agronomical operation in which two or more crops are grown simultaneously in the same field, is one of the most important methods for increasing biodiversity in agricultural ecosystems (Amosse et al., 2013; Rostami et al., 2009; Yuan-Quan et al., 2012. Therefore, the current research was aimed to evaluate the possible non chemical controlling of weeds in a maize-cowpea intercropping system. Materials and methods A field experiment was conducted in the north of Khuzestan during the growing season 2013-2014. The experiment was based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Maize and cowpea were planted in two sole crop systems and four intercropping systems based on an additive series, including T1:100 percent maize+25 percent cowpea, T2: 100 percent maize+50 percent cowpea, T3: 100 percent maize+75 percent cowpea and T4: 100 percent maize+100 percent cowpea. No chemical materials (fertilizer and pesticide were used during growing season. Environmental usage by intercropping patterns was evaluated by measuring photosynthetically active radiations (PAR (mean of five points in each plot, selected randomly and soil moisture content at three stages. At harvest time, all plants of each plot were harvested and grouped and weighed according to their species type. Complementary effect of intercropping in using environmental resources was calculated using

  7. Morphological responses of crop and weed species of different growth forms to ultraviolet-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, P.W.; Flint, S.D.; Caldwell, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    The influence of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation (280-320 nanometers) on the morphology of 12 common dicot and monocot crop or weed species was examined to determine whether any common responses could be found that might, in turn, be useful in predicting possible changes in competitive balance under solar UV-B enhancement. Under glasshouse conditions, UV-B exposure (simulating a 20% reduction in stratospheric ozone at Logan, Utah) was found to reduce leaf blade and internode lengths and increase leaf and axillary shoot production in several species. Overall, the directions of these trends were similar in the majority of species that exhibited a significant response. These morphological changes occurred without any significant reduction in total shoot dry matter production. There was no clear distinction in the response of crops and weeds, though monocots were found to be generally more responsive than dicots. Previous work in dense canopies has shown that the photomorphogenetic effects of UV-B alter leaf placement and thereby influence competition for light. Our results suggest that, under these conditions, changes in competitive balance resulting from increased UV-B might be expected more frequently when monocots are involved in mixtures, rather than mixtures of only dicots

  8. Phytotoxicity of ethanolic extracts of fruits and leaves of Banisteriopsis oxyclada (A. Juss. B. Gates on weeds growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoni Anese

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of leaves and fruits of Banisteriopsis oxyclada on seedling growth of wild poinsettia and barnyardgrass. Crude ethanolic extract was prepared at a proportion of 100 g of dry plant matter for 500 mL of ethanol. Through this, the extracts were solubilized in buffer solution and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, at the concentrations 10.0; 7.5; 5.0; and 2.5 mg/mL. The growth of roots, shoots, and seedling root metaxylem cells were evaluated. Ethanolic extracts of leaves and fruits of B. oxyclada inhibited root growth of barnyardgrass and wild poinsettia seedlings, with a concentration-dependent effect. Decreased shoot growth was observed only in wild poinsettia seedlings. Decreased root growth in wild poinsettia seedlings may be related to decreased elongation in metaxylem cells. Banisteriopsis oxyclada shows phytotoxic properties and it may be regarded as an alternative to control the weeds under study, having natural products as a basis.

  9. INTEGRATED WEED CONTROL IN MAIZE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latré, J; Dewitte, K; Derycke, V; De Roo, B; Haesaert, G

    2015-01-01

    Integrated pest management has been implemented as a general practice by EU legislation. As weed control actually is the most important crop protection measure in maize for Western Europe, the new legislation will have its impact. The question is of course which systems can be successfully implemented in practice with respect to labour efficiency and economical parameters. During 3 successive growing seasons (2007, 2008, 2009) weed control in maize was evaluated, the main focus was put on different techniques of integrated weed control and was compared with chemical weed control. Additionally, during 4 successive growing seasons (2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014) two objects based on integrated weed control and two objects based on mechanical weed control were compared to about twenty different objects of conventional chemical weed control. One of the objects based on mechanical weed control consisted of treatment with the flex-tine harrow before and after emergence in combination with chemical weed control at a reduced rate in 3-4 leave stage. The second one consisted of broadcast mechanical treatments before and after emergence followed by a final in-row application of herbicides and an inter-row cultivation at 6-7(8) leave stage. All trials were conducted on the Experimental farm of Bottelare HoGent-UGent on a sandy loam soil. Maize was growing in 1/3 crop rotation. The effect on weed growth as well as the economic impact of the different applications was evaluated. Combining chemical and mechanical weed control is a possible option in conventional farming but the disadvantages must be taken into account. A better planned weed control based on the real present weed-population in combination with a carefully thought-out choice of herbicides should also be considered as an IPM--approach.

  10. Interaction of genotype x management on vegetative growth and weed suppression of aerobic rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, D.L.; Bastiaans, L.; Atlin, G.N.; Spiertz, J.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    Water shortage in drought-prone rice-growing areas of the world is threatening conventional irrigated rice production systems, in which rice is transplanted into fields where standing water is maintained until harvest. Aerobic rice production systems, in which rice is grown as a direct-seeded upland

  11. Suppressing magnetic island growth by resonant magnetic perturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Q.; Günter, S.; Lackner, K.

    2018-05-01

    The effect of externally applied resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) on the growth of magnetic islands is investigated based on two-fluid equations. It is found that if the local bi-normal electron fluid velocity at the resonant surface is sufficiently large, static RMPs of the same helicity and of moderate amplitude can suppress the growth of magnetic islands in high-temperature plasmas. These islands will otherwise grow, driven by an unfavorable plasma current density profile and bootstrap current perturbation. These results indicate that the error field can stabilize island growth, if the error field amplitude is not too large and the local bi-normal electron fluid velocity is not too low. They also indicate that applied rotating RMPs with an appropriate frequency can be utilized to suppress island growth in high-temperature plasmas, even for a low bi-normal electron fluid velocity. A significant change in the local equilibrium plasma current density gradient by small amplitude RMPs is found for realistic plasma parameters, which are important for the island stability and are expected to be more important for fusion reactors with low plasma resistivity.

  12. Effect of Dose and Oxadiargyl Application Time at the Different Growth Stages on Weed Biomass and Tuber Yield of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Samadi Kalkhoran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of dose and application time of oxadiargyl, as a postemergence herbicide, on weed biomass and tuber yield of potato, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with 3 replications was conducted at Alaroog Research Station at the University of Mohaghegh-Ardabili in 2013. Treatments consisted of oxadiargyl dosages (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 lit a.i /ha, and its time of applications at different potato growth stages (potato emergence, stolon initiation and potato tuber bulking, weed free treatment was considered as control. Statistical analysis showed that 0.8 lit a.i/ha of oxadiargyl reduced biomass of weed by 66.16 percent. Oxadiargyl application at emergence time resulted in highest percent reduction of weed biomass. Results, also, showed that application 0.8 lit a.i/ha of oxadiargyl, after weed free condition, increased number of seed tuber and total tuber yield by 82.16 and 51.59 percent respectively, but it reduced number of non seed tuber by 43.17 percent. Application of oxadiargyl at emergence time, as compared with the other application times, resulted in highest increase in the number of seed tuber and total tuber yield, but it did not affected number of non seed tubers. Interaction effect of dose by time of oxadiargyl application revealed that using 0.8 lit a.i/ha dose at potato emergence time increased number of edible tubers by 100%. It may be conducted that application of this dose at potato emergence time was highly efficient in controlling weeds and increasing potato tuber yield.

  13. Effects of culture conditions on the growth and reproduction of Gut Weed, Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus (Ulvales, Chlorophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapeeporn Ruangchuay

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In vitro cultivation of Gut Weed, Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus, was experimentally studied to support its near optimalfarming, with potential impact in Thailand on its direct use as human food or its co-cultures in shrimp farming.Germling clusters (2 weeks old and 7.50±2.98 mm long were seeded into 500 mL flasks and biomass growth rateoptimized with respect to the main controllable factors; seedling density, salinity, light intensity, and temperature. These factorswere assumed to each have an optimal value independent of the others, and the factors were optimized one at a time. Themaximum growth at three to four weeks of cultivation was obtained at the factor levels of 0.05 gL-1, 20 ppt, 80 mol photonm-2s-1 and 25°C. Early zoosporangia were obtained from 2nd to 4th weeks. The relative growth rate ranged from 9.47 to 22.18 %day-1, and only asexual reproduction of U. intestinalis was observed under these culture conditions.

  14. Effect of Aqueous Extracts from Weed Species on Germination and Initial Growth in Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisoara STRATU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents the results of a study on the effects of aqueous extracts from five weed species (Amaranthus retroflexus, Cirsium arvense, Convolvulus arvensis, Echinochloa crus-galii, Setaria verticillata on germination and initial growth in Raphanus sativus L. The following indicators have been analyzed: indices of germination (the germination percentage; the speed of germination; the speed of accumulated germination and the coefficient of germination rate, the length of the root and hypocotyls, the pH of aqueous extracts, the UV-Vis absorption spectra of aqueous extracts. The results of the investigations showed the following aspects: the aqueous extracts reduced the values of calculated germination indices and root growth in the first ontogenetic stages of the test species; the pH of the extracts was slightly acid to neutral. Qualitative spectrophotometric analysis indicated the possible presence of phenolic and organic compounds in the extracts. C. arvense, S. verticillata and E. crus-galii presented the most pronounced effect on germination and growth processes.

  15. Field performance and genetic makeup of RU1001161, a good quality selection from crosses between weed-suppressive indica rice and commercial U.S. southern long grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable, economically viable weed control is an ongoing challenge in U.S. rice production, particularly in light of increased resistance to herbicides in populations of Echinochloa crus-galli (barnyardgrass) and other weed species. Indica rice lines such as PI 312777 and PI 338046 have been sho...

  16. Weed supression by smother crops and selective herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino Francisco José

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a smother crop is thought to suppress weed density and to add other beneficial effects in sustainable agricultural systems. Weed suppression ought to be considered an essential component of integrated weed management. However, very little is known about the effects of green manure plants on weeds. This study evaluated the influence of three green manure species on weed suppression and selectivity of herbicides. A field experiment was designed to determine the effect of the green manure species Crotalaria juncea, Arachis pintoi and pigeon pea on the weeds Brachiaria decumbens, guineagrass and hairy beggarticks, and on the natural weed infestation in the inter rows area of an avocado orchard. The weed species were suppressed differently by each green manure species. Soil samples collected from the field experiment presented a residual effect, of at least 30 d, in suppressing weed seed bank recruitment; this residual effect was caused by the residues of the green manure present in the soil. When the green manure was incorporated into the top 5 cm of soil or left on the surface, in a greenhouse experiment, the emergence of weed seeds was significantly inhibited, depending on the species, and on the amount and depth of green manure incorporation. Greenhouse experiments indicate that pre-emergence herbicides cause lower phytotoxicity than post-emergence Arachis pintoi. Smother crops using green manure species, when well established in an area, provide additional weed control to the cropping system and are effective and valuable tools in integrated weed management.

  17. Optimization of Inter-Row Spacing and Nitrogen Rate for the Application of Vision Guided Inter-Row weeding in Organic Spring Cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melander, Bo; Green, O.; Znova, L.

    2016-01-01

    -row spacing and nitrogen rate on weed and crop growth. Results are reported from two years field experiments with spring barley and spring wheat. It was aimed to maintain a constant seed rate for all five row spacing studied (12.5, 15, 20, 25 and 30 cm), which gave a higher crop density in the rows...... with increasing row spacing. A denser intra-row crop stand would improve the suppression of surviving intra-row weeds and partly compensate for the more weed growth that wider row spacing would cause by allowing more light penetration into the crop canopy. It was found that maintaining the seed rate when...

  18. The Effect of Pre-emergence Application of some Common Herbicides on Weed Population, Vegetative Growth, Flower and Corm Characteristics of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sadrabadi Haghighi

    2016-06-01

    breaking in 03/11/2011. The flowers gathering were conducted in 03/11/2011. Sampling of weed was performed in two stages in 04/18/2011 and 05/05/2012. In the first stage adding to the collection weed, leaves of saffron are also collected and the length of them were measured. In the second phase, when corm growth was stopped, they were gather, count, weight, and divide by weight. Corms into 4 groups: 0 to 3 g, 3 to 6 g, 6 to 9 grams and 9 grams were divided up. The traits were analyzed by using software programs Mstat-c. Mean comparison carried out with Duncan test with 5% probability. Result and Discussion: The results showed that between herbicide treatments the highest number of flower (16.76 per m-2 and dry weight of stigma (75.67 mg per m-2 was belonged to Metribuzin treatment. The least flowers number (10.76 per m-2 and dry weight of stigma (13.67 mg per m-2 were observed in Etalfluorelin treatment. However there weren’t significant difference between Etalfluorelin and Trifluoralin for these traits. In the first stage of weed sampling were only narrow leaf weeds. In the second stage sampling was 7 species, 3 species of narrow-leaf and broadleaf species was 4. Most of the narrow leaf weed species were ovate goatgrass (Aegilopsgeni culata Roth.. Most broadleaf species belong to maltese star thistle (Centaurea melitensis L.. In the first stage of sampling Metribuzin and Chloridazone+ Desmedipham herbicides had the highest effect in narrow leaf weed control, respectively. Ioxynil had the least impact on this stage. In the second stage of sampling, the highest and lowest control of maltese star thistlewas observed in Chloridazone+ Desmedipham and Ioxynil respectively. Chloridazone+ Desmedipham and Metribuzin had the greatest impact onovate goatgrass and other herbicides for control of these species were not significantly different. Minimal impact on the total corm weight was observed in Metribuzin and Etalfluorelin respectively. The most reduction of corm weight was

  19. WEED SURVEYING OF PHACELIA (PHACELIA TANACETIFOLIA L.) AND EVALUATING THE EFFICIENCY OF THE WEED CONTROL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, E; Szabó, R

    2014-01-01

    The experiment was set up in an area of 9 ha that was split into 4 plots: in plot 1 the row spacing was 12 cm and the seeding rate was 10 kg; in plot 2 the row spacing was 24 cm and the seeding rate was 10 kg; in plot 3 the row spacing was 24 cm and the seeding rate was 8 kg; in plot 4 the row spacing was 12 cm and the seeding rate was 8 kg. After the weed surveying, the total weed coverage was established as follows: in plot 1 the total weed coverage was 11.34%, in plot 2 it was 12.3%, in plot 3 it was 18%, and in plot 4 the total weed coverage was 15%. Based on the weed survey, on the test area the following dicotyledon weeds belonging to the T4 Raunkiaer plant life-form category occupied the highest percentage: heal-all, black-bindweed, goosefoot. The proportion of the perennial dicotyledons: field bindweed (G3), tuberous pea (G1), white campion (H3) was negligible. In all four cases the weed control was executed using the same herbicide in the same doses and with regard to the weed species it showed the same level of efficiency. The smaller row spacing and higher seeding rate has a beneficial effect on the weed suppressing capacity of the crop, the crop's weed suppressing capacity is better and the development of the weeds becomes worse.

  20. The diversity of weed species occurring in living mulch in an apple orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Licznar-Małańczuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In a study conducted at the Research Station of the Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, weed occurrence in living mulches maintained in apple tree rows of ‘Pinova’ cv. was assessed during the first seven years after sowing. The trees were planted in spring 2004 (3.5 × 1.2 m. In the same year, living mulches: colonial bent grass, white clover and French marigold, were sown into 1 m wide tree rows. Blue fescue, the only perennial cover crop with herbicide application against dicot weeds once in the second year after sowing, was introduced in the second year after planting the trees to replace dwarf nasturtium which was sown in the year of orchard establishment. In the inter-row spaces, perennial grass was maintained. During the first seven years, variation in weeds was observed depending on living mulch. Multi-species weed infestation persisted throughout the study period only in the case of annually resown French marigold. Perennial living mulches were significantly suppressed the annual weeds. Significant suppression of Taraxacum officinale Web. was found where the soil surface was covered by perennial grass sod in more than ¾. The maintenance of blue fescue resulted in significantly lower average soil coverage by Elymus repens (L. Gould; the growth of this weed significantly contributed to the reduction of white clover sod and French marigold plants.

  1. Uncovering growth-suppressive MicroRNAs in lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xi; Sempere, Lorenzo F; Galimberti, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: MicroRNA (miRNA) expression profiles improve classification, diagnosis, and prognostic information of malignancies, including lung cancer. This study uncovered unique growth-suppressive miRNAs in lung cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: miRNA arrays were done on normal lung tissues...... and adenocarcinomas from wild-type and proteasome degradation-resistant cyclin E transgenic mice to reveal repressed miRNAs in lung cancer. Real-time and semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR as well as in situ hybridization assays validated these findings. Lung cancer cell lines were derived from each......-malignant human lung tissue bank. RESULTS: miR-34c, miR-145, and miR-142-5p were repressed in transgenic lung cancers. Findings were confirmed by real-time and semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR as well as in situ hybridization assays. Similar miRNA profiles occurred in human normal versus malignant lung...

  2. Integrating management techniques to restore sites invaded by mile-a-minute weed, Persicaria perfoliata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen C. Lake; Judith Hough-Goldstein; Vincent. D' Amico

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to suppress an invasive weed are often undertaken with the goal of facilitating the recovery of a diverse native plant community. In some cases, however, reduction in the abundance of the target weed results in an increase in other exotic weeds. Mile-a-minute weed (Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross (Polygonaceae)) is an annual vine from...

  3. Weed Control in Soybean (Glycine max)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kipkemoi, P.L.

    2002-01-01

    Weed Compete for limited growth factors with crop plants. This result in loss of crop vigour and hence reduces crop yields. A study was conducted in 1997 and 2001 to evaluate the use of herbicides and hand hoeing for weed control in soybeans. Crop establishment was by hand planting. The herbicides were applied using CP3 Knap sack sprayer calibrated to deliver a spray volume of 150l/ha. Hand weeding treatment were done as appropriate. The trial layout was randomised complete block design with four replications in both years. The tested herbicides did not satisfactorily control the weeds present at the experimental site in both years. Hand weeding on the other hand gave good control of the weeds which were reflected in high soybean yields. In these trials yields were negatively correlated with the number of weeds present. The tested herbicides alone appeared to be inadequate in controlling weeds in soybean. Compared with the weed-free treatment a single application of soil-applied or post-emergence herbicides did not control a broad spectrum of weeds and reduced soybean yields. It can also be inferred that soybean yield losses are minimised if they are kept weed free for at most 6 weeks after emergence

  4. Robotic weeding and automated weed measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, S.; Søgaard, H.T.; Jørgensen, R.N.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of decreasing herbicide usage has so far focused on reducing the herbicide dosage or replacing chemical weed control by hoeing and harrowing. The conventional weed control strategy is to apply the same dose of herbicide or the same intensity of hoeing and harrowing in the whole field. Th...... the state-of-the-art of automated weed measurement methods and the research projects concerning autonomous platform and information system for crop and weed monitoring and robotic weeding....

  5. A STUDY ON WEED CONTROL IN SOYBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. TJITROSEMITO

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Two field experiments on weed control in soybeans were carried out at BIOTROP, Bogor, Indonesia from February to June, 1989. The critical period for weed control was found to be between 20 - 40 days after planting of soybean (c. v. Wilis grown at a planting distance of 40 x 10 cm. It did not coincide with the fastest growth in terms of trifoliate leaf number. Further studies were suggested to understand the physiological growth of soybean related to weed control. Pendimethalin at 660- 1320 g a.e./ha applied one day after sowing did not cause any phytotoxic effect to soybean and had good weed control performance.

  6. Weed clearance in Hudiara Nallah by chemical weed control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhillon, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    Hudiara Nallah is a flood stream in West Punjab. It has a length of about 45km and breadth of nearly 25 metres. About 20 subsidiary drains join with the Nallah. These drains have a length of about 270km. The Nallah has a discharge capacity of 1248 cusecs. Most of the subsidiary drains start from ponds which are generally infected with Eichhornia plants. These plants enter into the subsidiary drains and finally into Hudiara Nallah. The plants float freely on the surface of water and multiply at a high rate. One plant of the weed propagates to 24 plants in a period of one month. The plants thus cover the whole drain in a few months. The weed also originates from seeds. Their heavy growth forms a mat-like surface. The weeds also choke bridges and sometimes cause damage to their structures. These obstruct the flow of water and decrease the carrying capacity of the drain. Their infestation thus causes floods and the very purpose of the drains gets lost. Thus the Nallah is heavily infested with Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth weed). Due to its fast propagation and heavy infestation it was not possible to clear the weed manually. The problem was, therefore, referred to the Chemistry Division of the Irrigation and Power Research Institute, Amritsar, by the Drainage Circle of the Irrigation Department in June 1978 when weed propagation was in full swing. A chemical treatment method of eradication was attempted

  7. Host Status of Five Weed Species and Their Effects on Pratylenchus zeae Infestation of Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordaan, E M; De Waele, D

    1988-10-01

    The host suitability of five of the most common weed species occurring in maize (Zea mays L.) fields in South Africa to Pratylenchus zeae was tested. Based on the number of nematodes per root unit, mealie crotalaria (Crotalaria sphaerocarpa) was a good host; goose grass (Eleusine indica), common pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus), and thorn apple (Datura stramonium) were moderate hosts; and khaki weed (Tagetes minuta) was a poor host. Only the root residues of khaki weed suppressed the P. zeae infestation of subsequently grown maize. When goose grass, khaki weed, and mealie crotalaria were grown in association with maize in soil infested with P. zeae, goose grass and khaki weed severely suppressed maize root development; this resulted in a low number of nematodes per maize root system and a high number of nematodes per maize root unit. Mealie crotalaria did not restrict maize root growth and did not affect nematode densities per maize root system or maize root unit. Special attention should be given to the control of mealie crotalaria, which is a good host for P. zeae, and goose grass, which, in addition to its ability to compete with maize, is also a suitable host for P. zeae.

  8. Watershed-Scale Modeling of Land-Use and Altered Environment Impacts on Aquatic Weed Growth in the Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David; Potter, Christopher; Zhang, Minghua

    2016-01-01

    model component. Plant response to the range of water quality factors, response times, and altered temperature and light regimes of the Delta have required gap-filling studies to provide model parameters. Delta-SWAT provides a tool for evaluating temporal and spatial effects of land-use and altered environments in the Delta and contributing watersheds on aquatic weed growth. Using Delta-SWAT for simulation modeling allows evaluation of historic and current conditions as well as consideration potential climate change and management practice outcomes. Delta-SWAT adds to the scientific understanding of dynamics in the Delta and enhances development of science-informed, management strategies and practices.

  9. Water relations, gas exchange and growth of dominant and suppressed shoots of Arbutus unedo L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, C; Terradas, J

    1995-06-01

    Basal shoots produced by Arbutus unedo L. after cutting at ground level vary in size and growth rate, and are classified accordingly as dominant or suppressed. The suppressed shoots eventually cease growth and die. In this study, we investigated the role of light and water in the competition among shoots of A. unedo. Dominant and suppressed shoots of A. unedo showed similar leaf water potentials and tissue water relations over the year, suggesting that water status is not responsible for the lack of flushing in suppressed shoots. Although suppressed shoots did not flush under low light, they showed many characteristics of shade-tolerant plants. Leaves of suppressed shoots had lower leaf conductance and light-saturated photosynthetic rate, and higher specific leaf area than leaves of dominant shoots. We conclude that light was the main resource determining competition among shoots and the death of suppressed shoots.

  10. Avaliação de diferentes coberturas na supressão de plantas daninhas no cerrado Evaluation of weed suppression using different crop covers under Brazilian cerrado soil conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.K. Meschede

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A definição de espécies com elevada produtividade de fitomassa para cobertura do solo é um dos fatores de sucesso do sistema plantio direto. O cultivo de solos tropicais e subtropicais, baseado em práticas de preparo com intenso revolvimento, normalmente resulta na maior incidência de plantas invasoras. Objetivou-se neste trabalho comparar diferentes tipos de cobertura vegetal quanto ao potencial de supressão das plantas invasoras em áreas do cerrado. Foram avaliados sete tipos de cobertura (milheto ADR500, milheto ADR 300, sorgo, milho, crotalária, mamona e vegetação espontânea mais a testemunha mantida no limpo (capinada. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. O sorgo apresentou maior peso de cobertura seca (11.890 kg ha-1 e, juntamente com o milheto e a crotalária, demonstrou maior capacidade de supressão das plantas invasoras, pela maior capacidade de cobertura do solo. A vegetação espontânea apresentou os menores valores de biomassa. O milho e a mamona são culturas com menor potencial de cobertura do solo. O acúmulo de biomassa pelas coberturas foi inversamente proporcional ao da biomassa das plantas invasoras.The definition of plant species with higher production for soil mulching is one of the main factors for a successful no-tillage system. The practice of soil tillage in tropical and subtropical regions based on intensive soil revolving results in decreased organic matter and increased weed incidence. Thus, the aim of this work was to compare the potential of different soil mulching to suppress weeds under no-tillage system in Brazilian cerrado areas. Thus, seven treatments were evaluated consisting of the following soil crop covers: Millet ADR 500 (Penisetum americanum L., Millet ADR300, Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L., Maize (Zea mays L., Crotalaria (Crotalaria juncea L., Castorbean plant (Ricinus communis L. and spontaneous vegetation. A randomized block experimental design with 4

  11. Herbicide on Weed Composition, Diversity and Density in Silage Corn (cv. Sc 704

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zafarian

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of plant density, planting pattern and herbicide dosage of nicosulfuron, a field experiment was arranged in a factorial split plot treatments based on RCBD with three replications in Chenaran, Khorasan Razavi, in 2010. The experimental treatments consisted of a factorial plant density (100000, 120000 and 140000 plants ha-1 in the planting pattern (single and double row as main plot and herbicide dosage of nicousulforon in four levels (0, 1, 1/5 and 2, l.ha-1 as sub-plot. Samplings were made at in five stages (37days after the emergence of corn and it was repeated once per 20 days. The results indicated reducing the weed density and dry matter of weeds in the first stage after the herbicide treatment. Moreover, it was observed a significant interaction effect between plant density with planting pattern and between planting pattern with herbicides dosages during growth season on reducing weed density and dry matter. Also results indicated that in between of this experiment's treatments, nicosulfuron herbicide reduced weed density at the beginning of growth season and double row planting pattern suppressed weed density during growing season, and resulted in lowest Jacard similarity index (Sj of weed species. Results also indicated that with increasing of plant density and herbicide dosage especially in composition of double row planting pattern, according to Shannon- Wiener index, sensitive population such as common purslane (Portulaca oleracea L., buckhorn plantain (Plantago lanceolata L., prostrate knotweed (Polygonum aviculareL., black nightshade (Solanum nigrum L. and Johnson grass (Sorghum halepens L. was reduced in during growing season. Simpson dominance index, showed that some low populated weeds such as redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L., common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L., field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L. and Canada thistle (Circum arvensis L. persisted their growth up to the end of

  12. Development and Survivorship of Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae in Different Growth Stages of Mango and Selected Weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affandi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The research objective was to quantify the development and survivorship rate of S. dorsalis in different phenological stages of mango and selected weeds. The research was conducted in the laboratory of PT. Trigatra Rajasa, Mango plantation in Ketowan, Arjasa, Situbondo, East Java, Indonesia from February to September 2015. The development and survivorship rate were done through observation of life span of S. dorsalis from egg to pupa. Analysis of Variance and Duncan Multiple Range Test (p = 0.05 with 5 replications were applied to ensure the significant differences among the treatments. The result showed that development and survivorship of Scirtothrips dorsalis were supported by mango flushes and flower as well as some weeds such as Leucania leucochepala, Ipomoea triloba, Achalypha indica, Desmanthus leptophyllus and Azadirachta indica as source of food. Achalypha indica was the most suitable host with development time (12.82 ± 0.21 days and survivorship (33 %. Weed Tridax procumbent, Momordica charantia and Mimosa pudica were unable to provide the living requirement for immature developmental stage of S. dorsalis.

  13. Exploitation of allelopathy for weed control in annual and perennial cropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, A R; Defrank, J; Barnes, J P

    1983-08-01

    A variety of crops, cultivars, and accessions have been evaluated over the past six years for superior capability to suppress weed growth. The most successful of these approaches has been to grow cover crops of rye (Secale cereale), wheat (Triticum aestivum), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), or barley (Hordeum vulgare) to a height of 40-50 cm, desiccate the crops by contact herbicides or freezing, and allow their residues to remain on the soil surface. Often, up to 95% control of important agroecosystem weed species was obtained for a 30- to 60-day period following desiccation of the cover crop. The plant residues on the soil surface exhibit numerous physical and chemical attributes that contribute to weed suppression. Physical aspects include shading and reduced soil temperatures which were similarly achieved using poplar (Populus) excelsior as a control mulch. Chemical aspects apparently include direct release of toxins, as well as production of phytotoxic microbial products. Numerous chemicals appear to work in concert or in an additive or synergistic manner to reduce weed germination and growth.

  14. Weed control in rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium spp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Sushil K; Singh, Chandra P; Singh, Kamla

    2002-12-01

    Abstract: Field investigations were carried out during 1999 and 2000 to identify effective chemical/ cultural methods of weed control in rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium spp). The treatments comprised pre-emergence applications of oxyfluorfen (0.15, 0.20 and 0.25 kg AI ha(-1)) and pendimethalin (0.50, 0.75 and 1.00kg AI ha(-1)), successive hand weeding, hoeing and mulching using spent of lemon grass (at 5 tonnes ha(-1)) 45 days after planting (DAP), three hand-weedings 30, 60 and 90 DAP, weed-free (frequent manual weeding) and weedy control. Broad-leaf weeds were more predominant than grass and sedge weeds, accounting for 85.8% weed density and 93.0% weed dry weight in 1999 and 77.2% weed density and 93.9% weed dry weight in 2000. Unrestricted weed growth significantly reduced geranium oil yield, by 61.6% and 70.6% in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Pre-emergence application of pendimethalin (0.75-1.00 kgAI ha(-1)) or oxyfluorfen (0.25 kg AI ha(-1)), successive hand-weeding, hoeing and mulching and three hand-weedings were highly effective in reducing weed density and dry weight and gave oil yield comparable to the weed-free check. Application of oxyfluorfen (0.15 or 0.20 kg AI ha(-1)) and pendimethalin (0.50 kg AI ha(-1)) were less effective in controlling the weed species in geranium. None of the herbicides impaired the quality of rose-scented geranium oil measured in terms of citronellol and geraniol content.

  15. SHIFTING WEED COMPOSITIONS AND BIOMASS PRODUCTION IN SWEET CORN FIELD TREATED WITH ORGANIC COMPOSTS AND CHEMICAL WEED CONTROLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marulak Simarmata

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research were to study the shift of weed compositions in sweet corn field treated with organic compost and chemical weed controls and to compare the effect of treatment combinations on weed growth, weed biomass and sweet corn biomass. The research was conducted in Bengkulu, Indonesia, from April to July 2014. Results showed that the number of weed species decreased after the trials from 14 to 13. There was a shift in weed compositions because 5 species of weeds did not emerge after the trials, but 4 new species were found. Chemical weed control used a herbiside mixture of atrazine and mesotrione applied during postemergence was the most effective method to control weeds, which was observed on decreased weed emergence and weed biomass down to 22.33 and 25.00 percent of control, respectively. Subsequently, biomass production of sweet corn increased up to 195.64 percent at the same trials. Biomass of weeds and sweet corn were also affected by the organic composts. Weed biomass was inhibited by treatment of composted empty fruith bunches of oil palm, whereas significantly increased of sweet corn biomass were observed in the plots of organic manure.

  16. Withaferin A Suppresses Liver Tumor Growth in a Nude Mouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of withaferin A on tumor growth and metastasis in liver in a nude mouse model. Methods: Withaferin A was injected through a portal vein to the orthotopic liver tumor in a nude mice model. Xenogen in vivo imaging system was used to monitor tumor growth and metastasis. The effect of ...

  17. Cover crop residue management for optimizing weed control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruidhof, H.M.; Bastiaans, L.; Kropff, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Although residue management seems a key factor in residue-mediated weed suppression, very few studies have systematically compared the influence of different residue management strategies on the establishment of crop and weed species. We evaluated the effect of several methods of pre-treatment and

  18. Ecologically sustainable weed management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebman, Matt; Baraibar, Bàrbara; Buckley, Yvonne; Childs, Dylan; Christensen, Svend; Cousens, Roger; Eizenberg, Hanan; Heijting, Sanne; Loddo, Donato; Merotto, Aldo; Renton, Michael; Riemens, Marleen

    2016-01-01

    Weed management is a critically important activity on both agricultural and non-agricultural lands, but it is faced with a daunting set of challenges: environmental damage caused by control practices, weed resistance to herbicides, accelerated rates of weed dispersal through global trade, and

  19. Horny Goat Weed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horny goat weed is an herb. The leaves are used to make medicine. As many as 15 horny goat weed species are known as “yin yang huo” in Chinese medicine. Horny goat weed is used for weak back and knees, ...

  20. Bergenin suppresses the growth of colorectal cancer cells by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    anticancer drugs as well as new chemotherapy adjuvants that enhance efficacy and diminish side effects of chemotherapeutic agent. In this study, bergenin showed significant inhibitory effect on the growth of HCT116 cells. Bergenin induced ROS-mediated DNA damage, which resulted in G1 phase arrest and inhibited the.

  1. Pyridine 2,4-dicarboxylic acid suppresses tomato seedling growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkostefanakis, Sotirios; Kaloudas, Dimitrios; Kalaitzis, Panagiotis

    2018-01-01

    Pyridine 2,4-dicarboxylic acid is a structural analogue of 2-oxoglutarate and is known to inhibit 2-oxoglutare-dependent dioxygenases. The effect of this inhibitor in tomato seedlings grown in MS media supplied with various concentrations of PDCA was investigated, resulting in shorter roots and hypocotyls in a dose-dependent manner. The partial inhibition of growth in roots was more drastic compared to hypocotyls and was attributed to a decrease in the elongation of root and hypocotyl cells. Concentrations of 100 and 250 μΜ of PDCA decreased hydroxyproline content in roots while only the 250 μΜ treatment reduced the hydroxyproline content in shoots. Seedlings treated with 100 μΜ PDCA exhibited enhanced growth of hypocotyl and cotyledon cells and higher hydroxyproline content resulting in cotyledons with greater surface area. However, no alterations in hypocotyl length were observed. Prolyl 4 hydroxylases (P4Hs) are involved in the O-glycosylation of AGPs and were also highly expressed during seedling growth. Moreover PDCA induced a decrease in the accumulation of HRGPs and particularly in AGPs-bound epitopes in a dose dependent-manner while more drastic reduction were observed in roots compared to shoots. In addition, bulged root epidermal cells were observed at the high concentration of 250 μΜ which is characteristic of root tissues with glycosylation defects. These results indicate that PDCA induced pleiotropic effects during seedling growth while further studies are required to better investigate the physiological significance of this 2-oxoglutarate analogue. This pharmacological approach might be used as a tool to better understand the physiological significance of HRGPs and probably P4Hs in various growth and developmental programs in plants.

  2. Pyridine 2,4-Dicarboxylic Acid Suppresses Tomato Seedling Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotirios Fragkostefanakis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyridine 2,4-dicarboxylic acid is a structural analog of 2-oxoglutarate and is known to inhibit 2-oxoglutare-dependent dioxygenases. The effect of this inhibitor in tomato seedlings grown in MS media supplied with various concentrations of PDCA was investigated, resulting in shorter roots and hypocotyls in a dose-dependent manner. The partial inhibition of growth in roots was more drastic compared to hypocotyls and was attributed to a decrease in the elongation of root and hypocotyl cells. Concentrations of 100 and 250 μM of PDCA decreased hydroxyproline content in roots while only the 250 μM treatment reduced the hydroxyproline content in shoots. Seedlings treated with 100 μM PDCA exhibited enhanced growth of hypocotyl and cotyledon cells and higher hydroxyproline content resulting in cotyledons with greater surface area. However, no alterations in hypocotyl length were observed. Prolyl 4 hydroxylases (P4Hs are involved in the O-glycosylation of AGPs and were also highly expressed during seedling growth. Moreover PDCA induced a decrease in the accumulation of HRGPs and particularly in AGPs-bound epitopes in a dose dependent-manner while more drastic reduction were observed in roots compared to shoots. In addition, bulged root epidermal cells were observed at the high concentration of 250 μM which is characteristic of root tissues with glycosylation defects. These results indicate that PDCA induced pleiotropic effects during seedling growth while further studies are required to better investigate the physiological significance of this 2-oxoglutarate analog. This pharmacological approach might be used as a tool to better understand the physiological significance of HRGPs and probably P4Hs in various growth and developmental programs in plants.

  3. Effect of Soybean and Wheat as Cover Crops on Corn Yield and Weed Control using Different Fertilizer Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dadashi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: According to the importance of corn in supplying the human food directly and indirectly, it is one of the most important plants among crops. One of the major problems in corn production systems, is competition with weeds that reduce corn yield significantly. Weeds not only reduce crop yields but also decrease the commercial quality and the feeding palatability of main crops. They enhance the soil seed bank of weeds, which may cause continuous weed infestation of field crops as well. Herbicide application is a reliable and highly effective method for weed control. However, demand for safe food products that have been produced with a minimum application of chemical inputs is increasing. Therefore, farmers interested in weed management have to rely on other control approaches. An alternative weed control method is the use of cover crops, which can suppress the growth of weeds by preventing them from light and by producing allelopathic compounds. Cover crops successfully have been integrated into conservational agriculture systems in many areas of the world. Legumes are used as cover crop because of their rapid growth, in addition their potential to provide further nitrogen,along with high ability to compete with weeds. Materials and Methods: In order to study the effect of cover crops (soybean and wheat and different fertilizers sources on yield of corn and weed control, a filed experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with three replications in 2012. Treatments included two cover crop (wheat and soybean and three fertilizer (no fertilizer, chemical fertilizer and compost..Fertilizer treatments was used according to soil analysis and requirement of corn (as a main plant. Weed-infestation and weed-free plots were used as controls. Study cultivars of corn, wheat and soybean were NS-640, Milan and Sari, respectively. Planting of corn was in June and cover crop was planted with corn simultaneously and between corn rows

  4. Accelerated development in Johnsongrass seedlings (Sorghum halepense suppresses the growth of native grasses through size-asymmetric competition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Schwinning

    Full Text Available Invasive plant species often dominate native species in competition, augmenting other potential advantages such as release from natural enemies. Resource pre-emption may be a particularly important mechanism for establishing dominance over competitors of the same functional type. We hypothesized that competitive success of an exotic grass against native grasses is mediated by establishing an early size advantage. We tested this prediction among four perennial C4 warm-season grasses: the exotic weed Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense, big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii, little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparius and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum. We predicted that a the competitive effect of Johnsongrass on target species would be proportional to their initial biomass difference, b competitive effect and response would be negatively correlated and c soil fertility would have little effect on competitive relationships. In a greenhouse, plants of the four species were grown from seed either alone or with one Johnsongrass neighbor at two fertilizer levels and periodically harvested. The first two hypotheses were supported: The seedling biomass of single plants at first harvest (50 days after seeding ranked the same way as the competitive effect of Johnsongrass on target species: Johnsongrass < big bluestem < little bluestem/switchgrass, while Johnsongrass responded more strongly to competition from Johnsongrass than from native species. At final harvest, native plants growing with Johnsongrass attained between 2-5% of their single-plant non-root biomass, while Johnsongrass growing with native species attained 89% of single-plant non-root biomass. Fertilization enhanced Johnsongrass' competitive effects on native species, but added little to the already severe competitive suppression. Accelerated early growth of Johnsongrass seedlings relative to native seedlings appeared to enable subsequent resource pre-emption. Size-asymmetric competition and resource

  5. Effect of vermicast generated from an allelopathic weed lantana (Lantana camara) on seed germination, plant growth, and yield of cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, M; Hussain, N; Gajalakshmi, S; Abbasi, S A

    2014-11-01

    In perhaps the first-ever study of its kind, the effect of vermicompost, derived solely from an allelopathic weed, on the germination, growth, and yield of a botanical species, has been carried out. In test plots, the soil was treated with the vermicompost of lantana (Lantana camara) at the rates of 5, 7.5, and 10 t ha(-1), and cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) was grown on it. The performance of these systems was compared with the systems in which the soil was fortified with inorganic fertilizers (IFs) in concentrations equivalent to those present in the respective vermicompost (VC) treatments. Additionally, a set of control was studied in which the soil was used without fortification by either VC or IF. It was seen that up to 51.5 % greater germination success occurred in the VC treatments compared to controls. VC also supported better plant growth in terms of stem diameter, shoot length, shoot mass, number of leaves, and leaf pigments. The positive impact extended up to fruit yield. In addition, vermicast application enhanced root nodule formation, reduced disease incidence, and allowed for a smaller number of stunted plants. The results indicate that allelopathic ingredients of lantana seem to have been totally eliminated during the course of its vermicomposting and that lantana vermicompost has the potential to support germination, growth, and fruit yield better than equivalent quantities of IFs.

  6. Triparanol suppresses human tumor growth in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi, Xinyu [Department of Abdominal Surgical Oncology, Lab of Abdominal Surgical Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100021 (China); Han, Xingpeng [Department of Pathology, Tianjin Chest Hospital, Tianjin 300051 (China); Zhang, Fang [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Enzymology, Yangtze Delta Region Institute of Tsinghua University, Jiaxing 314006, Zhejiang (China); He, Miao [Life Sciences School, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Zhang, Yi [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Zhi, Xiu-Yi, E-mail: xiuyizhi@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Zhao, Hong, E-mail: zhaohong9@sina.com [Department of Abdominal Surgical Oncology, Lab of Abdominal Surgical Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100021 (China)

    2012-08-31

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Demonstrate Triparanol can block proliferation in multiple cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Demonstrate Triparanol can induce apoptosis in multiple cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proved Triparanol can inhibit Hedgehog signaling in multiple cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Demonstrated Triparanol can impede tumor growth in vivo in mouse xenograft model. -- Abstract: Despite the improved contemporary multidisciplinary regimens treating cancer, majority of cancer patients still suffer from adverse effects and relapse, therefore posing a significant challenge to uncover more efficacious molecular therapeutics targeting signaling pathways central to tumorigenesis. Here, our study have demonstrated that Triparanol, a cholesterol synthesis inhibitor, can block proliferation and induce apoptosis in multiple human cancer cells including lung, breast, liver, pancreatic, prostate cancer and melanoma cells, and growth inhibition can be rescued by exogenous addition of cholesterol. Remarkably, we have proved Triparanol can significantly repress Hedgehog pathway signaling in these human cancer cells. Furthermore, study in a mouse xenograft model of human lung cancer has validated that Triparanol can impede tumor growth in vivo. We have therefore uncovered Triparanol as potential new cancer therapeutic in treating multiple types of human cancers with deregulated Hedgehog signaling.

  7. Triparanol suppresses human tumor growth in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Xinyu; Han, Xingpeng; Zhang, Fang; He, Miao; Zhang, Yi; Zhi, Xiu-Yi; Zhao, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Demonstrate Triparanol can block proliferation in multiple cancer cells. ► Demonstrate Triparanol can induce apoptosis in multiple cancer cells. ► Proved Triparanol can inhibit Hedgehog signaling in multiple cancer cells. ► Demonstrated Triparanol can impede tumor growth in vivo in mouse xenograft model. -- Abstract: Despite the improved contemporary multidisciplinary regimens treating cancer, majority of cancer patients still suffer from adverse effects and relapse, therefore posing a significant challenge to uncover more efficacious molecular therapeutics targeting signaling pathways central to tumorigenesis. Here, our study have demonstrated that Triparanol, a cholesterol synthesis inhibitor, can block proliferation and induce apoptosis in multiple human cancer cells including lung, breast, liver, pancreatic, prostate cancer and melanoma cells, and growth inhibition can be rescued by exogenous addition of cholesterol. Remarkably, we have proved Triparanol can significantly repress Hedgehog pathway signaling in these human cancer cells. Furthermore, study in a mouse xenograft model of human lung cancer has validated that Triparanol can impede tumor growth in vivo. We have therefore uncovered Triparanol as potential new cancer therapeutic in treating multiple types of human cancers with deregulated Hedgehog signaling.

  8. Allelopathic Effect of Wheat and Barley Residues on Yield and Yield Components of Cowpea (Vigna sinensis L. and Weeds Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shahbyki

    2018-02-01

    residue at a rate of 4 and 8 ton ha-1 significantly decreased weed density than non-weeding treatment. Seed number per pod, biological and grain yield of cowpea significantly increased in the soil incorporation with wheat residue at a rate of 8 ton ha-1 compared to control. Our results showed that weeding and soil incorporation with wheat residue at a rate of 8 ton ha-1 increased cowpea yield by 78.23 and 80.79% compared to no weeding treatment, respectively. Wheat is a potent source of bioactive phytotoxic compounds representing three main classes as phenolic (hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, pcoumaric, syringic and ferulic acids being most frequently reported and transferulic and trans-pcoumaric acids being the dominant acids, cyclic hydroxamic acids (a class of alkaloids and short chain fatty acids. It is reported that wheat extract compounds can interfere with basic processes of receiver plants as photosynthesis, cell division, respiration and protein synthesis and indirectly provoke other forms of stresses. Thus, these compounds can reduce weed germination and growth. Another important effect of these allelochemicals is the activation of cellular antioxidant system in response to uncontrolled production and accumulation of reactive oxygen species. The reason for increase in grain yield was the control of weeds and probably the allelopathic effects of crop water extracts promoted the wheat growth which ultimately increases grain yield. Conclusions The present study concluded that wheat phytotoxins in straw inhibited germination and seedling growth of weeds, and the inhibition was concentration-dependent. Also wheat straw added to soil increased yield and some traits of cowpea. In general, the results showed that wheat straw can reduce weed suppression and can improve characteristics of plant, moreover, decreased environment risks of chemical inputs and ensure sustainability of production in long time.

  9. Weed Interference Effects on Leaves, Internode and Harvest Index of Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein GHAMARI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of appropriate weed management strategies and efficient use of herbicides relies upon understanding weed-crop interactions. A field study was carried out to assess the effect of weed interference on leaves, internode and harvest index of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The experiment was established under a randomized complete block design with two types of weed interference treatments: plots with weeds and plots without weeds at different time intervals (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 days after crop emergence. The sigmoid Boltzmann model was used to quantify the crop traits as influenced by weed interference. Prolonged delays in weed removal reduced gradually the number of leaves of the crop. Weed interference decreased dry weight of leaves as well, so that the lowest value of it (33.49 g plant-1 was observed in full season during weed-infested treatment. Infestation of weeds affected the length of the crop internodes. While the weed interference duration increased, the length of the internodes decreased. Harvest index was also sensitive to weed competition. As the crop was kept weed-infested from the emergence for increasing periods of time, harvest index decreased to a value of 28.01%. A significant negative correlation between total biomass of weeds and dry bean traits (number of leaves, leaves dry weight, internode length and harvest index was observed. Therefore, weeds are able to adversely affect dry bean growth through constraining environmental resources and impairing leaves as the photosynthetic areas.

  10. Adensamento da beterraba no manejo de plantas daninhas Increased beet density in weed management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.B. Carvalho

    2008-03-01

    weedy and weed-free periods, respectively. The critical period of weed interference prevention was shorter for increased beet density (11 days than for 40 plants m-2 beet density (22 days. Thus, increased beet density increased beet plant capacity to suppress weeds. Thus, weed growth and time and extension of weed interference critical periods were affected. Increased beet density can be used as an efficient tool for weed management.

  11. Procyanidins Mitigate Osteoarthritis Pathogenesis by, at Least in Part, Suppressing Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Procyanidins are a family of plant metabolites that have been suggested to mitigate osteoarthritis pathogenesis in mice. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. This study aimed to determine whether procyanidins mitigate traumatic injury-induced osteoarthritis (OA disease progression, and whether procyanidins exert a chondroprotective effect by, at least in part, suppressing vascular endothelial growth factor signaling. Procyanidins (extracts from pine bark, orally administered to mice subjected to surgery for destabilization of the medial meniscus, significantly slowed OA disease progression. Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that procyanidin treatment reduced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and effectors in OA pathogenesis that are regulated by vascular endothelial growth factor. Procyanidin-suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor expression was correlated with reduced phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 in human OA primary chondrocytes. Moreover, components of procyanidins, procyanidin B2 and procyanidin B3 exerted effects similar to those of total procyanidins in mitigating the OA-related gene expression profile in the primary culture of human OA chondrocytes in the presence of vascular endothelial growth factor. Together, these findings suggest procyanidins mitigate OA pathogenesis, which is mediated, at least in part, by suppressing vascular endothelial growth factor signaling.

  12. Mechanisms of environmental chemicals that enable the cancer hallmark of evasion of growth suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahta, Rita; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Al-Temaimi, Rabeah; Amedei, Amedeo; Andrade-Vieira, Rafaela; Bay, Sarah N; Brown, Dustin G; Calaf, Gloria M; Castellino, Robert C; Cohen-Solal, Karine A; Colacci, Annamaria; Cruickshanks, Nichola; Dent, Paul; Di Fiore, Riccardo; Forte, Stefano; Goldberg, Gary S; Hamid, Roslida A; Krishnan, Harini; Laird, Dale W; Lasfar, Ahmed; Marignani, Paola A; Memeo, Lorenzo; Mondello, Chiara; Naus, Christian C; Ponce-Cusi, Richard; Raju, Jayadev; Roy, Debasish; Roy, Rabindra; Ryan, Elizabeth P; Salem, Hosni K; Scovassi, A Ivana; Singh, Neetu; Vaccari, Monica; Vento, Renza; Vondráček, Jan; Wade, Mark; Woodrick, Jordan; Bisson, William H

    2015-06-01

    As part of the Halifax Project, this review brings attention to the potential effects of environmental chemicals on important molecular and cellular regulators of the cancer hallmark of evading growth suppression. Specifically, we review the mechanisms by which cancer cells escape the growth-inhibitory signals of p53, retinoblastoma protein, transforming growth factor-beta, gap junctions and contact inhibition. We discuss the effects of selected environmental chemicals on these mechanisms of growth inhibition and cross-reference the effects of these chemicals in other classical cancer hallmarks. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Emittance growth due to noise and its suppression with the Feedback system in large hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, V.; Parkhomchuk, V.; Shiltsev, V.; Stupakov, G.

    1993-03-01

    The problem of emittance growth due to random fluctuation of the magnetic field in hadron colliders is considered. Based on a simple one-dimensional linear model, a formula for an emittance growth rate as a function of the noise spectrum is derived. Different sources of the noise are analyzed and their role is estimated for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). A theory of feedback suppression of the emittance growth is developed which predicts the residual growth of the emittance in the accelerator with a feedback system

  14. Allelopathic cover crop of rye for integrated weed control in sustainable agroecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Tabaglio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The allelopathic potential of rye (Secale cereale L. is mainly due to phytotoxic benzoxazinones, compounds that are produced and accumulated in young tissues to different degrees depending on cultivar and environmental influences. Living rye plants exude low levels of benzoxazinones, while cover crop residues can release from 12 to 20 kg ha–1. This paper summarizes the results obtained from several experiments performed in both controlled and field environments, in which rye was used as a cover crop to control summer weeds in a following maize crop. Significant differences in benzoxazinoid content were detected between rye cultivars. In controlled environments, rye mulches significantly reduced germination of some broadleaf weeds. Germination and seedling growth of Amaranthus retroflexus and Portulaca oleracea were particularly affected by the application of rye mulches, while Chenopodium album was hardly influenced and Abutilon theophrasti was advantaged by the presence of the mulch. With reference to the influence of agronomic factors on the production of benzoxazinoids, nitrogen fertilization increased the content of allelochemicals, although proportionally less than dry matter. The field trial established on no-till maize confirmed the significant weed suppressiveness of rye mulch, both for grass and broadleaf weeds. A significant positive interaction between nitrogen (N fertilization and notillage resulting in the suppression of broadleaf weeds was observed. The different behavior of the weeds in the presence of allelochemicals was explained in terms of differential uptake and translocation capabilities. The four summer weeds tested were able to grow in the presence of low amounts of benzoxazolin-2(3H-one (BOA, between 0.3 and 20 mmol g–1 fresh weight. Although there were considerable differences in their sensitivity to higher BOA concentrations, P. oleracea, A. retroflexus, and Ch. album represented a group of species with a consistent

  15. The super collider transverse feedback system for suppression of the emittance growth and beam instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, V.A.

    1993-01-01

    A super collider transverse feedback system designed to suppress injection errors, emittance growth due to external noises, and beam instabilities is considered. It is supposed that the feedback system should consist of two circuits: an injection damper operating just after injection and a super damper. To damp the emittance growth, the superdamper has to operate with the ultimate decrement close to the revolution frequency. The physics of such a feedback system and its main limitations are discussed. 9 refs.; 21 figs.; 1 tab

  16. Combining a weed traits database with a population dynamics model predicts shifts in weed communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storkey, J; Holst, N; Bøjer, O Q; Bigongiali, F; Bocci, G; Colbach, N; Dorner, Z; Riemens, M M; Sartorato, I; Sønderskov, M; Verschwele, A

    2015-04-01

    A functional approach to predicting shifts in weed floras in response to management or environmental change requires the combination of data on weed traits with analytical frameworks that capture the filtering effect of selection pressures on traits. A weed traits database (WTDB) was designed, populated and analysed, initially using data for 19 common European weeds, to begin to consolidate trait data in a single repository. The initial choice of traits was driven by the requirements of empirical models of weed population dynamics to identify correlations between traits and model parameters. These relationships were used to build a generic model, operating at the level of functional traits, to simulate the impact of increasing herbicide and fertiliser use on virtual weeds along gradients of seed weight and maximum height. The model generated 'fitness contours' (defined as population growth rates) within this trait space in different scenarios, onto which two sets of weed species, defined as common or declining in the UK, were mapped. The effect of increasing inputs on the weed flora was successfully simulated; 77% of common species were predicted to have stable or increasing populations under high fertiliser and herbicide use, in contrast with only 29% of the species that have declined. Future development of the WTDB will aim to increase the number of species covered, incorporate a wider range of traits and analyse intraspecific variability under contrasting management and environments.

  17. Natural metabolites for parasitic weed management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vurro, Maurizio; Boari, Angela; Evidente, Antonio; Andolfi, Anna; Zermane, Nadjia

    2009-05-01

    Compounds of natural origin, such as phytotoxins produced by fungi or natural amino acids, could be used in parasitic weed management strategies by interfering with the early growth stages of the parasites. These metabolites could inhibit seed germination or germ tube elongation, so preventing attachment to the host plant, or, conversely, stimulate seed germination in the absence of the host, contributing to a reduction in the parasite seed bank. Some of the fungal metabolites assayed were very active even at very low concentrations, such as some macrocyclic trichothecenes, which at 0.1 microM strongly suppressed the germination of Orobanche ramosa L. seeds. Interesting results were also obtained with some novel toxins, such as phyllostictine A, highly active in reducing germ tube elongation and seed germination both of O. ramosa and of Cuscuta campestris Yuncker. Among the amino acids tested, methionine and arginine were particularly interesting, as they were able to suppress seed germination at concentrations lower than 1 mM. Some of the fungal metabolites tested were also able to stimulate the germination of O. ramosa seeds. The major findings in this research field are described and discussed.

