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Sample records for suppress fuel spill

  1. Responding effectively to fuel spills at airports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Fuel spills are among the most frequent causes of emergency calls faced by airport firefighters. Most fuel spills are a result of human error and careless procedures. They always constitute an emergency and require fast, efficient action to prevent disaster. A fuel spill is an accidental release of fuel, in this case, from an aircraft fuel system, refueling vehicle or refueling system. A normal release of a few drops of fuel associated with a disconnection or other regular fueling operations should not be classified as a fuel spill. However, anytime fuel must be cleaned up and removed from an area, a fuel spill has occurred. Volatile fuels pose significant threats to people, equipment, facilities and cargo when they are released. Anyone near a spill, including ramp workers, fueling personnel and aircraft occupants, are in danger if the fuel ignites. Buildings and equipment in a spill area, such as terminals, hangars, aircraft, fuel trucks and service equipment also are at risk. An often neglected point is that aircraft cargo also is threatened by fuel spills

  2. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    The US Department of Energy's liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility is a research and demonstration facility available on a user-fee basis to private and public sector test and training sponsors concerned with safety aspects of hazardous chemicals. Though initially designed to accommodate large liquefied natural gas releases, the Spill Test Facility (STF) can also accommodate hazardous materials training and safety-related testing of most chemicals in commercial use. The STF is located at DOE's Nevada Test Site near Mercury, Nevada, USA. Utilization of the Spill Test Facility provides a unique opportunity for industry and other users to conduct hazardous materials testing and training. The Spill Test Facility is the only facility of its kind for either large- or small-scale testing of hazardous and toxic fluids including wind tunnel testing under controlled conditions. It is ideally suited for test sponsors to develop verified data on prevention, mitigation, clean-up, and environmental effects of toxic and hazardous gaseous liquids. The facility site also supports structured training for hazardous spills, mitigation, and clean-up. Since 1986, the Spill Test Facility has been utilized for releases to evaluate the patterns of dispersion, mitigation techniques, and combustion characteristics of select materials. Use of the facility can also aid users in developing emergency planning under US P.L 99-499, the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) and other regulations. The Spill Test Facility Program is managed by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy (FE) with the support and assistance of other divisions of US DOE and the US Government. DOE/FE serves as facilitator and business manager for the Spill Test Facility and site. This brief document is designed to acquaint a potential user of the Spill Test Facility with an outline of the procedures and policies associated with the use of the facility

  3. Bioremediation Potential of Terrestrial Fuel Spills

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Hong-Gyu; Wang, Xiaoping; Bartha, Richard

    1990-01-01

    A bioremediation treatment that consisted of liming, fertilization, and tilling was evaluated on the laboratory scale for its effectiveness in cleaning up a sand, a loam, and a clay loam contaminated at 50 to 135 mg g of soil−1 by gasoline, jet fuel, heating oil, diesel oil, or bunker C. Experimental variables included incubation temperatures of 17, 27, and 37°C; no treatment; bioremediation treatment; and poisoned evaporation controls. Hydrocarbon residues were determined by quantitative gas...

  4. Cleanup of a jet fuel spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesko, Steve

    1996-11-01

    Eaton operates a corporate aircraft hanger facility in Battle Creek, Michigan. Tests showed that two underground storage tanks leaked. Investigation confirmed this release discharged several hundred gallons of Jet A kerosene into the soil and groundwater. The oil moved downward approximately 30 feet and spread laterally onto the water table. Test results showed kerosene in the adsorbed, free and dissolved states. Eaton researched and investigated three clean-up options. They included pump and treat, dig and haul and bioremediation. Jet fuel is composed of readily biodegradable hydrocarbon chains. This fact coupled with the depth to groundwater and geologic setting made bioremediation the low cost and most effective alternative. A recovery well was installed at the leading edge of the dissolved contamination. A pump moved water from this well into a nutrient addition system. Nutrients added included nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium. Additionally, air was sparged into the water. The water was discharged into an infiltration gallery installed when the underground storage tanks were removed. Water circulated between the pump and the infiltration basin in a closed loop fashion. This oxygenated, nutrient rich water actively and aggressively treated the soils between the bottom of the gallery and the top of the groundwater and the groundwater. The system began operating in August of 1993 and reduced jet fuel to below detection levels. In August of 1995 The State of Michigan issued a clean closure declaration to the site.

  5. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility: Overview of STF capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility (STF) constructed at the Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site is a basic research tool for studying the dynamics of accidental releases of various hazardous liquids. This Facility is designed to (1) discharge, at a controlled rate, a measured volume of hazardous test liquid on a prepared surface of a dry lake bed (Frenchman Lake); (2) monitor and record process operating data, close-in and downwind meteorological data, and downwind gaseous concentration levels; and (3) provide a means to control and monitor these functions from a remote location. The STF will accommodate large and small-scale testing of hazardous test fluid release rates up to 28,000 gallons per minute. Spill volumes up to 52,800 gallons are achievable. Generic categories of fluids that can be tested are cryogenics, isothermals, aerosol-forming materials, and chemically reactive. The phenomena that can be studied include source definition, dispersion, and pool fire/vapor burning. Other capabilities available at the STF include large-scale wind tunnel testing, a small test cell for exposing personnel protective clothing, and an area for developing mitigation techniques

  6. Fate of dispersed marine fuel oil in sediment under pre-spill application strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian Hua

    2004-01-01

    A comparison of the movement of dispersed oil in marine sediment under two dispersant application scenarios, applied prior to and after oil being spilled overboard, was examined. The pre-spill application scenario caused much less oil to be retained in the top sediment than post-spill scenario. The difference in oil retention in the top sediment between pre- and post-spill application scenario increased with increase in fuel oil temperature. For fuel oil above 40 o C, the difference in the effect of pre-spill application strategy under various water temperatures was negligible. When soap water was used as replacement for chemical dispersant, almost one-half as much oil was retained in the top sediment as that when using chemical dispersant. The adsorption of dispersed oil to the top sediment was almost proportionally decreased with doubling of soap dosage. (Author)

  7. Domestic fuel oil spill prevention committee : report to Ministers of Government Services and Lands and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    The number of reported spills from domestic fuel oil systems increased dramatically in Newfoundland, which prompted the Minister of Government Services and Lands to arrange a meeting with representatives from consumers, the fuel service industry and the insurance industry to ensure proper measures were taken for the prevention of domestic fuel spills. A joint committee consisting of industry and government representatives was formed as a result of this meeting, to examine and investigate the situation and report to the Minister of Government Services and Lands. Advice on means to address the problems associated with domestic fuel oil spills was provided, as well as mechanisms to minimize such occurrences in the future. Also included in the review were small commercial storage tanks units of no more than 2500 litres, as small commercial establishments often have heating systems similar in size to residential units. Gradual leaks that go undetected for years often occur, as do the catastrophic rupture of the fuel storage tank itself. Rusting and exterior tubing are some of the causes of spills. The contamination of surrounding soil and/or groundwater can occur as a result of the spills, and fumes can enter residences through foundation walls of the sewer system. Condensation within the tank can lead to corrosion of the fuel tanks. A number of recommendations were made in the report, such as the establishment of regulations pertaining to the construction, installation, servicing and fueling of domestic and small commercial fuel systems, the proper enforcement of the regulations, a public education campaign, an emergency response capability, tax incentives to consumers for expenditures associated with the upgrading or replacement of inadequate systems, support funding, the establishment of an emergency respond fund, and environmental cleanup requirements. figs

  8. Response to a fuel oil spill in the Albufera de Alcudia natural park on Mallorca Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergueiro, J.R.; Moreno, S.; Guijarro, S.; Serra, F. [Universitat de les Illes Balears, Palma de Mallorca, Baleares (Spain); Perez-Navarro, A. [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Kantin, R. [IFREMER, la Tremblade (France); Diez, E. [Transportes Salas Simo S.L., Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    On June 12, 2001, a tanker spilled 14,500 liters of low sulphur fuel in a canal within an environmentally sensitive and ecologically rich, salt water lagoon of the Albufera de Alcudia Natural park on the island of Mallorca. Part of the contingency plan to minimize the impact of the spill included the use of a sorbent material on each side of the spill, followed by pumping the hydrocarbons out of the reed grasses, water, soil and sediments. The tanker was removed to avoid any further spill. The 428 tons of affected oil was moved by trucks to a temporary storage area in an adjacent lot where it was separated into 3 groups according to the treatment required. Polluted reed grass from a sugar cane plantation was mildly polluted. Another group was highly polluted, and the final group showed low level pollution. The fuel oil containing water, soil and sugar cane plantation material was analyzed to obtain average values of fuel oil per liter of water and fuel oil per kilogram of dry material. Material from the sugar cane plantation was burnt in an incinerator while the rest of the material was left to dry for 3 months before it was moved to an area for treatment in fenced containers designed with a slope for collecting leachates. Two 1.5 m deep wells were dug to accumulate the leachate. Analysis of the polluted reed grass samples one month after the spill indicated a concentration of 0.26 g of fuel oil per gram of dried reed grass which does not present any danger to flora and fauna. Observations made in September following the spill indicated a significant improvement in the state of reed grass and water within the affected area. The remediation effort was considered to be very efficient and total recovery of the affected area has been verified. 4 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs.

  9. Response to a fuel oil spill in the Albufera de Alcudia natural park on Mallorca Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergueiro, J.R.; Moreno, S.; Guijarro, S.; Serra, F.; Perez-Navarro, A.; Kantin, R.; Diez, E.

    2002-01-01

    On June 12, 2001, a tanker spilled 14,500 liters of low sulphur fuel in a canal within an environmentally sensitive and ecologically rich, salt water lagoon of the Albufera de Alcudia Natural park on the island of Mallorca. Part of the contingency plan to minimize the impact of the spill included the use of a sorbent material on each side of the spill, followed by pumping the hydrocarbons out of the reed grasses, water, soil and sediments. The tanker was removed to avoid any further spill. The 428 tons of affected oil was moved by trucks to a temporary storage area in an adjacent lot where it was separated into 3 groups according to the treatment required. Polluted reed grass from a sugar cane plantation was mildly polluted. Another group was highly polluted, and the final group showed low level pollution. The fuel oil containing water, soil and sugar cane plantation material was analyzed to obtain average values of fuel oil per liter of water and fuel oil per kilogram of dry material. Material from the sugar cane plantation was burnt in an incinerator while the rest of the material was left to dry for 3 months before it was moved to an area for treatment in fenced containers designed with a slope for collecting leachates. Two 1.5 m deep wells were dug to accumulate the leachate. Analysis of the polluted reed grass samples one month after the spill indicated a concentration of 0.26 g of fuel oil per gram of dried reed grass which does not present any danger to flora and fauna. Observations made in September following the spill indicated a significant improvement in the state of reed grass and water within the affected area. The remediation effort was considered to be very efficient and total recovery of the affected area has been verified. 4 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs

  10. Biodegradation of spilled diesel fuel in agricultural soil: Effect of humates, zeolite, and bioaugmentation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuráň, P.; Trögl, J.; Nováková, J.; Pilařová, V.; Dáňová, P.; Pavlorková, J.; Kozler, J.; Novák, František; Popelka, J.

    -, č. 642427 (2014) ISSN 1537-744X Grant - others:GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI1/456 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biodegradation * spilled diesel fuel * agricultural soil Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides Impact factor: 1.219, year: 2013 http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/642427

  11. Investigation of evaporation and biodegradation of fuel spills in Antarctica: II-extent of natural attenuation at Casey Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snape, Ian; Ferguson, Susan H; Harvey, Paul McA; Riddle, Martin J

    2006-03-01

    In many temperate regions, fuel and oil spills are sometimes managed simply by allowing natural degradation to occur, while monitoring soils and groundwater to ensure that there is no off-site migration or on-site impact. To critically assess whether this approach is suitable for coastal Antarctic sites, we investigated the extent of evaporation and biodegradation at three old fuel spills at Casey Station. Where the contaminants migrated across frozen ground, probably beneath snow, approximately half the fuel evaporated in the first few months prior to infiltration at the beginning of summer. Once in the ground, however, evaporation rates were negligible. In contrast, minor spills from fuel drums buried in an abandoned waste disposal site did not evaporate to the same extent. Biodegradation within all three spill sites is generally very minor. We conclude that natural attenuation is not a suitable management strategy for fuel-contaminated soils in Antarctic coastal regions.

  12. Fuel spill identification by gas chromatography -- genetic algorithms/pattern recognition techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavine, B.K.; Moores, A.J.; Faruque, A.

    1998-01-01

    Gas chromatography and pattern recognition methods were used to develop a potential method for typing jet fuels so a spill sample in the environment can be traced to its source. The test data consisted of 256 gas chromatograms of neat jet fuels. 31 fuels that have undergone weathering in a subsurface environment were correctly identified by type using discriminants developed from the gas chromatograms of the neat jet fuels. Coalescing poorly resolved peaks, which occurred during preprocessing, diminished the resolution and hence information content of the GC profiles. Nevertheless a genetic algorithm was able to extract enough information from these profiles to correctly classify the chromatograms of weathered fuels. This suggests that cheaper and simpler GC instruments ca be used to type jet fuels

  13. An evaluation of propane as a fuel for testing fire-resistant oil spill containment booms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, W. D.; Twilley, W. H.

    1997-01-01

    A series of experiments have been conducted to measure and compare the thermal exposure to a fire-resistant boom from liquid hydrocarbon fuel and propane fires. The objective was to test the potential of propane fueled fires as a fire source for testing fire-resistant oil spill containment booms.Thermal exposure from propane fires have been measured with and without waves. Results indicated that although propane diffusion flames on water look like liquid hydrocarbon fuel flames and produce very little smoke, the heat flux at the boom location from propane fires is about 60 per cent of that from liquid hydrocarbon fuel fires. Despite the attractive features in terms of ease of application, control and smoke emissions, it was concluded that the low heat flux would preclude the application of propane as a fuel for evaluating fire resistant containment booms. 2 refs., 7 figs

  14. Effectiveness of bioremediation for the Prestige fuel spill : a summary of case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego, J.R.; Gonzalez-Rojas, E.; Pelaez, A.I.; Sanchez, J; Garcia-Martinez, M.J.; Llamas, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper described novel bioremediation strategies used to remediate coastal areas in Spain impacted by the Prestige fuel oil spill in 2002. The bioremediation techniques were applied after hot pressurized water washing was used to remove hydrocarbons adhering to shorelines and rocks. Bioremediation strategies included monitored natural attenuation as well as accelerating biodegradation by stimulating indigenous populations through the addition of exogenous microbial populations. The sites selected for bioremediation were rocky shorelines of heterogenous granitic sediments with grain sizes ranging from sands to huge boulders; limestone-sandstone pebbles and cobbles; and fuel-coated limestone cliffs. Total surface area covered by the fuel was determined through the use of image analysis calculations. A statistical measurement of the fuel layer thickness was calculated by averaging the weights of multiple-fuel sampling increments. Bioremediation products included the use of oleophilic fertilizers; a biodegradable surfactant; and a microbial seeding agent. Determinations of saturate, aromatic, resins, and asphaltene (SARA) were performed using maltenes extraction and liquid chromatography. Microbial plating and selective enrichment with fuel as the sole carbon source were used to monitor the evolution of microbial populations in a variety of experiments. It was concluded that the biostimulation technique enhanced the efficiency of the in situ oleophilic fertilizers. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  15. Effectiveness of bioremediation for the Prestige fuel spill : a summary of case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego, J.R. [Oviedo Univ., Asturias (Spain); Gonzalez-Rojas, E.; Pelaez, A.I.; Sanchez, J [Oviedo Univ., Asturias (Spain). Inst. de Biotecnologia de Asturias; Garcia-Martinez, M.J.; Llamas, J.F. [Univ. Polictenica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain). Laboratorio de Estratigrafia Biomolecular

    2006-07-01

    This paper described novel bioremediation strategies used to remediate coastal areas in Spain impacted by the Prestige fuel oil spill in 2002. The bioremediation techniques were applied after hot pressurized water washing was used to remove hydrocarbons adhering to shorelines and rocks. Bioremediation strategies included monitored natural attenuation as well as accelerating biodegradation by stimulating indigenous populations through the addition of exogenous microbial populations. The sites selected for bioremediation were rocky shorelines of heterogenous granitic sediments with grain sizes ranging from sands to huge boulders; limestone-sandstone pebbles and cobbles; and fuel-coated limestone cliffs. Total surface area covered by the fuel was determined through the use of image analysis calculations. A statistical measurement of the fuel layer thickness was calculated by averaging the weights of multiple-fuel sampling increments. Bioremediation products included the use of oleophilic fertilizers; a biodegradable surfactant; and a microbial seeding agent. Determinations of saturate, aromatic, resins, and asphaltene (SARA) were performed using maltenes extraction and liquid chromatography. Microbial plating and selective enrichment with fuel as the sole carbon source were used to monitor the evolution of microbial populations in a variety of experiments. It was concluded that the biostimulation technique enhanced the efficiency of the in situ oleophilic fertilizers. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  16. Hazardous fuel treatments, suppression cost impacts, and risk mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew P. Thompson; Michael S. Hand; Julie W. Gilbertson-Day; Nicole M. Vaillant; Darek J. Nalle

    2013-01-01

    Land management agencies face uncertain tradeoffs regarding investments in preparedness and fuels management versus future suppression costs and impacts to valued resources and assets. Prospective evaluation of fuel treatments allows for comparison of alternative treatment strategies in terms of socioeconomic and ecological impacts, and can facilitate tradeoff analysis...

  17. On-Line Fuel Deoxygenation for Coke Suppression ASME GT-2002-30071

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spadaccini, Louis

    2002-01-01

    Fuel deoxygenation is being developed as a means for suppressing autoxidative coke formation in aircraft fuel systems, thereby increasing the exploitable cooling capacity of the fuel, enabling major...

  18. Predicting the weathering of fuel and oil spills: A diffusion-limited evaporation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzakoulakis, Konstantinos; George, Simon C

    2018-01-01

    The majority of the evaporation models currently available in the literature for the prediction of oil spill weathering do not take into account diffusion-limited mass transport and the formation of a concentration gradient in the oil phase. The altered surface concentration of the spill caused by diffusion-limited transport leads to a slower evaporation rate compared to the predictions of diffusion-agnostic evaporation models. The model presented in this study incorporates a diffusive layer in the oil phase and predicts the diffusion-limited evaporation rate. The information required is the composition of the fluid from gas chromatography or alternatively the distillation data. If the density or a single viscosity measurement is available the accuracy of the predictions is higher. Environmental conditions such as water temperature, air pressure and wind velocity are taken into account. The model was tested with synthetic mixtures, petroleum fuels and crude oils with initial viscosities ranging from 2 to 13,000 cSt. The tested temperatures varied from 0 °C to 23.4 °C and wind velocities from 0.3 to 3.8 m/s. The average absolute deviation (AAD) of the diffusion-limited model ranged between 1.62% and 24.87%. In comparison, the AAD of a diffusion-agnostic model ranged between 2.34% and 136.62% against the same tested fluids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fuel Conservation by the Application of Spill Prevention and Failsafe Engineering (A Guideline Manual)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodier, J. Leslie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Water and Land Resources Department, Office of Marine and Environmental Engineering; Siclari, Robert J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Water and Land Resources Department, Office of Marine and Environmental Engineering; Garrity, Phyllis A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Water and Land Resources Department, Office of Marine and Environmental Engineering

    1980-10-30

    From a series of nationwide plant surveys dedicated to spill prevention, containment and countermeasure evaluation, coupled with spill response action activities, a need was determined for a spill prevention guideline manual. From Federally accumulated statistics for oil and hazardous substance spills, the authors culled information on spills of hydrocarbon products. In 1978, a total of 1456 oil spills were reported compared to 1451 in 1979. The 1978 spills were more severe, however, since 7,289,163 gallons of oil were accidentally discharged. In 1979, the gallons spilled was reduced to 3,663,473. These figures are derived from reported spills; it is highly possible that an equal amount was spilled and not reported. Spills effectively contained within a plant property that do not enter a navigational waterway need not be reported. Needless to say, there is a tremendous annual loss of oil products due to accidental spillage during transportation, cargo transfer, bulk storage and processing. As an aid to plant engineers and managers, Federal workers, fire marshalls and fire and casualty insurance inspectors, the document is offered as a spill prevention guide. The manual defines state-of-the-art spill prevention practices and automation techniques that can reduce spills caused by human error. Whenever practical, the cost of implementation is provided to aid equipment acquisition and installation budgeting. To emphasize the need for spill prevention activities, historic spills are briefly described after which remedial action is defined in an appropriate section of the manual. The section on plant security goes into considerable depth since to date no Federal agency or trade association has provided industry with guidelines on this important phase of plant operation. The intent of the document is to provide finger-tip reference material that can be used by interested parties in a nationwide effort to reduce loss of oil from preventable spills.

  20. Carbon fuel cells with carbon corrosion suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F [Oakland, CA

    2012-04-10

    An electrochemical cell apparatus that can operate as either a fuel cell or a battery includes a cathode compartment, an anode compartment operatively connected to the cathode compartment, and a carbon fuel cell section connected to the anode compartment and the cathode compartment. An effusion plate is operatively positioned adjacent the anode compartment or the cathode compartment. The effusion plate allows passage of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide exhaust channels are operatively positioned in the electrochemical cell to direct the carbon dioxide from the electrochemical cell.

  1. NAPL migration and ecotoxicity of conventional and renewable fuels in accidental spill scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malk, Vuokko; Barreto Tejera, Eduardo; Simpanen, Suvi; Dahl, Mari; Mäkelä, Riikka; Häkkinen, Jani; Kiiski, Anna; Penttinen, Olli-Pekka

    2014-01-01

    Fuels derived from non-petroleum renewable resources have raised interest due to their potential in replacing petroleum-based fuels, but information on their fate and effects in the terrestrial and aquatic environments in accidental spill scenario is limited. In this study, migration of four fuels (conventional diesel, conventional gasoline, renewable diesel NExBTL, and ethanol-blended gasoline RE85 containing maximum 85% ethanol) as non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL) in soil was demonstrated in a laboratory-scale experiment. Ecotoxicity data was produced for the same fuels. There was no significant difference in migration of conventional and renewable diesel, but gasoline migrated 1.5 times deeper and 7-9 times faster in sand than diesel. RE85 spread horizontally wider but not as deep (p gasoline. Conventional gasoline was the most toxic (lethal concentration [LC50] 20 mg/kg total hydrocarbon content [THC]) among the studied fuels in soil toxicity test with earthworm Eisenia fetida followed by ethanol-blended gasoline (LC50 1,643 mg/kg THC) and conventional diesel (LC50 2,432 mg/kg THC), although gasoline evaporated fast from soil. For comparison, the toxicity of the water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of the fuels was tested with water flea Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri, also demonstrating groundwater toxicity. The WAF of conventional gasoline and RE85 showed almost similar toxicity to both the aquatic test species. EC50 values of 1:10 (by volume) WAF were 9.9 %WAF (gasoline) and 9.3 %WAF (RE85) to D. magna and 9.3 %WAF (gasoline) and 12.3 %WAF (RE85) to V. fischeri. Low solubility decreased toxicity potential of conventional diesel in aquatic environment, but direct physical effects of oil phase pose a threat to organisms in nature. Renewable diesel NExBTL did not show clear toxicity to any test species.

  2. Spills Action Centre summary report of 1992 spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    Environment Ontario's Spills Action Center (SAC) receives and initiates response to spills and other urgent environmental incidents on a 24 h per day basis. The center documented 14,588 occurrence reports in 1992. Two thirds of these involved a range of ministry notification requirements and environmental complaints, while one third involved spills. Information on spills reported in 1992 are summarized. The 5,014 spills reported to SAC in 1992 represent a 5% decrease from 1991. Fewer spills to air accounted for this decrease, while the number of spills to land and water remained unchanged. Oil and fuel spills accounted for 59% of spilled material. Chemical or chemical solutions accounted for ca 15%, wastes or wastewaters 18%, gaseous emissions 6% and unknown for the remainder. Around 20% of spills were less than 10 liters, 57% were less than 100 liters, and 86% were less than 1000 liters. About 28% of the spills had a confirmed environmental impact or adverse affect, two thirds involving soil contamination and around one fifth involving surface water contamination. Twenty-three spills resulted in human health and safety concerns. Around 45% of all spills were completely cleaned up, and an additional 22% were partially cleaned up. Industrial sectors with the largest proportion of reported spills were: transportation, 16%; petroleum, 13%; metallurgical, 6%; general manufacturing, 5%; and chemical, 5%. Public sector spills accounted for 18% of reported spills. Motor vehicles were the largest sources of spills accounting for over 28% of reported spills. 14 figs., 14 tabs

  3. A Study of Spill Control Characteristics of JP-8 and Conventional Diesel Fuel with a Common Rail Direct Injection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seomoon Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversification of energy sources is a key task for decreasing environmental impacts and global emission of gases. JP-8, a fuel derived from natural gas, coal, biomass, and waste plastics, is a bright prospect. JP-8 is considered a multi-source multi-purpose fuel, with several applications. A preliminary characterization of the JP-8 injection rate and injection quantity behavior was investigated based on the high-pressure common rail injection system used in a heavy-duty engine. According to the spill injection and injection pressure, a trade-off trend between injection rate and injection quantity was observed. As expected, pilot injection of JP-8 aviation fuel and diesel fuel affects the spray quantity and injection evolution of the subsequent operation without pilot injection. The difference in spilling between diesel and JP-8 aviation fuel is greater than the difference in injection amount per time; in the process of controlling the injector solenoid through ECU (Electric Control Units, the oil pressure valve and the needle valve operate to a higher extent in order to maintain the diesel fuel’s injection quantity volume. It was found that the total injection quantity was decreased by adding 20% pilot injection duration. Because the pilot injection quantity causes solenoid response, loss and needle lift stroke friction loss.

  4. Assessing fuel spill risks in polar waters: Temporal dynamics and behaviour of hydrocarbons from Antarctic diesel, marine gas oil and residual fuel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kathryn E; King, Catherine K; Kotzakoulakis, Konstantinos; George, Simon C; Harrison, Peter L

    2016-09-15

    As part of risk assessment of fuel oil spills in Antarctic and subantarctic waters, this study describes partitioning of hydrocarbons from three fuels (Special Antarctic Blend diesel, SAB; marine gas oil, MGO; and intermediate grade fuel oil, IFO 180) into seawater at 0 and 5°C and subsequent depletion over 7days. Initial total hydrocarbon content (THC) of water accommodated fraction (WAF) in seawater was highest for SAB. Rates of THC loss and proportions in equivalent carbon number fractions differed between fuels and over time. THC was most persistent in IFO 180 WAFs and most rapidly depleted in MGO WAF, with depletion for SAB WAF strongly affected by temperature. Concentration and composition remained proportionate in dilution series over time. This study significantly enhances our understanding of fuel behaviour in Antarctic and subantarctic waters, enabling improved predictions for estimates of sensitivities of marine organisms to toxic contaminants from fuels in the region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A comparative assessment of the fate and effects of similar Orimulsion and heavy fuel oil spills in the Milford Haven Estuary, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelsohn, D.L.; Rines, H.M.; Christensen, F.T.; Isajil, T.; French, D.; Edwards, N.

    1996-01-01

    A Spill Impact Assessment Program (SIMAP) was used to simulate spills of 1,000 metric tons each of No. 6 fuel oil and Orimulsion into the Milford Haven Estuary. The experiments were conducted because many oil burning power generating stations worldwide have considered the use of Orimulsion (a mixture of 70% bitumen, 30% water and a surfactant) in place of the conventional heavy fuel oil No. 6. An assessment of the potential effects of an accidental spill of Orimulsion was therefore conducted. A comparison of that spill to one of conventional fuel oil was part of the evaluation. The experiments were run for three weeks, each under identical environmental conditions and impacts on the local habitats and biota were calculated. The model predicted that a spill of No. 6 fuel (which floats because of its low density relative to sea water) would result in the loss of about 14% of the total bird population. Fish kills would be very small. A spill of Orimulsion (which readily disperses into the water column because of the presence of a surfactant) would result in the loss of about 0.4% of the adult fish and 3.7% of young fish, while birds losses would be negligible. 22 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs

  6. Migracija dizel goriva izlivenog u slojeve zemljišta / Migration of diesel fuel spilled in subsurface layers of soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Vuruna

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available U radu su prikazane osnovne fizičko-hemijske karakteristike dizel goriva i zemljišta. Objašnjena je migracija izlivenog naftnog zagađivača kroz vertikalni profil zemljišta. U eksperimentalnom delu ispitivane su koncentracije dizel goriva i relativne koncentracije n-alkana u površinskim slojevima peska, u koje gorivo dospeva kao posledica akcidentnog izlivanja. Utvrđeno je da se koncentracije dizel goriva menjaju sa vremenom nakon izlivanja u svim ispitivanim slojevima. Takođe, utvrđeno je da se dizel gorivo, kao potencijalni zagađivač, u prvih šest nedelja, uglavnom, zadržava u površinskom sloju dubine 30 cm, a objašnjene su i mogućnosti sanacije zagađenog zemljišta. / The basic physical and chemical properties of both diesel fuel and soil have been given in this article and oil pollutants migration through vertical soil profile have been explained as well. In the experimental part of the paper both the concentrations of diesel fuel and relative concentrations of n-alkynes spilled in sandy soil by accident have been investigated. It has been proven that the concentrations of diesel fuel have changed in all layers of soil depending on the time after spill. Diesel fuel as possible pollutant has been retained 30 cm deep in sandy soil during six weeks after spill. Finally, cleanup techniques of polluted soil have been explained.

  7. Monitoring of Olympic National Park Beaches to determine fate and effects of spilled bunker C fuel oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, J.A.; Cullinan, V.I.; Crecelius, E.A.; Fortman, T.J.; Citterman, R.J.; Fleischmann, M.L.

    1990-10-01

    On December 23, 1988, the barge Nestucca was accidentally struck by its tow, a Souse Brothers Towing Company tug, releasing approximately 230,000 gallons of Bunker C fuel oil and fouling beaches from Grays Harbor north to Vancouver Island. Affected beaches in Washington included a 40-mile-long strip that has been recently added to Olympic National Park. The purpose of the monitoring program documented in this report was to determine the fate of spilled Bunker C fuel oil on selected Washington coastal beaches. We sought to determine (1) how much oil remained in intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats following clean-up and weathering, (2) to what extent intertidal and/or shallow subtidal biotic assemblages have been contaminated, and (3) how rapidly the oil has left the ecosystem. 45 refs., 18 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. Spills Action Centre summary report of 1995 spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    A summary of spills reported to the Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy during 1995 was presented. The Ministry's Spill Action Centre is on call 24-hours per day to receive and respond to reports of spills and other urgent environmental incidents. Some 5,000 spills were documented in 1995. Oils and fuels accounted for 59 per cent of the spilled materials, chemicals and chemical solutions for 17 per cent, wastes and waste waters for 16 per cent, and gaseous materials for 5 per cent. Unknown materials accounted for 3 per cent. Most of the spills involved small volumes. Equipment failure and operator error were the major reasons for spills. All occurrences reported are stored on a computerized database. The information is used to develop new pollution abatement programs and spill prevention initiatives as trends are identified. 14 tabs., 14 figs

  9. Source identification of underground fuel spills by solid-phase microextraction/high-resolution gas chromatography/genetic algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavine, B K; Ritter, J; Moores, A J; Wilson, M; Faruque, A; Mayfield, H T

    2000-01-15

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME), capillary column gas chromatography, and pattern recognition methods were used to develop a potential method for typing jet fuels so a spill sample in the environment can be traced to its source. The test data consisted of gas chromatograms from 180 neat jet fuel samples representing common aviation turbine fuels found in the United States (JP-4, Jet-A, JP-7, JPTS, JP-5, JP-8). SPME sampling of the fuel's headspace afforded well-resolved reproducible profiles, which were standardized using special peak-matching software. The peak-matching procedure yielded 84 standardized retention time windows, though not all peaks were present in all gas chromatograms. A genetic algorithm (GA) was employed to identify features (in the standardized chromatograms of the neat jet fuels) suitable for pattern recognition analysis. The GA selected peaks, whose two largest principal components showed clustering of the chromatograms on the basis of fuel type. The principal component analysis routine in the fitness function of the GA acted as an information filter, significantly reducing the size of the search space, since it restricted the search to feature subsets whose variance is primarily about differences between the various fuel types in the training set. In addition, the GA focused on those classes and/or samples that were difficult to classify as it trained using a form of boosting. Samples that consistently classify correctly were not as heavily weighted as samples that were difficult to classify. Over time, the GA learned its optimal parameters in a manner similar to a perceptron. The pattern recognition GA integrated aspects of strong and weak learning to yield a "smart" one-pass procedure for feature selection.

  10. Actual directions in study of ecological consequences of a highly toxic 1,1-dimethylhydrazine-based rocket fuel spills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulat Kenessov

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents a review of the actual directions in study of ecological consequences of highly toxic 1,1-dimethylhydrazine-based rocket fuel spills. Recent results on study of processes of transformation of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, identification of its main metabolites and development of analytical methods for their determination are generalized. Modern analytical methods of determination of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine and its transformation products in environmental samples are characterized. It is shown that in recent years, through the use of most modern methods of physical chemical analysis and sample preparation, works in this direction made significant progress and contributed to the development of studies in adjacent areas. A character of distribution of transformation products in soils of fall places of first stages of rocket-carriers is described and the available methods for their remediation are characterized.

  11. Platelet activating factor receptor binding plays a critical role in jet fuel-induced immune suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Gerardo; Kazimi, Nasser; Nghiem, Dat X.; Walterscheid, Jeffrey P.; Ullrich, Stephen E.

    2004-01-01

    Applying military jet fuel (JP-8) or commercial jet fuel (Jet-A) to the skin of mice suppresses the immune response in a dose-dependant manner. The release of biological response modifiers, particularly prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ), is a critical step in activating immune suppression. Previous studies have shown that injecting selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors into jet fuel-treated mice blocks immune suppression. Because the inflammatory phospholipid mediator, platelet-activating factor (PAF), up-regulates cyclooxygenase-2 production and PGE 2 synthesis by keratinocytes, we tested the hypothesis that PAF-receptor binding plays a role in jet fuel-induced immune suppression. Treating keratinocyte cultures with PAF and/or jet fuel (JP-8 and Jet-A) stimulates PGE 2 secretion. Jet fuel-induced PGE 2 production was suppressed by treating the keratinocytes with specific PAF-receptor antagonists. Injecting mice with PAF, or treating the skin of the mice with JP-8, or Jet-A, induced immune suppression. Jet fuel-induced immune suppression was blocked when the jet fuel-treated mice were injected with PAF-receptor antagonists before treatment. Jet fuel treatment has been reported to activate oxidative stress and treating the mice with anti-oxidants (Vitamins C, or E or beta-hydroxy toluene), before jet fuel application, interfered with immune suppression. These findings confirm previous studies showing that PAF-receptor binding can modulate immune function. Furthermore, they suggest that PAF-receptor binding may be an early event in the induction of immune suppression by immunotoxic environmental agents that target the skin

  12. Oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsouros, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    The world annually transports 1.7 billion tons of oil by sea, and oil spills, often highly concentrated discharges, are increasing from a variety of sources. The author discusses sources of oils spills: natural; marine transportation; offshore oil production; atmospheric sources; municipal industrial wastes and runoff. Other topics include: the fate of the spilled oil; the effects of the oil; the response to oil spills; and prevention of oil spills. 30 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  13. Modeling fuel treatment leverage: Encounter rates, risk reduction, and suppression cost impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew P. Thompson; Karin L. Riley; Dan Loeffler; Jessica R. Haas

    2017-01-01

    The primary theme of this study is the cost-effectiveness of fuel treatments at multiple scales of investment. We focused on the nexus of fuel management and suppression response planning, designing spatial fuel treatment strategies to incorporate landscape features that provide control opportunities that are relevant to fire operations. Our analysis explored the...

  14. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  15. Application of EM holographic methods to borehole vertical electric source data to map a fuel oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartel, L.C.

    1993-01-01

    The multifrequency, multisource holographic method used in the analysis of seismic data is to extended electromagnetic (EM) data within the audio frequency range. The method is applied to the secondary magnetic fields produced by a borehole, vertical electric source (VES). The holographic method is a numerical reconstruction procedure based on the double focusing principle for both the source array and the receiver array. The approach used here is to Fourier transform the constructed image from frequency space to time space and set time equal to zero. The image is formed when the in-phase part (real part) is a maximum or the out-of-phase (imaginary part) is a minimum; i.e., the EM wave is phase coherent at its origination. In the application here the secondary magnetic fields are treated as scattered fields. In the numerical reconstruction, the seismic analog of the wave vector is used; i.e., the imaginary part of the actual wave vector is ignored. The multifrequency, multisource holographic method is applied to calculated model data and to actual field data acquired to map a diesel fuel oil spill

  16. Applications of EM holographic methods to borehole vertical electric source data to map a fuel oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartel, L.C.

    1993-01-01

    The multifrequency, multisource holographic method used in the analysis of seismic data is to extended electromagnetic (EM) data within the audio frequency range. The method is applied to the secondary magnetic fields produced by a borehole, vertical electric source (VES). The holographic method is a numerical reconstruction procedure based on the double focusing principle for both the source array and the receiver array. The approach used here is to Fourier transform the constructed image from frequency space to time space and set time equal to zero. The image is formed when the in-phase part (real part) is a maximum or the out-of-phase (imaginary part) is a minimum; i.e., the EM wave is phase coherent at its origination. In the application here the secondary magnetic fields are treated as scattered fields. In the numerical reconstruction, the seismic analog of the wave vector is used; i.e., the imaginary part of the actual wave vector is ignore. The multifrequency, multisource holographic method is applied to calculated model data and to actual field data acquired to map a diesel fuel oil spill

  17. Biodegradation of dispersed marine fuel oil in sediment under engineered pre-spill application strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, J.

    2006-01-01

    Biodegradation of marine fuel oil was studied by monitoring changes in residual oil and populations of microorganisms in marine sediments. Biodegradation rates for dispersant and soap water were 2.09 and 2.27 g/kg per day, respectively, under pre-application strategy, suggesting that the strategy may promote MFO dispersion and provide with sufficient source of food. The effect of temperature on the effectiveness of pre-application strategy is particularly obvious for the growth of fungi and Pseudomonas maltophilia. The effect of pre-application of soap water on the tolerance of aerobic bacteria, Escherichia coli, and P. maltophilia, was gradually diminished within 25-33 days. (author)

  18. In situ bioremediation of a diesel fuel spill in northern Manitoba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hryhoruk, C.D.

    1994-01-01

    At a northern Manitoba airport, a site was contaminated with diesel fuel, which was confined within the unsaturated zone in silt and silty sand. A two-phase bioremediation process was designed and implemented in-situ in a pilot test. The first phase, ground surface spraying, involved mixing nutrients (ammonium-nitrogen and orthophosphate) with water in a tank and then spraying the mixture on the ground surface above the diesel plume. The second phase, a pump-cycle system, involved pumping groundwater from below the diesel plume into one of two tanks in series. The groundwater underwent both nutrient addition (weekly) and aeration in the tanks, then it was pumped into eight feeder wells which circumscribed an extraction well. Soil testing revealed that both remediation processes aided in increasing subsurface nutrient concentrations and the moisture content within the diesel plume. In addition, high total coliform counts were observed in both the silt and silty sand layers. This implied that conditions for suitable bioremediation can be developed in relatively fine-grained soil. Intermittent soil sampling at three locations over a 14-month period revealed that the diesel plume decreased in size by ca 30% and contaminant concentrations (diesel fuel) also decreased. Plume movement also occurred. The pump-cycle system remains operational. 67 refs., 77 figs., 9 tabs

  19. In situ bioremediation of an underground diesel fuel spill: A case history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberger, W. T.; Emerson, K. D.; Turner, D. W.

    1989-05-01

    In the winter months of 1983, approximately 1000 gallons of diesel fuel had flowed along an asphalt parking lot of a commercial establishment towards a surface drain near an open creek. Investigations led to the discovery of an underground storage tank leaking diesel fuel. Exploratory borings showed that contamination was near the surface horizon and the capillary zone of the water table. Hydrocarbon quantities ranged up to 1500 mg/kg of soil. The plume continued to move in an eastward direction toward the surface water of the creek. A laboratory study indicated relatively high numbers of hydrocarbon-oxidizing organisms relative to glucose-utilizing microorganisms in the unsaturated vadose zone. Bioreclamation was initiated in April 1984 by injecting nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and hydrogen peroxide and terminated in October 1984 upon no detection (<1 mg/kg) of hydrocarbons. A verification boring within the vicinity of the contaminated plume confirmed that residual contamination had attained background levels. The monitoring program was terminated in January 1987.

  20. In situ bioremediation of a diesel fuel spill in northern Manitoba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hryhoruk, C D

    1994-01-01

    At a northern Manitoba airport, a site was contaminated with diesel fuel, which was confined within the unsaturated zone in silt and silty sand. A two-phase bioremediation process was designed and implemented in-situ in a pilot test. The first phase, ground surface spraying, involved mixing nutrients (ammonium-nitrogen and orthophosphate) with water in a tank and then spraying the mixture on the ground surface above the diesel plume. The second phase, a pump-cycle system, involved pumping groundwater from below the diesel plume into one of two tanks in series. The groundwater underwent both nutrient addition (weekly) and aeration in the tanks, then it was pumped into eight feeder wells which circumscribed an extraction well. Soil testing revealed that both remediation processes aided in increasing subsurface nutrient concentrations and the moisture content within the diesel plume. In addition, high total coliform counts were observed in both the silt and silty sand layers. This implied that conditions for suitable bioremediation can be developed in relatively fine-grained soil. Intermittent soil sampling at three locations over a 14-month period revealed that the diesel plume decreased in size by ca 30% and contaminant concentrations (diesel fuel) also decreased. Plume movement also occurred. The pump-cycle system remains operational. 67 refs., 77 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. Oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaulding, M.L.; Reed, M.

    1990-01-01

    Public awareness and concern for the potential short and long term impacts of oil spills on the marine environment has generally been high, particularly for regions of special ecological importance or where significant numbers of marine mammals and birds are present. This awareness was further heightened by the extraordinary number of recent large spills in coastal U.S. water: Exxon Valdez, Alaska; World Prodigy, Rhode Island; Presidente Rivera, Delaware; Rachel-B, Texas and American Trader, California. The occurrence of so many spills in a one year period is unprecedented in U.S. spill history. The legislative response to these spills has been immediate. New legislative initiative are rapidly being developed. Improved ways to organize spill response efforts are being devised and implemented. Funds are being allocated to further develop and improve spill response equipment and damage assessment methodologies. These spill events will have a significant impact in both the short and long term on oil exploration, development and transport in marine waters. They will result in major changes in management and operation of oil exploration and development. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for discussion of the changes which are currently taking place in oil spill legislation, management, and response strategies

  2. Coconut endocarp and mesocarp as both biosorbents of dissolved hydrocarbons in fuel spills and as a power source when exhausted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis-Zarate, Victor Hugo; Rodriguez-Hernandez, Mayra Cecilia; Alatriste-Mondragon, Felipe; Chazaro-Ruiz, Luis Felipe; Rangel-Mendez, Jose Rene

    2018-04-01

    Health and environmental problems associated with the presence of toxic aromatic compounds in water from oil spills have motivated research to develop effective and economically viable strategies to remove these pollutants. In this work, coconut shell (endocarp), coconut fiber (mesocarp) and coconut shell with fiber (endocarp and mesocarp) obtained from coconut (Cocos nucifera) waste were evaluated as biosorbents of benzene, toluene and naphthalene from water, considering the effect of the solution pH (6-9) and the presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in natural water (14 mg/L). In addition, the heat capacity of saturated biosorbents was determined to evaluate their potential as an alternative power source to conventional fossil fuels. Tests of N 2 physisorption, SEM, elemental and fiber analysis, ATR-FTIR and acid-based titrations were performed in order to understand the materials' characteristics, and to elucidate the biosorbents' hydrocarbon adsorption mechanism. Coconut fiber showed the highest adsorption capacities (222, 96 and 5.85 mg/g for benzene, toluene and naphthalene, respectively), which was attributed to its morphologic characteristics and to its high concentration of phenolic groups, associated with the lignin structure. The pH of the solution did not have a significant influence on the removal of the contaminants, and the presence of DOM improved the adsorption capacities of aromatic hydrocarbons. The adsorption studies showed biphasic isotherms, which highlighted the strong affinity between the molecules adsorbed on the biosorbents and the aromatic compounds remaining in the solution. Finally, combustion heat analysis of coconut waste saturated with soluble hydrocarbons showed that the heat capacity increased from 4407.79 cal/g to 5064.43 ± 11.6 cal/g, which is comparable with that of woody biomass (3400-4000 cal/g): this waste biomass with added value could be a promising biofuel. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  3. Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) and risk management applied to an active industrial site affected by fuel spill in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Pablo, J.; Marti, V.; Rovira, M.; Vinolas, C.; Navarro, O.

    2005-01-01

    Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) applied to sites were groundwater have been affected by a fuel spill from an Industrial Underground Storage Tank (UST) is economically viable and a reliable methodology to achieve remediation goals. MNA process consists in the control of naturally occurring physical, chemical , and biological processes and is based in the knowledge of the processes that take place and reduce the charge of compounds derived from fuel in the site of study. Because the risk for Human Health and Ecosystem define the concept of contaminant, during MNA special attention has to be taken on concentration diminution of that are or could become contaminants and in this way is possible to perform Risk-Based Land Management (RBLM) by measuring both, the primary lines of evidence (shrinking or stable plume of contaminants) and secondary lines of evidence (given by geochemical indicators in the plume). Once, evidences have been gathered, is possible to calculate the rate of attenuation of contaminants and evaluate if admissible risk is reached an in a reasonable time framework, in order to propose MNA as a unique remediation or combined with other procedures to apply to an affected site. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the application of MNA to an active industrial site in order to develop a RBLM able to assess that the risk for Human Health and ecosystem are acceptable. The added attractive of this methodology is the non-intrusiveness that allows not to stop the industrial activity. The site considered in our study is in an active company located about 15 Km to NW from Barcelona, Spain.The company has a buried UST containing heavy fuel oil for energetic use. During 2002 a general soil impact study revealed that subsoil and groundwater close to the UST were affected by hydrocarbon losses from the tank and in January 2003 the fuel of the tank was emptied by pumping. The free phase of fuel floating on groundwater remained on the aquifer. As a

  4. On site remediation of a fuel spill and soil reuse in Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWatters, R S; Wilkins, D; Spedding, T; Hince, G; Raymond, B; Lagerewskij, G; Terry, D; Wise, L; Snape, I

    2016-11-15

    The first large-scale remediation of fuel contamination in Antarctica treated 10000L of diesel dispersed in 1700t of soil, and demonstrated the efficacy of on-site bioremediation. The project progressed through initial site assessment and natural attenuation, passive groundwater management, then active remediation and the managed reuse of soil. Monitoring natural attenuation for the first 12years showed contaminant levels in surface soil remained elevated, averaging 5000mg/kg. By contrast, in five years of active remediation (excavation and biopile treatment) contaminant levels decreased by a factor of four. Chemical indicators showed hydrocarbon loss was apportioned to both biodegradation and evaporative processes. Hydrocarbon degradation rates were assessed against biopile soil temperatures, showing a phase of rapid degradation (first 100days above soil temperature threshold of 0°C) followed by slower degradation (beyond 100days above threshold). The biopiles operated successfully within constraints typical of harsh climates and remote sites, including limitations on resources, no external energy inputs and short field seasons. Non-native microorganisms (e.g. inoculations) and other organic materials (e.g. bulking agents) are prohibited in Antarctica making this cold region more challenging for remediation than the Arctic. Biopile operations included an initial fertiliser application, biannual mechanical turning of the soil and minimal leachate recirculation. The biopiles are a practical approach to remediate large quantities of contaminated soil in the Antarctic and already 370t have been reused in a building foundation. The findings presented demonstrate that bioremediation is a viable strategy for Antarctica and other cold regions. Operators can potentially use the modelled relationship between days above 0°C (threshold temperature) and the change in degradation rates to estimate how long it would take to remediate other sites using the biopile technology

  5. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ...

  6. Modeling Fuel Treatment Leverage: Encounter Rates, Risk Reduction, and Suppression Cost Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. Thompson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary theme of this study is the cost-effectiveness of fuel treatments at multiple scales of investment. We focused on the nexus of fuel management and suppression response planning, designing spatial fuel treatment strategies to incorporate landscape features that provide control opportunities that are relevant to fire operations. Our analysis explored the frequency and magnitude of fire-treatment encounters, which are critical determinants of treatment efficacy. Additionally, we examined avoided area burned, avoided suppression costs, and avoided damages, and combined all three under the umbrella of leverage to explore multiple dimensions with which to characterize return on investment. We chose the Sierra National Forest, California, USA, as our study site, due to previous work providing relevant data and analytical products, and because it has the potential for large, long-duration fires and corresponding potential for high suppression expenditures. Modeling results generally confirmed that fire-treatment encounters are rare, such that median suppression cost savings are zero, but in extreme years, savings can more than offset upfront investments. Further, reductions in risk can expand areas where moderated suppression response would be appropriate, and these areas can be mapped in relation to fire control opportunities.

  7. 30 CFR 75.1912 - Fire suppression systems for permanent underground diesel fuel storage facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1912 Fire suppression systems for permanent underground diesel fuel storage... system by a nationally recognized independent testing laboratory and appropriate for installation at a... recommended inspection and maintenance program and as required by the nationally recognized independent...

  8. Worldwide analysis of marine oil spill cleanup cost factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etkin, D.S.

    2000-01-01

    The many factors that influence oil spill response costs were discussed with particular emphasis on how spill responses differ around the world because of differing cultural values, socio-economic factors and labor costs. This paper presented an analysis of marine oil spill cleanup costs based on the country, proximity to shoreline, spill size, oil type, degree of shoreline oiling and cleanup methodology. The objective was to determine how each factor impacts per-unit cleanup costs. Near-shore spills and in-port spills were found to be 4-5 times more expensive to clean than offshore spills. Responses to spills of heavy fuels also cost 10 times more than for lighter crudes and diesel. Spill responses for spills under 30 tonnes are 10 times more costly than on a per-unit basis, for spills of 300 tonnes. A newly developed modelling technique that can be used on different types of marine spills was described. It is based on updated cost data acquired from case studies of more than 300 spills in 40 countries. The model determines a per-unit cleanup cost estimation by taking into consideration oil type, location, spill size, cleanup methodology, and shoreline oiling. It was concluded that the actual spill costs are totally dependent on the actual circumstances of the spill. 13 refs., 10 tabs., 3 figs

  9. Investigation of the presence of toxic components of petroleum hydrocarbons in Guanabara Bay, Brazil following the 2000 PETROBRAS fuel oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romao, Catia Maria [Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renovaveis (IBAMA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escritorio de Licenciamento de Petroleo e Nuclear; Vleet, Edward S. Van

    2003-07-01

    On January 18, 2000, approximately 340,000 gallons of marine fuel 380 oil were released into Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, as a consequence of a pipeline transfer accident at the Duque de Caxias Refinery (PETROBRAS). Two years after the spill, the present investigation (sponsored by Center for Disaster Management and Humanitarian Assistance - College of Public Health - University of South Florida) was conducted to assess the levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) on samples of water, sediments and edible tissue of the fishes (Mullet - Mugilliza and Croaker - Micropogonias furnieri) collected using two types of device (nets and fish traps) from the spill area in July and August 2002. The fishes samples collected in both months were considered to range from being not contaminated to being moderately contaminated by PAHs. Among all the sediments, only one (Point 10, July 2002) showed a total PAH concentration representing highly contaminated conditions. Except for Point 10, all other sediments could be considered minimally to moderately contaminated. Dissolved PAH concentrations found in the water samples were considered to range from minimally to moderately contaminated. (author)

  10. A local oil spill revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teal, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    In October 1969 George Hampson and Howard Sanders (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution) described a 'Local Oil Spill' in Oceanus. The spill had occurred a month before when the barge Florida, loaded with no. 2 fuel oil, ran into some rocks in Buzzards Bay off West Falmouth, Massachusetts. In the summer of 1989, almost 20 years later, They visited the Wild Harbor marsh area that had suffered the greatest impact from the spill to see if any traces of the event in the marsh ecosystem could be found. During those 20 years, the site has been visited by graduate students in marine ecology, by reporters seeking information about current oil spills but also interested in seeing the effects of the Wild Harbor spill, and by visiting scientists curious about one of the world's best-studied oil spills. For more than a decade after the spill, an oil sheen appeared on the surface of the water when mud from the most heavily oiled parts of the marsh was disturbed. During the second decade, the marsh's appearance returned to normal

  11. Source identification of underground fuel spills in a petroleum refinery using fingerprinting techniques and chemo-metric analysis. A Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanellopoulou, G.; Gidarakos, E.; Pasadakis, N.

    2005-01-01

    Crude oil and its refining products are the most frequent contaminants, found in the environment due to spills. The aim of this work was the identification of spill source(s) in the subsurface of a petroleum refinery. Free phase samples were analyzed with gas chromatography and the analytical results were interpreted using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method. The chemical analysis of groundwater samples from the refinery subsurface was also employed to obtain a comprehensive picture of the spill distribution and origin. (authors)

  12. Performance and emission characteristics of turpentine-diesel dual fuel engine and knock suppression using water diluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karthikeyan, R. [Adhiparasakthi Engineering College, Tamil Nadu (India); Mahalakshmi, N.V. [College of Engineering Guindy, Tamil Nadu (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-08-15

    In the present work, a normal diesel engine was modified to work in a dual fuel (DF) mode with turpentine and diesel as primary and pilot fuels, respectively. The resulting homogeneous mixture was compressed to a temperature below the self-ignition point. The pilot fuel was injected through the standard injection system and initiated the combustion in the primary-fuel air mixture. The primary fuel (turpentine) has supplied most of the heat energy. Usually, in all DF engines, low-cetane fuels are preferred as a primary fuel. Therefore, at higher loads these fuels start knocking and deteriorating in performances. Usually, DF operators suppress the knock by adding more pilot-fuel quantity. But in the present work, a minimum pilot-fuel quantity was maintained constant throughout the test and a required quantity of diluent (water) was added into the combustion at the time of knocking. The advantages of this method of knock suppression are restoration of performance at full load, maintenance of the same pilot quantity through the load range and reduction in the fuel consumption at full load. From the results, it was found that all performance and emission parameters of turpentine, except volumetric efficiency, are better than those of diesel fuel. The emissions like CO, UBHC are higher than those of the diesel baseline (DBL) and around 40-45% reduction of smoke was observed at 100% of full load. The major pollutant of diesel engine, NO{sub x}, was found to be equal to that of DBL. From the above experiment, it was proved that approximately 80% replacement of diesel with turpentine is quite possible. (author)

  13. Bioremediation of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, J.

    2001-01-01

    The conversion of oil to environmentally benign chemicals such as water and carbon dioxide by 'hydrocarbon-eating' bacteria is described. The emphasis is on a new process to selectively increase the population of 'oil eating' bacteria, a development that became the foundation for the second-generation bioremediation accelerator, Inipol EAP-22. Second-generation bioremediation products focus on providing nitrogen and phosphorus, chemicals that are not present in crude oil in readily available form, but are essential for the synthesis of proteins, nucleic acids, phospholipids and the energy metabolism of the bacteria. Providing these chemicals in the proper amounts encourages the preferential growth of oil-degrading microbes already present in the local biomass, thus overcoming the major limiting factor for biodegradation. These second-generation bioremediation products also have strong oleophilic properties engineered into them, to assure that the nutrients essential for the bacteria are in contact with the oil. The first major test for second-generation bioremediation accelerators came with the clean-up of the oil spill from the Exxon Valdez, a disaster that contaminated more than 120 kilometres of Alaskan beaches along the shores of Prince William Sound. The Inipol EAP-22 successfully held the nutrients in contact with the oil for the duration of the treatment period, despite constant exposure to the washing action of the surf and occasional heavy rainstorms. Today, the accelerator is routinely used in cleaning up all types of ordinary spills including diesel fuel spills along railway right-of-ways, truck yards and refinery sludge. Conditions under which the application of the accelerator is likely to be most successful are described

  14. Evolution of paraffinic and naphtenic hydrocarbon and 3,4 benzopyrene content in mussels from a coastal zone polluted by a fuel spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bories, G; Tulliez, J; Peltier, J C; Fleckinger, R

    1969-05-03

    After an oil spill, a coastal zone was polluted and wild mussels were contaminated by paraffinic and naphtenic hydrocarbons and 3,4-benzopyrene. The evolution of this contamination was followed. Normal levels were re-established after a month and a half. Normal paraffins were metabolized faster than other hydrocarbons.

  15. Spread and burning behavior of continuous spill fires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jinlong; Huang, Hong; Jomaas, Grunde

    2017-01-01

    Spill fire experiments with continuous discharge on a fireproof glass sheet were conducted to improve the understanding of spill fire spread and burning. Ethanol was used as the fuel and the discharge rate was varied from 2.8. mL/s to 7.6. mL/s. Three ignition conditions were used...... in the experiments; no ignition, instantaneous ignition and delayed ignition. The spread rate, regression rate, penetrated thermal radiation and the temperature of the bottom glass were analyzed. The experiments clearly show the entire spread process for spill fires. Further, the regression rate of spill fires...... at the quasi-steady burning was lower than that of pool fires and the ratio of the spill fires' regression rate to the pool fires' regression rate was found to be approximately 0.89. With respect to the radiative penetration and the heat conduction between the fuel layer and the glass, a regression rate...

  16. Real-time petroleum spill detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dakin, D.T.

    2001-01-01

    A real-time autonomous oil and fuel spill detection system has been developed to rapidly detect of a wide range of petroleum products floating on, or suspended in water. The system consists of an array of spill detection buoys distributed within the area to be monitored. The buoys are composed of a float and a multispectral fluorometer, which looks up through the top 5 cm of water to detect floating and suspended petroleum products. The buoys communicate to a base station computer that controls the sampling of the buoys and analyses the data from each buoy to determine if a spill has occurred. If statistically significant background petroleum levels are detected, the system raises an oil spill alarm. The system is useful because early detection of a marine oil spill allows for faster containment, thereby minimizing the contaminated area and reducing cleanup costs. This paper also provided test results for biofouling, various petroleum product detection, water turbidity and wave tolerance. The technology has been successfully demonstrated. The UV light source keeps the optic window free from biofouling, and the electronics are fully submerged so there is no risk that the unit could ignite the vapours of a potential oil spill. The system can also tolerate moderately turbid waters and can therefore be used in many rivers, harbours, water intakes and sumps. The system can detect petroleum products with an average thickness of less than 3 micrometers floating on the water surface. 3 refs., 15 figs

  17. Novel apparatus permitting the recovery of polluting products such as hydrocarbons and fuel oil spilled onto the surface of the water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-26

    This apparatus for the recovery of oil spills consists of a chassis equipped at both ends with drums rotating and carrying a closed loop of a conveyor belt made of a sponge-like or foam-like absorbing substance which resists the effect of hydrocarbons, oils, oxidants and alkaline materials, while its water absorption power is practically zero. This material is glued or cast on a fabric core or on a large mesh material. A cleaning drum associated with the belt compresses the belt and causes the polluting material to be squeezed into a vat. The chassis is mounted on a ship with shallow draft or on an amphibious vehicle. This apparatus is applicable to all cases where a polluting product spilled onto the surface of the water must be eliminated.

