WorldWideScience

Sample records for suppress phonological recoding

  1. Developmental delays in phonological recoding among children and adolescents with Down syndrome and Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, Henrik; Henry, Lucy; Messer, David; Carney, Daniel P J; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the development of phonological recoding in short-term memory (STM) span tasks among two clinical groups with contrasting STM and language profiles: those with Down syndrome (DS) and Williams syndrome (WS). Phonological recoding was assessed by comparing: (1) performance on phonologically similar and dissimilar items (phonological similarity effects, PSE); and (2) items with short and long names (word length effects, WLE). Participant groups included children and adolescents with DS (n=29), WS (n=25) and typical development (n=51), all with average mental ages around 6 years. The group with WS, contrary to predictions based on their relatively strong verbal STM and language abilities, showed no evidence for phonological recoding. Those in the group with DS, with weaker verbal STM and language abilities, showed positive evidence for phonological recoding (PSE), but to a lesser degree than the typical group (who showed PSE and WLE). These findings provide new information about the memory systems of these groups of children and adolescents, and suggest that STM processes involving phonological recoding do not fit with the usual expectations of the abilities of children and adolescents with WS and DS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. RECOD 87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The RECOD 87 second volume (International conference on nuclear fuel reprocessing and waste management) is divided into 5 parts bearing on: - process chemistry: 5 conferences - head end operations: 13 conferences - reprocessing wastes: 26 conferences - interface between reprocessing and fuel fabrication: 8 conferences - analysis techniques: 15 conferences [fr

  3. Probabilistic sensory recoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazayeri, Mehrdad

    2008-08-01

    A hallmark of higher brain functions is the ability to contemplate the world rather than to respond reflexively to it. To do so, the nervous system makes use of a modular architecture in which sensory representations are dissociated from areas that control actions. This flexibility however necessitates a recoding scheme that would put sensory information to use in the control of behavior. Sensory recoding faces two important challenges. First, recoding must take into account the inherent variability of sensory responses. Second, it must be flexible enough to satisfy the requirements of different perceptual goals. Recent progress in theory, psychophysics, and neurophysiology indicate that cortical circuitry might meet these challenges by evaluating sensory signals probabilistically.

  4. Examining the Relationship between Immediate Serial Recall and Immediate Free Recall: Common Effects of Phonological Loop Variables but Only Limited Evidence for the Phonological Loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, Jessica; Ward, Geoff; Matthews, William J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the contribution of the phonological loop to immediate free recall (IFR) and immediate serial recall (ISR) of lists of between one and 15 words. Following Baddeley (1986, 2000, 2007, 2012), we assumed that visual words could be recoded into the phonological store when presented silently but that recoding would be prevented by…

  5. Phonological coding during reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinenger, Mallorie

    2014-01-01

    The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early (pre-lexical) or that phonological codes come online late (post-lexical)) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eyetracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model (Van Order, 1987), dual-route model (e.g., Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001), parallel distributed processing model (Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989)) are discussed. PMID:25150679

  6. Variable & Recode Definitions - SEER Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources that define variables and provide documentation for reporting using SEER and related datasets. Choose from SEER coding and staging manuals plus instructions for recoding behavior, site, stage, cause of death, insurance, and several additional topics. Also guidance on months survived, calculating Hispanic mortality, and site-specific surgery.

  7. A test of the orthographic recoding hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaygen, Daniel E.

    2003-04-01

    The Orthographic Recoding Hypothesis [D. E. Gaygen and P. A. Luce, Percept. Psychophys. 60, 465-483 (1998)] was tested. According to this hypothesis, listeners recognize spoken words heard for the first time by mapping them onto stored representations of the orthographic forms of the words. Listeners have a stable orthographic representation of words, but no phonological representation, when those words have been read frequently but never heard or spoken. Such may be the case for low frequency words such as jargon. Three experiments using visually and auditorily presented nonword stimuli tested this hypothesis. The first two experiments were explicit tests of memory (old-new tests) for words presented visually. In the first experiment, the recognition of auditorily presented nonwords was facilitated when they previously appeared on a visually presented list. The second experiment was similar, but included a concurrent articulation task during a visual word list presentation, thus preventing covert rehearsal of the nonwords. The results were similar to the first experiment. The third experiment was an indirect test of memory (auditory lexical decision task) for visually presented nonwords. Auditorily presented nonwords were identified as nonwords significantly more slowly if they had previously appeared on the visually presented list accompanied by a concurrent articulation task.

  8. Phonological Representations in Visual Word Recognition: The Adjunct Access Model. Technical Report. No. 247.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Glenn M.; Humphrey, Mary M.

    While studies of college-level readers have yielded evidence both for and against the use of phonological or speech recoding in the recognition of written words, no consistent picture of when recoding occurs has yet emerged. However, one model, the adjunct access model, can account for the previous research findings. According to this model,…

  9. Kurmuk phonology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the basic aspects of the phonology of Kurmuk, a previously undescribed language belonging to the Northern Burun subbranch of the Western Nilotic family. After a morphosyntactic overview, the treatment of the phonology includes syllable structure and word shapes, vowels and ...

  10. Developmental origins of recoding and decoding in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibbe, Melissa M; Feigenson, Lisa

    2014-12-01

    Working memory is severely limited in both adults and children, but one way that adults can overcome this limit is through the process of recoding. Recoding happens when representations of individual items are chunked together into a higher order representation, and the chunk is assigned a label. That label can then be decoded to retrieve the individual items from long-term memory. Whereas this ability has been extensively studied in adults (as, for example, in classic studies of memory in chess), little is known about recoding's developmental origins. Here we asked whether 2- to 3-year-old children also can recode-that is, can they restructure representations of individual objects into a higher order chunk, assign this new representation a verbal label, and then later decode the label to retrieve the represented individuals from memory. In Experiments 1 and 2, we showed children identical blocks that could be connected to make tools. Children learned a novel name for a tool that could be built from two blocks, and for a tool that could be built from three blocks. Later we told children that one of the tools was hidden in a box, with no visual information provided. Children were allowed to search the box and retrieve varying numbers of blocks. Critically, the retrieved blocks were identical and unconnected, so the only way children could know whether any blocks remained was by using the verbal label to recall how many objects comprised each tool (or chunk). We found that even children who could not yet count adjusted their searching of the box depending on the label they had heard. This suggests that they had recoded representations of individual blocks into higher-order chunks, attached labels to the chunks, and then later decoded the labels to infer how many blocks were hidden. In Experiments 3 and 4 we asked whether recoding also can expand the number of individual objects children could remember, as in the classic studies with adults. We found that when no

  11. Recode-2: new design, new search tools, and many more genes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bekaert, Michaël

    2010-01-01

    \\'Recoding\\' is a term used to describe non-standard read-out of the genetic code, and encompasses such phenomena as programmed ribosomal frameshifting, stop codon readthrough, selenocysteine insertion and translational bypassing. Although only a small proportion of genes utilize recoding in protein synthesis, accurate annotation of \\'recoded\\' genes lags far behind annotation of \\'standard\\' genes. In order to address this issue, provide a service to researchers in the field, and offer training data for developers of gene-annotation software, we have gathered together known cases of recoding within the Recode database. Recode-2 is an improved and updated version of the database. It provides access to detailed information on genes known to utilize translational recoding and allows complex search queries, browsing of recoding data and enhanced visualization of annotated sequence elements. At present, the Recode-2 database stores information on approximately 1500 genes that are known to utilize recoding in their expression--a factor of approximately three increase over the previous version of the database. Recode-2 is available at http:\\/\\/recode.ucc.ie.

  12. Visual short-term store can compensate for a defective phonological short-term store in patients with apraxia of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveri, Maria Caterina; Baldonero, Eleonora

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether, within the phonological short-term memory (STM) system, speech articulation disorders primarily due to cortical damage are associated with deficits in the phonological recoding of visual-verbal material, and whether the visual short-term store (STS) can compensate for inefficient access to the phonological STS, as suggested in previous reports. Two patients (AE and TM) with apraxia of speech due to atrophic cerebral damage were administered a battery of tasks devised to explore the organization of the phonological STM. AE's span was normal and TM's span was markedly reduced. Phonological similarity and word-length effects: Both patients showed the effects in visual presentation; the effect was less evident in verbal presentation. This suggests a phonological STS disorder and preserved rehearsal/phonological recoding, consistently with involvement of the left parietal regions, which was documented by the MRI in both patients. Unexpectedly, TM had a longer span for similar than for dissimilar words in visually presented stimuli. Silent phonology (on written material): At variance with controls, stress assignment improved during unattended speech both in AE and TM, while in both patients and controls a detrimental effect of unattended speech was documented in the initial sound task. To account for this unusual pattern of results, we hypothesized that whenever possible, AE and TM adopt the strategy that takes advantage of the visual STM store to compensate for a defective phonological STS. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Relationship between phonological awareness and spelling proficiency in first-grade students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasibe Soltaninejad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Phonological awareness (consisting of phoneme, syllable and intra-syllable awareness is an important part of receptive and expressive language; it facilitates reading and writing skills through phonological re-coding. Multiple studies in several languages have studied the relationship between phonological awareness and dictation. This research is based on a study of the relationship between phonological skill and spelling score in first-grade Persian students.Methods: Four hundred first-grade students participated in the study, including 209 girls and 191 boys. A phonological awareness test was individually administered for each student and then a spelling exam was administered in groups. The correlation between the two tests was studied using a simple regression model. The comparison of mean scores of girls and boys was evaluated employing an independent t-test.Results: A correlation coefficient of 0.82 was obtained between phonological awareness and spelling proficiency (p<0.001. Phonological skill sub-tests also showed a significant correlation with spelling proficiency (highest for phoneme awareness r=0.34 and lowest for rhyme awareness r=0.12. The mean scores of girls and boys differed significantly (p<0.05.Conclusion: There is a strong positive association between phonological awareness and spelling proficiency. Therefore, if phonological skill is improved, spelling score can be enhanced.

  14. Recoding Strategies of German Learners of English as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treutlein, Anke; Schöler, Hermann; Landerl, Karin

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether German learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) acquire additional recoding strategies that they do not need for recoding in the consistent German orthography. Based on the psycholinguistic grain size theory (Ziegler & Goswami, 2005) we expected students with little experience in EFL to use the same…

  15. Predicting alcohol use with a recoding-free variant of the Implicit Association Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, K.; Rothermund, K.; Wiers, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, a modified version of the Implicit Association Test (IAT), the IAT-RF (IAT-Recoding Free) was developed which prevents recoding processes by switching response assignments randomly between trials rather than between blocks. In this study, the IAT-RF was used to measure and examine the

  16. Contrastive Linguistic English Phonology Vs. Arabic Phonology

    OpenAIRE

    Mona M. Hamad

    2014-01-01

    Phonology is a wide area of study in any language specially English &Arabic Language, it needs books to cover every single part of these languages. This review paper aims at providing Arab learners and English learners with stem footnotes of these two languages in area of phonology, to ease their learning of English and Arabic languages as foreign or second language, this review paper provide learners with the main differences and rules of English and Arabic languages alphabets that the resea...

  17. Disorders of phonological encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, B

    1992-03-01

    Studies of phonological disturbances in aphasic speech are reviewed. It is argued that failure to test for error consistency in individual patients makes it generally improper to draw inferences about specific disorders of phonological encoding. A minimalist interpretation of available data on phonological errors is therefore proposed that involves variable loss of information in transmission between processing subsystems. Proposals for systematic loss or corruption of phonological information in lexical representations or in translation subsystems is shown to be inadequately grounded. The review concludes with some simple methodological prescriptions for future research.

  18. Recoded organisms engineered to depend on synthetic amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovner, Alexis J; Haimovich, Adrian D; Katz, Spencer R; Li, Zhe; Grome, Michael W; Gassaway, Brandon M; Amiram, Miriam; Patel, Jaymin R; Gallagher, Ryan R; Rinehart, Jesse; Isaacs, Farren J

    2015-02-05

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are increasingly used in research and industrial systems to produce high-value pharmaceuticals, fuels and chemicals. Genetic isolation and intrinsic biocontainment would provide essential biosafety measures to secure these closed systems and enable safe applications of GMOs in open systems, which include bioremediation and probiotics. Although safeguards have been designed to control cell growth by essential gene regulation, inducible toxin switches and engineered auxotrophies, these approaches are compromised by cross-feeding of essential metabolites, leaked expression of essential genes, or genetic mutations. Here we describe the construction of a series of genomically recoded organisms (GROs) whose growth is restricted by the expression of multiple essential genes that depend on exogenously supplied synthetic amino acids (sAAs). We introduced a Methanocaldococcus jannaschii tRNA:aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase pair into the chromosome of a GRO derived from Escherichia coli that lacks all TAG codons and release factor 1, endowing this organism with the orthogonal translational components to convert TAG into a dedicated sense codon for sAAs. Using multiplex automated genome engineering, we introduced in-frame TAG codons into 22 essential genes, linking their expression to the incorporation of synthetic phenylalanine-derived amino acids. Of the 60 sAA-dependent variants isolated, a notable strain harbouring three TAG codons in conserved functional residues of MurG, DnaA and SerS and containing targeted tRNA deletions maintained robust growth and exhibited undetectable escape frequencies upon culturing ∼10(11) cells on solid media for 7 days or in liquid media for 20 days. This is a significant improvement over existing biocontainment approaches. We constructed synthetic auxotrophs dependent on sAAs that were not rescued by cross-feeding in environmental growth assays. These auxotrophic GROs possess alternative genetic codes that

  19. The role of the phonological loop in English word learning: a comparison of Chinese ESL learners and native speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Megumi; Koda, Keiko

    2011-04-01

    Although the role of the phonological loop in word-retention is well documented, research in Chinese character retention suggests the involvement of non-phonological encoding. This study investigated whether the extent to which the phonological loop contributes to learning and remembering visually introduced words varies between college-level Chinese ESL learners (N = 20) and native speakers of English (N = 20). The groups performed a paired associative learning task under two conditions (control versus articulatory suppression) with two word types (regularly spelled versus irregularly spelled words) differing in degree of phonological accessibility. The results demonstrated that both groups' recall declined when the phonological loop was made less available (with irregularly spelled words and in the articulatory suppression condition), but the decline was greater for the native group. These results suggest that word learning entails phonological encoding uniformly across learners, but the contribution of phonology varies among learners with diverse linguistic backgrounds.

  20. Practical Phonetics and Phonology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M.

    Practical Phonetics and Phonology:   presents the essentials of the subject in a lively way whilst stressing the day-to-day applications of phonetics and phonology   covers all the core concepts of speech science such as: the phoneme, syllable structure, production of speech, vowel and consonant ...... language and linguistics and those training for a certificate in TEFL. The accompanying website to this book can be found at: www.routledge.com/textbooks/9780415425148...... orthography; an appendix of websites dealing with phonetics and accents of English; revised and updated activities and examples. The accompanying CD now includes: British Estuary English and New York English. The second edition of Practical Phonetics and Phonology will appeal to all students of English...

  1. Phonology without universal grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archangeli, Diana; Pulleyblank, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    The question of identifying the properties of language that are specific human linguistic abilities, i.e., Universal Grammar, lies at the center of linguistic research. This paper argues for a largely Emergent Grammar in phonology, taking as the starting point that memory, categorization, attention to frequency, and the creation of symbolic systems are all nonlinguistic characteristics of the human mind. The articulation patterns of American English rhotics illustrate categorization and systems; the distribution of vowels in Bantu vowel harmony uses frequencies of particular sequences to argue against Universal Grammar and in favor of Emergent Grammar; prefix allomorphy in Esimbi illustrates the Emergent symbolic system integrating phonological and morphological generalizations. The Esimbi case has been treated as an example of phonological opacity in a Universal Grammar account; the Emergent analysis resolves the pattern without opacity concerns.

  2. Practical Phonetics and Phonology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M.

    This wide-ranging introduction to practical aspects of English phonetics and phonology offers an accessible overview of the subject, with activities, study questions, sample analyses, commentaries and key readings. The flexible "two-dimensional" structure is built around four sections - introduct......This wide-ranging introduction to practical aspects of English phonetics and phonology offers an accessible overview of the subject, with activities, study questions, sample analyses, commentaries and key readings. The flexible "two-dimensional" structure is built around four sections...

  3. Three Latin Phonological Details

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Birgit Anette

    2006-01-01

    The present paper deals with three minor details of Latin phonology: 1) the development of the initial sequence *u¿l¿-, where it is suggested that an apparent vacillation between ul- and vol-/vul- represents sandhi variants going back to the proto-language, 2) the adjectives ama¯rus ‘bitter...

  4. Phonological Concept Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreton, Elliott; Pater, Joe; Pertsova, Katya

    2017-01-01

    Linguistic and non-linguistic pattern learning have been studied separately, but we argue for a comparative approach. Analogous inductive problems arise in phonological and visual pattern learning. Evidence from three experiments shows that human learners can solve them in analogous ways, and that human performance in both cases can be captured by…

  5. MULTILINGUAL RECODING METHOD DESIGNED FOR SCADA-SYSTEM’S SOFTWARE UPGRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Velykodniy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses a new approach to upgrade the software for SCADA-systems. A distinctive feature of this method is the ability to support more than ten most popular programming languages. By applying this method it’s possible to automate the process of recoding software components and, by doing so, it saves time programmers have to spend to rewrite the code and reduce the likelihood of structural errors inherited from the previous system.

  6. Phonological Interpretation into Preordered Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Yusuke; Pollard, Carl

    We propose a novel architecture for categorial grammar that clarifies the relationship between semantically relevant combinatoric reasoning and semantically inert reasoning that only affects surface-oriented phonological form. To this end, we employ a level of structured phonology that mediates between syntax (abstract combinatorics) and phonology proper (strings). To notate structured phonologies, we employ a lambda calculus analogous to the φ-terms of [8]. However, unlike Oehrle's purely equational φ-calculus, our phonological calculus is inequational, in a way that is strongly analogous to the functional programming language LCF [10]. Like LCF, our phonological terms are interpreted into a Henkin frame of posets, with degree of definedness ('height' in the preorder that interprets the base type) corresponding to degree of pronounceability; only maximal elements are actual strings and therefore fully pronounceable. We illustrate with an analysis (also new) of some complex constituent-order phenomena in Japanese.

  7. Open Access to research data - final perspectives from the RECODE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigagli, Lorenzo; Sondervan, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    Many networks, initiatives, and communities are addressing the key barriers to Open Access to data in scientific research. These organizations are typically heterogeneous and fragmented by discipline, location, sector (publishers, academics, data centers, etc.), as well as by other features. Besides, they often work in isolation, or with limited contacts with one another. The Policy RECommendations for Open Access to Research Data in Europe (RECODE) project, which will conclude in the first half of 2015, has scoped and addressed the challenges related to Open Access, dissemination and preservation of scientific data, leveraging the existing networks, initiatives, and communities. The overall objective of RECODE was to identify a series of targeted and over-arching policy recommendations for Open Access to European research data based on existing good practice. RECODE has undertaken a review of the existing state of the art and examined five case studies in different scientific disciplines: particle physics and astrophysics, clinical research, medicine and technical physiology (bioengineering), humanities (archaeology), and environmental sciences (Earth Observation). In particular for the latter discipline, GEOSS has been an optimal test bed for investigating the importance of technical and multidisciplinary interoperability, and what the challenges are in sharing and providing Open Access to research data from a variety of sources, and in a variety of formats. RECODE has identified five main technological and infrastructural challenges: • Heterogeneity - relates to interoperability, usability, accessibility, discoverability; • Sustainability - relates to obsolescence, curation, updates/upgrades, persistence, preservation; • Volume - also related to Big Data, which is somehow implied by Open Data; in our context, it relates to discoverability, accessibility (indexing), bandwidth, storage, scalability, energy footprint; • Quality - relates to completeness

  8. Conjoined Constraints and Phonological Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Bonilha

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the start of Optimality Theory (Prince & Smolensky, 1993, research on phonological acquisition has explored the explanatory potential of constraint theories. This study, also based on Optimality Theory, attempts to analyze the acquisition of CVVC syllable structure by Brazilian Portuguese children and addresses the issue of Local Conjunction (Smolensky, 1995, 1997 in research that deals with problems of phonological acquisition.

  9. Phonological Concept Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreton, Elliott; Pater, Joe; Pertsova, Katya

    2017-01-01

    Linguistic and non-linguistic pattern learning have been studied separately, but we argue for a comparative approach. Analogous inductive problems arise in phonological and visual pattern learning. Evidence from three experiments shows that human learners can solve them in analogous ways, and that human performance in both cases can be captured by the same models. We test GMECCS (Gradual Maximum Entropy with a Conjunctive Constraint Schema), an implementation of the Configural Cue Model (Gluck & Bower, ) in a Maximum Entropy phonotactic-learning framework (Goldwater & Johnson, ; Hayes & Wilson, ) with a single free parameter, against the alternative hypothesis that learners seek featurally simple algebraic rules ("rule-seeking"). We study the full typology of patterns introduced by Shepard, Hovland, and Jenkins () ("SHJ"), instantiated as both phonotactic patterns and visual analogs, using unsupervised training. Unlike SHJ, Experiments 1 and 2 found that both phonotactic and visual patterns that depended on fewer features could be more difficult than those that depended on more features, as predicted by GMECCS but not by rule-seeking. GMECCS also correctly predicted performance differences between stimulus subclasses within each pattern. A third experiment tried supervised training (which can facilitate rule-seeking in visual learning) to elicit simple rule-seeking phonotactic learning, but cue-based behavior persisted. We conclude that similar cue-based cognitive processes are available for phonological and visual concept learning, and hence that studying either kind of learning can lead to significant insights about the other. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  10. A recoding method to improve the humoral immune response to an HIV DNA vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoxing Huang

    Full Text Available This manuscript describes a novel strategy to improve HIV DNA vaccine design. Employing a new information theory based bioinformatic algorithm, we identify a set of nucleotide motifs which are common in the coding region of HIV, but are under-represented in genes that are highly expressed in the human genome. We hypothesize that these motifs contribute to the poor protein expression of gag, pol, and env genes from the c-DNAs of HIV clinical isolates. Using this approach and beginning with a codon optimized consensus gag gene, we recode the nucleotide sequence so as to remove these motifs without modifying the amino acid sequence. Transfecting the recoded DNA sequence into a human kidney cell line results in doubling the gag protein expression level compared to the codon optimized version. We then turn both sequences into DNA vaccines and compare induced antibody response in a murine model. Our sequence, which has the motifs removed, induces a five-fold increase in gag antibody response compared to the codon optimized vaccine.

  11. Auto-Regulatory RNA Editing Fine-Tunes mRNA Re-Coding and Complex Behaviour in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savva, Yiannis A.; Jepson, James E.C; Sahin, Asli; Sugden, Arthur U.; Dorsky, Jacquelyn S.; Alpert, Lauren; Lawrence, Charles; Reenan, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Auto-regulatory feedback loops are a common molecular strategy used to optimize protein function. In Drosophila many mRNAs involved in neuro-transmission are re-coded at the RNA level by the RNA editing enzyme dADAR, leading to the incorporation of amino acids that are not directly encoded by the genome. dADAR also re-codes its own transcript, but the consequences of this auto-regulation in vivo are unclear. Here we show that hard-wiring or abolishing endogenous dADAR auto-regulation dramatically remodels the landscape of re-coding events in a site-specific manner. These molecular phenotypes correlate with altered localization of dADAR within the nuclear compartment. Furthermore, auto-editing exhibits sexually dimorphic patterns of spatial regulation and can be modified by abiotic environmental factors. Finally, we demonstrate that modifying dAdar auto-editing affects adaptive complex behaviors. Our results reveal the in vivo relevance of auto-regulatory control over post-transcriptional mRNA re-coding events in fine-tuning brain function and organismal behavior. PMID:22531175

  12. On the Packet Delay Characteristics for Serially-Connected Links using Random Linear Network Coding with and without Recoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tömösközi, Máté; Fitzek, Frank; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2015-01-01

    decoding of the packets on the receiver side while playing out the video recording contained in the payload. Our solutions are implemented and evaluated on serially connected Raspberry Pi devices and a network (de)coding enabled software running on a regular PC. We find that the recoding relays work...

  13. Roux 105 PHONETIC DATA AND PHONOLOGICAL ANALYSES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is basically concerned with the relationship between phonetic data and phonological analyses. I) It will be shown that phonological analyses based on unverified phonetic data tend to accommodate ad hoc, unmotivated, and even phonetically implausible phonological rules. On the other hand, it will be ...

  14. On the Functional Diversity of Phonological Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasington, R. W. P.

    1976-01-01

    Shows that a phonological description that recognizes the functional variety of phonological rules is more illuminating than one in which data are handled merely as the output of a set of completely undifferentiated processes. Emphasizes the value of distinguishing motivated and unmotivated processes in phonology. (Author/RM)

  15. Shekgalagari stops and theories of phonological representation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper is to present some aspects of stop consonants, e.g. voice onset time (VOT) and F0 perturbation, and also to present phonological theories of stop representation in order to examine matters of Shekgalagari stop production and phonological representation. Of the phonological representation theories ...

  16. The Phonology of Betsimisaraka Malagasy

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    This document constitutes the first phonological grammar Betsimisaraka Malagasy, a form of the Malagasy (Austronesian) language spoken in the island nation of Madagascar. Betsimisaraka specifically is the name of an ethnic group with approximately a million members living on the East Coast of the island, as well as the various dialects they speak.…

  17. A Phonology of Darfur Arabic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roset, C.

    2015-01-01

    In the introduction of this article, I summon the state of the art of Sudanic Arabic and the language situation in Darfur. Then the inventory of the consonants and vowels in the language variety at issue are given, followed by phonological processes, syllable structure, word stress and historical

  18. Gradient phonological inconsistency affects vocabulary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, Kristin L; Creel, Sarah C

    2013-09-01

    Learners frequently experience phonologically inconsistent input, such as exposure to multiple accents. Yet, little is known about the consequences of phonological inconsistency for language learning. The current study examines vocabulary acquisition with different degrees of phonological inconsistency, ranging from no inconsistency (e.g., both talkers call a picture /vig/) to mild but detectable inconsistency (e.g., one talker calls a picture a /vig/, and the other calls it a /vIg/), up to extreme inconsistency (e.g., the same picture is both a /vig/ and a /dIdʒ/). Previous studies suggest that learners readily extract consistent phonological patterns, given variable input. However, in Experiment 1, adults acquired phonologically inconsistent vocabularies more slowly than phonologically consistent ones. Experiment 2 examined whether word-form inconsistency alone, without phonological competition, was a source of learning difficulty. Even without phonological competition, listeners learned faster in 1 accent than in 2 accents, but they also learned faster in 2 accents (/vig/ = /vIg/) than with completely different labels (/vig/ = /dIdʒ/). Overall, results suggest that learners exposed to multiple accents may experience difficulty learning when 2 forms mismatch by more than 1 phonological feature, plus increased phonological competition due to a greater number of word forms. Implications for learning from variable input are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Phonological awareness and sinusoidal amplitude modulation in phonological dislexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Peñaloza-López

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Dyslexia is the difficulty of children in learning to read and write as results of neurological deficiencies. The objective was to test the Phonological awareness (PA and Sinusoidal amplitude modulation (SAM threshold in children with Phonological dyslexia (PD. Methods We performed a case-control, analytic, cross sectional study. We studied 14 children with PD and 14 control children from 7 to 11 years of age, by means of PA measurement and by SAM test. The mean age of dyslexic children was 8.39 years and in the control group was 8.15. Results Children with PD exhibited inadequate skills in PA, and SAM. We found significant correlations between PA and SAM at 4 Hertz frequency, and calculated regression equations that predicts between one-fourth and one-third of variance of measurements. Conclusion Alterations in PA and SAM found can help to explain basis of deficient language processing exhibited by children with PD.

  20. Phonological awareness and sinusoidal amplitude modulation in phonological dislexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaloza-López, Yolanda; Herrera-Rangel, Aline; Pérez-Ruiz, Santiago J; Poblano, Adrián

    2016-04-01

    Dyslexia is the difficulty of children in learning to read and write as results of neurological deficiencies. The objective was to test the Phonological awareness (PA) and Sinusoidal amplitude modulation (SAM) threshold in children with Phonological dyslexia (PD). We performed a case-control, analytic, cross sectional study. We studied 14 children with PD and 14 control children from 7 to 11 years of age, by means of PA measurement and by SAM test. The mean age of dyslexic children was 8.39 years and in the control group was 8.15. Children with PD exhibited inadequate skills in PA, and SAM. We found significant correlations between PA and SAM at 4 Hertz frequency, and calculated regression equations that predicts between one-fourth and one-third of variance of measurements. Alterations in PA and SAM found can help to explain basis of deficient language processing exhibited by children with PD.

  1. A Computational Basis for Phonology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    vowel In Yawelmani we saw an epenthesis process that inserts a high vowel IIJto break up lengthy consonant clusters. Epenthetic vowels may either...This is an instance of epenthesis blocking harmony. In other environments the epenthetic vowel may itself undergo harmony. For example: /?ugn+hin...34drinks" /?uginhin/ epenthesis Pugunhin/ harmony on epenthetic vowel /?ugunhun/ harmony on third vowel The standard generative phonology analysis of

  2. Recoding of Information as a Component of Cognitive Training Technologies in the Course "Engineering Graphics"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Lunina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency to understand scientific and technical information is a relevant problem for a modern type of students. It is particularly acute for the freshmen learning the course of engineering graphics, which is one of the basic disciplines in engineering education.This problem, generally, arises from the information blow-up and cognitive students’ deficiency. The students need to perceive, understand, take in, and apply a huge amount of information to acquire obligatory professional competencies. The cognitive deficiency is because of the poor school knowledge in geometry and graphics, underdeveloped spatial and logical thinking, lack of skills to work with educational and reference books, clip thinking.The modern engineering graphics teaches a technology for the visual presentation of information, graphical illustration, and interpretation of scientific and technical texts. The text is considered to be a completed piece of information that is described in any way – verbal, graphical, symbolic. Graphical language is a professionally oriented language of engineers.One of the components of cognitive learning technologies aimed at understanding the meaning of the studied texts is the development the skills for recoding some information, because a criterion of understanding the meaning of the text is the independent student’s ability to represent the verbal texts in the form of drawings, blueprints, charts, diagrams, tables, formulae, and numeric entries.The article explores some examples of transcoding texts used in the course of engineering graphics (in lectures, seminars, homework, tests. It is emphasized that integrated presentation (verbal + graphical + symbolic that creates the cohesion of the verbal and figurative components of thinking allows students to gain the most thorough understanding the meaning of educational information. This enables students to minimize their cognitive deficiency, elevate scientific mind, and promote

  3. Phonologically driven variability: The case of determiners

    OpenAIRE

    Buerki Foschini, Audrey Damaris; Laganaro, Marina; Alario, F.-Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Speakers usually produce words in connected speech. In such contexts the form in which many words are uttered is influenced by the phonological properties of neighboring words. The current article examines the representations and processes underlying the production of phonologically constrained word form variations. For this purpose we consider determiners whose form is sensitive to phonological context (e.g. in English: a car vs. an animal; in French: le chien 'the dog' vs. l'âne 'the donkey...

  4. The contribution of phonological short-term memory to artificial grammar learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Jackie; Baddeley, Alan

    2011-05-01

    Three experiments investigated the contribution of phonological short-term memory (STM) to grammar learning by manipulating rehearsal during study of an auditory artificial grammar made up from a vocabulary of spoken Mandarin syllables. Experiment 1 showed that concurrent, irrelevant articulation impaired grammar learning compared with a nonverbal control task. Experiment 2 replicated and extended this finding, showing that repeating the grammatical strings at study improved grammar learning compared with suppressing rehearsal or remaining silent during learning. Experiment 3 found no effects of rehearsal on grammar learning once participants had learned the component syllables. The findings suggest that phonological STM aids artificial grammar learning via effects on vocabulary learning.

  5. Indirect measurement of motivation: Developing and testing a motivational recoding-free implicit association test (m-IAT-RF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Alexandra Anita; Scholderer, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    For the indirect measurement of approach-avoidance tendencies, two procedures are introduced and compared. The procedures are modifications of the standard IAT and the Recoding-Free IAT (IAT-RF) and use a motivational attribute dimension (approach, avoidance) instead of an evaluative one. Study 1...... (N = 162) assesses their convergent and discriminant validity with respect to self-reported measures of motivation and evaluation, and their predictive validity with respect to actual behavior. Study 2 (N = 205) furthermore compares their validity to evaluative variants of the same test paradigms...

  6. Development of phonological representations and phonological awareness in children with speech impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Dean; Gillon, Gail T

    2007-01-01

    Children with speech impairment are more likely to have difficulty learning to read compared with children with typical speech development. Researchers have hypothesized that a difficulty in accessing good-quality phonological representations of words stored in the memory may constrain these children's performance on phonological awareness tasks and subsequent early reading acquisition. The study investigated the following research questions. (1) Do preschool children with moderate or severe speech impairment show persistent difficulty on tasks designed to tap underlying phonological representations? (2) What is the relationship between performance on phonological representation tasks and measures of speech production, phonological awareness and early print decoding? Utilizing a longitudinal design, the performance of nine children (aged 3.09-5.03 years at initial assessment) with moderate or severe speech impairment and of 17 children of the same age with typical speech development were assessed on three occasions over a 12-month period. Assessments included receptive-based tasks designed to tap underlying phonological representations, speech production and phonological awareness measures. Children with speech impairment had greater difficulty judging correct and incorrect productions of words, and had difficulty in reflecting on the accuracy of newly learned non-words. Moderate correlations were observed between performance on phonological representation and phonological awareness tasks. Poorly specified underlying phonological representations will result in difficulties during listening, speaking and phonological awareness tasks, as well as create additional challenges during the decoding of written words for some children.

  7. The Phonological Influence on Phonetic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruehwald, Josef

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the broad question about how phonology and phonetics are interrelated, specifically how phonetic language changes, which gradually alter the phonetics of speech sounds, affect the phonological system of the language, and vice versa. Some questions I address are: (i) What aspects of speakers' knowledge of their language…

  8. British Celtic influence on English phonology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laker, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The dissertation assesses the influence of British Celtic on the phonological development of English during and shortly after the Anglo-Saxon settlement period, ca. AD 450–700. By reconstructing and then comparing the phonological systems of both British Celtic and English at the time of contact, an

  9. Pedigree Analysis of Children with Phonology Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Barbara A.

    1992-01-01

    This study examined 87 pedigrees of individuals with histories of preschool phonology disorders. Significantly more family members with dyslexia and learning disabilities, but not stuttering or hearing impairment, were found in pedigrees of individuals with phonology disorders than in pedigrees of nondisabled individuals. (Author/JDD)

  10. Chile Language Aphasia and Phonological Universals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobson, Roman

    This work is an English translation of the author's classic "Kindersprache, Aphasie und allgemeine Lautgesetze," first published in 1941. It is considered the most representative and comprehensive of the author's phonological writings, dealing not only with phonological typology but related problems of language acquisition and phonemic regression…

  11. Orthographic vs. Phonologic Syllables in Handwriting Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Sonia; Herault, Lucie; Grosjacques, Geraldine; Lambert, Eric; Fayol, Michel

    2009-01-01

    French children program the words they write syllable by syllable. We examined whether the syllable the children use to segment words is determined phonologically (i.e., is derived from speech production processes) or orthographically. Third, 4th and 5th graders wrote on a digitiser words that were mono-syllables phonologically (e.g.…

  12. 69 70 THE PHONOLOGICAL PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ike

    2007-05-10

    May 10, 2007 ... language. The Phonological Problems. Most of the phonological problems which Nigerian students will face in learning the Chinese language stem from the presence of certain speech sounds in the language that are not in the Nigerian learners' indigenous languages. A comparison of the sound system.

  13. Phonological Priming and Cohort Effects in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Nivedita; Plunkett, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Adult word recognition is influenced by prior exposure to phonologically or semantically related words ("cup" primes "cat" or "plate") compared to unrelated words ("door"), suggesting that words are organised in the adult lexicon based on their phonological and semantic properties and that word recognition implicates not just the heard word, but…

  14. Phonological awareness and working memory: Comparisons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to compare the working memory and phonological awareness profiles of children from diverse linguistic backgrounds, as well as to investigate the constructs that underlie these skills. A total of 119 children, all in their first year of learning to read in English, were administered phonological ...

  15. Can a bird brain do phonology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget D. Samuels

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A number of recent studies have revealed correspondences between song- and language-related neural structures, pathways, and gene expression in humans and songbirds. Analyses of vocal learning, song structure, and the distribution of song elements have similarly revealed a remarkable number of shared characteristics with human speech. This article reviews recent developments in the understanding of these issues with reference to the phonological phenomena observed in human language. This investigation suggests that birds possess a host of abilities necessary for human phonological computation, as evidenced by behavioral, neuroanatomical, and molecular genetic studies. Vocal-learning birds therefore present an excellent model for studying some areas of human phonology, though differences in the primitives of song and language as well as the absence of a human-like morphosyntax make human phonology differ from birdsong phonology in crucial ways.

  16. Can a bird brain do phonology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Bridget D

    2015-01-01

    A number of recent studies have revealed correspondences between song- and language-related neural structures, pathways, and gene expression in humans and songbirds. Analyses of vocal learning, song structure, and the distribution of song elements have similarly revealed a remarkable number of shared characteristics with human speech. This article reviews recent developments in the understanding of these issues with reference to the phonological phenomena observed in human language. This investigation suggests that birds possess a host of abilities necessary for human phonological computation, as evidenced by behavioral, neuroanatomical, and molecular genetic studies. Vocal-learning birds therefore present an excellent model for studying some areas of human phonology, though differences in the primitives of song and language as well as the absence of a human-like morphosyntax make human phonology differ from birdsong phonology in crucial ways.

  17. 1 THE PHONOLOGICAL BASIS OF MISSPELLINGS IN THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frederick Iraki

    English words are a fully inflected form with aspects of the phonology of Kikuyu language and has phonological segments that are influenced by the phonological structure of Kikuyu. Key words: Error Analysis, Phonology, Orthography. 1. Introduction. Kikuyu is a Bantu language spoken by the Gikuyu people, who mainly ...

  18. Phonological Processing in CFhildren with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Soleymani

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine phonological processing in elemantery children with Down syndrome Materials and Methods: Phonetic test is used to extract phonological processing in 40 child with Down syndrome .They were normal in hearing and oral structure. Results: There was significant difference between girls and boys in some subgroups of phonological processing. In assimilation, voiceless assimilation in boys and complete assimilation in girls were the most. Nasal assimilation in girls and fricative assimilation in boys were the least. In substitution, the least mean belonged to liquid and nasal substitution in girls and voice ness substitution in boys. In general there was no significant difference between age and phonological awareness; however, there was direct correlation between syllable structure and age and reverse correlation between age and stop assimilation. Conclusion: In addition to 3 groups of phonological processing including: syllable structure, assimilation, and substitution, omission was seen. The difference between girls and boys indicates they are impressed by the phonetic structure of words in different ways. Correlation between age and phonological processing shows phonological errors may be resulted from deviation.

  19. Phonological skills in English language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Alyse; Goldstein, Brian A; Gilhool, Amanda; Paradis, Johanne

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the English phonological skills of English language learners (ELLs) over 5 time points. Sound class accuracy, whole-word accuracy, percentage of occurrence of phonological patterns, and sociolinguistic correlational analyses were investigated in 19 ELLs ranging in age from 5;0 (years;months) to 7;6. Accuracy across all samples was over 90% for all sound classes except fricatives and increased for all sound classes across time. Whole-word accuracy was high and increased across time. With the exception of cluster reduction, stopping, and final consonant deletion, the frequency of occurrence for phonological patterns was less than or equal to 5% at every time point. Sociolinguistic variables such as age of arrival, age of exposure, and age were significantly related to phonological skills. The results were consistent with the hypotheses outlined in Flege's (1995) speech learning model in that the phonological skills of ELLs increased over time and as a function of age of arrival and time. Thus, speech-language pathologists (SLPs) also should expect phonological skills in ELLs to increase over time, as is the case in monolingual children. SLPs can use the longitudinal and connected-speech results of this study to interpret their assessments of the phonological skills of ELLs.

  20. Phonological awareness and pronunciation in a second language

    OpenAIRE

    Kivistö de Souza, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    [eng] The objective of this dissertation is to increase knowledge about L2 phonological awareness through three research agendas: to investigate the nature of L2 phonological awareness in adult language learners and its relation to some individual differences, to examine the relationship between L2 phonological awareness and L2 pronunciation, and to create novel language-specific instruments to measure L2 phonological awareness reliably. Research on phonological awareness has focused on L1 li...

  1. Phonological awareness and writing skills in children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavra-Pinto, Bárbara de; Lamprecht, Regina Ritter

    2010-01-01

    Down syndrome, phonological awareness, writing and working memory. to evaluate the phonological awareness of Brazilian children with Down syndrome; to analyze the relationship between the writing hypothesis and the phonological awareness scores of the participants; to compare the performance of children with Down syndrome to that of children with typical development according to the Phonological Awareness: Tool for sequential evaluation (PHONATSE), using the writing hypothesis as a matching criteria; to verify the correlation between the phonological awareness measurements and the phonological working memory. a group of eleven children aged between 7 and 14 years (average: 9 y 10 m) was selected for the study. Phonological awareness was evaluated using the PHONATSE. The phonological working memory was evaluated through an instrument developed by the researcher. all subjects presented measurable levels of phonological awareness through the PHONATSE. The phonological awareness scores and the writing hypothesis presented a significant positive association. The performance of children with Down syndrome was significantly lower than children with typical development who presented the same writing hypothesis. Measurements of phonological awareness and phonological working memory presented significant positive correlations. the phonological awareness of Brazilian children with Down syndrome can be evaluated through the PHONATSE. Syllable awareness improves with literacy, whereas phonemic awareness seems to result from written language learning. The phonological working memory influences the performance of children with Down syndrome in phonological awareness tasks.

  2. Recoding of the vesicular stomatitis virus L gene by computer-aided design provides a live, attenuated vaccine candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bingyin; Yang, Chen; Tekes, Gergely; Mueller, Steffen; Paul, Aniko; Whelan, Sean P J; Wimmer, Eckard

    2015-03-31

    Codon pair bias (CPB), which has been observed in all organisms, is a neglected genomic phenomenon that affects gene expression. CPB results from synonymous codons that are paired more or less frequently in ORFeomes regardless of codon bias. The effect of an individual codon pair change is usually small, but when it is amplified by large-scale genome recoding, strikingly altered biological phenotypes are observed. The utility of codon pair bias in the development of live attenuated vaccines was recently demonstrated by recodings of poliovirus (a positive-strand RNA virus) and influenza virus (a negative-strand segmented RNA virus). Here, the L gene of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a nonsegmented negative-sense RNA virus, was partially recoded based on codon pair bias. Totals of 858 and 623 silent mutations were introduced into a 5'-terminal segment of the viral L gene (designated L1) to create sequences containing either overrepresented or underrepresented codon pairs, designated L1(sdmax) and L1(min), respectively. Analysis revealed that recombinant VSV containing the L1(min) sequence could not be recovered, whereas the virus with the sdmax sequence showed a modest level of attenuation in cell culture. More strikingly, in mice the L1(sdmax) virus was almost as immunogenic as the parental strain but highly attenuated. Taken together, these results open a new road to attain a balance between VSV virulence and immunogenicity, which could serve as an example for the attenuation of other negative-strand, nonsegmented RNA viruses. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is the prototypic rhabdovirus in the order Mononegavirales. A wide range of human pathogens belong to this family. Using a unique computer algorithm and large-scale genome synthesis, we attempted to develop a live attenuated vaccine strain for VSV, which could be used as an antigen delivery platform for humans. Recombinant VSVs with distinct codon pair biases were rationally designed, constructed, and

  3. THE PHONOLOGICAL SYSTEM OF SPANISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia S. Salcedo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Spanish articulatory phonetics, the classification of sounds and the physiological mechanism used in the production of phonemes are discussed in this article. The process of learning a language consists of classifying sounds within the target language. Since the learner may be hearing the utterance in a different way than the native speaker some objective criteria are needed to classify sounds. If these distinctions are not mastered, he may be perceived as sounding awkward. Other phonological processes are applied in informal situations due to socio-linguistic factors such as age, social class, and education. Sound deletion in particular phonological environments are not done randomly by the speaker, but by necessity to retain semantic comprehension. Allophonic choices within phonemes make up the dialect for a particular area.

  1. Phonological Awareness Intervention for Children with Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Brigid C.; Gillon, Gail T.

    2006-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the effectiveness of an integrated phonological awareness intervention to improve the speech production, phonological awareness and printed word decoding skills for three children with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) aged 7;3, 6;3 and 6;10. The three children presented with severely delayed phonological awareness skills…

  2. SORTA: a system for ontology-based re-coding and technical annotation of biomedical phenotype data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Chao; Sollie, Annet; Sijtsma, Anna; Hendriksen, Dennis; Charbon, Bart; de Haan, Mark; de Boer, Tommy; Kelpin, Fleur; Jetten, Jonathan; van der Velde, Joeri K.; Smidt, Nynke; Sijmons, Rolf; Hillege, Hans; Swertz, Morris A.