  18. Crustose coralline algae can suppress macroalgal growth and recruitment on Hawaiian coral reefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, M.J.A.; Dailer, M.L.; Smith, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Crustose coralline algae are important components of tropical reef communities because they promote successful settlement by corals and contribute to solidification of the reef framework. We show experimentally that crustose coralline algae are also capable of suppressing the growth and recruitment

  19. Varietal Response of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Towards the Allelopathy of Different Weeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahamdad, K.; Ijaz, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    In a laboratory trial three chickpea varieties viz, Karak-I, Karak-III and Shenghar were tested against the phytotoxicity of five weed species: Parthenium hysterophorus L., Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin., Datura alba L., Cyperus rotundus L. and Convolvulus arvensis L.in January 2013. The weed extracts were prepared at the rate of 120 g/L (w/v) after shade dry. The results indicated highly significant inhibitory effect of all the tested weed species on the chickpea varieties. The results also showed that the chickpea variety Karak-III was more susceptible to the phototoxicity of the tested weed extracts. Among the extract, C. arvensis proved much toxic in term of inhibition of germination by giving only 43.33% germination in comparison with control where 97.50% germination was recorded. On the other hand, the effect of P. australis extract was found a little stimulator by speeding the seed germination in all varieties and giving a low (2.21) mean germination time (MGT) value. From the current results it can be concluded that the infestation of C. arvensis can pollute the soil by accumulating toxic chemicals that leads to the germination failure and growth suppression in chickpea. Therefore, the prevention and removal of C. arvensis in the chickpea growing areas could be recommended. In addition, P. australis must be tested against chickpea weeds (chickpea varieties withstand against its phototoxicity), so that it can be popularized as bio herbicide in chickpea if it gave promising results in controlling chickpea weeds. (author)

  20. Interferência de plantas daninhas sobre o crescimento inicial de Coffea arabica Weed effect on the initial growth of Coffea arabica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.T. Fialho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os efeitos da interferência de plantas daninhas, em diferentes densidades de infestação, sobre o crescimento de plantas jovens de café arábica. Mudas de café, cultivar Mundo Novo, foram transplantadas, no estádio de quatro a cinco pares de folhas completamente expandidas, para vasos com capacidade de 25 dm³. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial (4 x 4; o primeiro fator foi composto por espécies de plantas daninhas (Digitaria horizontalis, Brachiaria decumbens, Brachiaria plantaginea e Mucuna aterrima, e o segundo, por densidades dessas espécies (zero, dois, quatro e seis plantas por vaso, com quatro repetições. O plantio das espécies daninhas foi realizado 60 dias após o transplantio do café (0 DAT. Nesta data e no dia do encerramento do experimento, aos 90 DAT, determinaram-se a altura, a área foliar e o diâmetro do caule da planta de café, para cálculo do incremento dessas variáveis. Aos 90 DAT, determinou-se a matéria seca da parte aérea e radicular do café e das plantas daninhas e a densidade radicular do café. Utilizando esses resultados, estimou-se a razão de massa foliar, razão de massa caulinar, razão de massa radicular, razão de área foliar e a razão sistema radicular/parte aérea das plantas de café. A espécie M. aterrima foi a que mais reduziu a taxa de crescimento, a área foliar, a matéria seca do caule e das folhas e o diâmetro do caule do café. Entre as gramíneas, B. plantaginea foi a que mais reduziu a taxa de crescimento, área foliar, diâmetro do caule e densidade radicular do café. Ocorreu relação negativa entre a densidade de plantas daninhas e as variáveis de crescimento e com a razão de massa radicular e razão sistema radicular/parte aérea.The goal of this work was to evaluate the effects of weeds on the growth of young Arabica coffee plants, at different densities of infestation

  1. Growth analysis of three species weeds Euphorbia genus = Análise de crescimento de espécies daninhas do gênero Euphorbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Teresa Ferreira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In sugarcane plantations, species of the genus Euphorbia are reported as weeds able to reduce productivity by up to 85%. Planning the correct strategies for controlling these plants requires knowledge of their biology and growth. The aim of this work therefore, was to evaluate the growth of three weed species of the genus Euphorbia occurring in sugarcane plantations. The study was carried out in a greenhouse, using a completely randomised experimental design in a scheme of lots subdivided over time, with five replications. The factors were three species of Euphorbia (E. heterophylla, E. hyssopifolia and E. hirta and 13 periods of evaluation 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 77, 84, 91 and 98 days after sowing (DAS. Each evaluation measured plant height (PH, leaf area (LA, number of leaves (NL and total dry matter (TDM. From the mean values for shoot dry matter (SDM, TDM and LA, the absolute growth rate (AGR and relative growth rate (RGR, leaf area ratio (LAR, and leaf weight ratio (LWR were calculated. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and non-linear regression. E. heterophylla displayed greater PH up to 63 DAS, from this point E. hyssopifolia obtained greater height among the species under study. E. heterophylla was noteworthy for having a greater accumulation of LA, TDM and AGR among the studied species, followed by E. hyssopifolia and E. hirta. Maximum growth in the species under evaluation was at 77 DAS. Among the species, E. heterophylla displays greater growth and development. = Nos canaviais, espécies do gênero Euphorbia são relatadas como plantas daninhas capazes de reduzir a produtividade em até 85%. Para traçar estratégias corretas de controle dessas plantas é necessário o conhecimento tanto da sua biologia quanto do seu crescimento. Assim, objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o crescimento de três espécies daninhas do gênero Euphorbia ocorrentes nos canaviais. O estudo foi realizado em casa de vegeta

  2. Host Status of Seven Weed Species and Their Effects on Ditylenchus destructor Infestation of Peanut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waele, D; Jordaan, E M; Basson, S

    1990-07-01

    The host suitability to Ditylenchus destructor of seven common weed species in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) fields in South Africa was determined. Based on the number of nematodes per root unit, white goosefoot (Chenopodium album), feathertop chloris (Chloris virgata), purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus), jimson weed (Datura stramonium), goose grass (Eleusine indica), khaki weed (Tagetes minuta), and cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) were poor hosts. Ditylenchus destructor survived on all weed species; population densities increased in peanut hulls and caused severe damage to seeds of peanut grown after weeds. Roots of purple nutsedge left in the soil suppressed populations of D. destructor and root and pod development in peanut grown after the weed. However, nematode populations in peanut hulls and seeds were not suppressed. Some weed species, especially purple nutsedge which is common in peanut fields, can be used to indicate the presence of D. destructor in the absence of peanut.

  3. miR-137 suppresses tumor growth of malignant melanoma by targeting aurora kinase A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Xiao; Zhang, Haiping [Department of Dermatology and Venereal Disease, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Lian, Shi [Department of Dermatology and Venereal Disease, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069 (China); Zhu, Wei, E-mail: zhuwei_2020@163.com [Department of Dermatology and Venereal Disease, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China)

    2016-07-01

    As an oncogene, aurora kinase A (AURKA) is overexpressed in various types of human cancers. However, the expression and roles of AURKA in malignant melanoma are largely unknown. In this study, a miR-137-AURKA axis was revealed to regulate melanoma growth. We found a significant increase in levels of AURKA in melanoma. Both genetic knockdown and pharmacologic inhibition of AURKA decreased tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Further found that miR-137 reduced AURKA expression through interaction with its 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) and that miR-137 was negatively correlated with AURKA expression in melanoma specimens. Overexpression of miR-137 decreased cell proliferation and colony formation in vitro. Notably, re-expression of AURKA significantly rescued miR-137-mediated suppression of cell growth and clonality. In summary, these results reveal that miR-137 functions as a tumor suppressor by targeting AURKA, providing new insights into investigation of therapeutic strategies against malignant melanoma. -- Highlights: •First reported overexpression of AURKA in melanoma. •Targeting AURKA inhibits melanoma growth in vitro and in vivo. •Further found miR-137 suppressed cell growth by binding to AURKA 3′UTR. •Re-expression of AURKA rescued miR-137-mediated suppression. •miR-137-AURKA axis may be potential therapeutic targets of melanoma.

  4. Exogenous regucalcin suppresses the growth of human liver cancer HepG2 cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masayoshi; Murata, Tomiyasu

    2018-04-05

    Regucalcin, which its gene is localized on the X chromosome, plays a pivotal role as a suppressor protein in signal transduction in various types of cells and tissues. Regucalcin gene expression has been demonstrated to be suppressed in various tumor tissues of animal and human subjects, suggesting a potential role of regucalcin in carcinogenesis. Regucalcin, which is produced from the tissues including liver, is found to be present in the serum of human subjects and animals. This study was undertaken to determine the effects of exogenous regucalcin on the proliferation in cloned human hepatoma HepG2 cells in vitro. Proliferation of HepG2 cells was suppressed after culture with addition of regucalcin (0.01 – 10 nM) into culture medium. Exogenous regucalcin did not reveal apoptotic cell death in HepG2 cells in vitro. Suppressive effects of regucalcin on cell proliferation were not enhanced in the presence of various signaling inhibitors including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Bay K 8644, PD98059, staurosporine, worthomannin, 5,6-dichloro-1-β-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB) or gemcitabine, which were found to suppress the proliferation. In addition, exogenous regucalcin suppressed the formation of colonies of cultured hepatoma cells in vitro. These findings demonstrated that exogenous regucalcin exhibits a suppressive effect on the growth of human hepatoma HepG2 cells, proposing a strategy with the gene therapy for cancer treatment.

  5. Curcumin suppresses growth of mesothelioma cells in vitro and in vivo, in part, by stimulating apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Rishi, Arun K; Wu, Wenjuan; Polin, Lisa; Sharma, Sunita; Levi, Edi; Albelda, Steven; Pass, Harvey I; Wali, Anil

    2011-11-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive, asbestos-related malignancy of the thoracic pleura. Although, platinum-based agents are the first line of therapy, there is an urgent need for second-line therapies to treat the drug-resistant MPM. Cell cycle as well as apoptosis pathways are frequently altered in MPM and thus remain attractive targets for intervention strategies. Curcumin, the major component in the spice turmeric, alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutics has been under investigation for a number of cancers. In this study, we investigated the biological and molecular responses of MPM cells to curcumin treatments and the mechanisms involved. Flow-cytometric analyses coupled with western immunoblotting and gene-array analyses were conducted to determine mechanisms of curcumin-dependent growth suppression of human (H2373, H2452, H2461, and H226) and murine (AB12) MPM cells. Curcumin inhibited MPM cell growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner while pretreatment of MPM cells with curcumin enhanced cisplatin efficacy. Curcumin activated the stress-activated p38 kinase, caspases 9 and 3, caused elevated levels of proapoptotic proteins Bax, stimulated PARP cleavage, and apoptosis. In addition, curcumin treatments stimulated expression of novel transducers of cell growth suppression such as CARP-1, XAF1, and SULF1 proteins. Oral administration of curcumin inhibited growth of murine MPM cell-derived tumors in vivo in part by stimulating apoptosis. Thus, curcumin targets cell cycle and promotes apoptosis to suppress MPM growth in vitro and in vivo. Our studies provide a proof-of-principle rationale for further in-depth analysis of MPM growth suppression mechanisms and their future exploitation in effective management of resistant MPM.

  6. Weed infestation of onion in soil reduced cultivation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Błażej-Woźniak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted in the years 1998-2000 in GD Felin. The influence of no-tillage cultivation and conventional tillage with spring ploughing on weed infestation of onion was compared. In experiment four cover crop mulches (Sinapis alba L., Vicia sativa L., Phacelia tanacetifolia B., Avena sativa L. were applied. From annual weeds in weed infestation of onion in great number Matricaria chamomilla L., and Senecio vulgaris L. stepped out. and from perennial - Agropyron repens (L.P.B. Reduced soil cultivation system (no-tillage caused the significant growth of primary weed infestation of onion in comparison with conventional tillage. In all years of investigations the executed pre-sowing ploughing limited significantly the annual weeds' number in primary weed infestation. The applied mulches from cover plants limited in considerable degree the number of primary weed infestation. In all years of investigations the most weeds stepped out on control object. Among investigated cover crop mulches Vicia sativa L. and Avena sativa L. had a profitable effect on decrease of onion`s primary weed infestation. Soil cultivation system and cover crop mulches had no signi ficant residual influence on the secondary weed infestation of onion.

  7. Effect of Cover Crops on Vertical Distribution of Leaf Area and Dry Matter of Soybean (Glycine max L. in Competition with Weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyyedeh samaneh hashemi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Amount and vertical distribution of leaf area are essential for estimating interception and utilization of solar radiation of crop canopies and, consequently dry matter accumulation (Valentinuz & Tollenaar, 2006. Vertical distribution of leaf area is leaf areas per horizontal layers, based on height (Boedhram et al., 2001. Above-ground biomass is one of the central traits in functional plant ecology and growth analysis. It is a key parameter in many allometric relationships (Niklas & Enquist, 2002. The vertical biomass distribution is considered to be the main determinant of competitive strength in plant species. The presence of weeds intensifies competition for light, with the effect being determined by plant height, position of the branches, and location of the maximum leaf area. So, this experiment was conducted to study the vertical distribution of leaf area and dry matter of soybean canopy in competition with weeds and cover crops. Materials and methods This experiment was performed based on complete randomized block design with 3 replications in center of Agriculture of Joybar in 2013. Soybean was considered as main crop and soybean and Persian clover (Trifolium resupinatum L., fenugreek (Trigonella foenum–graecum L., chickling pea (Lathyrus sativus L. and winter vetch (Vicia sativa L. were the cover crops. Treatments were included cover crops (Persian clover, fenugreek, chickling pea and winter vetch and cover crop planting times (simultaneous planting of soybean with cover crops and planting cover crops three weeks after planting of soybeans and also monoculture of soybeans both in weedy and weed free conditions were considered as controls. Soybean planted in 50 cm row spacing with 5 cm between plants in the same row. Each plot was included 5 rows soybeans. Cover crop inter-seeded simultaneously in the main crop. Crops were planted on 19 May 2013 for simultaneous planting of soybean. The dominant weed species were green

  8. The effect of species, planting date, and management of cover crops on weed community in hybrid sunflower (Helianthus annuus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bolandi Amoughein

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Studies showed that if mixed populations of annual weeds grow with the sunflower, for every 10% increase in weed biomass, seed yield would decrease by 13% (Van Gessel & Renner, 2000. In addition to control weeds using herbicides multi-stage spraying is required. In organic farming systems mulch is used to control weeds, protection, fertility and improve soil quality (Glab & Kulig, 2008; Kuchaki et al., 2001. Surface mulches from cover crops suppress weed growth by reducing light levels at the soil surface, thereby slowing photosynthesis. In return, these conditions reduce seed germination and act as a physical barrier to seedling emergence and growth (Teasdale et al., 2007. Materials and Methods: The experiment was carried out in Ardabil Agricultural Research Station, as a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications during 1390-1391. The first factor was considered four types of cover crops including winter rye (Secale cereal, spring barley (Hordeum vulgare, winter wheat (Triticum aestivum and control (no cover crop, no weeding.The second factor was mulch management at two levels (living mulch and dead mulch and the third factor was two planting dates for cover crops (synchronous with sunflower planting and 45 days after sunflower planting. Sunflower seeding performed manually on 23 May on the ridges with 50 cm row distance and spacing between plants was 25 cm in depth of 5 cm. Cover crops seeds, rye, barley and wheat, were planted between rows of sunflower. Due to the low density of weeds in study field, complete weeding and sampling of weeds in one session was performed (60 days after planting date sunflower. Statistical analysis of data performed using SAS software and mean comparison performed using Duncan's test with probability level of 5% and 1%. Diagrams drawn using Excel (Version 8.2. Results and Discussion\t: Density and dry weight of Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L

  9. Weed control technology for environmentally, economically and socially sustainable agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Srivastava, R.C.; Ghorai, A.K.; Singh, S.R.

    2001-04-01

    Studies were conducted through a series of experiments for five consecutive wet seasons with a variety of alternative biological weed control techniques by means of soil solarization. This is a method of heating soil surface by using transparent polyethylene sheets placed on soil surface to trap solar radiation. This raises soil temperature to a level lethal for many soil borne pathogens and weed seeds, thus killing weeds before crop emergence. The use of black low density polyethylene sheets reduces weed growth and increases rice yield

  10. Weed control technology for environmentally, economically and socially sustainable agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A R [Directorate of Water Management Research, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Walmi Complex, Phulwari Sharif, Patna, Bihar (India); [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Srivastava, R C [Water Technology Centre for Eastern Region (ICAR), Bhubaneswar (India); Ghorai, A K [CRIJAF (ICAR), Barrackpore, West Bengal (India); Singh, S R [Directorate of Water Management Research, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Walmi Complex, Phulwari Sharif, Patna, Bihar (India)

    2001-04-01

    Studies were conducted through a series of experiments for five consecutive wet seasons with a variety of alternative biological weed control techniques by means of soil solarization. This is a method of heating soil surface by using transparent polyethylene sheets placed on soil surface to trap solar radiation. This raises soil temperature to a level lethal for many soil borne pathogens and weed seeds, thus killing weeds before crop emergence. The use of black low density polyethylene sheets reduces weed growth and increases rice yield.

  11. Ecologically sustainable weed management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebman, Matt; Baraibar, Bàrbara; Buckley, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Weed management is a critically important activity on both agricultural and non-agricultural lands, but it is faced with a daunting set of challenges: environmental damage caused by control practices, weed resistance to herbicides, accelerated rates of weed dispersal through global trade, and gre......Weed management is a critically important activity on both agricultural and non-agricultural lands, but it is faced with a daunting set of challenges: environmental damage caused by control practices, weed resistance to herbicides, accelerated rates of weed dispersal through global trade...... to influence learning, decision-making, and actions by farmers and land managers. We offer examples of how these impediments are being addressed in different parts of the world, but note that there is no clear formula for determining which sets of policies, market mechanisms, and educational activities...... will be effective in various locations. Implementing new approaches for weed management will require multidisciplinary teams comprised of scientists, engineers, economists, sociologists, educators, farmers, land managers, industry personnel, policy makers, and others willing to focus on weeds within whole farming...

  12. Weed detection using unmanned aircraft vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pflanz, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to agricultural remote sensing technologies, which are based on images from satellites or manned aircrafts, photogrammetry at low altitude from unmanned aircraft vehicles lead to higher spatial resolution, real-time processing and lower costs. Moreover multicopter aircrafts are suitable vehicles to perform precise path or stationary flights. In terms of vegetation photogrammetry this minimises motion blur and provide better image overlapping for stitching and mapping procedures. Through improved image analyses and through the recent increase in the availability of powerful batteries, microcontrollers and multispectral cameras, it can be expected in future that spatial mapping of weeds from low altitudes will be promoted. A small unmanned aircraft vehicle with a modified RGB camera was tested taking images from agricultural fields. A microcopter with six rotors was applied. The hexacopter in particular is GPS controlled and operates within predefined areas at given altitudes (from 5 to 10 m. Different scenarios of photogrammetrically weed detection have been carried out regarding to variable altitude, image resolution, weed and crop growth stages. First experiences with microcopter showed a high potential for site-specific weed control. Images analyses with regards to recognition of weed patches can be used to adapt herbicide applications to varying weed occurrence across a field.

  13. Effect Of Weed On Oil Palm Inflorenscence Production: Implication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Weed consistently depressed the performance of oil palm and this depressive effect was attributed to aggressive growth resources, smothering of the oil palm and preventing the palm from proper ventilation and solar radiation. Weed interference on inflorescence production of oil palm was assessed with the view of ...

  14. Weed Diversity Affects Soybean and Maize Yield in a Long Term Experiment in Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Rosana; Lima, Mauricio; Davis, Adam S; Gonzalez-Andujar, Jose L

    2017-01-01

    Managing production environments in ways that promote weed community diversity may enhance both crop production and the development of a more sustainable agriculture. This study analyzed data of productivity of maize (corn) and soybean in plots in the Main Cropping System Experiment (MCSE) at the W. K. Kellogg Biological Station Long-Term Ecological Research (KBS-LTER) in Michigan, USA, from 1996 to 2011. We used models derived from population ecology to explore how weed diversity, temperature, and precipitation interact with crop yields. Using three types of models that considered internal and external (climate and weeds) factors, with additive or non-linear variants, we found that changes in weed diversity were associated with changes in rates of crop yield increase over time for both maize and soybeans. The intrinsic capacity for soybean yield increase in response to the environment was greater under more diverse weed communities. Soybean production risks were greatest in the least weed diverse systems, in which each weed species lost was associated with progressively greater crop yield losses. Managing for weed community diversity, while suppressing dominant, highly competitive weeds, may be a helpful strategy for supporting long term increases in soybean productivity. In maize, there was a negative and non-additive response of yields to the interaction between weed diversity and minimum air temperatures. When cold temperatures constrained potential maize productivity through limited resources, negative interactions with weed diversity became more pronounced. We suggest that: (1) maize was less competitive in cold years allowing higher weed diversity and the dominance of some weed species; or (2) that cold years resulted in increased weed richness and prevalence of competitive weeds, thus reducing crop yields. Therefore, we propose to control dominant weed species especially in the years of low yield and extreme minimum temperatures to improve maize yields

  15. Virus-like particles suppress growth of the red-tide-forming marine dinoflagellate Gymnodinium mikimotoi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onji, Masashi; Nakano, Shin-ichi; Suzuki, Satoru

    2003-01-01

    We isolated 2 virus-like agents that suppressed growth of Gymnodinium mikimotoi from coastal waters of the Uwa Sea, Japan. The agents found in the flagellate cells, named GM6 and GM7, were filterable in a 0.22-microm-pore filter with approximately 100-nm shapes. Electron microscopic observation showed the presence of virus-like particles in severely damaged G. mikimotoi cells infected by GM6. The growth-suppression activity of the agents (GM6 or GM7) was lost by heating at 50 degrees C, with treatments of DNase and protease, and filtration through a 0.05-microm filter. Our results suggest that the agents are DNA viruses infectious to and virulent for G. mikimotoi. This is the first report of a virus-like agent specific to G. mikimotoi.

  16. Effect of spatial arrangement and density on weed infestation and yield of maize (zea mays l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, M.; Huang, Z.; Huang, H.; Wei, S.

    2016-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted during summer season 2012 and consequently repeated in 2013 to assess the efficacy of row and plant spacing on weed infestation and yield of maize crop. The experiments were carried out in Randomized Complete Block (RCB) design with split plot arrangements. Three row spacings i.e. 60, 75 and 90 cm were assigned to main plots while different plant spacings i.e. 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 cm were allotted to subplots, respectively. The results showed that for both the years narrow row and plant spacing effectively suppressed weeds while wider row and plant spacing resulted in higher weed density. The data showed that the maximum weed density (202.07 and 218.70 m-2) was recorded in 90 cm row spacing in 2012 and 2013, respectively. However, among plant spacing highest weed density of 214.89 m-2 and 219.83 m-2 was recorded in 30 cm plant spacing during 2012 and 2013, respectively. The data regarding biological yield showed maximum biological yield in 60 cm row spacing while among plant spacing the highest biological yield was resulted in narrow plant spacing of 10 cm during both years. Furthermore, highest grain yield of 4928.9 kg ha-1 in 2012 and 5063.9 kg ha-1 in 2013 was recorded in 75 cm row spacing while lowest grain yield of 3026 kg ha-1 in 2012 and 3989 kg ha-1 in 2013 was observed for 90 cm row spacing. Among plant spacing highest grain yield of 4474.8 kg ha-1 and 5228.5 kg ha-1 was recorded in 15 cm plant spacing whereas lowest grain yield of 3554 kg ha-1 and 4010.6 kg ha-1 was observed for 30 cm row spacing in 2012 and 2013, respectively. The regression analysis also showed highest grain yield form 15-20 cm plant spacing during both years. Similarly the correlation data showed that with increase in weed density the grain yield decreases accordingly. The two years of research showed that narrow spacing (15-20 x 75 cm) enhanced the competitive ability of maize crop and suppressed weed growth. (author)

  17. Complete suppression of in vivo growth of human leukemia cells by specific immunotoxins: nude mouse models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, H.; Seon, B.K.

    1987-01-01

    In this study, immunotoxins containing monoclonal anti-human T-cell leukemia antibodies are shown to be capable of completely suppressing the tumor growth of human T-cell leukemia cells in vivo without any overt undersirable toxicity. These immunotoxins were prepared by conjugating ricin A chain (RA) with our monoclonal antibodies, SN1 and SN2, directed specifically to the human T-cell leukemia cell surface antigens TALLA and GP37, respectively. The authors have shown that these monoclonal antibodies are highly specific for human T-cell leukemia cells and do not react with various normal cells including normal T and B cells, thymocytes, and bone marrow cells. Ascitic and solid human T-cell leukemia cell tumors were generated in nude mice. The ascitic tumor was generated by transplanting Ichikawa cells (a human T-cell leukemia cell) i.p. into nude mice, whereas the solid tumor was generated by transplanting s.c. MOLT-4 cells (a human T-cell leukemia cell line) and x-irradiated human fibrosarcoma cells into x-irradiated nude mice. To investigate the efficacy of specific immunotoxins in suppression the in vivo growth of the ascitic tumor, they divided 40 nude mice that were injected with Ichikawa cells into four groups. None of the mice in group 4 that were treated with SN1-RA and SN2-RA showed any signs of a tumor or undesirable toxic effects for the 20 weeks that they were followed after the transplantation. Treatment with SN1-RA plus SN2-RA completely suppressed solid tumor growth in 4 of 10 nude mice carrying solid tumors and partially suppressed the tumor growth in the remaining 6 nude mice. These results strongly suggest that SN1-RA and SN2-RA may be useful for clinical treatment

  18. Locoregional injection of F-18 radiopharmaceuticals suppresses tumor xenograft growth in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, C -L [The Univ. of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Texas (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The energetic positrons (0.633 Mev) from F-18 dissipate kinetic energies before annihilation to produce two 0.511 Mev photons which also contribute to the radiation absorbed dose to the surroundings. In living organism, the contribution from the positron itself to the surrounding tissues (up to 2 mm) is larger than from the 2 photons. Apoptosis has been reported in rat tumors after systemic injection of F-18 FDG although no growth retardation was noted. This study is designed to exploit the pharmacokinetic advantages of locoregional injection of positron emitters in the suppression of tumor growth in rats. Methods: Groups of Fisher 344 adult female rats were inoculated with rat mammary tumors (100,000 cells) intramuscularly (IM) in the thigh. Locoregional injection with F-18 NaF or F-18 FDG was accomplished in days 3 or 7 with single doses of increasing strengths (0.2 to 3 mCi). Tumor growth rates were noted and compared to control (sham injection with saline). The locoregional distribution and clearance of F-18 were estimated from serial tomograms using a Concord MicroPET (R4) after intramuscular injection of 0.1-0.2 mCi of F-18 NaF or F-18 FDG in groups of triplicate rats. Results: A dose-related pattern of tumor suppression is noted with F-18 FDG, whether treatment occurs in day 3 or 7 after inoculation. Additional experiment of injection of 5 mci of F-18 FDG at day 14 also suppressed the growth of a well-formed tumor. Tumor suppression by F-18 NaF is less obvious and only occurs with high dose (2 mCi). MicroPET images demonstrate that F-18 FDG is retained in the injection site while F-18 NaF dissipates rapidly. Conclusion: Locoregional injection of positron-emitters may be sufficient to suppress tumor growth. The mechanism is likely related to the pharmacokinetic profile of the compound within the tissue. Discussion: Locoregional application of radionuclides may provide feasible alternatives to slow tumor growth or prevent tumor recurrence. The use of

  19. Weed ecology and population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    A global rise in herbicide resistant weed genotypes, coupled with a growing demand for food produced with minimal external synthetic inputs, is driving producer interest in reducing reliance on herbicides for weed management. An improved understanding of weed ecology can support the design of weed s...

  20. Competição entre feijoeiros e plantas daninhas em função do tipo de crescimento dos cultivares Competition between the common bean and weed in function of cultivar growth type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.R. Teixeira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a capacidade competitiva de genótipos de feijão de diferentes tipos de crescimento sob presença e ausência de comunidade infestante de plantas daninhas, em duas safras de cultivo ("águas'' de 2006/07 e "seca'' de 2007. Foi utilizado o delineamento de blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 3 x 2, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de três cultivares de feijão com diferentes tipos de crescimento (Pérola: tipo III/II; Aporé: tipo III; e BRS Radiante: tipo I, em combinação com dois tipos de manejo de plantas daninhas: área capinada manualmente e área não capinada. Conclui-se que no cerrado brasileiro, na safra das "águas'', os problemas da cultura do feijão com as plantas daninhas foram agravados, especialmente com Brachiaria ssp., Cenchrus echinatus, Digitaria horizontalis e Eleusine indica. Os cultivares de feijão com hábitos de crescimento semiereto (Pérola e prostrado (Aporé foram mais competitivos com a comunidade infestante de plantas daninhas.This work aimed to evaluate the competitive capacity of common bean cultivars of different growth types under the presence and absence of weed species communities during two crop seasons(rainy 2006/2007 and dry 2007. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design, in a factorial scheme with four replications. The treatments consisted of three bean cultivars with different types of growth ("Pérola'': type III/II, "Aporé'': type III and "BRS Radiante'': type I in combination with two types of management of weed species: cultivated with and without weed. It was concluded that in the "cerrado'' during the rainy season, the problems of the common bean with the weed species aggravated, especially in relation to Brachiaria ssp., Cenchrus echinatus, Digitaria horizontalis and Eleusine indica. The common bean genotypes with semi-erect ("Pérola'' and prostrated ("Aporé' growth habits were more competitive against

  1. Impact of the timing and duration of weed control on the establishment of a rubber tree plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzo, Caio D; Carvalho, Leonardo B de; Giancotti, Paulo R F; Alves, Pedro L C A; Gonçalves, Elaine C P; Martins, José V F

    2014-03-01

    Rubber tree production is reduced by weeds that compete for environmental resources; therefore, the timing and duration of weed control influences weed interference. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the growth of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) plants, to determine the critical period for weed control, and to evaluate the growth recovery of rubber trees that coexisted with weeds for different periods of time after planting. Two groups of treatments were established under field conditions in the first year of the investigation: one group contained crescent periods of weed infestation, while the other contained crescent periods of weed control, also including a weed-free check and a total weedy check. In the second year of the investigation, the weeds were totally controlled. Urochloa decumbens was the dominant weed (over 90% groundcover). Crop growth was greatly reduced due to the weed interference. Plant height decreased more rapidly than did any other characteristic. Plant height, leaf dry mass, and leaf area decreased by 99%, 97% and 96%, respectively, and were the most reduced characteristics. Plant height also recovered more rapidly than did any characteristic when the period of weed control was lengthened. However, stem dry mass increased by 750%, making it the most recovered characteristic. The critical period for weed control was between 4 and 9½ months after planting in the first year; however, the rubber trees showed an expressive growth recovery when the weeds were controlled throughout the second year.

  2. Rapamycin delays growth of Wnt-1 tumors in spite of suppression of host immunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svirshchevskaya, Elena V; Mariotti, Jacopo; Wright, Mollie H; Viskova, Natalia Y; Telford, William; Fowler, Daniel H; Varticovski, Lyuba

    2008-01-01

    Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR), is an immunosuppressive agent that has anti-proliferative effects on some tumors. However, the role of Rapamycin-induced immune suppression on tumor progression has not been examined. We developed a transplantation model for generation of mammary tumors in syngeneic recipients that can be used to address the role of the immune system on tumor progression. We examined the effect of Rapamycin on the immune system and growth of MMTV-driven Wnt-1 mammary tumors which were transplanted into irradiated and bone marrow-reconstituted, or naïve mice. Rapamycin induced severe immunosuppression and significantly delayed the growth of Wnt-1 tumors. T cell depletion in spleen and thymus and reduction in T cell cytokine secretion were evident within 7 days of therapy. By day 20, splenic but not thymic T cell counts, and cytokine secretion recovered. We determined whether adoptive T cell therapy enhances the anti-cancer effect using ex vivo generated Rapamycin-resistant T cells. However, T cell transfer during Rapamycin therapy did not improve the outcome relative to drug therapy alone. Thus, we could not confirm that suppression of T cell immunity contributes to tumor growth in this model. Consistent with suppression of the mTOR pathway, decreased 4E-BP1, p70 S6-kinase, and S6 protein phosphorylation correlated with a decrease in Wnt-1 tumor cell proliferation. Rapamycin has a direct anti-tumor effect on Wnt-1 breast cancer in vivo that involves inhibition of the mTOR pathway at doses that also suppress host immune responses

  3. Inhibition of BRD4 suppresses tumor growth and enhances iodine uptake in thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Xuemei [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Department of Urology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Wu, Xinchao [Department of Urology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Zhang, Xiao; Hua, Wenjuan; Zhang, Yajing [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Maimaiti, Yusufu [Department of Thyroid and Breast Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Gao, Zairong, E-mail: gaobonn@163.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Zhang, Yongxue [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China); Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Wuhan 430022, Hubei Province (China)

    2016-01-15

    Thyroid cancer is a common malignancy of the endocrine system. Although radioiodine {sup 131}I treatment on differentiated thyroid cancer is widely used, many patients still fail to benefit from {sup 131}I therapy. Therefore, exploration of novel targeted therapies to suppress tumor growth and improve radioiodine uptake remains necessary. Bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) is an important member of the bromodomain and extra terminal domain family that influences transcription of downstream genes by binding to acetylated histones. In the present study, we found that BRD4 was up-regulated in thyroid cancer tissues and cell lines. Inhibition of BRD4 in thyroid cancer cells by JQ1 resulted in cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and enhanced {sup 131}I uptake in vitro and suppressed tumor growth in vivo. Moreover, JQ1 treatment suppressed C-MYC but enhanced NIS expression. We further demonstrated that BRD4 was enriched in the promoter region of C-MYC, which could be markedly blocked by JQ1 treatment. In conclusion, our findings revealed that the aberrant expression of BRD4 in thyroid cancer is possibly involved in tumor progression, and JQ1 is potentially an effective chemotherapeutic agent against human thyroid cancer. - Highlights: • BRD4 is upregulated in thyroid cancer tissues and cell lines. • Inhibition of BRD4 induced cell cycle arrest and enhanced radioiodine uptake in vitro and impaired tumor growth in vivo. • JQ1 suppressed the expression of C-MYC and promoted the expression of NIS and P21. • JQ1 attenuated the recruitment of BRD4 to MYC promoter in thyroid cancer.

  4. Inhibition of BRD4 suppresses tumor growth and enhances iodine uptake in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Xuemei; Wu, Xinchao; Zhang, Xiao; Hua, Wenjuan; Zhang, Yajing; Maimaiti, Yusufu; Gao, Zairong; Zhang, Yongxue

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is a common malignancy of the endocrine system. Although radioiodine "1"3"1I treatment on differentiated thyroid cancer is widely used, many patients still fail to benefit from "1"3"1I therapy. Therefore, exploration of novel targeted therapies to suppress tumor growth and improve radioiodine uptake remains necessary. Bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) is an important member of the bromodomain and extra terminal domain family that influences transcription of downstream genes by binding to acetylated histones. In the present study, we found that BRD4 was up-regulated in thyroid cancer tissues and cell lines. Inhibition of BRD4 in thyroid cancer cells by JQ1 resulted in cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and enhanced "1"3"1I uptake in vitro and suppressed tumor growth in vivo. Moreover, JQ1 treatment suppressed C-MYC but enhanced NIS expression. We further demonstrated that BRD4 was enriched in the promoter region of C-MYC, which could be markedly blocked by JQ1 treatment. In conclusion, our findings revealed that the aberrant expression of BRD4 in thyroid cancer is possibly involved in tumor progression, and JQ1 is potentially an effective chemotherapeutic agent against human thyroid cancer. - Highlights: • BRD4 is upregulated in thyroid cancer tissues and cell lines. • Inhibition of BRD4 induced cell cycle arrest and enhanced radioiodine uptake in vitro and impaired tumor growth in vivo. • JQ1 suppressed the expression of C-MYC and promoted the expression of NIS and P21. • JQ1 attenuated the recruitment of BRD4 to MYC promoter in thyroid cancer.

  5. Paired comparison of water, energy and carbon exchanges over two young maritime pine stands (Pinus pinaster Ait.): effects of thinning and weeding in the early stage of tree growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreaux, Virginie; Lamaud, Eric; Bosc, Alexandre; Bonnefond, Jean-Marc; Medlyn, Belinda E; Loustau, Denis

    2011-09-01

    The effects of management practices on energy, water and carbon exchanges were investigated in a young pine plantation in south-west France. In 2009-10, carbon dioxide (CO(2)), H(2)O and heat fluxes were monitored using the eddy covariance and sap flow techniques in a control plot (C) with a developed gorse layer, and an adjacent plot that was mechanically weeded and thinned (W). Despite large differences in the total leaf area index and canopy structure, the annual net radiation absorbed was only 4% lower in plot W. We showed that higher albedo in this plot was offset by lower emitted long-wave radiation. Annual evapotranspiration (ET) from plot W was 15% lower, due to lower rainfall interception and transpiration by the tree canopy, partly counterbalanced by the larger evaporation from both soil and regrowing weedy vegetation. The drainage belowground from plot W was larger by 113 mm annually. The seasonal variability of ET was driven by the dynamics of the soil and weed layers, which was more severely affected by drought in plot C. Conversely, the temporal changes in pine transpiration and stem diameter growth were synchronous between sites despite higher soil water content in the weeded plot. At the annual scale, both plots were carbon sinks, but thinning and weeding reduced the carbon uptake by 73%: annual carbon uptake was 243 and 65 g C m(-2) on plots C and W, respectively. Summer drought dramatically impacted the net ecosystem exchange: plot C became a carbon source as the gross primary production (GPP) severely decreased. However, plot W remained a carbon sink during drought, as a result of decreases in both GPP and ecosystem respiration (R(E)). In winter, both plots were carbon sources, plots C and W emitting 67.5 and 32.4 g C m(-2), respectively. Overall, this study highlighted the significant contribution of the gorse layer to mass and energy exchange in young pine plantations.

  6. Problems and achievements of cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L. weeds control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Barakova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Weed control in the cultivation of cotton is critical to the yield and quality of production. The influence of economically important weeds was studied. Chemical control is the most effective method of weed control in cotton but much of the information on it relates to primary weed infestation. Problems with primary weed infestation in cotton have been solved to a significant extent. The question of secondary weed infestation with annual and perennial graminaceous weeds during the period of cotton vegetation is also determined largely by the use of antigraminaceous herbicides. The data related to herbicides to effectively control secondary germinated broadleaf weeds in conventional technology for cotton growing are quite scarce, even globally. We are still seeking effective herbicides for control of these weeds in cotton crops. Studies on their influence on the sowing characteristics of cotton seed and the quality of cotton fiber are still insufficient. In the scientific literature there is not enough information on these questions. The combinations of herbicides, as well as their tank mixtures with fertilizers or plant growth regulators are more efficient than autonomous application. Often during their combined application higher synergistic effect on yield is produced. There is information about cotton cultivars resistant to glyphosate. These cultivars are GMO and they are banned within the European Union, including Bulgaria.

  7. Weed-cover versus weed-removal management in olive orchards: influence on the carbon balance at the ecosystem scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamizo, Sonia; Serrano-Ortiz, Penélope; Vicente-Vicente, José Luis; Sánchez-Cañete, Enrique P.; López-Ballesteros, Ana; Kowalski, Andrew S.

    2016-04-01

    Agriculture plays an important role in the C budget at the global scale. Traditional practices based on soil tillage and applying herbicides to remove weeds have caused damage to soils and led to important losses of soil organic C and increased CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Changing trends from traditional agriculture to conservation agriculture practices may have an important role in both C and water budgets and the transformation of agriculture from C source to C sink. The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of two treatments, weed removal by herbicides versus weed cover conservation, on the C balance in an irrigated olive orchard in SE Spain. Measurements of CO2 exchange were made from October 2014 to September 2015 using two eddy covariance towers, one for each olive crop treatment. Results show that CO2 fluxes at the ecosystem scale were similar in the two treatments during initial conditions, prior to weed growth in the soils without herbicide application (October). During the first week, daily net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was close to zero in both treatments, with values ranging from 1.06 to -0.41 g C m-2 in the weed cover treatment, and from 0.76 to -0.69 g C m-2 in the weed removal treatment. As weed growth increased, higher net CO2 assimilation was found in the treatment with weed cover. In both treatments, maximum net CO2 assimilation was found in March, with a monthly NEE of -72 and -28 g C m-2 in the treatment with and without weed cover, respectively. In May, after the weeds were cut and left on the soil, a strong increase was observed in NEE in the treatment with weed cover due to decreased CO2 assimilation and increased respiration compared to the treatment without weed cover. Therefore, soil chamber measurements showed average respiration rates of 2.57 and 1.57 μmol m-2 s-2 in the weed cover and weed removal treatment, respectively. Finally, the highest monthly NEE was registered during July, with both treatments showing a similar

  8. Evaluation of mulching materials as integrated weed management component in maize crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, F.U.

    2014-01-01

    Yield losses by weeds in maize crop and demonstrated efficacy of various mulches in weed management led to check the efficacy of various available mulches for suppressing weeds in maize crop at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad during kharif (autumn) season 2011. The experiment was laid in Randomized Complete Block Design, (RBCD) having eight treatments and four replications. The treatments were black plastic, white plastic, sugarcane straw, wheat straw, live mulch, weeds as mulch, hand weeding and weedy check. Weed data included weed density m, fresh and dry weight g m, while crop data included crop density m, fresh and dry weight g m, number of plant plot, stover yield (g), plant height (cm), number of cobs plant, number of leaves plant, average grain number of five cobs and grain yield (t ha). With the exception of hand weeding, minimum number of weeds 128 m and 164 m were recorded in black plastic and weeds as mulch, respectively, compared to 595 min weedy check. Similarly, maximum grain yields (1.91 and 1.85 tha) were recorded in black plastic and weeds as mulch, while minimum grain yield (0.64 t ha) was recorded in weedy check plots. The economic net returns of black plastic mulch and weeds as mulch were Rs. 39,824 and Rs. 38,291, respectively as compared to Rs. 21431 for weedy check. Yield increased by 21.1 and 16.5% over hand weeding by plastic mulch and weeds as mulch, respectively. Black plastic followed by weeds as mulch, are recommended to control weeds and get maximum yield as well as net economic return. (author)

  9. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm hampers murine central wound healing by suppression of vascular epithelial growth factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trøstrup, Hannah; Lerche, Christian J; Christophersen, Lars J

    2018-01-01

    -wounded, infection-susceptible BALB/c mice, which display delayed wound closure compared to C3H/HeN mice. Wounds were evaluated histopathologically 4, 7 or 10 days post-infection. Photoplanimetry evaluated necrotic areas. P. aeruginosa biofilm suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor levels centrally in BALB....../c wounds but increased peripheral levels 4-7 days post-infection. Central zones of the burn wound displayed lower levels of central vascular endothelial growth factor as observed 4 and 7 days post-infection in BALB/c mice compared to their C3H/HeN counterparts. Biofilm suppressed early, centrally located S......100A8/A9 in BALB/c and centrally and peripherally later on in C3H/HeN wounds as compared to uninfected mice. Peripheral polymorphonuclear-dominated inflammation and larger necrosis were observed in BALB/c wounds. In conclusion, P. aeruginosa biofilm modulates wounds by suppressing central...

  10. THE EFFECT OF WINTER CATCH CROPS ON WEED INFESTATION IN SWEET CORN DEPENDING ON THE WEED CONTROL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rosa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out in east-central Poland (52°06’ N, 22°55’ E over 2008–2011 to study the effect of winter catch crops on the weed infestation, number, and fresh matter of weeds in sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. saccharata. The following winter catch crops were grown: hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth., white clover (Trifolium repens L., winter rye (Secale cereale L., Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L. and winter turnip rape (Brassica rapa var. typica Posp.. The catch crops were sown in early September and incorporated in early May. The effect of the catch crops was compared to the effect of FYM (30 t·ha-1 and control without organic manuring (NOM. Three methods of weed control were used: HW – hand weeding, twice during the growing period, GCM – the herbicide Guardian Complete Mix 664 SE, immediately after sowing of corn seeds, Z+T – a mixture of the herbicides Zeagran 340 SE and Titus 25 WG applied at the 3–4-leaf stage of sweet corn growth. Rye and turnip rape catch crops had least weeds in their fresh matter. Sweet corn following winter catch crops was less infested by weeds than corn following farmyard manure and non-manured corn. Least weeds and their lowest weight were found after SC, BRT and VV. LM and BRT reduced weed species numbers compared with FYM and NOM. The greatest weed species diversity, determined at the corn flowering stage, was determined after SC and FYM. The number and weight of weeds were significantly lower when chemically controlled compared with hand weeding. The best results were observed after a post-emergent application of the mixture Z+T. The weed species diversity on Z+T-treated plots was clearly lower compared with GCM and HW.

  11. Mechanical weed control in organic winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euro Pannacci

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Three field experiments were carried out in organic winter wheat in three consecutive years (exp. 1, 2005-06; exp. 2, 2006- 07; exp. 3, 2007-08 in central Italy (42°57’ N - 12°22’ E, 165 m a.s.l. in order to evaluate the efficacy against weeds and the effects on winter wheat of two main mechanical weed control strategies: i spring tine harrowing used at three different application times (1 passage at T1, 2 passages at the time T1, 1 passage at T1 followed by 1 passage at T1 + 14 days in the crop sowed at narrow (traditional row spacing (0.15 m; and ii split-hoeing and finger-weeder, alone and combined at T1, in the crop sowed at wider row spacing (0.30 m. At the time T1 winter wheat was at tillering and weeds were at the cotyledons-2 true leaves growth stage. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replicates. Six weeks after mechanical treatments, weed ground cover (% was rated visually using the Braun-Blanquet coverabundance scale; weeds on three squares (0.6×0.5 m each one per plot were collected, counted, weighed, dried in oven at 105°C to determine weed density and weed above-ground dry biomass. At harvest, wheat ears density, grain yield, weight of 1000 seeds and hectolitre weight were recorded. Total weed flora was quite different in the three experiments. The main weed species were: Polygonum aviculare L. (exp. 1 and 2, Fallopia convolvulus (L. Á. Löve (exp. 1 and 3, Stachys annua (L. L. (exp. 1, Anagallis arvensis L. (exp. 2, Papaver rhoeas L. (exp.3, Veronica hederifolia L. (exp. 3. In the winter wheat sowed at narrow rows, 2 passages with spring-tine harrowing at the same time seems to be the best option in order to reconcile a good efficacy with the feasibility of treatment. In wider rows spacing the best weed control was obtained by split hoeing alone or combined with finger-weeder. The grain yield, on average 10% higher in narrow rows, the lower costs and the good selectivity of spring-tine harrowing

  12. Opioid-dependent growth of glial cultures: Suppression of astrocyte DNA synthesis by met-enkephalin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiene-Martin, A.; Hauser, K.F.

    1990-01-01

    The action of met-enkephalin on the growth of astrocytes in mixed-glial cultures was examined. Primary, mixed-glial cultures were isolated from 1 day-old mouse cerebral hemispheres and continuously treated with either basal growth media, 1 μM met-enkephalin, 1 μM met-enkephalin plus the opioid antagonist naloxone, or naloxone alone. Absolute numbers of neural cells were counted in unstained preparations, while combined [ 3 H]-thymidine autoradiography and glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) immunocytochemistry was performed to identify specific changes in astrocytes. When compared to control and naloxone treated cultures, met-enkephalin caused a significant decrease in both total cell numbers, and in [ 3 H]-thymidine incorporation by GFAP-positive cells with flat morphology. These results indicate that met-enkephalin suppresses astrocyte growth in culture

  13. Opioid-dependent growth of glial cultures: Suppression of astrocyte DNA synthesis by met-enkephalin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiene-Martin, A.; Hauser, K.F. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The action of met-enkephalin on the growth of astrocytes in mixed-glial cultures was examined. Primary, mixed-glial cultures were isolated from 1 day-old mouse cerebral hemispheres and continuously treated with either basal growth media, 1 {mu}M met-enkephalin, 1 {mu}M met-enkephalin plus the opioid antagonist naloxone, or naloxone alone. Absolute numbers of neural cells were counted in unstained preparations, while combined ({sup 3}H)-thymidine autoradiography and glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) immunocytochemistry was performed to identify specific changes in astrocytes. When compared to control and naloxone treated cultures, met-enkephalin caused a significant decrease in both total cell numbers, and in ({sup 3}H)-thymidine incorporation by GFAP-positive cells with flat morphology. These results indicate that met-enkephalin suppresses astrocyte growth in culture.

  14. A nonlinear competitive model of the prostate tumor growth under intermittent androgen suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Zhao, Tong-Jun; Yuan, Chang-Qing; Xie, Jing-Hui; Hao, Fang-Fang

    2016-09-07

    Hormone suppression has been the primary modality of treatment for prostate cancer. However long-term androgen deprivation may induce androgen-independent (AI) recurrence. Intermittent androgen suppression (IAS) is a potential way to delay or avoid the AI relapse. Mathematical models of tumor growth and treatment are simple while they are capable of capturing the essence of complicated interactions. Game theory models have analyzed that tumor cells can enhance their fitness by adopting genetically determined survival strategies. In this paper, we consider the survival strategies as the competitive advantage of tumor cells and propose a new model to mimic the prostate tumor growth in IAS therapy. Then we investigate the competition effect in tumor development by numerical simulations. The results indicate that successfully IAS-controlled states can be achieved even though the net growth rate of AI cells is positive for any androgen level. There is crucial difference between the previous models and the new one in the phase diagram of successful and unsuccessful tumor control by IAS administration, which means that the suggestions from the models for medication can be different. Furthermore we introduce quadratic logistic terms to the competition model to simulate the tumor growth in the environment with a finite carrying capacity considering the nutrients or inhibitors. The simulations show that the tumor growth can reach an equilibrium state or an oscillatory state with the net growth rate of AI cells being androgen independent. Our results suggest that the competition and the restraint of a limited environment can enhance the possibility of relapse prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Estradiol suppresses tissue androgens and prostate cancer growth in castration resistant prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, Bruce; Nelson, Peter S; Vessella, Robert; Kalhorn, Tom; Hess, David; Corey, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Estrogens suppress tumor growth in prostate cancer which progresses despite anorchid serum androgen levels, termed castration resistant prostate cancers (CRPC), although the mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesize that estrogen inhibits CRPC in anorchid animals by suppressing tumoral androgens, an effect independent of the estrogen receptor. The human CRPC xenograft LuCaP 35V was implanted into orchiectomized male SCID mice and established tumors were treated with placebo, 17β-estradiol or 17β-estradiol and estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780. Effects of 17β-estradiol on tumor growth were evaluated and tissue testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) evaluated by mass spectrometry. Treatment of LuCaP 35V with 17β-estradiol slowed tumor growth compared to controls (tumor volume at day 21: 785 ± 81 mm 3 vs. 1195 ± 84 mm 3 , p = 0.002). Survival was also significantly improved in animals treated with 17β-estradiol (p = 0.03). The addition of the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780 did not significantly change survival or growth. 17β-estradiol in the presence and absence of ICI 182,780 suppressed tumor testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) as assayed by mass spectrometry. Tissue androgens in placebo treated LuCaP 35V xenografts were; T = 0.71 ± 0.28 pg/mg and DHT = 1.73 ± 0.36 pg/mg. In 17β-estradiol treated LuCaP35V xenografts the tissue androgens were, T = 0.20 ± 0.10 pg/mg and DHT = 0.15 ± 0.15 pg/mg, (p < 0.001 vs. controls). Levels of T and DHT in control liver tissue were < 0.2 pg/mg. CRPC in anorchid animals maintains tumoral androgen levels despite castration. 17β-estradiol significantly suppressed tumor T and DHT and inhibits growth of CRPC in an estrogen receptor independent manner. The ability to manipulate tumoral androgens will be critical in the development and testing of agents targeting CRPC through tissue steroidogenesis

  16. Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor Anagliptin Prevents Intracranial Aneurysm Growth by Suppressing Macrophage Infiltration and Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikedo, Taichi; Minami, Manabu; Kataoka, Hiroharu; Hayashi, Kosuke; Nagata, Manabu; Fujikawa, Risako; Higuchi, Sei; Yasui, Mika; Aoki, Tomohiro; Fukuda, Miyuki; Yokode, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2017-06-19

    Chronic inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysms (IAs). DPP-4 (dipeptidyl peptidase-4) inhibitors have anti-inflammatory effects, including suppressing macrophage infiltration, in various inflammatory models. We examined whether a DPP-4 inhibitor, anagliptin, could suppress the growth of IAs in a rodent aneurysm model. IAs were surgically induced in 7-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats, followed by oral administration of 300 mg/kg anagliptin. We measured the morphologic parameters of aneurysms over time and their local inflammatory responses. To investigate the molecular mechanisms, we used lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW264.7 macrophages. In the anagliptin-treated group, aneurysms were significantly smaller 2 to 4 weeks after IA induction. Anagliptin inhibited the accumulation of macrophages in IAs, reduced the expression of MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein 1), and suppressed the phosphorylation of p65. In lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, anagliptin treatment significantly reduced the production of tumor necrosis factor α, MCP-1, and IL-6 (interleukin 6) independent of GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide 1), the key mediator in the antidiabetic effects of DPP-4 inhibitors. Notably, anagliptin activated ERK5 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5), which mediates the anti-inflammatory effects of statins, in RAW264.7 macrophages. Preadministration with an ERK5 inhibitor blocked the inhibitory effect of anagliptin on MCP-1 and IL-6 expression. Accordingly, the ERK5 inhibitor also counteracted the suppression of p65 phosphorylation in vitro. A DPP-4 inhibitor, anagliptin, prevents the growth of IAs via its anti-inflammatory effects on macrophages. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  17. Level of Catechin, Myricetin, Quercetin and Isoquercitrin in Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench), Changes of Their Levels during Vegetation and Their Effect on The Growth of Selected Weeds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalinová, J.; Vrchotová, Naděžda

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 7 (2009), s. 2719-2725 ISSN 0021-8561 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Allelopathy * buckwheat * catechin * quercetin * myricetin * weed Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.469, year: 2009

  18. Chemical weed control in Spinach (Spiniacia oleracea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Modhej

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Spinach (Spinacia oleracea is an annual plant of family Chenopodiaceae. It is cultivated in temperate and cold regions in Khouzestan in autumn and winter. Weeds are the main problems that limit the production of vegetables. Competition ability of spinach against weeds is very low and weeds cause the loss of quality and quantity in this plant. Weeds reduce germination and establishment and growth of spinach. Weed management in spinach should be done at the beginning of the season. Hand weeding is the best way to control weeds spinach, although due to the high cost it is not cost effective, but is steel common in large areas. Weed control spinach, using chemical methods, the number of weeds are kept below the threshold of economic damage. Materials and Methods The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with 15 treatments and three replications. Treatments included pre-plant application of EPTC at 5 and 6 lit ha-1, pre-plant application of Trifluralin at 2 lit ha-1, pre-plant and pre-emergence application of Pendimethalin at 3 lit ha-1, pre-emergence and post-emergence application of Meteribouzin at 300 g ha-1, pre-emergence and post-emergence application of Meteribouzin at 400 g ha-1, pre-emergence and post-emergence application of Imazethapyr at 0.7 lit ha-1, pre-emergence and post-emergence application of Imazethapyr at 1 lit ha-1, weedy and weed free checks. Each plot the size of 2.5 × 2 meters and 10 row cultivation with distances between rows of 15 cm and the distance between the plants 25 cm and the sowing depth was 3 cm. The herbicide treatments were applied to the back sprayer with Flat fan nozzle with volume of consumption of 240 lit ha-1 solution. The final harvest was about 50 days after emergence. Sampling of weeds 10 days before harvest was performed with using quadrate 0.5 ×0.5. Results Discussion Important broad-leaf and narrow leaf weeds observed in the field, included field bindweed

  19. Suppressed eye growth following diffuser removal from myopic birds is not due to increased dopamine release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, I.; Boelen, M.; Megaw, P.; Miethke, P.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Myopia can be induced in developing chickens by fitting a diffuser over the eye. If the diffuser is removed, the restoration of normal visual input results in rapid suppression of eye growth, with ultimate restoration of normal vision. We have investigated whether the suppression of eye growth after the removal of a diffuser from a myopic eye results from an increased rate of release of dopamine from the retina. Chickens were maintained on a 12:12 light-dark cycle, and were fitted with a diffuser from day 7 to day 21. After removal of the diffuser, the rate of dopamine release was then followed by measuring the kinetics of accumulation of DOPAC in the vitreous during the light phase. The rate of scleral glycosaminoglycan synthesis (SGS) was followed by measuring the rate of incorporation of 35 S-sulphate into scleral buttons incubated in vitro. At the end of the period of development of form-deprivation myopia,dopamine release rates were very low in the myopic eyes compared to those in the contralateral control eyes. In contrast, SGS rates were higher in the sclera from myopic eyes. After removal of the diffusers, the rate of SGS declined rapidly to below that in the control eyes within 72h. In contrast, dopamine release rates remained low for up to 10 days after removal of the occluders. These results show that there is a correlation between reduced dopamine release and increased SGS during the development of myopia, but that there is not a symmetrical relationship during the suppression of SGS following occluder removal. These results therefore suggest that dopamine is not a crucial signalling molecule in the visually mediated control of eye growth. Copyright (2001) Australian Neuroscience Society

  20. miR-216b suppresses breast cancer growth and metastasis by targeting SDCBP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jana, Samir; Sengupta, Suman; Biswas, Subir; Chatterjee, Annesha; Roy, Himansu; Bhattacharyya, Arindam

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most deadly cancer among women and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Treatment effectiveness is complicated with tumor invasiveness/drug resistance. To tailor treatments more effectively to individual patients, it is important to define tumor growth and metastasis at molecular levels. SDCBP is highly overexpressed and associated with a strikingly poor prognosis in breast cancer. However the post transcriptional regulation of SDCBP overexpression remains to be an unexplored area. Our study reveals that miR-216b directly regulates SDCBP expression by binding to its 3′UTR region. miR-216b is a tumor suppressive miRNA and it is underexpressed during metastatic breast cancer. Consequently, overexpression of miR-216b resulted in decreased proliferation, migration and invasion in BC cell lines by modulating the expression of SDCBP. Inhibition of miR-216b divergent the tumor suppressive role by inducing the growth proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro. There is therefore a negative correlation between the expression of miR-216b and its target gene SDCBP in the BC tissue samples as well as cell lines. Simultaneous expression of miR-216b and SDCBP rescued the growth, migration and invasion effect suggesting that tumor suppressive action of miR-216b may be directly mediated by SDCBP. In summary, the study identifies miR-216b as a regulator of SDCBP expression in breast cancer which can potentially be targeted for developing newer therapies for the effective treatment of this killer disease.

