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Sample records for suppositories

  1. Terconazole Vaginal Cream, Vaginal Suppositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to treat fungal and yeast infections of the vagina.This medication is sometimes prescribed for other uses; ... a cream and suppository to insert into the vagina. It is usually used daily at bedtime for ...

  2. Thermogravimetric study of vinpocetine suppository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. А. Nаgоrnaya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Development of technology is the one of the main stage in creation of new medications. Technological process of suppository manufacturing includes sufficiently long thermoprocessing during suppository base making, addition of the active substances and homogenisation. This makes risk of chemical and physical transformations of active substances and excipients in suppository which can be destroyed and changed pharmacologicaly. Use of thermogravimetric analyses in pharmaceutical technology allows to study possibility of chemical interactions of components in the wide range of temperature. The aim of this work was to study thermoprocessing effects on suppository base with vinpocetine in temperature range of technological process of suppository manufacturing. Object. Vinpocetine rectal suppository (with 0,5% of surface-active substances, active substance (vinpocetine and excipients (twin 80, cacao oil were used as the objects of thermogravimetric investigation. Thermogravimetric analyses was carried out on the derivatograph «Shimadzu DTG-60» (Japan with the platinum-rhodium thermocouple by heating from 25°C to 200°C in the aluminium crucible. α-Al2O3 was used as standard. Heating speed was 10ºС in minute. Model mass was 14,23 – 34,4 mg. Conclusions. It was established that cacao oil is thermolabile substance with melting temperature 41,32 ºС. Surface-active substance twin 80 displays thermostability from 30 tо 100ºС. Vinpocetine derivatogramme confirmed its thermostability in temperature range from 30 tо 154 ºС. Derivatogramme of vinpocetine rectal suppository 0,01 and suppository base displayed the absence of critical temperature lower 100ºС. Insignificant mass loss (0,21% shows that fact. Investigation of composition over 100ºС wasn’t carried out because these temperatures aren’t used in technological process of suppository manufacturing. Presence of thermal effects on derivatogramme of vinpocetine rectal

  3. Treatment of trichomoniasis with metronidazole rectal suppositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panja, S K

    1982-01-01

    Since a single dose of metronidazole in suppository form is very effective in the prevention of postoperative Gram-negative anaerobic infections, 84 patients with vaginal trichomoniasis were treated with metronidazole suppositories (two 1-g suppositories in a single dose). The cure rate in this series was 94%. PMID:7104657

  4. Treatment of trichomoniasis with metronidazole rectal suppositories

    OpenAIRE

    Panja, S K

    1982-01-01

    Since a single dose of metronidazole in suppository form is very effective in the prevention of postoperative Gram-negative anaerobic infections, 84 patients with vaginal trichomoniasis were treated with metronidazole suppositories (two 1-g suppositories in a single dose). The cure rate in this series was 94%.

  5. Paracetamol suppositories: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, S; Kenny, D; Ward, O C; Sabra, K

    1989-01-01

    Paracetamol suppositories in two different bases were given to children who had fever after operations. Plasma concentrations and the effect on temperature were compared. There was a significant correlation between peak plasma concentrations and maximum drop in temperature. A lipophilic base produced better results than a hydrophilic base. PMID:2817936

  6. Paracetamol suppositories: a comparative study.

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, S; Kenny, D; Ward, O C; Sabra, K

    1989-01-01

    Paracetamol suppositories in two different bases were given to children who had fever after operations. Plasma concentrations and the effect on temperature were compared. There was a significant correlation between peak plasma concentrations and maximum drop in temperature. A lipophilic base produced better results than a hydrophilic base.

  7. Clinical trial: marine lipid suppositories as laxatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormarsson, Orri Thor; Geirsson, Thormodur; Bjornsson, Einar Stefan; Jonsson, Tomas; Moller, Pall; Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Stefansson, Einar

    2012-09-01

    Cod-liver oil and other marine products containing polyunsaturated fatty acids have anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial and anti-viral effects and may be useful in the treatment of various inflammatory and infectious diseases. We developed suppositories and ointment with 30% free fatty acid (FFA) extract from omega-3 fish oil. Our purpose was to evaluate the safety of marine lipid suppositories and ointment in healthy volunteers and to explore the laxative effect of the suppositories. Thirty healthy volunteers were randomized either to a study group administrating 30% FFA suppositories and applying 30% FFA ointment to the perianal region twice per day for two weeks, or to a control group using placebo suppositories and ointment in a double blinded manner. No serious toxic effects or irritation were observed. In the study group 93% felt the urge to defecate after administration of the suppositories as compared to 37% in the control group (P = 0.001). Subsequently 90% in the study group defecated, compared to 33% in the control group (P = 0.001). The marine lipid suppositories and ointment were well tolerated with no significant toxic side effects observed during the study period. The suppositories have a distinct laxative effect and we aim to explore this effect in further clinical trials.

  8. Physical and Release Properties of Metronidazole Suppositories ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    80, sodium salicylate and methylcellulose as adjuvants. The setting time, solidification point and melting range of the suppositories were determined, along with their crushing strength, disintegration time and the time for 80% of metronidazole to be released from the suppositories (t80). Results: The ranking of setting time for ...

  9. [How safe are dimenhydrinate suppositories?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, M K; Mütze, U; Syrbe, S

    2013-10-01

    A 13-month-old girl suffered from 3 generalized tonic-clonic seizures for several minutes within a total period of 9 hours. History revealed that the child received a total of 5 dimenhydrinate containing suppositories à 40 mg during the previous 2 days (i. e. 23 mg dimenhydrinate per kg body weight) due to enteritis with vomiting. The first seizure occurred 10 hours after the last administration. The plasma level of diphenhydramin was 230 µg/l approximately one hour after the first seizure. Electroencephalography showed no pathological signs, an MRI scan of the brain was normal except of several small gliotic spots and body temperature was regularly. Two stationary occurring seizures were stopped with 5 mg diazepam rectally. Continued surveillance and an EEG two days later showed age-appropriate normal findings. There were no further seizures in the next 4 years. Infants have the risk to develop dimenhydrinate intoxication, especially in cases where suppositories were given repeatedly because of intermittent defecation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. 5-ASA Suppositories in Hemorrhoidal Disease

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    P Gionchetti

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty patients with active hemorrhoidal disease were entered into this double-blind trial, 20 of whom were randomized to treatment with 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA (500 mg suppositories. Clinical and sigmoidoscopic assessment was carried out before the start of the trial and after two weeks of treatment. At the end of the study, 5-ASA suppositories showed results superior to those of placebo for all parameters evaluated (P<0.01. There were no adverse events reported related to the use of suppositories. 5-ASA suppositories are a valid therapeutic approach for hemorrhoidal disease as it reduces the intensity of all symptoms and significantly decreases congestion of the hemorrhoidal plexus.

  11. How to Use Rectal Suppositories Properly

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Follow directions carefully Do not miss doses Store suppositories in a cool place and avoid melting; refrigerate them if so labeled Store medications out of reach of children Copyright 2013, American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. ...

  12. [Rapid analysis of suppositories by quantitative 1H NMR spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovich, R A; Kovaleva, S A; Goriainov, S V; Vorob'ev, A N; Kalabin, G A

    2012-01-01

    Rapid analysis of suppositories with ibuprofen and arbidol by quantitative 1H NMR spectroscopy was performed. Optimal conditions for the analysis were developed. The results are useful for design of rapid methods for quality control of suppositories with different components

  13. Formulation and evaluation of tramadol hydrochloride rectal suppositories

    OpenAIRE

    Saleem M; Taher M; Sanaullah S; Najmuddin M; Ali Javed; Humaira S; Roshan S

    2008-01-01

    Rectal suppositories of tramadol hydrochloride were prepared using different bases and polymers like PEG, cocoa butter, agar and the effect of different additives on in vitro release of tramadol hydrochloride was studied. The agar-based suppositories were non-disintegrating/non-dissolving, whereas PEGs were disintegrating/dissolving and cocoa butter were melting suppositories. All the prepared suppositories were evaluated for various physical parameters like weight variation, drug content a...

  14. Evaluation of Palm Oil-Based Paracetamol Suppositories by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The suppository base was prepared by mixing hydrogenated palm oil and palm kernel ... DSC can be used to predict drug release in paracetamol suppository formulations. Keywords: Palm oil, Liquefaction time, Paracetamol, Suppositories, Thermal analysis. ..... Drug Evaluation & Research (CDER), Food and.

  15. Paracetamol suppository induced allergic contact dermatitis

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    Rangaraj Murugaiyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracetamol, a para-aminophenol derivative given systemically can produce allergic reactions and has been reported so far, but allergic reaction due to suppositories is very rare. A 4 month old male child brought by his mother with complaints of raised dark coloured skin lesions over the perianal region for the past 3 days. The child had history of (H/o of fever for 4 days back for which paracetamol suppository was prescribed following which the child developed the lesion over the perianal region On examination a well defined hyperpigmented plaque of size 5*3 cms extending from anal verge posteriorly and anteriorly upto the beginning of scrotum with lateral extensions from the centre to the gluteals. In our case, the paracetamol suppository used caused an allergic reaction which made the child very irritable and the child developed an allergic contact dermatitis in the site where the suppository was kept and the surrounding area. We report this case because paracetamol suppository as such without preservative causing allergic contact dermatitis has not been reported so far and the treating doctor should keep in mind such type of reactions that might occur when used.

  16. Anaphylaxis to gelatin-containing rectal suppositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, M; Inouye, S

    2001-12-01

    Some children--though the number is few-have been sensitized with gelatin. To investigate the relationship between the presence of antigelatin IgE and anaphylaxis to gelatin-containing rectal suppository, we measured antigelatin IgE in the sera of the children with anaphylaxis. Ten children showed systemic allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, to a chloral hydrate rectal suppository containing gelatin (231 mg/dose) that had been used as a sedative. These children's clinical histories and serum samples were submitted from physicians to the National Institute of Infectious Diseases during a 2-year period from 1996 to 1997. Of the 10 children, 5 showed apparent anaphylaxis, including hypotension and/or cyanosis, along with urticaria or wheezing; 2 showed both urticaria and wheezing without hypotension or cyanosis; the other 3 showed only urticaria. All of the children had antigelatin IgE (mean value +/- SD, 7.9 +/- 8.4 Ua/mL). As a control, samples from 250 randomly selected children had no antigelatin IgE. These findings suggest that the 10 children's systemic allergic reactions to this suppository were caused by the gelatin component. Gelatin-containing suppositories must be used with the same caution as gelatin-containing vaccines and other medications.

  17. Comparison of physicochemical properties of suppositories containing starch hydrolysates

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    Piotr Belniak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine the effect of starch hydrolysates (SH on the physicochemical properties of suppositories. The study was conducted with suppositories with acetaminophen (AAP a typical antipyretic analgesic, as model drug on lipophilic (cocoa butter and hydrophilic base (polyethylene glycol 1500 + 400. The suppositories with and without the addition of SH were examined for physicochemical tests according to European Pharmacopoeia 8th edition (Ph. Eur.: the uniformity of mass of single-dose preparation test, the softening time determination of lipophilic suppositories test, the disintegration of suppositories test, and dissolution test with flow-through apparatus. The results confirm the possibility of using starch hydrolysates as a cheap and safe addition to modify physicochemical properties of suppositories.

  18. Ulcerative colitis flair induced by mesalamine suppositories hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hao; Liu, Xiao-Chang; Mei, Qiao; Xu, Jian-Ming; Hu, Xiang-Yang; Hu, Jing

    2014-04-07

    Mesalamine suppositories have been used widely for the treatment of distal ulcerative colitis and considered to be safer than systemic administration for its limited systemic absorption. However, previous studies have shown that mesalamine suppository occasionally causes severe hypersensitivity reactions including fever, rashes, colitis exacerbation and acute eosinophilic pneumonia. Here we present a 25-year-old woman with ulcerative colitis with bloody diarrhea accompanied by abdominal pain and fever which were aggravated after introduction of mesalamine suppositories. In light of symptom exacerbation of ulcerative colitis, increased inflammatory injury of colon mucosa shown by colonoscopy and elevated peripheral eosinophil count after mesalamine suppositories administration, and the Naranjo algorithm score of 10, the possibility of hypersensitivity reaction to mesalamine suppositories should be considered, warning us to be aware of this potential reaction after administration of mesalamine formulations even if it is the suppositories.

  19. JUSTIFICATION OF TEMPERATURE CONTROL FOR PRODUCTION SUPPOSITORIES WITH GLIFAZIN

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    Dmitrievskiy D.I.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The intensive search for new anti-diabetic drugs, carried out in the National pharmaceutical university in recent years led to the creation of complex drug "Glifazin" on base of which the composition and technology of suppositories with hypoglycemic effect were developed. Now comprehensive physicochemical and pharmacological study of the dosage form are going on. This paper presents results of determining the critical parameters of technology of suppositories witn Glifazin produced by molding - temperature control of homogenization and molding of suppository mass. This mode, as shown in the work, grounded on the analysis of rheological behavior of the system in the temperature range in which it is the transition from the liquid state of Newtonian type flow to the plastic-bound state of non- Newtonian flow type. This interval for suppository mass with Glifazin is in the range 45-60 ° C. Materials and methods. As the object of the study the suppositories with Glifazin 0.1 g and polietylenoxide base on which they are prepared were taken. The study of structural and mechanical (rheological properties of suppository base and suppository mass were performed on a rotary viscometer «Reotest-2" (Germany with coaxial cylinders and the temperature range 45-60 °C. Determination of hardening temperature, resistance of suppositories to decay and their dissolution time were measured by methods of the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine. Determination of uniformity suppository mass was assessed by quantitative content of Glifazin in selected samples by using UV spectrophotometry method at 271 nm against a standard sample of Onozid. Results and discussion. The analysis of rheogram shows that the suppository mass with Glifazin in the test temperature range has falseplastice type of flow. The presence of hysteresis loops indicates that this system has dispersed thixotropic properties. Thus, an increase in temperature leads to a decrease in the area of the hysteresis

  20. Comparison of physicochemical properties of suppositories containing starch hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belniak, Piotr; Świąder, Katarzyna; Szumiło, Michał; Hyla, Aleksandra; Poleszak, Ewa

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the effect of starch hydrolysates (SH) on the physicochemical properties of suppositories. The study was conducted with suppositories with acetaminophen (AAP) a typical antipyretic analgesic, as model drug on lipophilic (cocoa butter) and hydrophilic base (polyethylene glycol 1500 + 400). The suppositories with and without the addition of SH were examined for physicochemical tests according to European Pharmacopoeia 8th edition (Ph. Eur.): the uniformity of mass of single-dose preparation test, the softening time determination of lipophilic suppositories test, the disintegration of suppositories test, and dissolution test with flow-through apparatus. The results confirm the possibility of using starch hydrolysates as a cheap and safe addition to modify physicochemical properties of suppositories.

  1. Studying structurally-mechanical characteristics suppositories with amlodipine

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    Fadi Al Zedan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rheological behaviour suppositories with amlodipine on lypofiles to a basis are studied and character of temperature effect on their structurally-mechanical properties is positioned. It is revealed that the temperature of carrying out of technological operations of homogenization and overflow suppositories 50-55ºС is optimum, providing necessary fluidity suppositories masses at hypodispersion in it reacting and aids.

  2. Comparison of physicochemical properties of suppositories containing starch hydrolysates

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Belniak; Katarzyna Świąder; Michał Szumiło; Aleksandra Hyla; Ewa Poleszak

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the effect of starch hydrolysates (SH) on the physicochemical properties of suppositories. The study was conducted with suppositories with acetaminophen (AAP) a typical antipyretic analgesic, as model drug on lipophilic (cocoa butter) and hydrophilic base (polyethylene glycol 1500?+?400). The suppositories with and without the addition of SH were examined for physicochemical tests according to European Pharmacopoeia 8th edition (Ph. Eur.): the uniform...

  3. Comparing suppository mold variability which can lead to dosage errors for suppositories prepared with the same or different molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kenneth S; Baki, Gabriella; Hart, Christine; Hejduk, Courtney; Chillas, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Suppository molds must be properly calibrated to ensure accurate dosing. There are often slight differences between molds and even in the cavities within a mold. A method is presented for the calibration of standard aluminum 6-, 12-, 50-, or 100-well suppository molds. Ten different molds were tested using water for volume calibration, and cocoa butter for standardization involving establishing the density factor. This method is shown to be straightforward and appropriate for calibrating suppository molds.

  4. Comparison of Morphine Suppository and Diclofenac Suppository for Pain Management After Elective Caesarean Section

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    Atossa Mahdavi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated efficacy and side effects of Morphine suppository for pain management after the first elective caesarean delivery in comparison to Diclofenac suppository. One hundred women aged 18-40 with term pregnancies undergoing elective caesarean section for the first time participated in this prospective project. Exclusion criteria included drug sensitivity, fetal malformations or defects, and complications during the cesarean operation. After same spinal anesthesia and same surgical techniques and in the recovery room patients consecutively received 100 mg diclofenac suppository or 10 mg morphine suppository. The pain severity was rated by “Numerical Rating Scale.” There was not the difference between two groups in terms of basal information. Pain score was significantly different between two groups in the first 12 hours (5.66 ±1.36 in morphine group and 3.63±0.96 in diclofenac group but not in the second 12 hour period. Considering pain scores every two hours in first 12 hours and every 4 hours in second 12 hours, morphine group had higher scores in comparison to diclofenac group. Also, the morphine group required pethidine injection sooner than the other group. The time giving first pethidine injection was 3.28±2.16 hours after operation in morphine group and 5.24±4.07 hours after operation (P<0.05. This study demonstrated that diclofenac suppository in comparison to morphine suppository decreased subjective pain scores in the first twenty-four hours after elective caesarean section which reached statistical significance in the first twelve hours. Although in diclofenac group, pethidine injection was prescribed significantly later.

  5. Rectal absorption of morphine from controlled release suppositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenaar, Frits; Meyler, Pim; Frijlink, Erik; Jauw, Tjoe Hang; Visser, Jan; Proost, Johannes

    1995-01-01

    The absorption profiles and bioavailability of morphine in human volunteers (n = 13) were described after oral administration of MS Contin tablets and rectal administration of a newly developed controlled release suppository. By manipulating the viscosity of fatty suppository base an entirely

  6. TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AND ANALYSIS OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY SUPPOSITORIES

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    A. A. Chahirova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a study for the development of dual-layer suppositories with the oil extract of mountain ash and liquid extract of a horse chestnut. The technology of suppositories is based on extracts prepared from the test materials. 

  7. A Method To Determine Adhesion Of Suppository Mass On Excised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A method to determine adhesion of suppository mass to intestinal tissue was developed using excised pig intestine. The method which employs the principe of drainage unto and subsequent detachment from the mucosa, of an adherent suppository mass is simple, inexpensive and accurate. Fully optimised, it can be used ...

  8. Valproic Acid Suppositories for Management of Seizures for Geriatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiScala, Sandra L; Tran, Nhi N; Silverman, Michael A

    This case describes the use of valproic acid suppositories for secondary seizure prophylaxis in a geriatric veteran with a feeding and swallowing disorder. The effectiveness of valproic acid suppositories is outlined to reinforce the need for compounding pharmacies to have this formulation available to meet the needs of geriatric patients.

  9. [Physicopharmaceutical characteristics of ulinastatin vaginal suppositories prepared in a hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, Kiyoshi; Nakajima, Takanori; Iwata, Masanori; Fujikake, Yoshio; Kimura, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    We studied a locally applied vaginal preparation (vaginal suppositories) of ulinastatin (urinary trypsin inhibitor, UTI), designed to threatened premature delivery and maintain pregnancy. Witepsol S55 was chosen as the basic component of the vaginal suppositories based on the physical pharmaceutical characteristics of three kinds of hard fats. The average particle size of the UTI aqueous injection was approximately 70% as compared with that of the UTI lyophilized product, used as the base material for the preparation of UTI vaginal suppositories. We compared the physical pharmaceutical properties of UTI vaginal suppositories with water contents of 2.5%, 5.0%, and 7.5%, respectively. Preparation strength negatively correlated with the water content. The coefficient of viscosity positively correlated with the water content of the preparation. UTI vaginal suppositories with a water content of 5.0% had the highest average drug release rate on moment analysis. A comprehensive evaluation of the properties of UTI vaginal suppositories, including high strength due to disintegration resistance, the coefficient of viscosity and its influence on local retention, and drug release and its influence on the duration of effect, indicated that a 5.0% UTI aqueous solution for injection combined with Witepsol S55 as the base was the optimal formulation for the hospital preparation of vaginal suppositories.

  10. Preparation and In Vivo Pharmacokinetics of the Tongshu Suppository

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    Guoqiang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Astragalus polysaccharide (APS (used for intestinal protection was added to formulate the Tongshu suppository to improve the pharmacokinetics of Aceclofenac, which were assessed in New Zealand rabbits using an orthogonal experimental design. The single-agent Aceclofenac was taken as the control formulation. The concentration-time and drug release curves were drawn, and Tmax (min, Cmax (μg·mL−1, AUC0→∞, and MRT were compared using a pharmacokinetic systems program. The formulated Tongshu suppository had moderate hardness, a smooth surface with uniform color, and theoretical drug-loading rate of 8%. Its release rate was in accordance with the drug preparation requirements. The concentration-time curves and drug release curves revealed that the maximum concentrations (Cmax were 4.18±1.03 μg·mL−1 and 3.34±0.41 μg·mL−1 for the Tongshu and Aceclofenac suppositories, respectively, showing statistically insignificant difference, while the peak times were 34.87±4.69 min and 34.76±6.34 min, respectively, also showing statistically insignificant difference. Compared with the Aceclofenac suppository, the relative bioavailability of the Tongshu suppository was 104.4%, and the difference between them was statistically insignificant. In this experiment, the Tongshu suppository was prepared using the hot-melt method. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies confirmed it had higher bioavailability than the Aceclofenac suppository.

  11. Efficacy of promethazine suppositories dispensed to outpatient surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C. D.; Jilka, J.; Gentry, W. B.

    1998-01-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting frequently complicate outpatient anesthesia and surgery. The duration of treatment for this complication must occasionally extend beyond discharge from the hospital. In this study, we evaluated the commonly used anti-emetic promethazine for its efficacy in the post-discharge period. Adult outpatient surgical patients who had excessive postoperative nausea and vomiting in the recovery room, or who were at risk for postoperative nausea and vomiting following discharge were given two promethazine suppositories (25 mg) for home use. All patients were contacted by our recovery room nurses on the first business day after their surgery and questioned as to their use of the suppositories and, if used, their efficacy. We found that 55 percent of patients given promethazine suppositories for home use had nausea and vomiting in the post-discharge period. Of the patients given promethazine, 89 percent used the suppositories. All of these patients reported improvement in their symptoms following use of the suppositories. None reported adverse effects from the promethazine suppositories. In conclusion, we found promethazine suppositories to be an inexpensive and efficacious treatment for nausea and vomiting in adult outpatient surgical patients following discharge from the hospital. Side-effects were minimal, and our patients voiced no complaints about this mode of therapy. We recommend this therapy for treatment of nausea and vomiting after hospital discharge following adult outpatient surgery. PMID:10527366

  12. Preparation and In Vivo Pharmacokinetics of the Tongshu Suppository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Leilei; Lu, Kuan; Liu, Sisi; Zheng, Yingying

    2016-01-01

    Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) (used for intestinal protection) was added to formulate the Tongshu suppository to improve the pharmacokinetics of Aceclofenac, which were assessed in New Zealand rabbits using an orthogonal experimental design. The single-agent Aceclofenac was taken as the control formulation. The concentration-time and drug release curves were drawn, and T max (min), C max (μg·mL−1), AUC0→∞, and MRT were compared using a pharmacokinetic systems program. The formulated Tongshu suppository had moderate hardness, a smooth surface with uniform color, and theoretical drug-loading rate of 8%. Its release rate was in accordance with the drug preparation requirements. The concentration-time curves and drug release curves revealed that the maximum concentrations (C max) were 4.18 ± 1.03 μg·mL−1 and 3.34 ± 0.41 μg·mL−1 for the Tongshu and Aceclofenac suppositories, respectively, showing statistically insignificant difference, while the peak times were 34.87 ± 4.69 min and 34.76 ± 6.34 min, respectively, also showing statistically insignificant difference. Compared with the Aceclofenac suppository, the relative bioavailability of the Tongshu suppository was 104.4%, and the difference between them was statistically insignificant. In this experiment, the Tongshu suppository was prepared using the hot-melt method. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies confirmed it had higher bioavailability than the Aceclofenac suppository. PMID:27610366

  13. Release of Tenofovir from Carrageenan-Based Vaginal Suppositories

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    Toral Zaveri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Microbicides are an active area of research for HIV prevention, being developed as a woman-initiated method of prevention during unprotected coitus. Along with safety and efficacy, assessing and improving compliance is a major area of research in microbicide development. We have produced microbicide prototypes in the form of semisoft vaginal suppositories prepared from carrageenan and conducted both qualitative and quantitative studies using these prototypes to determine the physical properties that drive acceptability and possibly adherence. In order to ensure that the suppositories function as effective drug delivery vehicles, we have conducted in vitro dissolution studies in water, vaginal simulant fluid (VSF and semen simulant fluid (SSF with suppositories loaded with the antiretroviral drug, tenofovir (TFV. TFV was released via diffusion and matrix erosion in water or by diffusion out of the matrix in VSF and SSF. Diffusion studies were conducted in two different volumes of VSF and SSF. The volume of VSF/SSF into which TFV diffused and the size of the suppositories determined the rate of diffusion from the suppositories. About 45%–50% of the encapsulated TFV diffused out of the suppositories within the first two hours, irrespective of suppository size, diffusion medium (VSF/SSF and the volume of medium. Prior work indicates that a short waiting period between insertion and coitus is highly desired by women; present data suggest our microbicide prototypes have rapid initial release followed by a slow release curve over the first 24 h.

  14. Vaginal suppositories containing Lactobacillus acidophilus: development and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Francisca; Maia, Maria João; das Neves, José; Sarmento, Bruno; Amaral, Maria Helena; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz P P

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and characterize suppositories for vaginal delivery of Lactobacillus acidophilus. Formulations were performed in order to select suitable excipients based on suppository formation feasibility and cytotoxicity. Solid body and hollow-type suppositories were prepared by melting and molding using poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) 400 and 4000 or Witepsol (WIT) H12 as excipients. L. acidophilus was incorporated in the molten mass before molding solid body suppositories or added as suspension into the cavity of hollow-type suppositories and sealed molten excipients. Cytotoxicity of the selected excipients was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium and lactate dehydrogenase assays against VK2/E6E7, HEC-1-A and HeLa cells. Suppositories were characterized regarding organoleptic characteristics, mass uniformity, disintegration, breaking strength and L. acidophilus in vitro release. PEG 400, PEG 4000 and WIT H12 showed the absence of toxicity when tested using three different vaginal cell lines. Obtained vaginal suppositories presented uniform and mild texture, a content of about 1 × 10(8) colony-forming units, completely disintegrated in simulated vaginal environment in less than 60 min and provided sustained in vitro release of L. acidophilus. Release studies further demonstrated that incorporation of freeze-dried bacteria did not result in significant loss of viable bacteria, thus supporting that vaginal suppositories may possess good properties to promote the replacement of the vaginal flora in situations of urinary tract infection. Hollow-type suppositories showed to be promising delivery vehicles for vaginal delivery of probiotics.

  15. Spreading of suppository bases assessed with histological and scintigraphic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tupper, C.H.; Copping, N.; Thomas, N.W.; Wilson, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    Suppositories of PEG 15400 and PEG 600, Myrj 52 and Brij 35, were administered rectally to fasted male rats. 30 and 60 mins after liquefaction time samples of rectal mucosa were taken from treated and untreated rats. The reduction in rectal cell volume and density in treated rats was noted. Similar suppositories, containing anion exchange resin and labelled with technetium 99, were administered to other rats. Serial scintiscanning was carried out using a gamma camera linked to a computer. Spreading of the suppository bases was assessed histologically and by imaging. (U.K.)

  16. Morphine Suppository versus Indomethacin Suppository in the Management of Renal Colic: Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Zamanian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Renal colic is a medical emergency due to the rapid onset and devastating nature of its pain. Opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are both used as first-line choices in its management. Aim. This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of opioids and NSAIDs in the management of acute renal colic. Methods. One hundred and fifty-eight patients were divided into two groups (n=79 and received either 10 mg morphine or 100 mg indomethacin suppositories. The severity of pain was measured using verbal numeric rating scale at baseline and 20, 40, 60, and 90 minutes after the administration of analgesics. Drug side effects as well as patients’ vital signs were also recorded. Results. The mean decrease in the pain score during the first 20 minutes was significantly higher among those who received morphine suppository. However, no significant difference was observed between the two groups regarding the mean decrease in pain score during the first 40, 60, and 90 minutes after the admission. Prevalence of drug side effects or changes in the vital signs was not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusions. Morphine suppositories seem to be more efficient in achieving rapid pain relief comparing to indomethacin.

  17. An initial report of polaprezinc suppositories to radiation proctitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Hiroshi; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Takada, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    Although radiation proctitis is one of popular adverse effects, standard treatments are not established. We reported 5 cases with the administration of polaprezinc suppositories to radiation proctitis. We made polaprezinc suppositories and administered to 5 patients with radiation proctitis. It was possible to administer it safely. 3 cases have the improvement of the symptoms. And one case had endoscopic findings improved significantly. Polaprezinc may be one of the treatments to radiation proctitis. (author)

  18. Isoniazid release from suppositories compounded with selected bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Kristofer C; Asbill, C Scott; Webster, Andrew A

    2007-01-01

    There is an increasing need for an alternative route of isoniazid adminstration for prophylaxis and treatment of tuberculosis in children. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the in vitro release of isoniazid from extemporaneously compounded isoniazid suppositories with a goal of optimizing the suppository dosage form for this indication. Suppositories were compounded using three different base formulations (cocoa butter, Witepsol H15 Base F, and a combination of polyethylene glycols 3350, 1000, and 400). The release profiles of six compounded suppositories with isoniazid (100 mg) were tested with a United States Pharmacopeial Convention-approved dissolution apparatus. Isoniazid concentrations at predetermined time points were determined using high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis. The results show that drug release from the water-solutble base (mixed polyethylene glycols) was significantly greater than that from the lipophilic bases (cocoa butter and Witepsol H15). The percentage of isoniazid release form the polyethylene glycol suppository formulation (70 +/- 1.4 mg/mL) was greater than that from the cocoa butter (55 +/- 1.1 mg/mL) and Witepsol H15 Base F (18 +/- 0.36 mg/mL) suppository formulations.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of Phenobarbital in Microenema Via Macy Catheter Versus Suppository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Y W Francis; Lam, Ansom; Macy, Brad

    2016-06-01

    The oral route is compromised for nearly all patients approaching death. When agitation, seizures, or other intractable symptoms occur, a quick, discreet, comfortable, and effective alternate route for medication delivery that is easy to administer in the home setting is highly desirable. To characterize the early absorption profile, variability, and comfort of phenobarbital given in microenema suspensions delivered via the Macy Catheter(®) (MC) vs. the same dose given via suppository. This was a randomized, open-label, crossover study comparing the early absorption profile of equal doses of phenobarbital administered rectally in three treatment phases: phenobarbital suppository and two different microenemas with phenobarbital tablets crushed and suspended in 6 mL (MC-6) or 20 mL (MC-20) of tap water. Mean plasma phenobarbital concentrations at 10 minutes were 12× higher for MC-20 and 8× higher for MC-6 compared to suppository. Concentrations achieved in 30 minutes via MC-20 took almost three hours to achieve with suppository. Mean AUC values were higher for MC-20 and MC-6 (82% and 46%, respectively) vs. suppository (P phenobarbital oral tablets crushed and suspended in water and administered via the MC is superior to suppository in delivering the medication reliably and rapidly. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Firmness Perception Influences Women’s Preferences for Vaginal Suppositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toral Zaveri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbicides are being actively researched and developed as woman-initiated means to prevent HIV transmission during unprotected coitus. Along with safety and efficacy, assessing and improving compliance is a major area of research in microbicide development. We have developed carrageenan-based semisoft vaginal suppositories and have previously evaluated how physical properties such as firmness, size and shape influence women’s willingness to try them. Firmness has previously been quantified in terms of small-strain storage modulus, G’, however large-strain properties of the gels may also play a role in the firmness perception. In the current study we prepared two sets of suppositories with the same G’ but different elongation properties at four different G’ values (250, 2500, 12,500, 25,000 Pa: For convenience we refer to these as “brittle” and “elastic”, although these terms were never provided to study participants. In the first of two tests conducted to assess preference, women compared pairs of brittle and elastic suppositories and indicated their preference. We observed an interaction, as women preferred brittle suppositories at lower G’ (250, 2500 Pa and elastic ones at a higher G’ (25,000 Pa. In the second test, women evaluated samples across different G’, rated the ease-of-insertion and willingness-to-try and ranked the samples in order of preference. Brittle suppositories at G’ of 12,500 Pa were most preferred. In vitro studies were also conducted to measure the softening of the suppositories in contact with vaginal simulant fluid (VSF. Release of antiretroviral drug tenofovir in VSF was quantified for the brittle and elastic suppositories at G’ of 12,500 Pa to determine the effect of suppository type on release. The initial rate of release was 20% slower with elastic suppositories as compared to brittle suppositories. Understanding how different physical properties simultaneously affect women’s preferences

  1. The pharmacokinetics of artemisinin after administration of two different suppositories to healthy Vietnamese subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, R.; Ha, L. D.; Duc, D. D.; Dien, T. K.; Kager, P. A.; Khanh, N. X.; van Boxtel, C. J.; de Vries, P. J.