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need to standardize the semantics of biomedical data values, such as phenotypes, to enable comparative and integrative analyses. However, it is unlikely that all studies will use the same data collection protocols. As a result, retrospective standardization is often required, which involves matching of original (unstructured or locally coded) data to widely used coding or ontology systems such as SNOMED CT (clinical terms), ICD-10 (International Classification of Disease) and HPO (Human Phenotype Ontology). This data curation process is usually a time-consuming process performed by a human expert. To help mechanize this process, we have developed SORTA, a computer-aided system for rapidly encoding free text or locally coded values to a formal coding system or ontology. SORTA matches original data values (uploaded in semicolon delimited format) to a target coding system (uploaded in Excel spreadsheet, OWL ontology web language or OBO open biomedical ontologies format). It then semi- automatically shortlists candidate codes for each data value using Lucene and n-gram based matching algorithms, and can also learn from matches chosen by human experts. We evaluated SORTA’s applicability in two use cases. For the LifeLines biobank, we used SORTA to recode 90 000 free text values (including 5211 unique values) about physical exercise to MET (Metabolic Equivalent of Task) codes. For the CINEAS clinical symptom coding system, we used SORTA to map to HPO, enriching HPO when necessary (315 terms matched so far). Out of the shortlists at rank 1, we found a precision/recall of 0.97/0.98 in LifeLines and of 0.58/0.45 in CINEAS. More importantly, users found the tool both a major time saver and a quality improvement because SORTA reduced the chances of human mistakes. Thus, SORTA can dramatically ease data (re)coding tasks and we believe it will prove useful for many more projects. Database URL: http://molgenis.org/sorta or as an open source download from

  3. Development and validation of Risk Equations for Complications Of type 2 Diabetes (RECODe) using individual participant data from randomised trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sanjay; Sussman, Jeremy B; Berkowitz, Seth A; Hayward, Rodney A; Yudkin, John S

    2017-10-01

    In view of substantial mis-estimation of risks of diabetes complications using existing equations, we sought to develop updated Risk Equations for Complications Of type 2 Diabetes (RECODe). To develop and validate these risk equations, we used data from the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes study (ACCORD, n=9635; 2001-09) and validated the equations for microvascular events using data from the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study (DPPOS, n=1018; 1996-2001), and for cardiovascular events using data from the Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD, n=4760; 2001-12). Microvascular outcomes were nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy. Cardiovascular outcomes were myocardial infarction, stroke, congestive heart failure, and cardiovascular mortality. We also included all-cause mortality as an outcome. We used a cross-validating machine learning method to select predictor variables from demographic characteristics, clinical variables, comorbidities, medications, and biomarkers into Cox proportional hazards models for each outcome. The new equations were compared to older risk equations by assessing model discrimination, calibration, and the net reclassification index. All equations had moderate internal and external discrimination (C-statistics 0·55-0·84 internally, 0·57-0·79 externally) and high internal and external calibration (slopes 0·71-1·31 between observed and estimated risk). Our equations had better discrimination and calibration than the UK Prospective Diabetes Study Outcomes Model 2 (for microvascular and cardiovascular outcomes, C-statistics 0·54-0·62, slopes 0·06-1·12) and the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Pooled Cohort Equations (for fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction or stroke, C-statistics 0·61-0·66, slopes 0·30-0·39). RECODe might improve estimation of risk of complications for patients with type 2 diabetes. National Institute for Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease, National

  4. High-performers use the phonological loop less to process mental arithmetic during working memory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Yuki; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of three working memory components-the central executive, phonological loop, and visuospatial sketchpad-on performance differences in complex mental arithmetic between individuals. Using the dual-task method, we examined how performance during two-digit addition was affected by load on the central executive (random tapping condition), phonological loop (articulatory suppression condition), and visuospatial sketchpad (spatial tapping condition) compared to that under no load (control condition) in high- and low-performers of complex mental arithmetic in Experiment 1. Low-performers showed an increase in errors under the random tapping and articulatory suppression conditions, whereas high-performers showed an increase of errors only under the random tapping condition. In Experiment 2, we conducted similar experiments on only the high-performers but used a shorter presentation time of each number. We found the same pattern for performing complex mental arithmetic as seen in Experiment 1. These results indicate that high-performers might reduce their dependence on the phonological loop, because the central executive enables them to choose a strategy in which they use less working memory capacity.

  5. Brain activity during auditory and visual phonological, spatial and simple discrimination tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Emma; Rinne, Teemu; Salonen, Oili; Alho, Kimmo

    2013-02-16

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure human brain activity during tasks demanding selective attention to auditory or visual stimuli delivered in concurrent streams. Auditory stimuli were syllables spoken by different voices and occurring in central or peripheral space. Visual stimuli were centrally or more peripherally presented letters in darker or lighter fonts. The participants performed a phonological, spatial or "simple" (speaker-gender or font-shade) discrimination task in either modality. Within each modality, we expected a clear distinction between brain activations related to nonspatial and spatial processing, as reported in previous studies. However, within each modality, different tasks activated largely overlapping areas in modality-specific (auditory and visual) cortices, as well as in the parietal and frontal brain regions. These overlaps may be due to effects of attention common for all three tasks within each modality or interaction of processing task-relevant features and varying task-irrelevant features in the attended-modality stimuli. Nevertheless, brain activations caused by auditory and visual phonological tasks overlapped in the left mid-lateral prefrontal cortex, while those caused by the auditory and visual spatial tasks overlapped in the inferior parietal cortex. These overlapping activations reveal areas of multimodal phonological and spatial processing. There was also some evidence for intermodal attention-related interaction. Most importantly, activity in the superior temporal sulcus elicited by unattended speech sounds was attenuated during the visual phonological task in comparison with the other visual tasks. This effect might be related to suppression of processing irrelevant speech presumably distracting the phonological task involving the letters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Phonology in English language teaching an international approach

    CERN Document Server

    Pennington, Martha C

    2014-01-01

    Phonology in English Language Teaching is an introductory text, specifically directed at the needs of language teachers internationally. Combining an overview of English phonology with structured practical guidance, this text shows how phonology can be applied in the classroom.An introductory chapter provides the philosophical framework, followed by separate chapters on the phonology of consonants, vowels and prosody. As well as presenting core material on English phonology, the book explores the relationship of orthography to the English sound system from a historical and a pre

  7. Dissociated developmental trajectories for semantic and phonological false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Robyn E; Weekes, Brendan S

    2006-07-01

    False recognition following presentation of semantically related and phonologically related word lists was evaluated in 8-, 11-, and 13-year-olds. Children heard lists of words that were either semantic (e.g., bed, rest, wake ...) or phonological associates (e.g., pole, bowl, hole ...) of a critical unpresented word (e.g., sleep, roll), respectively. A semantic false memory was defined as false recognition of a semantically related but unpresented word. A phonological false memory was defined as false recognition of a phonologically related but unpresented word. False memories in the two tasks showed opposite developmental trends, increasing with age for semantic relatedness and decreasing with age for phonological relatedness.

  8. An online database of phonological representations for Mandarin Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaowei; Li, Ping

    2009-05-01

    A Web-based database is developed to provide psycholinguists with a large-scale phonological representation system for all Mandarin Chinese monosyllables. The construction of the system is based on the slot-based phonological pattern generator (PatPho), with an adequate consideration of the language-specific features of the Chinese phonology. Users can retrieve the relevant phonological representations through an interactive query system on the Web. The query outcomes can be saved in a number of formats, such as Excel spreadsheets, for further analyses. This representation system can be used for a variety of purposes--in particular, connectionist language modeling and, more generally, the study of Chinese phonology.

  9. Phonological Planning During Sentence Production: Beyond the Verb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana T Schnur

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The current study addresses the extent of phonological planning during spontaneous sentence production. Previous work shows that at articulation, phonological encoding occurs for entire phrases, but encoding beyond the initial phrase may be due to the syntactic relevance of the verb in planning the utterance. I conducted three experiments to investigate whether phonological planning crosses multiple grammatical phrase boundaries (as defined by the number of lexical heads of phrase within a single phonological phrase. Using the picture-word interference paradigm, I found in two separate experiments a significant phonological facilitation effect to both the verb and noun of sentences like He opens the gate. I also altered the frequency of the direct object and found longer utterance initiation times for sentences ending with a low-frequency vs. high-frequency object offering further support that the direct object was phonologically encoded at the time of utterance initiation. That phonological information for post-verbal elements was activated suggests that the grammatical importance of the verb does not restrict the extent of phonological planning. These results suggest that the phonological phrase is unit of planning, where all elements within a phonological phrase are encoded before articulation. Thus, consistent with other action sequencing behavior, there is significant phonological planning ahead in sentence production.

  10. Local and global recoding methods for anonymizing set-valued data

    KAUST Repository

    Terrovitis, Manolis

    2010-06-10

    In this paper, we study the problem of protecting privacy in the publication of set-valued data. Consider a collection of supermarket transactions that contains detailed information about items bought together by individuals. Even after removing all personal characteristics of the buyer, which can serve as links to his identity, the publication of such data is still subject to privacy attacks from adversaries who have partial knowledge about the set. Unlike most previous works, we do not distinguish data as sensitive and non-sensitive, but we consider them both as potential quasi-identifiers and potential sensitive data, depending on the knowledge of the adversary. We define a new version of the k-anonymity guarantee, the k m-anonymity, to limit the effects of the data dimensionality, and we propose efficient algorithms to transform the database. Our anonymization model relies on generalization instead of suppression, which is the most common practice in related works on such data. We develop an algorithm that finds the optimal solution, however, at a high cost that makes it inapplicable for large, realistic problems. Then, we propose a greedy heuristic, which performs generalizations in an Apriori, level-wise fashion. The heuristic scales much better and in most of the cases finds a solution close to the optimal. Finally, we investigate the application of techniques that partition the database and perform anonymization locally, aiming at the reduction of the memory consumption and further scalability. A thorough experimental evaluation with real datasets shows that a vertical partitioning approach achieves excellent results in practice. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  11. Phonetic data and phonological analyses | Roux | Stellenbosch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 1 (1978) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Phonetic data and phonological analyses. JC Roux. Abstract.

  12. Fragile X Speech in Finnish: Phonological Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Jussi; And Others

    Analysis of the phonological patterns of two physically normal boys, aged 5 and 8 years, with fragile X syndrome, an X-chromosomal abnormality usually connected with severe to moderate mental retardation, found language features similar to those found in other studies of fragile X speech. Some of these language features are: repetition of initial…

  13. Assessment and Management of Articulation and Phonological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty regular school children with functional articulation and phonological disorders, aged 7; 0 to 17; 11, were involved in the study. They were screened for speech defects from selected schools in the Kumasi metropolis. Effects of maturation were controlled for by the inclusion of only children of seven years and above who ...

  14. Phonological Awareness for American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corina, David P.; Hafer, Sarah; Welch, Kearnan

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of phonological awareness (PA) as it relates to the processing of American Sign Language (ASL). We present data from a recently developed test of PA for ASL and examine whether sign language experience impacts the use of metalinguistic routines necessary for completion of our task. Our data show that deaf signers…

  15. A New Look at Phonological "Redundancy."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Gerry

    1986-01-01

    Certain concepts of redundancy at the phonological level are mistaken or misapplied. Three "fallacies" ("string of beads," vowel redundancy, and single error) of the nature of redundancy are explored. Although learners should be sensitized to other varieties of English, teachers should also provide a model of pronunciation that conforms to a…

  16. Challenging the Superiority of Phonological Fluency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erz, Antonia; Christensen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    The results of three laboratory experiments contribute to our understanding of effects of phonological fluency on correct recognition and recall of novel brand names, being relevant to the areas of information processing, memory, and branding. Employing the full range of fluency, the results offer...

  17. Aspects of Bangime Phonology, Morphology, and Morphosyntax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantgan, Abbie

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation provides a description of aspects of the phonology, morphology, and morphosyntax of Bangime. Bangime is a language isolate spoken in the Dogon language speaking area of Central Eastern Mali. Although the Bangande, the speakers of Bangime, self-identify with the Dogon, their language bears practically no resemblance to the…

  18. Phonological and conceptual activation in speech comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norris, D.; Cutler, A.; McQueen, J.M.; Butterfield, S.

    2006-01-01

    We propose that speech comprehension involves the activation of token representations of the phonological forms of current lexical hypotheses, separately from the ongoing construction of a conceptual interpretation of the current utterance. In a series of cross-modal priming experiments,

  19. [Intervention in dyslexic disorders: phonological awareness training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchepareborda, M C

    2003-02-01

    Taking into account the systems for the treatment of brain information when drawing up a work plan allows us to recreate processing routines that go from multisensory perception to motor, oral and cognitive production, which is the step prior to executive levels of thought, bottom-up and top-down processing systems. In recent years, the use of phonological methods to prevent or resolve reading disorders has become the fundamental mainstay in the treatment of dyslexia. The work is mainly based on phonological proficiency, which enables the patient to detect phonemes (input), to think about them (performance) and to use them to build words (output). Daily work with rhymes, the capacity to listen, the identification of phrases and words, and handling syllables and phonemes allows us to perform a preventive intervention that enhances the capacity to identify letters, phonological analysis and the reading of single words. We present the different therapeutic models that are most frequently employed. Fast For Word (FFW) training helps make progress in phonematic awareness and other linguistic skills, such as phonological awareness, semantics, syntax, grammar, working memory and event sequencing. With Deco-Fon, a programme for training phonological decoding, work is carried out on the auditory discrimination of pure tones, letters and consonant clusters, auditory processing speed, auditory and phonematic memory, and graphophonological processing, which is fundamental for speech, language and reading writing disorders. Hamlet is a programme based on categorisation activities for working on phonological conceptualisation. It attempts to encourage the analysis of the segments of words, syllables or phonemes, and the classification of a certain segment as belonging or not to a particular phonological or orthographical category. Therapeutic approaches in the early phases of reading are oriented towards two poles based on the basic mechanisms underlying the process of learning

  20. Time course analyses of orthographic and phonological priming effects during word recognition in a transparent orthography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeguers, M H T; Snellings, P; Huizenga, H M; van der Molen, M W

    2014-10-01

    In opaque orthographies, the activation of orthographic and phonological codes follows distinct time courses during visual word recognition. However, it is unclear how orthography and phonology are accessed in more transparent orthographies. Therefore, we conducted time course analyses of masked priming effects in the transparent Dutch orthography. The first study used targets with small phonological differences between phonological and orthographic primes, which are typical in transparent orthographies. Results showed consistent orthographic priming effects, yet phonological priming effects were absent. The second study explicitly manipulated the strength of the phonological difference and revealed that both orthographic and phonological priming effects became identifiable when phonological differences were strong enough. This suggests that, similar to opaque orthographies, strong phonological differences are a prerequisite to separate orthographic and phonological priming effects in transparent orthographies. Orthographic and phonological priming appeared to follow distinct time courses, with orthographic codes being quickly translated into phonological codes and phonology dominating the remainder of the lexical access phase.

  1. Advances in the treatment of children with phonological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceron, Marizete Ilha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Treatment of phonological disorders considering extra-linguistic and linguistic variables are important to ensure that the alteration is resolved promptly and in the best manner as possible. Aim: To analyze therapeutic advances (phonetic inventory, phonological system, and distinctive features in children with phonological disorders by considering the therapeutic approach used, the severity of the phonological disorder, age, and the number of therapeutic sessions. Methods: We conducted a case series study of 94 children aged 3 years, 9 months through 8 years, 5 months. The children were divided into groups based on the therapeutic approach used (Modified Cycles, Maximal Oppositions, ABAB-Withdrawal, and Multiple Probes, the severity of their phonological disorder, age, and the number of therapy sessions with each individual. Phonetic inventory, the phonological system, and the number of altered distinctive features were analyzed. Results: The greater the number of therapy sessions, the greater the number of sounds acquired. The number of sounds present in the phonetic inventory and phonological system increased and the severity of the phonological disorder decreased with all of the therapeutic approaches studied. There was also a reduction in the incidence of altered distinctive features. Conclusion: There was a favorable evolution in phonetic inventory and phonological system acquisitions as well as a reduction in the number of altered distinctive features for all 3 therapeutic models regardless of the severity of the phonological disorder, age, or number of sessions.

  2. Pitch discrimination associated with phonological awareness: Evidence from congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanan; Lu, Xuejing; Ho, Hao Tam; Thompson, William Forde

    2017-03-13

    Research suggests that musical skills are associated with phonological abilities. To further investigate this association, we examined whether phonological impairments are evident in individuals with poor music abilities. Twenty individuals with congenital amusia and 20 matched controls were assessed on a pure-tone pitch discrimination task, a rhythm discrimination task, and four phonological tests. Amusic participants showed deficits in discriminating pitch and discriminating rhythmic patterns that involve a regular beat. At a group level, these individuals performed similarly to controls on all phonological tests. However, eight amusics with severe pitch impairment, as identified by the pitch discrimination task, exhibited significantly worse performance than all other participants in phonological awareness. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated that pitch discrimination thresholds predicted phonological awareness beyond that predicted by phonological short-term memory and rhythm discrimination. In contrast, our rhythm discrimination task did not predict phonological awareness beyond that predicted by pitch discrimination thresholds. These findings suggest that accurate pitch discrimination is critical for phonological processing. We propose that deficits in early-stage pitch discrimination may be associated with impaired phonological awareness and we discuss the shared role of pitch discrimination for processing music and speech.

  3. Reading Performance Is Predicted by More Than Phonological Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Y. Kibby

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We compared three phonological processing components (phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming and phonological memory, verbal working memory, and attention control in terms of how well they predict the various aspects of reading: word recognition, pseudoword decoding, fluency and comprehension, in a mixed sample of 182 children ages 8-12 years. Participants displayed a wide range of reading ability and attention control. Multiple regression was used to determine how well the phonological processing components, verbal working memory, and attention control predict reading performance. All equations were highly significant. Phonological memory predicted word identification and decoding. In addition, phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming predicted every aspect of reading assessed, supporting the notion that phonological processing is a core contributor to reading ability. Nonetheless, phonological processing was not the only predictor of reading performance. Verbal working memory predicted fluency, decoding and comprehension, and attention control predicted fluency. Based upon our results, when using Baddeley’s model of working memory it appears that the phonological loop contributes to basic reading ability, whereas the central executive contributes to fluency and comprehension, along with decoding. Attention control was of interest as some children with ADHD have poor reading ability even if it is not sufficiently impaired to warrant diagnosis. Our finding that attention control predicts reading fluency is consistent with prior research which showed sustained attention plays a role in fluency. Taken together, our results suggest that reading is a highly complex skill that entails more than phonological processing to perform well.

  4. Investigating Phonological Awareness in Persian-Speaking Children With Phonological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background In terms of error patterns, children with phonological disorders (PD are a heterogeneous population. These children are at risk for phonological awareness (PA deficits. Objectives This study aimed to investigate phonological awareness in Persian-speaking children with phonological disorders. Patients and Methods Thirty-six children with PD aged 5 - 6 years were selected by a convenience sampling method during 12 months. Children with PD were divided into three groups according to their error patterns. Fourteen normally developing (ND children were selected as the control group. In order to equalize socioeconomic status, ND children were similar to the PD groups based on age, residential area, and mothers’ educational attainments. Language, speech sound production, oro-motor, and PA skills were investigated. Intra-syllabic and phonological awareness (PA were compared to investigate PA skills in the four groups. Relation between percent consonant correct (PCC and PA was also investigated in the four groups. Fourteen children with phonological delay, 12 children with consistent atypical phonological disorders (CAP, and 10 children with inconsistent phonological disorders (ICP formed the PD groups. Results The CAP group showed significant difference with the ND group in alliteration (P = 0.001, rhyme (P = 0.001, identification of words with the same initial phoneme (P = 0.002, and identification of words with the same final phoneme (P = 0.001 [except blending phonemes (P = 0.504]. Though performing more poorly, the delayed group did not show significant difference with ND group (P > 0.05. The ICP and ND groups did not show significant difference in PA except in identifying words with the same final phoneme (P = 0.008. The relation between PCC and PA was observed only in the CAP group (P = 0.021. Conclusions The results suggested that PA skills in children with phonological disorders are affected by error type. We also found the type of

  5. PHONOLOGICAL AND LEXICAL DESCRIPTION OF MODEBUR LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Ino

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article, in which the theory structural phonology was used, discusses the phonological and lexical description of Modebur language, one of the local languages in Pantar Island. The result of analysis shows that the Modebur language has five vowels; they are /i/, /e/, /a/, /o/, and /u/. They all can distribute in the initial, medial and final position of words. It has sixteen phonemes and sixteen consonants, many of which can distribute in the beginning of words, some can distribute in the initial and medial position of words only, and one can only distribute in the final position of words. The consonants which can distribute completely are /p/, /b/, /m/, /t/, /n/, /s/, /l/, /k/, /?/, /g/, and the ones which can distribute in the initial and medial position of words are /j/, /h/, /w/, and the one which can distribute in the final position of words is /?/.  

  6. A consumer guide to phonological evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc van Oostendorp

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Modern phonological theory is confronted with a wealth of new data from many different sources. This paper gives a summary and taxonomy of the kinds of evidence we currently have at our disposal. For each type it briefly discusses how it has been used, and gives some of the advantages and disadvantages. The main distinction made is between ‘existing’ data and ‘invented’ data, even though it is shown that such distinctions should be considered very carefully. I argue that each type of data can have a function in phonological argumentation, but also that each type of data has some very specific problems. The best evidence is converging evidence from different sources.

  7. The phonological basis of Latin case patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emonds Joseph Embley

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on accounting for allomorphy in Latin case/number inflection. It attributes essentially all of it to the influence of adjacent features of standard segmental phonology on morphemes expressing case assignment. Indeed, other languages lead linguists to expect that allomorphy at a stem-suffix border can depend on any feature of a final vowel: ±Low, ±High, ±Round, ±Back, ±Consonantal or ±Syllabic. Empirically, it turns out that no two Latin stem-final vowels induce identical allomorphy in case/number suffixes, nor the same allomorphy as final consonants. Moreover, some (not much phonologically conditioned allomorphy is phonetically opaque.

  8. Gradient phonological relationships: Evidence from vowels in French

    OpenAIRE

    Stevenson, Sophia; Zamuner, Tania

    2017-01-01

    The dichotomy of contrastive and allophonic phonological relationships has a long-standing tradition in phonology, but there is growing research that points to phonological relationships that fall between contrastive and allophonic. Measures of lexical distinction (minimal pair counts) and predictability of distribution were applied to Laurentian French vowels to quantify three degrees of contrast between pairs: high, mid, and low contrast. According to traditional definitions, both the high ...

  9. Phonological reduplication in sign language: rules rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris eBerent

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Productivity—the hallmark of linguistic competence—is typically attributed to algebraic rules that support broad generalizations. Past research on spoken language has documented such generalizations in both adults and infants. But whether algebraic rules form part of the linguistic competence of signers remains unknown. To address this question, here we gauge the generalization afforded by American Sign Language (ASL. As a case study, we examine reduplication (X→XX—a rule that, inter alia, generates ASL nouns from verbs. If signers encode this rule, then they should freely extend it to novel syllables, including ones with features that are unattested in ASL. And since reduplicated disyllables are preferred in ASL, such rule should favor novel reduplicated signs. Novel reduplicated signs should thus be preferred to nonreduplicative controls (in rating, and consequently, such stimuli should also be harder to classify as nonsigns (in the lexical decision task. The results of four experiments support this prediction. These findings suggest that the phonological knowledge of signers includes powerful algebraic rules. The convergence between these conclusions and previous evidence for phonological rules in spoken language suggests that the architecture of the phonological mind is partly amodal.

  10. Expressive vocabulary of children with normal and deviant phonological development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athayde, Marcia de Lima; Mota, Helena Bolli; Mezzomo, Carolina Lisbôa

    2010-01-01

    expressive vocabulary of children with normal and deviant phonological development. to determine whether alterations presented by children with phonological disorders occur only at the phonological level or if there are any impacts on lexical acquisition; to compare the vocabulary performance of children with phonological disorders to reference values presented by the used test. participants of the study were 36 children of both genders, 14 with phonological disorders (Study group) and 22 with typical language development (Control Group). The ABFW - Vocabulary Test (Befi-Lopes, 2000) was used for assessing the expressive vocabulary of children and later to compare the performance of both groups. the performance of children with phonological disorder in the expressive vocabulary test is similar to that of children with normal phonological development. Most of the children of both groups reached the benchmarks proposed by the test for the different semantic fields. The semantic field Places demonstrated to be the most complex for both groups. the alterations presented by children with phonological disorder area limited to the phonological level, having no impact on the lexical aspect of language.

  11. GRADIENCE, PHONOTACTICS, AND THE LEXICON IN ENGLISH PHONOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hammond

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimental work has established that when subjects judge the phonological wellformedness of nonsense forms, they are strongly affected by the frequency of the phonological elements of the form and by the number of actual words that such a form is similar to. These results challenge phonological theory by suggesting a central role for frequency and the lexicon. In this paper, I review these results and show how they can be easily modelled with Probabilistic Optimality Theory. The payoff is that from very few phonological assumptions we can derive virtually the whole panoply of experimental effects. We can also derive various Local Conjunction effects as well.

  12. Phonetic and phonological imitation of intonation in two varieties of Italian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariapaola eD'Imperio

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test whether both phonetic and phonological representations of intonation can be rapidly modified when imitating utterances belonging to a different regional variety of the same language. Our main hypothesis was that tonal alignment, just as other phonetic features of speech, would be rapidly modified by Italian speakers when imitating pitch accents of a different (Southern variety of Italian. In particular, we tested whether Bari Italian speakers would produce later peaks for their native rising L+H* (question pitch accent in the process of imitating Neapolitan Italian rising L*+H accents. Also, we tested whether BI speakers are able to modify other phonetic properties (pitch level as well as phonological characteristics (changes in tonal composition of the same contour. In a follow-up study, we tested if the reverse was also true, i.e. whether NI speakers would produce earlier peaks within the L*+H accent in the process of imitating the L+H* of BI questions, despite the presence of a contrast between two rising accents in this variety. Our results show that phonetic detail of tonal alignment can be successfully modified by both BI and NI speakers when imitating a model speaker of the other variety. The hypothesis of a selective imitation process preventing alignment modifications in NI was hence not supported. Moreover the effect was significantly stronger for low frequency words. Participants were also able to imitate other phonetic cues, in that they modified global utterance pitch level. Concerning phonological convergence, speakers modified the tonal specification of the edge tones in order to resemble that of the other variety by either suppressing or increasing the presence of a final H%. Hence, our data show that intonation imitation leads to fast modification of both phonetic and phonological intonation representations including detail of tonal alignment and pitch scaling.

  13. [Processing acoustically presented time intervals of seconds duration: an expression of the phonological loop of the working memory?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, D

    1996-01-01

    Working memory has been proposed to contribute to the processing of time, rhythm and music; the question which component of working memory is involved is under discussion. The present study tests the hypothesis that the phonological loop component (Baddeley, 1986) is involved in the processing of auditorily presented time intervals of a few seconds' duration. Typical effects well known with short-term retention of verbal material could be replicated with short-term retention of temporal intervals: The immediate reproduction of time intervals was impaired under conditions of background music and articulatory suppression. Neither the accuracy nor the speed of responses in a (non-phonological) mental rotation task were diminished under these conditions. Processing of auditorily presented time intervals seems to be constrained by the capacity of the phonological loop: The immediate serial recall of sequences of time intervals was shown to be related to the immediate serial recall of words (memory span). The results confirm the notion that working memory resources, and especially the phonological loop component, underlie the processing of auditorily presented temporal information with a duration of a few seconds.

  14. Training Pseudoword Reading in Acquired Dyslexia: A Phonological Complexity Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Ellyn A.; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Individuals with acquired phonological dyslexia experience difficulty associating written letters with corresponding sounds, especially in pseudowords. Previous studies have shown that reading can be improved in these individuals by training letter-sound correspondence, practicing phonological skills, or using combined approaches. However, generalization to untrained items is typically limited. Aims We investigated whether principles of phonological complexity can be applied to training letter-sound correspondence reading in acquired phonological dyslexia to improve generalization to untrained words. Based on previous work in other linguistic domains, we hypothesized that training phonologically “more complex” material (i.e., consonant clusters with small sonority differences) would result in generalization to phonologically “less complex” material (i.e., consonant clusters with larger sonority differences), but this generalization pattern would not be demonstrated when training the “less complex” material. Methods & Procedures We used a single-participant, multiple baseline design across participants and behaviors to examine phonological complexity as a training variable in five individuals. Based on participants' error data from a previous experiment, a “more complex” onset and a “less complex” onset were selected for training for each participant. Training order assignment was pseudo-randomized and counterbalanced across participants. Three participants were trained in the “more complex” condition and two in the “less complex” condition while tracking oral reading accuracy of both onsets. Outcomes & Results As predicted, participants trained in the “more complex” condition demonstrated improved pseudoword reading of the trained cluster and generalization to pseudowords with the untrained, “simple” onset, but not vice versa. Conclusions These findings suggest phonological complexity can be used to improve

  15. Phonological awareness and reading in boys with fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlof, Suzanne M; Klusek, Jessica; Shinkareva, Svetlana V; Robinson, Marissa L; Roberts, Jane E

    2015-01-01

    Reading delays are well documented in children with fragile X syndrome (FXS), but few studies have examined linguistic precursors of reading in this population. This study examined the longitudinal development of phonological awareness and its relationship with basic reading in boys with FXS. Individual differences in genetic, social-behavioral and environmental factors were also investigated as predictors of phonological awareness. Participants included 54 boys with FXS and 53 typically developing (TD) mental age-matched peers who completed assessments of phonological awareness, nonverbal intelligence, and reading annually for up to 4 years. FMRP level and autism symptomatology were also measured within the FXS group. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine change in phonological awareness over time and its predictors. Linear regression was used to examine phonological awareness as a predictor of word reading. Boys with FXS exhibited slower growth than TD peers in phonological awareness only when nonverbal cognitive abilities were not controlled. The rate of change in phonological awareness decreased significantly after age 10 in boys with FXS. Phonological awareness accounted for 18% unique variance in basic reading ability after controlling for nonverbal cognition, with similar relationships across groups. Phonological awareness skills in the boys with FXS were commensurate with their nonverbal cognitive abilities, with similar relationships between phonological awareness and reading as observed in the TD mental age-matched peers. More research is needed to examine potential causal relationships between phonological awareness, other language skills, and reading abilities in individuals with FXS and other neurodevelopmental disorders. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  16. Interaction between Phonological and Semantic Representations: Time Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Mirman, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Computational modeling and eye-tracking were used to investigate how phonological and semantic information interact to influence the time course of spoken word recognition. We extended our recent models (Chen & Mirman, 2012; Mirman, Britt, & Chen, 2013) to account for new evidence that competition among phonological neighbors influences…

  17. Quantifying Phonological Representation Abilities in Spanish-Speaking Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Jason L.; Aghara, Rachel G.; Solari, Emily J.; Dunkelberger, Martha J.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Liang, Lan

    2011-01-01

    Individual differences in abilities to form, access, and hone phonological representations of words are implicated in the development of oral and written language. This study addressed three important gaps in the literature concerning measurement of individual differences in phonological representation. First, we empirically examined the…

  18. The Role of Phonological Working Memory in Children with SLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrens, Vicenç; Yagüe, Esther

    2018-01-01

    This article studies three measures of phonological working memory as tools to identify SLI children: word repetition, nonce word repetition, and digit memory. We propose that a deficit in the phonological loop causes a delay in the acquisition of lexicon, morphosyntax, and discourse. In this research we try to find out whether the scores in these…

  19. Nursery Rhyme Knowledge and Phonological Awareness in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Laurie J.

    2011-01-01

    Phonological awareness is an important precursor in learning to read. This awareness of phonemes fosters a child's ability to hear and blend sounds, encode and decode words, and to spell phonetically. This quantitative study assessed pre-K children's existing Euro-American nursery rhyme knowledge and phonological awareness literacy, provided…

  20. Executive and Phonological Processes in Second-Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale M. J.; Gathercole, Susan E.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports a latent variable study exploring the specific links among executive processes of working memory, phonological short-term memory, phonological awareness, and proficiency in first (L1), second (L2), and third (L3) languages in 8- to 9-year-olds experiencing multilingual education. Children completed multiple L1-measures of…

  1. Disfluency Patterns and Phonological Skills Near Stuttering Onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Brent Andrew; Yairi, Ehud

    2012-01-01

    There is a substantial amount of literature reporting the incidence of phonological difficulties to be higher for children who stutter when compared to normally fluent children, suggesting a link between stuttering and phonology. In view of this, the purpose of the investigation was to determine whether, among children who stutter, there are…

  2. Arabic and English Consonants: A Phonetic and Phonological Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariq, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to investigate the actual pronunciation of the consonants of Arabic and English with the help of phonetic and phonological tools like manner of the articulation, point of articulation, and their distribution at different positions in Arabic and English words. A phonetic and phonological analysis of the consonants of Arabic…

  3. Phonological awareness and learning to read in Afrikaans | Cockroft ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the issue of whether phonological awareness is a precursor to learning to read in Afrikaans or a consequence of literacy was explored. It appears that, for children learning to read in Afrikaans, certain aspects of phonological awareness such as onset and rime detection and syllable manipulation are acquired ...

  4. Phonological Processing and Reading in Children with Speech Sound Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rvachew, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the relationship between phonological processing skills prior to kindergarten entry and reading skills at the end of 1st grade, in children with speech sound disorders (SSD). Method: The participants were 17 children with SSD and poor phonological processing skills (SSD-low PP), 16 children with SSD and good phonological…

  5. Phonological Variation in Short Message Service (SMS) in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phonological Variation in Short Message Service (SMS) in Kenya. NA Ong'onda, O Oketch, PM Matu. Abstract. In this paper, we analyze the sociolinguistic aspect of Short Message Service (SMS) with a view to identifying phonological variations in Kenyan text messages. The widespread use of cell phones has led to the ...

  6. Phonetic Pause Unites Phonology and Semantics against Morphology and Syntax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakarna, Ahmad Khalaf; Mobaideen, Adnan

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates the phonological effect triggered by the different types of phonetic pause used in Quran on morphology, syntax, and semantics. It argues that Quranic pause provides interesting evidence about the close relation between phonology and semantics, from one side, and semantics, morphology, and syntax, from the other…

  7. Mixed-List Phonological Similarity Effects in Delayed Serial Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that placing dissimilar items on lists of phonologically similar items enhances accuracy of ordered recall of the dissimilar items [Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological similarity in serial recall. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 29,…

  8. The Relationship between Phonological Awareness and Music Aptitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, Mara E.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between phonological awareness and music aptitude. I administered the Intermediate Measures of Music Audiation (IMMA) to second-grade students in a rural school in Pennsylvania (N = 17). Speech-language specialists administered a hearing screening and The Phonological Awareness Test 2…

  9. Phonological Awareness Training with Articulation Promotes Early Reading Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fälth, Linda; Gustafson, S.; Svensson, I.

    2017-01-01

    In a longitudinal intervention study, the effects of phonological training with articulation for children in a preschool class were analyzed. In total, 69 students participated, divided into an experimental group of 39 and a comparison group of 30 students. The intervention consisted of phonological training with articulation and lasted throughout…

  10. Phonological and Visuospatial Working Memory in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macizo, P.; Soriano, M. F.; Paredes, N.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated phonological and visuospatial working memory (WM) in autism spectrum disorders. Autistic children and typically developing children were compared. We used WM tasks that measured phonological and visuospatial WM up to the capacity limit of each children. Overall measures of WM did not show differences between autistic children and…

  11. The Phonological Problems Encountered by Igbo Students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chinese language is said to be the hardest language in the world. This may be because of the difference in the phonology of Chinese language and other alphabetic languages. Chinese language is a logographic and tonal language which makes it hard to speak and write. This paper examines the phonological problems ...

  12. the phonological basis of misspellings in the written english of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Misspellings have been a common error in the written English of non-native speakers. ... The study was done with a view to investigating whether the phonology of Kikuyu as a learner's first language and pronunciation of words in English as the second language, based on the influence of the phonology of Kikuyu affects ...

  13. Integrating phonetics and phonology in the description of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The history of linguistics is characterized by competing frameworks and a generally dichotomous relationship between phonetics and phonology. While the study of phonetics was scientifically informed, phonology tended to be based on impressionistic observations. This dichotomous relationship has often hindered the ...

  14. What is the Phonological Word in Dagbani? A Positional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper offers a phonological diagnostic for defining the word in Dagbani, a Gur language of Ghana. It shows that a morphological unit that constitutes a complete word blocks contrast-neutralising phonological processes from target segments within its boundaries when triggered across its boundary. In sub-word units, ...

  15. Phonological adaptation of borrowed terms in Duramazwi reMimhanzi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.B. Ruthven

    Abstract: This article analyses the phonological characteristics of Shona musical terms bor- rowed from English. ... the understanding of the phonological changes that the musical terms undergo during the bor- rowing process. ... Introduction. An analysis of data drawn from Duramazwi reMimhanzi shows that English.

  16. Phonological and Morphosyntactic Intervention for a Twin Pair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feehan, Angela; Francis, Charmaine; Bernhardt, B. May; Colozzo, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Two 6-year-old male fraternal twins each received 8 weeks of morphosyntactic and phonological intervention in counterbalanced order. Progress occurred for most targets and measures, with each child making greater progress for either phonology or morphosyntax during the corresponding unitary-domain block. Gains were maintained during the subsequent…

  17. Modeling phonologization : vowel reduction and epenthesis in Lunigiana dialects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavirani, Edoardo

    2015-01-01

    Building upon wave-theoretic assumptions, this dissertation provides a formal description of the relationship between diatopic/diachronic micro-variation and phonologization. In particular, an analysis is performed of the phonetic/phonological properties of unstressed vowel reduction and vowel

  18. Suppressed Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarine Romdenh-Romluc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Moran’s revised conception of conscious belief requires us to reconceptualise suppressed belief. The work of Merleau-Ponty offers a way to do this. His account of motor-skills allows us to understand suppressed beliefs as pre-reflective ways of dealing with the world.

  19. Phonological decisions require both the left and right supramarginal gyri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Baumgaertner, Annette; Price, Cathy J

    2010-01-01

    Recent functional imaging studies demonstrated that both the left and right supramarginal gyri (SMG) are activated when healthy right-handed subjects make phonological word decisions. However, lesion studies typically report difficulties with phonological processing after left rather than right...... during phonological, semantic, and perceptual decisions. To test laterality and anatomical specificity, we compared the effect of TMS over the left, right, or bilateral SMG and angular gyri. The accuracy and reaction times of phonological decisions were selectively disrupted relative to semantic...... and perceptual decisions when real TMS was applied over the left, right, or bilateral SMG. These effects were not observed for TMS over the angular gyri. A follow-up experiment indicated that the threshold-intensity for inducing a disruptive effect on phonological decisions was identical for unilateral TMS over...

  20. Phonetic and phonological aspects of geminate timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, William Hallett

    This dissertation examines the timing properties of geminates in Bernese (a dialect of Swiss German), Hungarian, Levantine Arabic, and Madurese (an Austronesian language of Indonesia). These languages differ as to whether vowel length is underlyingly contrastive, whether long vowels may precede geminates, and whether non-medial geminates are allowed. Two questions of primary interest are in what ways these phonological differences influence phonetic duration, and how geminates are integrated into the overall timing strategies of the languages. Acoustic studies were carried out for each of the four languages, comparing the durational properties of singleton and geminate stops in all possible phonological environments. Results show that durational differences between singletons and geminates are confined to the closure phase, and that none of the four languages show significant differences in VOT or burst duration in this regard. The magnitude of the differences in closure duration varies widely, spanning from a mean of 43% in Bernese to 116% in Hungarian. I argue that differences in geminate timing are ultimately correlated with whether a language is syllable- or mora-timed, such that geminates in the former type are typically shorter. This observation is accounted for in a model of geminate timing which integrates phonetic and phonological factors with both syntagmatic and hierarchical influences. Results also show that geminates are subject to less durational variability than singletons due to differences in such factors as voicing and place of articulation. Given phonological arguments by Hyman (1985) and Hayes (1989), and the durational stability of moras discussed by Hubbard (1994), this outcome is predicted, and lends strong empirical support to the view that geminates are inherently moraic consonants. Here, I propose that all geminates are moraic, but that not all long consonants are geminates. To account for 'weightless geminates', I suggest that some

  1. Dyslexia and Phonology: A study of the phonological abilities of Dutch children at-risk of dyslexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, E.H. de

    2007-01-01

    This thesis explores the phonological deficit of children with a familial risk of dyslexia. This approach contributes to the identification of possible linguistic precursors of dyslexia. The thesis is set within the framework of the phonological deficit hypothesis of dyslexia. Through assessment of

  2. Phonological Segmentation Assessment Is Not Enough: A Comparison of Three Phonological Awareness Tests with First and Second Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite extensive research on phonological awareness and reading, there has been little effort to study practical questions that would assist practitioners regarding the choice and interpretation of the phonological awareness tests available to them. This study examined the relationship between decoding (real and pseudowords) and three…

  3. Learning Phonologically Specific New Words Fosters Rhyme Awareness in Dutch Preliterate Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Goch, Merel M.; McQueen, James M.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    How do children use phonological knowledge about spoken language in acquiring literacy? Phonological precursors of literacy include phonological awareness, speech decoding skill, and lexical specificity (i.e., the richness of phonological representations in the mental lexicon). An intervention study investigated whether early literacy skills can…

  4. Lateralized frontal activity for Japanese phonological processing during child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki eGoto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Phonological awareness is essential for reading, and is common to all language systems, including alphabetic languages and Japanese. This cognitive factor develops during childhood, and is thought to be associated with shifts in brain activity. However, the nature of this neurobiological developmental shift is unclear for speakers of Japanese, which is not an alphabetical language. The present study aimed to reveal a shift in brain functions for processing phonological information in native-born Japanese children. We conducted a phonological awareness task and examined hemodynamic activity in 103 children aged 7 to 12 years. While younger children made mistakes and needed more time to sort phonological information in reverse order, older children completed the task quickly and accurately. Additionally, younger children exhibited increased activity in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which may be evidence of immature phonological processing skills. Older children exhibited dominant activity in the left compared with the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, suggesting that they had already acquired phonological processing skills. We also found significant effects of age and lateralized activity on behavioral performance. During earlier stages of development, the degree of left lateralization appears to have a smaller effect on behavioral performance. Conversely, in later stages of development, the degree of left lateralization appears to have a stronger influence on behavioral performance. These initial findings regarding a neurobiological developmental shift in Japanese speakers suggest that common brain regions play a critical role in the development of phonological processing skills among different languages systems, such as Japanese and alphabetical languages.

  5. [Naming speed and phonological awareness in early reading learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar Villagrán, Manuel; Navarro Guzmán, José I; Menacho Jiménez, Inmaculada; Alcale Cuevas, Concepción; Marchena Consejero, Esperanza; Ramiro Olivier, Pedro

    2010-08-01

    The ability to read is a basic acquisition that conditions children's social integration and it is an important factor in school success. It is considered a complex activity in which different levels of cognitive processes are involved. The relationship between phonological awareness, naming speed and learning to read has been widely studied. Research on this topic has previously been carried out with different training procedures, or with children with reading and writing learning disabilities, or children with phonological awareness problems. The innovative aspect of this research is that it presents a longitudinal study of the influence of phonological awareness and naming speed on reading with no training procedure. 85 kindergarten children were assessed with Rapid Automatized Naming Test, The Phonological Knowledge Test (PECO) and the Reading Test (PROLEC-R) at two development points: at 5,6 and at 6.5 years old. A correlational comparison and a hierarchical regression analysis were calculated in order to determine the explicit variance for phonological awareness and naming speed in reading. Results showed that phonological awareness and naming speed differentially explain variance in reading. The discrepancies found are a consequence of the different measurement techniques for phonological awareness and naming speed used by the diverse authors.

  6. Phonological and Orthographic Overlap Effects in Fast and Masked Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisson, Steven; Bélanger, Nathalie N.; Rayner, Keith

    2014-01-01

    We investigated how orthographic and phonological information is activated during reading, using a fast priming task, and during single word recognition, using masked priming. Specifically, different types of overlap between prime and target were contrasted: high orthographic and high phonological overlap (track-crack), high orthographic and low phonological overlap (bear-gear), or low orthographic and high phonological overlap (fruit-chute). In addition, we examined whether (orthographic) beginning overlap (swoop-swoon) yielded the same priming pattern as end (rhyme) overlap (track-crack). Prime durations were 32 and 50ms in the fast priming version, and 50ms in the masked priming version, and mode of presentation (prime and target in lower case) was identical. The fast priming experiment showed facilitatory priming effects when both orthography and phonology overlapped, with no apparent differences between beginning and end overlap pairs. Facilitation was also found when prime and target only overlapped orthographically. In contrast, the masked priming experiment showed inhibition for both types of end overlap pairs (with and without phonological overlap), and no difference for begin overlap items. When prime and target only shared principally phonological information, facilitation was only found with a long prime duration in the fast priming experiment, while no differences were found in the masked priming version. These contrasting results suggest that fast priming and masked priming do not necessarily tap into the same type of processing. PMID:24365065

  7. Altered brain activity for phonological manipulation in dyslexic Japanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Yosuke; Yamamoto, Hisako; Oba, Kentaro; Terasawa, Yuri; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Hitoshi; Seki, Ayumi; Koeda, Tatsuya; Inagaki, Masumi

    2013-12-01

    Because of unique linguistic characteristics, the prevalence rate of developmental dyslexia is relatively low in the Japanese language. Paradoxically, Japanese children have serious difficulty analysing phonological processes when they have dyslexia. Neurobiological deficits in Japanese dyslexia remain unclear and need to be identified, and may lead to better understanding of the commonality and diversity in the disorder among different linguistic systems. The present study investigated brain activity that underlies deficits in phonological awareness in Japanese dyslexic children using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We developed and conducted a phonological manipulation task to extract phonological processing skills and to minimize the influence of auditory working memory on healthy adults, typically developing children, and dyslexic children. Current experiments revealed that several brain regions participated in manipulating the phonological information including left inferior and middle frontal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, and bilateral basal ganglia. Moreover, dyslexic children showed altered activity in two brain regions. They showed hyperactivity in the basal ganglia compared with the two other groups, which reflects inefficient phonological processing. Hypoactivity in the left superior temporal gyrus was also found, suggesting difficulty in composing and processing phonological information. The altered brain activity shares similarity with those of dyslexic children in countries speaking alphabetical languages, but disparity also occurs between these two populations. These are initial findings concerning the neurobiological impairments in dyslexic Japanese children.