  1. Weed biomass and economic yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum) as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... INTRODUCTION ... to control weeds in conjunction with cultural practices. Jarwar et al. (1999) .... Wheat grain yield is an interplay of yield components especially ... The biological yield expresses the overall growth of crop.

  2. Evaluation of Botanical Herbicides against Common Weed Species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    test the inhibitory potential of essential oils extracted from eight locally available plants and .... from C. citratus was in different as weed growth observed with standard ..... NB:-Con = Control, EC = Eucalyptus citrodora, CW = Cymbopogon ...

  3. Weed management in banana production: The use of Nelsonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    reduction in abundance was more pronounced during the dry season when cover crop growth was dense, than in ... The main method of weed control is by use of herbicides ..... with organic plastic and paper mulches in small-scale vegetable.

  4. Combining fisetin and ionizing radiation suppresses the growth of mammalian colorectal cancers in xenograft tumor models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Jyh-Der; Wang, Bo-Shen; Chiu, Shu-Jun; Chang, Chun-Yuan; Chen, Chien-Chih; Chen, Fu-Du; Avirmed, Shiirevnyamba; Lee, Yi-Jang

    2016-12-01

    Fisetin (3,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone), which belongs to the flavonoid group of polyphenols and is found in a wide range of plants, has been reported to exhibit a number of biological activities in human cancer cells, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiangiogenic, anti-invasive and antiproliferative effects. Although previous in vitro studies have shown that fisetin treatment increases the apoptotic rate and enhances the radiosensitivity of human colorectal cancer cells, the in vivo effects of fisetin on tumor growth remain unclear. In the present study a murine xenograft tumor model was employed to investigate the therapeutic effects of fisetin in combination with radiation on CT-26 colon cancer cells and human HCT116 colorectal cancer cells. This revealed that intratumoral injection of fisetin significantly suppressed the growth of CT-26 tumors compared with the untreated control group, but had little effect on the growth of HCT116 tumors. However, fisetin in combination with 2-Gy radiation enhanced tumor suppressor activity in murine colon and human colorectal xenograft tumors, as compared with 2-Gy fractionated radiation administered alone for 5 days and fisetin alone. Interestingly, fisetin downregulated the expression of the oncoprotein securin in a p53-independent manner. However, securin-null HCT116 tumors showed only moderate sensitivity to fisetin treatment, and the combination of fisetin and radiation did not significantly suppress securin-null HCT116 tumor growth compared with normal HCT116 tumors. Therefore, the role of securin in mediating the effect of fisetin on colorectal cancer growth warrants further investigation. In conclusion, the results of the current study provide important preclinical data for evaluating the efficacy of fisetin and radiation combination treatment as an adjuvant chemoradiotherapy for human colorectal cancers.

  5. Noise suppress or express exponential growth for hybrid Hopfield neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Song; Shen Yi; Chen Guici

    2010-01-01

    In this Letter, we will show that noise can make the given hybrid Hopfield neural networks whose solution may grows exponentially become the new stochastic hybrid Hopfield neural networks whose solution will grows at most polynomially. On the other hand, we will also show that noise can make the given hybrid Hopfield neural networks whose solution grows at most polynomially become the new stochastic hybrid Hopfield neural networks whose solution will grows at exponentially. In other words, we will reveal that the noise can suppress or express exponential growth for hybrid Hopfield neural networks.

  6. Invasive plant suppresses the growth of native tree seedlings by disrupting belowground mutualisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina A Stinson

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of exotic species on native organisms is widely acknowledged, but poorly understood. Very few studies have empirically investigated how invading plants may alter delicate ecological interactions among resident species in the invaded range. We present novel evidence that antifungal phytochemistry of the invasive plant, Alliaria petiolata, a European invader of North American forests, suppresses native plant growth by disrupting mutualistic associations between native canopy tree seedlings and belowground arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Our results elucidate an indirect mechanism by which invasive plants can impact native flora, and may help explain how this plant successfully invades relatively undisturbed forest habitat.

  7. Non-chemical weed management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melander, Bo; Liebman, Matt; Davies, Adam S.

    2017-01-01

    Non-chemical weed management covers all management practices that influence weeds except herbicides. This chapter summarises the major achievements in European research, as well as work undertaken in North America. Research groups from both continents have interacted strongly on the topic over...... and in some cases amenity areas as well. Preventive methods reduce weed germination, cultural methods improve crop competition and direct physical weed control reduces weed survival. Non-chemical weed management is mainly adopted in organic crop production, as conventional growers still perceive it as more...

  8. Nematode suppression and growth stimulation in corn plants (Zea mays L.) irrigated with domestic effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Kenia Kelly; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo; Florencio, Lourdinha

    2012-01-01

    Treated wastewater has great potential for agricultural use due to its concentrations of nutrients and organic matter, which are capable of improving soil characteristics. Additionally, effluents can induce suppression of plant diseases caused by soil pathogens. This study evaluates the effect of irrigation with effluent in a UASB reactor on maize (Zea mays L.) development and on suppression of the diseases caused by nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne. Twelve lysimeters of 1 m(3) each were arranged in a completely randomized design, with four treatments and three replicates. The following treatments were used: T1 (W+I), irrigation with water and infestation with nematodes; T2 (W+I+NPK), irrigation with water, infestation with nematodes and fertilization with nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K); T3 (E+I), irrigation with effluent and infestation with nematodes; and T4 (E+I+P), irrigation with effluent, infestation with nematodes and fertilization with phosphorus. The plants irrigated with the effluent plus the phosphorus fertilizer had better growth and productivity and were more resistant to the disease symptoms caused by the nematodes. The suppression levels may have been due to the higher levels of Zn and NO(3)(-) found in the leaf tissue of the plants irrigated with the effluent and phosphorus fertilizer.

  9. Genetic analysis of ectopic growth suppression during planar growth of integuments mediated by the Arabidopsis AGC protein kinase UNICORN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enugutti, Balaji; Schneitz, Kay

    2013-01-02

    The coordination of growth within a tissue layer is of critical importance for tissue morphogenesis. For example, cells within the epidermis undergo stereotypic cell divisions that are oriented along the plane of the layer (planar growth), thereby propagating the layered epidermal structure. Little is known about the developmental control that regulates such planar growth in plants. Recent evidence suggested that the Arabidopsis AGC VIII protein kinase UNICORN (UCN) maintains planar growth by suppressing the formation of ectopic multicellular protrusions in several floral tissues including integuments. In the current model UCN controls this process during integument development by directly interacting with the ABERRANT TESTA SHAPE (ATS) protein, a member of the KANADI (KAN) family of transcription factors, thereby repressing its activity. Here we report on the further characterization of the UCN mechanism. Phenotypic analysis of flowers of ucn-1 plants impaired in floral homeotic gene activity revealed that any of the four floral whorls could produce organs carrying ucn-1 protrusions. The ectopic outgrowths of ucn integuments did not accumulate detectable signals of the auxin and cytokinin reporters DR5rev::GFP and ARR5::GUS, respectively. Furthermore, wild-type and ucn-1 seedlings showed similarly strong callus formation upon in vitro culture on callus-inducing medium. We also show that ovules of ucn-1 plants carrying the dominant ats allele sk21-D exhibited more pronounced protrusion formation. Finally ovules of ucn-1 ett-1 double mutants and ucn-1 ett-1 arf4-1 triple mutants displayed an additive phenotype. These data deepen the molecular insight into the UCN-mediated control of planar growth during integument development. The presented evidence indicates that UCN downstream signaling does not involve the control of auxin or cytokinin homeostasis. The results also reveal that UCN interacts with ATS independently of an ATS/ETT complex required for integument

  10. Suppression of Growth by Multiplicative White Noise in a Parametric Resonant System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Masamichi

    2015-02-01

    The growth of the amplitude in a Mathieu-like equation with multiplicative white noise is studied. To obtain an approximate analytical expression for the exponent at the extremum on parametric resonance regions, a time-interval width is introduced. To determine the exponents numerically, the stochastic differential equations are solved by a symplectic numerical method. The Mathieu-like equation contains a parameter α determined by the intensity of noise and the strength of the coupling between the variable and noise; without loss of generality, only non-negative α can be considered. The exponent is shown to decrease with α, reach a minimum and increase after that. The minimum exponent is obtained analytically and numerically. As a function of α, the minimum at α≠0, occurs on the parametric resonance regions of α=0. This minimum indicates suppression of growth by multiplicative white noise.

  11. Extract of Cordyceps militaris inhibits angiogenesis and suppresses tumor growth of human malignant melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruma, I Made Winarsa; Putranto, Endy Widya; Kondo, Eisaku; Watanabe, Risayo; Saito, Ken; Inoue, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Ken-Ichi; Nakata, Susumu; Kaihata, Masaji; Murata, Hitoshi; Sakaguchi, Masakiyo

    2014-07-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for tumor development and metastasis. Among several angiogenic factors, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGF) is important for tumor-derived angiogenesis and commonly overexpressed in solid tumors. Thus, many antitumor strategies targeting VEGF have been developed to inhibit cancer angiogenesis, offering insights into the successful treatment of solid cancers. However, there are a number of issues such as harmful effects on normal vascularity in clinical trials. Taking this into consideration, we employed Cordyceps militaris as an antitumor approach due to its biological safety in vivo. The herbal medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris has been reported to show potential anticancer properties including anti-angiogenic capacity; however, its concrete properties have yet to be fully demonstrated. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the biological role of Cordyceps militaris extract in tumor cells, especially in regulating angiogenesis and tumor growth of a human malignant melanoma cell line. We demonstrated that Cordyceps militaris extract remarkably suppressed tumor growth via induction of apoptotic cell death in culture that links to the abrogation of VEGF production in melanoma cells. This was followed by mitigation of Akt1 and GSK-3β activation, while p38α phosphorylation levels were increased. Extract treatment in mouse model xenografted with human melanoma cells resulted in a dramatic antitumor effect with down-regulation of VEGF expression. The results suggest that suppression of tumor growth by Cordyceps militaris extract is, at least, mediated by its anti-angiogenicity and apoptosis induction capacities. Cordyceps militaris extract may be a potent antitumor herbal drug for solid tumors.

  12. Tumor-specific RNA interference targeting Pokemon suppresses tumor growth and induces apoptosis in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yining; Xu, Shuxiong; Wang, Xiangwei; Shi, Hua; Sun, Zhaolin; Yang, Zhao

    2013-02-01

    To explore the exact mechanism of Pokemon in prostate cancer. Pokemon is a member of the POK family of transcriptional repressors. Its main function is suppression of the p14ARF (alternate reading frame) tumor suppressor gene. Although Pokemon expression has been found to be increased in various types of lymphoma, the exact mechanism of the gene in prostate cancer is not clear. In the present study, prostate cancer cells were transfected with the specific short hairpin ribonucleic acid (RNA) expression vector targeting Pokemon. The expression of Pokemon messenger RNA and its protein was detected by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. The cell growth and cell apoptosis were also examined using the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay and flow cytometry. The results demonstrated that specific RNA interference (RNAi) could decrease the expression levels of Pokemon gene messenger RNA and protein in prostate cancer cells. In addition, that specific RNAi significantly inhibited the cell proliferation and increased the apoptotic rate. In vivo experiments showed that specific RNAi inhibited the tumorigenicity of prostate cancer cells and significantly suppressed tumor growth. Therefore, an RNAi-targeted Pokemon gene strategy could be a potential approach to prostate cancer therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of plant spacing and weeding frequency on weed infestation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common bean is an important food and cash crop in eastern Ethiopia. However, its yield is constrained by weeds. Therefore, this study was conducted in 2012 main cropping season at Haramaya and Hirna research fields, eastern Ethiopia, to determine the effect of plant spacing and weeding frequency on weeds, yield ...

  14. Weeds and Wildlife: Perceptions and Practices of Weed Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma H Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative impacts of invasive plants or weeds on biodiversity have been well established yet their role in providing key habitats and resources for wildlife has been little understood. Weed removal thus has the potential to adversely affect wildlife but whether this is considered during weed management is poorly known. To determine the extent of this knowledge, we examined the perceptions of weed managers regarding wildlife and weed management in Victoria, Australia. We surveyed 81 weed managers of varying levels of experience from different types of organisations, including state and local government, community groups and private companies. We found 90% of managers had observed wildlife-weed interactions and that most (70% adjusted management programmes to accommodate wildlife. Despite this, few (19% had adopted the recommended practice of combining gradual weed removal with re-vegetation. While management programmes included monitoring of native vegetation, consideration of wildlife monitoring in weed management was rare. This highlights the need for management to better understand and respond to wildlife-weed relationships. If the improvement of wildlife habitat is included in the objectives of weed programmes, as it should be, then wildlife should also be incorporated in project monitoring. This would lead to a greater understanding of the role weeds and their management have in each situation and, ultimately, more informed decision making.

  15. Grass and weed killer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002838.htm Grass and weed killer poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Many weed killers contain dangerous chemicals that are harmful if ...

  16. Floristic composition and growth of weeds under custard apple (Annona squamosa progenies Composição florística e crescimento de plantas daninhas sob a copa de progênies de fruta-do-conde (Annona squamosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S.L. Silva

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Weeds have a negative influence on several fruit tree characteristics, such as yield, making it difficult to management practices in orchards. Alternative weed management methods, aiming to reduce the use of herbicides, have become attractive since herbicides are costly and cause environmental degradation. The use of cultivars with greater competitive ability against weeds has attracted international attention. The objective of this work was to evaluate the floristic composition and growth of weeds under the canopies of irrigated custard apple tree progenies. Twenty halfsibling progenies around three years of age were evaluated in a random block design with five replicates and four plants per plot. A circle with a 0.5 m² area was established around the trunk of each plant. Floristic composition, fresh matter, and dry matter mass of the above-ground part of the weeds, were evaluated in this area. Root collar and canopy diameters, as well as leaf area of the progenies were also evaluated. Fifty-eight weed species were recorded. The five weed families with the most species were Leguminosae, Convolvulaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceae and Sterculiaceae, in decreasing order. The number of weed species per plot ranged from 6 to 18, but there was no difference between the mean percentages of different weeds under the canopies of the progenies. The lowest weed fresh and dry matter masses occurred in progenies JG1 and SM8, respectively. There were no differences between progenies with regard to root collar diameter and leaf area; however, one of the lowest weed dry matter yields was observed under the canopy of progeny FE4, which showed the largest canopy diameter.As plantas daninhas (PD afetam várias características das fruteiras, inclusive o rendimento, e podem dificultar a execução de tratos culturais nos pomares. Existe interesse em métodos alternativos de manejo das PD, visando reduzir o uso de herbicidas, que são caros e causam degrada

  17. Aquatic weeds: their implications in Indian nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, T.S.; Anup Kumar, B.; Aruna Jyothi, K.; Satpathy, K.K.

    2000-01-01

    The aquatic weed infestation of KAPS cooling water system, MAPS open reservoir, and the growth of filamentous algae and bacteria in the feed water unit of HWP (Kota), was investigated. The aquatic weeds identified were: Ceratophyllum, Elodea, Hydrilla verticillata, Najas and Vallisneria species. However, at HWP (Kota) filamentous alga (Nostoc punchiformis) and bacteria (Sphaerotilus natans) were found in plenty. The metabolic products when assayed in the form of total carbohydrate content released by weeds was 3.7 mg gm -1 biomass. The metabolic products adsorb on to the resin matrix and impaired its performance at HWP (K), enhanced bacterial growth on the resin beads and furthered resin deterioration. Besides, the growth of aquatic weeds also influenced the pH of the cooling water, thereby vitiating the water treatment programme. (author)

  18. Impaired genome maintenance suppresses the growth hormone--insulin-like growth factor 1 axis in mice with Cockayne syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid van der Pluijm

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cockayne syndrome (CS is a photosensitive, DNA repair disorder associated with progeria that is caused by a defect in the transcription-coupled repair subpathway of nucleotide excision repair (NER. Here, complete inactivation of NER in Csb(m/m/Xpa(-/- mutants causes a phenotype that reliably mimics the human progeroid CS syndrome. Newborn Csb(m/m/Xpa(-/- mice display attenuated growth, progressive neurological dysfunction, retinal degeneration, cachexia, kyphosis, and die before weaning. Mouse liver transcriptome analysis and several physiological endpoints revealed systemic suppression of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 (GH/IGF1 somatotroph axis and oxidative metabolism, increased antioxidant responses, and hypoglycemia together with hepatic glycogen and fat accumulation. Broad genome-wide parallels between Csb(m/m/Xpa(-/- and naturally aged mouse liver transcriptomes suggested that these changes are intrinsic to natural ageing and the DNA repair-deficient mice. Importantly, wild-type mice exposed to a low dose of chronic genotoxic stress recapitulated this response, thereby pointing to a novel link between genome instability and the age-related decline of the somatotroph axis.

  19. Delayed Growth Suppression and Radioresistance Induced by Long-Term Continuous Gamma Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hiroo; Furukawa, Chiharu; Chang, Young-Chae; Ogata, Hiromitsu; Magae, Junji

    2017-08-01

    Biological response to ionizing radiation depends not only on the type of radiation and dose, but also on the duration and dose rate of treatment. For a given radiation dose, the biological response may differ based on duration and dose rate. We studied the properties of two human cell lines, M059K glioma and U2OS osteosarcoma, continuously exposed to γ rays for long time periods of more than five months. Growth inhibition in both cell lines was dependent on total dose when exposed to acute radiation over several minutes, whereas prolonged growth inhibition was dependent on dose rate after continuous irradiation over several months. The minimum dose rate for growth inhibition was 53.6 mGy/h. Cell cycle analysis showed G 1 phase accumulation in cell populations continuously exposed to γ rays, and G 2 phase accumulation in cells acutely exposed to high-dose-rate γ rays. Cells continuously exposed to γ rays continued to exhibit delayed growth suppression even after one month in an environment of background radiation, and maintained a high-level expression of c-Jun and its phosphorylation forms, as well as resistance to apoptosis induced by staurosporine and chemotherapeutic agents. These delayed effects were not observed in cells acutely exposed to 5 Gy of radiation. These results suggest that optimization of the irradiation schedule is crucial for risk estimation, protection and therapeutic utilization of ionizing radiation.

  20. Weed spectrum and selectivity of tembotrione under varying environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatzweiler, Elmar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tembotrione is a novel HPPD maize herbicide effective against a wide range of broadleaf and grass weeds. Some characteristics of this compound are described in this paper linking weed and crop responses following tembotrione applications to environmental parameters or use conditions. The activity of HPPD herbicides is very much dependant on the availability of light. Increasing illumination intensities following application augmented the activity levels of several comparable HPPD compounds in a growth chamber experiment. Tembotrione was shown to be more efficacious at low and high illumination intensities compared to standard herbicides applied at the same rate. At the high intensity, tembotrione retained its high efficacy from two up to four weeks after application showing a rapid and strong herbicidal activity. The activity following post-emergent treatments of tembotrione against broadleaf weeds was influenced by soil characteristics such as soil texture and organic matter content in a glasshouse test. The level of weed suppression clearly declined stronger on heavier soils than on lighter soils at a rather low application rate of 12.5 g a.i./ha and lower. This is a clear indication of residual efficacy of tembotrione. The selectivity of tembotrione was tested on numerous maize varieties following post-emergent treatment with tembotrione alone or in mixture with the safener isoxadifen-ethyl under field conditions in Germany in comparison to a standard herbicide. The level of crop phytotoxicity tended to increase in the following order: Tembotrione plus safener, standard herbicide to tembotrione alone. Only the mixture of tembotrione with safener did not cause significant adverse effects on maize. Another field experiment in the USA examined crop phytotoxicity using one maize variety in a situation of infurrow soil insecticide treatment followed by a post-emergent application of tembotrione (plus/minus isoxadifen-ethyl and standard herbicides

  1. Celecoxib suppresses fibroblast growth factor-2 expression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma PANC-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Luo, Miaosha; Wang, Yan; Shang, Boxin; Dong, Lei

    2016-09-01

    The inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 has been reported to suppress growth and induce apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cells. Nevertheless, the precise biological mechanism of how celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, regulates the growth and invasion of pancreatic tumors is not completely understood. It has been shown that fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and its receptor levels correlate with the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that the antitumor activity of celecoxib in PDAC may be exerted through modulation of FGF-2 function. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of celecoxib on the proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis of the PANC-1 cell line. Western blotting and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were used to examine the expression of FGF-2, FGFR-2, ERK1/2 and MMPs. In the present study, FGF-2 and FGFR-2 were expressed in PANC-1 cells and FGF-2 exerted a stimulatory effect on phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase (p-ERK) expression. Celecoxib treatment suppressed FGF-2 and FGFR-2 expression and decreased MMP-2, MMP-9 and p-ERK expression in the PANC-1 cells. Furthermore, celecoxib treatment caused the resistance of PANC-1 cells to FGF-2 induced proliferation, migration and invasion ability, as well as the increase in their apoptotic rate. Our data provide evidence that targeting FGF-2 with celecoxib may be used as an effective treatment in PDAC.

  2. Cystatin E/M Suppresses Tumor Cell Growth through Cytoplasmic Retention of NF-κB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Hendrick; Venkatesan, Natarajan; Veena, Mysore S.; Ravichandran, Sandhiya; Zinabadi, Alborz; Basak, Saroj K.; Parvatiyar, Kislay; Srivastava, Meera; Liang, Li-Jung; Gjertson, David W.; Torres, Jorge Z.; Moatamed, Neda A.

    2016-01-01

    We and others have shown that the cystatin E/M gene is inactivated in primary human tumors, pointing to its role as a tumor suppressor gene. However, the molecular mechanism of tumor suppression is not yet understood. Using plasmid-directed cystatin E/M gene overexpression, a lentivirus-mediated tetracycline-inducible vector system, and human papillomavirus 16 (HPV 16) E6 and E7 gene-immortalized normal human epidermal keratinocytes, we demonstrated intracellular and non-cell-autonomous apoptotic growth inhibition of tumor cell lines and that growth inhibition is associated with cytoplasmic retention of NF-κB. We further demonstrated decreased phosphorylation of IκB kinase (IKKβ) and IκBα in the presence of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), confirming the role of cystatin E/M in the regulation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Growth suppression of nude mouse xenograft tumors carrying a tetracycline-inducible vector system was observed with the addition of doxycycline in drinking water, confirming that the cystatin E/M gene is a tumor suppressor gene. Finally, immunohistochemical analyses of cervical carcinoma in situ and primary tumors have shown a statistically significant inverse relationship between the expression of cystatin E/M and cathepsin L and a direct relationship between the loss of cystatin E/M expression and nuclear expression of NF-κB. We therefore propose that the cystatin E/M suppressor gene plays an important role in the regulation of NF-κB. PMID:27090639

  3. Weed competition with soybean in no-tillage agroforestry and sole-crop systems in subtropical Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed competition on soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] growth and yield was expected to be different when managed in an agroforestry system as compared with solecropping without trees. Therefore agronomic practices to control weeds might need to be modified in agroforestry systems. We analyzed weed co...

  4. Resveratrol suppresses growth of cancer stem-like cells by inhibiting fatty acid synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Puspa R; Okuda, Hiroshi; Watabe, Misako; Pai, Sudha K; Liu, Wen; Kobayashi, Aya; Xing, Fei; Fukuda, Koji; Hirota, Shigeru; Sugai, Tamotsu; Wakabayashi, Go; Koeda, Keisuke; Kashiwaba, Masahiro; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Chiba, Toshimi; Endo, Masaki; Fujioka, Tomoaki; Tanji, Susumu; Mo, Yin-Yuan; Cao, Deliang; Wilber, Andrew C; Watabe, Kounosuke

    2011-11-01

    Resveratrol is a natural polyphenolic compound and has been shown to exhibit cardio-protective as well as anti-neoplastic effects on various types of cancers. However, the exact mechanism of its anti-tumor effect is not clearly defined. Resveratrol has been shown to have strong hypolipidemic effect on normal adipocytes and as hyper-lipogenesis is a hallmark of cancer cell physiology, the effect of resveratrol on lipid synthesis in cancer stem-like cells (CD24(-)/CD44(+)/ESA(+)) that were isolated from both ER+ and ER- breast cancer cell lines was examined. The authors found that resveratrol significantly reduced the cell viability and mammosphere formation followed by inducing apoptosis in cancer stem-like cells. This inhibitory effect of resveratrol is accompanied by a significant reduction in lipid synthesis which is caused by the down-regulation of the fatty acid synthase (FAS) gene followed by up-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes, DAPK2 and BNIP3. The activation of apoptotic pathway in the cancer stem-like cells was suppressed by TOFA and by Fumonisin B1, suggesting that resveratrol-induced apoptosis is indeed through the modulation of FAS-mediated cell survival signaling. Importantly, resveratrol was able to significantly suppress the growth of cancer stem-like cells in an animal model of xenograft without showing apparental toxicity. Taken together, the results of this study indicate that resveratrol is capable of inducing apoptosis in the cancer stem-like cells through suppression of lipogenesis by modulating FAS expression, which highlights a novel mechanism of anti-tumor effect of resveratrol.

  5. NADE (p75NTR-associated cell death executor) suppresses cellular growth in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiangjun; Xie, Dong; Roth, Wilfried; Reed, John; Koeffler, H Phillip

    2003-06-01

    NADE, a p75NTR (low-affinity neurotrophin receptor p75) -associated cell death executor, was initially cloned from a human ovarian granulosa cell cDNA library, as an unknown protein with the name, pHGR74. It was reported to mediate nerve growth factor-induced apoptosis. We independently isolated human NADE (pHGR74) from breast cancer cell lines. Expression of NADE in various human cancer cell lines, and human and murine tissues was examined. NADE was highly expressed in human endocrine-related organs and embryotic murine tissues. Forced expression of NADE in CHO (Chinese hamster ovary) cells and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells had little effect on the growth of the cells in vitro, while it dramatically suppressed cellular growth in vivo. We used the yeast two-hybrid system to search for NADE binding protein. Dynactin was identified as a candidate. The p75NTR was not found in this assay and did not co-immunoprecipitate with human NADE. Furthermore, the cells stably transfected with NADE did not respond to NGF or TNF. Thus, human and murine NADE appear to have different functions.

  6. EBP1 suppresses growth, migration, and invasion of thyroid cancer cells through upregulating RASAL expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyan; Li, Zhenjie; Li, Liujuan; Peng, Haiying; Zhang, Zhijun

    2015-11-01

    Ebp1, a protein identified by its interactions with the ErbB3 receptor, has been characterized as a negative regulator of cancers. RAS GTPase-activating protein (RasGAP), RASAL1, was recently identified as a major tumor suppressor in thyroid cancer. In this study, we examined EBP1 expression in papillary and follicular thyroid cancer cells. We found that compared with normal thyroid cells, TPC1, WRO, and FTC133 thyroid tumor cells exhibited lower EBP1 expression at messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels. We then investigated the effects of forced EBP1 expression on growth, migration, and invasiveness of thyroid tumor cells. By using MTT and Boyden chamber assays, we showed that EBP1 overexpression dramatically reduced growth rate, migration, and invasiveness of K1 and FTC133 thyroid tumor cells. Furthermore, we explored the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of EBP1 on the cells by disclosing the correlation of EBP1 and RASAL1 expression. RASAL expression was elevated in thyroid tumor cells overexpressing EBP1. Knockdown RASAL by transduction of RASAL1 shRNA lentiviral particles markedly reduced RASAL levels with restoration of EBP1, and RASAL1 knockdown abrogated the effects of forced EBP1 expression on cell growth, migration, and invasiveness of thyroid tumor cells. These findings suggest that Ebp1 suppressed thyroid cancer cell lines by upregulating RASRAL expression.

  7. Dual knockdown of N-ras and epiregulin synergistically suppressed the growth of human hepatoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Meng; He, Hong-wei; Sun, Huan-xing; Ren, Kai-huan [Department of Oncology, Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100050 (China); Shao, Rong-guang, E-mail: shaor@bbn.cn [Department of Oncology, Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100050 (China)

    2009-09-18

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major challenge because of its resistance to conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Multi-targeted therapy might be a new option for HCC treatment. Our previous study showed that N-ras gene was activated in HCC and was inhibited by RNA interference. In the present study, we investigated the alternation of gene expression by microarray in N-Ras-siRNA-treated HepG2 cells. The results revealed that the EREG gene, encoding epiregulin, was dramatically up-regulated in response to silence of N-ras. We speculated that the up-regulation of epiregulin was involved in the compensatory mechanism of N-ras knockdown for cell growth. Therefore, we evaluated whether dual silence of N-ras and epiregulin display a greater suppression of cell growth. The results confirmed that dual knockdown of N-ras and epiregulin synergistically inhibited cell growth. Our results also showed that dual knockdown of N-ras and epiregulin significantly induced cell arrest at G0/G1 phase. Furthermore, Western blot assay showed that dual knockdown of N-ras and epiregulin markedly reduced the phosphorylations of ERK1/2, Akt and Rb, and inhibited the expression of cyclin D1. Our findings imply that multi-targeted silence of oncogenes might be an effective treatment for HCC.

  8. Suppression in growth hormone during overeating ameliorates the increase in insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornford, Andrea S; Barkan, Ariel L; Hinko, Alexander; Horowitz, Jeffrey F

    2012-11-15

    Previously, we reported that overeating for only a few days markedly suppressed the secretion of growth hormone (GH). The purpose of the present study was to determine the role of this reduction in GH concentration on key metabolic adaptations that occur during 2 wk of overeating. Nine nonobese, healthy adults were admitted to the hospital for 2 wk, during which time they ate ∼4,000 kcal/day (70 kcal·kg fat-free mass(-1)·day(-1); 50% carbohydrate, 35% fat, and 15% protein), and their plasma GH concentration was allowed to decline naturally (control). An additional eight subjects underwent the same overeating intervention and received exogenous GH treatment (GHT) administered in four daily injections to mimic physiological GH secretion throughout the 2-wk overeating period. We measured plasma insulin and glucose concentrations in the fasting and postprandial state as well as fasting lipolytic rate, proteolytic rate, and fractional synthetic rate (FSR) using stable-isotope tracer methods. GHT prevented the fall in plasma GH concentration, maintaining plasma GH concentration at baseline levels (1.2 ± 0.2 ng/ml), which increased fasting and postprandial assessments of insulin resistance (P overeating also blunted the increase in systemic proteolysis (P overeating. In conclusion, our main findings suggest that the suppression in GH secretion that naturally occurs during the early stages of overeating may help attenuate the insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia that typically accompany overeating.

  9. Type I collagen gene suppresses tumor growth and invasion of malignant human glioma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyata Teruo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Invasion is a hallmark of a malignant tumor, such as a glioma, and the progression is followed by the interaction of tumor cells with an extracellular matrix (ECM. This study examined the role of type I collagen in the invasion of the malignant human glioma cell line T98G by the introduction of the human collagen type I α1 (HCOL1A1 gene. Results The cells overexpressing HCOL1A1 were in a cluster, whereas the control cells were scattered. Overexpression of HCOL1A1 significantly suppressed the motility and invasion of the tumor cells. The glioma cell growth was markedly inhibited in vitro and in vivo by the overexpression of HCOL1A1; in particular, tumorigenicity completely regressed in nude mice. Furthermore, the HCOL1A1 gene induced apoptosis in glioma cells. Conclusion These results indicate that HCOL1A1 have a suppressive biological function in glioma progression and that the introduction of HCOL1A1 provides the basis of a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of malignant human glioma.

  10. Efeito de períodos de controle de plantas daninhas sobre o desenvolvimento inicial de plantas de eucalipto Effects of weed control periods on initial growth and development of eucalypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.E.B. Toledo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os efeitos dos períodos de convivência e de controle de Brachiaria decumbens sobre o desenvolvimento inicial de clones de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla. Para isso, um ensaio foi conduzido, no município de Três Lagoas-MS, no período de janeiro a dezembro de 1997. Os tratamentos experimentais consistiram de diferentes épocas e períodos de convivência das plantas daninhas na cultura do eucalipto. As épocas foram divididas em dois grupos. No primeiro, a convivência se iniciava no transplante das mudas e era estendida até 28, 56, 84, 112, 140, 168, 224, 252 e 364 dias após. No segundo grupo, a convivência se iniciava aos 0, 28, 56, 84, 112, 140, 168, 224 e 252 dias após o transplante e era estendida até o final de um ano. As principais plantas daninhas que ocorreram na área experimental foram Brachiaria decumbens e Spermacocea latifola. As plantas jovens de eucalipto foram bastante suscetíveis à interferência das plantas daninhas, apresentando um período anterior à interferência inferior a 14-28 dias. Para assegurar o desenvolvimento da cultura, o período total de prevenção à interferência foi de 140 dias, e o período crítico de prevenção à interferência, de 14-28 a 140 dias após o transplante, considerando o índice de 5% de redução em diâmetro.A field trial was carried out in Três Lagoas-MS, Brazil, from January to December of 1997, to study the effects of control and coexistence period of Brachiaria decumbens on the growth of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla clones. The experimental design was a complete randomized block design, with four replications. The treatments consisted of different periods of weed-eucalypt association. The periods were divided in two groups. In the first one, the weed-eucalypt coexistence initiated during the eucalypt transplanting, continuing up to 28, 56, 112, 140, 168, 224, 252 and 364 days after it. In the second group, the

  11. Suppression of elongation and growth of tomato seedlings by auxin biosynthesis inhibitors and modeling of the growth and environmental response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashide, Tadahisa; Narukawa, Megumi; Shimada, Yukihisa; Soeno, Kazuo

    2014-04-02

    To develop a growth inhibitor, the effects of auxin inhibitors were investigated. Application of 30 μM L-α-aminooxy-β-phenylpropionic acid (AOPP) or (S)-methyl 2-((1,3-dioxoisoindolin-2-yl)oxy)-3-phenylpropanoate (KOK1101), decreased the endogenous IAA levels in tomato seedlings at 8 days after sowing. Then, 10-1200 μM AOPP or KOK1101 were sprayed on the leaves and stem of 2-3 leaf stage tomato plants grown under a range of environmental conditions. We predicted plant growth and environmental response using a model based on the observed suppression of leaf enlargement. Spraying AOPP or KOK1101 decreased stem length and leaf area. Concentration-dependent inhibitions and dose response curves were observed. Although the effects of the inhibitors on dry weight varied according to the environmental conditions, the net assimilation rate was not influenced by the inhibitors. Accordingly, the observed decrease in dry weight caused by the inhibitors may result from decreased leaf area. Validation of the model based on observed data independent of the dataset showed good correlations between the observed and predicted values of dry weight and leaf area index.

  12. Intermittent hypoxia suppression of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I in the neonatal rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Charles; Ahmad, Taimur; Valencia, Gloria B; Aranda, Jacob V; Xu, Jiliu; Beharry, Kay D

    2018-03-08

    Extremely low gestational age neonates with chronic lung disease requiring oxygen therapy frequently experience fluctuations in arterial oxygen saturation or intermittent hypoxia (IH). These infants are at risk for multi-organ developmental delay, reduced growth, and short stature. The growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1) system, an important hormonal regulator of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, promotes neonatal growth and development. We tested the hypothesis that increasing episodes of IH delay neonatal growth by influencing the GH/IGF-I axis. Newborn rats were exposed to 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, or 12 hypoxic episodes (12% O 2 ) during hyperoxia (50% O 2 ) from P0-P7, P0-P14 (IH), or allowed to recover from P7-P21 or P14-P21 (IHR) in room air (RA). RA littermates at P7, P14, and P21 served as RA controls; and groups exposed to hyperoxia only (50% O 2 ) served as zero IH controls. Histopathology of the liver; hepatic levels of GH, GHBP, IGF-I, IGFBP-3, and leptin; and immunoreactivities of GH, GHR, IGF-I and IGF-IR were determined. Pathological findings of the liver, including cellular swelling, steatosis, necrosis and focal sinusoid congestion were seen in IH, and were particularly severe in the P7 animals. Hepatic GH levels were significantly suppressed in the IH groups exposed to 6-12 hypoxic episodes per day and were not normalized during IHR. Deficits in the GH levels were associated with reduced body length and increase body weight during IHR suggesting increased adiposity and catchup fat. Catchup fat was also associated with elevations in GHBP, IGF-I, leptin. IH significantly impairs hepatic GH/IGF-1 signaling during the first few weeks of life, which is likely responsible for hepatic GH resistance, increased body fat, and hepatic steatosis. These hormonal perturbations may contribute to long-term organ and body growth impairment, and metabolic dysfunction in preterm infants experiencing frequent IH and/or apneic episodes. Copyright © 2018

  13. Genetic analysis of ectopic growth suppression during planar growth of integuments mediated by the Arabidopsis AGC protein kinase UNICORN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enugutti Balaji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The coordination of growth within a tissue layer is of critical importance for tissue morphogenesis. For example, cells within the epidermis undergo stereotypic cell divisions that are oriented along the plane of the layer (planar growth, thereby propagating the layered epidermal structure. Little is known about the developmental control that regulates such planar growth in plants. Recent evidence suggested that the Arabidopsis AGC VIII protein kinase UNICORN (UCN maintains planar growth by suppressing the formation of ectopic multicellular protrusions in several floral tissues including integuments. In the current model UCN controls this process during integument development by directly interacting with the ABERRANT TESTA SHAPE (ATS protein, a member of the KANADI (KAN family of transcription factors, thereby repressing its activity. Here we report on the further characterization of the UCN mechanism. Results Phenotypic analysis of flowers of ucn-1 plants impaired in floral homeotic gene activity revealed that any of the four floral whorls could produce organs carrying ucn-1 protrusions. The ectopic outgrowths of ucn integuments did not accumulate detectable signals of the auxin and cytokinin reporters DR5rev::GFP and ARR5::GUS, respectively. Furthermore, wild-type and ucn-1 seedlings showed similarly strong callus formation upon in vitro culture on callus-inducing medium. We also show that ovules of ucn-1 plants carrying the dominant ats allele sk21-D exhibited more pronounced protrusion formation. Finally ovules of ucn-1 ett-1 double mutants and ucn-1 ett-1 arf4-1 triple mutants displayed an additive phenotype. Conclusions These data deepen the molecular insight into the UCN-mediated control of planar growth during integument development. The presented evidence indicates that UCN downstream signaling does not involve the control of auxin or cytokinin homeostasis. The results also reveal that UCN interacts with ATS

  14. Managing ethically questionable parental requests: growth suppression and manipulation of puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, David; Tobin, Bernadette; Hamblin, Julie; Slaytor, Emma; Donaghue, Kim C; Munns, Craig; Kilham, Henry A

    2011-09-01

    Doctors sometimes struggle with ethically challenging requests for treatment from children's parents. For instance, we have recently had two requests by parents of children, a girl and a boy, each with a severe developmental disability, for hormonal therapy to suppress growth and puberty: the girl's parents requested, in addition, hysterectomy and mastectomy. We propose a reliable approach to assessing the ethical and legal aspects of these and other requests for 'non-therapeutic' treatment of a minor who lacks the capacity to give informed consent. We argue that a doctor should first assess whether the request is one that he or she can, in conscience, accede to, and then, if it is, seek the authorisation of a court. We outline considerations relevant to the doctor's assessment of both the ethical issues and to the need for court authorisation. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  15. Dry Bean Morpho-Physiological Responses to Gradual Weed Biomass Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein GHAMARI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Field study was carried out in 2011 in west of Iran to assess responses of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. morpho-physiological traits to gradual weed biomass accumulation. The treatments consisted of two different periods of weed interference, which weeds either infested the plots or removed for an increasing duration of time (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 days after crop emergence. Relative dominance and relative importance of weed species fluctuated over the crop cycle. As the duration of weed interference was increased, a declining trend of crop growth rate (CGR was observed. When weeds were allowed to compete with crop throughout the crop cycle, maximum value of CGR was decreased from 25.57 g m-2 days in full season weed free treatment to 16.78 g m-2 days in full season weed infested treatment. Effect of treatments on leaf area index (LAI was significant. Weed removal increased LAI but it could not significantly affect this trait, at the early of growing season. Weed interference caused a significant reduction on number of branches. The minimum number of branches was registered in full season weed infested treatment (2.58 branches per plant, while the maximum one was observed in the full season weed free treatment (4.25 branches per plant. Weed competition severely reduced crop yield. At 10 and 20 days after crop emergence, weed infestation could not significantly affect the yield. A negative relationship between weeds’ dry matter accumulation and LAI as well as number of branches was observed which signify the vulnerability of these morpho-physiological traits to weed competition.

  16. Plant Growth Promotion and Suppression of Bacterial Leaf Blight in Rice by Inoculated Bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumera Yasmin

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential of rice rhizosphere associated antagonistic bacteria for growth promotion and disease suppression of bacterial leaf blight (BLB. A total of 811 rhizospheric bacteria were isolated and screened against 3 prevalent strains of BLB pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo of which five antagonistic bacteria, i.e., Pseudomonas spp. E227, E233, Rh323, Serratia sp. Rh269 and Bacillus sp. Rh219 showed antagonistic potential (zone of inhibition 1-19 mm. Production of siderophores was found to be the common biocontrol determinant and all the strains solubilized inorganic phosphate (82-116 μg mL-1 and produced indole acetic acid (0.48-1.85 mg L-1 in vitro. All antagonistic bacteria were non-pathogenic to rice, and their co-inoculation significantly improved plant health in terms of reduced diseased leaf area (80%, improved shoot length (31%, root length (41% and plant dry weight (60% as compared to infected control plants. Furthermore, under pathogen pressure, bacterial inoculation resulted in increased activity of defense related enzymes including phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and polyphenol oxidase, along with 86% increase in peroxidase and 53% increase in catalase enzyme activities in plants inoculated with Pseudomonas sp. Rh323 as well as co-inoculated plants. Bacterial strains showed good colonization potential in the rice rhizosphere up to 21 days after seed inoculation. Application of bacterial consortia in the field resulted in an increase of 31% in grain yield and 10% in straw yield over non-inoculated plots. Although, yield increase was statistically non-significant but was accomplished with overall saving of 20% chemical fertilizers. The study showed that Pseudomonas sp. Rh323 can be used to develop dual-purpose inoculum which can serve not only to suppress BLB but also to promote plant growth in rice.

  17. Biotechnology in weed control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotechnology can be used to enhance the management of weeds in several ways. Crops have been made resistant to herbicides by inserting transgenes that impart herbicide resistance into the plant genome. Glyphosate and glufosinate-resistant crops are commercialized in North America and crops made res...

  18. Effect of weed control treatments and cutting frequency on weed dry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were conducted during the rainy seasons of 2012 and 2013 at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Crop Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, to evaluate the growth and leaf yield of Telfairia occidentials Hook F. as influenced by weed control treatments and cutting frequencies.

  19. The Weeds Response to the Winter Vetch (Vicia villosa and Chicklingpea (Lathyrus sativus Cover Crops under Different Tillage Methods in Corn Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Hamzei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Using cover crops in conservation tillage systems offers many advantages, one of which is weed control through physical and chemical interferences. Most of the benefits of cover crops are well known. They prevent form wind and water erosions, conserve soil moisture by reducing evaporation and increasing infiltration, increase the content of organic matter, increase fertility by recycling nutrients, add nitrogen if they are legumes, and improve soil structure. Proper cover crops can also suppress weed growth by allelopathic activities and light interference. They impact on environmental quality through the protection of surface water and groundwater, as well as eliminating the need for using preemergence herbicides. Either increase or decreases have been reported for crop yields when the crop residues remain on soil surface. No-till system has been reported to increase the presence of certain difficult to control weeds. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of tillage systems and cover crops on weed control and corn yield. Materials and Methods: Experiment was carried out as split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Bu-Ali Sina University in growing season of 2011. Tillage with moldboard, tillage with chisel (minimum tillage, and no tillage were considered as main plots and two cover crops, winter vetch and chicklingpea, chemical weed control and weed-infest treatment (control were considered as sub-plots. Cover crops were cultivated in late March 2011. In early June 2011, cover crops were harvested and were spread over the soil surface. The Plot size was 22.50 m-2. Five rows were in each plot with 75 cm intervals among rows and 18 cm among seedlings. 2 square were picked in the three central rows of each plot in order to determine the yield and yield components. From each plot three quadrants (1×1 mrandomly were picked and weeds and cover crops was separated. All

  20. Halofuginone suppresses growth of human uterine leiomyoma cells in a mouse xenograft model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohestani, Faezeh; Qiang, Wenan; MacNeill, Amy L; Druschitz, Stacy A; Serna, Vanida A; Adur, Malavika; Kurita, Takeshi; Nowak, Romana A

    2016-07-01

    Does halofuginone (HF) inhibit the growth of human uterine leiomyoma cells in a mouse xenograft model? HF suppresses the growth of human uterine leiomyoma cells in a mouse xenograft model through inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis. Uterine leiomyomas are the most common benign tumors of the female reproductive tract. HF can suppress the growth of human uterine leiomyoma cells in vitro. The mouse xenograft model reflects the characteristics of human leiomyomas. Primary leiomyoma smooth muscle cells from eight patients were xenografted under the renal capsule of adult, ovariectomized NOD-scid IL2Rγ(null) mice (NSG). Mice were treated with two different doses of HF or vehicle for 4 weeks with six to eight mice per group. Mouse body weight measurements and immunohistochemical analysis of body organs were carried out to assess the safety of HF treatment. Xenografted tumors were measured and analyzed for cellular and molecular changes induced by HF. Ovarian steroid hormone receptors were evaluated for possible modulation by HF. Treatment of mice carrying human UL xenografts with HF at 0.25 or 0.50 mg/kg body weight for 4 weeks resulted in a 35-40% (P leiomyoma cells in an in vivo model, HF was administered to mice whose tolerance and metabolism of the drug may differ from that in humans. Also, the longer term effects of HF treatment are yet unclear. The results of this study showing the effectiveness of HF in reducing UL tumor growth by interfering with the main cellular processes regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis are in agreement with previous studies on the effects of HF on other fibrotic diseases. HF can be considered as a candidate for reducing the size of leiomyomas, particularly prior to surgery. This project was funded by NIH PO1HD057877 and R01 HD064402. Authors report no competing interests. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights

  1. Capabilities of unmanned aircraft vehicles for low altitude weed detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflanz, Michael; Nordmeyer, Henning

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable crop production and food security require a consumer and environmental safe plant protection. It is recently known, that precise weed monitoring approaches could help apply pesticides corresponding to field variability. In this regard the site-specific weed management may contribute to an application of herbicides with higher ecologically aware and economical savings. First attempts of precision agriculture date back to the 1980's. Since that time, remote sensing from satellites or manned aircrafts have been investigated and used in agricultural practice, but are currently inadequate for the separation of weeds in an early growth stage from cultivated plants. In contrast, low-cost image capturing at low altitude from unmanned aircraft vehicles (UAV) provides higher spatial resolution and almost real-time processing. Particularly, rotary-wing aircrafts are suitable for precise path or stationary flight. This minimises motion blur and provides better image overlapping for stitching and mapping procedures. Through improved image analyses and the recent increase in the availability of microcontrollers and powerful batteries for UAVs, it can be expected that the spatial mapping of weeds will be enhanced in the future. A six rotors microcopter was equipped with a modified RGB camera taking images from agricultural fields. The hexacopter operates within predefined pathways at adjusted altitudes (from 5 to 10 m) by using GPS navigation. Different scenarios of optical weed detection have been carried out regarding to variable altitude, image resolution, weed and crop growth stages. Our experiences showed high capabilities for site-specific weed control. Image analyses with regard to recognition of weed patches can be used to adapt herbicide application to varying weed occurrence across a field.

  2. Survivin inhibitor YM155 suppresses gastric cancer xenograft growth in mice without affecting normal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiao Jiao; Lin, Jia Cheng; Ding, Yan Fei; Zhu, Liming; Ye, Jing; Tu, Shui Ping

    2016-02-09

    Survivin overexpression is associated with poor prognosis of human gastric cancer, and is a target for gastric cancer therapy. YM155 is originally identified as a specific inhibitor of survivin. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effect of YM155 on human gastric cancer. Our results showed that YM155 treatment significantly inhibited cell proliferation, reduced colony formation and induced apoptosis of gastric cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Accordingly, YM155 treatment significantly decreased survivin expression without affecting XIAP expression and increased the cleavage of apoptosis-associated proteins caspase 3, 7, 8, 9. YM155 significantly inhibited sphere formation of gastric cancer cells, suppressed expansion and growth of the formed spheres (cancer stem cell-like cells, CSCs) and downregulated the protein levels of β-catenin, c-Myc, Cyclin D1 and CD44 in gastric cancer cells. YM155 infusion at 5 mg/kg/day for 7 days markedly inhibited growth of gastric cancer xenograft in a nude mouse model. Immunohistochemistry staining and Western Blot showed that YM155 treatment inhibited expression of survivin and CD44, induced apoptosis and reduced CD44+ CSCs in xenograft tumor tissues in vivo. No obvious pathological changes were observed in organs (e.g. heart, liver, lung and kidney) in YM155-treated mice. Our results demonstrated that YM155 inhibits cell proliferation, induces cell apoptosis, reduces cancer stem cell expansion, and inhibits xenograft tumor growth in gastric cancer cells. Our results elucidate a new mechanism by which YM155 inhibits gastric cancer growth by inhibition of CSCs. YM155 may be a promising agent for gastric cancer treatment.

  3. 'Obligate' anaerobic Salmonella strain YB1 suppresses liver tumor growth and metastasis in nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chang-Xian; Yu, Bin; Shi, Lei; Geng, Wei; Lin, Qiu-Bin; Ling, Chang-Chun; Yang, Mei; Ng, Kevin T P; Huang, Jian-Dong; Man, Kwan

    2017-01-01

    The antitumor properties of bacteria have been demonstrated over the past decades. However, the efficacy is limited and unclear. Furthermore, systemic infection remains a serious concern in bacteria treatment. In this study, the effect of YB1, a rationally designed 'obligate' anaerobic Salmonella typhimurium strain, on liver tumor growth and metastasis in a nude mouse orthotopic liver tumor model was investigated. The orthotopic liver tumor model was established in nude mice using the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line MHCC-97L. Two weeks after orthotopic liver tumor implantation, YB1, SL7207 and saline were respectively administered through the tail vein of the mice. Longitudinal monitoring of tumor growth and metastasis was performed using Xenogen IVIS, and direct measurements of tumor volume were taken 3 weeks after treatment. In vitro , MHCC-97L and PLC cells were incubated with YB1 or SL7207 under anaerobic conditions. YB1 was observed to invade tumor cells and induce tumor cell apoptosis and death. The results revealed that all mice in the YB1 group were alive 3 weeks after YB1 injection while all mice in the SL7207 group died within 11 days of the SL7207 injection. The body weight decreased by ~9% on day 1 after YB1 injection and but subsequently recovered. Liver tumor growth and metastases were significantly inhibited following YB1 treatment. By contrast to the control group, a large number of Gr1-positive cells were detected on days 1 to 21 following YB1 treatment. Furthermore, YB1 also effectively invaded tumor cells and induced tumor cell apoptosis and death. In conclusion, YB1 suppressed liver tumor growth and metastasis in a nude mice liver tumor model. The potential mechanism may be through enhancing innate immune response and inducing tumor cell apoptosis and cell death.

  4. Effect of long-term fertilisation on the weed community of a winter wheat field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Min; Liu, Tao; Huang, Niansheng; Shen, Xinping; Shen, Mingxing; Dai, Qigen

    2018-03-05

    Effects of fertilisation and other management techniques on a weed community were evaluated during wheat growth in a rice-wheat cropping system. Fertiliser treatments were C0 (C means chemical, C0 means zero chemical fertiliser.), CN (N fertiliser), CNK (N plus K fertiliser), CNPK (N plus P and K fertiliser), CNP (N plus P fertiliser), and CPK (P plus K fertiliser). Weed density, biomass, and bio-diversity were determined. Redundancy analysis (RDA) was used to investigate the relationship between fertiliser management, weed species, and weed density. The overall weed densities in the C0 and CPK treatments were the greatest during wheat seeding and ripening periods and were significantly greater than densities in the other treatments. N, P and organic matter in soil were highly correlated with weed species and density, whereas K in soil was not significantly correlated with weed species and weed density. N fertiliser significantly reduced weed density. Balanced fertilisation maintained weed species richness and resulting in a high yield of wheat. CNPK application reduced weed damage and improved the productivity and stability of the farmland ecosystem.

  5. Living Mulch Performance in a Tropical Cotton System and Impact on Yield and Weed Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Bhaskar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. is a major crop in the Vidarbha region of central India. The vertisol soils on which much of the cotton is grown have been severely degraded by the tropical climate, excessive tillage and depletion of organic matter. Living mulches have the ability to mitigate these problems but they can cause crop losses through direct competition with the cotton crop and unreliable weed control. Field experiments were conducted in 2012 and 2013 at four locations in Vidarbha to study the potential for growing living mulches in mono-cropped cotton. Living mulch species evaluated included gliricidia [Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Walp.], sesbania [Sesbania sesban (L. Merr.], sorghum sudan grass [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench × Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench ssp. Drummondii (Nees ex Steud. de Wet & Harlan] and sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea L.. Living mulch height was controlled through mowing and herbicides were not used. Living mulches generated 1 to 13 tons ha−1 of dry matter across sites and years. Weed cover was negatively correlated with both living mulch biomass and cover. Where living mulches were vigorous and established quickly, weed cover was as low as 7%, without the use of herbicides, or inter-row tillage. In a dry year, living mulch growth had a negative impact on cotton yield; however, in a year when soil moisture was not limiting, there was a positive relationship between cotton yield and living mulch biomass. Use of living mulches in cotton production in the Vidarbha region of India is feasible and can lead to both effective weed suppression and acceptable cotton yields.

  6. Effect of crop density on competition by wheat and barley with Agrostemma githago and other weeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doll, H.; Holm, U.; Søgaard, B.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of Agrostemma githago L. and other naturally occurring weeds on biomass production and grain yield was studied in winter wheat and winter barley. Naturally occurring weeds had only a negligible effect on barley, but reduced wheat grain yield by 10% at a quarter of normal crop density....... The interaction between the cereals and A. githago was studied in additive series employing different crop densities. Growth of this weed species was strongly dependent on crop density, which was more important for controlling weed growth than it was for obtaining a normal grain yield. Wheat and especially barley...

  7. CD147 silencing inhibits tumor growth by suppressing glucose transport in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Juan; Gao, Tianyuan; Jiang, Minghao; Wu, Lisha; Zeng, Weiqi; Zhao, Shuang; Peng, Cong; Chen, Xiang

    2016-10-04

    Melanoma is a very malignant disease and there are still no effective treatments. CD147 participates in the carcinogenesis of multiple human cancers and GLUT-1, as a glucose transporter, is associated with tumor growth. However, the function of CD147 and GLUT-1 in melanoma have not been completely understood. Thus, in this study we investigated the expression of CD147 and GLUT-1 in melanoma tissue, which were overexpressed compared with that in nevus tissue. In addition, CD147 and GLUT-1 were co-localized in the cytoplasm of human melanoma A375 cells. Immunoprecipitation proved that CD147 interacted with GLUT-1 at D105-199. Silencing CD147 by specific siRNA could downregulate GLUT-1 level via inhibiting PI3K/Akt signaling and decrease glucose uptake in A375 cells. In vivo experiments also supported that CD147 knockdown suppressed the tumor growth in melanoma subcutaneous mice model, observed by micro PET/CT. Our results could help validate CD147 as a new therapeutic target for treating melanoma.