    1999-01-01

    Eight healthy Vietnamese male subjects received 400 mg artemisinin formulated into fatty suppositories (FS), and six different subjects received 500 mg of artemisinin formulated in polyethylene glycol suppositories (PEGS). Plasma concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography

  2. Pharmaceutical studies on and clinical application of olanzapine suppositories prepared as a hospital preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Kazuaki; Kimura, Satoru; Takahashi, Kenichi; Yokoyama, Yuta; Miyazawa, Masayuki; Kushibiki, Satoko; Katamachi, Morio; Kizu, Junko

    2016-01-01

    Background A new formulation of olanzapine available for terminally ill patients is needed. Rectal administration using suppositories is an alternative for patients for whom administration via the oral route is not feasible. In the present study, we prepared olanzapine suppositories, and confirmed using pharmaceutical tests. Furthermore, we demonstrated the efficacy and safety of olanzapine suppositories in terminally ill patients. Methods We prepared olanzapine suppositories using bases cons...

  3. Preparation and evaluation of tolmetin sodium conventional and sustained-release suppositories

    OpenAIRE

    B., Baloǧlu; O., Kirkaǧaçhoǧlu

    2002-01-01

    Conventional suppositories of tolmetin sodium were prepared by using two different types of Witepsol as an oily base and two different ratios of polyethylene glycol 400: polyethylene glycol 4000 as an water-soluble base. In addition, sustained- release suppositories were prepared by adding Eudragit L-100 ta the suppositories. The effects of the suppository base and the ratios of the polyethylene glycol 400: polyethylene glycols 4000 on the in vitro release characteristics were investigated. T...

  4. Bioavailability of suppository acetaminophen in healthy and hospitalized ill dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikina, E R; Bach, J F; Lin, Z; Gehring, R; KuKanich, B

    2018-05-13

    To determine the plasma pharmacokinetics of suppository acetaminophen (APAP) in healthy dogs and clinically ill dogs. This prospective study used six healthy client-owned and 20 clinically ill hospitalized dogs. The healthy dogs were randomized by coin flip to receive APAP orally or as a suppository in crossover study design. Blood samples were collected up to 10 hr after APAP dosing. The hospitalized dogs were administered APAP as a suppository, and blood collected at 2 and 6 hr after dosing. Plasma samples were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. In healthy dogs, oral APAP maximal concentration (C MAX =2.69 μg/ml) was reached quickly (T MAX =1.04 hr) and eliminated rapidly (T1/2 = 1.81 hr). Suppository APAP was rapidly, but variably absorbed (C MAX =0.52 μg/ml T MAX =0.67 hr) and eliminated (T 1/2  = 3.21 hr). The relative (to oral) fraction of the suppository dose absorbed was 30% (range <1%-67%). In hospitalized ill dogs, the suppository APAP mean plasma concentration at 2 hr and 6 hr was 1.317 μg/ml and 0.283 μg/ml. Nonlinear mixed-effects modeling did not identify significant covariates affecting variability and was similar to noncompartmental results. Results supported that oral and suppository acetaminophen in healthy and clinical dogs did not reach or sustain concentrations associated with efficacy. Further studies performed on different doses are needed. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. A double blind controlled trial of prednisolone-21-phosphate suppositories in the treatment of idiopathic proctitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennard-Jones, J. E.; Baron, J. H.; Connell, A. M.; Jones, F. Avery

    1962-01-01

    A double blind trial of prednisolone suppositories in out-patients with idiopathic proctitis is reported. Significant improvement was noted. When prednisolone suppositories were given after the patient had already used suppositories of base alone for three weeks the active treatment was no longer so effective. PMID:13929632

  6. THERMOGRAVIMETRIC INVESTIGATIONS OF VAGINAL SUPPOSITORY WITH THYME OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Melnikova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the main stages in new medicines creation is the development of their making technology. Technological process of suppository making includes ratherlongthermal treatment during preparation and homogenization of suppository base, active substancesaddition. These factors create danger of chemical and physical transformation of active substances and excipients in suppository up to their destruction and change of pharmacological and physical-chemical properties. Use of thermogravimetric analysis in pharmaceutical technology allows to studythepossibility of chemical interaction in dosage forms over the wide temperature range. The aim of this work is study of thermal treatmenteffects of suppository base with thyme oil over the temperature range of suppository manufacturing. Methods and results. As an object of thermogravimetric study vaginal suppository with thyme oil 0,2 g, suppository-placebo containing propylenglycol, polyethylene glycol 400, proxanol 268, twin 80 and the active ingredient of «Царствоароматов», Ukraine, production were used. Thermogravimetric analysis was carried out on the derivatograph«Shimadzu DTG-60», Japan, with the platinum and platinum-rhodiumthermopair with samples heating in aluminiumcrucibles from 25 to 200ºС. As standard α-Al2O3was used.Heating rate was 10ºСper min.Mass of the samples was 23,45– 39,63 mg. Obtained data were registered by the derivatograph as curves T, DTA, TGA. The T curve on the derivatogramm shows the temperature change and the TGA curve demonstrates the sample mass change during investigation. The DTA curve reflects differentiation of thermal effects and contains information about endothermic and exothermal maximum and is used for qualitative valuation of derivatogramm. According to results of thermogravimetric investigation the thyme oil is thermostable substance which is gradually evaporating during heating. So, at the beginning of study the test sample mass was 23

  7. [Sustained-release progesterone vaginal suppositories 3-development and clinical feasibility testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Ayako; Yamaguchi, Naho; Ohno, Yukiko; Miyata, Chihiro; Kondo, Haruomi; Sunada, Hisakazu; Okamoto, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

      Although progesterone vaginal suppositories (hospital-formulated) are used for the treatment of infertility, their half-life is so short that multiple doses are required. In this study, we aimed to develop sustained-release vaginal suppositories suitable for clinical use which maintain an effective blood concentration by once-a-day treatment, and prepared 7 types of suppository containing the sustained-release progesterone tablets to characterize their sustained-release performance. We selected one candidate suppository among them, taking recovery rate, reproducibility, and hardness, as well as the sustained-release performance into consideration. The shell of the selected suppository is composed of VOSCO S-55 and progesterone for rapid release. The molded progesterone tablets for sustained release were embedded inside. The distribution of the weight and content of the suppository was limited, and the release rate of progesterone was significantly slower than that of a conventional progesterone suppository prepared in our hospital. The single-dose administration of the selected suppository to five healthy volunteers led to significant extension of the blood concentration. We also confirmed the rise of the basic value by multiple administration. The simulation comparison suggested that the blood progesterone concentration is controlled by once-a-day administration of the selected suppository better than twice-a-day administration of the conventional suppository. In conclusion, the sustained-release vaginal suppository prepared in this study was considered to be useful for clinical treatment.

  8. Moessbauer study of the magnetic filler for suppositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bykov, A.V.; Nikolaev, V.I.; Shulgin, V.I.; Diaz, C.; Kharitonov, Yu.Ya.; Cherkasova, O.G.

    1991-01-01

    Moessbauer spectroscopy methods are discussed when applied to test the properties of magnetic suppositories used in medicine. The experiments were carried out on magnetic rectal suppositories containing paramadine and fine-dispersed ferrite powder (BaO.nFe 2 O 3 ) as a magnetic filler. According to the data on the value of effective magnetic field on 57 Fe nuclei in ferrite magnetic sublattices, the stoichiometric n-number equals approximately 5.5; this value corresponds to the composition range of optimal magnetic properties. (orig.)

  9. Moessbauer study of the magnetic filler for suppositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bykov, A.V.; Nikolaev, V.I.; Shulgin, V.I. (M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (USSR)); Diaz, C. (Cuba National Center of Scientific Research, Havana (Cuba)); Kharitonov, Yu.Ya.; Cherkasova, O.G. (I.M. Sechenov First Moscow Medical Inst. (USSR))

    1991-11-01

    Moessbauer spectroscopy methods are discussed when applied to test the properties of magnetic suppositories used in medicine. The experiments were carried out on magnetic rectal suppositories containing paramadine and fine-dispersed ferrite powder (BaO.nFe[sub 2]O[sub 3]) as a magnetic filler. According to the data on the value of effective magnetic field on [sup 57]Fe nuclei in ferrite magnetic sublattices, the stoichiometric n-number equals approximately 5.5; this value corresponds to the composition range of optimal magnetic properties. (orig.).

  10. Pharmaceutical development and optimization of azithromycin suppository for paediatric use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauss, Tina; Gaubert, Alexandra; Boyer, Chantal; Ba, Boubakar B.; Manse, Muriel; Massip, Stephane; Léger, Jean-Michel; Fawaz, Fawaz; Lembege, Martine; Boiron, Jean-Michel; Lafarge, Xavier; Lindegardh, Niklas; White, Nicholas J.; Olliaro, Piero; Millet, Pascal; Gaudin, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical development and manufacturing process optimization work was undertaken in order to propose a potential paediatric rectal formulation of azithromycin as an alternative to existing oral or injectable formulations. The target product profile was to be easy-to-use, cheap and stable in tropical conditions, with bioavailability comparable to oral forms, rapidly achieving and maintaining bactericidal concentrations. PEG solid solution suppositories were characterized in vitro using visual, HPLC, DSC, FTIR and XRD analyses. In vitro drug release and in vivo bioavailability were assessed; a study in rabbits compared the bioavailability of the optimized solid solution suppository to rectal solution and intra-venous product (as reference) and to the previous, non-optimized formulation (suspended azithromycin suppository). The bioavailability of azithromycin administered as solid solution suppositories relative to intra-venous was 43%, which compared well to the target of 38% (oral product in humans). The results of 3-month preliminary stability and feasibility studies were consistent with industrial production scale-up. This product has potential both as a classical antibiotic and as a product for use in severely ill children in rural areas. Industrial partners for further development are being sought. PMID:23220079

  11. Proctitis and rectal stenosis induced by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory suppositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Haens, G.; Breysem, Y.; Rutgeerts, P.; van Besien, B.; Geboes, K.; Ponette, E.; Vantrappen, G.

    1993-01-01

    Anorectal ulceration eventually leading to rectal stenosis was observed in 10 patients who abused analgetic suppositories containing acetylsalicylic acid, acetaminophen, and codeine. Most patients were middle-aged women with a neurotic or psychiatric background. Perianal skin lesions were present in

  12. Indomethacin and naproxen suppositories in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, H; Swinson, D; Jones, J; Hamilton, E B

    1978-01-01

    A double-blind cross-over study of 35 out-patients with rheumatoid arthritis showed that Naproxen and Indomethacin suppositories were both effective forms of treatment in rheumatoid arthritis, both being significantly superior to placebo in terms of relief of morning stiffness. PMID:356764

  13. The pharmacokinetics of artemisinin suppositories in Vietnamese patients with malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, R.; Duc, D. D.; Kager, P. A.; Khanh, N. X.; Dien, T. K.; de Vries, P. J.; van Boxtel, C. J.

    1998-01-01

    Eight male Vietnamese malaria patients received 600 mg of artemisinin in a single dose of 3 suppositories containing 200 mg each; 24 h later they received a single oral dose of mefloquine, 15 mg/kg. Plasma artemisinin concentrations were measured until 24 h after dosing, and parasites were counted

  14. Pharmaceutical development and optimization of azithromycin suppository for paediatric use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauss, Tina; Gaubert, Alexandra; Boyer, Chantal; Ba, Boubakar B; Manse, Muriel; Massip, Stephane; Léger, Jean-Michel; Fawaz, Fawaz; Lembege, Martine; Boiron, Jean-Michel; Lafarge, Xavier; Lindegardh, Niklas; White, Nicholas J; Olliaro, Piero; Millet, Pascal; Gaudin, Karen

    2013-01-30

    Pharmaceutical development and manufacturing process optimization work was undertaken in order to propose a potential paediatric rectal formulation of azithromycin as an alternative to existing oral or injectable formulations. The target product profile was to be easy-to-use, cheap and stable in tropical conditions, with bioavailability comparable to oral forms, rapidly achieving and maintaining bactericidal concentrations. PEG solid solution suppositories were characterized in vitro using visual, HPLC, DSC, FTIR and XRD analyses. In vitro drug release and in vivo bioavailability were assessed; a study in rabbits compared the bioavailability of the optimized solid solution suppository to rectal solution and intra-venous product (as reference) and to the previous, non-optimized formulation (suspended azithromycin suppository). The bioavailability of azithromycin administered as solid solution suppositories relative to intra-venous was 43%, which compared well to the target of 38% (oral product in humans). The results of 3-month preliminary stability and feasibility studies were consistent with industrial production scale-up. This product has potential both as a classical antibiotic and as a product for use in severely ill children in rural areas. Industrial partners for further development are being sought. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of theophylline after administration of suppositories formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Basha, L I; Wahman, L F; Hamza, A; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2005-01-01

    Asthma is a public health problem for developed countries. It attacks all age groups but often starts in childhood. Theophylline ethanoate of piperazine in a suppository form is one of the treatments of asthmatic children. The pharmacokinetics of theophylline were evaluated in 24 healthy male subjects after administration of theophylline ethanoate of piperazine suppositories (PR) (Minophylline 500 mg. Alexandria Co.) and single injection intravenous (IV) of theophylline ethanoate of piperazine (Minophylline ampoules 500 mg Alexandria Co.). The theophylline serum levels were determined by an ELISA method. Peak theophylline plasma concentration, Cmax, (mean +/- S.D) was 21.5 +/- 2.10 microg/mL & 14 +/- 0.90 microg/mL; AUC(0-t), values were 80.9 and 67. 4 microg x ml x hr for the reference IV preparation and suppositories, respectively. The median peak time, Tmax, was 0.5 hr for theophylline rectal administration. The above mentioned results demonstrate the possibilities of using theophylline (Minophylline Suppositories--500 mg Alexandria Co.) in asthmatic children in rural and desert areas away from health care personnel.

  16. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of suppositories of halofantrine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-10-02

    Oct 2, 2006 ... Chemical structure of halofantrine. in the literature ... tion-promoting agents into suppositories (Van Hoogdalem et al., 1991; de Boer et al., ... reasonable control over the interfacial area during the dissolution, and this is a key ...

  17. Evaluation of Palm Oil-Based Paracetamol Suppositories by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research January 2014; 13 (1): 23-29. ISSN: 1596-5996 (print); ... Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur-50603, Malaysia .... donated by Hesego Industry (M) Sdn Bhd,. Esterchem (M) ... stainless steel suppository moulds and the paracetamol ...

  18. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Glycerin Suppositories During Phototherapy in Premature Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler-O'Hara, Meggan; Reininger, Ann; Wang, Hongyue; Amin, Sanjiv B; Rodgers, Nathan J; D'Angio, Carl T

    To determine if glycerin suppositories were effective in reducing total duration of phototherapy in premature neonates. We hypothesized that glycerin suppositories would have no effect on phototherapy duration or total serum bilirubin levels. Prospective randomized controlled double-blinded trial. Level IV NICU. Neonates born between 30 weeks, 0 days and 34 weeks, 6 days gestational age who developed physiologic hyperbilirubinemia needing phototherapy. Neonates were randomized to the no-suppository group or to the suppository group. Neonates were randomized to receive glycerin suppositories every 8 hours while under phototherapy or to a sham group. The primary outcome was total hours of phototherapy. Secondary outcomes included peak total serum bilirubin levels, time from start to discontinuation of phototherapy, rate of decline in bilirubin levels, repeat episodes of phototherapy, and number of stools while the neonates received phototherapy. A total of 39 neonates were assigned to the no-suppository group and 40 to the suppository group. Withholding suppositories was not inferior to providing suppositories. The total hours of phototherapy were not longer (i.e., noninferior) among neonates not provided suppositories (61 ± 53 hours) than among those given suppositories (72 ± 49 hours). There were no differences in peak bilirubin levels, rate of bilirubin decline, or repeat episodes of phototherapy. Routine use of glycerin suppositories among preterm neonates who receive phototherapy does not affect bilirubin levels or phototherapy duration. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Preparation of goreisan suppository and pharmacokinetics of trans-cinnamic acid after administration to rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Yukiko; Miyazaki, Yasunori; Uchino, Tomonobu; Kagawa, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Goreisan suppository is prepared as a hospital preparation, and successfully used for the treatment of diarrhea and vomiting in young children with common cold. While clinical efficacy of the suppository has been reported, few studies have been carried out to clarify the preparation procedure and pharmacokinetics of the suppository. In this study, trans-cinnamic acid (CA) was used as a representative substance of goreisan constituents, and assayed by HPLC-UV. We investigated the properties of goreisan suppositories prepared using various sizes of pulverized goreisan extract granules, in vitro dissolution profiles using the reciprocating dialysis tube method, and pharmacokinetics in rabbits compared with those for goreisan enema. Mass and content uniformity tests on the suppositories of three size fractions, 0-75, 75-150, and 150-300 µm, showed good acceptance for all kinds of suppository. Storage stability at 4°C was maintained until 4 months. In vitro dissolution of CA from the suppository was proportional to time until 45 min, and slower than that from the enema. Finally, 80% of CA had dissolved at 60 min. Pharmacokinetic study in rabbits revealed that the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to 120 min (AUC0-120 min) of the suppository was twice that of the enema. Moreover, from a study in rabbits using CA injection and CA suppository, we revealed that CA was rapidly and well absorbed from the rectum, showing 84% absolute bioavailability. Thus, we illustrated the defined preparation procedure of the suppository and the superiority of the suppository over the enema. This study will support evidence that the suppository is fast-acting and efficacious in clinical use.

  20. Quality control of 5mg diazepam suppositories manipulated in the city of Campos Goytacazes – RJ

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Aparecida Venturi Canzian; Fernanda Fraga Pessanha; Jean Carlos Brandão Storck

    2012-01-01

    Diazepam suppositories are widely used by children and elderly, and require close attention to quality control because it is a controlled prescription drug. The objective of the study was to analyze diazepam suppositories manipulated in Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, to verify if they are within the required quality standards, and offer safety and efficiency to patients. We analyzed samples of 5mg diazepam suppositories acquired in five randomly selected pharmacies, identified as Pharmacy A, Phar...

  1. LORNOXICAM SUPPOSITORIES: IN-VITRO FORMULATION AND IN-VIVO EVALUATION

    OpenAIRE

    Hesham M. Tawfeek

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to formulate lornoxicam into rectal suppositories as a new dosage form, to avoid its reported gastric irritation and to provide a rapid onset of action for children. Suppositories were prepared using fatty bases namely; witepsol H-15, suppocire AML, CM, witepsol E-75 and water soluble bases; mixtures of poly(ethylene glycol), PEGs, with different molecular weights. The prepared suppositories were investigated for their weight variation, drug content, melting p...

  2. Premarketing surveillance of ibuprofen suppositories in febrile children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadas, Dan; Youngster, Ilan; Cohen, Avner; Leibovitch, Eugene; Shavit, Itai; Erez, Ilan; Uziel, Yosef; Berkovitch, Matitiahu

    2011-03-01

    In many countries, ibuprofen is available only in oral formulations. The authors aimed to investigate parental satisfaction and possible adverse reactions among children receiving newly marketed ibuprofen suppositories, prior to their arrival at the pharmaceutical points of distribution. Children needing antipyretic medication were recruited from 11 pediatric wards and clinics in Israel. Each patient received ibuprofen suppositories (5-10 mg/kg/dose) after completing a data collection form. After 3 to 7 days of treatment, information regarding parent satisfaction, possible adverse reactions, and concomitant use of drugs was obtained. Overall, 490 children completed the study. Parents' satisfaction was high (4.5 ± 0.47 on a scale of 1-5), and 92.2% reported that they would use the medication in the future. Adverse reactions were reported in 8 patients (1.63%, 95% confidence interval = 1.77-3.25), the most common being diarrhea. Rectal administration of ibuprofen suppositories is well tolerated and overall satisfaction and the repeated expected use were high.

  3. 78 FR 46965 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Mesalamine Rectal Suppositories...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2007-D-0369... mesalamine rectal suppositories: A BE study with clinical endpoints and a fasting BE study with... suppositories: A fasting BE study with pharmacokinetic endpoints and comparative in vitro studies (melting point...

  4. Tramadol suppositories are less suitable for post-operative pain relief than rectal acetaminophen/codeine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluim, M. A.; Wegener, J. T.; Rupreht, J.; Vulto, A. G.

    1999-01-01

    The suitability of tramadol suppositories for inclusion in our hospital formulary for the treatment of mild to moderate post-operative pain was evaluated. In an open randomized trial, rectal tramadol was compared with our standard treatment acetaminophen/codeine suppositories. We expected tramadol

  5. The effects of cyclodextrins on drug release from fatty suppository bases : II. In vivo observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijlink, H.W.; Eissens, Anko; Schoonen, Adelbert; Lerk, C.F.

    The effects of cyclodextrin complexation on the absorption of drugs from fatty suppositories was evaluated in human volunteers. Three model drugs: diazepam, ibuprofen and prednisolone were used. When diazepam was complexed with γ-cyclcodextrin the drug release from the fatty suppositories was

  6. The effects of cyclodextrins on drug release from fatty suppository bases : I. In vitro observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijlink, H.W.; Eissens, Anko; Schoonen, Adelbert; Lerk, C.F.

    The effect of cyclodextrins on suppository drug release was investigated. Complexes of several lipophilic drugs with β- and/or γ-cyclodextrin were prepared using the coprecipitation method. The formation of true complexes was confirmed by DSC and an 'ether-wash' method. Witepsol H15 suppositories

  7. In vitro-in vivo evaluation of in situ gelling and thermosensitive ketoprofen liquid suppositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgüney, Işık; Kardhiqi, Anita; Yıldız, Gülbeyaz; Ertan, Gökhan

    2014-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the release and pharmacokinetic profiles of ketoprofen (KP) from developed thermosensitive and mucoadhesive liquid suppositories. Thermosensitive liquid suppositories were prepared using KP, poloxamer 407 (P 407), poloxamer 188 (P 188) and various amounts of different mucoadhesive polymers. In vitro release studies was monitored by the USP XXVI paddle method. The results thus obtained were evaluated kinetically and mechanism of release was analyzed. Identification of poloxamer gel localization in vivo was conducted using white male rabbits by adding 1 % methylene blue. For in vivo studies, twenty-four white male rabbits were randomly divided into three groups. The rabbits in each group were administered with liquid suppository F1 [P407/P188/KP (4/20/2.5 %)], F5 [P407/P188/KP/C (4/20/2.5/0.8 %)] or conventional suppository (F-C) into the rectum. The plasma concentration of KP was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). C max, AUC, MRT and T max were evaluated. The release of KP was variously affected by the mucoadhesive polymers. In vitro release studies showed that Carbopol 934 P(C) has significant effect on release rate among the mucoadhesive polymers. When the formulations were evaluated kinetically, different kinetic models were obtained. Formulation F6 [P407/P188/KP/C (4/20/2.5/1.6 %)] which contains the highest C concentration and very high viscosity, shows a significantly better fit with Higuchi kinetic model. n value of this formulation was also found approximately 0.5. n exponent results of the other formulations showed that KP might be released from the suppositories by non-Fickian diffusion. Identification of poloxamer gel localization in vivo showed that the suppositories remain in the rectum without leakage after administration. With regard to the results of in vivo studies, the AUC6→14 values of KP in liquid suppository containing C are significantly higher than those in

  8. The spreading of radiolabelled fatty suppository bases in the human rectum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugito, Keiko; Ogata, Hiroyasu; Noguchi, Masahiro; Kogure, Takahashi; Takano, Masaaki; Maruyama, Yuzo; Sasaki, Yasuhito

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a radiolabelling method for assessing the spreading of fatty suppository bases (Witepsol H-5, W-35 and S-55), and to apply this technique to the evaluation of suppository disposition in the human rectum. 99m/Tc was bound chemically to the bases Witepsol H-5 and W-35, and mixed physically with Witepsol S-55. The spreading of each suppository base was monitored by gamma-scintigraphy following rectal administration. The mean radioactivity remaining at the inserted region 4 h after administration was 44.2% of total activity. The mean perpendicular maximum spreading distance from this region was 7.7 cm on the scintigram near to the sigmoid colon. Defecation was suggested to be a factor influencing the spread of suppository bases. However, there was no clear relationship between the type of suppository base used and the extent of its spread within the rectum. 6 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 table

  9. Update state of suppository bases’ assortment and factors of their selection

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    T. M. Litvinenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. At the present moment compounding of suppositories is a promising tendency considering that this dosage form has some advantages and is an alternative to the oral and parenteral medications. However not only active substances but excipients (suppository bases also play a great role for achievement of desirable therapeutical effect. The aim of this article is to research an assortment of suppository bases, their advantages and disadvantages and to present factors of selection. Fatty bases are perhaps the most frequently employed suppository bases, principally because cocoa butter is a member of this group of substances. Among the other fatty or oleaginous materials used in suppository bases there are many hydrogenated fatty acids of vegetable oils such as palm kernel oil and cottonseed oil. Also, fat-based compounds containing compounds of glycerin with the higher molecular weight fatty acids, such as palmitic and stearic acids, may be found in fatty suppository bases. The main members of water-soluble bases are polyethylene glycols and poloxomers. Various combinations of polyethylene glycols may be combined by fusion, using two or more of the various types to achieve a suppository base of the desired consistency and characteristics. Glycerin-gelatin base is composed of glycerin (5 p., gelatin (1 p., and purified water (2 p.. Diphylic suppository bases contain hydrophylic and hydrophobic parts and make it possible to incorporate water solutions and oleaginous ingredients. Selection of the base involves the nature of the active substance, manufacturing procedures and physical-chemical characteristics. Conclusions. It is apparent then, that a great number of suppository bases have been developed but none of them answers the requirements. So the search of new suppository bases is main problem of pharmaceutical technology. Also the necessity of new domestic bases development has been noted.

  10. EFFICACY OF HYOSCINE BUTYL BROMIDE SUPPOSITORY FOR POSTOPERATIVE PAIN RELIEF

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    Soniya C. Alphonse

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Caesarean Section is on the rise all over the world. Women undergoing Caesarean section often wish to be awake post operatively and to avoid excessive medications affecting interactions with the new born infant. Multimodal pain therapy has been advocated for postoperative pain management after caesarean section. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study is a prospective randomized controlled study conducted at a tertiary care hospital to study the effect of Hyoscine Butyl Bromide Suppositories for postoperative analgesia following elective repeat caesarean section. The study included sixty patients divided into two groups- Group1 (study group were given Hyoscine Butyl Bromide Suppository (10 mg along with Injection. Tramadol 50 mg IM and Group II (control group were given Injection Tramadol IM only at the end of surgery. Pain score of the patient assessed at 1 hr, 2 hrs, 6hrs and 24 hrs post operatively. The total no of doses of injection tramadol needed in 24 hrs and the interval between 1st and 2nd dose of tramadol was also noted. The adverse effects of the drug and additional advantages of the drug if any were also assessed. RESULTS There was no statistically significant difference in pain score during the assessment intervals between the two groups. There was no difference in the number of doses of tramadol needed in the first 24 hrs. The mean interval between the 1st and 2nd dose of tramadol was found to be 7.6538 hours for group 1 patients and 6.9130 for group patients which was found to be statistically significant. There was no statistically significant side effects/ additional advantages for the drugs. CONCLUSION Concurrent administration of Hyoscine Butyl Bromide Suppository (10 mg and injection Tramadol 50 mg IM offers a longer postoperative analgesia without any increased adverse effects.

  11. Evaluation of quality of polaprezinc suppositories and their clinical effect on radiation proctitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikata, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Takeshi; Hikasa, Shinichi; Hamaguchi, Tsuneo; Doi, Hiroshi; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Kadobayashi, Muneo; Kimura, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    Polaprezinc (PZ) suppositories have been used for radiation proctitis in our hospital. In this study, we established methods to evaluate the quality of hospital-prepared PZ suppositories and investigated their stability. As PZ is dissociated at an acidic pH but not at a medium pH, the release of PZ from the suppository was carried out using chelatometric titration in weakly acidic buffer solutions (pH 3, pH 4, and pH 5). As the release of PZ from the suppository was fastest in the buffer solution at pH 3, we used this pH for the release test for PZ. Conducting this test in the stability investigation showed that the amount of PZ released from the suppository after 84 days was the same as that immediately after manufacture. We also examined the clinical efficacy of the PZ suppository in 5 patients with radiation proctitis, finding that efficacy was satisfactory in 3 patients. These results indicated that the PZ suppository is a good treatment for radiation proctitis. (author)

  12. Evaluation of Epirubicin in Thermogelling and Bioadhesive Liquid and Solid Suppository Formulations for Rectal Administration

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    Yu-Li Lo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Temperature sensitive Pluronic (Plu and pH-sensitive polyacrylic acid (PAA were successfully mixed in different ratios to form in situ gelling formulations for colon cancer therapy. The major formulations were prepared as the liquid and solid suppository dosage forms. Epirubicin (Epi was chosen as a model anticancer drug. In vitro characterization and in vivo pharmacokinetics and therapeutic efficacy of Epi in six Plu/PAA formulations were evaluated. Our in vitro data indicate that Epi in Plu 14%/PAA 0.75% of both solid and liquid suppositories possess significant cytotoxicity, strong bioadhesive force, long-term appropriate suppository base, sustained release, and high accumulation of Epi in rat rectums. These solid and liquid suppositories were retained in the upper rectum of Sprague-Dawley (SD rats for at least 12 h. An in vivo pharmacokinetic study using SD rats showed that after rectal administration of solid and liquid suppositories, Epi had greater area under the curve and higher relative bioavailability than in a rectal solution. These solid and liquid suppositories exhibited remarkable inhibition on the tumor growth of CT26 bearing Balb/c mice in vivo. Our findings suggest that in situ thermogelling and mucoadhesive suppositories demonstrate a great potential as colon anticancer delivery systems for protracted release of chemotherapeutic agents.

  13. [Pharmaceutical analysis and clinical efficacy of Kampo medicine, maoto, extract suppository against pediatric febrile symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Nobuhiro; Doi, Norio; Uemura, Tomochika; Taketani, Takeshi; Hayashi, George; Kasai, Takeshi; Kanai, Rie; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Iwamoto, Kikuo; Naora, Kohji

    2009-06-01

    A traditional Chinese herbal medicine, Kampo medicine, maoto, has been widely used in the treatment of febrile symptoms caused by viral infection. This herbal extract granule for oral use, however, is not well accepted by infants or young children due to its unpleasant taste and odor. Therefore, we prepared Kampo medicine, maoto, suppository and investigated the pharmaceutical and clinical efficacy of the suppository. Kampo medicine, maoto, granules were micro-pulverized and homogeneously dispersed into Hosco-H15 to prepare suppositories containing 0.25 to 1.0 g herbal extract by the conventional fusion method. Content of l-ephedrine, an index compound of Kampo medicine, maoto, in the extract granules and suppositories was determined by using a high performance liquid chromatographic method. Physicochemical experiments revealed that the suppository containing 0.5 g herbal extract had the most suitable melting point of 34 degrees C. Contents of l-ephedrine in the suppository were constant, 93-96% of those in the same amount of the extract granules in different three lots. Upper and lower portions of the suppository had the same content of l-ephedrine. The suppository maintained more than 95% of l-ephedrine content through 6 months at 4 degrees C, room temperature and 40 degrees C, although maldistribution of the extract constituent was observed after storage at 40 degrees C. The suppository was administered to 21 pediatric febrile patients at a dose of 1/3 to 2 full pieces depending on their body weight and physical status. Significant reduction (pchildren with viral febrile symptoms without any adverse effects.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of adriamycin vaginal suppository on uterine cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, Tsuneo; Kiyozuka, Yasuhiko; Katakami, Yoshiaki

    1986-01-01

    Vaginal suppositories of Adriamycin (ADM, 5 mg), for reducing the capacity for repair from sublethal damage of X-ray-irradiated cells, were prepared using Wipepsol S-55 as the vehicle, and were intravaginally administered to patients with advanced uterine cervical cancer, and their pharmacokinetics and clinical effects were studied. The ADM concentration in the uterine cervical cancer tissues indicated high levels (17 to 566 μg/g), and migration into the cardinal ligament and regional lymph nodes was noted. However, little ADM was detected in serum (0 to 0.14 μg/g), probably because of its molecular weight and excellent tissue absorbance, and no side effects, such as cardiotoxicity and myelosuppression due to consecutive administration were detected. Histologically, the effect obtained when administered alone was limited, administration in combination with radiotherapy being more effective. Accordingly, radiotherapy of advanced uterine cervical cancer with concomitant administration of ADM vaginal suppositories seems to bring about a more powerful antitumoral effect with fewer systemic side effects. (author)

  15. Pharmacokinetics of adriamycin vaginal suppository on uterine cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Tsuneo; Kiyozuka, Yasuhiko; Katakami, Yoshiaki

    1986-03-01

    Vaginal suppositories of Adriamycin (ADM, 5 mg), for reducing the capacity for repair from sublethal damage of X-ray-irradiated cells, were prepared using Wipepsol S-55 as the vehicle, and were intravaginally administered to patients with advanced uterine cervical cancer, and their pharmacokinetics and clinical effects were studied. The ADM concentration in the uterine cervical cancer tissues indicated high levels (17 to 566 ..mu..g/g), and migration into the cardinal ligament and regional lymph nodes was noted. However, little ADM was detected in serum (0 to 0.14 ..mu..g/g), probably because of its molecular weight and excellent tissue absorbance, and no side effects, such as cardiotoxicity and myelosuppression due to consecutive administration were detected. Histologically, the effect obtained when administered alone was limited, administration in combination with radiotherapy being more effective. Accordingly, radiotherapy of advanced uterine cervical cancer with concomitant administration of ADM vaginal suppositories seems to bring about a more powerful antitumoral effect with fewer systemic side effects.