  18. Validation of an orimulsion spill fates model using observations from field test spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, D. P.; Rines, H.; Masciangioli, P.

    1997-01-01

    The SIMAP Spill Impact Model system was developed to simulate fates and effects of spilled oil and other fuels in 3-D and time. Orimulsion is a Venezuelan product consisting of 70 per cent bitumen and 30 per cent water which has been shipped to many parts of the world for some time without an accidental spill into coastal or marine waters. In July 1966 two intentional spills of Orimulsion into Carribean waters were made and sampled in detail in order to verify the SIMAP model. Data on physical dispersion was collected at the same time. Data collected in the field was compared with model simulations. Results confirmed SIMAP's ability to predict the increasing dispersion and shearing of the bitumen plume as wind speed increases, as well as the actual field distribution of subsurface and surface bitumen. 17 refs., 7 tabs., 26 figs

  19. Chemometric techniques in oil classification from oil spill fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Azimah; Toriman, Mohd Ekhwan; Juahir, Hafizan; Kassim, Azlina Md; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Ahmad, Wan Kamaruzaman Wan; Wong, Kok Fah; Retnam, Ananthy; Zali, Munirah Abdul; Mokhtar, Mazlin; Yusri, Mohd Ayub

    2016-10-15

    Extended use of GC-FID and GC-MS in oil spill fingerprinting and matching is significantly important for oil classification from the oil spill sources collected from various areas of Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah (East Malaysia). Oil spill fingerprinting from GC-FID and GC-MS coupled with chemometric techniques (discriminant analysis and principal component analysis) is used as a diagnostic tool to classify the types of oil polluting the water. Clustering and discrimination of oil spill compounds in the water from the actual site of oil spill events are divided into four groups viz. diesel, Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), Mixture Oil containing Light Fuel Oil (MOLFO) and Waste Oil (WO) according to the similarity of their intrinsic chemical properties. Principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrates that diesel, HFO, MOLFO and WO are types of oil or oil products from complex oil mixtures with a total variance of 85.34% and are identified with various anthropogenic activities related to either intentional releasing of oil or accidental discharge of oil into the environment. Our results show that the use of chemometric techniques is significant in providing independent validation for classifying the types of spilled oil in the investigation of oil spill pollution in Malaysia. This, in consequence would result in cost and time saving in identification of the oil spill sources. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Enhancing spill prevention and response preparedness through quality control techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.A.; Butts, R.L.; Pickering, T.H.; Lindsay, J.R.; McCully, B.S.

    1993-01-01

    The year 1990 saw passage of federal and state oil spill legislation directing the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation to require on shore bulk petroleum storage facilities to improve their oil spill response and prevention capabilities. The Florida Power ampersand Light Company (FPL), to address concerns arising out of several recent significant spills which had occurred worldwide, and to examine its current situation with regard compliance with the new laws, formed a quality improvement interdepartmental task team in July 1989. Its mission was to reduce the potential for oil spills during waterborne transportation between FPL's fuel oil terminals and its power plants and during transfer and storage of oil at these facilities. Another objective of the team was to enhance the company's spill response preparedness. Using quality control tools and reliability techniques, the team conducted a detailed analysis of seven coastal power plants and five fuel oil terminal facilities. This analysis began with the development of cause-and-effect diagrams designed to identify the root causes of spills so that corrective and preventive actions could be taken. These diagram are constructed by listing possible causes of oil spills under various major categories of possible system breakdown, such as man, method, equipment, and materials. Next, potential root causes are identified and then verified. The team identified the occurrence of surface water oil spill and reduced spill response capability as primary concerns and accordingly constructed cause-and-effect diagrams for both components. Lack of proper procedures, failure of control equipment, and inadequate facility design were identified as potential root causes leading to surface water oil spills. Lack of proper procedures, an inconsistent training program, and response equipment limitations were identified as potential root causes affecting oil spill response capabilities

  1. Quantifying the potential impacts of fuel treatments on wildfire suppression costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew P. Thompson; Nicole M. Vaillant; Jessica R. Haas; Krista M. Gebert; Keith D. Stockmann

    2013-01-01

    Modeling the impacts and effects of hazardous fuel reduction treatments is a pressing issue within the wildfire management community. Prospective evaluation of fuel treatment effectiveness allows for comparison of alternative treatment strategies in terms of socioeconomic and ecological impacts and facilitates analysis of tradeoffs across land-management objectives....

  2. Quantifying the potential impacts of fuel treatments on wildfire suppression costs volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew P. Thompson; Nicole M. Vaillant; Jessica R. Haas; Krista M. Gebert; Keith D. Stockmann

    2013-01-01

    Modeling the impacts and effects of hazardous fuel reduction treatments is a pressing issue within the wildfire management community. Prospective evaluation of fuel treatments allows for comparison of alternative treatment strategies in terms of socioeconomic and ecological impacts and facilitates analysis of tradeoffs across land management objectives (Stockmann et al...

  3. Fire suppression and fuels treatment effects on mixed-conifer carbon stocks and emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. North; M Hurteau; J Innes

    2009-01-01

    Depending on management, forests can be an important sink or source of carbon that if released as CO2 could contribute to global warming. Many forests in the western United States are being treated to reduce fuels, yet the effects of these treatments on forest carbon are not well understood. We compared the immediate effects of fuels treatments on carbon stocks and...

  4. Evaluation of Suppression of Hydroprocessed Renewable Jet (HRJ) Fuel Fires with Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Collecting particles from an open pan fire would preclude the consideration of isokinetic sampling usually required in Method 5, but this would...hydroprocessed renewable jet fuel in2 square inches JP-8 jet propellant 8, i.e. jet fuel kW kilowatts m2 square meters Mil-Spec Military Specification min

  5. Inhalation of Hydrocarbon Jet Fuel Suppress Central Auditory Nervous System Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, O'neil W; Wong, Brian A; McInturf, Shawn M; Reboulet, James E; Ortiz, Pedro A; Mattie, David R

    2015-01-01

    More than 800 million L/d of hydrocarbon fuels is used to power cars, boats, and jet airplanes. The weekly consumption of these fuels necessarily puts the public at risk for repeated inhalation exposure. Recent studies showed that exposure to hydrocarbon jet fuel produces lethality in presynaptic sensory cells, leading to hearing loss, especially in the presence of noise. However, the effects of hydrocarbon jet fuel on the central auditory nervous system (CANS) have not received much attention. It is important to investigate the effects of hydrocarbons on the CANS in order to complete current knowledge regarding the ototoxic profile of such exposures. The objective of the current study was to determine whether inhalation exposure to hydrocarbon jet fuel might affect the functions of the CANS. Male Fischer 344 rats were randomly divided into four groups (control, noise, fuel, and fuel + noise). The structural and functional integrity of presynaptic sensory cells was determined in each group. Neurotransmission in both peripheral and central auditory pathways was simultaneously evaluated in order to identify and differentiate between peripheral and central dysfunctions. There were no detectable effects on pre- and postsynaptic peripheral functions. However, the responsiveness of the brain was significantly depressed and neural transmission time was markedly delayed. The development of CANS dysfunctions in the general public and the military due to cumulative exposure to hydrocarbon fuels may represent a significant but currently unrecognized public health issue.

  6. Oil Spill Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauble, Christena Ann

    2011-01-01

    Several classroom activities using a model of a seashore and an oil spill demonstrate the basic properties of oil spills in oceans. Students brainstorm about how to best clean up the mess. They work in teams, and after agreeing on how they will proceed, their method is tested by measuring the amount of oil removed and by rating the cleanliness of…

  7. Oil Spill Response Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marieke Zeinstra; Sandra Heins; Wierd Koops

    2014-01-01

    A two year programme has been carried out by the NHL University of Applied Sciences together with private companies in the field of oil and chemical spill response to finalize these manuals on oil and chemical spill response. These manuals give a good overview of all aspects of oil and chemical

  8. Gas spill emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This video presentation was designed to explain the steps that should be taken in the event of a petroleum product spill on land, to keep damages and consequences to a minimum. The events that took place when an oil truck full of gasoline overturned and smashed into a house on a residential street were described to illustrate the principles involved. The following sequence of events and actions, based on general principles of bringing the situation under control during an emergency operation were depicted: (1) identification of spilled product, (2) assessment of the situation, (3) setting priorities and evacuating the endangered area, and (4) setting up a communication system. The fire fighters sprayed the area with foam because of the fire and explosion potential. Sand was used to contain the spill and to keep it out of the storm sewers. The spilled oil was recovered. Three other spill situations - a spill at a service station, a spill in a ditch, and a spill in a waterway - were also documented. It was emphasized that while it is not possible to establish a single set of rules and actions that would apply to all situations since no two accidents involving petroleum products are alike, the general principles are universal and can be applied in all situations. First priority to consider should always be human life, then property, then the environment

  9. Recent spill experiences: the North Cape spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaulding, M.

    1996-01-01

    The events which surrounded the spill of some 825,000 gallons of heating oil into the sea off the Rhode Island coast in January 1996, were described. Birds and marine life (lobsters in particular) had been affected by the spill, with injured and dead animals appearing from first light. Wildlife handling procedures were established immediately. A significant amount of the spilled oil had entered into the water column and could not be seen or controlled, and was moving along the coast into coastal ponds. Considerable seafood contamination was inevitable. To avoid even greater problems, it was decided to close the south shore beaches to the public and 105 square miles of coastal area to fishing and shell fishing. 4 refs., 2 figs

  10. Recent spill experiences: the North Cape spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaulding, M. [Rhode Island Univ., Kingston, RI (United States). Dept. of Ocean Engineering

    1996-09-01

    The events which surrounded the spill of some 825,000 gallons of heating oil into the sea off the Rhode Island coast in January 1996, were described. Birds and marine life (lobsters in particular) had been affected by the spill, with injured and dead animals appearing from first light. Wildlife handling procedures were established immediately. A significant amount of the spilled oil had entered into the water column and could not be seen or controlled, and was moving along the coast into coastal ponds. Considerable seafood contamination was inevitable. To avoid even greater problems, it was decided to close the south shore beaches to the public and 105 square miles of coastal area to fishing and shell fishing. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Oil spill statistics and oil spill monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viebahn, C. von [Greifswald Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Geography

    2001-09-01

    The main parts of the report describe the analysis and it's results of German and international oil spill data (North Sea and Baltic Sea). In order to improve the current oil spill monitoring of the Baltic Sea regarding oil spill data, the report proposes the establishment of a combined monitoring system; its suitability is shown on selected examples. This contains today's pollution control aircraft plus in-service aircraft and satellites. (orig.) [German] Der Schwerpunkt der Arbeit liegt in der Analyse von Daten ueber marine Oelschadensfaelle in deutschen und internationalen Gewaessern (Nord- und Ostsee). Um die heutige Ueberwachung der Ostsee im Hinblick auf Oelschadensfaelle zu verbessern, wird die Einrichtung eines kombinierten Ueberwachungssystems vorgeschlagen und dessen Eignung an ausgewaehlten Beispielen dargestellt. Dieses umfasst sowohl die heute eingesetzten Ueberwachungsflugzeuge sowie zusaetzlich Linienflugzeuge und Satelliten. (orig.)

  12. LANDFIRE - A national vegetation/fuels data base for use in fuels treatment, restoration, and suppression planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin C. Ryan; Tonja S. Opperman

    2013-01-01

    LANDFIRE is the working name given to the Landscape Fire and Resource Management Planning Tools Project (http://www.landfire.gov). The project was initiated in response to mega-fires and the need for managers to have consistent, wall-to-wall (i.e., all wildlands regardless of agency/ownership), geospatial data, on vegetation, fuels, and terrain to support use of fire...

  13. Responding to the Sea Empress oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, D.R.P.; Law, R.J.; Kelly, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    The Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) is a government department which has responsibility in England and in Wales (acting on behalf of the Secretary of State for Wales) for controlling deposits in the sea, including approving the use of dispersants in oil spill response. MAFF also has responsibility in relation to the management of sustainable commercial fish and shellfish fisheries. Following the grounding of the tanker Sea Empress on 15 February 1996, over 72,000 tonnes of crude oil and bunker fuel was lost. This paper summarises the involvement of MAFF staff in the response phase, and in the subsequent assessment of the environmental impact of the oil spill and the associated clean up operations on commercial fisheries. After two and a half years of environmental monitoring and complementary research, it is concluded that the oil spill has had an insignificant impact on these fisheries beyond their closure during the incident response phase. Suggestions for further work are discussed. (author)

  14. Pleural spill malign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho Duran, Fidel; Zamarriego, Roman; Gonzalez, Mauricio

    2002-01-01

    The pleural spills are developed because of an alteration in the mechanisms that usually move between 5 and 10 liters of liquid through the space pleural every 24 hours and this is reabsorbed, only leaving 5 to 20 ml present. The causes more common of spill pleural they are: congestive heart failure, bacterial pneumonia, malign neoplasia and pulmonary clot. The causes more common of pleural spill malign in general are: cancer of the lung, cancer of the breast and lymphomas. In the man, cancer of the lung, lymphomas and gastrointestinal cancer. In the woman, cancer of the breast, gynecological cancer and lung cancer. The paper, includes their characteristics, treatments and medicines

  15. Trends in oil spills from tanker ships 1995-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijer, K.

    2005-01-01

    The trends in oil spills around the world over from 1995 to 2004 were examined and analyzed for possible influences on spill volumes and frequencies for incidents of 3 spill size classes. The International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation (ITOPF) has maintained a database since 1974 of all oil spills from tankers, combined carriers and barges. The number of oil spills has decreased significantly in the last 30 years despite a steady increase in maritime oil trade since the 1980s. The recent trends were identified by causes, locations, oil type, and shipping legislation. The causes include ship loading/discharging, bunkering, collisions, groundings, hull failures and fires. The types of oil spilt include bunker, crude, cargo fuel, white product and some unknowns. It was concluded that the decline in oil spills is due to a range of initiatives taken by governments and the shipping industry rather than any one factor. Some notable influences towards reduced number of spills include: the international convention for the prevention of pollution from ships of 1972, as modified by the Protocol of 1978; the international convention for the safety of life at sea of 1974; and the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. Results of investigations into the causes of spills serve the purpose of informing the international process to further prevent and reduce marine oil pollution due to tankers. 7 refs., 5 tabs., 12 figs

  16. Preconceptual design of a packed fluidized bed blanket for a fission suppressed thorium-fueled CTHR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, J.W.H.; Karbowski, J.S.; Chapin, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes a thorium-fueled PFB blanket concept for a Commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor. A preliminary mechanical concept is presented and the results of neutronics, thermal-hydraulics and economics analyses are discussed. Futher work needed to design and advance the concept is recommended

  17. Modeling fuel treatment impacts on fire suppression cost savings: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew P. Thompson; Nathaniel M. Anderson

    2015-01-01

    High up-front costs and uncertain return on investment make it difficult for land managers to economically justify large-scale fuel treatments, which remove trees and other vegetation to improve conditions for fire control, reduce the likelihood of ignition, or reduce potential damage from wildland fire if it occurs. In the short-term, revenue from harvested forest...

  18. Tunnel nitrogen spill experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageyev, A.I.; Alferov, V.N.; Mulholland, G.T.

    1983-01-01

    The Energy Saver Safety Analysis Report (SAR) found the tunnel oxygen deficiency considerations emphasized helium spills. These reports concluded the helium quickly warms and because of its low denisty, rises to the apex of the tunnel. The oxygen content below the apex and in all but the immediate vicinity of the helium spill is essentially unchanged and guarantees an undisturbed source of oxygen especially important to fallen personnel. In contrast nitrogen spills warm slower than helium due to the ratio of the enthalpy changes per unit volume spilled spread more uniformly across the tunnel cross-section when warmed because of the much smaller density difference with air, and generally provides a greater hazard than helium spills as a result. In particular there was concern that personnel that might fall to the floor for oxygen deficiency or other reasons might find less, and not more, oxygen with dire consequences. The SAR concluded tunnel nitrogen spills were under-investigated and led to this work

  19. The polychlorinated dibenzofuran fingerprint of iron ore sinter plant: Its persistence with suppressant and alternative fuel addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dennis; Ooi, Tze C; Anderson, David R; Fisher, Ray; Ewan, Bruce C R

    2016-07-01

    An earlier demonstration that the relative concentrations of isomers of polychlorinated dibenzofuran do not vary as the flamefront of an iron ore sinter plant progresses through the bed, and profiles are similar for two sinter strands has been widened to include studies of the similarity or otherwise between full scale strand and sinter pot profiles, effect of addition of suppressants and of coke fuel substitution with other combustible materials. For dioxin suppressant addition, a study of the whole of the tetra- penta- and hexaCDF isomer range as separated by the DB5MS chromatography column, indicates no significant change in profile: examination of the ratios of the targeted penta- and hexaCDF isomers suggests the profile is similarly unaffected by coke fuel replacement. Addition of KCl at varied levels has also been shown to have no effect on the 'fingerprint' and there is no indication of any effect by the composition of the sinter mix. The recently published full elution sequence for the DB5MS column is applied to the results obtained using this column. It is confirmed that isomers with 1,9-substitution of chlorine atoms are invariably formed in low concentrations. This is consistent with strong interaction between the 1 and 9 substituted chlorine atoms predicted by DFT thermodynamic calculations. Non-1,9-substituted PCDF equilibrium isomer distributions based on DFT-derived thermodynamic data differ considerably from stack gas distributions obtained using SP2331 column separation. A brief preliminary study indicates the same conclusions (apart from the 1,9-interaction effect) hold for the much smaller content of PCDD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. When oil spills emulsify

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobra, M.; Fingas, M.; Tennyson, E.

    1992-01-01

    Cleanup operations of oil spills must take into account the numerous detrimental effects attributable to the emulsification of spilled oil into a stable water-in-oil mousse. The incorporation of water greatly increases the volume of the polluted material. The viscous nature of mousse impedes the efficient operation of most mechanical recovery equipment and results in a cohesive slick that resists dispersion, both natural and artificial. The rate at which spilled oil emulsifies determines the effective window of opportunity for specific countermeasures. Much has been learned from previous studies on petroleum emulsification, but is still remain a poorly understood phenomenon. Although most crude oils can be emulsified, not all spills result in the formation of stable mousse. The formation of mousse results from a complex series of processes. Whether an oil will form mousse or not, and if so, at what rate, depends on an array of different factors including the properties of the oil and the prevailing environmental conditions. We need a greater understanding of the emulsification process to better predict the emulsification behavior of oil spills and utilize the most appropriate countermeasures available. In this paper, the authors report on work to elucidate the role that physicochemical factors play in determining an oil's tendency to emulsify. The authors studied the emulsification behavior of oils of known composition to examine the importance of oil chemistry in the emulsification process

  1. Spill reporting and prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiss, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    The actions that companies in British Columbia are required to take to comply with spill reporting requirements and with the waste management legislation of the B.C. Waste Management Act were discussed. A company's ability to respond effectively to hazardous materials spills depends on three factors: (1) understanding the regulatory requirements, (2) having an emergency response capability, and (3) having a staff trained to exercise those responsibilities. The steps involved in complying with the legislation were outlined . The types and quantities of spilled material that must be reported were listed, and advice was given on how a company can effectively incorporate emergency planning into its Environmental Health and Safety Management System. Responsibilities of the the individual designated as the on-scene commander were also spelled out. 3 tabs

  2. Oil spill response plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    The plan outlined in this document specifies the actions that the Canadian Wildlife Service Atlantic Region is mandated to take in the event of an oil spill, or on discovering oiled migratory birds in terrestrial, fresh water, marine and inter-tidal habitats. In addition to describing the role and responsibilities of the Canadian Wildlife Service, the document also describes response plans of other agencies for dealing with all wildlife species affected by oil spills. Reporting paths, the lead agency concept, shared responsibilities with other Canadian Wildlife Service regional offices, provincial agencies, Heritage Canada, non-government wildlife response agencies, oil spill response organizations, and international organizations are outlined. An overview of the reporting and communications process is also provided

  3. Spill response trade-offs in a very large spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the physical limitaions on spill encounter rate and how these limitaions affect the are that can be covered in spill response. Since mechanical recovery devices may not be able to cover the affected area in a large spill, in situ burning must be considered as a response option. Further, effective recovered oil logistics is essential to successful response operations and keeping skimmers operating. A successful spill response effort in a very large oil spill often depends on: Prompt response, Skimmer encounter rate, Making a decision for in situ burning, Recovered oil logistics

  4. Assessment and recommendations for the oil spill cleanup of Guanabara Bay, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, Jacqueline

    2000-01-01

    The potential impact of an oil spill consisting of a blend of diesel and a heavy residual fuel oil on water column resources, benthic resources, intertidal habitats and communities, birds, and socio-economic resources was assessed and recommendations for clean-up given. The oil spill occurred in the bay on January 18, 2000

  5. Aerosols generated by spills of viscous solutions and slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballinger, M.Y.; Hodgson, W.H.

    1986-12-01

    Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of potential airborne releases caused by accidents. Aerosols generated by accidents are being investigated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop methods for estimating source terms from these accidents. Experiments were run by spilling viscous solutions and slurries to determine the mass and particle-size distribution of the material made airborne. In all cases, 1 L of solution was spilled from a height of 3 m. Aqueous solutions of sucrose (0 to 56%) gave a range of viscosities from 1.3 to 46 cp. The percent of spill mass made airborne from the spills of these solutions ranged from 0.001 to 0.0001. The mass of particles made airborne decreased as solution viscosity increased. Slurry loading ranged from 25 to 51% total solids. The maximum source airborne (0.0046 wt %) occurred with the slurry that had the lightest loading of soluble solids. The viscosity of the carrying solution also had an impact on the source term from spilling slurries. The effect of surface tension on the source term was examined in two experiments. Surface tension was halved in these spills by adding a surfactant. The maximum weight percent airborne from these spills was 0.0045, compared to 0.003 for spills with twice the surface tension. The aerodynamic mass medium diameters for the aerosols produced by spills of the viscous solutions, slurries, and low surface tension liquids ranged from 0.6 to 8.4 μm, and the geometric standard deviation ranged from 3.8 to 28.0

  6. Oil spill recovery technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, J.; Cooper, W.; Nee, V.; Nigim, H.

    1992-01-01

    Current deficiencies in oil spill cleanup processes have resulted in research and development of new cleanup technologies at the University of Notre Dame. Emphasis on reducing, reusing and recycling equipment and waste at a cleanup site has prompted advances in oil recovery technology as well as improvement in sorbent materials. (author)

  7. Oil well spill trough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigington, J.R. Sr.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process involving an oil well and rig having a casing, a platform on the rig extending around the casing. This patent describes improvement in pulling the tubing from the casing; disconnecting joints of tubing thereby; and spilling liquids from the casing, catching spilled liquids from the casing in a basin below the platform, draining the basin substantially simultaneously; connecting the drain hole to a tank, and reducing the pressure in the tank to less than atmospheric pressure. This paper also describes an oil well and rig having a casing; the rig having a platform extending around the casing. This patent describes improvement in a basin surrounding the casing and connected thereto, the basin below the platform, a drain connection in the lower part of the basin, a conduit connected to the drain, and means for applying a suction to the conduit

  8. At spille en krimi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2008-01-01

    væsentlige forskel at vi her ikke længere er læsere eller seere, men aktive medspillere i selve opklaringsarbejdet som ledere af eller deltagere i et efterforskningshold. Denne artikel ser nærmere på den interaktive krimi som performativ fortælling, dvs. en fortælling som bliver til i kraft af at den spilles...

  9. Dam spills and fishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This short paper reports the main topics discussed during the two days of the annual colloquium of the Hydro-ecology Committee of EdF. The first day was devoted to the presentation of the joint works carried out by EdF, the Paul-Sabatier University (Toulouse), the Provence St-Charles University (Marseille), the ENSAT (Toulouse) and the CEMAGREF (Lyon and Aix-en-Provence) about the environmental impact of dam spills on the aquatic flora and fauna downstream. A synthesis and recommendations were presented for the selection and characterization of future sites. The second day was devoted to the hydro-ecology study of the dam reservoir of Petit-Saut (French Guyana): water reoxygenation, quality evolution, organic matter, plankton, invertebrates and fishes. The 134 French dams concerned by water spills have been classified according to the frequency of spills, the variations of flow rates created, and their impacts on fishing, walking, irrigation, industry, drinking water, navigation, bathing. Particular studies on different sites have demonstrated the complexity of the phenomena involved concerning the impact on the ecosystems and the water quality. (J.S.)

  10. Characterization and identification of Detroit River mystery oil spill (2002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Fingas, M.; Lambert, P.

    2003-01-01

    The authors described the mysterious oil spill which occurred in the Detroit River in 2002. Advanced chemical fingerprinting and data interpretation techniques were conducted on spill samples collected by Environment Canada, Ontario Region, to determine the chemical composition of the oil and find out where it came from. The objective was to gather information concerning the nature, type, and components of the spill samples. The authors checked if the samples were identical to determine if they originated from the same source. They used a tiered analytical approach which facilitates the detailed compositional analysis by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and GC-flame ionization detection (FID). A wide range of diagnostic ratios of source-specific marker compounds for interpreting chemical data was determined and analyzed. The results proved that: (1) the spill samples were largely composed of lube oil mixed with a smaller portion of diesel fuel, (2) sample number 3 collected from N. Boblo Island was more weathered than samples 1 and 2, (3) the oil in three samples was the same and originated from the same source, as shown by fingerprinting results, (4) most PAH compounds were from the diesel portion in the spill samples, and the biomarker compounds were mostly from the lube oil, (5) the diesel in the samples had been weathered and degraded, and the lube oil in the spill samples was waste lube oil, and (6) input of pyrogenic PAHs to the spill samples was clearly proven. The spill likely came from a place where both combustion and motor lubrication processes occur. 46 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs

  11. Quality assurance plan for the data acquisition and management system for monitoring the fuel oil spill at the Sandia National Laboratories installation in Livermore, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peerenboom, J.P.; Leser, C.C.; Ramsey, G.M.; Widing, M.A.

    1995-04-01

    In February 1975, the accidental puncture of an underground transfer line buried about 4 ft below the ground surface at the SNL installation in Livermore, California, resulted in the release of approximately 225.5 m 3 of No. 2 diesel fuel. This report describes the formal quality assurance plan that will be used for the data acquisition and management system developed to monitor a bioremediation pilot study by Argonne National Laboratory in association with Sandia National Laboratories. The data acquisition and management system will record the site data during the bioremediation effort and assist users in site analysis. The designs of the three major subsystems of this system are described in this report. Quality assurance criteria are defined for the management, performance, and assessment of the system. Finally, the roles and responsibilities for configuration management of this system are defined for the entire life cycle of the project

  12. Pigouvian penalty for oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohn, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    The imposition of ex ante taxes on expected spilled oil, in addition to ex post payments for damages under tort liability, would foster economic efficiency. This paper begins the analysis of the joint approach with the case in which Pigouvian taxes are used exclusively. A model is developed in which the volume of spilled oil causing environmental damage is reduced, first by spill prevention expenditures by shippers and then by clean-up expenditures by the government. The efficient Pigouvian tax on expected spilled oil equals marginal environmental damage which equals the net marginal cost of prevention which equals marginal clean-up cost. (Author)

  13. The INCOTUR model : estimation of losses in the tourism sector in Alcudia due to a hydrocarbon spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergueiro, J.R.; Moreno, S.; Guijarro, S.; Santos, A.; Serr, F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presented a computer model that calculates the economic losses incurred by a hydrocarbon spill on a coastal area. In particular, it focused on the Balearic Islands in the Bay of Alcudia where the economy depends mainly on tourism. A large number of oil tankers carrying crude oil and petroleum products pass through the Balearic Sea. Any pollution resulting from a fuel spill can have a significant economic impact on both the tourism sector and the Balearic society in general. This study focused on the simulation of 18 spills of Jet A1 fuel oil, unleaded gasoline and Bunker C fuel oil. Simulations of the study area were produced with OILMAP, MIKE21, GNOME and ADIOS models which estimated the trajectories of various spills and the amount of oil washed ashore. The change in physical and chemical properties of the spilled hydrocarbons was also determined. The simulation models considered the trajectory followed by spills according to the type and amount of spill, weather conditions prevailing during the spill and the period immediately following the spill. The INCOTUR model was then used to calculate the economic losses resulting from an oil spill by considering the number of tonnes of oil washed ashore; number of days needed to organize cleanup; the percentage of tourism that will be maintained despite the effects of the spill; number of hotel beds; percentage of hotel occupancy by month; cost of package holidays; petty cash expenses; and, cost of advertising campaign for the affected area. With this data, the model can determine the number of days needed to clean and restore the coastline; monthly rate of recovery in tourism levels; and, losses in tourism sector. According to the INCOTUR model, the total losses incurred by a spill of 40,000 tonnes of Bunker C fuel, was estimated at 472 million Euros. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 12 figs

  14. The INCOTUR model : estimation of losses in the tourism sector in Alcudia due to a hydrocarbon spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergueiro, J.R.; Moreno, S.; Guijarro, S.; Santos, A.; Serr, F. [Iles Balears Univ., Palma de Mallorca, Balearic Islands (Spain). Dept. of Chemistry

    2006-07-01

    This paper presented a computer model that calculates the economic losses incurred by a hydrocarbon spill on a coastal area. In particular, it focused on the Balearic Islands in the Bay of Alcudia where the economy depends mainly on tourism. A large number of oil tankers carrying crude oil and petroleum products pass through the Balearic Sea. Any pollution resulting from a fuel spill can have a significant economic impact on both the tourism sector and the Balearic society in general. This study focused on the simulation of 18 spills of Jet A1 fuel oil, unleaded gasoline and Bunker C fuel oil. Simulations of the study area were produced with OILMAP, MIKE21, GNOME and ADIOS models which estimated the trajectories of various spills and the amount of oil washed ashore. The change in physical and chemical properties of the spilled hydrocarbons was also determined. The simulation models considered the trajectory followed by spills according to the type and amount of spill, weather conditions prevailing during the spill and the period immediately following the spill. The INCOTUR model was then used to calculate the economic losses resulting from an oil spill by considering the number of tonnes of oil washed ashore; number of days needed to organize cleanup; the percentage of tourism that will be maintained despite the effects of the spill; number of hotel beds; percentage of hotel occupancy by month; cost of package holidays; petty cash expenses; and, cost of advertising campaign for the affected area. With this data, the model can determine the number of days needed to clean and restore the coastline; monthly rate of recovery in tourism levels; and, losses in tourism sector. According to the INCOTUR model, the total losses incurred by a spill of 40,000 tonnes of Bunker C fuel, was estimated at 472 million Euros. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 12 figs.

  15. Allocation of multiple, widely spread oil spills associated with one polluter : GC-MS fingerprinting and diagnostic ratios of spilled oil and oiled seabirds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, A.B.; Avnskjold, J.

    2005-01-01

    In January 2005, a Cypriot cargo ship leaked about 5 tons of heavy fuel bunker oil in Kerteminde Bay in the Great Belt, Denmark. The ship was stopped to inspect and collect oil samples from its 2 damaged tanks for forensic oil spill identification by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Two weeks following the accident, a series of waterborne and stranded oil spills showed up in the Great Belt area, north and south of the vessel's route. Thousands of oiled seabirds on small islands and coastlines were affected. The Danish Coast Guard suspected that the vessel might be responsible for the observed spills. More than 50 oil samples were collected and sent for forensic analysis at the National Environmental Research Institute. Both waterborne and stranded spill samples showed an almost perfect match of diagnostic ratios and chromatograph with the potential responsible party (PRP) bunker. The spill samples therefore matched the reference oil and were allocated to the spill associated with the Cypriot cargo ship. One sample deviated significantly from the other samples and was not allocated to the ship's accidental spill. Oil samples collected from oiled seabirds showed larger variations between diagnostic ratios and the reference bunker oils. The variations can be attributed to weathering and biodegradation, but also to contamination by non-petrogenic material. It was concluded that the oiled seabirds represented non-match samples that cannot be allocated to the oil spill associated with the Cypriot cargo ship. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  16. Bioremediation of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, M.

    1992-01-01

    For some years now UK and European oil spill response agencies, together with oil companies having an exploration or production interest in the European area, have been developing interest in the possible use of bioremediation techniques in combatting oil spills. The interest has accelerated in the aftermath of Exxon Valdez but there is significant scepticism over the actual value of the technique. The promise of increased rates of oil degradation, using bacteria or nutrients, does not yet appear to have been properly validated and there is concern over possible knock-on environmental effects. In consequence the response agencies are reluctant to bring the technique into their current combat armory. Some of the questions raised are: What efficacious techniques are available and how were they proven? On what type of oils can they be used? What is the scope for their use (at sea, type of coastline, temperature limitations, etc.)? What are the short and long term effects? Does bioremediation really work and offer a potential tool for oil spill clean-up? How do cleaning rates compare with natural recovery? There are many others. The view of the European Commission is that there should be a coordinated effort to answer these questions, but that effort should be properly targeted. I concur strongly with this view. The tasks are too large and varied for piecemeal attention. The European Commission wishes to initiate appropriate coordinated work, directed at the needs of European nations but which will subsequently inform the international response community through the International Maritime Organization and its Oil Pollution Preparedness and Response Cooperation initiative

  17. Marine oil spill response organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, C.

    1997-01-01

    The obligations under the law relative to the prevention of marine oil spills and the type of emergency plans needed to mitigate any adverse effects caused by a marine oil spill were discussed. The organizational structure, spill response resources and operational management capabilities of Canada's newly created Response Organizations (ROs) were described. The overall range of oil spill response services that the RO provides to the domestic oil handling, oil transportation and the international shipping industries were reviewed. Amendments to the Canada Shipping Act which require that certain ships and oil handling facilities take oil spill preparedness and response measures, including having an arrangement with an RO certified by the Canadian Coast Guard, were outlined. Canadians now benefit from five ROs established to provide coast-to-coast oil spill response coverage. These include the Western Canada Marine Response Corporation, the Canadian Marine Response Management Corporation, the Great Lakes Response Corporation, the Eastern Canada Response Corporation and the Atlantic Emergency Response Team Ltd. ROs have the expertise necessary to organize and manage marine oil spill response services. They can provide equipment, personnel and operational management for the containment, recovery and cleanup of oil spilled on water

  18. Oil spill clean up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claxton, L.D.; Houk, V.S.; Williams, R.; Kremer, F.

    1991-01-01

    Due to the consideration of bioremediation for oil spills, it is important to understand the ecological and human health implications of bioremediation efforts. During biodegradation, the toxicity of the polluting material may actually increase upon the conversion of non-toxic constituents to toxic species. Also, toxic compounds refractory to biological degradation may compromise the effectiveness of the treatment technique. In the study, the Salmonella mutagenicity assay showed that both the Prudhoe Bay crude oil and its weathered counterpart collected from oil-impacted water were weakly mutagenic. Results also showed that the mutagenic components were depleted at a faster rate than the overall content of organic material

  19. Colonial pipeline Enoree River oil spill: A case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.B. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    In December 1991, a pipeline ruptured near Fountain Inn, South Carolina, resulting in the release of approximately 13,000 barrels of No. 2 fuel oil to the inland surface water system. Final estimates provided by CPC for the amount of oil discharged from the pipeline rupture indicate that up to 13,100 barrels (over 555,000 gallons) of No. 2 fuel oil were released into the environment - of which approximately 12,600 barrels (530,000 gallons) were recovered. The recovery rate of greater than 95% of spilled product is considered to be well above average for a major discharge of oil in the inland zone. The primary factors influencing this rate of recovery were the ability to provide containment at the leak site within 12 hours of the release and to establish containment downstream of the spill in advance of the leading edge of the oil plume. A total of 23,320 barrels (almost a million gallons) of an oil/water mixture were collected within a five day period. Although the water systems in Clinton and Whitmire were affected by the spill, adequate backup systems provided alternate drinking water to these residents until the primary intakes could be opened. However, this spill caused significant environmental impacts. The South Carolina Wildlife and Marine Resources Department reports that 2,123 fish, representing 24 different species were killed along nine miles of Durbin Creek. From an overall standpoint, the response to this incident was sufficient to protect human health and minimize environmental damage. Contingency planning had prepared CPC for a spill of this magnitude and resources committed to the cleanup were adequate to accomplish the removal of the spilled product. The RRT concept proved to be of valuable assistance to the OSC from a resource perspective; and implementing the organizational components of the RRT provided the necessary mechanism for input and decision making for various parties affected by this incident

  20. The North Cape oil spill assessment: PAHs in oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.; Boehm, P. D.; Hardestine, J. H.; Douglas, G. S.

    1997-01-01

    The North Cape oil spill in January 1996 resulted in the release of an estimated 827,000 gallons of No. 2 home heating oil into the nearshore turbulent waters of coastal Rhode Island. The oil was mixed into the water column and was transported on the surface as well as below the surface. Some of the spilled oil entered the coastal ponds behind the beaches. Sampling and chemical analysis for detailed suites of petroleum saturated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was undertaken as part of the assessment of the fate of the oil spill and of the exposure to the marine environment. The ponds were found to contain significant quantities of background petroleum hydrocarbons, including petrogenic PAHs and combustion PAHs. Initial assessment pointed (incorrectly as it turned out) to widespread contamination due only to the North Cape spill. Application of advanced chemical fingerprinting approaches, and geochemical biomarker data illustrated that many of the PAHs consisted of combustion-related 4- and 5-ringed PAHs, attributable to diesel fuel used routinely by boats in the area. The analysis demonstrated that the use of non-specific total PAH data and insufficient fingerprinting and allocation of petrogenic residues has the potential to overestimate contamination and hence injury to the environment in similar oil spill situations

  1. Wabamun : a major inland spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    The 2 largest spills in Canada this century have been in freshwater environments. This paper evaluated remedial actions taken after a spill which occurred on the shore of Lake Wabamun, Alberta. A freight train derailed in the residential area, spilling 750 m 3 of oil into the lake. The initial response was inadequate as the spilled material was not immediately identified as oil. Some containment booms were deployed. By mid-morning, the oil slick had spread 12 km, and was driven by the wind onto the beaches of cottages. The limited amount of response equipment during the early stages of the spill caused anxiety among residents, which was further compounded by a lack of governmental involvement. The experience of Wabamun showed that the methods of operation and skill sets of environmental response organizations that routinely respond to small spills cannot readily be applied to larger spills. Plans by the railway for the Wabamun area were generic and did not focus on any particular response scenario. Limitations in the Transportation of Dangerous Good were noted, as the 2 substances which spilled were not identified as requiring labels. Various data gaps were identified concerning spills involving high density viscous oil; the dynamics of near neutral density oil; the flowing of hot product; interaction of fine sediments; and the cutting of reed beds. It was concluded that new detection technologies and response technologies are required concerning the detection of oil in water, the collection and removal of oil, and tar formation. The development of a new emergency response agency was recommended, as well as the establishment of a new research and technical information institute and incident command structure (ICS). 22 refs., 3 figs

  2. Improving oil classification quality from oil spill fingerprint beyond six sigma approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juahir, Hafizan; Ismail, Azimah; Mohamed, Saiful Bahri; Toriman, Mohd Ekhwan; Kassim, Azlina Md; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Ahmad, Wan Kamaruzaman Wan; Wah, Wong Kok; Zali, Munirah Abdul; Retnam, Ananthy; Taib, Mohd Zaki Mohd; Mokhtar, Mazlin

    2017-07-15

    This study involves the use of quality engineering in oil spill classification based on oil spill fingerprinting from GC-FID and GC-MS employing the six-sigma approach. The oil spills are recovered from various water areas of Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah (East Malaysia). The study approach used six sigma methodologies that effectively serve as the problem solving in oil classification extracted from the complex mixtures of oil spilled dataset. The analysis of six sigma link with the quality engineering improved the organizational performance to achieve its objectivity of the environmental forensics. The study reveals that oil spills are discriminated into four groups' viz. diesel, hydrocarbon fuel oil (HFO), mixture oil lubricant and fuel oil (MOLFO) and waste oil (WO) according to the similarity of the intrinsic chemical properties. Through the validation, it confirmed that four discriminant component, diesel, hydrocarbon fuel oil (HFO), mixture oil lubricant and fuel oil (MOLFO) and waste oil (WO) dominate the oil types with a total variance of 99.51% with ANOVA giving F stat >F critical at 95% confidence level and a Chi Square goodness test of 74.87. Results obtained from this study reveals that by employing six-sigma approach in a data-driven problem such as in the case of oil spill classification, good decision making can be expedited. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Bioremediation of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foght, J.M.; Westlake, D.W.S.

    1992-01-01

    In-situ bioremediation of crude oil spills relies on either the indigenous microbes at the polluted site, whose degradative abilities are accelerated by adding such agents as fertilizers or dispersants, or on introducing pollutant-degrading microbes into the site (possibly accompanied by stimulatory chemicals). The bioremediation method to be used at a specific site must be selected to be suitable for that site and its environmental conditions. The basic components of bioremediation are outlined and the background information needed to understand the chemical and biological limitations of the technique are presented. Specifically, the microbial community, the crude oil substrate composition, and biological limiting factors are discussed. Generalized examples of bioremediation applications are illustrated. 10 refs

  4. Oil spill risk assessment : relative impact indices by oil type and location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French-McCay, D.; Beegle-Krause, C.J.; Rowe, J.; Rodriguez, W.; Schmidt Etkin, D.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to inform policies related to resource allocation for oil spill prevention, preparedness and response activities in Washington State. Oil spill reports and impact modelling studies were evaluated in order to determine major risk consequence factors including spill volume, location, timing, toxicity, persistence, and expected frequency of spills by sector. The Washington Compensation Schedule pre-assessment screening and oil spill compensation schedule regulations (WCS) designed to consider the sensitivity of oiled areas as well as the relative density and seasonal distributions of sensitive biota. Spill incidents were assigned per-gallon impact scores based on geographic location, oil type, and season. The WCS qualitative rating system was used to assess the potential impacts of spills in different geographic systems. Geographic zones were based on geography, circulation of currents, climate, and the WCS sub-regions in estuarine and marine areas on the Pacific coast of Washington State. Oil types included crude, heavy, and light oils; gasoline; jet fuel; and non-petroleum oils. A habitat index was calculated to represent existing stream conditions. It was concluded that the relative impact risk model is a reliable method for characterizing impacts based on spill volume, oil effects, and vulnerability rankings. 25 refs., 20 tabs., 3 figs

  5. Bioremediation of a No. 6 fuel spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogel, S.; Leahy, M.; Jones, M.; Butts, R.

    1991-01-01

    Although it is widely recognized that the major constituents of petroleum are highly biodegradable, the natural or unenhanced rate can be extremely slow. This is best exemplified by the petroleum reserves which have existed for million of years without substantial biodegradation due exclusively to nutrient limitations. The limiting nutrients include oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and trace elements. The enhancement of the biodegradation process is termed bioremediation and consists of adding these nutrients in a prescribed and defined manner to soil and aquifers. Laboratory biodegradation tests are conducted prior to pilot- or full-scale remedial action to ensure the feasibility of the process. Depending on the comparability between the laboratory test and the field application, the data generated from the laboratory scale test can be used for purposes of field design and for prediction of the rate of biodegradation under field conditions. It is a critical assumption in the remediation industry that a laboratory treatment simulation does indeed simulate the field process and predicts the results of the full-scale remediation. This paper provides evidence that a laboratory scale treatment simulation can indeed predict field results

  6. Cost accounting and oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peck, J.B.; Dufour, B.; Peck, V.P.

    1996-01-01

    Financial costs of an oil spill were considered. The control measures taken by Maritime Bureau Inc., in the San Juan oil spill were used as an example of how chaotic influences were minimized, how stability to the management team, structured under the Incident Command System (ICS) model, was provided, and how as a result of these actions, effective cost control was established. The importance of precise knowledge of operating costs was stressed as a basis for taking policy measures and for the evaluation of the short-term success of an oil spill clean-up operation. Staff responsibilities and management needs were described. Performance evaluation, as an important part of crisis cost accounting, was highlighted. Incident costs and response effectiveness comparisons were given for 13 oil spill incidents, including the EXXON VALDEZ affair. 4 tabs., 2 figs

  7. Determination of Characteristic Peroids of Suppression of Thermal Decomposition Reaction of Forest Fuel Material by Specialized Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumerov Vladislav M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies determining periods of suppression of thermal decomposition reaction of forest combustible materials was carried out by high-speed, cross-correlation cameras and panoramic techniques PIV and IPI under influence of water steam. Conditions and characteristics of reaction termination of thermal decomposition of forest combustible materials under reaction with steam cloud were defined.

  8. Alaska, Gulf spills share similarities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, D.

    1991-01-01

    The accidental Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska and the deliberate dumping of crude oil into the Persian Gulf as a tactic of war contain both glaring differences and surprising similarities. Public reaction and public response was much greater to the Exxon Valdez spill in pristine Prince William Sound than to the war-related tragedy in the Persian Gulf. More than 12,000 workers helped in the Alaskan cleanup; only 350 have been involved in Kuwait. But in both instances, environmental damages appear to be less than anticipated. Natures highly effective self-cleansing action is primarily responsible for minimizing the damages. One positive action growing out of the two incidents is increased international cooperation and participation in oil-spill clean-up efforts. In 1990, in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez spill, 94 nations signed an international accord on cooperation in future spills. The spills can be historic environmental landmarks leading to creation of more sophisticated response systems worldwide

  9. Oil spills - effects and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicks, B.M.; White, I.C.

    1992-01-01

    The incidence of oil spills from offshore industry operates on the United Kingdom continental shelf is reported for the period 1979 to 1988. The properties of North Sea crude oils which determine their fate and effects when spilled onto the surface of the sea are summarized. Examples of oil impacts on specific North Sea habitats and communities are used to illustrate the effect of oil spills and the economic impact on human activities such as recreation, industry and fishing are considered. Since most oil spills will dissipate through natural processes if they remain at sea long enough, the most appropriate response to a spill from a platform in the middle of the sea is often aerial surveillance to monitor the movement and dissipation of the oil. However, if an active response is required, containment and collection of the oil or chemical dispersion are the two main options. In coastal waters, it will be necessary to focus protection efforts on selected sensitive areas of coastline. Once the oil is ashore there are still occasions when the best course of actions is to do nothing as clean-up operations may do more harm than good. If oil removal is feasible and necessary, the methods which are most effective are usually straightforward and require no sophisticated technology. Contingency planning is an essential preparation for all operations to deal with oil spills. (UK)

  10. Modeling of response, socioeconomic, and natural resource damage costs for hypothetical oil spill scenarios in San Francisco Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etkin, D.S.; French McCay, D.; Whittier, N.; Sankaranarayanan, S.; Jennings, J.

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of oil type, spill size, response strategy and location factors on oil spill response costs, with particular reference to the cost benefits of the use of dispersants. Modeling has been conducted for a hypothetical oil spill in San Francisco Bay to determine biological impacts, damages to natural resources and response costs. The SIMAP modeling software by the Applied Science Associates was used to model 3 spill sizes (20, 50 and 95 percentile by volume) and 4 types of oil (gasoline, diesel, heavy fuel oil, and crude oil). Response costs, natural resource damages and socioeconomic impact were determined based on spill trajectory and fate. Mechanical recovery-based operations carry higher response costs than dispersant-based operations. Response costs for diesel and gasoline spills make up 20 per cent of the total costs, compared to 43 per cent for crude and heavy fuel oil spills. Damages to natural resources are higher for spills of toxic lighter fuels such as gasoline and diesel because gasoline has a greater impact on the water column with less shoreline oiling, resulting in more damages to natural resources. Heavier oils have a greater impact on shorelines and higher response and socioeconomic costs. Although socioeconomic costs varied by location, they tend to be greater than response costs and natural resource damage costs. Proportions of the different costs were described with reference to various spill factors. Socioeconomic costs are 61, 76, 45 and 53 per cent respectively for gasoline, diesel, crude oil, and heavy fuel oil spills. 27 refs., 23 tabs., 5 figs

  11. Effective operational oil spill response planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    An operational Contingency Plan is one of the single most important aspects of effective oil spill response operations. It is a spill control game plan. A thorough contingency plan provides a set of guidelines that can be used to help direct all phases of spill response activities. More than simple a compilation of lists and rosters, the contingency plan reflects strategic and philosophical elements of spill response that help to ensure a viable response to any spill incident. Facilities and oil carrying vessels should have well maintained contingency plans with these features. This paper describes the requirement for effective oil spill response pans and the training required to exercise them

  12. Assessing soil and groundwater contamination from biofuel spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Colin S; Shu, Youn-Yuen; Wu, Suh-Huey; Tien, Chien-Jung

    2015-03-01

    Future modifications of fuels should include evaluation of the proposed constituents for their potential to damage environmental resources such as the subsurface environment. Batch and column experiments were designed to simulate biofuel spills in the subsurface environment and to evaluate the sorption and desorption behavior of target fuel constituents (i.e., monoaromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons) in soil. The extent and reversibility of the sorption of aromatic biofuel constituents onto soil were determined. When the ethanol content in ethanol-blended gasoline exceeded 25%, enhanced desorption of the aromatic constituents to water was observed. However, when biodiesel was added to diesel fuel, the sorption of target compounds was not affected. In addition, when the organic carbon content of the soil was higher, the desorption of target compounds into water was lower. The empirical relationships between the organic-carbon normalized sorption coefficient (Koc) and water solubility and between Koc and the octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) were established. Column experiments were carried out for the comparison of column effluent concentration/mass from biofuel-contaminated soil. The dissolution of target components depended on chemical properties such as the hydrophobicity and total mass of biofuel. This study provides a basis for predicting the fate and transport of hydrophobic organic compounds in the event of a biofuel spill. The spill scenarios generated can assist in the assessment of biofuel-contaminated sites.

  13. An experimental and theoretical investigation of a fuel system tuner for the suppression of combustion driven oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, David E.

    Manufacturers of commercial, power-generating, gas turbine engines continue to develop combustors that produce lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x) in order to meet the environmental standards of governments around the world. Lean, premixed combustion technology is one technique used to reduce NOx emissions in many current power and energy generating systems. However, lean, premixed combustors are susceptible to thermo-acoustic oscillations, which are pressure and heat-release fluctuations that occur because of a coupling between the combustion process and the natural acoustic modes of the system. These pressure oscillations lead to premature failure of system components, resulting in very costly maintenance and downtime. Therefore, a great deal of work has gone into developing methods to prevent or eliminate these combustion instabilities. This dissertation presents the results of a theoretical and experimental investigation of a novel Fuel System Tuner (FST) used to damp detrimental combustion oscillations in a gas turbine combustor by changing the fuel supply system impedance, which controls the amplitude and phase of the fuel flowrate. When the FST is properly tuned, the heat release oscillations resulting from the fuel-air ratio oscillations damp, rather than drive, the combustor acoustic pressure oscillations. A feasibility study was conducted to prove the validity of the basic idea and to develop some basic guidelines for designing the FST. Acoustic models for the subcomponents of the FST were developed, and these models were experimentally verified using a two-microphone impedance tube. Models useful for designing, analyzing, and predicting the performance of the FST were developed and used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the FST. Experimental tests showed that the FST reduced the acoustic pressure amplitude of an unstable, model, gas-turbine combustor over a wide range of operating conditions and combustor configurations. Finally, combustor

  14. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 398: Area 25 Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. B. Campbell

    2001-01-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan addresses the activities necessary to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 398: Area 25 Spill Sites. CAU 398, located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site, is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (FFACO, 1996), and consists of the following 13 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) (Figure 1): (1) CAS 25-44-01 , a fuel spill on soil that covers a concrete pad. The origins and use of the spill material are unknown, but the spill is suspected to be railroad bedding material. (2) CAS 25-44-02, a spill of liquid to the soil from leaking drums. (3) CAS 25-44-03, a spill of oil from two leaking drums onto a concrete pad and surrounding soil. (4) CAS 25-44-04, a spill from two tanks containing sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide used for a water demineralization process. (5) CAS 25-25-02, a fuel or oil spill from leaking drums that were removed in 1992. (6) CAS 25-25-03, an oil spill adjacent to a tipped-over drum. The source of the drum is not listed, although it is noted that the drum was removed in 1991. (7) CAS 25-25-04, an area on the north side of the Engine-Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility, where oils and cooling fluids from metal machining operations were poured directly onto the ground. (8) CAS 25-25-05, an area of oil and/or hydraulic fluid spills beneath the heavy equipment once stored there. (9) CAS 25-25-06, an area of diesel fuel staining beneath two generators that have since been removed. (10) CAS 25-25-07, an area of hydraulic oil spills associated with a tunnel-boring machine abandoned inside X-Tunnel. (11) CAS 25-25-08, an area of hydraulic fluid spills associated with a tunnel-boring machine abandoned inside Y-Tunnel. (12) CAS 25-25-16, a diesel fuel spill from an above-ground storage tank located near Building 3320 at Engine Test Stand-1 (ETS-1) that was removed in 1998. (13) CAS 25-25-17, a hydraulic oil spill

  15. Spill containment devices and their installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunderhaus, C.A.; Butterfield, E.J.; Kesterman, J.E.; Lamping, F.G.

    1993-01-01

    A spill containment device adapted for mounting on the upper end the riser pipe of an underground storage tank for liquid fuel, or other hazardous liquids, said device is described comprising a container adapted for rigid, sealed connection with a riser pipe, and having an upper access opening, and lid means for sealingly closing the upper access opening, said container being characterized in that it is compositely formed and comprises a base member having means for rigidly connecting it with the riser pipe, a shell like body member rigidly and sealingly joined to the base member, and an upper member rigidly and sealingly joined to the body member and defining the upper access opening of the container

  16. Removing Spilled Oil With Liquid Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Daniel B.

    1991-01-01

    Technique proposed to reduce more quickly, contain, clean up, and remove petroleum products and such other pollutants as raw sewage and chemicals without damage to humans, animals, plants, or the environment. Unique and primary aspect of new technique is use of cryogenic fluid to solidify spill so it can be carried away in solid chunks. Liquid nitrogen (LN2), with boiling point at -320 degrees F (-196 degrees C), offers probably best tradeoff among extreme cold, cost, availability, and lack of impact on environment among various cryogenic fluids available. Other applications include extinguishing fires at such locations as oil derricks or platforms and at tank farms containing such petroleum products as gasoline, diesel fuel, and kerosene.

  17. Oil Spill Incident Tracking [ds394

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Office of Spill Prevention and Response (OSPR) Incident Tracking Database is a statewide oil spill tracking information system. The data are collected by OSPR...

  18. Managing an oil spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merlin, W.F.; Gorell, F.R.

    1994-01-01

    In the oil spill response business everything starts with a plan. When planning is set at only middle and top management levels before being chiseled into corporate marble, the result is all too often a plan for failure. For any chance at success, the plan must make sense to, and solve the problems of, the people at the ''business'' end of the business. In the case of Marine Spill Response Corporation (MSRC), that means highly trained responders are put at sea or along coastlines to remove oil from the water, or to deflect oil away from environmentally sensitive areas. They are fortunate in MSRC, and especially in the Gulf Coast Region, to have on their staff, some of the most knowledgeable and experienced oil spill responders in the world. The company relies on them to help build their plans, and to poke holes wherever their plans are inconsistent with getting the job done right

  19. Oil spills and their cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.

    1995-01-01

    Oil spills are an unfortunately common occurrence in the world's seas and can have extensive damaging environmental consequences. This article examines various methods of cleaning up oil spills, evaluates their effectiveness in various situations, and identifies areas where, current methods being inadequate, further research is needed. Containment, mechanical removal, shoreline cleanup, chemical treating agents, in situ burning, natural recovery and enhanced bioremediation are all assessed. The cleanup method must be selected to match environmental conditions. Results are good in quiet, sheltered waters, but need extensive development in open waters and high seas. (UK)

  20. Power fluctuations suppression of stand-alone hybrid generation combining solar photovoltaic/wind turbine and fuel cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Nabil A.; Miyatake, Masafumi; Al-Othman, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a hybrid energy system combining variable speed wind turbine, solar photovoltaic and fuel cell generation systems is presented to supply continuous power to residential power applications as stand-alone loads. The wind and photovoltaic systems are used as main energy sources while the fuel cell is used as secondary or back-up energy source. Three individual dc-dc boost converters are used to control the power flow to the load. A simple and cost effective control with dc-dc converters is used for maximum power point tracking and hence maximum power extracting from the wind turbine and the solar photovoltaic systems. The hybrid system is sized to power a typical 2 kW/150 V dc load as telecommunication power plants or ac residential power applications in isolated islands continuously throughout the year. The results show that even when the sun and wind are not available; the system is reliable and available and it can supply high-quality power to the load. The simulation results which proved the accuracy of the proposed controllers are given to demonstrate the availability of the proposed system in this paper. Also, a complete description of the management and control system is presented

  1. Spatial data quality and coastal spill modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.; Brimicombe, A.J.; Ralphs, M.P.