  8. Kaempferol suppresses bladder cancer tumor growth by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Qiang; Song, Wenbin; Xu, Defeng; Ma, Yanmin; Li, Feng; Zeng, Jin; Zhu, Guodong; Wang, Xinyang; Chang, Luke S; He, Dalin; Li, Lei

    2015-09-01

    The effects of the flavonoid compound, kaempferol, which is an inhibitor of cancer cell proliferation and an inducer of cell apoptosis have been shown in various cancers, including lung, pancreatic, and ovarian, but its effect has never been studied in bladder cancer. Here, we investigated the effects of kaempferol on bladder cancer using multiple in vitro cell lines and in vivo mice studies. The MTT assay results on various bladder cancer cell lines showed that kaempferol enhanced bladder cancer cell cytotoxicity. In contrast, when analyzed by the flow cytometric analysis, DNA ladder experiment, and TUNEL assay, kaempferol significantly was shown to induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. These in vitro results were confirmed in in vivo mice studies using subcutaneous xenografted mouse models. Consistent with the in vitro results, we found that treating mice with kaempferol significant suppression in tumor growth compared to the control group mice. Tumor tissue staining results showed decreased expressions of the growth related markers, yet increased expressions in apoptosis markers in the kaempferol treated group mice tissues compared to the control group mice. In addition, our in vitro and in vivo data showed kaempferol can also inhibit bladder cancer invasion and metastasis. Further mechanism dissection studies showed that significant down-regulation of the c-Met/p38 signaling pathway is responsible for the kaempferol mediated cell proliferation inhibition. All these findings suggest kaempferol might be an effective and novel chemotherapeutic drug to apply for the future therapeutic agent to combat bladder cancer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. CXCL12 chemokine expression suppresses human pancreatic cancer growth and metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishan Roy

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is an unsolved health problem with nearly 75% of patients diagnosed with advanced disease and an overall 5-year survival rate near 5%. Despite the strong link between mortality and malignancy, the mechanisms behind pancreatic cancer dissemination and metastasis are poorly understood. Correlative pathological and cell culture analyses suggest the chemokine receptor CXCR4 plays a biological role in pancreatic cancer progression. In vivo roles for the CXCR4 ligand CXCL12 in pancreatic cancer malignancy were investigated. CXCR4 and CXCR7 were consistently expressed in normal and cancerous pancreatic ductal epithelium, established cell lines, and patient-derived primary cancer cells. Relative to healthy exocrine ducts, CXCL12 expression was pathologically repressed in pancreatic cancer tissue specimens and patient-derived cell lines. To test the functional consequences of CXCL12 silencing, pancreatic cancer cell lines stably expressingthe chemokine were engineered. Consistent with a role for CXCL12 as a tumor suppressor, cells producing the chemokine wereincreasingly adherent and migration deficient in vitro and poorly metastatic in vivo, compared to control cells. Further, CXCL12 reintroduction significantly reduced tumor growth in vitro, with significantly smaller tumors in vivo, leading to a pronounced survival advantage in a preclinical model. Together, these data demonstrate a functional tumor suppressive role for the normal expression of CXCL12 in pancreatic ducts, regulating both tumor growth andcellulardissemination to metastatic sites.

  10. Distribution of parthenium weed in peshawar valley, khyber pakhtunkhwa- pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, H.; Marwat, K. B.; Hassan, M. G.; Khan, M. A.; Hashim, S. [The University of Agriculture, Peshawar (Pakistan). Dept. of Weed Sciences

    2014-01-15

    dactylon and Coronopus didymus having IV % of 34.41, 16.30, 13.42 and 7.14, respectively. Looking at the overall distribution of flora in Peshawar valley, parthenium weed is spreading rapidly along the roadsides, into agricultural fields and on wastelands. The dominance of parthenium weed is attributable to its invasive ability due to its allelopathic properties, higher growth rate, rapid flowering and higher fecundity. (author)

  11. Distribution of parthenium weed in peshawar valley, khyber pakhtunkhwa- pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, H.; Marwat, K.B.; Hassan, M.G.; Khan, M.A.; Hashim, S.

    2014-01-01

    dactylon and Coronopus didymus having IV % of 34.41, 16.30, 13.42 and 7.14, respectively. Looking at the overall distribution of flora in Peshawar valley, parthenium weed is spreading rapidly along the roadsides, into agricultural fields and on wastelands. The dominance of parthenium weed is attributable to its invasive ability due to its allelopathic properties, higher growth rate, rapid flowering and higher fecundity. (author)

  12. Weed Dynamics and Management in Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabran, Khawar; Mahmood, Khalid; Melander, Bo

    2017-01-01

    ) chemical weed control; and (vi) integrated weed management strategy in wheat. A critical analysis of recent literature indicated that broadleaved weeds are the most common group of weeds in wheat fields followed by grass weeds, while sedges were rarely noted in wheat fields. Across the globe, the most...

  13. Weed Identification and Control in Vegetable Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Peter A., Comp.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University examines weed control and identification in vegetable crops. Contents include: (1) Types of weeds; (2) Reducing losses caused by weeds, general control methods and home garden weed control; (3) How herbicides are used; (4) Specific weeds in vegetable plantings; and…

  14. Allelopathic assessment of selected common weeds in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurul Ain, M. B.; Nornasuha, Y.; Ismail, B. S.

    2016-11-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the allelopathic potential of eight common weed species in Malaysia, namely, Ageratum conyzoides, Tridax procumbens, Cyperus iria, Fimbristylis miliacea, Eleusine indica, Imperata cylindrica, Lygodium flexuosum and Nephrolepis biserrata of different morphological characteristics (broadleaves, sedges, grasses and ferns). The allelopathic study of these weeds was carried out by testing the leaf litter leachate through the Sandwich method and the volatile compounds of these weeds through the Dish pack method with three replicates for each donor species. The results obtained from both methods were statistically analyzed and the means had converted to percentage growth inhibition to determine the inhibition pattern on the radicle and hypocotyl growth of lettuce seedlings. Among the eight weed species tested, Ageratum conyzoides showed the strongest growth inhibition on lettuce radicle elongation (86%) in the sandwich bioassay compared to the control, followed by Tridax procumbens (71%), which both species being broadleaves weeds. In the dish pack bioassay Lygodium flexuosum (fern) demonstrated maximum inhibition on the growth the radicle and hypocotyl for each different distance from the source well. On the other hand, two weed species exhibited enhanced on the growth radicle and hypocotyl when compared to that of the control in dish pack bioassay. Nephrolepis biserrata and Fimbristylis miliacea were the species that showed the highest growth stimulatory effect. The results presented can be utilized as benchmark information for further research on the elucidation of leachates and volatile chemicals involved in allelopathy in nature. The information can also be helpful in the development of new bioactive chemicals from natural products in weed control strategies.

  15. SH003 suppresses breast cancer growth by accumulating p62 in autolysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youn Kyung; Cho, Sung-Gook; Choi, Yu-Jeong; Yun, Yee Jin; Lee, Kang Min; Lee, Kangwook; Yoo, Hye-Hyun; Shin, Yong Cheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2017-10-24

    Drug markets revisits herbal medicines, as historical usages address their therapeutic efficacies with less adverse effects. Moreover, herbal medicines save both cost and time in development. SH003, a modified version of traditional herbal medicine extracted from Astragalus membranaceus (Am), Angelica gigas (Ag), and Trichosanthes Kirilowii Maximowicz (Tk) with 1:1:1 ratio (w/w) has been revealed to inhibit tumor growth and metastasis on highly metastatic breast cancer cells, both in vivo and in vitro with no toxicity. Meanwhile, autophagy is imperative for maintenance cellular homeostasis, thereby playing critical roles in cancer progression. Inhibition of autophagy by pharmacological agents induces apoptotic cell death in cancer cells, resulting in cancer treatment. In this study, we demonstrate that SH003-induced autophagy via inhibiting STAT3 and mTOR results in an induction of lysosomal p62/SQSTM1 accumulation-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and attenuates tumor growth. SH003 induced autophagosome and autolysosome formation by inhibiting activation of STAT3- and mTOR-mediated signaling pathways. However, SH003 blocked autophagy-mediated p62/SQSTM1 degradation through reducing of lysosomal proteases, Cathepsins, resulting in accumulation of p62/SQSTM1 in the lysosome. The accumulation of p62/SQSTM1 caused the increase of ROS, which resulted in the induction of apoptotic cell death. Therefore, we conclude that SH003 suppresses breast cancer growth by inducing autophagy. In addition, SH003-induced p62/SQSTM1 could function as an important mediator for ROS generation-dependent cell death suggesting that SH003 may be useful for treating breast cancer.

  16. Histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat suppresses the growth of uterine sarcomas in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru Edgar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uterine sarcomas are very rare malignancies with no approved chemotherapy protocols. Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors belong to the most promising groups of compounds for molecular targeting therapy. Here, we described the antitumor effects of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA; vorinostat on MES-SA uterine sarcoma cells in vitro and in vivo. We investigated effects of vorinostat on growth and colony forming ability by using uterine sarcoma MES-SA cells. We analyzed the influence of vorinostat on expression of different HDACs, p21WAF1 and activation of apoptosis. Finally, we examined the antitumor effects of vorinostat on uterine sarcoma in vivo. Results Vorinostat efficiently suppressed MES-SA cell growth at a low dosage (3 μM already after 24 hours treatment. Decrease of cell survival was even more pronounced after prolonged treatment and reached 9% and 2% after 48 and 72 hours of treatment, respectively. Colony forming capability of MES-SA cells treated with 3 μM vorinostat for 24 and 48 hours was significantly diminished and blocked after 72 hours. HDACs class I (HDAC2 and 3 as well as class II (HDAC7 were preferentially affected by this treatment. Vorinostat significantly increased p21WAF1 expression and apoptosis. Nude mice injected with 5 × 106 MES-SA cells were treated for 21 days with vorinostat (50 mg/kg/day and, in comparison to placebo group, a tumor growth reduction of more than 50% was observed. Results obtained by light- and electron-microscopy suggested pronounced activation of apoptosis in tumors isolated from vorinostat-treated mice. Conclusions Our data strongly indicate the high therapeutic potential of vorinostat in uterine sarcomas.

  17. Identification of derlin-1 as a novel growth factor-responsive endothelial antigen by suppression subtractive hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ran Yuliang; Jiang Yangfu; Zhong Xing; Zhou Zhuan; Liu Haiyan; Hu Hai; Lou Jinning; Yang Zhihua

    2006-01-01

    Endothelial cells play an important regulatory role in embryonic development, reproductive functions, tumor growth and progression. In the present study, the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method was employed to identify differentially expressed genes between non-stimulated endothelial cells and activated endothelial cells. Following mRNA isolation of non-stimulated and hepatocellular carcinoma homogenate-stimulated cells, cDNAs of both populations were prepared and subtracted by suppressive PCR. Sequencing of the enriched cDNAs identified a couple of genes differentially expressed, including derlin-1. Derlin-1 was significantly up-regulated by tumor homogenates, VEGF, and endothelial growth supplements in a dose-dependent manner. Knock-down of derlin-1 triggered endothelial cell apoptosis, inhibited endothelial cell proliferation, and blocked the formation of a network of tubular-like structures. Our data reveal that derlin-1 is a novel growth factor-responsive endothelial antigen that promotes endothelial cell survival and growth

  18. Suppression of the invasive plant mile-a-minute (Mikania micrantha) by local crop sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) by means of higher growth rate and competition for soil nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shicai; Xu, Gaofeng; Clements, David Roy; Jin, Guimei; Chen, Aidong; Zhang, Fudou; Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi

    2015-01-28

    There are a variety of ways of increasing crop diversity to increase agricultural sustainability and in turn having a positive influence on nearby natural ecosystems. Competitive crops may provide potent management tools against invasive plants. To elucidate the competitive mechanisms between a sweet potato crop (Ipomoea batatas) and an invasive plant, mile-a-minute (Mikania micrantha), field experiments were carried out in Longchuan County of Yunnan Province, Southwest China, utilizing a de Wit replacement series. The trial incorporated seven ratios of sweet potato and mile-a-minute plants in 25 m(2) plots. In monoculture, the total biomass, biomass of adventitious root, leafstalk length, and leaf area of sweet potato were all higher than those of mile-a-minute, and in mixed culture the plant height, branch, leaf, stem node, adventitious root, flowering and biomass of mile-a-minute were suppressed significantly (P competition was less than interspecific competition. The competitive balance index of sweet potato demonstrated a higher competitive ability than mile-a-minute. Except pH, other soil nutrient contents of initial soil (CK) were significantly higher than those of seven treatments. The concentrations of soil organic matter, total N, total K, available N, available P, available K, exchange Ca, exchange Mg, available Mn, and available B were significantly greater (P competition of sweet potato in the mixture. Evidently sweet potato has a competitive advantage in terms of plant growth characteristics and greater absorption of soil nutrients. Thus, planting sweet potato is a promising technique for reducing infestations of mile-a-minute, providing weed management benefits and economic returns from harvest of sweet potatoes. This study also shows the potential value of replacement control methods which may apply to other crop-weed systems or invaded natural ecosystems.

  19. WeedML: a Tool for Collaborative Weed Demographic Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Holst, Niels

    2010-01-01

    WeedML is a proposed standard to formulate models of weed demography, or maybe even complex models in general, that are both transparent and straightforward to re-use as building blocks for new models. The paper describes the design and thoughts behind WeedML which relies on XML and object-oriented systems development. Proof-of-concept software is provided as open-source C++ code and executables that can be downloaded freely.

  20. Clinical correlation to differences in ranibizumab and aflibercept vascular endothelial growth factor suppression times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauser, Sascha; Muether, Philipp S

    2016-11-01

    To determine clinical correlations to intraocular vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) suppression times (VSTs) on the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) with ranibizumab (Lucentis) or aflibercept (Eylea). Seven of 89 treatment-naïve nAMD eyes showed persistent choroidal neovascular membrane (CNV) activity throughout a spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT)-driven pro re nata (PRN) regimen of intravitreal ranibizumab injections over 28±4 months. The treatment was switched to PRN aflibercept injections and patients were followed for another 15±2 months. A total of 160 aqueous humour specimens were collected before the intravitreal injections, and their VEGF-A concentrations were assayed by Luminex multiplex bead analysis (Luminex, Austin, Texas, USA). Intraocular VEGF-A concentrations were correlated to CNV activity shown by SD-OCT. The mean duration of suppression of VEGF-A concentrations in aqueous humour below the lower limit of quantification of our assay was 34±5 (26-69) days for ranibizumab and 67±14 (49-89) days for aflibercept (p<0.001). The percentual reduction of central retinal volume (CRV) 6 weeks after injection was higher for aflibercept compared with ranibizumab (p=0.009). The time point of clinical re-activity occurred about 50% earlier than the respective VST for each ranibizumab and aflibercept. The VST under aflibercept treatment exceeded that under ranibizumab treatment by a factor of 2. This difference correlated with differential clinical CRV reduction 6 weeks after the respective injection. For both medications, clinical activity was found at a time point as early as 50% of the individual VST. NCT01213667, post-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. MELATONIN-INDUCED SUPPRESSION OF PC12 CELL GROWTH IS MEDIATED BY ITS GI COUPLED TRANSMEMBRANE RECEPTORS. (R826248)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of pertussis toxin, an uncoupler of Gi protein from adenylate cyclase, and luzindole, a competitive inhibitor of melatonin receptor binding, were examined for their ability to inhibit melatonin-induced suppression of PC12 cell growth. Both agents inhibited the mela...

  2. WNT10B functional dualism: beta-catenin/Tcf-dependent growth promotion or independent suppression with deregulated expression in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hirohide; Matsubara, Kenichi; Zhou, Xiaoling; Okamura, Shu; Kubo, Takahiko; Murase, Yaeko; Shikauchi, Yuko; Esteller, Manel; Herman, James G; Wei Wang, Xin; Harris, Curtis C

    2007-11-01

    We found aberrant DNA methylation of the WNT10B promoter region in 46% of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and 15% of colon cancer samples. Three of 10 HCC and one of two colon cancer cell lines demonstrated low or no expression, and 5-aza-2'deoxycytidine reactivated WNT10B expression with the induction of demethylation, indicating that WNT10B is silenced by DNA methylation in some cancers, whereas WNT10B expression is up-regulated in seven of the 10 HCC cell lines and a colon cancer cell line. These results indicate that WNT10B can be deregulated by either overexpression or silencing in cancer. We found that WNT10B up-regulated beta-catenin/Tcf activity. However, WNT10B-overexpressing cells demonstrated a reduced growth rate and anchorage-independent growth that is independent of the beta-catenin/Tcf activation, because mutant beta-catenin-transduced cells did not suppress growth, and dominant-negative hTcf-4 failed to alleviate the growth suppression by WNT10B. Although WNT10B expression alone inhibits cell growth, it acts synergistically with the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) to stimulate cell growth. WNT10B is bifunctional, one function of which is involved in beta-catenin/Tcf activation, and the other function is related to the down-regulation of cell growth through a different mechanism. We suggest that FGF switches WNT10B from a negative to a positive cell growth regulator.

  3. Phytotoxins produced by pathogenic fungi for the integrated management of noxious weeds

    OpenAIRE

    Cimmino, Alessio

    2008-01-01

    Weeds infest economically important crops causing marked losses in agrarian production, forests, and ornamental heritages. Weed pests, including parasitic plants, have always being recognised as one of the most serious agricultural and environmental problems due to competition with the growth of agrarian crops and forest plants by subtraction of water, nutrients, light and by the serious obstacles they represent for agronomic activities. A number of weed management strategies have been fo...

  4. Robotic weed monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochtis, Dionysis; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn; Jørgensen, R N

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper, an integrated management system for the planning and activation of thefield monitoring task is presented. The architecture of the system is built around a mobile roboticunit. The internet based architecture of the system includes a station unit that works as a mobileon-fa...... of the weed monitoring operation.Key words: autonomous vehicles, farm management, mission planning, route planning,sampling....

  5. Weeds Cause Losses in Field Crops through Allelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali ZOHAIB

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A large number of weeds are known to be associated with crops and causing economic losses. Weeds interfere with crops through competition and allelopathy. They produce secondary metabolites known as allelochemicals, which belong to numerous chemical classes such as phenolics, alkaloids, fatty acids, indoles, terpens etc. However, phenolics are the predominant class of allelochemicals. The allelochemicals release from weed plants takes place through leaf leachates, decomposition of plant residues, volatilization and root exudates. Weeds leave huge quantities of their residues in field and affect the associated, as well as succeeding crops, in various cropping systems. Liberation of allelochemicals from weeds affects the germination, stand establishment, growth, yield and physiology of crop plants. They cause substantial reduction in germination and growth of the crop plants by altering various physiological processes such as enzyme activity, protein synthesis, photosynthesis, respiration, cell division and enlargement, which ultimately leads to a significant reduction in crop yield. In crux, allelopathic weeds represent a potential threat for crop plants and cause economic losses.

  6. The effects of soil fumigation on the growth and mineral nutrition of weeds and crops=Efeito da fumigação do solo no crescimento e nutrição mineral de plantas daninhas e culturas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marliane de Cássia Soares da Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Weeds and soil microorganisms interact with each other in the soil/root interface, promoting the development and establishment of both. The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth and nutrient accumulation in eight species of weeds (Ageratum conyzoides L., Bidens pilosa L., Cenchrus echinatus L., Conyza bonariensis L., Echinochloa crus-galli L., Eleusine indica L. Ipomoea grandifolia L. and Lolium multiflorum L. and in bean and corn crops grown for 50 days in a substrate fumigated with methyl bromide. Assessments relating to the height, leaf area, leaf number, dry weight of shoots and roots and relative content of nutrients were carried out 50 days after seedling emergence. A positive effect of soil fumigation was observed on the growth, leaf number, leaf area, plant height and accumulation of nutrients in monocot weeds in relation to dicots. Conyza bonariensis was the most affected by soil fumigation, with levels of dry matter, leaf number, leaf area, height and accumulation of nutrients approximately 50% lower than plants grown in normal soil. Fumigation also influenced the growth cycle of the plants, which was lower for B. pilosa, E. indica and C. echinatus. We also observed a 20 and 30% lower phosphorus accumulation in Bidens pilosa and Conyza bonariensis, respectively, when grown in the sterilized soil. Overall, the bean and corn crops were less affected by soil fumigation than the weeds.Plantas daninhas e microrganismos do solo se interagem na interface solo/raiz promovendo vantagens para o desenvolvimento e estabelecimento de ambos. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o crescimento e o acúmulo de nutrientes em oito espécies de plantas daninhas (Ageratum conyzoides L., Bidens pilosa L., Cenchrus echinatus L., Conyza bonariensis L., Echinochloa crus-galli L., Eleusine indica L., Ipomoea grandifolia L. e Lolium multiflorum L. e nas culturas de feijão e milho, cultivadas, por 50 dias, em substrato fumigado com brometo de

  7. Supressão de plantas daninhas e produção de milho-verde orgânico em sistema de plantio direto Weed suppression and organic green corn production in no tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.R. Queiroz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O sombreamento do solo com cobertura morta proporciona redução na germinação das sementes e diminuição da população de plantas daninhas, possibilitando às plantas da cultura de interesse se desenvolverem sob efeito de menor competição inicial. Dessa forma, objetivou-se neste trabalho investigar o efeito do cultivo de leguminosas na evolução da comunidade de plantas daninhas na cultura do milho-verde cultivado em sucessão, num sistema orgânico. O ensaio foi realizado em delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas e quatro repetições. Inicialmente, houve o plantio das leguminosas: feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformes, guandu (Cajanus cajan, mucuna-preta (Mucuna aterrinum, mucuna-anã (Mucuna deeringiana e crotalária (Crotalaria juncea; foi mantida uma testemunha sem cultivo em pousio. Anteriormente ao cultivo do milho, foi avaliada a produção de matéria seca de cada espécie de leguminosa. Em seguida, após a roçada das leguminosas foi semeado sobre a palhada o milho, cultivar HTMV 02. A amostragem das plantas daninhas foi realizada aos 15 e 30 dias após a emergência do milho, lançando-se de forma aleatória sobre cada parcela um quadro de 50 x 50 cm. As plantas daninhas dentro do quadro foram identificadas, pesadas e contadas por espécie, sendo posteriormente colocadas em estufa a 65ºC, por 72 horas, para determinação da matéria seca. As palhadas da mucuna-preta e da crotalária proporcionaram maior redução de matéria seca e população das plantas daninhas. A maior produtividade de espigas comerciais de milho-verde foi obtida na área de palhada de mucuna-preta e crotalária.Soil shading using mulch reduces weed seed germination and, consequently, weed population, allowing the plant of interest to develop free of the initial competition. Thus, the aim of this paper was to evaluate the effect of leguminous plant cultivation on the evolution of a weed community on green corn cultivated in

  8. Growth suppression by transforming growth factor beta 1 of human small-cell lung cancer cell lines is associated with expression of the type II receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, P; Damstrup, L; Rygaard, K

    1994-01-01

    was observed in two cell lines expressing only type III receptor and in TGF-beta-r negative cell lines. In two cell lines expressing all three receptor types, growth suppression was accompanied by morphological changes. To evaluate the possible involvement of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) in mediating...

  9. Nimotuzumab enhances temozolomide-induced growth suppression of glioma cells expressing mutant EGFR in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitta, Yusuke; Shimizu, Saki; Shishido-Hara, Yukiko; Suzuki, Kaori; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki; Nagane, Motoo

    2016-01-01

    A mutant form of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), EGFRvIII, is common in glioblastoma (GBM) and confers enhanced tumorigenic activity and drug resistance. Nimotuzumab, an anti-EGFR antibody, has shown preclinical and clinical activity to GBM, but its specific activity against EGFRvIII has not been fully investigated. Human glioma U87MG or LNZ308 cells overexpressing either wild-type (wt) EGFR or EGFRvIII were treated with nimotuzumab, temozolomide, or both. Expression and phosphorylation status of molecules were determined by Western blot analysis. Methylation status of promoter region of O 6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) was detected by methylation-specific PCR. Antitumor activity was tested using nude mice bearing either subcutaneous or intracerebral xenografts along with analyses of EGFR phosphorylation status, proliferation, apoptosis, and vessel density. Nimotuzumab treatment resulted in reduction of EGFRvIII tyrosine phosphorylation with a decrease in Akt phosphorylation that was greater than that of wtEGFR. Correspondingly, antitumor effects, growth suppression and survival elongation, were more significant in mice bearing either subcutaneous or intracerebral tumor expressing EGFRvIII than in those expressing wtEGFR. These effects were markedly increased when temozolomide was combined with nimotuzumab. The post-treatment recurrent brain tumors exhibited a decrease in expression of the mismatch repair (MMR) proteins, MSH6 and MLH1, but their methylated MGMT status did not changed. Nimotuzumab has in vivo antitumor activity against GBM, especially those expressing EGFRvIII, when combined with temozolomide. This could provide a basis for preselection of patients with GBM by EGFR status who might benefit from the nimotuzumab and temozolomide combination therapy

  10. Suppression of the emittance growth induced by coherent synchrotron radiation in triple-bend achromats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xiyang; Jiao Yi; Xu Gang; Cui Xiaohao

    2015-01-01

    The coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effect in a bending path plays an important role in transverse emittance dilution in high-brightness light sources and linear colliders, where the electron beams are of short bunch length and high peak current. Suppression of the emittance growth induced by CSR is critical to preserve the beam quality and help improve the machine performance. It has been shown that the CSR effect in a double-bend achromat (DBA) can be analyzed with the two-dimensional point-kick analysis method. In this paper, this method is applied to analyze the CSR effect in a triple-bend achromat (TBA) with symmetric layout, which is commonly used in the optics designs of energy recovery linacs (ERLs). A condition of cancelling the CSR linear effect in such a TBA is obtained, and is verified through numerical simulations. It is demonstrated that emittance preservation can be achieved with this condition, and to a large extent, has a high tolerance to the fluctuation of the initial transverse phase space distribution of the beam. (authors)

  11. BCL2-BH4 antagonist BDA-366 suppresses human myeloma growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jiusheng; Park, Dongkyoo; Wang, Mengchang; Nooka, Ajay; Deng, Qiaoya; Matulis, Shannon; Kaufman, Jonathan; Lonial, Sagar; Boise, Lawrence H; Galipeau, Jacques; Deng, Xingming

    2016-05-10

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a heterogeneous plasma cell malignancy and remains incurable. B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL2) protein correlates with the survival and the drug resistance of myeloma cells. BH3 mimetics have been developed to disrupt the binding between BCL2 and its pro-apoptotic BCL2 family partners for the treatment of MM, but with limited therapeutic efficacy. We recently identified a small molecule BDA-366 as a BCL2 BH4 domain antagonist, converting it from an anti-apoptotic into a pro-apoptotic molecule. In this study, we demonstrated that BDA-366 induces robust apoptosis in MM cell lines and primary MM cells by inducing BCL2 conformational change. Delivery of BDA-366 substantially suppressed the growth of human MM xenografts in NOD-scid/IL2Rγnull mice, without significant cytotoxic effects on normal hematopoietic cells or body weight. Thus, BDA-366 functions as a novel BH4-based BCL2 inhibitor and offers an entirely new tool for MM therapy.

  12. The oncoprotein HBXIP suppresses gluconeogenesis through modulating PCK1 to enhance the growth of hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hui; Fang, Runping; Li, Yinghui; Li, Leilei; Zhang, Weiying; Wang, Huawei; Chen, Fuquan; Zhang, Shuqin; Zhang, Xiaodong; Ye, Lihong

    2016-11-28

    Hepatitis B X-interacting protein (HBXIP) as an oncoprotein plays crucial roles in the development of cancer, involving glucose metabolism reprogramming. In this study, we are interested in whether the oncoprotein HBXIP is involved in the modulation of gluconeogenesis in liver cancer. Here, we showed that the expression level of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1), a key enzyme of gluconeogenesis, was lower in clinical hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues than that in normal tissues. Mechanistically, HBXIP inhibited the expression of PCK1 through down-regulating transcription factor FOXO1 in hepatoma cells, and up-regulated miR-135a targeting the 3'UTR of FOXO1 mRNA in the cells. In addition, HBXIP increased the phosphorylation levels of FOXO1 protein by activating PI3K/Akt pathway, leading to the export of FOXO1 from nucleus to cytoplasm. Strikingly, over-expression of PCK1 could abolish the HBXIP-promoted growth of hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Thus, we conclude that the oncoprotein HBXIP is able to depress the gluconeogenesis through suppressing PCK1 to promote hepatocarcinogenesis, involving miR-135a/FOXO1 axis and PI3K/Akt/p-FOXO1 pathway. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism by which oncoprotein HBXIP modulates glucose metabolism reprogramming in HCC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pharmacological blockade of cholesterol trafficking by cepharanthine in endothelial cells suppresses angiogenesis and tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Junfang; Yang, Eun Ju; Head, Sarah A; Ai, Nana; Zhang, Baoyuan; Wu, Changjie; Li, Ruo-Jing; Liu, Yifan; Yang, Chen; Dang, Yongjun; Kwon, Ho Jeong; Ge, Wei; Liu, Jun O; Shim, Joong Sup

    2017-11-28

    Cholesterol is an important modulator of membrane protein function and signaling in endothelial cells, thus making it an emerging target for anti-angiogenic agents. In this study, we employed a phenotypic screen that detects intracellular cholesterol distribution in endothelial cells (HUVEC) and identified 13 existing drugs as cholesterol trafficking inhibitors. Cepharanthine, an approved drug for anti-inflammatory and cancer management use, was amongst the candidates, which was selected for in-depth mechanistic studies to link cholesterol trafficking and angiogenesis. Cepharanthine inhibited the endolysosomal trafficking of free-cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein in HUVEC by binding to Niemann-Pick disease, type C1 (NPC1) protein and increasing the lysosomal pH. The blockade of cholesterol trafficking led to a cholesterol-dependent dissociation of mTOR from the lysosomes and inhibition of its downstream signaling. Cepharanthine inhibited angiogenesis in HUVEC and in zebrafish in a cholesterol-dependent manner. Furthermore, cepharanthine suppressed tumor growth in vivo by inhibiting angiogenesis and it enhanced the antitumor activity of the standard chemotherapy cisplatin in lung and breast cancer xenografts in mice. Altogether, these results strongly support the idea that cholesterol trafficking is a viable drug target for anti-angiogenesis and that the inhibitors identified among existing drugs, such as cepharanthine, could be potential anti-angiogenic and antitumor agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Suppression of tumor growth by a new glycosaminoglycan isolated from the African giant snail Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeon Sil; Yang, Hyun Ok; Shin, Kuk Hyun; Choi, Hyung Seok; Jung, Sang Hoon; Kim, Yong Man; Oh, Deok Kun; Linhardt, Robert J; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2003-03-28

    Acharan sulfate is a new type of glycosaminoglycan from the giant African snail, Achatina fulica. Acharan sulfate, which has a primary repeating disaccharide structure of alpha-D-N-acetylglucosaminyl-2-O-sulfo-alpha-L-iduronic acid, was studied as a potential antitumor agent in both in vivo and in vitro assays. The antiangiogenic activity of acharan sulfate was evaluated in the chorioallantoic membrane assay and by measuring its effect on the proliferation of calf pulmonary artery endothelial cells. In vivo, a matrigel plug assay showed that acharan sulfate suppressed basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-stimulated angiogenesis and lowered the hemoglobin (Hb) content inside the plug. Acharan sulfate was administered s.c. at two doses for 15 days to C57BL/6 mice implanted with murine Lewis lung carcinoma in the back. It was also administered i.p. to ICR mice bearing sarcoma 180 at a dose of 30 mg/kg. Subcutaneous injection of acharan sulfate at doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg decreased tumor weight and tumor volume by 40% without toxicity or resistance. Intraperitoneal injection of acharan sulfate also decreased tumor weight and volume by 40% in sarcoma 180-bearing mice. These results suggest that the antitumor activity of acharan sulfate may be related to the inhibition of angiogenesis.

  15. The role of plant-microbiome interactions in weed establishment and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trognitz, Friederike; Hackl, Evelyn; Widhalm, Siegrid; Sessitsch, Angela

    2016-10-01

    The soil microbiome plays an important role in the establishment of weeds and invasive plants. They associate with microorganisms supporting their growth and health. Weed management strategies, like tillage and herbicide treatments, to control weeds generally alter soil structure going alongside with changes in the microbial community. Once a weed population establishes in the field, the plants build up a close relationship with the available microorganisms. Seeds or vegetative organs overwinter in soil and select early in the season their own microbiome before crop plants start to vegetate. Weed and crop plants compete for light, nutrition and water, but may differently interact with soil microorganisms. The development of new sequencing technologies for analyzing soil microbiomes has opened up the possibility for in depth analysis of the interaction between 'undesired' plants and crop plants under different management systems. These findings will help us to understand the functions of microorganisms involved in crop productivity and plant health, weed establishment and weed prevention. Exploitation of the knowledge offers the possibility to search for new biocontrol methods against weeds based on soil and plant-associated microorganisms. This review discusses the recent advances in understanding the functions of microbial communities for weed/invasive plant establishment and shows new ways to use plant-associated microorganisms to control weeds and invasive plants in different land management systems. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Effect of ploughing frequency and weeding methods on weeds and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Five tillage practices ... 2.5 l ha-1, Duplosan plus one hand weeding at 30 days after emergence (DAE); ... weed on time, is one of the major constraints in wheat ... management factors and soil type (Yohannes, 1982). .... The finding at ICARDA (1984) shows that ..... selling price of the crop changes, the farmer can still get a.

  17. Spatial and temporal patterns of carabid activity-density in cereals do not explain levels of predation on weed seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saska, P.; Werf, van der W.; Vries, de E.; Westerman, P.R.

    2008-01-01

    Seed predation is an important component of seed mortality of weeds in agro-ecosystems, but the agronomic use and management of this natural weed suppression is hampered by a lack of insight in the underlying ecological processes. In this paper, we investigate whether and how spatial and temporal

  18. Excess TSH causes abnormal skeletal development in young mice with hypothyroidism via suppressive effects on the growth plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Toyoshi; Kobayashi, Tetsuro

    2013-09-01

    Hypothyroidism in the young leads to irreversible growth failure. hyt/hyt Mice have a nonfunctional TSH receptor (TSHR) and are severely hypothyroid, but growth retardation was not observed in adult mice. We found that epiphysial cartilage as well as cultured chondrocytes expressed functional TSHR at levels comparable to that seen in the thyroid, and that addition of TSH to cultured chondrocytes suppressed expression of chondrocyte differentiation marker genes such as Sox-9 and type IIa collagen. Next, we compared the long bone phenotypes of two distinct mouse models of hypothyroidism: thyroidectomized (THYx) mice and hyt/hyt mice. Although both THYx and hyt/hyt mice were severely hypothyroid and had similar serum Ca(2+) and growth hormone levels, the tibia was shorter and the proliferating and hypertrophic zones in the growth plate was significantly narrower in THYx mice than in hyt/hyt mice. Supplementation of hyt/hyt mice thyroid hormone resulted in a wider growth plate compared with that of wild-type mice. Expressions of chondrocyte differentiation marker genes Sox-9 and type IIa collagen in growth plate from THYx mice were 52 and 60% lower than those of hyt/hyt mice, respectively. High serum TSH causes abnormal skeletal development in young mice with hypothyroidism via suppressive effects on the growth plate.

  19. [Effects of different fertilization regimes on weed communities in wheat fields under rice-wheat cropping system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fang; Li, Yong; Li, Fen-hua; Sun, Guo-jun; Han, Min; Zhang, Hai-yan; Ji, Zhong; Wu, Chen-yu

    2016-01-01

    To reveal the effects of different fertilization regimes on weed communities in wheat fields under a rice-wheat rotation system, a survey was conducted before wheat harvest in 2014 after a 4-year long-term recurrent fertilization scheme. Weed species types, density, height and diversity index under different fertilization and straw-returning schemes in wheat fields were studied and complemented with a canonical correspondence analysis on weed community distribution and soil nutrient factors. Twenty weed species were recorded among 36 wheat fields belonging to 19 genera and 11 families. Beckmannia syzigachne, Hemistepta lyrata, Malachium aquaticum and Cnidium monnieri were widely distributed throughout the sampled area. Long-term fertilization appeared to reduce weed species richness and density, particularly for broadleaf weeds, but increased weed height. Diversity and evenness indices of weed communities were lower and dominance indices were higher in fields where chemical fertilizers were applied alone or combined with organic fertilizers, especially, where organic-inorganic compound fertilizer was used, in which it readily caused the outbreak of a dominant species and severe damage. Conversely, diversity and evenness indices of weed communities were higher and dominance indices were lower when the straw was returned to the field combined with chemical or organic fertilizers, in which weed community structures were complex and stable with lower weed density. Under these conditions weeds only caused slight reduction of wheat growth.

  20. The effect of intercropping on weed infestation of a spring barley crop cultivated in monoculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Kwiecińska-Poppe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study carried out in the years 2005-2007 in the Bezek Experimental Farm near the city of Chełm, Poland, on heavy mixed rendzina soil. The effect of intercropping, using red clover (cv. Dajana and white clover (cv. Astra, on weed infestation of a spring barley crop was studied. The species composition of weeds in the spring barley crop changed to a small extent under the influence of the application of clover intercropping, whereas the population size of particular species showed large fluctuations. In the spring barley crop with the red clover intercrop, Sonchus arvensis occurred in greatest numbers among dicotyledonous weed species. In the barley crop with white clover and without intercrop, Viola arvensis and Sonchus arvensis were the dominant dicotyledonous species. Setaria pumila was the dominant monocotyledonous species in all the treatments. Intercropping using red and white clover clearly limited the growth and development of weeds. The red clover intercrop in the spring barley crop better reduced the infestation with dicotyledonous weeds and also significantly reduced the number of monocotyledonous weeds and the total number of weeds, whereas the white clover intercrop limited only the number of monocotyledonous weeds. The application of the herbicide Chwastox Extra 300 SL significantly reduced the fresh weight of weeds found in the spring barley crop. The presence of the intercrop resulted in different total numbers of weeds in particular treatments. Intercropping distinctly limited the occurrence of the following weed species: Sonchus arvensis, Fallopia convolvulus, Melandrium album, Amaranthus retroflexus, Veronica arvensis and Medicago lupulina. The investigated intercrop species also reduced the biomass of weeds. The application of the herbicide did not differentiate the number of monocotyledonous weeds, which resulted from the application of Chwastox Extra 300 SL that controls only

  1. Weed management: a case study from north-west Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwat, K.B.; Hashim, S.; Ali, H.

    2010-01-01

    Alien and exotic plant invasions are threatening the floral diversity around the globe and affect ecological processes. Weed invasion has been documented in North-West Pakistan. A total of 16 weeds were reported as invasive. These were Xanthium strumarium, Ipomoea eriocarpa, Alternanthera pungens, Trianthema portulacastrum, Tagetes minuta, Imperata cylindrica, Amaranthus hybridus subsp. hybridus, Robinia pseudo-acacia, Broussonetia papyrifera, Ailanthus altissima, Pistia stratiotes, Phragmites australis, Parthenium hysterophorus, Cannabis sativa, Galium aparine and Emex spinosus. Among these Robinia pseudo-acacia, Broussonetia papyrifera and Ailanthus altissima are trees and were purposely introduced as they later became invasive. They were aggressive in nature and replaced or suppressed the local vegetation. Their distribution, history of invasion and management has been discussed here. The behaviour and association of the 36 problem weeds with different crops has also been outlined as they perspired from the farmers. (author)

  2. Weed management: a case study from north-west Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marwat, K B; Hashim, S; Ali, H [KPK Agriculture University, Peshawar (Pakistan). Dept. of Weed Science

    2010-12-15

    Alien and exotic plant invasions are threatening the floral diversity around the globe and affect ecological processes. Weed invasion has been documented in North-West Pakistan. A total of 16 weeds were reported as invasive. These were Xanthium strumarium, Ipomoea eriocarpa, Alternanthera pungens, Trianthema portulacastrum, Tagetes minuta, Imperata cylindrica, Amaranthus hybridus subsp. hybridus, Robinia pseudo-acacia, Broussonetia papyrifera, Ailanthus altissima, Pistia stratiotes, Phragmites australis, Parthenium hysterophorus, Cannabis sativa, Galium aparine and Emex spinosus. Among these Robinia pseudo-acacia, Broussonetia papyrifera and Ailanthus altissima are trees and were purposely introduced as they later became invasive. They were aggressive in nature and replaced or suppressed the local vegetation. Their distribution, history of invasion and management has been discussed here. The behaviour and association of the 36 problem weeds with different crops has also been outlined as they perspired from the farmers. (author)

  3. Site-specific weed control technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Svend; Søgaard, Henning Tangen; Kudsk, Per

    2009-01-01

    Site-specific weed control technologies are defined as machinery or equipment embedded with technologies that detect weeds growing in a crop and, taking into account predefined factors such as economics, takes action to maximise the chances of successfully controlling them. In the article, we...... describe the basic parts of site specific weed control technologies, comprising of weed sensing systems, weed management models and precision weed control implements. A review of state-of-the-art technologies shows that several weed sensing systems and precision implements have been developed over the last...... of knowledge about the economic and environmental potential for increasing the resolution of weed control. The integration of site-specific information on weed distribution, weed species composition and density, and the effect on crop yield, is decisive for successful site-specific weed management.   Keywords...

  4. Spatial analysis of weed patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijting, S.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: Spatial analysis, weed patterns, Mead’s test, space-time correlograms, 2-D correlograms, dispersal, Generalized Linear Models, heterogeneity, soil, Taylor’s power law. Weeds in agriculture occur in patches. This thesis is a contribution to the characterization of this patchiness, to its

  5. Planting pattern and weed control method influence on yield production of corn (Zea mays L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purba, E.; Nasution, D. P.

    2018-02-01

    Field experiment was carried out to evaluate the influence of planting patterns and weed control methods on the growth and yield of corn. The effect of the planting pattern and weed control method was studied in a split plot design. The main plots were that of planting pattern single row (25cm x 60cm), double row (25cm x 25cm x 60cm) and triangle row ( 25cm x 25cm x 25cm). Subplot was that of weed control method consisted five methods namely weed free throughout the growing season, hand weeding, sprayed with glyphosate, sprayed with paraquat, and no weeding.. Result showed that both planting pattern and weed control method did not affect the growth of corn. However, planting pattern and weed control method significantly affected yield production. Yield resulted from double row and triangle planting pattern was 14% and 41% higher, consecutively, than that of single row pattern. The triangle planting pattern combined with any weed control method produced the highest yield production of corn.

  6. Chemical Weed Control in a Two-Year-Old Walnut Planting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayne G. Erdmann; Leeroy Green

    1967-01-01

    Six herbicide mixtures were sprayed directly on broadleaf weeds and grasses competing with black walnut trees. Mixtures of papquat (1/2 lb/acre) with simazine (4 lb/acre) or atrazine (4 lb/acre), and amitrole (2 lb/acre) plus simazine (4 lb/acre) gave satisfactory weed control which resulted in significantly better tree height and diameter growth.

  7. Molecular mechanisms responsive to dehydration may impact the invasiveness of perennial weeds under global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leafy spurge is an invasive perennial weed in the great plains of the US and Canada. The ability of this herbaceous weed to regenerate new shoot growth from an abundance of crown and root buds after severe abiotic stress is critical for survival. Due to its adaptable and aggressive nature, global cl...

  8. Met tyrosine kinase inhibitor, PF-2341066, suppresses growth and invasion of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Y

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Yuanyuan Zhao,1,* Jing Zhang,2,* Ying Tian,1,* Cong Xue,1 Zhihuang Hu,1 Li Zhang1,3 1Department of Medical Oncology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, and Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, 2Department of Medical Oncology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Guang Zhou Traditional Chinese Medicine University, 3National Anti-Cancer Drug Research Centre, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, and Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: We explored the effect of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF/Met signaling pathway on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC cells in vitro and in vivo, and investigated the ability of Met tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI to block HGF-induced biological signaling.Experimental design: Met TKI inhibitor PF-2341066 alone, or in combination with cisplatin, was investigated for its ability to block HGF-induced signaling and biological effects in vitro and in vivo. HGF/Met expression and activation of signaling in NPC cells were detected by using Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Biological evaluation, including wound healing, cell proliferation, and invasion of NPC cells, was also examined, and the correlation between HGF/Met expression of primary and metastatic tumor in NPC patients and clinical prognosis were also analyzed.Results: Met TKI inhibitor, PF-2341066, inhibited growth of NPC cells in vivo with half maximal inhibitory concentration of 0.79±0.21 µmol/L, and suppressed invasion and migration of NPC cells; also, the inhibition of PF-2341066 was synergized with cisplatin treatment. Compared with the control group, Met TKI inhibited metastasis of transplanted NPC in nude mice (the number of live metastases [mean ± SD]: 5.8±2.2 versus 11.8±2.2, P=0.03; the number of lung metastases: 2.3±1.5 versus

  9. Controlling weeds with fungi, bacteria and viruses: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Dylan P.; Raizada, Manish N.

    2015-01-01

    Weeds are a nuisance in a variety of land uses. The increasing prevalence of both herbicide resistant weeds and bans on cosmetic pesticide use has created a strong impetus to develop novel strategies for controlling weeds. The application of bacteria, fungi and viruses to achieving this goal has received increasingly great attention over the last three decades. Proposed benefits to this strategy include reduced environmental impact, increased target specificity, reduced development costs compared to conventional herbicides and the identification of novel herbicidal mechanisms. This review focuses on examples from North America. Among fungi, the prominent genera to receive attention as bioherbicide candidates include Colletotrichum, Phoma, and Sclerotinia. Among bacteria, Xanthomonas and Pseudomonas share this distinction. The available reports on the application of viruses to controlling weeds are also reviewed. Focus is given to the phytotoxic mechanisms associated with bioherbicide candidates. Achieving consistent suppression of weeds in field conditions is a common challenge to this control strategy, as the efficacy of a bioherbicide candidate is generally more sensitive to environmental variation than a conventional herbicide. Common themes and lessons emerging from the available literature in regard to this challenge are presented. Additionally, future directions for this crop protection strategy are suggested. PMID:26379687

  10. Hyaluronan suppresses prostate tumor cell proliferation through diminished expression of N-cadherin and aberrant growth factor receptor signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharadwaj, Alamelu G.; Goodrich, Nathaniel P.; McAtee, Caitlin O.; Haferbier, Katie; Oakley, Gregory G.; Wahl, James K.; Simpson, Melanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) production has been functionally implicated in prostate tumorigenesis and metastasis. We previously used prostate tumor cells overexpressing the HA synthesizing enzyme HAS3 or the clinically relevant hyaluronidase Hyal1 to show that excess HA production suppresses tumor growth, while HA turnover accelerates spontaneous metastasis from the prostate. Here, we examined pathways responsible for effects of HAS3 and Hyal1 on tumor cell phenotype. Detailed characterization of cell cycle progression revealed that expression of Hyal1 accelerated cell cycle re-entry following synchronization, whereas HAS3 alone delayed entry. Hyal1 expressing cells exhibited a significant reduction in their ability to sustain ERK phosphorylation upon stimulation by growth factors, and in their expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. In contrast, HAS3 expressing cells showed prolonged ERK phosphorylation and increased expression of both p21 and p27, in asynchronous and synchronized cultures. Changes in cell cycle regulatory proteins were accompanied by HA-induced suppression of N-cadherin, while E-cadherin expression and β-catenin expression and distribution remained unchanged. Our results are consistent with a model in which excess HA synthesis suppresses cell proliferation by promoting homotypic E-cadherin mediated cell-cell adhesion, consequently signaling to elevate cell cycle inhibitor expression and suppress G1- to S-phase transition.

  11. Weed community and growth under the canopy of trees adapted to the brazilian semi-arid region Comunidade e crescimento de plantas daninhas sob a copa de árvores adaptadas ao semi-árido brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S.L. Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to evaluate the floristic composition and dry biomass of weeds under the canopy of seven perennial species adapted to the Semi-Arid region of Brazil, and correlate these characteristics with growth traits of the perennial species. The following perennial species were evaluated in two experiments (E1 and E2: mesquite (Prosopis juliflora, jucá (Caesalpinia ferrea, white popinac (Leucaena leucocephala, mofumbo (Combretum leprosum, neem (Azadirachata indica, sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia and tamarind (Tamarindus indica. In E1, the seven species were evaluated in a random block design with four replicates and nine plants per plot. In E2, evaluation comprised four species (mesquite, jucá, white popinac, and tamarind in a random block design with eight replicates and nine plants per plot. A circle with an area of 1.77 m² was established around the trunk of each plant, two years after they were transplanted to the permanent location. The weeds collected within this circle were cut even with the ground, classified and weighed. At this time, plant height, and crown and stem diameters were evaluated in all trees of each plot. In E1 there were no differences between tree species as to weed frequency under their canopies; however, weed growth was smaller under the canopy of sabiá trees. Mesquite and sabiá had the greatest plant height and crown diameter means, but only sabiá had the greatest stem diameter. In E2, the perennial species were not different with regard to weed frequency and growth under their canopies, but mesquite had the greatest growth, as measured by plant height (with significant results for jucá as well and crown and stem diameter.Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a composição florística e a biomassa de plantas daninhas sob a copa de sete espécies perenes adaptadas à região semi-árida do Brasil, e correlacionar essas características com características do crescimento das esp

  12. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation or...

  13. Applicator Training Manual for: Aquatic Weed Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, James W.

    The aquatic weeds discussed in this manual include algae, floating weeds, emersed weeds, and submerged weeds. Specific requirements for pesticide application are given for static water, limited flow, and moving water situations. Secondary effects of improper application rates and faulty application are described. Finally, techniques of limited…

  14. The Methanol Extract of Angelica sinensis Induces Cell Apoptosis and Suppresses Tumor Growth in Human Malignant Brain Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ling Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is a highly vascularized and invasive neoplasm. The methanol extract of Angelica sinensis (AS-M is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat several diseases, such as gastric mucosal damage, hepatic injury, menopausal symptoms, and chronic glomerulonephritis. AS-M also displays potency in suppressing the growth of malignant brain tumor cells. The growth suppression of malignant brain tumor cells by AS-M results from cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. AS-M upregulates expression of cyclin kinase inhibitors, including p16, to decrease the phosphorylation of Rb proteins, resulting in arrest at the G0-G1 phase. The expression of the p53 protein is increased by AS-M and correlates with activation of apoptosis-associated proteins. Therefore, the apoptosis of cancer cells induced by AS-M may be triggered through the p53 pathway. In in vivo studies, AS-M not only suppresses the growth of human malignant brain tumors but also significantly prolongs patient survival. In addition, AS-M has potent anticancer effects involving cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and antiangiogenesis. The in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects of AS-M indicate that this extract warrants further investigation and potential development as a new antibrain tumor agent, providing new hope for the chemotherapy of malignant brain cancer.

  15. Suppression of polymorphonuclear (PMN) and monocyte-mediated inhibition of Candida albicans growth by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djeu, J.Y.; Parapanios, A.; Halkias, D.; Friedman, H.

    1986-01-01

    This study was an in vitro attempt to identify the effector cells responsible for growth inhibition of the opportunistic fungus, candida albicans, and to determine if THC or another marijuana derivatives, 11-hydroxyTHC, would adversely affect their function. Using a 24h radiolabel assay, the authors found that growth inhibition of C. albicans was primarily mediated by PMN and monocytes that could be isolated normal human peripheral blood. Both effector cell types caused almost complete inhibition of Candida growth at effector/target ratio of 300/1 and inhibition was often still seen at 30/1-. Incubation of PMN, PBL, or monocytes for 1 hr at 37C with THC or 11-hydroxyTHC caused a marked suppression of function in all 3 cell populations. Maximal suppression was obtained with 7.5-10μg/ml of the drugs in medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) or with 2-4μg/ml in 1% FBS. These drug concentrations did not affect lymphoid cell viability or candida growth in the absence of lymphoid effector cells. Marijuana derivatives, therefore, are doubly dangerous in that opportunistic fungi such as C. albicans can grow in their presence while the effector cells that control fungal growth are readily inactivated

  16. The competitive ability of pea–barley intercrops against weeds and the interactions with crop productivity and soil N availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corre-Hellou, G.; Dibet, A.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    high levels of weed suppression, even with a low percentage of barley in the total biomass. Despite a reduced leaf area in the case of a low soil N availability, the barley sole crops and intercrops displayed high weed suppression, probably because of their strong competitive capability to absorb soil...... (2003–2005). The weed biomass was three times higher under the pea sole crops than under both the intercrops and barley sole crops at maturity. The inclusion of joint experiments in several countries and various growing conditions showed that intercrops maintain a highly asymmetric competition over...... N. Higher soil N availabilities entailed increased leaf areas and competitive ability for light, which contributed to the overall competitive ability against weeds for all of the treatments. The contribution of the weeds in the total dry matter and soil N acquisition was higher in the pea sole crop...

  17. Docetaxel-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles suppress breast cancer cells growth with reduced myelosuppression toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Q

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Qing Yuan,1 Jing Han,1,2 Wenshu Cong,1 Ying Ge,3 Dandan Ma,1,3,4 Zhaoxia Dai,3,4 Yaping Li,5 Xiaolin Bi1,3,4 1CAS Key Laboratory for Biological Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 2School of Life Sciences, Anhui University, Hefei, 3Cancer Center, Institute of Cancer Stem Cell, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, 4Graduate School, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, 5Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Docetaxel is an adjuvant chemotherapy drug widely used to treat multiple solid tumors; however, its toxicity and side effects limit its clinical efficacy. Herein, docetaxel-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (DSNs were developed to reduce systemic toxicity of docetaxel while still keeping its anticancer activity. To evaluate its anticancer activity and toxicity, and to understand the molecular mechanisms of DSNs, different cellular, molecular, and whole genome transcription analysis approaches were utilized. The DSNs showed lower cytotoxicity compared with the commercial formulation of docetaxel (Taxotere® and induced more apoptosis at 24 hours after treatment in vitro. DSNs can cause the treated cancer cells to arrest in the G2/M phase in a dose-dependent manner similar to Taxotere. They can also suppress tumor growth very effectively in a mice model with human xenograft breast cancer. Systemic analysis of gene expression profiles by microarray and subsequent verification experiments suggested that both DSNs and Taxotere regulate gene expression and gene function, including DNA replication, DNA damage response, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle regulation. Some of these genes expressed differentially at the protein level although their messenger RNA expression level was similar under Taxotere and DSN treatment. Moreover, DSNs improved the main side effect of Taxotere by greatly

  18. European Perspectives on the Adoption of Non-Chemical Weed Management in Reduced Tillage Systems for Arable Crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melander, B.; Munier-Jolan, N.; Schwarz, J.

    2012-01-01

    cropping systems to allow for more diversification of the crop rotations to combat these weed problems with less herbicide input. Cover crops, stubble management strategies and tactics that strengthen crop growth relative to weed growth are also seen as important components in future IPM systems...

  19. Ecological Weed Management by Cover Cropping: Effect on Winter Weeds and Summer Weeds Establishment in Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ghaffari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Now a day winter cover crops planting has been attended to reduce herbicide application. An experiment was carried out at the Research Farm of Agriculture Faculty, Bu- Ali Sina, University, in 2009. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with three replications. The trial included of five treatments consists of no cover crop, rye, winter oilseed rape, barley and triticale. The results showed that winter cereals were produced more biomass than winter oilseed rape. living mulch of rye, barley, oilseed rape and triticale reduced winter weeds biomass 89, 86, 82 and 70 percent respectively, in compare to control. Cover crop treatments showed significant different weeds control of potato at 3 time (15, 45 and 75 DAPG compare to control treatment. Residues mixed to soil of oilseed rape and rye had the most inhibition affects on summer weeds. These treatments, average weeds biomass decreased 61 and 57 percent respectively, in compare to control. Oilseed rape and rye in compare to control reduced weeds density in potato 36 and 35 percent, respectively. Significant negation correlations of weeds plant population, weeds dry matter with average tuber weight and potato yield. The treatments, oilseed rape and rye in compare to control increased tuber yield of potato 54 and 50 percent, respectively. These treatments, the average tuber weight increased 74 and 38 percent in compare with control, respectively.

  20. Measles virus C protein suppresses gamma-activated factor formation and virus-induced cell growth arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Shin-ichi; Okabayashi, Tamaki; Fujii, Nobuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Measles virus (MeV) produces two accessory proteins, V and C, from the P gene. These accessory proteins have been reported to contribute to efficient virus proliferation through the modulation of host cell events. Our previous paper described that Vero cell-adapted strains of MeV led host cells to growth arrest through the upregulation of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1), and wild strains did not. In the present study, we found that C protein expression levels varied among MeV strains in infected SiHa cells. C protein levels were inversely correlated with IRF-1 expression levels and with cell growth arrest. Forced expression of C protein released cells from growth arrest. C-deficient recombinant virus efficiently upregulated IRF-1 and caused growth arrest more efficiently than the wild-type virus. C protein preferentially bound to phosphorylated STAT1 and suppressed STAT1 dimer formation. We conclude that MeV C protein suppresses IFN-γ signaling pathway via inhibition of phosphorylated STAT1 dimerization.