  16. Comparative release studies on suppositories using the basket, paddle, dialysis tubing and flow-through cell methods I. Acetaminophen in a lipophilic base suppository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Seiichi; Kawada, Tsubasa; Kogure, Sanae; Yabu, Shinako; Mori, Kenji; Akimoto, Masayuki

    2017-02-01

    The release characteristics of lipophilic suppositories containing acetaminophen (AAP) were examined using four types of dissolution methods: the basket, paddle, dialysis tubing (DT) and flow-through cell (FTC) methods. The suitability of each apparatus for quality control in AAP compounded suppositories was evaluated using statistical procedures. More than 80% of the drug was released over 60 min in all the release methods studied, with the exception of the basket method. Reproducible and faster release was achieved using the paddle method at 100 and 200 rpm, whereas poor release occurred with the basket method. The mean dissolution time (MDT), maximum dissolved quantity of AAP at the end of the sampling time (Q) and dissolution efficiency (DE) were calculated by model-independent methods. The FTC method with a single chamber used in this study was also appreciable for AAP suppositories (Q of 100%, MDT of 71-91 min and DE of 75-80%). The DT apparatus is considered similar to the FTC apparatus from a quality control perspective for judging the release properties of lipophilic base suppositories containing AAP. However, even the single chamber FTC used in this study has potential as an in vitro drug release test for suppositories. The comparative dissolution method is expected to become one of the valuable tools for selecting an adequate dissolution test.

  17. CHOICE AND STUDY OF BASE FOR PRODUCTION OF SUPPOSITORIES WITH ANTIHISTAMINIC ACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Prokuschenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Russian pharmaceutical industry development is made possible by new medicinal forms production. To widen the assortment of antihistaminic drugs we have offered a model mixture of suppositories

  18. Effect of the surfactant on the availability of piroxicam as a poorly hydrosoluble drug from suppositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Zorro, M; Franceschinis, E; Punchina, A; Realdon, N

    2012-01-01

    The use of surfactants in suppository formulations has been suggested to improve availability of poorly soluble drugs. In the present study, different kinds of surfactants have been investigated to clarify the influence on piroxicam release from suppositories formulated with both lipophilic and hydrophilic bases. Two hydrophilic glucose-derivate surfactants, and a polyoxylglyceride amphiphilic surfactant, all with high HLB values, were investigated for their use in improving drug availability. The two glucose derivate surfactants reduced drug availability from both lipophilic suppositories and hydrophilic formulations, according to longer disintegration times and drug micellization. The more complex surfactant, a lauroyl macrogolglyceride, showed an increase in piroxicam availability from lipophilic suppositories at the higher tested concentrations (15% and 20%). Otherwise, when used in hydrophilic formulations, it was less effective in promoting drug release and even reduced drug availability.

  19. TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT OF NEW SUPPOSITORY ON THE BASIS OF GLYCYRRHIZA EXTRACT AND PARACETAMOL

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    G. M. Abdrakhmanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the study results of technologies of double-layer suppositories development of a new drug of combined effect using dense extract of Glycyrrhiza and paracetamol

  20. Fabrication of non-dissolving analgesic suppositories using 3D printed moulds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuanyuan; Ruan, Xucong; Li, Hairui; Kathuria, Himanshu; Du, Guang; Kang, Lifeng

    2016-11-20

    Conventional suppositories sometimes fail in exerting their therapeutic activity as the base materials melt inside body cavities. Also they are not suitable to provide long term treatment. Biomedical grade silicone elastomers may be used to fabricate non-dissolvable suppositories to overcome these disadvantages. We kneaded 4 analgesics into the 2 kinds of silicone polymers at 1%, 5% and 10% drug loading, respectively, to test their mechanical properties and drug release profiles. The optimized drug-polymer combinations were used to fabricate suppositories, and three dimensional printing (3DP) was used to create the suppository moulds. Subsequently, the drug release profiles and biocompatibility of the suppositories were studied. It was found that, the mechanical properties of the drug laden silicone elastomers and the rate of drug release from the elastomers can be tuned by varying drug-polymer combinations. The silicone elastomers containing 1% (w/w) and 5% (w/w) diclofenac sodium were the optimal formulations with prolonged drug release and biocompatibility at cellular level. These properties, together with complex geometries offered by 3DP technique, potentially made the non-dissolving suppositories promising therapeutic agents for personalized medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Solutol and cremophor products as new additives in suppository formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkó, Szilvia; Regdon, Géza; Erös, István

    2002-01-01

    Our research has a double purpose. On the one hand, doctors have expressed the need to formulate a rectal suppository dosage form from diuretic ethacrynic acid, which would add to the choice of treatment methods and thereby increase the possibilities of individual cure. On the other hand, the liberation and thereby the bioavailability of poorly-soluble ethacrynic acid needs to be enhanced, and for this purpose solubility-increasing additives new to rectal therapy were used. Solutol HS 15, Cremophor RH 40, and Cremophor RH 60 were used as additives in concentrations of 1, 3, 5, and 10%. The quantity of drug released changed as a function of additive concentration. Depending on the acceptor phase, the best results were achieved with an additive concentration of 1-3%, which is related to the optimal additive quantity accumulated on the boundary surface.

  2. A prospective randomized single blind trial of Fleet phosphate enema versus glycerin suppositories as preparation for flexible sigmoidoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, D; Makar, R R; Gidwani, A L; Najfi, S M; Neilly, P; Gilliland, R

    2010-03-01

    This study compared the efficacy and patient acceptability of two methods of bowel preparation for flexible sigmoidoscopy. Patients attending for outpatient flexible sigmoidoscopy were prospectively randomized to receive one Fleet ready-to-use enema or 2 x 4 g glycerin suppositories, 2 h preprocedure. Patient and endoscopist questionnaires were used to compare the outcomes. From November 2000 to August 2001, 203 (male = 95; female = 108) patients were randomized. Patient data available for 163 patients (enema = 93; suppository = 70) revealed: ease of use (enema = 52; suppository = 25; P suppositories.

  3. Role of the double-contrast barium enema in rectal stenosis due to suppositories containing paracetamol and acetylsalicylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannouri, F.; Lalmand, B.; Zalcman, M.; Gansbeke, D. van; Gevenois, P.A.; Struyven, J.; Peny, M.O.; Gossum, A. van

    1998-01-01

    Self-treatment of chronic headache with suppositories containing paracetamol and acetylsalaicylic acid may lead to serious complications. We report the radiological features of five cases of rectal stenosis following the use of such suppositories. The role of the double-contrast barium enema in suggesting the diagnosis of this complication of a chronic and often unrecognized self-treatment is emphasized. (orig.)

  4. Clinical experience of Sheriproct suppository to rectitis due to radiotherapy of cancer of the uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Tomoyasu; Haruyama, Masato; Nishio, Masamichi; Moriya, Hiroshi

    1977-01-01

    The subject was 30 cases of cancer of the uterine cervix, which were composed of 13 cases of acute rectitis and 17 cases of delayed rectitis due to radiotherapy. Out of them, 25 cases were treated with radiation, alone and 5 cases were treated with postoperative irradiation. The acute cases were administered Sheriproct alone twice a day (in the morning and in the evening) until symptoms disappeared. The delayed cases were administered two or three suppositories per a day together with antihemorrhagics for one to three weeks, decreasing the administration dose according to severity of symptoms. In the delayed cases, this suppository showed effectiveness in prolapsed hemorrhoids with a recovery rate of 88.9%, and it showed effectiveness in a pain with that of 71.4%. However, this depository showed ineffectiveness in hemorrhage, inhibition of mucous stool, and inhibition of secrete, and these symptoms were generally resistant to this suppository. On the other hand, in the acute cases, this suppository showed ineffectiveness only in prolapsed hemorrhoids with a recovery rate of 63.3%, and it showed marked effectiveness in hemorrhage with that of 100%. It also showed effectiveness in a pain, inhibition of mucose stool, and inhibition of secrete. These symptoms responded well to this suppository. Consequently, use of this drug seemed to be significant in making it possible to perform radiotherapy. (Kanao, N.)

  5. Results of combined therapy of irradiation and bleomycin suppository for advanced uterine cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Haruo; Asakawa, Hiroshi; Otawa, Hirokazu; Nemoto, Kenji; Saito, Hiroyuki (Miyagi Prefectural Adult Disease Center, Natori (Japan))

    1984-09-01

    Efficacy, survival rates and adverse effects of the combined therapy of irradiation with intravaginal bleomycin suppositories were analyzed and discussed in 49 patients with uterine cervical cancer. The results were as follows: 1. Histological examination of biopsy specimens from the uterine cervix taken just after the completion of this treatment showed favorable control over the primary lesions. However, the efficacy of the bleomycin suppositories was too mild to form a basis for treatment without intracavitary irradiation. Because of the low concentration of bleomycin in serum after suppository administration, it is thought that bleomycin would have little effect on distant metastases. 2. Survival rates in stage III patients were 83% at 12 months, 77% at 24 months and 70% at 36 months. These were superior to those for irradiation alone. 3. The major adverse effect of bleomycin suppositories was fever, reduction of the bleomycin dose in each suppository but controlled this to some extent Lung fibrosis or severe damage to the liver, kidney and bone marrow were not found.

  6. Randomized controlled trial: impact of glycerin suppositories on time to full feeds in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadr, Sophie N; Ibhanesebhor, Samuel E; Rennix, Connie; Fisher, Hazel E; Manjunatha, Chikkanayakanahalli M; Young, David; Abara, Rosemary C

    2011-01-01

    Feed intolerance delays achievement of enteral feeding in preterm infants. Parenteral nutrition is associated with cholestasis and increased risk of sepsis. Glycerin suppositories have been used to promote gastrointestinal motility and feed tolerance. To investigate whether daily glycerin suppositories (a) reduce the time to full enteral feeding in infants born at suppositories; 28-31(+6) weeks subgroup); controls - no intervention. The same feeding protocol and departmental guidelines for other aspects of neonatal intensive care were used in all subjects. Analysis was by intention to treat. 54 babies were recruited (31 males), 29 randomized to receive suppositories; 48 achieved full enteral feeds. The median (range) time to full feeds was 1.6 days shorter in intervention group babies than controls, but not statistically significant: 7.4 (4.6-30.9) days versus 9.0 (4.4-13.3) days (p = 0.780; 95% confidence interval: -1.917, 2.166). No significant differences were observed in secondary outcomes. Intervention group babies passed their first stool earlier than controls (median: day 2 vs. day 4; p = 0.016). Regular glycerin suppositories did not reduce the time to full enteral feeds in infants born at <32 weeks' gestation in our setting. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Preparation and evaluation of suppositories for RK-28 (a new radiosensitizer) using rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Nak-Seo; Umejima, Hiroyuki; Miyata, Kaori; Okubo, Mayumi; Goto, Shigeru; Kato, Tetsuo; Mikami, Yukio; Sagitani, Hiromichi; Inoue, Haruyuki.

    1994-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of RK-28 [1-(4-hydroxy-2-butenoxy)methyl-2-nitroimidazole], a new hypoxic cell radiosensitizer, was studied following intravenous, oral, and rectal administration to rabbits. After an oral administration of RK-28 solution, the plasma concentration of RK-28 was considerably lower than that after intravenous administration through all time periods, and the absolute bioavailability was a mere 4.2%. It was presumed that a specific acid-catalyzed decomposition of RK-28 progressed in the stomach, and also, the absorbed RK-28 suffered first-pass effects in the liver. In contrast, the absolute bioavailability following the rectal administration of a solidified RK-28 suppository preparation was significantly increased in comparison with that obtained by other administration routes. Also, RK-28 emulsion suppositories were prepared by emulsifying various amounts of the drug with 1-hexadecanol and hydrogenated castor oil (HCO 60) at 80degC, and these were administered into the rabbit rectum. The resulting absolute bioavailability was 91% for the RK-28 emulsion suppository and 86.9% for an RK-28 emulsion suppository containing small amounts of Eudispert hv. These values were better than those in rats. The rectal administration of the RK-28 emulsion suppository containing small amounts of Eudispert hv showed a preferable plasma concentration-time pattern that reflects on radiation therapy. (author)

  8. Preparation and evaluation of suppositories for RK-28 (a new radiosensitizer) using rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nak-Seo; Umejima, Hiroyuki; Miyata, Kaori; Okubo, Mayumi; Goto, Shigeru (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences); Kato, Tetsuo; Mikami, Yukio; Sagitani, Hiromichi; Inoue, Haruyuki

    1994-05-01

    The pharmacokinetics of RK-28 [1-(4-hydroxy-2-butenoxy)methyl-2-nitroimidazole], a new hypoxic cell radiosensitizer, was studied following intravenous, oral, and rectal administration to rabbits. After an oral administration of RK-28 solution, the plasma concentration of RK-28 was considerably lower than that after intravenous administration through all time periods, and the absolute bioavailability was a mere 4.2%. It was presumed that a specific acid-catalyzed decomposition of RK-28 progressed in the stomach, and also, the absorbed RK-28 suffered first-pass effects in the liver. In contrast, the absolute bioavailability following the rectal administration of a solidified RK-28 suppository preparation was significantly increased in comparison with that obtained by other administration routes. Also, RK-28 emulsion suppositories were prepared by emulsifying various amounts of the drug with 1-hexadecanol and hydrogenated castor oil (HCO 60) at 80degC, and these were administered into the rabbit rectum. The resulting absolute bioavailability was 91% for the RK-28 emulsion suppository and 86.9% for an RK-28 emulsion suppository containing small amounts of Eudispert hv. These values were better than those in rats. The rectal administration of the RK-28 emulsion suppository containing small amounts of Eudispert hv showed a preferable plasma concentration-time pattern that reflects on radiation therapy. (author).

  9. Recombinant streptokinase vs phenylephrine-based suppositories in acute hemorrhoids, randomized, controlled trial (THERESA-3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Bernal, Francisco; Castellanos-Sierra, Georgina; Valenzuela-Silva, Carmen M; Catasús-Álvarez, Karem M; Valle-Cabrera, Roselin; Aguilera-Barreto, Ana; López-Saura, Pedro A

    2014-02-14

    To compare the efficacy and safety of recombinant streptokinase (rSK) and phenylephrine-based suppositories in acute hemorrhoidal disease. A multicenter (14 sites), randomized (1:1), open, parallel groups, active controlled trial was done. After inclusion, subjects with acute symptoms of hemorrhoids, who gave their written, informed consent to participate, were centrally randomized to receive, as outpatients, rSK (200000 IU) or 0.25% phenylephrine suppositories, which had different organoleptic characteristics. Treatment was administered by the rectal route, one unit every 6 h during 48 h for rSK, and up to a maximum of 5 d (20 suppositories) for phenylephrine. Evaluations were performed at 3, 5 and 10 d post-inclusion. The main end-point was the 5(th)-day complete clinical response (disappearance of pain and edema, and ≥ 70% reduction of the lesion size). Time to response and need for thrombectomy were secondary efficacy variables. Adverse events were evaluated too. 5(th) day complete response rates were 83/110 (75.5%) and 36/110 (32.7%) with rSK and phenylephrine suppositories, respectively. This 42.7% difference (95%CI: 30.5-54.2) was highly significant (P suppositories showed a significant advantage over a widely used over-the-counter phenylephrine preparation for the treatment of acute hemorrhoidal illness, with an adequate safety profile.

  10. Results of combined therapy of irradiation and bleomycin suppository for advanced uterine cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Haruo; Asakawa, Hiroshi; Otawa, Hirokazu; Nemoto, Kenji; Saito, Hiroyuki

    1984-01-01

    Efficacy, survival rats and adverse effects of the combined therapy of irradiation with intravaginal bleomycin suppositories were analyzed and discussed in 49 patients with uterine cervical cancer. The results were as follows: 1. Histological examination of biopsy specimens from the uterine cervix taken just after the completion of this treatment showed favorable control over the primary lesions. However, the efficacy of the bleomycin suppositories was too mild to form a basis for treatment without intracavitary irradiation. Because of the low concentration of bleomycin in serum after suppository administration, it is thought that bleomycin would have little effect on distant metastases. 2. Survival rates in stage III patients were 83% at 12 months, 77% at 24 months and 70% at 36 months. These were superior to those for irradiation alone. 3. The major adverse effect of bleomycin suppositories was fever, reduction of the bleomycin dose in each suppository but controlled this to some extent Lung fibrosis or severe damage to the liver, kidney and bone marrow were not found. (author)

  11. Glycerin Suppositories Use in Very Low Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shalinkumar; Dereddy, Narendra; Talati, Ajay J; Gaston, Kan; Dhanireddy, Ramasubbareddy

    2017-01-01

    Objective  To study the characteristics of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants receiving glycerin suppositories (GS) and evaluate the association of GS use with outcomes. Study Design  This is a retrospective study of VLBW infants admitted to a level III neonatal intensive care unit. Infants with birth weight between 500 and 1,499 g were evaluated. We evaluated the frequency of GS use and compared the characteristics and outcomes of the GS group with the no-GS group. Multivariate analyses controlling for gestational age and small for gestational age status were performed to study the effect of GS on outcomes. Results  A total of 1,073 infants were included in the study. Out of those, 527 (49.1%) infants received GS. Incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis was not significantly different between the two groups, while days to reach full enteral feeds and length of hospital stay were significantly longer in the GS group. Conclusion  Frequent use of GS warrants further prospective studies to evaluate its safety and efficacy in view of our study showing association with longer time to reach full enteral feeds. We speculate that GS use could be a marker for gastrointestinal dysmotility and hence the association with unfavorable clinical outcomes. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. TECHNOLOGY, ANALYSIS, AND STUDY DEVELOPMENT OF HEPATOPROTEC-TIVE ACTION OF SUPPOSITORIES WITH RIBOXINUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Michnik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available То elaborate the composition of the suppositories with riboxiniirn we have studied physical and chemical, and structural and mechanical characteristics of different bases. Witepsol-H15 was chosen as a preferable base. We have carried out the quality estimation of the developed suppositories in accordance with regulatory documentation. The analysis methods offered are validated and proved to be specific, right and precise. The relative error of analysis is equal to ±0.98%. Supposito-ries with riboxinum at dose 15 mg/kg shows signified hepatoprotective action at white rats with experimental acute toxic hepatitis evoked by carbon tetrachloride injection, which ex-ceeds the similar pills effect

  13. In vitro and in vivo suppository studies with perturbed angular correlation and external scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jay, M.; Beihn, R.M.; Snyder, G.A.; McClanahan, J.S.; Digenis, G.A.; Caldwell, L.; Mlodozeniec, A.

    1983-01-01

    Recently, there has been an increased interest in the rectal delivery of drugs as an alternative to parenteral administration. Because of their complexity, little is known about the release behavior of drugs from suppositories in vivo, and the universal applicability of most in vitro tests developed to date awaits broad acceptance. A novel technique has recently been utilized for the measurement of both in vitro and in vivo dissolution profiles of solid oral dosage forms. This technique, known as perturbed angular correlation (PAC), utilizes the property of cascading decay exhibited by indium-111. The authors now wish to report on the application of this technique for in vitro studies measuring the dissolution of an [ 111 In]salicylate coprecipitate incorporated in a suppository base. The PAC technique was also used in combination with external scintigraphic techniques for the in vivo measurement of the deformation and liquefaction of a suppository containing 111 In in humans in a totally non-invasive manner. (Auth.)

  14. In vitro and in vivo suppository studies with perturbed angular correlation and external scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay, M.; Beihn, R.M.; Snyder, G.A.; McClanahan, J.S.; Digenis, G.A. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington (USA). College of Pharmacy and Medicine); Caldwell, L.; Mlodozeniec, A. (INTER Research Corporation, Lawrence, KS (USA). Merck, Sharp and Dohme Research Laboratories)

    1983-04-01

    Recently, there has been an increased interest in the rectal delivery of drugs as an alternative to parenteral administration. Because of their complexity, little is known about the release behavior of drugs from suppositories in vivo, and the universal applicability of most in vitro tests developed to date awaits broad acceptance. A novel technique has recently been utilized for the measurement of both in vitro and in vivo dissolution profiles of solid oral dosage forms. This technique, known as perturbed angular correlation (PAC), utilizes the property of cascading decay exhibited by indium-111. The authors now wish to report on the application of this technique for in vitro studies measuring the dissolution of an (/sup 111/In)salicylate coprecipitate incorporated in a suppository base. The PAC technique was also used in combination with external scintigraphic techniques for the in vivo measurement of the deformation and liquefaction of a suppository containing /sup 111/In in humans in a totally non-invasive manner.

  15. Sildenafil vaginal suppositories: preparation, characterization, in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Srinivasan; Kim, Young-Hun; Park, Jeong-Hee; Im, Ho Taek; Sohn, Young Taek; Kim, Kyeong Soo; Kim, Yong-Il; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh; Choi, Han-Gon; Woo, Jong Soo

    2014-06-01

    The main objective was to investigate the in vitro release profile/kinetics, and in vivo plasma pharmacokinetics (PK) and organ biodistribution (BD) of the prepared sildenafil vaginal suppositories (SVS). Suppositories containing 25 mg of sildenafil were prepared by the cream melting technique using Witepsol H-15 as a suppository base. The suppositories were characterized for weight variation, content uniformity, hardness, disintegration time and crystallinity change. The in vitro dissolution in pH 4.5, and in vivo plasma PK and organ BD of sildenafil from SVS in female Sprague Dawley rats, were also investigated. The mean weight variation, content uniformity, hardness and disintegration time of the prepared SVS were 1.127 ± 0.020 g, 98.25 ± 2.50%, 2.5 ± 0.08 kg and 9 ± 1.0 min, respectively. The release of sildenafil from the SVS was more than 90% at 30 min, with a release kinetic of Hixson--Crowell model and non-Fickian diffusion (n = 0.464). The plasma PK study demonstrated a significantly lower Cmax (∼10 times) and AUC0-24 h (∼13 times) of sildenafil in plasma following intravaginal (IVG) administration of suppositories compared to oral (PO) administration of sildenafil solution. Nevertheless, the organ BD study showed a phenomenally higher Cmax (∼40 times) and AUC0-24 h (∼20 times) of sildenafil in uterus following IVG administration of suppositories than PO administration of sildenafil solution. This study demonstrated enhanced sildenafil exposure in the uterus following IVG administration of SVS, which could be used to target the uterus for therapeutic benefits.

  16. Artesunate Suppositories versus Intramuscular Artemether for Treatment of Severe Malaria in Children in Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunajeewa, Harin A.; Reeder, John; Lorry, Kerry; Dabod, Elizah; Hamzah, Juliana; Page-Sharp, Madhu; Chiswell, Gregory M.; Ilett, Kenneth F.; Davis, Timothy M. E.

    2006-01-01

    Drug treatment of severe malaria must be rapidly effective. Suppositories may be valuable for childhood malaria when circumstances prevent oral or parenteral therapy. We compared artesunate suppositories (n = 41; 8 to 16 mg/kg of body weight at 0 and 12 h and then daily) with intramuscular (i.m.) artemether (n = 38; 3.2 mg/kg at 0 h and then 1.6 mg/kg daily) in an open-label, randomized trial with children with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Parasite density and temperature were measured every 6 h for ≥72 h. Primary endpoints included times to 50% and 90% parasite clearance (PCT50 and PCT90) and the time to per os status. In a subset of 29 patients, plasma levels of artemether, artesunate, and their common active metabolite dihydroartemisinin were measured during the first 12 h. One suppository-treated patient with multiple complications died within 2 h of admission, but the remaining 78 recovered uneventfully. Compared to the artemether-treated children, those receiving artesunate suppositories had a significantly earlier mean PCT50 (9.1 versus 13.8 h; P = 0.008) and PCT90 (15.6 versus 20.4 h; P = 0.011). Mean time to per os status was similar for each group. Plasma concentrations of primary drug plus active metabolite were significantly higher in the artesunate suppository group at 2 h postdose. The earlier initial fall in parasitemia with artesunate is clinically advantageous and mirrors higher initial plasma concentrations of active drug/metabolite. In severely ill children with malaria in PNG, artesunate suppositories were at least as effective as i.m. artemether and may, therefore, be useful in settings where parenteral therapy cannot be given. PMID:16495259

  17. Artesunate suppositories versus intramuscular artemether for treatment of severe malaria in children in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunajeewa, Harin A; Reeder, John; Lorry, Kerry; Dabod, Elizah; Hamzah, Juliana; Page-Sharp, Madhu; Chiswell, Gregory M; Ilett, Kenneth F; Davis, Timothy M E

    2006-03-01

    Drug treatment of severe malaria must be rapidly effective. Suppositories may be valuable for childhood malaria when circumstances prevent oral or parenteral therapy. We compared artesunate suppositories (n = 41; 8 to 16 mg/kg of body weight at 0 and 12 h and then daily) with intramuscular (i.m.) artemether (n = 38; 3.2 mg/kg at 0 h and then 1.6 mg/kg daily) in an open-label, randomized trial with children with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Parasite density and temperature were measured every 6 h for > or = 72 h. Primary endpoints included times to 50% and 90% parasite clearance (PCT50 and PCT90) and the time to per os status. In a subset of 29 patients, plasma levels of artemether, artesunate, and their common active metabolite dihydroartemisinin were measured during the first 12 h. One suppository-treated patient with multiple complications died within 2 h of admission, but the remaining 78 recovered uneventfully. Compared to the artemether-treated children, those receiving artesunate suppositories had a significantly earlier mean PCT50 (9.1 versus 13.8 h; P = 0.008) and PCT90 (15.6 versus 20.4 h; P = 0.011). Mean time to per os status was similar for each group. Plasma concentrations of primary drug plus active metabolite were significantly higher in the artesunate suppository group at 2 h postdose. The earlier initial fall in parasitemia with artesunate is clinically advantageous and mirrors higher initial plasma concentrations of active drug/metabolite. In severely ill children with malaria in PNG, artesunate suppositories were at least as effective as i.m. artemether and may, therefore, be useful in settings where parenteral therapy cannot be given.

  18. Clinical study of FT-207 suppository for head and neck malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomioka, Masashi; Usami, Masami; Sakamoto, Ayako

    1982-01-01

    Futraful suppository 1.5g per day was administered to 33 patients with head and neck malignancies. Among 33 cases which entered into the study, 16 cases were evaluated. Out of 16 evaluable cases, complete responses (CRs) were obtained in 4 cases and partial responses (PRs) in 7 cases. An overall response rate including 4 CRs and 7 PRs was 68.8%. Side effects due to FT-207 suppository were developed in 14 cases out of 33 patients (42.4%) Side effects such as anal pain, anorexia, diarrhea, pigmentation, exanthema and nail change were observed. No severe side effect was encountered. (author)

  19. [Perianal and rectal ulcers due to abuse of paracetamol-codeine suppositories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, G; Sand, C; Sachse, M M

    2015-03-01

    A 61-year-old woman presented with a progressive perianal ulcer which had developed 4 months ago. Upon further examination, another ulcer of the rectum was detected. Anorectal malignancies, viral infections or primary inflammatory bowel disease were not found. It could be demonstrated that the ulcers were induced by paracetamol and codeine suppositories. After discontinuation of these suppositories, the perianal ulcers healed almost completely within 3 weeks. The pathogenesis of paracetamol-induced ulcers is unknown. However, dose-dependent vasoconstriction is a possible explanation.

  20. Artesunate Suppositories versus Intramuscular Artemether for Treatment of Severe Malaria in Children in Papua New Guinea

    OpenAIRE

    Karunajeewa, Harin A.; Reeder, John; Lorry, Kerry; Dabod, Elizah; Hamzah, Juliana; Page-Sharp, Madhu; Chiswell, Gregory M.; Ilett, Kenneth F.; Davis, Timothy M. E.

    2006-01-01

    Drug treatment of severe malaria must be rapidly effective. Suppositories may be valuable for childhood malaria when circumstances prevent oral or parenteral therapy. We compared artesunate suppositories (n = 41; 8 to 16 mg/kg of body weight at 0 and 12 h and then daily) with intramuscular (i.m.) artemether (n = 38; 3.2 mg/kg at 0 h and then 1.6 mg/kg daily) in an open-label, randomized trial with children with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Parasite density a...

  1. Clinical study of suppository delivery of 5-fluorouracil and pathological effects on metastatic lymph nodes caused by preoperative combined treatment with radiation, intraluminal hyperthermia and 5-fluorouracil suppository in rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Takaaki [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    Preoperative combined treatment with radiation, intraluminal hyperthermia, and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) suppository has been reported effective in shrinking locally advanced rectal cancers and facilitating subsequent surgery. Suppository and intravenous 5-FU administration were compared with respect to tissue concentrations in rectal cancer cases. Just before the operation patients received 100 mg of 5-FU via suppository or intravenously. Portal and systemic blood, tumor tissue, normal mucosa and muscle layer separately at 5, 10, 15 cm in the oral direction from the tumor and the pararectal lymph node were harvested for high-performance liquid chromatography determination of 5-FU concentrations. Rectal 5-FU concentrations were significantly higher in the suppository cases compared with the intravenously administrated ones. Suppository distributed more 5-FU at pararectal lymph nodes than intravenous injection. This fact revealed 5-FU suppositories to be a useful drug delivery system for rectal cancer. The pathological effects on metastatic lymph nodes caused by combined treatment were evaluated in 22 cases. Normal lymph nodes showed congestion only. Fibrotic and necrotic changes were characteristic of damaged metastatic areas. In 6 cases (27.3%), no metastatic cells were detected on fibrotically changed areas. The down staging of the lymph node metastatic factor was carried out by preoperative combined treatment. High concentrations of 5-FU at mucosa could suggest the usefulness of 5-FU suppository administration just before operation for prevention of suture-line implantation. (author)

  2. Clinical study of suppository delivery of 5-fluorouracil and pathological effects on metastatic lymph nodes caused by preoperative combined treatment with radiation, intraluminal hyperthermia and 5-fluorouracil suppository in rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Takaaki

    1997-01-01

    Preoperative combined treatment with radiation, intraluminal hyperthermia, and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) suppository has been reported effective in shrinking locally advanced rectal cancers and facilitating subsequent surgery. Suppository and intravenous 5-FU administration were compared with respect to tissue concentrations in rectal cancer cases. Just before the operation patients received 100 mg of 5-FU via suppository or intravenously. Portal and systemic blood, tumor tissue, normal mucosa and muscle layer separately at 5, 10, 15 cm in the oral direction from the tumor and the pararectal lymph node were harvested for high-performance liquid chromatography determination of 5-FU concentrations. Rectal 5-FU concentrations were significantly higher in the suppository cases compared with the intravenously administrated ones. Suppository distributed more 5-FU at pararectal lymph nodes than intravenous injection. This fact revealed 5-FU suppositories to be a useful drug delivery system for rectal cancer. The pathological effects on metastatic lymph nodes caused by combined treatment were evaluated in 22 cases. Normal lymph nodes showed congestion only. Fibrotic and necrotic changes were characteristic of damaged metastatic areas. In 6 cases (27.3%), no metastatic cells were detected on fibrotically changed areas. The down staging of the lymph node metastatic factor was carried out by preoperative combined treatment. High concentrations of 5-FU at mucosa could suggest the usefulness of 5-FU suppository administration just before operation for prevention of suture-line implantation. (author)

  3. The study of base and surface-active substances influence on biopharmaceutical characteristics of suppository with praziquantel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Romanina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Acne dermatoses (rosacea, perioral dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis etc. are one of the most actual problems in dermatology. Praziquantel is an antiparasitic medication effective towards trematodes, cestodes. Investigations developed by domestic scientists revealed antidemodicosis activity of praziquantel. Use of semisolid dosage forms for rectal administration will allow to increase its efficacy and minimize the risks of adverse reactions. The aim of this work is the study of influence of excipients (bases and surfactants use in suppository manufacturing on the biopharmaceutical characteristics of praziquantel rectal dosage form. Methods and results. As excipients for praziquantel rectal dosage form we have investigated suppository bases and surfactants, which are widely used in manufacturing and compounding of semisolid dosage forms and are described in literature. Suppositories were made by the fusion method. Concentration of surfactants in all compositions was 2%, praziquantel – 0,6 g on one suppository. Investigation was carried out by the 2-factors dispersive analysis with repeated observations. Suppository compounding was carried out by the suspension type. After thorough pulverization of praziquantel, it was mixed with some part of the base and then obtained mixture was added to the all melted base. As optimization parameter the praziquantel releasing was chosen as the first step of bioavailability investigation. Praziquantel releasing from suppository was studied by the equilibrium dialysis by Kruvchinsky. Ethyl alcohol was chosen as a dialysis medium considering the solubility of praziquantel. Concentration of released praziquantel after 30 minutes of the dialysis was determined by spectrophotometric analysis. Conclusion. It has been established that the sort of the base and surfactant have significant influence on praziquantel releasing from rectal suppository. It has been revealed that sort of base has the greatest influence on

  4. Recombinant streptokinase vs phenylephrine-based suppositories in acute hemorrhoids, randomized, controlled trial (THERESA-3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Bernal, Francisco; Castellanos-Sierra, Georgina; Valenzuela-Silva, Carmen M; Catasús-Álvarez, Karem M; Valle-Cabrera, Roselin; Aguilera-Barreto, Ana; López-Saura, Pedro A

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare the efficacy and safety of recombinant streptokinase (rSK) and phenylephrine-based suppositories in acute hemorrhoidal disease. METHODS: A multicenter (14 sites), randomized (1:1), open, parallel groups, active controlled trial was done. After inclusion, subjects with acute symptoms of hemorrhoids, who gave their written, informed consent to participate, were centrally randomized to receive, as outpatients, rSK (200000 IU) or 0.25% phenylephrine suppositories, which had different organoleptic characteristics. Treatment was administered by the rectal route, one unit every 6 h during 48 h for rSK, and up to a maximum of 5 d (20 suppositories) for phenylephrine. Evaluations were performed at 3, 5 and 10 d post-inclusion. The main end-point was the 5th-day complete clinical response (disappearance of pain and edema, and ≥ 70% reduction of the lesion size). Time to response and need for thrombectomy were secondary efficacy variables. Adverse events were evaluated too. RESULTS: 5th day complete response rates were 83/110 (75.5%) and 36/110 (32.7%) with rSK and phenylephrine suppositories, respectively. This 42.7% difference (95%CI: 30.5-54.2) was highly significant (P hemorrhoidal illness, with an adequate safety profile. PMID:24587636

  5. The effects of cyclodextrins on drug release from fatty suppository bases : III. Application of cyclodextrin derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijlink, H.W.; Paiotti, S.; Eissens, Anko; Lerk, C.F.