    1998-01-01

    Issues of spatial data quality are central to the whole oil spill modelling process. Both model and data quality performance issues should be considered as indispensable parts of a complete oil spill model specification and testing procedure. This paper presents initial results of research that will emphasise to modeler and manager alike the practical issues of spatial data quality for coastal oil spill modelling. It is centred around a case study of Jiao Zhou Bay in the People's Republic of China. The implications for coastal oil spill modelling are discussed and some strategies for managing the effects of spatial data quality in the outputs of oil spill modelling are explored. (author)

  2. Lecithins - promising oil spill cleaner?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    A new, non-polluting method of cleaning up oil spills at sea as well as on land has been developed by researchers at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Their technique is based on the use of lecithins, a byproduct of producing edible oils from plants. Lecithin molecules are hydrophyllic at one end and lipophilic at their tail ends. When they come into contact with water, they organize themselves into bilayers whose heads all face the water and whose tails are all directed towards each other. These bilayers form particles called liposomes that, when spread on water fouled by oil spills, change the properties of the oil thereby stopping the spreading and breaking it down into sticky droplets that continue to float on the surface and can be easily collected. The treatment is said to be effective in both fresh and salt water and is almost temperature and pH independent. Another beneficial effect is that the physical change generated by liposomes in the spilled oil improves the ability of oil-eating bacteria in the water to remove some of the spill by bioremediation

  3. The management of radioactive materials spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.T.; Ebenhack, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    The management and handling of a radioactive materials spill must be swift and effective to reduce or mitigate any adverse impacts on public health and safety. Spills within nuclear facilities generally pose less of a public health impact than spills in areas of public access. The essential elements of spill management include prior planning by agencies which may be required to respond to a spill. Any plan for the management of radioactive materials spills must be flexible enough to be applied in a variety of situations. The major elements of a radioactive materials spill plan, however, apply in every case. It is essential that communications be clear and effective, that the management of a spill be directed by a responsible party whose authority is recognized by everyone involved and that the actions, according to the principles discussed above, be taken to assure the safety of any injured personnel, containment and stabilization and clean up the spill and to verify through radiological surveys and sample analyses that the clean up is complete. Any spill of radioactive materials, minor or major, should be assessed so that similar spills or accidents can be prevented

  4. 3-Iodothyronamine-mediated metabolic suppression increases the phosphorylation of AMPK and induces fuel choice toward lipid mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, H; Shin, H; Son, C; Park, K; Choi, I

    2015-07-01

    Despite broad medical application, induction of artificial hypometabolism in vitro and its biochemical consequence have been rarely addressed. This study aimed to elucidate whether 3-iodothyronamine (T1AM) induces hypometabolism in an in vitro model with activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and whether it leads to a switch in primary fuel from carbohydrates to lipids as observed in in vivo models. Mouse C2C12 myotube and T1AM, a natural derivative of thyroid hormone, were used in this study. The oxygen consumption rate (OCR) decreased in a dose-dependent manner in response to 0-100 μM T1AM for up to 10 h. Upon 6-h of exposure to 75 μM T1AM, the OCR was reduced to 60 vs. ~ 95% for the control. The intracellular [AMP]/[ATP] was 1.35-fold higher in T1AM-treated cells. RT-PCR and immunoblotting analyses revealed that treated cells had upregulated p-AMPK/AMPK (1.8-fold), carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 mRNA, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, and downregulated acetyl CoA carboxylase (0.4-fold) and pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase. The treated cells had darker periodic acid-Schiff staining with 1.2-fold greater glycogen content than controls. Taken together, the hypometabolic response of myotubes to T1AM was dramatic and accompanied by increases in both the relative abundance of AMP and AMPK activation, and fuel choice favoring lipids over carbohydrates. These results are consistent with the general trends observed for rodent models and true hibernators. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Groundwater issues relating to an Alaskan methanol spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, S.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a Dec. 1989 methanol spill which resulted from sabotage to three railroad tank cars. Samples taken from nearby drinking-water wells and groundwater-monitoring wells were below the analytical detection limit. Monitoring well data demonstrated that groundwater flow was not toward local residential wells. Dilution by snow and subsequent freezing in the soil limited the downward spread of the methanol, an advantage not found in milder, more temperate conditions. Contaminated material was removed and processed to reclaim the methanol. Volatilization and biodegradation should remove any remaining methanol. Cleanup options were limited by the possible hazardous waste classification of the contaminated soil. The regulatory status of spilled methanol waste should be re-evaluated, especially if use of methanol as a motor fuel increases

  6. Contained controlled burning of spilled oil during the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    During the evening of the second day following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, an estimated 57,000-114,000 liters of North Slope crude oil were eliminated using in-situ combustion. The oil was collected with 3M's Fire Boom towed in a U-shaped configuration behind two fishing boats. Working with 152 m long tow lines, a 137 m boom was moved at ca 0.26-5.2 m/s through slightly emulsified oil patches in the downwind region of the spill. A gelled fuel ignitor was used to ignite the captured oil, and the size and intensity of the blaze was controlled by adjusting the speed of the vessels. Total burn time was ca 1.25 h, however the intense part of the burn lasted for ca 45 minutes. Using several methods to estimate the total volume of oil collected, the volume resulted in ca 1136 liters of stiff, taffy-like burn residue that could be picked up easily on completion of the burn. The controlled burn thus resulted in an estimated 98% or better elimination of crude oil. It had been planned to use a helitorch to ignite the captured oil, however darkness required the use of the gelled ignitor. Had the helitorch been used, numerous ignition points could have been spread througout the contained oil, providing a much more efficient heating and ultimate ignition of the oil. 5 figs

  7. Analysis of the particular spill characteristics observed by the Belgian aerial surveillance program during the Tricolor incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, M.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation described the Tricolor oil spill incident, the remote sensing equipment used to monitor the spill, the observed spill characteristics and the flight data assessment. The spill occurred on December 14, 2002 following a collision between the carrier Tricolor and the container vessel Kariba in French waters in the Zone of Joint Responsibility, close to the Belgian and English borders. The Tricolor sank and 3 more vessels collided with the wreck in the five weeks following the collision, spilling several 100 tons of mostly heavy fuel oil into the sea. The remote sensing equipment aboard Belgian surveillance aircraft noted that freshly spilled oil formed a network of widespread dark oil trails surrounded by light oil fractions. The spill volumes were estimated to be high because of the large extent of the polluted area. Nine months following the spill, the emulsified oil trails had a density close to that of seawater. It was assumed that a cold and thick emulsion had formed and became trapped inside the wreck. Upon release, the emulsion could submerse and resurface. The incident demonstrated that early stage oil sample analysis could help interpret slick behaviour by means of remote sensing. 9 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig

  8. The effect of petroleum spills on permafrost at CFS Alert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haidar, S.; Jarrett, P.

    1997-01-01

    Site investigations have been carried out at two decommissioned tank farm sites at Canadian Forces Station Alert on the northern tip of Ellesmere Island. The purpose was to study the mechanism of spilt fuel movement in frozen ground and its effects on frozen soils. The investigations consisted of sampling to depths below the permafrost table to assess vertical fuel migration, hydrocarbon pollutant concentration and water content. Results showed vertical migration of spilled fuel into permafrost. The migration was attributed to gravity drainage through interconnected air voids in fill material or movement through fissures in the soil induced by thermal contraction. Unweathered contaminants were found below the liners on top of the permafrost, believed to have been caused by holes in the liner. The entrapment of the spilled fuel may have been responsible for the enhanced vertical migration of contaminants observed at these sites. It was concluded that permafrost should not be considered as an impermeable barrier to contaminants with freezing points below 0 degree C. 4 figs

  9. Zinc concentrations in the water column influenced by the oil spill in the vicinity of the Prestige shipwreck; Concentraciones de zinc en la columna de agua influida por el derrame de fuel en los alrededores a la zona de naufragio del Prestige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prego, Ricardo; Cobelo-Garcia, Antonio [Marine Biogeochemistry Research Group, Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas CSIC, Vigo (Spain)

    2003-03-15

    Sixteen days after the Prestige tanker sank in the Northeast Atlantic (42 degrees 11 minutes North, 12 degrees 02 minutes West), a sampling campaign in the neighbouring water column was carried out in order to evaluate the possibility of zinc contamination due to the oil spill. Samples were taken in the water column (0-190 m) and in bottom waters -in the vicinity of the bow and stern- where the tanker lies (3520-3820 m). Total zinc concentrations found ranged from 14 to 571 nM, which are from one to two orders of magnitude higher than typical concentrations in these waters (0.2 - 3.2 nM). Therefore, a contamination by this metal, contained in the oil spilt from the tanks of the sunken ship, was detected. Zinc was also found to be a good tracer to detect the presence of fuel in those areas free of patches. [Spanish] Dieciseis dias despues del hundimiento del petrolero Prestige en el Atlantico Noreste (zona 42 grados 11 minutos Norte, 12 grados 02 minutos Este) se llevo a cabo una campana de muestreo en la columna de agua adyacente para evaluar la posible contaminacion de zinc debido al fuel derramado al agua. Para ello se tomaron muestras en la columna de agua (0-190m) y en el fondo marino -en las proximidades de la proa y la popa- donde yace el petrolero (3530-3820 m). Las concentraciones totales de zinc obtenidas oscilaron entre 14 y 571 nM, esto es, de uno a dos ordenes de magnitud superiores a las normales en esas aguas (0.2-3.2 nM). Se detecta, pues, una contaminacion por este metal contenido en el fuel vertido procedente de los tanques del buque hundido. El zinc resulta, ademas, un buen trazador para detectar la presencia de fuel en zonas limpias de manchas.

  10. Sodium fire suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malet, J C [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  11. Sodium fire suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  12. Identification of oil spill's sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boniforti, R.

    1992-10-01

    Identifying the source of a marine oil spill is complicated because of the rapid modifications (weathering) undergone by oil as soon as it reaches the sea. Deciding if differences occurring between an oil sample collected after the spill and the original oil can be attributed to weathering involves not only adoption of sophisticated analytical methods but also correct sampling techniques and strict adherence to a chain-of-custody procedure. The method described in this paper, largely based on those adopted by some northern European countries, establishes the identity or non-identity of two samples by exploiting differences rather than similarities between them. It increases the efficiency of the method because it is sufficient to establish that there exists only one difference for deciding that two samples are different

  13. Synopsis of an oil spill modeling workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnigan, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    The performance quality of various PC-based numerical spill models available on the market, were evaluated in a special spill modeling workshop. The models examined included OSSM/ADIOS, WOSM, OILMAP, SPILLSIM, and COZOIL. It was found that most oil spill trajectory models are based on the same basic trajectory and fates algorithms, but often provide different results. This anomaly was attributed to variations in how the algorithms are programmed and implemented. The lack of uniformity of predictions has contributed to a lack of faith in model results by local authorities, spill response operators and logistics groups. Some of the criticism levelled against the merits of the different spill models was considered unjustified by workshop participants. A list of 'best practices' for modeling/response strategies was compiled, and steps to be taken to minimize the variations in spill trajectory and weathering forecasts that would likely improve the usefulness of the models were identified. 15 refs., 4 figs

  14. OILMAP: A global approach to spill modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaulding, M.L.; Howlett, E.; Anderson, E.; Jayko, K.

    1992-01-01

    OILMAP is an oil spill model system suitable for use in both rapid response mode and long-range contingency planning. It was developed for a personal computer and employs full-color graphics to enter data, set up spill scenarios, and view model predictions. The major components of OILMAP include environmental data entry and viewing capabilities, the oil spill models, and model prediction display capabilities. Graphic routines are provided for entering wind data, currents, and any type of geographically referenced data. Several modes of the spill model are available. The surface trajectory mode is intended for quick spill response. The weathering model includes the spreading, evaporation, entrainment, emulsification, and shoreline interaction of oil. The stochastic and receptor models simulate a large number of trajectories from a single site for generating probability statistics. Each model and the algorithms they use are described. Several additional capabilities are planned for OILMAP, including simulation of tactical spill response and subsurface oil transport. 8 refs

  15. ANAEROBIC DEGRADATION OF MTBE TO TBA IN GROUND WATER AT GASOLINE SPILL SITES IN ORANGE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although tert-Butyl Alcohol (TBA) has not been used as a fuel oxygenate in Orange County, California, the concentrations of TBA in ground water at gasoline spill sites are high compared to the concentrations of the conventional fuel oxygenate Methyl tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE). In t...

  16. Eliciting Spill: A methodological note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvita Nathaniel, Ph.D.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Classic grounded theory is an inductive process that focuses on the experiences and perceptions of research participants (Glaser, 1978, 1998. Although grounded theorists may utilize other types of data, most are likely to gather information through qualitative interviews. The theorist seeks to understand what is going on as people resolve their main concern in a given substantive area. People know what is important to them and most want to tell their stories. They feel encouraged to talk when they recognize that their stories are valued. Once the informant realizes that he or she is being heard, the story flows. This is what Glaser refers to as “spill.” When this occurs, the theorist becomes a vessel to receive the story. As Glaser describes it, “The researcher will become a ‘big ear’ to pour into incessantly” (1998, p. 124. But, as easy as this seems, the researcher must overcome certain positivist tendencies to allow this to happen. Rather than asking a list of pre-planned questions, the grounded theorist will try to develop one question that will trigger the telling of a story. Eliciting spill requires a deliberate process that employs a deep understanding of the fundamentals of classic grounded theory. Derived from Glaser’s writings, the following are suggestions intended to help the novice grounded theorist to elicit spill.

  17. Louisiana's oil spill program : new developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debusschere, K.; Tedford, R.; Brolin, J.; Lorentz, W.

    2000-01-01

    The Louisiana Oil Spill Coordinator's Office (LOSCO) was established to improve oil spill response, spill prevention and coordination. Louisiana is challenged with having the highest exposure of oil spills because a large portion of its economy is based on oil and gas exploration and production. LOSCO will find ways to minimize the risk of unauthorized oil spills and will address damage assessment and restoration efforts. The aging oil and gas infrastructure in Louisiana has also been recognized as a potential major source for oil spills. LOSCO locates potential spill locations and assesses the risks associated with the sites, some of which are 100 years old. LOSCO also initiated the following two programs: (1) the Abandoned Barge Program initiated in 1993 to remove abandoned barges that pose a high risk for oil discharge, and (2) the Abandoned Non-Hazardous Oil Waste (NOW) Pit and Facility Program initiated in 1992 to locate and remove structures, pits and wells that pose a risk for oil spills. About 25,000 facilities, pits, sumps and reservoirs have been inventoried and evaluated to determine if they pose a risk to human health or the environment. The Louisiana Oil Spill Prevention and Response Act (OSPRA) of 1991 allocates up to $2 million per year for the abatement of oil spills from abandoned facilities in Louisiana. The state legislature has also created the Applied and Educational Oil Spill Research and Development Program (OSRADP) to fund oil spill research. Since 1993, OSRADP has granted 68 awards in support of 42 projects, many of which focused on recovery and cleanup methods including in-situ burning, fate and effect of oil in Louisiana environments, bioremediation, phytoremediation, composting, chemical cleaners, dispersants, sorbents, and solidifiers. 3 refs., 1 tab

  18. Differences in Infiltration and Evaporation of Diesel and Gasoline Droplets Spilled onto Concrete Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernat Adrià Mora

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pollution at gas stations due to small spills that occur during vehicle refueling have received little attention. We have performed laboratory experiments to assess evaporation and infiltration of fuel spilled onto concrete. Changes in the concrete mass after small amounts of diesel and gasoline were spilled have been analyzed. Variation in humidity, among other parameters, clearly affects the measured mass since condensed water is constantly added to or released from the concrete. This mass experiences an about exponential decay in time. The difference in behavior between both fuel types is important as the percentage of evaporated mass is much larger for gasoline, while infiltration is more significant for diesel. A statistical analysis suggests that the initial spill amount does not significantly affect the fraction of infiltrated fuel over time. This finding is in agreement with pore-scale simulations that we performed. A significant amount of fuel could be seeping into soil and groundwater underneath concrete pavement at gas stations or could be released to the atmosphere. Possible solutions for pavement and groundwater pollution are considered.

  19. Oil spill response issues in Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lempriere, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    Washington State statutes and regulations applicable to oil transport and oil spills were described. Specific provisions of the statutes and regulations and other relevant matters were also discussed. Among these were: (1) Washington State oil spill prevention plans, (2) Washington State oil spill contingency plans, (3) best achievable protection, (4) Intertanko's lawsuit against Washington State, (5) oil spill removal organizations, (6) certificates of financial responsibility in Washington State, (7) extent of potential liability under Washington Law, (8) disposal of cleanup materials, and (9) definition of 'qualified individuals' on marine vessels having the authority to implement removal actions

  20. Physical, chemical and biological observations and modeling of oil spills in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribotti, A.; De Dominicis, M.

    2016-11-01

    According to a definition of GESAMP, United Nations advisory body on scientific aspects of marine protection, a marine pollution is: "direct or indirect introduction by man of substances or energy into the marine environment … which results in such deleterious effects as harm to living resources, hazard to human health, hindrance to marine activities including fishing, impairment of water quality and reduction of marine attractions". The works presented in this Special Issue stem from the need to manage the problem of marine pollution. The categories of pollutants associated with the maritime traffic are mainly hydrocarbons and chemicals. Hydrocarbon is the oil in all its forms, including the crude oil, the fuel oil, the sludges, debris and other refined products (as defined by MARPOL 73/78 Annex I (MARPOL, 1978)). An oil spill is a release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment due to human activity, and is a form of pollution. The term often refers to marine oil spills, where oil is released into the open ocean or coastal waters. Oil spills include releases of crude oil from tankers, offshore platforms, drilling rigs and wells, as well as spills of refined petroleum products (such as gasoline, diesel) and their by-products, and heavier fuels used by large ships such as bunker fuel, or the spill of any oily refuse or waste oil. Oil spills can have devastating effects on the marine environment and can jeopardize the functional integrity of the marine ecosystem (seabirds populations, fish communities, and marine mammals), as reported in Jackson et al. (1989), Piatt and Anderson (1996), Peterson et al. (2003). While being toxic to marine life, the hydrocarbons are very difficult to clean up, and last for years in the sediment and marine environment. Discharge of cargo residues from bulk carries can pollute ports, waterways and oceans. In many instances vessels intentionally discharge illegal wastes despite foreign and domestic regulation prohibiting

  1. Structural, magnetic and microwave absorption behavior of Co-Zr substituted strontium hexaferrites prepared using tartaric acid fuel for electromagnetic interference suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Prabhjyot, E-mail: prabhjyot.2525@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Centre for Advanced Studies-I, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Chawla, S.K., E-mail: sschawla118@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Centre for Advanced Studies-I, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Narang, Sukhleen Bindra, E-mail: sukhleen2@yahoo.com [Department of Electronics Technology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Pubby, Kunal, E-mail: kunalpubby02@gmail.com [Department of Electronics Technology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India)

    2017-01-15

    Strontium hexaferrites, doped with varying Co-Zr content (x) have been synthesized by sol-gel auto-combustion route using tartaric acid as fuel at 800 °C. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform Infra-red have been carried out to confirm the phase formation, particle size (average 21.9–36.8 nm) and the bond formation respectively. Magnetic properties are scrutinized using vibrating sample magnetometer. Techniques like scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive scattering have been employed to explore the surface morphology, particle size and composition of the nano-powders. Electromagnetic characterization of the prepared ferrites has been done using Vector Network Anlyzer in 12.4–18 GHz frequency range. The effect of calcination temperature (500–1000 °C) on the structure, morphology and magnetic properties has also been studied for x=0.2 and 800 °C has been found to be the most suitable temperature with the best magnetic properties. Increase in doping has resulted in resonance peaks in dielectric and magnetic loss spectra, leading to microwave absorption peaks. Ferrites with x=0.2, 0.8 and 1.0 have appropriate reflection loss less than −10 dB and bandwidth in Ku-band, hence can be used as effective absorbers in suppression of electromagnetic interference (EMI). The governance of impedance matching in deciding the absorption properties has been proved by using input impedance calculations. - Highlights: • Co-Zr doped strontium hexaferrite nanopowders have been prepared by sol-gel route. • 800 °C was most suitable temperaturewith best structural and magnetic properties. • Samples have M-type hexagonal structure with an average particle size of 36.47 nm. • Samples x=0.2, 0.8 and 1.0 are suitable for suppression of EM waves in Ku-band. • The origin of absorption peaks: impedance matching and losses has been explained.

  2. Trace elements in the Prestige fuel-oil spill: Levels and influence on Laxe Ria sediments (NW Iberian Peninsula); Elementos traza en el combustible vertido por el Prestige: Niveles e impacto sobre el sedimento de la Ria de Laxe (noroeste de Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prego, R; Cobelo-Garcia, A; Santos-Echeandia, J [Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas CSIC, Vigo, (Spain); Marmolejo-Rodriguez, J [Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas-Instituto Politecnico Nacional, La Paz, (Mexico)

    2006-03-15

    Trace elements have been determined in sediments from the Laxe Ria (NW Iberian Peninsula) one year before and one year after the Prestige fuel-oil spill (November 2002; 42 degrees 11 minutes North, 12 degrees 02 minutes West). The elements analyzed (Cd, Cu, Mo, Ni, Se and V) were chosen because they appeared to represent a potential contaminant from the deposited oil in the sediments. Enrichment factors, based on Al-normalized background concentrations, did not indicate metal contamination in the sediments from most of the ria; however, a severe contamination by Cu, Mo, Ni and V was found in the area of Corme Inlet, where the fuel oil could have accumulated as a result of the ria's hydrodynamic pattern. [Spanish] Se cuantifico la concentracion de 19 elementos quimicos en el combustible pesado derramado al mar desde los tanques del petrolero Prestige (noviembre de 2002; 42 grados 11 minutos Norte, 12 grados 02 minutos Este). Entre ellos, se investigo la presencia de Cd, Cu, Mo, Ni, Se y V en el sedimento superficial de la Ria de Laxe (NO de Espana) en los anos anterior y posterior al vertido debido a que sus niveles son similares tanto en el fuel como en el sedimento. Los factores de enriquecimiento, obtenidos tras normalizacion de las concentraciones con el aluminio, no indican contaminacion del sedimento en la ria. No obstante, se detecto una severa contaminacion por Cu, Mo, Ni y V en la ensenada de Corme donde el vertido podria haberse acumulado como resultado de la hidrodinamica de la propia ria.

  3. Radiation exposure assessment following the 1978 Church Rock uranium mill tailings spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruttenber, A.J. Jr.; Kreiss, K.

    1981-01-01

    Early in the morning of July 16, 1979, there was a breach in the earthen retaining dam of a tailings pond at the United Nuclear Corporation's (UNC's) Church Rock uranium mill. The acidified liquid and tailings slurry spilled through the damaged portion of the retaining wall into an arroyo that is a tributary to the Rio Puerco river system. This paper summarizes postspill monitoring efforts and relates the assessment of this spill to the general question of evaluating the health effects of nuclear fuel-cycle wastes

  4. The Worldwide Oil Spill Model (WOSM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, E.L.; Howlett, E.; Jayko, K.; Reed, M.; Spaulding, M.; Kolluru, V.

    1993-01-01

    The Worldwide Oil Spill Model (WOSM) is a standalone microcomputer-based state-of-the-art oil spill model system for use in oil spill response decision support, planning, research, training, and contingency planning. WOSM was developed under support provided by a consortium of oil companies and government agencies. WOSM represents the next generation of oil spill model beyond the OILMAP modelling system (Spaulding et al, 1992). WOSM is designed in a shell architecture in which the only parameters that change are those that describe the area in which the spill model is to be applied. A limited function geographic information system (GIS) is integrated within the model system, and the spill modelling shell has been extended to include interfaces to other GIS systems and digital data. WOSM contains all the databases, data manipulation and graphical display tools, and models to simulate any type of oil spill. The user has control over which weathering processes are to be modelled, and WOSM data input tools enable continual refinement of model predictions as more refined data is imported. Use of WOSM is described and illustrated, showing sample screens and applications. WOSM algorithms and file structure are also outlined. An example test case of a spill in the Juan de Fuca strait is included. 29 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  5. Spill-Detector-and-Shutoff Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, M. R.; Fulton, D. S.

    1985-01-01

    Overflow in liquid chromatography systems rapidly detected and stopped. Spill-detector-and-shutoff device incorporated into liquid-chromatography system. When liquid from output nozzle spills on liquid sensor, device automatically shuts off pump and releases solenoid to pinch off flow in tube. Device uses common type of alarm circuit reset manually before normal operation resumes.

  6. Key Lake spill. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    On January 5, 1984 contaminated water overflowed a storage reservoir at the Key Lake uranium mill onto the ice on a neighboring lake, into a muskeg area and onto a road. Outflow continued for two days, partially undercutting a retaining dyke. This report concludes the spill was the result of poor operation by the Key Lake Mining Corp.. The environmental impact will be minimal after cleanup. Improvements can be made in the regulatory process, and it is necessary to prepare for possible future mishaps

  7. Acetylcholinesterase activity in seabirds affected by the Prestige oil spill on the Galician coast (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oropesa, Ana-Lourdes; Perez-Lopez, Marcos; Hernandez, David; Soler, Francisco [Toxicology Area, Faculty of Veterinary Science (UEX), Avda. de la Universidad s/n. 10071 Caceres (Spain); Garcia, Jesus-Pablo [Toxicology Area, National Centre of Environmental Health, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); Fidalgo, Luis-Eusebio; Lopez-Beceiro, Ana [Rof Codina Clinical Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Science (USC), Estrada de Granxa s/n. 27003 Lugo (Spain)

    2007-01-01

    In November 2002, the tanker Prestige broke in two and sank at the bottom of the ocean spilling about 70,000 t of fuel oil, which reached the coast of Galicia. It was considered the largest spill in maritime history, greatly affecting marine and related avian species. The spilled fuel oil contained high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Many species were affected and were found dead, although ongoing research is still being carried out on the sublethal effects. In this sense, little is known about the action of PAHs on Cholinesterase activity in seabirds. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to provide more information on the neurotoxicity of fuel oil on the seabirds most affected by the Prestige accident: common guillemot, Atlantic puffin and razorbill. On the other hand, data on normal values of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were obtained to supply non-exposed values in seabirds. The oil spill produced a clear inhibitory effect on brain AChE activity in common guillemot (16%, p {<=} 0.01) and razorbill (22%, p {<=} 0.01), but not in Atlantic puffin (4%). Physiological levels of brain AChE, expressed in nmol acetylcholine hydrolysed min{sup -} {sup 1} mg{sup -} {sup 1} protein were similar in non-exposed common guillemot (388.6 {+-} 95.0) and Atlantic puffin (474.0 {+-} 60.7), however, razorbill values were higher (644.6 {+-} 66.9). (author)

  8. The Alaska North Slope spill analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, Leslie; Robertson, Tim L.; DeCola, Elise; Rosen, Ira

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports Alaska North Slope crude oil spills, provides information to help operators identify risks and presents recommendations for future risk reduction and mitigation measures that may reduce the frequency and severity of future spills from piping infrastructure integrity loss. The North Slope spills analysis project was conducted during 2010 by compiling available spill data, and analyzing the cause of past spills in wells and associated piping, flowlines, process centers with their associated piping and above ground storage tanks, and crude oil transmission pipelines. An expert panel, established to provide independent review of this analysis and the presented data, identified seven recommendations on measures, programs, and practices to monitor and address common causes of failures while considering information provided from regulators and operators. These recommendations must be evaluated by the State of Alaska which will consider implementation options to move forward. Based on the study observations, future analyses may show changes to some of the observed trends.

  9. Oil Spill Related Heavy Metal: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Dasuki Mustafa; Hafizan Juahir; Kamaruzzaman Yunus; Mohammad Azizi Amran; Che Noraini Che Hasnam; Fazureen Azaman; Ismail Zainal Abidin; Syahril Hirman Azmee; Nur Hishaam Sulaiman

    2015-01-01

    Oil spill occurs every day worldwide and oil contamination is a significant contributor for the higher levels of heavy metals in the environment. This study is purposely to summarize the heavy metals which significant to major oil spill incidents around the world and effects of toxic metals to human health. The study performed a comprehensive review of relevant scientific journal articles and government documents concerning heavy metals contamination and oil spills. Overall, the heavy metals most frequently been detected in oil spill related study where Pb>Ni>V>Zn>Cd and caused many effects to human health especially cancer. In conclusion, the comparison of heavy metal level between the post - spill and baseline levels must be done, and implementation of continuous monitoring of heavy metal. In addition, the result based on the strategies must be transparent to public in order to maintaining human health. (author)

  10. Tanker self-help spill recovery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smedley, J B; Wainwright, J G; Ehman, T K

    1991-12-01

    An investigation was conducted of the circumstances in which oil spills occur from tankers at sea by analyzing available historical oil spill data. A data base of marine oil spills greater than 134 tonnes occurring from 1974 and June 1990, included in an appendix, was among the information analyzed. The analysis showed that marine oil spills of 5,000 tonnes and greater account for 39.4% of the accidents yet 94.7% of the total spilled quantity; 84% of those spills occur in vessels of 20,000 deadweight tonnes and larger. Of spills over 5,000 tonnes, 78.5% occur outside of harbor or pier areas where spill response equipment may not be readily available. Over 50% of spills are caused by groundings or collisions where the vessel crew might be able to respond in mitigating and controlling the outflow of oil. The review suggested that tanker self-help systems warrant serious consideration. Potential self-help systems are described, ranging from additives such as bioremediation, dispersants, and solidifiers to equipment such as portable pumps, booms, and skimmers. Candidate systems were examined in terms of their safety, ease of operation, practicability, and effectiveness. Their possible performance was then assessed for the case of major marine oil spills that have occurred in Canadian waters. Four systems are identified as potential candidates for further evaluation and possible implementation: internal oil transfer, hydrostatic loading, external oil lightering, and contingency planning. A system design is evaluated and its benefits and possible implementation are outlined, based on integration of the preferred attributes of the above four options. Recommendations for implementation are also provided. 28 refs., 6 figs., 33 tabs.

  11. Identification of spilled oils by NIR spectroscopy technology based on KPCA and LSSVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ailing; Bi, Weihong

    2011-08-01

    Oil spills on the sea surface are seen relatively often with the development of the petroleum exploitation and transportation of the sea. Oil spills are great threat to the marine environment and the ecosystem, thus the oil pollution in the ocean becomes an urgent topic in the environmental protection. To develop the oil spill accident treatment program and track the source of the spilled oils, a novel qualitative identification method combined Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA) and Least Square Support Vector Machine (LSSVM) was proposed. The proposed method adapt Fourier transform NIR spectrophotometer to collect the NIR spectral data of simulated gasoline, diesel fuel and kerosene oil spills samples and do some pretreatments to the original spectrum. We use the KPCA algorithm which is an extension of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) using techniques of kernel methods to extract nonlinear features of the preprocessed spectrum. Support Vector Machines (SVM) is a powerful methodology for solving spectral classification tasks in chemometrics. LSSVM are reformulations to the standard SVMs which lead to solving a system of linear equations. So a LSSVM multiclass classification model was designed which using Error Correcting Output Code (ECOC) method borrowing the idea of error correcting codes used for correcting bit errors in transmission channels. The most common and reliable approach to parameter selection is to decide on parameter ranges, and to then do a grid search over the parameter space to find the optimal model parameters. To test the proposed method, 375 spilled oil samples of unknown type were selected to study. The optimal model has the best identification capabilities with the accuracy of 97.8%. Experimental results show that the proposed KPCA plus LSSVM qualitative analysis method of near infrared spectroscopy has good recognition result, which could work as a new method for rapid identification of spilled oils.

  12. Evaluation of bird impacts on historical oil spill cases using the SIMAP oil spill model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French McCay, D.; Rowe, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of an oil spill on bird and other wildlife species can be estimated using the Spill Impact Model Application Package (SIMAP). SIMAP estimates exposure and impact on bird species and their habitat based on physical fate and biological effects models under a broad range of environmental conditions. This paper presented the evaluations of 14 spill case studies which compared model predictions of biological impacts with field observations after a spill. Most of the observational data on the biological impacts of spills was for oiled birds and other wildlife. The impact of an oil spill on fish and invertebrates was examined in one case study. Error analysis was not performed on the field-base estimates of impact. Biological abundances and impacts are highly variable in time and space and very difficult to measure and quantify. Model-predicted and field-based estimates of oiled wildlife were compared. Uncertainty in the model-predicted number of oil wildlife was most related to mapping of biological distributions, behaviour of individuals, and local population density at the time of spill. The greatest uncertainty was the pre-spill abundance. The number of animals oils was found to be directly proportional to the pre-spill abundance assumed in the model inputs. Relative impact can be inferred from the percentage of population oiled. The total number oiled by a spill can be extrapolated using trajectories of oiled birds and counts of oiled animals collected in the field. 54 refs., 16 tabs., 12 figs

  13. Management and legislative implications of recent oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehler, C.N.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents information on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's role in actions following oil spills. Topics include: NDAA's scientific support coordination during oil spill responses, NDAA's involvement in the Exxon Valdez spill; measures that may be taken for improved spill response; NOAA's environmental damage assessment and restoration planning activities

  14. Modeling fates and impacts for bio-economic analysis of hypothetical oil spill scenarios in San Francisco Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French McCay, D.; Whittier, N.; Sankaranarayanan, S.; Jennings, J.; Etkin, D.S.

    2002-01-01

    The oil spill risks associated with four submerged rock pinnacles near Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay are being evaluated by the United States Army Corps of Engineers. Oil spill modeling has been conducted for a hypothetical oil spill to determine biological impacts, damages to natural resources and response costs. The scenarios are hypothetical vessel grounding on the pinnacles. The SIMAP modeling software by the Applied Science Associates was used to model 3 spill sizes (20, 50 and 95 percentile by volume) and 4 types of oil (gasoline, diesel, heavy fuel oil, and crude oil). The frequency distribution of oil fates and impacts was determined by first running each scenario in stochastic mode. The oil fates and biological effects of the spills were the focus of this paper. It was shown that diesel and crude oil spills would have greater impacts in the water column than heavy fuel or gasoline because gasoline is more volatile and less toxic and because heavy oil spills would be small in volume. It was determined that the major impacts and damage to birds would be low due to the high dilution potential of the bay. It was also noted that dispersants would be very effective in reducing impacts on wildlife and the shoreline. These results are being used to evaluate the cost-benefit analysis of removing the rocks versus the risk of an oil spill. The work demonstrates a statistically quantifiable method to estimate potential impacts that could be used in ecological risk assessment and cost-benefit analysis. 15 refs., 13 tabs., 11 figs

  15. New guidelines for oil spill identification of waterborne petroleum and petroleum products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faksness, L.G.; Daling, P.S. [SINTEF Energy Research, Trondheim (Norway); Hansen, A.B. [National Environmental Research Inst., Roskilde (Denmark); Kienhuis, P. [RIZA, (Netherlands); Duus, R. [Norwegian Standard Association (Norway)

    2005-07-01

    Advances in interpretive and analytical methods have opened the possibility to improve the existing Nordtest methodology for oil spill identification which was developed in 1991 under the Nordic Council of Ministers. In 2002, the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) established 2 working groups to revise the Nordtest Methodology into the following 2 CEN guidelines: (1) oil spill identification which includes waterborne and petroleum products, and (2) oil spill identification which in addition to including waterborne petroleum and petroleum products, includes analytical methodology and interpretation of results. The revised methodology includes a protocol/decision chart that has 3 tiered levels of analyses and data treatment. The methodology relies on the characterization of diagnostic ratios. The CEN working group intends to use the guidelines as a basis for a national oil spill identification protocol in each European country and for further international use. The methodology can be applied to oil samples of petrogenic origin with boiling points above 200 degrees C, such as crude oils, diesel fuel oils, residual bunker oils, lubricants, and mixtures of oily bilge and sludge samples. It is not intended for automotive gasolines or other light petroleum products. The method has been implemented in most forensic laboratories in Europe and has successfully differentiated between oils from a spill and possible pollution sources. 19 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  16. New guidelines for oil spill identification of waterborne petroleum and petroleum products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faksness, L.G.; Daling, P.S.; Hansen, A.B.; Kienhuis, P.; Duus, R.

    2005-01-01

    Advances in interpretive and analytical methods have opened the possibility to improve the existing Nordtest methodology for oil spill identification which was developed in 1991 under the Nordic Council of Ministers. In 2002, the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) established 2 working groups to revise the Nordtest Methodology into the following 2 CEN guidelines: (1) oil spill identification which includes waterborne and petroleum products, and (2) oil spill identification which in addition to including waterborne petroleum and petroleum products, includes analytical methodology and interpretation of results. The revised methodology includes a protocol/decision chart that has 3 tiered levels of analyses and data treatment. The methodology relies on the characterization of diagnostic ratios. The CEN working group intends to use the guidelines as a basis for a national oil spill identification protocol in each European country and for further international use. The methodology can be applied to oil samples of petrogenic origin with boiling points above 200 degrees C, such as crude oils, diesel fuel oils, residual bunker oils, lubricants, and mixtures of oily bilge and sludge samples. It is not intended for automotive gasolines or other light petroleum products. The method has been implemented in most forensic laboratories in Europe and has successfully differentiated between oils from a spill and possible pollution sources. 19 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs

  17. Oil spill response: Countdown to readiness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    In the wake of the Exxon Valdez oil spill, a task force representing America's oil industry set about studying the existing resources across the nation for responding to catastrophic oil spills. In June 1989 the task force reported that the capability did not exist in either government or industry to respond to a spill the magnitude of the one in Alaska. As a result of task force recommendations, 20 companies began the process that led to the creation of both the Marine Preservation Association (MPA) and the Marine Spill Response Corp. (MS-RC). The latter is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with 5 regional response centers around the US. Under the direction of the US Coast Guard, each of MSRC's five regions will provide a best-effort response to cleaning up spill of persistent (crude) oils that are beyond the capabilities of local spill response organizations. MSRC will work closely with both cooperatives and independent, commercial responders to maximize spill response effectiveness. The MPA and its member companies have committed more than $400 million for the acquisition of capital equipment for MSRC, an unprecedented record in American business history. MSRC is also involved in research programs concerning remote sensing, in-situ burning, dispersants, handling of recovered material, and shoreline countermeasures

  18. Spill operation system decision support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.

    1992-01-01

    The MSRC Spill Operation System (SOS) is a tool for the support of decision-making at the time of a catastrophic oil spill. SOS provides MSRC decision-makers with access to information about the source of the spill, the spill environment, and the availability of spill response resources. This system is designed to meet the information needs of a Response Supervisor, an Environmental Advisor, Logistics/Maintenance Supervisor, Operations Supervisor, and the MSRC Regional General Manager. The SOS project Objectives are: (1) integrate currently available data, systems, and technologies; (2) develop an application that effectively supports mobilized operations and can be adapted to support normal operations; (3) ensure that the development of computer applications is driven by user needs and not by technology; and (4) coordinate with government and other industry organizations to avoid duplication of effort. Design Objectives for SOS are: (1) centralize management information storage while decentralizing decision making capabilities; (2) boost User confidence by providing a system that is easy to learn, easy to use, and is open-quotes Sailor Proofclose quotes; and (3) use visualization technology in providing spill related information. This approach includes the use of Geographic Information System (GIS) technology for maps and geographically associated resource; and support MSRC's concept of operation which includes - a swift notification of response personnel; fast mobilization of response resources; and accurate tracking of resources during a spill. MSRC is organized into five responsibility regions

  19. Practical aids for freshwater spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, A.E.; Walker, A.H.

    1993-01-01

    The current research program at API is focused on the environmental and human health effects from oil spills in freshwater habitats. Components of the program include lessons learned from spill response, development of decision-making protocols for the use of chemicals during initial response operations, preparation of a manual for spill response and contingency planning, and a review of the literature on environmental and human health effects from inland spills. API has reviewed past inland spill responses to identify lessons learned. A survey questionnaire has been developed to collect information from freshwater spill responders on their successes and difficulties in response operations. The questionnaire is tailored to focus on the impact to the operations from the absence of technical/scientific data on environmental effects or operation effectiveness/efficiency as well as to identify situations in which the use of particular response or cleanup options is likely to be effective. The questionnaires will be available at the Conference. Published case studies also will be examined for lessons-learned information. The results will be used to identify and prioritize API research needs in freshwater spill response. General concerns about the effectiveness of the toxicity associated with chemicals in spill response has prevented their use in fresh water. API has begun a detailed survey and interview process with state and federal regulatory personnel to identify their concerns and decision criteria to evaluate the use of chemicals in initial spill response. Ten classes of chemicals were identified for consideration: dispersants, shoreline cleaners, shoreline protection agents, herding agents, solidifiers, demulsifiers, emulsion inhibitors, foaming agents, oxidizing agents, and burning agents

  20. Bioremediation of offshore oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, E.; Tedaldi, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    This research program was directed towards the enhancement of insitu biorestoration of open sea oil spills. Bacteria possessing petroleum degrading enzymes are capable of splitting even thick, viscous oils and tars into lighter fractions. This process will occur at the oil/bacterial interface and depends upon viscosity of the oil, bacterial species, availability of ancillary nutrients, residence times and extent of mixing/oxygenation. Through the enzymatic metabolism of bacteria, a wide range of petroleum oils can be converted almost completely into CO 2 , water, cell mass and harmless biological waste products, usually within 60 to 90 days under favorable conditions. Specifically, this research work focused on the selection and examination of a floating medium which enhances the biodegradation process through improvement of conditions necessary for the process to occur. An additional effort was made to update previous citations of the order of magnitude of oil biodegradation rates and to compare laboratory measurements of biodegradation rates with field or mesocosm measurements

  1. Radiative evaporation of oil spills on seas or rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summerfield, M.

    1993-01-01

    Because of the self-evident drawbacks of in situ oil burning as a means of removing spilled oil from water surfaces, a similar technique suggests itself: evaporation of the oil by absorbed heat. Of the various ways in which heat may be brought to the oil surface, intense radiation seems to be the most convenient technique. Oil spilled on water surfaces can be collected by a boom floating in the water, gathered in a catenary-like contour, and deep enough to absorb the beam of radiation near the apex of the catenary. It seems likely that the circulation of oil in the gathered oil layer would serve to assure the minimum of heat conduction (loss of heat) to the water below. The question is, does a radiator intense enough to evaporate oil at a fast enough rate exist? The answer seems to be that a system does indeed exist, developed by the Gas Research Institute, Chicago, Illinois, and manufactured under GRI sponsorship by at least two companies. It was developed for such applications as paint drying. The radiator is heated to over 1400 K by natural gas combustion (with air); the hot surface is made of a ceramic. The efficiency of the overall process, from the standard heat of combustion to the radiation beam emitted, is about 40 percent. If one assumes a reasonable efficiency for the absorption of radiation and its conversion to heat and then its conversion to evaporated oil, one can compute the beam size, the radiator dimensions, the duration required for a boom-full of oil (only one) and the cost. It turns out that, for a 1,000 gal spill (more than the daily average), a duration of about 5 hours suffices for a single overhead radiator; the cost would be about $400 in fuel. A boat carrying the fuel tanks to feed the radiator, trailing the boom apex, is probably the best way to direct the radiation to the oil surface. Cleanup of a spill in this way is assured. One drawback is the smell of the atmosphere laden with the vapor

  2. The Galeta oil spill: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, K.A.; Jorissen, D.; MacPherson, J.; Stoelting, M.; Tierney, J.; Yelle-Simmons, L.; Garrity, S.D.

    1994-01-01

    Sediment chemistry studies, undertaken as part of the long-term assessment of the Bahia las Minas (Panama) oil spill, showed the unexpected persistence of the full range of aromatic hydrocarbon residues of the spilled crude oil in anoxic muds of coastal mangroves. Mangrove muds served as long-term reservoirs for chronic contamination of contiguous coastal communities for over 5 years. One result of the repeated history of oil pollution incidents along this coast was an increased proportion of dead mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) roots in sediment cores which was related to contaminant loading and was detectable for at least 20 years after major oil spills. We suggest that this is the minimum time-scale that is to be expected for the loss of toxicity of oil trapped in muddy coastal habitats impacted by catastrophic oil spills. (author)

  3. Oh β s concerns surface after spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    A spill of uranium- and radium-contaminated water from a reservoir at the Key Lake Mine in northern Saskatchewan in early January 1984 created extensive public concern. Now attention is being focussed on the issue of worker safety

  4. Risk analysis in oil spill response planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernoplekov, A.N.; Alexandrov, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    Tiered response is a basic approach to emergency plans, including oil spill response (OSR). This paper delineates a huge set of accidental scenarios within a certain tier of response generated by a computer during risk assessment. Parameters such as the amount of oil spilled, duration of discharge and types of losses should be provided in OSR scenarios. Examples of applications include offshore installations, sub sea or onshore pipelines, and localized onshore facilities. The paper demonstrates how to use risk analysis results for delineating all likely spills into groups that need a specific tier response. The best world practices and Russian regulatory approaches were outlined and compared. Corresponding algorithms were developed and their application in pipelines was presented. The algorithm combines expert's skills and spill trajectory modeling with the net environmental benefit analysis principle into the incident specific emergency response planning. 9 refs., 13 tabs., 2 figs

  5. Contact Us | NOAA Gulf Spill Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessment Trustee Agencies: Louisiana Oil Spill Coordinator's Office Louisiana Department of Environmental additional information regarding the Deepwater Horizon Natural Resource Damage Assessment in Louisiana Under Secretary for Natural Resources and Environment; Leonard Jordan, Acting Under Secretary for

  6. Computer based training for oil spill management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, R.

    1993-01-01

    Large oil spills are infrequent occurrences, which poses a particular problem for training oil spill response staff and for maintaining a high level of response readiness. Conventional training methods involve table-top simulations to develop tactical and strategic response skills and boom-deployment exercises to maintain operational readiness. Both forms of training are quite effective, but they are very time-consuming to organize, are expensive to conduct, and tend to become repetitious. To provide a variety of response experiences, a computer-based system of oil spill response training has been developed which can supplement a table-top training program. Using a graphic interface, a realistic and challenging computerized oil spill response simulation has been produced. Integral to the system is a program editing tool which allows the teacher to develop a custom training exercise for the area of interest to the student. 1 ref

  7. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco's refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R ampersand D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ''unit cost'' portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible' to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills

  8. Natural Resource Damage Assessment in highly impacted systems: A case study of the Anacostia River oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkney, A.E.; Frithsen, J.B.; Burton, W.H.; Scott, L.C.; Siciliano, J.

    1993-01-01

    An approach and case study are presented to assessing natural resource damages due to additional perturbations in highly disturbed systems. The approach involves: (1) defining chemical characteristics unique to the additional perturbation, (2) identifying specific natural resources that may be sensitive to the additional perturbation and the most appropriate sampling period for each, and (3) using existing data to characterize previous conditions. This approach was used to assess the residual effects of a January 1992 spill of 3,400 gallons of number-sign 4 fuel oil in the Anacostia River, Washington, DC. Water quality is poor due to continuing inputs from urban runoff; one upstream tributary (Hickey Run) has a fifty year history of chronic oil spills and stormwater runoff of oil and grease. The challenge was to isolate possible spill impacts from those due to chronic pollutant inputs. GC/FID fingerprinting analyses were used to characterize spill material and hydrocarbons found in the spill area and two adjacent reference areas. Fish larvae (ichthyoplankton) and benthic invertebrates were identified as biological resources most likely to demonstrate residual effects. Results indicated that there were insignificant amounts of the hydrocarbons from the spill in the water, sediments, and biota of the river, and no residual impacts on biological resources could be identified

  9. Particles of spilled oil-absorbing carbon in contact with water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradov, Nazim [Melbourne, FL

    2011-03-29

    Hydrogen generator coupled to or integrated with a fuel cell for portable power applications. Hydrogen is produced via thermocatalytic decomposition (cracking, pyrolysis) of hydrocarbon fuels in oxidant-free environment. The apparatus can utilize a variety of hydrocarbon fuels, including natural gas, propane, gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel, crude oil (including sulfurous fuels). The hydrogen-rich gas produced is free of carbon oxides or other reactive impurities, so it could be directly fed to any type of a fuel cell. The catalysts for hydrogen production in the apparatus are carbon-based or metal-based materials and doped, if necessary, with a sulfur-capturing agent. Additionally disclosed are two novel processes for the production of two types of carbon filaments, and a novel filamentous carbon product. Carbon particles with surface filaments having a hydrophobic property of oil film absorption, compositions of matter containing those particles, and a system for using the carbon particles for cleaning oil spills.

  10. Suppressed Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarine Romdenh-Romluc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Moran’s revised conception of conscious belief requires us to reconceptualise suppressed belief. The work of Merleau-Ponty offers a way to do this. His account of motor-skills allows us to understand suppressed beliefs as pre-reflective ways of dealing with the world.

  11. Study of the sediment contamination levels in a mangrove swamp polluted by a marine oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, T.W.Y.; Ke, L.; Wong, Y.S.; Tam, N.F.Y.

    2002-01-01

    The pattern of oil retention in mangrove sediments was studied in an effort to determine the temporal changes of petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations and composition several months after oil spills occur. Mangroves are inter-tidal wetlands in tropical and subtropical coastlines. Due to the anoxic and water logging characteristics of mangrove sediments, oil residues linger much longer in these wetlands compared to other coastal habitats. In November 2000, an accidental oil spill occurred in the Pearl River Estuary in which approximately 230,000 litres of crude oil was leaked from an oil tanker. The spilled oil migrated to the YiO, a typical mangrove swamp in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. The degree of oil contamination in the sediments depended on the sediment texture and topography of the mangrove. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration of the sediments in the most affected area near a freshwater creek flowing into the sea was 130 times higher than normal, one month after the accident. The mean TPH concentration was 2862 ug/g of dry sediment while the mean carbon preference index was 1.22 compared to the background value of 3.97. The temporal changes of the petroleum hydrocarbon level in 5 defined areas were examined for 7 months after the spill. The most polluted area next to the creek was determined to have very high TPH levels in the muddy sediments even 7 months after the spill. Oil residues infiltrated as deep as 20 cm into the sediments, making it more difficult to degrade than surface pollution and posing long-term adverse effects on trees in the area. It was determined that with growing industrialization and increasing demands for fuel and energy supply, mangroves in South China should be ranked as top priority for protection from oil spills. 19 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs

  12. Study of the sediment contamination levels in a mangrove swamp polluted by a marine oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, T.W.Y.; Ke, L.; Wong, Y.S.; Tam, N.F.Y. [City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2002-07-01

    The pattern of oil retention in mangrove sediments was studied in an effort to determine the temporal changes of petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations and composition several months after oil spills occur. Mangroves are inter-tidal wetlands in tropical and subtropical coastlines. Due to the anoxic and water logging characteristics of mangrove sediments, oil residues linger much longer in these wetlands compared to other coastal habitats. In November 2000, an accidental oil spill occurred in the Pearl River Estuary in which approximately 230,000 litres of crude oil was leaked from an oil tanker. The spilled oil migrated to the YiO, a typical mangrove swamp in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. The degree of oil contamination in the sediments depended on the sediment texture and topography of the mangrove. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration of the sediments in the most affected area near a freshwater creek flowing into the sea was 130 times higher than normal, one month after the accident. The mean TPH concentration was 2862 ug/g of dry sediment while the mean carbon preference index was 1.22 compared to the background value of 3.97. The temporal changes of the petroleum hydrocarbon level in 5 defined areas were examined for 7 months after the spill. The most polluted area next to the creek was determined to have very high TPH levels in the muddy sediments even 7 months after the spill. Oil residues infiltrated as deep as 20 cm into the sediments, making it more difficult to degrade than surface pollution and posing long-term adverse effects on trees in the area. It was determined that with growing industrialization and increasing demands for fuel and energy supply, mangroves in South China should be ranked as top priority for protection from oil spills. 19 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs.

  13. Containment of spills from ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engerer, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Oil escaping from a ship is contained within a limited area surrounding the ship by means of a flexible ring structure. The ring structure is stored in a collapsed state in a compartment extending around the ship. In response to an oil spill, the ring structure is dropped from the compartment and immediately surrounds the ship. A circular inflatable flotation section of the ring structure is charged with gas under pressure. The gas is supplied from a bottle cascade aboard the ship, through lines preconnected to the flotation section and paid out from free-wheeling reels. The flotation section supports a thin circumferential wall of predetermined height that submerges and assumes a vertical cylinder-like shape surrounding the escaping oil. The oil floats within the confines of the ring structure, and the ring structure is progressively expanded to a predetermined size selected to accommodate the total volume of oil carried by the ship. When the ring structure achieves its expanded state, pressure in the flotation section is raised to render the structure relatively rigid and resistant to collapse in response to wave action. Oil can be removed from the interior of the ring structure by recovery ships using suction lines or other conventional recovery methods. 12 figs

  14. Vegetable oil spills : oil properties and behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B.; Jokuty, P.

    2001-01-01

    In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency conducted a thorough review of the issue regarding vegetable oil spills. Recent attention has refocused on this issue as a result of an incident where 20 tons of canola oil was spilled in the Vancouver Harbour in 2000. In the past, vegetable oils were suggested to be a useful test material because they were thought to be innocuous. It was even suggested they be used to remove petroleum oil residues from beaches. However, recent studies have shown that spills of vegetable oils can have major environmental consequences, equivalent to those of petroleum oil spills. The spills have devastating effects on birds and intertidal organisms. This paper presented a summary of historical vegetable spills from around the world. In this study, specific behaviour tests were examined for several oils including canola, soy bean, olive, castor and corn oils. Evaporation, water-in-oil emulsification and chemical dispersion were measured and were found to be nearly zero, suggesting that vegetable oil spills are not very soluble in water. The aquatic toxicity of vegetable oil is low, but their fate is quite different from petroleum. Vegetable oils do not evaporate to a significant degree, they do not form water-in-oil emulsions, nor do they disperse in water. The physical properties of vegetable oils were also measured, including density and viscosity. This paper presented the aquatic toxicity of several vegetable oils along with other environmental data including the degradation rates noted in the literature. Most environmental damage reported in the literature is by contact with birds feathers resulting in hypothermia and secondly by smothering of intertidal organisms. The effect of vegetable oil on fish has not been well studied, but it is expected that there will be little destructive effect except where smothering can occur. 35 refs., 3 tabs

  15. Vegetable oil spills : oil properties and behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B.; Jokuty, P. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science Div

    2001-07-01

    In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency conducted a thorough review of the issue regarding vegetable oil spills. Recent attention has refocused on this issue as a result of an incident where 20 tons of canola oil was spilled in the Vancouver Harbour in 2000. In the past, vegetable oils were suggested to be a useful test material because they were thought to be innocuous. It was even suggested they be used to remove petroleum oil residues from beaches. However, recent studies have shown that spills of vegetable oils can have major environmental consequences, equivalent to those of petroleum oil spills. The spills have devastating effects on birds and intertidal organisms. This paper presented a summary of historical vegetable spills from around the world. In this study, specific behaviour tests were examined for several oils including canola, soy bean, olive, castor and corn oils. Evaporation, water-in-oil emulsification and chemical dispersion were measured and were found to be nearly zero, suggesting that vegetable oil spills are not very soluble in water. The aquatic toxicity of vegetable oil is low, but their fate is quite different from petroleum. Vegetable oils do not evaporate to a significant degree, they do not form water-in-oil emulsions, nor do they disperse in water. The physical properties of vegetable oils were also measured, including density and viscosity. This paper presented the aquatic toxicity of several vegetable oils along with other environmental data including the degradation rates noted in the literature. Most environmental damage reported in the literature is by contact with birds feathers resulting in hypothermia and secondly by smothering of intertidal organisms. The effect of vegetable oil on fish has not been well studied, but it is expected that there will be little destructive effect except where smothering can occur. 35 refs., 3 tabs.

  16. Mathematical model simulation of a diesel spill in the Potomac River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, S.S.; Nicolette, J.P.; Markarian, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    A mathematical modeling technique was used to simulate the transport and fate of approximately 400,000 gallons of spilled diesel fuel and its impact on the aquatic biota in the Potomac River and Sugarland Run. Sugarland Run is a tributary about 21 miles upstream from Washington, DC. The mass balance model predicted the dynamic (spatial and temporal) distribution of spilled oil. The distributions were presented in terms of surface oil slick and sheen, dissolved and undissolved total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the water surface, water column, river sediments, shoreline and atmosphere. The processes simulated included advective movement, dispersion, dissolution, evaporation, volatilization, sedimentation, shoreline deposition, biodegradation, and removal of oil from cleanup operations. The model predicted that the spill resulted in a water column dissolved TPH concentration range of 0.05 to 18.6 ppm in Sugarland Run. The spilled oil traveled 10 miles along Sugarland Run before it reached the Potomac River. At the Potomac River, the water column TPH concentration was predicted to have decreased to the range of 0.0 to 0.43 ppm. These levels were consistent with field samples. To assess biological injury, the model used 4, 8, 24, 48, and 96-hr LC values in computing the fish injury caused by the fuel oil. The model used the maximum running average of dissolved TPH and exposure time to predict levels of fish mortality in the range of 38 to 40% in Sugarland Run. This prediction was consistent with field fisheries surveys. The model also computed the amount of spilled oil that adsorbed and settled into the river sediments

  17. Oil pipeline valve automation for spill reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohitpour, Mo; Trefanenko, Bill [Enbridge Technology Inc, Calgary (Canada); Tolmasquim, Sueli Tiomno; Kossatz, Helmut [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Liquid pipeline codes generally stipulate placement of block valves along liquid transmission pipelines such as on each side of major river crossings where environmental hazards could cause or are foreseen to potentially cause serious consequences. Codes, however, do not stipulate any requirement for block valve spacing for low vapour pressure petroleum transportation, nor for remote pipeline valve operations to reduce spills. A review of pipeline codes for valve requirement and spill limitation in high consequence areas is thus presented along with a criteria for an acceptable spill volume that could be caused by pipeline leak/full rupture. A technique for deciding economically and technically effective pipeline block valve automation for remote operation to reduce oil spilled and control of hazards is also provided. In this review, industry practice is highlighted and application of the criteria for maximum permissible oil spill and the technique for deciding valve automation thus developed, as applied to ORSUB pipeline is presented. ORSUB is one of the three initially selected pipelines that have been studied. These pipelines represent about 14% of the total length of petroleum transmission lines operated by PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO) in Brazil. Based on the implementation of valve motorization on these three pipeline, motorization of block valves for remote operation on the remaining pipelines is intended, depending on the success of these implementations, on historical records of failure and appropriate ranking. (author)

  18. Oil spill models for emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgins, D.O.

    1997-01-01

    The need for, and the nature of an oil spill model, were discussed. Modern oil spill models were shown to provide rapid and accurate input of information about a marine spill, as well as to provide powerful visualization methods for displaying output data. Marine oil spill models are designed to answer five questions: (1) where will the oil go in 2, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours, (2) how fast will it move, (3) how big will the slick get, (4) how much will end up on shore and where, and (5) how do the oil properties change. The models are able to provide timely and accurate results by using reasonably complete algorithms for the physics and chemistry governing oil slick evolution that take advantage of computer visualization methods for displaying output data. These models have been made possible through new technologies which have increased access to environmental data on winds, currents and satellite imaging of slicks. Spill modelling is also evolving by taking advantage of the Internet for both acquisition of input data and dissemination of results. 5 figs

  19. Oil spill preparedness in the Mediterranean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorigne, E.M.; Wong, K.V.