  8. Lexical and metaphonological abilities in preschoolers with phonological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ranilde Cristiane Cavalcante; Avila, Clara Regina Brandão de

    2010-01-01

    lexical and metaphonological abilities of phonologically disordered preschoolers. to investigate the influence of Phonological Disorder on the lexical and metaphonological abilities of a group of preschoolers and the correlation between them. participants were 56 preschoolers - 32 boys and 24 girls - with ages between 4 years and 6 months and 6 years and 11 months, divided into two different groups: the Research Group, composed of 28 preschoolers with Phonological Disorder, and the Control Group, composed of 28 preschoolers with normal speech and no oral speech-related complaints, paired to the research group by gender and age. All of the participants were initially assessed by the ABFW Test - Phonology. After that, they were assessed on their lexical and metaphonological abilities by the ABFW Test - Vocabulary and phonological awareness test: sequential assessment instrument, CONFIAS - identification tasks and, rhyme and alliteration production, respectively. regarding lexical ability, the preschoolers from both groups presented similar behavior. The disordered preschoolers presented the worst performance on the overall analysis of the metaphonological ability. Age had an influence on the performance of lexical ability for both groups and the metaphonological abilities only for the Control Group. Correlations were identified, mostly positive, good to moderate between lexical and metaphonological abilities. the influence of Phonological Disorder may only be observed on the metaphonological performance. Phonological Disorder did not interfere with the development of the lexical ability of this group of preschoolers. Positive correlations were identified between both abilities in the studied age group.

  9. An Evaluation of Universal Grammar and the Phonological Mind1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues against the hypothesis of a “phonological mind” advanced by Berent. It establishes that there is no evidence that phonology is innate and that, in fact, the simplest hypothesis seems to be that phonology is learned like other human abilities. Moreover, the paper fleshes out the original claim of Philip Lieberman that Universal Grammar predicts that not everyone should be able to learn every language, i.e., the opposite of what UG is normally thought to predict. The paper also underscores the problem that the absence of recursion in Pirahã represents for Universal Grammar proposals. PMID:26903889

  10. An Evaluation of Universal Grammar and the Phonological Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Daniel L

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues against the hypothesis of a "phonological mind" advanced by Berent. It establishes that there is no evidence that phonology is innate and that, in fact, the simplest hypothesis seems to be that phonology is learned like other human abilities. Moreover, the paper fleshes out the original claim of Philip Lieberman that Universal Grammar predicts that not everyone should be able to learn every language, i.e., the opposite of what UG is normally thought to predict. The paper also underscores the problem that the absence of recursion in Pirahã represents for Universal Grammar proposals.

  11. PHONOLOGICAL CONCEPTS AND CONCEPT FORMATION: METATHEORY, THEORY AND APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Fraser

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of Phenomenological Phonology (PP, including its metatheory, theory and application, for comparison with Cognitive Phonology (CP. While PP and CP are in close agreement at the theory level, there are some significant differences at the level of metatheory. PP considers phonological terms (such as phoneme and word to be words like any others, and gives detailed consideration to the concepts behind such terms. It also considers pronunciation to be a form of behaviour, driven by concepts created through general concept formation processes. This has important consequences for practical application in the areas of pronunciation and literacy teaching.

  12. Morphosyntax and phonological awareness in children with speech sound disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Jennifer; Rvachew, Susan

    2008-12-01

    The goals of the current study were to examine concurrent and longitudinal relationships of expressive morphosyntax and phonological awareness in a group of children with speech sound disorders. Tests of phonological awareness were administered to 38 children at the end of their prekindergarten and kindergarten years. Speech samples were elicited and analyzed to obtain a set of expressive morphosyntax variables. Finite verb morphology and inflectional suffix use by prekindergarten children were found to predict significant unique variance in change in phonological awareness a year later. These results are consistent with previous research showing finite verb morphology to be a sensitive indicator of language impairment in English.

  13. Extracting phonological patterns for L2 word learning: the effect of poor phonological awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chieh-Fang

    2014-10-01

    An implicit word learning paradigm was designed to test the hypothesis that children who came to the task of L2 vocabulary acquisition with poorer L1 phonological awareness (PA) are less capable of extracting phonological patterns from L2 and thus have difficulties capitalizing on this knowledge to support L2 vocabulary learning. A group of Chinese-speaking six-grade students took a multi-trial L2 (English) word learning task after being exposed to a set of familiar words that rhymed with the target words. Children's PA was measured at grade 3. Children with relatively poorer L1 PA and those with better L1 PA did not differ in identifying the forms of the new words. However, children with poorer L1 PA demonstrated reduced performance in naming pictures with labels that rhymed with the pre-exposure words than with labels that did not rhyme with the pre-exposure words. Children with better L1 PA were not affected by the recurring rime shared by the pre-exposure words and the target words. These findings suggest that poor L1 PA may impede L2 word learning via difficulty in abstracting phonological patterns away from L2 input to scaffold word learning.

  14. Exploring the variation in implementation of a COPD disease management programme and its impact on health outcomes: a post hoc analysis of the RECODE cluster randomised trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Melinde R S; Kruis, Annemarije L; Huygens, Simone A; Tsiachristas, Apostolos; Assendelft, Willem J J; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Blom, Coert M G; Chavannes, Niels H; Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen P M H

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to (1) examine the variation in implementation of a 2-year chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) management programme called RECODE, (2) analyse the facilitators and barriers to implementation and (3) investigate the influence of this variation on health outcomes. Implementation variation among the 20 primary-care teams was measured directly using a self-developed scale and indirectly through the level of care integration as measured with the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) and the Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (ACIC). Interviews were held to obtain detailed information regarding the facilitators and barriers to implementation. Multilevel models were used to investigate the association between variation in implementation and change in outcomes. The teams implemented, on average, eight of the 19 interventions, and the specific package of interventions varied widely. Important barriers and facilitators of implementation were (in)sufficient motivation of healthcare provider and patient, the high starting level of COPD care, the small size of the COPD population per team, the mild COPD population, practicalities of the information and communication technology (ICT) system, and hurdles in reimbursement. Level of implementation as measured with our own scale and the ACIC was not associated with health outcomes. A higher level of implementation measured with the PACIC was positively associated with improved self-management capabilities, but this association was not found for other outcomes. There was a wide variety in the implementation of RECODE, associated with barriers at individual, social, organisational and societal level. There was little association between extent of implementation and health outcomes. PMID:26677770

  15. Phonological Analysis of University Students’ Spoken Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Herlina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of discourse is the study of using language in actual use. In this article, the writer is trying to investigate the phonological features, either segmental or supra-segmental, in the spoken discourse of Indonesian university students. The data were taken from the recordings of 15 conversations by 30 students of Bina Nusantara University who are taking English Entrant subject (TOEFL –IBT. Finally, the writer is in opinion that the students are still influenced by their first language in their spoken discourse. This results in English with Indonesian accent. Even though it does not cause misunderstanding at the moment, this may become problematic if they have to communicate in the real world.  

  16. Correspondence Theory and Phonological Blending in French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Scott

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Though less productive than rival word-formation processes like compounding and affixation, blending is still a rich source of neologisms in French. Despite this productivity, however, blends are often seen by scholars as unpredictable, uninteresting, or both. This analysis picks up where recent studies of blending have left off, using Correspondence Theory and a bundle of segmental constraints to deal with this phenomenon as it pertains to French. More specifically, it shows that blending is the result of a single output standing in correspondence with two or more other outputs, and that we do not need to refer to prosodic information, which is crucial in accounts of blending in languages with lexical stress like English, to account for the process in French. The analysis also differs from previous studies in that it locates blending exclusively within the phonology, leaving its morphological and semantic characteristics to be handled by other processes in the grammar.

  17. Manipulating stored phonological input during verbal working memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Gregory B.; Iyer, Asha; Melloni, Lucia; Thesen, Thomas; Friedman, Daniel; Doyle, Werner; Devinsky, Orrin; Pesaran, Bijan

    2016-01-01

    Verbal working memory (vWM), involves storing and manipulating information in phonological sensory input. An influential theory of vWM proposes that manipulation is carried out by a central executive while storage is performed by two interacting systems: A phonological input buffer that captures sound-based information and an articulatory rehearsal system that controls speech motor output. Whether, when, and how neural activity in the brain encodes these components remains unknown. Here, we read-out the contents of vWM from neural activity in human subjects as they manipulate stored speech sounds. As predicted, we identify storage systems that contain both phonological sensory and articulatory motor representations. Surprisingly however, we find that manipulation does not involve a single central executive but rather involves two systems with distinct contributions to successful manipulation. We propose, therefore, that multiple subsystems comprise the central executive needed to manipulate stored phonological input for articulatory motor output in vWM. PMID:27941789

  18. Electrophysiological signatures of phonological and semantic maintenance in sentence repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Jed A; Kielar, Aneta; Panamsky, Lilia; Links, Kira A; Deschamps, Tiffany; Leigh, Rosie C

    2017-08-01

    Verbal short-term memory comprises resources for phonological rehearsal, which have been characterized anatomically, and for maintenance of semantic information, which are less understood. Sentence repetition tasks tap both processes interactively. To distinguish brain activity involved in phonological vs. semantic maintenance, we recorded magnetoencephalography during a sentence repetition task, incorporating three manipulations emphasizing one mechanism over the other. Participants heard sentences or word lists and attempted to repeat them verbatim after a 5-second delay. After MEG, participants completed a cued recall task testing how much they remembered of each sentence. Greater semantic engagement relative to phonological rehearsal was hypothesized for 1) sentences vs. word lists, 2) concrete vs. abstract sentences, and 3) well recalled vs. poorly recalled sentences. During auditory perception and the memory delay period, we found highly left-lateralized activation in the form of 8-30 Hz event-related desynchronization. Compared to abstract sentences, concrete sentences recruited posterior temporal cortex bilaterally, demonstrating a neural signature for the engagement of visual imagery in sentence maintenance. Maintenance of arbitrary word lists recruited right hemisphere dorsal regions, reflecting increased demands on phonological rehearsal. Sentences that were ultimately poorly recalled in the post-test also elicited extra right hemisphere activation when they were held in short-term memory, suggesting increased demands on phonological resources. Frontal midline theta oscillations also reflected phonological rather than semantic demand, being increased for word lists and poorly recalled sentences. These findings highlight distinct neural resources for phonological and semantic maintenance, with phonological maintenance associated with stronger oscillatory modulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Levels of Phonological Awareness, Working Memory, and Lexical Knowledge in Elementary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helena Motta Bandini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Relationships between oral language, phonological awareness, and working memory have been empirically demonstrated, however, phonological awareness encompasses different abilities, assessed at different levels. The present study investigated the possible associations between specific phonological awareness abilities and phonological working memory in first-grade students. In the initial phase ( n = 254, the study evaluated the abilities of phonological awareness and phonological working memory and found a high positive correlation between these abilities, thus confirming the findings of previous studies. The second phase ( n = 12 evaluated the vocabulary of individuals who, in the initial phase, showed low or high working memory and phonological awareness scores. Students with low working memory and low phonological awareness capacities had low scores in expressive language abilities, suggesting that phonological working memory may have direct effects on lexical knowledge. These results contribute to the understanding of the relationships investigated in this study and have important implications for planning teaching strategies.

  20. The effect of music training program on phonological awareness in preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska eDegé

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment investigated the effect of a music training program on phonological awareness in preschoolers. In particular, the effects of a music training program and a phonological skills training program on phonological awareness were compared. If language and music share basic processing mechanisms, the effect of both programs on enhancing phonological awareness should be similar. Forty-one preschoolers (22 boys were randomly assigned to a phonological skills training program, a music training program, and a control group that received sports training (from which no effect was expected. Preschoolers were trained for 10 minutes on a daily basis over a period of 20 weeks. In a pretest, no differences were found between the three groups in regard to age, gender, intelligence, socioeconomic status, and phonological awareness. Children in the phonological skills group and the music group showed significant increases in phonological awareness from pre- to post-test. The children in the sports training group did not show a significant increase from pre- to post-test. The enhancement of phonological awareness was basically driven by positive effects of the music program and the phonological skills program on phonological awareness for large phonological units. The data suggests that phonological awareness can be trained with a phonological skills training program as well as a music training program. These results can be interpreted as evidence of a shared sound category learning mechanism for language and music at preschool age.

  1. The effect of a music program on phonological awareness in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degé, Franziska; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2011-01-01

    The present experiment investigated the effect of a music program on phonological awareness in preschoolers. In particular, the effects of a music program and a phonological skills program on phonological awareness were compared. If language and music share basic processing mechanisms, the effect of both programs on enhancing phonological awareness should be similar. Forty-one preschoolers (22 boys) were randomly assigned to a phonological skills program, a music program, and a control group that received sports training (from which no effect was expected). Preschoolers were trained for 10 min on a daily basis over a period of 20 weeks. In a pretest, no differences were found between the three groups in regard to age, gender, intelligence, socioeconomic status, and phonological awareness. Children in the phonological skills group and the music group showed significant increases in phonological awareness from pre- to post-test. The children in the sports group did not show a significant increase from pre- to post-test. The enhancement of phonological awareness was basically driven by positive effects of the music program and the phonological skills program on phonological awareness for large phonological units. The data suggests that phonological awareness can be trained with a phonological skills program as well as a music program. These results can be interpreted as evidence of a shared sound category learning mechanism for language and music at preschool age.

  2. Developmental dyslexia and phonological processing in European Portuguese orthography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Octávio; Moreno, Joana; Pereira, Marcelino; Simões, Mário R

    2015-02-01

    This study analysed the performance of phonological processing, the diagnostic accuracy and the influence on reading in children who were native speakers of an orthography of intermediate depth. Portuguese children with developmental dyslexia (DD; N=24; aged 10-12 years), chronological age (CA)-matched controls (N=24; aged 10-12 years) and reading level (RL)-matched controls (N=24; aged 7-9 years) were tested on measures of phonological processing (phonological awareness, naming speed and verbal short-term memory) and reading. The results indicated that the children with DD performed significantly poorer in all measures compared with the CA and RL. Phonological awareness and naming speed showed a high accuracy (receiver operating characteristics curve analysis) for discriminating the children with DD from the CA and RL, whereas the presence of abnormally low scores in phonological awareness and naming speed was more frequent in the DD group than in the controls and the normative population. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed that phonological awareness was the most important predictor of all reading accuracy measures, whereas naming speed was particularly related to text reading fluency. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Musical plus phonological input for young foreign language readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. eFonseca-Mora

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on previous studies showing that phonological awareness is related to reading abilities and that music training improves phonological processing, the aim of the present study was to test for the efficiency of a new method for teaching to read in a foreign language. Specifically, we tested the efficacy of a phonological training program, with and without musical support that aimed at improving early reading skills in 7-8-year-old Spanish children (n=63 learning English as a foreign language. Of interest was also to explore the impact of this training program on working memory and decoding skills. To achieve these goals we tested three groups of children before and after training: a control group, an experimental group with phonological non-musical intervention (active control, and an experimental group with musical intervention. Results clearly point to the beneficial effects of the phonological teaching approach but the further impact of the music support was not demonstrated. Moreover, while children in the music group showed low musical aptitudes before training, they nevertheless performed better than the control group. Therefore, the phonological training program with and without music support seem to have significant effects on early reading skills.

  4. Musical plus phonological input for young foreign language readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Mora, M C; Jara-Jiménez, Pilar; Gómez-Domínguez, María

    2015-01-01

    Based on previous studies showing that phonological awareness is related to reading abilities and that music training improves phonological processing, the aim of the present study was to test for the efficiency of a new method for teaching to read in a foreign language. Specifically, we tested the efficacy of a phonological training program, with and without musical support that aimed at improving early reading skills in 7-8-year-old Spanish children (n = 63) learning English as a foreign language. Of interest was also to explore the impact of this training program on working memory and decoding skills. To achieve these goals we tested three groups of children before and after training: a control group, an experimental group with phonological non-musical intervention (active control), and an experimental group with musical intervention. Results clearly point to the beneficial effects of the phonological teaching approach but the further impact of the music support was not demonstrated. Moreover, while children in the music group showed low musical aptitudes before training, they nevertheless performed better than the control group. Therefore, the phonological training program with and without music support seem to have significant effects on early reading skills.

  5. The role of phonology and phonologically related skills in reading instruction for students who are deaf or hard of hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Trezek, Beverly J; Luckner, John L; Paul, Peter V

    2008-01-01

    The article challenges educators to rethink reading instruction practices for students who are deaf or hard of hearing. The authors begin with a discussion of the role of phonology in reading, then summarize the evidence of phonological coding among skilled deaf readers and investigate alternative routes for acquiring phonologically related skills such as the use of speechreading, articulatory feedback, Visual Phonics, and Cued Speech. Finally, they present recent intervention studies and proposed procedures to employ phonics-based instruction with students who are deaf or hard of hearing. The authors conclude with the assertion that the teaching of phonologically related skills by means of instructional tools such as Visual Phonics and Cued Speech can and should be incorporated into reading instruction for students who are deaf or hard of hearing. The authors recommend additional research in this important area.

  6. The Effects of Training in Music and Phonological Skills on Phonological Awareness in 4- to 6-Year-Old Children of Immigrant Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patscheke, Hanne; Degé, Franziska; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2016-01-01

    Children of immigrant families often have great difficulties with language and disadvantages in schooling. Phonological problems appear especially common. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether music training has a positive effect on the phonological awareness in these children. The effects of a music program were compared with an established phonological skills program and with a sports control group. Preschoolers of immigrants (19 boys, 20 girls) were randomly assigned to one of the three groups. All groups were trained three times a week for 20 min each, over a period of 14 weeks. Phonological awareness was tested prior to the beginning of the training and after the training phase. At the pre-test, no differences between the groups were found regarding phonological awareness and control variables (age, gender, intelligence, socioeconomic status, language background, music experience). At the post-test, the music group and the phonological skills group showed a significant increase in phonological awareness of large phonological units. The effect size of the music training was larger compared to the phonological skills program. In contrast, the sports control group showed no significant increase in phonological awareness. The current results indicate that a music program could be used as an additional opportunity to promote phonological skills in children of immigrant families.

  7. Suppression chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Akio.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To miniaturize the storage tank of condensated water in BWR reactor. Constitution: A diaphragm is provided in a suppression chamber thereby to partition the same into an inner compartment and an outer compartment. In one of said compartments there is stored clean water to be used for feeding at the time of separating the reactor and for the core spray system, and in another compartment there is stored water necessary for accomplishing the depressurization effect at the time of coolant loss accident. To the compartment in which clean water is stored there is connected a water cleaning device for constantly maintaining water in clean state. As this cleaning device an already used fuel pool cleaning device can be utilized. Further, downcomers for accomplishing the depressurization function are provided in both inner compartment and outer compartment. The capacity of the storage tank can be reduced by the capacity of clean water within the suppression chamber. (Ikeda, J.)

  8. Nature of phonological delay in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsolini, M; Sechi, E; Maronato, C; Bonvino, E; Corcelli, A

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the nature of phonological delay in a group of children with specific language impairment. It was asked whether phonological errors in this group of children were generated by a slow but normal language learning process or whether they reflected a selective impairment in some representations that enhance normal acquisition and use of a language phonology. A group of 10 children with SLI (mean age = 5.1) was compared with three groups of normal children who were matched in age (age control group, mean age = 5.1), in sentence comprehension and recalling (grammar control group, mean age = 3.7), or who exhibited a phonological performance lower than the age average (group with low phonological performance, mean age = 4.4). The four groups of children were assessed in terms of: (1) responses to a mispronunciation detection task; and (2) error profiles with complex and simple syllabic structures. Performance on the mispronunciation detection task showed that the group with SLI could distinguish a target lexical item from acoustic non-word stimuli that were highly similar to it in terms of phonetic characteristics. An analysis of overall error rate at this task showed, however, that four children with SLI had a much lower performance than normal children of the same age, even when the auditory stimuli were tokens of the target word, or non-words that were phonetically different from the target. A difficulty in coordinating vocal actions in an articulatory plan accounted for error profiles with simple syllabic structures both for some children with SLI and normal children with phonological performance lower than the age average. A severe difficulty with representing complex syllabic structures was a homogeneous characteristic of the group with SLI and worked as the main indicator of impaired, rather than simply slow, phonological development.

  9. Phonological bases for L2 morphological learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chieh-Fang

    2010-08-01

    Two experiments examined the hypothesis that L1 phonological awareness plays a role in children's ability to extract morphological patterns of English as L2 from the auditory input. In Experiment 1, 84 Chinese-speaking third graders were tested on whether they extracted the alternation pattern between the base and the derived form (e.g., inflate - inflation) from multiple exposures. Experiment 2 further assessed children's ability to use morphological cues for syntactic categorization through exposures to novel morphologically varying forms (e.g., lutate vs. lutant) presented in the corresponding sentential positions (noun vs. verb). The third-grade EFL learners revealed emergent sensitivity to the morphological cues in the input but failed in fully processing intraword variations. The learners with poorer L1 PA were likely to encounter difficulties in identifying morphological alternation rules and in discovering the syntactic properties of L2 morphology. In addition to L1 PA, L2 vocabulary knowledge also contributed significantly to L2 morphological learning.

  10. The nature of phonological awareness throughout the elementary grades: An item response theory perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vloedgraven, J.M.T.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the nature of Dutch children's phonological awareness was examined throughout the elementary school grades. Phonological awareness was assessed using five different sets of items that measured rhyming, phoneme identification, phoneme blending, phoneme segmentation, and phoneme

  11. Brain basis of phonological awareness for spoken language in children and its disruption in dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovelman, Ioulia; Norton, Elizabeth S; Christodoulou, Joanna A; Gaab, Nadine; Lieberman, Daniel A; Triantafyllou, Christina; Wolf, Maryanne; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Gabrieli, John D E

    2012-04-01

    Phonological awareness, knowledge that speech is composed of syllables and phonemes, is critical for learning to read. Phonological awareness precedes and predicts successful transition from language to literacy, and weakness in phonological awareness is a leading cause of dyslexia, but the brain basis of phonological awareness for spoken language in children is unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the neural correlates of phonological awareness using an auditory word-rhyming task in children who were typical readers or who had dyslexia (ages 7-13) and a younger group of kindergarteners (ages 5-6). Typically developing children, but not children with dyslexia, recruited left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) when making explicit phonological judgments. Kindergarteners, who were matched to the older children with dyslexia on standardized tests of phonological awareness, also recruited left DLPFC. Left DLPFC may play a critical role in the development of phonological awareness for spoken language critical for reading and in the etiology of dyslexia.

  12. [Maternal education and phonological processing in preschool children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptok, M; Dunkelmann, A

    2012-02-01

    1.: Children's language skills seem to depend on their mothers' level of academic education; 2.: phonological processing, i. e. processing information in terms of acoustic signals with linguistic content, seems to act as an accelerator in the development of language skills. Based on these premises the aim of this study was to evaluate whether there is a correlation between the maternal level of academic education and low level phonological processing skills in children. 203 preschool-children aged 5;0 to 5;11 years were enrolled in this study. Low level phonological processing was probed using minimal pairs for both words and nonwords (logatoms). The items were chosen with respect to age appropriate vocabulary, phoneme features, phoneme contrast and phoneme position. Children, whose mothers were more highly educated, showed better results in low level phonological processing tasks than children of mothers with lower levels of academic education. Our results confirm the hypothesis that there is a correlation between a mother's level of academic education and the phonological processing skills of her child. This could also explain why children whose parents possess a higher level of education often demonstrate better linguistic skills. However, further studies are needed to clarify whether other factors act as a dependant variable. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Phonological development in children with obstructive sleep-disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundeborg, Inger; McAllister, Anita; Samuelsson, Christina; Ericsson, Elisabeth; Hultcrantz, Elisabeth

    2009-10-01

    Adeno-tonsillar hypertrophy with obstructive sleep disordered breathing (OSDB) is known to affect oral-motor function, behaviour, and academic performance. Adeno-tonsillectomy is the most frequently performed operation in children, with total tonsillectomy (TE) being more common than partial resection, 'tonsillotomy' (TT). In the present study 67 children, aged 50-65 months, with OSBD were randomized to TE or TT. The children's phonology was assessed pre-operatively and 6 months post-operatively. Two groups of children served as controls. Phonology was affected in 62.7% of OSBD children before surgery, compared to 34% in the control group (p < .001). Also, OSBD children had more severe phonological deficits than the controls (p < .001). Phonology improved 6 months equally after both surgeries. Despite improvement post-operatively, the gap to the controls increased. Other functional aspects, such as oral motor function, were normalized regardless of surgical method--TE or TT. The impact of OSBD should be considered as one contributing factor in phonological impairment.

  14. Gradient phonological relationships: Evidence from vowels in French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Stevenson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The dichotomy of contrastive and allophonic phonological relationships has a long-standing tradition in phonology, but there is growing research that points to phonological relationships that fall between contrastive and allophonic. Measures of lexical distinction (minimal pair counts and predictability of distribution were applied to Laurentian French vowels to quantify three degrees of contrast between pairs: high, mid, and low contrast. According to traditional definitions, both the high and mid contrast pairs are classified as phonologically contrastive, and low contrast pairs as allophonic. As such, a binary view of contrast (contrastive vs. non-contrastive predicted that high and mid contrast pairs would pattern together on tasks of speech perception, and low contrast pairs would show a different pattern. The gradient view predicted all vowel pairs would fall along a continuum. Thirty-two speakers of Laurentian French participated in two experiments: an AX task and a similarity rating task. The results did not support a strict binary interpretation of contrast, since the high, mid, and low contrast vowel pairs pattern differently across the experiments. Instead, the results support a gradient view of phonological relationships.   This article is part of the special collection: Marginal Contrasts

  15. The Effects of Phonological Neighborhoods on Pronunciation Variation in Conversational Speech

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Yao

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the effects of phonological neighborhoods on pronunciation variation in conversational speech. Phonological neighbors are defined as words that are different in one and only one phoneme by addition, deletion and substitution. Phonological neighborhood density refers to the number of neighbors a certain word has.Previous research has shown that phonological neighbors impede auditory perception, but facilitate lexical production. As a result, words from dense neig...

  16. What Do Phonological Processing Errors Tell about Students' Skills in Reading, Writing, and Oral Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dowon; Hatcher, Ryan C.; Dulong-Langley, Susan; Liu, Xiaochen; Bray, Melissa A.; Courville, Troy; O'Brien, Rebecca; DeBiase, Emily

    2017-01-01

    The kinds of errors that children and adolescents make on phonological processing tasks were studied with a large sample between ages 4 and 19 (N = 3,842) who were tested on the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-Third Edition (KTEA-3). Principal component analysis identified two phonological processing factors: Basic Phonological Awareness…

  17. Phonological Memory and the Acquisition of Grammar in Child L2 Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Josje; Leseman, Paul; Messer, Marielle

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies show that second language (L2) learners with large phonological memory spans outperform learners with smaller memory spans on tests of L2 grammar. The current study investigated the relationship between phonological memory and L2 grammar in more detail than has been done earlier. Specifically, we asked how phonological memory…

  18. Phonology and literacy: follow-up results of the Utrecht dyslexia and specific language impairment project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bree, E.; Snowling, M.J.; Gerrits, E.; van Alphen, P.; van der Leij, A.; Wijnen, F.; Benasich, A.A.; Fitch, R.H.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter assesses the relationship between phonology and literacy by comparing children at family risk of dyslexia, children with SLI, and typically developing children on preschool phonological measures and literacy and phonological skills at eight years of age. As expected, 37% of the

  19. The Contribution of Segmental and Suprasegmental Phonology to Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relation between decoding and segmental and suprasegmental phonology, and their contribution to reading comprehension, in the upper primary grades. Following a longitudinal design, the performance of 99 Dutch primary school students on phonological awareness (segmental phonology) and text-reading…

  20. The Effects of Phonological Neighborhoods on Pronunciation Variation in Conversational Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yao

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the effects of phonological neighborhoods on pronunciation variation in conversational speech. Phonological neighbors are defined as words that are different in one and only one phoneme by addition, deletion and substitution. Phonological neighborhood density refers to the number of neighbors a certain word has. …

  1. Phonologic Abilities of a Preschool Child with Prader-Willi Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Alice T.; Lombardino, Linda J.

    1989-01-01

    A case study follows the development of phonologic abilities in a child with Prader-Willi syndrome, during her enrollment in language and phonologic remediation from age 2:7 to 6:1. Changes in her phonetic inventory, in the set of phonemes used correctly, and in phonologic processes are described. (Author/JDD)

  2. Exploring the Neural Substrates of Phonological Recovery for Symposium: Neural Correlates of Recovery and Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelagie M Beeson

    2015-10-01

    All participants improved written language abilities in response to treatment, but one subgroup was limited in their ability to regain phonological skills. Both anterior and posterior components of the perisylvian phonological network were damaged in that group. These findings are consistent with fMRI activation when healthy adults write nonwords, and provide insight regarding neural support necessary for phonological rehabilitation.

  3. The role of assembled phonology in reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltheart, V; Avons, S E; Masterson, J; Laxon, V J

    1991-07-01

    The contribution of assembled phonology to phonological effects in reading comprehension was assessed. In Experiment 1, subjects judged the acceptability of sentences with regular, exception, and nonword homophone substitutions and orthographic controls. Significantly more errors occurred to sentences with regular-word homophones than to exception words, and error rates for nonword homophones were low and not significant. Experiment 2 showed that this was not due to differences in the sentence frames. In Experiment 3, the subjects judged as unacceptable those sentences containing an exception word that sounded correct when read according to spelling-to-sound rules. Significantly higher error rates occurred only for low-frequency exception words. Experiment 4 showed that task conditions affect semantic-categorization error rates for nonword homophones. These results indicate that both assembled and addressed phonology contribute to sentence and word comprehension, but the low error rate for nonwords suggests that an early lexical check may be applied.

  4. Phonological Spelling and Reading Deficits in Children with Spelling Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Angela; Olson, Richard K

    2010-01-01

    Spelling errors in the Wide Range Achievement Test were analyzed for 77 pairs of children, each of which included one older child with spelling disability (SD) and one spelling-level-matched younger child with normal spelling ability from the Colorado Learning Disabilities Research Center database. Spelling error analysis consisted of a percent graphotactic-accuracy (GA) score based on syllable position and existence in English, and a phonological accuracy score (PA). The SD group scored significantly worse in the PA measure, and non-significantly better than controls on the GA measure. The group by measure interaction was significant. Spelling matched pairs had very similar scores for word recognition and orthographic coding, but the SD group exhibited significant deficits in reading measures of phonological decoding and in language measures of phonological awareness.

  5. The Historical Phonology of Kriang, A Katuic Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Gehrmann

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the historical phonology of the Kriang language (< Katuic < Austroasiatic. Kriang is spoken primarily in Sekong province, Laos and may be divided into two primary dialects which I call Kriang Kaleum and Kriang Tha Taeng. A synchronic analysis of Kriang phonology is provided based both on my own field work and on the data provided by previous researchers. A description of the historical phonological development from Proto-Katuic to modern Kriang follows emphasizing especially the development of prenasalized consonants, long/geminate consonants and vocalic register in the modern language. Of particular interest is the non-canonical register assignment pattern evident in certain Kriang varieties.

  6. Phonology, reading, and Chomsky and Halle's optimal orthography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, D D

    1973-09-01

    Chomsky and Halle claim that an orthography based on their underlying phonological representations (UPR) of lexical items would be optimal for English. This paper challenges three of C & H's basic phonological assumptions, that their vowel shift rule is valid, that the UPR is the only sound representation to be listed in the lexicon, and that derived words do not appear as wholes in the lexicon. A less abstract phonological representation level based on the conscious perceptions of speakers, the surface phonemic (SPR), is proposed. An SPR-based orthography has advantages which a UPR-based orthography would not: it is easy to learn and teach, it can be learned at an early age, and it permits rapid detection of rhyme. It is concluded that an orthography based on SPRs, and not UPRs, would be optimal.

  7. The phonology-morphosyntax interface: affixed words in agrammatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obler, L K; Harris, K; Meth, M; Centeno, J; Mathews, P

    In three experiments with nondysarthric agrammatics, we explored the association between phonology and morphosyntax. (1) Contrasting phonological and nonphonological factors on inflectional-affix production of English verbs across three tasks in eight agrammatics, longer stem-syllabic length and stem-final-CC status resulted in poorer affix-production. (2) Studying verb inflections in six agrammatic Spanish-speakers, affix-length and affix-stress correlated with poorer repetition, as did low affix frequency. (3) Four English-speaking agrammatics read aloud and repeated derived words varying in syllable-length and stem-stress reassignment; both contributed independently to word-production difficulty. Phonological complexity of affixes and stems appears to reduce resources for morphological processing in nondysarthric agrammatics. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  8. Rapid extraction of lexical tone phonology in Chinese characters: a visual mismatch negativity study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Dong Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In alphabetic languages, emerging evidence from behavioral and neuroimaging studies shows the rapid and automatic activation of phonological information in visual word recognition. In the mapping from orthography to phonology, unlike most alphabetic languages in which there is a natural correspondence between the visual and phonological forms, in logographic Chinese, the mapping between visual and phonological forms is rather arbitrary and depends on learning and experience. The issue of whether the phonological information is rapidly and automatically extracted in Chinese characters by the brain has not yet been thoroughly addressed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We continuously presented Chinese characters differing in orthography and meaning to adult native Mandarin Chinese speakers to construct a constant varying visual stream. In the stream, most stimuli were homophones of Chinese characters: The phonological features embedded in these visual characters were the same, including consonants, vowels and the lexical tone. Occasionally, the rule of phonology was randomly violated by characters whose phonological features differed in the lexical tone. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We showed that the violation of the lexical tone phonology evoked an early, robust visual response, as revealed by whole-head electrical recordings of the visual mismatch negativity (vMMN, indicating the rapid extraction of phonological information embedded in Chinese characters. Source analysis revealed that the vMMN was involved in neural activations of the visual cortex, suggesting that the visual sensory memory is sensitive to phonological information embedded in visual words at an early processing stage.

  9. Rapid extraction of lexical tone phonology in Chinese characters: a visual mismatch negativity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Dong; Liu, A-Ping; Wu, Yin-Yuan; Wang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    In alphabetic languages, emerging evidence from behavioral and neuroimaging studies shows the rapid and automatic activation of phonological information in visual word recognition. In the mapping from orthography to phonology, unlike most alphabetic languages in which there is a natural correspondence between the visual and phonological forms, in logographic Chinese, the mapping between visual and phonological forms is rather arbitrary and depends on learning and experience. The issue of whether the phonological information is rapidly and automatically extracted in Chinese characters by the brain has not yet been thoroughly addressed. We continuously presented Chinese characters differing in orthography and meaning to adult native Mandarin Chinese speakers to construct a constant varying visual stream. In the stream, most stimuli were homophones of Chinese characters: The phonological features embedded in these visual characters were the same, including consonants, vowels and the lexical tone. Occasionally, the rule of phonology was randomly violated by characters whose phonological features differed in the lexical tone. We showed that the violation of the lexical tone phonology evoked an early, robust visual response, as revealed by whole-head electrical recordings of the visual mismatch negativity (vMMN), indicating the rapid extraction of phonological information embedded in Chinese characters. Source analysis revealed that the vMMN was involved in neural activations of the visual cortex, suggesting that the visual sensory memory is sensitive to phonological information embedded in visual words at an early processing stage.

  10. Native Language Experience Shapes Neural Basis of Addressed and Assembled Phonologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; He, Qinghua; Wei, Miao; Zhang, Mingxia; Dong, Qi; Chen, Chuansheng

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested differential engagement of addressed and assembled phonologies in reading Chinese and alphabetic languages (e.g., English) and the modulatory role of native language in learning to read a second language. However, it is not clear whether native language experience shapes the neural mechanisms of addressed and assembled phonologies. To address this question, we trained native Chinese and native English speakers to read the same artificial language (based on Korean Hangul) either through addressed (i.e., whole-word mapping) or assembled (i.e., grapheme-to-phoneme mapping) phonology. We found that, for both native Chinese and native English speakers, addressed phonology relied on the regions in the ventral pathway, whereas assembled phonology depended on the regions in the dorsal pathway. More importantly, we found that the neural mechanisms of addressed and assembled phonologies were shaped by native language experience. Specifically, two key regions for addressed phonology (i.e., the left middle temporal gyrus and right inferior temporal gyrus) showed greater activation for addressed phonology in native Chinese speakers, while one key region for assembled phonology (i.e., the left supramarginal gyrus) showed more activation for assembled phonology in native English speakers. These results provide direct neuroimaging evidence for the effect of native language experience on the neural mechanisms of phonological access in a new language and support the assimilation-accommodation hypothesis. PMID:25858447

  11. English-French bilingual children’s phonological awareness and vocabulary skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PiYu Chiang

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study examined the relationship between English-speaking children’s vocabulary skills in English and in French and their phonological awareness skills in both languages. Forty-four kindergarten-aged children attending French immersion programs were administered a receptive vocabulary test, an expressive vocabulary test and a phonological awareness test in English and French. Results showed that French phonological awareness was largely explained by English phonological awareness, consistent with previous findings that phonological awareness skills transfer across languages. However, there was a small unique contribution from French expressive vocabulary size to French phonological awareness. The importance of vocabulary skills to the development of phonological awareness is discussed.

  12. The relationship of phonological skills to language skills in Spanish-English-speaking bilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperson, Solaman J; Bedore, Lisa M; Peña, Elizabeth D

    2013-05-01

    These two studies investigate the relationship between phonological production skills and performance in other domains of language in Spanish-English-speaking bilingual children. We examine the relationship between scores on a single-word phonology test and language measures selected from formal testing and narrative samples in Spanish and English. The first study explores the language and phonology scores of 186 children (mean age = 5 years, 9 months) who represent a range of language ability levels. Phonology scores in both languages were most strongly correlated with performance on the Spanish morphosyntax subtest of the bilingual English-Spanish assessment and grammaticality of utterances in English narratives. The second study focuses on 12 children with low or high phonology skills selected from those who participated in the first study. Children with higher phonological production accuracy in both languages produced grammatical structures of low-phonetic salience with greater accuracy than children with lower phonological skills.

  13. Phonological Therapy in Jargon Aphasia: Effects on Naming and Neologisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Arpita

    2013-01-01

    Background: Jargon aphasia is one of the most intractable forms of aphasia with limited recommendation on amelioration of associated naming difficulties and neologisms. The few naming therapy studies that exist in jargon aphasia have utilized either semantic or phonological approaches, but the results have been equivocal. Moreover, the effect of…

  14. Students' performance in phonological awareness, rapid naming, reading, and writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capellini, Simone Aparecida; Lanza, Simone Cristina

    2010-01-01

    phonological awareness, rapid naming, reading and writing in students with learning difficulties of a municipal public school. to characterize and compare the performance of students from public schools with and without learning difficulties in phonological awareness, rapid naming, reading and writing. participants were 60 students from the 2nd to the 4th grades of municipal public schools divided into 6 groups. Each group was composed by 10 students, being 3 groups of students without learning difficulties and 3 groups with students with learning difficulties. As testing procedure phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, oral reading and writing under dictation assessments were used. the results highlighted the better performance of students with no learning difficulties. Students with learning difficulties presented a higher ratios considering time/speed in rapid naming tasks and, consequently, lower production in activities of phonological awareness and reading and writing, when compared to students without learning difficulties. students with learning difficulties presented deficits when considering the relationship between naming and automatization skills, and among lexical access, visual discrimination, stimulus frequency use and competition in using less time for code naming, i.e. necessary for the phoneme-grapheme conversion process required in the reading and writing alphabetic system like the Portuguese language.

  15. Effects of a Music Programme on Kindergartners' Phonological Awareness Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolduc, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    This research examines the effect of a music training programme on the development of phonological awareness among 104 Franco-Canadian kindergarten children. The experimental group (N = 51) participated in an adapted version of the Standley and Hughes music training programme, while the control group (N = 53) took part in the Ministere de…

  16. Phonological awareness and the minimising of reading problems: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa and in many other countries there is a concern that many learners in our schools do not have well developed reading abilities. Research in overseas countries has indicated that phonological awareness as a pre-reading skill influences the development of reading abilities. In order to verify overseas research, ...

  17. Predicting Third Grade Reading Success from Kindergarten Phonological Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Stephanie J.

    2013-01-01

    Although phonological awareness (PA) is an essential preliteracy skill with well-established predictive validity for elementary school reading success, previous research indicates that PA intervention does not demonstrate long term effects on reading. The theory of automaticity was the underlying foundation used to understand the importance of…

  18. Automaticity of phonological and semantic processing during visual word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Chanoine, Valérie; Pallier, Christophe; Anton, Jean-Luc; Nazarian, Bruno; Belin, Pascal; Ziegler, Johannes C

    2017-04-01

    Reading involves activation of phonological and semantic knowledge. Yet, the automaticity of the activation of these representations remains subject to debate. The present study addressed this issue by examining how different brain areas involved in language processing responded to a manipulation of bottom-up (level of visibility) and top-down information (task demands) applied to written words. The analyses showed that the same brain areas were activated in response to written words whether the task was symbol detection, rime detection, or semantic judgment. This network included posterior, temporal and prefrontal regions, which clearly suggests the involvement of orthographic, semantic and phonological/articulatory processing in all tasks. However, we also found interactions between task and stimulus visibility, which reflected the fact that the strength of the neural responses to written words in several high-level language areas varied across tasks. Together, our findings suggest that the involvement of phonological and semantic processing in reading is supported by two complementary mechanisms. First, an automatic mechanism that results from a task-independent spread of activation throughout a network in which orthography is linked to phonology and semantics. Second, a mechanism that further fine-tunes the sensitivity of high-level language areas to the sensory input in a task-dependent manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Longitudinal Stability of Phonological and Surface Subtypes of Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robin L.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Olson, Richard K.; Wadsworth, Sally J.

    2014-01-01

    Limited evidence supports the external validity of the distinction between developmental phonological and surface dyslexia. We previously identified children ages 8 to 13 meeting criteria for these subtypes (Peterson, Pennington, & Olson, 2013) and now report on their reading and related skills approximately 5 years later. Longitudinal…

  20. Viewing a Phonological Deficit within a Multifactorial Model of Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catts, Hugh W.; McIlraith, Autumn; Bridges, Mindy Sittner; Nielsen, Diane Corcoran

    2017-01-01

    Participants were administered multiple measures of phonological awareness, oral language, and rapid automatized naming at the beginning of kindergarten and multiple measures of word reading at the end of second grade. A structural equation model was fit to the data and latent scores were used to identify children with a deficit in phonological…

  1. Level Ordering and Economy in the Lexical Phonology of Turkish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkelas, Sharon; Orgun, Cemil Orhan

    1995-01-01

    Supports the theory of level ordering by demonstrating, on the basis of productive morphology and phonology, that Turkish has four lexical levels. The first is the principle of Level Economy, which accounts for systematic exceptionality. The second is Level Prespecification, which exempts a root entirely from early lexical levels. Both of these…

  2. LEARNING NONADJACENT DEPENDENCIES IN PHONOLOGY: TRANSPARENT VOWELS IN VOWEL HARMONY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Sara

    2015-03-01

    Nonadjacent dependencies are an important part of the structure of language. While the majority of syntactic and phonological processes occur at a local domain, there are several processes that appear to apply at a distance, posing a challenge for theories of linguistic structure. This article addresses one of the most common nonadjacent phenomena in phonology: transparent vowels in vowel harmony. Vowel harmony occurs when adjacent vowels are required to share the same phonological feature value (e.g. V +F C V +F ). However, transparent vowels create a second-order nonadjacent pattern because agreement between two vowels can 'skip' the transparent neutral vowel in addition to consonants (e.g. V +F C V T -F C V +F ). Adults are shown to display initial learning biases against second-order nonadjacency in experiments that use an artificial grammar learning paradigm. Experiments 1-3 show that adult learners fail to learn the second-order long-distance dependency created by the transparent vowel (as compared to a control condition). In experiments 4-5, training in terms of overall exposure as well as the frequency of relevant transparent items was increased. With adequate exposure, learners reliably generalize to novel words containing transparent vowels. The experiments suggest that learners are sensitive to the structure of phonological representations, even when learning occurs at a relatively rapid pace.