    1992-01-01

    The complexation of both n-butyl-4-aminobenzoate and diazepam with dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin, respectively, was studied. Solid complexes were prepared by freeze-drying. The complexes were incorporated in fatty suppositories and drug release was studied, both in

  6. Research of quality values and stability study of vaginal suppositories containing fluconazole and chlorhexidine digluconate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Катерина Олександрівна Бур’ян

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of research. Stability is one of the main quality values of remedies. Biopharmaceutical properties of drugs and efficiency of pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic processes of active compounds in human’s organism completely depend on physico-chemical values permanence and microbiological stability of every unit of drug. The aim of research resulting in the article was to determine the main quality values stability and microbiological purity of vaginal suppositories containing fluconazole and chlorhexidine digluconate after storage under certain conditions.Materials and methods. During both storage under room temperature and keeping in cool place vaginal suppositories prepared upon hydrophilic basis were periodically verified on indicators of description, identification, average weight and homogeneity of weight, dissolution, microbiological purity and active ingredients assay in unit dose. All research tests were carried out in accordance with both the SPhU requirements and elaborated draft of quality control procedures for «Flugedyn» remedy.Results. As a result of quality values study of suppositories test samples the efficiency and reliability of developed techniques and normative documentation draft of remedy were confirmed. Samples have been kept for as long as 5 years don’t comply with the requirements of normative documentation of remedy.Conclusion. Thus, summation of research data allow recommend following optimal storage period for vaginal suppositories «Flugedyn»: keep 3 years in dry place at a temperature 2 to 25 оС

  7. Quality control of 5mg diazepam suppositories manipulated in the city of Campos Goytacazes – RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Aparecida Venturi Canzian

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Diazepam suppositories are widely used by children and elderly, and require close attention to quality control because it is a controlled prescription drug. The objective of the study was to analyze diazepam suppositories manipulated in Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, to verify if they are within the required quality standards, and offer safety and efficiency to patients. We analyzed samples of 5mg diazepam suppositories acquired in five randomly selected pharmacies, identified as Pharmacy A, Pharmacy B, Pharmacy C, Pharmacy D, and Pharmacy E. We ran tests on average weight, organoleptic control, hardness, melting point, and dissolution. Data was analyzed and compared with the requirements of the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia. This analysis was made over a table in Excel. We conclude that only C Pharmacy was approved in all tests, and this is the only laboratory that has analyzed the quality of the product warranty. Laboratories A, B, D and E have been approved in some tests, and failed one or more tests. To ensure quality control, suppositories needed to pass in all tests, which was not the case of these labs. Therefore, we recommended the following procedures to the investigated laboratories: changes in packaging, greater precision in handling, quality control prior to dispensing the product, and efficient pharmaceutical care service.

  8. Sustained-release progesterone vaginal suppositories 1--development of sustained-release granule--.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Ayako; Sunada, Hisakazu; Okamoto, Hirokazu; Furuhashi, Kaoru; Ohno, Yukiko; Ito, Mikio

    2009-02-01

    Progesterone (P) is an important hormone for the establishment of pregnancy, and its administration is useful for luteal insufficiency. Considering the problems of commercially available oral and injection drugs, hospital-formulated vaginal suppositories are clinically used. However, since the half-life of P suppositories is short, it is difficult to maintain its constant blood concentration. To sustain drug efficacy and prevent side-effects, we are attempting to develop sustained-release suppositories by examining the degree of sustained-release of active ingredients. In this study, we examined the combinations of granulation methods and release systems for the preparation of sustained-release granules of P, and produced 13 types of sustained-release granules. We also examined the diameter, content, and dissolution of each type of granules, and confirmed that the sustained-release of all types of granules was satisfactory. Among the sustained-release granules, we selected granules with a content and a degree of sustained-release suitable for sustained-release suppositories.

  9. Prophylactic belladonna suppositories on anesthetic recovery after robotic assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavonetto, Federica; Lamborn, David R; McCaffrey, Joan M; Schroeder, Darrell R; Gettman, Mattew T; Sprung, Juraj; Weingarten, Toby N

    2013-06-01

    Two prospective trials have demonstrated prophylactic antimuscarinics following prostatectomy reduce pain from bladder spasms. Our practice adopted the routine administration of prophylactic belladonna and opium (B&O) suppositories to patients undergoing robotic assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP). The aim of this study is to determine if this change in clinical practice was associated with improvement of postoperative outcomes. The medical records of 202 patients that underwent RALP surgery who were or were not administered prophylactic B&O suppositories in the immediate postoperative period were abstracted for duration of anesthesia recovery, pain and analgesic use. Patient and surgical characteristics between groups were similar except B&O group were slightly older (p = 0.04) and administered less opioid analgesics (p = 0.05). There was no difference between groups in the duration of phase I recovery from anesthesia (p = 0.96). Multivariable adjustments for age, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status, and surgical duration were made, and again it was found that suppository administration had no association with phase I recovery times (p = 0.94). The use of antimuscarinic medication for bladder spams in the B&O group was less during phase I recovery (p suppositories at the immediate conclusion of RALP surgery was not associated with improvements of the postoperative course.

  10. Efficacy of a diazepam suppository at preventing febrile seizure recurrence during a single febrile illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Yu; Okumura, Akihisa; Kondo, Taiki; Magota, Miyuki; Kawabe, Shinji; Kando, Naoyuki; Yamaguchi, Hideaki; Natsume, Jun; Negoro, Tamiko; Watanabe, Kazuyoshi

    2009-06-01

    To assess the efficacy of diazepam suppositories at preventing febrile seizure recurrence during a single febrile illness to determine how to treat children with a febrile seizure on presentation at the hospital. We studied 203 children with febrile seizures from December 2004 through March 2006. On admission between December 2004 and May 2005, a diazepam suppository was administered to the patients. Patients seen between June 2005 and March 2006 were not treated with antiepileptic drugs on admission. We saw a significant difference in the rate of recurrence of febrile seizures between children treated with diazepam and those who were not. Recurrences were observed in 2 (2.1%) of 95 children treated with diazepam and in 16 (14.8%) of 108 untreated children. For the 108 untreated patients, the median age was 22.8 months in those with recurrences and 30.6 months in those without, confirming that a younger age was related to a recurrence. A diazepam suppository after a febrile seizure will reduce the incidence of recurrent febrile seizures during the same febrile illness. However, a diazepam suppository after a febrile seizure should be used after carefully considering the benefits and potential adverse effects.

  11. [Experience in the use of viferon suppositories in young children with juvenile respiratory papillomatosis (preliminary report)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onufrieva, E K; Malinovskaia, V V; Maslova, I V; Nurmukhametov, R Kh; Kol'tsov, V D

    1996-01-01

    The authors tried a new medical form of interferon, rectal suppositories viferon, to treat severe juvenile respiratory papillomatosis in young children. Side effects were absent, antibodies to interferon in low titers were registered in 2 patients only. Further studies are needed to specify the promising effects of the above treatment.

  12. Validation of analytical methods for the quality control of Naproxen suppositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Hernandez, Yaslenis; Suarez Perez, Yania; Garcia Pulpeiro, Oscar; Hernandez Contreras, Orestes Yuniel

    2011-01-01

    The analysis methods that will be used for the quality control of the future Cuban-made Naproxen suppositories for adults and children were developed for the first time in this paper. One method based on direct ultraviolet spectrophotometry was put forward, which proved to be specific, linear, accurate and precise for the quality control of Naproxen suppositories, taking into account the presence of chromophore groups in their structure. Likewise, the direct semi-aqueous acid-base volumetry method aimed at the quality control of the Naproxen raw material was changed and adapted to the quality control of suppositories. On the basis of the validation process, there was demonstrated the adequate specificity of this method with respect to the formulation components, as well as its linearity, accuracy and precision in 1-3 mg/ml range. The final results were compared and no significant statistical differences among the replicas per each dose were found in both methods; therefore, both may be used in the quality control of Naproxen suppositories

  13. Pharmacokinetics of RK-28 (a new radiosensitizer) and pharmaceutical design of a suppository form using rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Nak-Seo; Umejima, Hiroyuki; Miyata, Kaori; Okubo, Mayumi; Goto, Shigeru; Kato, Tetsuo; Mikami, Yukio; Sagitani, Hiromichi; Inoue, Haruyuki.

    1994-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of RK-28, a new hypoxic cell radiosensitizer, was studied in rats following its intravenous, intraportal, oral and rectal administration. The pharmaceutical design of an RK-28 suppository form was also examined. After intravenous injection, RK-28 was rapidly removed from the plasma (biological half-life of 17 min) and its area under the curve (AUC) was proportional to the amount of RK-28 administered. The absolute bioavailability of RK-28 was 59.7% for intraportal administration and 36.9% for oral administration. Following oral administration of RK-28, it seems likely that specific acid-catalyzed decomposition of RK-28 takes place in the stomach and then the absorbed RK-28 undergoes first-pass metabolism in the liver. When 'solidified RK-28 suppository,' made by solidifying molten RK-28, was inserted into the rectum, hepatic first-pass metabolism could be avoided substantially. The resulting absolute bioavailability of RK-28 increased to 75%. Furthermore, 'RK-28 emulsion suppository,' prepared by emulsifying RK-28 with 1-hexadecanol and hydrogenated castor oil (HCO 60) at 80degC, showed a plasma concentration-time curve very suitable for radiation therapy; the maximum plasma concentration was attained 30 min after rectal administration and then decreased within a short period. Administration of 'RK-28 emulsion suppository,' resulted in an absolute bioavailability of 76%. (author)

  14. Randomized controlled trial of postoperative belladonna and opium rectal suppositories in vaginal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Kristina; Yi, John; Wasson, Megan; Klauschie, Jennifer; Ryan, Debra; Hentz, Joseph; Cornella, Jeffrey; Magtibay, Paul; Kho, Roseanne

    2017-05-01

    After vaginal surgery, oral and parenteral narcotics are used commonly for pain relief, and their use may exacerbate the incidence of sedation, nausea, and vomiting, which ultimately delays convalescence. Previous studies have demonstrated that rectal analgesia after surgery results in lower pain scores and less intravenous morphine consumption. Belladonna and opium rectal suppositories may be used to relieve pain and minimize side effects; however, their efficacy has not been confirmed. We aimed to evaluate the use of belladonna and opium suppositories for pain reduction in vaginal surgery. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that used belladonna and opium suppositories after inpatient or outpatient vaginal surgery was conducted. Vaginal surgery was defined as (1) vaginal hysterectomy with uterosacral ligament suspension or (2) posthysterectomy prolapse repair that included uterosacral ligament suspension and/or colporrhaphy. Belladonna and opium 16A (16.2/60 mg) or placebo suppositories were administered rectally immediately after surgery and every 8 hours for a total of 3 doses. Patient-reported pain data were collected with the use of a visual analog scale (at 2, 4, 12, and 20 hours postoperatively. Opiate use was measured and converted into parenteral morphine equivalents. The primary outcome was pain, and secondary outcomes included pain medication, antiemetic medication, and a quality of recovery questionnaire. Adverse effects were surveyed at 24 hours and 7 days. Concomitant procedures for urinary incontinence or pelvic organ prolapse did not preclude enrollment. Ninety women were randomly assigned consecutively at a single institution under the care of a fellowship-trained surgeon group. Demographics did not differ among the groups with mean age of 55 years, procedure time of 97 minutes, and prolapse at 51%. Postoperative pain scores were equivalent among both groups at each time interval. The belladonna and opium group used a

  15. Glycerin enemas and suppositories in premature infants: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Michael H; Shawyer, Anna C; Rosenbaum, Peter L; Williams, Connie; Jones, Sarah A; Walton, J Mark

    2015-06-01

    Premature infants are often given glycerin enemas or suppositories to facilitate meconium evacuation and transition to enteral feeding. The purpose of this study was to assess the available evidence for this treatment strategy. We conducted a systematic search of Medline, Embase, Central, and trial registries for randomized controlled trials of premature infants treated with glycerin enemas or suppositories. Data were extracted in duplicate and meta-analyzed using a random effects model. We identified 185 premature infants treated prophylactically with glycerin enemas in one trial (n = 81) and suppositories in two other trials (n = 104). All infants were less than 32 weeks gestation and had no congenital malformations. Treatment was associated with earlier initiation of stooling in one trial (2 vs 4 days, P = .02) and a trend towards earlier meconium evacuation in another (6.5 vs 9 days, P = .11). Meta-analysis demonstrated no effect on transition to enteral feeding (0.7 days faster, P = .43) or mortality (P = 0.50). There were no reports of rectal bleeding or perforation but there was a trend towards increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis with glycerin enemas or suppositories (risk ratio = 2.72, P = .13). These three trials are underpowered and affected by one or more major methodological issues. As a result, the quality of evidence is low to very low. Three other trials are underway. The evidence for the use glycerin enemas or suppositories in premature infants in inconclusive. Meta-analyzed data suggest that treatment may be associated with increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis. Careful monitoring of ongoing trials is required. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Phase I Trial of a Lactobacillus crispatus Vaginal Suppository for Prevention of Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. Czaja

    2007-01-01

    Conclusions: L. crispatus CTV-05 can be given as a vaginal suppository with minimal sideeffects to healthy women with a history of recurrent UTI. Mild inflammation of the urinary tract was noted in some women.

  17. Role of the double-contrast barium enema in rectal stenosis due to suppositories containing paracetamol and acetylsalicylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tannouri, F.; Lalmand, B.; Zalcman, M.; Gansbeke, D. van; Gevenois, P.A.; Struyven, J. [Department of Radiology, Hopital Erasme, University of Brussels (Belgium); Peny, M.O. [Department of Pathology, University of Brussels (Belgium); Gossum, A. van [Department of Gastroenterology, University of Brussels (Belgium)

    1998-09-01

    Self-treatment of chronic headache with suppositories containing paracetamol and acetylsalaicylic acid may lead to serious complications. We report the radiological features of five cases of rectal stenosis following the use of such suppositories. The role of the double-contrast barium enema in suggesting the diagnosis of this complication of a chronic and often unrecognized self-treatment is emphasized. (orig.) With 6 figs., 20 refs.

  18. Development of Suppositories Containing Flutamide-Loaded Alginate-Tamarind Microparticles for Rectal Administration: In Vitro and in Vivo Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Bharati Shivajirao; Mahajan, Hitendra Shaligram; Surana, Sanjay Javerilal

    2015-01-01

    In the present work the absorption of flutamide from suppositories containing hydrophilic tamarind alginate microparticles after rectal administration in rats was investigated with the purpose of enhancing bioavailability and to avoid hepatic toxicity. Microparticles were developed by ionic gelation method and optimized using one factorial design of response surface methodology. The optimized batch of microparticles had tamarind gum-sodium alginate (1 : 3) ratio and showed entrapment efficiency 94.969% and mucoadhesion strength 94.646% with desirability of 0.961. Suppositories loaded with microparticles were developed by fusion method using poloxamer 407 and poloxamer 188 in combination as suppository base. Kinetic analysis of the release data of microparticle-loaded suppositories showed time-independent release of drug. Higher values of 'n' (>0.89) represent Super Case II-type drug release. The pharmacokinetics of flutamide from flutamide tamarind alginate microparticle-loaded suppository were compared with oral suspension. Cmax of microparticle-loaded suppository was significantly larger than that of oral suspension (1.711 and 0.859 µg/mL, respectively).

  19. [A case of acute pancreatitis caused by 5-aminosalicylic acid suppositories in a patient with ulcerative colitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kook Hyun; Kim, Tae Nyeun; Jang, Byung Ik

    2007-12-01

    Oral 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) has been known as a first-choice drug for ulcerative colitis. However, hypersensitivity reactions, including pancreatitis, hepatitis, and skin rash, have been reported with 5-ASA. Topical formulations of 5-ASA like suppositories have been rarely reported to induce adverse reactions because of their limited absorption rate. We recently experienced a case of acute pancreatitis caused by 5-ASA suppositories in a patient with ulcerative colitis. A 26-year-old male was admitted with abdominal pain and diagnosed as ulcerative colitis. Acute pancreatitis occurred soon after 24 hours of treatment with oral mesalazine. Drug-induced pancreatitis was suspected and administration of mesalazine was discontinued. Then 5-ASA suppositories were started instead of oral mesalazine. Twenty-four hours after taking 5-ASA suppositories, he experienced severe abdominal pain, fever, and elevation of amylase levels. The suppositories were immediately stopped and symptoms resolved over next 48 hours. Herein, we suggest that, in patients treated with 5-ASA suppositories who complain of severe abdominal pain, drug-induced pancreatitis should be suspected.

  20. Comparative bioavailability of a morphine suppository given rectally and in a colostomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højsted, J; Rubeck-Petersen, K; Rask, H

    1990-01-01

    In eight patients with a colostomy, plasma morphine levels were followed for 8 h after administration of 20 mg morphine chloride as a suppository, first rectally and after at least 48 h via the colostomy. The bioavailability after administration in the colostomy showed very great variation......; the mean value compared to rectal bioavailability was only 43% (range 0.1-127%). In four patients the plasma concentrations of morphine after colostomy administration were lower at all times than after rectal administration, and in three only small amounts of morphine were detectable. One patient showed...... higher plasma concentrations after colostomy application than after rectal administration. It is concluded that administration of morphine suppositories in a colostomy cannot be recommended....

  1. RESEARCH ON MICROBIOLOGICAL PURITY OF “PHYTOPROST” AND “TAMSULOPROST” SUPPOSITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gritsenko V. I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of the tests on microbiological purity of the test samples of "Tamsuloprost" and "Phytoprost" suppositories for the treatment of prostate diseases have shown that no viable cells of fungi were found in the preparations, the number of viable cells of microorganisms is within a norman rate. Studying the effectiveness of antimicrobial preservatives it was found that the test samples meet criterion of the requirements of the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine.

  2. Scintigraphic evidence of the retarded insulin liberation from agar embeddings in suppositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losse, G.; Mueller, F.; Fischer, S.

    1989-01-01

    It is reported on the retardation and protective effect of insulin-agar-embeddings in triglyceride suppositories by in vitro and in vivo tests on rabbits. The discovered effects were visually followed by gamma scanning of adequate rectally applied 131 I-insulin specimens in the rectum and thyroid gland and, in relation with the glucose lowering course, the liberation, distribution and biovailability of the immobilized hormone was illustrated. (author)

  3. Novel sample preparation method for surfactant containing suppositories: effect of micelle formation on drug recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmár, Éva; Ueno, Konomi; Forgó, Péter; Szakonyi, Gerda; Dombi, György

    2013-09-01

    Rectal drug delivery is currently at the focus of attention. Surfactants promote drug release from the suppository bases and enhance the formulation properties. The aim of our work was to develop a sample preparation method for HPLC analysis for a suppository base containing 95% hard fat, 2.5% Tween 20 and 2.5% Tween 60. A conventional sample preparation method did not provide successful results as the recovery of the drug failed to fulfil the validation criterion 95-105%. This was caused by the non-ionic surfactants in the suppository base incorporating some of the drug, preventing its release. As guidance for the formulation from an analytical aspect, we suggest a well defined surfactant content based on the turbidimetric determination of the CMC (critical micelle formation concentration) in the applied methanol-water solvent. Our CMC data correlate well with the results of previous studies. As regards the sample preparation procedure, a study was performed of the effects of ionic strength and pH on the drug recovery with the avoidance of degradation of the drug during the procedure. Aminophenazone and paracetamol were used as model drugs. The optimum conditions for drug release from the molten suppository base were found to be 100 mM NaCl, 20-40 mM NaOH and a 30 min ultrasonic treatment of the final sample solution. As these conditions could cause the degradation of the drugs in the solution, this was followed by NMR spectroscopy, and the results indicated that degradation did not take place. The determined CMCs were 0.08 mM for Tween 20, 0.06 mM for Tween 60 and 0.04 mM for a combined Tween 20, Tween 60 system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Scintigraphic evidence of the retarded insulin liberation from agar embeddings in suppositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losse, G; Mueller, F; Fischer, S; Wunderlich, G; Hacker, E

    1989-05-01

    It is reported on the retardation and protective effect of insulin-agar-embeddings in triglyceride suppositories by in vitro and in vivo tests on rabbits. The discovered effects were visually followed by gamma scanning of adequate rectally applied /sup 131/I-insulin specimens in the rectum and thyroid gland and, in relation with the glucose lowering course, the liberation, distribution and biovailability of the immobilized hormone was illustrated. (author).

  5. Caregivers' acceptance of using artesunate suppositories for treating childhood malaria in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Rachael L; Auwun, Alma; Pongua, Grace; Oa, Olive; Davis, Timothy M E; Karunajeewa, Harin A; Reeder, John C

    2007-04-01

    Community-based interventions using artemisinin-derived suppositories may potentially reduce malaria-related childhood mortality. However, their sociocultural acceptability is unknown in Papua New Guinea and a formal examination of caregiver's attitudes to rectal administration was needed to inform effective deployment strategies. Caregivers (n = 131) of children with uncomplicated malaria were questioned on their prior experience with, and attitudes to, rectal administration and then offered artesunate suppositories as treatment of their child. The 29% who refused this alternative were further questioned to determine their reasons for this refusal. Lack of spousal approval and fear of side effects were the most common reasons for refusal. Sixty-six percent of caregivers agreed to self-administer suppositories, which were perceived as effective (99%), safe (96%), and fast-acting (91%), but problematic to administer to a struggling child (56%). Shame, embarrassment, and hygiene were not significant concerns. Acceptability of rectal administration should be relatively high in Papua New Guinea. However, deployment must be accompanied by health education that addresses the practical aspects of administration, is appropriate for the illiterate, and is directed at fathers as well as mothers.

  6. A survey of the therapeutic effects of Vitamin E suppositories on vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aazam Parnan Emamverdikhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Menopause is associated with various complications such as depression, sleep disorders, and genitourinary atrophy. Vaginal atrophy occurs due to the loss of steroid hormones, and its major symptoms include vaginal dryness, itching, dyspareunia, and bleeding after intercourse. According to the literature, vitamin E plays a key role in estrogen stability. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of vitamin E suppositories and conjugated estrogen vaginal cream on vaginal atrophy. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 52 postmenopausal women, who were referred to a gynecology clinic in 2013, were recruited and randomly divided into two groups (26 cases per group. One group received 100 IU of vitamin E suppositories (n = 26, whereas the other group applied 0.5 g of conjugated estrogen cream for 12 weeks. Vaginal maturation value (VMV was compared between the two groups before and after the intervention. VMV ≤ 55 was regarded as a cut-off point for vaginal atrophy. Treatment success was defined as a 10-unit increase in VMV, compared to the baseline value. Data were analyzed by Friedman test and Mann-Whitney test. P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean VMV in the vitamin E group before the treatment and after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of treatment was 43.78 ± 13.75, 69.07 ± 22.75, 77.86 ± 21.79, and 80.59 ± 19.23, respectively. The corresponding values in the estrogen cream group were 42.86 ± 14.40, 86.98 ± 12.58, 92.65 ± 15, and 91.57 ± 14.10, respectively. VMV significantly improved in both the treatment groups after the intervention, compared to the preintervention period (P < 0.001. Treatment success was reported in both groups, although estrogen cream (100% appeared to be more effective after 4 weeks of treatment, compared to vitamin E suppositories (76.9% (P = 0.01. Conclusions: Based on the findings, use of vitamin E suppositories could improve the laboratory criteria

  7. Relative bioavailability and plasma paracetamol profiles of Panadol suppositories in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthard, K P; Nielson, H W; Schroder, M; Covino, A; Matthews, N T; Murray, R S; Van Der Walt, J H

    1998-10-01

    To determine the relative bioavailability and plasma paracetamol concentration profiles following administration of a proprietary formulation of paracetamol suppositories to postoperative children. Study A-eight children undergoing minor surgery had blood samples collected following the rectal administration of either a 250 mg or 500 mg paracetamol suppository on one day and an equivalent oral dose on the following day. A mean dose of 13 mg/kg gave a mean Cmax (Tmax) of 7.7 mg/L (1.6 h) and 4.9 mg/L (2.0 h) following oral and rectal administration, respectively. The mean relative rectal bioavailability was 78% (95% confidence interval of 55-101%). Study B-20 children undergoing tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy were randomly assigned to receive a postoperative dose of 500 mg of paracetamol either as 2 x 250 mg liquid filled or 1 x 500 mg hard wax Panadol suppository. A mean dose of 25 mg/kg produced mean maximum plasma paracetamol concentrations of 13.2 mg/L and 14.5 mg/L at 2.1 and 1.9 h for the hard and liquid filled suppository, respectively. The absorption rate constants and areas under the curves suggested no difference in the rate or extent of absorption between the two formulations. Absorption of paracetamol following rectal administration of Panadol suppositories to postoperative children is slower and reduced as compared to oral therapy. The hard wax and liquid filled products have similar absorption characteristics. The usually quoted antipyretic therapeutic range for paracetamol is 10-20 mg/L, although 5 mg/L may be effective. A single rectal dose of 25 mg/kg will obtain this lower concentration within 1 h of administration and maintain it for up to 6 h. When given in an appropriate dose for analgesia, maximum plasma paracetamol concentrations would be available in the immediate postoperative period if the rectal dose was given 2 h before the planned end of the procedure.

  8. The development of quantative and qualitive analysis methods of suppositories with Maclura Pomifera extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Korotkov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic prostatitis and BPH are still very common diseases. In recent years, herbal preparations are widely used in the treatment of prostate diseases gland. The effectiveness of herbal medicinal products derived from MacluraPomifera is associated with their content of phytosterols and terpenes. Derived oil extract of MacluraPomiferafruit Orange (Maclurapomifera, Moraceae is a rich source of terpenes and phytosterols. Previous studies indicated, that the content of such substances as lupeol and β-sitosterol, which is known its prostatoprotectors properties as well as the presence of isoflavones possessing anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Aim of the work The aim of this work is a developing of methods that allow assaying qualitative and quantitative assessment of the suppositories with MacluraPomifera extract. Materials and methods Theobjects of this study are the suppositories with oil extract of MacluraPomifera. For the suppositories ingredients’identification thin layer chromatography has been used. Quantitative determination of active compounds has been carried out by spectrophotometry in ultraviolet and visible spectrum. The spectrophotometers of Thermo Scientific Evolution S60 (USA and Apel PD303S (Japan have been used. Determination of phytosterols and triterpenes amount has been performed in the equivalent of a reliable sample of lupeol ('Santa Cruz Biotechnology', USA; CAS: 545-47-1. Determination of isoflavones amount has been carried out in the equivalent of a reliable sample osayin ('BioBioPhaCo., Ltd.',China; CAS: 482-53-1. Results and discussion For identification of phytosterols and isoflavones in the suppositories composition a method of identifying their joint presence by TLC has been developed. Inalcoholic extraction from suppository mass two purple spots with Rf 0,8 and 0,57 are observed at the level of spots solution (lupeol and β-sitosterol and two yellow spots with Rf 0,45 and 0,21 are observed at the level

  9. Dosage uniformity problems which occur due to technological errors in extemporaneously prepared suppositories in hospitals and pharmacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmár, Éva; Lasher, Jason Richard; Tarry, Thomas Dean; Myers, Andrea; Szakonyi, Gerda; Dombi, György; Baki, Gabriella; Alexander, Kenneth S.

    2013-01-01

    The availability of suppositories in Hungary, especially in clinical pharmacy practice, is usually provided by extemporaneous preparations. Due to the known advantages of rectal drug administration, its benefits are frequently utilized in pediatrics. However, errors during the extemporaneous manufacturing process can lead to non-homogenous drug distribution within the dosage units. To determine the root cause of these errors and provide corrective actions, we studied suppository samples prepared with exactly known errors using both cerimetric titration and HPLC technique. Our results show that the most frequent technological error occurs when the pharmacist fails to use the correct displacement factor in the calculations which could lead to a 4.6% increase/decrease in the assay in individual dosage units. The second most important source of error can occur when the molding excess is calculated solely for the suppository base. This can further dilute the final suppository drug concentration causing the assay to be as low as 80%. As a conclusion we emphasize that the application of predetermined displacement factors in calculations for the formulation of suppositories is highly important, which enables the pharmacist to produce a final product containing exactly the determined dose of an active substance despite the different densities of the components. PMID:25161378

  10. Assessment of efficacy of polaprezinc suppositories against radiation-induced rectal disorders using an experimental rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Hiroshi; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Takada, Yasuhiro

    2009-01-01

    The purpose/objective of this study was to establish an experimental rat model and examine the efficacy of polaprezinc suppositories against radiation-induced rectal disorders. Female Wister rats (6 weeks old) were used in the present study. The rats were divided into three groups. Group A was irradiated and medicated with polaprezinc suppositories. Group B was irradiated without any medication. Group C had no irradiation or medication. The rat was taped by the tail in the vertical position under anesthesia. Lead shielding was used to cover the rats except the area of the lower pelvis. They were irradiated at 22 Gy by a single fraction. Polaprezinc suppositories were inserted daily into the rat anus for 7 days after irradiation. All rats were evaluated by colonoscopy on the 7th day after irradiation, sacrificed on the 10th day, and evaluated for mucosal damage. In the clinical findings, the endoscopic findings, and the histological findings, the rats not administered polaprezinc suppositories tended to show more severe mucosal damage but there were no significant differences. Our study showed that this model was a useful experimental rat model for radiation-induced rectal disorders and polaprezinc suppositories demonstrated good efficacy against radiation proctitis. (author)

  11. Free fatty acid suppositories are as effective as docusate sodium and sorbitol enemas in treating constipation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormarsson, Orri Thor; Asgrimsdottir, Gudrun Marta; Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Stefansson, Einar; Lund, Sigrun Helga; Bjornsson, Einar Stefan

    2016-06-01

    A well-documented, clinically proven per rectum treatment for childhood constipation is needed. This phase two clinical trial evaluated the efficacy of suppositories containing free fatty acids (FFA) compared with Klyx docusate sodium and sorbitol enemas. A randomised, controlled, single-blind study was undertaken on 77 children aged between one and 17 who presented to an emergency department in Iceland and were diagnosed with constipation. In stage one, 23 patients were randomised to receive lower dose FFA suppositories or Klyx (n = 33). In stage two, 21 different patients were randomised to receive higher dose suppositories and compared with the same Klyx control subjects. The suppositories were effective at bowel emptying in 39% of the group who received the lower FFA doses and 81% of the group receiving higher doses, compared with 88% in the Klyx control group. Symptom relief was obtained in 30% of the group receiving the lower doses and 71% of the group receiving the higher doses, compared with 73% in the control group. The higher dose FFA suppositories were as effective as the Klyx enemas with regard to bowel emptying and symptom relief and might provide an important and less invasive alternative for childhood constipation. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The in Vitro Release of Indomethacin from Suppositories: Effects of Bases and Comparison of Different Dissolution Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kenji; Hori, Seiichi; Kawata, Tsubasa; Kogure, Sanae; Matsumoto, Kaori; Hasegawa, Tetsuya; Akimoto, Masayuki

    2017-01-01

    The suitability of apparatuses for the quality control of indomethacin (IND, 50 mg) compounded suppositories was evaluated and the effects of the type of suppository base on release profiles was investigated. The release characteristics of hydrophilic and lipophilic suppositories containing IND were compared using four types of dissolution methods: basket (RB), paddle (PD), dialysis tubing (DT) and flow-through cell (FTC). The release process was evaluated using the following model independent parameters: the mean dissolution time (MDT), cumulative percent of drug released (Q) at the end of the sampling time, and dissolution efficiency (DE). The fastest and most reproducible release profiles were observed for a hydrophilic base (macrogols), which resulted in more than 90% of the drug being released in 30 min using PD, RB and FTC. After 90 min, 90% of the total amount of the drug was released from a mixture of hydrophilic bases with a lipophilic base (macrogols and hard fat) in compendial dissolution methods and the mixture base was the second fastest only to the hydrophilic base. The slowest release profiles in each method were observed for the lipophilic base (hard fat). Poor drug release from any type of suppository base was noted using DT. Based on the results of the present study, FTC may be regarded as an adequate technique allowing sufficient discriminating power for the quality control of IND compounded suppositories.