    1993-01-01

    Over 15% of the world's consumption of crude oil and refined products is shipped through the Mediterranean Sea each year. The sea is one of the most polluted areas in the world and has areas of high risk for oil spills, notably those places where there is a very narrow passage between coasts or islands. The region also needs to modernize its ports by developing more deballasting facilities, since a large percentage of spill accidents happens during terminal operations. Release of oily wastes from ships is also significant. The World Bank Global Environment Facility trust fund is working on a project to help the southwest Mediterranean countries modernize reception facilities for ballast water, bilge water, and oily waste water. The Regional Marine Pollution Emergency Response Center (REMPEC) in Malta acts as the coordinating center for regional contingency planning for oil spill response. The cost of the port facilities modernization program and oil spill contingency plan implementation for the Mediterranean is estimated at US$444 million. An allocation of costs is suggested which will help those countries needing more financial aid to implement the proposed programs. In the long run, the cost of these programs will be much lower than that of a massive oil spill cleanup. 7 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Policy lessons from Exxon Valdez spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelso, D.D.; Brown, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    The wreck of the Exxon Valdez in Prince william sound in Alaska leaves in its aftermath grave policy questions about how much risk the public should be asked to bear and how much industry should be required to do to prevent oil spills and to clean them up when they occur. But because of industry's inadequate response to the Exxon Valdez spill, this catastrophe will provide few solid answers say the authors. The results of the accident were clearly catastrophic: 1,200 miles of polluted shorelines, 260,000 to 580,000 dead birds, decreased biological productivity, and disruption of life and business in scores of seashore communities. As with any accident, prevention and preparedness are the twin concepts that underlie most post-accident policy analyses. Actions since the accident by both Congress and the state of Alaska to prevent such spills in the future are useful, kelso and Brown note. The lack of effective technology to clean up large oil spills was dramatically demonstrated in this incident, they add, making a national research and development undertaking essential. Public involvement in establishing standards for spill prevention, response preparedness, and cleanup is vital, Kelso and Brown emphasize, because in the final analysis, it is the public that is hurt if the prevention and response systems break down

  1. Spill sparks reform, leaves lasting scar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notthoff, A.

    1991-01-01

    Blackened shorelines, oil-soaked birds, and dying sea otters - images that riveted the Exxon Valdez oil spill on the public consciousness - also generated an outcry for action, Notthoff observes. No other spill caught the attention of the American public and prompted public-policy reform at the national, state, and local level like the Exxon Valdez, she says. Within two years of the accident, Congress had dusted off and passed oil-spill legislation that had been deadlocked for 10 years, and seven states had passed new oil-spill laws. The poor record of cleanup following the Exxon Valdez spill is due to the limits of technology, the physical conditions at the time of the accident, and a chronic inability to mobilize people and equipment under the chaotic circumstances that surround a major emergency, Notthoff says. In addition, there also was a failure to enforce existing response plans. Prevention is the best cure, and some of the new laws address this issue, she notes. They also tighten up requirements for response planning and encourage research into improved clean-up technology. What they fail to do Notthoff emphasizes, is seek to reduce tanker traffic by encouraging improved energy efficiency, conservation, and alternative energy technologies

  2. Sediment Sampling Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following...

  3. BP Spill in the Gulf of Mexico Sediment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In response to the BP oil spill, EPA monitored sediment near the spill. While emergency response data collection has ended, results continue to be available on this...

  4. Air Sampling Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following...

  5. Waste Sampling Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following...

  6. Air Monitoring Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following...

  7. Surface Water Sampling Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following...

  8. Water Sampling Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following...

  9. Prestige oil spill information and assessment Galicia, Spain January 20-22, 2003 : Meeting summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In mid-November 2002, an oil spill occurred off the coast of northwest Spain when the tanker, Prestige, broke apart and sank. The vast majority of the heavy fuel oil it transported was released into the sea along 900 kilometres of Spanish coastline. More than 20,000 people were affected as bans on fish and shellfish harvesting were issued. A delegation from Newfoundland left for Galicia, Spain in December 2002, to learn from the experience in an effort to enhance spill prevention and response for the Newfoundland and Labrador coastline. A brief overview of the Galicia region of Spain was provided, followed by general information concerning the jurisdictional complexity of Galicia. A number of issues and topics were discussed, such as: marine traffic corridors, safe havens; communication with the public; oil recovery operations; compensation; spill prevention; ban on fishing and shellfish harvesting; and, fishing industry's role in response operations. Tours of the areas affected were organized for the delegation. Upon return to Newfoundland, the delegation shared their acquired information and initiated discussions with the federal government concerning intergovernmental issues on oil spill prevention and response

  10. The Effect of Oil Spills on Marine Microbes: The Importance of Where, When, and How

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, M. L.; Ederington-Hagy, M.; Richardson, R. L.; Snyder, R.; Jeffrey, W. H.

    2016-02-01

    While much recent attention has been paid to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico and biodegradation by microbial communities, it is important to remember that numerous factors may determine the types of environmental effects that may result from oil spills. Not all oil spills (e.g., crude, refined, weathered, fuels, use of dispersants) are created equal, and it is likely that the characteristics of different environments will affect ecosystem response to oil. Temperature, salinity, and solar radiation are three potentially important factors related to location and seasonality. The effects of some of these environmental factors on the formation of Water Accommodated Fractions (WAFs) developed from Deepwater Horizon oils and the subsequent effects on microbial growth is being investigated. WAFs were generated under varying solar but controlled temperature conditions, various temperatures and salinities, as well as from burned and weathered oil. After all WAFs were collected, each was added to a coastal seawater sample and their effects on bacterial production or phytoplankton photosynthesis determined. Results from both assays demonstrated that WAFs produced in the dark had minimal effects on growth while inhibition was proportional to the amount of solar exposure. Burning oil prior to formation of WAFs increased inhibition of production independent of subsequent solar treatment. Preliminary data suggests that temperature plays a minimal role. The results imply that the ecological effects caused by oil spills are very light dependent and thus could vary by season, location, and may occur to significant depths in the ocean.

  11. Modular-block complex on preparation and processing of oil slurry, spilled and raw petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pak, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    The use of non-serial small petroleum equipment for development of remote and low output petroleum deposit, collection and processing of spilled petroleum is urgent issue. Joint-stock company Montazhengineering developed and mastered production of small modular-block complexes for preparation and processing of petroleum. The complex can include the following modules: preparation of raw petroleum for getting commodity petroleum; petroleum processing installation for getting gas, diesel fuel and black oil; installation for refining of nafta; installation for cleaning petroleum products from mercaptans; installation for getting basic oil; installation for getting bitumen and mastic; installation for processing of spilled petroleum and oil slurry. Each of modules can work separately and in various combinations depending on input and necessary assortment of commodity petroleum. One of urgent ecological problem in Kazakhstan petroleum-processing regions is large number barns with spilled petroleum and oil slurry. Their processing will allow to solve the ecological and economical problems. Processing of spilled petroleum and oil slurry in developed installations it's possible to get commodity petroleum and petroleum products

  12. Bioremediation of crude oil spills in marine and terrestrial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    Bioremediation can be a safe and effective tool for dealing with crude oil spills, as demonstrated during the cleanup following the Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska. Crude oil has also been spilled on land, and bioremediation is a promising option for land spills too. Nevertheless, there are still areas where understanding of the phenomenon is rather incomplete. Research groups around the world are addressing these problems, and this symposium provides an excellent overview of some of this work

  13. Progress toward the development of micro- and meso-scale methods for predicting the behavior of low-API gravity oils (LAPIO) spilled on water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostazeski, S.A.; Durell, G.S.; Uhler, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    Bench-scale weathering studies were conducted on a number of low-API gravity oils (LAPIO), and flume tank studies were conducted on several LAPIO products. The objective was to develop a method which would predict the environmental behaviour of LAPIO fuel spilled on water. Unlike crude oils and petroleum products which float when spilled on water, LAPIO spills are unpredictable. LAPIO fuels, which are used for electric power generation, have densities greater or equal to 1.0 g/ml. When spilled at sea, they may float, be neutrally buoyant, or sink, depending on the conditions of the receiving water. Their behavior depends on the physical and chemical properties of the specific oil and also the temperature and composition of the water. In order to simulate the behavior of oil spilled at sea, a number of different LAPIO fuels were artificially weathered by evaporative distillation. Tests were conducted to determine the physical and chemical properties of the oil residues, the buoyancy of the oils, their emulsifying properties and chemical dispersability. Results have shown that current laboratory methods for determining emulsion formation, stability, and kinetics are not adequate for these highly viscous fuels. Laboratory methods need refining and improving. 7 refs

  14. Spill management strategy for the Chesapeake Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, H.L.; Chapman, R.S.; Johnson, B.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay Program is a unique cooperative effort between state and Federal agencies to restore the health and productivity of America's largest estuary. To assist in addressing specific management issues, a comprehensive three-dimensional, time-varying hydrodynamic and water quality model has ben developed. The Bay modeling strategy will serve as an excellent framework for including submodules to predict the movement, dispersion, and weathering of accidental spills, such as for petroleum products or other chemicals. This paper presents sample results from the Bay application to illustrate the success of the model system in simulating Bay processes. Also, a review of model requirements for successful spill modeling in Chesapeake Bay is presented. Recommendations are given for implementing appropriate spill modules with the Bay model framework and establishing a strategy for model use in addressing management issues

  15. Response to a spill of national significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, D.S.; Pond, R.; Johnson, M.H.

    1993-01-01

    Responding to a spill of national significance (SONS), such as the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill, requires an augmenting organization to support the local response organization. The US Coast Guard has developed SONS protocol to be better prepared to respond to these infrequent catastrophic spills. A flag-level Coast Guard officer assumes the role of national incident commander (NIC) and federal on-scene coordinator (OSC), and is supported by a national incident task force (NITF). The major role of the NITF is to develop a national response strategy, acquire response resources and allocate them efficiently, and effectively deal with many peripheral national issues. Unified command concepts have been incorporated into the NITF and its primary organizational elements. In addition, frequent training and exercising is essential to keep the SONS protocol's preparedness at an acceptable level

  16. Spill response : an exercise in teamwork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    An offshore oil spill response exercise was conducted at Hibernia to demonstrate to the Canada-Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board the emergency response capabilities that are in place in the event of large offshore spills. The Canadian Coast Guard, Eastern Canada Response Corporation Ltd., Hibernia, Husky Oil Operations Ltd., Jeanne d'Arc Basin Operators Group and the Terra Nova Project team participated in the exercise. The exercise was a success in that it demonstrated that the emergency response teams have the capability of containing and recovering large and small offshore oil spills. The two systems that were tested during the exercise were the large wide-swath boom system and a smaller side-sweep system. Two supply vessels worked in tandem. 11 figs

  17. European Atlantic: the hottest oil spill hotspot worldwide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Vieites, D.; Nieto-Roman, S.; Palanca, A.; Ferrer, X.; Vences, M.

    2004-01-01

    Oil spills caused by maritime transport of petroleum products are still an important source of ocean pollution, especially in main production areas and along major transport routes. We here provide a historical and geographic analysis of the major oil spills (>700 tonnes) since 1960. Spills were

  18. The Prestige oil spill response in the French coastal waters : setting up a second-line response system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerambrun, L.; Lavenant, M.; Cariou, G.; Poisson, H.; Goasguen, H.; Peltier, M.

    2005-01-01

    A heavy fuel oil spill from the Prestige oil tanker in early 2003 threatened the coastline of France, particularly the sensitive sandy dunes of the Aquitaine coast. The spill posed a long-term threat to two affected tourist islands that host a rich marine life, including the Marennes-Oleron oysters and juvenile eel fisheries. An oil spill response system was established by the French Maritime Affairs Department. The two-tiered response system was constructed with dynamic and static components and was adapted for strong tidal currents and muddy waters where fuel patches from the spill might not be visible. Local fishermen with knowledge of the waters used their trawlers and eel-fishing boats that were equipped with oil recovery trawls. A local netting device was also tested. The second response line for shallow waters consisted of small boats with net bags. The storage, transfer and treatment of the oily waste were controlled and available oil waste treatment procedures were assessed at local, regional and national levels for each type of oil waste fuel. 2 refs

  19. Interocular suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuna, Ana Rita; Almeida Neves Carrega, Filipa; Nunes, Amélia Fernandes

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this work is to quantify the suppressive imbalance, based on the manipulation of ocular luminance, between a group of subjects with normal binocular vision and a group of subjects with amblyopia. The result reveals that there are statistically significant differences in interocular dominance between two groups, evidencing a greater suppressive imbalance in amblyopic subjects. The technique used, proved to be a simple, easy to apply and economic method, for quantified ocular dominance. It is presented as a technique with the potential to accompany subjects with a marked dominance in one of the eyes that makes fusion difficult.

  20. Can a GIS toolbox assess the environmental risk of oil spills? Implementation for oil facilities in harbors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdor, Paloma F; Gómez, Aina G; Velarde, Víctor; Puente, Araceli

    2016-04-01

    Oil spills are one of the most widespread problems in port areas (loading/unloading of bulk liquid, fuel supply). Specific environmental risk analysis procedures for diffuse oil sources that are based on the evolution of oil in the marine environment are needed. Diffuse sources such as oil spills usually present a lack of information, which makes the use of numerical models an arduous and occasionally impossible task. For that reason, a tool that can assess the risk of oil spills in near-shore areas by using Geographical Information System (GIS) is presented. The SPILL Tool provides immediate results by automating the process without miscalculation errors. The tool was developed using the Python and ArcGIS scripting library to build a non-ambiguous geoprocessing workflow. The SPILL Tool was implemented for oil facilities at Tarragona Harbor (NE Spain) and validated showing a satisfactory correspondence (around 0.60 RSR error index) with the results obtained using a 2D calibrated oil transport numerical model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Guide to oil spill exercise planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Cooperation (OPRC Convention) foresees a future in which all at risk states have national oil spill preparedness and response plans. The Convention also encourages the idea that national plans be developed in cooperation with oil and shipping industries. The ultimate test of any contingency plan is measured by performance in a real emergency. It is vital, therefore, that any programme for developing a national contingency plan must include an ongoing programme to test the plan through realistic exercises. An exercise programme must progressively prepare the Oil Spill Energy Response Team to perform effectively in realistic representations of the risks that the contingency plan has been designed to meet. This report has been designed to guide all those in government or industry who are faced with the responsibility of developing and managing oil spill response exercises at all levels. It carries with it the authority that derives from peer review by many centres of oil spill response excellence around the world. It is well-illustrated with brief case histories of exercises that have been carried out by many IPIECA member companies. Each of those companies has indicated its preparedness to share more information by providing contact name and address details within this report. (author)

  2. Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill PSA (:24)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 24 second PSA from Dr. Regina Benjamin, U.S. Surgeon General, encourages people to get help if they are feeling sad, angry, depressed, or stressed as a result of the Gulf oil spill. It was recorded so that localities can add their own "For more information" at the end, as appropriate.

  3. Intrinsic bioremediation of an Arctic spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziervogel, H.; Selann, J.

    2002-01-01

    An environmental site assessment was conducted in summer 2001 at Repulse Bay, Nunavut where a recent diesel spill flowed from groundwater into a small creek leading to Hudson Bay. The spill produced a microbial mat several mm in thickness and which colonized the creek for about 50 m from the point where the groundwater entered the creek. Further down the gradient, the mat increased in thickness and changed in colour from yellowish brown to green. Sedimentary iron deposition was occurring along the banks of the creek where the mat was found and a free phase diesel product was found a few mm below the sediment-water interface. The microbial mats were found to have gradients of oxygen which peaked at surface and decreased with depth. Hydrogen sulphide concentrations were formed by sulphate reduction. In comparison, an older weathered diesel spill did not appear to have much effect on the stream's geochemistry and did not form a microbial mat. It is noted that the mat may have formed in the new spill because its' volatile component may have had a toxic effect on bacterial predators in the stream. It was concluded that intrinsic bioremediation takes place through dissimilatory sulphate and iron reduction and aerobic degradation. This may be cause for about 13 per cent ppm of hydrocarbon degradation known as BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene). 12 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  4. A Review of Oil Spill Remote Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingas, Merv; Brown, Carl E

    2017-12-30

    The technical aspects of oil spill remote sensing are examined and the practical uses and drawbacks of each technology are given with a focus on unfolding technology. The use of visible techniques is ubiquitous, but limited to certain observational conditions and simple applications. Infrared cameras offer some potential as oil spill sensors but have several limitations. Both techniques, although limited in capability, are widely used because of their increasing economy. The laser fluorosensor uniquely detects oil on substrates that include shoreline, water, soil, plants, ice, and snow. New commercial units have come out in the last few years. Radar detects calm areas on water and thus oil on water, because oil will reduce capillary waves on a water surface given moderate winds. Radar provides a unique option for wide area surveillance, all day or night and rainy/cloudy weather. Satellite-carried radars with their frequent overpass and high spatial resolution make these day-night and all-weather sensors essential for delineating both large spills and monitoring ship and platform oil discharges. Most strategic oil spill mapping is now being carried out using radar. Slick thickness measurements have been sought for many years. The operative technique at this time is the passive microwave. New techniques for calibration and verification have made these instruments more reliable.

  5. The 1990 Arthur Kill oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astor, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    On January 1-2, 1990, Exxon discharged 567,000 gallons of No. 2 heating oil in the Arthur Kill, the strait separating Staten Island, New York from New Jersey. Lawsuits against Exxon were filed by the State of New Jersey, New York City, and the City of Elizabeth. They seek to force Exxon to reimburse the municipalities and the state for cleanup costs and to restore damaged wetlands and other natural resources. The three plaintiffs, joined by New York State and the federal government, initiated a three-tiered natural resource damage assessment study (Tier II), currently underway, includes sampling and chemical analysis of sediments and benthic invertebrates, mapping of impacted wetlands and measurement of direct impacts on water birds and their prey. The purposes of the study are to quantify the damages and determine the presence of Exxon's oil in the sediments. Since the Exxon spill, there have been two major spills and an intermediate-size spill. During the first size months of 1990, over one million gallons of petroleum products have been discharged into the Arthur Kill and nearby waters. This paper reports that a review of these incidents provides lessons for the prevention, investigation, and cleanup of spills in urban estuaries

  6. Use of three generations of oil spill models during the Gulf War oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerkirge, H.M.; Al-Rabeh, A.H.; Gunay, N.

    1992-01-01

    During the January-May 1991 Gulf War, an estimated 6 million bbl of oil was spilled into the Arabian Gulf, mostly around Mina Al-Ahmadi in southern Kuwait. Three models were used to analyze the fate and transport of the spills originating at Al-Ahmadi. The first generation model, GULFSLIK I, was developed in the late 1970s and predicts the movements of a spill by considering that the center of the slick advects with a velocity equal to 3% of the wind speed. This model is best for the initial forecasting of oil spill movement. The second generation GULFSLIK II Model predicts the trajectory of spills at 24 h intervals, requiring as input the average daily wind velocity. Surface currents are obtained for the model from a reliable 3-dimensional hydrodynamic model of the Gulf coupled with an appropriate interpolation scheme. Comparisons between predicted spill trajectories and actual sightings show GULFSLIK II to be reasonably accurate. The third generation model, called OILPOL, consists of a set of algorithms describing the processes of advection, turbulent diffusion, surface spreading, vertical mechanical dispersion, emulsification, and evaporation. After 80 days, results show under 8% of the initial oil volume remains on the sea surface while 15% is suspended in the water column or sedimented on the sea bed. Comparisons of simulation results and actual sightings show excellent agreement. 4 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Don't Cry over Spilled Water: Identifying Risks and Solutions for Produced Water Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shores, Amanda Rose

    Resource requirements and future energy generation requires careful evaluation, particularly due to climate change and water scarcity. This thesis discusses one aspect of energy generation linked to water; oil-and-gas extraction and the large volumes of waste water produced, otherwise known as "produced water". This research focuses on surface spills of produced water, their ramifications, safeguards against groundwater contamination at spill sites and potential remediation strategies. Produced water contains a variety of contaminants that include the group of known toxins, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene), and high salt concentrations. A combination of factors such as large volumes of generated produced water, the need for storage and transportation across large distances and the toxic-and-mobile nature of produced water constituents creates risks for spills that can pollute groundwater. Spills occur regularly, particularly in Weld County, Colorado, where the demand for natural gas is high. To answer spill-related hypotheses, a multitude of methodology were employed: modeling, greenhouse experimentation, gas chromatography and summarization of spill reports and statistical analyses. Using publically available spill data, this research found that the frequency of oil-and-gas related spills and the average spilled volume has increased in Weld County from 2011-2015. Additionally, the number of spills that have resulted in groundwater contamination has increased in the area. By focusing on the oil-and-gas operators responsible for these spills, a linear relationship was found between the volumes of oil-and-gas produced compared to the volumes of produced-water generated. However, larger oil-and-gas producers did not show a linear relationship between oil-and-gas produced and produced-water generated, such that larger producers were more efficient and generated less water per unit of energy. So while scale-up efficiency seems to exist for produced

  8. Environmental surveillance: An integral part of the spill contingency plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinas, J.; Bozzo, W.

    1993-01-01

    Typically, the initial response to spills is directed at containing, controlling, and stopping the flow of spilled materials. The primary goal of such a response is to limit the spread and further impact of spilled material, and to initiate timely cleanup and recovery of affected areas. Surveillance of actual spill impacts has often followed an after the fact approach, using only immediately available resources. Surveillance may occur quickly after a spill, but in most incidents its occurs as a follow-up action after initial response and containment have been achieved. Insufficient planning may produce spill surveillance that inadequately assesses impacts, fails to incorporate baseline data, and does not clearly identify a cleanup recovery and endpoint. The management and operations contractor for the US Dept. of Energy's Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) conducts environmental surveillance activities in response to spill incidents when they occur at these facilities. These surveillance activities, when conducted as part of the response, are useful instruments in the initial assessment of spill incidents, management of spill response, containment, and cleanup activities, and for monitoring and documenting postspill impacts and recovery. An Environmental Surveillance Plan (ESP) incorporated in the SPR Spill Contingency Plan provides for initiation of environmental surveillance as part of the spill response. The ESP outlines, through alogic tree, conditions for activating the plan, key indicator parameters for evaluation, detailed methods for establishing surveillance stations, lists of key personnel, locations of equipment necessary to perform surveillance, and conditions for termination of environmental surveillance

  9. Information to help reduce environmental impacts from freshwater oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, D.E.; Steen, A.E.

    1995-01-01

    The American Petroleum Institute (API) has been working since 1990 to provide information to help the response community minimize the impact of spills to pared jointly with the US inland freshwater. Projects have included a manual, pre National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), to give guidance on the cleanup techniques that will minimize environmental impacts on spills in freshwater habitats. Nearing completion are a literature review and annotated bibliography of the environmental and human health effects of oil spilled in freshwater habitats. The use of chemical treating agents for freshwater spill applications is being studied with input from other industry and government groups. A project has begun, with funding from API, the Louisiana Applied Oil Spill Research and Development Program, NOAA, the Marine Spill Response Corporation (MSRC), and the US Department of Energy, to evaluate in situ burning of oil spilled in marshes

  10. Environmental impacts of the Chennai oil spill accident - A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuling; Nambi, Indumathi M; Prabhakar Clement, T

    2018-06-01

    Chennai, a coastal city in India with a population of over 7 million people, was impacted by a major oil spill on January 28th 2017. The spill occurred when two cargo ships collided about two miles away from the Chennai shoreline. The accident released about 75 metric tons of heavy fuel oil into the Bay of Bengal. This case study provides field observations and laboratory characterization data for this oil spill accident. Our field observations show that the seawalls and groins, which were installed along the Chennai shoreline to manage coastal erosion problems, played a significant role in controlling the oil deposition patterns. A large amount of oil was trapped within the relatively stagnant zone near the seawall-groin intersection region. The initial cleanup efforts used manual methods to skim the trapped oil and these efforts indeed helped recover large amount of oil. Our laboratory data show that the Chennai oil spill residues have unique fingerprints of hopanes and steranes which can be used to track the spill. Our weathering experiments show that volatilization processes should have played a significant role in degrading the oil during initial hours. The characterization data show that the source oil contained about 503,000 mg/kg of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and 17,586 mg/kg of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The field samples collected 6 and 62 days after the spill contained about 71,000 and 28,000 mg/kg of TPH and 4854 and 4016 mg/kg of total PAHs, respectively. The field samples had a relatively large percentage of heavy PAHs, and most of these PAHs are highly toxic compounds that are difficult to weather and their long-term effects on coastal ecosystems are largely unknown. Therefore, more detailed studies are needed to monitor and track the long term environmental impacts of the Chennai oil spill residues on the Bay of Bengal coastal ecosystem. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Integrated electrochemical treatment systems for facilitating the bioremediation of oil spill contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ying; Wang, Liang; Faustorilla, Vilma; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi; Chen, Zuliang

    2017-05-01

    Bioremediation plays an important role in oil spill management and bio-electrochemical treatment systems are supposed to represent a new technology for both effective remediation and energy recovery. Diesel removal rate increased by four times in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) since the electrode served as an electron acceptor, and high power density (29.05 W m -3 ) at current density 72.38 A m -3 was achieved using diesel (v/v 1%) as the sole substrate. As revealed by Scanning electron microscope images, carbon fibres in the anode electrode were covered with biofilm and the bacterial colloids which build the link between carbon fibres and enhance electron transmission. Trace metabolites produced during the anaerobic biodegradation were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. These metabolites may act as emulsifying agents that benefit oil dispersion and play a vital role in bioremediation of oil spills in field applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Natural resource damage assessments for oil spills: Status of rules and application to recent oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robilliard, G.A.; Winfield, T.P.; Lebednik, P.A.; Markarian, R.K.

    1992-01-01

    The natural resource damage assessment (NRDA) process is based on the concept that all natural resources managed by government agencies or Indian tribes (trustees) are available to the public for its use and enjoyment. These resources have an economic value that can be affected by a spill of oil or other chemicals. The spiller or potentially responsible party (PRP) is responsible to the public, through the trustees, for paying damages and for restoration of the resource. The NRDA process should also determine the appropriate means of restoration, provide a cost for doing so and for conducting the NRDA, and should implement the appropriate restoration activities. The legal and regulatory authority behind NRDA in the USA is explained and reasons why PRPs should be concerned about NRDAs in the context of oil spills are presented. US Department of the Interior regulations describe two procedures for implementing a NRDA. A simplified procedure intended for small spills uses a computer model to generate a damage value. A more thorough and complicated procedure involves a number of phases and steps within the phases, and may include field sampling, data collection and analysis, and detailed evaluation of restoration alternatives. The NRDA experience in oil spills to date is reviewed and the future of NRDA is assessed. Examples cited include the 1988 Shell Oil spill from the Martinez Refinery, the Exxon Bayway pipeline leak of 1990, the Mega Borg spill in the Texas offshore, and the Exxon Valdez spill. It is speculated that trustees will focus on the NRDA process as a cooperative one that includes the trustees and PRPs, with the ultimate goal being restoration of the foregone services provided by natural resources. 5 refs., 1 fig

  13. Fission-suppressed hybrid reactor: the fusion breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Coops, M.S.

    1982-12-01

    Results of a conceptual design study of a 233 U-producing fusion breeder are presented. The majority of the study was devoted to conceptual design and evaluation of a fission-suppressed blanket and to fuel cycle issues such as fuel reprocessing, fuel handling, and fuel management. Studies in the areas of fusion engineering, reactor safety, and economics were also performed

  14. Cost-effectiveness criteria for marine oil spill preventive measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanem, Erik; Endresen, Oyvind; Skjong, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    Oil tanker accidents resulting in large quantities of oil spills and severe pollution have occurred in the past, leading to major public attention and an international focus on finding solutions for minimising the risks related to such events. This paper proposes a novel approach for evaluating measures for prevention and control of marine oil spills, based on considerations of oil spill risk and cost effectiveness. A cost model that incorporates all costs of a shipping accident has been established and oil tanker spill accidents have been further elaborated as a special case of such accidents. Utilising this model, novel implementation criteria, in terms of the Cost of Averting a Tonne of oil Spilt (CATS), for risk control options aiming at mitigating the environmental risk of accidental oil spills, are proposed. The paper presents a review of previous studies on the costs associated with oil spills from shipping, which is a function of many factors such as location of spill, spill amount, type of oil, etc. However, ships are designed for global trade, transporting different oil qualities. Therefore, globally applicable criteria must average over most of these factors, and the spill amount is the remaining factor that will be used to measure cost effectiveness against. A weighted, global average cleanup cost of USD 16,000/tonne of oil spilt has been calculated, considering the distribution of oil tanker traffic densities. Finally, the criteria are compared with some existing regulations for oil spill prevention, response and compensation (OPA 90)

  15. A program approach for site safety at oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whipple, F.L.; Glenn, S.P.; Ocken, J.J.; Ott, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    When OSHA developed the hazardous waste operations (Hazwoper) regulations (29 CFR 1910.120) members of the response community envisioned a separation of oil and open-quotes hazmatclose quotes response operations. Organizations that deal with oil spills have had difficulty applying Hazwoper regulations to oil spill operations. This hinders meaningful implementation of the standard for their personnel. We should approach oil spills with the same degree of caution that is applied to hazmat response. Training frequently does not address the safety of oil spill response operations. Site-specific safety and health plans often are neglected or omitted. Certain oils expose workers to carcinogens, as well as chronic and acute hazards. Significant physical hazards are most important. In responding to oil spills, the hazards must be addressed. It is the authors' contention that a need exists for safety program at oil spill sites. Gone are the days of labor pool hires cleaning up spills in jeans and sneakers. The key to meaningful programs for oil spills requires application of controls focused on relevant safety risks rather than minimal chemical exposure hazards. Working with concerned reviewers from other agencies and organizations, the authors have developed a general safety and health program for oil spill response. It is intended to serve as the basis for organizations to customize their own written safety and health program (required by OSHA). It also provides a separate generic site safety plan for emergency phase oil spill operations (check-list) and long term post-emergency phase operations

  16. Marine (Brander-Smith report) and non-marine spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Current activities related to Canada's Green Plan are reviewed in the area of research on, and response to, marine and non-marine spills. The Emergency Response section of Environment Canada's Conservation and Protection Service has had a 130% increase in funding and 50% increase in personnel resources. Two thirds of these resources are assigned to regional operations where spill incidents occur and the rest to research. The section's first priority is to improve its spill prevention program. A national standard for emergency planning for industry has been prepared and thousands of copies have been sold. A Canada-USA joint inland pollution contingency plan will be established and training programs on response to oil and hazardous chemical spills has been implemented. Resources applied to spill response have also increased 150%; a computerized communications network has been provided for spill response personnel, with the aim to develop a single national spill reporting system. In terms of policy initiatives, amendments are being made to the Canada Shipping Act that will require on-board pollution emergency plans for ships operating in Canadian waters. A liability and compensation regime for chemical spills is being considered, as well as reimposition of a levy on petroleum products that resulted in creation of a ship-source oil pollution fund. Radar-based traffic control systems for heavily congested marine areas, electronic charting, and increased inspection of ships are among the spill prevention initiatives in progress. Research is being conducted on mapping environmentally sensitive shorelines and in oil spill cleanup methods

  17. Australia's tyranny of distance in oil spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipscombe, Ray

    2000-01-01

    In view of the quantity of oil spilled, smaller spills generally receive less attention than headline grabbing incidents such as the 'Amoco Cadiz', 'Exxon Valdez', 'Braer' and 'Sea Empress'. The latter incidents involve the loss of significant quantities of oil, the establishment of relatively complex spill response management structures and the involvement of significant numbers of personnel and equipment. As such, large spills from tankers have the potential to create problem areas, for example in establishing and maintaining effective communications, logistics and resource management systems. In general terms spill response personnel are well aware that large spills come complete with significant operational and administrative problems, however what may not be so well recognised is that smaller spills also have the potential to present response personnel with their own unique problems. One of the major problems to be overcome when responding to spills in Australia is the 'tyranny of distance'. In quite a few responses, Australian oil spill response managers have had to move personnel and equipment thousands of kilometres to provide an effective outcome. This paper outlines a range of problems that have been encountered by Australian personnel over the years. These include health and safety, communications, logistics and equipment issues. For the purpose of this paper a 'smaller' spill has been defined as one involving a discharge of less than 1000 tonnes of oil. (Author)

  18. Washington's marine oil spill compensation schedule - simplified resource damage assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geselbracht, L.; Logan, R.

    1993-01-01

    The Washington State Preassessment Screening and Oil Spill Compensation Schedule Rule (Chapter 173-183 Washington Administrative Code), which simplifies natural resource damage assessment for many oil spill cases, became effective in May 1992. The approach described in the rule incorporates a number of preconstructed rankings that rate environmental sensitivity and the propensity of spilled oil to cause environmental harm. The rule also provides guidance regarding how damages calculated under the schedule should be reduced to take into account actions taken by the responsible party that reduce environmental injury. To apply the compensation schedule to marine estuarine spills, the resource trustees need only collect a limited amount of information such as type of product spilled, number of gallons spilled, compensation schedule subregions the spill entered, season of greatest spill impact, percent coverage of habitats affected by the spill, and actions taken by the responsible party. The result of adding a simplified tool to the existing assortment of damage assessment approaches is that resource trustees will now be able to assess damages for most oil spill cases and shift more effort than was possible in the past to resource restoration

  19. The effects of spilled oil on coastal ecosystems: Lessons from the Exxon Valdez spill: Chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, James L.; Esler, Daniel N.; Rice, Stanley D.; Matkin, Craig O.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Maslo, Brooke; Lockwood, Julie L.

    2014-01-01

    Oil spilled from ships or other sources into the marine environment often occurs in close proximity to coastlines, and oil frequently accumulates in coastal habitats. As a consequence, a rich, albeit occasionally controversial, body of literature describes a broad range of effects of spilled oil across several habitats, communities, and species in coastal environments. This statement is not to imply that spilled oil has less of an effect in pelagic marine ecosystems, but rather that marine spills occurring offshore may be less likely to be detected, and associated effects are more difficult to monitor, evaluate, and quantify (Peterson et al., 2012). As a result, we have a much greater awareness of coastal pollution, which speaks to our need to improve our capacities in understanding the ecology of the open oceans. Conservation of coastal ecosystems and assessment of risks associated with oil spills can be facilitated through a better understanding of processes leading to direct and indirect responses of species and systems to oil exposure.It is also important to recognize that oil spilled from ships represents only ~9% of the nearly 700 000 barrels of petroleum that enter waters of North America annually from anthropogenic sources (NRC, 2003). The immediate effects of large spills can be defined as acute, due to the obvious and dramatic effects that are observed. In contrast, the remaining 625 000 barrels that are released each year can be thought of as chronic non-point pollution, resulting from oil entering the coastal ocean as runoff in a more consistent but much less conspicuous rate. In this chapter, we primarily address the effects of large oil spills that occur near coastlines and consider their potential for both acute and chronic effects on coastal communities. As described below, in some instances, the effects from chronic exposure may meet or exceed the more evident acute effects from large spills. Consequently, although quantifying chronic effects

  20. The Other Major 2010 Oil Spill: Oil weathering after the Kalamazoo River Dilbit Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarthout, B.; Reddy, C. M.; Nelson, R. K.; Hamilton, S. K.; Aeppli, C.; Valentine, D. L.; Fundaun, S. E.; Oliveira, A. H.

    2016-02-01

    Diluted bitumen (dilbit) from the oil sands (tar sands) of western Canada is increasingly being transported to US markets. North America's largest inland oil spill and the first major oil sands spill in a freshwater environment occurred in 2010, when at least 843,000 gallons leaked from a pipeline into the Kalamazoo River of southwest Michigan. Cleanup of this oil was unusually difficult and protracted, lasting through 2014 and costing over a billion dollars, largely because a substantial fraction of the oil became submersed and deposited in slack water areas over 60 km of river channel, reservoirs, and floodplain backwaters. To investigate the fate of the spilled dilbit from the 2010 Kalamazoo River release, black rings, presumably oil residues, on the bark of dead trees were collected in 2015. These residues were deposited on the trees during high flood levels that have not been observed since the spill and represent an opportunity to constrain weathering processes excluding dissolution. This material contained a major non-GC amenable fraction of 90-95%, presumably oxygenated hydrocarbons. The GC amenable portion was consistent with laboratory weathered dilbit. We used a variety of analytical tools to characterize the dilbit residues, as well as to identify dilbit weathering processes that occurred since the spill.

  1. Integration of Web-GIS and oil spill simulation applications for environmental management of near-shore spill accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, S.; Miyata, D.; Varlamov, S.M.; Kim, S.-W.

    2001-01-01

    In the event of a near-shore oil spill, the use of a web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) can greatly improve emergency response management and oil recovery operations by providing real-time information support. This paper presented a Web-GIS that is used in combination with an oil spill simulation model. The structure and content of the system was defined after the Nakhodka vessel spilled oil in the Sea of Japan in January 1997, leaving serious environmental damage to the coastal area of the Ishikawa prefecture. The Web-GIS provides a wide range of environmental and oil spill related information, presented in a geographical form. The system also consolidates spill and environmental damage related information from different sources and provides links to the specialized environmental and socio-economical information of other GIS databases. The oil spill modeling subsystem is part of an application for protection planning and oil recovery operations. With this system, oil-drift simulation begins at the onset of any oil spill and then remote sensing data are used to estimate the position and state of the spilled oil. The spill information is then assimilated into the spill model and the observed simulated results are uploaded to the Web page for public information. The applicability of the Web-GIS is extended by support for information gathering from the public and the responsible agencies. The relative simplicity of the system interface is an added advantage. 9 refs., 4 figs

  2. Petroleum biodegradation and oil spill bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atlas, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms are ubiquitously distributed in the marine environment following oil spills. These microorganisms naturally biodegrade numerous contaminating petroleum hydrocarbons, thereby cleansing the oceans of oil pullutants. Bioremediation, which is accomplished by adding exogenous microbial populations or stimulating indigenous ones, attempts to raise the rates of degradation found naturally to significantly higher rates. Seeding with oil degraders has not been demonstrated to be effective, but addition of nitrogenous fertilizers has been shown to increase rates of petroleum biodegradation. In the case of the Exxon Valdez spill, the largest and most thoroughly studied application of bioremediation, the application of fertilizer (slow release or oleophilic) increased rates of biodegradation 3-5 times. Because of the patchiness of oil, an internally conserved compound, hopane, was critical for demonstrating the efficacy of bioremediation. Multiple regression models showed that the effectiveness of bioremediation depended upon the amount of nitrogen delivered, the concentration of oil, and time. (author)

  3. Bacterial consortia for crude oil spill remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chhatre, S.; Purohit, H.; Shanker, R.; Khanna, P.

    1996-01-01

    Oil spills generate enormous public concern and highlight the need for cost effective ad environmentally acceptable mitigation technologies. Physico-chemical methods are not completely effective after a spill. Hence, there is a need for improved and alternative technologies. Bioremediation is the most environmentally sound technology for clean up. This report intends to determine the potential of a bacterial consortium for degradation of Gulf and Bombay High crude oil. A four membered consortium was designed that could degrade 70% of the crude oil. A member of consortium produced a biosurfactant, rhamnolipid, that emulsified crude oil efficiently for effective degradation by the other members of consortium. The wide range of hydrocarbonoclastic capabilities of the selected members of bacterial consortium leads to the degradation of both aromatic and aliphatic fractions of crude oil in 72 hours. (Author)

  4. Survey to assess Persian Gulf spill effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that an international group is poised for an extensive survey of the Persian Gulf, including an assessment of the long term effects of last year's oil spill, a legacy of the Persian Gulf war. Saudi Arabia plans a $450 million cleanup program on beaches fouled by the massive spill. Plans for the survey were disclosed by the United National Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (Unesco). It is to be carried out under the auspices of the Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment (Ropme), Unesco's Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Ropme member countries are Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates

  5. Mitigating oil spills in the water column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, Edward; Libera, Joseph A.; Mane, Anil University; Avila, Jason R.; DeVitis, David

    2017-01-01

    The scale and scope of uncontrolled oil spills can be devastating. Diverse marine environments and fragile ecologies are some of the most susceptible to the many ill effects, while the economic costs can be crippling. A notoriously difficult challenge with no known technological solution is the successful removal of oil dispersed in the water column. Here, we address this problem through cheap and reusable oil sorbents based on the chemical modification of polymer foams. Interfacial chemistry was optimized and subsequently tested in a simulated marine environment at the National Oil Spill Response Research & Renewable Energy Test Facility, Ohmsett. We find favorable performance for surface oil mitigation and, for the first time, demonstrate the advanced sorbent's efficiency and efficacy at pilot scale in extraction of crude oil and refined petroleum products dispersed in the water column. As a result, this is a potentially disruptive technology, opening a new field of environmental science focused on sub-surface pollutant sequestration.

  6. Recovery: The untold story of Valdez spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.

    1991-01-01

    The worst fears about the effect of the oil spill in Prince William Sound happily have proved to be unfounded, and the shore environment is recovering rapidly, reports Clark. Visiting the area in both the spring and fall of 1990, he found that the beaches already displayed an abundance of recolonized marine life. Young barnacles, mussels, and rockweeds had settled on the rocks, and periwinkles were laying eggs under stones at the waterline. While remnants of weathered oil were still evident among some of the rocks and sediment on shore, clark says, this oil does not appear to be either toxic or harmful. Sea otters and seabirds, which suffered heavy losses from the spill, have the capacity for rapid recovery, he notes. Also encouraging, he adds, is the fact that record catches of both herring and pink salmon occurred in the area in 1990

  7. The Galeta oil spill: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrity, S.D.; Levings, S.C.; Burns, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    In April 1986, more than 75 000 barrels (1.5 x 10 7 l) of medium-weight crude oil spilled into Bahia las Minas on the central Caribbean coast of Panama. Changes in the physical structure of the mangrove fringe after oiling were documented over time. These included defoliation, limb loss and eventual collapse of dead trees. By 5 years after the spill, the length of shore fringed by mangroves was reduced at oiled sites relative to unoiled sites. Surviving trees at oiled sites had fewer and shorter submerged prop roots and a higher proportion of dead roots than trees at unoiled sites. These changes reduced the surface area of submerged prop roots by 33% on oiled open coast, 38% in channels and 74% in streams. (author)

  8. Saudis map $450 million gulf spill cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Saudi Arabia which has earmarked about $450 million to clean up Persian Gulf beaches polluted by history's worst oil spills, created during the Persian Gulf crisis. Details of the proposed cleanup measures were outlined by Saudi environmental officials at a seminar on the environment in Dubai, OPEC News Agency reported. The seminar was sponsored by the Gulf Area Oil Companies Mutual Aid Organization, an environmental cooperative agency set up by Persian Gulf governments. Meantime, a Saudi government report has outlined early efforts designed to contain the massive oil spills that hit the Saudi coast before oil could contaminate water intakes at the huge desalination plants serving Riyadh and cooling water facilities at Al Jubail

  9. Cotton for removal of aquatic oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, H.W.; Fedler, C.B.; Heintz, C.E.; Nash, P.T.; Carr, D.L.; Lu, M.

    1992-01-01

    Raw cotton has considerable potential for selective removal of spilled oil and oil products from surface waters, since the natural waxes on the raw cotton make it preferentially oil wet. This potential was recognized in the early seventies at Texas Tech University. More recently other research workers have considered cotton as an adsorbent for spilled oil. The adsorbent market is now dominated by synthetic materials, such as air-blown polypropylene fiber, inorganic clays, and recycled paper and paper products. This paper further examines the potential of cotton in relation to these other adsorbents. Emphasis is placed on the potential for complete biodegradation of oil-soaked cotton adsorbents as a means avoiding the expense for incineration and/or the long-term environmental risk associated with placing the used adsorbents in landfills

  10. Tourism and its hypersensitivity to oil spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirer-Costa, Joan Carles

    2015-02-15

    The sinking of the Don Pedro merchant ship in 2007 near the island of Ibiza is a good example of the extreme sensitivity of the tourism sector to oil spills. Despite the limited scale of the spill (only some 20 tonnes), its minimal ecological impact, and the rapid deployment of personnel and equipment to contain it, the accident nonetheless caused significant economic damage to the island's tourism sector. This particular case demonstrates the importance of the beach as a factor of production in the holiday tourism sector, and the capacity of even small amounts of oil to render it unusable and cause heavy losses to holiday firms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Microbial hydrocarbon degradation - bioremediation of oil spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atlas, R M [Louisville Univ., KY (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1991-01-01

    Bioremediation has become a major method employed in restoration of oil-polluted environments that makes use of natural microbial biodegradative activities. Bioremediation of petroleum pollutants overcomes the factors limiting rates of microbial hydrocarbon biodegradation. Often this involves using the enzymatic capabilities of the indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading microbial populations and modifying environmental factors, particularly concentrations of molecular oxygen, fixed forms of nitrogen and phosphate to achieve enhanced rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation. Biodegradation of oily sludges and bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites has been achieved by oxygen addition-e.g. by tilling soils in landfarming and by adding hydrogen peroxide or pumping oxygen into oiled aquifers along with addition of nitrogen- and phosphorous-containing fertilizers. The success of seeding oil spills with microbial preparations is ambiguous. Successful bioremediation of a major marine oil spill has been achieved based upon addition of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers. (author).

  12. Designing an oil spill information management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douligeris, C.; Collins, J.; Iakovou, E.; Sun, P.; Riggs, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the architectural design of OSIMS, an Oil Spill Information Management System, which is an integrated information management tool that consists of an object-relational database management system, an adaptive decision support system, an advanced visualization system (AVS) and a geographic information system (GIS). OSIMS will handle large and diverse databases of environmental, ecological, geographical, engineering, and regulatory information and will be used for risk analysis and contingency planning

  13. Designing an oil spill information management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douligeris, C.; Collins, J.; Iakovou, E.; Sun, P.; Riggs, K.R. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the architectural design of OSIMS, an Oil Spill Information Management System, which is an integrated information management tool that consists of an object-relational database management system, an adaptive decision support system, an advanced visualization system (AVS) and a geographic information system (GIS). OSIMS will handle large and diverse databases of environmental, ecological, geographical, engineering, and regulatory information and will be used for risk analysis and contingency planning.

  14. Cyber Physical Intelligence for Oil Spills (CPI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lary, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The National Academy of Sciences estimate 1.7 to 8.8 million tons of oil are released into global waters every year. The effects of these spills include dead wildlife, oil covered marshlands and contaminated water. Deepwater horizon cost approximately $50 billion and severely challenged response capabilities. In such large spills optimizing a coordinated response is a particular challenge. This challenge can be met in a revolutionary new way by using an objectively optimized Cyber Physical Decision Making System (CPS) for rapid response products and a framework for objectively optimized decision-making in an uncertain environment. The CPS utilizes machine learning for the processing of the massive real-time streams of Big Data from comprehensive hyperspectral remote sensing acquired by a team of low-cost robotic aerial vehicles, providing a real-time aerial view and stream of hyperspectral imagery from the near UV to the thermal infrared, and a characterization of oil thickness, oil type and oil weathering. The objective decision making paradigm is modeled on the human brain and provides the optimal course trajectory for response vessels to achieve the most expeditious cleanup of oil spills using the available resources. In addition, oil spill cleanups often involve surface oil burns that can lead to air quality issues. The aerial vehicles comprehensively characterize air quality in real-time, streaming location, temperature, pressure, humidity, the abundance of 6 criterion pollutants (O3, CO, NO, NO2, SO2, and H2S) and the full size distribution of airborne particulates. This CPS can be readily applied to other systems in agriculture, water conversation, monitoring of stream quality, air quality, diagnosing risk of wild fires, etc..

  15. The Exxon-Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, K.G.; Stringer, W.J.; Grove, J.E.; Ahlnas, K.; Royer, T.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that satellite images were used to investigate the Exxon Valdez oil spill after the tanker ran aground on Bligh Reef, Alaska 24 March 1989. Since that time, over 11 million gallons of crude oil have circulated through the western Prince William Sound region of Alaska, oiling many of its beaches. A good deal of this oil subsequently entered the Gulf of Alaska with some transported beyond Kodiak Island, 500 km to the southwest. Satellite imagery of the spill was recorded by the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer, the Landsat Thematic Mapper, the SPOT Panchromatic Scanner and the SPOT Multispectral Scanner. Images from all four of these sources have been analyzed to help ascertain the extent of the spill and monitor its trajectory along the Alaskan coast. Digital image processing techniques have been utilized to emphasize spectral responses related to oil on the water surface and on teaches. Turbidity and sea surface temperature data have been enhanced to provide information on the circulation and distribution of surface water bodies. In addition to the satellite imagery, airborne visual observations with aerial photography, Side-Looking Airborne Radar, and other airborne sensors as well as shipboard sightings and samples were acquired

  16. Dam spills and fishes; Eclusees et poissons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This short paper reports the main topics discussed during the two days of the annual colloquium of the Hydro-ecology Committee of EdF. The first day was devoted to the presentation of the joint works carried out by EdF, the Paul-Sabatier University (Toulouse), the Provence St-Charles University (Marseille), the ENSAT (Toulouse) and the CEMAGREF (Lyon and Aix-en-Provence) about the environmental impact of dam spills on the aquatic flora and fauna downstream. A synthesis and recommendations were presented for the selection and characterization of future sites. The second day was devoted to the hydro-ecology study of the dam reservoir of Petit-Saut (French Guyana): water reoxygenation, quality evolution, organic matter, plankton, invertebrates and fishes. The 134 French dams concerned by water spills have been classified according to the frequency of spills, the variations of flow rates created, and their impacts on fishing, walking, irrigation, industry, drinking water, navigation, bathing. Particular studies on different sites have demonstrated the complexity of the phenomena involved concerning the impact on the ecosystems and the water quality. (J.S.).

  17. The Newfoundland oil spill burn experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.

    1992-01-01

    A major offshore oil-spill combustion experiment is being planned for waters off Newfoundland. The experiment is designed to answer outstanding questions on the acceptability of in-situ oil spill burning. In the experiment, variables will be controlled to allow quantitative measurement of the scientific and operational parameters that will enhance understanding of in-situ combustion as an operational oil-spill response technique. The proposed full-scale tests follow six years of testing in laboratory tanks. Analyses have shown that the high temperatures reached during efficient in-situ combustion result in relatively complete destruction of the oil. Tests have shown that the most important factor in this regard is that the oil must be thickened sufficiently before effective burning will occur. Such thickening is potentially possible in the offshore, under suitable wind and sea conditions, using fireproof containment booms. The experiment will involve measurement of emissions to the air, levels of oil in water, and operational parameters of in-situ burning. Time and location of the experiment are chosen to minimize ecological damage and for operational reasons. When suitable conditions are present in early August 1993, two 45-m 3 batches of crude oil will be released into a containment boom and ignited. The burn residue will be recovered mechanically, and a secondary containment and recovery system will be towed behind the fireproof boom to pick up any fugitive oil or residue. 3 figs., 6 tabs

  18. Combustion: an oil spill mitigation tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-11-01

    The technical feasibility of using combustion as an oil spill mitigation tool was studied. Part I of the two-part report is a practical guide oriented toward the needs of potential users, while Part II is the research or resource document from which the practical guidance was drawn. The study included theoretical evaluations of combustion of petroleum pool fires under the effects of weathering and an oil classification system related to combustion potential. The theoretical analysis of combustion is balanced by practical experience of oil burning and case history information. Decision elements are provided which can be used as a guide for technical evaluations of a particular oil spill situation. The rationale for assessing technical feasibility is given in the context of other alternatives available for response to an oil spill. A series of research and technology development concepts are included for future research. The ethics of using oil burning are discussed as issues, concerns, and tradeoffs. A detailed annotated bibliography is appended along with a capsule review of a decade of oil burning studies and other support information.

  19. Oil spill dispersants. Risk assessment for Swedish waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, C.; Lager, H.; Fejes, J.

    2001-12-01

    IVL has compiled a list of the international usage of oil spill dispersants and presents the technical limitations with the use of such agents as well as the biological effects of these chemical products. IVL, has also conducted an analysis of the pros and cons to using dispersants against oil spills in waters and has applied this with a risk assessment of chemical methods to combat oil spills in the Kattegat and Skagerrak and the Baltic Sea

  20. Impacts to Ecological Services: Buried Oil from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon Spill and Its Effect on Salt Marsh Denitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, B. M.; White, J. R.; Delaune, R.

    2016-02-01

    In coastal Louisiana (LA), demands for ecosystem services are increasing while human activities continue to deteriorate coastal systems. On April 20, 2010, the largest offshore oil spill in United States history occurred in the Gulf of Mexico, known as the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill. Approximately 795 million L of crude oil were released, consequently oiling 1,773 km of Gulf Coast shoreline. Four years later, oil from the spill was found buried in the soil and seeping at the salt marsh surface in Bay Jimmy, LA. Previous studies found that immediately following oil exposure, wetland soils have suppressed microbial activity. This study seeks to understand effects of the long-term presence of oil on soil microbes and associated impacts to wetland soil denitrification. Bulk soil and intact soil cores were collected four years after the DWH spill from a heavily impacted salt marsh and a proximal site deemed unoiled in Barataria Bay, LA. Oil present in the soil subsurface increased dry weight bulk density, and decreased moisture content. Potential denitrification (acetylene block) in the top 10 cm of soil was 38% lower for oiled samples versus unoiled controls. Areal nitrate reduction rates were significantly lower in oiled samples in an intact core flux experiment under environmentally relevant nitrate conditions (2mg/L NO3-N), P-value ecosystem service of water quality improvement. Future studies should investigate impacts of oil being rebroadcasted onto marshes as land erodes in the study area.

  1. Summary of spill events in Canada : 1984 - 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    The trends in hazardous material spill events in Canada were summarized for the 12-year period 1984 to 1995. Findings were presented on the number and quantity of spills. The report includes data on the seven major sectors that incur spills. These include the chemical, government, metallurgy, mining, petroleum, pulp and paper and service industry sectors. The causes and reasons for these spills, and any environmental impacts, are described. Case histories of four significant environmental incidents were reviewed in detail. These include a warehouse fire at Canning, Nova Scotia in 1986, a tire fire at Hagersville, Ontario in 1990, a train derailment in Hervey Junction, Quebec in 1995, and the Nestucca oil spill in Gray's Harbour near Vancouver Island, British Columbia in 1988. Equipment failure and human error were pinpointed as the most common cause of spills, followed by corrosion, material failure and storm or flood. Fifty-eight per cent of all reported spills involve oil and petroleum products. Wastes and effluents account for 89 per cent of the total quantity of reported spills. These findings make the report particularly well suited for use as a tool in developing appropriate spill prevention strategies. 15 refs., 26 tabs., 42 figs

  2. Chemical Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures Plan: 100 Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, Y.M.

    1989-06-01

    The purpose of this Chemical Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plan is to identify the chemical spill control practices, procedures, and containment devices Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) employs to prevent a reportable quantity (RQ) of a hazardous substance (as defined in 40 CFR Part 302) from being released to the environment. The chemical systems and chemical storage facilities in the 100 Areas are described. This document traces the ultimate fate of accidental chemical spills at the 100 Areas. Also included in the document destinations, spill containment devices, and systems surveillance frequencies. 2 tabs.

  3. Chemical Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures Plan: 100 Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, Y.M.

    1989-06-01

    The purpose of this Chemical Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plan is to identify the chemical spill control practices, procedures, and containment devices Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) employs to prevent a reportable quantity (RQ) of a hazardous substance (as defined in 40 CFR Part 302) from being released to the environment. The chemical systems and chemical storage facilities in the 100 Areas are described. This document traces the ultimate fate of accidental chemical spills at the 100 Areas. Also included in the document destinations, spill containment devices, and systems surveillance frequencies. 2 tabs

  4. Oil spills: Is the perception worse than the reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mielke, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Most people form their perceptions of oil spills from television pictures immediately after the spill occurs. But the real environmental impact of the spill will not be felt until later, long after the TV crews have left and public attention has focused elsewhere. And the good news, says Mielke, is that the long-term damages may be less than initially perceived. Nature operates a very effective cleaning service. The perceived impact of an oil spill may be only vaguely related to what ultimately happens to the oil or to the oils interaction with the affected area, Mielke says. This was the case with two large spills in the 1970s - the Arco Merchant spill off Massachusetts in 1976 and the Amoco Cadiz spill off Brittany, France, in 1978. And it may be the case with the Exxon Valdez spill in Prince William Sound in Alaska in the spring of 1989, he adds. Human efforts to clean up the spills are less effective than nature's own processes, he says, and, in some cases, can actually delay the natural ecological restoration. This raises the question of whether the cost to society of massive physical clean-up efforts is equal to the social and environmental benefit

  5. Introducing COSS: A new and unique oil spill research facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, R. B.; Bonner, J. S.; Autenrieth, R. L.; Donnelly, K. C.; Ernest, A. N. S.

    1997-01-01

    A new oil spill research facility in Corpus Christi, Texas began operation in April 1997 to address the appropriate use, application and effectiveness of chemical, physical and biological oil spill response agents. The Coastal Oil Spill Simulation (COSS) facility consists of nine meso scale wave tanks and will offer to science and industry a unique opportunity to spill oil in a controlled environment and to study fate, transport and remediation of oil releases in simulated coastal, intertidal, lagunal, channel and porous media. 1 ref

  6. U.S. Coast Guard oil spill remote sensing : preliminary laser fluorosensor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fant, J.W.; Hansen, K.A.

    2005-01-01

    Maritime oil spill events are costly and damaging to the environment. Nearly 40 per cent of ship sourced spills occurring in the last 25 years have involved medium to heavy grade fuel oils. There is, therefore, an immediate need to detect and track subsurface oil spills, particularly as heavy and weathered oil can sink below the surface during a spill and often becomes problematic to detect, track and recover. The United States Coast Guard has limited capabilities to detect and track an oil spill, especially in poor weather. This paper discussed research and assessment efforts focused on laser fluorosensor technology. Testing of 3 independent laser fluorosensing systems was conducted to determine sensing depth capabilities and sensor shortcomings in ideal conditions. Studies included the detection and collection of laser induced fluorescence spectra at the surface as well as at various depths down to 5 metres in both daylight and night-time environments. The sensors were tested to assess their capabilities to meet the Coast Guard's oil sensor and operational requirements. Three sensors were tested by the Coast Guard at the Ohmsett National Oil Response Test Facility: the Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL-3), a light detection and ranging system (lidar) to measure biological and physical oceanographic features developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); the Fluorescent Lidar Spectrometer (FLS) lidar, developed by Laser Diagnostic Instruments International Inc. of Canada; and the Ultraviolet Biological Trigger Lidar, developed by Science and Engineering Services, Inc. (SESI) to detect and discriminate bio-warfare agent aerosols for the United States Army. The 3 fluorometers exhibited the ability to detect oil both on and below the water's surface. There were differences in the peak locations in the spectrum for the same oils among the lasers tested. It was also noted that all the systems had the capability of detecting oil in a night

  7. How to prioritize numerous environmental issues? Case study of the Havre-Saint-Pierre spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenon, S. [Environment Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Environmental Emergencies Div

    2000-07-01

    While docking at the QIT facility at Havre St. Pierre, Quebec, on March 23, 1999, the cargo ship M/V Gordon C. Leitch collided with the dock, ruptured a fuel tank, and spilled 49 metric tons of light bunker oil (IFO-180) in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The situation seemed under control at the beginning since the ice cover contained the migration of oil, but it quickly degenerated when the whole picture became clear. The spill occurred in a remote location where wildlife is abundant and diversified. The economy was largely dependant on ecotourism and several environmental and social factors had to be considered when devising the clean up procedure. Oil was found on 120 km of shoreline in the vicinity of the Mingan Archipelago National Park, a wildlife sanctuary protected by the government of Canada. There were oil-covered birds, a native hunting ground, several fishing zones and the National Park. The spill was cleaned up in two months. The authors described the different factors to be considered and the appropriateness and effectiveness of the Regional Environmental Emergency Team in setting priorities and choosing the best course of action to deal with each set of circumstances. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  8. How to prioritize numerous environmental issues? Case study of the Havre-Saint-Pierre spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenon, S.