  3. The role of phonological awareness in reading comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Silvia Cárnio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: to characterize the performance of 4th grade-Elementary School students with and without signs of reading and writing disorders as for phonological awareness and reading comprehension, and also verify possible correlations between them. Methods: 60 children enrolled in the 4th grade of Elementary School from two public schools, whose parents signed the Informed Consent Form, participated in the present study. They were selected and organized in groups, with and without signs of reading and writing disorders. All students were individually assessed regarding their phonological awareness and reading comprehension of sentences and texts through standardized tests. The data underwent statistical analysis. Results: those with signs of reading and writing disorders showed the lowest performance in the reading comprehension of sentences and texts. A correlation was found between phonological awareness and reading comprehension of sentences and texts in both groups. Conclusion: students with no signs of reading and writing disorders had a higher performance in the skills assessed. The correlation found between phonological awareness and reading comprehension of sentences and texts shows not only the importance of metaphonological skills for a proficient reading, but also for a comprehensive one.

  4. A Phonological Analysis of Onomatopoeia in Early Word Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Catherine E.

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses longitudinal diary data from one infant acquiring German to seek a better understanding of the role of onomatopoeia in early language development. Onomatopoeic words (OWs) are traced over time in relation to their corresponding conventional forms (CWs), and an analysis of their phonological transitions is considered in…

  5. Phonological Activation of Word Meanings in Grade 5 Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared, Debra; Ashby, Jane; Agauas, Stephen J.; Levy, Betty Ann

    2016-01-01

    Three experiments examined the role of phonology in the activation of word meanings in Grade 5 students. In Experiment 1, homophone and spelling control errors were embedded in a story context and participants performed a proofreading task as they read for meaning. For both good and poor readers, more homophone errors went undetected than spelling…

  6. Correlates of Phonological Awareness in Preschoolers with Speech Sound Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rvachew, Susan; Grawburg, Meghann

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among variables that may contribute to poor phonological awareness (PA) skills in preschool-aged children with speech sound disorders (SSD). Method: Ninety-five 4- and 5-year-old children with SSD were assessed during the spring of their prekindergarten year. Linear structural…

  7. Neural Correlates of Sublexical Processing in Phonological Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGettigan, Carolyn; Warren, Jane E.; Eisner, Frank; Marshall, Chloe R.; Shanmugalingam, Pradheep; Scott, Sophie K.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated links between working memory and speech processing systems. We used delayed pseudoword repetition in fMRI to investigate the neural correlates of sublexical structure in phonological working memory (pWM). We orthogonally varied the number of syllables and consonant clusters in auditory pseudowords and measured the neural…

  8. Hands-On and Kinesthetic Activities for Teaching Phonological Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Audrey C.; Dockstader, C. Jolene; Stewart, Roger A.

    2006-01-01

    Object box and environmental print card activities and kinesthetic/oral activities used in two before school programs for Title 1 students are presented for teaching phonological awareness concepts to students in primary grades. A small program evaluation study in which the two experimental groups made similar improvements and larger gains than a…

  9. Phonological Interference in the Spoken English Performance of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper sets out to examine the phonological interference in the spoken English performance of the Izon speaker. It emphasizes that the level of interference is not just as a result of the systemic differences that exist between both language systems (Izon and English) but also as a result of the interlanguage factors such ...

  10. Dutch dyslexic adolescents: phonological-core variable-orthographic differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekebrede, J.; van der Leij, A.; Share, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    The phonological-core variable-orthographic differences (PCVOD) model [van der Leij, & Morfidi (2006). Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39, 74-90] has been proposed as an explanation for the heterogeneity among dyslexic readers in their profiles of reading-related subskills. The predictions of this

  11. Phonological Processes in Kannada-Speaking Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupela, Vani; Manjula, R.; Velleman, Shelley L.

    2010-01-01

    Phonological process analysis was carried out using a 40-word imitation task with 30 11;6-14;6 year old Kannada-speaking persons with Down syndrome in comparison with 15 non-verbal mental age matched typically developing children. Percentages of occurrence were significantly higher for the Down syndrome group with certain exceptions. Some…

  12. Phonological Awareness Skills in Young Boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Phoebe; Woodyatt, Gail

    2011-01-01

    Substantial research has detailed the reading deficits experienced by children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Although phonological awareness (PA) is vital in reading development, little is known about PA in the DMD population. This pilot study describes the PA abilities of a group of five young children with DMD, comparing the results…

  13. On Selected Phonological Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Nozomi; Kozak, Viola

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on two selected phonological patterns that appear unique to Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL). For both sections of this paper, the overall methodology is the same as that discussed in Stephen and Mathur (this volume), with some additional modifications tailored to the specific studies discussed here, which will be expanded…

  14. Dutch Dyslexic Adolescents: Phonological-Core Variable-Orthographic Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekebrede, Judith; van der Leij, Aryan; Share, David L.

    2009-01-01

    The phonological-core variable-orthographic differences (PCVOD) model [van der Leij, & Morfidi (2006). "Journal of Learning Disabilities," 39, 74-90] has been proposed as an explanation for the heterogeneity among dyslexic readers in their profiles of reading-related subskills. The predictions of this model were investigated in a…

  15. Activation of Phonological and Semantic Codes in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Nivedita; Durrant, Samantha; Floccia, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    What are the processes underlying word recognition in the toddler lexicon? Work with adults suggests that, by 5-years of age, hearing a word leads to cascaded activation of other phonologically, semantically and phono-semantically related words (Huang & Snedeker, 2010; Marslen-Wilson & Zwitserlood, 1989). Given substantial differences in…

  16. Singaporean Kindergartners' Phonological Awareness and English Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, L. Quentin

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the phonological awareness and English writing skills among a sample of 297 Singaporean kindergarten children, stratified by ethnicity (Chinese, Malay, and Indian), and examines the relationship between oral language and writing skills in this multilingual population. Overall, Singaporean kindergartners, nearly all of whom…

  17. Phonological Awareness and Reading in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlof, Suzanne M.; Klusek, Jessica; Shinkareva, Svetlana V.; Robinson, Marissa L.; Roberts, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reading delays are well documented in children with fragile X syndrome (FXS), but few studies have examined linguistic precursors of reading in this population. This study examined the longitudinal development of phonological awareness and its relationship with basic reading in boys with FXS. Individual differences in genetic,…

  18. Sex Differences in Phonological Awareness and Reading Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipere, Ngoni

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to measure possible sex differences in phonological awareness and reading ability among children in early primary school. A subset of the "Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills" (DIBELS) was administered to 140 children in kindergarten through to second grade (mean ages five to seven years). Independent…

  19. Phonological sensitivity of selected NTA newscasters to sound ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as the major reason for Nigerians' poor pronunciation is half the truth. It decried as obsolete the pedagogic practice of gauging speakers' performances against natives' and recommends the teaching of dialectal variations in Nigeria. Keywords: English, phonology, sensitivity, orthography, newscasters, Nigeria MARANG: ...

  20. Exploring Phonetic and Phonological Variation: RP and the Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Nigerian university, a hierarchy of the intelligibility of RP vowel phonemes is established. This not only provides evidence that intelligibility is a phenomenon which may be examined from a non-native speaker perspective, it also identifies specific features of RP segmental phonology which presents problems to Nigerians.

  1. Phonological Patterns Observed in Young Children with Cleft Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broen, Patricia A.; And Others

    The study examined the speech production strategies used by 4 young children (30- to 32-months-old) with cleft palate and velopharyngeal inadequacy during the early stages of phonological learning. All the children had had primary palatal surgery and were producing primarily single word utterances with a few 2- and 3-word phrases. Analysis of each…

  2. Segmental phonology and the perception of syntactic structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, D.R.; Cutler, A.

    1984-01-01

    Recent research in speech production has shown that syntactic structure is reflected in segmental phonology—the application of certain phonological rules of English (e.g., palatalization and alveolar flapping) is inhibited across phrase boundaries. We examined whether such segmental effects can be

  3. Complexity in phonology: The complex consonants of simple CV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this article is to investigate the interplay of simplicity and complexity in the phonological structure of Zezuru. The article argues that Zezuru affricates, prenasalised consonants (NCs) and velarised consonants (Cws) are subsegmentally complex segments which function as simple onsets. Treating them ...

  4. Cross-Language Activation of Phonology in Young Bilingual Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared, Debra; Cormier, Pierre; Levy, Betty Ann; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether children who were learning to read simultaneously in English and French activate phonological representations from only the language in which they are reading or from both of their languages. Children in French Immersion programs in Grade 3 were asked to name aloud cognates, interlingual homographs, interlingual homophones,…

  5. Automatic activation of word phonology from print in deep dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, R B; Lanzoni, S M

    1992-11-01

    The performance of deep dyslexics in oral reading and other tasks suggests that they are poor at activating the phonology of words and non-words from printed stimuli. As the tasks ordinarily used to test deep dyslexics require controlled processing, it is possible that the phonology of printed words can be better activated on an automatic basis. This study investigated this possibility by testing a deep dyslexic patient on a lexical decision task with pairs of stimuli presented simultaneously. In Experiment 1, which used content words as stimuli, the deep dyslexic, like normal subjects, showed faster reaction times on trials with rhyming, similarly spelled stimuli (e.g. bribe-tribe) than on control trials (consisting of non-rhyming, dissimilarly spelled words), but slower reaction times on trials with non-rhyming, similarly spelled stimuli (e.g. couch-touch). When the experiment was repeated using function words as stimuli, the patient no longer showed a phonological effect. Therefore, the phonological activation of printed content words by deep dyslexics may be better than would be expected on the basis of their oral reading performance.

  6. Visual attention shift to printed words during spoken word recognition in Chinese: The role of phonological information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Qu, Qingqing; Tong, Xiuhong

    2018-01-25

    The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which phonological information mediates the visual attention shift to printed Chinese words in spoken word recognition by using an eye-movement technique with a printed-word paradigm. In this paradigm, participants are visually presented with four printed words on a computer screen, which include a target word, a phonological competitor, and two distractors. Participants are then required to select the target word using a computer mouse, and the eye movements are recorded. In Experiment 1, phonological information was manipulated at the full-phonological overlap; in Experiment 2, phonological information at the partial-phonological overlap was manipulated; and in Experiment 3, the phonological competitors were manipulated to share either fulloverlap or partial-overlap with targets directly. Results of the three experiments showed that the phonological competitor effects were observed at both the full-phonological overlap and partial-phonological overlap conditions. That is, phonological competitors attracted more fixations than distractors, which suggested that phonological information mediates the visual attention shift during spoken word recognition. More importantly, we found that the mediating role of phonological information varies as a function of the phonological similarity between target words and phonological competitors.

  7. Phonological Development in Hearing Learners of a Sign Language: The Influence of Phonological Parameters, Sign Complexity, and Iconicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Gerardo; Morgan, Gary

    2015-01-01

    The present study implemented a sign-repetition task at two points in time to hearing adult learners of British Sign Language and explored how each phonological parameter, sign complexity, and iconicity affected sign production over an 11-week (22-hour) instructional period. The results show that training improves articulation accuracy and that…

  8. The Persian version of phonological test of diagnostic evaluation articulation and phonology for Persian speaking children and investigating its validity and reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talieh Zarifian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Speech and language pathologists (SLP often refer to phonological data as part of their assessment protocols in evaluating the communication skills of children. The aim of this study was to develop the Persian version of the phonological test in evaluating and diagnosing communication skills in Persian speaking children and to evaluate its validity and reliability.Methods: The Persian phonological test (PPT was conducted on 387 monolingual Persian speaking boys and girls (3-6 years of age who were selected from 12 nurseries in the northwest region of Tehran. Content validity ratio (CVR and content validity index (CVI were assessed by speechtherapists and linguists. Correlation between speech and language pathologists experts' opinions and Persian phonological test results in children with and without phonological disorders was evaluated to investigate the Persian phonological test validity. In addition, the Persian phonological test test-retest reliability was investigated.Results: Both content validity ratio and content validity index were found to be acceptable (CVR≥94.71 and CVI=97.35. The PPT validity was confirmed by finding a good correlation between s peech and language pathologists experts' opinions and Persian phonological test results ( r Kappa =0.73 and r Spearman =0.76. The percent of agreement between transcription and analyzing error patterns in test-retest (ranging from 86.27%-100% and score-rescore (ranging from 94.28%-100% showed that Persian phonological test had a very high reliability.Conclusion: The results of this study show that the Persian phonological test seems to be a suitable tool in evaluating phonological skills of Persian speaking children in clinical settings and research projects.

  9. Speech and non-speech processing in children with phonological disorders: an electrophysiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Crivellaro Gonçalves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether neurophysiological auditory brainstem responses to clicks and repeated speech stimuli differ between typically developing children and children with phonological disorders. INTRODUCTION: Phonological disorders are language impairments resulting from inadequate use of adult phonological language rules and are among the most common speech and language disorders in children (prevalence: 8 - 9%. Our hypothesis is that children with phonological disorders have basic differences in the way that their brains encode acoustic signals at brainstem level when compared to normal counterparts. METHODS: We recorded click and speech evoked auditory brainstem responses in 18 typically developing children (control group and in 18 children who were clinically diagnosed with phonological disorders (research group. The age range of the children was from 7-11 years. RESULTS: The research group exhibited significantly longer latency responses to click stimuli (waves I, III and V and speech stimuli (waves V and A when compared to the control group. DISCUSSION: These results suggest that the abnormal encoding of speech sounds may be a biological marker of phonological disorders. However, these results cannot define the biological origins of phonological problems. We also observed that speech-evoked auditory brainstem responses had a higher specificity/sensitivity for identifying phonological disorders than click-evoked auditory brainstem responses. CONCLUSIONS: Early stages of the auditory pathway processing of an acoustic stimulus are not similar in typically developing children and those with phonological disorders. These findings suggest that there are brainstem auditory pathway abnormalities in children with phonological disorders.

  10. The role of number words: the phonological length effect in multidigit addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klessinger, Nicolai; Szczerbinski, Marcin; Varley, Rosemary

    2012-11-01

    We explored the role of phonological representations of number words in exact calculation. The reaction times and accuracy of responses in multidigit addition problems were compared across three groups of participants (young healthy, older healthy, and 3 patients with severe aphasia) and two types of addition problems: phonologically long in English (containing the bisyllabic number word "seven") and short in English (monosyllabic number words-e.g., "six"). Older healthy participants were significantly faster and more accurate in calculation than younger healthy participants. The older participants showed no evidence of a phonological length effect. However this effect was apparent in the younger adults, with longer reaction times on phonologically long problems. Furthermore, there was an association between the presence of a phonological length effect and the overall speed of response, suggesting that less proficient calculators were more reliant on phonological mediation of performance. The aphasic participants retained the ability to complete multidigit additions and were as accurate as the younger healthy group, although the response times of two of the 3 patients were slow. The aphasic participants varied with regard to the presence of a phonological length effect. Two participants showed no evidence of phonological mediation, while 1 displayed a phonological length effect. The results suggest that language resources are not mandatory for exact addition, although they may be used to scaffold math performance in less competent calculators. Evidence of phonological mediation of performance in aphasic participants may provide insight into the integrity or otherwise of inner speech in severe aphasia.

  11. Nonword Repetition: The Relative Contributions of Phonological Short-Term Memory and Phonological Representations in Children with Language and Reading Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispens, Judith; Baker, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates the relative contributions of phonological short-term memory and phonological representations to nonword repetition (NWR). This was evaluated in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and/or reading impairment (RI); it was also studied from a developmental perspective by comparing 2 groups of typically…

  12. Lexical and Phonological Development in Children with Childhood Apraxia of Speech--A Commentary on Stoel-Gammon's "Relationships between Lexical and Phonological Development in Young Children"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velleman, Shelley L.

    2011-01-01

    Although not the focus of her article, phonological development in young children with speech sound disorders of various types is highly germane to Stoel-Gammon's discussion (this issue) for at least two primary reasons. Most obvious is that typical processes and milestones of phonological development are the standards and benchmarks against which…

  13. Nonword repetition: the relative contributions of phonological short-term memory and phonological representations in children with language and hearing impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rispens, J.; Baker, A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates the relative contributions of phonological short-term memory and phonological representations to nonword repetition (NWR). This was evaluated in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and/or reading impairment (RI); it was also studied from a developmental

  14. Neural signatures of phonological deficits in Chinese developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fan; Yan, Xin; Wang, Zhao; Liu, Yanni; Wang, Jin; Spray, Gregory J; Deng, Yuan

    2017-02-01

    There has been debate on whether phonological deficits explain reading difficulty in Chinese, since Chinese is a logographic language which does not employ grapheme-phoneme-correspondence rules and remote memorization seems to be the main method to acquire reading. In the current study, we present neuroimaging evidence that the phonological deficit is also a signature of Chinese dyslexia. Specifically, we found that Chinese children with dyslexia (DD) showed reduced brain activation in the left dorsal inferior frontal gyrus (dIFG) when compared to both age-matched controls (AC) and reading-matched controls (RC) during an auditory rhyming judgment task. This suggests that the phonological processing deficit in this region may be a signature of dyslexia in Chinese, rather than a difference due to task performance or reading ability, which was matched on DD and RC. At exactly the same region of the left dIFG, we found a positive correlation between brain activation and reading skill in DD, suggesting that the phonological deficit is associated with the severity of dyslexia. We also found increased brain activation in the right precentral gyrus in DD than both AC and RC, suggesting a compensation of reliance on articulation. Functional connectivity analyses revealed that DD had a weaker connection between the left superior temporal gyrus (STG) and fusiform gyrus (FG) than the two control groups, suggesting that the reduced connection between phonology and orthography is another neural signature of dyslexia. In contrast, DD showed greater connectivity between the left dIFG and the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) than both control groups, suggesting a reduced segregation between the language network and default mode network in dyslexic children. We also found that connectivity between the left STG and the left dIFG was sensitive to task performance and/or reading skill rather than being dyslexic or not, because AC was greater than both RC and DD, while the

  15. Temporal auditory processing and phonological awareness in reading and writing disorders: preliminary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Aparecido José Couto; Sanches, Seisse Gabriela Gandolfi; Alves, Débora Cristina; Carvallo, Renata Mota Mamede; Cárnio, Maria Silvia

    2013-01-01

    To verify if there is an association between temporal auditory tests and phonological awareness in individuals with reading and writing disorders. Sixteen children were subjects of this study, aged between 7 and 12 years old, who had reading and writing disorders confirmed after specific assessment. All participants underwent phonological awareness assessment using CONFIAS test. In order to assess the auditory temporal processing, duration and frequency pattern tests were used. The descriptive analysis indicated low performance in syllabic and phonemic activities of phonological awareness as well as in temporal auditory tests. Fisher's test indicated association between disorders in auditory temporal processing and phonological awareness (p>0.001). It suggests that disorders in temporal processing contribute to low performance in phonological awareness tasks. There was association between performance in temporal auditory tests and in the phonological awareness. Data found provide reflections about including temporal auditory assessment among procedures used in the analysis of individuals with reading and writing disorders.

  16. Phonological awareness of children with developmental dysphasia and children with typical language development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolić Gordana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phonological awareness is the ability of phonological processing of words. Children with developmental dysphasia manifest interference in the development of phonological abilities vital for the development of other language skills. The aim of this study is to investigate phonological awareness in children with typical language development and children with developmental dysphasia at preschool age. Phonological awareness is tested in 60 preschool children by a part of the ELLA test (Emerging Literacy & Language Assessment. The results showed a statistically significant difference in the tested elements of phonological awareness among children with typical language development and children with developmental dysphasia. The most significant differences are deletion of phonemes (p≤0.000, replacement of phonemes, as well as segmentation at the level of whole words (p≤0.000.

  17. Does a dynamic test of phonological awareness predict early reading difficulties?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gellert, Anna Steenberg; Elbro, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    A few studies have indicated that dynamic measures of phonological awareness may contribute uniquely to the prediction of early reading development. However, standard control measures have been few and limited by floor effects, thus limiting their predictive value. The purpose of the present study...... was to examine the predictive value of a dynamic test of phonological awareness while controlling for both letter knowledge and standard phonological awareness using measures with no floor effect. We administered a dynamic test of phonological awareness along with traditional tests of phonological awareness...... and letter knowledge to 160 children in the fall of kindergarten. Reading outcomes were studied at three test points: at the end of kindergarten, in the first half of Grade 1, and at the end of Grade 1. The results indicated that the dynamic test of phonological awareness contributed significantly...

  18. Serum lipid fatty acids, phonological processing, and reading in children with oral clefts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laasonen, M; Erkkilä, A T; Isotalo, E; Pulkkinen, J J; Haapanen, M-L; Virsu, V

    2006-01-01

    Reading skill is suggested to be related to phonological processing ability and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Here we investigated whether fatty acids (FAs) are related to phonological processing, whether the relations between PUFAs and reading generalize to other FAs, whether these relations are mediated by phonological processing, and whether relations of FAs are specific for language-related functions. Blood samples of 49 ten-year-old children with oral clefts were collected for FA proportion analysis in serum cholesteryl esters and phospholipids. On the same day, they performed tasks of phonological processing, reading, and both verbal and nonverbal intelligence. Sequential regression analyses (adjusted for age, gender, and cleft type) showed that phonological processing was inversely related to myristic acid in phospholipids and positively related to eicosapentaenoic acid in cholesteryl esters. Reading was inversely related to palmitoleic and gammalinolenic acids in phospholipids. The relations between FAs and reading were not mediated by phonological processing and FAs related only to language-related functions.

  19. The effect of phonological realization of inflectional morphology on verbal agreement in French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenck-Mestre, Cheryl; Osterhout, Lee; McLaughlin, Judy; Foucart, Alice

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of the phonological realization of morphosyntactic agreement within the inflectional phrase (IP) in written French, as revealed by ERPs. In two independent experiments, we varied the presence vs. absence of phonological cues to morphological variation. Of interest was whether a graded ERP response to these different conditions could be found in native speakers (Experiment 1), and whether non-native learners would benefit from the presence of phonological cues (Experiment 2). The results for native French speakers showed that compared to grammatically correct instances, phonologically realized inflectional errors produced a significant P600 response, which was statistically larger than that produced by errors that were silent. German L1 French L2 learners showed similar benefits of the phonological realization of morphemes. Phonologically realized errors produced a robust P600 response whereas silent errors produced no robust effects. Implications of these results are discussed in reference to previous studies of L2 acquisition of morphosyntax. PMID:18255043

  20. AN APPLIED INTERLANGUAGE EXPERIMENT INTO PHONOLOGICAL MISPERCEPTIONS OF ADULT LEARNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Tench

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment described here was to attempt to measure adult learners' percetual interlanguage in phonology. The implementation of a methodology involving context-less lists of English words selected for their potential phonological problems is described, and the way in which learners process words they are listening to is discussed. The results of 13 Korean adults' perceptions and misperceptions are analysed: the most misperceived vowels were ID:/ and the short vowels /u, A, I, E, D, z/;c onsonants were mainly misperceived in word-final position, but 18, v, b, p, rl were misperceived to some extent in any position, and /S, j/ before the vowel /i:/; consonant clusters involving /f, 1, r/ were particularly subject to misperception. These findings have implications for the design of English pronunciation teaching materials for Koreans.

  1. Semantic, phonologic, and verb fluency in Huntington's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Jardim Azambuja

    Full Text Available Abstract Verbal fluency tasks have been identified as important indicators of executive functioning impairment in patients with frontal lobe dysfunction. Although the usual evaluation of this ability considers phonologic and semantic criteria, there is some evidence that fluency of verbs would be more sensitive in disclosing frontostriatal physiopathology since frontal regions primarily mediate retrieval of verbs. Huntington's disease usually affects these circuitries. Objective: To compare three types of verbal fluency task in the assessment of frontal-striatal dysfunction in HD subjects. Methods: We studied 26 Huntington's disease subjects, divided into two subgroups: mild (11 and moderate (15 along with 26 normal volunteers matched for age, gender and schooling, for three types of verbal fluency: phonologic fluency (F-A-S, semantic fluency and fluency of verbs. Results: Huntington's disease subjects showed a significant reduction in the number of words correctly generated in the three tasks when compared to the normal group. Both controls and Huntington's disease subjects showed a similar pattern of decreasing task performance with the greatest number of words being generated by semantic elicitation followed by verbs and lastly phonologic criteria. We did not find greater production of verbs compared with F-A-S and semantic conditions. Moreover, the fluency of verbs distinguished only the moderate group from controls. Conclusion: Our results indicated that phonologic and semantic fluency can be used to evaluate executive functioning, proving more sensitive than verb fluency. However, it is important to point out that the diverse presentations of Huntington's disease means that an extended sample is necessary for more consistent analysis of this issue.

  2. Phonological Spelling and Reading Deficits in Children with Spelling Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Friend, Angela; Olson, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Spelling errors in the Wide Range Achievement Test were analyzed for 77 pairs of children, each of which included one older child with spelling disability (SD) and one spelling-level-matched younger child with normal spelling ability from the Colorado Learning Disabilities Research Center database. Spelling error analysis consisted of a percent graphotactic-accuracy (GA) score based on syllable position and existence in English, and a phonological accuracy score (PA). The SD group scored sign...

  3. Phonological working memory and reading in students with dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Alves Ferreira De Carvalho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate parameters related to fluency, reading comprehension and phonological processing (operational and short-term memory and identify potential correlation between the variables in Dyslexia and in the absence of reading difficulties. Method: One hundred and fifteen students from the third to eighth grade of elementary school were grouped into a Control Group (CG and Group with Dyslexia (GDys. Reading of words, pseudowords and text (decoding; listening and reading comprehension; phonological short-term and working memory (repetition of pseudowords and Digit Span were evaluated. Results: The comparison of the groups showed significant differences in decoding, phonological short-term memory (repetition of pseudowords and answers to text-connecting questions (TC on reading comprehension, with the worst performances identified for GDys. In this group there were negative correlations between pseudowords repetition and TC answers and total score, both on listening comprehension. No correlations were found between operational and short-term memory (Digit Span and parameters of fluency and reading comprehension in dyslexia. For the sample without complaint, there were positive correlations between some parameters of reading fluency and repetition of pseudowords and also between answering literal questions in listening comprehension and repetition of digits on the direct and reverse order. There was no correlation with the parameters of reading comprehension. Conclusion: GDys and CG showed similar performance in listening comprehension and in understanding of explicit information and gap-filling inference on reading comprehension. Students of GDys showed worst performance in reading decoding, phonological short-term memory (pseudowords and on inferences that depends on textual cohesion understanding in reading. There were negative correlations between pseudowords repetition and TC answers and total score, both in listening comprehension.

  4. Technical Examination of a Measure of Phonological Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Mott

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the development and evaluation of an assessment of phonological sensitivity (PS designed to empower teachers to identify children’s phonological and phonemic awareness levels for meaningful instruction and to aid literacy researchers in advancing current understandings of the developmental continuum of PS skills. The Leveled Assessment of Phonological Sensitivity (LAPS is based on specific causal, reciprocal, and correlational relationships to literacy skills, including reading. The assessment contains 11 levels of item types divided in two parts synthesizing linguistic complexity and cognitive operation based on the literature: (a phonological awareness and (b phonemic awareness for determining a child’s level of PS skill. Technical examination of the LAPS’s reliability and validity are presented, including developmental trends of students (n = 333 in Pre-K, K, and Grades 1 and 2. Internal consistency (α = .93 and split-half reliability (Guttman coefficient = .95 were high. Content validity is discussed based on the historical body of research addressing the PS continuum in comparison with the current construct. Developmental validity, determined via ANOVA, revealed LAPS scores discriminating grade level of participants. Confirmatory factor analysis with structural equation modeling revealed single-factor structure, indicating evidence for discriminant validity across LAPS item types along a single latent variable. All 11 paths contained high correlations (across 10 item types with α = .79 between a single factor with rhyme as the exception (α = .40. Findings support LAPS use for teacher identification of students’ PS and reinforce the PS hierarchy of task difficulty set forth from the body of research that dates back to 1976.

  5. Early lexical and phonological acquisition and its relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiethan, Fernanda Marafiga; Nóro, Letícia Arruda; Mota, Helena Bolli

    2014-01-01

    Verifying likely relationships between lexical and phonological development of children aged between 1 year to 1 year, 11 months and 29 days, who were enrolled in public kindergarten schools of Santa Maria (RS). The sample consisted of 18 children of both genders, with typical language development and aged between 1 year to 1 year, 11 months and 29 days, separated in three age subgroups. Visual recordings of spontaneous speech of each child were collected and then lexical analysis regarding the types of the said lexical items and phonological assessment were performed. The number of sounds acquired and partially acquired were counted together, and the 19 sounds and two all phones of Brazilian Portuguese were considered. To the statistical analysis, the tests of Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon were used, with significance level of prelace_LT0.05. When compared the means relating to the acquired sounds and mean of the acquired and partially acquired sounds percentages, there was difference between the first and the second age subgroup, and between the first and the third subgroup. In the comparison of the said lexical items means among the age subgroups, there was difference between the first and the second subgroup, and between the first and the third subgroup again. In the comparison between the said lexical items and acquired and partially acquired sounds in each age subgroup, there was difference only in the age subgroup of 1 year and 8 months to 1 year, 11 months and 29 days, in which the sounds highlighted. The phonological and lexical domains develop as a growing process and influence each other. The Phonology has a little advantage.

  6. Phonological working memory and reading in students with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Carolina A F; Kida, Adriana de S B; Capellini, Simone A; de Avila, Clara R B

    2014-01-01

    To investigate parameters related to fluency, reading comprehension and phonological processing (operational and short-term memory) and identify potential correlation between the variables in Dyslexia and in the absence of reading difficulties. One hundred and fifteen students from the third to eighth grade of elementary school were grouped into a Control Group (CG) and Group with Dyslexia (GDys). Reading of words, pseudowords and text (decoding); listening and reading comprehension; phonological short-term and working memory (repetition of pseudowords and Digit Span) were evaluated. The comparison of the groups showed significant differences in decoding, phonological short-term memory (repetition of pseudowords) and answers to text-connecting questions (TC) on reading comprehension, with the worst performances identified for GDys. In this group there were negative correlations between pseudowords repetition and TC answers and total score, both on listening comprehension. No correlations were found between operational and short-term memory (Digit Span) and parameters of fluency and reading comprehension in dyslexia. For the sample without complaint, there were positive correlations between some parameters of reading fluency and repetition of pseudowords and also between answering literal questions in listening comprehension and repetition of digits on the direct and reverse order. There was no correlation with the parameters of reading comprehension. GDys and CG showed similar performance in listening comprehension and in understanding of explicit information and gap-filling inference on reading comprehension. Students of GDys showed worst performance in reading decoding, phonological short-term memory (pseudowords) and on inferences that depends on textual cohesion understanding in reading. There were negative correlations between pseudowords repetition and TC answers and total score, both in listening comprehension.

  7. Neural dynamics of phonological processing in the dorsal auditory stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebenthal, Einat; Sabri, Merav; Beardsley, Scott A; Mangalathu-Arumana, Jain; Desai, Anjali

    2013-09-25

    Neuroanatomical models hypothesize a role for the dorsal auditory pathway in phonological processing as a feedforward efferent system (Davis and Johnsrude, 2007; Rauschecker and Scott, 2009; Hickok et al., 2011). But the functional organization of the pathway, in terms of time course of interactions between auditory, somatosensory, and motor regions, and the hemispheric lateralization pattern is largely unknown. Here, ambiguous duplex syllables, with elements presented dichotically at varying interaural asynchronies, were used to parametrically modulate phonological processing and associated neural activity in the human dorsal auditory stream. Subjects performed syllable and chirp identification tasks, while event-related potentials and functional magnetic resonance images were concurrently collected. Joint independent component analysis was applied to fuse the neuroimaging data and study the neural dynamics of brain regions involved in phonological processing with high spatiotemporal resolution. Results revealed a highly interactive neural network associated with phonological processing, composed of functional fields in posterior temporal gyrus (pSTG), inferior parietal lobule (IPL), and ventral central sulcus (vCS) that were engaged early and almost simultaneously (at 80-100 ms), consistent with a direct influence of articulatory somatomotor areas on phonemic perception. Left hemispheric lateralization was observed 250 ms earlier in IPL and vCS than pSTG, suggesting that functional specialization of somatomotor (and not auditory) areas determined lateralization in the dorsal auditory pathway. The temporal dynamics of the dorsal auditory pathway described here offer a new understanding of its functional organization and demonstrate that temporal information is essential to resolve neural circuits underlying complex behaviors.

  8. An Articulatory Phonology Account of Preferred Consonant-Vowel Combinations

    OpenAIRE

    Giulivi, Sara; Whalen, D. H.; Goldstein, Louis M.; Nam, Hosung; Levitt, Andrea G.

    2011-01-01

    Certain consonant/vowel combinations (labial/central, coronal/front, velar/back) are more frequent in babbling as well as, to a lesser extent, in adult language, than chance would dictate. The “Frame then Content” (F/C) hypothesis (Davis & MacNeilage, 1994) attributes this pattern to biomechanical vocal-tract biases that change as infants mature. Articulatory Phonology (AP; Browman and Goldstein 1989) attributes preferences to demands placed on shared articulators. F/C implies that preference...

  9. Synchronization and phonological skills: precise auditory timing hypothesis (PATH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam eTierney

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Phonological skills are enhanced by music training, but the mechanisms enabling this cross-domain enhancement remain unknown. To explain this cross-domain transfer, we propose a precise auditory timing hypothesis (PATH whereby entrainment practice is the core mechanism underlying enhanced phonological abilities in musicians. Both rhythmic synchronization and language skills such as consonant discrimination, detection of word and phrase boundaries, and conversational turn-taking rely on the perception of extremely fine-grained timing details in sound. Auditory-motor timing is an acoustic feature which meets all five of the pre-conditions necessary for cross-domain enhancement to occur (Patel 2011, 2012, 2014. There is overlap between the neural networks that process timing in the context of both music and language. Entrainment to music demands more precise timing sensitivity than does language processing. Moreover, auditory-motor timing integration captures the emotion of the trainee, is repeatedly practiced, and demands focused attention. The precise auditory timing hypothesis predicts that musical training emphasizing entrainment will be particularly effective in enhancing phonological skills.

  10. Syntax-phonology mapping and the Tongan DP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron Ahn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tongan, a Polynesian language, is almost entirely head-initial. There are some exceptions to this, including Demonstrative enclitics and the so-called Definitive Accent (Churchward 1953, which appears to be a stress-shift operation, typically in the rightmost word of the DP. One question that arises here is: where does the morphophonological status of being an enclitic come from – particularly in a rather radically head-initial language? By investigating the distributional properties of the Definitive Accent, it will become clear that this is the result of syntactic and phonological structures proceeding without any direct appeal to morphophonological properties. A new formal analysis presented here derives the positions of the Definitive Accent and possible prosodic phrasings, appealing to independently motivated phonological constraints applying to structures with three cross-linguistically supported movement operations. It is shown that achieving this requires neither including morpheme-indexed constraints, nor having lexemes pre-specified with morphophonological properties such as “enclitic” or “prefix”. Finally, Tongan Definitive Accents raise important issues about the immutability of phases. Specifically, it must be that Phonology may access and manipulate previously spelled out material in a way that Syntax cannot, which is in fact exactly what a Minimalist architecture predicts.

  11. Orthographic and Phonological Neighborhood Databases across Multiple Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marian, Viorica

    2017-01-01

    The increased globalization of science and technology and the growing number of bilinguals and multilinguals in the world have made research with multiple languages a mainstay for scholars who study human function and especially those who focus on language, cognition, and the brain. Such research can benefit from large-scale databases and online resources that describe and measure lexical, phonological, orthographic, and semantic information. The present paper discusses currently-available resources and underscores the need for tools that enable measurements both within and across multiple languages. A general review of language databases is followed by a targeted introduction to databases of orthographic and phonological neighborhoods. A specific focus on CLEARPOND illustrates how databases can be used to assess and compare neighborhood information across languages, to develop research materials, and to provide insight into broad questions about language. As an example of how using large-scale databases can answer questions about language, a closer look at neighborhood effects on lexical access reveals that not only orthographic, but also phonological neighborhoods can influence visual lexical access both within and across languages. We conclude that capitalizing upon large-scale linguistic databases can advance, refine, and accelerate scientific discoveries about the human linguistic capacity.

  12. Phonological processing in Mandarin speakers with congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Peng, Gang

    2014-12-01

    Although there is an emerging consensus that both musical and linguistic pitch processing can be problematic for individuals with a developmental disorder termed congenital amusia, the nature of such a pitch-processing deficit, especially that demonstrated in a speech setting, remains unclear. Therefore, this study tested the performance of native Mandarin speakers, both with and without amusia, on discrimination and imitation tasks for Cantonese level tones, aiming to shed light on this issue. Results suggest that the impact of the phonological deficit, coupled with that of the domain-general pitch deficit, could provide a more comprehensive interpretation of Mandarin amusics' speech impairment. Specifically, when there was a high demand for pitch sensitivity, as in fine-grained pitch discriminations, the operation of the pitch-processing deficit played the more predominant role in modulating amusics' speech performance. But when the demand was low, as in discriminating naturally produced Cantonese level tones, the impact of the phonological deficit was more pronounced compared to that of the pitch-processing deficit. However, despite their perceptual deficits, Mandarin amusics' imitation abilities were comparable to controls'. Such selective impairment in tonal perception suggests that the phonological deficit more severely implicates amusics' input pathways.

  13. Children with speech sound disorder: Comparing a non-linguistic auditory approach with a phonological intervention approach to improve phonological skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eMurphy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the effects of a non-linguistic auditory intervention approach with a phonological intervention approach on the phonological skills of children with speech sound disorder. A total of 17 children, aged 7-12 years, with speech sound disorder were randomly allocated to either the non-linguistic auditory temporal intervention group (n = 10, average age 7.7 ± 1.2 or phonological intervention group (n = 7, average age 8.6 ± 1.2. The intervention outcomes included auditory-sensory measures (auditory temporal processing skills and cognitive measures (attention, short-term memory, speech production and phonological awareness skills. The auditory approach focused on non-linguistic auditory training (eg. backward masking and frequency discrimination, whereas the phonological approach focused on speech sound training (eg. phonological organisation and awareness. Both interventions consisted of twelve 45-minute sessions delivered twice per week, for a total of nine hours. Intra-group analysis demonstrated that the auditory intervention group showed significant gains in both auditory and cognitive measures, whereas no significant gain was observed in the phonological intervention group. No significant improvement on phonological skills was observed in any of the groups. Inter-group analysis demonstrated significant differences between the improvement following training for both groups, with a more pronounced gain for the non-linguistic auditory temporal intervention in one of the visual attention measures and both auditory measures. Therefore, both analyses suggest that although the non-linguistic auditory intervention approach appeared to be the most effective intervention approach, it was not sufficient to promote the enhancement of phonological skills.

  14. Phonological Awareness and Effect of Reading in 5.5 and 6.5 Years Old Persian Children

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Soleimani

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Phonological awareness has important role in learning to read. Purpose of this research is detection of phonological awareness in post-reading and pre-reading. Materials & Methods: For studying phonological awareness three kinds of phonological awareness arc used, which consist of: syllable awareness, intra-syllabic units and phoneme awareness. These tasks are samples of North and parker (1993) and Brennan and Ireson (1997). Tasks of syllable awareness consist of: synthesis syl...

  15. Reading Difficulties in Adult Deaf Readers of French: Phonological Codes, Not Guilty!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Nathalie N.; Baum, Shari R.; Mayberry, Rachel I.

    2012-01-01

    Deaf people often achieve low levels of reading skills. The hypothesis that the use of phonological codes is associated with good reading skills in deaf readers is not yet fully supported in the literature. We investigated skilled and less skilled adult deaf readers' use of orthographic and phonological codes in reading. Experiment 1 used a masked…

  16. Studies in the Phonology of Asian Languages IX: Word Accent in Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzman, Raymond S.

    This study, the ninth in the series "Studies in the Phonology of Asian Languages," aims to analyze the phonological properties of the accentual system of Standard Colloquial Japanese on the basis of acoustic-phonetic data, especially data obtained through use of the sound spectrograph and pitch extractor. Chapters deal with functional distinctions…

  17. Processing of acoustic and phonological information of lexical tones in Mandarin Chinese revealed by mismatch negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Keke; Wang, Ruiming; Li, Li; Li, Ping

    2014-01-01

    The accurate perception of lexical tones in tonal languages involves the processing of both acoustic information and phonological information carried by the tonal signal. In this study we evaluated the relative role of the two types of information in native Chinese speaker's processing of tones at a preattentive stage with event-related potentials (ERPs), particularly the mismatch negativity (MNN). Specifically, we distinguished the acoustic from the phonological information by manipulating phonological category and acoustic interval of the stimulus materials. We found a significant main effect of phonological category for the peak latency of MMN, but a main effect of both phonological category and acoustic interval for the mean amplitude of MMN. The results indicated that the two types of information, acoustic and phonological, play different roles in the processing of Chinese lexical tones: acoustic information only impacts the extent of tonal processing, while phonological information affects both the extent and the time course of tonal processing. Implications of these findings are discussed in light of neurocognitive processes of phonological processing.

  18. Spoken Word Recognition and Serial Recall of Words from Components in the Phonological Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew, Cynthia S. Q.; Vitevitch, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Network science uses mathematical techniques to study complex systems such as the phonological lexicon (Vitevitch, 2008). The phonological network consists of a "giant component" (the largest connected component of the network) and "lexical islands" (smaller groups of words that are connected to each other, but not to the giant…

  19. Correlations between vocabulary and phonological acquisition: number of words produced versus acquired consonants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiethan, Fernanda Marafiga; Mota, Helena Bolli; Moraes, Anaelena Bragança de

    2016-01-01

    To verify the probable correlations between the number of word types and the number of consonants in the general phonological system in children with typical language development. Study participants were 186 children aged one year and six months to five years, 11 months and 29 days who were monolingual Brazilian Portuguese speakers with typical language development. Data collection involved speech, language and hearing assessments and spontaneous speech recordings. Phonology was assessed with regard to the number of acquired consonants in the general phonological system, in each syllable structure and in Implicational Model of Feature Complexity (IMFC) levels. Vocabulary was assessed with regard to number of word types produced. These data were compared across age groups. After that, correlations between the word types produced and the variables established for the phonological system were analyzed. The significance level adopted was 5%. All phonological aspects evaluated presented gradual growth. Word types produced showed a similar behavior, though with a small regression at the age of five years. Different positive correlations occurred between the spoken word types and the variables analyzed in the phonological system. Only one negative correlation occurred with respect to the production of complex onset in the last age group analyzed. The phonology and vocabulary of the study participants present similar behaviors. There are many positive correlations between the word types produced and the different aspects of phonology, except regarding complex onset.

  20. What Does a Cue Do? Comparing Phonological and Semantic Cues for Picture Naming in Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteyard, Lotte; Bose, Arpita

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Impaired naming is one of the most common symptoms in aphasia, often treated with cued picture naming paradigms. It has been argued that semantic cues facilitate the reliable categorization of the picture, and phonological cues facilitate the retrieval of target phonology. To test these hypotheses, we compared the effectiveness of…

  1. Maintenance and Generalization Effects of Semantic and Phonological Treatments of Anomia: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macoir, Joel; Routhier, Sonia; Simard, Anne; Picard, Josee

    2012-01-01

    Anomia is one of the most frequent manifestations in aphasia. Model-based treatments for anomia usually focus on semantic and/or phonological levels of processing. This study reports treatment of anomia in an individual with chronic aphasia. After baseline testing, she received a training program in which semantic and phonological treatments were…

  2. Phonological Skills, Visual Attention Span, and Visual Stress in Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksida, Amanda; Iannuzzi, Stéphanie; Bogliotti, Caroline; Chaix, Yves; Démonet, Jean-François; Bricout, Laure; Billard, Catherine; Nguyen-Morel, Marie-Ange; Le Heuzey, Marie-France; Soares-Boucaud, Isabelle; George, Florence; Ziegler, Johannes C.; Ramus, Franck

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we concurrently investigated 3 possible causes of dyslexia--a phonological deficit, visual stress, and a reduced visual attention span--in a large population of 164 dyslexic and 118 control French children, aged between 8 and 13 years old. We found that most dyslexic children showed a phonological deficit, either in terms of…

  3. Phonological memory and the acquisition of grammar in child L2 learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, J.; Messer, M.H.; Leseman, P.P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies show that second language (L2) learners with large phonological me-mory spans outperform learners with smaller memory spans on tests of L2 grammar. Thecurrent study investigated the relationship between phonological memory and L2 gram-mar in more detail than has been done earlier.