  13. Phase I Trial of a Lactobacillus crispatus Vaginal Suppository for Prevention of Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Christopher A.; Stapleton, Ann E.; Yarova-Yarovaya, Yuliya; Stamm, Walter E.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: We performed a phase I trial to assess the safety and tolerance of a Lactobacillus vaginal suppository for prevention of recurrent UTI. Methods: Premenopausal women with a history of recurrent UTI were randomized to use L. crispatus CTV-05 or placebo vaginal suppositories daily for five days. Results: 30 women were randomized (15 to L. crispatus CTV-05). No severe adverse events occurred. Mild to moderate vaginal discharge and genital irritation were reported by women in both study arms. Seven women randomized to L. crispatus CTV-05 developed pyuria without associated symptoms. Most women had high concentrations of vaginal H202-producing lactobacilli before randomization. L. crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. gasseri were the most common Lactobacillus species identified, with stable prevalence over time. Conclusions: L. crispatus CTV-05 can be given as a vaginal suppository with minimal sideeffects to healthy women with a history of recurrent UTI. Mild inflammation of the urinary tract was noted in some women. PMID:18288237

  14. Randomised clinical trial: study of escalating doses of NRL001 given in rectal suppositories of different weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, D; Pediconi, C; Jacobs, A

    2014-03-01

    The application of α-adrenoceptor agonists can improve faecal incontinence symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic and systemic effects of NRL001 administered as different strengths in 1 or 2 g suppositories. This randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled study included 48 healthy subjects. Group 1 consisted of two cohorts of 12 subjects administered either four single doses of 1 or 2 g rectal suppository with either 5, 7.5 or 10 mg NRL001, or matching placebo. Group 2 consisted of two cohorts of 12 subjects administered either four single doses of 1 or 2 g rectal suppository with either 10, 12.5 or 15 mg NRL001, or matching placebo. Doses were given in an escalating manner with placebo at a random position within the sequence. Tmax was at ~4.5 h post-dose for all NRL001 doses. Median AUC0-tz , AUC0-∞ and Cmax increased with increasing dose for both suppository sizes. The estimate of ratios of geometric means comparing 2 g with 1 g suppository, and regression analysis for dose proportionality, was close to 1 for the variables AUC0-tz , AUC0-∞ and Cmax (P > 0.05). For both suppository sizes, 20-min mean pulse rate was significantly decreased compared with placebo with all doses (P < 0.05). Blood pressure decreased overall. There were 144 adverse events (AEs) and no serious AEs reported during the study. All AEs were mild in severity. The regression analysis concluded that the doses were dose proportional. Colorectal Disease © 2014 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  15. Replacing carbamazepine slow-release tablets with carbamazepine suppositories: a pharmacokinetic and clinical study in children with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsson, J; Nilsson, H L; Sandstedt, P; Steinwall, G; Tonnby, B; Flesch, G

    1995-03-01

    A suppository for rectal administration of carbamazepine has been developed for situations in which it is unsuitable to use the oral route of administration. In an open, controlled, within-patient study, the pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, and tolerability of carbamazepine slow-release tablets were compared with those of carbamazepine suppositories in children with epilepsy. The pharmacokinetic part of the study comprised 22 children, and an additional nine children were included in the clinical part of the study. Treatment with slow-release tablets was replaced for 7 days with carbamazepine suppositories in bioequivalent dosage. Clinical factors such as the rate of seizures and the local tolerability were studied, and an overall assessment of efficacy was made. In the pharmacokinetic part, 24-hour plasma concentration curves for carbamazepine and carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide were recorded. The plasma concentration profiles (minimum, maximum, and mean concentrations, fluctuation index, and area under the curve) for carbamazepine and the other metabolites did not show any significant differences between oral and rectal administration when the suppository dose was increased by 25% compared to the tablets. No increase in seizure frequency was detected, and the overall assessment was very good to good in 25 of the 29 epileptic children. Increased flatulence during treatment with suppositories was noted in two children, one had anal irritation, and one had nausea/vomiting. Treatment with carbamazepine slow-release tablets in children with epilepsy can be replaced by carbamazepine suppositories in 25% higher dosage, with good clinical effect and appropriate pharmacokinetic values, when it is unsuitable to use the common oral route of administration.

  16. [Study on effect of pH on rectum permeability of active ingredients in Reduning suppositories in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ming; Wei, Ying-chun; Meng, Jin; Xu, Dian-hong; Wu, Yun; Xiao, Wei

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the effect of different pH on rectum permeability of chlorogenic acid and geniposide. Four kinds of Reduning suppositories of different pH were separated and put into the rectum to study the suppositories in vitro and the content of chlorogenic acid and geniposide samples was determined by HPLC to calculate the permeation in 24 hours. With increase of pH within 2.5-7.4, the steady state flux of chlorogenic acid was increased, but the steady state flux of geniposidesamples was steady. Adjusted the pH can increase the rectum permeability of active ingredients in Reduning auppositories.

  17. A Phase II Clinical Trial Evaluating the Preventive Effectiveness of Lactobacillus Vaginal Suppositories in Patients with Recurrent Cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Koichiro; Uehara, Shinya; Ishii, Ayano; Sadahira, Takuya; Yamamoto, Masumi; Mitsuhata, Ritsuko; Takamoto, Atsushi; Araki, Motoo; Kobayashi, Yasuyuki; Watanabe, Masami; Watanabe, Toyohiko; Hotta, Katsuyuki; Nasu, Yasutomo

    2016-08-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common bacterial infections in women, and many patients experience frequent recurrence. The aim of this report is to introduce an on-going prospective phase II clinical trial performed to evaluate the preventive effectiveness of Lactobacillus vaginal suppositories for prevention of recurrent cystitis. Patients enrolled in this study are administered vaginal suppositories containing the GAI 98322 strain of Lactobacillus crispatus every 2 days or 3 times a week for one year. The primary endpoint is recurrence of cystitis and the secondary endpoints are adverse events. Recruitment began in December 2013 and target sample size is 20 participants.

  18. Recombinant streptokinase vs hydrocortisone suppositories in acute hemorrhoids: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Bernal, Francisco; Castellanos-Sierra, Georgina; Valenzuela-Silva, Carmen M; Catasús-Álvarez, Karem M; Martínez-Serrano, Osmany; Lazo-Diago, Odalys C; Bermúdez-Badell, Cimara H; Causa-García, José R; Domínguez-Suárez, Juan E

    2015-06-21

    To compare the efficacy and safety of recombinant streptokinase (rSK) vs hydrocortisone acetate-based suppositories in acute hemorrhoidal disease. A multicenter (11 sites), randomized (1:1:1), open, controlled trial with parallel groups was performed. All participating patients gave their written, informed consent. After inclusion, patients with acute symptoms of hemorrhoids were centrally randomized to receive, as outpatients, by the rectal route, suppositories of rSK 200000 IU of one unit every 8 h (first 3 units) and afterwards every 12 h until 8 administrations were completed (schedule A), one unit every 8 h until 6 units were completed (schedule B), or 25 mg hydrocortisone acetate once every 8 h up to a maximum of 24 administrations. Evaluations were performed at 3, 5, and 10 d post-inclusion. The main end-point was the 5(th)-day response (disappearance of pain and bleeding, and ≥ 70% reduction of the lesion size). Time to response and need for thrombectomy were secondary efficacy variables. Adverse events were also evaluated. Groups were homogeneous with regards to demographic and baseline characteristics. Fifth day complete response rates were 156/170 (91.8%; 95%CI: 87.3-96.2), 155/170 (91.2%; 95%CI: 86.6%-95.7%), and 46/170 (27.1%; 95%CI: 20.1%-34.0%) with rSK (schedule A and B) and hydrocortisone acetate suppositories, respectively. These 64.6% and 63.9% differences (95%CI: 56.7%-72.2% and 55.7%-72.0%) were highly significant (P hemorrhoid classification) showed a statistically significant advantage for the rSK groups. Thrombectomy was necessary in 4/251 and 14/133 patients with baseline thrombosis in the rSK and hydrocortisone acetate groups, respectively (P hemorrhoidal illness, as well as having an adequate safety profile.

  19. Efficacy and Safety of Mesalamine Suppositories for Treatment of Ulcerative Proctitis in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Melvin B.; Kierkus, Jaroslaw; Spénard, Jean; Shbaklo, Hadia; Giguere, Monique

    2011-01-01

    Background Treatment of ulcerative proctitis has not been well studied in pediatric populations. We conducted an open-label trial to evaluate the clinical efficacy of a mesalamine suppository (500 mg) to treat pediatric patients with mild to moderate ulcerative proctitis. Methods Pediatric patients (5–17 years of age) with ulcerative proctitis were enrolled for baseline evaluations, including a flexible sigmoidoscopic (or colonoscopic) assessment with biopsies performed at study entry. Eligible patients were started on mesalamine suppositories (500 mg) at bedtime. Two follow-up visits were scheduled after 3 and 6 weeks of treatment. The dose could be increased to 500 mg twice daily at the week 3 follow-up visit if deemed appropriate by the investigator based on the Disease Activity Index (DAI) assessment. The primary outcome measure was a DAI derived from a composite score of stool frequency, urgency of defecation, rectal bleeding, and general well-being. Results Forty-nine patients were included in the intent-to-treat analysis. The mean DAI value decreased from 5.5 at baseline to 1.6 and 1.5 at weeks 3 and 6, respectively (P < 0.0001). Only 4 patients had their dose increased to 500 mg twice daily at week 3. Forty-one patients experienced at least one adverse event, most of which were deemed mild and unrelated to study therapy. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events were gastrointestinal (n = 30, 61.2%). Conclusions This study showed that a daily bedtime dose of a 500 mg mesalamine suppository is safe and efficacious in children with ulcerative proctitis. PMID:20848454

  20. The effects of indomethacin, diclofenac, and acetaminophen suppository on pain and opioids consumption after cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godrat Akhavanakbari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cesarean section is one of the common surgeries of women. Acute post-operative pain is one of the recognized post-operative complications. Aims: This study was planned to compare the effects of suppositories, indomethacin, diclofenac and acetaminophen, on post-operative pain and opioid usage after cesarean section. Materials and Methods: In this double-blind clinical trial study, 120 candidates of cesarean with spinal anesthesia and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA I-II were randomly divided into four groups. Acetaminophen, indomethacin, diclofenac, and placebo suppositories were used in groups, respectively, after operation and the dosage was repeated every 6 h and pain score and opioid usage were compared 24 h after the surgery. The severity of pain was recorded on the basis of Visual Analog Scale (VAS and if severe pain (VAS > 5 was observed, 0.5 mg/kg intramuscular pethidine had been used. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were analyzed in SPSS software version 15 and analytical statistics such as ANOVA, Chi-square, and Tukey′s honestly significant difference (HSD post-hoc. Results : Pain score was significantly higher in control group than other groups, and also pain score in acetaminophen group was higher than indomethacin and diclofenac. The three intervention groups received the first dose of pethidine far more than control group and the distance for diclofenac and indomethacin were significantly longer (P < 0.001. The use of indomethacin, diclofenac, and acetaminophen significantly reduces the amount of pethidine usage in 24 h after the surgery relation to control group. Conclusions : Considering the significant decreasing pain score and opioid usage especially in indomethacin and diclofenac groups rather than control group, it is suggested using of indomethacin and diclofenac suppositories for post-cesarean section analgesia.

  1. Preoperative combination therapy of 5-fluorouracil suppository and radiation for carcinoma of the rectum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizusawa, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Toshio

    1983-01-01

    Twelve cases of carcinoma of the rectum were treated preoperatively by combination therapy with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) suppository (100 mg twice a day consecutively, a total dose of more than 4,000 mg) and irradiation (300 rad x 3/week, a total dose of 3,000 rad). This group was compared with 34 cases given single preoperative 5-FU therapy and 24 control cases given no preoperative adjuvant modality. The group treated by preoperative combination therapy showed marked antitumor effects macroscopically and histologically. In addition, decrease in local recurrence was expected for this group, compared with the other two groups. (Chiba, N.)

  2. Use of Proktis-M suppositories in patients undergoing neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy for adenocarcinoma of the rectum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrone, S; Gonnelli, A; Cantarella, M; Sainato, A

    2015-12-01

    Generally speaking, the negative side of radiation treatment of the pelvic district is the toxicity that may compromise the patient's quality of life and lead to temporary suspension of treatment with possible negative effects on its effectiveness. In neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC), the toxicity that is most frequently observed is proctitis, usually treated with topical corticosteroids or mesalazine. Hyaluronic acid's function is to restore the regular trophism and elasticity of the connective tissues leading to faster repair of the damage, and this could represent a viable option for the control of actinic proctitis. Since March 2012, a neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy protocol has been active at the Pisa Universitary Hospital for patients with LARC; 23 patients have been enrolled up to the present. Treatment involves an induction chemotherapy phase according to the FOLFOXIRI + Bevacizumab regimen for 6 cycles, followed by chemotherapy (capecitabina + Bevacizumab) concomitant with radiotherapy (5040 cGy in 28 fractions). Surgery is scheduled 6-8 weeks after the end of RTCT. During the course of associated treatment (RTCT), 12/23 patients received topical therapy with hyaluronic acid (Proktis-M suppositories) for the prevention of proctitis. All 23 patients enrolled in the study completed the induction chemotherapy phase. In the first 11 enrolled patients who did not receive prior Proktis-M suppositories, intense rectal toxicity was observed. Proctalgia of grade G1-2 and G3-4 presented respectively in 64% and 36% of cases, with consequent interruption of treatment which, in 45% of patients, lasted longer than 10 days. In the remaining 12 patients who underwent prior treatment with Proktis-M suppositories, the percentage of rectal toxicity was lower. In those cases where it did present, onset was later and its intensity and duration lower. 25% of patients did not develop proctalgia, 33% developed proctalgia of grade G1 and 42

  3. Non-destructive prediction of the drug content of an acetaminophen suppository by near-infrared spectroscopy and X-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Kuniko; Uchino, Tomohiro; Otsuka, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop non-destructive methods to determine the drug content of suppositories using near-infrared (NIR) spectrometry and X-ray computed tomography (XCT). The suppository samples (acetaminophen content: 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 mg/suppository) consisted of acetaminophen powder and hard fat. NIR spectra of 18 standard suppository samples were recorded, and the data were divided into two wave number ranges, 4000-10 000 cm(-1) (LR), and 4280-6650 cm(-1) (SR). The best calibration model was determined to minimize the standard error of cross-validation (SECV) by the leave-one-out method in the partial least squares regression (PLS). Sliced XCT images of the suppositories were measured, and apparent density (AD) was evaluated using the image of the sample. The NIR models gave the best correlation coefficient constant (R) values, since the results for LR and SR gave straight lines with R of 0.9274 and 0.9707, respectively. The AD of the suppositories by XCT increased with increasing drug content, and the relationship between the AD and drug content had a straight line with R of 0.9958. Both NIR and X-ray CT performed accurate measurements of suppository samples through plastic packaging.

  4. Double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of 5-ASA suppositories in active distal proctitis and measurement of extent of spread using /sup 99m/Tc-labeled 5-ASA suppositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.N.; Haber, G.; Aquino, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Patients with active distal proctitis received either 5-aminosalicylic (5-ASA) acid or identical placebo suppositories, 500 mg t.i.d. for 6 weeks. Activity at 3 and 6 wks was assessed using a Disease Activity Index (DAI), derived from four categories: number of daily evacuations more than usual, evacuations containing blood, sigmoidoscopy appearance, and physician's overall assessment. Each category was graded 0-3. There was thus 0-12 points scored ranging from complete remission to severe disease. A minimum score of 3 from two categories was necessary for study entry. Of 27 patients randomized, 14 received active medication and 13 placebo. Of the 14 patients, with initial mean DAI 7.1 +/- 1.8, 11 were in complete remission at 6 wks (78.6%). Whereas, there was no significant change in the placebo group, with initial mean DAI 7.1 +/- 1.8. An additional 6 patients with inflammatory bowel disease and 6 healthy volunteers were given /sup 99m/Tc-labelled 5-aminosalicylic acid suppositories. The extent of spread was limited to the rectum, and the suppositories were retained for 3 hours. There was no absorbed radioactivity. 5-ASA suppositories are safe, well-tolerated, and effective treatment for active distal proctitis

  5. Double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of 5-ASA suppositories in active distal proctitis and measurement of extent of spread using /sup 99m/Tc-labeled 5-ASA suppositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, C.N.; Haber, G.; Aquino, J.A.

    1987-12-01

    Patients with active distal proctitis received either 5-aminosalicylic (5-ASA) acid or identical placebo suppositories, 500 mg t.i.d. for 6 weeks. Activity at 3 and 6 wks was assessed using a Disease Activity Index (DAI), derived from four categories: number of daily evacuations more than usual, evacuations containing blood, sigmoidoscopy appearance, and physician's overall assessment. Each category was graded 0-3. There was thus 0-12 points scored ranging from complete remission to severe disease. A minimum score of 3 from two categories was necessary for study entry. Of 27 patients randomized, 14 received active medication and 13 placebo. Of the 14 patients, with initial mean DAI 7.1 +/- 1.8, 11 were in complete remission at 6 wks (78.6%). Whereas, there was no significant change in the placebo group, with initial mean DAI 7.1 +/- 1.8. An additional 6 patients with inflammatory bowel disease and 6 healthy volunteers were given /sup 99m/Tc-labelled 5-aminosalicylic acid suppositories. The extent of spread was limited to the rectum, and the suppositories were retained for 3 hours. There was no absorbed radioactivity. 5-ASA suppositories are safe, well-tolerated, and effective treatment for active distal proctitis.

  6. PREPARATION, CHARACTERIZATION, AND PHARMACEUTICAL APPLICATION OF LINEAR DEXTRIN .3. DRUG-RELEASE FROM FATTY SUPPOSITORY BASES CONTAINING AMYLODEXTRIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TEWIERIK, GHP; EISSENS, AC; LERK, CF

    Drug release from fatty suppository bases containing a solid dispersion of diazepam with amylodextrin or a complex of prednisolone with amylodextrin was analyzed in a flow-through model. Being present as a suspension in the fatty base, particles of complex or solid dispersion are transported to the

  7. Rapidly disintegrating vagina retentive cream suppositories of progesterone: development, patient satisfaction and in vitro/in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendas, Ehab Rasmy; Basalious, Emad B

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to develop novel vagina retentive cream suppositories (VRCS) of progesterone having rapid disintegration and good vaginal retention. VRCS of progesterone were prepared using oil in water (o/w) emulsion of mineral oil or theobroma oil in hard fat and compared with conventional vaginal suppositories (CVS) prepared by hard fat. VRCS formulations were tested for content uniformity, disintegration, melting range, in vitro release and stability studies. The most stable formulation (VRCS I) was subjected to scaling-up manufacturing and patients' satisfaction test. The rapid disintegration, good retentive properties are applicable through the inclusion of emulsified theobroma oil rather than hydrophilic surfactant into the hard fat bases. The release profile of progesterone from VRCS I showed a biphasic pattern due to the formation of progesterone reservoir in the emulsified theobroma oil. All volunteers involved in patients' satisfaction test showed high satisfactory response to the tested formulation (VRCS). The in vivo pharmacokinetic study suggests that VRCS of progesterone provided higher rate and extent of absorption compared to hard fat based suppositories. Our results proposed that emulsified theobroma oil could be promising to solve the problems of poor patients' satisfaction and variability of drug absorption associated with hard fat suppositories.

  8. Evaluation of Hydrogel Suppositories for Delivery of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid and Hematoporphyrin Monomethyl Ether to Rectal Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xuying; Yin, Huijuan; Lu, Yu; Zhang, Haixia; Wang, Han

    2016-10-12

    We evaluated the potential utility of hydrogels for delivery of the photosensitizing agents 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME) to rectal tumors. Hydrogel suppositories containing ALA or HMME were administered to the rectal cavity of BALB/c mice bearing subcutaneous tumors of SW837 rectal carcinoma cells. For comparison, ALA and HMME were also administered by three common photosensitizer delivery routes; local administration to the skin and intratumoral or intravenous injection. The concentration of ALA-induced protoporphyrin IX or HMME in the rectal wall, skin, and subcutaneous tumor was measured by fluorescence spectrophotometry, and their distribution in vertical sections of the tumor was measured using a fluorescence spectroscopy system. The concentration of ALA-induced protoporphyrin IX in the rectal wall after local administration of suppositories to the rectal cavity was 9.76-fold (1 h) and 5.8-fold (3 h) higher than in the skin after cutaneous administration. The maximal depth of ALA penetration in the tumor was ~3-6 mm at 2 h after cutaneous administration. Much lower levels of HMME were observed in the rectal wall after administration as a hydrogel suppository, and the maximal depth of tumor penetration was <2 mm after cutaneous administration. These data show that ALA more readily penetrates the mucosal barrier than the skin. Administration of ALA as an intrarectal hydrogel suppository is thus a potential delivery route for photodynamic therapy of rectal cancer.

  9. Validation of analytical methods for the stability studies of naproxen suppositories for infant and adult use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Hernandez, Yaslenis; Suarez Perez, Yania; Garcia Pulpeiro, Oscar

    2011-01-01

    Analytical and validating studies were performed in this paper, with a view to using them in the stability studies of the future formulations of naproxen suppositories for children and adults. The most influential factors in the naproxen stability were determined, that is, the major degradation occurred in acid medium, oxidative medium and by light action. One high-performance liquid chromatography-based method was evaluated, which proved to be adequate to quantify naproxen in suppositories and was selective against degradation products. The quantification limit was 3,480 μg, so it was valid for these studies. Additionally, the parameters specificity for stability, detection and quantification limits were evaluated for the direct semi-aqueous acid-base method, which was formerly validated for the quality control and showed satisfactory results. Nevertheless, the volumetric methods were not regarded as stability indicators; therefore, this method will be used along with the chromatographic methods of choice, that is, thin-layer chromatography and highperformance liquid chromatography, to determine the degradation products

  10. Quantification of active ingredients in suppositories by FT-Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak, Roman; Mazurek, Sylwester

    2013-02-01

    An efficient method for the quantitative determination of acetaminophen (AAP) and diclofenac sodium (DS) in commercial suppositories based on partial least squares (PLS) treatment of FT-Raman spectra is described. The relative standard errors of prediction (RSEP) were calculated for calibration and validation data sets to evaluate the quality of the constructed models. In the case of DS determination, RSEP error values of 1.9 % and 2.3 % for the calibration and validation data sets, respectively, were found. For AAP these errors amounted to 1.6-2.3 % and 1.8-2.8 %, respectively, for the different calibration models. Four commercial preparations containing 5, 12.5, 16.7 and 33.3 % (w/w) AAP and one containing 5 % (w/w) DS were successfully quantified using the developed models. Concentrations derived from the developed models correlated strongly with the declared values and yielded recoveries of 99.4-100.2 % and 99.6 % for AAP and DS, respectively. The proposed procedure can be used as a fast, economic and reliable method for quantification of the active pharmaceutical ingredients in suppositories. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Treating Woman with Myo-Inositol Vaginal Suppositories Improves Partner’s Sperm Motility and Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Montanino Oliva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Motility is the feature that allows spermatozoa to actively reach and penetrate the female gamete during fertilization. When this function is altered, and especially decreased, troubles in conceiving may occur. In this study, we demonstrated that treating fertile women with myo-inositol (MI vaginal suppositories ameliorated their partners’ sperm motility and also positively affected their conceiving capacity, without changes in cervical mucus structural and biochemical characteristics. Indeed, by means of the postcoital test on female cervical mucus, a significant improvement especially in progressive sperm motility was recorded after MI suppository use. Concomitantly, after MI treatment, a reduction of immotile spermatozoa percentage was observed. Importantly, MI vaginal supplementation positively correlated with a pregnancy for 5 of the 50 couples enrolled in the study, leading us to speculate that this substance may substantially contribute to create in the cervical mucus an ideal milieu that makes spermatozoa more motile and functionally able to fertilize. Even though the detailed mechanism is still unclear, these results should encourage MI vaginal use for the clinical improvement of male infertility, through their partners.

  12. Efficacy and safety of mesalamine suppositories for treatment of ulcerative proctitis in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Melvin B; Kierkus, Jaroslaw; Spénard, Jean; Shbaklo, Hadia; Giguere, Monique

    2010-11-01

    Treatment of ulcerative proctitis has not been well studied in pediatric populations. We conducted an open-label trial to evaluate the clinical efficacy of a mesalamine suppository (500 mg) to treat pediatric patients with mild to moderate ulcerative proctitis. Pediatric patients (5-17 years of age) with ulcerative proctitis were enrolled for baseline evaluations, including a flexible sigmoidoscopic (or colonoscopic) assessment with biopsies performed at study entry. Eligible patients were started on mesalamine suppositories (500 mg) at bedtime. Two follow-up visits were scheduled after 3 and 6 weeks of treatment. The dose could be increased to 500 mg twice daily at the week 3 follow-up visit if deemed appropriate by the investigator based on the Disease Activity Index (DAI) assessment. The primary outcome measure was a DAI derived from a composite score of stool frequency, urgency of defecation, rectal bleeding, and general well-being. Forty-nine patients were included in the intent-to-treat analysis. The mean DAI value decreased from 5.5 at baseline to 1.6 and 1.5 at weeks 3 and 6, respectively (P children with ulcerative proctitis.

  13. [Russian experience with Vitaprost Forte suppositories in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms and benign prostatic hyperplasia: comparative analysis of studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneev, I A

    2017-07-01

    The article reviews the domestic studies showing the efficacy and safety of suppositories containing prostate extract (Samprost substance) Vitaprost Forte in treating men with lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia. The data obtained by Russian specialists confirm the effectiveness of Vitaprost Forte suppositories in managing patients with moderate LUTS and infravesical obstruction caused by BPH to reduce dysuria, improve the quality of life and normalize urodynamic parameters.

  14. Effects of indomethacin suppositories on serum amylase, inflammatory factors and immune function after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Bin Peng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effects of indomethacin suppositories on serum amylase, inflammatory factors and immune function after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP. Methods: A total of 85 patients with common bile duct stones or obstructive jaundice were divided into the observation group (n=45 and the control group (n=40 according to the different treatment methods, both two groups patients were treated with ERCP, patients in the observation group was given indomethacin suppositories 50 mg preoperative 30 min. Serum amylase, inflammatory factors and T cell subsets were detected preoperative, postoperative 6 h and postoperative 24 h. Inflammatory factors including interleukin -10 (IL-10, interleukin -6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-4 (IL-4. T cell subsets including CD3+ , CD4+ , CD8+ and calculated CD4+ / CD8+ . Results: In both two groups, postoperative 6 h, 24 h serum amylase were significantly higher than before surgery; in the observation group, the postoperative 6 h, 24 h serum amylase were significantly lower than in the control group at the same time point and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05. Both two groups’ postoperative 6 h, 24 h serum proinflammatory factor IL-6 and TNF-α increased first and then decreased, both were significantly higher than before surgery; both two groups’ postoperative 6 h, 24 h serum anti-inflammatory factor IL-10 and IL-4 gradually increased, both were significantly higher than before surgery, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05; In the observation group, antiinflammatory factor IL-10 and IL-4 significantly increased while pro-inflammatory factor IL-6 and TNF-α significantly decreased compared with the control group at the same time point 6 h and 24 h after surgery, the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P<0.05. Both two groups’ postoperative 6 h, 24 h T cell subsets CD3+ , CD4+ , CD4

  15. Randomised clinical trial: evaluation of the efficacy of mesalazine (mesalamine) suppositories in patients with ulcerative colitis and active rectal inflammation -- a placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, M; Nishino, H; Sameshima, Y; Ota, A; Nakamura, S; Hibi, T

    2013-08-01

    Mesalazine suppositories are recommended and widely used as the standard therapy in induction and maintenance of remission for proctitis. To evaluate the efficacy of mesalazine suppositories in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and rectal inflammation; and in patient groups categorised by the extent of lesions. This study was a phase III multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Mild-to-moderate UC patients with rectal inflammation were randomly assigned either a 1 g mesalazine or placebo suppository. The suppository was administered in the rectum once daily for 4 weeks. The primary efficacy end point was the rate of endoscopic remission (mucosal score of 0 or 1) after 4 weeks. The endoscopic remission rates after 4 weeks in the mesalazine and placebo suppository groups were 81.5% and 29.7%, respectively, and the superiority of mesalazine to placebo was confirmed (P suppositories in all types of UC patients with rectal inflammation was confirmed for the first time in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study (JapicCTI- 111421). © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Basics of compounding: Tips and hints: powders, capsules, tablets, suppositories, and sticks, part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Loyd V

    2014-01-01

    No matter the profession, professionals should never stop learning. This is especially true and important in the profession of compounding pharmacy. Compounding pharmacists are continuously faced with the challenge of finding new and inventive ways to assist patients with their individual and specific drug requirements. As compounding pharmacists learn, be it through formal continuing education or experience, they should be willing to share their knowledge with other compounders. In our goal of providing compounding pharmacists with additional knowledge to improve their skills in the art and practice of compounding, this article, which provides tips and hits on compounding with powders, capsules, tablets, suppositories, and sticks, represents the first in a series of articles to assist compounding pharmacists in the preparation of compounded medications.

  17. GC Method Validation for the Analysis of Menthol in Suppository Pharmaceutical Dosage Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad N. Abualhasan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Menthol is widely used as a fragrance and flavor in the food and cosmetic industries. It is also used in the medical and pharmaceutical fields for its various biological effects. Gas chromatography (GC is considered to be a sensitive method for the analysis of menthol. GC chromatographic separation was developed using capillary column (VF-624 and a flame ionization detector (FID. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines for various parameters such as precision, linearity, accuracy, solution stability, robustness, limit of detection, and quantification. The tested validation parameters were found to be within acceptable limits. The method was successfully applied for the quantification of menthol in suppositories formulations. Quality control departments and official pharmacopeias can use our developed method in the analysis of menthol in pharmaceutical dosage formulation and raw material.

  18. Comparison of artemisinin suppositories, intramuscular artesunate and intravenous quinine for the treatment of severe childhood malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, X T; Bethell, D B; Pham, T P; Ta, T T; Tran, T N; Nguyen, T T; Pham, T T; Nguyen, T T; Day, N P; White, N J

    1997-01-01

    Severe malaria remains a major cause of mortality and morbidity for children living in many tropical regions. With the emergence of strains of Plasmodium falciparum resistant to both chloroquine and quinine, alternative antimalarial agents are required. The artemisinin group of compounds are rapidly effective in severe disease when given by intramuscular or intravenous injection. However, these routes of administration are not always available in rural areas. In an open, randomized comparison 109 Vietnamese children, aged between 3 months and 14 years, with severe P.falciparum malaria, were allocated at random to receive artemisinin suppositories followed by mefloquine (n = 37), intramuscular artesunate followed by mefloquine (n = 37), or intravenous quinine followed by pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine (n = 35). There were 9 deaths: 2 artemisinin, 4 artesunate and 5 quinine-treated children. There was no difference in fever clearance time, coma recovery, or length of hospital stay among the 3 groups. However, parasite clearance times were significantly faster in artemisinin and artesunate-treated patients than in those who received quinine (P children receiving these drugs had lower peripheral reticulocyte counts by day 5 of treatment than those in the quinine group (P = 0.011). No other adverse effect or toxicity was found. There was no treatment failure in these 2 groups, but 4 patients in the quinine group failed to clear their parasites within 7 d of starting treatment and required alternative antimalarial therapy. Artemisinin suppositories are easy to administer, cheap, and very effective for treating children with severe malaria. In rural areas where medical facilities are lacking these drugs will allow antimalarial therapy to be instituted earlier in the course of the disease and may therefore save lives.

  19. In vitro release of ketoprofen suppositories using the USP basket and the flow-through cell dissolution methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, José Raúl; Padilla, Adrián Roberto; Hurtado, Marcela; Cortés, Alma Rosa; Domínguez-Ramírez, Adriana Miriam

    2014-05-01

    In order to study the release characteristics of ketoprofen suppositories under the hydrodynamic environment generated by USP Apparatus 1 and 4, the dissolution profiles of the Mexican reference product (100 mg) were determined. Phosphate buffer pH 8 and 1% sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) aqueous solutions were proved as dissolution mediums. Baskets were rotated at 100 rpm with USP Apparatus 1 and different flow rates from 16-32 mL/min with USP Apparatus 4 were used. Drug samples were taken and quantified during 60 min by UV analysis at 260 nm. Mean dissolution time (MDT) and dissolution efficiency (DE) were calculated by model-independent methods. Data were also fitted to several kinetic models. Poor dissolution was found in both dissolution mediums when USP basket method was used ( 0.99). The results suggest the need to establish an adequate dissolution method to evaluate the release kinetics of ketoprofen from suppositories.

  20. [Application possibilities of dynamic laser light scattering photometry for the examination of poly(ethylene glycol) suppositories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bácskay, I; Kéki, S; Deák, G; Zsuga, M; Mezey, G

    2001-08-01

    Status epilepticus is one of the most common neurologic emergencies in children, adolescents, and young adults. The advantage of diazepam suppository in medicinal therapy appears mainly in treatment of childhood epilepsy. A hydrophilic suppository base was investigated in solution by dynamic light scattering and results were compared to those of the membrane diffusion experiments measuring diazepam solubilization. According to the dynamic laser light scattering photometric measurements, the good solubilization effect of the macrogol mixture (5% Polysorbatum 20, 10% Macrogolum 400, 85% Macrogolum 1540) is explained by the formation of small, tight micellas. As the Polysorbatum 20 tenside resulted in the significant decrease (p < 0.05) of the formation of great micellas, its use led to the formation of small, tight, almost monodisperse micellas of 40-50 nm in the aqueous solution of the macrogol mixture.