    2000-01-01

    While docking at the QIT facility at Havre St. Pierre, Quebec, on March 23, 1999, the cargo ship M/V Gordon C. Leitch collided with the dock, ruptured a fuel tank, and spilled 49 metric tons of light bunker oil (IFO-180) in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The situation seemed under control at the beginning since the ice cover contained the migration of oil, but it quickly degenerated when the whole picture became clear. The spill occurred in a remote location where wildlife is abundant and diversified. The economy was largely dependant on ecotourism and several environmental and social factors had to be considered when devising the clean up procedure. Oil was found on 120 km of shoreline in the vicinity of the Mingan Archipelago National Park, a wildlife sanctuary protected by the government of Canada. There were oil-covered birds, a native hunting ground, several fishing zones and the National Park. The spill was cleaned up in two months. The authors described the different factors to be considered and the appropriateness and effectiveness of the Regional Environmental Emergency Team in setting priorities and choosing the best course of action to deal with each set of circumstances. 1 tab., 2 figs

  9. State of the Art Satellite and Airborne Marine Oil Spill Remote Sensing: Application to the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    development and operationalization of new spill response remote sensing tools must precede the next major oil spill. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved...Environment 124 (2012) 185–209 sensing oil spill impacts, and 5) a final discussion. Each section presents background, available remote sensing tools , and...cialized DaVinci command-line software (Clark et al., 2003) then mapped oil slick volume (Clark et al., 2010) in each AVIRIS pixel by identifying the

  10. Flicking your Bic at twenty-five below (or: The Atigun Pass Diesel Spill Project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Atri, B.; King, T.

    1993-01-01

    In September 1992, a truck carrying 8,500 gal of diesel fuel through the Brooks Range in Alaska left the surface of a haulroad and flipped into an adjacent ditch, sustaining a tear in its tank and releasing ca 8,000 gal of fuel into the ditch. Most of the product then flowed through a culvert underneath the road and down a slope; the rest flowed in the ditch for ca 200 ft before being confined or absorbed by the snow in the ditch. Spill site assessment and remediation activities are described. For the ditch side of the road, the contaminated snow was bagged and 180-200 yd 3 of contaminated surface soils were removed. Adjacent soils were sampled, a temporary containment cell was installed, and an interceptor trench with an integrated in-situ oil/water separator was constructed. On the culvert outlet side of the road, where contamination extended down a ravine about 500 ft, the spilled oil was burned in-situ. Contaminated snow was also bagged, and the area was covered with reinforced sheeting to isolate it from any subsequent snowfall. An estimated 6,668 gal of fuel was either burned or recovered. 3 refs., 1 fig

  11. The oil spill modelling in the Sea of Japan: application to the tanker 'Nakhodka' 1997 incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlamov, S.M.; Yoon, J.-H.; Hirose, N.; Kawamura, H.

    1998-01-01

    In January 1997 the Russian tanker 'NAKHODKA' spilled into the Sea of Japan about 5000 tons of heavy fuel oil type C. Most of it reached the coast of Japan and damaged the environment. This incident forced the development of the operational system for the prediction of oil spills in the Sea of Japan. As a part of this system the model for oil spill modelling is presented. The modelled climatological sea currents were used in these simulators, generated by the three-dimensional primitive ocean circulation model with 10-minute horizontal resolution and 19 vertical levels. The model was forced by climatological atmospheric winds and heat fluxes. The wind currents in the upper sea layer were estimated by the wind data of ECMWF with 6 hours time and 0.5625-degree spatial resolution. The vertical structure of the total currents was interpolated using both wind driven currents and the climatological model currents data at the model levels. The oil spill was modelled with the particle tracking techniques. The model included the advection by currents, random diffusion, the buoyancy effect and the parameterisation of oil evaporation, biodegradation and beaching. For the deep sea the parameterisation of diffusion depends from the stratification, taken from the ocean circulation model output. The results demonstrated the defined relation with the observed propagation of the oil along the coast of Japan and highlighted the most important directions for the model development. The main is the realisation of the model for the real-time simulations and forecasts of the ocean currents with the fine resolution in the upper layer of the Sea of Japan. (author)

  12. Oysters as biomonitors of the apex barge oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, T.L.; Jackson, T.J.; McDonald, T.J.; Wilkinson, D.L.; Brooks, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The collision of the Greek tanker ship Shinoussa resulted in a spill of an estimated 692,000 gallons of catalytic feed stock oil into Galveston Bay on July 28, 1990. Oysters were collected from Galveston Bay Todds Dump (GBTD) 235 days previous to the spill and 6, 37, 132, and 495 days after the spill. Oysters were also collected from Galveston Bay Redfish Island (GBRI), a site known to be impacted by the spill, 37 and 110 days after the spill. The concentration of the 24 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) measured for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's national status and trends program (NS ampersand T) site showed a sharp increase from about 100 ng/g to over 600 ng/g one week after the spill compared to concentrations 235 days previous to the spill. The concentration of the 24 NS ampersand T PAH in oysters from GBRI ranges from 400 to over 1000 ng/g. Soon after the spill the concentration of the 24 NS ampersand T PAH at Todds Dump decreased to levels not statistically different from prespill samples. However, analyses of alkylated and sulfur containing aromatic compounds indicate the oysters were still contaminated with Apex barge oil at least 37 and 110 days after the spill at GBTD and GBRI, respectively. Data from NS ampersand T sampling at GBTD more than a year after the spill (495 days) indicates the presence of alkylated aromatic hydrocarbons that may be from Apex barge oil still in the area. It appears that a sink of Apex barge oil (i.e., in sediments) may periodically be released by storms or other events into the ecosystem near GBTD. Therefore, bioavailable Apex barge oil is still present and may adversely affect oysters 495 days after the spill

  13. Ecological effects research related to oil spills and oil spill countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurand, D.

    1992-01-01

    The Marine Spill Response Corporation (MSRC) was created specifically to provide an improved response option for large marine oil spills in U.S. waters. As part of that capability, MSRC is committed to an extensive research and development program designed to improve the state-of-the-art for oil spill response. Within the mission, the goals of the Environmental Health Program are to ensure that ecological and human health effects of both oil and oil cleanup counter measures are well understood and that this information is made widely available for appropriate consideration in planning and implementing oil spill response efforts. This an applied program, and is intended to directly support the MSRC response mission. It does not include studies directly related to damage assessment, which is outside of the mission of MSRC. This paper focuses on the issues MSRC sees as critical in the area of ecological effects research, and addresses four topics: Why do we need to do more? What is it we hope to accomplish? What needs to be done? What is being planned or implemented?

  14. Cold weather oil spill response training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solsberg, L.B.; Owens, E.H.

    2001-01-01

    In April 2000, a three-day oil spill response training program was conducted on Alaska's North Slope. The unique hands-on program was specifically developed for Chevron Corporation's world-wide response team. It featured a combination of classroom and outdoor sessions that helped participants to learn and apply emergency measures in a series of field exercises performed in very cold weather conditions. Temperatures remained below minus 20 degrees C and sometimes reached minus 40 degrees C throughout the training. The classroom instructions introduced participants to the Emergency Prevention Preparedness and Response (EPPR) Working Group's Field Guide for Spill Response in Arctic Waters. This guide provides response strategies specific to the Arctic, including open water, ice and snow conditions. The sessions also reviewed the Alaska Clean Seas Tactics Manual which addresses spill containment and recovery, storage, tracking, burning and disposal. The issues that were emphasized throughout the training program were cold weather safety and survival. During the training sessions, participants were required to set up weather ports and drive snowmobiles and all terrain vehicles. Their mission was to detect oil with infra-red and hand-held devices. They were required to contain the oil by piling snow into snow banks, and by augering, trenching and slotting ice. Oil was removed by trimming operations on solid ice, snow melting, snow blowing, skimming and pumping. In-situ burning was also performed. Other sessions were also conducted develop skills in site characterization and treating oiled shorelines. The successfully conducted field sessions spanned all phases of a cleanup operation in cold weather. 5 refs., 7 figs

  15. Evaluating technologies of oil spill surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hover, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    Surveillance and monitoring of oil in the marine environment imposes a broad spectrum of remote sensing requirements. At the US Coast Guard Research ampersand Development Center, the environmental safety branch is sponsoring oil spill remote sensing research in four areas of technology: Synthetic aperture radar (SAR), Frequency-scanning microwave radiometry (FSR), Laser fluorosensing (LFS), and Forward-looking infrared (FLIR) imagers. SAR technology uses sophisticated signal processing to overcome prior limitations, providing images of higher and more uniform spatial acuity which may enable interpreters to more-readily distinguish petroleum slicks from others. The ability to determine the distribution of oil thickness within a slick is necessary when an estimate of oil volume is desired. Scientists at MIT have formulated a new approach to radiometric oil thickness measurement that takes advantage of recent advances in electronic component technology. The initial data collected with a prototype FSR instrument have validated the FSR concept and more work is ongoing. The Coast Guard is co-funding a program to demonstrate and evaluate the capabilities of an airborne laser fluorosensor to support oil spill response operations. During a controlled test, the instrument successfully demonstrated an ability to detect oil on water, ice, and various beach surfaces. Additional testing included different oil types and allowed for weathering. Data analysis is ongoing. Recent developments in infrared imager technology have produced a wide variety of off-the-shelf, portable cameras that could potentially provide a rapid-response spill assessment capability. The R ampersand D Center has been involved in the testing of many of these sensors

  16. Seaweeds and the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stekoll, M.S.; Deysher, L.; Dean, T.A.

    1993-01-01

    A three-year study, initiated in 1989, has evaluated the response of subtidal and intertidal seaweed communities to the Exxon Valdez oil spill and subsequent cleanup activities. The project was part of the coastal habitat injury assessment research sanctioned under the natural resource damage assessment program. A stratified random design was used to select oiled sites for the study. Paired control (unoiled) sites were then matched to the oiled sites. The most consistent effect found in subtidal populations in Prince William Sound was the higher relative abundance of small-size classes of kelps at the oiled sites, indicating the prior disappearance of larger plants. This disappearance was possibly caused by activities associated with the cleanup operations. Intertidal populations of algae were affected by the spill and cleanup in all three major areas studied: Prince William Sound, Cook Inlet-Kenai, and Kodiak-Alaskan Peninsula. The most obvious effect was a significant removal of the dominant intertidal plant Fucus gardneri from the mid and upper intertidal zones. The limited dispersal of this plant combined with the relatively harsh conditions of the upper intertidal will cause a slow recovery of the upper intertidal zone in the affected areas. Effects of the spill extended to other algal species. Species such as Cladophora, Myelophycus, Odonthalia, Palmaria, and Polysiphonia showed decreases in their percent cover at oiled sites. Only Gloiopeltis populations appeared to increase in percent cover in oiled areas. In both the Cook Inlet-Kenai and the Kodiak-Alaskan Peninsula areas Fucus populations appeared to be enhanced in the lower intertidal zone - between 2 and 3 meters below the high-tide mark - in 1991

  17. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities. [Task 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-15

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco`s refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R&D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ``unit cost`` portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible` to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills.

  18. PRP: The Proven Solution for Cleaning Up Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The basic technology behind PRP is thousands of microcapsules, tiny balls of beeswax with hollow centers. Water cannot penetrate the microcapsule s cell, but oil is absorbed right into the beeswax spheres as they float on the water s surface. This way, the contaminants, chemical compounds that originally come from crude oil such as fuels, motor oils, or petroleum hydrocarbons, are caught before they settle. PRP works well as a loose powder for cleaning up contaminants in lakes and other ecologically fragile areas. The powder can be spread over a contaminated body of water or soil, and it will absorb contaminants, contain them in isolation, and dispose of them safely. In water, it is important that PRP floats and keeps the oil on the surface, because, even if oil exposure is not immediately lethal, it can cause long-term harm if allowed to settle. Bottom-dwelling fish exposed to compounds released after oil spills may develop liver disease, in addition to reproductive and growth problems. This use of PRP is especially effective for environmental cleanup in sensitive areas like coral reefs and mangroves.

  19. The latest oil spills in the Mediterranean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergueiro Lopez, J.R.; Morales Correas, N.; Dominguez Laseca, F.

    1992-01-01

    The oil spills from the Agip Abruzzo and the Haven in April 1991 are described. The Agip Abruzzo collided with a ferry near Livorno, Italy and spilled 3,000 tonnes of Iranian crude oil. Another 12,000 tonnes burned and 140 people were killed in the incident. The spill had little effect on the sea environment as most of the spilled oil was removed. The Haven oil tanker exploded just after unloading crude oil at Arenzano, Italy, spilling 3,000 tonnes of oil along the Ligurian coast. A series of nine explosions occurred over the next few days and the ship finally sank in 60 m of water. Spill cleanup procedures used at sea and along the affected coast are reviewed. Crude oil residues drifting along the coast of the Balearic Islands were sampled and analyzed in May and July 1991 to determine whether they came from the Haven tanker. Experiments were also conducted to determine the evaporated fraction of heavy Iranian crude oil as a function of time when spilled on sea water or different sizes of beach sand. The analyzed samples were concluded not to have come from the Haven spill. 9 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  20. Assessing the recovery of coastal wetlands from oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelssohn, I.A.; Hester, M.W.; Hill, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The impact of oil spills on coastal environments and the ability of these systems to exhibit long-term recovery has received increased attention in recent years. Although oil spills can have significant short-term impacts on coastal marshes, the long-term effects and eventual recovery are not well documented. Estuarine marshes have sometimes been reported to exhibit slow recovery after oil spills, whereas in other instances they appear to have great resiliency, with complete recovery after one or two years. To document and understand this phenomenon better, we have investigated the long-term recovery of a south Louisiana estuarine marsh exposed to an accidental spill of crude oil. Although a pipeline rupture releasing Louisiana crude oil caused the near complete mortality of a brackish marsh dominated by Spartina patens and S. alterniflora, this marsh completely recovered four years after the spill with no differences in plant species cover between oiled and reference marshes. Remotely sensed imagery of the study site confirmed the relatively rapid recovery demonstrated by the ground truth data. Louisiana's coastal marshes are naturally experiencing rapid rates of deterioration. Land loss rates, determined from aerial imagery, at the spill site and adjacent reference areas before and after the spill demonstrated that the long-term loss rates were not affected by the spill event

  1. Livermore Site Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures Plan, May 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mertesdorf, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plan describes the measures that are taken at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL) Livermore Site in Livermore, California, to prevent, control, and handle potential spills from aboveground containers that can contain 55 gallons or more of oil.

  2. Simple suggestions for including vertical physics in oil spill models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Asaro, Eric; University of Washington, Seatle, WA

    2001-01-01

    Current models of oil spills include no vertical physics. They neglect the effect of vertical water motions on the transport and concentration of floating oil. Some simple ways to introduce vertical physics are suggested here. The major suggestion is to routinely measure the density stratification of the upper ocean during oil spills in order to develop a database on the effect of stratification. (Author)

  3. Bacteria Provide Cleanup of Oil Spills, Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Marshall Space Flight Center, Micro-Bac International Inc., of Round Rock, Texas, developed a phototrophic cell for water purification in space. Inside the cell: millions of photosynthetic bacteria. Micro-Bac proceeded to commercialize the bacterial formulation it developed for the SBIR project. The formulation is now used for the remediation of wastewater systems and waste from livestock farms and food manufacturers. Strains of the SBIR-derived bacteria also feature in microbial solutions that treat environmentally damaging oil spills, such as that resulting from the catastrophic 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion in the Gulf of Mexico.

  4. Regional economic impact of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heen, K.; Andersen, M.

    1994-01-01

    An approach is demonstrated of coupling an environmental model to input-output analysis which aims to quantify the regional economic impact of an environmental accident. The model is implemented with the data of a potential oil spill interacting with the salmon aquaculture industry in Northern Norway. The production loss in salmon aquaculture and the regional income impact is computed and discussed. The approach used in this article could be a model for estimating the regional socio-economic impact of environmental factors like water and air pollution. 1 fig., 4 tabs., 19 refs

  5. Computer simulation of the Shetland oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, A.; Proctor, R.

    1994-01-01

    Model predictions of the movement of oil released during the Shetland oil spill in January 1993 commenced immediately following the grounding of the Braer. The initial forecast, made with a 5 nautical mile grid model, predicted oil along the west coast of the island but were too coarse to resolve the coastal bathymetry and circulation. This forced the development of a fine grid (924m) hydrodynamic model of the region which was interfaced to surface wind forecasts and meshed to a shelf-wide storm surge model. (author)

  6. Strategie tematiche e strutturali nello Spill

    OpenAIRE

    Orazi, Veronica

    2007-01-01

    The use of certain themes in the opera (such as misoginy) and the way they are reinterpreted, and the very organization of the text, show that the intention of the author is to offer a detailed exemplum and counter-exemplum. From this perspective, the apparent incongruity between the condemnation of female wickness and the narration of the story of the Virgin is removed. Roig offers the reader a spill, in which he reflects an anti-model (perverse, sinful woman), opposed to the ...

  7. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Sei; Ando, Ryohei; Mitsutake, Toru.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention concerns a fuel assembly suitable to a BWR-type reactor and improved especially with the nuclear characteristic, heat performance, hydraulic performance, dismantling or assembling performance and economical property. A part of poison rods are formed as a large-diameter/multi-region poison rods having a larger diameter than a fuel rod. A large number of fuel rods are disposed surrounding a large diameter water rod and a group of the large-diameter/multi-region poison rods in adjacent with the water rod. The large-diameter water rod has a burnable poison at the tube wall portion. At least a portion of the large-diameter poison rods has a coolant circulation portion allowing coolants to circulate therethrough. Since the large-diameter poison rods are disposed at a position of high neutron fluxes, a large neutron multiplication factor suppression effect can be provided, thereby enabling to reduce the number of burnable poison rods relative to fuels. As a result, power peaking in the fuel assembly is moderated and a greater amount of plutonium can be loaded. In addition the flow of cooling water which tends to gather around the large diameter water rod can be controlled to improve cooling performance of fuels. (N.H.)

  8. OSIS: A PC-based oil spill information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leech, M.V.; Tyler, A.; Wiltshire, M.

    1993-01-01

    Warren Spring Laboratory and BMT Ceemaid Ltd. are cooperating to produce an Oil Spill Information System (OSIS) that will have worldwide application. OSIS is based on EUROSPILL, a spill simulation model originally developed under programs sponsored by the European Commission and the Marine Pollution Control Unit of the United Kingdom government's Department of Transport. OSIS is implemented in the Microsoft Windows 3.x graphical environment on a personal computer. A variety of options enables the user to input information on continuous or instantaneous spills of different types of oil under variable environmental conditions, to simulate the fate of oil and the trajectory of a spill. Model results are presented in the forms of maps, charts, graphs, and tables, displayed in multiple windows on a color monitor. Color hard copy can be produced, and OSIS can be linked to other Windows software packages, providing the opportunity to create a suite of spill incident management tools

  9. A plant-level analysis of the spill-over effects of the German Energiewende

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, Machiel; Scholtens, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We estimate the effects of German renewable energy on the Dutch power market. • Using hourly plant-level data, we estimate effects on prices, dispatch and fuel efficiency. • The price elasticity of German wind on Dutch prices is −0.04. • The spill-over effects are restricted by constraints on cross-border capacity. • The dramatic performance of the Dutch plants is mainly related to relative fuel prices. - Abstract: In order to analyse international effects of national energy policies, we investigate the spill-over effects of the German Energiewende on the Dutch power market, which is closely connected to the German market. We estimate the impact of the German supply of wind and solar electricity on the Dutch day-ahead price of electricity and the utilisation of the conventional power plants. We take cross-border capacity constraints into account and use hourly plant-level data over 2006–2014. We find that the price elasticity of German wind on Dutch day-ahead prices is −0.03. However, this effect vanishes when the cross-border capacity is fully utilised. We find a modest negative impact on the utilisation of the Dutch power plants. As such, we conclude that the German Energiewende has had modest spill-over effects to the Dutch market. The recent dramatic performance of the Dutch gas-fired plants can be attributed to the changes in the relative prices of coal versus natural gas. We conclude that national energy policies in one country do not necessarily strongly affect neighbouring markets in case of constrained cross-border capacities.

  10. Allowing a wildfire to burn: estimating the effect on future fire suppression costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel M. Houtman; Claire A. Montgomery; Aaron R. Gagnon; David E. Calkin; Thomas G. Dietterich; Sean McGregor; Mark Crowley

    2013-01-01

    Where a legacy of aggressive wildland fire suppression has left forests in need of fuel reduction, allowing wildland fire to burn may provide fuel treatment benefits, thereby reducing suppression costs from subsequent fires. The least-cost-plus-net-value-change model of wildland fire economics includes benefits of wildfire in a framework for evaluating suppression...

  11. The Congressional response to oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grumbles, B.H.

    1990-01-01

    March 24, 1989, ushered in a new era for oil spill reform legislation. Once the Exxon Valdez ran aground Bligh Reef and gusher over 11 million gallons of crude oil into pristine waters of Prince William Sound, Alaska, Congressional debate on comprehensive federal legislation would never be the same. Stalemate and frustration marked much of the B.V. (Before Valdez) period. Oil spill bills typically died quiet deaths at the end of each Congress. A flurry of legislation and debate has marked the new A.V. (After Valdez) era, however. Spurred by public outrage, members championed far-reaching proposals. For the first time in almost twenty years, both houses passed similar comprehensive reform bills. Some bills even reached the President's desk to become public law. This paper describes previous Congressional responses as well as the 101st Congress's ongoing efforts and highlights specific provisions, issues and recurring themes in proposed comprehensive legislation (S.686 and H.R. 1465). The paper concludes with general observations on the legislation's prospects and impacts

  12. Oil spill remote sensing sensors and aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.; Fruhwirth, M.; Gamble, L.

    1992-01-01

    The most common form of remote sensing as applied to oil spills is aerial remote sensing. The technology of aerial remote sensing, mainly from aircraft, is reviewed along with aircraft-mounted remote sensors and aircraft modifications. The characteristics, advantages, and limitations of optical techniques, infrared and ultraviolet sensors, fluorosensors, microwave and radar sensors, and slick thickness sensors are discussed. Special attention is paid to remote sensing of oil under difficult circumstances, such as oil in water or oil on ice. An infrared camera is the first sensor recommended for oil spill work, as it is the cheapest and most applicable device, and is the only type of equipment that can be bought off-the-shelf. The second sensor recommended is an ultraviolet and visible-spectrum device. The laser fluorosensor offers the only potential for discriminating between oiled and un-oiled weeds or shoreline, and for positively identifying oil pollution on ice and in a variety of other situations. However, such an instrument is large and expensive. Radar, although low in priority for purchase, offers the only potential for large-area searches and foul-weather remote sensing. Most other sensors are experimental or do not offer good potential for oil detection or mapping. 48 refs., 8 tabs

  13. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, Junaid, E-mail: junaidupm@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Karachi (Pakistan); Ning, Chao; Barford, John [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); McKay, Gordon [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Division of Sustainable Development, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar Foundation, Doha (Qatar)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Up-cycling one type of pollution i.e. plastic waste and successfully using it to combat the other type of pollution i.e. oil spill. • Synthesized oil sorbent that has extremely high oil uptake of 90 g/g after prolonged dripping of 1 h. • Synthesized porous oil sorbent film which not only facilitates in oil sorption but also increases the affinity between sorbent and oil by means of adhesion. - Abstract: Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5–15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy.

  14. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, Junaid; Ning, Chao; Barford, John; McKay, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Up-cycling one type of pollution i.e. plastic waste and successfully using it to combat the other type of pollution i.e. oil spill. • Synthesized oil sorbent that has extremely high oil uptake of 90 g/g after prolonged dripping of 1 h. • Synthesized porous oil sorbent film which not only facilitates in oil sorption but also increases the affinity between sorbent and oil by means of adhesion. - Abstract: Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5–15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy

  15. Effectiveness testing of spill-treating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.F.; Stoodley, R.; Laroche, N.

    1990-01-01

    Laboratory effectiveness tests are described for four classes of spill-treating agents: solidifiers, demulsifying agents, surface-washing agents and dispersants. Many treating agents in these four categories have been tested for effectiveness and the results are presented. Solidifiers or gelling agents solidify oil, requiring a large amount of agent to solidify oil-ranging between 16% by weight, to over 200%. Emulsion breakers prevent or reverse the formation of water-in-oil emulsions. A newly-developed effectiveness test shows that only one product is highly effective; however, many products will work, but require large amounts of spill-treating agent. Surfactant--containing materials are of two types, surface-washing agents and dispersants. Testing has shown that an agent that is a good dispersant is conversely a poor surface-washing agent, and vice versa. Tests of surface-washing agents show that only a few agents have effectiveness of 25-40%, where this effectiveness is the percentage of heavy oil removed from a test surface. Results using the 'swirling flask' test for dispersant effectiveness are reported. Heavy oils show effectiveness values of about 1%, medium crudes of about 10%, light crude oils of about 30% and very light oils of about 90%. (author)

  16. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayer, J.E.; Clark, A.T.; Loysen, P.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Mishima, J.; Owczarski, P.C.; Gregory, W.S.; Nichols, B.D.

    1988-05-01

    The Accident Analysis Handbook (AAH) covers four generic facilities: fuel manufacturing, fuel reprocessing, waste storage/solidification, and spent fuel storage; and six accident types: fire, explosion, tornado, criticality, spill, and equipment failure. These are the accident types considered to make major contributions to the radiological risk from accidents in nuclear fuel cycle facility operations. The AAH will enable the user to calculate source term releases from accident scenarios manually or by computer. A major feature of the AAH is development of accident sample problems to provide input to source term analysis methods and transport computer codes. Sample problems and illustrative examples for different accident types are included in the AAH

  17. Examination of Urinary Beta-Naphthol as a Biomarker Indicative of Jet Fuel Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    government or personal vehicle and what type of fuel . Flight line time Exposure to spills ( fuel ) Exposure to skin ( fuel ) Inhalation exposure (type...AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2015-0085 EXAMINATION OF URINARY β-NAPHTHOL AS A BIOMARKER INDICATIVE OF JET FUEL EXPOSURES Jeanette S. Frey Henry M... Fuel Exposures 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER NA 5c. PROGRA7757M ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Jeanette Frey1; Trevor J. Bihl2;Asao

  18. Impact of Iron Baron oil spill on subtidal reef assemblages in Tasmania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgara, Graham J.; Barrett, Neville S.

    2000-01-01

    The biological impact of the grounding of the bulk carrier Iron Baron on Hebe Reef in northern Tasmania, with release of approximately 350 tonnes of Bunker C fuel oil, was assessed using quantitative underwater censuses at numerous reef sites before and after the spill. Physical abrasion of the ship's hull during ground caused the complete destruction of the subtidal reef community within a localised area of ∼170 m by ∼20 m on Hebe Reef. However, the release of fuel oil did not appear to have substantially affected populations of subtidal reef-associated organisms in the near vicinity. Analyses of changes over time outside the hull impact area of oiled sites before and after the spill, and comparisons with undisturbed reference sites, indicated no significant change in number of species on reefs or densities of the most abundant animal and plant species. Post-impact monitoring of the grounding zone in adjacent reference sites on Hebe Reef indicated that the fish assemblages associated with the hull scar recovered rapidly in terms of species composition and species richness within one year, whereas plant and invertebrate assemblages had not reached inferred pre-disturbance levels after two years. Wave disturbance appeared to be hindering re-establishment of large macroalgae over part of the abrasion zone where the reef substrata had been converted to unstable gravels. (Author)

  19. In situ bioremediation of JP-5 jet fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisman, M.P.; Dorwin, E.; Barnes, D.; Nelson, B.

    1991-01-01

    Fuel leaks and spills of the jet fuel JP-5 at various Naval installations are required by law to be remediated. Use of microorganisms for fuel spill remediation is the focus of this paper, which examines biodegradation of JP-5 by means of CO 2 evolution in batch cultures. In particular, the aerobic biodegradation of fresh and weathered JP-5, along with a representative fuel mix of three pure compounds, is examined. Since microorganisms exist in aqueous environments, the solubility in water of fuels and fuel components is also examined. Other chemical properties of the complex mixture of hydrocarbons in JP-5 may affect bioavailability. This paper will also attempt to relate biodegradation to these properties, particularly water solubility and type of hydrocarbon

  20. Petroleum hydrocarbon pollution after the tasman spirit oil spill of coastal/deep sea sediment along the clifton beach karachi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munshi, A.B.; Ansari, F.A.; Siddiqi, H.A.; Zeeshan, M.

    2011-01-01

    An oil tanker,Tasman Spirit, carrying 67000 to nsc rude oil, got damaged near the Clifton Beach of Karachi, Pakistan and approx. 31,000 ton oil spilled into the sea. The distribution of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons was determined in deep sea and surface sediment collected at 12 stations along the Clifton beach of Karachi, following the oil spill. Sampling was performed during 2003-2006, starting just after the accident of the oil tanker. Concentrations of PAHs (sigma 16 parent components) and aliphatics were in the range of 0.09-560 macro g/kg dw and 0.12-685 macro g/kg dw, respectively, since the date of accident and after bio remedial measures. The highest concentrations were found within the radius of 50 km around the site, the area most heavily impacted by the spill, whereas at the stations, away from the ship, the concentrations were in the lower range without alkylated compounds Addition of increasing amounts of ship fuel oil (taken from a Pakistani ship) to a representatives sediment samples showed that measurable concentration of the Tasman Spirit oil was > 1 g/kg of sediment The toxicity of selected samples of surface sediment from the coastal area near oil spill showed higher PAH concentrations the average number of dead fauna was 90-95% within 3 days of oil spill which gradually decreased with the time. (author)

  1. Bacterial distribution and metabolic activity in subsurface sediments from a gasoline spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauter, P.W.; Hanna, M.L.; Taylor, R.T.; Rice, D.W. Jr.

    1992-05-01

    At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in California, a records inspection in 1979 indicated an inventory of about 17,500 gal was missing from underground fuel tanks. A leak or leaks in the southernmost tank and/or pipe lines were suspected to be the source of the loss. All four tanks were taken out of service and filled with sand in 1980. The gasoline spill cleanup effort affords an opportunity to study the collective effect of fuel hydrocarbons (HCs) on the indigenous microbial population within the heterogeneous alluvial subsurface environment. This paper presents the early results of an ongoing study to (1) characterize naturally acclimated microbial populations capable of transforming HCs and (2) understand the effects of environmental factors on these biotransformations

  2. Damage cost of the Dan River coal ash spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis Lemly, A.

    2015-01-01

    The recent coal ash spill on the Dan River in North Carolina, USA has caused several negative effects on the environment and the public. In this analysis, I report a monetized value for these effects after the first 6 months following the spill. The combined cost of ecological damage, recreational impacts, effects on human health and consumptive use, and esthetic value losses totals $295,485,000. Because the environmental impact and associated economic costs of riverine coal ash spills can be long-term, on the order of years or even decades, this 6-month assessment should be viewed as a short-term preview. The total cumulative damage cost from the Dan River coal ash spill could go much higher. - Highlights: • Six-month post-spill damage cost exceeded $295,000,000. • Components of cost include ecological, recreational, human health, property, and aesthetic values. • Attempts by the electric utility to “clean” the river left over 95% of coal ash behind. • Long-term impacts will likely drive the total damage cost much higher. - Damage costs of the Dan River coal ash spill are extensive and growing. The 6-month cost of that spill is valued at $295,485,000, and the long-term total cost is likely to rise substantially

  3. Responding to oil spills in the open ocean environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.E.

    1994-01-01

    The primary objectives in responding to any oil spill is to control the source of the spill, then, contain, collect, and recover the spilled product. Accomplishing those objectives is an immense challenge. It becomes much more difficult when attempted in the open ocean environment due to the more complex logistical and communications problems one encounters when operating miles from the nearest land. Often times, too, the response must be coordinated with either a salvage operation, a fire-fighting operation, a well control operation or a combination of any of these. There have been volumes of papers comparing the relative merits of mechanical recovery, in-situ burning, dispersant application, and bioremediation in responding to open ocean spills. Although each approach deserves special consideration in different circumstances, this presentation focuses on mechanical methods; the specialized equipment and operational tactics that are best utilized in responding to a major spill in the open ocean. This paper is divided into two sections. The first section, Equipment Used in Open Ocean Spills, addresses in general terms, the special equipment required in an offshore response operation. The second section, entitled Operational Tactics Used In Open Ocean Spills offers an overview of the tactics employed to achieve the general objectives of containment, collection, recovery, and temporary storage

  4. Trajectory of an oil spill off Goa, eastern Arabian Sea: Field observations and simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vethamony, P. [National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 (India)]. E-mail: mony@nio.org; Sudheesh, K. [National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 (India); Babu, M.T. [National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 (India); Jayakumar, S. [National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 (India); Manimurali, R. [National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 (India); Saran, A.K. [National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 (India); Sharma, L.H. [Indian Coast Guard, District HQ-11, MPT Old Admin Building, Mormugao Harbour, Goa 403 803 (India); Rajan, B. [Indian Coast Guard, District HQ-11, MPT Old Admin Building, Mormugao Harbour, Goa 403 803 (India); Srivastava, M. [Indian Coast Guard, District HQ-11, MPT Old Admin Building, Mormugao Harbour, Goa 403 803 (India)

    2007-07-15

    An oil spill occurred off Goa, west coast of India, on 23 March 2005 due to collision of two vessels. In general, fair weather with weak winds prevails along the west coast of India during March. In that case, the spill would have moved slowly and reached the coast. However, in 2005 when this event occurred, relatively stronger winds prevailed, and these winds forced the spill to move away from the coast. The spill trajectory was dominated by winds rather than currents. The MIKE21 Spill Analysis model was used to simulate the spill trajectory. The observed spill trajectory and the slick area were in agreement with the model simulations. The present study illustrates the importance of having pre-validated trajectories of spill scenarios for selecting eco-sensitive regions for preparedness and planning suitable response strategies whenever spill episodes occur. - This is the first time model results have been compared with real oil spill observations along an Indian Coast.

  5. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Hideaki; Sakai, Takao; Ishida, Tomio; Yokota, Norikatsu.

    1992-01-01

    The lower ends of a plurality of plate-like shape memory alloys are secured at the periphery of the upper inside of the handling head of a fuel assembly. As the shape memory alloy, a Cu-Zn alloy, a Ti-Pd alloy or a Fe-Ni alloy is used. When high temperature coolants flow out to the handling head, the shape memory alloy deforms by warping to the outer side more greatly toward the upper portion thereof with the temperature increase of the coolants. As the result, the shape of the flow channel of the coolants is changed so as to enlarge at the exit of the upper end of the fuel assembly. Then, the pressure loss of the coolants in the fuel assembly is decreased by the enlargement. Accordingly, the flow rate of the coolants in the fuel assembly is increased to lower the temperature of the coolants. Further, high temperature coolants and low temperature coolants are mixed sufficiently just above the fuel assembly. This can suppress the temperature fluctuation of the mixed coolants in the upper portion of the reactor core, thereby enabling to decrease a fatigue and failures of the structural components in the upper portion of the reactor core. (I.N.)

  6. Process of cleaning oil spills and the like

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breisford, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    A process of cleaning spills of toxic or hazardous materials such as oil, antifreeze, gasoline, and the like from bodies of water, garage floors, roadways and the like, comprising spraying unbonded shredded fiberglass blowing wool composition particles onto the spill, absorbing the spill into the shredded fiberglass blowing wool composition particles, and removing the soaked shredded fiberglass blowing wool composition particles and the spill absorbed therein. An absorbent composition for absorbing spills of toxic or hazardous materials such as oil, antifreeze, gasoline, and like, comprising shredded fiberglass blowing wool particles, and means for absorbing the spill and for stiffening the co-position so that the composition fights against being compressed so that less of the absorbed spill escapes from the composition when it is being removed from the spill, said means including cork particles dispersed in with the fiberglass blowing wool particles. An absorbent sock for absorbing or containing a spill of toxic or hazardous materials such as oil, antifreeze, gasoline, and the like, comprising a hollow tube, said tube being permeable to the toxic or hazardous materials and being made of nylon or polypropylene, and unbonded, shredded fiberglass blowing wool composition particles enclosed in the tube. Apparatus for controlling an oil slick on the surface of water, comprising a craft for traversing the slick, a supply of fiberglass blowing wool composition particles stored on the craft in position for being dispersed, shredding means on the craft for shredding the fiberglass blowing wool particles to form unbonded, shredded fiberglass blowing wool particles, and dispensing means on the craft for dispensing the unbonded, shredded fiberglass blowing wool particles onto the slick

  7. GOM Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: A Time Series Analysis of Variations in Spilled Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, C. M.; Yan, B.

    2013-12-01

    An estimated amount of 210 million gallons of crude oil was released into the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) from April 20th to July 15th 2010 during the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion. The spill caused a tremendous financial, ecological, environmental and health impact and continues to affect the GOM today. Variations in hydrocarbons including alkanes, hopanes and poly-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be analyzed to better understand the oil spill and assist in oil source identification. Twenty-one sediment samples*, two tar ball samples and one surface water oil sample were obtained from distinct locations in the GOM and within varying time frames from May to December 2010. Each sample was extracted through the ASE 200 solvent extractor, concentrated down under nitrogen gas, purified through an alumina column, concentrated down again with nitrogen gas and analyzed via GC X GC-TOF MS. Forty-one different hydrocarbons were quantified in each sample. Various hydrocarbon 'fingerprints,' such as parental :alkylate PAH ratios, high molecular weight PAHs: low molecular weight alkane ratios, and carbon preference index were calculated. The initial objective of this project was to identify the relative hydrocarbon contributions of petrogenic sources and combustion sources. Based on the calculated ratios, it is evident that the sediment core taken in October of 2010 was greatly affected by combustion sources. Following the first month of the spill, oil in the gulf was burned in attempts to contain the spill. Combustion related sources have quicker sedimentation rates, and hydrocarbons from a combustion source essentially move into deeper depths quicker than those from a petrogenic source, as was observed in analyses of the October 2010 sediment. *Of the twenty-one sediment samples prepared, nine were quantified for this project.

  8. The Prestige oil spill: bacterial community dynamics during a field biostimulation assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, N; Solanas, A M [Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Microbiology; Vinas, M [GIRO Technological Centre, Mollet del Valles (Spain); Bayona, J M; Albaiges, J [IIQAB-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry

    2007-12-15

    A field bioremediation assay using the oleophilic fertilizer S200 was carried out 12 months after the Prestige heavy fuel-oil spill on a beach on the Cantabrian coast (north Spain). This assay showed that S200-enhanced oil degradation, particularly of high-molecular-weight n-alkanes and alkylated PAHs, suggesting an increase in the microbial bioavailability of these compounds. The bacterial community structure was determined by cultivation-independent analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rDNA by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Bacterial community was mainly composed of {alpha}-Proteobacteria (Rhodobacteriaceae and Sphingomonadaceae). Representatives of {gamma}-Proteobacteria (Chromatiales, Moraxellaceae, and Halomonadaceae), Bacteroidetes (Flavobacteriaceae), and Actinobacteria group (Nocardiaceae and Corynebacteriaceae) were also found. The addition of the fertilizer led to the appearance of the bacterium Mesonia algae in the early stages, with a narrow range of growth substrates, which has been associated with the common alga Achrosiphonia sonderi. The presence of Mesonia algae may be attributable to the response of the microbial community to the addition of N and P rather than indicating a role in the biodegradation process. The Rhodococcus group appeared in both assay plots, especially at the end of the experiment. It was also found at another site on the Galician coast that had been affected by the same spill. This genus has been associated with the degradation of n-alkanes up to C{sub 36}. Taking into account the high content of heavy alkanes in the Prestige fuel, these microorganisms could play a significant role in the degradation of such fuel. A similar bacterial community structure was observed at another site that showed a similar degree of fuel weathering. (orig.)

  9. Laboratory tests, experimental oil spills, models, and reality: The Braer oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, M.; Daling, P.S.; Brandvik, P.J.; Singsaas, I.

    1993-01-01

    The IKU Petroleum Research organization in Norway has accumulated data on the weathering behavior of spilled oils and petroleum products, mainly pertaining to North Sea crudes. Recent weathering research at IKU has been carried out in an elliptical mesoscale flume and in field tests consisting of experimental releases of crude oil. Results of these tests provided information on oil spill dispersion, evaporation, and emulsification. When the tanker Braer grounded in the Shetland Islands in January 1993 in extreme environmental conditions, the imminent release of a load of 84,000 tonnes of North Sea oil confronted response personnel with a variety of issues including the use of dispersants as a response action. Relevant information on the expected behavior of the crude was obtained within a day of the grounding as a result of close relations between IKU and Warren Spring Laboratory. The question is raised whether such information, which could have been spread between several organizations around the world, will be rapidly accessible in the event of another major spill. It is proposed to establish an electronically accessible database on the behavior and fate of specific oils and petroleum products to address this problem. 9 refs., 4 figs

  10. Computational model for the assessment of oil spill damages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seip, K L; Heiberg, A B; Brekke, K A

    1985-06-01

    A description is given of the method and the required data of a model for calculating oil spill damages. Eleven damage attributes are defined: shorelength contaminated, shore restitution time, birds dead, restitution time for three groups of birds, open sea damages-two types, damages to recreation, economy and fisheries. The model has been applied in several cases of oil pollution assessments: in an examination of alternative models for the organization of oil spill combat in Norway, in the assessment of the damages coused by a blowout at Tromsoeflaket and in assessing a possible increase in oil spill preparedness for Svalbard. 56 references.

  11. 1993 International oil spill conference: Prevention, preparedness, response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 1993 International Oil Spill Conference which took place March 29 - April 1 in Tampa, Florida. It was jointly sponsored by the American Petroleum Institute, the US Coast Guard, and the US Environmental Protection Agency. Topics discussed included all aspects of spill prevention and preparedness, including planning, training, and research and development. Response issues, including fate and effects of spilled oil, cleanup, bioremediation, and in situ burning were also discussed. Legal and economic issues were also analyzed in the form of case studies

  12. The breakup of oil spills in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeidan, E.; Zahariev, K.; Li, M.; Garrett, C.

    1997-01-01

    Existing theories of oil slick disintegration under stormy conditions were examined. A novel empirical model suitable for use in oil spill models was developed in an effort to demonstrate the many difficulties encountered in modeling the emulsification process. Chief among the difficulties is the prediction of the onset and extent of oil spill emulsification. The empirical model was described in some detail using surface active constituents and energy available from wind and waves as the controlling parameters. The resulting chart, if used in the marine environment, can predict localized emulsification and a more realistic behaviour of oil spills. 43 refs., 6 figs

  13. Remote sensing for oil spill detection and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, F.R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of remote sensing for marine oil spill detection and response. The surveillance and monitoring of discharges, and the main elements of effective surveillance are discussed. Tactical emergency response and the requirements for selecting a suitable remote sensing approach, airborne remote sensing systems, and the integration of satellite and airborne imaging are examined. Specifications of satellite surveillance systems potentially usable for oil spill detection, and specifications of airborne remote sensing systems suitable for oil spill detection, monitoring and supplemental actions are tabulated, and a schema of integrated satellite-airborne remote sensing (ISARS) is presented. (UK)

  14. Some recommendations for testing oil spill computer models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Martinez, R.

    1998-01-01

    According to a recent state-of-the-art review of modelling transport and fate of spills, more than 50 oil spill models have been developed in the last 30 years. Even though some of these models are used for spill response actions during accidents, environmental impact assessment, contingency planning and response training, there are no standard methodologies to evaluate their quality. This article presents some ideas that may contribute to design a set of standard benchmarks that would allow users and developers to assess models on a rational basis. (author)

  15. Method of cleaning oil slicks and chemical spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billings, L.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method of cleaning a floating chemical spill on a body of water. It comprises: providing a quantity of popular bark-based pelleted or granular product, flotation means and a flexible net having openings generally smaller than the smallest whole pellet dimension of the pelleted product, spreading the net over a chemical spill on the body of water, connecting the floatation means to the net thereby supporting the net adjacent the surface of the body of water, placing the poplar bark-based product on the net, absorbing the floating chemical spill into the product, and removing the chemical soaked product from the body of water

  16. Nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Hiroshi.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To suppress iodine release thereby prevent stress corrosion cracks in fuel cans by dispersing ferrous oxide at the outer periphery of sintered uranium dioxide pellets filled and sealed within zirconium alloy fuel cans of fuel elements. Constitution: Sintered uranium dioxide pellets to be filled and sealed within a zirconium alloy fuel can are prepared either by mixing ferric oxide powder in uranium dioxide powder, sintering and then reducing at low temperature or by mixing iron powder in uranium dioxide powder, sintering and then oxidizing at low temperature. In this way, ferrous oxide is dispersed on the outer periphery of the sintered uranium dioxide pellets to convert corrosive fission products iodine into iron iodide, whereby the iodine release is suppressed and the stress corrosion cracks can be prevented in the fuel can. (Moriyama, K.)

  17. Non-spill control squared cascade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Tsunetoshi; Inoue, Yoshiya; Oya, Akio; Suemori, Nobuo.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To reduce a mixed loss thus enhancing separating efficiency by the provision of a simple arrangement wherein a reflux portion in a conventional spill control squared cascade is replaced by a special stage including centrifugal separators. Structure: Steps in the form of a square cascade, in which a plurality of centrifugal separators are connected by pipe lines, are accumulated in multistage fashion to form a squared cascade. Between the adjoining steps is disposed a special stage including a centrifugal separator which receives both lean flow from the upper step and rich flow from the lower step. The centrifugal separator in the special stage has its rich side connected to the upper step and its lean side connected to the lower step. Special stages are each disposed at the upper side of the uppermost step and at the lower side of the lowermost step. (Kamimura, M.)

  18. The Galeta oil spill: Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, K.A.; Yelle-Simmons, L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper gives the detailed compositions of oil residues in sediments and encrusting bivalves, and the changes over time. Initial weathering processes removed most of the volatile hydrocarbons and all market alkanes in oil adsorbed to surface sediments within 6 months after the spill. This initially fast rate of biodegradation was not maintained in the rate of disappearance of the aromatic hydrocarbons over time. Oil leaching out of heavily contaminated sediments was bioaccumulated in bivalves for at least 5 years. The organisms accumulated the whole range of alkylated polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the naphthalene through the benzoperylene elution range, seemingly in proportion to what was leached from sediments. A change in the composition of the aromatics bioaccumulated at most sites in year 5 indicated depletion of the most soluble and most acutely toxic hydrocarbons in the readily leachable reservoirs. (author)

  19. Oil spill response in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerffer, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The rapid economic development of many countries since World War II has caused a considerable increase in marine transportation of raw materials, especially of crude oils and in offshore activities. However, a significant amount of oil comes into the sea from operational discharges of ships (ballast and bilge water) as well as from incidents such as collisions, groundings and contacts, and offshore exploration and exploitation of oil and gas. These incidents have been the pivotal points in the approach of maritime nations to the protection of the marine environment through international legislation and implementation of rigorous requirements concerning the construction and exploitation of ships and offshore platforms, limiting the possibility and extent of oil spills. A new danger for marine environments has ensued recently though the increasing maritime transport of chemicals. The aim of this book is to introduce these problems, and reflect the level and trends of development in this field. (Author)

  20. Review of oil spill remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingas, Merv; Brown, Carl

    2014-06-15

    Remote-sensing for oil spills is reviewed. The use of visible techniques is ubiquitous, however it gives only the same results as visual monitoring. Oil has no particular spectral features that would allow for identification among the many possible background interferences. Cameras are only useful to provide documentation. In daytime oil absorbs light and remits this as thermal energy at temperatures 3-8K above ambient, this is detectable by infrared (IR) cameras. Laser fluorosensors are useful instruments because of their unique capability to identify oil on backgrounds that include water, soil, weeds, ice and snow. They are the only sensor that can positively discriminate oil on most backgrounds. Radar detects oil on water by the fact that oil will dampen water-surface capillary waves under low to moderate wave/wind conditions. Radar offers the only potential for large area searches, day/night and foul weather remote sensing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Managing public support during oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuidinga, K.; Boston, N.; Robertson, I.

    1990-01-01

    Too often oil spill contingency plans ignore and responders overlook the problem of managing auxiliary support, that is volunteers. These may consists of Native Bands, environmental organizations, community groups and the public in general. The consequences of not managing or poorly managing public support for the response effort is an increasingly frustrated public which begins to coordinate their own response efforts, proceeding without training or supervision. such a response can pose a threat to individuals as well as to the clean-up effort in general. Preparation and effective communication, particularly with the news media are key elements in successfully managing public support. In this paper the issues to be addressed are: coordination (mobilization, assignments), safety and insurance, equipment and clothing, fatigue and stress, food and shelter, training, public information including information about potential hazards, and public expectations of response efficiency

  2. Tanker spills Norwegian crude oil off Shetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports that crude oil was spilling last week from the U.S. owned Braer tanker after the 89,000 dwt vessel ran aground on the south end of Scotland's Shetland Islands. Workers were trying to assess the extent of damage to the tanker, shoreline, and wildlife after the January 5 accident. Braer's cargo amounted to 607,000 bbl of Norwegian oil bound for Canada. Braer loaded its cargo and sailed January 3 from Den norske stats oljeselskap AS's Mongstad, Norway, terminal with crude from Gullfaks field in the Norwegian North Sea. The $11 million shipment was destined for Ultramar Canada Inc.'s 125,000 b/d refinery at St. Romuald, Que

  3. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Junaid; Ning, Chao; Barford, John; McKay, Gordon

    2015-10-01

    Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5-15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Clean-up of a radioactive spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish, W.

    1987-01-01

    Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands of the South Pacific was extensively contaminated with radionuclides deposited by thermonuclear weapons testing in the 1940s and 1950s. In recent years, the U.S. government has attempted to restore the habitability of the islands by cleaning up the remaining radioactive material. Although the island no longer presents an acute radiation risk to inhabitants, plants growing on the island concentrate cesium-137 from the soil, presenting an unacceptable risk to the future population. The behavior of Cs-137 has proved to be an intractable problem that has major implications for the risks associated with transporting and processing high-level nuclear wastes in the U.S. Various proposed soil treatment strategies for Bikini are discussed, including ion-exchange treatments and competing-ion strategies. No fully satisfactory treatment currently exists and the problems and prospects of cleaning up after a major nuclear waste spill are presented

  5. Leaking tankers: how much oil was spilled?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simecek-Beatty, D. A.; Lehr, W. J.; Lankford, J. F.

    1997-01-01

    A model to estimate leak rates from tankers has been developed for use in emergency situations when more direct oil-loss estimation methods are not available. The model includes algorithms for gravity outflow and air and water ingestion. Three laboratory tests were conducted using fresh water and canola oil to evaluate the model output. Comparison with results from the laboratory experiments indicate good correlation of model results with measured data. However, it is not yet possible in the case of very large crude carriers to answer the question 'how much oil was spilled?' Sensitivity analysis and further laboratory testing were suggested to determine the effect of factors such as: pressure vacuum relief valves that prevent cavitation in the event of tank puncture; changing outside water levels due to wave and tidal action; tank and hole dimensions; and the amount and density of the product.10 refs., 4 figs

  6. The media politics of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper considers the ways in which news values shape the reporting of oil spills and the constraints under which media practitioners work. A series of oil spills since the late 1960s [including the Torrey Canyon (1967), the Exxon Valdez (1989), and the Sea Empress (1996)] have attracted considerable attention from the news media. The focus is upon the dynamics through which news sources, with their own particular vested interests, compete to secure representation of the issues. Media discourse on risk and the environment is, to a significant extent, a discourse dependent upon the voices of official ''experts''. Environmental organizations, industry, scientists and government offer their own particular competing accounts of the ''reality'' of the situation. Issues concerning differential access to the news media are crucial when considering who comes to define the event. Accordingly, the article examines the strategies adopted by the various news sources involved in influencing the symbolic representation of public issues. Media practitioners are faced with great problems in interpreting and explaining these competing claims. Relatively few journalists and broadcasters have a scientific training and perhaps one of the greatest problems is that by simplifying complex scientific information one inevitably distorts it. Frequently researchers make the assumption that it is possible to demonstrate a direct causal link between news media coverage and public attitudes. However, the paper calls for great caution in interpreting ''public opinion'' concerning environmental issues and concludes by arguing that news media representations may more usefully be viewed as the outcome of a battle among a selective range of news sources, each seeking to provide their own definition of the public representation of the issues. (author)

  7. Application of biosurfactant in oil spill management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juwarkar, A.; Babu, P.S.; Mishra, K.; Deshpande, M.

    1993-01-01

    Surfactants are surface active agents which reduce surface tension and interfacial tension between two immiscible phases and help in emulsification. Toxicity, nonbiodegradability, and limited structural types of chemical surfactants have initiated the need for effective substitutes. Biosurfactants, which are synthesized by specific microbial cultures, have surface active properties comparable to chemical surfactants. They are compounds that can help in oil spill cleanup operations without presenting the problem posed by chemical surfactants. Two bacterial cultures were isolated from oil-contaminated soil and were used for biosurfactant production. The biosurfactants produced by Bacillus licheniformis, BS1, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, BS2, in mineral media containing glucose as the carbon source belong to the class of lipoprotein and glycolipid, respectively. They were found to reduce the surface and interfacial tension of water and water-hexadecane system from 72 dynes/cm and 40 dynes/cm to 28 to 30 dynes/cm and 1 to 3 dynes/cm, respectively. These results were comparable with chemical surfactants with respect to surface tension reduction (Slic Gone 34 dynes/ cm and Castrol 30 dynes/cm). The low interfacial tension allows the formation of stable emulsion. The two cultures were grown on different substrates, namely, glucose, mannitol, glycerol, hexadecane, oily sludge, and crude oil. Emulsion formation of hexadecane in water was tested with the cell-free broth containing biosurfactant from the respective substrate broths. Emulsions of 56% stability to 100% stability were obtained from these biosurfactant-containing broths. Both biosurfactants were able to emulsify crude oil. A surfactant's ability to form a stable emulsion is the first step in oil spill cleanup. The emulsified oil can then be acted upon very easily by the microorganism under study

  8. The media politics of oil spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, A.G. [University of Plymouth (United Kingdom). Dept. of Sociology

    2002-06-01

    This paper considers the ways in which news values shape the reporting of oil spills and the constraints under which media practitioners work. A series of oil spills since the late 1960s [including the Torrey Canyon (1967), the Exxon Valdez (1989), and the Sea Empress (1996)] have attracted considerable attention from the news media. The focus is upon the dynamics through which news sources, with their own particular vested interests, compete to secure representation of the issues. Media discourse on risk and the environment is, to a significant extent, a discourse dependent upon the voices of official ''experts''. Environmental organizations, industry, scientists and government offer their own particular competing accounts of the ''reality'' of the situation. Issues concerning differential access to the news media are crucial when considering who comes to define the event. Accordingly, the article examines the strategies adopted by the various news sources involved in influencing the symbolic representation of public issues. Media practitioners are faced with great problems in interpreting and explaining these competing claims. Relatively few journalists and broadcasters have a scientific training and perhaps one of the greatest problems is that by simplifying complex scientific information one inevitably distorts it. Frequently researchers make the assumption that it is possible to demonstrate a direct causal link between news media coverage and public attitudes. However, the paper calls for great caution in interpreting ''public opinion'' concerning environmental issues and concludes by arguing that news media representations may more usefully be viewed as the outcome of a battle among a selective range of news sources, each seeking to provide their own definition of the public representation of the issues. (author)

  9. Public health risks associated with oil and chemical spills in cold freshwater environments: a simulation exercise involving a phenol and diesel spill in the St. Lawrence River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefaivre, D.; Jarry, V.; Guerrier, P.; Paul, M.; Colliou, M.

    1997-01-01

    The St. Lawrence River is the source of drinking water for some 45 per cent of the population in the Province of Quebec, hence contamination of the river by oil or chemical spills is a matter of great public health importance. Project SHORES was developed by the Quebec Environmental Health Committee through the St. Lawrence 'Vision 2000' Action Plan. As part of this project, a simulation exercise involving phenol and diesel fuel was carried out. The exercise included development of a computerized dispersion model which was then used to evaluate the migration of phenol in critical areas of the St. Lawrence River. Main public health risks to nearby populations, with emphasis on drinking water contamination, were assessed based on the simulation results. 18 refs., 2 tabs. 1 fig

  10. Bohai and Yellow Sea Oil Spill Prediction System and Its Application to Huangdao ‘11.22’ Oil Spill Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan; Li, Yan; Li, Cheng; Li, Wenshan; Wang, Guosong; Zhang, Song

    2017-08-01

    Marine oil spill has deep negative effect on both marine ecosystem and human activities. In recent years, due to China’s high-speed economic development, the demand for crude oil is increasing year by year in China, and leading to the high risk of marine oil spill. Therefore, it is necessary that promoting emergency response on marine oil spill in China and improving oil spill prediction techniques. In this study, based on oil spill model and GIS platform, we have developed the Bohai and Yellow sea oil spill prediction system. Combining with high-resolution meteorological and oceanographic forecast results, the system was applied to predict the drift and diffusion process of Huangdao ‘11.22’ oil spill incident. Although the prediction can’t be validated by some SAR images due to the lack of satellite observations, it still provided effective and referable oil spill behavior information to Maritime Safety Administration.

  11. Impact of oil spill on intertidal organisms in Bahrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a study carried out after a major oil spill hit the coasts of Bahrain in 1988. A total of fifteen stations around the Island of Bahrain were monitored for a period of six months in order to measure the impact of the spill on marine organisms and in particular those living in the intertidal zone. Large quantities of heavy hydrocarbons accumulated on the shores and caused death or serious damage to many organisms, including birds and fishes. The spill first hit the northwest shores. The oil spill was also reported to be the main factor in damaging the traditional fishing traps in the coastal waters, which caused serious effects on the fish catch for seven months

  12. QAPP for Hydraulic Fracturing (HF) Surface Spills Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This QAPP provides information concerning the analysis of spills associated with hydraulic fracturing. This project is relevant to both the chemical mixing and flowback and produced water stages of the HF water cycle as found in the HF Study Plan.

  13. Potential Environmental Impacts of Oil Spills in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This report analyses information status and research needs in relation to potential environmental impacts of oil spills (offshore and onshore) in Greenland. The report assesses potential effects and potential mitigation and monitoring measures. Information gaps are identified and a number...

  14. Solve your spill response problems with a cooperative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, T.E.

    1992-01-01

    An important role of a cooperative is to provide its member companies with the latest equipment and updated spill response know-how. Most companies have a primary focus other than spill response, so it is neither easy nor economical for individual companies to obtain or maintain a comprehensive spill response capability. Co-ops offer companies improved capability at lower overall cost. The co-op group can collectively share the cost of larger and more up-to-date equipment than companies can afford individually. Most spill equipment and materials either have a can more effectively provide the means to achieve state-of-the-art technology and keep its equipment and materials ready for use at any time. This paper reviews the benefits and drawbacks of cooperative in the oil and gas industry

  15. A case study of consensus modelling for tracking oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Brian; Brushett, Ben; Lemckert, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Metocean forecast datasets are essential for the timely response to marine incidents and pollutant spill mitigation at sea. To effectively model the likely drift pattern and the area of impact for a marine spill, both wind and ocean current forecast datasets are required. There are two ocean current forecast models and two wind forecast models currently used operationally in the Australia and Asia Pacific region. The availability of several different forecast models provides a unique opportunity to compare the outcome of a particular modelling exercise with the outcome of another using a different model and determining whether there is consensus in the results. Two recent modelling exercises, the oil spill resulting from the damaged Pacific Adventurer (in Queensland) and the oil spill from the Montara well blowout (in Western Australia) are presented as case studies to examine consensus modelling.