  4. Study the left prefrontal cortex activity of Chinese children with dyslexia in phonological processing by NIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhili; Li, Ting; Zheng, Yi; Luo, Qingming; Song, Ranran; Gong, Hui

    2006-02-01

    Developmental dyslexia, a kind of prevalent psychological disease, represents that dyslexic children have unexpected difficulties in phonological processing and recognition test of Chinese characters. Some functional imaging technologies, such as fMRI and PET, have been used to study the brain activities of the children with dyslexia whose first language is English. In this paper, a portable, 16-channel, continuous-wave (CW) NIRS instrument was used to monitor the concentration changes of each hemoglobin species when Chinese children did the task of phonological processing and recognition test. The NIRS recorded the hemodynamic changes in the left prefrontal cortex of the children. 20 dyslexia-reading children (10~12 years old) and 20 normal-reading children took part in the phonological processing of Chinese characters including the phonological awareness section and the phonological decoding section. During the phonological awareness section, the changed concentration of deoxy-hemoglobin in dyslexia-reading children were significantly higher (pchildren in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). While in the phonological decoding section, both normal and dyslexic reading children had more activity in the left VLPFC, but only normal-reading children had activity in the left middorsal prefrontal cortex. In conclusion, both dyslexic and normal-reading children have activity in the left prefrontal cortex, but the degree and the areas of the prefrontal cortex activity are different between them when they did phonological processing.

  5. Response Inhibition and Its Relationship to Phonological Processing in Children with and without Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Johanna M.; Labuhn, Andju S.; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates response inhibition and its relationship to phonological processing in third-graders with and without dyslexia. Children with dyslexia (n = 20) and children without dyslexia (n = 16) were administered a stop signal task and a digit span forwards task. Initial analyses revealed phonological processing deficits in terms of a…

  6. Brain Basis of Phonological Awareness for Spoken Language in Children and Its Disruption in Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Elizabeth S.; Christodoulou, Joanna A.; Gaab, Nadine; Lieberman, Daniel A.; Triantafyllou, Christina; Wolf, Maryanne; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2012-01-01

    Phonological awareness, knowledge that speech is composed of syllables and phonemes, is critical for learning to read. Phonological awareness precedes and predicts successful transition from language to literacy, and weakness in phonological awareness is a leading cause of dyslexia, but the brain basis of phonological awareness for spoken language in children is unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the neural correlates of phonological awareness using an auditory word-rhyming task in children who were typical readers or who had dyslexia (ages 7–13) and a younger group of kindergarteners (ages 5–6). Typically developing children, but not children with dyslexia, recruited left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) when making explicit phonological judgments. Kindergarteners, who were matched to the older children with dyslexia on standardized tests of phonological awareness, also recruited left DLPFC. Left DLPFC may play a critical role in the development of phonological awareness for spoken language critical for reading and in the etiology of dyslexia. PMID:21693783

  7. Abstract The syllable is very vital in phonological analysis. This is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tracie1

    inda Chinelo Nkamigbo epartment of inguistics. Nnamdi Azikiwe niversity Awka, Nigeria. Abstract. The syllable is very vital in phonological analysis. This is because phonological processes occur within syllables and across syllable boundaries. The law of syllable phonotactics forces the sequence of words in syllables to ...

  8. Phonological Awareness and Reading Speed Deficits in Reading Disabled Greek-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinidou, Maria; Stainthorp, Rhona

    2009-01-01

    There is evidence that phonological awareness skills secure decoding ability and that phonological deficits underlie failure to acquire adequate word recognition. Slow word-reading rate may be an additional defining characteristic of reading disability. The present study aimed to investigate whether: (1) reading disabled (RD) Greek-speaking…

  9. Conceptual Coherence Affects Phonological Activation of Context Objects During Object Naming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppermann, F.; Jescheniak, J.D.; Schriefers, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    In 4 picture-word interference experiments, speakers named a target object that was presented with a context object. Using auditory distractors that were phonologically related or unrelated either to the target object or the context object, the authors assessed whether phonological processing was

  10. Contributions of Phonological Processing Skills to Reading Skills in Arabic Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taibah, Nadia J.; Haynes, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated contributions of phonological awareness (Elision and blending), rapid naming (object, color, letter, and digit), and phonological memory (nonword repetition and Digit Span) to basic decoding and fluency skills in Arabic. Participants were 237 Arabic speaking children from Grades K-3. Dependent measures…

  11. Study and Comparison of Phonological Awareness Skills and Naming Speed in Dyslexic and Normal Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A'tiyeh Ashtari

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In recent decades, it has been accepted that , deficiencies in phonological Awareness is related to reading problems, and phonological Awareness is the most important causal factor of dyslexia. Although recent researchers on naming speed skill reveal that this skill is orther possible source of dyslexia. Materials & Methods: Present research has been fulfilled on 58 second elementary grade students on the aim of reviewing and comparing the phonological awareness and naming speed. There was 28 dyslexic subject and 30 normal people. There was analyzing of all collected information in this research by independent statistical “ T “ and U – man Whitney Test . Likewise, The correlation between phonological awarecess skills and naming speed in two subject groups by Pearson and Spearman correlated coefficint. Results: Results shiwed that, it was significant differences detween both dyslexia and normal groups in mentioned skills, and dyslexic groupe is weaker than normal group for both skills. Furthermore, in this research there was not significant corellation between phonological awareness and naming speed. Keywords dyslexia/ phonological awarness/ naming speed. Conclusion: consistent with the previous studies , the results of this study revealed that dyslexic individuals have problems in phonological awareness and naming speed . Also insignificant Correlation between the above skills may show that naming speed is independant of phonological awareness.

  12. Two Case Studies in the Phonetics-Phonology Interface: Evidence from Turkish Voicing and Norwegian Coalescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizollahi, Zhaleh

    2010-01-01

    The phonetics-phonology interface has long been debated; some linguists argue for a modular approach (Keating 1984, Pierrehumbert 1990, Zsiga 1997, Cohn 1998), while others argue that there is no interface, and that phonetics and phonology are one and the same (Browman & Goldstein 1989-1992, Ohala 1990). Recent proposals by Gafos (2002), and…

  13. New evidence for phonological processing during visual word recognition: the case of Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentin, S; Ibrahim, R

    1996-03-01

    Lexical decision and naming were examined with words and pseudowords in literary Arabic and with transliterations of words in a Palestinian dialect that has no written form. Although the transliterations were visually unfamiliar, they were not easily rejected in lexical decision, and they were more slowly accepted in phonologically based lexical decision. Naming transliterations of spoken words was slower than naming of literary words and pseudowords. Apparently, phonological computation is mandatory for both lexical decision and naming. A large frequency effect in both lexical decision and naming suggests that addressed phonology is an option for familiar orthographic patterns. The frequency effect on processing transliterations indicated that lexical phonology is involved with prelexical phonological computation even if addressed phonology is not possible. These data support a combination between a cascade-type process, in which partial products of the grapheme-to-phoneme translation activate phonological units in the lexicon, and an interactive model, in which the activated lexical units feed back, shaping the prelexical phonological computation process.

  14. A Spanish Pilot Investigation for a Crosslinguistic Study in Protracted Phonological Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-Peon, Mario E.; Bernhardt, Barbara May; Adler-Bock, Marcy; Avila, Carmen; Carballo, Gloria; Fresneda, Dolores; Lleo, Conxita; Mendoza, Elvira; Perez, Denisse; Stemberger, Joseph Paul

    2012-01-01

    A crosslinguistic study is underway concerning children's protracted phonological development (i.e. speech sound disorders). The current article reports pilot Spanish data for this study from two 4-year-old boys with protracted phonological development. The purposes of the pilot study were to: (1) develop and evaluate a word list for elicitation…

  15. Neural Correlates of Phonological Processing in Speech Sound Disorder: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkach, Jean A.; Chen, Xu; Freebairn, Lisa A.; Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Holland, Scott K.; Lewis, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    Speech sound disorders (SSD) are the largest group of communication disorders observed in children. One explanation for these disorders is that children with SSD fail to form stable phonological representations when acquiring the speech sound system of their language due to poor phonological memory (PM). The goal of this study was to examine PM in…

  16. Phonological Awareness and Vocabulary Performance of Monolingual and Bilingual Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Emily; Werfel, Krystal L.; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study compared the phonological awareness skills and vocabulary performance of English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children with and without hearing loss. Preschool children with varying degrees of hearing loss (n = 18) and preschool children without hearing loss (n = 19) completed measures of phonological awareness and…

  17. Measuring Greek and Greek-Cypriot Students' Phonological Awareness Skills: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triga, Anastassia; Kakopsitou, Polina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a new Greek phonological awareness test for preschool and primary school age children (ages 5-7) in Greece and Cyprus. A new phonological awareness test with 168 items was individually administered to 132 students (60 students in Cyprus and 72 students in Greece) from five urban, five semi-rural, and three…

  18. Phonological Awareness and Early Reading Development in Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, B. C.; Gillon, G. T.; Dodd, B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is associated with phonological awareness, reading, and spelling deficits. Comparing literacy skills in CAS with other developmental speech disorders is critical for understanding the complexity of the disorder. Aims: This study compared the phonological awareness and reading development of children…

  19. Effectiveness of an Integrated Phonological Awareness Approach for Children with Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Brigid C.; Gillon, Gail T.; Dodd, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of an integrated phonological awareness approach for children with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Change in speech, phonological awareness, letter knowledge, word decoding, and spelling skills were examined. A controlled multiple single-subject design was employed. Twelve children aged 4-7 years with…

  20. In Further Defense of a Non-Phonological Account for Sanskrit Root-Initial Aspiration Alternations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Richard D.; Joseph, Brian D.

    In this paper the morphological argument for the conditioning of Sanskrit aspiration and deaspiration is renewed in theoretically current terms, bringing forth new arguments and examining previously undiscussed major weaknesses in the purely phonological (autosegmental) argument. Relevant phonological, morphological, and lexical facts are…

  1. The Role of Sign Phonology and Iconicity during Sign Processing: The Case of Deaf Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormel, Ellen; Hermans, Daan; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the influence of sign phonology and iconicity during sign processing in deaf children, the roles of these sign features were examined using an experimental sign-picture verification paradigm. Participants had to make decisions about sign-picture pairs, manipulated according to phonological sign features (i.e., hand shape, movement,…

  2. Distinctive Phonological Features Differ in Relevance for Both Spoken and Written Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernestus, Mirjam; Mak, Willem Marinus

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses four experiments on Dutch which show that distinctive phonological features differ in their relevance for word recognition. The relevance of a feature for word recognition depends on its phonological stability, that is, the extent to which that feature is generally realized in accordance with its lexical specification in the…

  3. Phonological False Memories in Children and Adults: Evidence for a Developmental Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swannell, Ellen R.; Dewhurst, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    False memories created by the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) procedure typically show a developmental reversal whereby levels of false recall increase with age. In contrast, false memories produced by phonological lists have been shown to decrease as age increases. In the current study we show that phonological false memories, like semantic false…

  4. Basic Auditory Processing Skills and Phonological Awareness in Low-IQ Readers and Typically Developing Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppen, Sarah; Huss, Martina; Fosker, Tim; Fegan, Natasha; Goswami, Usha

    2011-01-01

    We explore the relationships between basic auditory processing, phonological awareness, vocabulary, and word reading in a sample of 95 children, 55 typically developing children, and 40 children with low IQ. All children received nonspeech auditory processing tasks, phonological processing and literacy measures, and a receptive vocabulary task.…

  5. Evaluation of a Motion-Based Platform for Practicing Phonological Awareness of Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffredo, Michela; Bernabucci, Ivan; Lucarelli, Cristiana; Conforto, Silvia; Schmid, Maurizio; Nera, Maria Matilde; Lopez, Luisa; D'Alessio, Tommaso; Grasselli, Bruna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to introduce a new platform, called "En Plein", for the kinesthetic practice of phonological skills by preschool children and to examine its feasibility in combination with more traditional teaching methods. The rationale is that the manipulation of structural phonological units is important to train the…

  6. Rate of Acquiring and Processing L2 Color Words in Relation to L1 Phonological Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chieh-Fang

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effect of first language (L1) phonological awareness on the rate of learning new second language (L2) color terms and the rate of processing old color terms. Two groups of 37 children participated; they differed on L1 phonological awareness measured at Grade 3. At Grade 5, over multiple trials, the children learned new L2…

  7. Orthographic and Phonological Contributions to Reading Development: Tracking Developmental Trajectories Using Masked Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Johannes C.; Bertrand, Daisy; Lété, Bernard; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    The present study used a variant of masked priming to track the development of 2 marker effects of orthographic and phonological processing from Grade 1 through Grade 5 in a cross-sectional study. Pseudohomophone (PsH) priming served as a marker for phonological processing, whereas transposed-letter (TL) priming was a marker for coarse-grained…

  8. Event-related Potentials Reflecting the Processing of Phonological Constraint Violations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domahs, Ulrike; Kehrein, Wolfgang; Knaus, Johannes; Wiese, Richard; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Flow are violations of phonological constraints processed in word comprehension? The present article reports the results of ail event-related potentials (ERP) Study oil a phonological constraint of German that disallows identical segments within it syllable or word (CC(i)VC(i)). We examined three

  9. Event-related potentials reflecting the processing of phonological constraint violations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domahs, U.; Kehrein, W.; Knaus, J.; Wiese, R.; Schlesewsky, M.

    2009-01-01

    How are violations of phonological constraints processed in word comprehension? The present article reports the results of an event-related potentials (ERP) study on a phonological constraint of German that disallows identical segments within a syllable or word (CC iVCi). We examined three types of

  10. Grammaticality Judgments in Children: The Role of Age, Working Memory and Phonological Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Janet L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the role of age, working memory span and phonological ability in the mastery of ten different grammatical constructions. Six- through eleven-year-old children (n = 68) and adults (n = 19) performed a grammaticality judgment task as well as tests of working memory capacity and receptive phonological ability. Children showed…

  11. Toddlers' Processing of Phonological Alternations: Early Compensation for Assimilation in English and French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoruppa, Katrin; Mani, Nivedita; Peperkamp, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Using a picture pointing task, this study examines toddlers' processing of phonological alternations that trigger sound changes in connected speech. Three experiments investigate whether 2;5- to 3-year-old children take into account assimilations--processes by which phonological features of one sound spread to adjacent sounds--for the purpose of…

  12. Explaining Phonology and Reading in Adult Learners: Introducing Prosodic Awareness and Executive Functions to Reading Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jessica S.; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to extend our understanding of phonology and reading to include suprasegmental awareness using measures of prosodic awareness, which are complex tasks that tap into the rhythmic aspects of phonology. By requiring participants to access, reflect on and manipulate word stress, the prosodic awareness measures used…

  13. Phonological sensitivity and memory in children with a foreign language learning difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, Paola; Ferrari, Marcella

    2008-01-01

    The phonological processing and memory skills of 12- and 13-year-old Italian children with difficulty in learning English as a foreign language (foreign language learning difficulty, FLLD) were examined and compared with those of a control group matched for age and nonverbal intelligence. Three experiments were conducted. A dissociation between verbal and visuo-spatial working memory was observed when compared to the control group; children with FLLD showed a poorer performance in a phonological working memory task but performed to a comparable level in a visuo-spatial working memory task (Experiment 1). In Experiment 2 the word length and the response modality of an auditory word span task were manipulated in order to examine the efficiency of the phonological loop and the relevance of the spoken output. The FLLD group did not show sensitivity to the word length effect and showed no advantage in the picture pointing recall condition. In Experiment 3 children with FLLD were shown to be sensitive to phonological similarity but again they showed neither a word length effect nor a slower articulation speed. Furthermore, in all three experiments children with FLLD were shown to be less efficient in phonological sensitivity tasks and this deficit appeared to be independent of the phonological memory problem. All three experiments consistently showed that children with FLLD have an impairment in phonological memory and phonological processing, which appear to be independent from one other but both contribute to the children's difficulty in learning a second language.

  14. The Locus of Serial Processing in Reading Aloud: Orthography-to-Phonology Computation or Speech Planning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousikou, Petroula; Rastle, Kathleen; Besner, Derek; Coltheart, Max

    2015-01-01

    Dual-route theories of reading posit that a sublexical reading mechanism that operates serially and from left to right is involved in the orthography-to-phonology computation. These theories attribute the masked onset priming effect (MOPE) and the phonological Stroop effect (PSE) to the serial left-to-right operation of this mechanism. However,…

  15. Content Coverage of Single-Word Tests Used to Assess Common Phonological Error Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Cecilia; Vigeland, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This review evaluated whether 9 single-word tests of phonological error patterns provide adequate content coverage to accurately identify error patterns that are active in a child's speech. Method: Tests in the current study were considered to display sufficient opportunities to assess common phonological error patterns if they…

  16. Morphological Awareness, Phonological Awareness, and Literacy Development in Korean and English: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Chiu, Ming Ming; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Eighty-one Korean children were tested once a year across Grades 4, 5, and 6 on Korean phonological and morphological awareness, speeded-naming, Hangul word recognition, Hangul spelling, and English word reading. With age, gender, and Korean vocabulary knowledge statistically controlled, both phonological awareness and speeded-naming were uniquely…

  17. Efficacy and Cross-Domain Effects of a Morphosyntax and a Phonology Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Ann A.; Lewis, Kerry E.; Haskill, Allison; Tolbert, Leslie C.

    2002-01-01

    Twenty preschoolers with impairments in both morphosyntax and phonology were assigned to an intervention of two 12-week blocks beginning with either a block of phonology first (n=10) or a block of morphosyntax first (n=10). Both interventions were effective. The morphosyntax first sequence led to slightly better overall morphosyntactic…

  18. Phonological and Lexical Effects in Verbal Recall by Children with Specific Language Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coady, Jeffry A.; Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims: The present study examined how phonological and lexical knowledge influences memory in children with specific language impairments (SLI). Previous work showed recall advantages for typical adults and children due to word frequency and phonotactic pattern frequency and a recall disadvantage due to phonological similarity…

  19. Developmental Changes in the Manifestation of a Phonological Deficit in Dyslexic Children Learning To Read a Regular Orthography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Peter F.; van der Leij, Aryan

    2003-01-01

    Studies the development of phonological processing abilities in dyslexic, weak, and normal readers. Among other abilities, phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming were assessed in kindergarten, in 1st grade, and in 6th grade. Concludes that various manifestations of a phonological deficit follow distinct developmental pathways.…

  20. Generation of Signs within Semantic and Phonological Categories: Data from Deaf Adults and Children Who Use American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer S.; Figueroa, Daileen M.

    2017-01-01

    Two key areas of language development include semantic and phonological knowledge. Semantic knowledge relates to word and concept knowledge. Phonological knowledge relates to how language parameters combine to create meaning. We investigated signing deaf adults' and children's semantic and phonological sign generation via one-minute tasks,…

  1. Growth hormone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003376.htm Growth hormone suppression test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone suppression test determines whether growth hormone production is ...

  2. Developmental surface and phonological dyslexia in both Greek and English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulos, Andreas; Hanley, J Richard

    2017-11-01

    The hallmark of developmental surface dyslexia in English and French is inaccurate reading of words with atypical spelling-sound correspondences. According to Douklias, Masterson and Hanley (2009), surface dyslexia can also be observed in Greek (a transparent orthography for reading that does not contain words of this kind). Their findings suggested that surface dyslexia in Greek can be characterized by slow reading of familiar words, and by inaccurate spelling of words with atypical sound-spelling correspondences (Greek is less transparent for spelling than for reading). In this study, we report seven adult cases whose slow reading and impaired spelling accuracy satisfied these criteria for Greek surface dyslexia. When asked to read words with atypical grapheme-phoneme correspondences in English (their second language), their accuracy was severely impaired. A co-occurrence was also observed between impaired spelling of words with atypical phoneme-grapheme correspondences in English and Greek. These co-occurrences provide strong evidence that surface dyslexia genuinely exists in Greek and that slow reading of real words in Greek reflects the same underlying impairment as that which produces inaccurate reading of atypical words in English. Two further individuals were observed with impaired reading and spelling of nonwords in both languages, consistent with developmental phonological dyslexia. Neither of the phonological dyslexics read words slowly. In terms of computational models of reading aloud, these findings suggest that slow reading by dyslexics in transparent orthographies is the consequence of a developmental impairment of the lexical (Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Zeigler, 2001; Perry, Ziegler, & Zorzi, 2010) or semantic reading route (Plaut, McClelland, Seidenberg, & Patterson, 1996). This outcome provides evidence that the neurophysiological substrate(s) that support the lexical/semantic and the phonological pathways that are involved in reading

  3. Phonological recovery in Spanish developmental dyslexics through the tip-of-the-tongue paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Collazo Alonso, Aida; González-Nosti, María

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyslexics have difficulties accessing and retrieving the phonological form of words, in the absence of a deficit at the semantic level. The aim of this work was to study, through the Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) paradigm, the problems of lexical access in Spanish-speaking developmental dyslexics and the relationship with their phonological awareness. A group of developmental dyslexics (14) and other children without reading difficulties (14), aged 7 to 12, performed a picture naming task of medium and low frequency and a task of phonological awareness. The results indicated that dyslexic children generally show a greater number of TOT phenomena than the control group. Despite being able to provide semantic information of the drawing, they had difficulties retrieving partial phonological information. These results indicate that developmental dyslexic children have particular difficulty in accessing the phonological form of words, which may be interesting for the development of intervention programs for these children.

  4. Extracting salient sublexical units from written texts: "Emophon," a corpus-based approach to phonological iconicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryani, Arash; Jacobs, Arthur M; Conrad, Markus

    2013-01-01

    A GROWING BODY OF LITERATURE IN PSYCHOLOGY, LINGUISTICS, AND THE NEUROSCIENCES HAS PAID INCREASING ATTENTION TO THE UNDERSTANDING OF THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PHONOLOGICAL REPRESENTATIONS OF WORDS AND THEIR MEANING: a phenomenon also known as phonological iconicity. In this article, we investigate how a text's intended emotional meaning, particularly in literature and poetry, may be reflected at the level of sublexical phonological salience and the use of foregrounded elements. To extract such elements from a given text, we developed a probabilistic model to predict the exceeding of a confidence interval for specific sublexical units concerning their frequency of occurrence within a given text contrasted with a reference linguistic corpus for the German language. Implementing this model in a computational application, we provide a text analysis tool which automatically delivers information about sublexical phonological salience allowing researchers, inter alia, to investigate effects of the sublexical emotional tone of texts based on current findings on phonological iconicity.

  5. Phonological awareness, reading skills, and vocabulary knowledge in children who use cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Caitlin M; de Jong, Kenneth; Pisoni, David B

    2012-01-01

    In hearing children, reading skills have been found to be closely related to phonological awareness. We used several standardized tests to investigate the reading and phonological awareness skills of 27 deaf school-age children who were experienced cochlear implant users. Approximately two-thirds of the children performed at or above the level of their hearing peers on the phonological awareness and reading tasks. Reading scores were found to be strongly correlated with measures of phonological awareness. These correlations remained the same when we statistically controlled for potentially confounding demographic variables such as age at testing and speech perception skills. However, these correlations decreased even after we statistically controlled for vocabulary size. This finding suggests that lexicon size is a mediating factor in the relationship between the children's phonological awareness and reading skills, a finding that has also been reported for typically developing hearing children.

  6. Stress and Syllable Structure in English: Approaches to Phonological Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San Duanmu

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We use phonological variation to refer to alternative forms that are available in a language, such as different syllable structures or word stress patterns in English. We discuss several approaches to such variations and argue for a new approach, in which all alternative forms observe a set of inviolable constraints. In particular, we propose that all English words observe four constraints: (a a foot must be disyllabic, (b stressed syllables must be heavy, (c heavy syllables must have stress, and (d the maximal syllable is CVX. We discuss the implications of our proposal for Optimality Theory and for the analysis of linguistic variation in general.

  7. Some phonological changes in Maltese reflected in onomastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei A. Avram

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper evaluates the onomastic evidence for some of the changes affecting consonants in the history of Maltese. The analysis is based on a rich corpus of surnames, nicknames and place-names recorded between early 15th century and late 18th century. Onomastics is shown to offer valuable insights into the gradual emergence of the system of consonantal phonemes of Modern Maltese and of some of its specific phonological rules. It is also shown that evidence from onomastics disconfirms previous claims regarding the chronology of some of the changes affecting the consonants of Maltese.

  8. Rationale for a ’Many Maps’ Phonology Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    City, State, and ZIP Code) 10 SOURCE OF FUNDING NUMBERS 40005ub201/7-4-86 PROGRAM PROJECT TASK ~ WORK UNIT ELEMENT NO NO.I NO. ACCESSION NO NIA N/A NIA...seek to verify or refute. Some day, neurolinguistics may provide the decisive answer to the rationalist/empiricist debate. If so, we are confident that...linguistics program , Carnegie Mellon University. [7] Touretzky, D. S. (1989) Toward a connectionist phonology: the "many maps" ap- proach to sequencc

  9. Selective attention to phonology dynamically modulates initial encoding of auditory words within the left hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoncheva, Yuliya; Maurer, Urs; Zevin, Jason D; McCandliss, Bruce D

    2014-08-15

    Selective attention to phonology, i.e., the ability to attend to sub-syllabic units within spoken words, is a critical precursor to literacy acquisition. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence has demonstrated that a left-lateralized network of frontal, temporal, and posterior language regions, including the visual word form area, supports this skill. The current event-related potential (ERP) study investigated the temporal dynamics of selective attention to phonology during spoken word perception. We tested the hypothesis that selective attention to phonology dynamically modulates stimulus encoding by recruiting left-lateralized processes specifically while the information critical for performance is unfolding. Selective attention to phonology was captured by manipulating listening goals: skilled adult readers attended to either rhyme or melody within auditory stimulus pairs. Each pair superimposed rhyming and melodic information ensuring identical sensory stimulation. Selective attention to phonology produced distinct early and late topographic ERP effects during stimulus encoding. Data-driven source localization analyses revealed that selective attention to phonology led to significantly greater recruitment of left-lateralized posterior and extensive temporal regions, which was notably concurrent with the rhyme-relevant information within the word. Furthermore, selective attention effects were specific to auditory stimulus encoding and not observed in response to cues, arguing against the notion that they reflect sustained task setting. Collectively, these results demonstrate that selective attention to phonology dynamically engages a left-lateralized network during the critical time-period of perception for achieving phonological analysis goals. These findings suggest a key role for selective attention in on-line phonological computations. Furthermore, these findings motivate future research on the role that neural mechanisms of attention may

  10. Profile of phonological awareness in bilingual and monolingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Lourdes Bernadete Rocha de; Leite, Aline Gisele Conceição

    2014-01-01

    To compare the performance of phonological awareness skills in bilingual and monolingual students of both genders. This research presents an observational, cross-sectional descriptive study conducted with 17 students from the 3rd grade, aged between seven years and 8 years and 11 months, with similar socioeconomic level, from two private schools, being one a monolingual school, and the other a bilingual one. Children at risk for auditory deprivation of any degree, those with learning difficulties, and children enrolled in the school less than two years were excluded from the research. A total of nine bilingual and eight monolingual students was tested using the Phonological Awareness Profile test. The results showed that 64.7% of the 17 students tested reached the performance expected for their age, and 35.3% performed above expectation, being 83.3% of the latter bilingual students. The bilingual children presented better performance in the sequential rhyme skill and in the total test score, and the male bilingual children presented better performance in the phoneme addition skill. There was no statistically significant difference when comparing the performance of bilingual and monolingual female students. Bilingual children had greater command of phonemic awareness skill. Male bilingual children showed better performance when compared to their monolingual peers than female bilingual students.

  11. Developmental language disorders: cognitive processes, semantics, pragmatics, phonology, and syntax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromer, R F

    1981-03-01

    Five areas of research concerned with language acquisition--cognitive processes, semantics, pragmatics, phonology, and syntax--are reviewed in terms of their contribution to understanding language disorders. Two views of cognitive processes are discussed. One of these, emphasizing cognitive mechanisms such as short-term memory, is seen as providing possible explanations for some types of language deficits. The other, a concern with conceptual knowledge, is subjected to a critical analysis questioning how complete an explanation it is able to offer for some aspects of language acquisition. Problems of definition are also discussed when semantic aspects of language are considered. Problems in the pragmatic component of language are seen as providing an explanation for particular aspects of language disorder in some autistic children. The importance of focusing on phonology as a central grammatical process is discussed and linked to dyslexia and to spelling disorders. Finally, it is argued that the acquisition of syntactic structure is not yet understood. Impairments such as a hierarchical planning order deficit may affect syntactic ability and lead to disordered language, as found in some types of developmentally aphasic children. It is concluded that it is important to study all five areas of the title, and their interrelationships, if various language disorders are to be adequately understood.

  12. Phonologically-based biomarkers for major depressive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Andrea Carolina; Quatieri, Thomas Francis; Malyska, Nicolas

    2011-12-01

    Of increasing importance in the civilian and military population is the recognition of major depressive disorder at its earliest stages and intervention before the onset of severe symptoms. Toward the goal of more effective monitoring of depression severity, we introduce vocal biomarkers that are derived automatically from phonologically-based measures of speech rate. To assess our measures, we use a 35-speaker free-response speech database of subjects treated for depression over a 6-week duration. We find that dissecting average measures of speech rate into phone-specific characteristics and, in particular, combined phone-duration measures uncovers stronger relationships between speech rate and depression severity than global measures previously reported for a speech-rate biomarker. Results of this study are supported by correlation of our measures with depression severity and classification of depression state with these vocal measures. Our approach provides a general framework for analyzing individual symptom categories through phonological units, and supports the premise that speaking rate can be an indicator of psychomotor retardation severity.

  13. Phonologically-based biomarkers for major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevino Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Of increasing importance in the civilian and military population is the recognition of major depressive disorder at its earliest stages and intervention before the onset of severe symptoms. Toward the goal of more effective monitoring of depression severity, we introduce vocal biomarkers that are derived automatically from phonologically-based measures of speech rate. To assess our measures, we use a 35-speaker free-response speech database of subjects treated for depression over a 6-week duration. We find that dissecting average measures of speech rate into phone-specific characteristics and, in particular, combined phone-duration measures uncovers stronger relationships between speech rate and depression severity than global measures previously reported for a speech-rate biomarker. Results of this study are supported by correlation of our measures with depression severity and classification of depression state with these vocal measures. Our approach provides a general framework for analyzing individual symptom categories through phonological units, and supports the premise that speaking rate can be an indicator of psychomotor retardation severity.

  14. Effects of Lexical Competition and Dialect Exposure on Phonological Priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clopper, Cynthia G; Walker, Abby

    2017-03-01

    A cross-modal lexical decision task was used to explore the effects of lexical competition and dialect exposure on phonological form priming. Relative to unrelated auditory primes, matching real word primes facilitated lexical decision for visual real word targets, whereas competing minimal pair primes inhibited lexical decision. These effects were robust across two English vowel pairs (mid-front and low-front) and for two listener groups (mono-dialectal and multi-dialectal). However, both the most robust facilitation and the most robust inhibition were observed for the mid-front vowel words with few phonological competitors for the mono-dialectal listener group. The mid-front vowel targets were acoustically more distinct than the low-front vowel targets, suggesting that acoustic-phonetic similarity leads to stronger lexical competition and less robust facilitation and inhibition. The multi-dialectal listeners had more prior exposure to multiple different dialects than the mono-dialectal group, suggesting that long-term exposure to linguistic variability contributes to a more flexible processing strategy in which lexical competition extends over a longer period of time, leading to less robust facilitation and inhibition.

  15. Adaptation to time-compressed speech: phonological determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastián-Gallés, N; Dupoux, E; Costa, A; Mehler, J

    2000-05-01

    Perceptual adaptation to time-compressed speech was analyzed in two experiments. Previous research has suggested that this adaptation phenomenon is language specific and takes place at the phonological level. Moreover, it has been proposed that adaptation should only be observed for languages that are rhythmically similar. This assumption was explored by studying adaptation to different time-compressed languages in Spanish speakers. In Experiment 1, the performances of Spanish-speaking subjects who adapted to Spanish, Italian, French, English, and Japanese were compared. In Experiment 2, subjects from the same population were tested with Greek sentences compressed to two different rates. The results showed adaptation for Spanish, Italian, and Greek and no adaptation for English and Japanese, with French being an intermediate case. To account for the data, we propose that variables other than just the rhythmic properties of the languages, such as the vowel system and/or the lexical stress pattern, must be considered. The Greek data also support the view that phonological, rather than lexical, information is a determining factor in adaptation to compressed speech.

  16. Effects of a phonological awareness program on English reading and spelling among Hong Kong Chinese ESL children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Susanna S S; Siegel, Linda S; Chan, Carol K K

    2013-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of a 12-week language-enriched phonological awareness instruction on 76 Hong Kong young children who were learning English as a second language. The children were assigned randomly to receive the instruction on phonological awareness skills embedded in vocabulary learning activities or comparison instruction which consisted of vocabulary learning and writing tasks but no direct instruction in phonological awareness skills. They were tested on receptive and expressive vocabulary, phonological awareness at the syllable, rhyme and phoneme levels, reading, and spelling in English before and after the program implementation. The results indicated that children who received the phonological awareness instruction performed significantly better than the comparison group on English word reading, spelling, phonological awareness at all levels and expressive vocabulary on the posttest when age, general intelligence and the pretest scores were controlled statistically. The findings suggest that phonological awareness instruction embedded in vocabulary learning activities might be beneficial to kindergarteners learning English as a second language.

  17. Phonological working memory in German children with poor reading and spelling abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrink, Claudia; Klatte, Maria

    2008-11-01

    Deficits in verbal short-term memory have been identified as one factor underlying reading and spelling disorders. However, the nature of this deficit is still unclear. It has been proposed that poor readers make less use of phonological coding, especially if the task can be solved through visual strategies. In the framework of Baddeley's phonological loop model, this study examined serial recall performance in German second-grade children with poor vs good reading and spelling abilities. Children were presented with four-item lists of common nouns for immediate serial recall. Word length and phonological similarity as well as presentation modality (visual vs auditory) and type of recall (visual vs verbal) were varied as within-subject factors in a mixed design. Word length and phonological similarity effects did not differ between groups, thus indicating equal use of phonological coding and rehearsal in poor and good readers. However, in all conditions, except the one that combined visual presentation and visual recall, overall performance was significantly lower in poor readers. The results suggest that the poor readers' difficulties do not arise from an avoidance of the phonological loop, but from its inefficient use. An alternative account referring to unstable phonological representations in long-term memory is discussed. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. The phonological and visual basis of developmental dyslexia in Brazilian Portuguese reading children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giseli Donadon Germano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from opaque languages suggests that visual attention processing abilities in addition to phonological skills may act as cognitive underpinnings of developmental dyslexia. We explored the role of these two cognitive abilities on reading fluency in Brazilian Portuguese, a more transparent orthography than French or English. Sixty-six dyslexic and normal Brazilian Portuguese children participated. They were administered three tasks of phonological skills (phoneme identification, phoneme and syllable blending and three visual tasks (a letter global report task and two non-verbal tasks of visual closure and visual constancy. Results show that Brazilian Portuguese dyslexic children are impaired not only in phonological processing but further in visual processing. The phonological and visual processing abilities significantly and independently contribute to reading fluency in the whole population. Last, different cognitively homogeneous subtypes can be identified in the Brazilian Portuguese dyslexic population. Two subsets of dyslexic children were identified as having a single cognitive disorder, phonological or visual; another group exhibited a double deficit and a few children showed no visual or phonological disorder. Thus the current findings extend previous data from more opaque orthographies as French and English, in showing the importance of investigating visual processing skills in addition to phonological skills in dyslexic children whatever their language orthography transparency.

  19. Genetic dyslexia risk variant is related to neural connectivity patterns underlying phonological awareness in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeide, Michael A; Kirsten, Holger; Kraft, Indra; Schaadt, Gesa; Müller, Bent; Neef, Nicole; Brauer, Jens; Wilcke, Arndt; Emmrich, Frank; Boltze, Johannes; Friederici, Angela D

    2015-09-01

    Phonological awareness is the best-validated predictor of reading and spelling skill and therefore highly relevant for developmental dyslexia. Prior imaging genetics studies link several dyslexia risk genes to either brain-functional or brain-structural factors of phonological deficits. However, coherent evidence for genetic associations with both functional and structural neural phenotypes underlying variation in phonological awareness has not yet been provided. Here we demonstrate that rs11100040, a reported modifier of SLC2A3, is related to the functional connectivity of left fronto-temporal phonological processing areas at resting state in a sample of 9- to 12-year-old children. Furthermore, we provide evidence that rs11100040 is related to the fractional anisotropy of the arcuate fasciculus, which forms the structural connection between these areas. This structural connectivity phenotype is associated with phonological awareness, which is in turn associated with the individual retrospective risk scores in an early dyslexia screening as well as to spelling. These results suggest a link between a dyslexia risk genotype and a functional as well as a structural neural phenotype, which is associated with a phonological awareness phenotype. The present study goes beyond previous work by integrating genetic, brain-functional and brain-structural aspects of phonological awareness within a single approach. These combined findings might be another step towards a multimodal biomarker for developmental dyslexia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Phonological deficits in specific language impairment and developmental dyslexia: towards a multidimensional model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramus, Franck; Marshall, Chloe R.; Rosen, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    An on-going debate surrounds the relationship between specific language impairment and developmental dyslexia, in particular with respect to their phonological abilities. Are these distinct disorders? To what extent do they overlap? Which cognitive and linguistic profiles correspond to specific language impairment, dyslexia and comorbid cases? At least three different models have been proposed: the severity model, the additional deficit model and the component model. We address this issue by comparing children with specific language impairment only, those with dyslexia-only, those with specific language impairment and dyslexia and those with no impairment, using a broad test battery of language skills. We find that specific language impairment and dyslexia do not always co-occur, and that some children with specific language impairment do not have a phonological deficit. Using factor analysis, we find that language abilities across the four groups of children have at least three independent sources of variance: one for non-phonological language skills and two for distinct sets of phonological abilities (which we term phonological skills versus phonological representations). Furthermore, children with specific language impairment and dyslexia show partly distinct profiles of phonological deficit along these two dimensions. We conclude that a multiple-component model of language abilities best explains the relationship between specific language impairment and dyslexia and the different profiles of impairment that are observed. PMID:23413264

  1. Phonological working memory and its relationship with language abilities in children with cochlear implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Haresabadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Many studies have demonstrated a close relationship between phonological working memory and language abilities in normal children and children with language developmental disorders, such as those with cochlear implants. A review of these studies would clarify communication and learning in such children and provide more comprehensive information regarding their education and treatment. In this study, the characteristics of phonological working memory and its relationship with language abilities in children with cochlear implants was examined.Recent Findings: In this study, the authors studied the characteristics of phonological working memory and its relationship with language abilities of children with cochlear implants. These studies showed that in addition to demographic variables, phonological working memory is a factor that affects language development in children with cochlear implants. Children with cochlear implants typically have a shorter memory span.Conclusion: It is thought that the deficiency in primary auditory sensory input and language stimulation caused by difficulties in the processing and rehearsal of auditory information in phonological working memory is the main cause of the short memory span in such children. Conversely, phonological working memory problems may have adverse effects on the language abilities in such children. Therefore, to provide comprehensive and appropriate treatment for children with cochlear implants, the reciprocal relationship between language abilities and phonological working memory should be considered.

  2. Phonological, visual, and semantic coding strategies and children's short-term picture memory span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Lucy A; Messer, David; Luger-Klein, Scarlett; Crane, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments addressed controversies in the previous literature on the development of phonological and other forms of short-term memory coding in children, using assessments of picture memory span that ruled out potentially confounding effects of verbal input and output. Picture materials were varied in terms of phonological similarity, visual similarity, semantic similarity, and word length. Older children (6/8-year-olds), but not younger children (4/5-year-olds), demonstrated robust and consistent phonological similarity and word length effects, indicating that they were using phonological coding strategies. This confirmed findings initially reported by Conrad (1971), but subsequently questioned by other authors. However, in contrast to some previous research, little evidence was found for a distinct visual coding stage at 4 years, casting doubt on assumptions that this is a developmental stage that consistently precedes phonological coding. There was some evidence for a dual visual and phonological coding stage prior to exclusive use of phonological coding at around 5-6 years. Evidence for semantic similarity effects was limited, suggesting that semantic coding is not a key method by which young children recall lists of pictures.

  3. The phonological and visual basis of developmental dyslexia in Brazilian Portuguese reading children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germano, Giseli D.; Reilhac, Caroline; Capellini, Simone A.; Valdois, Sylviane

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from opaque languages suggests that visual attention processing abilities in addition to phonological skills may act as cognitive underpinnings of developmental dyslexia. We explored the role of these two cognitive abilities on reading fluency in Brazilian Portuguese, a more transparent orthography than French or English. Sixty-six children with developmental dyslexia and normal Brazilian Portuguese children participated. They were administered three tasks of phonological skills (phoneme identification, phoneme, and syllable blending) and three visual tasks (a letter global report task and two non-verbal tasks of visual closure and visual constancy). Results show that Brazilian Portuguese children with developmental dyslexia are impaired not only in phonological processing but further in visual processing. The phonological and visual processing abilities significantly and independently contribute to reading fluency in the whole population. Last, different cognitively homogeneous subtypes can be identified in the Brazilian Portuguese population of children with developmental dyslexia. Two subsets of children with developmental dyslexia were identified as having a single cognitive disorder, phonological or visual; another group exhibited a double deficit and a few children showed no visual or phonological disorder. Thus the current findings extend previous data from more opaque orthographies as French and English, in showing the importance of investigating visual processing skills in addition to phonological skills in children with developmental dyslexia whatever their language orthography transparency. PMID:25352822

  4. The effect of Phonological Encoding Complexity on Speech Fluency of Stuttering and Non-Stuttering Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ramezani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Stuttering is a fairly common speech disorder. However, the etiology is poorly understood and is likely to be heterogeneous. The aim of this research is to investigate phonological encoding complexity on speech fluency in 6-9 year old stuttering children in comparison with non-stutterers in Tehran. Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive analytic research was done on 18 stuttering children with profound and severe level and 18 non-stuttering children. The stuttering subjects were selected by convenience and normal subjects were matched to stuttering subjects by gender, age and geographics. A non-word test comprising 87 non-words was used to investigate phonological encoding and phonological complexity effects on speech fluency. Stimuli were presented in random order with approximately 5 seconds between items, using a computer via external Toshiba SOMIC SM-818 headphone and requested subject was asked to repeat them.  Results: The results indicated that speech fluency decreased significantly (P<0.05 by increasing phonological complexity comparing to controls. Conclusion: The findings of the present research seem to suggest that, stuttering children may have deficits in phonological encoding. The deficit has been increased with phonological encoding complexity. Based on covert repair hypothesis, phonological difficulty may cause covert self- repair and leads to different patterns of stuttering.

  5. Effects of Noun-Verb Conceptual/ Phonological Relatedness on Verb Production Changes in Broca's Aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youngmi Sophia; Goral, Mira; Verkuilen, Jay; Kempler, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    Individuals with Broca's aphasia show better performance on nouns than on verbs, but distinction between nouns and verbs is not always clear; some verbs are conceptually and/ or phonologically related to nouns, while others are not. Inconsistent results on effects of noun-verb relatedness on verb production have been reported in the literature. We investigated (1) whether verb instrumentality (a conceptual relationship to nouns) or homonymy (a phonological relationship to nouns) would affect verb production in individuals with Broca's aphasia and (2) whether conceptual/ phonological noun-verb relationship would affect responsiveness to aphasia therapy that focused on verb production. Three English speaking individuals with Broca's aphasia produced 96 verbs in sentences in response to picture stimuli. The target verbs included those that use an instrument and those that do not (e.g., to hammer vs. to yawn) and verbs that are phonologically identical to a related noun (e.g., to comb - a comb), morpho-phonologically-related to a noun (e.g., to grind - a grinder), and verbs for which there is no phonologically similar noun (e.g., to lean). The participants' verb retrieval ability was assessed before and after a 4-week period of aphasia therapy. The participants produced more accurate instrumental than non-instrumental verbs both pre- and post-treatment. They also produced more verbs correctly that are homonyms of nouns than verbs that are phonologically related or unrelated to nouns before treatment. However, the effect of homonymy was not observed following treatment. Individuals with Broca's aphasia were more accurate in their production of verbs that were conceptually and phonologically related to nouns than on verb that were not. The performance on verb production improved significantly after therapy. We interpret the results to indicate that whereas prior to treatment the participants relied on phonologically related nouns to retrieve the target verbs, this

  6. Phonological errors predominate in Arabic spelling across grades 1-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rabia, Salim; Taha, Haitham

    2006-03-01

    Most of the spelling error analysis has been conducted in Latin orthographies and rarely conducted in other orthographies like Arabic. Two hundred and eighty-eight students in grades 1-9 participated in the study. They were presented nine lists of words to test their spelling skills. Their spelling errors were analyzed by error categories. The most frequent errors were phonological. The results did not indicate any significant differences in the percentages of phonological errors across grades one to nine.Thus, phonology probably presents the greatest challenge to students developing spelling skills in Arabic.