  1. Nondestructive prediction of oren extract powder, a herbal medicine, in suppositories by chemometric near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraoka, Ryutaro; Abe, Hiroyuki; Sugama, Tadaaki; Ito, Kiyomi; Aburada, Masaki; Otsuka, Makoto

    2012-04-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics has been utilized in predictions of natural medicine content without destroying samples. Suppositories (oren powdered extract content 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 10, 12.5, and 15%) were produced by mixing oren powdered extract with macrogol mixture consisting of 1 part macrogol 1500 and 2.5 parts macrogol 4000 at 54°C, and pouring the melt mixture into a plastic container. NIR spectra of the 10 prepared samples were recorded 10 times, and a total of 100 spectra were randomly divided into two data sets, one for calibration and the other for validation. The calibration model for the oren content of the suppository was calculated based on NIR spectra using a partial least-squares regression analysis after pre-treatment (smoothing and the multiplicative scatter correction). The relationship between the actual and predicted values for calibration and validation models had a straight line with correlation coefficients of 0.9936 and 0.9898, respectively. The regression vector result of the calibration model indicates that the peaks at 6945, 5747, and 5160 cm(-1) in the regression vector were consistent with those in oren powder extracts. NIR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics offers promise as a method of predicting the oren powder content in suppositories without destroying the samples.

  2. Enduring large use of acetaminophen suppositories for fever management in children: a national survey of French parents and healthcare professionals' practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertille, Nathalie; Fournier-Charrière, Elisabeth; Pons, Gérard; Khoshnood, Babak; Chalumeau, Martin

    2016-07-01

    The pharmacological specificities of the rectal formulation of acetaminophen led to a debate on its appropriateness for managing fever in children, but few data are available on the formulation's current use and determinants of use. In a national cross-sectional study between 2007 and 2008, healthcare professionals were asked to include five consecutive patients with acute fever. Among the 6255 children (mean age 4.0 years ± 2.8 SD) who received acetaminophen given by parents or prescribed/recommended by healthcare professionals, determinants of suppository use were studied by multilevel models. A suppository was given by 27 % of parents and prescribed/recommended by 19 % of healthcare professionals, by 24 and 16 %, respectively, for children 2 to 5 years old, and by 13 and 8 %, respectively, for those 6 to 12 years old. Among children who received suppositories from parents and healthcare professionals, 83 and 84 %, respectively, did not vomit. Suppository use was independently associated with several patient- and healthcare professional-level characteristics: young age of children, presence of vomiting, or lack of diarrhea. We report an enduring large use of suppositories in France for the symptomatic management of fever in children, including in non-vomiting and/or older children. The rational for such use should be questioned. • The pharmacological specificities of the rectal formulation of acetaminophen have led to a debate on its appropriateness for managing fever in children. Few data are available on the formulation's current use and determinants of the use. What is New: • In a national cross-sectional study, we observed a large use of suppositories in France for symptomatic management of fever in children. Suppositories were frequently used for the youngest children but also for older and/or non-vomiting children.

  3. Comparative clinical trial of artesunate suppositories and oral artesunate in combination with mefloquine in the treatment of children with acute falciparum malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabchareon, A; Attanath, P; Chanthavanich, P; Phanuaksook, P; Prarinyanupharb, V; Poonpanich, Y; Mookmanee, D; Teja-Isavadharm, P; Heppner, D G; Brewer, T G; Chongsuphajaisiddhi, T

    1998-01-01

    A randomized pilot study to compare the safety and efficacy of artesunate suppositories (15 mg/kg/day for three days) versus oral artesunate (6 mg/kg/day for three days), both in combination with mefloquine (25 mg/kg), was conducted in 52 Thai children with uncomplicated multidrug-resistant falciparum malaria. Forty-five patients (87%) had a full 28-day follow-up in the hospital to assess efficacy and exclude reinfection. Mean [range] times to fever clearance of the two groups were similar (42 hr [15-104] versus 42 hr [6-119]). Artesunate suppositories resulted in significantly longer times to achieve 50% and 90% reductions of the initial parasite counts (17 and 26 hr versus 9 and 15 hr; P suppositories group (42 hr [14-93] versus 35 hr [16-69]), but the difference was not significant. The cure rates by days 28 were not significantly different, 92% for artesunate suppository-treated patients and 100% for oral artesunate-treated patients. Both drug regimens are safe and effective. Further studies are needed to characterize the pharmacokinetic properties and the optimum regimen of artesunate suppositories for the treatment of severe malaria.

  4. Shape of vaginal suppositories affects willingness-to-try and preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bangde; Zaveri, Toral; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2013-03-01

    HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a global threat to public health that may be countered, in part, by microbicides. A successful microbicide must be both biologically efficacious and highly acceptable to users. Sensory attributes have a direct influence on product acceptability. We created a series of vaginal suppositories appropriate for use as microbicides to investigate the influence of shape on women's willingness-to-try. The influence of perceived size and firmness on acceptability was also assessed. Sexually-active women (n=99) were invited to participate in an evaluation of vaginal suppositories in 5 different shapes including: Bullet, Long Oval, Round Oval, Teardrop and Tampon. The volume (3mL) and formulation for these five prototypes were identical. After manipulating prototypes ex vivo (in their hands), participants rated their willingness-to-try on a 100-point visual analog scale. The appropriateness of size and firmness were evaluated using 5-point just-about-right (JAR) scales. Each participant evaluated all five prototypes individually. Samples were presented in a counterbalanced monadic sequence using a Williams design. Mean willingness-to-try varied by shape, with Bullet and Long Oval receiving significantly higher scores. This was consistent with JAR data for size, as 70% and 65% of women indicated these shapes were 'just-about-right', respectively. In contrast, a minority of women endorsed the other 3 shapes as having a size that was 'just-about-right'. The proportion of women who felt the firmness was 'just-about-right' was uniformly high, irrespective of shape, suggesting prior attempts to optimize the formula were successful. Perceptions of size and firmness were influenced by the physical length and width of the prototypes, in spite of having constant volume. Women showed high willingness-to-try when asked to assume they were at risk. These results are relevant for behavioral and formulation scientists working on

  5. In Vitro Activity of Tea Tree Oil Vaginal Suppositories against Candida spp. and Probiotic Vaginal Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vito, Maura; Mattarelli, Paola; Modesto, Monica; Girolamo, Antonietta; Ballardini, Milva; Tamburro, Annunziata; Meledandri, Marcello; Mondello, Francesca

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the in vitro microbicidal activity of vaginal suppositories (VS) containing tea tree oil (TTO-VS) towards Candida spp. and vaginal probiotics. A total of 20 Candida spp. strains, taken from patients with vaginitis and from an established type collection, including reference strains, were analysed by using the CLSI microdilution method. To study the action of VS towards the beneficial vaginal microbiota, the sensitivity of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (DSM 10140) and Lactobacillus spp. (Lactobacillus casei R-215 and Lactobacillus acidophilus R-52) was tested. Both TTO-VS and TTO showed fungicidal activity against all strains of Candida spp. whereas placebo-VS or the Aloe gel used as controls were ineffective. The study of fractional fungicidal concentrations (FFC) showed synergistic interaction with the association between Amphotericin B and TTO (0.25 to 0.08 µg/ml, respectively) against Candida albicans. Instead, the probiotics were only affected by TTO concentration ≥ 4% v/v, while, at concentrations vaginal microbiota. In vivo studies are needed to confirm the efficacy to prevent acute or recurrent vaginal candidiasis. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Reduction of postoperative nausea and vomiting by dimenhydrinate suppositories after strabismus surgery in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welters, I D; Menges, T; Gräf, M; Beikirch, C; Menzebach, A; Hempelmann, G

    2000-02-01

    Although dimenhydrinate has been used for treatment and prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) since the fifties, there have been few controlled studies about its efficacy. We performed a double-blinded study of 301 children aged 4 to 10 yr who underwent strabismus surgery. Preanesthetic medication with midazolam (0.5 mg/kg) as well as application of either dimenhydrinate suppositories or a placebo preparation was performed 30 min before the induction of anesthesia. Anesthesia was induced with thiopentone (5-10 mg/kg) and vecuronium (0.1 mg/kg) and maintained with halothane (1%-2%) in N(2)O/O(2) (65%/35%). The incidence of PONV, requirements for rescue dimenhydrinate, and time to recovery were recorded. The overall incidence of PONV was 60.1% in the placebo group and 30.7% in the dimenhydrinate group. In the dimenhydrinate group, children had to be observed in the recovery room significantly longer than those in the placebo group. Children having received dimenhydrinate were discharged from the recovery room with lower arousal scores. We conclude that the rectal administration of dimenhydrinate is effective for the prevention of PONV, although the sedative effect may require longer postoperative monitoring. We performed a double-blinded, randomized study to investigate the effects of prophylactic rectal dimenhydrinate application on postoperative nausea and vomiting in children undergoing strabismus surgery. In comparison with placebo, dimenhydrinate reduced the incidence of postoperative vomiting from 60.1% to 30.7%.

  7. Clinical evaluation of high dose rate intra-cavitary irradiation for treatment of uterine cervical cancer, combined with pepleomycin suppository in uterine cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanashi, Shunji; Abe, Tatsuyuki; Mochizuki, Sachio; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Iida, Nobuhisa.

    1990-01-01

    By means of re-irradiation using pepleomycin suppository in uterine cavity, we attained local control for one patient who had local recurrence in uterine cavity and suffered from uterine fluor in which viable cancer cells were confirmed. We were enlightened by this therapeutic experience, so we attempted combination therapy using pepleomycin suppositories to supplement intra-cavitary irradiation, for the 11 selected patients who were suffering from uterine fluor. We investigated the treatment results in 7 patients of stage III out of 11 patients (of all stages), in comparison with 13 patients of stage III who were treated by irradiation alone. Consequently, these treatment results were approximately equivalent, and the incidence of sigmoid complications could be decreased. Side effects which were followed by the combination therapy were not serious, and so we believe that pepleomycin suppository is a simple method and valuable to supplement radiation therapy of uterine cervical cancer. (author)

  8. Clinical evaluation of high dose rate intra-cavitary irradiation for treatment of uterine cervical cancer, combined with pepleomycin suppository in uterine cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanashi, Shunji; Abe, Tatsuyuki; Mochizuki, Sachio (Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine); Murakami, Yoshitaka; Iida, Nobuhisa

    1990-02-01

    By means of re-irradiation using pepleomycin suppository in uterine cavity, we attained local control for one patient who had local recurrence in uterine cavity and suffered from uterine fluor in which viable cancer cells were confirmed. We were enlightened by this therapeutic experience, so we attempted combination therapy using pepleomycin suppositories to supplement intra-cavitary irradiation, for the 11 selected patients who were suffering from uterine fluor. We investigated the treatment results in 7 patients of stage III out of 11 patients (of all stages), in comparison with 13 patients of stage III who were treated by irradiation alone. Consequently, these treatment results were approximately equivalent, and the incidence of sigmoid complications could be decreased. Side effects which were followed by the combination therapy were not serious, and so we believe that pepleomycin suppository is a simple method and valuable to supplement radiation therapy of uterine cervical cancer. (author).

  9. Comparison of efficacies of vegetable oil based and polyethylene glycol based bisacodyl suppositories in treating patients with neurogenic bowel dysfunction after spinal cord injury: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhu; Jie, Cheng; Wenyi, Zhang; Bin, Xie; Hongzhu, Jin

    2014-10-01

    We performed a meta-analysis to compare the efficacies of vegetable oil based bisacodyl (VOB) and polyethylene glycol based bisacodyl (PGB) suppositories in treating patients with neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD) after spinal cord injury (SCI). Relevant clinical studies (up to February 2014) were retrieved through the following databases: PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CCTR), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), Wanfang, and VIP database for Chinese Technical Periodicals. Data were analyzed using the standardized weighted mean difference (SMD) and its 95% confidence interval (CI). P-values 0.05) between patients in the PGB and VOB groups. Based on the results, we conclude that the PGB suppository could act faster than the VOB suppository in the treatment of NBD in patients with SCI.

  10. The application of γ-scintigraphy for the evaluation of the relative spreading of suppository bases in rectal hard gelatin capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, J.G.; Wood, E.; Feely, L.C.; Davis, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    The relative spreading of suppository base and incorporated suspension in the rectum of human subjects has been followed using the technique of γ-scintigraphy. Suppositories formulated from a surfactant system, Labrafil WL2514, and a standard triglyceride base, Witepsol H15, did not spread to a particularly great extent. When spreading did occur the movement of the base did not necessarily lead to a similar spreading of the suspended material. Such separation of suspended material from the base was greater for the surfactant system than for the simple triglyceride system. 10 refs.; 8 figs

  11. Enemas, suppositories and rectal stimulation are not effective in accelerating enteral feeding or meconium evacuation in low-birthweight infants: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphorst, Kim; Sietsma, Ydelette; Brouwer, Annemieke J; Rood, Paul J T; van den Hoogen, Agnes

    2016-11-01

    Early full enteral feeding in preterm infants decreases morbidity and mortality. Our systematic review covered the effectiveness of rectal stimulation, suppositories and enemas on stooling patterns and feeding tolerance in low-birthweight infants born at up to 32 weeks. It comprised seven studies published between 2007 and 2014 and covered 495 infants. Suppositories were ineffective in shortening the time to reach full enteral feeding, and the evidence on enemas was contradictory. Enemas and rectal stimulation did not shorten the time until complete meconium evacuation was reached. Further research into safe, effective interventions to accelerate meconium excretion is needed. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Systemic uptake of miconazole during vaginal suppository use and effect on CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 associated enzyme activities in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærstad, Mia Birkhøj; Nielsen, Flemming; Nøhr-Jensen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    To investigate if the ordinary use of a vaginal suppository containing miconazole results in systemic absorption that is sufficient to affect the activities of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4, which are major drug- and steroid-metabolising enzymes.......To investigate if the ordinary use of a vaginal suppository containing miconazole results in systemic absorption that is sufficient to affect the activities of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4, which are major drug- and steroid-metabolising enzymes....

  13. Observation on the efficacy of Etiasa in combined with mesalazine suppository in the treatment of ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the clinical effect of Etiasa (mesalazine slow-release granules in combined with mesalazine suppository in the treatment of ulcerative colitis and the medication safety. Methods: A total of 82 patients with ulcerative colitis who were admitted in our hospital from June, 2013 to January, 2015 were included in the study and randomized into the observation group (n=42 and the control group (n=40. The patients in the two groups were orally given Etiasa. The patients in the observation group were given additional mesalazine suppository. Medication for 4-6 weeks was regarded as one course. The symptom relieving, the total remission rate of mucosal lesions after one course, the change of DAI 3 and 6 months after treatment, and the serum IL-8 and IL-10 levels before and after treatment in the two groups were compared. Results: The comparison of quantitative scoring of clinical efficacy and DAI before treatment between the two groups was not statistically significant. The above indicators after treatment in the observation group were significantly reduced and the reduced degree was significantly greater than that in the control group. The total effective rate in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group. IL-8 level after treatment in the observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group, while IL-10 level was significantly higher than that in the control group. The comparison of the occurrence rate of adverse reactions during the treatment process between the two groups was not statistically significant. Conclusions: Etiasa in combined with mesalazine suppository in the treatment of ulcerative colitis can increase the local drug concentration, and correct the imbalance of anti-inflammatory cytokines and proinflammatory cytokines, with a significant efficacy.

  14. Preoperative Belladonna and Opium Suppository for Ureteral Stent Pain: A Randomized, Double-blinded, Placebo-controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Franklin C; Holt, Sarah K; Hsi, Ryan S; Haynes, Brandon M; Harper, Jonathan D

    2017-02-01

    To investigate whether the use of a belladonna and opium (B&O) rectal suppository administered immediately before ureteroscopy (URS) and stent placement could reduce stent-related discomfort. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was performed from August 2013 to December 2014. Seventy-one subjects were enrolled and randomized to receive a B&O (15 mg/30 mg) or a placebo suppository after induction of general anesthesia immediately before URS and stent placement. Baseline urinary symptoms were assessed using the American Urological Association Symptom Score (AUASS). The Ureteral Stent Symptom Questionnaire and AUASS were completed on postoperative days (POD) 1, 3, and after stent removal. Analgesic use intraoperatively, in the recovery unit, and at home was recorded. Of the 71 subjects, 65 had treatment for ureteral (41%) and renal (61%) calculi, 4 for renal urothelial carcinoma, and 2 were excluded for no stent placed. By POD3, the B&O group reported a higher mean global quality of life (QOL) score (P = .04), a better mean quality of work score (P = .05), and less pain with urination (P = .03). The B&O group reported an improved AUASS QOL when comparing POD1 with post-stent removal (P = .04). There was no difference in analgesic use among groups (P = .67). There were no episodes of urinary retention. Age was associated with unplanned emergency visits (P <.00) and "high-pain" measure (P = .02) CONCLUSION: B&O suppository administered preoperatively improved QOL measures and reduced urinary-related pain after URS with stent. Younger age was associated with severe stent pain and unplanned hospital visits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The regeneration of rectal epithelium in the rat following wounding with suppositories of polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holyhead, E. M.; Thomas, N. W.; Wilson, C. G.

    1983-01-01

    The regeneration of the epithelial compartments of the rectal mucosa in rats has been quantified at time intervals up to one week following wounding with suppositories of the surfactant polyoxyethylene-(23)-lauryl ether. Regeneration of glandular tissue was complete within one week of the wounding, with new glands arising from residual gland bases and from surface invagination of empty crypt skeletons and underlying granulation tissue. This method of wounding appears to be particularly useful for the study of epithelial regeneration since there was a minimal connective tissue response to the insult. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Figs 4 and 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6615712

  16. Preoperative combination therapy of 5-fluorouracil suppository and radiation for carcinoma of the rectum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizusawa, Hirokazu

    1986-01-01

    The effect of adjuvant preoperative treatments with radiation and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on rectal carcinomas was investigated. The radiation therapy was administered in the area including the rectum and regional lymph nodes up to the level of the promontorium with 10 doses of 300 rad in three-week periods (a total dose of 3,000 rad). The suppository containing 100 mg of 5-FU was given intrarectally twice daily in the same period (a total dose of 4,000 mg of 5-FU). The surgical procedure with either abdominoperineal excision or anterior resection was performed within 14 days after the last preoperative treatment. The resected specimens were examined microscopically. The mean thickness of excised tumor-free tissue around the rectal wall having the most extended tumor growth was 6.2 mm in 16 patients receiving the treatment with radiation and 5-FU, 3.9 mm in 31 patients with 5-FU alone and 3.7 mm in 19 patients without preoperative treatments. Lymph node metastases were detected in 3 of 17 patients (19 %) with radiation and 5-FU, in 18 of 33 patients (55 %) with 5-FU alone, and in 11 of 24 patients (46 %) without preoperative treatments. The extensive degenerative pictures of cancer cells such as nuclear picnosis, and the growth of collagen fibers in carcinoma foci were observed in resected specimens with radiation and 5-FU treatments. Those findings suggest that preoperative adjuvant therapy with moderate dose of radiation and 5-FU affected significantly rectal carcinomas. There were no adverse effects. It seems likely, thus, that this combined therapy could prevent postoperative local or intrapelvic recurrence, which was the most frequent form of recurrence after curative surgery in rectal cancer. (author)

  17. Clinical experience of Scheriproct suppository to rectal hemorrhage following radiotherapy for cancer of the cervix uteri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasamatsu, Tatsuhiro

    1977-01-01

    Scheriproct suppository was used in 25 cases of radiation rectal hemorrhage induced after a little while from irradiation to the patients with cancer of the cervix uteri. As to the stage of cancer of the cervix uteri at the first administration of this drug, the first stage was 2 cases, the second stage, 10, and third stage, 13. The age of the patients ranged from 30 to 70 years old. The administration to severe cases was performed 1-2 times per a day, and, when severe cases were improved, the administration was performed once per a day. When the stage of disease was improved further, this drug was used only for hemorrhage. With respect to the degree of hemorrhage when the administration started, 17 cases did not induce anemia (+), and 8 cases needed to be administered iron (++). As a result of administration of this drug, 20 cases showed decrease of the amount of hemorrhage, 4 cases did not show any change, and one case showed aggravation. In 17 cases of (+), 14 cases showed decrease of hemorrhage, 2 cases showed no change, and one case showed aggravation. In 8 cases of (++), 6 cases showed decrease of hemorrhage, and 2 cases were unchanged. 11 cases showed decrease of hemorrhage within 3 months after the administration, 7 cases, within 3 to 6 months, 1 case, within 6 to 9 months, and 1 case, within 9 to 12 months. One case of aggravation changed from (+) to (++) after five months of the administration, but further aggravation was not recognized. (Kanao, N.)

  18. Enemas, suppositories and rectal stimulation are not effective in accelerating enteral feeding or meconium evacuation in low-birthweight infants : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphorst, Kim; Sietsma, Ydelette; Brouwer, Annemieke J; Rood, Paul J T; van den Hoogen, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    Early full enteral feeding in preterm infants decreases morbidity and mortality. Our systematic review covered the effectiveness of rectal stimulation, suppositories and enemas on stooling patterns and feeding tolerance in low-birthweight infants born at up to 32 weeks. It comprised seven studies

  19. COMPARING THE EFFECT OF INTRAMUSCULAR INJETION OF PETHIDINE AND DICLOFENAC SUPPOSITORY IN RELIEF OF PAIN FOLLOWING LAMINECTOMY SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R Emamhadi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available "nPain, particularly after surgery, can create a variety of side effects including delay in wound healing. Different drugs such as pethidine and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used for relieving patient's pain after surgery. The purpose of this research was to compare effect of pethidine vs. diclofenac (D suppository in relief of pain after laminectomy. A total of 100 patients who underwent laminectomy entered this study. They were divided into pethidine and diclofenac groups. The patients' pain score was measured with visual analog scale (VAS method. The mean pain score 24 hours after surgery was 2.8 ± 2.0 in pethidine group and 4.46 ± 2.30 in diclofenac group. There was a significant statistical difference between pain score after surgery in two groups (P < 0.05. Nausea was the most common side effect observed in pethidine group (20% and epigastric pain was the most common one in diclofenac group (18%. There wasn't any statistical significant difference between side effects in these two groups. It seems that pethidine injection is more effective than diclofenac suppository in relieving pain after laminectomy.

  20. Pediatric suppositories of sulpiride solid dispersion for treatment of Tourette syndrome: in vitro and in vivo investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Ahmed S; Emam, Sherif E; Shehata, Tamer M; Ghazy, Fakhr-eldin S

    2015-06-01

    Pharmaceutical development was adopted in the current study to propose a pediatric rectal formulation of sulpiride as a substitute to the available oral or parenteral formulations in the management of Tourette syndrome (TS). The goal was to formulate a product that is easy to use, stable, and highly bioavailable and to achieve a rapid clinical efficacy. Towards this aim, sulpiride solid dispersion (SD) with tartaric acid at a weight ratio of 1:0.25 was incorporated into different suppository bases, namely witepsol W25, witepsol H15, witepsol E75, suppocire NA, suppocire A, glycerogelatin, and polyethylene glycols. The formulae were evaluated in vitro using different pharmacotechnical methods such as visual, melting, weight and content uniformities, drug release, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. In vivo bioavailability was also assessed in rabbits to compare the bioavailability of either raw sulpiride-incorporated or its SD-incorporated witepsol H15-based suppositories to its oral suspension (reference). Sulpiride SD-incorporated witepsol H15 formulation showed acceptable in vitro characteristics with a bioavailability of 117% relative to oral dosing, which excel that in humans (27% after dosing of oral product). In addition, the proposed formula not only passed the 6-month stability study but also proposed a promising scale-up approach. Hence, it showed a great potential for pediatric product development to manage TS in rural areas.

  1. An observational study of the use of beclomethasone dipropionate suppositories in the treatment of lower urinary tract inflammation in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzini, Giorgio; Provenzano, Marco; Buffi, Nicolò; Seveso, Mauro; Lughezzani, Giovanni; Guazzoni, Giorgio; Mandressi, Alberto; Taverna, Gianluigi

    2016-06-08

    Nonbacterial prostatitis, together with chronic pelvic pain syndrome, accounts for 90-95 % of prostatitis cases. Anti-inflammatory medications are commonly used to reduce storage/inflammatory symptoms that can deteriorate quality of life. The purpose of this study was to observe the efficacy and safety of beclomethasone dipropionate rectal suppositories (Topster®) in inflammations of the lower urinary tract in men. Patients underwent diagnostic and therapeutic protocols according to current evidence-based practice. Efficacy assessments: voiding parameters, perineal pain, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), digital rectal examination (DRE). Adverse events and patient compliance were recorded throughout the study. One hundred eighty patients were enrolled, mean age 52 ± 14.97. Most frequent diagnosis: nonbacterial prostatitis (85 %). All patients completed visits 1 and 2. All patients were treated with beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) suppositories, 136/180 also with Serenoa repens (SR) extract. Antibiotics were rarely required. 162/180 patients presented clinically significant improvements and terminated treatment. Mean change vs. baseline in voiding frequency: -3.55 ± 2.70 n/day in patients taking only BDP and -3.68 ± 2.81 n/day in those taking both BDP and SR (Psuppositories.

  2. Safety and therapeutic efficacy of artesunate suppositories for treatment of malaria in children in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunajeewa, Harin A; Kemiki, Adedayo; Alpers, Michael P; Lorry, Kerry; Batty, Kevin T; Ilett, Kenneth F; Davis, Timothy M

    2003-03-01

    Although suppositories of artemisinin derivatives may be a valuable option for treatment of malaria in children when circumstances prevent oral and parenteral therapy, few confirmatory data have been published. We assessed the safety and efficacy of rectal artesunate in 47 children ages 5 to 10 years with uncomplicated malaria acquired in a hyperendemic area of Papua New Guinea. Thirty were symptomatic and had Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia >2000/microl (Group 1), 12 had and either a parasitemia suppositories were well-tolerated. After 24 h only one child (from Group 1) had persistent parasitemia, and only one (from Group 3) had not defervesced. These two children received intramuscular quinine and recovered uneventfully. Three Group 2 children redeveloped fever and tachycardia at 24 h, but each responded to simple supportive measures and remained aparasitemic. Intrarectal artesunate is safe, effective initial treatment for uncomplicated malaria in children. A transient fever spike can sometimes occur after parasite clearance. We recommend that children with uncomplicated malaria receive two doses of > or =10 mg/kg rectal artesunate within the first 24 h.

  3. Use of mesalazine slow release suppositories 1 g three times per week to maintain remission of ulcerative proctitis: a randomised double blind placebo controlled multicentre study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteau, P; Crand, J; Foucault, M; Rambaud, J

    1998-01-01

    Background—Daily administration of rectal formulations of mesalazine is effective in preventing relapse of ulcerative proctitis. Maintenance of remission with lower doses would be an advantage. 
Aim—The efficacy of mesalazine suppositories (Pentasa) 1 g three times a week v placebo to maintain remission in patients with cryptogenetic proctitis was studied. 
Methods—Ninety five patients with cryptogenetic proctitis were randomised within two weeks of remission to receive for one year or until relapse three suppositories per week of either Pentasa (n=48) or placebo (n=47). In the case of a relapse, the patients received one suppository/day. 
Results—It was found that 25 of 48 subjects v 18 of 47 remained in remission in the mesalazine and placebo groups respectively. The relapse rate was lower in the mesalazine group for the following time intervals: 0-90 days (19% v 38%, p=0.035), 0-180 days (29% v 54%, p=0.017), 0-270 days (38% v 60%, p=0.031), and 0-365 days (48% v 62%, p=0.18). Treatment of relapse with one suppository/day induced remission in 11 of 18 and 2 of 26 patients in the mesalazine and placebo groups respectively (p=0.001). Overall, 61% v 28% patients remained in the protocol and were in remission at one year (p=0.001). Tolerance was good. 
Conclusion—Mesalazine suppositories 1 g three times a week are effective for preventing relapses of cryptogenetic proctitis. Increasing the dose to 1 g/day is effective in a high proportion of subjects who relapsed. 

 Keywords: inflammatory bowel disease; mesalazine; 5-aminosalicylic acid; topical treatments; proctitis PMID:9536943

  4. A randomized controlled trial of foley catheter, extra-amniotic saline infusion and prostaglandin e2 suppository for labor induction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Mansour Ghanaie

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to further compare the efficacy of PGE2 suppository, the intracervical foley catheter and extra-amniotic saline infusion in nulliparous women referred for labor induction.Totally 368 nulliparous women with a Bishop score ≤ 4 with singleton gestation, vertex presentation and intact membrane referred for labor induction were randomly assigned to 3 groups; Foley catheter alone, Extra-amniotic saline infusion (EASI and PGE2 suppository. All women received concurrent dilute oxytocine infusion. The change in the Bishop Score, labor progress, various labor endpoints and outcomes of labor were assessed.From 363 women studied after exclusion of 5, 119 were assigned to EASI, 121 to Foley and 118 to PGE2. Patients' demographics did not differ significantly between three groups nor did indication for induction (P = 0.0001. The EASI group had a significant improvement in Bishop Score 6 hours after induction. The mean time to active phase was 357±135min for EASI,457±178 for Foley and 609±238 min for PGE2 group respectively (P < 0.05.rate of spontaneous rupture of membranes was higher in the EASI group (P = 0.0001 and the mean time from the start of induction up to spontaneous rupture of membranes in the EASI group was shorter than other group(P < 0.05. The mean time to vaginal delivery was 14.8±6.1 in EASI group,11.4±4.8 in Foley and 18.9±6.4 in PGE2 group(P < 0.05.there were no differences in Apgar scores, mean neonatal birth weight and neonatal morbidity.Our study showed that pre-induction cervical ripening by EASI with concurrent oxytocin is better than Foley and PGE2 in Bishop score and various labor end point and outcomes.

  5. Impact of Probiotic SYNBIO(®) Administered by Vaginal Suppositories in Promoting Vaginal Health of Apparently Healthy Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdenelli, Maria Cristina; Cecchini, Cinzia; Coman, Maria Magdalena; Silvi, Stefania; Orpianesi, Carla; Coata, Giuliana; Cresci, Alberto; Di Renzo, Gian Carlo

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether vaginal administration of probiotic Lactobacillus results in their colonization and persistence in the vagina and whether it promotes normalization and maintenance of pH and Nugent score. A single-arm, open-label controlled towards the baseline (pre-post) study including 35 apparently healthy women was conducted. Each woman was examined three times during the study. Women were instructed to receive daily for 7 days, the probiotic suppositories SYNBIO(®) gin (Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501(®) and Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502(®)). Vaginal swabs were collected during visit 1, 2, and 3 to determine the total lactobacilli count, the presence of the two administered bacteria, the measure of the pH, and the estimation of Nugent score. Evaluation of treatment tolerability was based on analysis of the type and occurrence of adverse events. The probiotic vaginal suppository was well tolerated and no side effects were reported. Intermediate Nugent score was registered in 40 % of women at visit 1 and these intermediate scores reverted to normal at day 7 (end of treatment) in 20 % of subjects. Administration of SYNBIO(®) gin contributed to a significant increase in the lactobacilli level at visit 2. Molecular typing revealed the presence of the two strains originating from SYNBIO(®) gin in 100 % of women at visit 2 and 34 % at visit 3. No significant changes were registered for pH between visits. The SYNBIO(®) gin product is safe for daily use in healthy women and it could be useful to restore and maintain a normal vaginal microbiota.

  6. Disposition of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin after administration of artesunate suppositories in children from Papua New Guinea with uncomplicated malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunajeewa, Harin A; Ilett, Kenneth F; Dufall, Kitiya; Kemiki, Adedayo; Bockarie, Moses; Alpers, Michael P; Barrett, P Hugh; Vicini, Paolo; Davis, Timothy M E

    2004-08-01

    A detailed pharmacokinetic analysis was performed with 47 children from Papua New Guinea with uncomplicated falciparum or vivax malaria treated with artesunate (ARTS) suppositories (Rectocaps) given in two doses of approximately 13 mg/kg of body weight 12 h apart. Following an intensive sampling protocol, samples were assayed for ARTS and its primary active metabolite, dihydroartemisinin (DHA), by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed to describe the data. Following administration of the first dose, the mean maximal concentrations of ARTS and DHA were 1,085 nmol/liter at 0.9 h and 2,525 nmol/liter at 2.3 h, respectively. The absorption half-life for ARTS was 2.3 h, and the conversion half-life (ARTS to DHA) was 0.27 h, while the elimination half-life of DHA was 0.71 h. The mean common volumes of distribution for ARTS and DHA relative to bioavailability were 42.8 and 2.04 liters/kg, respectively, and the mean clearance values relative to bioavailability were 6 and 2.2 liters/h/kg for ARTS and DHA, respectively. Substantial interpatient variability was observed, and the bioavailability of the second dose relative to that of the first was estimated to be 0.72. The covariates age, sex, and alpha-thalassemia genotype were not influential in the pharmacokinetic model development; but the inclusion of weight as a covariate significantly improved the performance of the model. An ARTS suppositories dose of 10 of 20 mg/kg is appropriate for use in children with uncomplicated malaria.