  16. Ottawa river nuclear spill contingency model development. Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This manual describes the calibration and application of a series of spill model programs. The programs simulate the receiving water concentrations in rivers, resulting from discharges/spill which can vary in time as well as being intermittent. The programs incorporate computer graphic outputs of the spill distribution at given times after the beginning of the spill, and at given downstream distances as a function of time. The manual outlines the procedure to calibrate the models based on site specific data. Detailed technical discussions on various components of the models are also included. The programs have been set up in an interactive (inquiry-response) mode. The series of programs are written on Fortran 77 and run on all IBM PC and compatible computers

  17. Oil spill response engineering and planning. Technical completion report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, M.R.; Celikkol, B.; Goodwin, C.E.; Carrier, R.; McDonald, S.P.

    1991-12-01

    Tanker and barge traffic associated with the five petroleum product terminals along the NH side of the Piscataqua River represents a constant oil spill threat to the contiguous Great Bay System, NH, an estuarine reserve. Several serious accidents have in fact taken place in the 1970's and two small spills in 1990. A major factor is that the Piscataqua channel is subject to high velocity tidal currents. Should a spill occur, problems arise in knowing where the slick will move and how to control it using booms. In the project, these problems were addressed by developing procedures for using diversion booms in high speed current environments and in revising and implementing a previously developed Oil Spill Trajectory Model

  18. OSIS: A Windows 3 Oil Spill Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leech, M.; Walker, M.; Wiltshire, M.; Tyler, A.

    1993-01-01

    An oil spill modelling and analysis system called the Oil Spill Information System (OSIS) has recently been developed. OSIS uses a model of oceanographic processes to predict three-dimensional spreading and transport of an oil slick under the influence of wind, waves, tide, turbulence, and shear diffusion. Oil weathering and fate processes of emulsification, evaporation, and dispersion are also simulated. The physical models have been tested against data obtained from sea trials and spill incidents. OSIS uses an object-oriented programming technique and presents model output as maps, graphs, and tables in multiple windows and can link to other Windows packages to create a suite of spill information management tools. 15 refs., 12 figs

  19. Nature preservation acceptance model applied to tanker oil spill simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Hansen, Peter; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2003-01-01

    is exemplified by a study of oil spills due to simulated tanker collisions in the Danish straits. It is found that the distribution of the oil spill volume per spill is well represented by an exponential distribution both in Oeresund and in Great Belt. When applied in the Poisson model, a risk profile reasonably...... acceptance criterion for the pollution of the environment. This NPWI acceptance criterion is applied to the oil spill example....... be defined in a similar way as the so-called Life Quality Index defined by Nathwani et al [Nathwani JS, Lind NC, Padey MD. Affordable safety by choice: the life quality method. Institute for Risk Research, University of Waterloo; Waterloo (Ontario, Canada):1997], and can be used to quantify the risk...

  20. Confirmation Sampling and Analysis Plan for Spill Site Number 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    ... No. 1 to document the effectiveness of bioventing for the remediation of petroleum-hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and to provide data for a risk-based assessment of contaminants remaining in site soils and groundwater. Spill Site...

  1. North Slope mobile technology and its application to spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabile, N.J.; Helinski, R.

    1992-01-01

    At ARCO Alaska's Prudhoe Bay operation, improved preparedness for oil spill response has been achieved by applying mobile technology according to an innovative concept. To ensure safe and efficient deployment of resources during a spill response, a rapid deployment equipment delivery system was developed. This multi-functional, modularized system was based on a previously developed chemical delivery system consisting of a primary transport truck equipped with a Dempsey Dumpster Dinosaur skid. This same modularized concept was used for spill response with the substitution of function-specific spill response vans in place of chemical transport tanks. Within this concept, skid-mounted mission-specific vans are rapidly deployed to multiple sites in a fire brigade type of response. Skid-mounted units include land and water containment, recovery, boom deployment, command center, generator skid, restroom facility, and skimmer units. 4 figs

  2. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Yasuo.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the plenum space in a fuel element used for a liquid metal cooled reactor. Constitution: A fuel pellet is secured at one end with an end plug and at the other with a coil spring in a tubular container. A mechanism for fixing the coil spring composed of a tubular unit is mounted by friction with the inner surface of the tubular container. Accordingly, the recoiling force of the coil spring can be retained by fixing mechanism with a small volume, and since a large amount of plenum space can be obtained, the internal pressure rise in the cladding tube can be suppressed even if large quantities of fission products are discharged. (Kamimura, M.)

  3. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Mitsuo.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the corrosion rate and suppress the increase of radioactive corrosion products in reactor water of nuclear fuel assemblies for use in BWR type reactors having spacer springs made of nickel based deposition reinforced type alloys. Constitution: Spacer rings made of nickel based deposition reinforced type alloy are incorporated and used as fuel assemblies after applying treatment of dipping and maintaining at high temperature water followed by heating in steams. Since this can remove the nickel leaching into reactor water at the initial stage, Co-58 as the radioactive corrosion products in the reactor water can be reduced, and the operation at in-service inspection or repairement can be facilitated to improve the working efficiency of the nuclear power plant. The dipping time is desirably more than 10 hours and more desirably more than 30 hours. (Horiuchi, T. )

  4. Methodology for environmental assessments of oil and hazardous substance spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, W. P.; Scott, G. I.; Getter, C. D.; Hayes, M. O.; Gundlach, E. R.

    1980-03-01

    Scientific assessment of the complex environmental consequences of large spills of oil or other hazardous substances has stimulated development of improved strategies for rapid and valid collection and processing of ecological data. The combination of coastal processes and geological measurements developed by Hayes & Gundlach (1978), together with selected field biological and chemical observations/measurements, provide an ecosystem impact assessment approach which is termed “integrated zonal method of ecological impact assessment.” Ecological assessment of oil and hazardous material spills has been divided into three distinct phases: (1) first-order response studies — conducted at the time of the initial spill event, which gather data to document acute impacts and assist decision-makers in prioritization of cleanup efforts and protection of ecologically sensitive habitats, (2) second-order response studies — conducted two months to one year post-spill, which document any delayed mortality and attempt to identify potential sublethal impacts in sensitive species, and (3) third-order response studies — conducted one to three years post-spill, to document chronic impacts (both lethal and sublethal) to specific indicator species. Data collected during first-order response studies are gathered in a quantitative manner so that the initial assessment may become a baseline for later, more detailed, post-spill scientific efforts. First- and second-order response studies of the “Peck Slip” oil spill in Puerto Rico illustrate the usefulness of this method. The need for contingency planning before a spill has been discussed along with the use of the Vulnerability Index, a method in which coastal environments are classified on a scale of 1 10, based upon their potential susceptibility to oiling. A study of the lower Cook Inlet section of the Alaskan coast illustrates the practical application of this method.

  5. Mega borg oil spill: Fate and effect studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Mega Borg, a Norwegian tanker, released an estimated 5.1 million gallons (gal) of Palanca Angola crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico during a lightering accident and subsequent fire. The collection of reports was designed to provide a comprehensive overview of the spill chronology, the fate of the oil released, and subsequent studies that were conducted to assess the impacts of the oil spill on the environment and its biota

  6. Almost remediation of saltwater spills at E and P sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carty, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    At exploration and production (E and P) sites crude spills restricted to topsoil are often self-remediating, but salt spills rarely are. Most soils naturally biodegrade crude. Without appropriate human intervention, brine spills can result in decades of barren land and seriously degrade surface water and aquifers. Servicing the E and P industry are remediation practitioners with a limited array of often expensive remediation concepts and materials which they hope will work, and sometimes do. Unfortunately, many remediation practitioners are unfamiliar with, or disregard, the natural physical, chemical, and biotic complexity of the soil and aquatic media. All too often this results in exacerbating injury to an already damaged ecosystem. Likewise, important cultural factors such as public relations, environmental regulations, property rights, and water rights are also overlooked until after implementation of an ill-advised or illegal remediation design has been initiated. A major issue is determining what constitutes ''successful'' remediation of a brine spill. Environmental managers have long sought one or two universally applicable fast and cheap amendment/treatment protocols for all their diverse multi-state salt affected spill scenarios. This presentation describes aspects of common spill-affected ecosystems which must be considered to achieve ''successful'' remediation

  7. Satellite observations of oil spills in Bohai Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Y L; Tang, Z Y; Li, X F

    2014-01-01

    Several oil spills occurred at two oil platforms in Bohai Sea, China on June 4 and 17, 2011. The oil spills were subsequently imaged by different types of satellite sensors including SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar), Chinese HJ-1-B CCD and NOAA MODIS. In order to detect the oil spills more accurately, images of the former three sensors were used in this study. Oil spills were detected using the semi-supervised Texture-Classifying Neural Network Algorithm (TCNNA) in SAR images and gradient edge detection algorithm in HJ-1-B and MODIS images. The results show that, on June 11, the area of oil slicks is 31 km 2 and they are observed in the vicinity and to the north of the oilfield in SAR image. The coverage of the oil spill expands dramatically to 244 km 2 due to the newly released oil after June 11 in SAR image of June 14. The results on June 19 show that under a cloud-free condition, CCD and MODIS images capture the oil spills clearly while TCNNA cannot separate them from the background surface, which implies that the optical images play an important role in oil detection besides SAR images

  8. European Atlantic: the hottest oil spill hotspot worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieites, David R.; Nieto-Román, Sandra; Palanca, Antonio; Ferrer, Xavier; Vences, Miguel

    2004-11-01

    Oil spills caused by maritime transport of petroleum products are still an important source of ocean pollution, especially in main production areas and along major transport routes. We here provide a historical and geographic analysis of the major oil spills (>700 t) since 1960. Spills were recorded from several key marine ecosystems and marine biodiversity hotspots. The past four decades have been characterized by an overall decrease in the number of accidents and tonnes of oil spilled in the sea, but this trend was less distinct in the European Atlantic area. Recent black tides from the Erika and Prestige vessels provided new evidence for the high risk of accidents with serious ecological impact in this area, which according to our analysis is historically the most important oil spill hotspot worldwide. The English Channel and waters around Galicia in Spain were the areas with most accidents. Maritime transport in European Atlantic waters has been predicted to continue increasing. Together with our own results this suggests that, in addition to measures for increased traffic safety, deployment of emergency capacities in the spill hotspot areas may be crucial for a sustainable conservation of sea resources and ecosystems.

  9. Oil spill sorbents: Testing protocol and certification listing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, D.; Gausemel, I.

    1993-01-01

    Environment Canada's Emergencies Engineering Division is spearheading a program in conjunction with the Canadian General Standards Board that would see the development of a certification and listing program in addition to a national standard for the testing of sorbent materials. Funding for this program is provided by Environment Canada (EC), Canadian Coast Guard (CCG), Marine Spill Response Corporation (MSRC), US Coast Guard (USCG), and US Minerals Management Service (MMS). The test methods are based upon those defined by the American Society for Testing and Materials and previous test methods developed by Environment Canada for our series of reports entitled Selection Criteria and Laboratory Evaluation of Oil Spill Sorbents. This series, which was started in 1975, encompasses a number of commercially available oil spill sorbents tested with different petroleum products and hydrocarbon solvents. The testing program will categorize the sorbents according to their operating characteristics. The main categories are oil spills on water, oil spills on land, and industrial use. The characteristics to be evaluated with the new test protocols include initial and maximum sorption capacities, water pickup, buoyancy, reuse potential, retention profile, disintegration (material integrity), and ease of application and retrieval. In the near future are plans to incorporate changes to the test that would involve increasing the list of test liquids to encompass spills in an industrial setting, in addition to testing sorbent booms and addressing the disposal problem

  10. Spill response exercises and lessons learned : a response organization's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, E.; Green, M.

    2001-01-01

    In the past five years, Burrard Clean Operations (BCO) has demonstrated its' oil spill response capabilities through different types of exercises. Such exercises are necessary for certification of Response Organizations in Canada. The exercises can be performed through actual response to spills or through simulated situations. Both can provide an opportunity to practice different levels of response to a range of conditions in various settings. They also provide the opportunity to focus on specific themes that can be part of a response and to identify areas for improvement in response actions. They also make it possible to interface with government agencies, industry and others that participate in spill responses. The exercise program for BCO is aimed at maintaining certification and to assist the Canadian Coast Guard. The exercises broaden the lessons learned and set a course for future enhancement to spill readiness should a real incident occur. The goals of the exercise program are to provide real time drills that show the operational capability of a representative sample of BCO equipment, management and trained spill responders. The response functions of the BCO exercise program are: notification, response organization activation, contractor activation, situation analysis, strategy development for marine oil spill response, site safety, equipment deployment, containment, recovery, shoreline assessment, cleanup, communications, decontamination, logistics, and financial management. The BCO experience has led to the basic conclusions that there is a need to vary the exercise design and format and that there is a need to implement follow-up actions provided during exercise evaluations. 7 refs., 3 tabs

  11. Results from oil spill response research - an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennyson, E.J.

    1993-01-01

    Recent large oil spills from tankers have reaffirmed the need for continuing technology assessment and research to improve oil spill response capabilities. This paper discusses Minerals Management Service concerns, as reinforced by the acceleration of its research program in 1990. It briefly assesses current state-of-the-art technology for major aspects of spill response, including remote sensing, open-ocean containment and recovery, in-situ burning, use of chemical treating agents, beachline cleanup, and oil behavior. Specific research projects have begun to yield information that will improve detection and at-sea equipment performance; current projects include the development of an airborne laser-fluorosensor to determine whether apparent slicks contain oil. Additional projects involve the development of improved strategies for responding to oil in broken-ice conditions, for gaining an improved understanding of the fate and behavior of spilled oil as it affects response strategies, and for defining the capabilities of available dispersants and development of improved formulations. Recently, progress has been made on the development of safe and environmentally acceptable strategies to burn spilled oil in situ. The Ohmsett facility has been reopened and will be used to test prospective improvements in chemical treating agents and to develop standard procedures for testing and evaluating response equipment. Results of research published since the last Oil Spill Conference are discussed

  12. Perspective: Ecological recovery following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, A.W.

    1993-01-01

    A series of field and laboratory studies were designed to characterize the initial effects and subsequent rate of ecosystem recovery following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. These studies were organized within an ecological risk assessment framework wherein measurements of residual spill hydrocarbons from specific environmental compartments were correlated with observed biological effects for resident species and communities. This allowed an assessment of the likelihood of spill-related effects vs. effects of natural ecosystem variability. Measurement of polycyclic automatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were made from throughout the spill-affected area for water column, intertidal shoreline sediments and deep subtidal sediments. Data document the expected high levels of PAH in 1989 with rapid PAH decreases in following years from all compartments reflecting natural assimilation and dissipation via chemical, physical and biological processes. Parallel investigations of risks to biological resources representing major trophic levels were conducted to quantify recovery rates of spill impacted habitats and resident species. Results are summarized documenting respective recovery rates for key trophic levels including intertidal flora and fauna, benthic invertebrates and infauna, herring and salmon, shorebirds and colonial seabirds and sea otters. Quantitative data developed for these species support the conclusion that the effects of oil spills are largely short-term acute events, and the Prince William Sound recovery was well advanced by 1991

  13. Suppression of stratified explosive interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, M.K.; Shamoun, B.I.; Bonazza, R.; Corradini, M.L. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics

    1998-01-01

    Stratified Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI) experiments with Refrigerant-134a and water were performed in a large-scale system. Air was uniformly injected into the coolant pool to establish a pre-existing void which could suppress the explosion. Two competing effects due to the variation of the air flow rate seem to influence the intensity of the explosion in this geometrical configuration. At low flow rates, although the injected air increases the void fraction, the concurrent agitation and mixing increases the intensity of the interaction. At higher flow rates, the increase in void fraction tends to attenuate the propagated pressure wave generated by the explosion. Experimental results show a complete suppression of the vapor explosion at high rates of air injection, corresponding to an average void fraction of larger than 30%. (author)

  14. Maximum tech, minimum time. Response and cleanup of the Fidalgo Bay oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pintler, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    A booster pump failure on a pipeline at Texaco's Anacortes refinery spilled more than 17,000 gallons of oil into Fidalgo Bay. A description is given of the spill control measures taken under Texaco's Spill Prevention and Control Countermeasures and facility contingency plans. The spill was addressed quickly, and containment booms were used to cordon off the spill. Vacuum trucks, rope mop machines and disk skimmers were used to collect the thickest concentrations of oil, and the oil and water collected was separated at the refinery's wastewater treatment centre. Nonwoven polypropylene sorbent pads, sweeps, booms and oil snares were used to clean up thinner concentrations of oil. Essential steps for a smooth spill response include the following: a comprehensive spill prevention and control countermeasures plan, training and regular drills and testing; immediate notification of appropriate regulatory agencies and company emergency response personnel; and the use of professional oil spill management contractors to assist in spill cleanup. 2 figs

  15. Polarized advanced fuel reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1987-07-01

    The d- 3 He reaction has the same spin dependence as the d-t reaction. It produces no neutrons, so that if the d-d reactivity could be reduced, it would lead to a neutron-lean reactor. The current understanding of the possible suppression of the d-d reactivity by spin polarization is discussed. The question as to whether a suppression is possible is still unresolved. Other advanced fuel reactions are briefly discussed. 11 refs

  16. Automated oil spill detection with multispectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Brian N.; Sanchez-Reyes, Pedro J.

    2011-06-01

    In this publication we present an automated detection method for ocean surface oil, like that which existed in the Gulf of Mexico as a result of the April 20, 2010 Deepwater Horizon drilling rig explosion. Regions of surface oil in airborne imagery are isolated using red, green, and blue bands from multispectral data sets. The oil shape isolation procedure involves a series of image processing functions to draw out the visual phenomenological features of the surface oil. These functions include selective color band combinations, contrast enhancement and histogram warping. An image segmentation process then separates out contiguous regions of oil to provide a raster mask to an analyst. We automate the detection algorithm to allow large volumes of data to be processed in a short time period, which can provide timely oil coverage statistics to response crews. Geo-referenced and mosaicked data sets enable the largest identified oil regions to be mapped to exact geographic coordinates. In our simulation, multispectral imagery came from multiple sources including first-hand data collected from the Gulf. Results of the simulation show the oil spill coverage area as a raster mask, along with histogram statistics of the oil pixels. A rough square footage estimate of the coverage is reported if the image ground sample distance is available.

  17. British Columbia inland oil spill response plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an outline of the organization, procedures and duties of the provincial government in response to inland oil spills stemming from pipeline or tank-farm rupture, train derailment and vehicle accidents in British Columbia. Provincial response strategies were reviewed, along with their relationships to various policies and standards. Public, infrastructure and environmental protection were identified as key factors. Incident notification procedures were detailed, including outlines of roles, event criteria and call for incident management teams. Agreements and cost recovery issues were examined. The characteristics of site response were reviewed, including details of communications, tactical planning, and unified command among local and federal governments. The role of First Nations and responsible parties was also addressed. Details of shore cleanup, wildlife rescue, decontamination, and waste handling strategies were presented. The organization, missions and duties for an incident management team were outlined, along with a summary of operational guidelines and information on team positions and the establishment of joint information centres. The involvement of cooperating agencies was examined. An incident command system was also presented, including details of planning, operations, logistics, and organization. A checklist of individual duties was provided, with details of responsibilities, safety issues and general instructions for all team members. tabs., figs

  18. Oil spill cleanup for soft sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, J.A.; Tookey, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    A series of experimental trials are in progress to investigate the effectiveness and consequences of oil spill cleanup methods for areas of mud flats and salt marsh. Trials have shown that wheeled and tracked vehicles have limited utility. Field measurements of the load bearing capacity of the mud can show where such vehicles may be used. Lightweight hover craft provide a useful means of transport. Shallow-draft boats can have a useful transport role: whether such craft can be used depends on the local topography and tidal regime. The trials showed that practical problems associated with implementing low-pressure flushing operations (lack of water for flushing, recovery of the flushed oil) can be overcome - although the environmental effects have yet to be assessed. The use of straw matting as a sorbent material was also demonstrated. The objective of the first two phases of the project, reported here, was to select workable methods with a view to subsequently employing them in larger-scale trials. The environmental consequences of using the selected methods will be examined in the later trials

  19. Bioremediation effectiveness following the Exxon Valdez spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragg, J.R.; Prince, R.G.; Harner, E.J.; Atlas, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Statistical analyses of changes in the composition of oil residues remaining on beaches following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound have demonstrated that bioremediation was effective in accelerating oil removal. Extensive data were obtained in a joint bioremediation monitoring program conducted during the summer of 1990 by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the State of Alaska, and Exxon. Composition changes in the oil relative to hopane, a trace oil component very resistant to biodegradation, provided the basis for accurately determining rates and extent of biodegradation. Results show that on fertilized beaches the rate of oil biodegradation was from three to more than five times faster than on adjacent, unfertilized control beaches. Further, most hydrocarbon components of the oil were biodegraded simultaneously, although at different rates. On one beach studied, about 60 percent of the total hydrocarbons detectable by gas chromatograph and 45 percent of the total PAH were biodegraded in three months. Bioremediation effectiveness was determined to depend primarily on the amount of nitrogen fertilizer delivered to the sediment per unit of oil present, time, and the extent of oil degradation prior to fertilizer application. The results suggest ways to improve future bioremediation application strategies and monitoring

  20. Time series observations of marsh recovery and pavement persistence at three Metula spill sites after 30.5 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, E.H.; Sergy, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    In 1974, the oil tanker Metula ran aground in the Strait of Magellan, Chile and spilled about 50,000 tons of light Arabian crude and 2,000 tons of Bunker C fuel. No attempt was made to recover or treat the stranded oil and the coast was left to recover by natural attenuation. Field visits to the coastal sites affected by the spill were conducted 30 years after the incident. The survey in 2005 repeated observations and measurements made in 1998 in the heavily affected Punta Espora area that documented salt marsh recovery at 2 sites, and changes in asphalt pavement at a third site. The 1998 survey also indicated that tilling was responsible for a significant increase in the number of plants that recolonized the area. A comparison of the plant counts between 1998 and 2005 showed that the number of plants in tilled plots was reduced because of fewer larger plants. A comparison of oil distribution in the west marsh from 1998 to 2005 showed that recolonization was evident. A large 550 m-long asphalt pavement on a mixed sediment beach showed very little changes in pavement area in the aftermath of the spill. However, the upper edge of the pavement showed signs of erosion by backwash action of waves during high-tide. The presence of surface oil cover continues to dominate the physical character of the upper intertidal and supratidal zones. 11 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs

  1. Time series observations of marsh recovery and pavement persistence at three Metula spill sites after 30.5 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, E.H. [Polaris Applied Sciences Inc., Bainbridge Island, WA (United States); Sergy, G.A. [Environment Canada, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    In 1974, the oil tanker Metula ran aground in the Strait of Magellan, Chile and spilled about 50,000 tons of light Arabian crude and 2,000 tons of Bunker C fuel. No attempt was made to recover or treat the stranded oil and the coast was left to recover by natural attenuation. Field visits to the coastal sites affected by the spill were conducted 30 years after the incident. The survey in 2005 repeated observations and measurements made in 1998 in the heavily affected Punta Espora area that documented salt marsh recovery at 2 sites, and changes in asphalt pavement at a third site. The 1998 survey also indicated that tilling was responsible for a significant increase in the number of plants that recolonized the area. A comparison of the plant counts between 1998 and 2005 showed that the number of plants in tilled plots was reduced because of fewer larger plants. A comparison of oil distribution in the west marsh from 1998 to 2005 showed that recolonization was evident. A large 550 m-long asphalt pavement on a mixed sediment beach showed very little changes in pavement area in the aftermath of the spill. However, the upper edge of the pavement showed signs of erosion by backwash action of waves during high-tide. The presence of surface oil cover continues to dominate the physical character of the upper intertidal and supratidal zones. 11 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs.

  2. Oil spill research : salt water and fresh water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, R.

    2006-01-01

    The difference in oil spill response activities between marine and freshwater environments were reviewed. Although containment, recovery and in-situ burning remain the same in both environments, the fate of oil is different due to water density and salinity considerations. The lower energy of lakes and the lack of major currents changes the advection of the oil. Rivers have high currents, and wind speed and direction are highly influenced by topographic effects. Tidal action is not a consideration for the inland situation, but water levels in rivers can change due to sudden rain events or the action of control devices upstream from the spill. Typically, the volume of oil released in freshwater environments is lower than in marine tanker situations, but spills from pipelines or a major train derailment can exceed 1000 m 3 . Since the use of water for human consumption and irrigation is another important factor in inland spills, it is important to have a means of obtaining information on the dynamics of spills and a system for archiving the response activities, such as the shoreline cleanup assessment technique (SCAT)and resulting cleanup. It was suggested that research studies must be undertaken to improve response strategies for freshwater spills. These include the dynamics of oil in freshwater environments such as rivers, lakes and sloughs; the role of oil-fine interactions in freshwater situations; the process involved in the formation of tar balls; and, the dynamics of oil in a freshwater situation. The response techniques that must be developed to improve the response to freshwater spills include techniques to remove oil from the bottom; techniques to filter and remove oil from the water column; and, development and testing of dispersants for freshwater environments

  3. Assessment of treated vs untreated oil spills. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M.P.

    1981-02-01

    The results of a series of studies conducted to determine the practicability and feasibility of using dispersants to mitigate the impact of an oil spill on the environment are described. The method of approach is holistic in that it combines the physical, chemical, microbial and macro-fauna response to a spill treated with dispersants and compares this with spills that are left untreated. The program integrates mathematical, laboratory, meso-scale (three 20 foot high by three feet in diameter tanks, in-situ experiments and analyses to determine if the use of dispersants is an effective oil spill control agent. In summary, it appears viable to use dispersants as determined on a case by case basis. The case for using dispersants has to be based on whether or not their use will mitigate the environmental impact of the spill. In the case of an open ocean spill that is being driven into a rich inter-tidal community, the use of dispersants could greatly reduce the environmental impact. Even in the highly productive George's Bank area at the height of the cod spawning season, the impact of the use of dispersants is well within the limits of natural variability when the threshold toxicity level is assumed to be as low as 100 ppB, a level which is often found in the open ocean. Thus, it appears that dispersants can and should be used when it is evident that their use will mitigate the impacts of the spill. Their use in areas where there is poor circulation and therefore little possibility of rapid dilution is more questionable and should be a subject of future studies.

  4. The energy spilling reactions of bacteria and other organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, James B

    2007-01-01

    For many years it was assumed that living organisms always utilized ATP in a highly efficient manner, but simple growth studies with bacteria indicated that the efficiency of biomass production was often at least 3-fold lower than the amount that would be predicted from standard biosynthetic pathways. The utilization of energy for maintenance could only explain a small portion of this discrepancy particularly when the growth rate was high. These ideas and thermodynamic arguments indicated that cells might have another avenue of energy utilization. This phenomenon has also been called 'uncoupling', 'spillage' and 'overflow metabolism', but 'energy spilling' is probably the most descriptive term. It appears that many bacteria spill energy, and the few that do not can be killed (large and often rapid decrease in viability), if the growth medium is nitrogen-limited and the energy source is in 'excess'. The lactic acid bacterium, Streptococcus bovis, is an ideal bacterium for the study of energy spilling. Because it only uses substrate level phosphorylation to generate ATP, ATP generation can be calculated with a high degree of certainty. It does not store glucose as glycogen, and its cell membrane can be easily accessed. Comparative analysis of heat production, membrane voltage, ATP production and Ohm's law indicated that the energy spilling reaction of S. bovis is mediated by a futile cycle of protons through the cell membrane. Less is known about Escherichia coli, but in this bacterium energy spilling could be mediated by a futile cycle of potassium or ammonium ions. Energy spilling is not restricted to prokaryotes and appears to occur in yeasts and in higher organisms. In man, energy spilling may be related to cancer, ageing, ischemia and cardiac failure. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Oil spill cleanup in severe weather and open ocean conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, T.

    1993-01-01

    Most serious oil spills occur in open water under severe weather conditions. At first the oil stays on the surface, where it is spread by winds and water currents. The action of the waves then mixes the oil into the water column. With time the light elements of crude oil evaporate. The remaining residue is of very low commercial value, but of significant environmental impact. The oil spill can move either out to sea or inshore, where it ends up on the beaches. Normal procedures are to let outbound oil disperse by evaporation and mixing into the water column, and to let the inbound oil collect on the beaches, where the cleanup operations are concentrated. The reason for this is that there is no capability to clean the surface of the water in wave conditions-present-day oil skimmers are ineffective in waves approaching 4 ft in height. It would be simpler, more effective and environmentally more beneficial to skim the oil right at the spill location. This paper describes a method to do this. In the case of an oil spill in open water and high wave conditions, it is proposed to reduce the height of the ocean waves by the use of floating breakwaters to provide a relatively calm area. In such protected areas existing oil skimmers can be used to recover valuable oil and clean up the spill long before it hits the beaches. A floating breakwater developed at the University of Rhode Island by the author can be of great benefit in oil spill cleanup for open ocean conditions. This breakwater is constructed from scrap automobile tires. It is built in units of 20 tires each, which are easily transportable and can be connected together at the spill site to form any desired configuration

  6. PROTOZOA IN SUBSURFACE SEDIMENTS FROM SITE CONTAMI- NATED WITH AVIATION GASOLINE OR JET FUEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numbers of protozoa in the subsurface of aviation gasoline and jet fuel spill areas at a Coast Guard base at Traverse City, Mich., were determined. Boreholes were drilled in an uncontaminated location, in contaminated but untreated parts of the fuel plumes, and in the aviation ga...

  7. Dexamethasone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    DST; ACTH suppression test; Cortisol suppression test ... During this test, you will receive dexamethasone. This is a strong man-made (synthetic) glucocorticoid medicine. Afterward, your blood is drawn ...

  8. Deconstructing continuous flash suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Eunice; Blake, Randolph

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we asked to what extent the depth of interocular suppression engendered by continuous flash suppression (CFS) varies depending on spatiotemporal properties of the suppressed stimulus and CFS suppressor. An answer to this question could have implications for interpreting the results in which CFS influences the processing of different categories of stimuli to different extents. In a series of experiments, we measured the selectivity and depth of suppression (i.e., elevation in co...

  9. Design of a Low-cost Oil Spill Tracking Buoy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Hu, X.; Yu, F.; Dong, S.; Chen, G.

    2017-12-01

    As the rapid development of oil exploitation and transportation, oil spill accidents, such as Prestige oil spill, Gulf of Mexico oil spill accident and so on, happened frequently in recent years which would result in long-term damage to the environment and human life. It would be helpful for rescue operation if we can locate the oil slick diffusion area in real time. Equipped with GNSS system, current tracking buoys(CTB), such as Lagrangian drifting buoy, Surface Velocity Program (SVP) drifter, iSLDMB (Iridium self locating datum marker buoy) and Argosphere buoy, have been used as oil tracking buoy in oil slick observation and as validation tools for oil spill simulation. However, surface wind could affect the movement of oil slick, which couldn't be reflected by CTB, thus the oil spill tracking performance is limited. Here, we proposed an novel oil spill tracking buoy (OSTB) which has a low cost of less than $140 and is equipped with Beidou positioning module and sails to track oil slick. Based on hydrodynamic equilibrium model and ocean dynamic analysis, the wind sails and water sails are designed to be adjustable according to different marine conditions to improve tracking efficiency. Quick release device is designed to assure easy deployment from air or ship. Sea experiment was carried out in Jiaozhou Bay, Northern China. OSTB, SVP, iSLDMB, Argosphere buoy and a piece of oil-simulated rubber sheet were deployed at the same time. Meanwhile, oil spill simulation model GNOME (general NOAA operational modeling environment) was configured with the wind and current field, which were collected by an unmanned surface vehicle (USV) mounted with acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP) and wind speed and direction sensors. Experimental results show that the OSTB has better relevance with rubber sheet and GNOME simulation results, which validate the oil tracking ability of OSTB. With low cost and easy deployment, OSTB provides an effective way for oil spill numerical

  10. Oil Spill Public Information Center: Its role in the flow of information on the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holba, C.; McGee, M.; Thompson, P.

    1993-01-01

    On March 24, 1989, the supertanker Exxon Valdez struck a sub- merged rock pinnacle at Bligh Reef, puncturing eight of its storage tanks. Within hours, 11 million gallons of crude oil were dumped into the waters of Prince William Sound. The cleanup, damage assessment, and restoration activities undertaken for this environmentally complex area presented multifaceted challenges to public and private organizations and various professional disciplines. One of these challenges was obtaining and disseminating prespill, spill, and postspill information for both the private and public sector. The Oil Spill Public Information Center (OSPIC) was created for this purpose by the US Department of Justice on behalf of the federal trustees. Its management has since been assumed by the restoration team, an arm of the state-federal Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council. On October 8, 1991, a settlement agreement was approved in United States District Court, which required Exxon to pay $1 billion in criminal restitution and civil damages to the United States and the state of Alaska. The settlement terms specify that the Trustee Council shall establish procedures providing for meaningful public participation in the injury assessment and restoration process. Consistent with that mandate, the OSPIC is responsible for providing a repository for all material related to the Exxon Valdez oil spill, The OSPIC is a specialized library open to the public. Its function is to collect, organize, and make accessible materials generated by state and federal agencies and the private sector as a result of the cleanup, damage assessment, and restoration activities of the spill. The OSPIC staff is also identifying and collecting baseline studies in the Prince William Sound and Gulf of Alaska areas, as well as materials on cold water marine spills. The OSPIC serves a variety of patrons, including industry, the oil spill response community, state and federal agencies, scientists, etc

  11. Research on weathering and biomarkers in heavy fuel oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Q.; Li, Z.; Yu, Z.

    2008-01-01

    The fate of oil spilled in the ocean depends on several physicochemical and biological factors such as evaporation, dissolution, microbial degradation and photo-oxidation. These weathering processes decrease the low molecules in spilled oils which reduces the harmful effects of spilled oil to the ocean and biota near the spill. In addition to changing the composition of the oil, some weathering processes are key to identifying the spilled oil. As such, the relationship between the weathering processes and the changes in oil composition must be well understood. This paper used gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to analyze changes of chemical components in heavy fuel oil by weathering in static seawater. The major alkanes of heavy fuel oil include C8 to C33, while the major aromatics include benzene, naphthalene, phenanthrene and dibenzothiophene. After 24 weeks of weathering in seawater, the alkanes from n-C8 to n-C15 evaporated in order of increasing carbon number. The susceptibility of n-alkanes was correlated with carbon numbers. The aromatics evaporated in order of increasing carbon and ring number as weathering time increased. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  12. Studies on marine oil spills and their ecological damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Hong; Yin, Yanjie

    2009-09-01

    The sources of marine oil spills are mainly from accidents of marine oil tankers or freighters, marine oil-drilling platforms, marine oil pipelines, marine oilfields, terrestrial pollution, oil-bearing atmosphere, and offshore oil production equipment. It is concluded upon analysis that there are two main reasons for marine oil spills: (I) The motive for huge economic benefits of oil industry owners and oil shipping agents far surpasses their sense of ecological risks. (II) Marine ecological safety has not become the main concern of national security. Oil spills are disasters because humans spare no efforts to get economic benefits from oil. The present paper draws another conclusion that marine ecological damage caused by oil spills can be roughly divided into two categories: damage to marine resource value (direct value) and damage to marine ecosystem service value (indirect value). Marine oil spills cause damage to marine biological, fishery, seawater, tourism and mineral resources to various extents, which contributes to the lower quality and value of marine resources.

  13. Mercury Spill Responses - Five States, 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Ryan J; Hirsch, Anne E; Bush, Christina R; Schmitz, Stuart; Wenzel, Jeff

    2017-03-17

    Despite measures to educate the public about the dangers of elemental mercury, spills continue to occur in homes, schools, health care facilities, and other settings, endangering the public's health and requiring costly cleanup. Mercury is most efficiently absorbed by the lungs, and exposure to high levels of mercury vapor after a release can cause cough, sore throat, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headaches, and visual disturbances (1). Children and fetuses are most susceptible to the adverse effects of mercury vapor exposure. Because their organ systems are still developing, children have increased respiratory rates, and they are closer to the ground where mercury vapors are most highly concentrated (2). To summarize key features of recent mercury spills and lessons learned, five state health departments involved in the cleanup (Iowa, Michigan, Missouri, North Carolina, and Wisconsin) compiled data from various sources on nonthermometer mercury spills from 2012 to 2015. The most common sites of contamination were residences, schools and school buses, health care facilities, and commercial and industrial facilities. Children aged mercury exposure. To protect the public's health after a mercury spill, it is important that local, state, and federal agencies communicate and coordinate effectively to ensure a quick response, and to minimize the spread of contamination. To reduce the number of mercury spills that occur in the United States, public health officials should increase awareness about exchange programs for mercury-containing items and educate school and health care workers about sources of mercury and how to dispose of them properly.

  14. Environmental effects of acute oil spills. Marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moe, K.A.; Lystad, E.; Nesse, S.; Selvik, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Biological effects as result of acute oil spill pollution may be considered as a product of: the existing biophysical conditions; occurrence and appearance of organisms in time and space; the fate of the oil in time and space; the vulnerability of the various organisms for oil and oil derivatives in a three-dimensional perspective. In general, it seems as every individual oil spill has its own nature and dynamics, inter alia because the physical, chemical and biological conditions never are the same. This means that the properties of the recipients often are more important than the amount of oil that is spilled. This may be exemplified by two oil spills in recent time. Exxon Valdez (1989), where 35000 ton oil were released in a partly closed sea area, caused considerable effects. From Braer (1993) the double amount of oil was spilled, but in an open sea area and at a time where the presence of dense concentrations of environmental components was limited, and the physical conditions favorable with respect to evaporation and dilution. Preliminary results show that the environmental effects were very limited. 311 refs., 32 figs., 10 tabs

  15. Numerical modeling of oil spills in continental and estuarine waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeury, C.

    2012-10-01

    The application of the European Water Framework Directive on water quality for human consumption and industrial activities creates a need for water quality assessment and monitoring systems. The MIGR'HYCAR research project (http://www.migrhycar.com) was initiated to provide decisional tools for risks connected to oil spills in continental waters (rivers, lakes and estuaries), which represent more than 50% of accidental spills in France. Within the framework of this project, a new numerical oil spill model has been developed, as part of the TELEMAC hydro-informatics system (http://www.opentelemac.org), by combining Lagrangian and Eulerian methods. The Lagrangian model describes the transport of an oil spill near the free surface. The oil spill model enables to simulate the main processes driving oil plumes: advection, diffusion, oil beaching, oil re-floating, evaporation, dissolution, spreading and volatilization. Though generally considered as a minor process, dissolution is important from the point of view of toxicity. To model dissolved oil in water, an Eulerian advection-diffusion model is used. The fraction of dissolved oil is represented by a passive tracer. This approach is able to follow dissolved hydrocarbons in the water column. Laboratory experiments were conducted to characterise the numerous kinetics of the processes listed above. In addition, meso-scale dynamic experiments in artificial channels and test cases derived from the literature are used to validate the numerical model. (author)

  16. Recovery of seabirds following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiens, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989, over 35,000 dead birds were retrieved and overall mortality was estimated in the hundreds of thousands. These observations led to concerns about persistent impacts on seabirds, especially murres (Uria spp.). Surveys of attendance by murres at breeding colonies in the spill path in 1991, however, indicated no overall differences from prespill attendance levels. Investigations of habitat occupancy conducted shortly after the spill in 1989 showed that, of the 47 bird species examined, the majority were using areas of oil-affected habitats by late 1991, although a few species did not show clear signs of recovery at the end of the study. These species were primarily wintering and resident forms. Because habitat use by other ecologically similar species was not affected by the spill or they recovered rapidly, prospects for recovery of the species that continued to show evidence of oiling impacts on habitat use in late 1991 would seem to be good. Collectively, these studies indicate that concerns about long-term impacts of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on seabirds may not be justified, and that recovery in the use of habitats by many bird species and in colony attendance by murres appeared to be well advanced by late 1991

  17. New problems and opportunities of oil spill monitoring systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Barenboim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Emergency oil and oil products spills represent a great danger to the environment, including ecosystems, and to the population. New problems of such dangerous spills and methods of early detection are discussed in this paper. It is proposed to conduct assessment of biological hazards of such spills on the basis of data on the distribution of individual oil hydrocarbons within the column of the water body and computer predictions of their toxicity. Oil radioactivity, which is associated with uranium and thorium, is seen as the important aspect of the oil spill danger, especially in watercourses. The need for an automated monitoring system for the early detection of oil spills in water bodies is analysed. The proposed system consists of three subsystems. The first remote sensing subsystem is based on powerful fluorescent lidars; experimental results on lidar registration of oil pollution of water are reported. The second subsystem uses a network of automatic monitoring stations with contact detectors. The third subsystem is the combined sensor system based on remote and contact technologies.

  18. Lessons learned from two very different large radioactive spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggoner, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    Hard lessons in radioactive spill response, including decontamination and confinement methods, priority setting, survey techniques, and release limit determination were learned (by trial and error) from two spills which occurred recently at the Radiochemical Engineering and Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The responsibilities of radiological control personnel, decontamination workers, and facility management were often redefined as decontamination progressed. While each spill involved ∼1 Ci, their essential characteristics and isotopic distributions were quite different requiring innovative and pragmatic solutions. The first spill was liquid waste with water soluble fission products mixed in an organic solution of actinides. Rain, snowmelt, fog, and darkness foiled initial confinement efforts and contributed to the spread of contamination over several hundred square meters of concrete, asphalt, and floor covering. Contaminated runoff escaped into the environment until effective preventative measures were developed and put in place. The second spill happened when 224 Cm and 241 Am were accidentally siphoned from an in-cell product holding tank onto the floor of the Limited Access Area at the REDC. Several decontamination techniques were tried before an effective one was developed

  19. The use of tetragnathid spiders as bioindicators of metal exposure at a coal ash spill site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otter, Ryan R; Hayden, Mary; Mathews, Teresa; Fortner, Allison; Bailey, Frank C

    2013-09-01

    On 22 December 2008, a dike containing coal fly ash from the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Fuel Plant (TN, USA) failed, resulting in the largest coal ash spill in US history. The present study was designed to determine sediment metal concentrations at multiple site locations and to determine whether site-specific bioaccumulation of metals existed in tetragnathid spiders. Selenium and nickel were the only 2 metals to exceed the US Environmental Protection Agency sediment screening levels. Selenium concentrations in spiders were significantly higher at ash-affected sites than in those from reference sites. The ratio of methylmercury to total mercury in spiders was found to be similar to that in other organisms (65-75%), which highlights the potential use of tetragnathid spiders as an indicator species for tracing contaminant transfer between the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  20. Recovery of Arctic and Sub-Arctic vegetation nine summers after crude and diesel oil spills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hutchinson, T. C

    1984-01-01

    In August 1980 experimental oil spill sites set up in spruce taiga at Norman Wells and on tundra at Tuktoyaktuk from 1972-75 were monitored to determine degree of recovery of vegeta tion from summer & winter spills...

  1. Proceedings of the nineteenth arctic and marine oil spill program (AMOP) technical seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The technical seminar on arctic and marine oil spills introduced issues concerning oil spills at sea, in particular the critical first few hours of an oil spill. State-of-the-art technologies which assist the response team in tracking and predicting the behavior of oil spills, were described. The physical and chemical properties of spilled oil were studied, as well as those of oil spill treating agents, including testing their biological effects. New methods to contain and recover spilled oil were reviewed. Volume 2 presented results from field experiments in which in-situ burning was performed, and demonstrated modelling techniques for the detection, prediction and tracking of oil spills. refs., tabs., figs

  2. In-situ burning of spilled oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennyson, E.J.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation provided an overview of results from the Minerals Management Service's (MMS) funded research on in situ burning of spilled oil. The program began in 1983 to determine the limitations of this innovative response strategies. Specific physical variables evaluated were slick thickness, degree of weathering (sparging), sea state, wind velocities, air and water temperatures, degrees of emulsification and degree of ice-coverage. All of the oils tested burned with 50 to 95 percent removal ratios as long as emulsification had not occurred. Slick thickness of 3mm or thicker were required to sustain ignition and extinguishment occurred when the slick reached approximately 1mm thick. The next phase of the research involved quantitative analysis of the pollutants created by in situ burning including chemical composition of the parent oil, burn residue, and airborne constituents. These studies were conducted at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) with emphasis on particulate, and gaseous components created by the burning process. Research efforts over several years, and a variety of crude oils, yielded data which indicated that aldehydes ketones, dioxans, furans, and polyaromatic compounds (PAHS) were not formed in the burning process. The airborne pollutants reflected similar concentrations of these compounds that were present in the parent oil. Lighter molecular weight PAHs tended to be converted to higher molecular weight compounds. Heavier molecular weight compounds are considered less acutely toxic than lighter molecular weight PAHS. Predominant burn products released into the air were by weight: 75% carbon dioxide, 12% water vapor, 10% soot, 3% carbon monoxide and 0.2% other products including those listed above

  3. A remote oil spill detection system for early warning of spills at waterfront or land-based facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, M.J.; Stocky, W.D.; Westerlind, J.; Gram, H.R.; Jadamec, M.P.; Johnson, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Early detection of spills during loading/unloading of crude oil or products at terminals or plants is essential for quickly stopping the spill and minimizing its impact. Such detection is particularly difficult at night or in remote areas. In order to provide a reliable and inexpensive spill detection system for such an application, a joint development process was undertaken to redesign an oil spill detection buoy system which had been successfully tested in the 1970s. The sensor's operation is based on the stimulated fluorescence of oil and selective wavelength detection of this fluorescence. The prototype system consists of a flotation buoy for remote deployment of the sensor, rechargeable battery supply, a land-based computer base station, and radio signal transmitter. The oil spill detection buoy was modified in 1991 and tested in the laboratory. Field trials are under way and tests to date have confirmed the unit's ability to detect oil and to differentiate between various types of oil and/or products, particularly if the software is alerted to the type of product being transferred. 2 figs

  4. Oil spill modeling input to the offshore environmental cost model (OECM) for US-BOEMRE's spill risk and costs evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French McCay, Deborah; Reich, Danielle; Rowe, Jill; Schroeder, Melanie; Graham, Eileen

    2011-01-01

    This paper simulates the consequences of oil spills using a planning model known as the Offshore Environmental Cost Model (OECM). This study aims at creating various predictive models for possible oil spill scenarios in marine waters. A crucial part of this investigation was the SIMAP model. It analyzes the distance and the direction covered by the spill under certain test conditions, generating a regression equation that simulates the impact of the spill. Tests were run in two different regions; the Mid-Atlantic region and the Chukchi Sea. Results showed that the higher wind speeds and higher water temperature of the Mid-Atlantic region had greater impact on wildlife and the water column respectively. However, short-line impact was higher in the Chukchi area due to the multi-directional wind. It was also shown that, because of their higher diffusivity in water, lighter crude oils had more impact than heavier oils. It was suggested that this model could ultimately be applied to other oil spill scenarios happening under similar conditions.

  5. Natural resource injury at oil spills: A new approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecil, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    1993 is a critical time to review the actions taken at past spills and to formulate a new approach to natural resource injury at oil spills. The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 has replaced the oil spill provisions of the Clean Water Act, and new regulations to govern natural resource damage assessments are due to be published by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) this year. The new law and regulations provide impetus for new directions. The new approach advocates cooperative damage assessments utilizing the new NOAA procedures. Litigation must be regarded as a last resort because it does not foster the goals of either the trustees or the oil industry. There are significant advantages to both trustees and industry from this approach

  6. Environmental aspects of contingency planning and spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillman, S.O.

    1993-01-01

    Alyeska Pipeline Service Company has implemented an incident command system (ICS) for crisis management within the company for response to spills at all company facilities including the Valdez Marine Terminal. The system is also used by Alyeska acting as the initial response contractor for TAPS laden tankers within Prince William Sound. During the past three years, Alyeska has undertaken a complete review of the spill prevention and response plans for these areas. This poster session focuses on the environmental aspects of the response planning efforts. Information is available on contingency planning updates in the areas of dispersant use, burning as a response tool, bioremediation of marine oil spills, waste management, permitting, coastal resource and sensitive habitat data base, and wildlife protection and management. All of these subjects are addressed in the resource documents (RD) supplementing the contingency plans. The RD revisions have been a coordinated effort, involving operators, agencies, and the public through the citizen advisory group

  7. Sensitivity mapping for oil spill response. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Making and updating sensitivity maps are key activities in the oil spill contingency planning process. These maps convey essential information to spill responders by showing where the different coastal resources are, and by indicating environmentally sensitive areas. The making of a map involves assembling information on resources and deciding on what guidelines for spill response should be included, through consultation with relevant organizations. This can be done regardless of whether or not the benefits of computerized Geographic Information Systems and databases are available. Uses of sensitivity maps range from planning practical site-specific shore protection and clean-up to strategic planning for large remote areas. This report provides information and guidelines on different map types, categories of information to be included, and symbols, with reference to the different users and their requirements. (UK)

  8. Oil spill response, prevention and impact: lesson from Tasman spirit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja, I.A.; Doggar, M.G.

    2005-01-01

    Nearly half of the world oil is transported is transported by sea. Due to high shipping density coastal water is at high risk. Oil spills in the coastal areas endanger public health, devastate natural resources, and disrupt local economy. The Pakistani coast was hit by the worst ever ecological disaster on 27th July 03, when The Greek vessel 'Tasman Spirit', carrying 67,000 tonnes of crude oil grounded at Karachi port. High concentration of oil vapours along the affected shoreline caused discomfort. The contamination and losses could further be limited by taking appropriate actions. There is a need bring in significant improvements in oil spill prevention and response planning. This paper described the risks associated with oils spill and contingency planning to meet this situation. (author)

  9. A comprehensive review of oil spill combustion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walavalkar, A.Y.; Kulkarni, A.K.

    1996-01-01

    The complex process of in-situ burning of oil or a water-in-oil emulsion floating on top of a water-base, such as the ocean, was discussed. The process was examined before, during and after actual combustion. In general, the success of oil spill combustion is measured in terms of the fraction of the spilled oil or emulsion that is burned away. However, the air and aquatic pollution caused by the combustion should also be considered. The physical conditions such as wind velocity, waves and the presence or absence of a containment device, such as a fire boom, could determine the continuation of the combustion process. An overview of the oil spill combustion techniques was provided. There still remains a need for fundamental studies, especially in mathematical modeling, to understand the basic mechanisms and predict the applicability of the in-situ combustion. 74 refs., 7 tabs., 3 figs

  10. Oil spill contamination probability in the southeastern Levantine basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Ron; Biton, Eli; Brokovich, Eran; Kark, Salit; Levin, Noam

    2015-02-15

    Recent gas discoveries in the eastern Mediterranean Sea led to multiple operations with substantial economic interest, and with them there is a risk of oil spills and their potential environmental impacts. To examine the potential spatial distribution of this threat, we created seasonal maps of the probability of oil spill pollution reaching an area in the Israeli coastal and exclusive economic zones, given knowledge of its initial sources. We performed simulations of virtual oil spills using realistic atmospheric and oceanic conditions. The resulting maps show dominance of the alongshore northerly current, which causes the high probability areas to be stretched parallel to the coast, increasing contamination probability downstream of source points. The seasonal westerly wind forcing determines how wide the high probability areas are, and may also restrict these to a small coastal region near source points. Seasonal variability in probability distribution, oil state, and pollution time is also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Oil spill research program, U. S. Minerals Management Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBelle, R. P.; Mullin, J. V.; White, A. C.

    1997-01-01

    The oil spill prevention and response research program of the U.S. Minerals Management Service was described including its goals and objectives, some recently funded projects, and future research directions. As it is now the trend in most research organizations, a large part of the program is carried out in cooperation with other major research centers to leverage funds and to maximize study results. For example, joint research with Environment Canada focuses on the physical and chemical properties of dispersants, remote sensing and mapping oil slicks and shoreline cleanup strategies. Similarly, cooperative projects are underway with the National Institute of Standards and Technology in assessing the capabilities of in-situ burning as an oil spill response tool. Research capabilities of OHMSETT - The National Oil Spill Response Test Facility were also reviewed. A series of tables listed titles of research projects completed during 1995-1996. 5 tabs.,

  12. Perception or reality: oil spill risk on salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brannon, E.L.

    1998-01-01

    There is a tendency in the American scientific community to assume the worst when it comes to the effects of oil spills on the environment. Over the several years of research following the Exxon Valdez oil spill of March 1989 in Prince William Sound, Alaska, scientists of the United States National Marine Fisheries Service and the Alaska Department of Fish and Game have reported long-term and continuing negative impacts of the spill on pink salmon. In spite of the substantial evidence to the contrary, neither reassessment of results nor analysis of alternative explanations have been considered by either agency. The motivations behind such unyielding positions are examined and explanations suggested for the singular point of view. (author)

  13. ADIOS-automated data inquiry for oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehr, W.J.; Overstreet, R.; Jones, R.; Watabayashi, G.

    1992-01-01

    An intelligent computer database called ADIOS has been developed which stores properties of several hundred oils and oil products and which is combined with a model for oil weathering. Environmental data are input by the user through a menu-driven graphic interface. The format of the output is designed to provide immediate information for oil spill cleanup decisions. Typical output information includes changes in key physical parameters (density, viscosity, water content of emulsions) over time and an oil loss budget at any specific time. The model includes algorithms for spill spreading, evaporation, entrainment, droplet size distributions, rate of mousse formation, and changes in density and viscosity. ADIOS will eventually be part of a larger spill model which includes oil transport. ADIOS calculations are presented as either pie charts or graphs. 21 refs., 2 figs

  14. Modeling Skin Injury from Hot Spills on Clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torgrim Log

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work analyzes scald burns from hot beverages, such as coffee and tea, spilled on the lap, i.e., an incident that may occur in daily life. The Pennes bioheat equation is solved numerically for small spills wetting the clothing, i.e., the fabric prevents the spilled liquid from draining away. Temperatures are analyzed in the wetted fabric and the skin layers and the resulting skin injury is calculated based on the basal layer temperature. Parameters influencing burn severity, such as clothing thickness, liquid temperature, removal of fabric and thermal effects of post scald water cooling are analyzed. The fabric cools the water some but represents a threat since the entrapped water results in a prolonged heat supply. The liquid temperature turned out to be the most important injury parameter, where liquid temperature of about 80–85 °C seems to be a limit for developing superficial partial-thickness burns in the present minimum case, i.e., where the liquid just wets the fabric. Spilling water in excess of just wetting the fabric, more severe burns will develop at lower liquid temperatures due to the prolonged heat supply. Higher liquid temperatures will nearly instantly develop more severe burns. It is demonstrated that removal of the clothing within the first seconds after the spill may significantly reduce the scalding severity. The general advice is therefore to avoid excessive heating of beverages and, if the beverage is spilled, to quickly remove the wetted clothing. Prolonged tempered water cooling is advised to improve the healing processes.

  15. Oil spill first principles. Prevention and best response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ornitz, B.; Champ, M.

    2002-01-01

    Different international conventions, U.S. laws, and policy considerations are reviewed, regulatory strategies are discussed, and the book helps promote the use of better science, engineering, technology and policy and law in oil spill prevention and response. 'Oil Spill Response' has greatly improved over the last 30 years. On a global basis, billions have been spent in R and D in planning and response. However, a paradigm shift is in the works that is needed to more effectively use what has been learned in the last 30 years in both prevention and in clean up. The key terms that describe this paradigm shift are Best Science, Engineering and Technology produce Best Response and the Safety Culture prevents oil spills. Oil spills are no longer considered unavoidable 'accidents' of environmental conditions or functions of catastrophic events. More than 80% of all spills are the result of human error. The focus of the current legal, regulatory and convention framework affecting the transportation of oil by ship reflects a recent change in public attitude, an insistence upon protection of the world's marine environments, particularly coastal ecosystems. This public concern seeks to address the root cause of oil spills, including human error. The outcome of such national and international attention is the creation of significant legal and political motivators for a cultural shift by the oil shipping industry, from an 'evasion' culture to a 'safety culture'. The new 'safety culture' connotes continuous improvement in ship operations and a willingness to adopt the evolving safety culture concepts of communication at all levels within the company, better trained and qualified personnel on board ship, emphasis on safety from top down, and proactive institution of safety management systems at all levels of operation. Evasion or mere compliance with international and national law is no longer sufficient for future sustainable shipping

  16. Oil spill first principles. Prevention and best response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ornitz, B.; Champ, M. (eds.)

    2002-07-01

    Different international conventions, U.S. laws, and policy considerations are reviewed, regulatory strategies are discussed, and the book helps promote the use of better science, engineering, technology and policy and law in oil spill prevention and response. 'Oil Spill Response' has greatly improved over the last 30 years. On a global basis, billions have been spent in R and D in planning and response. However, a paradigm shift is in the works that is needed to more effectively use what has been learned in the last 30 years in both prevention and in clean up. The key terms that describe this paradigm shift are Best Science, Engineering and Technology produce Best Response and the Safety Culture prevents oil spills. Oil spills are no longer considered unavoidable 'accidents' of environmental conditions or functions of catastrophic events. More than 80% of all spills are the result of human error. The focus of the current legal, regulatory and convention framework affecting the transportation of oil by ship reflects a recent change in public attitude, an insistence upon protection of the world's marine environments, particularly coastal ecosystems. This public concern seeks to address the root cause of oil spills, including human error. The outcome of such national and international attention is the creation of significant legal and political motivators for a cultural shift by the oil shipping industry, from an 'evasion' culture to a 'safety culture'. The new 'safety culture' connotes continuous improvement in ship operations and a willingness to adopt the evolving safety culture concepts of communication at all levels within the company, better trained and qualified personnel on board ship, emphasis on safety from top down, and proactive institution of safety management systems at all levels of operation. Evasion or mere compliance with international and national law is no longer sufficient for future

  17. Modeling Skin Injury from Hot Rice Porridge Spills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torgrim Log

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work analyzes skin burns from spills of hot rice and milk products. The traditional Norwegian rice porridge serves as an example. By testing spills on objects emulating an arm, it was concluded that spills were seldom thinner than 3 mm, and stayed in place due to the viscosity of the porridge for more than one minute. The Pennes bioheat equation was solved numerically for such spills, including heat conduction to the skin and convective heat losses from the porridge surface. Temperatures were analyzed in the porridge and skin layers, and the resulting skin injury was calculated based on the basal layer temperature. Parameters influencing burn severity, such as porridge layer thickness, porridge temperature, removal of the porridge and thermal effects of post scald tempered (15 °C water cooling were analyzed. The spilled porridge resulted in a prolonged heat supply to the skin, and the skin injury developed significantly with time. The porridge temperature turned out to be the most important injury parameter. A 70 °C porridge temperature could develop superficial partial-thickness burns. Porridge temperatures at processing temperatures nearly instantly developed severe burns. It was demonstrated that prompt removal of the hot porridge significantly reduced the injury development. The general advice is to avoid serving porridge and similar products at temperatures above 65 °C and, if spilled on the skin, to remove it quickly. After such scald incidents, it is advised to cool the injured area by tempered water for a prolonged period to stimulate healing.