  1. Pentastatin-1, a collagen IV derived 20-mer peptide, suppresses tumor growth in a small cell lung cancer xenograft model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskimaki, Jacob E; Karagiannis, Emmanouil D; Tang, Benjamin C; Hammers, Hans; Watkins, D Neil; Pili, Roberto; Popel, Aleksander S

    2010-02-01

    Angiogenesis is the formation of neovasculature from a pre-existing vascular network. Progression of solid tumors including lung cancer is angiogenesis-dependent. We previously introduced a bioinformatics-based methodology to identify endogenous anti-angiogenic peptide sequences, and validated these predictions in vitro in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation and migration assays. One family of peptides with high activity is derived from the alpha-fibrils of type IV collagen. Based on the results from the in vitro screening, we have evaluated the ability of a 20 amino acid peptide derived from the alpha5 fibril of type IV collagen, pentastatin-1, to suppress vessel growth in an angioreactor-based directed in vivo angiogenesis assay (DIVAA). In addition, pentastatin-1 suppressed tumor growth with intraperitoneal peptide administration in a small cell lung cancer (SCLC) xenograft model in nude mice using the NCI-H82 human cancer cell line. Pentastatin-1 decreased the invasion of vessels into angioreactors in vivo in a dose dependent manner. The peptide also decreased the rate of tumor growth and microvascular density in vivo in a small cell lung cancer xenograft model. The peptide treatment significantly decreased the invasion of microvessels in angioreactors and the rate of tumor growth in the xenograft model, indicating potential treatment for angiogenesis-dependent disease, and for translational development as a therapeutic agent for lung cancer.

  2. Pentastatin-1, a collagen IV derived 20-mer peptide, suppresses tumor growth in a small cell lung cancer xenograft model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskimaki, Jacob E; Karagiannis, Emmanouil D; Tang, Benjamin C; Hammers, Hans; Watkins, D Neil; Pili, Roberto; Popel, Aleksander S

    2010-01-01

    Angiogenesis is the formation of neovasculature from a pre-existing vascular network. Progression of solid tumors including lung cancer is angiogenesis-dependent. We previously introduced a bioinformatics-based methodology to identify endogenous anti-angiogenic peptide sequences, and validated these predictions in vitro in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation and migration assays. One family of peptides with high activity is derived from the α-fibrils of type IV collagen. Based on the results from the in vitro screening, we have evaluated the ability of a 20 amino acid peptide derived from the α5 fibril of type IV collagen, pentastatin-1, to suppress vessel growth in an angioreactor-based directed in vivo angiogenesis assay (DIVAA). In addition, pentastatin-1 suppressed tumor growth with intraperitoneal peptide administration in a small cell lung cancer (SCLC) xenograft model in nude mice using the NCI-H82 human cancer cell line. Pentastatin-1 decreased the invasion of vessels into angioreactors in vivo in a dose dependent manner. The peptide also decreased the rate of tumor growth and microvascular density in vivo in a small cell lung cancer xenograft model. The peptide treatment significantly decreased the invasion of microvessels in angioreactors and the rate of tumor growth in the xenograft model, indicating potential treatment for angiogenesis-dependent disease, and for translational development as a therapeutic agent for lung cancer

  3. miR-409-3p suppresses breast cancer cell growth and invasion by targeting Akt1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guoqiang [Department of Breast Surgery, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Department of Thyroid and Breast Surgery, Hospital Affiliated to Binzhou Medical University, 661 Second Huanghe Street, Binzhou 256603 (China); Liu, Zengyan [Department of Hematology, Hospital Affiliated to Binzhou Medical University, 661 Second Huanghe Street, Binzhou 256603 (China); Xu, Hao [Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Yang, Qifeng, E-mail: qifengy_sdu1@163.com [Department of Breast Surgery, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China)

    2016-01-08

    Altered levels and functions of microRNAs (miRNAs) are correlated with carcinogenesis. While miR-409-3p has been shown to play important roles in several cancer types, its function in the context of breast cancer (BC) remains unknown. In this study, miR-409-3p was significantly downregulated in BC tissues and cell lines, compared with the corresponding control counterparts. Overexpression of miR-409-3p inhibited BC cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro and suppressed tumor growth in vivo. Notably, miR-409-3p induced downregulation of Akt1 protein through binding to its 3′ untranslated region (UTR). Conversely, restoring Akt1 expression rescued the suppressive effects of miR-409-3p. Our data collectively indicate that miR-409-3p functions as a tumor suppressor in BC through downregulating Akt1, supporting the targeting of the novel miR-409-3p/Akt1 axis as a potentially effective therapeutic approach for BC. - Highlights: • miR-409-3p inhibits proliferation, migration and invasion of BC cells. • miR-409-3p suppresses tumor growth in nude mice. • Akt1 is a direct downstream target of miR-409-3p. • Ectopic expression of Akt1 reverses the effects of miR-409-3p on cell proliferation, migration and invasion.

  4. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate suppresses melanoma growth by inhibiting inflammasome and IL-1β secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, Lixia Z.; Liu, Weimin; Luo, Yuchun; Okamoto, Miyako; Qu, Dovina; Dunn, Jeffrey H.; Fujita, Mayumi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► EGCG inhibits melanoma cell growth at physiological doses (0.1–1 μM). ► EGCG inhibits melanoma cell growth via inflammasomes and IL-1β suppression. ► Inflammasomes and IL-1β could be potential targets for future melanoma therapeutics. -- Abstract: Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenolic component of green tea, has been demonstrated to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-mutagenic and anti-carcinogenic properties. The anti-melanoma effect of EGCG has been previously suggested, but no clear mechanism of action has been established. In this study, we demonstrated that EGCG inhibits melanoma cell growth at physiological doses (0.1–1 μM). In the search for mechanisms of EGCG-mediated melanoma cell suppression, we found that NF-κB was inhibited, and that reduced NF-κB activity was associated with decreased IL-1β secretion from melanoma cells. Since inflammasomes are involved in IL-1β secretion, we investigated whether IL-1β suppression was mediated by inflammasomes, and found that EGCG treatment led to downregulation of the inflammasome component, NLRP1, and reduced caspase-1 activation. Furthermore, silencing the expression of NLRP1 abolished EGCG-induced inhibition of tumor cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a key role of inflammasomes in EGCG efficacy. This paper provides a novel mechanism for EGCG-induced melanoma inhibition: inflammasome downregulation → decreased IL-1β secretion → decreased NF-κB activities → decreased cell growth. In addition, it suggests inflammasomes and IL-1β could be potential targets for future melanoma therapeutics.

  5. Integrated weed management in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwat, K.B.; Khan, M.A.; Nawab, K.; Khattak, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The paper summarizes the results of an experiment conducted on wheat at Kohat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan during winter 2004-05. Randomized complete block design with split-split-plot arrangement was used where wheat line and broadcast sowing were kept in main plots. Seed rates (100 and 150 kg ha-1) were assigned as sub-plots, while four herbicides (Topik, Isoproturon, Puma super and Buctril super) and weed check were assigned to sub-sub-plots. Results revealed that higher biological yield was recorded in line sowing. However, higher wheat seed rate decreased weed biomass and increased biological yield. Herbicides proved to be effective in decreasing weed biomass and enhancing grain yield and its contributing traits. It was suggested that line sowing in combination with higher seeding rate and Buctril super should be used in an integrated weed management fashion. However further studies are required to investigate various ranges of seeding rate and herbicides doses. (author)

  6. Evaluation of the Impact of Weed Control Methods on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Moldavian Balm; A Medicinal Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janmohammadi Mohsen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Moldavian balm is an annual herbaceous plant and its lemon-scented leaves contain essential oil. However, weeds adversely affect its growth by release of allelochemicals, and/or direct competition for nutrient, moisture, light and space. Current experiment was conducted to evaluate the different weed control methods including preventive approach (soil pasteurization, mechanical methods (one hand weeding, two hand weeding, and successive hand weeding for weed free condition, and chemical control by synthetic herbicides (haloxyfop-R-methyl and trifluralin. Results revealed that stem diameter, quantity of secondary branches, flower-bearing branches and leaves were significantly affected by weed control treatments; the highest lateral growth was obtained by successive mechanical weed control and two hand weeding method, respectively. This trend was also observed in canopy spread and chlorophyll content. Pre-emergence control by trifluralin considerably accelerated the initiation of flowering in Moldavian balm. However, observation of qualitative traits showed that the highest essential oil content and oil yield was obtained when the plants grew in weed free soil which was pasteurized. Considering the recognized essential oils, the most responsive composition was including Geranial, Geranyl acetate, Neral and Geraniol. The lowest amount of Neral was recorded in postemergence control performed by means of haloxyfop-R-methyl herbicide.

  7. Growth of Murine Splenic Tissue Is Suppressed by Lymphotoxin β-Receptor Signaling (LTβR) Originating from Splenic and Non-Splenic Tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milićević, Novica M; Nohroudi, Klaus; Schmidt, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    LTβR signaling. Two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis and subsequent mass spectrometry of stromal splenic tissue was applied to screen for potential factors mediating the LTβR dependent suppressive activity. Thus, LTβR dependent growth suppression is involved in regulating the size...

  8. Influence of weed control methods, poultry manure and planting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of weed control methods, poultry manure and planting pattern on growth and yield attributes of maize (Zea mays l.) in the northern Guinea Savannah zone of Nigeria. M.S. Bature, D.B. Ishaya, M.A Mahadi, A.I Sharifai, A.A Muhammed, A.H Hassan, H.J Jibril, L Goma, G.M Munir ...

  9. U1 Adaptor Oligonucleotides Targeting BCL2 and GRM1 Suppress Growth of Human Melanoma Xenografts In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Goraczniak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available U1 Adaptor is a recently discovered oligonucleotide-based gene-silencing technology with a unique mechanism of action that targets nuclear pre-mRNA processing. U1 Adaptors have two distinct functional domains, both of which must be present on the same oligonucleotide to exert their gene-silencing function. Here, we present the first in vivo use of U1 Adaptors by targeting two different human genes implicated in melanomagenesis, B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2 and metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (GRM1, in a human melanoma cell xenograft mouse model system. Using a newly developed dendrimer delivery system, anti-BCL2 U1 Adaptors were very potent and suppressed tumor growth at doses as low as 34 µg/kg with twice weekly intravenous (iv administration. Anti-GRM1 U1 Adaptors suppressed tumor xenograft growth with similar potency. Mechanism of action was demonstrated by showing target gene suppression in tumors and by observing that negative control U1 Adaptors with just one functional domain show no tumor suppression activity. The anti-BCL2 and anti-GRM1 treatments were equally effective against cell lines harboring either wild-type or a mutant V600E B-RAF allele, the most common mutation in melanoma. Treatment of normal immune-competent mice (C57BL6 indicated no organ toxicity or immune stimulation. These proof-of-concept studies represent an in-depth (over 800 mice in ~108 treatment groups validation that U1 Adaptors are a highly potent gene-silencing therapeutic and open the way for their further development to treat other human diseases.

  10. A comprehensive siRNA screen for kinases that suppress macroautophagy in optimal growth conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szyniarowski, Piotr; Corcelle-Termeau, Elisabeth; Farkas, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    , whereas CSNK1A1, BUB1, PKLR and NEK4 suppressed autophagosome formation downstream or independent of mTORC1. Importantly, all identified kinases except for BUB1 regulated macroautophagy also in immortalized MCF-10A breast epithelial cells. The kinases identified here shed light to the complex regulation...

  11. Eco-distribution Mapping of Invasive Weed Limnocharis flava (L. Buchenau Using Geographical Information System: Implications for Containment and Integrated Weed Management for Ecosystem Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Abhilash

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Exotic weed invasion has been identified as one of the serious environmental problem impacting the structure, composition and function of biological diversity. They are aggressive colonizers, which have flexible habitat requirement and ability to outcompete native species. The present paper describes the distribution and autecology of an exotic weed Limnocharis flava (L. Buchenau (an emergent aquatic weed of ‘Limnocharitaceae’ in Kumarakom Grama Panchayat, one of the well known tourist spot of South India famous for its vast stretches of paddy fields, wetlands and backwaters. The mapping of L. flava in the entire study area has been done using Geographical Information System (Arc-info 8.3 version. The growth and distribution pattern of L. flava were studied quantitatively. Data on distribution, abundance, biomass, ecological associations and root zone nutrient quality of water and sediment samples were collected from different sampling points of Kumarakom. The study reflected that nutrients, water depth and land use patterns were the major factors responsible for the growth and proliferation of this exotic weed. The strategies for controlling L. flava invasion are discussed in detail. If early steps are not taken to eradicate this weed, it will become a problematic weed in the same way as other noxious aquatic weeds like Salvinia molesta D. Mitch and Eichhornia crassipes (C. Martius Solms-Laub.

  12. Winter Annual Weed Response to Nitrogen Sources and Application Timings prior to a Burndown Corn Herbicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A. Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Autumn and early preplant N applications, sources, and placement may affect winter annual weed growth. Field research evaluated (1 the effect of different nitrogen sources in autumn and early preplant on total winter annual weed growth (2006–2010, and (2 strip-till and broadcast no-till N applied in autumn and early preplant on henbit (Lamium amplexicaule L. growth (2008–2010 prior to a burndown herbicide application. Total winter annual weed biomass was greater than the nontreated control when applying certain N sources in autumn or early preplant for no-till corn. Anhydrous ammonia had the lowest average weed density (95 weeds m−2, though results were inconsistent over the years. Winter annual weed biomass was lowest (43 g m−2 when applying 32% urea ammonium nitrate in autumn and was similar to applying anhydrous ammonia in autumn or early preplant and the nontreated control. Henbit biomass was 28% greater when applying N in the autumn compared to an early preplant application timing. Nitrogen placement along with associated tillage with strip-till placement was important in reducing henbit biomass. Nitrogen source selection, application timing, and placement affected the impact of N on winter annual weed growth and should be considered when recommending a burndown herbicide application timing.

  13. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester suppresses melanoma tumor growth by inhibiting PI3K/AKT/XIAP pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Kartick C; Kudugunti, Shashi K; Fofaria, Neel M; Moridani, Majid Y; Srivastava, Sanjay K

    2013-09-01

    Melanoma is highly metastatic and resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs. Our previous studies have demonstrated that caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) suppresses the growth of melanoma cells and induces reactive oxygen species generation. However, the exact mechanism of the growth suppressive effects of CAPE was not clear. Here, we determined the potential mechanism of CAPE against melanoma in vivo and in vitro. Administration of 10 mg/kg/day CAPE substantially suppressed the growth of B16F0 tumor xenografts in C57BL/6 mice. Tumors from CAPE-treated mice showed reduced phosphorylation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase, AKT, mammalian target of rapamycin and protein level of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) and enhanced the cleavage of caspase-3 and poly (ADP ribose) polymerase. In order to confirm the in vivo observations, melanoma cells were treated with CAPE. CAPE treatment suppressed the activating phosphorylation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase at Tyr 458, phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 at Ser 241, mammalian target of rapamycin at Ser 2448 and AKT at Ser 473 in B16F0 and SK-MEL-28 cells in a concentration and time-dependent study. Furthermore, the expression of XIAP, survivin and BCL-2 was downregulated by CAPE treatment in both cell lines. Significant apoptosis was observed by CAPE treatment as indicated by cleavage of caspase-3 and poly (ADP ribose) polymerase. AKT kinase activity was inhibited by CAPE in a concentration-dependent manner. CAPE treatment increased the nuclear translocation of XIAP, indicating increased apoptosis in melanoma cells. To confirm the involvement of reactive oxygen species in the inhibition of AKT/XIAP pathway, cells were treated with antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) prior to CAPE treatment. Our results indicate that NAC blocked CAPE-mediated AKT/XIAP inhibition and protected the cells from apoptosis. Because AKT regulates XIAP, their interaction was examined by immunoprecipitation studies. Our results show that CAPE

  14. Can global weed assemblages be used to predict future weeds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Morin

    Full Text Available Predicting which plant taxa are more likely to become weeds in a region presents significant challenges to both researchers and government agencies. Often it is done in a qualitative or semi-quantitative way. In this study, we explored the potential of using the quantitative self-organising map (SOM approach to analyse global weed assemblages and estimate likelihoods of plant taxa becoming weeds before and after they have been moved to a new region. The SOM approach examines plant taxa associations by analysing where a taxon is recorded as a weed and what other taxa are recorded as weeds in those regions. The dataset analysed was extracted from a pre-existing, extensive worldwide database of plant taxa recorded as weeds or other related status and, following reformatting, included 187 regions and 6690 plant taxa. To assess the value of the SOM approach we selected Australia as a case study. We found that the key and most important limitation in using such analytical approach lies with the dataset used. The classification of a taxon as a weed in the literature is not often based on actual data that document the economic, environmental and/or social impact of the taxon, but mostly based on human perceptions that the taxon is troublesome or simply not wanted in a particular situation. The adoption of consistent and objective criteria that incorporate a standardized approach for impact assessment of plant taxa will be necessary to develop a new global database suitable to make predictions regarding weediness using methods like SOM. It may however, be more realistic to opt for a classification system that focuses on the invasive characteristics of plant taxa without any inference to impacts, which to be defined would require some level of research to avoid bias from human perceptions and value systems.

  15. Oncogenic roles of TOPK and MELK, and effective growth suppression by small molecular inhibitors in kidney cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Taigo; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Imoto, Seiya; Tamada, Yoshinori; Miyamoto, Takashi; Matsuo, Yo; Nakamura, Yusuke; Park, Jae-Hyun

    2016-04-05

    T-lymphokine-activated killer cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK) and maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) have been reported to play critical roles in cancer cell proliferation and maintenance of stemness. In this study, we investigated possible roles of TOPK and MELK in kidney cancer cells and found their growth promotive effect as well as some feedback mechanism between these two molecules. Interestingly, the blockade of either of these two kinases effectively caused downregulation of forkhead box protein M1 (FOXM1) activity which is known as an oncogenic transcriptional factor in various types of cancer cells. Small molecular compound inhibitors against TOPK (OTS514) and MELK (OTS167) effectively suppressed the kidney cancer cell growth, and the combination of these two compounds additively worked and showed the very strong growth suppressive effect on kidney cancer cells. Collectively, our results suggest that both TOPK and MELK are promising molecular targets for kidney cancer treatment and that dual blockade of OTS514 and OTS167 may bring additive anti-tumor effects with low risk of side effects.

  16. Generic conditions for suppressing the coherent synchrotron radiation induced emittance growth in a two-dipole achromat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yi; Cui, Xiaohao; Huang, Xiyang; Xu, Gang

    2014-06-01

    The effect of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) becomes evident, and leads to increased beam energy spread and transverse emittance dilution, as both the emittance and bunch length of the electron beams are continuously pushed down in present and forthcoming high-brightness light sources and linear colliders. Suppressing this effect is important to preserve the expected machine performance. Methods of the R-matrix analysis and the Courant-Snyder formalism analysis have been proposed to evaluate and to suppress the emittance growth due to CSR in achromatic cells. In this paper a few important modifications are made on these two methods, which enable us to prove that these two methods are equivalent to each other. With the modified analysis, we obtain explicit and generic conditions of cancelling the CSR-driven emittance excitation in a single achromat consisting of two dipoles of arbitrary bending angles. In spite of the fact that the analysis constrains itself in a linear regime, based on the assumption that CSR-induced particle energy deviation is proportional to both θ and ρ1/3, with θ being the bending angle and ρ the bending radius, it is demonstrated through ELEGANT simulations that the conditions derived from this analysis are still effective in suppressing the emittance growth when a more detailed one-dimensional CSR model is considered. In addition, it illustrates that the emittance growth can be reduced to a lower level with the proposed conditions than with the other two approaches, such as matching the beam envelope to the CSR kick and setting the cell-to-cell betatron phase advance to an appropriate value.

  17. Produtividade de feijão-guará e efeito supressivo de culturas de cobertura de inverno em espontâneas de verão = Common bean yield and the suppressive effect of winter cover crops on summer weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique von Hertwig Bittencourt

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se o efeito das coberturas de inverno centeio, aveia, azevém, ervilhaca e nabo forrageiro (e suas associações, em sistema de plantio direto, sobre a cobertura do solo e a produção de biomassa das coberturas de inverno, sobre a biomassa de plantas espontâneas deverão, no período crítico de competição, e sobre a produtividade do feijão, cv Guará. O experimento foi instalado em delineamento experimental constituído por blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Observaram-se as maiores percentagens de cobertura do solo no inverno, com os tratamentos centeio + ervilhaca, centeio + ervilhaca + nabo forrageiro e aveia + ervilhaca; a produção de biomassa de cobertura foi maior com centeio + ervilhaca + nabo forrageiro. Oefeito de supressão observado foi maior no monocultivo de azevém e no consórcio de centeio + ervilhaca + nabo forrageiro, porém não foi detectada correlação da biomassa de cobertura com a supressão de plantas espontâneas de verão. Os melhores rendimentos de feijão foram obtidos com o monocultivo de azevém, monocultivo de aveia e combinação centeio + ervilhaca, que atingiram 1.950, 1.730 e 1.790 kg ha-1, respectivamente. O azevém e a aveia em monocultivo apresentaram os menores custos com sementes e as maiores receitas, ou seja, os maiores retornos por unidade monetária investida.The effect of the winter cover crops rye, oat, ryegrass, vetch and fodder radish (and their mixtures in no-tillage systems was investigated on soil cover, cover crop biomass and summer weed biomass during the critical competition stage with common bean. Bean yield was also evaluated. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks and four repetitions. The highest soil cover during winter was observed in the treatments rye + vetch, rye + vetch +fodder radish and oat + vetch. The highest values of cover crops biomass production were observed in the treatments rye + vetch + fodder radish. Weed suppression was higher

  18. The SIRT1 deacetylase suppresses intestinal tumorigenesis and colon cancer growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Firestein

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerous longevity genes have been discovered in model organisms and altering their function results in prolonged lifespan. In mammals, some have speculated that any health benefits derived from manipulating these same pathways might be offset by increased cancer risk on account of their propensity to boost cell survival. The Sir2/SIRT1 family of NAD(+-dependent deacetylases is proposed to underlie the health benefits of calorie restriction (CR, a diet that broadly suppresses cancer in mammals. Here we show that CR induces a two-fold increase SIRT1 expression in the intestine of rodents and that ectopic induction of SIRT1 in a beta-catenin-driven mouse model of colon cancer significantly reduces tumor formation, proliferation, and animal morbidity in the absence of CR. We show that SIRT1 deacetylates beta-catenin and suppresses its ability to activate transcription and drive cell proliferation. Moreover, SIRT1 promotes cytoplasmic localization of the otherwise nuclear-localized oncogenic form of beta-catenin. Consistent with this, a significant inverse correlation was found between the presence of nuclear SIRT1 and the oncogenic form of beta-catenin in 81 human colon tumor specimens analyzed. Taken together, these observations show that SIRT1 suppresses intestinal tumor formation in vivo and raise the prospect that therapies targeting SIRT1 may be of clinical use in beta-catenin-driven malignancies.

  19. Typha control efficiency of a weed-cutting boat in the Lac de Guiers in Senegal : A preliminary study on mowing speed and re-growth capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellsten, S.; Dieme, C.; Mbengue, M.; Janauer, G.A.; Hollander, den N.G.; Pieterse, A.H.

    1999-01-01

    Prolific growth of Typha australis in the lower part of the Senegal River and the Lac de Guiers resulted from changed ecological conditions following the construction of two high dams in the Senegal River. Fluctuation of the water level has decreased markedly and the water has changed from brackish

  20. Effects of CO/sub 2/ enrichment and temperature on growth in two C/sub 4/ weeds, Echinochloa crus-galli and Eleusine indica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potvin, C.; Strain, B.R.

    1985-01-01

    Mathematical growth analyses were carried out on two C/sub 4/ grasses, Echinochloa crus-galli and Eleusine indica, to test the influence of CO/sub 2/ enrichment and temperature on growth. Echinochloa populations from Quebec, North Carolina, and Mississippi and a single population of Eleusine from Mississippi were grown for 48 days at two CO/sub 2/ concentrations (350 and 675 ..mu..L/center dot/L/sup /minus/1/) and three temperature regimes (28:22, 24:18, and 21: 15/degree/C). CO/sub 2/ enrichment generated an increased root dry weight and induced an earlier development of inflorescences. Net assimilation rate, the only other parameter to respond to CO/sub 2/ enrichment, was higher for plants grown at high CO/sub 2/ concentration during the first harvest interval. Biomass partitioning was affected by temperature. Root dry weight was greater in plants grown at 21:15/degree/C while more leaf area was produced in warmer temperature regimes. Only plants from Quebec maintained normal growth rates under the 21:15/degree/C regime, suggesting that northern C/sub 4/ plants are better suited for growth at low temperatures than southern ones. 18 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Breviscapine suppresses the growth of non-small cell lung cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Breviscapine (BVP) has previously been shown to inhibit the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.However, little is known about the effects of BVP on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) growth. Here, we aimedto study the effects of BVP on human NSCLC growth. We employed A549, NCL-H460 and A549 cells ...

  2. Chemical weed control in barley (hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, M.; Hassan, S.W.; Abid, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Effect of two different pre-emergence herbicides i.e. Terbutryn (lgron-500FW) A, 1.01.25 kg a.t. ha/sup -1/ and Flurochloridone (Racer-25 CS) a 0.31, 0.37, 0.44, 0.50 and 0.56 Kg a.i. ha/sup -1/ on weeds and yield of barley wad studied under field conditions hb/sup -1/. All the herbicides significantly reduce the dry weight of weed Maximum reduction (70%) was observed in terbutryn a 1.0 Kg a.i. ha/sup -1/ Growth and yield parameters like number of spike lets per spike. Number of grams per spike. 1000-grain weight. Biological yield. Grain yield straw yield and harvest index showed significant response to various herbicides doses under study. Application of Flurochloridone (Racer-25 (CS) a 0.44 kg a.i. ha/sup -1/ and Terbutryn (lgran-500 FW) a 1.0 kg a.i). The data further revealed that in general all herbicide application treatments exhibited superior performance in respect of growth and yield over control. (author)

  3. Procedure for growing Bi4Ge3O12 bismuth germanate single crystals with suppressed growth defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zikmund, J.; Blazek, K.; Jarolimek, O.; Horak, J.

    1991-01-01

    The method developed allows high-quality scintillator material to be grown reproducibly by the Czochralski method. The crystals attain diameters up to 80 mm and lengths up to 200 mm. The growth is performed on instruments equipped with devices for continuous measurement of weight increments of the growing crystals with a precision better than 10 mg. The growth parameters are controlled with a computer and based on actual data. The crystals are grown using an axial temperature gradient within the range of 25 to 35 degC/cm and a constant drawing rate within the range of 0.5 to 1.2 mm/h. An interface shape suitable for the suppression of defect development is achieved through a combination of the weight increment and rotation of the crystal. (M.D.)

  4. A review of the potential for competitive cereal cultivars as a tool in integrated weed management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, I K S; Storkey, J; Sparkes, D L

    2015-06-01

    Competitive crop cultivars offer a potentially cheap option to include in integrated weed management strategies (IWM). Although cultivars with high competitive potential have been identified amongst cereal crops, competitiveness has not traditionally been considered a priority for breeding or farmer cultivar choice. The challenge of managing herbicide-resistant weed populations has, however, renewed interest in cultural weed control options, including competitive cultivars. We evaluated the current understanding of the traits that explain variability in competitive ability between cultivars, the relationship between suppression of weed neighbours and tolerance of their presence and the existence of trade-offs between competitive ability and yield in weed-free scenarios. A large number of relationships between competitive ability and plant traits have been reported in the literature, including plant height, speed of development, canopy architecture and partitioning of resources. There is uncertainty over the relationship between suppressive ability and tolerance, although tolerance is a less stable trait over seasons and locations. To realise the potential of competitive crop cultivars as a tool in IWM, a quick and simple-to-use protocol for assessing the competitive potential of new cultivars is required; it is likely that this will not be based on a single trait, but will need to capture the combined effect of multiple traits. A way needs to be found to make this information accessible to farmers, so that competitive cultivars can be better integrated into their weed control programmes.

  5. Down-Regulation by Resveratrol of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor-Stimulated Osteoprotegerin Synthesis through Suppression of Akt in Osteoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gen Kuroyanagi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available It is firmly established that resveratrol, a natural food compound abundantly found in grape skins and red wine, has beneficial properties for human health. In the present study, we investigated the effect of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2 on osteoprotegerin (OPG synthesis in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells and whether resveratrol affects the OPG synthesis. FGF-2 stimulated both the OPG release and the expression of OPG mRNA. Resveratrol significantly suppressed the FGF-2-stimulated OPG release and the mRNA levels of OPG. SRT1720, an activator of SIRT1, reduced the FGF-2-induced OPG release and the OPG mRNA expression. PD98059, an inhibitor of upstream kinase activating p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase, had little effect on the FGF-2-stimulated OPG release. On the other hand, SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase, SP600125, an inhibitor of stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK, and Akt inhibitor suppressed the OPG release induced by FGF-2. Resveratrol failed to affect the FGF-2-induced phosphorylation of p44/p42 MAP kinase, p38 MAP kinase or SAPK/JNK. The phosphorylation of Akt induced by FGF-2 was significantly suppressed by resveratrol or SRT1720. These findings strongly suggest that resveratrol down-regulates FGF-2-stimulated OPG synthesis through the suppression of the Akt pathway in osteoblasts and that the inhibitory effect of resveratrol is mediated at least in part by SIRT1 activation.

  6. Effusanin E suppresses nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell growth by inhibiting NF-κB and COX-2 signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhu Zhuang

    Full Text Available Rabdosia serra is well known for its antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities, but no information has been available for the active compounds derived from this plant in inhibiting human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC cell growth. In this study, we isolated and purified a natural diterpenoid from Rabdosia serra and identified its chemical structure as effusanin E and elucidated its underlying mechanism of action in inhibiting NPC cell growth. Effusanin E significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in NPC cells. Effusanin E also induced the cleavage of PARP, caspase-3 and -9 proteins and inhibited the nuclear translocation of p65 NF-κB proteins. Moreover, effusanin E abrogated the binding of NF-κB to the COX-2 promoter, thereby inhibiting the expression and promoter activity of COX-2. Pretreatment with a COX-2 or NF-κB-selective inhibitor (celecoxib or ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate had an additive effect on the effusanin E-mediated inhibition of proliferation, while pretreatment with an activator of NF-κB/COX-2 (lipopolysaccharides abrogated the effusanin E-mediated inhibition of proliferation. Effusanin E also significantly suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model without obvious toxicity, furthermore, the expression of p50 NF-κB and COX-2 were down-regulated in the tumors of nude mice. These data suggest that effusanin E suppresses p50/p65 proteins to down-regulate COX-2 expression, thereby inhibiting NPC cell growth. Our findings provide new insights into exploring effusanin E as a potential therapeutic compound for the treatment of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  7. Androgen Receptor-Mediated Growth Suppression of HPr-1AR and PC3-Lenti-AR Prostate Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Chae Kim

    Full Text Available The androgen receptor (AR mediates the developmental, physiologic, and pathologic effects of androgens including 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT. However, the mechanisms whereby AR regulates growth suppression and differentiation of luminal epithelial cells in the prostate gland and proliferation of malignant versions of these cells are not well understood, though they are central to prostate development, homeostasis, and neoplasia. Here, we identify androgen-responsive genes that restrain cell cycle progression and proliferation of human prostate epithelial cell lines (HPr-1AR and PC3-Lenti-AR, and we investigate the mechanisms through which AR regulates their expression. DHT inhibited proliferation of HPr-1AR and PC3-Lenti-AR, and cell cycle analysis revealed a prolonged G1 interval. In the cell cycle, the G1/S-phase transition is initiated by the activity of cyclin D and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK complexes, which relieve growth suppression. In HPr-1AR, cyclin D1/2 and CDK4/6 mRNAs were androgen-repressed, whereas CDK inhibitor, CDKN1A, mRNA was androgen-induced. The regulation of these transcripts was AR-dependent, and involved multiple mechanisms. Similar AR-mediated down-regulation of CDK4/6 mRNAs and up-regulation of CDKN1A mRNA occurred in PC3-Lenti-AR. Further, CDK4/6 overexpression suppressed DHT-inhibited cell cycle progression and proliferation of HPr-1AR and PC3-Lenti-AR, whereas CDKN1A overexpression induced cell cycle arrest. We therefore propose that AR-mediated growth suppression of HPr-1AR involves cyclin D1 mRNA decay, transcriptional repression of cyclin D2 and CDK4/6, and transcriptional activation of CDKN1A, which serve to decrease CDK4/6 activity. AR-mediated inhibition of PC3-Lenti-AR proliferation occurs through a similar mechanism, albeit without down-regulation of cyclin D. Our findings provide insight into AR-mediated regulation of prostate epithelial cell proliferation.

  8. Chemical Weed Control in Saffron (Crocus sativus Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    majid abbaspoor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Saffron is derived from the stigmas of the saffron (Crocus sativus L. It is the world’s most expensive spice and has been widely used in many countries. It is also increasingly used for medicinal purposes. Weed control in this perennial, small and low growing crop, needs a lot of labor work. Chemical approach is one of the most effective methods for weed control in saffron. Currently, some herbicide options are available for applications in saffron. For example, satisfactory broadleaved weed control would be achieved by post-emergence application of metribuzin and ioxynil after harvesting saffron flowers. Application of glyphosate and/or 2, 4-D / 2, 4-DB are used to clean up the beds prior to the new season’s flowering and growth of saffron in New Zealand. The selective weed control of weeds in saffron has not been widely reported elsewhere but some in Iran. The choice of herbicide(s depends on the kind of weeds present. In some literatures metribuzin showed promising results for weed control in saffron fields. It is selectively used for control of annual grasses and numerous broad-leaved weeds. The objective of this study was the evaluation of the efficacy of 15 herbicides with different mode of actions, selected on the basis of dominant weed flora and previous studies, on weeds grown in saffron fields. Materials and Methods A field study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of herbicides for weed control in saffron (Crocus sativus in Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center of Khorasan Razavi Province, Mashhad, in 2014-2015 growing season. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with three replications. Treatments were consisted of metsulfuron-methyl + sulfosulfuron (Total® at dose of 40 g ha-1, sulfosulfuron (Apirus® at dose of 26.6 g ha-1, oxadiazon (Ronestar® at dose of 2 l ha-1, oxyflurofen (Goal® at dose of 2 l ha-1, mesosulfuron + idosulfuron + diflufenican

  9. Pokemon siRNA Delivery Mediated by RGD-Modified HBV Core Protein Suppressed the Growth of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jing; Liu, Xiaoping; Jia, Jianbo; Wu, Jinsheng; Wu, Ning; Chen, Jun; Fang, Fang

    2015-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a deadly human malignant tumor that is among the most common cancers in the world, especially in Asia. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been well established as a high risk factor for hepatic malignance. Studies have shown that Pokemon is a master oncogene for HCC growth, suggesting it as an ideal therapeutic target. However, efficient delivery system is still lacking for Pokemon targeting treatment. In this study, we used core proteins of HBV, which is modified with RGD peptides, to construct a biomimetic vector for the delivery of Pokemon siRNAs (namely, RGD-HBc-Pokemon siRNA). Quantitative PCR and Western blot assays revealed that RGD-HBc-Pokemon siRNA possessed the highest efficiency of Pokemon suppression in HCC cells. In vitro experiments further indicated that RGD-HBc-Pokemon-siRNA exerted a higher tumor suppressor activity on HCC cell lines, evidenced by reduced proliferation and attenuated invasiveness, than Pokemon-siRNA or RGD-HBc alone. Finally, animal studies demonstrated that RGD-HBc-Pokemon siRNA suppressed the growth of HCC xenografts in mice by a greater extent than Pokemon-siRNA or RGD-HBc alone. Based on the above results, Pokemon siRNA delivery mediated by RGD-modified HBV core protein was shown to be an effective strategy of HCC gene therapy.

  10. Ganoderma lucidum suppresses growth of breast cancer cells through the inhibition of Akt/NF-kappaB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiahua; Slivova, Veronika; Harvey, Kevin; Valachovicova, Tatiana; Sliva, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi, Lingzhi) is a popular Asian mushroom that has been used for more than 2 millennia for the general promotion of health and was therefore called the "Mushroom of Immortality." Ganoderma lucidum was also used in traditional Chinese medicine to prevent or treat a variety of diseases, including cancer. We previously demonstrated that Ganoderma lucidum suppresses the invasive behavior of breast cancer cells by inhibiting the transcription factor NF-kappaB. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the inhibitory effects of Ganoderma lucidum on the growth of highly invasive and metastatic breast cancer cells has not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that Ganoderma lucidum inhibits proliferation of breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells by downregulating Akt/NF-kappaB signaling. Ganoderma lucidum suppresses phosphorylation of Akt on Ser473 and downregulates the expression of Akt, which results in the inhibition of NF-kappaB activity in MDA-MB-231 cells. The biological effect of Ganoderma lucidum was demonstrated by cell cycle arrest at G0/G1, which was the result of the downregulation of expression of NF-kappaB-regulated cyclin D1, followed by the inhibition of cdk4. Our results suggest that Ganoderma lucidum inhibits the growth of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells by modulating Akt/NF-kappaB signaling and could have potential therapeutic use for the treatment of breast cancer.

  11. Delayed puberty caused by hyperthyroidism in ram lambs is not a result of suppression in body growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, Y; D'Occhio, M J; Setchell, B P

    1986-03-01

    Over a period of 8 weeks ram lambs (16 weeks old) were made hyperthyroidal (serum thyroxine approximately equal to 150 ng/ml, compared with control approximately equal to 48 ng/ml) by daily subcutaneous injections of thyroxine or maintained at a constant body weight by restriction of the feed intake. Hyperthyroidal and restricted-intake lambs remained at a constant body weight during the period of treatment whilst control rams gained body weight. Testicular growth was normal in restricted-intake lambs but was suppressed in hyperthyroidal animals. Hyperthyroidism, but not feed restriction, was also associated with decrease in LH pulse frequency (1.3 +/- 0.3/12 h compared with controls 4.8 +/- 0.9/12 h. Hyperthyroidal lambs showed normal LH responses to exogenous LHRH. After cessation of treatment testicular growth continued to be suppressed for up to 16 weeks in previously hyperthyroidic rams; thereafter testes began to increase in size but at 30 weeks after treatment were still smaller than those of control rams. It is concluded that elevated thyroxine concentrations directly influence sexual maturation in ram lambs through actions at hypothalamic and/or higher brain centres which control LH secretion. Transient hyperthyroidism during sexual maturation may cause permanent impairment of sexual development.

  12. 7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.50 Weed seed. Seeds (including bulblets or... sieve are considered weed seeds. For wild onion and wild garlic (Allium spp.) bulblets classed as inert...

  13. Rapid suppression of growth hormone concentration by overeating: potential mediation by hyperinsulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornford, Andrea S; Barkan, Ariel L; Horowitz, Jeffrey F

    2011-03-01

    The very low GH concentration in obesity is commonly attributed to high body fat mass; however, the influence of overeating on GH secretion is not clear. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of 2 wk of overeating on changes in GH secretion. Subjects were admitted to the hospital and stayed within the Michigan Clinical Research Unit throughout the entire 2-wk overeating period. We studied seven healthy, nonobese men (body mass index, 24 ± 1 kg/m(2); age, 25 ± 1 yr). Subjects ate standardized meals containing 70 kcal/kg fat free mass/d (∼4000 kcal/d) for 2 wk. Twenty-four-hour plasma concentrations of GH (every 20 min) and insulin (every 2 h) were measured before overeating (baseline), on d 3, and after 2 wk of overeating. Compared with baseline, average 24-h plasma GH concentration declined nearly 80% by d 3 of overeating (1.30 ± 0.18 vs. 0.36 ± 0.09 ng/ml; P = 0.01). This marked suppression of GH secretion occurred in the absence of an increase in body weight (77.0 ± 2.2 vs. 76.4 ± 2.4 kg). At the same time, average 24-h insulin concentration doubled (16.6 ± 2.1 vs. 31.7 ± 5.8 μU/ml; P = 0.009). After 2 wk, body weight significantly increased (79.0 ± 2.1 kg; P overeating markedly suppressed GH secretion before any measurable weight gain and was accompanied by chronic hyperinsulinemia. Increased body weight and body fat by 2 wk of overeating did not further suppress GH secretion.

  14. Conjugated docosahexaenoic acid suppresses KPL-1 human breast cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo: potential mechanisms of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujita-Kyutoku, Miki; Ogawa, Yutaka; Tsubura, Airo; Yuri, Takashi; Danbara, Naoyuki; Senzaki, Hideto; Kiyozuka, Yasuhiko; Uehara, Norihisa; Takada, Hideho; Hada, Takahiko; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2004-01-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the effect of conjugated docosahexaenoic acid (CDHA) on cell growth, cell cycle progression, mode of cell death, and expression of cell cycle regulatory and/or apoptosis-related proteins in KPL-1 human breast cancer cell line. This effect of CDHA was compared with that of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). KPL-1 cell growth was assessed by colorimetric 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay; cell cycle progression and mode of cell death were examined by flow cytometry; and levels of expression of p53, p21 Cip1/Waf1 , cyclin D 1 , Bax, and Bcl-2 proteins were examined by Western blotting analysis. In vivo tumor growth was examined by injecting KPL-1 cells subcutaneously into the area of the right thoracic mammary fat pad of female athymic mice fed a CDHA diet. CDHA inhibited KPL-1 cells more effectively than did DHA (50% inhibitory concentration for 72 hours: 97 μmol/l and 270 μmol/l, respectively). With both CDHA and DHA growth inhibition was due to apoptosis, as indicated by the appearance of a sub-G 1 fraction. The apoptosis cascade involved downregulation of Bcl-2 protein; Bax expression was unchanged. Cell cycle progression was due to G 0 /G 1 arrest, which involved increased expression of p53 and p21 Cip1/Waf1 , and decreased expression of cyclin D 1 . CDHA modulated cell cycle regulatory proteins and apoptosis-related proteins in a manner similar to that of parent DHA. In the athymic mouse system 1.0% dietary CDHA, but not 0.2%, significantly suppressed growth of KPL-1 tumor cells; CDHA tended to decrease regional lymph node metastasis in a dose dependent manner. CDHA inhibited growth of KPL-1 human breast cancer cells in vitro more effectively than did DHA. The mechanisms of action involved modulation of apoptosis cascade and cell cycle progression. Dietary CDHA at 1.0% suppressed KPL-1 cell growth in the athymic mouse system

  15. Growth theory after Keynes, part I: the unfortunate suppression of the Harrod-Domar model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Van den Berg

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available After Harrod and Domar independently developed a dynamic Keynesian circular flow model to illustrate the instability of a growing economy, mainstream economists quickly reduced their model to a supply side-only growth model, which they subsequently rejected as too simplistic and replaced with Solow’s neoclassical growth model. The rejection process of first diminishing the model and then replaced it with a neoclassical alternative was similar to how the full Keynesian macroeconomic paradigm was diminished into IS-LM analysis and then replaced by a simplistic neoclassical framework that largely ignored the demand side of the economy. Furthermore, subsequent work by mainstream economists has resulted in a logically inconsistent framework for analyzing economic growth; the popular endogenous growth models, which use Schumpeter’s concept of profit-driven creative destruction to explain the technological change that Solow left as exogenous, are not logically compatible with the Solow model.

  16. Suppression of progranulin expression inhibits bladder cancer growth and sensitizes cancer cells to cisplatin

    OpenAIRE

    Buraschi, Simone; Xu, Shi-Qiong; Stefanello, Manuela; Moskalev, Igor; Morcavallo, Alaide; Genua, Marco; Tanimoto, Ryuta; Birbe, Ruth; Peiper, Stephen C.; Gomella, Leonard G.; Belfiore, Antonino; Black, Peter C.; Iozzo, Renato V.; Morrione, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated a critical role for progranulin in bladder cancer. Progranulin contributes, as an autocrine growth factor, to the transformed phenotype by modulating Akt-and MAPK-driven motility, invasion and anchorage-independent growth. Progranulin also induces F-actin remodeling by interacting with the F-actin binding protein drebrin. In addition, progranulin is overexpressed in invasive bladder cancer compared to normal tissue controls, suggesting that progranulin might play...

  17. Biocontrol traits of plant growth suppressive arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi against root rot in tomato caused by Pythium aphanidermatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John; Graham, James H.; Cubero, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi known to cause plant growth depressions in tomato were examined for their biocontrol effects against root rot caused by Pythium aphanidermatum. The main hypothesis was that plant growth suppressive AM fungi would elicit a defence response in the host plant reduci...

  18. Overexpressed CacyBP/SIP leads to the suppression of growth in renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Shiren; Ning, Xiaoxuan; Liu, Jie; Liu, Lili; Chen, Yu; Han, Shuang; Zhang, Yanqi; Liang, Jie; Wu, Kaichun; Fan, Daiming

    2007-01-01

    Calcyclin-binding protein/Siah-1-interacting protein (CacyBP/SIP), a target protein of S100, has been identified as a component of a novel ubiquitinylation complex leading to β-catenin degradation, which was found to be related to the malignant phenotypes of gastric cancer. However, the roles of CacyBP/SIP in renal cell carcinoma still remain unclear. In the present study, we had analyzed the expression of the CacyBP/SIP protein in human renal cancer cells and clinical tissue samples. The possible roles of CacyBP/SIP in regulating the malignant phenotype of renal cancer cells were also investigated. The results demonstrated that the expression of CacyBP/SIP was markedly down-regulated in renal cell carcinoma tissues and cell lines. Ectopic overexpression of CacyBP/SIP in A498 cells inhibited the proliferation of this cell and delayed cell cycle progression significantly, which might be related to the down-regulation of Cyclin D1 through reducing β-catenin protein. CacyBP/SIP also suppressed colony formation in soft agar and its tumorigenicity in nude mice. Taken together, our work showed that CacyBP/SIP, as a novel down-regulated gene in renal cell carcinoma, suppressed proliferation and tumorigenesis of renal cancer cells

  19. Synergistic effect of obesity and lipid ingestion in suppressing the growth hormone response to exercise in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Stacy R; Hingorani, Sunita R; Rosa, Jaime S; Zaldivar, Frank P; Galassetti, Pietro R

    2012-07-01

    Diet plays an important role in modulating exercise responses, including activation of the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1) axis. Obesity and fat ingestion were separately shown to reduce exercise GH responses, but their combined effect, especially important in children, has not been studied. We therefore measured the GH response to exercise [30-min intermittent cycling, ten 2-min bouts at ~80% maximal aerobic capacity (Vo(2max)), separated by 1-min rest], started 45 min after ingestion of a high-fat meal (HFM) in 16 healthy [controls; body mass index percentile (BMI%ile) 51 ± 7], and 19 obese (Ob, BMI%ile 97 ± 0.4) children. Samples were drawn at baseline (premeal), and at start, peak, and 30 min postexercise. In the Ob group, a marked ~75% suppression of the GH response (ng/ml) to exercise was observed (2.4 ± 0.6 vs. 10.6 ± 2.1, P fasting conditions. Our data indicate that the reduction in the GH response to exercise, already present in obese children vs. healthy controls, is considerably amplified by ingestion of fat nutrients shortly before exercise, implying a potentially downstream negative impact on growth factor homeostasis and long-term modulation of physiological growth.

  20. Prospects for site specific weed management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Svend; Rasmussen, Jesper; Pedersen, Søren Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Research on Site Specific Weed Management (SSWM) started in the late 80's. Since that moment, considerable research has been conducted on different aspects of SSWM, from fundamental studies on the spatial ecology of weeds to the applied development and testing of new technologies for weed detection...

  1. Weed Recognition Framework for Robotic Precision Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kounalakis, Tsampikos; Triantafyllidis, Georgios; Nalpantidis, Lazaros

    2016-01-01

    using advanced encoding and machine learning algorithms. The resulting system can be applied in a variety of environments, plantation or weed types. This results in a novel and generic weed control approach, that in our knowledge is unique among weed recognition methods and systems. For the experimental...

  2. Cutting weeds with a CO2 laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisel, T.; Schou, Jørgen; Christensen, S.

    2001-01-01

    Stems of Chenopodium album. and Sinapis arvensis. and leaves of Lolium perenne. were cut with a CO2 laser or with a pair of scissors. Treatments were carried out on greenhouse-grown pot plants at three different growth stages and at two heights. Plant dry matter was measured 2 to 5 weeks after...... treatment. The relationship between dry weight and laser energy was analysed using a non-linear dose-response regression model. The regression parameters differed significantly between the weed species. At all growth stages and heights S. arvensis was more difficult to cut with a CO2 laser than C. album....... When stems were cut below the meristems, 0.9 and 2.3 J mm(-1) of CO2 laser energy dose was sufficient to reduce by 90% the biomass of C. album and S. arvensis respectively. Regrowth appeared when dicotyledonous plant stems were cut above meristems, indicating that it is important to cut close...

  3. Exosomes serve as nanoparticles to suppress tumor growth and angiogenesis in gastric cancer by delivering hepatocyte growth factor siRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyang; Wang, Yi; Bai, Ming; Wang, Junyi; Zhu, Kegan; Liu, Rui; Ge, Shaohua; Li, JiaLu; Ning, Tao; Deng, Ting; Fan, Qian; Li, Hongli; Sun, Wu; Ying, Guoguang; Ba, Yi

    2018-03-01

    Exosomes derived from cells have been found to mediate signal transduction between cells and to act as efficient carriers to deliver drugs and small RNA. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is known to promote the growth of both cancer cells and vascular cells, and the HGF-cMET pathway is a potential clinical target. Here, we characterized the inhibitory effect of HGF siRNA on tumor growth and angiogenesis in gastric cancer. In addition, we showed that HGF siRNA packed in exosomes can be transported into cancer cells, where it dramatically downregulates HGF expression. A cell co-culture model was used to show that exosomes loaded with HGF siRNA suppress proliferation and migration of both cancer cells and vascular cells. Moreover, exosomes were able to transfer HGF siRNA in vivo, decreasing the growth rates of tumors and blood vessels. The results of our study demonstrate that exosomes have potential for use in targeted cancer therapy by delivering siRNA. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  4. MiR-30a-5p suppresses tumor growth in colon carcinoma by targeting DTL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baraniskin, Alexander; Birkenkamp-Demtröder, Karin; Maghnouj, Abdelouahid

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that are involved in different biological processes by suppressing target gene expression. Altered expression of miR-30a-5p has been reported in colon carcinoma. To elucidate its potential biological role in colon cancer, miR-30a-5p was overexpressed via...... with in silico miRNA target prediction, we identified the denticleless protein homolog (DTL) as a potential miRNA-30a-5p target. Subsequent reporter gene assays confirmed the predicted miR-30a-5p binding site in the 3'untranslated region of DTL. Importantly, overexpression of DTL in HCT116 cells partially...... is frequently overexpressed in colorectal cancer. Thus, our data suggest that restoring miR-30a-5p function may prove useful as therapeutic strategy for tumors with reduced miR-30a-5p expression....

  5. Voluntary Running Suppresses Tumor Growth through Epinephrine- and IL-6-Dependent NK Cell Mobilization and Redistribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line; Idorn, Manja; Olofsson, Gitte H.

    2016-01-01

    Regular exercise reduces the risk of cancer and disease recurrence. Yet the mechanisms behind this protection remain to be elucidated. In this study, tumor-bearing mice randomized to voluntary wheel running showed over 60% reduction in tumor incidence and growth across five different tumor models....... Microarray analysis revealed training-induced upregulation of pathways associated with immune function. NK cell infiltration was significantly increased in tumors from running mice, whereas depletion of NK cells enhanced tumor growth and blunted the beneficial effects of exercise. Mechanistic analyses showed...

  6. Transforming growth factor-β suppresses metastasis in a subset of human colon carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simms, Neka A K; Rajput, Ashwani; Sharratt, Elizabeth A; Ongchin, Melanie; Teggart, Carol A; Wang, Jing; Brattain, Michael G

    2012-01-01

    TGFβ signaling has typically been associated with suppression of tumor initiation while the role it plays in metastasis is generally associated with progression of malignancy. However, we present evidence here for an anti-metastatic role of TGFβ signaling. To test the importance of TGFβ signaling to cell survival and metastasis we compared human colon carcinoma cell lines that are either non-tumorigenic with TGFβ response (FET), or tumorigenic with TGFβ response (FETα) or tumorigenic with abrogated TGFβ response via introduction of dominant negative TGFβRII (FETα/DN) and their ability to metastasize. Metastatic competency was assessed by orthotopic transplantation. Metastatic colony formation was assessed histologically and by imaging. Abrogation of TGFβ signaling through introduction of a dominant negative TGFβ receptor II (TGFβRII) in non-metastatic FETα human colon cancer cells permits metastasis to distal organs, but importantly does not reduce invasive behavior at the primary site. Loss of TGFβ signaling in FETα-DN cells generated enhanced cell survival capabilities in response to cellular stress in vitro. We show that enhanced cellular survival is associated with increased AKT phosphorylation and cytoplasmic expression of inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family members (survivin and XIAP) that elicit a cytoprotective effect through inhibition of caspases in response to stress. To confirm that TGFβ signaling is a metastasis suppressor, we rescued TGFβ signaling in CBS metastatic colon cancer cells that had lost TGFβ receptor expression due to epigenetic repression. Restoration of TGFβ signaling resulted in the inhibition of metastatic colony formation in distal organs by these cells. These results indicate that TGFβ signaling has an important role in the suppression of metastatic potential in tumors that have already progressed to the stage of an invasive carcinoma. The observations presented here indicate a metastasis suppressor role for TGF

  7. Growth and physiology of loblolly pine in response to long-term resource management: defining growth potential in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa J. Samuelson; John Butnor; Chris Maier; Tom A. Stokes; Kurt Johnsen; Michael Kane

    2008-01-01

    Leaf physiology and stem growth were assessed in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) in response to 10 to 11 years of treatment with weed control (W), weed control plus irrigation (WI), weed control plus irrigation and fertigation (WIF), or weed control plus irrigation, fertigation, and pest control (WIFP) to determine whether increased resource...

  8. A NOVEL WRAPPING CURVELET TRANSFORMATION BASED ANGULAR TEXTURE PATTERN (WCTATP EXTRACTION METHOD FOR WEED IDENTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ashok Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Apparently weed is a major menace in crop production as it competes with crop for nutrients, moisture, space and light which resulting in poor growth and development of the crop and finally yield. Yield loss accounts for even more than 70% when crops are frown under unweeded condition with severe weed infestation. Weed management is the most significant process in the agricultural applications to improve the crop productivity rate and reduce the herbicide application cost. Existing weed detection techniques does not yield better performance due to the complex background, illumination variation and crop and weed overlapping in the agricultural field image. Hence, there arises a need for the development of effective weed identification technique. To overcome this drawback, this paper proposes a novel Wrapping Curvelet Transformation Based Angular Texture Pattern Extraction Method (WCTATP for weed identification. In our proposed work, Global Histogram Equalization (GHE is used improve the quality of the image and Adaptive Median Filter (AMF is used for filtering the impulse noise from the image. Plant image identification is performed using green pixel extraction and k-means clustering. Wrapping Curvelet transform is applied to the plant image. Feature extraction is performed to extract the angular texture pattern of the plant image. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO based Differential Evolution Feature Selection (DEFS approach is applied to select the optimal features. Then, the selected features are learned and passed through an RVM based classifier to find out the weed. Edge detection and contouring is performed to identify the weed in the plant image. The Fuzzy rule-based approach is applied to detect the low, medium and high levels of the weed patchiness. From the experimental results, it is clearly observed that the accuracy of the proposed approach is higher than the existing Support Vector Machine (SVM based approaches. The proposed approach

  9. Effect of Plant Density and Weed Interference on Yield and Yied Components of Grain Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sarani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Weed control is an essential part of all crop production systems. Weeds reduce yields by competing with crops for water, nutrients, and sunlight. Weeds also directly reduce profits by hindering harvest operations, lowering crop quality, and producing chemicals which are harmful to crop plants. Plant density is an efficient management tool for maximizing grain yield by increasing the capture of solar radiation within the canopy, which can significantly affect development of crop-weed association. The response of yield and yield components to weed competition varies by crop and weeds species and weeds interference duration. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of weed interference periods and plant density on the yield and yield components of sorghum. Materials and Methods In order to study the effect of plant density and weeds interference on weeds traits, yield and yield components of sorghum (Var. Saravan, an experiment was conducted as in factorial based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at the research field of Islamic Azad University, Birjand Branch in South Khorasan province during year of 2013. Experimental treatments consisted of three plant density (10, 20 and 30 plants m-2 and four weeds interference (weed free until end of growth season, interference until 6-8 leaf stage, interference until stage of panicle emergence, interference until end of growth season. Measuring traits included the panicle length, number of panicle per plant, number of panicle per m2, number of seed per panicle, 1000-seed weight, seed yield, biological yield, number and weight of weeds per m2. Weed sampling in each plot have done manually from a square meter and different weed species counted and oven dried at 72 °C for 48 hours. MSTAT-C statistical software used for data analysis and means compared with Duncan multiple range test at 5% probability level. Results and Discussion Results showed that

  10. Autocatalytic caspase-3 driven by human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter suppresses human ovarian carcinoma growth in vitro and in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yue; Xia, Zhijun; Shen, Keng; Zhai, Xingyue

    2013-05-01

    To construct recombinant adenoviruses AdHT-rev-casp3 and Ad-rev-casp3, which express autocatalysis caspase-3 driven by human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter and cytomegalovirus promoter, respectively; and to investigate their antitumor effects on ovarian cancer in vitro and in vivo. Cell viabilities were determined using the cell counting kit 8 and flow cytometry. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting assays were used to detect cellular apoptotic activities after treatments. Tumor growth and survival of mice bearing AO cells were studied. AdHT-rev-casp3 significantly suppressed the survival of AO cells in a dose-dependent modality with a viability rate of 60.45% ± 7.8% at an multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 70 and 42.18 ± 5.3% at an MOI of 100, which was somewhat lower than that of the AO cells treated with Ad-rev-casp3 (32.28% ± 5.3% and 21.84% ± 3.4%, respectively). In contrast, AdHT-rev-casp3 induced little human umbilical vein epithelial cell (HUVEC) death with a viability rate of 98.52% ± 6.9% at an MOI of 70, whereas Ad-rev-casp3 induced significant cell death in HUVEC with a viability rate of 27.14% ± 5.4%. Additionally, AdHT-rev-casp3 (MOI = 70) caused significant apoptosis in AO cells with an apoptotic rate of 25.97%, whereas it caused undetectable apoptosis in HUVECs with the rate of only 1.75%. Ad-rev-casp3 (MOI = 70) caused strong apoptosis in both AO and HUVECs, with the rate of 35.82% and 38.12%, respectively. AdHT-rev-casp3 caused markedly higher levels of active caspase-3, causing no detectable active caspase-3 expression in HUVECs. The tumor growth suppression rate of AdHT-rev-casp3 was 54.94%, significantly higher than that of phosphate-buffered saline at the end point of the study. AdHT-rev-casp3 significantly improved the survival of mice receiving intraperitoneal inoculation of AO cells with little liver damage, with the mean survival of 177 ± 12 days. AdHT-rev-casp3 causes effective apoptosis

  11. Sulfur amino acid deficiency upregulates intestinal methionine cycle activity and suppresses epithelial growth in neonatal pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    We recently showed that the developing gut is a significant site of methionine transmethylation to homocysteine and transsulfuration to cysteine. We hypothesized that sulfur amino acid (SAA) deficiency would preferentially reduce mucosal growth and antioxidant function in neonatal pigs. Neonatal pi...