  7. The effect of a vaginal suppository formulation of dill (Anethum graveolens) in comparison to clotrimazole vaginal tablet on the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghafi, Nafiseh; Karjalian, Maryam; Ghazanfarpour, Masumeh; Khorsand, Imaneh; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Mirteimouri, Masumeh; Babakhanian, Masoudeh; Khadivzadeh, Talat; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Pourali, Leila; Bahman, Sara

    2018-03-19

    The goal of this study was to compare the effect of Anethum graveolens (dill) vaginal suppositories and 100 mg clotrimazole vaginal tablets on vulvovaginal Candidiasis. This study was a single centre, single-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, in which 60 women with microbiology-confirmed vulvovaginal candidiasis were randomly assigned to dill and clotrimazole groups. At the end of the study, the estimated prevalence of leucorrhoea, burning, and itching was 23%, 23% and 20% in dill users, respectively. This figure was 20%, 10% and 16.7% for the clotrimazole group, respectively. The difference between the two groups was not significant. 13% of suppository patients, compared with 10% of clotrimazole-treatment patients, had a positive culture, which was not significant (p = .68). According to findings, 2% dill vaginal suppositories were as effective as clotrimazole vaginal tablets in reducing both clinical and microbiological symptoms of Candidiasis. Studies with larger sample sizes are required to confirm current findings. Impact statement What is already known on the subject? Based on results from in vivo and in vitro animal studies, dill (Anethum graveolens) has anti-candida activity. What do the results of this study add? It appears that 2% dill vaginal suppositories were as effective as 100 mg clotrimazole vaginal tablets in reducing both the clinical and microbiological symptoms. What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and further research? Obstetricians and gynaecologists can offer dill as a useful alternative to chemical drugs, especially in women who are often interested in herbal medicine, or in women who are resistant or are not allowed to use antifungal drugs.

  8. Recombinant streptokinase suppositories in the treatment of acute haemorrhoidal disease. Multicentre randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial (THERESA-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Bernal, F; Valenzuela-Silva, C M; Quintero-Tabío, L; Castellanos-Sierra, G; Monterrey-Cao, D; Aguilera-Barreto, A; López-Saura, P

    2013-11-01

    A four-arm multicentre randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial was undertaken to assess the effect and safety of suppositories containing recombinant streptokinase (rSK) at two dose levels (100,000 IU and 200,000 IU) with sodium salicylate (SS) compared with placebo and SS for the treatment of acute haemorrhoidal disease. Patients with acute symptoms of haemorrhoids were randomized to four treatment groups: (I) placebo, (II) SS, (III) SS + rSK 100,000 IU and (IV) SS + rSK 200,000 IU per suppository. Inpatient treatment was by four suppositories given every 6 h to discharge at 24 h. Evaluations were made at the time of discharge (24 h) and at 3, 5 and 20 days later. The main end-point was the degree of relief of pain, oedema and reduction in the size of the lesion by 90% on day 5. Adverse events and the occurrence of anti-SK antibodies were also determined. Eighty patients were included. Respective response rates in the four groups were 16%, 30%, 25% and 52%. In the last group there was a significant difference (36.8%) compared with control (95% CI 7.0-58.4%). The time to response was significantly shorter (median 5 days) in the 200,000 IU rSK group with respect to the others. There were no adverse events attributable to the treatment. No increase in anti-SK antibodies was detected 20 days after treatment. Suppositories with 200,000 IU rSK showed a significant improvement in symptoms of acute haemorrhoids, with an adequate safety profile. Colorectal Disease © 2013 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  9. Plasma levels of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin in children with Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Gabon after administration of 50-milligram artesunate suppositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpaap, B; Ndjave, M; Paris, M; Benakis, A; Kremsner, P G

    1998-03-01

    A thermostable suppository of artesunate (artesunic acid) has been developed. In Gabon, 12 children with Plasmodium falciparum malaria received two administrations of this suppository in a 4-hr interval. Parasitemia and fever were then measured and the plasma levels of artesunate and its active metabolite, dihydroartemisinin, were determined by means of a reversed phase high-pressure liquid chromatography method using reductive electrochemical detection. Substantial parasite clearance (97-100%) was noted 24 hr after the beginning of the treatment and body temperature had returned to normal. Absorption, metabolism, and elimination of artesunate were rapid. Mean values of maximum plasma levels (Cmax) and maximum concentration peak times (tmax) were evaluated. The Cmax of dihydroartemisinin (0.18 +/- 0.10 microg/ml [mean +/- SE]) was higher than the Cmax of artesunate (0.09 +/- 0.04 microg/ml) and the tmax of dihydroartemisinin (1.13 +/- 0.58 hr) was higher than the tmax of artesunate (0.58 +/- 0.19 hr). Plasma levels 30 min after the second suppository administration were not consistently higher than those found 30 min after the first administration.

  10. Clinical efficacy of Spasmofen® suppository in the emergency treatment of renal colic: a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy comparative trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakoot M

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa Yakoot,1 Amel Salem,2 Sameh Yousef,2 Sherine Helmy31Green Clinic and Research Center, 2Alexandria Helmy Medical Center, 3Pharco Corporation, Alexandria, EgyptBackground: Renal colic is typically characterized by the sudden onset of severe pain radiating from the flank to the groin and its acute management in emergency departments essentially aims at rapid pain relief. Spasmofen® is a brand of Amriya Pharmaceutical Industries in the form of rectal suppositories containing ketoprofen 100 mg and hyoscine butylbromide 10 mg. This combination is intended for the rapid relief of severe colicky pain in the renal system, hepatobiliary system, or gastrointestinal tract. This trial aims to compare a single-dose of Spasmofen rectal suppository to a single intravenous (IV ketorolac tromethamine 30 mg/2 mL dose in patients with acute renal colic.Methods: A total of 80 eligible consecutive patients presenting to the emergency departments of two medical centers with acute renal colic were included in the study. Eligible patients who signed the informed consent were randomly assigned into two treatment groups: an experimental group (Spasmofen group who received one Spasmofen rectal suppository plus an IV injection of 2 mL of normal saline solution; and a control group (ketorolac group who received one ketorolac 30 mg/2 mL ampoule IV plus one placebo suppository. Treatment success, defined as a change in the verbal rating score from severe or moderate pain to none or mild at 60 minutes after the dose, was compared between groups using the chi-square/Fisher's exact test. Percentage reductions in visual pain analog scale (VPAS scores at 15 and 60 minutes after the dose were compared between groups using the Z-test for proportions.Results: Successful treatment at 60 minutes occurred in 35 of 40 (87.5% of Spasmofen-treated patients and in 33 of 40 (82.5% of ketorolac-treated patients. The difference was not statistically significant by Fisher's exact test

  11. Factors influencing adherence to referral advice following pre-referral treatment with artesunate suppositories in children in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simba, Daudi O; Warsame, Marian; Kimbute, Omari; Kakoko, Deodatus; Petzold, Max; Tomson, Goran; Premji, Zul; Gomes, Melba

    2009-07-01

    WHO recommends artemisinin suppository formulations as pre-referral treatment for children who are unable to take oral medication and cannot rapidly reach a facility for parenteral treatment. We investigated factors influencing caretakers' adherence to referral advice following pre-referral treatment of their children with rectal artesunate suppositories. The study was nested within an intervention study that involved pre-referral treatment of all children who came to a community dispenser for treatment because they were unable to take oral medications because of repeated vomiting, lethargy, convulsions or altered consciousness. All patients who did not comply with referral advice were stratified by actions taken post-referral: taking their children to a drug shop, a traditional healer, or not seeking further treatment, and added to a random selection of patients who complied with referral advice. Caretakers of the children were interviewed about their socio-economic status (SES), knowledge about malaria, referral advice given and actions they took following pre-referral treatment. Interview data for 587 caretakers were matched with symptoms of the children, the time of treatment, arrival at a health facility or other actions taken post-pre-referral treatment. The majority (93.5%) of caretakers reported being given referral advice by the community drug dispenser. The odds of adherence with this advice were three times greater for children with altered consciousness and/or convulsions than for children with other symptoms [odds ratio (OR) 3.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.32-5.17, P < 0.001]. When questioned, caretakers who remembered when (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.48-3.23, P < 0.001) and why (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.07-2.95, P = 0.026) they were advised to proceed to health facility - were more likely to follow referral advice. Cost did not influence adherence except within a catchment area of facilities that charged for services. In these areas, costs deterred adherence by

  12. Separation and determination of impurities in paracetamol, codeine and pitophenone in the presence of fenpiverinium in combined suppository dosage form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojta, Jiří; Hanzlík, Pavel; Jedlička, Aleš; Coufal, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    A new HPLC method for separation and determination of impurities in paracetamol, codeine phosphate hemihydrate and pitophenone hydrochloride in the presence of fenpiverinium bromide in combined suppository dosage form was developed and validated. The separation of paracetamol and its impurities 4-aminophenol, 4-nitrophenol, 4-chloracetanilid; codeine and its impurities methylcodeine, morphine, codeine dimer and 10-hydroxycodeine; pitophenone and its impurities 2-[4-[2-(1-piperidinyl)ethoxy]benzoyl] benzoic acid, 2-[4-[2-(1-piperidinyl)ethoxy]benzoyl]benzoic acid 2-(1-piperidinyl)-ethyl ester, methyl ester of 2-(4-hydroxybenzoyl) benzoic acid and fenpiverinium was achieved by using ion-pair reversed phase liquid chromatography with UV detection. Validation parameters such as the precision, accuracy, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ) and robustness were verified for all the mentioned impurities of codeine phosphate hemihydrate and 4-aminophenol and 2-[4-[2-(1-piperidinyl)ethoxy]benzoyl] benzoic acid as the main degradation products of paracetamol and pitophenone hydrochloride, respectively. The described method was found to be useful for analysis of the stability samples and therefore suitable for routine purity testing of the drug product. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical experience of Sheroproct suppository in rectal damage accompanied with radiotherapy of cancer of the uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimori, Hajime; Matsuyama, Toshitake

    1976-01-01

    1 - 2 pieces per a day of Sheroproct suppository were given to 22 cases which were suffered from rectitis or rectal hemorrhage during or after radiotherapy of cancer of the uterine cervix. The effects were judged as follows according to the degree of main symptoms such as pain, hemorrhage and mucous stool: marked effectiveness (the symptoms decreased within three days and disappeared within one week), effectiveness (it takes over four days to decrease the symptoms and the symptoms disappeared within one week, and a little effectiveness (the symptoms disappeared within one or two weeks). As to pain in 20 cases, marked effectiveness was recognized in 11 cases, a little effectiveness in 3 cases, and no effectiveness in one case. In 16 cases of acute inflamation induced during radiotherapy, 9 cases showed markedly effective, 4 cases showed effective, and one case showed no effective. On improvement of mucous stool, this drug was effective in acute rectitis, but it was not effective in chronic cases. There was little effect in rectal hemorrhage after the radiotherapy. It was suggested that this drug was useful to treat pain of rectitis. (Tsunoda, M.)

  14. Clinical and economic impact of using macrogol 3350 plus electrolytes in an outpatient setting compared to enemas and suppositories and manual evacuation to treat paediatric faecal impaction based on actual clinical practice in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Julian F; Candy, David C A; Clegg, John P; Edwards, Di; Helter, Marianne T; Dale, Anne K; Fell, John; Cosgrove, Michael; Debelle, Geoffrey

    2007-09-01

    To estimate the clinical and economic impact of using macrogol 3350 plus electrolytes (macrogol 3350; Movicol; Movicol Paediatric Plain) in an outpatient setting compared to enemas and suppositories and manual evacuation to treat paediatric faecal impaction. A chart review was undertaken to extract clinical outcomes and resource use from the case notes of a cohort of children aged 2-11 years with faecal impaction who initially received either macrogol 3350 (in an outpatient setting) or enemas and suppositories or manual evacuation for initial disimpaction. Five centres across England and Wales participated in the study. These data were used to inform a decision model which depicted the management of children during the disimpaction phase and for a period of 12 weeks following initial disimpaction. Unit resource costs at 2005/2006 prices were applied to the resource utilisation estimates within the model, enabling the incremental costs and consequences of using macrogol 3350 in an outpatient setting, compared to the other treatments, to be estimated. 112 patients treated with macrogol 3350, 101 who received enemas and suppositories and 11 who underwent a manual evacuation were eligible for analysis. Ninety-seven per cent of children treated with macrogol 3350 were successfully disimpacted within 5 days, compared to 73% of those who received enemas and suppositories and 89% of those who underwent a manual evacuation (p suppositories and manual evacuation respectively; p suppositories or underwent a manual evacuation, respectively. Hence, using macrogol 3350 instead of enemas and suppositories and manual evacuation to disimpact the whole annual cohort of faecally impacted children aged 2-11 years in England could potentially reduce annual NHS expenditure on this condition by 59% (5 million pounds sterling) and reduce the annual number of paediatric hospital admissions for this condition by 92% (4330). Within the limitations of our model, macrogol 3350 affords the NHS

  15. [Driving license of patients with epilepsy, management of their oral drugs and suppositories by non-medical professionals, and the role of pediatric neurologists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Masatoshi; Miyake, Shouta

    2004-05-01

    In June 2002, the following new driving regulations were enforced in Japan: 1. A person with epilepsy may be granted a driving license after a seizure-free period of two years. 2. A person with simple partial seizures that would not impair driving safety may be granted a driving license if no other seizures that may impair driving safety have occurred over a period of at least one year. 3. A person with seizures occurring only in sleep may be granted a driving license if no seizures have occurred in waking over a period of at least two years. 4. In case that the above requirements are going to be met within 6 months, driving should be prohibited for 6 months. 5. A person with epilepsy is recommended to apply for a license to drive heavy and/or public vehicles only after a seizure-free period of 5 years without medication. The committee for legal problems of the Japan Epilepsy Society proposed a guideline for non-medical teaching or caring professionals to give children with epilepsy antiepileptic medication or to insert suppositories, if needed, at schools or care institutions. The guideline indicated the following preconditions as important: 1. There must be a wish and consent of the patient or his/her family. 2. Drugs or suppositories are usually taken or used at home and regarded as a safe procedure. 3. Attending doctor should provide clear information about the use and risk of the medication or suppository. 4. Privacy of the patient should be protected. Pediatric neurologists are expected to play an important role on these issues.

  16. Effect of lactic acid suppositories compared with oral metronidazole and placebo in bacterial vaginosis: a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeke, A J; Dekker, J H; van Eijk, J T; Kostense, P J; Bezemer, P D

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare the effect of lactic acid locally, metronidazole orally and placebo in women with bacterial vaginosis. DESIGN--Randomised clinical trial. SETTING--30 general practices in the Netherlands. PATIENTS--125 women consulting the general practitioner for symptomatic bacterial vaginosis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Duration of subjective symptoms, recurrence of symptoms, clinically diagnosed cure, adverse events. RESULTS--Survival analysis showed a significantly faster disappearance of symptoms in the metronidazole category compared with both lactic acid and placebo (p = 0.0005 metronidazole v placebo, p = 0.0002 metronidazole v lactic acid p = 0.6521 lactic acid v placebo [The stratified Mantel Cox test]). The median duration until absence of symptoms was 21 days for metronidazole and 80 days for placebo. Disappearance of symptoms did not occur in 50% of the lactic acid group in 90 days. Recurrence rates of symptoms were similar over the treatment categories (p = 0.13 metronidazole v placebo and p = 0.12 lactic acid v placebo). After 2 weeks cure rates (cure defined as less than three of four clinical criteria present) were 83%, 49% and 47% for metronidazole, lactic acid and placebo category respectively. At that time cure rates (cure defined as none of three clinical criteria present) were 10%, 0% and 3%. After four weeks and three months these figures were: 55%, 20%, 20% and 64%, 28%, 28%. No differences in adverse events were found between the three interventions. CONCLUSIONS--Lactic acid suppositories are ineffective, metronidazole capsules are effective on signs and symptoms in bacterial vaginosis. A considerable proportion of the patients recover without active medication. PMID:8244360

  17. Properties of bioadhesive ketoprofen liquid suppositories: preparation, determination of gelation temperature, viscosity studies and evaluation of mechanical properties using texture analyzer by 4 × 4 factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgüney, Işık; Kardhiqi, Anita

    2014-12-01

    Development and evaluation of thermosensitive and bioadhesive liquid suppositories containing ketoprofen (KP). This study was conducted to develope thermosensitive and bioadhesive liquid suppositories containing KP using poloxamer and different bioadhesive polymers and to investigate their gelation temperature, viscosity and mechanical properties. Bioadhesive liquid suppositories were prepared by the cold method using poloxamer 407 (P 407), Poloxamer 188 (P 188) and various amounts of different bioadhesive polymers. Their gelation temperatures, viscosity values and mechanical properties were determined using texture analyzer by 4 × 4 factorial design. It was seen that in presence of KP, gelation temperature of formulation P 407/P 188 (4/20%) significantly decreased from 64 to 37.1 °C. It is to be noted that addition of increasing concentrations of bioadhesive polymers lowered gelation temperature and its decrease was highest with addition of Carbopol 934 P (C). Results of texture profile analysis (TPA) showed that formulations containing C have significantly higher hardness and adhesiveness values than other bioadhesive formulations. According to TPA, gel structure of liquid suppository formulation F5, containing P 407/P 188/KP/C (4/20/2.5/0.8%), exhibited the greatest hardness, compressibilty, adhesiveness and besides greatest viscosity. According to mechanical properties and viscosity values, it was concluded that F5 could be a promising formulation.

  18. Usefulness of the preoperative administration of tegafur suppositories as alternative adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with resectable stage II or III colorectal cancer: a KODK4 multicenter randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabayashi, Koji; Hasegawa, Hirotoshi; Watanabe, Masahiko; Ohishi, Takashi; Hisa, Akio; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and conferred protection against recurrence of preoperatively administered tegafur suppositories following the intravenous and oral administration of fluoropyrimidine in a multicenter randomized control trial. Patients with clinical T3/4 colorectal cancer were randomly assigned to receive the preoperative administration of tegafur suppositories (group A) or no preoperative treatment (group B). The primary end points were disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The mean follow-up periods were 80.9 ± 31.0 months in group A and 64.5 ± 28.8 months in group B. The 5-year DFS rates were 89.3% in group A and 70.3% in group B (p = 0.045), whereas the 5-year OS rates were 91.4% in group A and 73.2% in group B (p = 0.051). Furthermore, a significant difference in the cumulative distant metastatic rate was observed (group A, 7.4% vs. group B, 23.4%; p = 0.03). However, no significant difference in the cumulative local recurrence rate was seen (group A, 4.6% vs. group B, 8.2%; p = 0.68). Despite a relatively small sample size, preoperative tegafur suppositories might protect recurrences and improve survival rates, mainly by preventing distant metastasis. These findings suggest the utility of tegafur suppositories as an alternative neoadjuvant treatment in modern chemotherapy for colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. A phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of misoprostol rectal suppositories to prevent acute radiation proctitis in patients with prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hille, Andrea; Schmidberger, Heinz; Hermann, Robert M.; Christiansen, Hans; Saile, Bernhard; Pradier, Olivier; Hess, Clemens F.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Acute radiation proctitis is the most relevant complication of pelvic radiation and is still mainly treated supportively. Considering the negative impact of acute proctitis symptoms on patients' daily activities and the potential relationship between the severity of acute radiation injury and late damage, misoprostol was tested in the prevention of acute radiation-induced proctitis. Methods and Materials: A total of 100 patients who underwent radiotherapy for prostate cancer were entered into this phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study with misoprostol or placebo suppositories. Radiation-induced toxicity was evaluated weekly during radiotherapy using the Common Toxicity Criteria. Results: Between the placebo and the misoprostol groups, no significant differences in proctitis symptoms occurred: 76% of patients in each group had Grade 1 toxicity, and 26% in the placebo group and 36% in the misoprostol group had Grade 2 toxicity. No differences were found in onset or symptom duration. Comparing the peak incidence of patients' toxicity symptoms, significantly more patients experienced rectal bleeding in the misoprostol group (p = 0.03). Conclusion: Misoprostol given as a once-daily suppository did not decrease the incidence and severity of radiation-induced acute proctitis and may increase the incidence of acute bleeding

  20. Pharmacokinetic comparison of acetaminophen elixir versus suppositories in vaccinated infants (aged 3 to 36 months): a single-dose, open-label, randomized, parallel-group design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walson, Philip D; Halvorsen, Mark; Edge, James; Casavant, Marcel J; Kelley, Michael T

    2013-02-01

    Because of practical problems and ethical concerns, few studies of the pharmacokinetics (PK) of acetaminophen (ACET) in infants have been published. The goal of this study was to compare the PK of an ACET rectal suppository with a commercially available ACET elixir to complete a regulatory obligation to market the suppository. This study was not submitted previously because of numerous obstacles related to both the investigators and the commercial entities associated with the tested product. Thirty infants (age 3-36 months) prescribed ACET for either fever, pain, or postimmunization prophylaxis of fever and discomfort were randomized to receive a single 10- to 15-mg/kg ACET dose either as the rectal suppository or oral elixir. Blood was collected at selected times for up to 8 hours after administration. ACET concentrations were measured by using a validated HPLC method, and PK behavior and bioavailability were compared for the 2 preparations. All 30 infants enrolled were prescribed ACET for postimmunization prophylaxis. PK samples were available in 27 of the 30 enrolled infants. Subject enrollment (completed in January 1995) was rapid (8.3 months) and drawn entirely from a vaccinated infant clinic population. There were no statistically significant differences between the subjects (elixir, n = 12; suppository, n = 15) in either mean (SD) age (10.0 [6.3] vs 12.4 [8.1] months), weight (8.6 [2.3] vs 9.4 [2.4] kg), sex (7 of 12 males vs 7 of 15 males), or racial distribution (5 white, 5 black, and 2 biracial vs 4 white and 11 black) between the 2 dosing groups (oral vs rectal, respectively). The oral and rectal preparations produced similar, rapid peak concentrations (T(max), 1.16 vs 1.17 hours; P = 0.98) and elimination t(½) (1.84 vs 2.10 hours; P = 0.14), respectively. No statistically significant differences were found between either C(max) (7.65 vs 5.68 μg/mL) or total drug exposure (AUC(0-∞), 23.36 vs 20.45 μg-h/mL) for the oral versus rectal preparations

  1. [Clinical study on dinoprostone suppositories 0.8 mm used in cervical ripening and labor induction of women with term pregnancy of premature rupture of the membranes: a multicenter study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Li-ying; Fan, Ling; Duan, Tao; Wang, Zi-lian; Ma, Run-mei

    2010-07-01

    To investigate safety and efficacy of dinoprostone suppositories (0.8 mm) used in cervical ripening and labor induction in women with term premature rupture of the membranes. One hundred women of term monocyesis with premature rupture of the membranes, head presentation, bishop score less than 6 (test group) and 180 women with intact fetal membranes (control group) were enrolled into this multicenter, prospective clinical study. The vaginal delivery system was inserted into the posterior fornix, and the patients were recumbent for 2 hours after insertion. The interval time from using dinoprostone suppositories to uterine contraction, to labor and delivery were recorded. The following index were also recorded and compared, including the mean inserted time of dinoprostone suppositories, fetal heart beat, meconium stained amniotic fluid, hyperstimulation of uterus and the other complications, mode of delivery, stage of labor, postpartum hemorrhage, status of neonates. Three cases in test group and 23 cases in control group weren't in labor within 24 hours. The rate of labor within 24 hours in test group was significant higher than that in control group (97.0% vs. 87.2%, P 0.05). It had no significant difference in the interval time from using dinoprostone suppositories to labor starting and the mean inserted time and the total labor time between two groups (P > 0.05). The incidence of uterine tachysystole was 11.3% (11/97) in test group and 19.1% (30/157) in control group (P > 0.05), which did not reach statistical difference (P > 0.05). There wasn't neonatal asphyxia in both groups. It was safe and efficient to use dinoprostone suppositories for cervical ripening and induction of term pregnancy with premature rupture of the membranes, however, monitoring should be intensified.

  2. Desarrollo y validación de un nuevo método para estimar la deshomogenización de quitina en supositorios Development and validation of a new method for chitin dehomogenization estimation in suppositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar García Pulpeiro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se trató por primera vez el desarrollo de un método alternativo sencillo para determinar la deshomogenización de quitina en supositorios rectales. El método propuesto se basa en la determinación de la deshomogenización a partir de la relación de la densidad de quitina presente en la punta y en la base del supositorio. Para el cálculo de la densidad por desplazamiento se tuvo en cuenta el factor de desalojo, así como varios cálculos matemáticos. El método se validó para control de calidad, resultó satisfactorio y se aplicó a 11 formulaciones diferentes. Se comprobó que el aumento del tamaño de partícula y de la dosis de quitina en el supositorio favorece la sedimentación hacia la punta del supositorio. En el intervalo analizado los valores de deshomogenización se consideran mínimos, por lo que no se afectó la calidad tecnológica de las formulaciones estudiadas.For the first time, the development of a simple alternative method to determine chitin dehomogenization in rectal suppositories was addressed in this paper. The suggested method is based on determination of dehomogenization from the ratio of chitin density of the tip and of the base of suppository. For estimation of the sliding density, the clearing factor as well as various mathematical calculations were taken into consideration. The method was validated for quality control, it was satisfactory and applied in 11 formulations. It was proved that the increase in chitin particle size and dose in suppository favors sedimentation to the tip of suppository. In the analyzed interval, the dehomogenization values were considered minimal, so the technological quality of the studied formulations was not affected.

  3. A Multicenter, Randomized Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Mesalamine Suppositories 1 g at Bedtime and 500 mg Twice Daily in Patients with Active Mild-to-Moderate Ulcerative Proctitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Ulcerative proctitis (UP) is a prevalent condition associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Topical mesalamine (5-aminosalicylic acid [5-ASA]) inhibits inflammatory processes in UP. Methods We evaluated effects of mesalamine 1-g suppository administered QHS compared with 500-mg suppository administered BID on UP activity (e.g., disease extension/mucosal appearance), remission, onset of response, safety and compliance in 97 patients with UP. A 6-week, randomized, multicenter, parallel-group, noninferiority study was conducted (and published) with Disease Activity Index (DAI) at week 6 as the primary efficacy variable and individual components of DAI at week 6 (i.e., stool frequency, rectal bleeding, mucosal appearance, global assessment) as secondary variables. Unreported outcomes were remission (DAI 70%) after 6 weeks in both groups. Mesalamine was well tolerated. Compliance was >96%. Conclusions Mesalamine 500-mg BID and 1-g QHS suppositories are safe and effective for patients with UP. Most patients reported significant improvement within 3 weeks and UP remission and reduced disease extension after 6 weeks of treatment. Validity of QHS administration was confirmed. PMID:20676771

  4. Effect of vaginal progesterone suppository (200 mg on preventing preterm labor after the inhibition of uterine contractions: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azin Alavi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Preterm labor implies a childbirth before the completion of 37 weeks, and accounts for the majority of infant mortalities. Finding proper medications is essential in the treatment procedure. The present research aimed to investigate the effect of vaginal progesterone suppository (200 mg on the prevention of preterm labor after inhibiting uterine contractions. Participants were patients hospitalized in Shariati Hospital of Bandar Abbas in 2014-15. As a randomized clinical trial, the present research focused on all pregnant women who referred to Shariati Hospital in Bandar Abbas due to preterm uterine contractions in 2014-15. The inclusion criteria were: pregnancy with a singleton and passing one’s 26th-34th week of pregnancy. Through convenient sampling method, 200 women were selected to enter the study. According to the table obtained from Random Allocation software, they were randomly divided into two groups, each comprised of 100 subjects. They were monitored for 48 hours in terms of uterine contractions and then if there were no contractions and change of dilatation or cervical effacement, they were discharged. They were asked to return for a revisit one week later in their 34th week of pregnancy. SPSS (version 17 was used to analyze the data through Man-Whitney U-test, Fisher’s exact test, t-test and chi-squared test. P-value of significance was set at ≤.05. A statistically significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of the frequency of term and preterm labors (P<0.05. The Apgar score of infants in the intervention group was higher than the control (P<0.05. The rate of respiratory problems in the intervention group was significantly lower than the control (P<0.001. The rate of septicemia in the infants of the intervention group was 8% as compared to the control group 20%. The weight of infants in the intervention group was significantly higher than the control (P<0.05. Prescribing vaginal progesterone suppository

  5. Validación de métodos analíticos para el control de calidad de naproxeno supositorios Validation of analytical methods for the quality control of Naproxen suppositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaslenis Rodríguez Hernández

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se desarrollaron por primera vez, los métodos de análisis que serán utilizados para el control de calidad de las futuras formulaciones de supositorios de naproxeno, para uso infantil y adulto de producción nacional. Se propuso un método por espectrofotometría ultravioleta directa, el cual resultó específico, lineal, exacto y preciso para su aplicación en el control de calidad del naproxeno en supositorios, teniendo en cuenta la presencia de grupos cromóforos en su estructura. Se modificó el método por volumetría ácido-base semiacuosa directa reportado para control de calidad de la materia prima de naproxeno y se adaptó al control de calidad en los supositorios. A partir del proceso de validación realizado, se demostró la adecuada especificidad frente a los componentes de la formulación, así como su linealidad, exactitud y precisión en el rango de 1 a 3 mg/mL. Se compararon los resultados obtenidos por ambos métodos sin detectar diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las réplicas analizadas por cada dosis, por lo que cualquiera de ellos pueden aplicarse al control de calidad de los supositorios.The analysis methods that will be used for the quality control of the future Cuban-made Naproxen suppositories for adults and children were developed for the first time in this paper. One method based on direct ultraviolet spectrophotometry was put forward, which proved to be specific, linear, accurate and precise for the quality control of Naproxen suppositories, taking into account the presence of chromophore groups in their structure. Likewise, the direct semi-aqueous acid-base volumetry method aimed at the quality control of the Naproxen raw material was changed and adapted to the quality control of suppositories. On the basis of the validation process, there was demonstrated the adequate specificity of this method with respect to the formulation components, as well as its linearity, accuracy and

  6. Use of recombinant alpha-2b-interferon in combination with antioxidants in the form of rectal suppositories (viferon) in children with chronic hepatitides B and C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchaikin, V; Cherednichenko, T; Malinovskaya, V; Orlova, T; Kovalev, O; Kharlamova, F; Chaplygina, G; Konev, V; Voronina, F; Delenian, N

    2000-04-01

    A new antiviral and immunomodulating preparation Viferon, produced as rectal suppositories containing recombinant alpha-2b-interferon (IFN) and antioxidants, was used in complex therapy of viral chronic hepatitides B and C (ChHB and ChHC) in children. Results of our investigation showed a high efficiency of Viferon. Viferon was found to suppress replication of hepatotropic viruses and to decrease activity of the pathologic process in the liver of children with ChHB and ChHC. After a Viferon treatment with daily doses of (1-2) x 10(6) IU of IFN (3.0 x 10(6) IU/m2) primary remission was registered in 78% of patients with ChHB and in 44% of patients with ChHC, while lasting remission was found in 82% of ChHB and in 33% of ChHC patients. Thus, a more marked effect was observed with ChHB, in which 3.0 x 10(6) IU/m2 was the optimal daily dose for children. Increasing the dose to 5.0 x 10(6) IU/m2 did not result in rise of the percentage of the remissions. Side effects, which are characteristic for injection of IFN preparations, were never found even after a longterm treatment. Absence of induction of neutralizing antibodies was observed after administration of alpha-2b-IFN, an integral part of Viferon. In pediatrics, the method of rectal administration has advantages over parenteral delivery due to its convenience, non-traumatic character and possibility of use for prolonged periods.