  18. Oil spill trajectory analysis for the Calcasieu Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meselhe, E.A.; Barker, C.H.; Hodges, M.

    2001-01-01

    A three-dimensional hydrodynamic model (H3D) was used to determine how oil spills might travel and spread within the Calcasieu River Estuary which has heavy oil traffic. The Calcasieu River is located in the southwest corner of the State of Louisiana and houses valuable wetlands that provide both commercial and recreational fishing and wildlife value to the area. These wetlands also filter water and protect Louisiana's coast areas from hurricane storm surges. An oil spill would damage areas of marshes that would have devastating effects on the entire ecological system within the estuary. A Trajectory Analysis Planner (TAP) H3D computer model is under development by the Hazardous Materials Response Division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). TAP is a statistical planning tool that randomly samples historical hydrodynamic, hydrology and climatological data, to build up a database with biological and cleanup resource information. TAP can be used to predict which sites within the estuarine system will be most susceptible to oil spills of varying magnitudes, materials and locations. TAP can also estimate the time available for mitigation and remedial actions before the spill can impact the site. Hydrodynamics in the Calcasieu estuary is a combination of processes such as saltwater intrusion and response to water level fluctuations at an open boundary, as well as lake dynamics. H3D provides the three components of velocity, plus scalar quantities such as water levels, temperature and salinity distribution on a Cartesian three-dimensional grid. TAP was tested for spills of kerosene, non-weathering oil, crude oil, and gasoline and was able to perform reliable spill trajectory analysis. 12 refs., 9 figs

  19. Abnormal development of Dentalium due to the Amoco Cadiz oil spill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, A.SJ.; Biggelaar, J.A.M. van den

    A comparison was made between the development of Dentalium eggs, spawned by animals, collected before and after the Amoco Cadiz oil spill. Development of eggs from animals collected before the oil spill was significantly better than development of eggs from animals collected after the oil spill. It

  20. 75 FR 29397 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling By the authority vested in... Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling (the ``Commission''). Sec. 2. Membership. (a) The... impact of, oil spills associated with offshore drilling, taking into consideration the environmental...

  1. Virtual Issue #1: Oil Spill Research in the Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology has been a venue for publishing oil spill research for over forty years. Rehwoldt et al. (1974) published the first oil spill focused paper in the Bulletin, reporting on the aquatic toxicity of two spill mitigating agents...

  2. Unconventional Oil and Gas Spills: Risks, Mitigation Priorities, and State Reporting Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Lauren A; Konschnik, Katherine E; Wiseman, Hannah; Fargione, Joseph; Maloney, Kelly O; Kiesecker, Joseph; Nicot, Jean-Philippe; Baruch-Mordo, Sharon; Entrekin, Sally; Trainor, Anne; Saiers, James E

    2017-03-07

    Rapid growth in unconventional oil and gas (UOG) has produced jobs, revenue, and energy, but also concerns over spills and environmental risks. We assessed spill data from 2005 to 2014 at 31 481 UOG wells in Colorado, New Mexico, North Dakota, and Pennsylvania. We found 2-16% of wells reported a spill each year. Median spill volumes ranged from 0.5 m 3 in Pennsylvania to 4.9 m 3 in New Mexico; the largest spills exceeded 100 m 3 . Seventy-five to 94% of spills occurred within the first three years of well life when wells were drilled, completed, and had their largest production volumes. Across all four states, 50% of spills were related to storage and moving fluids via flowlines. Reporting rates varied by state, affecting spill rates and requiring extensive time and effort getting data into a usable format. Enhanced and standardized regulatory requirements for reporting spills could improve the accuracy and speed of analyses to identify and prevent spill risks and mitigate potential environmental damage. Transparency for data sharing and analysis will be increasingly important as UOG development expands. We designed an interactive spills data visualization tool ( http://snappartnership.net/groups/hydraulic-fracturing/webapp/spills.html ) to illustrate the value of having standardized, public data.

  3. 75 FR 63093 - Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule-Compliance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule--Compliance Date... certain facilities must prepare or amend their Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plans... facilities must prepare or amend their Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plans (or ``Plan...

  4. Biotechnologies for Marine Oil Spill Cleanup: Indissoluble Ties with Microorganisms

    KAUST Repository

    Mapelli, Francesca; Scoma, Alberto; Michoud, Gregoire; Aulenta, Federico; Boon, Nico; Borin, Sara; Kalogerakis, Nicolas; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    The ubiquitous exploitation of petroleum hydrocarbons (HCs) has been accompanied by accidental spills and chronic pollution in marine ecosystems, including the deep ocean. Physicochemical technologies are available for oil spill cleanup, but HCs must ultimately be mineralized by microorganisms. How environmental factors drive the assembly and activity of HC-degrading microbial communities remains unknown, limiting our capacity to integrate microorganism-based cleanup strategies with current physicochemical remediation technologies. In this review, we summarize recent findings about microbial physiology, metabolism and ecology and describe how microbes can be exploited to create improved biotechnological solutions to clean up marine surface and deep waters, sediments and beaches.

  5. Major oil spills, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bills, C.E.; Whiting, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    The destruction caused by Hurricane Hugo resulted in two major oil spills on the island of St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. Roughly 10,000 barrels of oil were discharged from damaged storage tanks at the Hess Oil Virgin Island Corporation and 14,000 barrels of oil were discharged from the Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority facility in Christiansted. Pollution responders overcame the lack of power, water, food lodging, communications and transportation to perform an effective cleanup of these spills. This paper presents details of the pollution response effort as coordinated by the Federal On Scene Coordinator

  6. Oil spill problems and sustainable response strategies through new technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivshina, Irena B; Kuyukina, Maria S; Krivoruchko, Anastasiya V; Elkin, Andrey A; Makarov, Sergey O; Cunningham, Colin J; Peshkur, Tatyana A; Atlas, Ronald M; Philp, James C

    2015-07-01

    Crude oil and petroleum products are widespread water and soil pollutants resulting from marine and terrestrial spillages. International statistics of oil spill sizes for all incidents indicate that the majority of oil spills are small (less than 7 tonnes). The major accidents that happen in the oil industry contribute only a small fraction of the total oil which enters the environment. However, the nature of accidental releases is that they highly pollute small areas and have the potential to devastate the biota locally. There are several routes by which oil can get back to humans from accidental spills, e.g. through accumulation in fish and shellfish, through consumption of contaminated groundwater. Although advances have been made in the prevention of accidents, this does not apply in all countries, and by the random nature of oil spill events, total prevention is not feasible. Therefore, considerable world-wide effort has gone into strategies for minimising accidental spills and the design of new remedial technologies. This paper summarizes new knowledge as well as research and technology gaps essential for developing appropriate decision-making tools in actual spill scenarios. Since oil exploration is being driven into deeper waters and more remote, fragile environments, the risk of future accidents becomes much higher. The innovative safety and accident prevention approaches summarized in this paper are currently important for a range of stakeholders, including the oil industry, the scientific community and the public. Ultimately an integrated approach to prevention and remediation that accelerates an early warning protocol in the event of a spill would get the most appropriate technology selected and implemented as early as possible - the first few hours after a spill are crucial to the outcome of the remedial effort. A particular focus is made on bioremediation as environmentally harmless, cost-effective and relatively inexpensive technology. Greater

  7. Bombay high oil spill and its environmental impact

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fondekar, S.P.; Verlecar, X.N.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Shirodkar, P.V.

    , the research vessel, to take onboard 4 scientists and proceed immediately to the spill area. The ship sailed from Bombay on 20 May evening and reached the site on 21 May morning. d) After reaching the spill area, contact was established with the Coast Guard... Development (DOD) telephonically contacted the Director, National Institute of Oceanography (NIO) requesting him to send out a team of scientists on board ORV Sagar Kanya, one of their research vessel, at the earliest. The main aim was to proceed to the area...

  8. Biotechnologies for Marine Oil Spill Cleanup: Indissoluble Ties with Microorganisms

    KAUST Repository

    Mapelli, Francesca

    2017-05-13

    The ubiquitous exploitation of petroleum hydrocarbons (HCs) has been accompanied by accidental spills and chronic pollution in marine ecosystems, including the deep ocean. Physicochemical technologies are available for oil spill cleanup, but HCs must ultimately be mineralized by microorganisms. How environmental factors drive the assembly and activity of HC-degrading microbial communities remains unknown, limiting our capacity to integrate microorganism-based cleanup strategies with current physicochemical remediation technologies. In this review, we summarize recent findings about microbial physiology, metabolism and ecology and describe how microbes can be exploited to create improved biotechnological solutions to clean up marine surface and deep waters, sediments and beaches.

  9. Fuel Exhaling Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor Bhat, Zahid; Thimmappa, Ravikumar; Devendrachari, Mruthyunjayachari Chattanahalli; Kottaichamy, Alagar Raja; Shafi, Shahid Pottachola; Varhade, Swapnil; Gautam, Manu; Thotiyl, Musthafa Ottakam

    2018-01-18

    State-of-the-art proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) anodically inhale H 2 fuel and cathodically expel water molecules. We show an unprecedented fuel cell concept exhibiting cathodic fuel exhalation capability of anodically inhaled fuel, driven by the neutralization energy on decoupling the direct acid-base chemistry. The fuel exhaling fuel cell delivered a peak power density of 70 mW/cm 2 at a peak current density of 160 mA/cm 2 with a cathodic H 2 output of ∼80 mL in 1 h. We illustrate that the energy benefits from the same fuel stream can at least be doubled by directing it through proposed neutralization electrochemical cell prior to PEMFC in a tandem configuration.

  10. Floating Oil-Spill Containment Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2012-01-01

    Previous oil containment booms have an open top that allows natural gas to escape, and have significant oil leakage due to wave action. Also, a subsea pyramid oil trap exists, but cannot move relative to moving oil plumes from deepsea oil leaks. The solution is to have large, moveable oil traps. One version floats on the sea surface and has a flexible tarp cover and a lower weighted skirt to completely entrap the floating oil and natural gas. The device must have at least three sides with boats pulling at each apex, and sonar or other system to track the slowly moving oil plume, so that the boats can properly locate the booms. The oil trap device must also have a means for removal of the oil and the natural gas. A second design version has a flexible pyramid cover that is attached by lines to ballast on the ocean floor. This is similar to fixed, metal pyramid oil capture devices in the Santa Barbara Channel off the coast of California. The ballast lines for the improved design, however, would have winches that can move the pyramid to always be located above the oil and gas plume. A third design is a combination of the first two. It uses a submerged pyramid to trap oil, but has no anchor and uses boats to locate the trap. It has ballast weights located along the bottom of the tarp and/or at the corners of the trap. The improved floating oil-spill containment device has a large floating boom and weighted skirt surrounding the oil and gas entrapment area. The device is triangular (or more than three sides) and has a flexible tarp cover with a raised gas vent area. Boats pull on the apex of the triangles to maintain tension and to allow the device to move to optimum locations to trap oil and gas. The gas is retrieved from a higher buoyant part of the tarp, and oil is retrieved from the floating oil layer contained in the device. These devices can be operated in relatively severe weather, since waves will break over the devices without causing oil leaking. Also, natural

  11. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domoto, Noboru; Masuda, Hiroyuki

    1989-01-01

    In a nuclear fuel assembly loaded with a plurality of fuel rods, the inside of a fuel rod disposed at a high neutron flux region is divided into an inner region and an outer region, and more burnable poisons are mixed in the inner region than in the outer region. Alternatively, the central portion of a pellet disposed in a high neutron flux region is made hollow, in which burnable poisons are charged. This can prevent neutron infinite multiplication factor from decreasing extremely at the initial burning stage. Further, the burnable poisons are not rapidly burnt completely and local peaking coefficient can be controlled. Accordingly, in a case of suppressing a predetermined excess reactivity by using a fuel rod incorporated with the burnable poison, the fuel economy can be improved more and the reactor core controllability can also be improved as compared with the usual case. (T.M.)

  12. Effect of non-aqueous phase liquid on biodegradation of PAHs in spilled oil on tidal flat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kose, T.; Miyagishi, A.; Mukai, T.; Takimoto, K.; Okada, M.

    2003-01-01

    Biodegradation rates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in spilled oil stranded on tidal flats were studied using model reactors to clarify the effects of NAPL on the biodegradation of PAHs in stranded oil on tidal flat with special emphasis on the relationship between dissolution rates of PAHs into water and viscosity of NAPL. Biodegradation of PAHs in NAPL was limited by the dissolution rates of PAHs into water. Biodegradation rate of chrysene was smaller than that for acenaphthene and phenanthrene due to the smaller dissolution rates. Dissolution rates of PAHs in fuel oil C were smaller than those in crude oil due to high viscosity of fuel oil C. Therefore, biodegradation rates of PAHs in fuel oil C were smaller than those in crude oil. Biodegradation rates of PAHs in NAPL with slow decrease rate like fuel oil C were slower than those in NAPL with rapid decrease like crude oil. The smaller decrease rate of fuel oil C than crude oil was due to higher viscosity of fuel oil C. Therefore, not only the dissolution rate of PAHs but also the decrease rates of NAPL were important factors for the biodegradation of PAHs. (author)

  13. Japan FRI research activities on oil tank/spilled oil fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koseki, Hiroshi

    1992-01-01

    Introduction of research activities on oil tank/spilled oil fire at FRI, Japan is done. FRI has a long history of studying oil tank and spilled oil fires. Many large oil fire tests were done. The purpose of these studies is different with research of response of oil spill, but the accumulation of this knowledge is useful for conducting elimination of spilled oil on the sea with burning. Therefore to do collaboration with fire science research groups, such as FRI is useful for future activities for response to oil spills

  14. Oil Biodegradation and Bioremediation: A Tale of the Two Worst Spills in U.S. History

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The devastating environmental impacts of the Exxon Valdez spill in 1989 and its media notoriety made it a frequent comparison to the BP Deepwater Horizon spill in the popular press in 2010, even though the nature of the two spills and the environments impacted were vastly different. Fortunately, unlike higher organisms that are adversely impacted by oil spills, microorganisms are able to consume petroleum hydrocarbons. These oil degrading indigenous microorganisms played a significant role in reducing the overall environmental impact of both the Exxon Valdez and BP Deepwater Horizon oil spills. PMID:21699212

  15. Deconstructing continuous flash suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eunice; Blake, Randolph

    2012-03-08

    In this paper, we asked to what extent the depth of interocular suppression engendered by continuous flash suppression (CFS) varies depending on spatiotemporal properties of the suppressed stimulus and CFS suppressor. An answer to this question could have implications for interpreting the results in which CFS influences the processing of different categories of stimuli to different extents. In a series of experiments, we measured the selectivity and depth of suppression (i.e., elevation in contrast detection thresholds) as a function of the visual features of the stimulus being suppressed and the stimulus evoking suppression, namely, the popular "Mondrian" CFS stimulus (N. Tsuchiya & C. Koch, 2005). First, we found that CFS differentially suppresses the spatial components of the suppressed stimulus: Observers' sensitivity for stimuli of relatively low spatial frequency or cardinally oriented features was more strongly impaired in comparison to high spatial frequency or obliquely oriented stimuli. Second, we discovered that this feature-selective bias primarily arises from the spatiotemporal structure of the CFS stimulus, particularly within information residing in the low spatial frequency range and within the smooth rather than abrupt luminance changes over time. These results imply that this CFS stimulus operates by selectively attenuating certain classes of low-level signals while leaving others to be potentially encoded during suppression. These findings underscore the importance of considering the contribution of low-level features in stimulus-driven effects that are reported under CFS.

  16. Steamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan For Corrective Action Unit 394: Areas 12, 18, and 29, Spill/Release Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (November 2001, Rev. 0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV)

    2001-09-24

    This plan addresses the actions necessary for the characterization and closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 394: Areas 12, 18, and 29, Spill/Release Sites, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). The CAU, located on the Nevada Test Site, consists of six Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 12-25-04, UST 12-16-2 Waste Oil Release; CAS 18-25-02, Oil Spills; CAS 18-25-02, Oil Spills; CAS 18-25-03, Oil Spill; CAS 18-25-04, Spill (Diesel Fuel); CAS 29-44-01, Fuel Spill (a & b). Process knowledge is the basis for the development of the conceptual site models (CSMs). The CSMs describe the most probable scenario for current conditions at each site, and define the assumptions that are the basis for the SAFER plan. The assumptions are formulated from historical information and process knowledge. Vertical migration of contaminant(s) of potential concern (COPCs) is expected to be predominant over lateral migration in the absence of any barrier (with asphalt /concrete being the exception at least two of the CASs). Soil is the impacted or potentially impacted media at all the sites, with asphalt and/or concrete potentially impacted at two of the CASs. Radionuclides are not expected at any CAS; hydrocarbons are the primary COPC at each CAS, and can be used to guide the investigation; future land-use scenarios limit use to various nonresidential uses; and exposure scenarios are limited by future land-use scenarios to site workers. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 394 using the SAFER process. On completion of the field activities, a Closure Report will be prepared and submitted to the NDEP for review and approval.

  17. Steamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan For Corrective Action Unit 394: Areas 12, 18, and 29, Spill/Release Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (November 2001, Rev. 0); FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This plan addresses the actions necessary for the characterization and closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 394: Areas 12, 18, and 29, Spill/Release Sites, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). The CAU, located on the Nevada Test Site, consists of six Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 12-25-04, UST 12-16-2 Waste Oil Release; CAS 18-25-02, Oil Spills; CAS 18-25-02, Oil Spills; CAS 18-25-03, Oil Spill; CAS 18-25-04, Spill (Diesel Fuel); CAS 29-44-01, Fuel Spill (a and b). Process knowledge is the basis for the development of the conceptual site models (CSMs). The CSMs describe the most probable scenario for current conditions at each site, and define the assumptions that are the basis for the SAFER plan. The assumptions are formulated from historical information and process knowledge. Vertical migration of contaminant(s) of potential concern (COPCs) is expected to be predominant over lateral migration in the absence of any barrier (with asphalt /concrete being the exception at least two of the CASs). Soil is the impacted or potentially impacted media at all the sites, with asphalt and/or concrete potentially impacted at two of the CASs. Radionuclides are not expected at any CAS; hydrocarbons are the primary COPC at each CAS, and can be used to guide the investigation; future land-use scenarios limit use to various nonresidential uses; and exposure scenarios are limited by future land-use scenarios to site workers. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 394 using the SAFER process. On completion of the field activities, a Closure Report will be prepared and submitted to the NDEP for review and approval

  18. 161 EVALUATION OF ON-SHORE OIL SPILL REMEDIATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EVALUATION OF ON-SHORE OIL SPILL REMEDIATION OPERATIONS IN. PORT HARCOURT ... study is an attempt to unravel the effectiveness of clean-up exercises undertaken by oil .... Research Design. The study ..... remediation as well as tilling and evacuation of affected soils would certainly be more productive.

  19. European pipelines spill near record amounts in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    European pipelines in 1993 spilled as much crude oil and petroleum products as in any year since 1971, when statistics first began to be reported. Final cost of cleanup will exceed $10 million, by far the most ever spent by western European oil pipelines operating on land. This cost figure is only preliminary: costs for three spills totaling nearly 2,600 cu m (approximately 16,380 bbl; 43.6% of total spilled) had not been reported through November 1994. Ten incidents of oil spills from pipelines occurred in 1993, compared with seven for 1992 and an average of 12.7/year since 1971. Total length of oil industry cross-country pipelines operating in Western Europe at the end of 1993 was 21,600 km, up from nearly 19,000 km in 1989. In all, 601 million cu m (3.8 billion bbl) of crude oil and refined products moved through the pipeline system. The paper briefly describes several of the accidents

  20. Task Force on oil spill preparedness: Offshore implementation progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devenis, P.K.

    1992-01-01

    Industry members of the Canadian Petroleum Association (CPA) and the Independent Petroleum Association of Canada (IPAC) undertook a review of oil spill preparedness and response capabilities in 1989. The resulting report summarized the current state of readiness, focusing on oil spills resulting from exploration and production activities in Canada. The report recommended expenditures in research and development, equipment acquisition, and training to prevent and control offshore and onshore oil spills more effectively. The release of an implementation plan for the Task Force on Oil Spill Preparedness (TFOSP) in 1990 provided the impetus for a 5-year plan to improve this state of preparedness. The plan outlined the mechanisms for implementing the 45 recommendations developed by TFOSP. It also recommended how to incorporate them into the daily business activities of the CPA member companies. It identified the appropriate groups within industry to carry out the implementation of each recommendation. It also indicated the government interfaces, the implementation schedule, and cost estimates for putting each recommendation into place. It also recommended a vigorous monitoring program to follow and report on the status of implementation. Based on the TFOSP implementation plan recommendations, work plans were developed, specific work projects identified, and a budget approved for 1991 programs. The first year of implementation of recommendations is now complete and work plans have been developed for continuation in 1992. 2 refs

  1. Effects of the Gulf Oil Spill in Escambia County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, Kelcey Ray

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the British Petroleum Gulf Oil Spill on resource change, psychological stress, and resilience for business owners, residents, and workers in Escambia County, Florida. This study was based on Hobfoll's (1988, 1989) Conservation of Resources theory. All business owners, residents, and workers…

  2. 77 FR 60454 - Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Public Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Court Order establishing the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council also requires..., conservation and environmental, public-at-large, recreation users, commercial tourism, science/technical, subsistence, commercial fishing, aquaculture and mariculture, and Native landowners. In order to ensure that a...

  3. 40 CFR 761.125 - Requirements for PCB spill cleanup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... greater which are subject to decontamination requirements under TSCA, including those spills listed under... required. (2) Disposal of cleanup debris and materials. All concentrated soils, solvents, rags, and other... than 1 pound of PCBs by weight (less than 270 gallons of untested mineral oil)—(1) Decontamination...

  4. Oil spill studies: A review of ecological effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teal, John M.; Howarth, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    We reviewed seven particularly well known and/or studied oil spills that have occurred since the National Academy of Sciences 1975 report, “Petroleum in the Marine Environment” or that occurred prior to that report but about which significant new information has since been acquired. The spills studied were from the barge Florida, and tankers Arrow, Argo Merchant, Amoco Cadiz, and Tsesis and blowouts from the Bravo and Ixtoc I platforms. These “best” studies yield only limited insight into effects because they lack controls and have a high degree of natural variability. The Tsesis, Florida, and Amoco Cadiz cases are exceptional since they occurred in areas of ongoing research programs and had nearby areas suitable for controls. Oil spills have produced measurable effects on ecosystems that have not been readily predictable from laboratory studies on isolated organisms. However, ecosystemlevel interactions are poorly understood even without the complications resulting from effects of pollution. These generalizations emerge: oil regularly reaches sediments after a spill; oil in anoxic sediments is persistent; oil regularly contaminates Zooplankton and benthic invertebrates; fish are also contaminated, but to a lesser extent; oil contamination decreases the abundance and diversity of benthic communities.

  5. AMOP (Arctic Marine Oil Spill Program) studies reviewed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-05

    A discussion of the Arctic Marine Oil Spill Program organized in 1976 by the Canadian Federal Government includes: an Arctic Atlas compiled by Fenco Consultants Ltd. to give background information necessary for developing marine oil spill countermeasures for the Arctic north of 60/sup 0/ including the west Greenland coast and the Labrador shelf (geology, meteorology and oceanography, ice conditions, biology, and social factors); program in emergency transport of spill-combatting equipment; and the factors which influence the choice of conveyance, i.e., accessibility of the site, urgency for response, and quantity of material required; laboratory studies involving the release of oil under artificial sea ice in simulated ice formation and decay purposes to determine the interaction of crude oil and first-year sea ice; inability of companies and government to control a major spill in the Labrador Sea because of poor and inadequate transport facilities, communications, and navigational aids, severe environmental conditions, and logistics problems; and studies on the effects of oil-well blowouts in deep water, including formation of oil and gas hydrates, design of oil skimmers, the use of hovercraft, and specifications for an airborne multisensor system for oil detection in ice-infested waters.

  6. Removal of Oil Spills from Salt Water by Magnesium, Calcium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Magnesium, calcium carbonates and oxides that are widely used in cement industries were employed in studying sorption of petroleum oil spills from salt water at different condition parameters such as temperature, loading weight, degree of salinity. Treatment of magnesium, calcium carbonates and oxides by dodecyl ...

  7. Investigation of cleaning reagents for calcium chromate spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillard, B.M.

    1979-01-01

    Cleaning of calcium chromate spills can be a problem due to the insolubility of the material and the corrosiveness of several possible cleaning agents on the stainless steel equipment. Because of OSHA Standards for Cr(VI) exposure, it is necessary to remove spills as efficiently as possible in order to prevent the contaminant from becoming airborne. This study involved the comparison of several possible cleaning agents by studying the solubility of calcium chromate in each reagent. Two general types of reagents for dissolution of calcium chromate were investigated; those which act by conversion of the insoluble calcium chromate to a more soluble salt and to H 2 CrO 4 , and those which appear to act as complexing agents and thereby dissolve the calcium chromate. The most efficient of the reagents investigated was hydrochloric acid. However, even dilute solutions of halide acids destroy passivity of stainless steel causing pitting and stress-corrosion. Acetic acid and nitric acid were somewhat less efficient than hydrochloric acid in dissolving calcium chromate. However, both reagents are noncorrosive with stainless steel, nitric acid tending to favor passivity of the materials. Therefore, it is recommended that dilute solutions of either of these two acids be used for removal of calcium chromate spills in conjunction with mechanical methods that might be necessary, depending on the magnitude of the spill

  8. Pre-spill shoreline mapping in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, E.H.; Lamarche, A.; Reimer, P.D.; Marchant, S.O.; O'Brien, D.K.

    2003-01-01

    A long-term shoreline mapping program has been initiated in Prince William Sound, Alaska, to generate pre-spill data to assist in the planning activities for oil spill response in the area. Low-altitude aerial videotape surveys and video images form the basis for the mapping effort. The coast was initially divided into alongshore segments. The physical shore-zone is relatively homogeneous within each segment. A pre-spill Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Team (SCAT) database, using the ShoreData software, was created based on this initial detailed mapping. The SCAT field teams are therefore equipped with a detailed analysis of the shore-zone character. The same information was also used to develop a separate database for use by planning and response operations groups. The data is entered into the Graphical Resource Database (GRD), and a Geographic Information System (GIS). A simplified characterization of the primary features of each segment is then made available through interpretation of the data. In the event of an oil spill, the SCAT data in the ShoreData files can be combined with field data on shoreline oiling conditions using a second software package called ShoreAccess R which provides summaries of the main parameters required by the planning group. It can also be used as a data storage and management tool. As part of this program, more than 1700 kilometres of shoreline in Prince William Sound have already been mapped. 24 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

  9. In Situ burning of Arctic marine oil spills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne

    experiments where the ignitability of oil spill as a function of oil type and weathering conditions (time/ice) was tested. The results show that the composition of the oil and the ice cover is important for the in situ burning time-window. The results were used to develop an algorithm that was implemented...

  10. The contribution of air cushioned vehicles in oil spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, M.W.; McGrath, J.

    1993-01-01

    On July 22, 1991, the Tuo Hai, a 46,500 ton Chinese grain carrier, collided with the Tenyo Maru, a 4,800 ton Japanese fish processing ship, off the coast of Washington State. The Tenyo Maru sank, creating an oil spill that cost upwards of $4 million (US) to clean up. The incident initiated a joint response from the US and Canadian governments. As part of this response, the Canadian Coast Guard mobilized an SRN-6 hovercraft. This air cushioned vehicle (ACV) provided logistical support to responders on both sides of the international boundary. The response operation along the Pacific Coast was extensive. Dense fog and the remote location of the impacted area provided formidable challenges to the cleanup effort. It was the mission scenario of the Canadian SRN-6 hovercraft to provide logistical support-as an experiment in ACV utility-to the organizations responding to this incident. Based on this experience, it can be argued that the hovercraft offers great potential value in responding to marine oil spills. Appropriate application of ACV technology can enhance oil spill response work, spill waste management, and incident surveillance. This paper discusses the contribution of the SRN-6 hovercraft to the Tenyo Maru response, briefly examines the use of another, very different hovercraft, during a response in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and reviews a new hovercraft design and discusses its potential contributions

  11. Mechanical cleaning of oil spills in seawater using circular conduits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shedid, S.; Abou Kassem, J.; Zekri, A. [United Arab Emirates Univ., Al Ain City (United Arab Emirates). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

    2005-10-15

    Treatment of the crude oil pollution in seawater has attracted global attention during the last two decades. This study was undertaken using circular conduits as a mechanical means to clean oil spills in seawater under different conditions of temperature, oil gravity, shaking frequency, conduit diameter, and initial thickness of oil layer. An experimental model was designed and built to achieve the study. It consists of shaking water bath (to represent sea waves) fitted with temperature controller and glass tubes of different inside diameters of 0.3 cm, 0.5 cm, and 0.7 cm. Three crude oils of different oil gravity of 35{sup o}API, 38{sup o}API, and 47{sup o}API were investigated under different shaking frequencies of 20, 40, and 60 stroke/minute with different tube diameters. The results proved that application of mechanical cleaning of oil spills using circular conduits is a practical technique. The cleaning of black oil spills is more efficient than one of volatile oil. Furthermore, the results indicated that the increase of shaking frequency and/or water temperature provide(s) faster cleaning of oil spills while temperature increase recovers the maximum oil. (Author)

  12. PREDICTING EVAPORATION RATES AND TIMES FOR SPILLS OF CHEMICAL MIXTURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreadsheet and short-cut methods have been developed for predicting evaporation rates and evaporation times for spills (and constrained baths) of chemical mixtures. Steady-state and time-varying predictions of evaporation rates can be made for six-component mixtures, includ...

  13. Oil spill contingency planning in the Ivory coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, K.; Jensen, S.K.; Ostergaerd, J.; Nogbou, P.

    1993-01-01

    The administrative center in charge of handling oil spill pollution situations on the Ivory Coast, West Africa, is named Centre Ivoirien Antipollution (CIAPOL). Its organizational structure has been reshuffled recently. CIAPOL now has three divisions: a laboratory division, a division for cleaning up oil and chemical pollution at sea, and an administrative division. The risk for oil pollution is known: within the past ten years five spills have been reported. All of these have been connected to operations relating to the refinery in Abidjan. More than 2,000 ships call at the port of Abidjan every year. Minor oil slicks are found almost permanently in the harbor and the lagoons around the harbor. Lumps of tar are rather common on the beaches all along the country's coast. This paper focuses on the background investigation in sensitive areas and risk analysis that led to a revision of the oil spill contingency plan, Plan Pollumar, and the recent purchase of oil spill cleanup equipment. The creation of a regional oil pollution response center at CIAPOL for all of the countries in West Africa, is proposed

  14. Soil and Groundwater Characteristics of a Legacy Spill Site AKURO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    significant environmental consequences that occur. ... increasing production of crude oil and discovery of ... occurred in the mangrove swamps zones and near off shores areas of the Niger Delta which was shown in ... Assessment of the spill site had been carried out ... data and risks about the site, an intrusive ground.

  15. An oil spill-food chain interaction model for coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yew Hoong Gin, K.; Huda, Md. K.; Tkalich, P.

    2001-01-01

    An oil spill-food chain interaction model, composed of a multiphase oil spill model (MOSM) and a food chain model, has been developed to assess the probable impacts of oil spills on several key marine organisms (phytoplankton, zooplankton, small fish, large fish and benthic invertebrates). The MOSM predicts oil slick thickness on the water surface; dissolved, emulsified and particulate oil concentrations in the water column; and dissolved and particulate oil concentrations in bed sediments. This model is used to predict the fate of oil spills and transport with respect to specific organic compounds, while the food chain model addresses the uptake of toxicant by marine organisms. The oil spill-food chain interaction model can be used to assess the environmental impacts of oil spills in marine ecosystems. The model is applied to the recent Evoikos-Orapin Global oil spill that occurred in the Singapore Strait. (author)

  16. Site Selection and Resource Allocation of Oil Spill Emergency Base for Offshore Oil Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunbin; Liu, Jingxian; Wei, Lei; Wu, Weihuang

    2018-02-01

    Based on the analysis of the historical data about oil spill accidents in the Bohai Sea, this paper discretizes oil spilled source into a limited number of spill points. According to the probability of oil spill risk, the demand for salvage forces at each oil spill point is evaluated. Aiming at the specific location of the rescue base around the Bohai Sea, a cost-benefit analysis is conducted to determine the total cost of disasters for each rescue base. Based on the relationship between the oil spill point and the rescue site, a multi-objective optimization location model for the oil spill rescue base in the Bohai Sea region is established. And the genetic algorithm is used to solve the optimization problem, and determine the emergency rescue base optimization program and emergency resources allocation ratio.

  17. Method of inserting fuel rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamimoto, Shuji; Imoo, Makoto; Tsuchida, Kenji.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of inserting a fuel rod upon automatic assembling, automatic dismantling and reassembling of a fuel assembly in a light water moderated reactor, as well as a device and components used therefor. That is, a fuel rod is inserted reliably to an aimed point of insertion by surrounding the periphery of the fuel rod to be inserted with guide rods, and thereby suppressing the movement of the fuel rod during insertion. Alternatively, a fuel rod is inserted reliably to a point of insertion by inserting guide rods at the periphery of the point of insertion for the fuel rod to be inserted thereby surrounding the point of insertion with the guide rods or fuel rods. By utilizing fuel rods already present in the fuel assembly as the guide rods described above, the fuel rod can be inserted reliably to the point of insertion with no additional devices. Dummy fuel rods are previously inserted in a fuel assembly which are then utilized as the above-mentioned guide rods to accurately insert the fuel rod to the point of insertion. (I.S.)

  18. Low-cost wave characterization modules for oil spill response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.D. Skinner

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine oil spills can be remediated by mechanical skimmers in calm waters, but performance degrades with increased wave height. We have developed and demonstrated a system that quantifies local wave characteristics with an uncertainty of four inches of heave. Our system is intended for the measurement of wave characteristics during oil spill recovery. It conveys this information to coordinators and responders in real time via WiFi and remote reporting through a satellite network. This information will allow for enhanced situational awareness during an oil spill response, assisting stakeholders and optimizing mechanical skimming operations. Our wave characterization module (WCM uses accelerometer outputs from a very small inertial measurement unit (IMU to generate wave statistics and calculate wave characteristics. It is configured such that a WCM can either be attached to a skimmer float or incorporated into a microbuoy. Wave height and period are transmitted via WiFi and/or a satellite-enabled mesh-grid network to a cloud-hosted geographic information system (GIS. Here, we discuss the bare-bones sensors-plus-algorithm approach we developed by using spring-mass systems to approximate the wave height and period regime of interest. We then describe open water tests carried out using that development system both mounted to a weir skimmer mockup and packaged in a microbuoy. Finally, we present controlled tests in the wave tank at Ohmsett, the National Oil Spill Response Test Facility in New Jersey, with the WCMs communicating the wave characteristics via WiFi to tankside laptops and via satellite to the cloud-based GIS. Snapshot determinations of wave height calculated using the scalar magnitude of the three-axis accelerometer in the IMU were within four inches of the benchmark wave measurement system at Ohmsett. Keywords: Oil spill, Wave characterization module, Inertial measurement unit, Microbuoy

  19. Natural resource injury assessment of a crude oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischel, M.; Mancini, E.R.

    1995-01-01

    In January 1994, a 6.7 magnitude earthquake in southern California ruptured a pipeline releasing approximately 4,200 barrels of blended San Joaquin Valley crude oil. A smaller volume entered the Santa Clara River and flowed 25 km downstream to an emergency containment dam. Ruptured water mains and chlorinated discharges from a damaged sewage treatment plant also affected water quality in the river. Quantitative injury assessment studies were initiated within days of the spill and included water/sediment chemistry, benthic macroinvertebrate community analyses and aquatic toxicity tests. Water quality values for TPH, BTEX, and chlorine ranged from nondetectable to 78 mg/l (TPH), nondetectable to 5.4 microg/l (total BTEX constituents) and nondetectable to 600 microg/l (residual chlorine) within 72 hours of the spill. Ammonia concentrations ranged from nondetectable to 12.1 mg/l within 10 days of the spill. Hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments ranged from nondetectable to 3,900 mg/kg within 8 to 12 weeks post-spill. Both the density and diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates were reduced immediately after the spill but were not significantly different from reference areas four months later. River water collected from numerous locations within 72 hrs of the earthquake was transferred to the laboratory for static renewal acute toxicity tests using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). TPH concentrations in test containers ranged from nondetectable to 23 mg/l, BTEX constituents were nondetectable, and chlorine, measured at 600 microg/l in one sample, was titrated with sodium thiosulfate prior to testing. No acute toxicity was observed in either species

  20. Hangar Fire Suppression Utilizing Novec 1230

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    fuel fires in aircraft hangars. A 30×30×8-ft concrete-and-steel test structure was constructed for this test series. Four discharge assemblies...that agent concentration in the test structure exceeded the required extinguishing concentration for at least 5 min after discharge. Two fire ...involved suppression of a 4.6-gal, approximately 5-ft diameter, Jet-A pool fire . Both fires were successfully extinguished by the Novec 1230 discharge

  1. Satellite and airborne oil spill remote sensing: state of the art and application to the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leifer, Ira [University of California (United States); Clark, Roger; Swayze, Gregg [US Geology Survey (United States); Jones, Cathleen [California Institute of Technology (United States); Svejkovsky, Jan [Ocean Imaging Corporation (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This study stresses the value of using satellite technology in quantifying oil seepage impact, and how it can be applied to the case of Horizon oil spill. The purpose of the study is to clarify the remote sensing process as it applies to oil spills, and how testing resources should be properly allocated so as to come up with the optimal response strategy. Many parameters were involved in this research, of which the most important were the environmental factors, the active and passive remote sensing measures, satellite imagery and imaging spectroscopy, and oil thickness measurements using thermal infrared and laser-induced fluorescence. These parameters were later used to quantify the spills in the impacted regions. Results showed that remote sensing would always be accompanied by certain errors, however, in the case of the Horizon spill, the infrared approach proved to be a convenient and a reliable approach for impact analysis process. The study also put emphasis on the importance of oil spatial patterns in validating the reliability of a test procedure.

  2. Satellite and airborne oil spill remote sensing: state of the art and application to the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leifer, Ira; Clark, Roger; Swayze, Gregg; Jones, Cathleen; Svejkovsky, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This study stresses the value of using satellite technology in quantifying oil seepage impact, and how it can be applied to the case of Horizon oil spill. The purpose of the study is to clarify the remote sensing process as it applies to oil spills, and how testing resources should be properly allocated so as to come up with the optimal response strategy. Many parameters were involved in this research, of which the most important were the environmental factors, the active and passive remote sensing measures, satellite imagery and imaging spectroscopy, and oil thickness measurements using thermal infrared and laser-induced fluorescence. These parameters were later used to quantify the spills in the impacted regions. Results showed that remote sensing would always be accompanied by certain errors, however, in the case of the Horizon spill, the infrared approach proved to be a convenient and a reliable approach for impact analysis process. The study also put emphasis on the importance of oil spatial patterns in validating the reliability of a test procedure.

  3. Assessment of the toxicity of sediment and seawater polluted by the Prestige fuel spill using bioassays with clams (Venerupis pullastra, Tappes decussatus and Venerupis rhomboideus) and the microalga Skeletonema costatum; Evaluacion de la toxicidad de sedimento y agua de mar contaminados por el vertido de fuel del Prestige, mediante el uso de bioensayos con las almejas Venerupis pullastra, Tappes decussatus y Venerupis rhomboideus y la microalga Skeletonema costatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino-Balsa, J.C.; Perez, P.; Estevez-Blanco, P.; Saco-Alvarez, L.; Fernandez, E.; Beiras, R. [Laboratorio de Ecologia Marina LEM, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Vigo, Galicia (Spain)

    2003-03-15

    In this study we present the early monitoring of the pollution caused by the accident of the Prestige tanker off the Galician coast. To evaluate the toxicity of sediment and water exposed to fuel, three kinds of bioassays were carried out using juvenile clams, clam embryos and microalgae. Firstly, the burrowing behavior of Venerupis pullastra and Tappes decussatus in the sediment collected from two beaches of similar characteristics but different pollution conditions, was studied over 24 h. No significant differences were observed between the two sediments. Secondly, embryogenesis success of Venerupis rhomboideus was recorded after incubation in seawater and elutriates obtained from affected areas. In this case, fuel-polluted seawater showed a marked inhibition of embryogenesis, while sediment elutriates showed moderate toxicity. Parallel bioassays with the diatom Skeletonema costatum were carried out using sediment elutriates and filtered seawater from the sampling sites. The response variable measured was the maximum quantum yield of photosynthesis ({phi}{sub p}o) using a Fast Repetition Rate Fluorometer (FRRF). In the first sampling, significant differences were found in the response of S. costatum cultured in the elutriates as compared to the control after 5 h exposure. The results corresponding to the second sampling showed statistically significant lower values of {phi}{sub p}o in the culture incubated in M2 water as compared with the control, indicating that the water-accommodated fraction of fuel at this site was the most toxic. [Spanish] En este estudio presentamos los primeros resultados obtenidos del control de la contaminacion producida por el accidente del petrolero Prestige en la costa de Galicia. Para evaluar la toxicidad del agua y el sedimento expuestos al fuel, se realizaron tres tipos de bioensayos: usando almejas juveniles, embriones de almeja y una microalga. En los primeros, se evaluo el comportamiento de enterramiento de Venerupis pullastra y

  4. Proceedings: 1993 fuel oil utilization workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The primary objective of the Workshop was to utilize the experiences of utility personnel and continue the interchange of information related to fuel oil issues. Participants also identified technical problem areas in which EPRI might best direct its efforts in research and development of fuel oil utilization and to improve oil-fired steam generating systems' performance. Speakers presented specific fuel projects conducted at their particular utilities, important issues in the utilization of fuel oil, studies conducted or currently in the process of being completed, and information on current and future regulations for fuel utilization. Among the major topics addressed at the 1993 Fuel Oil Utilization Workshop were burner and ESP improvements for the reduction of particulate and NO x emissions, practical experience in utilization of low API gravity residual fuel oils, the use of models to predict the spread of oil spills on land, implementing OPA 90 preparedness and response strategies planning, a report on the annual Utility Oil Buyers Conference, ASTM D-396 specification for No. 6 fuel oil, the utilization of Orimulsion reg-sign in utility boilers, recent progress on research addressing unburned carbon and opacity from oil-fired utility boilers, EPRI's hazardous air pollutant monitoring and implications for residual fuel oil, and the feasibility of toxic metals removal from residual fuel oils. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  5. Environmental Assessment for the LGF Spill Test Facility at Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, S.E.; Novo, M.G.; Shinn, J.H.

    1986-04-01

    The LGF Spill Test Facility at Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site, is being constructed by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). In this Environmental Assessment, environmental consequences of spilling hazardous materials in the Frenchman Flat basin are evaluated and mitigations and recommendations are stated in order to protect natural resources and reduce land-use impacts. Guidelines and restrictions concerning spill-test procedures will be determined by the LGF Test Facility Operations Manager and DOE based on toxicity documentation for the test material, provided by the user, and mitigations imposed by the Environmental Assessment. In addition to Spill Test Facility operational procedures, certain assumptions have been made in preparation of this document: no materials will be considered for testing that have cumulative, long-term persistence in the environment; spill tests will consist of releases of 15 min or less; and sufficient time will be allowed between tests for recovery of natural resources. Geographic limits to downwind concentrations of spill materials were primarily determined from meteorological data, human occupational exposure standards to hazardous materials and previous spill tests. These limits were established using maximum spill scenarios and environmental impacts are discussed as worst case scenarios; however, spill-test series will begin with smaller spills, gradually increasing in size after the impacts of the initial tests have been evaluated.

  6. Environmental Assessment for the LGF Spill Test Facility at Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, S.E.; Novo, M.G.; Shinn, J.H.

    1986-04-01

    The LGF Spill Test Facility at Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site, is being constructed by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). In this Environmental Assessment, environmental consequences of spilling hazardous materials in the Frenchman Flat basin are evaluated and mitigations and recommendations are stated in order to protect natural resources and reduce land-use impacts. Guidelines and restrictions concerning spill-test procedures will be determined by the LGF Test Facility Operations Manager and DOE based on toxicity documentation for the test material, provided by the user, and mitigations imposed by the Environmental Assessment. In addition to Spill Test Facility operational procedures, certain assumptions have been made in preparation of this document: no materials will be considered for testing that have cumulative, long-term persistence in the environment; spill tests will consist of releases of 15 min or less; and sufficient time will be allowed between tests for recovery of natural resources. Geographic limits to downwind concentrations of spill materials were primarily determined from meteorological data, human occupational exposure standards to hazardous materials and previous spill tests. These limits were established using maximum spill scenarios and environmental impacts are discussed as worst case scenarios; however, spill-test series will begin with smaller spills, gradually increasing in size after the impacts of the initial tests have been evaluated

  7. Australia's tyranny of distance in oil spill response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipscombe, Ray [Australian Maritime Safety Authority, Environment Protection Group, Canberra, ACT (Australia)

    2000-08-01

    In view of the quantity of oil spilled, smaller spills generally receive less attention than headline grabbing incidents such as the 'Amoco Cadiz', 'Exxon Valdez', 'Braer' and 'Sea Empress'. The latter incidents involve the loss of significant quantities of oil, the establishment of relatively complex spill response management structures and the involvement of significant numbers of personnel and equipment. As such, large spills from tankers have the potential to create problem areas, for example in establishing and maintaining effective communications, logistics and resource management systems. In general terms spill response personnel are well aware that large spills come complete with significant operational and administrative problems, however what may not be so well recognised is that smaller spills also have the potential to present response personnel with their own unique problems. One of the major problems to be overcome when responding to spills in Australia is the 'tyranny of distance'. In quite a few responses, Australian oil spill response managers have had to move personnel and equipment thousands of kilometres to provide an effective outcome. This paper outlines a range of problems that have been encountered by Australian personnel over the years. These include health and safety, communications, logistics and equipment issues. For the purpose of this paper a 'smaller' spill has been defined as one involving a discharge of less than 1000 tonnes of oil. (Author)

  8. Methodology of intervention during a mystery spill: The example of the Baie-des-Sables case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, V.

    1993-01-01

    A mystery spill, or an oil spill of unknown origin, is one whose source cannot be identified at the time the environmental impact of the spill is noted. Unlike a known incident during which preventive action may be taken, mystery spills are often assessed based on the damages they have caused. In Canada, the coast guard regularly reports many spills with unidentified sources, and the most frequently reported sign of a spill is the presence of an oily film on the water surface. The smell of oil is also an important indication of a recent spill. The spill at Baie-des-Sables, Quebec, is presented as an illustrative example of a mystery spill. The size of the spill was estimated at 25 tons of bunker oil. The first indication of the spill was a number of contaminated ducks from the Rimouski region, reported by hunters to the appropriate government agency. Two days later, an oil slick was reported in the channel between Baie-Comeau and Rimouski; this provided sufficient information to trigger an alert. The next day an aerial inspection of the slick was carried out and a dispersion model was made. Contamination of seagulls and the south shore of the St. Lawrence River were noted. Over the next week response measures were organized and more inspections of shorelines were undertaken. Of the shoreline studied, 50 km were contaminated and 14 km were restored. Lack of precise early observations of the slick precluded identification of the vessel responsible for the spill. Recommendations are made for improving assessment of mystery spills and ensuring faster response times. 1 fig

  9. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Hideyuki

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent bending of fuel rods caused by the difference of irradiation growth between coupling fuel rods and standards fuel rods thereby maintain the fuel rod integrity. Constitution: The f value for a fuel can (the ratio of pole of zirconium crystals in the entire crystals along the axial direction of the fuel can) of a coupling fuel rod secured by upper and lower tie plates is made smaller than the f value for the fuel can of a standard fuel rod not secured by the upper and the lower tie plates. This can make the irradiation growth of the fuel can of the coupling fuel rod greater than the irradiation growth of the fuel can of the standard fuel rod and, accordingly, since the elongation of the standard fuel rod can always by made greater, bending of the standard fuel rod can be prevented. (Yoshihara, M.)

  10. THE ENVIRONMENTAL LEGACY OF THE IXTOC-I OIL SPILL IN CAMPECHE SOUND, SOUTHWESTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Arturo Soto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The southwestern Gulf of Mexico constitutes an important subsystem within a Large Marine Ecosystem. Due to its high biodiversity, living resources and energy resources, this region is strategic in the national plans for social and economic development of Mexico. The discovery of fossil fuel reserves in the seabed of Campeche Sound in the 1970s promoted the rapid expansion of the national oil industry in offshore waters. Unfortunately, the accidental blowout of the most productive well (Ixtoc-I in June of 1979, caused the first–world massive oil spill in a tropical marine environment. More than 3.4 million of barrels of crude oil were liberated in an ecosystem formerly renowned for its pristine conditions. In the aftermath of this dreadful accident, an immediate concern emerged not only for the oil acute effects but also for the long-term environmental consequences derived from the residual hydrocarbon compounds accumulated in coastal environments of the southern Gulf of Mexico. The attempts to assess the magnitude of the environmental damage were strongly precluded by the lack of pre-spill information. Natural variability in the ecosystem and oil weathering-factors contributed to attenuate the acute pollution effects that lasted nine months. However, the post-spill environmental alterations caused by the Ixtoc-I blowout still remain unanswered. The sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil platform in the deep-waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico, in 2010 rekindled our concern for the great risk involved for human lives and the health of shallow and deep sea habitats. The authors of this contribution offer their views on this environmental riddle from their own perspective as direct witnesses of the Ixtoc-I environmental tragedy.

  11. State of the art satellite and airborne marine oil spill remote sensing: Application to the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, Ira; Lehr, William J.; Simecek-Beatty, Debra; Bradley, Eliza; Clark, Roger N.; Dennison, Philip E.; Hu, Yongxiang; Matheson, Scott; Jones, Cathleen E; Holt, Benjamin; Reif, Molly; Roberts, Dar A.; Svejkovsky, Jan; Swayze, Gregg A.; Wozencraft, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    The vast and persistent Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill challenged response capabilities, which required accurate, quantitative oil assessment at synoptic and operational scales. Although experienced observers are a spill response's mainstay, few trained observers and confounding factors including weather, oil emulsification, and scene illumination geometry present challenges. DWH spill and impact monitoring was aided by extensive airborne and spaceborne passive and active remote sensing.Oil slick thickness and oil-to-water emulsion ratios are key spill response parameters for containment/cleanup and were derived quantitatively for thick (> 0.1 mm) slicks from AVIRIS (Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer) data using a spectral library approach based on the shape and depth of near infrared spectral absorption features. MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) satellite, visible-spectrum broadband data of surface-slick modulation of sunglint reflection allowed extrapolation to the total slick. A multispectral expert system used a neural network approach to provide Rapid Response thickness class maps.Airborne and satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) provides synoptic data under all-sky conditions; however, SAR generally cannot discriminate thick (> 100 μm) oil slicks from thin sheens (to 0.1 μm). The UAVSAR's (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle SAR) significantly greater signal-to-noise ratio and finer spatial resolution allowed successful pattern discrimination related to a combination of oil slick thickness, fractional surface coverage, and emulsification.In situ burning and smoke plumes were studied with AVIRIS and corroborated spaceborne CALIPSO (Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) observations of combustion aerosols. CALIPSO and bathymetry lidar data documented shallow subsurface oil, although ancillary data were required for confirmation.Airborne hyperspectral, thermal infrared data have nighttime and

  12. Observations and analysis of oil spills using polarized imagery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israel, S.A.; Duncan, M.E.; Johnson, W.R.; Whitehead, V.S.

    1991-01-01

    On Saturday, July 28, 1990, a train of barges collided with the Greek tanker Shinoussa in Galveston Bay off Red Fish Island near Texas City, Texas. The first barge sank and the second began to leak while the third barge in the chain and the Shinoussa both escaped without damage. The NASA Flight Science Support Office sponsored a Graduate Student from SUNY - College of Environmental Science and Forestry and a student from Texas A ampersand M, Galveston, to survey the damage. The purpose of this paper is to correlate aircraft base data with orbital data obtained during the Space Shuttle Polarization Experiment and existing laboratory data to evaluate the potential for an application such as oil spill monitoring and mapping. NASA has no charter with the local response agencies to support oil spill monitoring and cleanup

  13. What turns an oil spill into a disaster?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, F.

    1993-01-01

    Whenever an oil tanker spews its cargo into the sea, the spill is instantly labelled an ''ecological disaster'' and with the slightest statistical prompting, ''the worst ever disaster''. Within hours of the Braer hitting the rocks of Garth's Ness, on the coast of Shetland in the United Kingdom, the accident had already been labelled a tragedy. Two weeks later, after ferocious storms seemed to have spirited away the worst of the pollution, the verdict changed. Shetland had had a lucky escape. But with the majority of the 84 000 tonnes of oil still unaccounted for, it will be some time before the true extent of the damage is known. Only then will we know if the Braer has really caused a disaster. The factors which will determine whether the spill becomes a disaster are examined in this article. (Author)

  14. An integrated approach to shoreline mapping for spill response planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, E.H.; LeBlanc, S.R.; Percy, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    A desktop mapping package was introduced which has the capability to provide consistent and standardized application of mapping and data collection/generation techniques. Its application in oil spill cleanup was discussed. The data base can be updated easily as new information becomes available. This provides a response team with access to a wide range of information that would otherwise be difficult to obtain. Standard terms and definitions and shoreline segmentation procedures are part of the system to describe the shore-zone character and shore-zone oiling conditions. The program that is in place for Atlantic Canada involves the integration of (1) Environment Canada's SCAT methodology in pre-spill data generation, (2) shoreline segmentation, (3) response management by objectives, (4) Environment Canada's national sensitivity mapping program, and (5) Environment Canada's field guide for the protection and treatment of oiled shorelines. 7 refs., 6 figs

  15. . Estimating soil contamination from oil spill using neutron backscattering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okunade, I.O.; Jonah, S.A.; Abdulsalam, M.O.

    2009-01-01

    An analytical facility which is based on neutron backscattering technique has been adapted for monitoring oil spill. The facility which consists of 1 Ci Am-Be isotopic source and 3 He neutron detector is based on the principle of slowing down of neutrons in a given medium which is dominated by the elastic process with the hydrogen nucleus. Based on this principle, the neutron reflection parameter in the presence of hydrogenous materials such as coal, crude oil and other hydrocarbon materials depends strongly on the number of hydrogen nuclei present. Consequently, the facility has been adapted for quantification of crude oil in soil contaminated in this work. The description of the facility and analytical procedures for quantification of oil spill in soil contaminated with different amount of crude oil are provided

  16. San Jacinto River oil spill: wetland bioremediation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, M.A.; Bonner, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    Gasoline, diesel and unrefined Arabian light crude oil were accidentally released into the San Jacinto River after a series of pipelines ruptured. Natural removal processes (volatilization, dissolution, weathering), fire, and the spill clean-up effort, removed approximately 95% of the petroleum. The area where residual oil was found was an estuarine wetland on the lower San Jacinto River. Samples were collected from 21 study areas and an evaluation of the varying levels of bioremediation was conducted. Phase one has been completed and involved the evaluation of the natural recovery of oil from the spill. Phase two was still in progress and involved the addition of inorganic nutrients and the alternate electron acceptor to enhance the biodegradation of the petroleum. Results showed that biodegradation was responsible for much of the reduction of certain components in petroleum within the first 150 days. 12 refs., 8 figs

  17. Liability for oil spill damages: issues, methods, and examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigalunas, T.A.; Opaluch, J.J.; Diamantides, J.; Mazzotta, M.

    1998-01-01

    Liability is an important incentive-based instrument for preventing oil spills and provides a sustainable approach for restoring coastal resources injured by spills. However, the use of liability for environmental damages raises many challenges, including quantification of money measures of damages. In this article, case studies are used to illustrate the issues, methods, and challenges associated with assessing a range of damages, from those that can be measured relatively easily using market information to more 'esoteric', and much more difficult, cases involving non-market-valued losses. Also discussed are issues raised by the new national and international regulatory focus on restoration and by the simplified, compensatory formula used by some states. (author)

  18. Hurricane Andrew causes major oil spill at Florida Power ampersand Light Company's Turkey Point Power Plant, Homestead, Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.A.; Butts, R.L.; Lindsay, J.R.; McCully, B.S.; Pickering, T.H.

    1993-01-01

    On August 24, 1992, Hurricane Andrew slammed into South Florida with wind gusts in excess of 160 mph. At 4:00 a.m. that day, the eye of this category four storm passed over Florida Power ampersand Light Company's Turkey Point power plant, south of Miami. Although the plant's two nuclear units escaped any significant damage, the storm caused extensive destruction to buildings and transmission facilities, and damaged two 400 foot tall emission stacks associated with the site's two fossil fuel generating units. In addition, a 90,000 to 110,000 gallon spill of No. 6 fuel oil resulted when a piece of wind-blown debris punctured the steel of the unit One 12,000 barrel fuel oil metering tank approximately 30 feet up from the tank bottom. Despite the presence of a secondary containment structure around the tank, the intense wind blew oil throughout the plant site. The damage to the metering tank apparently occurred during the first half hour of the hurricane. As the tank's oil level fell due to the puncture, transfer pumps from the bulk oil storage tanks received a low level alarm which automatically began transferring oil to the damaged metering tank. To prevent the further discharge of oil, plant personnel entered the power block and secured the pumps during the passage of the hurricane eye. Immediately following the storm, facility personnel deployed booms across the barge canal and the Units 1 and 2 intake canal to contain the oil which had entered the water. The response strategy and implementation is described in detail. The remediation costs were approximately $14/gallon spilled, including 54,000 gallons recovered for electricity generation

  19. Argon spill in the hall of the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Peón-Hernández, G

    1998-01-01

    A hazard analysis is in progress to determine the operation mode of the ventilation system in the ATLAS hall in case of an Argon spill. Two risk scenarios have been investigated so far. In the first, the behaviour of an Argon gas pool is calculated for different ventilation strategies. In the second, the behaviour of Argon gas leaking from the bottom part of the detector is studied for different flows. The description of the study, results and conclusions are presented.

  20. Oil spill response planning on the Columbia river estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopherson, S.K.; Slyman, P.M.