  7. Neural correlates of sublexical processing in phonological working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGettigan, Carolyn; Warren, Jane E; Eisner, Frank; Marshall, Chloe R; Shanmugalingam, Pradheep; Scott, Sophie K

    2011-04-01

    This study investigated links between working memory and speech processing systems. We used delayed pseudoword repetition in fMRI to investigate the neural correlates of sublexical structure in phonological working memory (pWM). We orthogonally varied the number of syllables and consonant clusters in auditory pseudowords and measured the neural responses to these manipulations under conditions of covert rehearsal (Experiment 1). A left-dominant network of temporal and motor cortex showed increased activity for longer items, with motor cortex only showing greater activity concomitant with adding consonant clusters. An individual-differences analysis revealed a significant positive relationship between activity in the angular gyrus and the hippocampus, and accuracy on pseudoword repetition. As models of pWM stipulate that its neural correlates should be activated during both perception and production/rehearsal [Buchsbaum, B. R., & D'Esposito, M. The search for the phonological store: From loop to convolution. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20, 762-778, 2008; Jacquemot, C., & Scott, S. K. What is the relationship between phonological short-term memory and speech processing? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10, 480-486, 2006; Baddeley, A. D., & Hitch, G. Working memory. In G. H. Bower (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation: Advances in research and theory (Vol. 8, pp. 47-89). New York: Academic Press, 1974], we further assessed the effects of the two factors in a separate passive listening experiment (Experiment 2). In this experiment, the effect of the number of syllables was concentrated in posterior-medial regions of the supratemporal plane bilaterally, although there was no evidence of a significant response to added clusters. Taken together, the results identify the planum temporale as a key region in pWM; within this region, representations are likely to take the form of auditory or audiomotor "templates" or "chunks" at the level of the syllable

  8. "hotdog", not "hot" "dog": The phonological planning of compound words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Cassandra L; Dell, Gary S

    2014-01-01

    Do we say dog when we say hotdog ? In five experiments using the implicit priming paradigm, we assessed whether nominal compounds composed of two free morphemes like sawdust or fishbowl are prepared for production at the segmental level in the same way that two-syllable monomorphemic words (e.g. bandit ) are, or instead as sequences of separable words (e.g. full bowl or grey dust ). The experiments demonstrated that nominal compounds are planned as a single sequence, not as two sequences. Specifically, the onset of the second component of the compound (e.g. /d/ in sawdust ) did not act as a primeable starting point, although comparable onsets did when that component was an independent word ( grey dust ). We conclude that there may be a dog in hotdog at the morpheme level, but not when phonological segments are prepared for production.

  9. An Evaluation of Universal Grammar and the Phonological Mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Everett

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article begins by reviewing the history of views of the sources of language and moves on to underscore problems with the man-in-a-can view of language, one way that Universal Grammar might be characterized. It moves then to a detailed consideration of the problems that a language without recursion raises for UG and the attempts by UG theorists to answer these problems. Finally, the paper reviews in detail one of the most carefully argued proposals in the UG literature, the Phonological Mind thesis, rejecting this as failing to establish any strong arguments for UG. The conclusion is that if such a carefully worked out set of arguments for UG fails, then, a fortiori, many other weaker arguments are likely to fall through as well.

  10. The pseudohomophone effect: evidence for an orthography-phonology-conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briesemeister, Benny B; Hofmann, Markus J; Tamm, Sascha; Kuchinke, Lars; Braun, Mario; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2009-05-15

    The standard pseudohomophone effect in the lexical decision task, i.e. longer response times and higher error rates for pseudohomophones compared with spelling controls, is commonly explained by an orthography-phonology-conflict. This study tested this conflict account, using a multi-method approach including participant's behavioral responses, confidence ratings, pupillary responses and event-related potentials (ERPs). The classic pseudohomophone effect was replicated using relatively long, multi-syllabic stimuli. Pseudohomophones were rated less confidently as being nonwords than spelling controls, and they affected the pupillary response by increasing the peak pupil diameter. Both findings are interpreted in terms of increased conflict and higher cognitive demands leading to uncertainty while solving the task. The ERP revealed an N400 component for spelling controls, showing a graded effect: wordspelling control. This can be seen as evidence for (partial) semantic activation through pseudohomophones. Taken together, the results provide strong multi-method evidence for the conflict account of the pseudohomophone effect.

  11. The phonological development of Danish-speaking children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Marit Carolin; Fox-Boyer, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of children’s speech development is of great importance for speech and language therapists since it provides a baseline for the evaluation of whether a child shows typical, delayed or deviant speech development. As previous studies have shown that differences are seen...... in the speech development across languages, language-specific data are of great importance in order to understand how the phonological system of the ambient language affects the children’s speech acquisition. To date, little is known about the typical speech development in Danish-speaking children....... It was suggested, however, that the acquisition process might be slower for Danish-speaking children than for children acquiring other languages due to the “blurry” sound structure of Danish. The aim of the current study was, therefore, to investigate typical speech development in Danish-speaking children...

  12. A summary reconstruction of proto-maweti-guarani segmental phonology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Meira

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper presents a succinct reconstruction of the segmental phonology of Proto-Maweti-Guarani, the hypothetical protolanguage from which modern Mawe, Aweti and the Tupi-Guarani branches of the Tupi linguistic family have evolved. Based on about 300 cognate sets from the authors' field data (for Mawe and Aweti and from Mello's reconstruction (2000 for Proto-Tupi-Guarani (with additional information from other works; and with a few changes concerning certain doubtful features, such as the status of stem-final lenis consonants *r and *ß, and the distinction of *c and *č , the consonants and vowels of Proto-Maweti-Guarani were reconstructed with the help of the traditional historical-comparative method. The development of the reconstructed segments is then traced from the protolanguage to each of the modern branches. A comparison with other claims made about Proto-Maweti-Guarani is given in the conclusion.

  13. Phonological awareness predicts activation patterns for print and speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Stephen J.; Landi, Nicole; Mencl, W. Einar; Sandak, Rebecca; Fulbright, Robert K.; Tejada, Eleanor T.; Jacobsen, Leslie; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Constable, R. Todd; Pugh, Kenneth R.

    2009-01-01

    Using fMRI, we explored the relationship between phonological awareness (PA), a measure of metaphonological knowledge of the segmental structure of speech, and brain activation patterns during processing of print and speech in young readers from six to ten years of age. Behavioral measures of PA were positively correlated with activation levels for print relative to speech tokens in superior temporal and occipito-temporal regions. Differences between print-elicited activation levels in superior temporal and inferior frontal sites were also correlated with PA measures with the direction of the correlation depending on stimulus type: positive for pronounceable pseudowords and negative for consonant strings. These results support and extend the many indications in the behavioral and neurocognitive literature that PA is a major component of skill in beginning readers and point to a developmental trajectory by which written language engages areas originally shaped by speech for learners on the path toward successful literacy acquisition. PMID:19306061

  14. Electrophysiological correlates of phonological processing: a cross-linguistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehaene-Lambertz, G; Dupoux, E; Gout, A

    2000-07-01

    It is well known that speech perception is deeply affected by the phoneme categories of the native language. Recent studies have found that phonotactics, i.e., constraints on the cooccurrence of phonemes within words, also have a considerable impact on speech perception routines. For example, Japanese does not allow (nonnasal) coda consonants. When presented with stimuli that violate this constraint, as in / ebzo/, Japanese adults report that they hear a /u/ between consonants, i.e., /ebuzo/. We examine this phenomenon using event-related potentials (ERPs) on French and Japanese participants in order to study how and when the phonotactic properties of the native language affect speech perception routines. Trials using four similar precursor stimuli were presented followed by a test stimulus that was either identical or different depending on the presence or absence of an epenthetic vowel /u/ between two consonants (e.g., "ebuzo ebuzo ebuzo- ebzo"). Behavioral results confirm that Japanese, unlike French participants, are not able to discriminate between identical and deviant trials. In ERPs, three mismatch responses were recorded in French participants. These responses were either absent or significantly weaker for Japanese. In particular, a component similar in latency and topography to the mismatch negativity (MMN) was recorded for French, but not for Japanese participants. Our results suggest that the impact of phonotactics takes place early in speech processing and support models of speech perception, which postulate that the input signal is directly parsed into the native language phonological format. We speculate that such a fast computation of a phonological representation should facilitate lexical access, especially in degraded conditions.

  15. Phonological awareness: explicit instruction for young deaf and hard-of-hearing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth M; Lederberg, Amy R; Easterbrooks, Susan R

    2013-04-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the development of spoken phonological awareness for deaf and hard-of-hearing children (DHH) with functional hearing (i.e., the ability to access spoken language through hearing). Teachers explicitly taught five preschoolers the phonological awareness skills of syllable segmentation, initial phoneme isolation, and rhyme discrimination in the context of a multifaceted emergent literacy intervention. Instruction occurred in settings where teachers used simultaneous communication or spoken language only. A multiple-baseline across skills design documented a functional relation between instruction and skill acquisition for those children who did not have the skills at baseline with one exception; one child did not meet criteria for syllable segmentation. These results were confirmed by changes on phonological awareness tests that were administered at the beginning and end of the school year. We found that DHH children who varied in primary communication mode, chronological age, and language ability all benefited from explicit instruction in phonological awareness.

  16. About phonological, grammatical, and semantic accents in bilinguals' language use and their cause

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, A.M.B.; Filipović, L.; Pütz, M.

    2014-01-01

    The linguistic expressions of the majority of bilinguals exhibit deviations from the corresponding expressions of monolinguals in phonology, grammar, and semantics, and in both languages. In addition, bilinguals may process spoken and written language differently from monolinguals. Two possible

  17. Phonological experience modulates voice discrimination: Evidence from functional brain networks analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xueping; Wang, Xiangpeng; Gu, Yan; Luo, Pei; Yin, Shouhang; Wang, Lijun; Fu, Chao; Qiao, Lei; Du, Yi; Chen, Antao

    2017-10-01

    Numerous behavioral studies have found a modulation effect of phonological experience on voice discrimination. However, the neural substrates underpinning this phenomenon are poorly understood. Here we manipulated language familiarity to test the hypothesis that phonological experience affects voice discrimination via mediating the engagement of multiple perceptual and cognitive resources. The results showed that during voice discrimination, the activation of several prefrontal regions was modulated by language familiarity. More importantly, the same effect was observed concerning the functional connectivity from the fronto-parietal network to the voice-identity network (VIN), and from the default mode network to the VIN. Our findings indicate that phonological experience could bias the recruitment of cognitive control and information retrieval/comparison processes during voice discrimination. Therefore, the study unravels the neural substrates subserving the modulation effect of phonological experience on voice discrimination, and provides new insights into studying voice discrimination from the perspective of network interactions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Evaluation of auditory processing and phonemic discrimination in children with normal and disordered phonological development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attoni, Tiago Mendonça; Quintas, Victor Gandra; Mota, Helena Bolli

    2010-01-01

    Auditory processing and phonemic discrimination are essential for communication. Retrospective. To evaluate auditory processing and phonemic discrimination in children with normal and disordered phonological development. An evaluation of 46 children was carried out: 22 had phonological disorders and 24 had normally developing speech. Diotic , monotic and dichotic tests were applied to assess auditory processing and a test to evaluate phonemic discrimination abilities. Cross-sectional, contemporary. The values of normally-developing children were within the normal range in all auditory processing tests; these children attained maximum phonemic discrimination test scores. Children with phonological disorders performed worse in the latter, and presented disordered auditory processing. Auditory processing and phonemic discrimination in children with phonological disorders are altered.

  19. Symbolic Numerical Magnitude Processing Is as Important to Arithmetic as Phonological Awareness Is to Reading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Vanbinst

    Full Text Available In this article, we tested, using a 1-year longitudinal design, whether symbolic numerical magnitude processing or children's numerical representation of Arabic digits, is as important to arithmetic as phonological awareness is to reading. Children completed measures of symbolic comparison, phonological awareness, arithmetic, reading at the start of third grade and the latter two were retested at the start of fourth grade. Cross-sectional and longitudinal correlations indicated that symbolic comparison was a powerful domain-specific predictor of arithmetic and that phonological awareness was a unique predictor of reading. Crucially, the strength of these independent associations was not significantly different. This indicates that symbolic numerical magnitude processing is as important to arithmetic development as phonological awareness is to reading and suggests that symbolic numerical magnitude processing is a good candidate for screening children at risk for developing mathematical difficulties.

  20. Phonological Feature Re-Assembly and the Importance of Phonetic Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, John

    2009-01-01

    It is argued that new phonological features can be acquired in second languages, but that both feature acquisition and feature re-assembly are affected by the robustness of phonetic cues in the input.

  1. Abilities of phonological awareness in the context of cognitive development in preschool age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grofčíková Soňa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Phonological awareness is considered a key phenomenon having crucial position among abilities and processes which are important and responsible for the development of reading and writing (initial literacy. The paper deals with the significance and level of development of selected cognitive functions of a child in relation to the abilities of phonological awareness. The child’s current cognitive development is a predictor for certain level of phonological awareness. The paper is focused on a description of speech perception, language, oral vocabulary and phonological memory of children in preschool age. It is an output of the research project VEGA no. 1/0637/16 Development of a Diagnostic Tool to Assess the Level of Phonemic Awareness of Children in Preschool Age.

  2. The Selective Impairment of the Phonological Output Buffer: Evidence From a Chinese Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Shu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a Chinese-speaking patient, SJ, who makes phonological errors across all tasks involving oral production. Detailed analyses of the errors across different tasks reveal that the patterns are very similar for reading, oral picture naming, and repetition tasks, which are also comparable to the error patterns of the phonological buffer deficit cases reported in the literature. The nature of the errors invites us to conclude that the patient's phonological output buffer is selectively impaired. Different from previously reported cases, SJ's deficits in oral production tasks are not accompanied by a similar impairment of writing performance. We argue that this dissociation is evidence that the phonological output buffer is not involved in writing Chinese words. Furthermore, the majority of SJ's errors occur at the onset of a syllable, indicating that the buffer has a structure that makes the onset more prone to impairment.

  3. THE PRINCIPLES OF PHONOLOGICAL WORD STRUCTURE COMPARISON OF RUSSIAN AND CHINESE LANGUAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey N. Aleksakhin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the phonological structure of words of Russian and Chinese languages. With phonological point of view the word as a Central significant unit of language is a sequence of consonants and vowel phonemes. A comparative study shows that the phonological structure of the Russian words prevail consonant phonemes and the phonological structure of the Chinese words prevail vowel phonemes. The phonological system of the Russian language is characterized by consonant dominant, and the phonological system of the Chinese language Mandarin is characterized by vocal dominant. In the vowel system of the Russian language there are six vowel phonemes, in the vowel system of the Chinese language Mandarin there are thirty-one vowel phonemes. The typical sound pattern of words of the Chinese language consists of vowel combinations. The strong (vowels differ in different effective modes of vocal cords vowels are implemented in the even phonological position; the weak vowels are implemented in the left and right odd phonological positions of the syllabic matrix 0123. Consonant phonemes of the Chinese language are implemented only in the zero phonological position. The Sound variety of simple one-syllable words of the Chinese language is constructed by oppositions: twenty-five consonants in the zero position, thirty-one strong vowel phonemes in the even position, as well as three weak vowels in the left odd position and five weak vowels in the right odd position . The typical distribution of consonant and vowel phonemes is shown in the following examples of words: 0123 - guai «obedient», gudi «rotate», guài «strange». The opposition of weak vowels with a derivative phonological zero is also an effective method of making words: guai «obedient» - gai «must» - gua « blow» - ga «a dark corner». Both Russian and Chinese Synharmonia variety of sound words is supported by five derivative phonological zeros that are phonetically in

  4. The Principles Of Phonological Word Structure Comparison Of Russian And Chinese Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey N. Aleksakhin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the phonological structure of words of Russian and Chinese languages. With phonological point of view the word as a Central significant unit of language is a sequence of consonants and vowel phonemes. A comparative study shows that the phonological structure of the Russian words prevail consonant phonemes and the phonological structure of the Chinese words prevail vowel phonemes. The phonological system of the Russian language is characterized by consonant dominant, and the phonological system of the Chinese language Mandarin is characterized by vocal dominant. In the vowel system of the Russian language there are six vowel phonemes, in the vowel system of the Chinese language Mandarin there are thirty-one vowel phonemes. The typical sound pattern of words of the Chinese language consists of vowel combinations. The strong (vowels differ in different effective modes of vocal cords vowels are implemented in the even phonological position; the weak vowels are implemented in the left and right odd phonological positions of the syllabic matrix 0123. Consonant phonemes of the Chinese language are implemented only in the zero phonological position. The Sound variety of simple one-syllable words of the Chinese language is constructed by oppositions: twenty-five consonants in the zero position, thirty-one strong vowel phonemes in the even position, as well as three weak vowels in the left odd position and five weak vowels in the right odd position . The typical distribution of consonant and vowel phonemes is shown in the following examples of words: 0123 - guai «obedient», gudi «rotate», guài «strange». The opposition of weak vowels with a derivative phonological zero is also an effective method of making words: guai «obedient» - gai «must» - gua « blow» - ga «a dark corner». Both Russian and Chinese Synharmonia variety of sound words is supported by five derivative phonological zeros that are phonetically in

  5. Pressure suppression device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Tadaharu; Funahashi, Toshihiro.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a structure which permits the absorption of shocks and vibratory load produced on the floor of a pressure suppression chamber due to nitrogen gas or the like discharged into pool water in the pressure suppression chamber at the time of a loss-of-coolant accident. Constitution: A pressure suppression chamber accommodating pool water is comprised of a bottom wall and side walls constructed of concrete on the inner side of a liner. By providing concrete on the bottom surface and side wall surfaces of a pressure suppression chamber, it is possible to prevent non-condensing gas and steam exhausted from the vent duct and exhaust duct of a main vapor escapement safety valve exhaust duct from exerting impact forces and vibratory forces upon the bottom and side surfaces of the pressure suppression chamber. (Horiuchi, T.)

  6. Contextual phonological errors and omission of obligatory liaison as a window into a reduced span of phonological encoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Violaine Michel; Pellet Cheneval, Pauline; Python, Grégoire

    2016-01-01

    present a reduced span of encoding, they should both produce a high rate of liaison consonant omissions and a low rate of anticipation contextual phonological errors. Outcome and results: The results on a group of 13 speakers with aphasia and/or apraxia of speech overall show few contextual (syntagmatic......The question of how much speakers plan ahead before they start articulating their message is essential to understand how fluency is ensured during speech production. This question has been largely investigated in healthy speakers. Surprisingly, this remains unexplored for brain-damaged speakers......, even though a reduced span of encoding might account for the fact that those impaired speakers often produce scattered speech. Aims: In this study, we examine whether the span of encoding is reduced in some left hemisphere brain-damaged speakers by taking advantage of two linguistic phenomena which...

  7. Contextual phonological errors and omission of obligatory liaison as a window into the span of phonological encoding in aphasic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Violaine Michel; Cheneval, Pauline Pellet; Python, Grégoire

    2016-01-01

    present a reduced span of encoding, they should both produce a high rate of liaison consonant omissions and a low rate of anticipation contextual phonological errors. Outcome and results: The results on a group of 13 speakers with aphasia and/or apraxia of speech overall show few contextual (syntagmatic......Background: The question of how much speakers plan ahead before they start articulating their message is essential to understand how fluency is ensured during speech production. This question has been largely investigated in healthy speakers. Surprisingly, this remains unexplored for brain......-damaged speakers, even though a reduced span of encoding might account for the fact that those impaired speakers often produce scattered speech. Aims: In this study, we examine whether the span of encoding is reduced in some left hemisphere brain-damaged speakers by taking advantage of two linguistic phenomena...

  8. The relationship of phonological ability, speech perception and auditory perception in adults with dyslexia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy eLaw

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether auditory, speech perception and phonological skills are tightly interrelated or independently contributing to reading. We assessed each of these three skills in 36 adults with a past diagnosis of dyslexia and 54 matched normal reading adults. Phonological skills were tested by the typical threefold tasks, i.e. rapid automatic naming, verbal short term memory and phonological awareness. Dynamic auditory processing skills were assessed by means of a frequency modulation (FM and an amplitude rise time (RT; an intensity discrimination task (ID was included as a non-dynamic control task. Speech perception was assessed by means of sentences and words in noise tasks. Group analysis revealed significant group differences in auditory tasks (i.e. RT and ID and in phonological processing measures, yet no differences were found for speech perception. In addition, performance on RT discrimination correlated with reading but this relation was mediated by phonological processing and not by speech in noise. Finally, inspection of the individual scores revealed that the dyslexic readers showed an increased proportion of deviant subjects on the slow-dynamic auditory and phonological tasks, yet each individual dyslexic reader does not display a clear pattern of deficiencies across the levels of processing skills. Although our results support phonological and slow-rate dynamic auditory deficits which relate to literacy, they suggest that at the individual level, problems in reading and writing cannot be explained by the cascading auditory theory. Instead, dyslexic adults seem to vary considerably in the extent to which each of the auditory and phonological factors are expressed and interact with environmental and higher-order cognitive influences.

  9. The role of consciousness in the phonological loop: hidden in plain sight

    OpenAIRE

    Buchsbaum, Bradley R.

    2013-01-01

    We know from everyday experience that when we need to keep a small amount of verbal information “in mind” for a short period, an effective cognitive strategy is to silently rehearse the words. This basic cognitive strategy has been elegantly codified in Baddeley and colleagues model of verbal working memory, the phonological loop. Here we explore how the intuitive appeal of the phonological loop is grounded in the phenomenological experience of subvocal rehearsal as consisting of an interacti...

  10. PHONOLOGICAL FOSSILIZATION OF THE JAVANESE ADULT LEARNERS OF ENGLISH: R&D OF A MODEL OF TEACHING MATERIALS OF ENGLISH PHONOLOGY FOR EFL LEARNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senowarsito Senowarsito

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents preliminary study of R&D on Teaching Materials Model of English Phonology for EF2L. The preliminary study aims at finding out the phonological fossilization of adult learners of English in Javanese context and figuring out the factors influencing them. 25 fourth-semester Javanese students of English Departement from 5 universities in Semarang municipality were selected as respondents. The data were collected from observation, interview and documentation. The results show that phonological fossilizations occur on vowel (/e/ instead of /i/ in ‗english‘ /ˈɪŋ.glɪʃ/, /a/ instead of /æ/ in ‗aspect‘ /ˈæs.pekt/, it also occurs in /Ʌ,e, ǝ/ mostly in initial sound , consonant (/nð/ instead of /ð/ in ‗the‘ /ðǝ/, /ŋ/ instead of /ʤ/ in ‗change‘ /tʃeɪndʒ/, also in /tʃ, ϴ,ð,ʃ,v,Ʒ,z,j,k,g, suffix –ed and –es, and silent letter, and diphthong (/o/ instead of /ǝu/ in ‗over‘ /ǝuvǝr/ and in ‗power‘ /paʊər /, also in/ei,au/ . Factors affecting the occurrence of phonological fossilization are 1 the interference of respondents‘ mother tongue, such as Javanese tends to add sound /n/ in /nðǝlɔk/ ‗ndelok‘ and it interferes in pronouncing ‗the‘ to /nðǝ/ instead of /ðǝ/; 2 the learning materials of English Phonology course does not yet accommodate the learner‘s errors and or learner‘s fossilizations. These findings can be used as recommendation to develop teaching materials of English Phonology for EF2L.

  11. Reading speed and phonological awareness deficits among Arabic-speaking children with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layes, Smail; Lalonde, Robert; Rebaï, Mohamed

    2015-02-01

    Although reading accuracy of isolated words and phonological awareness represent the main criteria of subtyping developmental dyslexia, there is increasing evidence that reduced reading speed also represents a defining characteristic. In the present study, reading speed and accuracy were measured in Arabic-speaking phonological and mixed dyslexic children matched with controls of the same age. Participants in third and fourth grades, aged from 9-10 to 9-8 years, were given single frequent and infrequent word and pseudo-word reading and phonological awareness tasks. Results showed that the group with dyslexia scored significantly lower than controls in accuracy and speed in reading tasks. Phonological and mixed dyslexic subgroups differed in infrequent and frequent word reading accuracy, the latter being worse. In contrast, the subgroups were comparable in pseudo-word identification and phonological awareness. Delayed phonological and recognition processes of infrequent and frequent words, respectively, were placed in the context of the dual route model of reading and the specific orthographic features of the Arabic language. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. The Relationship Between Speech, Language, and Phonological Awareness in Preschool-Age Children With Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton-Hulsey, Andrea; Sevcik, Rose A; Romski, MaryAnn

    2018-03-22

    A number of intrinsic factors, including expressive speech skills, have been suggested to place children with developmental disabilities at risk for limited development of reading skills. This study examines the relationship between these factors, speech ability, and children's phonological awareness skills. A nonexperimental study design was used to examine the relationship between intrinsic skills of speech, language, print, and letter-sound knowledge to phonological awareness in 42 children with developmental disabilities between the ages of 48 and 69 months. Hierarchical multiple regression was done to determine if speech ability accounted for a unique amount of variance in phonological awareness skill beyond what would be expected by developmental skills inclusive of receptive language and print and letter-sound knowledge. A range of skill in all areas of direct assessment was found. Children with limited speech were found to have emerging skills in print knowledge, letter-sound knowledge, and phonological awareness. Speech ability did not predict a significant amount of variance in phonological awareness beyond what would be expected by developmental skills of receptive language and print and letter-sound knowledge. Children with limited speech ability were found to have receptive language and letter-sound knowledge that supported the development of phonological awareness skills. This study provides implications for practitioners and researchers concerning the factors related to early reading development in children with limited speech ability and developmental disabilities.

  13. Relationship between Phonological Awareness, Rapid Automatized Naming and Reading in First Grade Students in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Soleymani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Reading is one of the human's communicative skills. Phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming are parts of the person's linguistic knowledge. Research in different languages and communities suggest that there is a relation between phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming and reading. To survey these relations in Persian language is the aim of this study.Methods: In this study 130 male students from the first grade were selected at random. They were normal in IQ, visual and hearing status. Language development was also normal in these children. This study was a cross-sectional one. Pearson correlation coefficient and linear regression test were used to analyze data.Results: The relation between phonological awareness and automatized rapid naming was significant (p<0.0001. Pearson correlation coefficient between phonological awareness and reading was direct (0.86. Pearson correlation coefficient between rapid automatized naming and reading was indirect that equals -0.87. In investigating the relation of two variables simultaneously with reading we concluded that the relation between phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming and reading is statistically significant (p<0.0001.Conclusion: The results of this research revealed that in Persian language like other languages there is a relation between phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, and reading. Reading skills of children could be improved with this exercises.

  14. Impaired reading comprehension in schizophrenia: evidence for underlying phonological processing deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, Wendy; Sali, Lauren; Copland, David

    2011-05-15

    The present study examined reading ability in high functioning people with schizophrenia. To this end, 16 people with schizophrenia who were living in the community and 12 matched controls completed tests of passage reading (comprehension, accuracy, and rate), word recognition, and phonological processing (phonological awareness, phonological memory and rapid naming) and ratings of reading self-concept and practices. Performance of the participants with schizophrenia was impaired relative to control participants on reading comprehension and rapid naming and relative to the population norms on phonological awareness, and rapid naming. In addition, self-rating data revealed that participants with schizophrenia had poorer perceptions of their reading ability and engaged in reading activities less frequently than their control counterparts. Consistent with earlier research, significant correlations were found between phonological awareness and reading comprehension. These findings expand on previous research in the area to suggest that community-based individuals with schizophrenia experience problems with reading comprehension that may have a phonological basis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A patient with phonologic alexia can learn to read "much" from "mud pies".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Susan Nitzberg; Sample, Diane M; Oliver, Robyn T; Lacey, Elizabeth H; Friedman, Rhonda B

    2008-08-01

    People with phonologic alexia often have difficulty reading functors and verbs, in addition to pseudowords. Friedman et al. [Friedman, R. B., Sample, D. M, & Lott, S. N. (2002). The role of level of representation in the use of paired associate learning for rehabilitation of alexia. Neuropsychologia, 40, 223-234] reported a successful treatment for phonologic alexia that paired problematic functors and verbs with easily read relays that were homophonous nouns (e.g. "be" paired with "bee"). The current study evaluates the efficacy of pairing problematic grammatical words with relays that share initial phonemes, but vary in the relationship of their final phonemes. Results showed that reading of target grammatical words improved to criterion level (90% accuracy over two consecutive probes) in all experimental conditions with shared phonology, but remained far below criterion level in control conditions. There was a significant correlation between degree of phonologic relatedness and error rate. Maintenance of the treatment effect was poor as assessed by traditional measurement, however a dramatic savings during relearning was demonstrated during a subsequent treatment phase. The finding that reading can be re-organized by pairing target words not only with homophones, but with other phonologically related relays, suggests that this approach could be applied to a wide corpus of words and, therefore, potentially be of great use clinically. We suggest, within a connectionist account, that the treatment effect results from relays priming the initial phonologic units of the targets.

  16. Phonological and lexical effects in verbal recall by children with specific language impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coady, Jeffry A; Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined how phonological and lexical knowledge influences memory in children with specific language impairments (SLI). Previous work showed recall advantages for typical adults and children due to word frequency and phonotactic pattern frequency and a recall disadvantage due to phonological similarity among words. While children with SLI have well-documented memory difficulties, it is not clear whether these language knowledge factors also influence recall in this population. Sixteen children with SLI (mean age = 10;2) and chronological age-matched typically developing children (CAM) controls recalled lists of words differing in phonological similarity, word frequency and phonotactic pattern frequency. While previous studies used a small set of words appearing in multiple word lists, the current study used a larger set of words, without replacement, so that children could not gain practice with individual test items. All main effects were significant. Interactions revealed that children with SLI were affected by similarity, but less so than their peers, comparably affected by word frequency and unaffected by phonotactic pattern frequency. Results due to phonological similarity suggest that children with SLI use less efficient encoding, while results due to word frequency and phonotactic pattern frequency were mixed. Children with SLI used coarse-grained language knowledge (word frequency) comparably with peers, but were less able to use fine-grained knowledge (phonotactic pattern frequency). Paired with phonological similarity results, this suggests that children with SLI have difficulty establishing robust phonological knowledge for use in language tasks. © 2013 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  17. Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence for early and automatic detection of phonological equivalence in variable speech inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharlamov, Viktor; Campbell, Kenneth; Kazanina, Nina

    2011-11-01

    Speech sounds are not always perceived in accordance with their acoustic-phonetic content. For example, an early and automatic process of perceptual repair, which ensures conformity of speech inputs to the listener's native language phonology, applies to individual input segments that do not exist in the native inventory or to sound sequences that are illicit according to the native phonotactic restrictions on sound co-occurrences. The present study with Russian and Canadian English speakers shows that listeners may perceive phonetically distinct and licit sound sequences as equivalent when the native language system provides robust evidence for mapping multiple phonetic forms onto a single phonological representation. In Russian, due to an optional but productive t-deletion process that affects /stn/ clusters, the surface forms [sn] and [stn] may be phonologically equivalent and map to a single phonological form /stn/. In contrast, [sn] and [stn] clusters are usually phonologically distinct in (Canadian) English. Behavioral data from identification and discrimination tasks indicated that [sn] and [stn] clusters were more confusable for Russian than for English speakers. The EEG experiment employed an oddball paradigm with nonwords [asna] and [astna] used as the standard and deviant stimuli. A reliable mismatch negativity response was elicited approximately 100 msec postchange in the English group but not in the Russian group. These findings point to a perceptual repair mechanism that is engaged automatically at a prelexical level to ensure immediate encoding of speech inputs in phonological terms, which in turn enables efficient access to the meaning of a spoken utterance.

  18. Word learning in adults with second language experience: Effects of phonological and referent familiarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon; Van Hecke, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this research was to examine whether phonological familiarity exerts different effects on novel word learning for familiar vs. unfamiliar referents, and whether successful word-learning is associated with increased second-language experience. Method Eighty-one adult native English speakers with various levels of Spanish knowledge learned phonologically-familiar novel words (constructed using English sounds) or phonologically-unfamiliar novel words (constructed using non-English and non-Spanish sounds) in association with either familiar or unfamiliar referents. Retention was tested via a forced-choice recognition-task. A median-split procedure identified high-ability and low-ability word-learners in each condition, and the two groups were compared on measures of second-language experience. Results Findings suggest that the ability to accurately match newly-learned novel names to their appropriate referents is facilitated by phonological familiarity only for familiar referents but not for unfamiliar referents. Moreover, more extensive second-language learning experience characterized superior learners primarily in one word-learning condition: Where phonologically-unfamiliar novel words were paired with familiar referents. Conclusions Together, these findings indicate that phonological familiarity facilitates novel word learning only for familiar referents, and that experience with learning a second language may have a specific impact on novel vocabulary learning in adults. PMID:22992709

  19. Word learning in adults with second-language experience: effects of phonological and referent familiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon; Van Hecke, Stephanie

    2013-04-01

    The goal of this research was to examine whether phonological familiarity exerts different effects on novel word learning for familiar versus unfamiliar referents and whether successful word learning is associated with increased second-language experience. Eighty-one adult native English speakers with various levels of Spanish knowledge learned phonologically familiar novel words (constructed using English sounds) or phonologically unfamiliar novel words (constructed using non-English and non-Spanish sounds) in association with either familiar or unfamiliar referents. Retention was tested via a forced-choice recognition task. A median-split procedure identified high-ability and low-ability word learners in each condition, and the two groups were compared on measures of second-language experience. Findings suggest that the ability to accurately match newly learned novel names to their appropriate referents is facilitated by phonological familiarity only for familiar referents but not for unfamiliar referents. Moreover, more extensive second-language learning experience characterized superior learners primarily in one word-learning condition: in which phonologically unfamiliar novel words were paired with familiar referents. Together, these findings indicate that phonological familiarity facilitates novel word learning only for familiar referents and that experience with learning a second language may have a specific impact on novel vocabulary learning in adults.

  20. [Phonological awareness in child with attention deficit disorder without learning disabilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Betancur, L A; Pineda, D A; Aguirre-Acevedo, D C

    Phonological awareness problems have been reported in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, other researches found that phonological awareness problem appear only in children with learning disabilities (LD). To analyze the performance on phonological awareness tasks of children aged 7 to11 years with ADHD combined type (ADHD/+H), and inattentive type (ADHD/-H) compared with one control group. A non-randomized sample consisting of 96 children of both genders was selected. Children were attending to school in Medellin, Colombia. The sample was classified into three groups of 32 participants: ADHD/+H, ADHD/-H and control. LD was excluded using a standardized questionnaire for teachers (CEPA). Groups were sorted using a T score (3) 60 for cases and T score pound 50 for controls on a standardized questionnaire with DSM-IV-ADHD criteria, and on an ADHD-DSM-IV checklist. The performances of the three groups on phonological awareness tasks, as auditory discrimination, visual recognition, sequential repetition, oral segmentation, syllable inversion, similar words reading and writing, and pseudo-words reading and writing, were compared. Differences between ADHD and control children on phonological awareness tasks scores were not found. Children with ADHD without LD performed similarly to controls on phonological awareness tasks.

  1. Relations among language exposure, phonological memory, and language development in Spanish-English bilingually developing 2-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Marisol; Hoff, Erika; Core, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    The relation of phonological memory to language experience and development was investigated in 41 Spanish-English bilingual first language learners. The children's relative exposure to English and Spanish and their phonological memory for English- and Spanish-like nonwords were assessed at 22 months of age, and their productive vocabulary and grammar in both languages were assessed at 25 months of age. Phonological memory for English-like nonwords was highly correlated with that for Spanish-like nonwords, and each was related to vocabulary and grammar in both languages, suggesting a language-general component to phonological memory skill. In addition, there was evidence of language-specific benefits of language exposure to phonological memory skill and of language-specific benefits of phonological memory skill to language development. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Predicting bilingual Spanish–English children’s phonological awareness abilities from their preschool English and Spanish oral language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpino, Shelley E.; Lawrence, Frank R.; Davison, Megan D.; Hammer, Carol S.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the relationship between oral language abilities and phonological awareness in 85 typically developing, Spanish–English preschool children (average age in preschool was 3 years, 9 months). Receptive language skills in Spanish and English were assessed in the autumn and spring during the children’s 2 years in Head Start for a total of four measurement occasions. Phonological awareness was assessed during the spring of children’s kindergarten year. Results indicated that English receptive vocabulary at the end of preschool predicted English phonological awareness abilities in kindergarten, whereas Spanish vocabulary was observed to have a negative predictive relationship with children’s English phonological awareness abilities. However, after controlling for English vocabulary, Spanish vocabulary no longer had an effect on English phonological awareness. Broad receptive language abilities in English and Spanish did not predict later English phonological awareness skills. PMID:23258945

  3. Enhancement and suppression in a lexical interference fMRI-paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Stefanie; Dressel, Katharina; Weiller, Cornelius; Huber, Walter

    2012-03-01

    Previous picture-word interference (PWI) fMRI-paradigms revealed ambiguous mechanisms underlying facilitation and inhibition in healthy subjects. Lexical distractors revealed increased (enhancement) or decreased (suppression) activation in language and monitoring/control areas. Performing a secondary examination and data analysis, we aimed to illuminate the relation between behavioral and neural interference effects comparing target-related distractors (REL) with unrelated distractors (UNREL). We hypothesized that interference involves both (A) suppression due to priming and (B) enhancement due to simultaneous distractor and target processing. Comparisons to UNREL should remain distractor unspecific even at a low threshold. (C) Distractor types with common characteristics should reveal overlapping brain areas. In a 3T MRI scanner, participants were asked to name pictures while auditory words were presented (stimulus onset asynchrony [SOA] = -200 msec). Associatively and phonologically related distractors speeded responses (facilitation), while categorically related distractors slowed them down (inhibition) compared to UNREL. As a result, (A) reduced brain activations indeed resembled previously reported patterns of neural priming. Each target-related distractor yielded suppressions at least in areas associated with vision and conflict/competition monitoring (anterior cingulate cortex [ACC]), revealing least priming for inhibitors. (B) Enhancements concerned language-related but distractor-unspecific regions. (C) Some wider brain regions were commonly suppressed for combinations of distractor types. Overlapping areas associated with conceptual priming were found for facilitatory distractors (inferior frontal gyri), and areas related to phonetic/articulatory processing (precentral gyri and left parietal operculum/insula) for distractors sharing feature overlap. Each distractor with semantic relatedness revealed nonoverlapping suppressions in lexical-phonological

  4. Training early literacy related skills: To which degree does a musical training contribute to phonological awareness development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Kempert

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Well-developed phonological awareness skills are a core prerequisite for early literacy development. Although effective phonological awareness training programs exist, children at risk often do not reach similar levels of phonological awareness after the intervention as children with normally developed skills. Based on theoretical considerations and first promising results the present study explores effects of an early musical training in combination with a conventional phonological training in children with weak phonological awareness skills. Using a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest control group design and measurements across a period of two years, we tested the effects of two interventions: a consecutive combination of a musical and a phonological training and a phonological training alone. The design made it possible to disentangle effects of the musical training alone as well the effects of its combination with the phonological training. The outcome measures of these groups were compared with the control group with multivariate analyses, controlling for a number of background variables. The sample included N = 424 German-speaking children aged 4 to 5 years at the beginning of the study. We found a positive relationship between musical abilities and phonological awareness. Yet, whereas the well-established phonological training produced the expected effects, adding a musical training did not contribute significantly to phonological awareness development. Training effects were partly dependent on the initial level of phonological awareness. Possible reasons for the lack of training effects in the musical part of the combination condition as well as practical implications for early literacy education are discussed.

  5. A PhonicStick Study : Investigating the Effectiveness of a Phonological Awareness Intervention in Children with Down Syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Gullberg, Jenny; Granholm, Josefin

    2010-01-01

    Phonological awareness is a set of language manipulation skills such as blending, rhyme, alliteration production and detection. There are disagreements among researchers how phonological awareness is connected to literacy learning and also how and if children with Down syndrome acquire phonological awareness. The specific phenotype of Down syndrome shows deficits in both short term memory and language development. It is therefore of great concern to investigate how children with Down syndrome...

  6. Phonology is not accessed earlier than orthography in Chinese written production: evidence for the orthography autonomy hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingfang; Wang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of orthographic and phonological codes to written production remains controversial. We report results using a picture-word interference task in which participants were asked to write (Experiments 1 and 2) or to speak (Experiment 3) the names of pictures while trying to ignore visual distractors, and the interval between the target and distractor onset was varied. Distractors were orthographically plus phonologically related, orthographically related, phonologically related, or unrelated to picture names. For written production, we found an exclusive orthographic effect at an early stage, reflecting a fast and direct link between meaning and graphemic lexicon, and we demonstrated that orthographic codes can be accessed directly from meaning in healthy adults. We also found orthographic and phonological effects at a later stage, reflecting a slow and indirect link between meaning and graphemic lexicon via phonology. Furthermore, the absence of an interaction effect of orthographic and phonological facilitation on written latencies suggests that the two effects are additive in general and that they might occur independently in written production in Chinese. For spoken production, we found that orthographic and phonological effects occur simultaneously in spoken production and that the two effects are additive at an early stage but interactive at a later stage. The temporal courses and their interplay of orthographic and phonological effects are dissociative in written and spoken production. Our findings thus support the orthography autonomy hypothesis, rather than the obligatory phonological mediation hypothesis, in written production in Chinese (as a non-alphabetic script).

  7. How phonological awareness mediates the relation between working memory and word reading efficiency in children with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoop-van Campen, Carolien A N; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2018-05-01

    This study examined the relation between working memory, phonological awareness, and word reading efficiency in fourth-grade children with dyslexia. To test whether the relation between phonological awareness and word reading efficiency differed for children with dyslexia versus typically developing children, we assessed phonological awareness and word reading efficiency in 50 children with dyslexia (aged 9;10, 35 boys) and 613 typically developing children (aged 9;5, 279 boys). Phonological awareness was found to be associated with word reading efficiency, similar for children with dyslexia and typically developing children. To find out whether the relation between working memory and word reading efficiency in the group with dyslexia could be explained by phonological awareness, the children with dyslexia were also tested on working memory. Results of a mediation analysis showed a significant indirect effect of working memory on word reading efficiency via phonological awareness. Working memory predicted reading efficiency, via its relation with phonological awareness in children with dyslexia. This indicates that working memory is necessary for word reading efficiency via its impact on phonological awareness and that phonological awareness continues to be important for word reading efficiency in older children with dyslexia. © 2018 The Authors Dyslexia Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Menstrual suppression for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, Anna Lea; Hillard, Paula J Adams

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this review is to highlight the recent literature and emerging data describing clinical situations in which menstrual suppression may improve symptoms and quality of life for adolescents. A variety of conditions occurring frequently in adolescents and young adults, including heavy menstrual bleeding, and dysmenorrhea as well as gynecologic conditions such as endometriosis and pelvic pain, can safely be improved or alleviated with appropriate menstrual management. Recent publications have highlighted the efficacy and benefit of extended cycle or continuous combined oral contraceptives, the levonorgestrel intrauterine device, and progestin therapies for a variety of medical conditions. This review places menstrual suppression in an historical context, summarizes methods of hormonal therapy that can suppress menses, and reviews clinical conditions for which menstrual suppression may be helpful.

  9. Cryogenic Acoustic Suppression Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A proof-of-concept method utilizing a cryogenic fluid for acoustic suppression in rocket engine testing environments will be demonstrated. It is hypothesized that...

  10. Sodium fire suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  11. Fronto-Parietal Contributions to Phonological Processes in Successful Artificial Grammar Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goranskaya, Dariya; Kreitewolf, Jens; Mueller, Jutta L.; Friederici, Angela D.; Hartwigsen, Gesa

    2016-01-01

    Sensitivity to regularities plays a crucial role in the acquisition of various linguistic features from spoken language input. Artificial grammar learning paradigms explore pattern recognition abilities in a set of structured sequences (i.e., of syllables or letters). In the present study, we investigated the functional underpinnings of learning phonological regularities in auditorily presented syllable sequences. While previous neuroimaging studies either focused on functional differences between the processing of correct vs. incorrect sequences or between different levels of sequence complexity, here the focus is on the neural foundation of the actual learning success. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants were exposed to a set of syllable sequences with an underlying phonological rule system, known to ensure performance differences between participants. We expected that successful learning and rule application would require phonological segmentation and phoneme comparison. As an outcome of four alternating learning and test fMRI sessions, participants split into successful learners and non-learners. Relative to non-learners, successful learners showed increased task-related activity in a fronto-parietal network of brain areas encompassing the left lateral premotor cortex as well as bilateral superior and inferior parietal cortices during both learning and rule application. These areas were previously associated with phonological segmentation, phoneme comparison, and verbal working memory. Based on these activity patterns and the phonological strategies for rule acquisition and application, we argue that successful learning and processing of complex phonological rules in our paradigm is mediated via a fronto-parietal network for phonological processes. PMID:27877120

  12. Fronto-parietal contributions to phonological processes in successful artificial grammar learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariya Goranskaya

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity to regularities plays a crucial role in the acquisition of various linguistic features from spoken language input. Artificial grammar (AG learning paradigms explore pattern recognition abilities in a set of structured sequences (i.e. of syllables or letters. In the present study, we investigated the functional underpinnings of learning phonological regularities in auditorily presented syllable sequences. While previous neuroimaging studies either focused on functional differences between the processing of correct vs. incorrect sequences or between different levels of sequence complexity, here the focus is on the neural foundation of the actual learning success. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, participants were exposed to a set of syllable sequences with an underlying phonological rule system, known to ensure performance differences between participants. We expected that successful learning and rule application would require phonological segmentation and phoneme comparison. As an outcome of four alternating learning and test fMRI sessions, participants split into successful learners and non-learners. Relative to non-learners, successful learners showed increased task-related activity in a fronto-parietal network of brain areas encompassing the left lateral premotor cortex as well as bilateral superior and inferior parietal cortices during both learning and rule application. These areas were previously associated with phonological segmentation, phoneme comparison and verbal working memory. Based on these activity patterns and the phonological strategies for rule acquisition and application, we argue that successful learning and processing of complex phonological rules in our paradigm is mediated via a fronto-parietal network for phonological processes.