  12. Does Prolonged Therapy with a Long-Acting Stimulant Suppress Growth in Children with ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Thomas J.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph; Lerner, Marc; Cooper, Kimberly M.; Zimmerman, Brenda

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether prolonged therapy with a long-acting stimulant affects growth in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: One hundred seventy-eight children ages 6 to 13 years received OROS methylphenidate (OROS MPH, CONCERTA) for at least 21 months. Height and weight were measured monthly during the…

  13. THE RED-TIDE DINOFLAGELLATE, ALEXANDRIUM MONILATUM, SUPPRESSES GROWTH OF MIXED NATURAL PHYTOPLANKTON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrium monilatum is a large, chain-forming, autotrophic dinoflagellate associated with red-tides and fish kills along the US Gulf of Mexico coast. When cultured inocula of A. monilatum were added to nutrient-amended seawater samples, growth rates and biomass yields of the na...

  14. Ecophysiological responses of a young blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) plantation to weed control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, Alieta; Worledge, Dale; Sands, Peter; Ottenschlaeger, Maria L; Paterson, Steve C; Mendham, Daniel; O'Grady, Anthony P

    2012-08-01

    Early weed control may improve the growth of forest plantations by influencing soil water and nutrient availability. To understand eucalypt growth responses to weed control, we examined the temporal responses of leaf gas-exchange, leaf nitrogen concentration (N) and water status of 7-month-old Eucalyptus globulus L. trees in a paired-plot field trial. In addition, we monitored the growth, leaf N and water status of the competing vegetation in the weed treatment. By the end of the 11-month experiment, complete weed control (WF treatment) of largely woody competitors increased the basal diameter of E. globulus by 14%. As indicated by pre-dawn water potentials of > - 0.05 MPa, interspecies competition for water resources was minimal at this site. In contrast, competition for N appeared to be the major factor limiting growth. Estimations of total plot leaf N (g m(-2) ground) showed that competing vegetation accounted for up to 70% of the total leaf N at the start of the trial. This value fell to 15% by the end of the trial. Despite increased leaf N(area) in WF trees 5 months after imposition of weed control, the photosynthetic capacity (A(1500)) of E. globulus was unaffected by treatment suggesting that the growth gains from weed control were largely unrelated to changes in leaf-level photosynthesis. Increased nutrient availability brought about by weed control enabled trees to increase investment into leaf-area production. Estimates of whole-tree carbon budget based on direct measurements of dark respiration and A(1500) allowed us to clearly demonstrate the importance of leaf area driving greater productivity following early weed control in a nutrient-limited site.

  15. Insulin-like growth factor-1 suppresses the Myostatin signaling pathway during myogenic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retamales, A.; Zuloaga, R.; Valenzuela, C.A.; Gallardo-Escarate, C.; Molina, A.; Valdés, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Myogenic differentiation is a complex and well-coordinated process for generating mature skeletal muscle fibers. This event is autocrine/paracrine regulated by growth factors, principally Myostatin (MSTN) and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1). Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth in vertebrates that exerts its inhibitory function by activating Smad transcription factors. In contrast, IGF-1 promotes the differentiation of skeletal myoblasts by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. This study reports on a novel functional crosstalk between the IGF-1 and MSTN signaling pathways, as mediated through interaction between PI3K/Akt and Smad3. Stimulation of skeletal myoblasts with MSTN resulted in a transient increase in the pSmad3:Smad3 ratio and Smad-dependent transcription. Moreover, MSTN inhibited myod gene expression and myoblast fusion in an Activin receptor-like kinase/Smad3-dependent manner. Preincubation of skeletal myoblasts with IGF-1 blocked MSTN-induced Smad3 activation, promoting myod expression and myoblast differentiation. This inhibitory effect of IGF-1 on the MSTN signaling pathway was dependent on IGF-1 receptor, PI3K, and Akt activities. Finally, immunoprecipitation assay analysis determined that IGF-1 pretreatment increased Akt and Smad3 interaction. These results demonstrate that the IGF-1/PI3K/Akt pathway may inhibit MSTN signaling during myoblast differentiation, providing new insight to existing knowledge on the complex crosstalk between both growth factors. - Highlights: • IGF-1 inhibits Myostatin canonical signaling pathway through IGF-1R/PI3K/Akt pathway. • IGF-1 promotes myoblast differentiation through a direct blocking of Myostatin signaling pathway. • IGF-1 induces the interaction of Akt with Smad3 in skeletal myoblast

  16. Insulin-like growth factor-1 suppresses the Myostatin signaling pathway during myogenic differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retamales, A.; Zuloaga, R.; Valenzuela, C.A. [Laboratorio de Biotecnología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Andrés Bello, Santiago (Chile); Gallardo-Escarate, C. [Laboratory of Biotechnology and Aquatic Genomics, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción (Chile); Interdisciplinary Center for Aquaculture Research (INCAR), P.O. Box 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Molina, A. [Laboratorio de Biotecnología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Andrés Bello, Santiago (Chile); Interdisciplinary Center for Aquaculture Research (INCAR), P.O. Box 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Valdés, J.A., E-mail: jvaldes@unab.cl [Laboratorio de Biotecnología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Andrés Bello, Santiago (Chile); Interdisciplinary Center for Aquaculture Research (INCAR), P.O. Box 160-C, Concepción (Chile)

    2015-08-21

    Myogenic differentiation is a complex and well-coordinated process for generating mature skeletal muscle fibers. This event is autocrine/paracrine regulated by growth factors, principally Myostatin (MSTN) and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1). Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth in vertebrates that exerts its inhibitory function by activating Smad transcription factors. In contrast, IGF-1 promotes the differentiation of skeletal myoblasts by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. This study reports on a novel functional crosstalk between the IGF-1 and MSTN signaling pathways, as mediated through interaction between PI3K/Akt and Smad3. Stimulation of skeletal myoblasts with MSTN resulted in a transient increase in the pSmad3:Smad3 ratio and Smad-dependent transcription. Moreover, MSTN inhibited myod gene expression and myoblast fusion in an Activin receptor-like kinase/Smad3-dependent manner. Preincubation of skeletal myoblasts with IGF-1 blocked MSTN-induced Smad3 activation, promoting myod expression and myoblast differentiation. This inhibitory effect of IGF-1 on the MSTN signaling pathway was dependent on IGF-1 receptor, PI3K, and Akt activities. Finally, immunoprecipitation assay analysis determined that IGF-1 pretreatment increased Akt and Smad3 interaction. These results demonstrate that the IGF-1/PI3K/Akt pathway may inhibit MSTN signaling during myoblast differentiation, providing new insight to existing knowledge on the complex crosstalk between both growth factors. - Highlights: • IGF-1 inhibits Myostatin canonical signaling pathway through IGF-1R/PI3K/Akt pathway. • IGF-1 promotes myoblast differentiation through a direct blocking of Myostatin signaling pathway. • IGF-1 induces the interaction of Akt with Smad3 in skeletal myoblast.

  17. Combination of Bifunctional Alkylating Agent and Arsenic Trioxide Synergistically Suppresses the Growth of Drug-Resistant Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chih Lee

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistance is a crucial factor in the failure of cancer chemotherapy. In this study, we explored the effect of combining alkylating agents and arsenic trioxide (ATO on the suppression of tumor cells with inherited or acquired resistance to therapeutic agents. Our results showed that combining ATO and a synthetic derivative of 3a-aza-cyclopenta[a]indenes (BO-1012, a bifunctional alkylating agent causing DNA interstrand cross-links, was more effective in killing human cancer cell lines (H460, H1299, and PC3 than combining ATO and melphalan or thiotepa. We further demonstrated that the combination treatment of H460 cells with BO-1012 and ATO resulted in severe G2/M arrest and apoptosis. In a xenograft mouse model, the combination treatment with BO-1012 and ATO synergistically reduced tumor volumes in nude mice inoculated with H460 cells. Similarly, the combination of BO-1012 and ATO effectively reduced the growth of cisplatin-resistant NTUB1/P human bladder carcinoma cells. Furthermore, the repair of BO-1012-induced DNA interstrand cross-links was significantly inhibited by ATO, and consequently, γH2AX was remarkably increased and formed nuclear foci in H460 cells treated with this drug combination. In addition, Rad51 was activated by translocating and forming foci in nuclei on treatment with BO-1012, whereas its activation was significantly suppressed by ATO. We further revealed that ATO might mediate through the suppression of AKT activity to inactivate Rad51. Taken together, the present study reveals that a combination of bifunctional alkylating agents and ATO may be a rational strategy for treating cancers with inherited or acquired drug resistance.

  18. Investigating the Effect of Chemical Management on Weeds Population, Agronomical Traits and Yield of Garlic (Allium sativum L. in Mazandaran Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobhan Mahzari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Garlic (Allium sativum L. is an important winter crop in northern of Iran with a total of 9580 ha which produces approximately 90, 197 tons per year. It is the second most widely cultivated species of the genus, Allium after onion (Allium cepa. Also, Garlic along with onions and leeks are three major cultivated species in Alliaceae family. This plant because of high economic and medicinal values is cultivated in 2610 hectares of agricultural lands of Mazandaran Province, Iran. Slow growth rate, low height, and a thin canopy that does not cover the soil enough to sup-press weeds make garlic a poor competitor against the latter until the beginning of spring. According results, reported 71% yield losses in garlic crop if weeds are allowed to grow during the crop season. Weed interference is affected by the time of weed emergence relative to the crop’s phenological development. The weeds, which emerge early or simultaneously with the crop, are highly competitive and should be managed by farmers. Most weed management strategies in cereals target seedlings, as they are the most sensitive stage of the weed. However, emergence of weed seedlings varies every year in timing, extent and intensity. Therefore in this study, the effect of chemical management on reducing the density and biomass of weeds, yield and agronomic characteristics of garlic were studied in Mazandaran Province, Iran. Materials and Methods: After the selection of location test, in order to determine the physical and chemical properties before the preparation of soil for planting, sampling from the soil was carried out from the depth of 0 to 30 cm at some point. The farm was plowed using a moldboard plow, then the used fertilizers in this study were added to the soil twice before planting and then the fertilizers were incorporated with the soil using a Disc. The amount of used fertilizers in this study according to soil test were including: 200 kg Urea per hectare that

  19. 17-AAG suppresses growth and invasion of lung adenocarcinoma cells via regulation of the LATS1/YAP pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiang-Yun; Luo, Qing-Quan; Xu, Yun-Hua; Tang, Nai-Wang; Niu, Xiao-Min; Li, Zi-Ming; Shen, Sheng-Ping; Lu, Shun; Chen, Zhi-Wei

    2015-03-01

    The large tumour suppressor 1 (LATS1) signalling network has been proved to be an essential regulator within the cell, participating in multiple cellular phenotypes. However, it is unclear concerning the clinical significance of LATS1 and the regulatory mechanisms of 17-Allylamino-17- demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) in lung adenocarcinoma (LAC). The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation of LATS1 and yes-associated protein (YAP) expression with clinicopathological characteristics in LAC patients, and the effects of 17-AAG on biological behaviours of LAC cells. Subcutaneous LAC tumour models were further established to observe the tumour growth in nude mice. The results showed that the positive expression of LATS1 was significantly lowered (26.7% versus 68.0%, P AAG inhibited proliferation and invasion, and induced cell apoptosis and cycle arrest in LAC cells together with increased expression of E-cadherin and p-LATS1, and decreased expression of YAP and connective tissue growth factor. Tumour volumes and weight were much smaller in 17-AAG-treated groups than those in untreated group (P AAG suppresses growth and invasion of LAC cells via regulation of the LATS1/YAP pathway in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that we may provide a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of human LAC. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  20. 17-AAG suppresses growth and invasion of lung adenocarcinoma cells via regulation of the LATS1/YAP pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiang-Yun; Luo, Qing-Quan; Xu, Yun-Hua; Tang, Nai-Wang; Niu, Xiao-Min; Li, Zi-Ming; Shen, Sheng-Ping; Lu, Shun; Chen, Zhi-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The large tumour suppressor 1 (LATS1) signalling network has been proved to be an essential regulator within the cell, participating in multiple cellular phenotypes. However, it is unclear concerning the clinical significance of LATS1 and the regulatory mechanisms of 17-Allylamino-17- demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) in lung adenocarcinoma (LAC). The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation of LATS1 and yes-associated protein (YAP) expression with clinicopathological characteristics in LAC patients, and the effects of 17-AAG on biological behaviours of LAC cells. Subcutaneous LAC tumour models were further established to observe the tumour growth in nude mice. The results showed that the positive expression of LATS1 was significantly lowered (26.7% versus 68.0%, P AAG inhibited proliferation and invasion, and induced cell apoptosis and cycle arrest in LAC cells together with increased expression of E-cadherin and p-LATS1, and decreased expression of YAP and connective tissue growth factor. Tumour volumes and weight were much smaller in 17-AAG-treated groups than those in untreated group (P AAG suppresses growth and invasion of LAC cells via regulation of the LATS1/YAP pathway in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that we may provide a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of human LAC. PMID:25712415

  1. Suppression of SOX18 by siRNA inhibits cell growth and invasion of breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianxiang; Ma, Yanmei; Wang, Shoujun; Chen, Fu; Gu, Yuanting

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women around the world, and its incidence and mortality rates are still rising. An increasing number of studies have reported that SOX18 plays an important role in various cancers. However, the role of SOX18 in breast cancer remains poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate the biological role and potential molecular mechanism of SOX18 in breast cancer. We found that the mRNA and protein expression levels of SOX18 were prevalently and significantly overexpressed in human breast cancer cell lines. Next, we performed loss-of-function experiments by transfection of two breast cancer cell lines, BT-474 and MCF-7, with SOX18 small interfering RNAs (siRNA). Results showed that SOX18 siRNA transfection significantly suppressed mRNA and protein expression of SOX18 in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, knockdown of SOX18 significantly inhibited cell proliferation and invasion, but promoted apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Importantly, several oncogenic proteins, including the Ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA), platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB), Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R), and matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7), were markedly decreased by SOX18 siRNA. Taken together, the results of our study suggest that knockdown of SOX18 inhibits breast cancer cell growth and invasion, possibly by downregulating downstream oncogenic proteins, providing novel insights into the development of breast cancer therapy through targeting of SOX18.

  2. Melatonin suppresses thyroid cancer growth and overcomes radioresistance via inhibition of p65 phosphorylation and induction of ROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Wei Zou

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine carcinoma with increasing incidence worldwide and anaplastic subtypes are frequently associated with cancer related death. Radioresistance of thyroid cancer often leads to therapy failure and cancer-related death. In this study, we found that melatonin showed potent suppressive roles on NF-κB signaling via inhibition of p65 phosphorylation and generated redox stress in thyroid cancer including the anaplastic subtypes. Our data showed that melatonin significantly decreased cell viability, suppressed cell migration and induced apoptosis in thyroid cancer cell lines in vitro and impaired tumor growth in the subcutaneous mouse model in vivo. By contrast, irradiation of thyroid cancer cells resulted in elevated level of phosphorylated p65, which could be reversed by cotreatment with melatonin. Consequently, melatonin synergized with irradiation to induce cytotoxicity to thyroid cancer, especially in the undifferentiated subgroups. Taken together, our results suggest that melatonin may exert anti-tumor activities against thyroid carcinoma by inhibition of p65 phosphorylation and induction of reactive oxygen species. Radio-sensitization by melatonin may have clinical benefits in thyroid cancer. Keywords: Melatonin, Thyroid cancer, Radioresistance, p65, Reactive oxygen species

  3. Inhibition of PI3K by ZSTK474 suppressed tumor growth not via apoptosis but G0/G1 arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, Shingo; Yoshimi, Hisashi; Okamura, Mutsumi; Mukai, Yumiko; Yamori, Takao

    2009-01-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) is a potential target in cancer therapy. Inhibition of PI3K is believed to induce apoptosis. We recently developed a novel PI3K inhibitor ZSTK474 with antitumor efficacy. In this study, we have examined the underlying mode of action by which ZSTK474 exerts its antitumor efficacy. In vivo, ZSTK474 effectively inhibited the growth of human cancer xenografts. In parallel, ZSTK474 treatment suppressed the expression of phospho-Akt, suggesting effective PI3K inhibition, and also suppressed the expression of nuclear cyclin D1 and Ki67, both of which are hallmarks of proliferation. However, ZSTK474 treatment did not increase TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells. In vitro, ZSTK474 induced marked G 0 /G 1 arrest, but did not increase the subdiploid cells or activate caspase, both of which are hallmarks of apoptosis. These results clearly indicated that inhibition of PI3K by ZSTK474 did not induce apoptosis but rather induced strong G 0 /G 1 arrest, which might cause its efficacy in tumor cells.

  4. A novel mouse monoclonal antibody targeting ErbB2 suppresses breast cancer growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawa, Seiji [Division of Oncology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Shirokanedai 4-6-1, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Matsushita, Hirohisa; Ohbayashi, Hirokazu [Department of Research and Development, Nichirei Biosciences Inc., Tokyo 104-8402 (Japan); Semba, Kentaro [Department of Life Science and Medical Bio-Science, School of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Yamamoto, Tadashi, E-mail: tyamamot@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Division of Oncology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Shirokanedai 4-6-1, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan)

    2009-07-03

    Overexpression of ErbB2 in breast cancer is associated with increased recurrence and worse prognosis. Accumulating evidences suggest that molecular targeted therapy is a promising anticancer strategy. In this study, we produced a novel anti-ErbB2 monoclonal antibody, 6G10, that recognized an epitope distinct from the trastuzumab binding site. 6G10 induced aggregation of BT474 breast cancer cells and inhibited proliferation of various breast cancer cell lines including BT474. A growth inhibition assay showed that 6G10 had EC{sub 50} values comparable to trastuzumab, indicating that the drugs have a similar level of potency. Furthermore, intraperitoneal administration of 6G10 completely inhibited the growth of xenografted tumors derived from BT474 and SK-BR-3 cells. These data suggested that 6G10 has great therapeutic potential and could be administered to patients alternatively, or synergistically, with trastuzumab.

  5. Rounding Up the Astrophysical Weeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, James P.

    2016-09-01

    New instruments used for astronomy such as ALMA, Herschel, and SOFIA have greatly increased the quality of available astrophysical data. These improved data contain spectral lines and features which are not accounted for in the quantum mechanical (QM) catalogs. A class of molecules has been identified as being particularly problematic, the so-called "weeds". These molecules have numerous transitions, of non-trivial intensity, which are difficult to model due to highly perturbed low lying vibrational states. The inability to properly describe the complete contribution of these weeds to the astrophysical data has led directly to the misidentification of other target molecules. Ohio State's Microwave Laboratory has developed an alternative approach to this problem. Rather than relying on complex QM calculations, we have developed a temperature dependent approach to laboratory based terahertz spectroscopy. We have developed a set of simple packages, in addition to traditional line list catalogs, that enable astronomers to successfully remove the weed signals from their data. This dissertation will detail my laboratory work and analysis of three keys weeds: methanol, methyl formate and methyl cyanide. Also, discussed will be the analytical technique I used to apply these laboratory results to astrophysical data.

  6. Disrupting Hypoxia-Induced Bicarbonate Transport Acidifies Tumor Cells and Suppresses Tumor Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Alan; Hulikova, Alzbeta; Ledaki, Ioanna; Snell, Cameron; Singleton, Dean; Steers, Graham; Seden, Peter; Jones, Dylan; Bridges, Esther; Wigfield, Simon; Li, Ji-Liang; Russell, Angela; Swietach, Pawel; Harris, Adrian L

    2016-07-01

    Tumor hypoxia is associated clinically with therapeutic resistance and poor patient outcomes. One feature of tumor hypoxia is activated expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9), a regulator of pH and tumor growth. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that impeding the reuptake of bicarbonate produced extracellularly by CA9 could exacerbate the intracellular acidity produced by hypoxic conditions, perhaps compromising cell growth and viability as a result. In 8 of 10 cancer cell lines, we found that hypoxia induced the expression of at least one bicarbonate transporter. The most robust and frequent inductions were of the sodium-driven bicarbonate transporters SLC4A4 and SLC4A9, which rely upon both HIF1α and HIF2α activity for their expression. In cancer cell spheroids, SLC4A4 or SLC4A9 disruption by either genetic or pharmaceutical approaches acidified intracellular pH and reduced cell growth. Furthermore, treatment of spheroids with S0859, a small-molecule inhibitor of sodium-driven bicarbonate transporters, increased apoptosis in the cell lines tested. Finally, RNAi-mediated attenuation of SLC4A9 increased apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer spheroids and dramatically reduced growth of MDA-MB-231 breast tumors or U87 gliomas in murine xenografts. Our findings suggest that disrupting pH homeostasis by blocking bicarbonate import might broadly relieve the common resistance of hypoxic tumors to anticancer therapy. Cancer Res; 76(13); 3744-55. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Suppression of the in vitro growth and development of Microdochium nivale by phosphite

    OpenAIRE

    Dempsey, J.; Wilson, I.; spencer-phillips, P.; Arnold, D.

    2018-01-01

    The ascomycete fungus Microdochium nivale is a major pathogen of many species of the gramineae. Control measures rely heavily on chemical fungicides, making alternative means of disease reduction desirable. Phosphite (PO33-,) has proven efficacy in reducing susceptibility of different species of gramineae to oomycetes, and has adverse effects on the in vitro growth of numerous other pathogens. The effect of phosphorous acid (H3PO3), phosphoric acid (H3PO4), dihydrogen potassium phosphite (KH2...

  8. Nimotuzumab enhances temozolomide?induced growth suppression of glioma cells expressing mutant EGFR in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Nitta, Yusuke; Shimizu, Saki; Shishido?Hara, Yukiko; Suzuki, Kaori; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki; Nagane, Motoo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A mutant form of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), EGFRvIII, is common in glioblastoma (GBM) and confers enhanced tumorigenic activity and drug resistance. Nimotuzumab, an anti?EGFR antibody, has shown preclinical and clinical activity to GBM, but its specific activity against EGFRvIII has not been fully investigated. Human glioma U87MG or LNZ308 cells overexpressing either wild?type (wt) EGFR or EGFRvIII were treated with nimotuzumab, temozolomide, or both. Expression and pho...

  9. FOXD3 suppresses tumor growth and angiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Jun-Hai; Zhao, Chun-Liu; Ding, Lan-Bao; Zhou, Xi

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor forkhead box D3 (FOXD3), widely studied as a transcriptional repressor in embryogenesis, participates in the carcinogenesis of many cancers. However, the expression pattern and role of FOXD3 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have not been well characterized. We report that FOXD3 is significantly downregulated in NSCLC cell lines and clinical tissues. FOXD3 overexpression significantly inhibits cell growth and results in G1 cell cycle arrest in NSCLC A549 and H1299 cells. In a xenograft tumor model, FOXD3 overexpression inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis. Remarkably, expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was reduced in FOXD3 overexpression models both in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that FOXD3 plays a potential tumor suppressor role in NSCLC progression and represents a promising clinical prognostic marker and therapeutic target for this disease. - Highlights: • FOXD3 is downregulated in NSCLC cell lines and tissues. • FOXD3 overexpression inhibited cell proliferation in NSCLC cells. • FOXD3 overexpression led to decreased angiogenesis in NSCLC cells in vitro and in vivo.

  10. Suppression of progranulin expression inhibits bladder cancer growth and sensitizes cancer cells to cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buraschi, Simone; Xu, Shi-Qiong; Stefanello, Manuela; Moskalev, Igor; Morcavallo, Alaide; Genua, Marco; Tanimoto, Ryuta; Birbe, Ruth; Peiper, Stephen C; Gomella, Leonard G; Belfiore, Antonino; Black, Peter C; Iozzo, Renato V; Morrione, Andrea

    2016-06-28

    We have recently demonstrated a critical role for progranulin in bladder cancer. Progranulin contributes, as an autocrine growth factor, to the transformed phenotype by modulating Akt-and MAPK-driven motility, invasion and anchorage-independent growth. Progranulin also induces F-actin remodeling by interacting with the F-actin binding protein drebrin. In addition, progranulin is overexpressed in invasive bladder cancer compared to normal tissue controls, suggesting that progranulin might play a key role in driving the transition to the invasive phenotype of urothelial cancer. However, it is not established whether targeting progranulin could have therapeutic effects on bladder cancer. In this study, we stably depleted urothelial cancer cells of endogenous progranulin by shRNA approaches and determined that progranulin depletion severely inhibited the ability of tumorigenic urothelial cancer cells to migrate, invade and grow in anchorage-independency. We further demonstrate that progranulin expression is critical for tumor growth in vivo, in both xenograft and orthotopic tumor models. Notably, progranulin levels correlated with response to cisplatin treatment and were upregulated in bladder tumors. Our data indicate that progranulin may constitute a novel target for therapeutic intervention in bladder tumors. In addition, progranulin may serve as a novel biomarker for bladder cancer.

  11. Inhibition of Stromal PlGF Suppresses the Growth of Prostate Cancer Xenografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar Abraham

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth and vascularization of prostate cancer is dependent on interactions between cancer cells and supporting stromal cells. The primary stromal cell type found in prostate tumors is the carcinoma-associated fibroblast, which produces placental growth factor (PlGF. PlGF is a member of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF family of angiogenic molecules and PlGF mRNA levels increase after androgen deprivation therapy in prostate cancer. In this study, we show that PlGF has a direct dose-dependent proliferative effect on human PC-3 prostate cancer cells in vitro and fibroblast-derived PlGF increases PC-3 proliferation in co-culture. In xenograft tumor models, intratumoral administration of murine PlGF siRNA reduced stromal-derived PlGF expression, reduced tumor burden and decreased the number of Ki-67 positive proliferating cells associated with reduced vascular density. These data show that targeting stromal PlGF expression may represent a therapeutic target for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  12. FOXD3 suppresses tumor growth and angiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Jun-Hai; Zhao, Chun-Liu [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Luwan Branch of Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 20020 (China); Ding, Lan-Bao [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai 10th People' s Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200072 (China); Zhou, Xi, E-mail: modelmap@139.com [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Luwan Branch of Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 20020 (China)

    2015-10-09

    The transcription factor forkhead box D3 (FOXD3), widely studied as a transcriptional repressor in embryogenesis, participates in the carcinogenesis of many cancers. However, the expression pattern and role of FOXD3 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have not been well characterized. We report that FOXD3 is significantly downregulated in NSCLC cell lines and clinical tissues. FOXD3 overexpression significantly inhibits cell growth and results in G1 cell cycle arrest in NSCLC A549 and H1299 cells. In a xenograft tumor model, FOXD3 overexpression inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis. Remarkably, expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was reduced in FOXD3 overexpression models both in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that FOXD3 plays a potential tumor suppressor role in NSCLC progression and represents a promising clinical prognostic marker and therapeutic target for this disease. - Highlights: • FOXD3 is downregulated in NSCLC cell lines and tissues. • FOXD3 overexpression inhibited cell proliferation in NSCLC cells. • FOXD3 overexpression led to decreased angiogenesis in NSCLC cells in vitro and in vivo.

  13. Weed Dynamics during Transition to Conservation Agriculture in Western Kenya Maize Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A Odhiambo

    Full Text Available Weed competition is a significant problem in maize (Zea mays, L. production in Sub-Saharan Africa. Better understanding of weed management and costs in maize intercropped with beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, L. during transition to conservation agricultural systems is needed. Changes in weed population and maize growth were assessed for a period of three years at Bungoma where crops are grown twice per year and at Trans-Nzoia where crops are grown once per year. Treatments included three tillage practices: minimum (MT, no-till (NT and conventional (CT applied to three cropping systems: continuous maize/bean intercropping (TYPICAL, maize/bean intercropping with relayed mucuna after bean harvest (RELAY and maize, bean and mucuna planted in a strip intercropping arrangement (STRIP. Herbicides were used in NT, shallow hand hoeing and herbicides were used in MT and deep hoeing with no herbicides were used in CT. Weed and maize performance in the maize phase of each cropping system were assessed at both locations and costs of weed control were estimated at Manor House only. Weed density of grass and forb species declined significantly under MT and NT at Manor House and of grass species only at Mabanga. The greatest declines of more than 50% were observed as early as within one year of the transition to MT and NT in STRIP and TYPICAL cropping systems at Manor House. Transitioning to conservation based systems resulted in a decline of four out of five most dominant weed species. At the same time, no negative impact of MT or NT on maize growth was observed. Corresponding costs of weed management were reduced by $148.40 ha(-1 in MT and $149.60 ha(-1 in NT compared with CT. In conclusion, farmers can benefit from effective and less expensive weed management alternatives early in the process of transitioning to reduced tillage operations.

  14. Weed Dynamics during Transition to Conservation Agriculture in Western Kenya Maize Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, Judith A; Norton, Urszula; Ashilenje, Dennis; Omondi, Emmanuel C; Norton, Jay B

    2015-01-01

    Weed competition is a significant problem in maize (Zea mays, L.) production in Sub-Saharan Africa. Better understanding of weed management and costs in maize intercropped with beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) during transition to conservation agricultural systems is needed. Changes in weed population and maize growth were assessed for a period of three years at Bungoma where crops are grown twice per year and at Trans-Nzoia where crops are grown once per year. Treatments included three tillage practices: minimum (MT), no-till (NT) and conventional (CT) applied to three cropping systems: continuous maize/bean intercropping (TYPICAL), maize/bean intercropping with relayed mucuna after bean harvest (RELAY) and maize, bean and mucuna planted in a strip intercropping arrangement (STRIP). Herbicides were used in NT, shallow hand hoeing and herbicides were used in MT and deep hoeing with no herbicides were used in CT. Weed and maize performance in the maize phase of each cropping system were assessed at both locations and costs of weed control were estimated at Manor House only. Weed density of grass and forb species declined significantly under MT and NT at Manor House and of grass species only at Mabanga. The greatest declines of more than 50% were observed as early as within one year of the transition to MT and NT in STRIP and TYPICAL cropping systems at Manor House. Transitioning to conservation based systems resulted in a decline of four out of five most dominant weed species. At the same time, no negative impact of MT or NT on maize growth was observed. Corresponding costs of weed management were reduced by $148.40 ha(-1) in MT and $149.60 ha(-1) in NT compared with CT. In conclusion, farmers can benefit from effective and less expensive weed management alternatives early in the process of transitioning to reduced tillage operations.

  15. Resveratrol Suppresses Growth and Migration of Myelodysplastic Cells by Inhibiting the Expression of Elevated Cyclin D1 (CCND1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Xu, Shilin; Ying, Yi; Zhou, Ruiqing; Chen, Xiaowei

    2017-11-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of heterogeneous diseases characterized by poorly formed blood cells. We wanted to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism to better determine pathogenesis, prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment for patients with MDS. We compared gene expression levels between normal and MDS tissue samples by immunohistochemical analysis. We studied the proliferation, survival, and migration of MDS cells using the EDU assay, colony formation, and transwell assays. We assessed the apoptotic rate and cell cycle status using flow cytometry and Hoechst staining. Finally, we evaluated RNA and protein expressions using polymerase chain reaction and Western blots, respectively. We found that resveratrol suppressed SKM-1 (an advanced MDS cell line) proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Consistent with this finding, the EDU and colony formation assays also showed that resveratrol inhibited SKM-1 growth. Moreover, flow cytometry and Hoechst 33258 staining demonstrated that resveratrol induced apoptosis and a change in cell cycle status in SKM-1 cells, while the transwell assay showed that resveratrol reduced the migratory ability of SKM-1 cells. Resveratrol also decreased the expression of CCND1 (a gene that encodes the cyclin D1 protein) and increased expressions of KMT2A [lysine (K)-specific methyltransferase 2A] and caspase-3, suggesting that resveratrol exerts its effect by regulating CCND1 in SKM-1 cells. In addition, a combination of resveratrol and the PI3K/AKT inhibitor LY294002 exhibited a stronger inhibitory effect on the SKM-1 cells, compared with resveratrol alone. Our study proved that resveratrol suppresses SKM-1 growth and migration by inhibiting CCND1 expression. This finding provides novel insights into the pathogenesis of MDS and might help develop new diagnosis and treatment for patients with MDS.

  16. Adeno-associated virus-mediated doxycycline-regulatable TRAIL expression suppresses growth of human breast carcinoma in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Liu; Weilun, Zhang; Minghong, Jiang; Yaxi, Zhang; Shilian, Liu; Yanxin, Liu; Dexian, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) functions as a cytokine to selectively kill various cancer cells without toxicity to most normal cells. Numerous studies have demonstrated the potential use of recombinant soluble TRAIL as a cancer therapeutic agent. We have showed previous administration of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector expressing soluble TRAIL results in an efficient suppression of human tumor growth in nude mice. In the present study, we introduced Tet-On gene expression system into the rAAV vector to control the soluble TRAIL expression and evaluate the efficiency of the system in cancer gene therapy. Controllability of the Tet-On system was determined by luciferase activity assay, and Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. The breast cancer xenograft animal model was established and recombinant virus was administrated through tail vein injection to evaluate the tumoricidal activity. The expression of soluble TRAIL could be strictly controlled by the Tet-On system in both normal and cancer cells. Transduction of human cancer cell lines with rAAV-TRE-TRAIL&rAAV-Tet-On under the presence of inducer doxycycline resulted in a considerable cell death by apoptosis. Intravenous injection of the recombinant virus efficiently suppressed the growth of human breast carcinoma in nude mice when activated by doxycycline. These data suggest that rAAV-mediated soluble TRAIL expression under the control of the Tet-On system is a promising strategy for breast cancer therapy

  17. Adeno-associated virus-mediated doxycycline-regulatable TRAIL expression suppresses growth of human breast carcinoma in nude mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Liu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL functions as a cytokine to selectively kill various cancer cells without toxicity to most normal cells. Numerous studies have demonstrated the potential use of recombinant soluble TRAIL as a cancer therapeutic agent. We have showed previous administration of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV vector expressing soluble TRAIL results in an efficient suppression of human tumor growth in nude mice. In the present study, we introduced Tet-On gene expression system into the rAAV vector to control the soluble TRAIL expression and evaluate the efficiency of the system in cancer gene therapy. Methods Controllability of the Tet-On system was determined by luciferase activity assay, and Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. The breast cancer xenograft animal model was established and recombinant virus was administrated through tail vein injection to evaluate the tumoricidal activity. Results The expression of soluble TRAIL could be strictly controlled by the Tet-On system in both normal and cancer cells. Transduction of human cancer cell lines with rAAV-TRE-TRAIL&rAAV-Tet-On under the presence of inducer doxycycline resulted in a considerable cell death by apoptosis. Intravenous injection of the recombinant virus efficiently suppressed the growth of human breast carcinoma in nude mice when activated by doxycycline. Conclusion These data suggest that rAAV-mediated soluble TRAIL expression under the control of the Tet-On system is a promising strategy for breast cancer therapy.

  18. Suppression of tumor growth and angiogenesis by a specific antagonist of the cell-surface expressed nucleolin.

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    Damien Destouches

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Emerging evidences suggest that nucleolin expressed on the cell surface is implicated in growth of tumor cells and angiogenesis. Nucleolin is one of the major proteins of the nucleolus, but it is also expressed on the cell surface where is serves as a binding protein for variety of ligands implicated in cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, mitogenesis and angiogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By using a specific antagonist that binds the C-terminal tail of nucleolin, the HB-19 pseudopeptide, here we show that the growth of tumor cells and angiogenesis are suppressed in various in vitro and in vivo experimental models. HB-19 inhibited colony formation in soft agar of tumor cell lines, impaired migration of endothelial cells and formation of capillary-like structures in collagen gel, and reduced blood vessel branching in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane. In athymic nude mice, HB-19 treatment markedly suppressed the progression of established human breast tumor cell xenografts in nude mice, and in some cases eliminated measurable tumors while displaying no toxicity to normal tissue. This potent antitumoral effect is attributed to the direct inhibitory action of HB-19 on both tumor and endothelial cells by blocking and down regulating surface nucleolin, but without any apparent effect on nucleolar nucleolin. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results illustrate the dual inhibitory action of HB-19 on the tumor development and the neovascularization process, thus validating the cell-surface expressed nucleolin as a strategic target for an effective cancer drug. Consequently, the HB-19 pseudopeptide provides a unique candidate to consider for innovative cancer therapy.

  19. Herbal Extract SH003 Suppresses Tumor Growth and Metastasis of MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells by Inhibiting STAT3-IL-6 Signaling

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    Youn Kyung Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer inflammation promotes cancer progression, resulting in a high risk of cancer. Here, we demonstrate that our new herbal extract, SH003, suppresses both tumor growth and metastasis of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells via inhibiting STAT3-IL-6 signaling path. Our new herbal formula, SH003, mixed extract from Astragalus membranaceus, Angelica gigas, and Trichosanthes kirilowii Maximowicz, suppressed MDA-MB-231 tumor growth and lung metastasis in vivo and reduced the viability and metastatic abilities of MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro. Furthermore, SH003 inhibited STAT3 activation, which resulted in a reduction of IL-6 production. Therefore, we conclude that SH003 suppresses highly metastatic breast cancer growth and metastasis by inhibiting STAT3-IL-6 signaling path.

  20. Effect of Cover Crops and Nitrogen Fertilizer on Total Production of Forage Corn and Dry Weight of Weeds

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    R Fakhari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of cover crops, split application of nitrogen and control weeds on forage corn and weed biomass a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications and three factors was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station of Ardabil (Iran during 2012 crop year. The first factor was cover crops (consisting of winter rye, hairy vetch, berseem clover, with and without weeding as controls. The second factor was two levels of split application of 225 kg.ha-1 urea at two growth stages forage corn: the first level (N1= 1/2 at planting and 1/2 at 8-10 leaf stage, second level (N2= 1/3 at planting, 1/3 at 8-10 leaf and 1/3 one week before tasselling stage. The third factor consisted of two levels of weed control: weeding at 8 leaves and weeding one week before tasselling. Results showed that winter rye, hairy vetch and berseem clover cover crops decreased total weed dry weights up to 87, 82 and 65 % respectively as compared to control (without weeding. Cover crops and nitrogen application time had a significant effect on yield of fresh forage corn and cover crops. Based on the advantages of effective weed control and higher forage production of hairy vetch it can be recommended as proper cover crop.

  1. A local anesthetic, ropivacaine, suppresses activated microglia via a nerve growth factor-dependent mechanism and astrocytes via a nerve growth factor-independent mechanism in neuropathic pain

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    Sakamoto Atsuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Local anesthetics alleviate neuropathic pain in some cases in clinical practice, and exhibit longer durations of action than those predicted on the basis of the pharmacokinetics of their blocking effects on voltage-dependent sodium channels. Therefore, local anesthetics may contribute to additional mechanisms for reversal of the sensitization of nociceptive pathways that occurs in the neuropathic pain state. In recent years, spinal glial cells, microglia and astrocytes, have been shown to play critical roles in neuropathic pain, but their participation in the analgesic effects of local anesthetics remains largely unknown. Results Repetitive epidural administration of ropivacaine reduced the hyperalgesia induced by chronic constrictive injury of the sciatic nerve. Concomitantly with this analgesia, ropivacaine suppressed the increases in the immunoreactivities of CD11b and glial fibrillary acidic protein in the dorsal spinal cord, as markers of activated microglia and astrocytes, respectively. In addition, epidural administration of a TrkA-IgG fusion protein that blocks the action of nerve growth factor (NGF, which was upregulated by ropivacaine in the dorsal root ganglion, prevented the inhibitory effect of ropivacaine on microglia, but not astrocytes. The blockade of NGF action also abolished the analgesic effect of ropivacaine on neuropathic pain. Conclusions Ropivacaine provides prolonged analgesia possibly by suppressing microglial activation in an NGF-dependent manner and astrocyte activation in an NGF-independent manner in the dorsal spinal cord. Local anesthetics, including ropivacaine, may represent a new approach for glial cell inhibition and, therefore, therapeutic strategies for neuropathic pain.

  2. SKLB188 inhibits the growth of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma by suppressing EGFR signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzegar, Mansoureh; Ma, Shuang; Zhang, Chao; Chen, Xin; Gu, Ying; Shang, Chaowei; Jiang, Xiaojuan; Yang, Jiao; Nathan, Cherie-Ann; Yang, Shengyong; Huang, Shile

    2017-10-10

    Overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) occurs in approximately 90% of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and is correlated with poor prognosis. Thus, targeting EGFR is a promising strategy for treatment of HNSCC. Several small molecule EGFR inhibitors have been tested in clinical trials for treatment of HNSCC, but none of them are more effective than the current chemotherapeutic drugs. Thus, it is urgently needed to develop novel EGFR inhibitors for HNSCC treatment. By screening an in-house focused library containing approximately 650 000 known kinase inhibitors and kinase inhibitor-like compounds containing common kinase inhibitor core scaffolds, we identified SKLB188 as a lead compound for inhibition of EGFR. The anticancer effects of SKLB188 on HNSCC cells were investigated by in vitro cell growth, cell cycle and apoptosis assays, as well as in vivo FaDu xenograft mouse model. Molecular docking, in vitro kinase profiling and western blotting were performed to characterise EGFR as the molecular target. SKLB188 inhibited HNSCC cell proliferation by inducing G 1 cell cycle arrest, which was associated with downregulating the expression of Cdc25A, cyclins D1/A and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK2/4), and upregulating the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors (p21 Cip1 and p27 Kip1 ), leading to decreased phosphorylation of Rb. SKLB188 also induced caspase-dependent apoptosis of HNSCC cells by downregulating the expression of Mcl-1 and survivin. Molecular docking revealed that SKLB188 could bind to the kinase domain of EGFR through hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. In vitro kinase assay showed that SKLB188 inhibited the activity of a recombinant human EGFR very potently (IC 50 =5 nM). Western blot analysis demonstrated that SKLB188 inhibited the phosphorylation of EGFR and its downstream targets, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (Erk1/2) and Akt in the cells. In addition, SKLB188 dose

  3. Lemur Tyrosine Kinase-3 Suppresses Growth of Prostate Cancer Via the AKT and MAPK Signaling Pathways

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    Pengcheng Sun

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Lemur tyrosine kinase (LMTK-3 is a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK family. Abnormal expression of LMTK-3 exists in various types of cancers, especially in endocrine-resistant breast cancers; however, the precise level of expression and the biological function in prostate cancer are poorly understood. Methods: In the present study, we determined the expression of LMTK-3 in prostate cancer using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. We infected PC3 and LNCaP cells with lentivirus-LMTK-3 and observed the biologic characteristics of the PC3 and LNCaP cells in vitro with TUNEL, and migration and invasion assays, respectively. We also established a transplant tumor model of human prostate cancer with infected cells in 15 BALB/c-nu/nu nude mice. Results: LMTK-3 was expressed in prostate epithelial cells. There was a significant decline in the level of LMTK-3 expression in prostate cancers compared to normal tissues. LMTK-3 inhibited PC3 and LNCaP cell growth, migration, and invasion, and induced cell apoptosis in vitro. We also observed that LMTK-3 induced PC3 cell apoptosis in vivo. Further study showed that LMTK-3 inhibited phosphorylation of AKT and ERK, and promoted phosphorylation and activation of p38 kinase and Jun kinase (JNK. Conclusion: Recombinant lentivirus with enhanced expression of LMTK-3 inhibited prostate cancer cell growth and induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. AKT and MAPK signaling pathways may contribute to the process.

  4. EFFECT OF SETTING THE PARAMETERS OF FLAME WEEDER ON WEED CONTROL EFFECTIVENESS

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    Miroslav Mojžiš

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Unconventional ways of growing plants, when we return to non-chemical methods of controlling weeds, require new weed control methods. One of the few physical methods, which found wider application in practice, is a flame weeder with heat burners based on the use of gas (LPG. However, the process of practical use of this flame weeder has a number of factors that positively or negatively affect the effectiveness of weed control. A precise setting of flame weeders is influenced, for example by weed species, weed growth stage, weather, type of crop grown, but also heat transmission and heat absorption by plant. Many variables that enter into the process must be eliminated for their negative impacts on achieving the best results in fighting against weeds. In this paper, we have focused on naming these parameters, on field trials that confirm the justification of the precise setting of parameters, and recommendations for practice to achieve a higher efficiency of thermal weed control.

  5. Long-term effects of weed control with picloram along a gradient of spotted knapweed invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvette K. Ortega; Dean E. Pearson

    2011-01-01

    Broadleaf herbicides are commonly used in rangelands to suppress exotic weeds and release native communities from negative impacts of invasion. However, few studies have comprehensively evaluated treatment effects on differing community components across a gradient of initial invasion levels.We conducted a 6-yr experiment within grasslands of western Montana to measure...

  6. Suppression of Peroxiredoxin 4 in Glioblastoma Cells Increases Apoptosis and Reduces Tumor Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyong; Song, Jieun; Alcantara Llaguno, Sheila R.; Murnan, Eric; Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Palanichamy, Kamalakannan; Yi, Ji-Yeun; Viapiano, Mariano Sebastian; Nakano, Ichiro; Yoon, Sung Ok; Wu, Hong; Parada, Luis F.; Kwon, Chang-Hyuk

    2012-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common and aggressive primary brain malignancy, is incurable despite the best combination of current cancer therapies. For the development of more effective therapies, discovery of novel candidate tumor drivers is urgently needed. Here, we report that peroxiredoxin 4 (PRDX4) is a putative tumor driver. PRDX4 levels were highly increased in a majority of human GBMs as well as in a mouse model of GBM. Reducing PRDX4 expression significantly decreased GBM cell growth and radiation resistance in vitro with increased levels of ROS, DNA damage, and apoptosis. In a syngenic orthotopic transplantation model, Prdx4 knockdown limited GBM infiltration and significantly prolonged mouse survival. These data suggest that PRDX4 can be a novel target for GBM therapies in the future. PMID:22916164

  7. Suppression of peroxiredoxin 4 in glioblastoma cells increases apoptosis and reduces tumor growth.

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    Tae Hyong Kim

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, the most common and aggressive primary brain malignancy, is incurable despite the best combination of current cancer therapies. For the development of more effective therapies, discovery of novel candidate tumor drivers is urgently needed. Here, we report that peroxiredoxin 4 (PRDX4 is a putative tumor driver. PRDX4 levels were highly increased in a majority of human GBMs as well as in a mouse model of GBM. Reducing PRDX4 expression significantly decreased GBM cell growth and radiation resistance in vitro with increased levels of ROS, DNA damage, and apoptosis. In a syngenic orthotopic transplantation model, Prdx4 knockdown limited GBM infiltration and significantly prolonged mouse survival. These data suggest that PRDX4 can be a novel target for GBM therapies in the future.

  8. FOXO/TXNIP pathway is involved in the suppression of hepatocellular carcinoma growth by glutamate antagonist MK-801

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Fuminori; Hirata, Yuko; Akram, Hossain; Kamitori, Kazuyo; Dong, Youyi; Sui, Li; Tokuda, Masaaki

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has suggested the importance of glutamate signaling in cancer growth, yet the signaling pathway has not been fully elucidated. N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor activates intracellular signaling pathways such as the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and forkhead box, class O (FOXO). Suppression of lung carcinoma growth by NMDA receptor antagonists via the ERK pathway has been reported. However, series of evidences suggested the importance of FOXO pathways for the regulation of normal and cancer cell growth. In the liver, FOXO1 play important roles for the cell proliferation such as hepatic stellate cells as well as liver metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the involvement of the FOXO pathway and the target genes in the growth inhibitory effects of NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 in human hepatocellular carcinoma. Expression of NMDAR1 in cancer cell lines from different tissues was examined by Western blot. NMDA receptor subunits in HepG2, HuH-7, and HLF were examined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and growth inhibition by MK-801 and NBQX was determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The effects of MK-801 on the cell cycle were examined by flow cytometry and Western blot analysis. Expression of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) and p27 was determined by real-time PCR and Western blotting. Activation of the FOXO pathway and TXNIP induction were examined by Western blotting, fluorescence microscopy, Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay, and reporter gene assay. The effects of TXNIP on growth inhibition were examined using the gene silencing technique. NMDA receptor subunits were expressed in all cell lines examined, and MK-801, but not NBQX, inhibited cell growth of hepatocellular carcinomas. Cell cycle analysis showed that MK-801 induced G1 cell cycle arrest by down-regulating cyclin D1 and up-regulating p27. MK-801 dephosphorylated

  9. FOXO/TXNIP pathway is involved in the suppression of hepatocellular carcinoma growth by glutamate antagonist MK-801

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence has suggested the importance of glutamate signaling in cancer growth, yet the signaling pathway has not been fully elucidated. N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor activates intracellular signaling pathways such as the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and forkhead box, class O (FOXO). Suppression of lung carcinoma growth by NMDA receptor antagonists via the ERK pathway has been reported. However, series of evidences suggested the importance of FOXO pathways for the regulation of normal and cancer cell growth. In the liver, FOXO1 play important roles for the cell proliferation such as hepatic stellate cells as well as liver metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the involvement of the FOXO pathway and the target genes in the growth inhibitory effects of NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 in human hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods Expression of NMDAR1 in cancer cell lines from different tissues was examined by Western blot. NMDA receptor subunits in HepG2, HuH-7, and HLF were examined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and growth inhibition by MK-801 and NBQX was determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The effects of MK-801 on the cell cycle were examined by flow cytometry and Western blot analysis. Expression of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) and p27 was determined by real-time PCR and Western blotting. Activation of the FOXO pathway and TXNIP induction were examined by Western blotting, fluorescence microscopy, Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay, and reporter gene assay. The effects of TXNIP on growth inhibition were examined using the gene silencing technique. Results NMDA receptor subunits were expressed in all cell lines examined, and MK-801, but not NBQX, inhibited cell growth of hepatocellular carcinomas. Cell cycle analysis showed that MK-801 induced G1 cell cycle arrest by down-regulating cyclin D1 and up-regulating p

  10. Identification and characterization of MEL-3, a novel AR antagonist that suppresses prostate cancer cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsen, Christine; Marchand, Arnaud; Chaltin, Patrick; Munck, Sebastian; Voet, Arnout; Verstuyf, Annemieke; Claessens, Frank

    2012-06-01

    Antiandrogens are an important component of prostate cancer therapy as the androgen receptor (AR) is the key regulator of prostate cancer growth and survival. Current AR antagonists, such as bicalutamide and hydroxyflutamide, have a low affinity for the AR and as a result block AR signaling insufficiently. Moreover, many patients develop a resistance for bicalutamide or hydroxyflutamide during therapy or show a clinical improvement after withdrawal of the antiandrogen. New and more effective AR antagonists are needed to ensure follow-up of these patients. We therefore developed a screening system to identify novel AR antagonists from a collection of compounds. MEL-3 [8-(propan-2-yl)-5,6-dihydro-4H-pyrazino[3,2,1-jk]carbazole] was selected as potent inhibitor of the AR and was further characterized in vitro. On different prostate cancer cell lines MEL-3 displayed an improved therapeutic profile compared with bicalutamide. Not only cell growth was inhibited but also the expression of androgen-regulated genes: PSA and FKBP5. Prostate cancer is often associated with mutated ARs that respond to a broadened spectrum of ligands including the current antiandrogens used in the clinic, hydroxyflutamide and bicalutamide. The activity of two mutant receptors (AR T877A and AR W741C) was shown to be reduced in presence of MEL-3, providing evidence that MEL-3 can potentially be a follow-up treatment for bicalutamide- and hydroxyflutamide-resistant patients. The mechanism of action of MEL-3 on the molecular level was further explored by comparing the structure-activity relationship of different chemical derivatives of MEL-3 with the in silico docking of MEL-3 derivatives in the binding pocket of the AR. ©2012 AACR

  11. TOFA suppresses ovarian cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu; Qiu, Lihua; Wu, Buchu; Shen, Haoran; Zhu, Jing; Zhou, Liang; Gu, Liying; Di, Wen

    2013-08-01

    A characteristic feature of cancer cells is the activation of de novo fatty acid synthesis. Acetyl‑CoA carboxylase (ACC) is a key enzyme in fatty acid synthesis, accelerating the reaction that carboxylates cytosolic acetyl‑CoA to form malonyl‑CoA. ACC is highly expressed in several types of human cancer and is important in breast and prostate cancer cell growth. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of 5‑tetradecyloxy‑2‑furoic acid (TOFA), an allosteric inhibitor of ACC, on the proliferation and cell cycle progression of the ovarian cancer cell lines COC1 and COC1/DDP. TOFA was found to be cytotoxic to COC1 and COC1/DDP cells with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of ~26.1 and 11.6 µg/ml, respectively. TOFA inhibited the proliferation of the cancer cells examined in a time‑ and dose‑dependent manner, arrested the cells in the G0/G1 cell cycle phase and induced apoptosis. The expression of the cell cycle regulating proteins cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4, as well as the expression of the apoptosis‑related proteins caspase‑3 and Bcl‑2, were detected by western blot analysis. Cyclin D1, CDK4 and Bcl‑2 protein expression was inhibited by TOFA, while caspase‑3 was cleaved and activated. To the best of our knowledge, the present study demonstrated for the first time that TOFA inhibits COC1/DDP cell growth in ovarian tumor mouse xenografts. By inhibiting ACC, TOFA may be a promising small molecule agent for ovarian cancer therapy.

  12. DMH1, a small molecule inhibitor of BMP type i receptors, suppresses growth and invasion of lung cancer.

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    Jijun Hao

    Full Text Available The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signaling cascade is aberrantly activated in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC but not in normal lung epithelial cells, suggesting that blocking BMP signaling may be an effective therapeutic approach for lung cancer. Previous studies demonstrated that some BMP antagonists, which bind to extracellular BMP ligands and prevent their association with BMP receptors, dramatically reduced lung tumor growth. However, clinical application of protein-based BMP antagonists is limited by short half-lives, poor intra-tumor delivery as well as resistance caused by potential gain-of-function mutations in the downstream of the BMP pathway. Small molecule BMP inhibitors which target the intracellular BMP cascades would be ideal for anticancer drug development. In a zebrafish embryo-based structure and activity study, we previously identified a group of highly selective small molecule inhibitors specifically antagonizing the intracellular kinase domain of BMP type I receptors. In the present study, we demonstrated that DMH1, one of such inhibitors, potently reduced lung cell proliferation, promoted cell death, and decreased cell migration and invasion in NSCLC cells by blocking BMP signaling, as indicated by suppression of Smad 1/5/8 phosphorylation and gene expression of Id1, Id2 and Id3. Additionally, DMH1 treatment significantly reduced the tumor growth in human lung cancer xenograft model. In conclusion, our study indicates that small molecule inhibitors of BMP type I receptors may offer a promising novel strategy for lung cancer treatment.