    1993-01-01

    The Columbia River Estuary lies along the Washington-Oregon state boundary on the west coast of the United States. The entire area is environmentally very sensitive with numerous large, shallow bays, exposed mud flats, wetland areas, and central channels having maximum currents of three to four knots. These features make the area very difficult to protect from an oil spill. Spill response is further complicated because of the many different state, federal, and local jurisdictions with mandated responsibilities in oil spill response and environmental protection. Under the leadership of the US Coast Guard Marine Safety Office in Portland, Oregon, a steering group was established to guide the development of a response plan for the Columbia River Estuary. A concerted effort was made to include representatives from response organizations, natural resource agencies, and resource users from federal, state, and local governments, and commercial sectors in the planning process. The first draft of an operational response plan was completed the summer of 1992 through a combination of technical workshops, field trips, and small working groups meeting with local communities. The Columbia River Estuary Response Plan prioritizes areas to protect; identifies specific response strategies for protecting these areas; and outlines the Iogistics needed to implement these strategies, including equipment needs, the location of staging areas, and the identification of pre-designed command posts. The local spill response cooperative and oil transportation industry are using the plan to coordinate the purchase of response equipment and the staging of this equipment at numerous locations along the river. The key to success is ensuring that all the groups responding to an event participate in the planning process together. This process has worked well and will serve as a model for response planning for other areas along the Columbia River and coastal areas of Washington and Oregon

  1. Controlling mercury spills in laboratories with a thermometer exchange program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLouth, Lawrence D.

    2002-03-25

    This paper presents a case for replacing mercury thermometers with their organic-liquid-filled counterparts. A review of liquid-in glass-thermometers is given. In addition, a brief summary of mercury's health effects and exposure limits is presented. Spill cleanup methods and some lessons learned from our experience are offered as well. Finally, an overview of the mercury thermometer exchange program developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is presented.

  2. Fill and spill drives runoff connectivity over frozen ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, A. E.; McDonnell, J. J.

    2018-03-01

    Snowmelt-runoff processes on frozen ground are poorly understood at the hillslope scale. This is especially true for hillslopes on the northern Great Plains of North America where long periods of snow-covered frozen ground with very shallow slopes mask any spatial patterns and process controls on connectivity and hillslope runoff generation. This study examines a 4.66 ha (46,600 m2) hillslope on the northern Great Plains during the 2014 spring snowmelt season to explore hillslope runoff processes. Specifically, we explore the spatial patterns of runoff production source areas and examine how surface topography and patterns of snow cover, snow water equivalent, soil water content, and thawed layer depth - which we measured on a 10 m grid across our 46,600 m2 hillslope - affect melt water partitioning and runoff connectivity. A key question was whether or not the controls on connectivity are consistent with the fill and spill mechanism found in rain-dominated and unfrozen soil domains. The contrast between the slow infiltration rates into frozen soil and the relatively fast rates of snowmelt delivery to the soil surface resulted in water accumulation in small depressions under the snowpack. Consequently, infiltration was minimal over the 12 day melt period. Instead, nested filling of micro- and meso-depressions was followed by macro-scale, whole-slope spilling. This spilling occurred when large patches of ponded water exceeded the storage capacity behind downslope micro barriers in the surface topography, and flows from them coalesced to drive a rapid increase in runoff at the hillslope outlet. These observations of ponded water and flowpaths followed mapable fill and spill locations based on 2 m resolution digital topographic analysis. Interestingly, while surface topography is relatively unimportant under unfrozen conditions at our site because of low relief and high infiltrability, surface topography shows episodically critical importance for connectivity and

  3. Control of spatial discretisation in coastal oil spill modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yang

    2007-01-01

    Spatial discretisation plays an important role in many numerical environmental models. This paper studies the control of spatial discretisation in coastal oil spill modelling with a view to assure the quality of modelling outputs for given spatial data inputs. Spatial data analysis techniques are effective for investigating and improving the spatial discretisation in different phases of the modelling. Proposed methods are implemented and tested with experimental models. A new “Automatic Searc...

  4. Systems for Arctic Spill Response. Volume II. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-03-01

    Microbial Degradation of Oil Pollutants, Center for Wetland Resources. Pub. No. LSU-SG-73-O1 , 1973, p. 153. 6. Atlas , R. and E. Schofield , •U petroleum... Atlas , R. and R. Bartha , “Degradation and Mineralization of Petroleum in in Sea Water: Limitation by Nitrogen and Phosphorus ,” Biotechnology, B...iNFORMATION SOURCES USED IN THE PREPARATION OF MAPS OF ECOLOGICAL SENSITIVITY A- i APPENDIX B - APPLICATION OF EXISTING AND PLANNED OIL SPILL

  5. Oil spills and AI: How to manage resources through simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giribone, P.; Bruzzone, A.G.; Caddeo, S.

    1995-01-01

    Today, in the Mediterranean theater of the Upper Tyrrhenian, the ecological risk involving oil installations is still quite high. This is due to the fact that valuable environmental and tourist areas exist together with large industrial and port structures; in particular, recent events have demonstrated the danger involving oil spills along the Ligurian coastline. This study proposes an approach to plan the operations that should be performed when accidents occur, based on the use of AI techniques

  6. Exxon Valdez oil spill: Fate and effects in Alaskan waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, P.G.; Butler, J.N.; Hughes, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    This conference was held in Atlanta, Georgia on April 26--28, 1993. The purpose of the conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the transport and environmental effects, effects on fisheries and wildlife and remediation of the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  7. Submesoscale dispersion in the vicinity of the Deepwater Horizon spill

    OpenAIRE

    Poje, Andrew C.; Özgökmen, Tamay M.; Lipphardt, Bruce L.; Haus, Brian K.; Ryan, Edward H.; Haza, Angelique C.; Jacobs, Gregg A.; Reniers, A. J. H. M.; Olascoaga, Maria Josefina; Novelli, Guillaume; Griffa, Annalisa; Beron-Vera, Francisco J.; Chen, Shuyi S.; Coelho, Emanuel; Hogan, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    Reliable forecasts for the dispersion of oceanic contamination are important for coastal ecosystems, society and the economy as evidenced by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010 and the Fukushima nuclear plant incident in the Pacific Ocean in 2011. Accurate prediction of pollutant pathways and concentrations at the ocean surface requires understanding ocean dynamics over a broad range of spatial scales. Fundamental questions concerning the structure of the velocity fi...

  8. Scaling and diffusion of oil spills in the Ocean Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarquis, A. M.; Platonov, A.; Grau, J.; Sekula, E.

    2010-05-01

    The region of the Gulf of Lions at the northwestern Mediterranean Sea has been studied within a ten-year period from December 1996 until November 2006. More than 1000 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, which have been acquired by the Second European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS 1/2) as well as from ENVISAT. We present statistical results of the structure of several features revealed by SAR such as oil spills and tensioactive slicks dynamic. We compare oil splils obtained from the projects Clean Seas,ENVA4/CT/0334, RC2003/005700, ESP2005/07551 and ESA/AO/IP2240. Since natural (caused by plankton, fish, etc.) slicks as well as man-made oil slicks dampen the small-scale surface waves, which are responsible for the radar backscattering from the ocean surface, both types of effects may be confused and give look/alike false oil spill detections. The early SAR images were processed at a resolution of 1 pixel=200m and were provided by the RApid Information Dissemination System (RAIDS) SAR processing facility in West Freugh, UK. Recent ENVISAT images directly from ESA allow a higher resolution of 1 pixel = 26 m, improving the detected turbulent scaling range. The occurrence of marine oil pollution as well as several dynamic features near Barcelona (frames 8-10, 19, 20; 200 SAR images)is itself a random multi-scale process. The use of different multifractal techniques, both using limits to the smallest and largest available scales, show that the scaling laws are very complex and depend strongly on intermittency of the assumed turbulent cascade, the shapes of the multifractal spectra functions are seen to deviate from an homogeneous multifractal and depend both on the initial conditions of the spill or slick, and on the transit time that the spill has been subjected to the local turbulence.

  9. Oil spill R ampersand D efforts in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorell, D.; Jansson, B.

    1992-01-01

    Let me at first mention some significant facts of the Baltic Sea and of Sweden. It has an average depth of only 60 to 70 meters.The waters are low in temperature as well as low in oxygen and salt content (salinity). The air-temperature is in the winter often lower than minus 20 degrees C. The entrance to the Baltic is very narrow and shallow, which means that it takes thirty years before the water in the Baltic is completely renewed. This makes the Baltic Sea to the world's largest brackish water area where the organisms are very vulnerable and sensitive to all kinds of pollution. Oil spills pose a special threat. Every year, approximately 45 million tons of oil of all types crude, bunker, diesel - to name some - are transported through Swedish waters. The shipping of oil in other parts of the Baltic Sea exceeds this figure; a shipping not subject to our legislation but from time to time, with its spills polluting our environment. Sweden has an extremely long coastline to protect: 14,000 kilometers (nearly 9,000 miles) along the mainland plus the shores of more than 100,000 islands. Some oil spills have contaminated more than 12,000 islands which have large bird and seal populations and are public recreation areas for 1 million people and pleasure boats. Sweden started a comprehensive oil spill R ampersand D programme in 1982. This programme, introduced in this document, is now ended and strategies for the twenty-first century are now being drawn up

  10. Community Adaptation to the Hebei-Spirit Oil Spill

    OpenAIRE

    So-Min Cheong

    2012-01-01

    The focus of the research is the significance of dependence for communities to survive and adapt in times of environmental disasters. It shifts the emphasis on self-reliant communities for survival and examines the types and effects of dependence and external linkages by analyzing the range of community responses that include initial responses, early social impact, compensation, and conflicts after the Hebei-Spirit oil spill in December 2007 in Korea. The findings reveal that dependence is ...

  11. Spill-of-opportunity testing of dispersant effectiveness at the Mega Borg oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, J.R.; Martrano, R.J.; Reilly, T.J.; Lindblom, G.P.; Kennicutt, M.C. II; Brooks, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The release of 3.9 million gallons of Angola Planca crude oil from the stricken tanker Mega Borg 57 miles offshore of Galveston, Texas in June 1990 provided a valuable opportunity to document dispersant effectiveness under field conditions. Aerial application of Corexit 9527 (968 gallons total in four adjacent passes) onto an identified test portion of the slick was evaluated by concurrent observations from a command-and-control aircraft and surface vessels (with videotape and 35-mm photographic documentation) and ground truth measurements, including continuous 4-meter-depth ultraviolet/fluorescence and a discrete water sampling program. Using the study plan outlined by Payne and colleagues, target and control areas were designated before dispersant application by deployment of smoke bombs and coded three-meter drogues. Postdispersant surface vessel placement and 30 liter water sampling activities from the Texas A ampersand M research vessel HOS Citation were aided by the smoke bombs, the free-drifting drogues, and directions from the command-and-control aircraft. Subsequent FID GC and GC/MS analyses of water sample extracts allowed quantitation of the dispersed oil concentrations under both treated and control areas. Although the spilled oil was extremely light (API gravity 39.0) and subject to significant natural dispersion, the field observations, filmed documentation, and water column data clearly demonstrated an increase in dispersed oil concentrations beneath the treated slick. The distribution of dispersed oil droplets was very heterogeneous and reflected the patchy distribution of oil on the water surface before dispersant application. Maximum concentrations of dispersed hydrocarbons in the center of the treated zone were 22,000 μg/L (22 ppm) for total aliphatic and 5.6 μg/L (5.6 ppb) for total aromatics 60 to 90 minutes after dispersant application. Elevated levels were generally limited to the upper 1 to 3 meters of the water column

  12. Macrozoobenthic recolonization of the littoral and the soft bottom after an oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lax, H.J.; Vainio, T.

    1988-01-01

    Two years after the Eira oil spill the oil concentration in the water had returned to its background level (0.5 ug/l) in the open sea areas. On the polluted shores (depth 0.1- 0.5 m) higher concentrations (2.3 ug/l) occurred occasionaly. No clear effects related to the oil spill were noticed on the dominating soft bottom species (Macoma baltica, Pontoporeia affinis). Among the other soft bottom species the crustacean Corophium volutator showed its lowest density immediately after the spill, becoming more and more abundant during the following two years. The effect of the oil spill on the littoral fauna could still be noticed two years after the spill. The crustacean Gammarus duebeni avoided its natural habitat (uppermost littoral zone). Lymnaea palustris showed and increased mortality immediately after the oil spill but recolonized the polluted shores a normal distribution

  13. The management of acute risks. Oil spill contingency planning and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monk, D.C.; Cormack, D.

    1992-01-01

    It is clear that the risks of environmental damage can be best minimized by preventing oil spills from occurring at all. Since absolute prevention is unrealistic, however, early detection is essential and aerial surveillance techniques are of great value in this connection. If spills do occur, proper contingency planning and clean-up techniques can minimize impacts, but will rarely avoid them completely if the spilled oil reaches the coastline. It is evident that a main priority should be to prevent spilled oil reaching the coastline. The way in which oil spill response strategy is implemented is discussed in detail. It is based on four key elements: the allocation of responsibilities; contingency planning; training and exercises; regular audit of plans and response mechanisms. A case study of the oil spill strategy employed at the Sullom Voe oil terminal in Shetland is used as an illustration. (UK)

  14. ARKTOS amphibious oil spill response craft for mixed ice/water conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seligman, Bruce H.J.W. [ARKTOS International S.A., Tavannes (Switzerland)], email: bruce.seligman@arktoscraft.com; Hall, T.A. [Hall Marine Design Ltd., Vancouver B.C. (Canada)], email: thallhmd@telus.net

    2010-07-01

    The oil spill which occurred recently in the Gulf of Mexico highlighted the lack of efficient oil spill clean-up equipment for an offshore environment. With the increase in industrial operations in the Arctic Seas it is of high importance to develop an efficient oil spill response as the absence of reliable oil spill contingency plans will not be tolerated in such environmentally sensitive areas. The aim of this paper is to present the use of the ARKTOS amphibious craft for cleaning up an oil spill in the Arctic. This craft is usually used for logistical services and evacuation purposes; its use for clean-up purposes has been under study since 2000. This study showed that the ARKTOS craft could be an efficient means for oil spill clean-up in the Arctic because of its proven ice capable amphibious platforms and its hydraulic power; however oil collection trials should be performed to validate it.

  15. ARKTOS amphibious oil spill response craft for mixed ice/water conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seligman, Bruce H.J.W.; Hall, T.A.

    2010-01-01

    The oil spill which occurred recently in the Gulf of Mexico highlighted the lack of efficient oil spill clean-up equipment for an offshore environment. With the increase in industrial operations in the Arctic Seas it is of high importance to develop an efficient oil spill response as the absence of reliable oil spill contingency plans will not be tolerated in such environmentally sensitive areas. The aim of this paper is to present the use of the ARKTOS amphibious craft for cleaning up an oil spill in the Arctic. This craft is usually used for logistical services and evacuation purposes; its use for clean-up purposes has been under study since 2000. This study showed that the ARKTOS craft could be an efficient means for oil spill clean-up in the Arctic because of its proven ice capable amphibious platforms and its hydraulic power; however oil collection trials should be performed to validate it.

  16. Final report of the accident phenomenology and consequence (APAC) methodology evaluation. Spills Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brereton, S.; Shinn, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hesse, D [Battelle Columbus Labs., OH (United States); Kaninich, D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Lazaro, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Mubayi, V. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The Spills Working Group was one of six working groups established under the Accident Phenomenology and Consequence (APAC) methodology evaluation program. The objectives of APAC were to assess methodologies available in the accident phenomenology and consequence analysis area and to evaluate their adequacy for use in preparing DOE facility safety basis documentation, such as Basis for Interim Operation (BIO), Justification for Continued Operation (JCO), Hazard Analysis Documents, and Safety Analysis Reports (SARs). Additional objectives of APAC were to identify development needs and to define standard practices to be followed in the analyses supporting facility safety basis documentation. The Spills Working Group focused on methodologies for estimating four types of spill source terms: liquid chemical spills and evaporation, pressurized liquid/gas releases, solid spills and resuspension/sublimation, and resuspension of particulate matter from liquid spills.

  17. The use of mesocosms in marine oil spill - ecological research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, T.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the design of mesocosms which are partly enclosed, bounded, outdoor experimental systems for simulating marine oil spill environments for use in examining the ecological impact of the spill response. System requirements for mesocosms in marine oil spill ecological research and development are discussed, and the question of scaling, and mesocosm tank features useful in coastal/nearshore ecological marine oil spill research are considered. Details are given of the MERL mesocosm facility at the University of Rhode Island, and the Coastal Oil-Spill Simulation System (COSS) multiple tank mesocosm facility in Texas, and recommendations for the design and use of marine mesocosms in oil spill ecological impact studies are presented. (UK)

  18. Oil mixing behavior after an oil spill: identification conflicts of different fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shijie; Yu, Hongjun; Luo, Yongming; Wang, Chuanyuan; Li, Xueshuang; Li, Zhongping

    2018-04-01

    Clearing up whether spilled oil is mixed or not can strengthen the accuracy of oil spill identification. In the present study, the biomarkers in spilled oil samples were detected. The weathering modes of different types of diagnostic ratio and carbon isotope values of individual n-alkanes were also analyzed. The results showed that the diagnostic ratios of steroids, terpenes and aromatics, and weathering characteristics of carbon isotope composition (δ 13 C) of individual n-alkanes supported the idea that Dalian oil spill emerged from a single oil source. Furthermore, commonly used diagnostic ratios of n-alkanes indicated that the Dalian oil spill had undergone the oil mixing process. The different identifying outcomes indicate that some kinds of n-alkane-rich substance (such as oil dispersants) were mixed in the Dalian spilled oil and interfered with the routine diagnosis ratios of n-alkanes.

  19. Marine oil spill risk mapping for accidental pollution and its application in a coastal city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Dongdong; Liang, Bin; Bao, Chenguang; Ma, Minghui; Xu, Yan; Yu, Chunyan

    2015-07-15

    Accidental marine oil spill pollution can result in severe environmental, ecological, economic and other consequences. This paper discussed the model of Marine Oil Spill Risk Mapping (MOSRM), which was constructed as follows: (1) proposing a marine oil spill risk system based on the typical marine oil spill pollution accidents and prevailing risk theories; (2) identifying suitable indexes that are supported by quantitative sub-indexes; (3) constructing the risk measuring models according to the actual interactions between the factors in the risk system; and (4) assessing marine oil spill risk on coastal city scale with GIS to map the overall risk. The case study of accidental marine oil spill pollution in the coastal area of Dalian, China was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the model. The coastal areas of Dalian were divided into three zones with risk degrees of high, medium, and low. And detailed countermeasures were proposed for specific risk zones. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Advanced Research Reactor Fuel Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, C. K.; Park, H. D.; Kim, K. H. (and others)

    2006-04-15

    RERTR program for non-proliferation has propelled to develop high-density U-Mo dispersion fuels, reprocessable and available as nuclear fuel for high performance research reactors in the world. As the centrifugal atomization technology, invented in KAERI, is optimum to fabricate high-density U-Mo fuel powders, it has a great possibility to be applied in commercialization if the atomized fuel shows an acceptable in-reactor performance in irradiation test for qualification. In addition, if rod-type U-Mo dispersion fuel is developed for qualification, it is a great possibility to export the HANARO technology and the U-Mo dispersion fuel to the research reactors supplied in foreign countries in future. In this project, reprocessable rod-type U-Mo test fuel was fabricated, and irradiated in HANARO. New U-Mo fuel to suppress the interaction between U-Mo and Al matrix was designed and evaluated for in-reactor irradiation test. The fabrication process of new U-Mo fuel developed, and the irradiation test fuel was fabricated. In-reactor irradiation data for practical use of U-Mo fuel was collected and evaluated. Application plan of atomized U-Mo powder to the commercialization of U-Mo fuel was investigated.

  1. Integration of multi-technology on oil spill emergency preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhenliang; Hannam, Phillip M; Xia, Xiaowei; Zhao, Tingting

    2012-10-01

    This paper focuses on the integration of technologies including Case-Based Reasoning (CBR), Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for establishing emergency preparedness for oil spill accidents. In CBR, the Frame method is used to define case representation, and the HEOM (Heterogeneous Euclidean-Overlap Metric) is improved to define the similarity of case properties. In GA, we introduce an Improved Genetic Algorithm (IGA) that achieves case adaptation, in which technologies include the Multi-Parameter Cascade Code method, the Small Section method for generation of an initial population, the Multi-Factor Integrated Fitness Function, and Niche technology for genetic operations including selection, crossover, and mutation. In ANN, a modified back-propagation algorithm is employed to train the algorithm to quickly improve system preparedness. Through the analysis of 32 fabricated oil spill cases, an oil spill emergency preparedness system based on the integration of CBR, GA and ANN is introduced. In particular, the development of ANN is presented and analyzed. The paper also discusses the efficacy of our integration approach. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bioremediation potential of crude oil spilled on soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMillen, S.J.; Young, G.N.; Davis, P.S.; Cook, P.D.; Kerr, J.M.; Gray, N.R.; Requejo, A.G.

    1995-01-01

    Spills sometimes occur during routine operations associated with exploration and production (E and P) of crude oil. These spills at E and P sites typically are small, less than 1 acre (0.4 ha), and the spill may be in remote locations. As a result, bioremediation often represents a cost-effective alternative to other cleanup technologies. The goal of this study was to determine the potential for biodegrading a range of crude oil types and determining the effect of process variables such as soil texture and soil salinity. Crude oils evaluated ranged in American Petroleum institute (API) gravity from 14 degree to 45 degree. The extent of biodegradation was calculated from oxygen uptake data and the total extractable material (TEM) concentration. Based on the data collected, a simple model was developed for predicting the bioremediation potential of a range of crude oil types. Biodegradation rates were significantly lower in sandy soils. Soil salinities greater than approximately 40 mmhos/cm adversely impacted soil microbial activity and biodegradation rate

  3. Alyeska/SERVS technological innovations for oil spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillman, S.O.

    1996-01-01

    An overview of technological innovations in spill response by Alyeska Pipeline Service Company/SERVS (ship escort response vessel system), was presented. The company has developed a number of spill response techniques which have needed new strategies and modified equipment for fulfillment of the Prince William Sound Tanker Oil Discharge Prevention and Contingency Plan. One of the strategies was the training of personnel to be ready to deploy massive quantities of equipment on short notice to potential spill sites over an 11,000 square mile water body with more than 3,200 miles of wilderness shoreline. Specific response equipment and decision-making tools have been developed in direct support of large scale programs. Along with oil slick tracking buoys and mini barges, SERVS has developed high capacity skimmers with recovery capacities approaching 2,000 to 3,000 barrels of liquid per hour and strategy boom-towing vessels which divert oil into a long U shaped containment boom. SERVS fishing vessel program, hatchery protection and remote response center equipment program, and wildlife treatment facilities were also described. 10 refs., 13 figs

  4. Canadian firm contains huge oil spill in Northern Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, B.

    1997-01-01

    The Kharyaga-Usink pipeline, 1400 km northeast of Moscow, suffered a major failure in the fall of 1994, releasing some 100,000 tonnes of oil (three times more than the Exxon Valdez) into the frozen tundra. It was considered by environmental groups as one of the worst disasters of its kind. The oil threatened to seep into the nearby rivers and eventually into the Barents Sea. After a delay of some three months AGRA Earth and Environmental of Calgary, an engineering consulting firm, was called in to inspect the damage and to make recommendations for a successful cleanup operation. A multi-disciplinary emergency response team was formed to assess the environmental and socio-economic impacts of the spill, the state of the existing pipeline, and the Russian plans for spill containment and recovery. Community consultation, probably the first in Russia, was part of the evaluation, culminating in a three-volume appraisal report containing detailed recommendation on how to properly contain the spill. On the strength of the report the World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development approved loans to the Russian Federation totaling 145 million dollars to undertake the work of pipeline restoration. Construction of the uniquely-designed dams as well as the Russian-pioneered siphon-dams was done by international contractors and maintained throughout the breakup period. A new pipeline is also being constructed to prevent future leaks

  5. Development of a statistical oil spill model for risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weijun

    2017-11-01

    To gain a better understanding of the impacts from potential risk sources, we developed an oil spill model using probabilistic method, which simulates numerous oil spill trajectories under varying environmental conditions. The statistical results were quantified from hypothetical oil spills under multiple scenarios, including area affected probability, mean oil slick thickness, and duration of water surface exposed to floating oil. The three sub-indices together with marine area vulnerability are merged to compute the composite index, characterizing the spatial distribution of risk degree. Integral of the index can be used to identify the overall risk from an emission source. The developed model has been successfully applied in comparison to and selection of an appropriate oil port construction location adjacent to a marine protected area for Phoca largha in China. The results highlight the importance of selection of candidates before project construction, since that risk estimation from two adjacent potential sources may turn out to be significantly different regarding hydrodynamic conditions and eco-environmental sensitivity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Modelling Oil-Spill Detection with Swarm Drones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Aznar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, swarm robotics research is having a great increase due to the benefits derived from its use, such as robustness, parallelism, and flexibility. Unlike distributed robotic systems, swarm robotics emphasizes a large number of robots, and promotes scalability. Among the multiple applications of such systems we could find are exploring unstructured environments, resource monitoring, or distributed sensing. Two of these applications, monitoring, and perimeter/area detection of a given resource, have several ecological uses. One of them is the detection and monitoring of pollutants to delimit their perimeter and area accurately. Maritime activity has been increasing gradually in recent years. Many ships carry products such as oil that can adversely affect the environment. Such products can produce high levels of pollution in case of being spilled into sea. In this paper we will present a distributed system which monitors, covers, and surrounds a resource by using a swarm of homogeneous low cost drones. These drones only use their local sensory information and do not require any direct communication between them. Taking into account the properties of this kind of oil spills we will present a microscopic model for a swarm of drones, capable of monitoring these spills properly. Furthermore, we will analyse the proper macroscopic operation of the swarm. The analytical and experimental results presented here show the proper evolution of our system.

  7. Canadian coastal environments, shoreline processes, and oil spill cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, E.H.

    1994-03-01

    The coastal zone is a dynamic environment, so that in developing practical and effective oil spill response strategies it is necessary to understand the forces that contribute to shore-zone processs. The coasts of Canada encompass a wide range of environments and are characterized by a variety of shoreline types that include the exposed, resistant cliffs of eastern Newfoundland and the sheltered marshes of the Beaufort Sea. A report is presented to provide an understanding of the dynamics and physical processes as they vary on the different coasts of Canada, including the Great Lakes. An outline of the general character and processes on a regional basis describes the coastal environments and introduces the literature that can be consulted for more specific information. The likely fate and persistence of oil that reaches the shoreline is discussed to provide the framework for development of spill response strategies and for the selection of appropriate shoreline cleanup or treatment countermeasures. Lessons learned from recent experience with major oil spills and field experiments are integrated into the discussion. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each of the four sections of this report. 502 refs., 5 figs

  8. Selecting protective gloves for oil spill response and cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDermott, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    Oil spill responders and cleanup workers must be provided with gloves that prevent skin contact while permitting them to do their job safely and efficiently. Glove selection is largely based on professional judgment, considering permeation, resistance to puncture and abrasion, and whether the material gets slick when coated with oil. This paper consolidates the most useful information from various studies and presents a selection rationale. In general, we found neoprene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and nitrile to be the glove materials of choice for protection in oil spills. The skin toxicity potential for most petroleum materials encountered in a spill is low. Some fresh crudes may contain hydrocarbon molecules that may penetrate the skin and cause some systemic toxicity with high enough exposure. However, as crude weathers, the more volatile hydrocarbons evaporate rapidly, leaving behind the heavier fraction, which often contains polynuclear aromatic (PNA) compounds. Some PNAs have caused skin cancer in animals after prolonged and repeated contact. As a reference, most weathered crude is similar to used motor oil in skin toxicity; prolonged and repeated skin contact should be avoided, but there is no cause for concern if some gets on the skin. The typical skin problems from excessive skin contact are drying and cracking from the defatting action of the oil itself or from the soap or hand cleaners used to remove the oil, and pustules (similar to boils) if the oil plugs the sweat glands in the skin

  9. Aviation safely management, Valdez oil spill clean-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesenhahn, M.J.; McKeown, W.L.; Williams, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    The March 24, 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska's Prince William Sound (PWS) resulted in an unprecedented mobilization of personnel and oil spill clean-up equipment. This paper describes the comprehensive safety management system implemented for aviation operations supporting the clean-up response in PWS and the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). Aviation support operations quickly expanded to over 100 aircraft obtained from numerous sources. Beginning with early surveillance flights, aviation operations were subject to comprehensive safety management programs, including safety assessments, minimum flight weather criteria, operational standards and procedures, air carrier qualifications, equipment and procedure audits, and emergency response. Communication networks and flight following procedures were established, arctic survival training was conducted, and a full complement of survival equipment was required. These programs were largely responsible for safety performance of the spill response effort-during the 1989-92 response activities, over 56,000 flight hours, 159,000 equivalent passengers, and 20,000 tons of cargo were handled without an aviation related injury. The programs are applicable to offshore development and operational activities, particularly those located in more remote, severe environments

  10. Petro-Canada fined $290,000 for spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, W.

    2006-01-01

    Petro-Canada has recently received the largest fine of its kind in Atlantic Canada history for polluting seas around the Terra Nova oilfield. The $290,000 fine was handed down a month after a separate incident during which a flash fire on a tanker killed a crew member. The spill occurred on Petro-Canada's Terra Nova vessel, and was the result of a malfunctioning separator, which caused 165,000 litres of petroleum to leak into the ocean. Concerns had been voiced about the separator months prior to the spill. At the time of the leak, periodic alarms in the control room were attributed to weather, production flow rates and vessel motion, as routine water tests 2 hours earlier had shown that everything was normal. Terra Nova is located 350 km east of St. John's, Newfoundland in an environmentally sensitive area. After the spill, the firm immediately shut down operations and commenced an environmental clean-up and monitoring procedure costing more than $3 million. The separator has been repaired. Petro-Canada and the Crown prosecutor have proposed that $120,000 of the fine should be donated to the federal Environmental Damages Fund, with an additional $100,000 to be set up as an environmental sciences scholarship. 1 fig

  11. Spreading, retention and clean-up of oil spills. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Jr, M P

    1976-05-01

    This study reviews and assesses the technology of oil spill spreading, retention and cleanup and proposes research needs in these areas. Sources of oil spills are analyzed and the difficulty of gathering meaningful statistics is discussed. Barrier technology is reviewed and problem areas analyzed. Natural and forced biodegradation and natural and chemical dispersion of oil spills are considered. Research recommendations are categorized under the following two headings (1) Preventive techniques and (2) Containment, Cleanup and Dispersion.

  12. Burden of disease attributable to the Hebei Spirit oil spill in Taean, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young-Min; Park, Jae-Hyun; Choi, Kyusik; Noh, Su Ryeon; Choi, Young-Hyun; Cheong, Hae-Kwan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to assess the burden of disease (BOD) of the residents living in contaminated coastal area with oil spill and also analysed the BOD attributable to the oil spill by disease, age, sex and subregion. Design Health impact assessment by measuring years lived with disability (YLD) due to an oil spill. Setting A whole population of a community affected by an anthropogenic environmental disaster and secondary health outcome data. Participants Based on the health outcome survey in...

  13. Modeling Human Exposure Levels to Airborne Volatile Organic Compounds by the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong Ho; Kwak, Byoung Kyu; Ha, Mina; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Yi, Jongheop

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The goal was to model and quantify the atmospheric concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as the result of the Hebei Spirit oil spill, and to predict whether the exposure levels were abnormally high or not. Methods We developed a model for calculating the airborne concentration of VOCs that are produced in an oil spill accident. The model was applied to a practical situation, namely the Hebei Spirit oil spill. The accuracy of the model was verified by comparing the res...

  14. Respiratory Effects of the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill on Children in Taean, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Suk-Chul; Kim, Kyung-Mook; Lee, Kun-Song; Roh, Sangchul; Jeong, Woo-Chul; Kwak, Sahng-June; Lee, Ik-Jin; Choi, Young-Hyun; Noh, Su Ryeon; Hur, Jong-Il

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The oil spill from the Heibei Spirit in December 2007 contaminated the Yellow Coast of South Korea. We evaluated the respiratory effects of that spill on children who lived along the Yellow Coast. Methods Of 662 children living in the area exposed to the oil spill, 436 (65.9%) were enrolled as subjects. All subjects completed a modified International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. A health examination, including a skin prick test, pulmonary function test, and methacholine bronchial provocation test (MBPT), was administered. The children were assigned to two groups: those who lived close to the oil spill area and those who lived far from the oil spill area. Results The children who lived close to the oil spill area showed a significantly lower forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), an increased prevalence of 'asthma ever' (based on a questionnaire), and 'airway hyperresponsiveness' (based on the MBPT) than those who lived far from the oil spill area (FEV1; P=0.011, prevalence of 'asthma ever' based on a questionnaire; P=0.005, prevalence of 'airway hyperresponsiveness' based on the MBPT; P=0.001). The onset of wheezing after the oil spill was significantly higher in children who lived close to the oil spill area than in those who lived far from the oil spill area among the 'wheeze ever' group (P=0.002). In a multiple logistic regression analysis, male sex, family history of asthma, and residence near the oil spill area were significant risk factors for asthma (sex [male/female]: odds ratio [OR], 2.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-4.91; family history of asthma [No/Yes]: OR, 3.77; 95% CI, 1.83-7.75; exposure group [low/high]; OR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.27-4.65). Conclusions This study suggests that exposure to an oil spill is a risk factor for asthma in children. PMID:24179682

  15. Respiratory Effects of the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill on Children in Taean, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Suk-Chul; Kim, Kyung-Mook; Lee, Kun-Song; Roh, Sangchul; Jeong, Woo-Chul; Kwak, Sahng-June; Lee, Ik-Jin; Choi, Young-Hyun; Noh, Su Ryeon; Hur, Jong-Il; Jee, Young-Koo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The oil spill from the Heibei Spirit in December 2007 contaminated the Yellow Coast of South Korea. We evaluated the respiratory effects of that spill on children who lived along the Yellow Coast. Methods Of 662 children living in the area exposed to the oil spill, 436 (65.9%) were enrolled as subjects. All subjects completed a modified International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. A health examination, including a skin prick test, pulmonary function test, an...

  16. The Logistics of Oil Spill Dispersant Application. Volume I. Logistics-Related Properties of Oil Spill Dispersants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    time of application. Such designs were probably influenced by the ready availabilit " 51 of fire-fighting hoses on ships and tugs; the water stream not...8217 I I1 ---- i . . .. . IIII . . . I I PREFACE The use of chemicals for the dispersal of oil spilled on water has been the subject of discussion (and of...20 Oil Type, Weathering and Emulsification.. 20 Slick Thickness .......................... 28 Water Temperature

  17. Sexual reproduction in species of the brown seaweed, Fucus, to assess damage and recovery from the World Prodigy oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thursby, E.; Tagliabue, M.; Sheehan, C.; Steele, R.

    1990-01-01

    On Friday, June 23, 1989, the oil tanker World Prodigy ran aground on Brenton Reef off Newport, Rhode Island, USA, spilling No. 2 fuel oil into the mouth of Narragansett Bay. This paper reports that a shoreline survey of the intertidal and upper subtidal macroalgae was begun on June 24th as part of a larger effort to document the fate and effect of the oil. There was little evidence of necrotic tissue among the attached plants at most of the site visited. However, several species of the brown alga, Fucus, showed inhibition of sexual reproduction. Reproductive material of F. vesiculosus, F. spiralis or F. spiralis var. limitaneus was collected from various sites for later laboratory assessment of viability. Viability was determined by germination rate of embryos. Summer is not the optimal reproductive time for Fucus, and embryos of F. spiralis var. limitaneus never germinated at a rate greater than 25%, even from clean sites. Fucus spiralis plants were collected at Narragansett Pier, before arrival of oil from the spill. Embryos at this site had a germination rate of 63%. There was essentially no germination by either F. vesiculosus or F. spiralis at any oil sites visited during the first collections. However, by July 5th at some sites, and by July 13th at all sites, the germination rate of these two species averaged from 60 to 88%

  18. Effects of Stress Related to the Gulf Oil Spill on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osofsky, Joy D; Osofsky, Howard J; Weems, Carl F; Hansel, Tonya C; King, Lucy S

    2016-01-01

    To examine the interactive effects of stress related to the Gulf oil spill on mental health of children and adolescents on the Gulf Coast who were also affected by previous hurricanes. A prospective design, with n = 1,577 youth (aged 3-18 years), evaluated pre-oil spill and again post-oil spill for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, previous hurricane exposure, and amount of oil spill stress. Stressors related to the spill were common and were associated with PTSD symptoms. Moreover, there was an interactive effect such that those with high preexisting PTSD symptoms, high previous hurricane exposure, and high oil spill stress had the most elevated post-oil spill PTSD symptoms. This study provides initial evidence linking stress related to the Gulf oil spill to youth mental health symptoms. The effects of the oil spill on youth mental health were most evident among those with cumulative risk. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Two oil spills: interrelatedness of socioeconomic structure and impact on seafood marketing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenblum, I

    1978-01-01

    Little research has been done, to date, on the socioeconomic effects of oil spills. The socioeconomic investigations which were carried out in connection with the ''Saint Peter'' oil spill off the Colombian/Ecuadorian coast, and the ''Urquiola'' oil spill at La Coruna harbor in north-western Spain have provided an opportunity to document different effects on the seafood marketing systems in the two communities. The differences of the impact of the oil spills permitted an insight into the interrelatedness of socioeconomic factors both with respect to the effects produced and the degree of success of the corrective measures where such were implemented.

  20. Two oil spills: interrelation between the socioeconomic structure and impact on seafood marketing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenblum, I

    1979-01-01

    Little research has been done, to date, on the socioeconomic effects of oil spills. The socioeconomic investigations which were carried out in connection with the Saint Peter oil spill off the Colombian/Ecuadorian coast, and the Urquiola oil spill at La Coruna harbor in north-western Spain have provided an opportunity to document different effects on the seafood marketing systems in the two communities. The differences of the impact of the oil spills permitted an insight into the interrelation between socioeconomic factors both with respect to the effects produced and the degree of success of the corrective measures where such were implemented.

  1. Oil Spills and Dispersants Can Cause the Initiation of Potentially Harmful Dinoflagellate Blooms ("Red Tides")

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Cosgrove, Sarah; Buskey, Edward J.

    2018-01-01

    After oil spills and dispersant applications the formation of red tides or harmful algal blooms (HABs) has been observed, which can cause additional negative impacts in areas affected by oil spills. However, the link between oil spills and HABs is still unknown. Here, we present experimental...... evidence that demonstrates a connection between oil spills and HABs. We determined the effects of oil, dispersant-treated oil, and dispersant alone on the structure of natural plankton assemblages in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. In coastal waters, large tintinnids and oligotrich ciliates, major grazers...

  2. Evaluation of restoration alternatives for natural resources injured by oil spills, first edition, October 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This book builds upon previous work in the field of oil spill impact assessment and habitat restoration to assess the technical feasibility and practicability of proactive restoration following oil spills and presents an approach for evaluating tradeoffs between natural recovery and active restoration. The scenarios developed to represent a broad spectrum of possible oil spills were based on selected case studies. The report concludes that in general, available restoration techniques are not very effective for enhancing natural recovery and may in certain cases cause more severe impacts than the oil spill alone

  3. 75 FR 61771 - Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council; Renewal of the Public Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... INFORMATION: The Court Order establishing the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council also requires a public... users, commercial tourism, science/technical, subsistence, commercial fishing, aquaculture and...

  4. A Dynamic Remote Sensing Data-Driven Approach for Oil Spill Simulation in the Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jining Yan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In view of the fact that oil spill remote sensing could only generate the oil slick information at a specific time and that traditional oil spill simulation models were not designed to deal with dynamic conditions, a dynamic data-driven application system (DDDAS was introduced. The DDDAS entails both the ability to incorporate additional data into an executing application and, in reverse, the ability of applications to dynamically steer the measurement process. Based on the DDDAS, combing a remote sensor system that detects oil spills with a numerical simulation, an integrated data processing, analysis, forecasting and emergency response system was established. Once an oil spill accident occurs, the DDDAS-based oil spill model receives information about the oil slick extracted from the dynamic remote sensor data in the simulation. Through comparison, information fusion and feedback updates, continuous and more precise oil spill simulation results can be obtained. Then, the simulation results can provide help for disaster control and clean-up. The Penglai, Xingang and Suizhong oil spill results showed our simulation model could increase the prediction accuracy and reduce the error caused by empirical parameters in existing simulation systems. Therefore, the DDDAS-based detection and simulation system can effectively improve oil spill simulation and diffusion forecasting, as well as provide decision-making information and technical support for emergency responses to oil spills.

  5. Numerical modelling of an oil spill in the northern Adriatic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Paladin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypothetical cases of oil spills, caused by ship failure in the northern Adriatic, are analysed with the aim of producing three-dimensional models of sea circulation and oil contaminant transport. Sea surface elevations, sea temperature and salinity fields are applied as a forcing argument on the model's open boundaries.The Aladin-HR model with a spatial resolution of 8 km and a time interval of 3 hours is used for atmospheric forcing. River discharges along the coastline in question are introduced as point source terms and are assumed to have zero salinity at their respective locations. The results of the numerical modelling of physical oceanography parameters are validated by measurements carried out in the ‘Adriatic Sea monitoring programme’ in a series of current meter and CTD stations in the period from 1 January 2008 to 15 November 2008.The oil spill model uses the current field obtained from a circulation model.Besides the convective dispersive transport of oil pollution (Lagrangian model of discrete particles, the model takes into account a number of reactive processes such as emulsification, dissolution, evaporation and heat balance between the oil,sea and atmosphere. An actual event took place on 6 February 2008,when the ship `Und Adriyatik' caught fire in the vicinity of the town of Rovinj (Croatia en route from Istanbul (Turkey to Trieste (Italy. At the time the fire broke out, the ship was carrying around 800 tons of oil. Thanks to the rapid intervention of the firedepartment, the fire was extinguished during the following 12 hours,preventing possible catastrophic environmental consequences. Based on this occurrence, five hypothetical scenarios of ship failure with a consequent spill of 800 tons of oil over 12 hours were analysed. The main distinction between the simulated scenarios is the time of the start of the oil spill, corresponding to the times when stronger winds were blowing (>7 m s-1 with a minimum duration of 24 h

  6. A concern-based method to prioritize spill response activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamarche, A.; Bart, H.

    2002-01-01

    The Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Team (SCAT) of the Emergencies Division of Environment Canada in the Ontario Region developed a computerized method to help rank segments of shoreline according to levels of concern in the event of an oil spill. The original SCAT approach was designed to allow survey teams to acquire information about the state of shoreline spills so that assessments of oilings would be comparable in time and space. The SCAT method, which allows several decision makers to obtain an unbiased evaluation of the oiling situation, has been recognized in both Canada and the United States as a method that ensures the consistency of data gathering and processing for prioritization purposes. The concern-based prioritization system was integrated within the computerized response tools used by the SCAT team using tools such as the Great Lakes Electronic Environmental Sensitivities Atlas (GLEESA), a geographic information system (GIS) of environmental data, and Shore Assess, a GIS based computerized system used to provide support during a response phase of a spill. It was noted that this method is considered to be a practical response tool designed around the principles of performance support and cybernetics to help decision makers set priorities. It is not designed for pre-impact assessment. Instead, it ensures that existing knowledge of the spill characteristics and environmental conditions are used in a consistent and logical method to prioritize contingency plans. The factors used to evaluate concern for oiling, shoreline type and land use were described. Factors for concern assessment of biological organisms include the status of organisms as being either endangered, threatened, vulnerable, special concern, or not at risk. Characteristics of the species, potential effect of the pollutant and potential effect from response activities are other factors for concern. The method evaluates the concern for every category using a simple algorithm which is

  7. Complex of spectral techniques for remote monitoring of oil spills on water surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patsayeva, S.; Yuzhakov, V.; Barbini, R.; Fantini, R.; Frassanito, C.; Palucci, A.; Varlamov, V.

    1999-01-01

    Spectral properties of oil films on water surfaces were studied under laboratory conditions. A laser fluorosensor was used to measure fluorescence response; fluorescence decay measurements were also performed. Differences in decay time were noted for different mineral oils (ranging from 1 ns to 3.5 ns) and for refined oils (which ranged from 3.5 ns to 8 ns). Film thickness was estimated by calculating the wavelength -dependent absorption of the mineral oil. This new approach is independent of many accidental factors, and does not demand the a priori measured signal from clean water which is required by the more conventional method of suppression of the water Raman integral signal. These experiments confirmed the suitability of fluorescent spectroscopy as a very sensitive tool for oil detection and mapping, however, when applied to quantitative measurement or oil recognition in remote sensing, care must be taken to account for the factors influencing fluorescence response of mineral oil. It was also shown that fluorescence decay time is a useful technique to characterize the type of mineral oil spilled on water surface in that it provides a means to distinguish between the various types, using time-resolved spectra. 12 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  8. The on scene command and control system (OSC2) : an integrated incident command system (ICS) forms-database management system and oil spill trajectory and fates model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, E.; Galagan, C.; Howlett, E.

    1998-01-01

    The On Scene Command and Control (OSC 2 ) system is an oil spill modeling tool which was developed to combine Incident Command System (ICS) forms, an underlying database, an integrated geographical information system (GIS) and an oil spill trajectory and fate model. The first use of the prototype OSC 2 system was at a PREP drill conducted at the U.S. Coast Guard Marine Safety Office, San Diego, in April 1998. The goal of the drill was to simulate a real-time response over a 36-hour period using the Unified Command System. The simulated spill was the result of a collision between two vessels inside San Diego Bay that caused the release of 2,000 barrels of fuel oil. The hardware component of the system which was tested included three notebook computers, two laser printers, and a poster printer. The field test was a success but it was not a rigorous test of the system's capabilities. The map display was useful in quickly setting up the ICS divisions and groups and in deploying resources. 6 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  9. Compound process fuel cycle concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikegami, Tetsuo

    2005-01-01

    Mass flow of light water reactor spent fuel for a newly proposed nuclear fuel cycle concept 'Compound Process Fuel Cycle' has been studied in order to assess the capacity of the concept for accepting light water reactor spent fuels, taking an example for boiling water reactor mixed oxide spent fuel of 60 GWd/t burn-up and for a fast reactor core of 3 GW thermal output. The acceptable heavy metal of boiling water reactor mixed oxide spent fuel is about 3.7 t/y/reactor while the burn-up of the recycled fuel is about 160 GWd/t and about 1.6 t/y reactor with the recycled fuel burn-up of about 300 GWd/t, in the case of 2 times recycle and 4 times recycle respectively. The compound process fuel cycle concept has such flexibility that it can accept so much light water reactor spent fuels as to suppress the light water reactor spent fuel pile-up if not so high fuel burn-up is expected, and can aim at high fuel burn-up if the light water reactor spent fuel pile-up is not so much. Following distinctive features of the concept have also been revealed. A sort of ideal utilization of boiling water reactor mixed oxide spent fuel might be achieved through this concept, since both plutonium and minor actinide reach equilibrium state beyond 2 times recycle. Changes of the reactivity coefficients during recycles are mild, giving roughly same level of reactivity coefficients as the conventional large scale fast breeder core. Both the radio-activity and the heat generation after 4 year cooling and after 4 times recycle are less than 2.5 times of those of the pre recycle fuel. (author)

  10. Technology for the oil spills clean-up which provides preliminary accumulation of sorbents into the area of emergence and localization oil spills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L.Soroka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The implementation of measures for the prevention and spill of dangerous goods is an important aspect of sustainable development of railway transport. oil spills accident are the most dangerous. They are accompanied by significant pollution of all environmental objects. Studying and development of oil localization and clean-up technologies of such accidents is an important problem of environmental protection to modern conditions of railway transport development. The purpose: to improve the effectiveness of traditional methods of oil spill elimination and the development of new clean-up technologies adapted to the real conditions of the railway transport of Ukraine. Methods: To achieve the research purposes was used analysis of material flows, typical for places emergence and localization of the oil spill on the railways. Results: Analysis of standard technological scheme for the oil spills eliminations has shown that the most difficult task of effective clean-up surfaces is the timely delivery of oil sorbents and special equipment to the area spill containment. The general effectiveness of the elimination activities specifies the time from the beginning contact of dangerous goods with environmental objects to the absorption it into the structure of sorbent . Us was developed the technological scheme of oil spill elimination. This scheme provide a permanent and fast access to the sorbents into the oil spill localization area. It was proposed to device that allows you to transport the sorbent into sorption booms directly on the tank for transportation of petroleum products. Conclusions: Preventative accumulation of sorbents to the oil spill elimination into the localization area provides the organizational and operational simplicity of all stages of clean-up technology. Technical and economic assessment shows that the proposed technology is effective, technologically feasible and economically competitive.

  11. Pressure suppression device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumachi, Wataru; Fukuda, Akira; Kitaguchi, Hidemi; Shimizu, Toshiaki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To relieve and absorb impact wave vibrations caused by steam and non-condensed gases releasing into the pressure suppression chamber at the time of an accident. Structure: The reactor container is filled with inert gases. A safety valve attached main steam pipe is provided to permit the excessive steam to escape, the valve being communicated with the pressure suppression chamber through an exhaust pipe. In the pressure suppression chamber, a doughnut-like cylindrical outer wall is filled at its bottom with pool water to condense the high temperature vapor released through the exhaust pipe. A head portion of a vent tube which leads the exhaust pipe is positioned at the top, and a down comer and an exhaust vent tube are locked by means of steady rests. At the bottom is mounted a pressure adsorber device which adsorbs a pressure from the pool water. (Kamimura, M.)

  12. Thyroxin hormone suppression treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    One of the important modalities of treatment of thyroid cancer (TC) after surgery is the administration of thyroxin as an adjuvant treatment. The analysis supports the theory that thyroid suppression plays an important role in patient management. 300 μg of thyroxin, as this is an adequate dose for suppression is given. Ideally the dose should be tailored by testing s-TSH levels. However, since a large number of the patients come from out station cities and villages this is impractical. We therefore depend on clinical criteria of hyperthyroid symptoms and adjust the dose. Very few patients need such adjustment

  13. Update on the status of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon investigation in fish and waterfowl following the August 3, 2005 CN train derailment and oil spill into Wabamun Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandhu, J.; Rowat, C.

    2008-01-01

    A CN train derailment that occurred in August 2005 resulted in a spill of 800,000 litres of Bunker fuel mixed with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) into Wabamun Lake, Alberta. Concerns were raised regarding the potential exposure of humans to PAHs from the spill via consumption of fish and waterfowl. Biological samples of fish and waterfowl were collected and analyzed to determine the magnitude of potential risks and to develop a food chain bioaccumulation model to evaluate potential human exposure to PAHs from Wabamun Lake. Three different sets of samples were submitted at different times of the year for PAH analysis in order to observe seasonal variability. This report presented the results of PAH concentration in muscle and liver samples of fish and waterfowl analyzed between the period of August 2005 to Aug 2006. It was determined that there was potential for some adverse health effects immediately after the spill. However, a simplified food chain bioaccumulation model predicted that the risk of human health impacts from the consumption of wild game and fish near the lake was low, with the possible exception of exposure to methylnaphthalene. It was determined that although low levels of some PAHs were found in some fish and waterfowl, they would not present an unacceptable risk to human health. The levels of PAHs found in the samples collected in February and August 2006 were much lower in magnitude than the samples collected shortly after the spill. With time, PAH concentrations in fish and waterfowl have stabilized to very low levels. It was concluded that the PAH concentrations posed little or no risk for adverse health effects from PAHs to humans consuming fish and edible waterfowl, even to avid consumers. refs., tabs., figs., appendices

  14. Update on the status of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon investigation in fish and waterfowl following the August 3, 2005 CN train derailment and oil spill into Wabamun Lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, J. [Health Canada, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety; Rowat, C. [Health Canada, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Safe Environments Programme

    2008-07-01

    A CN train derailment that occurred in August 2005 resulted in a spill of 800,000 litres of Bunker fuel mixed with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) into Wabamun Lake, Alberta. Concerns were raised regarding the potential exposure of humans to PAHs from the spill via consumption of fish and waterfowl. Biological samples of fish and waterfowl were collected and analyzed to determine the magnitude of potential risks and to develop a food chain bioaccumulation model to evaluate potential human exposure to PAHs from Wabamun Lake. Three different sets of samples were submitted at different times of the year for PAH analysis in order to observe seasonal variability. This report presented the results of PAH concentration in muscle and liver samples of fish and waterfowl analyzed between the period of August 2005 to Aug 2006. It was determined that there was potential for some adverse health effects immediately after the spill. However, a simplified food chain bioaccumulation model predicted that the risk of human health impacts from the consumption of wild game and fish near the lake was low, with the possible exception of exposure to methylnaphthalene. It was determined that although low levels of some PAHs were found in some fish and waterfowl, they would not present an unacceptable risk to human health. The levels of PAHs found in the samples collected in February and August 2006 were much lower in magnitude than the samples collected shortly after the spill. With time, PAH concentrations in fish and waterfowl have stabilized to very low levels. It was concluded that the PAH concentrations posed little or no risk for adverse health effects from PAHs to humans consuming fish and edible waterfowl, even to avid consumers. refs., tabs., figs., appendices.

  15. Alternative Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative fuels include gaseous fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, and propane; alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, and butanol; vegetable and waste-derived oils; and electricity. Overview of alternative fuels is here.

  16. The potential for spills and leaks of contaminated liquids from shale gas developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, S A; Worrall, F; Davies, R J; Gluyas, J G

    2018-06-01

    Rapid growth of hydraulic fracturing for shale gas within the USA and the possibility of shale developments within Europe has created public concern about the risks of spills and leaks associated with the industry. Reports from the Texas Railroad Commission (1999 to 2015) and the Colorado Oil and Gas Commission (2009 to 2015) were used to examine spill rates from oil and gas well pads. Pollution incident records for England and road transport incident data for the UK were examined as an analogue for potential offsite spills associated with transport for a developing shale industry. The Texas and Colorado spill data shows that the spill rate on the well pads has increased over the recorded time period. The most common spill cause was equipment failure. Within Colorado 33% of the spills recorded were found during well pad remediation and random site inspections. Based on data from the Texas Railroad Commission, a UK shale industry developing well pads with 10 lateral wells would likely experience a spill for every 16 well pads developed. The same well pad development scenario is estimated to require at least 2856 tanker movements over two years per well pad. Considering this tanker movement estimate with incident and spill frequency data from UK milk tankers, a UK shale industry would likely experience an incident on the road for every 12 well pads developed and a road spill for every 19 well pads developed. Consequently, should a UK shale industry be developed it is important that appropriate mitigation strategies are in place to minimise the risk of spills associated with well pad activities and fluid transportation movements. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Potentially beneficial spill-related effects of chemicals routinely added to crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, S.; Maharaj, S.

    1993-01-01

    Amoco Trinidad Oil Company produces 60,000 bbl/d of oil from the Trinidadian offshore. The oil is pipelined ashore where it is processed and returned offshore to a buoy mooring for transport up Trinidad's east coast. Amoco Trinidad has developed comprehensive oil spill contingency plans, starting from computer models of spill scenarios. The models used initially assumed that the oils would emulsify quickly and the spills would become highly viscous and persistent, reaching the shoreline in 15-24 h. Such behavior would render ineffective the use of dispersants as a spill countermeasure. Studies showed a poor potential capability of physical recovery systems for spills off the Trinidad east coast due to high sea states, strong winds, and other factors. These results led to questioning of the spill model's assumptions, and laboratory tests were conducted to study the actual behavior of the crude oils. It was found that the oil was difficult to emulsify and highly prone to breakup and dispersion. These surprising results were explained by the presence of surfactants added during processing. A revised modelling exercise showed that if the surfactants stay with the oil, spills up to 100,000 bbl will dissipate in 15 h or less at average wind conditions. To guard against the possibility that the surfactants may not stay with the spilled oil, and to help accelerate dispersion of oil spills, Amoco Trinidad has developed a dispersant-use capacity for its spill contingency plan. It is suggested that additives normally added to crude oils during production and processing in other areas may also be providing spill cleanup benefits similar to those found in the Trinidad case. 9 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  18. Consequences of oil spills: a review and framework for informing planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie E. Chang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As oil transportation worldwide continues to increase, many communities are at risk of oil spill disasters and must anticipate and prepare for them. Factors that influence oil spill consequences are myriad and range from the biophysical to the social. We provide a summary literature review and overview framework to help communities systematically consider the factors and linkages that would influence consequences of a potential oil spill. The focus is on spills from oil tanker accidents. Drawing primarily on empirical studies of previous oil spill disasters, we focused on several main domains of interest: the oil spill itself, disaster management, the physical marine environment, marine biology, human health, economy, and policy. Key variables that influence the severity of consequences are identified, and significant interactions between variables are delineated. The framework can be used to clarify the complexity of oil spill impacts, identify lessons that may be transferable from other oil spill disasters, develop scenarios for planning, and inform risk analysis and policy debates in localities that are seeking to understand and reduce their vulnerability to potential spill disasters. As a case study, the framework is used to consider potential oil spills and consequences in Vancouver, Canada. Major increases in oil tanker traffic are anticipated in this region, creating urgent new demands for risk information, disaster management planning, and policy responses. The case study identifies particular conditions that distinguish the Vancouver context from other historic events; in particular, proximity to a densely populated urban area, the type of oil being transported, financial compensation schemes, and local economic structure. Drawing lessons from other oil spill disasters is important but should be undertaken with recognition of these key differences. Some types of impacts that have been relatively inconsequential in previous events may be

  19. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, Masao; Nishida, Koji; Karasawa, Hidetoshi; Kanazawa, Toru; Orii, Akihito; Nagayoshi, Takuji; Kashiwai, Shin-ichi; Masuhara, Yasuhiro

    1998-01-01

    The present invention concerns a fuel assembly, for a BWR type nuclear reactor, comprising fuel rods in 9 x 9 matrix. The inner width of the channel box is about 132mm and the length of the fuel rods which are not short fuel rods is about 4m. Two water rods having a circular cross section are arranged on a diagonal line in a portion of 3 x 3 matrix at the center of the fuel assembly, and two fuel rods are disposed at vacant spaces, and the number of fuel rods is 74. Eight fuel rods are determined as short fuel rods among 74 fuel rods. Assuming the fuel inventory in the short fuel rod as X(kg), and the fuel inventory in the fuel rods other than the short fuel rods as Y(kg), X and Y satisfy the relation: X + Y ≥ 173m, Y ≤ - 9.7X + 292, Y ≤ - 0.3X + 203 and X > 0. Then, even when the short fuel rods are used, the fuel inventory is increased and fuel economy can be improved. (I.N.)

  20. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hajime.

    1995-01-01

    In a fuel assembly having fuel rods of different length, fuel pellets of mixed oxides of uranium and plutonium are loaded to a short fuel rod. The volume ratio of a pellet-loaded portion to a plenum portion of the short fuel rod is made greater than the volume ratio of a fuel rod to which uranium fuel pellets are loaded. In addition, the volume of the plenum portion of the short fuel rod is set greater depending on the plutonium content in the loaded fuel pellets. MOX fuel pellets are loaded on the short fuel rods having a greater degree of freedom relevant to the setting for the volume of the plenum portion compared with that of a long rod fuel, and the volume of the plenum portion is ensured greater depending on the plutonium content. Even if a large amount of FP gas and He gas are discharged from the MOX fuels compared with that from the uranium fuels, the internal pressure of the MOX fuel rod during operation is maintained substantially identical with that of the uranium fuel rod, so that a risk of generating excess stresses applied to the fuel cladding tubes and rupture of fuels are greatly reduced. (N.H.)