  13. The contribution of phonological knowledge, memory, and language background to reading comprehension in deaf populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshorn, Elizabeth A.; Dye, Matthew W. G.; Hauser, Peter; Supalla, Ted R.; Bavelier, Daphne

    2015-01-01

    While reading is challenging for many deaf individuals, some become proficient readers. Little is known about the component processes that support reading comprehension in these individuals. Speech-based phonological knowledge is one of the strongest predictors of reading comprehension in hearing individuals, yet its role in deaf readers is controversial. This could reflect the highly varied language backgrounds among deaf readers as well as the difficulty of disentangling the relative contribution of phonological versus orthographic knowledge of spoken language, in our case ‘English,’ in this population. Here we assessed the impact of language experience on reading comprehension in deaf readers by recruiting oral deaf individuals, who use spoken English as their primary mode of communication, and deaf native signers of American Sign Language. First, to address the contribution of spoken English phonological knowledge in deaf readers, we present novel tasks that evaluate phonological versus orthographic knowledge. Second, the impact of this knowledge, as well as memory measures that rely differentially on phonological (serial recall) and semantic (free recall) processing, on reading comprehension was evaluated. The best predictor of reading comprehension differed as a function of language experience, with free recall being a better predictor in deaf native signers than in oral deaf. In contrast, the measures of English phonological knowledge, independent of orthographic knowledge, best predicted reading comprehension in oral deaf individuals. These results suggest successful reading strategies differ across deaf readers as a function of their language experience, and highlight a possible alternative route to literacy in deaf native signers. Highlights: 1. Deaf individuals vary in their orthographic and phonological knowledge of English as a function of their language experience. 2. Reading comprehension was best predicted by different factors in oral deaf and

  14. The processing of English regular inflections: Phonological cues to morphological structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Brechtje; Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Randall, Billi; Tyler, Lorraine K.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that different neural and functional mechanisms are involved in the analysis of irregular (caught) and regular (filled) past tense forms in English. In particular, the comprehension and production of regular forms is argued to require processes of morpho-phonological assembly and disassembly, analysing these forms into a stem plus an inflectional affix (e.g., {fill} + {-ed}), as opposed to irregular forms, which do not have an overt stem + affix structure and must be analysed as full forms [Marslen-Wilson, W. D., & Tyler, L. K. (1997). Dissociating types of mental computation. Nature, 387, 592–594; Marslen-Wilson, W. D., & Tyler, L. K. (1998). Rules, representations, and the English past tense. Trends in Cognitive Science, 2, 428–435]. On this account, any incoming string that shows the critical diagnostic properties of an inflected form – a final coronal consonant (/t/, /d/, /s/, /z/) that agrees in voicing with the preceding segment as in filled, mild, or nilled – will automatically trigger an attempt at segmentation. We report an auditory speeded judgment experiment which explored the contribution of these critical morpho-phonological properties (labelled as the English inflectional rhyme pattern) to the processing of English regular inflections. The results show that any stimulus that can be interpreted as ending in a regular inflection, whether it is a real inflection (filled–fill), a pseudo-inflection (mild–mile) or a phonologically matched nonword (nilled–nill), is responded to more slowly than an unambiguously monomorphemic stimulus pair (e.g., belt–bell). This morpho-phonological effect was independent of phonological effects of voicing and syllabicity. The findings are interpreted as evidence for a basic morpho-phonological parsing process that applies to all items with the criterial phonological properties. PMID:18834584

  15. The double identity of doubling: Evidence for the phonology-morphology split.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berent, Iris; Bat-El, Outi; Vaknin-Nusbaum, Vered

    2017-04-01

    Duality of patterning, is, by hypothesis, a universal design feature of language. Every language constructs words from meaningful units (morphemes), which, in turn, are comprised of meaningless phonological elements (e.g., segments, syllables). But whether the language faculty does, in fact, include a separate morphological level, distinct from the phonology, is a matter of controversy. To elucidate the role of morphology, here we ask whether morphological forms are constrained by putatively universal combinatorial principles, distinct from those applying to phonological patterns. Our research exploits the structural ambiguity of doubling. Doubling (e.g., trafraf) is open to two competing interpretations-as either a purely phonological form, or as a complex morphological structure that is systematically linked to meaning (e.g., trafraf is the diminutive of traf). Our experiments show that responses to doubling (trafraf) shift radically, depending on its level of analysis. Viewed as a meaningless phonological form, doubling is dispreferred irrespective of its kind (i.e., trafraf is as bad as traftaf, even though the latter violates a morphological constraint on contiguity). But once doubling is systematically linked to meaning (i.e., as a morphological structure), the doubling dislike shifts into a reliable preference, and an additional constraint on its contiguity arises (i.e., trafraf>traftaf). Remarkably, the dissociation between morphological and phonological doubling emerges regardless of whether morphological reduplication is abundant in participants' language (in Hebrew) or relatively rare (in English). These results suggest the existence of distinct linguistic constraints that preferentially target the morphological vs. phonological levels. We discuss various explanations for the origins of these restrictions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Preschool Phonological and Morphological Awareness As Longitudinal Predictors of Early Reading and Spelling Development in Greek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamanti, Vassiliki; Mouzaki, Angeliki; Ralli, Asimina; Antoniou, Faye; Papaioannou, Sofia; Protopapas, Athanassios

    2017-01-01

    Different language skills are considered fundamental for successful reading and spelling acquisition. Extensive evidence has highlighted the central role of phonological awareness in early literacy experiences. However, many orthographic systems also require the contribution of morphological awareness. The goal of this study was to examine the morphological and phonological awareness skills of preschool children as longitudinal predictors of reading and spelling ability by the end of first grade, controlling for the effects of receptive and expressive vocabulary skills. At Time 1 preschool children from kindergartens in the Greek regions of Attika, Crete, Macedonia, and Thessaly were assessed on tasks tapping receptive and expressive vocabulary, phonological awareness (syllable and phoneme), and morphological awareness (inflectional and derivational). Tasks were administered through an Android application for mobile devices (tablets) featuring automatic application of ceiling rules. At Time 2 one year later the same children attending first grade were assessed on measures of word and pseudoword reading, text reading fluency, text reading comprehension, and spelling. Complete data from 104 children are available. Hierarchical linear regression and commonality analyses were conducted for each outcome variable. Reading accuracy for both words and pseudowords was predicted not only by phonological awareness, as expected, but also by morphological awareness, suggesting that understanding the functional role of word parts supports the developing phonology-orthography mappings. However, only phonological awareness predicted text reading fluency at this age. Longitudinal prediction of reading comprehension by both receptive vocabulary and morphological awareness was already evident at this age, as expected. Finally, spelling was predicted by preschool phonological awareness, as expected, as well as by morphological awareness, the contribution of which is expected to

  17. Contributions of Phonological Awareness, Phonological Short-Term Memory, and Rapid Automated Naming, toward Decoding Ability in Students with Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Amanallah; Roslan, Samsilah

    2013-01-01

    Reading decoding ability is a fundamental skill to acquire word-specific orthographic information necessary for skilled reading. Decoding ability and its underlying phonological processing skills have been heavily investigated typically among developing students. However, the issue has rarely been noticed among students with intellectual…

  18. Exploring the Phenotype of Phonological Reading Disability as a Function of the Phonological Deficit Severity: Evidence from the Error Analysis Paradigm in Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Haitham; Ibrahim, Raphiq; Khateb, Asaid

    2014-01-01

    The dominant error types were investigated as a function of phonological processing (PP) deficit severity in four groups of impaired readers. For this aim, an error analysis paradigm distinguishing between four error types was used. The findings revealed that the different types of impaired readers were characterized by differing predominant error…

  19. Automated Intelligibility Assessment of Pathological Speech Using Phonological Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Middag

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly acknowledged that word or phoneme intelligibility is an important criterion in the assessment of the communication efficiency of a pathological speaker. People have therefore put a lot of effort in the design of perceptual intelligibility rating tests. These tests usually have the drawback that they employ unnatural speech material (e.g., nonsense words and that they cannot fully exclude errors due to listener bias. Therefore, there is a growing interest in the application of objective automatic speech recognition technology to automate the intelligibility assessment. Current research is headed towards the design of automated methods which can be shown to produce ratings that correspond well with those emerging from a well-designed and well-performed perceptual test. In this paper, a novel methodology that is built on previous work (Middag et al., 2008 is presented. It utilizes phonological features, automatic speech alignment based on acoustic models that were trained on normal speech, context-dependent speaker feature extraction, and intelligibility prediction based on a small model that can be trained on pathological speech samples. The experimental evaluation of the new system reveals that the root mean squared error of the discrepancies between perceived and computed intelligibilities can be as low as 8 on a scale of 0 to 100.

  20. The Phonetics and Phonology of the Polish Calling Melodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvaniti, Amalia; Żygis, Marzena; Jaskuła, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Two calling melodies of Polish were investigated, the routine call, used to call someone for an everyday reason, and the urgent call, which conveys disapproval of the addressee's actions. A Discourse Completion Task was used to elicit the two melodies from Polish speakers using twelve names from one to four syllables long; there were three names per syllable count, and speakers produced three tokens of each name with each melody. The results, based on eleven speakers, show that the routine calling melody consists of a low F0 stretch followed by a rise-fall-rise; the urgent calling melody, on the other hand, is a simple rise-fall. Systematic differences were found in the scaling and alignment of tonal targets: the routine call showed late alignment of the accentual pitch peak, and in most instances lower scaling of targets. The accented vowel was also affected, being overall louder in the urgent call. Based on the data and comparisons with other Polish melodies, we analyze the routine call as LH* !H-H% and the urgent call as H* L-L%. We discuss the results and our analysis in light of recent findings on calling melodies in other languages, and explore their repercussions for intonational phonology and the modeling of intonation. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Relation between arithmetic performance and phonological working memory in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Kelly da; Zuanetti, Patrícia Aparecida; Borcat, Vanessa Trombini Ribeiro; Guedes-Granzotti, Raphaela Barroso; Kuroishi, Rita Cristina Sadako; Domenis, Daniele Ramos; Fukuda, Marisa Tomoe Hebihara

    2017-08-17

    To compare the results of Loop Phonological Working Memory (LPWM) in children without global learning alterations, with lower and average/higher arithmetic performance. The study was conducted with 30 children, between the ages of seven and nine years old, who attended the second or third grade of elementary school in the public network. Exclusion criteria were children with suggestive signs of hearing loss, neurological disorders, poor performance in the reading comprehension test or in speech therapy. The children included in the study were submitted to the subtest of arithmetic of Academic Achievement Test for division into two groups (G1 and G2). The G1 was composed of children with low performance in arithmetic and G2 for children with average/higher performance in arithmetic. All children were submitted to PWM assessment through the repetition of pseudowords test. Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney test and a p-value memory are related to difficulties in arithmetic tests.

  2. Novel Word Learning, Reading Difficulties, and Phonological Processing Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashnikova, Marina; Burnham, Denis

    2016-05-01

    Visual-verbal paired associate learning (PAL) refers to the ability to establish an arbitrary association between a visual referent and an unfamiliar label. It is now established that this ability is impaired in children with dyslexia, but the source of this deficit is yet to be specified. This study assesses PAL performance in children with reading difficulties using a modified version of the PAL paradigm, comprising a comprehension and a production phase, to determine whether the PAL deficit lies in children's ability to establish and retain novel object-novel word associations or their ability to retrieve the learned novel labels for production. Results showed that while children with reading difficulties required significantly more trials to learn the object-word associations, when they were required to use these associations in a comprehension-referent selection task, their accuracy and speed did not differ from controls. Nevertheless, children with reading difficulties were significantly less successful when they were required to produce the learned novel labels in response to the visual stimuli. Thus, these results indicate that while children with reading difficulties are successful at establishing visual-verbal associations, they have a deficit in the verbal production component of PAL tasks, which may relate to a more general underlying impairment in auditory or phonological processing. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. English Language Teaching: phonetics, phonology and auditory processing contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Letícia Maria Martins; Feniman, Mariza Ribeiro; Carvalho, Fernanda Ribeiro Pinto de; Lopes-Herrera, Simone Aparecida

    2010-01-01

    interrelation of phonetics, phonology and auditory processing in English Language Teaching. to determine whether prior contact with English phonetics favors general learning of this language (L2), i.e. second language, in Portuguese speakers; to verify performance of these individuals in an auditory processing test prior to and after being taught L2. participants of the study were eight college students who had only studied English in high school. These participants were divided into two groups: control group - were only enrolled in English classes; experimental group - were enrolled in English phonetic classes prior to their enrollment in English classes. Participants were submitted to an auditory processing test and to an oral test in English (Oral Test) prior to and after the classes. Data were analyzed in the same way, i.e. prior to and after the classes. these were expressed statistically by T-Student's test. Analyses indicated no difference in performance between groups. Scores indicated better performance of the control group for answering questions in English in the Oral Test. The experimental group had better performance in the auditory processing test after being enrolled to English phonetic classes and English course. prior basic knowledge of English did not enhance general learning (improvement in pronunciation) of the second language, however, it improved the ability of temporal processing in the used test.

  4. Acquisition of Japanese contracted sounds in L1 phonology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurutani, Chiharu

    2002-05-01

    Japanese possesses a group of palatalized consonants, known to Japanese scholars as the contracted sounds, [CjV]. English learners of Japanese appear to treat them initially as consonant + glide clusters, where there is an equivalent [Cj] cluster in English, or otherwise tend to insert an epenthetic vowel [CVjV]. The acquisition of the Japanese contracted sounds by first language (L1) learners has not been widely studied compared with the consonant clusters in English with which they bear a close phonetic resemblance but have quite a different phonological status. This is a study to investigate the L1 acquisition process of the Japanese contracted sounds (a) in order to observe how the palatalization gesture is acquired in Japanese and (b) to investigate differences in the sound acquisition processes of first and second language (L2) learners: Japanese children compared with English learners. To do this, the productions of Japanese children ranging in age from 2.5 to 3.5 years were transcribed and the pattern of misproduction was observed.

  5. An Articulatory Phonology Account of Preferred Consonant-Vowel Combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulivi, Sara; Whalen, D H; Goldstein, Louis M; Nam, Hosung; Levitt, Andrea G

    2011-01-01

    Certain consonant/vowel combinations (labial/central, coronal/front, velar/back) are more frequent in babbling as well as, to a lesser extent, in adult language, than chance would dictate. The "Frame then Content" (F/C) hypothesis (Davis & MacNeilage, 1994) attributes this pattern to biomechanical vocal-tract biases that change as infants mature. Articulatory Phonology (AP; Browman and Goldstein 1989) attributes preferences to demands placed on shared articulators. F/C implies that preferences will diminish as articulatory control increases, while AP does not. Here, babbling from children at 6, 9 and 12 months in English, French and Mandarin environments was examined. There was no developmental trend in CV preferences, although older ages exhibited greater articulatory control. A perception test showed no evidence of bias toward hearing the preferred combinations. Modeling using articulatory synthesis found limited support for F/C but more for AP, including data not originally encompassed in F/C. AP thus provides an alternative biomechanical explanation.

  6. Investigation of Speech Impairments in A Child with HIV: The Study of Phonological Processes: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ilkhani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is a viral disease with immunodeficiency in human. So, it can involve different areas such as language, speech, motor and memory. The present research, as a case report, introducing the characteristics of phonological processes of a child who had Aids and lived in a nursery through referring and professional assessing in a speech therapy clinic. The child was a 4 year old boy who was in HIV base on blood test. Speech skills was assessed based on DEAP and language assessment was analyzed according to TOLD-P3. He talked with single word. He used two words sentences rarely. According to language assessment (TOLD-P3, semantic, syntax and phonology features were tested. So he was in emerging language stage. Also his expressive language was lower than his perceive language. In addition, based on DEAP-P test, phonological process of substitution type has been recognized most. Also, the most of the substitution phonological process which accrued have been velar fronting. This study showed that the most phonological process in a child with HIV was the process of substitution. It may be a risk factor for decreasing speech intelligibility. With regard to the results of the present research that showed that the subject had the disorder and there are limited researches in this area,

  7. Music Training Increases Phonological Awareness and Reading Skills in Developmental Dyslexia: A Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaugnacco, Elena; Lopez, Luisa; Terribili, Chiara; Montico, Marcella; Zoia, Stefania; Schön, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    There is some evidence for a role of music training in boosting phonological awareness, word segmentation, working memory, as well as reading abilities in children with typical development. Poor performance in tasks requiring temporal processing, rhythm perception and sensorimotor synchronization seems to be a crucial factor underlying dyslexia in children. Interestingly, children with dyslexia show deficits in temporal processing, both in language and in music. Within this framework, we test the hypothesis that music training, by improving temporal processing and rhythm abilities, improves phonological awareness and reading skills in children with dyslexia. The study is a prospective, multicenter, open randomized controlled trial, consisting of test, rehabilitation and re-test (ID NCT02316873). After rehabilitation, the music group (N = 24) performed better than the control group (N = 22) in tasks assessing rhythmic abilities, phonological awareness and reading skills. This is the first randomized control trial testing the effect of music training in enhancing phonological and reading abilities in children with dyslexia. The findings show that music training can modify reading and phonological abilities even when these skills are severely impaired. Through the enhancement of temporal processing and rhythmic skills, music might become an important tool in both remediation and early intervention programs.Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02316873

  8. Phonological processing skills and its relevance to receptive vocabulary development in children with early cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngmee; Yim, Dongsun; Sim, Hyunsub

    2012-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate phonological processing skills for children with cochlear implants (CIs) in comparison with children with normal hearing (NH), and to assess whether phonological processing skills can explain variance in receptive vocabulary scores in children with CIs. Twenty-five deaf children who received a CI before 2 years of age were included in this study, and they ranged from 4 years to 6 years 11 months. Twenty-five children with NH as a control group were matched to children with CIs on the basis of chronological age with 3 months. Phonological processing skills were measured by the phonological awareness (PA), nonword repetition (NWR), and rapid automatized naming (RAN) tasks. Receptive vocabulary skills were also tested by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test - Korean version. Children with CIs performed significantly lower than children with NH on PA (p.05). Among phonological processing skills, PA contributed significant amount to receptive vocabulary skills in children with CIs (pvocabulary skills. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Spelling Errors in French-speaking Children with Dyslexia: Phonology May Not Provide the Best Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Daniel; Costerg, Agnès; Plisson, Anne; Ruberto, Noémia; Varin, Joëlle

    2016-05-01

    For children with dyslexia, learning to write constitutes a great challenge. There has been consensus that the explanation for these learners' delay is related to a phonological deficit. Results from studies designed to describe dyslexic children's spelling errors are not always as clear concerning the role of phonological processes as those found in reading studies. In irregular languages like French, spelling abilities involve other processes than phonological processes. The main goal of this study was to describe the relative contribution of these other processes in dyslexic children's spelling ability. In total, 32 francophone dyslexic children with a mean age of 11.4 years were compared with 24 reading-age matched controls (RA) and 24 chronological-age matched controls (CA). All had to write a text that was analysed at the graphemic level. All errors were classified as either phonological, morphological, visual-orthographic or lexical. Results indicated that dyslexic children's spelling ability lagged behind not only that of the CA group but also of the RA group. Because the majority of errors, in all groups, could not be explained by inefficiency of phonological processing, the importance of visual knowledge/processes will be discussed as a complementary explanation of dyslexic children's delay in writing. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Phonological codes constrain output of orthographic codes via sublexical and lexical routes in Chinese written production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Qingfang

    2015-01-01

    To what extent do phonological codes constrain orthographic output in handwritten production? We investigated how phonological codes constrain the selection of orthographic codes via sublexical and lexical routes in Chinese written production. Participants wrote down picture names in a picture-naming task in Experiment 1or response words in a symbol-word associative writing task in Experiment 2. A sublexical phonological property of picture names (phonetic regularity: regular vs. irregular) in Experiment 1and a lexical phonological property of response words (homophone density: dense vs. sparse) in Experiment 2, as well as word frequency of the targets in both experiments, were manipulated. A facilitatory effect of word frequency was found in both experiments, in which words with high frequency were produced faster than those with low frequency. More importantly, we observed an inhibitory phonetic regularity effect, in which low-frequency picture names with regular first characters were slower to write than those with irregular ones, and an inhibitory homophone density effect, in which characters with dense homophone density were produced more slowly than those with sparse homophone density. Results suggested that phonological codes constrained handwritten production via lexical and sublexical routes.

  11. Phonology contributes to writing: evidence from written word production in a nonalphabetic script.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Qingqing; Damian, Markus F; Zhang, Qingfang; Zhu, Xuebing

    2011-09-01

    Is the production of written words affected by their phonological properties? Most researchers agree that orthographic codes can be accessed directly from meaning, but the contribution of phonological codes to written word production remains controversial, mainly because studies have focused on languages with alphabetic scripts, and it is difficult to dissociate sound from spelling in such languages. We report results from a picture-word interference task in which Chinese participants wrote the names of pictures while attempting to ignore written distractor words. On some trials, the distractors were phonologically and orthographically related to the picture names; on other trials, the distractors were only phonologically related to the picture names; and on still other trials, the distractors and picture names were unrelated. Priming effects were found for both types of related distractors relative to unrelated distractors. This result constitutes clear evidence that phonological properties constrain orthographic output. Additionally, the results speak to the nature of Chinese orthography, suggesting subsemantic correspondences between sound and spelling.

  12. Early phonological awareness and reading skills in children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Esther J; Flynn, Mark C

    2003-08-01

    Increasingly, children with Down syndrome receive literacy instruction with the expectation of acquiring functional reading skills. Unfortunately, little is known about the processes underlying literacy skills in this special population. Phonological awareness contributes to literacy development in typically developing children, however, there is inconclusive evidence about these skills in younger children with Down syndrome. 9 children with Down syndrome (5.6-8.10 years) participated in this investigation. Due to the paucity of standardised phonological awareness measures for children with special needs, in particular children with Down syndrome, a variety of tasks were adapted from the literature. The assessment battery examined the skills of phonological awareness, literacy, speech production, expressive language, hearing acuity, speech perception, and auditory-visual memory. The results suggest that children with Down syndrome are at risks for reading acquisition difficulties due to reduced phonological awareness skills. These deficits are in addition to delays caused by reduced cognitive skills. Only one of the participants was able to demonstrate rhyme awareness, which may have been due to task effects. Written word recognition ability was correlated with tests of phonemic awareness, and error analysis of the spelling and non-word reading tasks suggested grapheme-phoneme connections deficits. Further research is needed to determine the best methods of assessment and intervention for phonological awareness in children with Down syndrome.

  13. Phonological similarity affects production of gestures, even in the absence of overt speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazbanou eNozari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Are manual gestures affected by inner speech? This study tested the hypothesis that phonological form influences gesture by investigating whether phonological similarity between words that describe motion gestures creates interference for production of those gestures in the absence of overt speech. Participants learned to respond to a picture of a bottle by gesturing to open the bottle’s cap, and to a picture of long hair by gesturing to twirl the hair. In one condition, the gestures were introduced with phonologically-similar labels twist and twirl (similar condition, while in the other condition, they were introduced with phonologically-dissimilar labels unscrew and twirl (dissimilar condition. During the actual experiment, labels were not produced and participants only gestured by looking at pictures. In both conditions, participants also gestured to a control pair that was used as a baseline. Participants made significantly more errors on gestures in the similar than dissimilar condition after correction for baseline differences. This finding shows the influence of phonology on gesture production in the absence of overt speech and poses new constraints on the locus of the interaction between language and gesture systems.

  14. Phonological working memory and auditory processing speed in children with specific language impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Haresabadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Specific language impairment (SLI, one variety of developmental language disorder, has attracted much interest in recent decades. Much research has been conducted to discover why some children have a specific language impairment. So far, research has failed to identify a reason for this linguistic deficiency. Some researchers believe language disorder causes defects in phonological working memory and affects auditory processing speed. Therefore, this study reviews the results of research investigating these two factors in children with specific language impairment.Recent Findings: Studies have shown that children with specific language impairment face constraints in phonological working memory capacity. Memory deficit is one possible cause of linguistic disorder in children with specific language impairment. However, in these children, disorder in information processing speed is observed, especially regarding the auditory aspect.Conclusion: Much more research is required to adequately explain the relationship between phonological working memory and auditory processing speed with language. However, given the role of phonological working memory and auditory processing speed in language acquisition, a focus should be placed on phonological working memory capacity and auditory processing speed in the assessment and treatment of children with a specific language impairment.

  15. Immediate memory for pseudowords and phonological awareness are associated in adults and pre-reading children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Nathaniel B.; McRoberts, Gerald W.; Van Dyke, Julie A.; Shankweiler, Donald P.; Braze, David

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated phonological components of reading skill at two ages, using a novel pseudoword repetition task for assessing phonological memory (PM). Pseudowords were designed to incorporate control over segmental, prosodic and lexical features. In experiment 1, the materials were administered to 3- and 4-year-old children together with a standardized test of phonological awareness (PA). PA and pseudoword repetition showed a moderate positive correlation, independent of age. Experiment 2, which targeted young adults, employed the same pseudoword materials, with a different administration protocol, together with standardized indices of PA, other memory measures, and decoding skill. The results showed moderate to strong positive correlations among our novel pseudoword repetition task, measures of PM and PA, and decoding. Together, the findings demonstrate the feasibility of assessing PM with the same carefully controlled materials at widely spaced points in age, adding to present resources for assessing phonological memory and better enabling future studies to map the development of relationships among phonological capabilities in both typically developing children and those with language-related impairments. PMID:22690715

  16. Music Training Increases Phonological Awareness and Reading Skills in Developmental Dyslexia: A Randomized Control Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Flaugnacco

    Full Text Available There is some evidence for a role of music training in boosting phonological awareness, word segmentation, working memory, as well as reading abilities in children with typical development. Poor performance in tasks requiring temporal processing, rhythm perception and sensorimotor synchronization seems to be a crucial factor underlying dyslexia in children. Interestingly, children with dyslexia show deficits in temporal processing, both in language and in music. Within this framework, we test the hypothesis that music training, by improving temporal processing and rhythm abilities, improves phonological awareness and reading skills in children with dyslexia. The study is a prospective, multicenter, open randomized controlled trial, consisting of test, rehabilitation and re-test (ID NCT02316873. After rehabilitation, the music group (N = 24 performed better than the control group (N = 22 in tasks assessing rhythmic abilities, phonological awareness and reading skills. This is the first randomized control trial testing the effect of music training in enhancing phonological and reading abilities in children with dyslexia. The findings show that music training can modify reading and phonological abilities even when these skills are severely impaired. Through the enhancement of temporal processing and rhythmic skills, music might become an important tool in both remediation and early intervention programs.Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02316873

  17. Pressure suppression device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumachi, Wataru; Fukuda, Akira; Kitaguchi, Hidemi; Shimizu, Toshiaki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To relieve and absorb impact wave vibrations caused by steam and non-condensed gases releasing into the pressure suppression chamber at the time of an accident. Structure: The reactor container is filled with inert gases. A safety valve attached main steam pipe is provided to permit the excessive steam to escape, the valve being communicated with the pressure suppression chamber through an exhaust pipe. In the pressure suppression chamber, a doughnut-like cylindrical outer wall is filled at its bottom with pool water to condense the high temperature vapor released through the exhaust pipe. A head portion of a vent tube which leads the exhaust pipe is positioned at the top, and a down comer and an exhaust vent tube are locked by means of steady rests. At the bottom is mounted a pressure adsorber device which adsorbs a pressure from the pool water. (Kamimura, M.)

  18. Thyroxin hormone suppression treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    One of the important modalities of treatment of thyroid cancer (TC) after surgery is the administration of thyroxin as an adjuvant treatment. The analysis supports the theory that thyroid suppression plays an important role in patient management. 300 μg of thyroxin, as this is an adequate dose for suppression is given. Ideally the dose should be tailored by testing s-TSH levels. However, since a large number of the patients come from out station cities and villages this is impractical. We therefore depend on clinical criteria of hyperthyroid symptoms and adjust the dose. Very few patients need such adjustment

  19. Action Research to Improve Phonological Recognition at Key Stage 1 with Reference to Pupils with Special Educational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Given the focus on phonological attainment in the National Phonics Screening Check, small-scale school-based action research was undertaken to improve phonological recognition and assess the impact on progress and attainment in a sample drawn from Key Stage 1 which included pupils on the Special Educational Needs (SEN) Register. The research…

  20. How well Do Phonological Awareness and Rapid Automatized Naming Correlate with Chinese Reading Accuracy and Fluency? A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuang; Georgiou, George K.; Su, Mengmeng; Hua, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Previous meta-analyses on the relationship between phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and reading have been conducted primarily in English, an atypical alphabetic orthography. Here, we aimed to examine the association between phonological awareness, RAN, and word reading in a nonalphabetic language (Chinese). A random-effects…

  1. Computer-Based Phonological Skills Training for Primary Students with Mild to Moderate Dyslexia--A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blythe, John M.

    2006-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the efficacy of "Phonics Alive 2: The Sound Blender", a computer-based phonological skills training program, delivered with both at-home and at-school components over a 10-week period, as a potential treatment of phonological dyslexia. Participants were 20 dyslexic primary students with an average delay of…

  2. Neural Dissociation of Phonological and Visual Attention Span Disorders in Developmental Dyslexia: fMRI Evidence from Two Case Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrin, C.; Lallier, M.; Demonet, J. F.; Pernet, C.; Baciu, M.; Le Bas, J. F.; Valdois, S.

    2012-01-01

    A dissociation between phonological and visual attention (VA) span disorders has been reported in dyslexic children. This study investigates whether this cognitively-based dissociation has a neurobiological counterpart through the investigation of two cases of developmental dyslexia. LL showed a phonological disorder but preserved VA span whereas…

  3. The Role of Music Perception in Predicting Phonological Awareness in Five- and Six-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathroum, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of music perception in predicting phonological awareness in five- and six-year-old children. This study was based on the hypothesis that music perception and phonological awareness appear to have parallel auditory perceptual mechanisms. Previous research investigating the relationship between these…

  4. The roles of long-term phonotactic and lexical prosodic knowledge in phonological short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanida, Yuki; Ueno, Taiji; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Saito, Satoru

    2015-04-01

    Many previous studies have explored and confirmed the influence of long-term phonological representations on phonological short-term memory. In most investigations, phonological effects have been explored with respect to phonotactic constraints or frequency. If interaction between long-term memory and phonological short-term memory is a generalized principle, then other phonological characteristics-that is, suprasegmental aspects of phonology-should also exert similar effects on phonological short-term memory. We explored this hypothesis through three immediate serial-recall experiments that manipulated Japanese nonwords with respect to lexical prosody (pitch-accent type, reflecting suprasegmental characteristics) as well as phonotactic frequency (reflecting segmental characteristics). The results showed that phonotactic frequency affected the retention not only of the phonemic sequences, but also of pitch-accent patterns, when participants were instructed to recall both the phoneme sequence and accent pattern of nonwords. In addition, accent pattern typicality influenced the retention of the accent pattern: Typical accent patterns were recalled more accurately than atypical ones. These results indicate that both long-term phonotactic and lexical prosodic knowledge contribute to phonological short-term memory performance.

  5. Phonological skills as predictor of reading success: An investigation of emergent bilingual Northern Sotho/English learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilsenach, Carien

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between phonological skills and reading has not been studied extensively in the African languages spoken in South Africa. This study focuses on phonological skills and reading in emergent bilingual Northern Sotho/English learners. Fifty Grade 3 learners (all native speakers of Northern Sotho were tested on non-word repetition skills, syllable awareness, phonological working memory and reading. The learners fell into two groups: group 1 attended a school where English was the medium of instruction from the first grade, while group 2 attended a school where literacy instruction took place in Northern Sotho for the first three years of schooling. The results indicate that there is a significant correlation between phonological skills and reading in Northern Sotho. Furthermore, group 2 performed significantly better on all of the phonological measures (with the exception of phonological working memory and reading measures. The findings suggest that a complete lack of mother tongue instruction can influence phonological and literacy development negatively. The study also suggests that the absence of mother tongue literacy instruction causes stagnation in the development of phonological processing skills in the mother tongue.

  6. Phonological abilities in literacy-impaired children: Brain potentials reveal deficient phoneme discrimination, but intact prosodic processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Männel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Intact phonological processing is crucial for successful literacy acquisition. While individuals with difficulties in reading and spelling (i.e., developmental dyslexia are known to experience deficient phoneme discrimination (i.e., segmental phonology, findings concerning their prosodic processing (i.e., suprasegmental phonology are controversial. Because there are no behavior-independent studies on the underlying neural correlates of prosodic processing in dyslexia, these controversial findings might be explained by different task demands. To provide an objective behavior-independent picture of segmental and suprasegmental phonological processing in impaired literacy acquisition, we investigated event-related brain potentials during passive listening in typically and poor-spelling German school children. For segmental phonology, we analyzed the Mismatch Negativity (MMN during vowel length discrimination, capturing automatic auditory deviancy detection in repetitive contexts. For suprasegmental phonology, we analyzed the Closure Positive Shift (CPS that automatically occurs in response to prosodic boundaries. Our results revealed spelling group differences for the MMN, but not for the CPS, indicating deficient segmental, but intact suprasegmental phonological processing in poor spellers. The present findings point towards a differential role of segmental and suprasegmental phonology in literacy disorders and call for interventions that invigorate impaired literacy by utilizing intact prosody in addition to training deficient phonemic awareness.

  7. Intelligibility as a Clinical Outcome Measure Following Intervention with Children with Phonologically Based Speech-Sound Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lousada, M.; Jesus, Luis M. T.; Hall, A.; Joffe, V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The effectiveness of two treatment approaches (phonological therapy and articulation therapy) for treatment of 14 children, aged 4;0-6;7 years, with phonologically based speech-sound disorder (SSD) has been previously analysed with severity outcome measures (percentage of consonants correct score, percentage occurrence of phonological…

  8. Research and Trends in the Studies of Phonological Knowledge and Reading Development: A Review on Selected Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaludin, Khairul Azhar; Alias, Norlidah; Johari, Roselina

    2014-01-01

    Developing phonological knowledge of students is believed to be beneficial to reading development. This paper reviews selected eight articles on the issue of phonological knowledge and reading development in both native and English as Second Language (ESL) context. In finding the trends and patterns across all eight articles, the content and…

  9. A Comparison of Phonological Processing Skills of Children with Mild to Moderate Sensorineural Hearing Loss and Children with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungjun; Lombardino, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    Using the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processes (Wagner, Torgesen, & Rashotte, 1999), the researchers compared strengths and weaknesses in phonological processing skills in three groups: 21 children with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss (MSNH group), 29 children with dyslexia, and 30 age-matched controls. The MSNH group showed…

  10. Does the Brown Banana Have a Beak? Preschool Children's Phonological Awareness as a Function of Parents' Talk about Speech Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Elaine; Robertson, Sarah-Jane; Divers, Sarah; Schaughency, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Children's phonological awareness develops rapidly in the preschool years and is an important contributor to later reading skill. This study addresses the role of parents' talk in preschool children's phonological awareness development. A community sample of 27 parents and their 3- to 4-year-old children participated in a new "Sound…

  11. Effects of a Phonological Awareness Program on English Reading and Spelling among Hong Kong Chinese ESL Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Susanna S. S.; Siegel, Linda S.; Chan, Carol K. K.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a 12-week language-enriched phonological awareness instruction on 76 Hong Kong young children who were learning English as a second language. The children were assigned randomly to receive the instruction on phonological awareness skills embedded in vocabulary learning activities or comparison instruction…

  12. Phonological Development in Relation to Native Language and Literacy: Variations on a Theme in Six Alphabetic Orthographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Lynne G.; Castro, Sao Luis; Defior, Sylvia; Seymour, Philip H. K.; Baillie, Sheila; Leybaert, Jacqueline; Mousty, Philippe; Genard, Nathalie; Sarris, Menelaos; Porpodas, Costas D.; Lund, Rannveig; Sigurosson, Baldur; Prainsdottir, Anna S.; Sucena, Ana; Serrano, Francisca

    2013-01-01

    Phonological development was assessed in six alphabetic orthographies (English, French, Greek, Icelandic, Portuguese and Spanish) at the beginning and end of the first year of reading instruction. The aim was to explore contrasting theoretical views regarding: the question of the availability of phonology at the outset of learning to read (Study…

  13. Adapting Phonological Awareness Interventions for Children with Down Syndrome Based on the Behavioral Phenotype: A Promising Approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemons, Christopher J.; King, Seth A.; Davidson, Kimberly A.; Puranik, Cynthia S.; Fulmer, Deborah; Mrachko, Alicia A.; Partanen, Jane; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Fidler, Deborah J.

    2015-01-01

    Many children with Down syndrome demonstrate deficits in phonological awareness, a prerequisite to learning to read in an alphabetic language. The purpose of this study was to determine whether adapting a commercially available phonological awareness program to better align with characteristics associated with the behavioral phenotype of Down…

  14. Importance of Speech Production for Phonological Awareness and Word Decoding: The Case of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Marieke; Verhoeven, Ludo; de Moor, Jan; van Balkom, Hans

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this longitudinal study was to investigate the precursors of early reading development in 52 children with cerebral palsy at kindergarten level in comparison to 65 children without disabilities. Word Decoding was measured to investigate early reading skills, while Phonological Awareness, Phonological Short-term Memory (STM), Speech…

  15. Re-Evaluating the Time Course of Gender and Phonological Encoding during Silent Monitoring Tasks Estimated by ERP: Serial or Parallel Processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camen, Christian; Morand, Stephanie; Laganaro, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Neurolinguistic and psycholinguistic studies suggest that grammatical (gender) and phonological information are retrieved independently and that gender can be accessed before phonological information. This study investigated the relative time courses of gender and phonological encoding using topographic evoked potentials mapping methods.…

  16. Correlation between Phonological and Morphological Awareness and the Reading of Punctuated and Non-Punctuated Words in Arabic as First Language and Hebrew as Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishara, Saied; Weiss, Itzhak

    2017-01-01

    Phonological and morphological awareness and its correlation with reading punctuated and non-punctuated words in Arabic as a first language were examined, as well as its transfer to Hebrew as a second language. Research participants were 30 fourth grade pupils. Phonological awareness was examined by phonological decoding of actual and meaningless…

  17. Phonetics and phonology of thematic contrast in German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Bettina

    2006-01-01

    It is acknowledged that contrast plays an important role in understanding discourse and information structure. While it is commonly assumed that contrast can be marked by intonation only, our understanding of the intonational realization of contrast is limited. For German there is mainly introspective evidence that the rising theme accent (or topic accent) is realized differently when signaling contrast than when not. In this article, the acoustic basis for the reported impressionistic differences is investigated in terms of the scaling (height) and alignment (positioning) of tonal targets. Subjects read target sentences in a contrastive and a noncontrastive context (Experiment 1). Prosodic annotation revealed that thematic accents were not realized with different accent types in the two contexts but acoustic comparison showed that themes in contrastive context exhibited a higher and later peak. The alignment and scaling of accents can hence be controlled in a linguistically meaningful way, which has implications for intonational phonology. In Experiment 2, nonlinguists' perception of a subset of the production data was assessed. They had to choose whether, in a contrastive context, the presumed contrastive or noncontrastive realization of a sentence was more appropriate. For some sentence pairs only, subjects had a clear preference. For Experiment 3, a group of linguists annotated the thematic accents of the contrastive and noncontrastive versions of the same data as used in Experiment 2. There was considerable disagreement in labels, but different accent types were consistently used when the two versions differed strongly in F0 excursion. Although themes in contrastive contexts were clearly produced differently than themes in noncontrastive contexts, this difference is not easily perceived or annotated.

  18. Whole-Word Phonological Representations of Disyllabic Words in the Chinese Lexicon: Data From Acquired Dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam-Po Law

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the issue of the existence of whole-word phonological representations of disyllabic and multisyllabic words in the Chinese mental lexicon. A Cantonese brain-injured dyslexic individual with semantic deficits, YKM, was assessed on his abilities to read aloud and to comprehend disyllabic words containing homographic heterophonous characters, the pronunciation of which can only be disambiguated in word context. Superior performance on reading to comprehension was found. YKM could produce the target phonological forms without understanding the words. The dissociation is taken as evidence for whole-word representations for these words at the phonological level. The claim is consistent with previous account for discrepancy of the frequencies of tonal errors between reading aloud and object naming in Cantonese reported of another case study of similar deficits. Theoretical arguments for whole-word form representations for all multisyllabic Chinese words are also discussed.

  19. Mora or more? The phonological unit of Japanese word production in the Stroop color naming task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonschot, Rinus G; Kinoshita, Sachiko

    2018-04-01

    In English, Dutch, and other European languages, it is well established that the fundamental phonological unit in word production is the phoneme; in contrast, recent studies have shown that in Chinese it is the (atonal) syllable and in Japanese the mora. The present study investigated whether this cross-language variation in the size of the unit of word production is due to the type of script used in the language (i.e., alphabetic, morphosyllabic, or moraic). Capitalizing on the multiscriptal nature of Japanese, and using the Stroop color naming task, we show that the overlap in the initial mora between the color name and the written distractor facilitates color naming independent of script type. These results confirm the mora as the phonological unit of word production in Japanese, and establish the Stroop color naming task as a useful task for investigating the fundamental (or "proximate") phonological unit used in speech production.

  20. The right posterior inferior frontal gyrus contributes to phonological word decisions in the healthy brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Price, Cathy J; Baumgaertner, Annette

    2010-01-01

    There is consensus that the left hemisphere plays a dominant role in language processing, but functional imaging studies have shown that the right as well as the left posterior inferior frontal gyri (pIFG) are activated when healthy right-handed individuals make phonological word decisions. Here we...... used online transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to examine the functional relevance of the right pIFG for auditory and visual phonological decisions. Healthy right-handed individuals made phonological or semantic word judgements on the same set of auditorily and visually presented words while...... they received stereotactically guided TMS over the left, right or bilateral pIFG (n=14) or the anterior left, right or bilateral IFG (n=14). TMS started 100ms after word onset and consisted of four stimuli given at a rate of 10Hz and intensity of 90% of active motor threshold. Compared to TMS of aIFG, TMS of p...

  1. From phonetics to phonology: the emergence of first words in Italian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren-Portnoy, Tamar; Majorano, Marinella; Vihman, Marilyn M

    2009-03-01

    This study assesses the extent of phonetic continuity between babble and words in four Italian children followed longitudinally from 0.9 or 0.10 to 2.0--two with relatively rapid and two with slower lexical growth. Prelinguistic phonetic characteristics, including both (a) consistent use of specific consonants and (b) age of onset and extent of consonant variegation in babble, are found to predict rate of lexical advance and to relate to the form of the early words. In addition, each child's lexical profile is analyzed to test the hypothesis of non-linearity in phonological development. All of the children show the expected pattern of phonological advance: Relatively accurate first word production is followed by lexical expansion, characterized by a decrease in accuracy and an increase of similarity between word forms. We interpret such a profile as reflecting the emergence of word templates, a first step in phonological organization.

  2. The Role of Consciousness in the Phonological Loop: Hidden in Plain Sight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Russell Buchsbaum

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We know from everyday experience that when we need to keep a small amount of verbal information in mind for a short period, an effective cognitive strategy is to silently rehearse the words. This basic cognitive strategy has been elegantly codified in Baddeley and colleagues model of verbal working memory, the phonological loop. Here we explore how the intuitive appeal of the phonological loop is grounded in the phenomenological experience of subvocal rehearsal as consisting of an interaction between an inner voice and an inner ear. We focus particularly on how our intuitions about the phenomenological experience of inner speech might constrain or otherwise inform the functional architecture of information processing models of verbal working memory such as the phonological loop; and how, indeed, how ideas about consciousness may offer alternative explanations for the dual nature of inner speech in verbal working memory.

  3. When two and too don't go together: a selective phonological deficit sparing number words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencini, Giulia M L; Pozzan, Lucia; Bertella, Laura; Mori, Ileana; Pignatti, Riccardo; Ceriani, Francesca; Semenza, Carlo

    2011-10-01

    We report the case of an Italian speaker (GBC) with classical Wernicke's aphasia syndrome following a vascular lesion in the left posterior middle temporal region. GBC exhibited a selective phonological deficit in spoken language production (repetition and reading) which affected all word classes irrespective of grammatical class, frequency, and length. GBC's production of number words, in contrast, was error free. The specific pattern of phonological errors on non-number words allows us to attribute the locus of impairment at the level of phonological form retrieval of a correctly selected lexical entry. These data support the claim that number words are represented and processed differently from other word categories in language production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  4. Phonological analysis of substitution errors of patients with apraxia of speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysa Luchesi Cera

    Full Text Available Abstract The literature on apraxia of speech describes the types and characteristics of phonological errors in this disorder. In general, phonemes affected by errors are described, but the distinctive features involved have not yet been investigated. Objective: To analyze the features involved in substitution errors produced by Brazilian-Portuguese speakers with apraxia of speech. Methods: 20 adults with apraxia of speech were assessed. Phonological analysis of the distinctive features involved in substitution type errors was carried out using the protocol for the evaluation of verbal and non-verbal apraxia. Results: The most affected features were: voiced, continuant, high, anterior, coronal, posterior. Moreover, the mean of the substitutions of marked to markedness features was statistically greater than the markedness to marked features. Conclusions: This study contributes toward a better characterization of the phonological errors found in apraxia of speech, thereby helping to diagnose communication disorders and the selection criteria of phonemes for rehabilitation in these patients.