  13. Overview of glyphosate-resistant weeds worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Ian; Duke, Stephen O

    2018-05-01

    Glyphosate is the most widely used and successful herbicide discovered to date, but its utility is now threatened by the occurrence of several glyphosate-resistant weed species. Glyphosate resistance first appeared in Lolium rigidum in an apple orchard in Australia in 1996, ironically the year that the first glyphosate-resistant crop (soybean) was introduced in the USA. Thirty-eight weed species have now evolved resistance to glyphosate, distributed across 37 countries and in 34 different crops and six non-crop situations. Although glyphosate-resistant weeds have been identified in orchards, vineyards, plantations, cereals, fallow and non-crop situations, it is the glyphosate-resistant weeds in glyphosate-resistant crop systems that dominate the area infested and growing economic impact. Glyphosate-resistant weeds present the greatest threat to sustained weed control in major agronomic crops because this herbicide is used to control weeds with resistance to herbicides with other sites of action, and no new herbicide sites of action have been introduced for over 30 years. Industry has responded by developing herbicide resistance traits in major crops that allow existing herbicides to be used in a new way. However, over reliance on these traits will result in multiple-resistance in weeds. Weed control in major crops is at a precarious point, where we must maintain the utility of the herbicides we have until we can transition to new weed management technologies. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. The future for weed control and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, Dale L; Beckie, Hugh J

    2014-09-01

    This review is both a retrospective (what have we missed?) and prospective (where are we going?) examination of weed control and technology, particularly as it applies to herbicide-resistant weed management (RWM). Major obstacles to RWM are discussed, including lack of diversity in weed management, unwillingness of many weed researchers to conduct real integrated weed management research or growers to accept recommendations, influence or role of agrichemical marketing and governmental policy and lack of multidisciplinary research. We then look ahead to new technologies that are needed for future weed control in general and RWM in particular, in areas such as non-chemical and chemical weed management, novel herbicides, site-specific weed management, drones for monitoring large areas, wider application of 'omics' and simulation model development. Finally, we discuss implementation strategies for integrated weed management to achieve RWM, development of RWM for developing countries, a new classification of herbicides based on mode of metabolism to facilitate greater stewardship and greater global exchange of information to focus efforts on areas that maximize progress in weed control and RWM. There is little doubt that new or emerging technologies will provide novel tools for RMW in the future, but will they arrive in time? © 2013 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada Pest Management Science © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor RO 48-8071 suppresses growth of hormone-dependent and castration-resistant prostate cancer cells

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    Liang Y

    2016-05-01

    growth of aggressive castration-resistant human prostate cancer cell xenografts in vivo without any signs of toxicity to experimental animals. Importantly, RO did not reduce the viability of normal prostate cells in vitro. Our study is the first to demonstrate that the cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor RO effectively suppresses growth of human prostate cancer cells. Our findings suggest that cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitors such as RO, when used in combination with commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs or ERβ specific ligands, could represent a novel therapeutic approach to prevent the growth of prostate cancer tumors. Keywords: prostate cancer, cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor, cell viability, xenograft, castration resistant

  16. WEED CONTROL EFFECTS ON SOIL CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS

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    Paulo Sérgio Lima e Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The weed control procedures are known to affect the soil physical attributes and the nutrient amount taken up by weed roots. This work hypothesis is that weed control methods might also affect soil chemical attributes. Four experiments were carried out, three with maize (E-1, E-2 and E-3 and one with cotton (E-4, in randomized complete blocks design arranged in split-plots, with five replications. In E-1 experiment, the plots consisted of two weed control treatments: no-weed control and weed shovel-digging at 20 and 40 days after sowing; and the subplots consisted of six maize cultivars. In the three other experiments, the plots consisted of plant cultivars: four maize cultivars (E-2 and E-3 and four cotton cultivars (E-4. And, the subplots consisted of three weed control treatments: (1 no-weed control; (2 weed shovel-digging at 20 and 40 days after sowing; and (3 intercropping with cowpea (E-2 or Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walp. (E-3 and E-4. In all experiments, after harvest, eight soil samples were collected from each subplot (0-20 cm depth and composed in one sample. Soil chemical analysis results indicated that the weed control by shovel-digging or intercropping may increase or decrease some soil element concentrations and the alterations depend on the element and experiment considered. In E-2, the weed shovel-dug plots showed intermediate soil pH, lower S (sum of bases values and higher soil P concentrations than the other plots. In E-4, soil K and Na concentrations in plots without weed control did not differ from plots with intercropping, and in both, K and Na values were higher than in weed shovel-dug plots. Maize and cotton cultivars did not affect soil chemical characteristics.

  17. Weed interference with peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) and spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) crops under different herbicide treatments: effects on biomass and essential oil yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkanis, Anestis; Lykas, Christos; Liava, Vasiliki; Bezou, Anna; Petropoulos, Spyridon; Tsiropoulos, Nikolaos

    2018-01-01

    'Minor crops' such as spearmint and peppermint are high added value crops, despite the fact that their production area is comparably small worldwide. The main limiting factor in mint commercial cultivation is weed competition. Thus, field experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of weed interference on growth, biomass and essential oil yield in peppermint and spearmint under different herbicide treatments. The application of pendimethalin and oxyfluorfen provided better control of annual weeds resulting in higher crop yield. Additionally, when treated with herbicides both crops were more competitive against annual weeds in the second year than in the first year. All pre-emergence herbicides increased biomass yield, since pendimethalin, linuron and oxyfluorfen reduced the density of annual weeds by 71-92%, 63-74% and 86-95%, respectively. Weed interference and herbicide application had no effect on essential oil content; however, a relatively strong impact on essential oil production per cultivated area unit was observed, mainly due to the adverse effect of weed interference on plant growth. Considering that pendimethalin and oxyfluorfen were effective against annual weeds in both spearmint and peppermint crops, these herbicides should be included in integrated weed management systems for better weed management in mint crops. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. The weed composition in an orchard as a result of long-term foliar herbicide application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Licznar-Małańczuk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The weed composition and the dominance of individual species occurring in an orchard were assessed at the Research Station of the Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Poland, during the first 10 years after orchard establishment. ‘Ligol’ apple trees were planted in the spring of 2004 (3.5 × 1.2 m. Foliar herbicides were applied in 1 m wide tree rows twice or three times per each vegetation period. In the inter-row spaces, perennial grass was maintained. Ten years of maintenance of herbicide fallow contributed to a change in the weed composition in the orchard. It changed as a result of different responses of the most important weed species to the foliar herbicides. Total suppression of Elymus repens was observed in the first year after planting the trees. Convolvulus arvensis, Cirsium arvense, and other perennial weeds, completely disappeared in the succeeding periods. The maintenance of herbicide fallow did not affect the abundance of Taraxacum officinale. The percentage of the soil surface covered by Trifolium repens and Epilobium adenocaulon, perennial weeds with considerable tolerance to post-emergence herbicides, increased during the fruit-bearing period of the trees. The abundance of these weeds was significantly reduced only in the rows with the stronger growing trees on the semi-dwarf P 2 rootstock. Stellaria media was the dominant annual weed. Senecio vulgaris, Poa annua, Capsella bursa-pastoris, and Lamium spp. were also frequently observed. A significant increase in the abundance of annual and perennial weeds was found in the tree rows as a result of improved water availability after a period of high precipitation.

  19. Tubulin binding cofactor C (TBCC) suppresses tumor growth and enhances chemosensitivity in human breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hage-Sleiman, Rouba; Herveau, Stéphanie; Matera, Eva-Laure; Laurier, Jean-Fabien; Dumontet, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Microtubules are considered major therapeutic targets in patients with breast cancer. In spite of their essential role in biological functions including cell motility, cell division and intracellular transport, microtubules have not yet been considered as critical actors influencing tumor cell aggressivity. To evaluate the impact of microtubule mass and dynamics on the phenotype and sensitivity of breast cancer cells, we have targeted tubulin binding cofactor C (TBCC), a crucial protein for the proper folding of α and β tubulins into polymerization-competent tubulin heterodimers. We developed variants of human breast cancer cells with increased content of TBCC. Analysis of proliferation, cell cycle distribution and mitotic durations were assayed to investigate the influence of TBCC on the cell phenotype. In vivo growth of tumors was monitored in mice xenografted with breast cancer cells. The microtubule dynamics and the different fractions of tubulins were studied by time-lapse microscopy and lysate fractionation, respectively. In vitro sensitivity to antimicrotubule agents was studied by flow cytometry. In vivo chemosensitivity was assayed by treatment of mice implanted with tumor cells. TBCC overexpression influenced tubulin fraction distribution, with higher content of nonpolymerizable tubulins and lower content of polymerizable dimers and microtubules. Microtubule dynamicity was reduced in cells overexpressing TBCC. Cell cycle distribution was altered in cells containing larger amounts of TBCC with higher percentage of cells in G2-M phase and lower percentage in S-phase, along with slower passage into mitosis. While increased content of TBCC had little effect on cell proliferation in vitro, we observed a significant delay in tumor growth with respect to controls when TBCC overexpressing cells were implanted as xenografts in vivo. TBCC overexpressing variants displayed enhanced sensitivity to antimicrotubule agents both in vitro and in xenografts. These

  20. Growth Promotion and Disease Suppression Ability of a Streptomyces sp. CB-75 from Banana Rhizosphere Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yufeng; Zhou, Dengbo; Qi, Dengfeng; Gao, Zhufen; Xie, Jianghui; Luo, Yanping

    2018-01-01

    An actinomycete strain, CB-75, was isolated from the soil of a diseased banana plantation in Hainan, China. Based on phenotypic and molecular characteristics, and 99.93% sequence similarity with Streptomyces spectabilis NBRC 13424 (AB184393), the strain was identified as Streptomyces sp. This strain exhibited broad-spectrum antifungal activity against 11 plant pathogenic fungi. Type I polyketide synthase (PKS-I) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) were detected, which were indicative of the antifungal compounds that Streptomyces sp. CB-75 could produce. An ethyl acetate extract from the strain exhibited the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Colletotrichum musae (ATCC 96167) (0.78 μg/ml) and yielded the highest antifungal activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (ATCC 16330) (50.0 μg/ml). Also, spore germination was significantly inhibited by the crude extract. After treatment with the crude extract of Streptomyces sp. CB-75 at the concentration 2 × MIC, the pathogenic fungi showed deformation, shrinkage, collapse, and tortuosity when observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). By gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of the crude extract, 18 chemical constituents were identified; (Z)-13-docosenamide was the major constituent. Pot experiments showed that the incidence of banana seedlings was reduced after using Streptomyces sp. CB-75 treatment. The disease index was 10.23, and the prevention and control effect was 83.12%. Furthermore, Streptomyces sp. CB-75 had a growth-promoting effect on banana plants. The chlorophyll content showed 88.24% improvement, the leaf area, root length, root diameter, plant height, and stem showed 88.24, 90.49, 136.17, 61.78, and 50.98% improvement, respectively, and the shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight, shoot dry weight, and root dry weight showed 82.38, 72.01, 195.33, and 113.33% improvement, respectively, compared with treatment of fermentation broth without Streptomyces sp. CB-75

  1. Andrographolide Suppress Tumor Growth by Inhibiting TLR4/NF-κB Signaling Activation in Insulinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian-Qian; Ding, Yi; Lei, Yan; Qi, Cui-Ling; He, Xiao-Dong; Lan, Tian; Li, Jiang-Chao; Gong, Ping; Yang, Xuesong; Geng, Jian-Guo; Wang, Li-Jing

    2014-01-01

    Insulinomas are rare tumors, and approximately 10% of insulinomas are malignant. Accumulating evidence has implicated that we still lack effective therapy to treat the patients who are diagnosed with rare malignant insulinoma. Previous studies have reported that Andrographolide (Andro) could inhibit cell cycle progression, reduce cell invasion and induce cell apoptosis in many common cancer cells. However, the effects of andro are cell type-dependent. So we emplored the β-TC-6 cells and the RIP1-Tag2 transgenic mouse model of endogenously growing insulinoma model to elucidate the possible anti-cancer effect of Andro on insulinoma, an uncommon type of malignant cancers in this study. Our experiments revealed that Andro significantly inhibited tumor growth at both the early-stage and the advanced-stage of insulinoma through targeting the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway. This work initially provides the evidence that the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway might be vital as a potential therapeutic target, and also indispensable in Andro-mediated anti-cancer effect in insulinoma. PMID:24719558

  2. Suppression of vascular endothelial growth factor expression by cannabinoids in a canine osteosarcoma cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueiredo AS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Andreza S Figueiredo,1 Hiram J García-Crescioni,1 Sandra C Bulla,1 Matthew K Ross,2 Chelsea McIntosh,1 Kari Lunsford,3 Camilo Bulla11Department of Pathobiology and Population Medicine, 2Department of Basic Sciences, 3Department of Clinical Sciences and Animal Health Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, USAAbstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is a key regulator in both physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis, and cannabinoids decrease VEGF release in human and murine cancer cells. The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro effects of a synthetic cannabinoid, WIN-55,212-2, on the expression of the proangiogenic factor VEGF-A in the canine osteosarcoma cell line 8. After analysis of gene expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, the compound decreased VEGF-A expression by 35% ± 10% (P < 0.0001 as compared with the control. This synthetic cannabinoid shows promise as a potential inhibitor of angiogenesis, and further studies are warranted to investigate its in vivo effects and to explore the potential of this and related compounds as adjuvant cancer therapy in the dog.Keywords: dog, cancer, angiogenesis, cannabinoids

  3. Camptothecin disrupts androgen receptor signaling and suppresses prostate cancer cell growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shicheng; Yuan, Yiming; Okumura, Yutaka; Shinkai, Norihiro; Yamauchi, Hitoshi

    2010-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is the main therapeutic target for treatment of metastatic prostate cancers. The present study demonstrates that the topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin selectively inhibits androgen-responsive growth of prostate cancer cells. Camptothecin strikingly inhibited mutated and wild-type AR protein expression in LNCaP and PC-3/AR cells. This inhibition coincided with decreased androgen-mediated AR phosphorylation at Ser 81 and reduced androgen-mediated AR transcriptional activity in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, camptothecin disrupted the association between AR and heat shock protein 90 and impeded binding of the synthetic androgen [ 3 H]R1881 to AR in LNCaP cells. Camptothecin also blocked androgen-induced AR nuclear translocation, leading to downregulation of the AR target gene PSA. In addition to decreasing the intracellular and secreted prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, camptothecin markedly inhibited androgen-stimulated PSA promoter activity. Collectively, our data reveal that camptothecin not only serves as a traditional genotoxic agent but, by virtue of its ability to target and disrupt AR, may also be a novel candidate for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  4. A morel improved growth and suppressed Fusarium infection in sweet corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dan; Bu, Fangfang; Hou, Jiaojiao; Kang, Yongxiang; Yu, Zhongdong

    2016-12-01

    A post-fire morel collected from Populus simonii stands in Mt. Qingling was identified as Morchella crassipes Mes-20 by using nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer phylogeny. It was inoculated into sweet corn to observe colonized roots in purified culture and in greenhouse experiments. The elongation and maturation zones of sweet corn were remarkably colonized at the cortex intercellular and intracellular cells, vessel cells, and around the Casparian strip, forming ectendomycorrhiza-like structures. Colonization was also observed in the zone of cell division proximal to the root cap. Greenhouse assays with sweet corn showed that this morel stimulated the development of the root system and significantly increased the dry root biomass. M. crassipes also significantly reduced the incidence of Fusarium verticillioides in the kernels of mature ears when inoculated into young ears before Fusarium inoculation and prevented Fusarium infection in corn ears compared with that of the control in the greenhouse. When grown under axenic conditions, M. crassipes produced the phytohormones abscisic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, and salicylic acid. The benefits to plants elicited by M. crassipes may result from these phytohormones which may improve the drought resistance, biomass growth and resistance to Fusarium.

  5. Manic fringe inhibits tumor growth by suppressing Notch3 degradation in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fuming; Amarasinghe, Baru; Dang, Thao P

    2013-01-01

    Notch signaling plays an essential role in development as well as cancer. We have previously shown that Notch3 is important for lung cancer growth and survival. Notch receptors are activated through the interaction with their ligands, resulting in proteolytic cleavage of the receptors. This interaction is modulated by Fringe, a family of fucose-specific β1,3 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases that modify the extracellular subunit of Notch receptors. Studies in developmental models showed that Fringe enhances Notch's response to Delta ligands at the expense of Jagged ligands. We observed that Manic Fringe expression is down-regulated in lung cancer. Since Jagged1, a known ligand for Notch3, is often over-expressed in lung cancer, we hypothesized that Fringe negatively regulates Notch3 activation. In this study, we show that re-expression of Manic Fringe down-regulates Notch3 target genes HES1 and HeyL and reduces tumor phenotype in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism for this phenomenon appears to be related to modulation of Notch3 protein stability. Proteasome inhibition reverses Manic Fringe-induced protein turnover. Taken together, our data provide the first evidence that Manic Fringe functions as a tumor suppressor in the lung and that the mechanism of its anti-tumor activity is mediated by inhibition of Notch3 activation.

  6. Growth suppression of MCF-7 cancer cell-derived xenografts in nude mice by caveolin-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Ping; Wang Xiaohui; Li Fei; Qi Baoju; Zhu Hua; Liu Shuang; Cui Yeqing; Chen Jianwen

    2008-01-01

    Caveolin-1 is an essential structural constituent of caveolae membrane domains that has been implicated in mitogenic signaling and oncogenesis. However, the exact functional role of caveolin-1 still remains controversial. In this report, utilizing MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells stably transfected with caveolin-1 (MCF-7/cav-1 cells), we demonstrate that caveolin-1 expression dramatically inhibits invasion and migration of these cells. Importantly, in vivo experiments employing xenograft tumor models demonstrated that expression of caveolin-1 results in significant growth inhibition of breast tumors. Moreover, a dramatic delay in tumor progression was observed in MCF-7/cav-1 cells as compared with MCF-7 cells. Histological analysis of tumor sections demonstrated a marked decrease in the percentage of proliferating tumor cells (Ki-67 assay) along with an increase in apoptotic tumor cells (TUNEL assay) in MCF-7/cav-1-treated animals. Our current findings provide for the first time in vivo evidence that caveolin-1 can indeed function as a tumor suppressor in human breast adenocarcinoma derived from MCF-7 cells rather than as a tumor promoter

  7. Ruxolitinib combined with vorinostat suppresses tumor growth and alters metabolic phenotype in hematological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civallero, Monica; Cosenza, Maria; Pozzi, Samantha; Sacchi, Stefano

    2017-11-28

    JAK-2 dysregulation plays an important role as an oncogenic driver, and is thus a promising therapeutic target in hematological malignancies. Ruxolitinib is a pyrrolo[2.3-d]pyrimidine derivative with inhibitory activity against JAK1 and JAK2, moderate activity against TYK2, and minor activity against JAK3. Vorinostat is an HDAC inhibitor that reduces JAK-2 expression, thus affecting JAK-2 mRNA expression and increasing JAK-2 proteasomal deterioration. Here we hypothesized that the combination of ruxolitinib and vorinostat could have synergistic effects against hematological disease. We tested combinations of low doses of ruxolitinib and vorinostat in 12 cell lines, and observed highly synergistic cytotoxic action in six cell lines, which was maintained for up to 120 h in the presence of stromal cells. The sensitivity of the six cell lines may be explained by the broad effects of the drug combination, which can affect various targets. Treatment with the combination of ruxolitinib and vorinostat appeared to induce a possible reversal of the Warburg effect, with associated ROS production, apoptotic events, and growth inhibition. Decreased glucose metabolism may have markedly sensitized the six more susceptible cell lines to combined treatment. Therapeutic inhibition of the JAK/STAT pathway seems to offer substantial anti-tumor benefit, and combined therapy with ruxolitinib and vorinostat may represent a promising novel therapeutic modality for hematological neoplasms.

  8. microRNA 21-mediated suppression of Sprouty1 by Pokemon affects liver cancer cell growth and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiu-Li; Sun, Qin-Sheng; Liu, Feng; Yang, Hong-Wei; Liu, Min; Liu, Hong-Xia; Xu, Wei; Jiang, Yu-Yang

    2013-07-01

    Transcriptional repressor Pokemon is a critical factor in embryogenesis, development, cell proliferation, differentiation, and oncogenesis, thus behaving as an oncogene. Oncomine database suggests a potential correlation between the expressions of Pokemon and Sprouty1. This study investigated the regulatory role of Pokemon in Sprouty1 expression and the effect on liver cancer cell growth and proliferation, revealing a novel miR-21-mediated regulatory circuit. In normal (HL-7702) and cancer (QGY-7703) liver cell lines, Sprouty1 expression is inversely correlated with Pokemon levels. Targeted expression or siRNA-mediated silencing showed that Pokemon is a repressor of Sprouty1 expression at both mRNA and protein levels, but Pokemon cannot affect the promoter activity of Sprouty1. Sprouty1 is a target of miR-21 and interestingly, we found that miR-21 is up-regulated by Pokemon in liver cancer cells. Luciferase reporter assays showed that Pokemon up-regulated miR-21 transcription in a dose-dependent manner, and ChIP assay exhibited a direct binding of Pokemon to the miR-21 promoter at -747 to -399 bp. Site-directed mutagenesis of the GC boxes at -684 to -679 bp and -652 to -647 bp of miR-21 promoter abolished the regulatory activity by Pokemon. Furthermore, we found that the modulation of Pokemon and miR-21 expression affected the growth and proliferation of liver cancer cells QGY-7703. In summary, our findings demonstrate that Pokemon suppresses Sprouty1 expression through a miR-21-mediated mechanism, affecting the growth and proliferation of liver cancer cells. This study recognized miR-21 and Sprouty1 as novel targets of the Pokemon regulatory network. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Met inactivation by S-allylcysteine suppresses the migration and invasion of nasopharyngeal cancer cells induced by hepatocyte growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, O Yeon; Hwang, Hye Sook; Lee, Bok Soon; Oh, Young Taek; Kim, Chul Ho; Chun, Mi Son [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Past studies have reported that S-allylcysteine (SAC) inhibits the migration and invasion of cancer cells through the restoration of E-cadherin, the reduction of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and Slug protein expression, and inhibition of the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, evidence is emerging that shows that ROS induced by radiation could increase Met activation. Following on these reports of SAC and Met, we investigated whether SAC could suppress Met activation. Wound healing, invasion, 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT), soft agar colony forming, western blotting, and gelatin zymography assays were performed in the human nasopharyngeal cancer cell lines HNE1 and HONE1 treated with SAC (0, 10, 20, or 40 mM) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). This study showed that SAC could suppress the migration and invasion of HNE1 and HONE1 cell lines by inhibiting p-Met. An increase of migration and invasion induced by HGF and its decrease in a dose dependent manner by SAC in wound healing and invasion assays was observed. The reduction of p-Met by SAC was positively correlated with p-focal adhesion kinase (p-FAK) and p-extracellular related kinase (p-ERK in both cell lines). SAC reduced Slug, MMP2, and MMP9 involved in migration and invasion with the inhibition of Met-FAK signaling. These results suggest that SAC inhibited not only Met activation but also the downstream FAK, Slug, and MMP expression. Finally, SAC may be a potent anticancer compound for nasopharyngeal cancer treated with radiotherapy.

  10. A crucial role of activin A-mediated growth hormone suppression in mouse and human heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noritoshi Fukushima

    Full Text Available Infusion of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMMNC has been reported to ameliorate cardiac dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction. In this study, we investigated whether infusion of BMMNC is also effective for non-ischemic heart failure model mice and the underlying mechanisms. Intravenous infusion of BMMNC showed transient cardioprotective effects on animal models with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM without their engraftment in heart, suggesting that BMMNC infusion improves cardiac function via humoral factors rather than their differentiation into cardiomyocytes. Using conditioned media from sorted BMMNC, we found that the cardioprotective effects were mediated by growth hormone (GH secreted from myeloid (Gr-1(+ cells and the effects was partially mediated by signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in cardiomyocytes. On the other hand, the GH expression in Gr-1(+ cells was significantly downregulated in DCM mice compared with that in healthy control, suggesting that the environmental cue in heart failure might suppress the Gr-1(+ cells function. Activin A was upregulated in the serum of DCM models and induced downregulation of GH levels in Gr-1(+ cells and serum. Furthermore, humoral factors upregulated in heart failure including angiotensin II upregulated activin A in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC via activation of NFκB. Similarly, serum activin A levels were also significantly higher in DCM patients with heart failure than in healthy subjects and the GH levels in conditioned medium from PBMNC of DCM patients were lower than that in healthy subjects. Inhibition of activin A increased serum GH levels and improved cardiac function of DCM model mice. These results suggest that activin A causes heart failure by suppressing GH activity and that inhibition of activin A might become a novel strategy for the treatment of heart failure.

  11. Growth-suppressing and algicidal properties of an extract from Arundo donax, an invasive riparian plant, against Prymnesium parvum, an invasive harmful alga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Reynaldo; Rashel, Rakib H.; Rubio, Amede; Longing, Scott

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the ability of acidic and neutral/alkaline fractions of a methanolic extract from giant reed (Arundo donax) and of two of its constituents, gramine and skatole, to inhibit growth of the ichthyotoxic golden alga (Prymnesium parvum) in batch culture. For this study, growth suppression was defined as inhibition of maximum cell density, algicidal activity as early occurrence of negative growth, and algistatic activity as lack of net growth. The acidic fraction did not affect algal growth. The neutral/alkaline fraction showed growth-suppressing and algicidal activities but no signs of algistatic activity – namely, cells in cultures surviving a partial-algicidal exposure concentration (causing transient negative growth) were later able to initiate positive growth but at higher concentrations, algicidal activity was full and irreversible. Gramine suppressed growth more effectively than skatole and at the highest concentration tested, gramine also showed partial-algicidal and algistatic activity. While the partial-algicidal activities of the neutral/alkaline fraction and of gramine were short-lived (≤6 days) and thus may share similar mechanisms, algistatic activity was unique to gramine and persisted for >3 weeks. Given gramine’s reported concentration in the neutral/alkaline fraction, its corresponding level of algicidal activity is much lower than the fraction’s suggesting the latter contains additional potent algicides. Inhibition of maximum cell density by all test compounds was associated with reductions in exponential growth rate, and in the case of the neutral/alkaline fraction and gramine also reductions in early (pre-exponential) growth. These results indicate that giant reed is a potential source of natural products to control golden alga blooms. Giant reed is an invasive species in North America, thus also providing incentive for research into strategies to couple management efforts for both species.

  12. A low carbohydrate, high protein diet suppresses intratumoral androgen synthesis and slows castration-resistant prostate tumor growth in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokidis, H Bobby; Yieng Chin, Mei; Ho, Victor W; Adomat, Hans H; Soma, Kiran K; Fazli, Ladan; Nip, Ka Mun; Cox, Michael; Krystal, Gerald; Zoubeidi, Amina; Tomlinson Guns, Emma S

    2015-06-01

    likely to be mechanistic drivers behind the observed tumor growth suppression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sirt2 suppresses glioma cell growth through targeting NF-κB–miR-21 axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ya’nan; Dai, Dongwei; Lu, Qiong; Fei, Mingyu; Li, Mengmeng; Wu, Xi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Sirt2 expression is down-regulated in human glioma tissues and cell lines. •Sirt2 regresses glioma cell growth and colony formation via inducing apoptosis. •miR-21 is essential for the functions of Sirt2 in glioma cells. •Sirt2 deacetylates p65 to decrease miR-21 expression. -- Abstract: Sirtuins are NAD + -dependent deacetylases that regulate numerous cellular processes including aging, DNA repair, cell cycle, metabolism, and survival under stress conditions. The roles of sirtuin family members are widely studied in carcinogenesis. However, their roles in glioma remain unclear. Here we report that Sir2 was under expressed in human glioma tissues and cell lines. We found that Sirt2 overexpression decreased cell proliferation and colony formation capacity. In addition, Sirt2 overexpression induced cellular apoptosis via up-regulating cleaved caspase 3 and Bax, and down-regulating anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Sirt2 knockdown obtained opposing results. We showed that Sirt2 overexpression inhibited miR-21 expression, and Sirt2 was not sufficient to reduce cell proliferation and colony formation as well as to induce apoptosis when miR-21 was knocked down in glioma cells. Mechanically, we demonstrated that Sirt2 deacetylated p65 at K310 and blocked p65 binding to the promoter region of miR-21, thus regressing the transcription of miR-21. In summary, Sirt2 is critical in human glioma via NF-κB–miR-21 pathway and Sirt2 activator may serve as candidate drug for glioma therapy

  14. Flood Plain Aggradation Rates Based on Tree-Ring Growth-Suppression Dates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, J. M.

    2003-12-01

    When woody riparian plants are partially buried subsequent tree rings of the buried stems resemble those of roots. Annual rings in a buried stem are narrower and have larger vessels then those in unburied sections of the same stem. We have used this phenomenon to date flood plain sediments exposed in trenches, along two ephemeral streams in New Mexico (Rio Puerco and Chaco Wash) where the sediments are predominantly silt and very fine sand and the plants are predominantly tamarisk and willow. Cross dating down the stem allows dating of the first growth-season following burial by thick beds, and constrains the age of all stratigraphic units deposited since germination of the tree. We observed that the anatomical reaction to burial increases with bed thickness and cumulative deposition. Beds that are thicker than 30 cm can be dated to the year of the deposition event. Beds 10 to 30 cm thick can usually be dated to within several years. The period of deposition of multiple very thin beds can be constrained to the decade. Results can be improved by analyzing multiple stems from one tree and multiple trees linked together by the stratigraphy. Along our study streams, sites far from the channel tend to have moderate and relatively steady point-aggradation rates. Levees next to the channel tend to have the thickest deposits per flood and variable long-term rates, which can differ from the whole flood plain aggradation rates by several fold. Cross-sectionally averaged flood plain aggradation has been as large as a meter per decade along our study streams.

  15. Predicting spring barley yield from variety-specific yield potential, disease resistance and straw length, and from environment-specific disease loads and weed pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Hanne; Kristensen, Kristian; Pinnschmidt, Hans O.

    2008-01-01

    For low-input crop production, well-characterised varieties increase the possibilities of managing diseases and weeds. This analysis aims at developing a framework for analyzing grain yield using external varietal information about disease resistance, weed competitiveness and yield potential and ...... growth habit. Higher grain yield was thus predicted for taller plants under weed pressure. The results are discussed in relation to the model framework, impact of the considered traits and use of information from conventional variety testing in organic cropping systems....

  16. About the value of species diversity in arable weeds for weed management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerowitt, Bärbel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Arable weeds accompany arable land use – we define them based on their affiliation to ar able systems. They are adapted to such a degree that most of them cannot exist without arable land use. Weeds are part of the total biodiversity on arable fields, as primary producers they are basic for important functions within the ecosystem. This paper elaborates the relevance of species diversity in arable weeds for their management. Arable systems can be regarded for the number of different methods for preventive and direct weed control which are realized. Historical arable land use is roughly divided into three periods, which differ concerning the diversity of weed management and the occurring diversity in weed species. Obviously divers weed management in arable systems and diversity in weed species depend on each other, this is illustrated with a simple abstract picture. Arable systems, which are characterised by simpleness, favor the domination of few species which ensure an effective use of the resources within the ecosystem. One consequence under continuous pressure of an overused tool in weed management is that the genetic diversity within a dominating weed population is exploited to ensure this resource use. Current herbicides represent this tool – the results are herbicide resistant biotypes within the weed populations. Species diversity in arable weeds as a rationale within arable production can assist to prevent this development.

  17. Combining a weed traits database with a population dynamics model predicts shifts in weed communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storkey, Jonathan; Holst, Niels; Bøjer, Ole Mission

    2015-01-01

    A functional approach to predicting shifts in weed floras in response to management or environmental change requires the combination of data on weed traits with analytical frameworks that capture the filtering effect of selection pressures on traits. A weed traits database (WTDB) was designed, po...

  18. Effect of Weed Management on Weeds and Grain Yield of Haricot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Weeds are one of the major constraints limiting haricot bean productivity and production. Field experiments were conducted on the effect of weed managements on weeds and grain yield of haricot bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.) at Melkassa Agricultural Research Center from 2011 - 2013. The objective was to determine the ...

  19. Weeds of onion fields and effects of some herbicides on weeds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Weeds are one of the most important problems in onion (Allium cepa L.) production areas, since onion plants are poor competitors. This study was conducted in order to identify the weed species in onion fields in Cukurova Region, establish the effects of some herbicides on weeds and the yield of onion in reducing the ...

  20. Effect of weed management on weeds and grain yield of haricot bean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Weeds are one of the major constraints limiting haricot bean productivity and production. Field experiments were conducted on the effect of weed managements on weeds and grain yield of haricot bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.) at Melkassa Agricultural Research Center from 2011 - 2013. The objective was to determine the ...

  1. Linking Farmer Weed Management Behavior with Weed Pressure: More than Just Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemens, M.M.; Groeneveld, R.M.W.; Kropff, M.J.; Lotz, L.A.P.; Renes, R.J.; Sukkel, W.; Weide, van der R.Y.

    2010-01-01

    Most studies on weed population dynamics in farming systems have focused on the effects of different weed control strategies. Those studies usually assume that farmers, operating within a particular system, have a uniform management style. However, it is likely that weed management decision making

  2. 1-14 Effect of Plant Spacing and Weeding Frequency on Weed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Haramaya University, ... pod, hundred seed weight, grain yield, aboveground dry biomass, and ... an infestation by weeds and the performance of crop ... frequencies affect weed management in common bean .... including broad-leaved, sedge and grass weeds (Table.

  3. Effect of stale seedbed preparations and subsequent weed control in lettuce (cv. Iceboll) on weed densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemens, M.M.; Weide, van der R.Y.; Bleeker, P.O.; Lotz, L.A.P.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of stale seedbed preparations and several weed control methods on the emergence of weeds in lettuce were studied. The specific goal was to evaluate the use of a stale seedbed in combination with chemical or mechanical weed control methods in the field. Depending on location and year,

  4. Germination traits of three weed species in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mehmeti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Amaranthus retroflexus, Echinochloa crus-galli and Datura stramonium are the most important weed species in Kosovo. They cause severe yield depression, contaminate fodder and negatively affect growth and reproduction of other weed species. To counteract these problems, specific strategies need to be developed. Such strategies should consider information on species germination traits. In this context, our study provides information on temperature requirements for germination. Seeds of A. retroflexus, E. crus-galli and D. stramonium were harvested in two sub-regions of Kosovo (western and eastern parts differing in climate and land use. They were set for germination experiments in growth chambers at temperatures ranging from 3 to 35 °C and under field conditions. In both experiments, the germination rate differed between species and provenances. In the growth chamber experiment, germination of all three species was negligible below 15 °C and reached the highest rates between 24 and 30 °C. Seeds originating from the western part of Kosovo had higher germination rates and required a lower temperature for germination than seeds originating from the eastern part. In the field experiment, the time-dependent germination behaviour of D. stramonium differed between provenances. In general, germination started when soil temperature was above 18 °C and continued as long as the soil was moist. The results are discussed in the context of the need to develop weed management strategies against these weeds in Kosovo.

  5. Metformin-mediated growth inhibition involves suppression of the IGF-I receptor signalling pathway in human pancreatic cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnevi, Emelie; Said, Katarzyna; Andersson, Roland; Rosendahl, Ann H

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown direct associations between type 2 diabetes and obesity, both conditions associated with hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinemia, and the risk of pancreatic cancer. Up to 80% of pancreatic cancer patients present with either new-onset type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance at the time of diagnosis. Recent population studies indicate that the incidence of pancreatic cancer is reduced among diabetics taking metformin. In this study, the effects of exposure of pancreatic cancer cells to high glucose levels on their growth and response to metformin were investigated. The human pancreatic cancer cell lines AsPC-1, BxPC-3, PANC-1 and MIAPaCa-2 were grown in normal (5 mM) or high (25 mM) glucose conditions, with or without metformin. The influence by metformin on proliferation, apoptosis and the AMPK and IGF-IR signalling pathways were evaluated in vitro. Metformin significantly reduced the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells under normal glucose conditions. Hyperglycaemia however, protected against the metformin-induced growth inhibition. The anti-proliferative actions of metformin were associated with an activation of AMP-activated protein kinase AMPK Thr172 together with an inhibition of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptor activation and downstream signalling mediators IRS-1 and phosphorylated Akt. Furthermore, exposure to metformin during normal glucose conditions led to increased apoptosis as measured by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. In contrast, exposure to high glucose levels promoted a more robust IGF-I response and Akt activation which correlated to stimulated AMPK Ser485 phosphorylation and impaired AMPK Thr172 phosphorylation, resulting in reduced anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects by metformin. Our results indicate that metformin has direct anti-tumour activities in pancreatic cancer cells involving AMPK Thr172 activation and suppression of the insulin/IGF signalling pathways

  6. Fibroblast growth factor 21 is not required for glucose homeostasis, ketosis and tumour suppression associated to ketogenic diets in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemmer, Kerstin; Zani, Fabio; Habegger, Kirk M.; Neff, Christina; Kotzbeck, Petra; Bauer, Michaela; Yalamanchilli, Suma; Azad, Ali; Lehti, Maarit; Martins, Paulo J.F.; Müller, Timo D.; Pfluger, Paul T.; Seeley, Randy J.

    2016-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Ketogenic diets (KDs) increasingly gained attention as effective means for weight loss and potential adjunctive treatment of cancer. Metabolic benefits of KDs are regularly ascribed towards enhanced hepatic secretion of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21, and its systemic effects on fatty acid oxidation, energy expenditure and body weight. Ambiguous data from Fgf21 knockout strains and low FGF21 concentrations reported for humans in ketosis have nevertheless cast doubt regarding the endogenous function of FGF21. We here aimed to elucidate the causal role of FGF21 in mediating therapeutic benefits of KDs on metabolism and cancer. METHODS We established a dietary model of increased vs. decreased FGF21 by feeding C57BL/6J mice with KDs, either depleted or enriched with protein, respectively. We furthermore used wild type and Fgf21 knockout mice that were subjected to the respective diets, and monitored energy and glucose homeostasis as well as tumor growth after transplantation of Lewis-Lung-Carcinoma cells. RESULTS Hepatic and circulating but not adipose tissue FGF21 levels were profoundly increased by protein starvation and independent of the state of ketosis. We demonstrate that endogenous FGF21 is not essential for the maintenance of normoglycemia upon protein and carbohydrate starvation and is dispensable for the effects of KDs on energy expenditure. Furthermore, the tumor-suppressing effects of KDs were independent from FGF21, and rather driven by concomitant protein and carbohydrate starvation. CONCLUSION/INTERPRETATION Our data indicate that multiple systemic effects of KDs exposure in mice that were previously ascribed towards increased FGF21 secretion are rather a consequence of protein malnutrition. PMID:26099854

  7. Andrographolide inhibits hypoxia-inducible factor-1 through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathway and suppresses breast cancer growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li J

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Jie Li,1 Chao Zhang,1 Hongchuan Jiang,1 Jiao Cheng21Department of General Surgery, 2Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1 is a master regulator of the transcriptional response to hypoxia. HIF-1α is one of the most compelling anticancer targets. Andrographolide (Andro was newly identified to inhibit HIF-1 in T47D cells (a half maximal effective concentration [EC50] of 1.03×10-7 mol/L, by a dual-luciferase reporter assay. It suppressed HIF-1α protein and gene accumulation, which was dependent on the inhibition of upstream phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/AKT pathway. It also abrogated the expression of HIF-1 target vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF gene and protein. Further, Andro inhibited T47D and MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation and colony formation. In addition, it exhibited significant in vivo efficacy and antitumor potential against the MDA-MB-231 xenograft in nude mice. In conclusion, these results highlighted the potential effects of Andro, which inhibits HIF-1, and hence may be developed as an antitumor agent for breast cancer therapy in future.Keywords: Andrographolide (Andro, HIF-1α, inhibit, breast cancer, hypoxia, PI3k/AKT/mTOR pathway

  8. siRNA-mediated Erc gene silencing suppresses tumor growth in Tsc2 mutant renal carcinoma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Osamu; Okada, Hiroaki; Takashima, Yuuki; Zhang, Danqing; Kobayashi, Toshiyuki; Hino, Okio

    2008-09-18

    Silencing of gene expression by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) is rapidly becoming a powerful tool for genetic analysis and represents a potential strategy for therapeutic product development. However, there are no reports of systemic delivery of siRNAs for stable treatment except short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs). On the other hand, there are many reports of systemic delivery of siRNAs for transient treatment using liposome carriers and others. With regard to shRNAs, a report showed fatality in mice due to oversaturation of cellular microRNA/short hairpin RNA pathways. Therefore, we decided to use original siRNA microspheres instead of shRNA for stable treatment of disease. In this study, we designed rat-specific siRNA sequences for Erc/mesothelin, which is a tumor-specific gene expressed in the Eker (Tsc2 mutant) rat model of hereditary renal cancer and confirmed the efficacy of gene silencing in vitro. Then, by using siRNA microspheres, we found that the suppression of Erc/mesothelin caused growth inhibition of Tsc2 mutant renal carcinoma cells in tumor implantation experiments in mice.

  9. GSK3 is required for rapalogs to induce degradation of some oncogenic proteins and to suppress cancer cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Junghui; Wang, Xuerong; Owonikoko, Taofeek K; Ramalingam, Suresh S; Khuri, Fadlo R; Sun, Shi-Yong

    2015-04-20

    The single-agent activity of rapalogs (rapamycin and its analogues) in most tumor types has been modest at best. The underlying mechanisms are largely unclear. In this report, we have uncovered a critical role of GSK3 in regulating degradation of some oncogenic proteins induced by rapalogs and cell sensitivity to rapalogs. The basal level of GSK3 activity was positively correlated with cell sensitivity of lung cancer cell lines to rapalogs. GSK3 inhibition antagonized rapamycin's growth inhibitory effects both in vitro and in vivo, while enforced activation of GSK3β sensitized cells to rapamycin. GSK3 inhibition rescued rapamcyin-induced reduction of several oncogenic proteins such as cyclin D1, Mcl-1 and c-Myc, without interfering with the ability of rapamycin to suppress mTORC1 signaling and cap binding. Interestingly, rapamycin induces proteasomal degradation of these oncogenic proteins, as evidenced by their decreased stabilities induced by rapamcyin and rescue of their reduction by proteasomal inhibition. Moreover, acute or short-time rapamycin treatment dissociated not only raptor, but also rictor from mTOR in several tested cell lines, suggesting inhibition of both mTORC1 and mTORC2. Thus, induction of GSK3-dependent degradation of these oncogenic proteins is likely secondary to mTORC2 inhibition; this effect should be critical for rapamycin to exert its anticancer activity.

  10. Bone morphogenetic protein-9 suppresses growth of myeloma cells by signaling through ALK2 but is inhibited by endoglin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, O E; Wader, K F; Misund, K; Våtsveen, T K; Rø, T B; Mylin, A K; Turesson, I; Størdal, B F; Moen, S H; Standal, T; Waage, A; Sundan, A; Holien, T

    2014-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a malignancy of plasma cells predominantly located in the bone marrow. A number of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) induce apoptosis in myeloma cells in vitro, and with this study we add BMP-9 to the list. BMP-9 has been found in human serum at concentrations that inhibit cancer cell growth in vitro. We here show that the level of BMP-9 in serum was elevated in myeloma patients (median 176 pg/ml, range 8–809) compared with healthy controls (median 110 pg/ml, range 8–359). BMP-9 was also present in the bone marrow and was able to induce apoptosis in 4 out of 11 primary myeloma cell samples by signaling through ALK2. BMP-9-induced apoptosis in myeloma cells was associated with c-MYC downregulation. The effects of BMP-9 were counteracted by membrane-bound (CD105) or soluble endoglin present in the bone marrow microenvironment, suggesting a mechanism for how myeloma cells can evade the tumor suppressing activity of BMP-9 in multiple myeloma

  11. The effect of sowing strategy, row distance and mechanical weed control on weeds and yield in organic winter wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Ilse A.

    2002-01-01

    A series of field experiments were carried out in winter wheat grown under organic conditions in Denmark on fields with different weed pressure. The treatments were sowing strategy (normal sowing time, late sowing and false seedbed), row distance (12 cm and 24 cm row distance) and weed control method (untreated, mechanical weed control (weed harrowing at 12 cm supplemented with row hoeing at 24 cm), and herbicide weed control). Weed biomass was largest at the normal sowing time and was reduce...

  12. Mycorrhizal association in soybean and weeds in competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Maria Teixeira Fialho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of mycorrhizal association on the interference of Bidens pilosa, Urochloa decumbens and Eleusine indica on soybean culture in two conditions: a plants competing without contact with roots of another species; b with contact between roots. At 60 days after planting, growth, nutrient accumulation and mycorrhizal colonization of soybean and weeds were evaluated. The contact between roots of soybean plant and weed species increased the negative interference effects for both species, with less growth and nutrient accumulation. With the individualization of roots, higher competition occurred for soil resources up to 60 days of coexistence between species. In competition with soybean, Bidens pilosa and Urochloa decumbens stood out in accumulation of most nutrients without differing from when cultivated in monocultivation. The increase of the soybean mycorrhizal colonization was 53, 40 and 33% when in competition with Urochloa decumbens, Eleusine indica and Bidens pilosa species, respectively. A positive interaction occurred for soybean mycorrhizal colonization and competing plants irrespective of weed species or root contact.

  13. Weeds in a Changing Climate: Vulnerabilities, Consequences, and Implications for Future Weed Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Kulasekaran; Matloob, Amar; Aslam, Farhena; Florentine, Singarayer K; Chauhan, Bhagirath S

    2017-01-01

    Whilst it is agreed that climate change will impact on the long-term interactions between crops and weeds, the results of this impact are far from clear. We suggest that a thorough understanding of weed dominance and weed interactions, depending on crop and weed ecosystems and crop sequences in the ecosystem, will be the key determining factor for successful weed management. Indeed, we claim that recent changes observed throughout the world within the weed spectrum in different cropping systems which were ostensibly related to climate change, warrant a deeper examination of weed vulnerabilities before a full understanding is reached. For example, the uncontrolled establishment of weeds in crops leads to a mixed population, in terms of C 3 and C 4 pathways, and this poses a considerable level of complexity for weed management. There is a need to include all possible combinations of crops and weeds while studying the impact of climate change on crop-weed competitive interactions, since, from a weed management perspective, C 4 weeds would flourish in the increased temperature scenario and pose serious yield penalties. This is particularly alarming as a majority of the most competitive weeds are C 4 plants. Although CO 2 is considered as a main contributing factor for climate change, a few Australian studies have also predicted differing responses of weed species due to shifts in rainfall patterns. Reduced water availability, due to recurrent and unforeseen droughts, would alter the competitive balance between crops and some weed species, intensifying the crop-weed competition pressure. Although it is recognized that the weed pressure associated with climate change is a significant threat to crop production, either through increased temperatures, rainfall shift, and elevated CO 2 levels, the current knowledge of this effect is very sparse. A few models that have attempted to predict these interactions are discussed in this paper, since these models could play an

  14. Suppression subtractive hybridization profiles of radial growth phase and metastatic melanoma cell lines reveal novel potential targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Josane F; Espreafico, Enilza M

    2008-01-01

    Melanoma progression occurs through three major stages: radial growth phase (RGP), confined to the epidermis; vertical growth phase (VGP), when the tumor has invaded into the dermis; and metastasis. In this work, we used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to investigate the molecular signature of melanoma progression, by comparing a group of metastatic cell lines with an RGP-like cell line showing characteristics of early neoplastic lesions including expression of the metastasis suppressor KISS1, lack of αvβ3-integrin and low levels of RHOC. Two subtracted cDNA collections were obtained, one (RGP library) by subtracting the RGP cell line (WM1552C) cDNA from a cDNA pool from four metastatic cell lines (WM9, WM852, 1205Lu and WM1617), and the other (Met library) by the reverse subtraction. Clones were sequenced and annotated, and expression validation was done by Northern blot and RT-PCR. Gene Ontology annotation and searches in large-scale melanoma expression studies were done for the genes identified. We identified 367 clones from the RGP library and 386 from the Met library, of which 351 and 368, respectively, match human mRNA sequences, representing 288 and 217 annotated genes. We confirmed the differential expression of all genes selected for validation. In the Met library, we found an enrichment of genes in the growth factors/receptor, adhesion and motility categories whereas in the RGP library, enriched categories were nucleotide biosynthesis, DNA packing/repair, and macromolecular/vesicular trafficking. Interestingly, 19% of the genes from the RGP library map to chromosome 1 against 4% of the ones from Met library. This study identifies two populations of genes differentially expressed between melanoma cell lines from two tumor stages and suggests that these sets of genes represent profiles of less aggressive versus metastatic melanomas. A search for expression profiles of melanoma in available expression study databases allowed us to point to a

  15. Overexpression of p53 activated by small activating RNA suppresses the growth of human prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Q

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Qiangqiang Ge,1,* Chenghe Wang,2,* Yajun Ruan,1,* Zhong Chen,1 Jihong Liu,1 Zhangqun Ye1 1Department of Urology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 2Department of Urology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Previous research has reported that a particular double-stranded RNA, named dsP53-285, has the capacity to induce expression of the tumor suppressor gene TP53 in chimpanzee cells by targeting its promoter. Usually, it is the wild-type p53 protein, rather than mutants, which exhibits potent cancer-inhibiting effects. In addition, nonhuman primates, such as chimpanzees, share almost identical genome sequences with humans. This prompted us to speculate whether dsP53-285 can trigger wild-type p53 protein expression in human prostate cancer (PCa cells and consequently suppress cell growth. The human PCa cell lines LNCaP and DU145 were transfected with dsP53-285 for 72 hours. Compared with the dsControl and mock transfection groups, expression of both p53 messenger RNA and p53 protein was significantly enhanced after dsP53-285 transfection, and this enhancement was followed by upregulation of p21, which indirectly indicated that dsP53-285 induced wild-type p53 expression. Moreover, overexpression of wild-type p53 mediated by dsP53-285 downregulated the expression of Cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6, thereby inducing PCa cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and then inhibiting cell proliferation and clonogenicity. More importantly, dsP53-285 suppressed PCa cells mainly by modulating wild-type p53 expression. In conclusion, our study provides evidence that dsP53-285 can significantly stimulate wild-type p53 expression in the human PCa cell lines LNCaP and DU145 and can exert potent antitumor effects. Keywords: p53, small activating RNA, prostate

  16. Growth hormone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Acromegaly - blood test; Gigantism - blood test Images Blood test References Kaiser U, Ho KKY. Pituitary physiology and diagnostic evaluation. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ...

  17. An autonomous weeding robot for organic farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, T.; Asselt, van C.J.; Bontsema, J.; Müller, J.; Straten, van G.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research is the replacement of hand weeding in organic farming by a device working autonomously at ¯eld level. The autonomous weeding robot was designed using a structured design approach, giving a good overview of the total design. A vehicle was developed with a diesel engine,

  18. Weeds as important vegetables for farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz Garcia, G.S.; Price, L.L.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the multiple uses and cognitive importance of edible weeds in Northeast Thailand. Research methods included focus group discussions and freelistings. A total of 43 weeds consumed as vegetable were reported, including economic, naturalized, agricultural

  19. Weed management strategies for castor bean crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Guerreiro Fontoura Costa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Castor bean crops are agriculturally relevant due to the quality and versatility of their oil, both for the chemical industry and for biodiesel production. Proper weed management is important for both the cultivation and the yield of castor bean crops; therefore, the intention of the present work is to review pertinent information regarding weed management, including the studies regarding weed interference periods, chemical controls for use in different crop production systems and herbicide selectivity, for castor bean crops. Weed science research for castor bean crops is scarce. One of the main weed management challenges for castor bean crops is the absence of herbicides registered with the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MALFS. Research for viable herbicides for weed control in castor bean crops should be directed by research and/or rural extension institutions, associations and farmers cooperatives, as well as by manufactures, for the registration of these selective herbicides, which would be primarily used to control eudicotyledons in castor bean crops. New studies involving the integration of weed control methods in castor bean also may increase the efficiency of weed management, for both small farmers using traditional crop methods in the Brazilian Northeast region, as well as for areas with the potential for large scale production, using conservation tillage systems, such as the no-tillage crop production system.

  20. Effectiveness of weed control methods on pavement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, G.D.; Verwijs, B.R.; Kempenaar, C.

    2007-01-01

    The policy in the Netherlands is to signifiantly reduce the use of herbicides, also on pavements. Existing non-chemical methods to control weeds are much less effective than spot spraying, the usual method at this moment. Therefore, the cost of non-chemical weed management is often estimated to be 4

  1. Effect of the foliar enrichment and herbicides on maize and associated weeds irrigated with drainage water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshdy M.H. Tagour

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A two-year field experiment was conducted during summer seasons of 2013 and 2014, which were irrigated by drainage water which belong to salinity class (C3S1 to C4S2, to study the effect of the foliar enrichment namely (Anti-stress and weed management treatments (some pre and post-emergence herbicides and two-hand hoeing on maize growth, yield, yield components and chemical composition of maize grains and associated weeds (Portulaca oleracea, Amaranthus retroflexus and Echinochloa colonum. The results illustrated that application of the foliar enrichment enhanced the dry weight of weeds and increased maize growth characters, yield and yield components and total crude protein and total oil percentage of grain maize, as compared with untreated treatment. All weed management treatments caused a significant reduction in total dry weight of weeds at 60 and 80 days after sowing in both seasons. Two-hand hoeing treatment exerted the highest decrease in total dry weight of weeds followed by metribuzin, oxadiagyl, fluroxypyr and bentazon, respectively at 60 and 80 days after sowing compared with other weed management treatments. While, the highest values of maize growth, yield, yield components and maize grains' content of protein and oil was obtained with two-hand hoeing followed by metribuzin, oxadiagyl, fluroxypyr and bentazon, respectively. While, two hands hoeing produced the maximum values of leaf area, ear length, the weight of kernels plant−1, but applying of metribuzin treatment gave the highest values of total oil percentage of grain maize when the foliar enrichment was used.

  2. Mechanical weed control on small-size dry bean and its response to cross-flaming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martelloni, L.; Frasconi, C.; Fontanelli, M.; Raffaelli, M.; Peruzzi, A.

    2016-11-01

    Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) can be a profitable crop for farmers; however controlling weeds effectively without a decrease in yield remains a problem. An example where mechanical weed control is difficult to conduct is dry bean ‘Toscanello’, which is a small sized high-income niche product growing low to the ground. Concerning intra-row weed control, also flame weeding could be an opportunity but the dry bean heat tolerance needs to be studied. The aims of this research were to study the weed control efficacy of a spring-tine harrow and an inter-row cultivator in this bean variety, and to test the tolerance of dry bean cultivated under weed-free conditions to cross-flaming applied with different liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) doses. Flame weeding was applied at BBCH 13 and BBCH 14 bean growth stages by pairs of burners producing direct double flame acting into the intra-row space, with bean plants placed in the middle. The results suggest that the spring-tine harrow used two times at BBCH 13 and 14, respectively, lead to a yield similar to that of the weedy control. The inter-row cultivator could be an opportunity for small-sized dry bean crops producers, enabling them to obtain a similar yield compared to the hand-weeded control. Concerning the bean tolerance to cross-flaming the results showed that bean flamed at BBCH 13 stage had little tolerance to cross-flaming. Bean flamed at BBCH 14 stage was tolerant until an LPG dose of 39 kg/ha, giving yield responses similar to those observed in the non-flamed control. (Author)

  3. ASC-J9 Suppresses Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Growth through Degradation of Full-length and Splice Variant Androgen Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Yamashita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Early studies suggested androgen receptor (AR splice variants might contribute to the progression of prostate cancer (PCa into castration resistance. However, the therapeutic strategy to target these AR splice variants still remains unresolved. Through tissue survey of tumors from the same patients before and after castration resistance, we found that the expression of AR3, a major AR splice variant that lacks the AR ligand-binding domain, was substantially increased after castration resistance development. The currently used antiandrogen, Casodex, showed little growth suppression in CWR22Rv1 cells. Importantly, we found that AR degradation enhancer ASC-J9 could degrade both full-length (fAR and AR3 in CWR22Rv1 cells as well as in C4-2 and C81 cells with addition of AR3. The consequences of such degradation of both fAR and AR3 might then result in the inhibition of AR transcriptional activity and cell growth in vitro. More importantly, suppression of AR3 specifically by short-hairpin AR3 or degradation of AR3 by ASC-J9 resulted in suppression of AR transcriptional activity and cell growth in CWR22Rv1-fARKD (fAR knockdown cells in which DHT failed to induce, suggesting the importance of targeting AR3. Finally, we demonstrated the in vivo therapeutic effects of ASC-J9 by showing the inhibition of PCa growth using the xenografted model of CWR22Rv1 cells orthotopically implanted into castrated nude mice with undetectable serum testosterone. These results suggested that targeting both fAR- and AR3-mediated PCa growth by ASC-J9 may represent the novel therapeutic approach to suppress castration-resistant PCa. Successful clinical trials targeting both fAR and AR3 may help us to battle castration-resistant PCa in the future.