  5. Phonological skills and vocabulary knowledge mediate socioeconomic status effects in predicting reading outcomes for Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuping; Tardif, Twila; Shu, Hua; Li, Hong; Liu, Hongyun; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2013-04-01

    This study examined the relations among socioeconomic status (SES), early phonological processing, vocabulary, and reading in 262 children from diverse SES backgrounds followed from ages 4 to 9 in Beijing, China. SES contributed to variations in phonological skills and vocabulary in children's early development. Nonetheless, early phonological and vocabulary abilities exerted equally strong and independent mediation of the SES effects on children's reading achievement by the end of 3rd grade for this Chinese sample. These findings not only replicate studies in alphabetic languages but, because of their longitudinal nature, also demonstrate the potential for interventions focused on improving children's early language skills, and at which ages these factors may have the greatest impact. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Steps towards understanding the phonological output buffer and its role in the production of numbers, morphemes, and function words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotan, Dror; Friedmann, Naama

    2015-02-01

    The Stimulus Type Effect on Phonological and Semantic errors (STEPS) describes the phenomenon in which a person, following brain damage, produces words with phonological errors (fine → fige), but number words with semantic errors (five → eight). To track the origins of this phenomenon and find out whether it is limited to numbers, we assessed the speech production of six individuals with conduction aphasia following a damage in the left hemisphere, who made phonological errors in words. STEPS was found in all six participants, and was not limited to number words - several other word categories were also produced with semantic rather than phonological errors: function words, English letter names, and morphological affixes were substituted with other words within their category. This supports the building blocks hypothesis: when phonological sequences serve as building blocks in a productive process, they end up having pre-assembled phonological representations, ready for articulation. STEPS reflects a deficit that causes substitutions of one phonological unit with another. In the case of plain content words, this causes substitutions of one phoneme with another, but in the case of pre-assembled phonological units, this causes substitutions of number words with other number words, function words with function words, and morphological affixes with other affixes. An analysis of the participants' functional locus of deficit revealed that they all had a deficit in the phonological output buffer, and this was their only common deficit. We therefore concluded that the pre-assembled phonological units are stored in dedicated mini-stores in the phonological output buffer, which processes not only phonemes but also whole number words, function words, and morphemes. We also found that STEPS depends on the word's role: number words were produced with semantic errors only when they appeared in numeric context, and function words triggered semantic errors only in

  7. Preschool Phonological and Morphological Awareness As Longitudinal Predictors of Early Reading and Spelling Development in Greek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassiliki Diamanti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Different language skills are considered fundamental for successful reading and spelling acquisition. Extensive evidence has highlighted the central role of phonological awareness in early literacy experiences. However, many orthographic systems also require the contribution of morphological awareness. The goal of this study was to examine the morphological and phonological awareness skills of preschool children as longitudinal predictors of reading and spelling ability by the end of first grade, controlling for the effects of receptive and expressive vocabulary skills. At Time 1 preschool children from kindergartens in the Greek regions of Attika, Crete, Macedonia, and Thessaly were assessed on tasks tapping receptive and expressive vocabulary, phonological awareness (syllable and phoneme, and morphological awareness (inflectional and derivational. Tasks were administered through an Android application for mobile devices (tablets featuring automatic application of ceiling rules. At Time 2 one year later the same children attending first grade were assessed on measures of word and pseudoword reading, text reading fluency, text reading comprehension, and spelling. Complete data from 104 children are available. Hierarchical linear regression and commonality analyses were conducted for each outcome variable. Reading accuracy for both words and pseudowords was predicted not only by phonological awareness, as expected, but also by morphological awareness, suggesting that understanding the functional role of word parts supports the developing phonology–orthography mappings. However, only phonological awareness predicted text reading fluency at this age. Longitudinal prediction of reading comprehension by both receptive vocabulary and morphological awareness was already evident at this age, as expected. Finally, spelling was predicted by preschool phonological awareness, as expected, as well as by morphological awareness, the contribution of which is

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS OF STUTTERING CHILDREN AND CHILDREN WITH FLUENT SPEECH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila BEGIC

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine characteristics of phonological awareness of stuttering children and children with fluent speech. The sample consisted of 64 children, between 56 and 83 months old (4 years and 8 months to 6 years and 11 months. Examinees were divided in two groups. The first group consisted of 32 stuttering children, 19 males, and 13 females. The control group consisted of 32 children with fluent speech, whose age and sex were equal to the age and sex of the children in the experimental group. The research was conducted in preschools and primary schools in Tuzla and Una-Sana Canton in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The subjects were examined with 7 subtests (syllable and phoneme blending abilities, ability to rhyme, phoneme segmentation, phoneme deletion, phoneme transposition and spoonerisms. Each of the subtest scores, which index a variety of phonological awareness abilities, was examined separately. Phonological awareness score is the total score which relates to a common result that the subjects achieved on these 7 individual subtests. The results showed that there were no statistically significant differences between stuttering children and their peers with fluent speech in relation to Phonological awareness score. The examination of differences between stuttering and non-stuttering children in individual variables, which describe phonological awareness, showed that there was statistically significant difference in the ability to rhyme between these two subjects groups. T-test was used for examination of the differences between the male stuttering children and their fluent peers, and also female stuttering children and their fluent peers for the phonological awareness variables. The results exhibited statistically significant differences in the variable Rhyme between the male stuttering children and their fluent peers. In addition, we examined the ability of phonemic analysis of children who stutter and children with fluent

  9. ERPs reveal the time-course of aberrant visual-phonological binding in developmental dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manon Wyn Jones

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available New evidence is accumulating for a deficit in binding visual-orthographic information with the corresponding phonological code in developmental dyslexia. Here, we identify the mechanisms underpinning this deficit using event-related brain potentials (ERPs in dyslexic and control adult readers performing a letter-matching task. In each trial, a printed letter was presented synchronously with an auditory letter name. Incongruent (mismatched, frequent trials were interleaved with congruent (matched infrequent target pairs, which participants were asked to report by pressing a button. In critical trials, incongruent letter pairs were mismatched but confusable in terms of their visual or phonological features. Typical readers showed early detection of deviant trials, indicated by larger modulation in the range of the phonological mismatch negativity (PMN compared with standard trials. This was followed by stronger modulation of the P3b wave for visually confusable deviants and an increased lateralized readiness potential (LRP for phonological deviants, compared with standards. In contrast, dyslexic readers showed reduced sensitivity to deviancy in the PMN range. Responses to deviants in the P3b range indicated normal letter recognition processes, but the LRP calculation revealed a specific impairment for visual-orthographic information during response selection in dyslexia. In a follow-up experiment using an analogous non-lexical task in the same participants, we found no reading-group differences, indicating a degree of specificity to over-learnt visual-phonological binding. Our findings indicate early insensitivity to visual-phonological binding in developmental dyslexia, coupled with difficulty selecting the correct orthographic code.

  10. Contributions of phonological and verbal working memory to language development in adolescents with fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierpont, Elizabeth I; Richmond, Erica Kesin; Abbeduto, Leonard; Kover, Sara T; Brown, W Ted

    2011-12-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability. Although language delays are frequently observed in FXS, neither the longitudinal course of language development nor its cognitive predictors are well understood. The present study investigated whether phonological and working memory skills are predictive of growth in vocabulary and syntax in individuals with FXS during adolescence. Forty-four individuals with FXS (mean age = 12.61 years) completed assessments of phonological memory (nonword repetition and forward digit recall), verbal working memory (backward digit recall), vocabulary, syntax, and nonverbal cognition. Vocabulary and syntax skills were reassessed at a 2-year follow-up. In a series of analyses that controlled for nonverbal cognitive ability and severity of autism symptoms, the relative contributions of phonological and working memory to language change over time were investigated. These relationships were examined separately for boys and girls. In boys with FXS, phonological memory significantly predicted gains in vocabulary and syntax skills. Further, verbal working memory was uniquely associated with vocabulary gains among boys. In girls with FXS, phonological and working memory skills showed no relationship with language change across the 2-year time period. Our findings indicate that, for adolescent boys with FXS, acquisition of vocabulary and syntax may be constrained by the ability to maintain and manipulate phonological representations online. Implications for the identification and treatment of language disorders in this population are discussed. The present study is the first to identify specific cognitive mechanisms contributing to language growth over time in individuals with FXS.

  11. Plasma suppression of beamstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittum, D.H.; Sessler, A.M.; Stewart, J.J.; Yu, S.S.

    1988-06-01

    We investigate the use of a plasma at the interaction point of two colliding beams to suppress beamsstrahlung and related phenomena. We derive conditions for good current cancellation via plasma return currents and report on numerical simulations conducted to confirm our analytic results. 10 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Phonological Working Memory limitations and Agrammatism: Is there a causal relationship between the two?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Varkanitsa

    2014-04-01

    These results are inconsistent with theories assuming a single WM capacity that deals with all types of linguistic information. Rather, this study provides evidence that syntactic parsing relies on different resources from what is typically measured in verbal WM tasks. The four patients with Broca’s aphasia that participated in this study presented with similar phonological WM limitations with only quantitative differences in some tasks, despite the fact that only two of them also had sentence comprehension difficulties. The results also suggest that the agrammatic patients suffer from a specific WM deficit, linked to processing syntactic dependencies, which is not tapped by phonological WM tests.

  13. Comparative reconstruction of Proto-Mojeño and the phonological diversification of Mojeno dialects

    OpenAIRE

    De Carvalho , Fernando ,

    2018-01-01

    International audience; Comparative reconstruction of proto-mojeño and the phonological diversification of mojeño dialects 1 ABSTRACT: This paper addresses nine open issues in the historical phonology of Mojeño, an Arawak language of Bolivia. We propose solutions to these problems by postulating reconstructed forms for Proto-Mojeño based on a comparison of the two extant varieties of the language, Ignaciano and Trinitario, and on 17 th century sources on Old Mojeño. Contrarily to a recent cla...

  14. Monitoring Different Phonological Parameters of Sign Language Engages the Same Cortical Language Network but Distinctive Perceptual Ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardin, Velia; Orfanidou, Eleni; Kästner, Lena; Rönnberg, Jerker; Woll, Bencie; Capek, Cheryl M; Rudner, Mary

    2016-01-01

    The study of signed languages allows the dissociation of sensorimotor and cognitive neural components of the language signal. Here we investigated the neurocognitive processes underlying the monitoring of two phonological parameters of sign languages: handshape and location. Our goal was to determine if brain regions processing sensorimotor characteristics of different phonological parameters of sign languages were also involved in phonological processing, with their activity being modulated by the linguistic content of manual actions. We conducted an fMRI experiment using manual actions varying in phonological structure and semantics: (1) signs of a familiar sign language (British Sign Language), (2) signs of an unfamiliar sign language (Swedish Sign Language), and (3) invented nonsigns that violate the phonological rules of British Sign Language and Swedish Sign Language or consist of nonoccurring combinations of phonological parameters. Three groups of participants were tested: deaf native signers, deaf nonsigners, and hearing nonsigners. Results show that the linguistic processing of different phonological parameters of sign language is independent of the sensorimotor characteristics of the language signal. Handshape and location were processed by different perceptual and task-related brain networks but recruited the same language areas. The semantic content of the stimuli did not influence this process, but phonological structure did, with nonsigns being associated with longer RTs and stronger activations in an action observation network in all participants and in the supramarginal gyrus exclusively in deaf signers. These results suggest higher processing demands for stimuli that contravene the phonological rules of a signed language, independently of previous knowledge of signed languages. We suggest that the phonological characteristics of a language may arise as a consequence of more efficient neural processing for its perception and production.

  15. J/Ψ suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giubellino, P.; Abreu, M.C.; Alessandro, B.; Alexa, C.; Arnaldi, R.; Astruc, J.; Atayan, M.; Baglin, C.; Baldit, A.; Bedjidian, M.; Bellaiche, F.; Beole, S.; Boldea, V.; Bordalo, P.; Bussiere, A.; Capony, V.; Casagrande, L.; Castor, J.; Chambon, T.; Chaurand, B.; Chevrot, I.; Cheynis, B.; Chiavassa, E.; Cicalo, C.; Comets, M.P.; Constantinescu, S.; Cruz, J.; De Falco, A.; De Marco, N.; Dellacasa, G.; Devaux, A.; Dita, S.; Drapier, O.; Espagnon, B.; Fargeix, J.; Filippov, S.N.; Fleuret, F.; Force, P.; Gallio, M.; Gavrilov, Y.K.; Gerschel, C.; Giubellino, P.; Golubeva, M.B.; Gonin, M.; Grigorian, A.A.; Grossiord, J.Y.; Guber, F.F.; Guichard, A.; Gulkaninan, H.; Hakobyan, R.; Haroutunian, R.; Idzik, M.; Jouan, D.; Karavitcheva, T.L.; Kluberg, L.; Kurepin, A.B.; Le Bornec, Y.; Lourenco, C.; Mac Cormick, M.; Macciotta, P.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Mehrabyan, S.; Mourgues, S.; Musso, A.; Ohlsson-Malek, F.; Petiau, P.; Piccotti, A.; Pizzi, J.R.; Prado da Silva, W.L.; Puddu, G.; Quintans, C.; Racca, C.; Ramello, L.; Ramos, S.; Rato-Mendes, P.; Riccati, L.; Romana, A.; Sartori, S.; Saturnini, P.; Scomparin, E.; Serci, S.; Shahoyan, R.; Silva, S.; Soave, C.; Sonderegger, P.; Tarrago, X.; Temnikov, P.; Topilskaya, N.S.; Usai, G.; Vale, C.; Vercellin, E.; Willis, N.

    1999-01-01

    The cross section for J/Ψ production in Pb-Pb interactions at 158 GeV per nucleon is measured at the CERN SPS by the NA50 experiment. The final results from the 1995 run are presented here together with preliminary ones from the high-statistics 1996 run. An anomalous J/Ψ suppression is observed in Pb-Pb collisions as compared to extrapolations of the previous results obtained by the NA38 experiment with proton and lighter ion beams. The results of the two runs are in good agreement. The results from the 1996 run allow the study of the onset of the anomalous suppression within the same set of data, showing evidence of a sharp change of behaviour around a value of neutral transverse energy, as measured by our electromagnetic calorimeter, of about 50 GeV

  16. Comparison of Word Recognition Strategies in EFL Adult Learners: Orthography vs. Phonology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieh, Yu-cheng

    2016-01-01

    In an attempt to compare how orthography and phonology interact in EFL learners with different reading abilities, online measures were administered in this study to two groups of university learners, indexed by their reading scores on the Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC). In terms of "accuracy," the less-skilled…

  17. Phonological Awareness and Naming Speed in the Prediction of Dutch Children's Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, W.; Aarnoutse, C.; van Leeuwe, J.

    2008-01-01

    Influences of phonological awareness and naming speed on the speed and accuracy of Dutch children's word recognition were investigated in a longitudinal study. The speed and accuracy of word recognition at the ends of Grades 1 and 2 were predicted by naming speed from both the beginning and end of Grade 1, after control for autoregressive…

  18. Dynamic and Static Assessment of Phonological Awareness in Preschool: A Behavior-Genetic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coventry, William L.; Byrne, Brian; Olson, Richard K.; Corley, Robin; Samuelsson, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The genetic and environmental overlap between static and dynamic measures of preschool phonological awareness (PA) and their relation to preschool letter knowledge (LK) and kindergarten reading were examined using monozygotic and dizygotic twin children (maximum N = 1,988). The static tests were those typically used to assess a child's current…

  19. Speech and Phonological Characteristics of Individual Children with a History of Tracheostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertoy, Marilyn K.; Guest, Christine M.; Quart, Ellen; Lieh-Lai, Mary

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the speech production and phonological skills of six children (ages, 2:8 to 6:8) who had undergone tracheostomy before age 8 months. The study found slow development of sound acquisition, vowel production, and the distinction between voiced and voiceless stops for some of the children. Excessive use of inappropriate…

  20. Revealing and Quantifying the Impaired Phonological Analysis Underpinning Impaired Comprehension in Wernicke's Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Holly; Keidel, James L.; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Sage, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Wernicke's aphasia is a condition which results in severely disrupted language comprehension following a lesion to the left temporo-parietal region. A phonological analysis deficit has traditionally been held to be at the root of the comprehension impairment in Wernicke's aphasia, a view consistent with current functional neuroimaging which finds…

  1. An Analysis of the Relationship between Phonological and Nonphonological Language and Early Reading Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson-Magnuson, LuAnn

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between preschool phonological and nonphonological language performance and first-grade reading performance. Data were gathered from the files of 149 students who had completed a universal kindergarten screening program in the spring prior to enrollment. Bivariate correlation analyses, Steiger's Z comparisons,…

  2. A Patient with Phonologic Alexia Can Learn to Read "Much" from "Mud Pies"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Susan Nitzberg; Sample, Diane M.; Oliver, Robyn T.; Lacey, Elizabeth H.; Friedman, Rhonda B.

    2008-01-01

    People with phonologic alexia often have difficulty reading functors and verbs, in addition to pseudowords. Friedman et al. [Friedman, R. B., Sample, D. M, & Lott, S. N. (2002). The role of level of representation in the use of paired associate learning for rehabilitation of alexia. "Neuropsychologia, 40", 223-234] reported a successful treatment…

  3. Phonological Short-Term Memory, Working Memory and Foreign Language Performance in Intensive Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos, Judit; Safar, Anna

    2008-01-01

    In our research we addressed the question what the relationship is between phonological short-term and working memory capacity and performance in an end-of-year reading, writing, listening, speaking and use of English test. The participants of our study were 121 secondary school students aged 15-16 in the first intensive language training year of…

  4. Liko phonology and grammar : a Bantu language of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, Gerrit de

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents a detailed description of the phonology, the tone system and the grammar of Liko, a Bantu language spoken by about 70,000 people in the northeastern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It provides numerous examples. Liko has a nine-vowel system with ATR contrast in

  5. A Computerized Treatment of Dyslexia: Benefits from Treating Lexico-Phonological Processing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijms, Jurgen; Hoeks, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Two hundred sixty-seven 10- to 14-year-old Dutch children with dyslexia were randomly assigned to one of two samples that received a treatment for reading and spelling difficulties. The treatment was computer-based and focused on learning to recognise and use the phonological and morphological structure of Dutch words. The inferential algorithmic…

  6. Phonological and Visual Processing Deficits Can Dissociate in Developmental Dyslexia: Evidence from Two Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdois, Sylviane; Bosse, Marie-Line; Ans, B.; Carbonnel, S.; Zorman, Michel; David, D.; Pellat, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    Describes two French teenagers with developmental reading and writing impairments whose performance was compared to that of chronological age and reading age matched non-dyslexic participants. Suggests that a visual attention disorder might be found to be associated with the patterns of developmental surface dyslexia. Shows that phonological and…

  7. Phonological Awareness and Word Recognition in Reading by Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabig, Cheryl Smith

    2010-01-01

    This research examined phonological awareness (PA) and single word reading in 14 school-age children with autism and 10 age-matched, typically developing (TD) children between 5-7 years. Two measures of PA, an elision task (ELI) and a sound blending task (BLW), were given along with two measures of single word reading, word identification for real…

  8. Dissociating Parieto-Frontal Networks for Phonological and Semantic Word Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Weigel, Anni; Schuschan, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Left posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG) and supramarginal gyrus (SMG) are key regions for phonological decisions, whereas angular gyrus (ANG) and anterior IFG (aIFG) are associated with semantics. However, it is less clear whether the functional contribution of one area changes in the presen...

  9. Phonological awareness, vocabulary, and reading in deaf children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Carol; Goswami, Usha

    2010-04-01

    To explore the phonological awareness skills of deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) and relationships with vocabulary and reading development. Forty-three deaf children with implants who were between 5 and 15 years of age were tested; 21 had been implanted at around 2.5 years of age (Early CI group), and 22 had been implanted at around 5 years of age (Late CI group). Two control groups-a deaf hearing aided group (16 children) and a typically developing group of hearing children (19 children)-were also tested. All children received a battery of phonological processing tasks along with measures of reading, vocabulary, and speechreading. Analyses focus on deaf children within the normal IQ range (n = 53). Age at cochlear implantation had a significant effect on vocabulary and reading outcomes when quotient scores were calculated. Individual differences in age at implant, duration of fit, phonological development, vocabulary development, auditory memory, visual memory, and speech intelligibility were all strongly associated with progress in reading for the deaf implanted children. Patterns differed somewhat depending on whether quotient scores or standard scores were used. Cochlear implantation is associated with development of the oral language, auditory memory, and phonological awareness skills necessary for developing efficient word recognition skills. There is a benefit of earlier implantation.

  10. The Influence of the Phonological Neighborhood Clustering Coefficient on Spoken Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kit Ying; Vitevitch, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    Clustering coefficient--a measure derived from the new science of networks--refers to the proportion of phonological neighbors of a target word that are also neighbors of each other. Consider the words "bat", "hat", and "can", all of which are neighbors of the word "cat"; the words "bat" and…

  11. Time Perception, Phonological Skills and Executive Function in Children with Dyslexia and/or ADHD Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooch, Debbie; Snowling, Margaret; Hulme, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Background: Deficits in time perception (the ability to judge the duration of time intervals) have been found in children with both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and dyslexia. This paper investigates time perception, phonological skills and executive functions in children with dyslexia and/or ADHD symptoms (AS). Method: Children…

  12. The relation between musical abilities and the phonological awareness in pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Božič

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The pre-school period plays a very important role in the language development. One of the significant indicators of this development is the phonological awareness. Some of the previous studies reported the presence of the relation between the phonological awareness and musical abilities. Our main goal was to examine this relation with the Test of the phonological awareness and the Test of musical abilities on 67 Slovene preschool children, aged from 5 to 6. We also wanted to investigate the differences between boys (N = 36 and girls (N = 31 and the differences between two age groups (aged from 5 to 5.5 years, N = 32, and from 5.5 to 6 years, N = 35. The results confirmed the connection between musical abilities and the phonological awareness. They also indicated that the recognition of the first and the last phoneme is related to melodic awareness and that phoneme merging is mainly related to rhythm awareness. No significant differences were found between male and female children or between the groups of the children of different ages.

  13. Phonological Awareness and Print Knowledge of Preschool Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Sophie E.; Fey, Marc E.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether preschool-age children with cochlear implants have age-appropriate phonological awareness and print knowledge and to examine the relationships of these skills with related speech and language abilities. Method: The sample comprised 24 children with cochlear implants (CIs) and 23 peers with normal hearing (NH), ages 36…

  14. Developing Sound Skills for Reading: Teaching Phonological Awareness to Preschoolers with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliver, Megan; Cupples, Linda; Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Leigh, Greg; Gunnourie, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of intervention for developing deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) preschoolers' phonological awareness (PA) skills. Thirty children (mean age 57 months) with aided, bilateral hearing loss (and who primarily communicated using spoken English) were recruited in the year prior to commencing formal schooling. The…

  15. Cortical Reorganization in Dyslexic Children after Phonological Training: Evidence from Early Evoked Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spironelli, Chiara; Penolazzi, Barbara; Vio, Claudio; Angrilli, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    Brain plasticity was investigated in 14 Italian children affected by developmental dyslexia after 6 months of phonological training. The means used to measure language reorganization was the recognition potential, an early wave, also called N150, elicited by automatic word recognition. This component peaks over the left temporo-occipital cortex…

  16. Sources of Non-Conformity in Phonology: Variation and Exceptionality in Modern Hebrew Spirantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Michal Temkin

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the integration of two sources of non-conformity--exceptionality and variation - in a single phonological system. Exceptionality manifests itself as systematic non-conformity, and variation as partial or variable non-conformity. When both occur within the same phenomenon, this is particularly challenging for the…

  17. Defining Phonological Awareness and Its Relationship to Reading Skills in Low-Literacy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Juan E.; Venegas, Enrique

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of the study reported here was to investigate the relative importance of complexity of syllable structure and task differences in measuring phonological awareness in low-literacy adults. This study is a replication of a study with children conducted by S. A. Stahl and B. A. Murray (1994). Results indicated that the complexity of…

  18. Diagnostic Accuracy of Traditional Measures of Phonological Ability for Bilingual Preschoolers and Kindergarteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Hoffman, Katherine

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Bilingual children whose phonological skills are evaluated using measures designed for monolingual English speakers are at risk for misdiagnosis of speech sound disorders (De Lamo White & Jin, 2011). Method: Forty-four children participated in this study: 15 typically developing monolingual English speakers, 7 monolingual English…

  19. The Phonology and Morphology of Kubeo: The Documentation, Theory, and Description of an Amazonian Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, Thiago Costa

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation offers a detailed account of the phonology, morphophonology and elements of the morphosyntax of Kubeo, a language from the Eastern Tukanoan family, spoken in the Northwest Amazon. The dissertation is itself an experiment of how language documentation and empowering of the native speaker community can be combined with academic…

  20. Orthographic and phonological contributions to reading development: tracking developmental trajectories using masked priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Johannes C; Bertrand, Daisy; Lété, Bernard; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-04-01

    The present study used a variant of masked priming to track the development of 2 marker effects of orthographic and phonological processing from Grade 1 through Grade 5 in a cross-sectional study. Pseudohomophone (PsH) priming served as a marker for phonological processing, whereas transposed-letter (TL) priming was a marker for coarse-grained orthographic processing. The results revealed a clear developmental picture. First, the PsH priming effect was significant and remained stable across development, suggesting that phonology not only plays an important role in early reading development but continues to exert a robust influence throughout reading development. This finding challenges the view that more advanced readers should rely less on phonological information than younger readers. Second, the TL priming effect increased monotonically with grade level and reading age, which suggests greater reliance on coarse-grained orthographic coding as children become better readers. Thus, TL priming effects seem to be a good marker effect for children's ability to use coarse-grained orthographic coding to speed up direct lexical access in alphabetic languages. The results were predicted by the dual-route model of orthographic processing, which suggests that direct orthographic access is achieved through coarse-grained orthographic coding that tolerates some degree of flexibility in letter order. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Do maternal interaction and early language predict phonological awareness in 3- to 4-year-olds?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvén, M.; Niemi, P.; Voeten, M.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The present study reports longitudinal data on how phonological awareness is affected by mother-child interaction and the child's language development. Sixty-six Finnish children were videotaped at 12 and 24 months of age with their mother, during joint play episodes, to assess maternal sensitivity

  2. Investigating Phonological Awareness and Naming Speed as Predictors of Reading in Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibi, Sana; Kirby, John R.

    2018-01-01

    Wolf and Bowers (1999) described a model in which phonological awareness (PA) and naming speed (NS) make independent contributions to reading ability. We tested this model in a sample of 201 Grade 3 Arabic-speaking children in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Measures of general cognitive ability, vocabulary, PA, NS, word reading, and reading…

  3. Auditory evoked potentials: predicting speech therapy outcomes in children with phonological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Aparecida Leite

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether neurophysiologic responses (auditory evoked potentials differ between typically developed children and children with phonological disorders and whether these responses are modified in children with phonological disorders after speech therapy. METHODS: The participants included 24 typically developing children (Control Group, mean age: eight years and ten months and 23 children clinically diagnosed with phonological disorders (Study Group, mean age: eight years and eleven months. Additionally, 12 study group children were enrolled in speech therapy (Study Group 1, and 11 were not enrolled in speech therapy (Study Group 2. The subjects were submitted to the following procedures: conventional audiological, auditory brainstem response, auditory middle-latency response, and P300 assessments. All participants presented with normal hearing thresholds. The study group 1 subjects were reassessed after 12 speech therapy sessions, and the study group 2 subjects were reassessed 3 months after the initial assessment. Electrophysiological results were compared between the groups. RESULTS: Latency differences were observed between the groups (the control and study groups regarding the auditory brainstem response and the P300 tests. Additionally, the P300 responses improved in the study group 1 children after speech therapy. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that children with phonological disorders have impaired auditory brainstem and cortical region pathways that may benefit from speech therapy.

  4. A Psychometric Review of Norm-Referenced Tests Used to Assess Phonological Error Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Celia; Vigeland, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors provide a review of the psychometric properties of 6 norm-referenced tests designed to measure children's phonological error patterns. Three aspects of the tests' psychometric adequacy were evaluated: the normative sample, reliability, and validity. Method: The specific criteria used for determining the psychometric…

  5. A purple giraffe is faster than a purple elephant: Inconsistent phonology affects determiner selection in English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spalek, K.; Bock, K.; Schriefers, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    The form of a determiner is dependent on different contextual factors: in some languages grammatical number and grammatical gender determine the choice of a determiner variant. In other languages, the phonological onset of the element immediately following the determiner affects selection, too.

  6. A Purple Giraffe Is Faster than a Purple Elephant: Inconsistent Phonology Affects Determiner Selection in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalek, Katharina; Bock, Kathryn; Schriefers, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    The form of a determiner is dependent on different contextual factors: in some languages grammatical number and grammatical gender determine the choice of a determiner variant. In other languages, the phonological onset of the element immediately following the determiner affects selection, too. Previous work has shown that the activation of…

  7. The Tonology of Itoman Okinawan: A Phonological Analysis of the Nominal Tone System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, Nobutaka

    2012-01-01

    Itoman, one of the varieties spoken in the southern part of Okinawa Island, exhibits several tone patterns. Although the tone patterns of Itoman were examined in previous studies (Nakasone ms., Hattori 1959, Oshiro 1963, and Hirayama et al. 1966), they ended at the descriptive level, and no phonological accounts for the surface tone patterns were…

  8. Phonology, Decoding, and Lexical Compensation in Vowel Spelling Errors Made by Children with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Stuart E.

    2009-01-01

    A descriptive study of vowel spelling errors made by children first diagnosed with dyslexia (n = 79) revealed that phonological errors, such as "bet" for "bat", outnumbered orthographic errors, such as "bate" for "bait". These errors were more frequent in nonwords than words, suggesting that lexical context helps with vowel spelling. In a second…

  9. When MOOD rhymes with ROAD: Dynamics of phonological coding in bilingual visual word perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leerdam, M. van; Bosman, A.M.T.; Groot, A.M.B. de

    2009-01-01

    Three experiments investigated whether perception of a spelling-to-sound inconsistent word such as MOOD involves coding of inappropriate phonology caused by knowledge of enemy neighbors (e.g., BLOOD) in non-native speakers. In a new bimodal matching task, Dutch-English bilinguals judged the

  10. The Role of Phonology and Phonetics in L2 Kanji Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    This study explores whether emphasizing the phonetic components of "kanji," Chinese characters used in Japanese, facilitates second language (L2) learners' novel character learning. Previous L2 studies on Chinese characters indicate that phonology plays a major part in word identification. However, this view remains controversial,…

  11. Patterns of Impairments in AOS and Mechanisms of Interaction between Phonological and Phonetic Encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laganaro, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: One reason why the diagnosis of apraxia of speech (AOS) and its underlying impairment are often debated may lie in the fact that most patients do not display pure patterns of AOS. Mixed patterns are clearly acknowledged at other levels of impairment (e.g., lexical-semantic and lexical-phonological), and they have contributed to debate…

  12. Phonetic, Phonemic, and Phonological Factors in Cross-Language Discrimination of Phonotactic Contrasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Previous research indicates that multiple levels of linguistic information play a role in the perception and discrimination of non-native phonemes. This study examines the interaction of phonetic, phonemic and phonological factors in the discrimination of non-native phonotactic contrasts. Listeners of Catalan, English, and Russian are presented…

  13. Phonological and Sensory Short-Term Memory Are Correlates and Both Affected in Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laasonen, Marja; Virsu, Veijo; Oinonen, Suvi; Sandbacka, Mirja; Salakari, Anita; Service, Elisabet

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether poor short-term memory (STM) in developmental dyslexia affects the processing of sensory stimulus sequences in addition to phonological material. STM for brief binary non-verbal stimuli (light flashes, tone bursts, finger touches, and their crossmodal combinations) was studied in 20 Finnish adults with dyslexia and 24…

  14. Differentiating Speech Sound Disorders from Phonological Dialect Differences: Implications for Assessment and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velleman, Shelley L.; Pearson, Barbara Zurer

    2010-01-01

    B. Z. Pearson, S. L. Velleman, T. J. Bryant, and T. Charko (2009) demonstrated phonological differences in typically developing children learning African American English as their first dialect vs. General American English only. Extending this research to children with speech sound disorders (SSD) has key implications for intervention. A total of…

  15. The Clinical Practice of Speech and Language Therapists with Children with Phonologically Based Speech Sound Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Carla; Lousada, Marisa; Jesus, Luis M. T.

    2015-01-01

    Children with speech sound disorders (SSD) represent a large number of speech and language therapists' caseloads. The intervention with children who have SSD can involve different therapy approaches, and these may be articulatory or phonologically based. Some international studies reveal a widespread application of articulatory based approaches in…

  16. Phonological Encoding in Speech-Sound Disorder: Evidence from a Cross-Modal Priming Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Benjamin; Krause, Miriam O. P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Psycholinguistic models of language production provide a framework for determining the locus of language breakdown that leads to speech-sound disorder (SSD) in children. Aims: To examine whether children with SSD differ from their age-matched peers with typical speech and language development (TD) in the ability phonologically to…

  17. Phonological Awareness and Types of Sound Errors in Preschoolers with Speech Sound Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jonathan; Edwards, Mary Louise

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Some children with speech sound disorders (SSD) have difficulty with literacy-related skills, particularly phonological awareness (PA). This study investigates the PA skills of preschoolers with SSD by using a regression model to evaluate the degree to which PA can be concurrently predicted by types of speech sound errors. Method:…

  18. Multisensory Spatial Attention Deficits Are Predictive of Phonological Decoding Skills in Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facoetti, Andrea; Trussardi, Anna Noemi; Ruffino, Milena; Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Cattaneo, Carmen; Galli, Raffaella; Molteni, Massimo; Zorzi, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Although the dominant approach posits that developmental dyslexia arises from deficits in systems that are exclusively linguistic in nature (i.e., phonological deficit theory), dyslexics show a variety of lower level deficits in sensory and attentional processing. Although their link to the reading disorder remains contentious, recent empirical…

  19. Attention, gaze shifting, and dual-task interference from phonological encoding in spoken word planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, A.P.A.

    2008-01-01

    Controversy exists about whether dual-task interference from word planning reflects structural bottleneck or attentional control factors. Here, participants named pictures whose names could or could not be phonologically prepared. and they manually responded to arrows presented away from (Experiment

  20. Language and Phonological Skills in Children at High Risk of Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Julia M.; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Dyslexia is now generally acknowledged to involve difficulties in phonological processing. However, the links between reading difficulties and speech difficulties remain unclear. Method: In the present study, 17 children with speech difficulties between the ages of four and six were compared to children with a family history of…

  1. Towards a Further Characterization of Phonological and Literacy Problems in Dutch-Speaking Children with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boets, Bart; De Smedt, Bert; Cleuren, Leen; Vandewalle, Ellen; Wouters, Jan; Ghesquiere, Pol

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the development of phonology and literacy in Dutch-speaking children at family risk of dyslexia and in matched controls. Measures were administered in kindergarten (before the start of formal reading instruction), in first and in third grade. Children, diagnosed with dyslexia in third grade, showed impaired…

  2. Modeling Phonological Core Deficits Within a Working Memory Architecture in Children and Adults With Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Abbott, Robert D.; Thomson, Jennifer; Wagner, Richard; Swanson, H. Lee; Wijsman, Ellen M.; Raskind, Wendy

    2006-01-01

    Recent theoretical advances in working memory guided analyses of cognitive measures in 122 children with dyslexia and their 200 affected biological parents in families with a multigenerational history of dyslexia. Both children and adults were most severely impaired, on average, in three working memory components- phonological word-form storage,…

  3. The Role of Phonological versus Morphological Skills in the Development of Arabic Spelling: An Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Haitham; Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated the contribution of two linguistic intervention programs, phonological and morphological to the development of word spelling among skilled and poor native Arabic readers, in three grades: second, fourth and sixth. The participants were assigned to three experimental groups: morphological intervention, phonological…

  4. Reduced neural integration of letters and speech sounds links phonological and reading deficits in adult dyslexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blau, Vera C; van Atteveldt, Nienke; Ekkebus, Michel; Goebel, Rainer; Blomert, Leo

    2009-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is a specific reading and spelling deficit affecting 4% to 10% of the population. Advances in understanding its origin support a core deficit in phonological processing characterized by difficulties in segmenting spoken words into their minimally discernable speech segments

  5. The Effects of Musical Aptitude and Musical Training on Phonological Production in Foreign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Zhengwei; Wu, Yidi; Xiang, Xiaocui; Qian, Huimin

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates 128 Chinese college students to examine the effects of their musical aptitude and musical training on phonological production in four foreign languages. Results show that musically-trained students remarkably possessed stronger musical aptitude than those without musical training and performed better than their counterpart…

  6. Reading acquisition reorganizes the phonological awareness network only in alphabetic writing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Christine; Cao, Fan; Pedroarena-Leal, Nicole; McNorgan, Chris; Booth, James R

    2013-12-01

    It is unknown how experience with different types of orthographies influences the neural basis of oral language processing. In order to determine the effects of alphabetic and nonalphabetic writing systems, the current study examined the influence of learning to read on oral language in English and Chinese speakers. Children (8-12 years olds) and adults made rhyming judgments to pairs of spoken words during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Developmental increases were seen only for English speakers in the left hemisphere phonological network (superior temporal gyrus (STG), inferior parietal lobule, and inferior frontal gyrus). The increase in the STG was more pronounced for words with conflicting orthography (e.g. pint-mint; jazz-has) even though access to orthography was irrelevant to the task. Moreover, higher reading skill was correlated with greater activation in the STG only for English speaking children. The effects suggest that learning to read reorganizes the phonological awareness network only for alphabetic and not logographic writing systems because of differences in the principles for mapping between orthographic and phonological representations. The reorganization of the auditory cortex may result in better phonological awareness skills in alphabetic readers. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Writing Development: A Neglected Variable in the Consideration of Phonological Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Sofia A.; Ferreiro, Emilia

    1999-01-01

    A study of Spanish-speaking kindergartners demonstrates that phonological awareness develops across levels and is related to writing development. Children's ability to benefit from phonics depends on their writing level. Encouraging writing in kindergarten and first grade can stimulate analysis of spoken words and smaller units. (SK)

  8. Dense Neighborhoods and Mechanisms of Learning: Evidence from Children with Phonological Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.

    2015-01-01

    There is a noted advantage of dense neighborhoods in language acquisition, but the learning mechanism that drives the effect is not well understood. Two hypotheses--long-term auditory word priming and phonological working memory--have been advanced in the literature as viable accounts. These were evaluated in two treatment studies enrolling twelve…

  9. A Comparison of Phonological Skill of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome and Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Joanne; Long, Steven H.; Malkin, Cheryl; Barnes, Elizabeth; Skinner, Martie; Hennon, Elizabeth A.; Anderson, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors compared the phonological accuracy and patterns of sound change of boys with fragile X syndrome, boys with Down syndrome, and typically developing mental-age-matched boys. Participants were 50 boys with fragile X syndrome, ages 3 to 14 years; 32 boys with Down syndrome, ages 4 to 13 years; and 33 typically developing…

  10. Aptitude, Phonological Memory, and Second Language Proficiency in Nonnovice Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Kirsten M.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between aptitude, phonological memory (PM), and second language (L2) proficiency in nonnovice adult learners of English as an L2. Native speakers of French (N = 77) enrolled in a university Teaching English as a Second Language program were the participants in the study. Exploratory factor analysis revealed…

  11. Integrating Teaching Practice with Developmental Norms: The Case of Phonological Teaching in L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Richard Kwok-Shing; MacWhinney, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This paper highlights the crucial role of phonological instruction in early second language English learning. Although older learners can acquire grammar and vocabulary efficiently, younger learners appear to have a greater facility with the learning of sounds. Thus, it makes good sense to focus on articulatory skills for these early learners. By…

  12. Phonological and Cognitive Correlates of Word-Reading Acquisition under Two Different Instructional Approaches in Greek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Timothy C.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the relationship between phonological and cognitive tasks with beginning reading acquisition. Uses two teaching techniques for tasks given first-grade students in Cyprus (n=50) and Greece (n=50). Reports differences were revealed in word-decoding accuracy, Greek students showed a higher linguistic ability, and successive processing and…

  13. Effects of Rhyme and Spelling Patterns on Auditory Word ERPs Depend on Selective Attention to Phonology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoncheva, Yuliya N.; Maurer, Urs; Zevin, Jason D.; McCandliss, Bruce D.

    2013-01-01

    ERP responses to spoken words are sensitive to both rhyming effects and effects of associated spelling patterns. Are such effects automatically elicited by spoken words or dependent on selectively attending to phonology? To address this question, ERP responses to spoken word pairs were investigated under two equally demanding listening tasks that…

  14. The Effect of Sonority on Word Segmentation: Evidence for the Use of a Phonological Universal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettlinger, Marc; Finn, Amy S.; Hudson Kam, Carla L.

    2012-01-01

    It has been well documented how language-specific cues may be used for word segmentation. Here, we investigate what role a language-independent phonological universal, the sonority sequencing principle (SSP), may also play. Participants were presented with an unsegmented speech stream with non-English word onsets that juxtaposed adherence to the…

  15. Verbal Working Memory in Older Adults: The Roles of Phonological Capacities and Processing Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittrouer, Susan; Lowenstein, Joanna H.; Wucinich, Taylor; Moberly, Aaron C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the potential roles of phonological sensitivity and processing speed in age-related declines of verbal working memory. Method: Twenty younger and 25 older adults with age-normal hearing participated. Two measures of verbal working memory were collected: digit span and serial recall of words. Processing speed was…

  16. A School-Based Phonological Awareness Intervention for Struggling Readers in Early French Immersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Nancy; D'Angelo, Nadia; Chen, Xi

    2016-01-01

    The current intervention study investigated the sustained effectiveness of phonological awareness training on the reading development of 16 children in French immersion who were identified as at-risk readers based on grade 1 English measures. The intervention program provided children from three cohorts with supplemental reading in small groups on…

  17. Effects of Phonological Abilities and Linguistic Comprehension on the Development of Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Peter F.; van der Leij, Aryan

    2002-01-01

    Examines specific effects of phonological abilities and linguistic comprehension on the development of word-decoding ability and reading comprehension, respectively, of 141 Dutch children from the end of first grade to the end of third grade. Finds that partly different determinants underlie the development of word-decoding ability and reading…

  18. Phonological feature-based speech recognition system for pronunciation training in non-native language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Vipul; Lahiri, Aditi; Reetz, Henning

    2018-01-01

    The authors address the question whether phonological features can be used effectively in an automatic speech recognition (ASR) system for pronunciation training in non-native language (L2) learning. Computer-aided pronunciation training consists of two essential tasks-detecting mispronunciations and providing corrective feedback, usually either on the basis of full words or phonemes. Phonemes, however, can be further disassembled into phonological features, which in turn define groups of phonemes. A phonological feature-based ASR system allows the authors to perform a sub-phonemic analysis at feature level, providing a more effective feedback to reach the acoustic goal and perceptual constancy. Furthermore, phonological features provide a structured way for analysing the types of errors a learner makes, and can readily convey which pronunciations need improvement. This paper presents the authors implementation of such an ASR system using deep neural networks as an acoustic model, and its use for detecting mispronunciations, analysing errors, and rendering corrective feedback. Quantitative as well as qualitative evaluations are carried out for German and Italian learners of English. In addition to achieving high accuracy of mispronunciation detection, the system also provides accurate diagnosis of errors.

  19. (In)Flexibility of Constituency in Japanese in Multi-Modal Categorial Grammar with Structured Phonology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Yusuke

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation proposes a theory of categorial grammar called Multi-Modal Categorial Grammar with Structured Phonology. The central feature that distinguishes this theory from the majority of contemporary syntactic theories is that it decouples (without completely segregating) two aspects of syntax--hierarchical organization (reflecting…

  20. Is handwriting constrained by phonology? Evidence from Stroop tasks with written responses and Chinese characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eDamian

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To what extent is handwritten word production based on phonological codes? A few studies conducted in Western languages have recently provided evidence showing that phonology contributes to the retrieval of graphemic properties in written output tasks. Less is known about how orthographic production works in languages with non-alphabetic scripts such as written Chinese. We report a Stroop study in which Chinese participants wrote the colour of characters on a digital graphic tablet; characters were either neutral, or homophonic to the target (congruent, or homophonic to an alternative (incongruent. Facilitation was found from congruent homophonic distractors, but only when the homophone shared the same tone with the target. This finding suggests a contribution of phonology to written word production. A second experiment served as a control experiment to exclude the possibility that the effect in Experiment 1 had an exclusively semantic locus. Overall, the findings offer new insight into the relative contribution of phonology to handwriting, particularly in non-Western languages.