  4. CDK2 and mTOR are direct molecular targets of isoangustone A in the suppression of human prostate cancer cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eunjung; Son, Joe Eun; Byun, Sanguine; Lee, Seung Joon; Kim, Yeong A [WCU Biomodulation Major, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Center for Food and Bioconvergence, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Liu, Kangdong [The Hormel Institute, University of Minnesota, 801 16th Avenue NE, Austin, MN 55912 (United States); Kim, Jiyoung [WCU Biomodulation Major, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Center for Food and Bioconvergence, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Soon Sung; Park, Jung Han Yoon [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Natural Science, Hallym University, Chuncheon, 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Dong, Zigang [The Hormel Institute, University of Minnesota, 801 16th Avenue NE, Austin, MN 55912 (United States); Lee, Ki Won, E-mail: kiwon@snu.ac.kr [WCU Biomodulation Major, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Center for Food and Bioconvergence, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyong Joo, E-mail: leehyjo@snu.ac.kr [WCU Biomodulation Major, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Center for Food and Bioconvergence, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-01

    Licorice extract which is used as a natural sweetener has been shown to possess inhibitory effects against prostate cancer, but the mechanisms responsible are poorly understood. Here, we report a compound, isoangustone A (IAA) in licorice that potently suppresses the growth of aggressive prostate cancer and sought to clarify its mechanism of action. We analyzed its inhibitory effects on the growth of PTEN-deleted human prostate cancer cells, in vitro and in vivo. Administration of IAA significantly attenuated the growth of prostate cancer cell cultures and xenograft tumors. These effects were found to be attributable to inhibition of the G1/S phase cell cycle transition and the accumulation of p27{sup kip1}. The elevated p27{sup kip1} expression levels were concurrent with the decrease of its phosphorylation at threonine 187 through suppression of CDK2 kinase activity and the reduced phosphorylation of Akt at Serine 473 by diminishing the kinase activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Further analysis using recombinant proteins and immunoprecipitated cell lysates determined that IAA exerts suppressive effects against CDK2 and mTOR kinase activity by direct binding with both proteins. These findings suggested that the licorice compound IAA is a potent molecular inhibitor of CDK2 and mTOR, with strong implications for the treatment of prostate cancer. Thus, licorice-derived extracts with high IAA content warrant further clinical investigation for nutritional sources for prostate cancer patients. - Highlights: • Isoangustone A suppresses growth of PC3 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells. • Administration of isoangustone A inhibits tumor growth in mice. • Treatment of isoangustone A induces cell cycle arrest and accumulation of p27{sup kip1}. • Isoangustone A inhibits CDK2 and mTOR activity. • Isoangustone A directly binds with CDK2 and mTOR complex in prostate cancer cells.

  5. Weed management through herbicide application in direct-seeded rice and yield modeling by artificial neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, D.; Singh, U.P.; Ray, K.; Das, A.

    2016-11-01

    In direct seeded rice (DSR) cultivation, weed is the major constraint mainly due to absence of puddling in field. The yield loss due to weed interference is huge, may be up to 100%. In this perspective, the present experiment was conducted to study the efficacy of selected herbicides, and to predict the rice yield using artificial neural network (ANN) models. The dry weight and density of weeds were recorded at different growth stages and consequently herbicidal efficacy was evaluated. Experimental results revealed that pre-emergence (PRE) herbicide effectively controlled the germination of grassy weeds. Application bispyribac-sodium as post-emergence (POST) following PRE herbicides (clomazone or pendimethalin) or as tank-mixture with clomazone effectively reduced the density and biomass accumulation of diverse weed flora in DSR. Herbicidal treatments improved the plant height, yield attributes and grain yield (2.7 to 5.5 times) over weedy check. The sensitivity of the best ANN model clearly depicts that the weed control index (WCI) of herbicides was most important than their weed control efficiency (WCE). Besides, the early control of weeds is a better prescription to improve rice yield. Differences in sensitivity values of WCI and WCE across the crop growth stages also suggest that at 15, 30 and 60 days after sowing, herbicides most effectively controlled sedges, broad leaves and grasses, respectively. Based on the grain yield and herbicidal WCE, it can be concluded that the combined application of pendimethalin or clomazone as PRE followed by bispyribac-sodium as POST or tank-mixture of clomazone + bispyribac sodium can effectively control different weed flushes throughout the crop growth period in DSR. (Author)

  6. A Case of Cyperus spp. and Imperata cylindrica Occurrences on Acrisol of the Dahomey Gap in South Benin as Affected by Soil Characteristics: A Strategy for Soil and Weed Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahima Kone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the limiting efficacy of common weed control methods on Cyperus spp. and Imperata cylindrica their occurrences in tropical agroecologies and the effect of soil properties in suppressing these species were investigated in south Benin (Cotonou, a typical ecology of the Dahomey gap. Weeds and soil samples were collected twice early and later in the rainy season in 2009 at four topographic positions (summit, upper slope, middle slope, and foot slope. Sampling was done according to Braun-Blanquet abundance indices (3 and 5 and the absence (0 of Cyperus and Imperata in a quadrat, respectively. The relationship between their respective abundances and soil parameters (texture, C, N, P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, and Fe was explored. Weed occurrence was less related to soil texture, and Imperata growth was more influenced by soil nutrients (K, Ca, and Fe than Cyperus spp. Soil cation ratios of K : Mg and Ca : Mg were the main factors that could be changed by applying K and/or Mg fertilizers to reduce Cyperus and/or Imperata occurrence. Maintaining high Fe concentration in soil at hillside positions can also reduce Imperata abundance, especially in the Dahomey gap.

  7. Targeting mesothelin receptors with drug-loaded bacterial nanocells suppresses human mesothelioma tumour growth in mouse xenograft models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A Alfaleh

    Full Text Available Human malignant mesothelioma is a chemoresistant tumour that develops from mesothelial cells, commonly associated with asbestos exposure. Malignant mesothelioma incidence rates in European countries are still rising and Australia has one of the highest burdens of malignant mesothelioma on a population basis in the world. Therapy using systemic delivery of free cytotoxic agents is associated with many undesirable side effects due to non-selectivity, and is thus dose-limited which limits its therapeutic potential. Therefore, increasing the selectivity of anti-cancer agents has the potential to dramatically enhance drug efficacy and reduce toxicity. EnGeneIC Dream Vectors (EDV are antibody-targeted nanocells which can be loaded with cytotoxic drugs and delivered to specific cancer cells via bispecific antibodies (BsAbs which target the EDV and a cancer cell-specific receptor, simultaneously. BsAbs were designed to target doxorubicin-loaded EDVs to cancer cells via cell surface mesothelin (MSLN. Flow cytometry was used to investigate cell binding and induction of apoptosis, and confocal microscopy to visualize internalization. Mouse xenograft models were used to assess anti-tumour effects in vivo, followed by immunohistochemistry for ex vivo evaluation of proliferation and necrosis. BsAb-targeted, doxorubicin-loaded EDVs were able to bind to and internalize within mesothelioma cells in vitro via MSLN receptors and induce apoptosis. In mice xenografts, the BsAb-targeted, doxorubicin-loaded EDVs suppressed the tumour growth and also decreased cell proliferation. Thus, the use of MSLN-specific antibodies to deliver encapsulated doxorubicin can provide a novel and alternative modality for treatment of mesothelioma.

  8. Suppression of the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhi-Gang; Wei, Jun-Min; Qin, Chang-Fu; Hao, Kun; Tian, Xiao-Dong; Xie, Kun; Xie, Xue-Hai; Yang, Yin-Mo

    2012-05-01

    Aberrant expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been detected in pancreatic cancer; however, the mechanisms of EGFR in inducing pancreatic cancer development have not been adequately elucidated. The objective of this study was to determine the role of EGFR in mediating epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in pancreatic cancer cells. Pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1 was transfected with small interfering RNA of EGFR by use of a lentiviral expression vector to establish an EGFR-knockdown cell line (si-PANC-1). PANC-1 cells transfected with lentiviral vector expressing negative control sequence were used as negative control (NC-PANC-1). Scratch assay and transwell study were used to analyze cell migration and invasion. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to detect the expression of EMT markers E-cadherin, N-cadherin, vimentin, and fibronectin and transcription factors snail, slug, twist1, and sip1 in PANC-1, NC-PANC-1, and si-PANC-1 cells. Immunofluorescent staining with these antibodies and confocal microscopy were used to observe their cellular location and morphologic changes. After RNA interference of EGFR, the migration and invasion ability of si-PANC-1 cells decreased significantly. The expression of epithelial phenotype marker E-cadherin increased and the expression of mesenchymal phenotype markers N-cadherin, vimentin, and fibronectin decreased, indicating reversion of EMT. We also observed intracellular translocation of E-cadherin. Expression of transcription factors snail and slug in si-PANC-1 cells decreased significantly. Suppression of EGFR expression can significantly inhibit EMT of pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells. The mechanism may be related with the down-regulation of the expression of transcription factors snail and slug.

  9. Aberrant expression of oncogenic and tumor-suppressive microRNAs in cervical cancer is required for cancer cell growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Wang

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs play important roles in cancer development. By cloning and sequencing of a HPV16(+ CaSki cell small RNA library, we isolated 174 miRNAs (including the novel miR-193c which could be grouped into 46 different miRNA species, with miR-21, miR-24, miR-27a, and miR-205 being most abundant. We chose for further study 10 miRNAs according to their cloning frequency and associated their levels in 10 cervical cancer- or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia-derived cell lines. No correlation was observed between their expression with the presence or absence of an integrated or episomal HPV genome. All cell lines examined contained no detectable miR-143 and miR-145. HPV-infected cell lines expressed a different set of miRNAs when grown in organotypic raft cultured as compared to monolayer cell culture, including expression of miR-143 and miR-145. This suggests a correlation between miRNA expression and tissue differentiation. Using miRNA array analyses for age-matched normal cervix and cervical cancer tissues, in combination with northern blot verification, we identified significantly deregulated miRNAs in cervical cancer tissues, with miR-126, miR-143, and miR-145 downregulation and miR-15b, miR-16, miR-146a, and miR-155 upregulation. Functional studies showed that both miR-143 and miR-145 are suppressive to cell growth. When introduced into cell lines, miR-146a was found to promote cell proliferation. Collectively, our data indicate that downregulation of miR-143 and miR-145 and upregulation of miR-146a play a role in cervical carcinogenesis.

  10. Enhanced suppression of tumor growth by concomitant treatment of human lung cancer cells with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid and arsenic trioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, Chia-Wen; Yao, Ju-Hsien; Chang, Shih-Yu; Lee, Pei-Chih; Lee, Te-Chang

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of arsenic trioxide (ATO) against acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and relapsed APL has been well documented. ATO may cause DNA damage by generating reactive oxygen intermediates. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, modulates gene and protein expression via histone-dependent or -independent pathways that may result in chromatin decondensation, cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis. We investigated whether ATO and SAHA act synergistically to enhance the death of cancer cells. Our current findings showed that combined treatment with ATO and SAHA resulted in enhanced suppression of non-small-cell lung carcinoma in vitro in H1299 cells and in vivo in a xenograft mouse model. Flow cytometric analysis of annexin V+ cells showed that apoptotic cell death was significantly enhanced after combined treatment with ATO and SAHA. At the doses used, ATO did not interfere with cell cycle progression, but SAHA induced p21 expression and led to G1 arrest. A Comet assay demonstrated that ATO, but not SAHA, induced DNA strand breaks in H1299 cells; however, co-treatment with SAHA significantly increased ATO-induced DNA damage. Moreover, SAHA enhanced acetylation of histone H3 and sensitized genomic DNA to DNase I digestion. Our results suggest that SAHA may cause chromatin relaxation and increase cellular susceptibility to ATO-induced DNA damage. Combined administration of SAHA and ATO may be an effective approach to the treatment of lung cancer. -- Highlights: ► ATO and SAHA are therapeutic agents with different action modes. ► Combination of ATO and SAHA synergistically inhibits tumor cell growth. ► SAHA loosens chromatin structure resulting in increased sensitivity to DNase I. ► ATO-induced DNA damage and apoptosis are enhanced by co-treatment with SAHA.

  11. Abrogation of Gli3 expression suppresses the growth of colon cancer cells via activation of p53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Han Na; Oh, Sang Cheul; Kim, Jun Suk; Yoo, Young A.

    2012-01-01

    p53, the major human tumor suppressor, appears to be related to sonic hedgehog (Shh)–Gli-mediated tumorigenesis. However, the role of p53 in tumor progression by the Shh–Gli signaling pathway is poorly understood. Herein we investigated the critical regulation of Gli3–p53 in tumorigenesis of colon cancer cells and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the mRNA level of Shh and Gli3 in colon tumor tissues was significantly higher than corresponding normal tissues (P < 0.001). The inhibition of Gli3 by treatment with Gli3 siRNA resulted in a clear decrease in cell proliferation and enhanced the level of expression of p53 proteins compared to treatment with control siRNA. The half-life of p53 was dramatically increased by treatment with Gli3 siRNA. In addition, treatment with MG132 blocked MDM2-mediated p53 ubiquitination and degradation, and led to accumulation of p53 in Gli3 siRNA-overexpressing cells. Importantly, ectopic expression of p53 siRNA reduced the ability of Gli3 siRNA to suppress proliferation of those cells compared with the cells treated with Gli3 siRNA alone. Moreover, Gli3 siRNA sensitized colon cancer cells to treatment with anti-cancer agents (5-FU and bevacizumab). Taken together, our studies demonstrate that loss of Gli3 signaling leads to disruption of the MDM2–p53 interaction and strongly potentiate p53-dependent cell growth inhibition in colon cancer cells, indicating a basis for the rational use of Gli3 antagonists as a novel treatment option for colon cancer.

  12. Trehalose Liposomes Suppress the Growth of Tumors on Human Lung Carcinoma-bearing Mice by Induction of Apoptosis In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Hideaki; Kuwabara, Keiji; Matsumoto, Yoko

    2017-11-01

    Previous evidence demonstrates that trehalose liposomes (DMTreC14) composed of L-α-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and α-D-glycopyranosyl-α-D-glucopyranoside monomyristate (TreC14) inhibit proliferation and invasion on lung carcinoma (A549 cells) in vitro. Here, we aimed to investigate suppressive effects of DMTreC14 on the growth of tumor on human lung carcinoma bearing mice. DMTreC14 composed of 30 mol% DMPC and 70 mol% TreC14 were prepared by the sonication method. Anti-tumor activities of DMTreC14 using the subcutaneous and orthotopic graft-bearing mice of A549 cells were investigated in vivo. The remarkable reduction of volume and weight in subcutaneous tumors on subcutaneous lung carcinoma-bearing mice topically administrated with DMTreC14 were obtained. Apoptotic-positive cells in the subcutaneous tumor slice of subcutaneous lung carcinoma-bearing mice topically administrated with DMTreC14 were observed using TUNEL staining. Lung weights on the orthotopic graft-bearing mice of lung carcinoma intravenously administrated with DMTreC14 were markedly decreased compared to those of the control group. Remarkable decrease in dimensions of tumor area of lung on the orthotopic graft-bearing mice of lung carcinoma intravenously administrated with DMTreC14 was obtained in histological analysis using the hematoxylin and eosin staining. Remarkably high anti-tumor activities of DMTreC14 for the subcutaneous and orthotopic graft-bearing mice of lung carcinoma accompanied with apoptosis were revealed for the first time in vivo. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  13. Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) inhibition suppresses cell growth and enhances radiation sensitivity in medulloblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Peter S; Foreman, Nicholas K; Vibhakar, Rajeev; Venkataraman, Sujatha; Alimova, Irina; Birks, Diane K; Donson, Andrew M; Knipstein, Jeffrey; Dubuc, Adrian; Taylor, Michael D; Handler, Michael H

    2012-01-01

    Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children and remains a therapeutic challenge due to its significant therapy-related morbidity. Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) is highly expressed in many cancers and regulates critical steps in mitotic progression. Recent studies suggest that targeting PLK1 with small molecule inhibitors is a promising approach to tumor therapy. We examined the expression of PLK1 mRNA in medulloblastoma tumor samples using microarray analysis. The impact of PLK1 on cell proliferation was evaluated by depleting expression with RNA interference (RNAi) or by inhibiting function with the small molecule inhibitor BI 2536. Colony formation studies were performed to examine the impact of BI 2536 on medulloblastoma cell radiosensitivity. In addition, the impact of depleting PLK1 mRNA on tumor-initiating cells was evaluated using tumor sphere assays. Analysis of gene expression in two independent cohorts revealed that PLK1 mRNA is overexpressed in some, but not all, medulloblastoma patient samples when compared to normal cerebellum. Inhibition of PLK1 by RNAi significantly decreased medulloblastoma cell proliferation and clonogenic potential and increased cell apoptosis. Similarly, a low nanomolar concentration of BI 2536, a small molecule inhibitor of PLK1, potently inhibited cell growth, strongly suppressed the colony-forming ability, and increased cellular apoptosis of medulloblastoma cells. Furthermore, BI 2536 pretreatment sensitized medulloblastoma cells to ionizing radiation. Inhibition of PLK1 impaired tumor sphere formation of medulloblastoma cells and decreased the expression of SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2 (SOX2) mRNA in tumor spheres indicating a possible role in targeting tumor inititiating cells. Our data suggest that targeting PLK1 with small molecule inhibitors, in combination with radiation therapy, is a novel strategy in the treatment of medulloblastoma that warrants further investigation

  14. Hydrogen sulfide-releasing naproxen suppresses colon cancer cell growth and inhibits NF-κB signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodela R

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ravinder Kodela,1 Niharika Nath,2 Mitali Chattopadhyay,1 Diandra E Nesbitt,1 Carlos A Velázquez-Martínez,3 Khosrow Kashfi11Department of Physiology, Pharmacology and Neuroscience, Sophie Davis School of Biomedical Education, City University of New York Medical School, 2Department of Life Sciences, New York Institute of Technology, New York, NY, USA; 3Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Abstract: Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second leading cause of death due to cancer and the third most common cancer in men and women in the USA. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB is known to be activated in CRC and is strongly implicated in its development and progression. Therefore, activated NF-κB constitutes a bona fide target for drug development in this type of malignancy. Many epidemiological and interventional studies have established nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs as a viable chemopreventive strategy against CRC. Our previous studies have shown that several novel hydrogen sulfide-releasing NSAIDs are promising anticancer agents and are safer derivatives of NSAIDs. In this study, we examined the growth inhibitory effect of a novel H2S-releasing naproxen (HS-NAP, which has a repertoire as a cardiovascular-safe NSAID, for its effects on cell proliferation, cell cycle phase transitions, and apoptosis using HT-29 human colon cancer cells. We also investigated its effect as a chemopreventive agent in a xenograft mouse model. HS-NAP suppressed the growth of HT-29 cells by induction of G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis and downregulated NF-κB. Tumor xenografts in mice were significantly reduced in volume. The decrease in tumor mass was associated with a reduction of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, and decreases in NF-κB levels in vivo. Therefore, HS-NAP demonstrates strong anticancer potential in CRC. Keywords: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cell cycle, apoptosis, xenograft, NF

  15. MicroRNA-9 suppresses the growth, migration, and invasion of malignant melanoma cells via targeting NRP1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu D

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dan Xu,1 Xiaofeng Chen,2 Quanyong He,1 Chengqun Luo1 1Department of Plastic Surgery, Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, 2Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Hospital of Hunan Province, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRs are a class of small noncoding RNAs that negatively regulate the gene expression by directly binding to the 3' untranslated region of their target mRNA, thus resulting in mRNA degradation or translational repression. miR-9 has recently been demonstrated to play a role in the development and progression of malignant melanoma (MM, but the regulatory mechanism of miR-9 in the malignant phenotypes of MM still remains largely unknown. In this study, a total of 73 pairs of MM tissues and adjacent normal tissues were collected. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression of miR-9. MTT assay, wound healing assay, and transwell assay were conducted to determine the cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Luciferase reporter assay was used to determine the targeting relationship between miR-9 and NRP1. Our data demonstrated that miR-9 expression was significantly downregulated in MM tissues compared with that in adjacent normal tissues. The decreased miR-9 level was significantly associated with the tumor stage and metastasis of MM. We also found that the expression level of miR-9 was decreased in MM cell lines (G361, B16, A375, and HME1 compared with normal skin HACAT cells. Ectopic expression of miR-9 led to a significant decrease in the ability of proliferation, migration, and invasion in A375 cells. NRP1 was further identified as a direct target gene of miR-9, and the protein expression of NRP1 was negatively regulated by miR-9 in A375 cells. Furthermore, overexpression of NRP1 reversed the suppressive effects of miR-9 on the malignant phenotypes of A375 cells. In vivo study revealed that miR-9

  16. Endophytic Association of Trichoderma asperellum within Theobroma cacao Suppresses Vascular Streak Dieback Incidence and Promotes Side Graft Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmana, Ade; Nasaruddin, Nasaruddin; Hendarto, Hendarto; Hakkar, Andi Akbar; Agriansyah, Nursalim

    2016-09-01

    Trichoderma species are able to persist on living sapwood and leaves of cacao ( Theobroma cacao ) in an endophytic relationship. In this research, we evaluated the ability of Trichodema asperellum introduced at the incision site in the bark for side grafting with the concentration of 4 g/10 mL, 4 g/100 mL, and 4 g/1,000 mL (suspended in water) in suppressing vascular streak dieback (VSD) incidence and promoting growth of side grafts in the field. The incidence of VSD in two local clones of cacao, MCC1 and M04, without application of T. asperellum was 71.2% and 70.1% at 21 wk after grafting, respectively. However, when the two clones were treated with a concentration of 4 g/10 mL T. asperellum , the incidence was 20.6% and 21.7%, respectively, compared to 29.1% and 20.9% at 4 g/100 mL and 18.2% and 15.6% at 4 g/1,000 mL. By comparing to the control, the treatment with the same concentrations of T. asperellum listed above, the total number of stomata in MCC1 decreased by 41.9%, 30.2%, and 14.0% and in M04 by 30.5%, 21.9%, and -2.5% (exception), respectively. Otherwise, the total area of stomata opening increased by 91.4%, 99.7%, and 28.6% in MCC1 and by 203.8%, 253.5%, and 35.9% in M04, respectively. Furthermore, the number of buds and branches treated with a mixture concentration on the the two clones increased by 90.7% and 21.7%, respectively. These data showed that the application of T. asperellum to cacao scions while grafting can decrease VSD incidence in side grafts and increase growth of grafts in addition to decreasing total number of stomata, increasing total area of opened stomata, and increasing number of buds and branches.

  17. Effect of Cultural Practices in Night on Weed Density and Weed Dry Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H Rashed Mohasel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to evaluate the response of weed seeds to light, two experiments, at two different locations were conducted at Ferdowsi university of Mashhad in 2009. At the first experiment, field was ploughed in day and night. Weed density was evaluated 70 d after plough, with 1×1 quadrate. At the second experiment, at night treatment, ploughing, potato planting and weeding with cultivator were done at night. Weed sampling was done twice at 43 and 130 days after planting with 1×1 quadrate and weeds were identified and counted. Result showed pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L., sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L., crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis (L. scop, jimsonweed (Datura stramonium L. and mallow (Hibiscus trionum L. did not observed at night plough, in contrast, night plough has no significance influence on common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L., and black nightshade (Solanum nigrum L.. Only common lambsquarters had similar appearance in two treatments, indicating insusceptibility of this weed to time of plough. Interestingly, at the second experiment, result was very similar. Potato yield was higher at night treatment, but not significant. This research showed that some cultural practice like plough, planting and weeding with cultivator in night can reduce weed density and weed dry matter. Keywords: Germination, Time of plough, Sustainable weeds management, Light

  18. The changing role of agriculture and tomorrow's weed research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kropff, M.J.; Bastiaans, L.; Kempenaar, C.; Weide, van der R.Y.

    2008-01-01

    With the changing position of agriculture in the world the challenges for weed management and weed science are changing as well. In this paper recent developments in weed science with respect to several aspects of weed management are discussed in relation to those changes. Developments in cultural

  19. Influence of cowpea and melon populations on weed infestation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small farmers in the humid regions of tropical Africa spend 30–42% of their total farm labour input in controlling weeds. Chemical weed control is normally recommended but high cost of herbicides and environmental pollution are specific problems with chemical weed control. A three year bio-weed control system with three ...

  20. Adapting weed management in rice to changing climates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, J.; Meinke, H.B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides some of the scientific background on how projected environmental conditions could affect weeds and weed management in rice in Africa. Elevated CO2 levels may have positive effects on rice competitiveness with C4 weeds, but these are generally outnumbered by C3 species in weed

  1. Weed Garden: An Effective Tool for Extension Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Leslie; Patton, Aaron J.

    2015-01-01

    A weed garden was constructed to quantify and improve identification skills among clientele. The garden was planted with over 100 weed species based on surveys on problematic weeds. The weed garden proved useful for introducing additional hands-on learning activities into traditional lecture-based seminars. Through seminar and field day attendee…

  2. Isolation, characterization, and evaluation of multi-trait plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for their growth promoting and disease suppressing effects on ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh, Raghavan; Anandaraj, Muthuswamy; Kumar, Aundy; Bini, Yogiyar Kundil; Subila, Kizhakke Purayil; Aravind, Ravindran

    2015-04-01

    In this study, 100 PGPR strains isolated from different varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) were first characterized for their morphological, biochemical, and nutrient mobilization traits in vitro. The PGPR were also screened in vitro for inhibition of Pythium myriotylum causing soft rot in ginger. Results revealed that only five PGPR showed >70% suppression of P. myriotylum. These 5 PGPR viz., GRB (Ginger rhizobacteria) 25--Burkholderia cepacia, GRB35--Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; GRB58--Serratia marcescens; GRB68--S. marcescens; GRB91--Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used for further growth promotion and biocontrol studies in the green house and field. The green house study revealed that GRB35 (B. amyloliquefaciens) and GRB68 (S. marcescens) registered markedly higher sprouting (96.3%) and lower disease incidence (48.1%) and greater rhizome yield (365.6 g pot(-1) and 384.4 g pot(-1), respectively), while control registered the lowest sprouting (66%), maximum soft rot incidence (100%) and lowest rhizome yield (134.4 g pot(-1)). In the field experiments also, GRB68 (S. marcescens) and GRB35 (B. amyloliquefaciens) registered the greatest sprouting (80% each), markedly lower soft rot incidence (5.2% and 7.3%, respectively) and higher yield (5.0 and 4.3 kg(3)m(-2), respectively) compared to chemicals like Streptomycin sulphate (73.0%, 18.5% and 2.3 kg(3)m(-2), respectively), Metalaxyl-Mancozeb (73.0%, 14.0% and 3.8 kg(3)m(-2), respectively) and control (73.0%, 25.1% and 2.2 kg 3m(-2), respectively). Overall, the results suggested that for growth promotion and management of soft rot disease in ginger, GRB35 B. amyloliquefaciens and GRB68 S. marcescens could be good alternatives to chemical measures. Since, the latter has been reported to be an opportunistic human pathogen, we recommend the use of B. amyloliquefaciens for integration into nutrient and disease management schedules for ginger cultivation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigation of weed species diversity and community structure in saffron fields of Khorasan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surur Khorramdel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Weedy flora of agroecosystems is composed of many species that have evolved in response to cropping system practices by occupying the niches left available in agroecosystems. In order to study weed species diversity and community structure in the saffron fields of Khorasan province, a survey trial was carried out in seven counties (including Mashhad, Neyshabur, Birjandn, Ghaen, Gonabad, Torbat-e Jam and Torbat-e Heydari during 2014 and 2015 from vegetative growth, dormant to flowering stages of saffron randomly dropped 1×1 m2 quadrates in 50 fields based on a systematic method as W pattern. The counties were clustered by the hierarchical complete linkage method based on Euclidean. Biodiversity indices such as stability coefficient, Simpson, Shannon–Wiener, Margalef and Menhinick were computed. The results indicated that the dominant weeds in saffron fields belong to 19 families and 50 species. Poaceae, Brassicaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae were dominant families with 11, 9, 8 and 6 species, respectively. The majority of weed species were dicotyledonous, C3, noxious and annual plants. The highest stability coefficients in the stages of growth of saffron were calculated in Alhagi camelorum, Avena fatua and Achillea millefolium to be 30.81, 24.11 and 12.14, respectively. All weed species except for Alhagi camelorum (sustainable species and Avena fatua (temporary species were recognized as causal species. The maximum diversity indices for weed species were recorded at the vegetative phase of saffron. Correlation coefficient between weed density and yield loss of saffron was computed as R2=0.98. Based on diversity indices for weed species, different counties were clustered in three groups at 75% similarity level.

  4. Growth responses of young Douglas-fir and tanoak 11 years after various levels of hardwood removal and understory suppression in southwestern Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, T.B.; Tappeiner, John C.

    1997-01-01

    At two sites in southwestern Oregon, height, diameter, and crown width of young Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and sprout-origin tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus) were measured 1–11 years after reducing the density of a 2-year-old tanoak stand to 0%, 25%, 50%, and 100% of its initial cover. Some plots also included suppression of understory vegetation. Tanoak cover developed linearly with time, with steepness of the growth trajectory increasing at a diminishing rate with increasing percentage of initial tanoak cover. Fifth-year cover of understory vegetation declined linearly with increasing percentage of initial tanoak cover (R2 = 0.29). Survival of Douglas-fir (96–100%) differed little among initial abundances of tanoak, while growth trajectories for its size became increasingly exponential with decreasing percentage of initial tanoak cover. Eleventh-year heights of Douglas-fir were similar for 0%, 25%, and 50% of initial tanoak cover; however, diameter increased linearly with decreasing percentage of initial tanoak cover (R2 = 0.73), and the slope of the relationship steepened with understory suppression. Our results indicate that young stands exhibiting a wide range of stand compositions and productivities can be established by early manipulations of tanoak and understory abundance. Complete removal of tanoak plus understory suppression are necessary to maximize Douglas-fir growth, while productive, mixed stands can be achieved by removing 50% or more of tanoak cover.

  5. 3-bromopyruvate and sodium citrate target glycolysis, suppress survivin, and induce mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in gastric cancer cells and inhibit gastric orthotopic transplantation tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting-An; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Guo, Xing-Yu; Xian, Shu-Lin; Lu, Yun-Fei

    2016-03-01

    Glycolysis is the primary method utilized by cancer cells to produce the energy (adenosine triphosphate, ATP) required for cell proliferation. Therefore, inhibition of glycolysis may inhibit tumor growth. We previously found that both 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) and sodium citrate (SCT) can inhibit glycolysis in vitro; however, the underlying inhibitory mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we used a human gastric cancer cell line (SGC-7901) and an orthotopic transplantation tumor model in nude mice to explore the specific mechanisms of 3-BrPA and SCT. We found that both 3-BrPA and SCT effectively suppressed cancer cell proliferation, arrested the cell cycle, induced apoptosis, and decreased the production of lactate and ATP. 3-BrPA significantly reduced the glycolytic enzyme hexokinase activity, while SCT selectively inhibited phosphofructokinase-1 activity. Furthermore, 3-BrPA and SCT upregulated the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax, cytochrome c, and cleaved caspase-3) and downregulated the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2 and survivin). Finally, our animal model of gastric cancer indicated that intraperitoneal injection of 3-BrPA and SCT suppressed orthotopic transplantation tumor growth and induced tumor apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggest that 3-BrPA and SCT selectively suppress glycolytic enzymes, decrease ATP production, induce mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis, downregulate survivin, and inhibit tumor growth. Moreover, an intraperitoneal injection is an effective form of administration of 3-BrPA and SCT.

  6. Inhibition of Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel ANO1/TMEM16A Suppresses Tumor Growth and Invasion in Human Lung Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linghan Jia

    Full Text Available Lung cancer or pulmonary carcinoma is primarily derived from epithelial cells that are thin and line on the alveolar surfaces of the lung for gas exchange. ANO1/TMEM16A, initially identified from airway epithelial cells, is a member of Ca2+-activated Cl- channels (CaCCs that function to regulate epithelial secretion and cell volume for maintenance of ion and tissue homeostasis. ANO1/TMEM16A has recently been shown to be highly expressed in several epithelium originated carcinomas. However, the role of ANO1 in lung cancer remains unknown. In this study, we show that inhibition of calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1/TMEM16A suppresses tumor growth and invasion in human lung cancer. ANO1 is upregulated in different human lung cancer cell lines. Knocking-down ANO1 by small hairpin RNAs inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of GLC82 and NCI-H520 cancel cells evaluated by CCK-8, would-healing, transwell and 3D soft agar assays. ANO1 protein is overexpressed in 77.3% cases of human lung adenocarcinoma tissues detected by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, the tumor growth in nude mice implanted with GLC82 cells was significantly suppressed by ANO1 silencing. Taken together, our findings provide evidence that ANO1 overexpression contributes to tumor growth and invasion of lung cancer; and suppressing ANO1 overexpression may have therapeutic potential in lung cancer therapy.

  7. MAZ-binding G4-decoy with locked nucleic acid and twisted intercalating nucleic acid modifications suppresses KRAS in pancreatic cancer cells and delays tumor growth in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cogoi, Susanna; Zorzet, Sonia; Rapozzi, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    and stability, two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon units (TINA or AMANY) were inserted internally, to cap the quadruplex. The most active G4-decoy (2998), which had two para-TINAs, strongly suppressed KRAS expression in Panc-1 cells. It also repressed their metabolic activity (IC50 = 520 nM), and it inhibited...... cell growth and colony formation by activating apoptosis. We finally injected 2998 and control oligonucleotides 5153, 5154 (2 nmol/mouse) intratumorally in SCID mice bearing a Panc-1 xenograft. After three treatments, 2998 reduced tumor xenograft growth by 64% compared with control and increased...

  8. Soil solarization for weed control in carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARENCO RICARDO ANTONIO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil solarization is a technique used for weed and plant disease control in regions with high levels of solar radiation. The effect of solarization (0, 3, 6, and 9 weeks upon weed populations, carrot (Daucus carota L. cv. Brasília yield and nematode infestation in carrot roots was studied in São Luís (2º35' S; 44º10' W, MA, Brazil, using transparent polyethylene films (100 and 150 mm of thickness. The maximum temperature at 5 cm of depth was about 10ºC warmer in solarized soil than in control plots. In the study 20 weed types were recorded. Solarization reduced weed biomass and density in about 50% of weed species, including Cyperus spp., Chamaecrista nictans var. paraguariensis (Chod & Hassl. Irwin & Barneby, Marsypianthes chamaedrys (Vahl O. Kuntze, Mitracarpus sp., Mollugo verticillata L., Sebastiania corniculata M. Arg., and Spigelia anthelmia L. Approximately 40% of species in the weed flora were not affected by soil mulching. Furthermore, seed germination of Commelina benghalensis L. was increased by soil solarization. Marketable yield of carrots was greater in solarized soil than in the unsolarized one. It was concluded that solarization for nine weeks increases carrot yield and is effective for controlling more than half of the weed species recorded. Mulching was not effective for controlling root-knot nematodes in carrot.

  9. Enhanced Benefit in Diabetic Macular Edema from AKB-9778 Tie2 Activation Combined with Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campochiaro, Peter A; Khanani, Arshad; Singer, Michael; Patel, Sunil; Boyer, David; Dugel, Pravin; Kherani, Saleema; Withers, Barbara; Gambino, Laura; Peters, Kevin; Brigell, Mitchell

    2016-08-01

    with a ≥2-step change was 11.4% in all AKB-9778-treated subjects compared with 4.2% in the ranibizumab monotherapy group. AKB-9778 was well tolerated, with no clear by-treatment differences in adverse events. Activation of Tie2 by subcutaneous injections of AKB-9778 combined with suppression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) causes a significantly greater reduction in DME than that seen with suppression of VEGF alone. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Multiple roles of glyoxalase 1-mediated suppression of methylglyoxal glycation in cancer biology-Involvement in tumour suppression, tumour growth, multidrug resistance and target for chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, Naila; Xue, Mingzhan; Weickert, Martin O; Thornalley, Paul J

    2018-04-01

    Glyoxalase 1 (Glo1) is part of the glyoxalase system in the cytoplasm of all human cells. It catalyses the glutathione-dependent removal of the endogenous reactive dicarbonyl metabolite, methylglyoxal (MG). MG is formed mainly as a side product of anaerobic glycolysis. It modifies protein and DNA to form mainly hydroimidazolone MG-H1 and imidazopurinone MGdG adducts, respectively. Abnormal accumulation of MG, dicarbonyl stress, increases adduct levels which may induce apoptosis and replication catastrophe. In the non-malignant state, Glo1 is a tumour suppressor protein and small molecule inducers of Glo1 expression may find use in cancer prevention. Increased Glo1 expression is permissive for growth of tumours with high glycolytic activity and is thereby a biomarker of tumour growth. High Glo1 expression is a cause of multi-drug resistance. It is produced by over-activation of the Nrf2 pathway and GLO1 amplification. Glo1 inhibitors are antitumour agents, inducing apoptosis and necrosis, and anoikis. Tumour stem cells and tumours with high flux of MG formation and Glo1 expression are sensitive to Glo1 inhibitor therapy. It is likely that MG-induced cell death contributes to the mechanism of action of current antitumour agents. Common refractory tumours have high prevalence of Glo1 overexpression for which Glo1 inhibitors may improve therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Treatment Combining X-Irradiation and a Ribonucleoside Anticancer Drug, TAS106, Effectively Suppresses the Growth of Tumor Cells Transplanted in Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasui, Hironobu; Inanami, Osamu; Asanuma, Taketoshi; Iizuka, Daisuke; Nakajima, Takayuki; Kon, Yasuhiro; Matsuda, Akira; Kuwabara, Mikinori

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the in vivo antitumor efficacy of X-irradiation combined with administration of a ribonucleoside anticancer drug, 1-(3-C-ethynyl-β-D-ribo-pentofuranosyl)cytosine (TAS106, ECyd), to tumor cell-transplanted mice. Methods and Materials: Colon26 murine rectum adenocarcinoma cells and MKN45 human gastric adenocarcinoma cells were inoculated into the footpad in BALB/c mice and severe combined immunodeficient mice, respectively. They were treated with a relatively low dose of X-irradiation (2 Gy) and low amounts of TAS106 (0.1 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg). The tumor growth was monitored by measuring the tumor volume from Day 5 to Day 16 for Colon26 and from Day 7 to Day 20 for MKN45. Histologic analyses for proliferative and apoptotic cells in the tumors were performed using Ki-67 immunohistochemical and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling staining. The expression of survivin, a key molecule related to tumor survival, was assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analysis. Results: When X-irradiation and TAS106 treatment were combined, significant inhibition of tumor growth was observed in both types of tumors compared with mice treated with X-irradiation or TAS106 alone. Marked inhibition of tumor growth was observed in half of the mice that received the combined treatment three times at 2-day intervals. Parallel to these phenomena, the suppression of survivin expression and appearance of Ki-67-negative and apoptotic cells were observed. Conclusions: X-irradiation and TAS106 effectively suppress tumor growth in mice. The inhibition of survivin expression by TAS106 is thought to mainly contribute to the suppression of the tumor growth

  12. Mangiferin, a novel nuclear factor kappa B-inducing kinase inhibitor, suppresses metastasis and tumor growth in a mouse metastatic melanoma model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Tomoya; Tsubaki, Masanobu; Sakamoto, Kotaro; Ichimura, Eri; Enomoto, Aya; Suzuki, Yuri [Division of Pharmacotherapy, Kinki University School of Pharmacy, Kowakae, Higashi-, Osaka (Japan); Itoh, Tatsuki [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Kinki University School of Agriculture, Nara, Nara (Japan); Imano, Motohiro [Department of Surgery, Kinki University School of Medicine, Osakasayama, Osaka (Japan); Tanabe, Genzoh; Muraoka, Osamu [Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Kinki University, Kowakae, Higashi-, Osaka (Japan); Matsuda, Hideaki [Department of Natural Drugs Resources, Kinki University School of Pharmacy, Kowakae, Higashi-, Osaka (Japan); Satou, Takao [Department of Pathology, Kinki University School of Medicine, Osakasayama, Osaka (Japan); Nishida, Shozo, E-mail: nishida@phar.kindai.ac.jp [Division of Pharmacotherapy, Kinki University School of Pharmacy, Kowakae, Higashi-, Osaka (Japan)

    2016-09-01

    Advanced metastatic melanoma, one of the most aggressive malignancies, is currently without reliable therapy. Therefore, new therapies are urgently needed. Mangiferin is a naturally occurring glucosylxanthone and exerts many beneficial biological activities. However, the effect of mangiferin on metastasis and tumor growth of metastatic melanoma remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the effect of mangiferin on metastasis and tumor growth in a mouse metastatic melanoma model. We found that mangiferin inhibited spontaneous metastasis and tumor growth. Furthermore, mangiferin suppressed the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and expression of phosphorylated NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK), inhibitor of kappa B kinase (IKK), and inhibitor of kappa B (IκB) and increases the expression of IκB protein in vivo. In addition, we found that mangiferin inhibited the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and very late antigens (VLAs) in vivo. Mangiferin treatment also increased the expression of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved Poly ADP ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1), p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), p53, and phosphorylated p53 proteins, and decreased the expression of Survivin and Bcl-associated X (Bcl-xL) proteins in vivo. These results indicate that mangiferin selectivity suppresses the NF-κB pathway via inhibition of NIK activation, thereby inhibiting metastasis and tumor growth. Importantly, the number of reported NIK selective inhibitors is limited. Taken together, our data suggest that mangiferin may be a potential therapeutic agent with a new mechanism of targeting NIK for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. - Highlights: • Mangiferin prolongs survival in mice by inhibiting metastasis and tumor growth • Mangiferin selectivity suppresses the NF-κB pathway via inhibition of NIK activation • Mangiferin regulates the expression of MMPs, VLAs, and apoptosis regulatory proteins.

  13. Application of electrical capacitance measurement for in situ monitoring of competitive interactions between maize and weed plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cseresnyés, I.; Takács, T.; Füzy, A.; Végh, K.R.; Lehoczky, E.

    2016-11-01

    Applicability of root electrical capacitance (EC) measurement for monitoring of crop–weed competition was studied in a pot experiment. Maize (Zea mays L.) was grown both alone and with Echinochloa crus-galli or Abutilon theophrasti in different densities with regular measurement of root EC. Plants were harvested 42 days after planting to determine above- and belowground biomass. Depending on weed density, E. crus-galli-A. theophrasti interaction reduced the root EC of maize by 22–66% and 3–57%, respectively. Competitive effect of crop on weeds and intraspecific competition among weeds could also be detected by EC values: E. crus-galli was less sensitive both to the presence of maize and to intraspecific competition than A. theophrasti. Strong linear correlations between root dry mass and root EC for crop and weeds (with R2 from 0.901 to 0.956) were obtained by regression analyses at the end of the experiment. EC monitoring informed us on the emergence time of competition: E. crus-galli interfered with maize root growth a week earlier then A. theophrasti, and increasing weed densities accelerated the emergence of competition. In conclusion, the simple, non-destructive EC method should be considered a potential in situ technique for pot studies on crop–weed competition, which may partially substitute the intrusive techniques commonly used in agricultural researches. (Author)

  14. Preliminary Study on Effect of Herbicides on Alfalfa Yield and Weed Community Characteristics in Yellow River Delta, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Guo-liang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa(Medicago sativa is one of important legume forages worldwide. However, weed is the main factor limiting alfalfa production. Biomass quality and yield and stability of dry matter production during cultivation are directly associated with the interference of weeds which compete with alfalfa for water, light and nutrients. The use of herbicides is a good alternative for weed control. In order to control weed in alfalfa field with suitable herbicide in Yellow River delta, the effect of four herbicides(imazethapyr, quizalofop-p-ethyl, haloxyfop-r-methyl and oxyfluorfen with different concentration on afalfal yield and weed community characteristics were studied. The results showed that both imazethapyr and haloxyfop-r-methyl treatments could increase alfalfa yield, and the best herbicide application concentration was imazethapyr with 2 000 mL·hm-2 and haloxyfop-r-methyl with 700 mL·hm-2, but oxyfluorfen treatment would limit alfalfa growth significantly. Weed species numbers in the treatments of imazethapyr, quizalofop-p-ethyl and oxyfluorfen decreased significantly. Digitariasanguinalis, Portulacaoleracea and Echinochloacrusgalli were more difficult to control from specie important value in all treatments. Species diversity index decreased with higher herbicide concentration in all treatments. From this study, herbicide imazethapyr with 2 000 mL·hm-2 application concentration was the best weed control method, and the second one was haloxyfop-r-methyl with 700 mL·hm-2 application concentration.

  15. Weeds in Organic Fertility-Building Leys: Aspects of Species Richness and Weed Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F. Döring

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Legume-based leys (perennial sod crops are an important component of fertility management in organic rotations in many parts of Europe. Despite their importance, however, relatively little is known about how these leys affect weed communities or how the specific composition of leys may contribute to weed management. To determine whether the choice of plant species in the ley affects weeds, we conducted replicated field trials at six locations in the UK over 24 months, measuring weed cover and biomass in plots sown with monocultures of 12 legume and 4 grass species, and in plots sown with a mixture of 10 legume species and 4 grass species. Additionally, we monitored weed communities in leys on 21 organic farms across the UK either sown with a mixture of the project species or the farmers’ own species mix. In total, 63 weed species were found on the farms, with the annuals Stellaria media, Sonchus arvensis, and Veronica persica being the most frequent species in the first year after establishment of the ley, while Stellaria media and the two perennials Ranunculus repens and Taraxacum officinale dominated the weed spectrum in the second year. Our study shows that organic leys constitute an important element of farm biodiversity. In both replicated and on-farm trials, weed cover and species richness were significantly lower in the second year than in the first, owing to lower presence of annual weeds in year two. In monocultures, meadow pea (Lathyrus pratensis was a poor competitor against weeds, and a significant increase in the proportion of weed biomass was observed over time, due to poor recovery of meadow pea after mowing. For red clover (Trifolium pratense, we observed the lowest proportion of weed biomass in total biomass among the tested legume species. Crop biomass and weed biomass were negatively correlated across species. Residuals from the linear regression between crop biomass and weed biomass indicated that at similar levels of crop

  16. Systemic depletion of L-cyst(e)ine with cyst(e)inase increases reactive oxygen species and suppresses tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Shira L; Saha, Achinto; Liu, Jinyun; Tadi, Surendar; Tiziani, Stefano; Yan, Wupeng; Triplett, Kendra; Lamb, Candice; Alters, Susan E; Rowlinson, Scott; Zhang, Yan Jessie; Keating, Michael J; Huang, Peng; DiGiovanni, John; Georgiou, George; Stone, Everett

    2017-01-01

    Cancer cells experience higher oxidative stress from reactive oxygen species (ROS) than do non-malignant cells because of genetic alterations and abnormal growth; as a result, maintenance of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) is essential for their survival and proliferation. Under conditions of elevated ROS, endogenous L-cysteine (L-Cys) production is insufficient for GSH synthesis. This necessitates uptake of L-Cys that is predominantly in its disulfide form, L-cystine (CSSC), via the xCT(-) transporter. We show that administration of an engineered and pharmacologically optimized human cyst(e)inase enzyme mediates sustained depletion of the extracellular L-Cys and CSSC pool in mice and non-human primates. Treatment with this enzyme selectively causes cell cycle arrest and death in cancer cells due to depletion of intracellular GSH and ensuing elevated ROS; yet this treatment results in no apparent toxicities in mice even after months of continuous treatment. Cyst(e)inase suppressed the growth of prostate carcinoma allografts, reduced tumor growth in both prostate and breast cancer xenografts and doubled the median survival time of TCL1-Tg:p53 -/- mice, which develop disease resembling human chronic lymphocytic leukemia. It was observed that enzyme-mediated depletion of the serum L-Cys and CSSC pool suppresses the growth of multiple tumors, yet is very well tolerated for prolonged periods, suggesting that cyst(e)inase represents a safe and effective therapeutic modality for inactivating antioxidant cellular responses in a wide range of malignancies.

  17. Accelerated development in Johnsongrass seedlings (Sorghum halepense) suppresses the growth of native grasses through size-asymmetric competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinning, Susanne; Meckel, Heather; Reichmann, Lara G; Polley, H Wayne; Fay, Philip A

    2017-01-01

    Invasive plant species often dominate native species in competition, augmenting other potential advantages such as release from natural enemies. Resource pre-emption may be a particularly important mechanism for establishing dominance over competitors of the same functional type. We hypothesized that competitive success of an exotic grass against native grasses is mediated by establishing an early size advantage. We tested this prediction among four perennial C4 warm-season grasses: the exotic weed Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii), little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparius) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). We predicted that a) the competitive effect of Johnsongrass on target species would be proportional to their initial biomass difference, b) competitive effect and response would be negatively correlated and c) soil fertility would have little effect on competitive relationships. In a greenhouse, plants of the four species were grown from seed either alone or with one Johnsongrass neighbor at two fertilizer levels and periodically harvested. The first two hypotheses were supported: The seedling biomass of single plants at first harvest (50 days after seeding) ranked the same way as the competitive effect of Johnsongrass on target species: Johnsongrass critical mechanism by which exotic invasive species displace functionally similar native species and alter the functional dynamics of native communities.

  18. Opportunities for biological weed control in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepens, P.C.; Müller-Schärer, H.; Kempenaar, C.

    2001-01-01

    The development and application of biological weed control offer greatopportunities not only for farmers, nature conservationists and othervegetation managers but also for institutions and companies that wish tosell plant protection services and products, and for the general publicthat demands safe

  19. Bioenergy potential of eight common aquatic weeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasi, S.A.; Nipaney, P.C.; Schaumberg, G.D. (Pondicherry (Central) Univ. (IN). Salim Ali School of Ecology)

    1990-01-01

    Eight common aquatic weeds Salvinia molesta, Hydrilla verticillata, Nymphaea stellata, Azolla pinnata, Ceratopteris sp. Scirpus sp. Cyperus sp, and Utricularia reticulata were digested anaerobically to produce methane. The carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio, carbon to phosphorus (C/P) ratio, and the volatile solids (VS) content of the weeds varied widely. No trend between these factors and the methane yield was discernable; the possible reasons are discussed. The energy potential of the weeds per unit area of the weed crop was worked out. Natural stands of salvinia, such as the one employed in the present investigation, would yield energy (methane) of the order of 10{sup 8} Kcal/ha/yr. (author).

  20. Alien species in the Finnish weed flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. HYVÖNEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at assessing the invasion of alien weed species in Finland based on a review of their occurrence in the Finnish weed flora. The evaluation was conducted for the three phases of the invasion process, i.e. introduction, naturalization and invasion. The literature review revealed that 815 alien weed species occur in Finland of which 314 are regarded as naturalized. Based on their occurrence in different climate zones, the risk of naturalization of new harmful alien weed species was deemed low for those species not currently found in Finland, but higher for species occurring as casual aliens in Finland. In the latter group, 10 species of concern were detected. Exploration of the distribution patterns of naturalized species within Finland revealed species occupancy to be dependent on the residence time of the species. Established neophytes can be expected to extend their ranges and to increase occupation of agricultural habitats in the future.;

  1. WHITE BLISTER SPECIES (Albuginaceae ON WEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Vrandečić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The obligate fungi inside the family Albuginaceae are widespread world wide and cause white rust or white blister disease. Mycopopulation of weeds has been researched within the project „The role of weeds in epidemiology of row-crop diseases“. The aim of this research was to identify white blister species occurring on weeds in Eastern Croatia. Weed plants with disease symptoms characteristic for white blister species have been collected since 2001 on location Slavonia and Baranja country. Determination of white blister species was based on morphological characters of pathogen and the host. Wilsoniana bliti was determined on Amaranthus retroflexus and Amaranthus hybridus leaves. Capsella bursa pastoris is a host for Albugo candida. Ambrosia artemisiifolia is a host for Pustula sp. and Cirsium arvense was found to be host for Pustula spinulosa. Wilsoniana portulaceae was determined on Portulaca oleracea.

  2. Viruses in weeds in Dioscorea yam

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    East, Central and Southern Africa (FAOSTAT,. 2009) ... This study was conducted in the Guinea Savanna zone, which is the ... Weed hosts of yam viruses in the wet season of 2009 in northern Nigeria .... be due to differences in the surrounding.

  3. The HLJ1-targeting drug screening identified Chinese herb andrographolide that can suppress tumour growth and invasion in non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yi-Hua; Yu, Sung-Liang; Chen, Hsuan-Yu; Wang, Chi-Chung; Chen, Huei-Wen; Chen, Jeremy J W

    2013-05-01

    HLJ1 is a novel tumour suppressor and is a potential druggable target for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this report, using a promoter-containing enhancer region as the HLJ1-targeting drug-screening platform, we identified several herbal compounds from a Chinese herbal bank with the capacity to enhance HLJ1 promoter activity and suppress tumour growth and invasion of NSCLC. Among the herbal drugs identified, the andrographolide (from Andrographis paniculata [Burm. f.] Nees.) most significantly induced HLJ1 expression and suppressed tumorigenesis both in vitro and in vivo. The andrographolide upregulates HLJ1 via JunB activation, which modulates AP-2α binding at the MMP-2 promoter and represses the expression of MMP-2. In addition, silencing of HLJ1 partially reverses the inhibition of cancer-cell invasion by andrographolide. Microarray transcriptomic analysis was performed to comprehensively depict the andrographolide-regulated signalling pathways. We showed that andrographolide can affect 939 genes (analysis of variance, false discovery rate andrographolide on anticancer invasion and proliferation. In conclusion, the HLJ1-targeting drug-screening platform is useful for screening of novel anticancer compounds. Using this platform, we identified andrographolide is a promising new anticancer agent that could suppress tumour growth and invasion in NSCLC.

  4. Crop diversity prevents serious weed problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melander, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Weed management in organic crop production could benefit from more diversification of today’s cropping systems. However, the potential of diversification needs better documentation and solid suggestions for employment in practise must be identified.......Weed management in organic crop production could benefit from more diversification of today’s cropping systems. However, the potential of diversification needs better documentation and solid suggestions for employment in practise must be identified....

  5. Suppression of emittance growth caused by mechanical vibrations of magnetic elements in presence of beam-beam effects in the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, V.A.; Parkhomchuk, V.V.; Shil'tsev, V.D.; Skrinskij, A.N.

    1991-01-01

    A ground motion produces shifts of storage ring quadrupoles. It strongly influences on the beam behaviour in large proton (anti)proton colliders due to the closed orbit distortion and due to the transverse emittance growth. Calculations of both effects are presented in this paper. An active feedback system is useful for the emittance growth suppression. It is shown that in this case the main parameter which determines the emittance growth is the betatron tune spread due to the beam-beam effects. A simple analytical model is considered which results are in good coincidence with computer simulations. All calculations are adapted to the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). 13 refs.; 9 figs.; 3 tabs

  6. WEED MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL IN POTATOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cleón de Castro Silva

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This review shows instructions to potatoes' farmer about behavior of the weeds and how to manage them so as to minimize loss of productivity through the use of control strategies for potato crop. The prevention consists in adoption of practices that prevents entry of unwanted species of weeds in the planting site. The control reduces the infestation of these species, but this practice does not eradicate them completely. However, it needs to control the weeds before the area preparation for planting the tubers until complete closure of the soil by shoots of potatoes during the critical period. After covering the soil, the potato crop does not suffer negative interference caused by weeds. The cultural practices include a good plane for harvest, plant crop rotation, the planting of appropriate plants for covering the soil, the ideal space to the planting and the correct time to potato planting. The control must be efficient to reduce the number of weeds in the area to avoid economic losses to farmers. It is necessary to establish weed management strategies in order to maintain sustainable farming systems, preserving the environment and quality of life of the farmer.

  7. Gleditsia Saponin C Induces A549 Cell Apoptosis via Caspase-Dependent Cascade and Suppresses Tumor Growth on Xenografts Tumor Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Saponins are natural compounds and possess the most promising anti-cancer function. Here, a saponin gleditsia saponin C (GSC, extracted from gleditsiae fructus abnormalis, could induce apoptosis of lung tumor cell line A549 via caspase dependent cascade and this effect could be prevented by the caspase inhibitors. In addition, GSC induced cell death companied with an increase ratio of Bax:Bcl-2 and inhibition of ERK and Akt signaling pathways. Meanwhile, GSC suppressed TNFα inducing NF-κB activation and increased the susceptibility of lung cancer cell to TNFα induced apoptosis. Furthermore, on mouse xenograft model, GSC significantly suppressed tumor growth and induced cancer cell apoptosis, which validated the anti-tumor effect of GSC. Based on these results, GS