  7. A phase II, randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial on the efficacy of Curcumina and Calendula suppositories for the treatment of patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgia, Giuseppe; Russo, Giorgio Ivan; Urzì, Daniele; Privitera, Salvatore; Castelli, Tommaso; Favilla, Vincenzo; Cimino, Sebastiano

    2017-06-30

    The management of chronic prostatitis/ chronic pelvic pain syndrome type III (CP/CPPS) has been always considered complex due to several biopsychological factors underling the disease. In this clinical study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment with Curcumin and Calendula extract in patients with CP/CPPS III. From June 2015 to January 2016 we enrolled 60 consecutive patients affected by CP/CPPS III in our institution. Patients between 20 and 50 year of age with symptoms of pelvic pain for 3 months or more before study, a total National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) score ≥ 15 point and diagnosed with NIH category III. Patients were then allocated to receive placebo (Group A) or treatment (Group B). Treatment consisted of rectal suppositories of Curcumin extract 350 mg (95%) and Calendula extract 80 mg (1 suppository/die for 1 month). Patients of Group B received 1 suppository/die for 1 month of placebo. The primary endpoint of the study was the reduction of NIH-CPSI. The secondary outcomes were the change of peak flow, IIEF-5, VAS score and of premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT). A total of 48 patients concluded the study protocol. The median age of the all cohort was 32.0 years, the median NIH-CPSI was 20.5, the median IIEF-5 was 18.5, the median PEDT was 11.0, the median VAS score was 7.5 and the median peak flow was 14.0. After 3 months of therapy in group A we observed a significant improvement of NIH-CPSI (-5.5; p < 0.01), IIEF-5 (+ 3.5; p < 0.01), PEDT (-6.5; p < 0.01), peak flow (+2.8; p < 0.01) and VAS (-6.5; p < 0.01) with significant differences over placebo group (all p-value significant). In this phase II clinical trial we showed the clinical efficacy of the treatment with Curcumin and Calendula in patients with CP/CPPS III. The benefits of this treatment could be related to the reduction of inflammatory cytokines and of inflammatory cells. These results should be confirmed in further studies

  8. A phase II, randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial on the efficacy of Curcumina and Calendula suppositories for the treatment of patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome type III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Morgia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The management of chronic prostatitis/ chronic pelvic pain syndrome type III (CP/CPPS has been always considered complex due to several biopsychological factors underling the disease. In this clinical study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment with Curcumin and Calendula extract in patients with CP/CPPS III. Material and methods: From June 2015 to January 2016 we enrolled 60 consecutive patients affected by CP/CPPS III in our institution. Patients between 20 and 50 year of age with symptoms of pelvic pain for 3 months or more before study, a total National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI score ≥ 15 point and diagnosed with NIH category III. Patients were then allocated to receive placebo (Group A or treatment (Group B. Treatment consisted of rectal suppositories of Curcumin extract 350 mg (95% and Calendula extract 80 mg (1 suppository/die for 1 month. Patients of Group B received 1 suppository/die for 1 month of placebo. The primary endpoint of the study was the reduction of NIH-CPSI. The secondary outcomes were the change of peak flow, IIEF-5, VAS score and of premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT. Results: A total of 48 patients concluded the study protocol. The median age of the all cohort was 32.0 years, the median NIH-CPSI was 20.5, the median IIEF-5 was 18.5, the median PEDT was 11.0, the median VAS score was 7.5 and the median peak flow was 14.0. After 3 months of therapy in group A we observed a significant improvement of NIH-CPSI (-5.5; p < 0.01, IIEF-5 (+ 3.5; p < 0.01, PEDT (-6.5; p < 0.01, peak flow (+2.8; p < 0.01 and VAS (-6.5; p < 0.01 with significant differences over placebo group (all p-value significant. Conclusions: In this phase II clinical trial we showed the clinical efficacy of the treatment with Curcumin and Calendula in patients with CP/CPPS III. The benefits of this treatment could be related to the reduction of inflammatory cytokines and of

  9. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, parallel-group, dose-escalating, repeat dose study in healthy volunteers to evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacodynamic effects and pharmacokinetics of the once daily rectal application of NRL001 suppositories for 14 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, D; Duffin, A; Jacobs, A; Pediconi, C; Gruss, H J

    2014-03-01

    The 1R,2S stereoisomer of methoxamine hydrochloride, NRL001, is a highly selective α1-adrenoceptor agonist being developed for the local treatment of non-structural faecal incontinence caused by weak internal anal sphincter tone. This study investigated the steady state pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety of 2 g rectal suppositories containing NRL001 in different strengths (7.5, 10, 12.5 or 15 mg). Healthy volunteers aged 18-45 years received 14 daily doses of NRL001 2 g suppositories or matching placebo. In each dose group nine participants received NRL001 and three received placebo. Blood samples to determine NRL001 concentrations were taken on Days 1, 7 and 14. Cardiovascular parameters were collected via electrocardiograms, Holter monitoring (three lead Holter monitor) and vital signs. Forty-eight volunteers were enrolled; 43 completed the study and were included in the PK analysis population. AUC and Cmax broadly increased with increasing dose, Tmax generally occurred between 4.0 and 5.0 h. Although the data did not appear strongly dose proportional, dose proportionality analysis did not provide evidence against dose proportionality as the log(dose) coefficients were not significantly < 1. NRL001 did not accumulate over time for any dose. Increasing NRL001 concentrations were related to changes in vital sign variables, most notably decreased heart rate. The most commonly reported adverse events (AEs) in the active treatment groups were paraesthesia and piloerection. Treatment with NRL001 was generally well tolerated over 14 days once daily dosing and plasma NRL001 did not accumulate over time. Treatment was associated with changes in vital sign variables, most notably decreased heart rate. AEs commonly reported with NRL001 treatment were events indicative of a systemic α-adrenergic effect. Colorectal Disease © 2014 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  10. Validación de métodos analíticos para los estudios de estabilidad del naproxeno en supositorios para uso infantil y adulto Validation of analytical methods for the stability studies of naproxen suppositories for infant and adult use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaslenis Rodríguez Hernández

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se realizaron los estudios analíticos y de validación para su aplicación en los estudios de estabilidad de las futuras formulaciones de supositorios de naproxeno para uso infantil y adulto. Se determinaron los factores que más influyeron en la estabilidad del naproxeno; la mayor degradación ocurrió en el medio ácido, oxidante y por acción de la luz. Se evaluó un método por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución, el cual mostró adecuado desempeño para cuantificar naproxeno en supositorios y fue selectivo frente a los productos de degradación. Se obtuvo un límite de cuantificación de 3,480 µg, por lo que fue válido para la realización de dichos estudios. Adicionalmente, se evaluaron los parámetros especificidad para estabilidad, límites de detección y de cuantificación para el método por volumetría ácido-base semiacuosa directa validado anteriormente para control de calidad, lo cual mostró resultados satisfactorios. No obstante, los métodos volumétricos no se consideran indicadores de estabilidad, por lo que este método será utilizado conjuntamente con los métodos cromatográficos de elección para determinar productos de degradación: cromatografía de capa delgada y cromatografía líquida de alta resolución.Analytical and validating studies were performed in this paper, with a view to using them in the stability studies of the future formulations of naproxen suppositories for children and adults. The most influential factors in the naproxen stability were determined, that is, the major degradation occurred in acid medium, oxidative medium and by light action. One high-performance liquid chromatography-based method was evaluated, which proved to be adequate to quantify naproxen in suppositories and was selective against degradation products. The quantification limit was 3,480 µg, so it was valid for these studies. Additionally, the parameters specificity for stability, detection and

  11. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of suppositories of halofantrine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-10-02

    Oct 2, 2006 ... salt has very poor aqueous solubility (Humberstone et al.,. 1996), its slow release from ... varied, all other parameters remained the same. Preparation of .... interfacial tension between the drug and the dissolution medium with ...

  12. Comparative bioavailability study of a new quinine suppository and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    of the drug in rural areas and can affect self- .... performance of this alternative route and ... Several factors, including the nature of the ... Table 1: Pharmacokinetic parameters obtained from plasma after administration of single dose of 300 mg.

  13. Teaching Caregivers to Administer Eye Drops, Transdermal Patches, and Suppositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindauer, Allison; Sexson, Kathryn; Harvath, Theresa A

    2017-05-01

    : This article is the third in a series, Supporting Family Caregivers: No Longer Home Alone, published in collaboration with the AARP Public Policy Institute. Results of focus groups conducted as part of the AARP Public Policy Institute's No Longer Home Alone video project supported evidence that family caregivers aren't being given the information they need to manage the complex care regimens of their family members. This series of articles and accompanying videos aims to help nurses provide caregivers with the tools they need to manage their family member's medications. Each article explains the principles nurses should consider and reinforce with caregivers and is accompanied by a video for the caregiver to watch. The third video can be accessed at http://links.lww.com/AJN/A76.

  14. Comparative bioavailability study of a new quinine suppository and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    without food until 4 h after drug intake and thereafter meals ... precipitate plasma proteins, followed by addition of 1 ml .... bioinequivalent since the FDA rule in relation to confidence .... quinine in human plasma, saliva and urine. J. Chromatogr ...

  15. Bisacodyl Rectal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisac-Evac® Suppositories ... Dulcolax® Suppositories ... Rectal bisacodyl comes as a suppository and enema to use rectally. It is usually used at the time that a bowel movement is desired. The suppositories usually ...

  16. Optimization of the in vitro release of zomepirac from suspensions and suppositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaey, C.J. de; Fokkens, J.G.; Niederer, R.R.; Zulliger, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    In an in vitro study the release rates of zomepirac acid (I) and zomepirac sodium dihydrate (II) from suspensions in liquid paraffin towards an aqueous phase were determined. When calcium was added to the aqueous phase a cake of zomepiraecalcium was formed at the interface paraffin/buffer and the

  17. Acetaminophen dosing for children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your child, call your provider. Proper Dosing of Suppositories If your child is vomiting or will not take oral medicine, you can use suppositories. Suppositories are placed in the anus to deliver ...

  18. Aminophylline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truphylline® Suppositories ... and syrup to take by mouth and a suppository to insert rectally. It usually is taken every ... talking to your doctor.To insert a rectal suppository, follow these steps: Remove the wrapper. Dip the ...

  19. Promethazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promethegan® Suppository ... liquid) to take by mouth and as a suppository to use rectally.When promethazine is used to ... more often than prescribed by your doctor.Promethazine suppositories are for rectal use only. Do not try ...

  20. Ergotamine and Caffeine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tablet to take by mouth and as a suppository to insert rectally. It is usually taken at ... need more, call your doctor. To use the suppositories, follow these steps: If the suppository feels soft, ...

  1. Comparison of placebo and intrauterine lidocaine with/or without rectal diclofenac sodium suppositories used in office endometrial biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Cengiz; Sener, Elif Bengi; Koksal, Ersin; Ustun, Yasemin Burcu; Celik, Handan; Sahinoglu, Ali Haydar

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effects of intrauterine lidocaine, intrauterine lidocaine plus rectal diclofenac, and a placebo on analgesia and to determine the satisfaction of patients and surgeons in cases of endometrial biopsy. The double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the Ondokuz Mayis University, Samsun,Turkey, from April 2013 to January 2014, and comprised patients scheduled for in-office endometrial biopsy.They were divided into three groups: Group P, 5ml of 0.9% saline intrauterine; Group L, 5ml of 2% lidocaine intrauterine; and Group LD, 5ml of 2% lidocaine intrauterine ± 10min before the procedure plus 50mg of rectal diclofenac sodium. Haemodynamic changes and visual analogue scale scores were recorded during the preoperative period, when the cervix was grasped with a tenaculum, immediately after intrauterine instillation, during uterine curettage and at postoperative 10 min. The patient and the surgeon were questioned about their satisfaction 15 min after the procedure. SPSS 21 was used for statistical analysis. The 90 patients in the study were divided into three equal groups of 30(33.33%) each. There were no statistically significant inter-group differences in age, bodyweight, parity, number of postmenopausal patients, haemodynamic parameters and American Society of Anesthesiologists scores (p>0.05 in all categories). In Group P, the visual analogue scale score estimated when the cervix was grasped with the tenaculum was lower when compared with Group L and Group LD (p=0.029 and p=0.007, respectively). At other measurement time points, the scores did not differ between the groups. The groups did not differ with respect to patient and surgeon satisfaction and complication rates (p>0.05). Intrauterine lidocaine or intrauterine lidocaine plus rectal diclofenac application had no effect on visual analogue scale scores, patient satisfaction and vasovagal reaction.

  2. Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics findings after repeated administration of ARTESUNATE thermostable suppositories (RECTOCAPS) in Vietnamese patients with uncomplicated malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benakis, A; Binh, Tran Quang; Keundjian, A; Scheiwe, M W

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, Artemisinin and particularly one of its derivatives--Artesunate (ART--has become an essential alternative for treatment of both uncomplicated and severe falciparum malaria in Asia and Africa as well. Therefore, these compounds are still and inccreasingly in the focus of interest because of quick acting of this drug, is able to help even unconscious to overcome the malaria attack, when administered by injection. As an alternative, RECTOCAPS have been developed and their use is meanwhile well established. From earlier studies in children, suffering from plasmodium falciparum malaria, we obtained a high level of DHART in the blood, but as expected also a rapid decline in the levels of both DHART and ART. A second administration of ART was additionally applied 4 hours after the first administration. DHART and ART plasma levels were found to last longer on an assumed therapeutic level than those obtained after one administration only. The fever clearance and the parasitemia reduction rates were found to be effective according to this dosing regimen. In view of these findings, we decided to conduct the actual described study by administering 200 mg of ART every 3 hours (0, 3, 6 and 9 h) by the rectal route. Soft geiatine capsules (RECTOCAPS) containing 200 mg of ART GMP--type each (Artesunic acid) were administered by rectal route. Each patient received four RECTOCAPS capsules (4 x 200 mg of ART) over a 3 h period. 12 adult patients with uncomplicated malaria were selected. Age, weight, height, body temperature, parasite counts before treatment and their evolution until 96 h are determined. Blood samples were taken at short time intervals after starting with the first medication: 0, 30 min, 60 min, 3 h, 6 h, 9 h, 12 h, 24 h, 36 h, 48 h, 60 h, 72 h, 84 h, 96 h and 108 h. The aliquots of all the blood samples were used for performing parasite counts. Plasma obtained following the traditional procedure was kept at -40 degrees C until analysis. HPLC technique with electrochemical detector was used for quantification of ART and DHART. From the blood concentration values of ART and DHART, the following observation can be derived: the onset of action is observed within the first half hours, therapeutic levels of the drug obtained (89 microg/ml ART compared to 84 microg/ml DHART). The DHART levels are somewhat higher than those of ART (a peak concentration after 6 h starting medication of 151 microg/ml ART as compared to 276 microg/ml DHART). The variations as a function of frequency of DHART uptake are much less marked than those observed for ART. Another finding is that after the administration, some sort of a plateau of DHART and ART is built up, lasting at least from 9 to 12 hours with DHART level of about 190 microg/ml and ART of 90 microg/ml. In the case of single-dose administration, the levels of both compounds were below the detection threshold after three hours. With regard to the parasite counts, although there were inter-individual variations, it should be noted that after 48 hours a high proportion of the patients (8 out of 12) was completely clear of parasites. Similar results were observed with regard to the body temperature (7 out of 12 returned to normal temperature 36 hours after starting the therapy). The findings of the study support the RECTOCAPS application principle resulting in effectiveness both for the velocity of drug uptake as well as for the height of plasma levels. Repeated administration of ART can extend the duration of therapeutic plasma levels of the drug.

  3. Vaginal Yeast Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pill to swallow or a cream, tablet, or suppository to put in the vagina. When you get ... directions on the package carefully. Creams, tablets, and suppositories often come with an applicator to help you ...

  4. Spermicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in many forms, including cream, gel, foam, film, suppository and tablet. Spermicide isn't a very effective ... Foams, gels and creams begin working immediately, while suppositories, films and tablets need to be inserted 10 ...

  5. Progestogens to Prevent Preterm Birth: A Review of the Research about Progestogens for Women at Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... several ways: „ „ As a gel, cream, capsule, or suppository that you place in your vagina „ „ As a ... of progestogens (pills, shots, and vaginal gels or suppositories) can lower the risk of having a spontaneous ...

  6. The effects of lactobacillus suppositories in the recovery and recur-rence of bacterial vaginosis: a double-blind randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soror Roozafzay

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: The protective effects of lactobacillus in dealing with anaerobic patho-gens as well as the negative impact of metronidazole on lactobacillus of vaginal flora, use of lactobacillus along with metronidazole especially in patients with recurrent infec-tions is recommended. In other words, using lactobacillus with metronidazole for treatment of bacterial vaginosis is more effective than metronidazole alone.

  7. Development and validation of RP-UHPLC procedure for estimation of 5-amino salicyclic acid in 5-amino salicyclic acid rectal suppositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Jayagopal; Shivashankar, Murugesh

    2017-11-01

    The present study describes a simple and robust reverse phase ultra performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC) method for the quantification of 5-amino salicyclic acid in 5-amino salicyclic acid rectal capsules. Successful separation of Mesalamine peak from excipient peaks and diluent were achieved on a Acquity C8 (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) and UV detector at 254 nm, 0.3 mL/min as a flow rate, and 3 μL as an injection volume. For the RP-UPLC method, phosphate buffer and methanol was used as mobile phases at ratio of 83:17 and the column temperature was 25 °C. Percentage recovery obtained in the range of 98.7 - 99.7 % and the method is linear for Mesalamine for specified concentration range with coefficient of variation (r) not less than 0.99. The proposed RP-UPLC method was found to be specific, linear, precise, accurate and robust.

  8. Mesalamine Rectal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rectal mesalamine comes as a suppository and an enema to use in the rectum. The suppository and the enema are usually used once a day at bedtime. ... rectal mesalamine without talking to your doctor.Mesalamine suppositories and enemas may stain clothing and other fabrics, ...

  9. Belladonna

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... asthma. Belladonna is also used as suppositories for hemorrhoids. ... condition. Arthritis-like pain. Asthma. Colds. Hay fever. Hemorrhoids. Motion sickness. Nerve problems. Parkinson's disease. Spasms and ...

  10. The potential use of Khaya senegalensis oil as base in paracetamol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of the oil from Khaya senegalensis seed as a suppository base was investigated. Some physicochemical properties of the oil like the physical appearance, saponification value, iodine value, acid value and refractive index were evaluated. The oil was used to prepare paracetamol suppositories either as the ...

  11. The efficacy of urine data in comparative bioavailability of proguanil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bioavailability of proguanil formulated as suppository, was compared to the tablet formulation in a bid to evaluate the utility of the suppository dosage form as means of administering proguanil in children and high-risk groups, such as sickle cell patients, who may not tolerate oral route of administration. The study was a ...

  12. Influence of storage conditions on the physical and release ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of storage conditions on physical and release properties of lipophilic-based piroxicam suppositories with a view to determining the most desirable conditions for their storage. Piroxicam 20 mg suppositories were prepared by fusion method using cocoa butter, Witepsol H15® and Witepsol ...

  13. Clinical results of tumor shrinkage and evaluation of quality of life in low rectal carcinoma after preoperative combined treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Osamu; Suganuma, Yasushi; Tamura, Takao; Ohnishi, Kazuyoshi; Nishiue, Takashi; Itoh, Masahiko; Horie, Hiroshi; Sawai, Seiji; Takahashi, Toshio

    1992-01-01

    To improve the surgical rate and the quality of life (QOL) for patients with advanced low rectal carcinoma, we investigated whether preoperative treatments (irradiation and hyperthermia and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) suppository, irradiation and hyperthermia, irradiation and 5-FU suppository, irradiation alone and 5-FU suppository alone) were useful. The tumor shrinkage rate after preoperative treatments was highest in the irradiation, hyperthermia and 5-FU suppository group. Pathologically complete regression was observed in the 2 of 18 cases (12%). According to our criteria of histological changes, the irradiation, hyperthermia and 5-FU suppository group showed the greatest effectiveness. The 4 year postoperative survival rate and the 4 year local recurrence rate were 100% and 8% in the irradiation, hyperthermia and 5-FU suppository group and the data suggest that these results were the best of the 5 treatments. After the carcinoma was shrunk after irradiation, hyperthermia and 5-FU suppository, the patients could receive curatively a sphincter-saving operation (super-low anterior resection and transanal rectal resection). The fecal continence of 7 patients after sphincter-saving operations was increased as good by manometric study, defecography and clinical evaluation. In conclusion, our data suggest that the preoperative combined treatment of irradiation, hyperthermia and 5-FU suppository prevents local recurrence and increases the possibility of a sphincter-saving operation for advanced rectal carcinoma. (author)

  14. Effects of interacting variables on the release properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The individual and interaction effects of formulation variables on the release of suppositories were investigated using a 23 factorial experimental design. The variables studied were nature of base (B), type of drug (D), and presence of surfactant (S). Method: Suppositories were formulated with theobroma oil and ...

  15. Post Operative Pain Control in Inguinal Hernia Repair: Comparison ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    drug to be used for local wound infiltrations following inguinal hernia repair. Results: A total of 52 ... intramuscularly or via intravenously 2,3. The local ..... suppository and local marcaine injection on inguinal hernia surgery. Arch crit care.

  16. Bleeding during cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DO NOT drink alcohol. DO NOT use enemas, rectal suppositories, or vaginal douches. Women should not use ... Copyright 1997-2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing ...

  17. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences - Vol 10, No 1 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential use ofKhaya senegalensis oil as base in paracetamol suppository formulation · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. JD Audu-Peter, JD Kadiri, P Igbarago, 1700-1705 ...

  18. Rectal absorption of homatropine [14C] methylbromide in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, M.B.; Cates, L.A.; Clarke, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    Homatropine [ 14 C]methylbromide (HMB- 14 C) was administered to rats by intramuscular injection, oral gavage and rectal suppository. Plasma concentrations of 14 C were measured over the subsequent 12 h. Peak plasma concentrations were higher and achieved more rapidly after rectal administration than by other routes whether HMB- 14 C was administered in a water-soluble suppository base or in aqueous solution. Twelve h after the suppositories were inserted and retained 28% of the 14 C had been excreted in the urine while 56% remained in the large intestine. Unlabelled HMB, given in rectal suppositories to anaesthetized rats, caused prompt blockade of the effects of vagal stimulation on pulse rate and of intravenous acetylcholine on blood pressure. These results confirm the rapid rectal absorption of the drug. (author)

  19. Solidified reverse micellar solutions (SRMS): A novel approach for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AMARA

    The types of SRMS-based drug delivery systems include solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), solid lipid microparticles (SLM), tablets and suppositories amongst others. The work ..... based SLM for intramuscular administration of gentamicin.

  20. Indomethacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inflammation of the tissue that connects muscle to bone). Indomethacin immediate-release capsules, suspension (liquid) and suppositories ... to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in ...

  1. THE ROLE OF INTERFERON PREPARATIONS IN THE TREATMENT OF ACUTE VIRAL RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS IN INFANTS, BABIES AND TODDLERS (RESULTS OF A MULTICENTER COMPARATIVE RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL)

    OpenAIRE

    L.V. Feklisova; A.V. Gorelov; V.P. Drinevskii; A.A. Ploskireva; E.V. Tselipanova; E.Yu. Shvets; E.V. Kanner; Yu.N. Lin'kova; E.V. Chernyaeva

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes the results of a comparative clinical trial of drugs recombinant human interferon alpha-2b in the dosage form of suppositories for their use in the treatment of ARVI in infants, babies and toddlers age. In accordance to the selection criteria 100 children who were hospitalized, aged from 6 months to 3 years with clinically diagnosed ARVI were included in the study. Two study groups were formed: basic, which patients within 5 days received suppositories containing taurine an...

  2. Comparison of oral versus rectal administration of acetaminophen with codeine in postoperative pediatric adenotonsillectomy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarzak, Vicki; Haddad, Joseph

    2006-08-01

    To examine whether acetaminophen with codeine administered per rectum is an effective alternative for pain control compared with oral administration after an adenotonsillectomy. A prospective, randomized control study. Seventy-five children aged 1 to 5 were recruited for this study. Each child was assigned randomly to receive either rectal or oral postoperative pain medication. A journal with eight questions was kept for 10 days after the operation, and an overall survey of five questions was filled out at the first postoperative visit. Postoperative pain was adequately controlled in those patients receiving suppositories when compared with those patients receiving oral pain medication. Adverse effects and total number of doses given per day were similar. Parents found the suppositories easy to administer, and more parents would switch or consider switching from oral pain medication to suppositories if given the choice. The suppositories achieved equivalent pain control as oral medication with few side effects and good tolerance. Furthermore, many parents preferred the suppositories to oral medication in maintaining postoperative pain control because of ease of administration. If given the choice for future surgeries, many parents would switch or consider switching from oral pain medication to suppositories.

  3. Principia of cancer therapy, 19. Effects of per rectum carmofur on radiotherapeutic efficacy of rectal carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishina, Hitoshi; Okuyama, Shinichi

    1987-12-01

    Radiotherapy combined with bleomycin in oil and tegafur and/or carmofur has already been shown markedly effective in those patients having rectal cancer as studied histologically (Okuyama et al. Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 143 : 503, 1984) as well as clinically (Hariu et al. Jap. Assoc. Gastrenterol. Surg., Hiroshima, 1983). In search for attainment of better effectiveness, carmofur suppositories were developed. Their pharmacokinetic analysis revealed a ten-time increment in the blood concentration of 5-FU as compared with tegafur suppositories. The clinical results in terms of reduction in tumor size, CEA titers and survival appeared to be improved. Histological studies on the surgical materials seemed promising, too. The probable clinical significance of carmofur suppositories may be that pre-operative radiotherapy of rectal cancers, and possibly those patients having their metastases to the liver organ be greatly expedited.

  4. Principia of cancer therapy, 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishina, Hitoshi; Okuyama, Shinichi

    1987-01-01

    Radiotherapy combined with bleomycin in oil and tegafur and/or carmofur has already been shown markedly effective in those patients having rectal cancer as studied histologically (Okuyama et al. Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 143 : 503, 1984) as well as clinically (Hariu et al. Jap. Assoc. Gastrenterol. Surg., Hiroshima, 1983). In search for attainment of better effectiveness, carmofur suppositories were developed. Their pharmacokinetic analysis revealed a ten-time increment in the blood concentration of 5-FU as compared with tegafur suppositories. The clinical results in terms of reduction in tumor size, CEA titers and survival appeared to be improved. Histological studies on the surgical materials seemed promising, too. The probable clinical significance of carmofur suppositories may be that pre-operative radiotherapy of rectal cancers, and possibly those patients having their metastases to the liver organ be greatly expedited. (author)

  5. Rectal hydrocortisone during vomiting in children with adrenal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ní Chróinín, M; Fallon, M; Kenny, D; Moriarty, S; Hoey, H; Costigan, C

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate rectal hydrocortisone as an emergency glucocorticoid replacement therapy in adrenal insufficient children. A parental questionnaire evaluated preferred treatment, problems or benefits of i.m. and rectal hydrocortisone, frequency and indications for administration and who administered treatment. Admissions of children with adrenal insufficiency were monitored. There were 39/52 families who responded to the questionnaire. 93% (26/28) preferred rectal hydrocortisone. Parents or children who previously received emergency treatment from a doctor now self-administered rectal hydrocortisone. The cost of suppositories and i.m. hydrocortisone is similar; however, storage of suppositories was inconvenient. One girl presented with pneumonia and collapse despite rectal hydrocortisone and a hydrocortisone level at admission of >2000 nmol/l with normal electrolytes. Rectal hydrocortisone is an acceptable and safe emergency therapy. We still advise i.m. hydrocortisone if rectal administration is not possible or with suppository extrusion.

  6. A multidisciplinary treatment for encopresis in children with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, Nathan A; Mevers, Joanna Lomas; McElhanon, Barbara O; Scheithauer, Mindy C

    2017-04-01

    Achieving continence of one's bowel movements is a key step in development and failure to do so leads to many negative consequences. Treatments for encopresis appearing in the literature have employed behavioral strategies; medications such as suppositories, laxatives, or enemas; and in some studies a combination of these approaches. To date, attempts to extend successful treatments for encopresis in typically developing children to those with developmental disabilities have been limited. The current study included three participants diagnosed with developmental disabilities who had a history of encopresis. None of the participants had a continent bowel movement under baseline conditions. Continent bowel movements increased during treatment that included the addition of suppositories to elicit continent bowel movements. Two participants began having independent continent bowel movements (i.e., without requiring suppositories) and medication was successfully faded out for the remaining participant. Treatment took between 13 and 21 days. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  7. Post hemorrhoidectomy pain control: rectal Diclofenac versus Acetaminophen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi M

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Anal surgeries are prevalent, but they didn't perform as outpatient surgeries because of concerns about postoperative pain. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of rectal acetaminophen and diclofenac on postoperative analgesia after anal surgeries in adult patients. "nMethods: In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study 60 ASA class I or II scheduled for haemorrhoidectomy, anal fissure or fistula repair, were randomized (with block randomization method to receive either a single dose of 650 mg rectal acetaminophen (n=20, 100 mg rectal diclofenac (n=20 or placebo suppositories (n=20 after the operation. The severity of pain, time to first request of analgesic agent after administration of suppositories and complications were compared between three groups. Pain scores were evaluated in patients by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS in 0 (after complete consciousness in recovery, 2, 4, 12 and 24 hours after surgery. The period between administration of the suppositories and the patients' first request to receive analgesic was compared between groups. "nResults: Pain scores were lower significantly in rectal diclofenac than the other groups. The period between administration of the suppositories and the patients' first request to receive analgesic in diclofenac group was 219±73 minutes, was significantly longer compared with placebo (153±47 minutes and acetaminophen (178±64 minutes groups. No complications were reported. "nConclusions: Diclofenac suppository is more effective than acetaminophen suppository in post hemorrhoidectomy pain management.

  8. Severe side effects with the application of Mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid) during radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, U.; Siems, H.; Wannenmacher, M.; Schoelmerich, J.; Kluge, F.; Schaefer, H.E.

    1987-10-01

    In a prospective randomized placebo controlled double blind study, the prophylactic effect of Mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid, 5-ASA) as suppositories (3x250 mg/day) on radiation induced proctitis during radiotherapy for prostatic carcinoma was studied. The study ended when 16 patients had been included (5-ASA: Eight, placebo: Eight) because of severe side effects in the 5-ASA group. 75% of patients treated with 5-ASA reported symptoms of a severe proctitis while only one patient in the placebo group had similar complaints. The application of Mesalazine as suppositories is not useful in preventing radiation induced proctitis during radiotherapy of prostate carcinoma.

  9. Severe side effects with the application of Mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid) during radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, U.; Siems, H.; Wannenmacher, M.; Schoelmerich, J.; Kluge, F.; Schaefer, H.E.

    1987-01-01

    In a prospective randomized placebo controlled double blind study, the prophylactic effect of Mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid, 5-ASA) as suppositories (3x250 mg/day) on radiation induced proctitis during radiotherapy for prostatic carcinoma was studied. The study ended when 16 patients had been included (5-ASA: Eight, placebo: Eight) because of severe side effects in the 5-ASA group. 75% of patients treated with 5-ASA reported symptoms of a severe proctitis while only one patient in the placebo group had similar complaints. The application of Mesalazine as suppositories is not useful in preventing radiation induced proctitis during radiotherapy of prostate carcinoma. (orig.) [de

  10. Simultaneous Determination of Co-formulated Matrine and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and validate a new, simple, sensitive and accurate high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the simulataneous determination of matrine and secnidazole in suppositories. Methods: The method involved using a SinoChoom ODS-BP C18 column (5 ƒÊm, 4.6 mm ~ 200 mm) and ...

  11. CORRECTED MARCH EDITON 2009 F...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Haemorrhoids, symptomatic vascular cushions i.e. engorgement of haemorrhoidal venous plexuses with redundancy of their coverings, are a problem that has plagued man kind since the dawn of civilization. The detailed description of haemorrhoids dates back to Hippocrates, who treated the condition with suppositories, ...

  12. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 246 ... Vol 14, No 1 (2017), Influence of storage conditions on the physical and release properties of piroxicam suppositories formulated with lipophilic bases, Abstract. Francis A. Oladimeji ... Vol 6, No 1 (2009), Pharmacognostic profile and in vitro cytotoxic activity of Adenema hyssopifolium G. Don, Abstract.

  13. THE ROLE OF INTERFERON PREPARATIONS IN THE TREATMENT OF ACUTE VIRAL RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS IN INFANTS, BABIES AND TODDLERS (RESULTS OF A MULTICENTER COMPARATIVE RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Feklisova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the results of a comparative clinical trial of drugs recombinant human interferon alpha-2b in the dosage form of suppositories for their use in the treatment of ARVI in infants, babies and toddlers age. In accordance to the selection criteria 100 children who were hospitalized, aged from 6 months to 3 years with clinically diagnosed ARVI were included in the study. Two study groups were formed: basic, which patients within 5 days received suppositories containing taurine and interferon alpha (125,000 IU,  and the comparison group, where patients received suppositories with interferon (150,000 IU. The patients of both groups were subjects of medical observation for 5 days with an estimate of the effectiveness of treatment on the 6th day of therapy. The eliminating activity of the exploring drugs was determined using standard laboratory techniques (PCR or DFA scrapings from the nasopharynx. The study established the high effectiveness and wide safety profile of both drugs. No cases of the adverse events that have established link with the study medications. Key words: influenza, ARVI, recombinant human interferon alpha-2b, taurine, suppositories, children. (Pediatric Pharmacology. — 2011; 8 (5: 76–82.

  14. Re-expasion pulmonary edema and its treatment approaches ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indomethacin suppositories were administered to 11(55%) patients. Twenty-five percent of RPE cases required bronchodilators while only one case (5%) had received a bronchodilator drug. We concluded that RPE is not a rare complication. Early diagnosis and appropriate approach can reduce mortality. For patients with ...

  15. Prise en charge de la douleur postoperatoire chez l'enfant au Chu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many protocols with various associations with: Paracetamol, Tramadol, Nefopam, morphine IV and niflumic acid suppository was instituted. This practice still being insufficient and inadequate as recommended by the guidelines. Continuing training of anesthetists to pain management becomes urgent to ensure the minimum ...

  16. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 437 ... Vol 6, No 2 (2009), A Method To Determine Adhesion Of Suppository Mass On Excised Intestinal Tissue, Abstract. JO Onyechi, G Martin. Vol 3, No 1 (2006), A Module For Thermal Pest Control In Stored Raw Materials Used In Feed Mills / Food Manufacturing Industries, Abstract. C A Mgbemene, I Agwubilo ...

  17. MODERN OPPORTUNITIES OF INTERFERON THERAPY AT INFLUENZA AND ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Chebotareva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The new dosing scheme for the preparation VIFERON®, rectal suppositories for infants of II, III and IV groups of health was suggested. The application of the scheme has resulted in a more pronounced clinical and immunological effects at treatment of influenza and acute respiratory infections compared to the previously used sc heme. 

  18. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Bombax ceiba and their Binary Mixture Abstract · Vol 10, No 1 (2013) - Articles Optimization of binder, disintegrant and compression pressure for paracetamol tablet formulations. Abstract · Vol 10, No 1 (2013) - Articles The potential use ofKhaya senegalensis oil as base in paracetamol suppository formulation. Abstract.

  19. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research - Vol 3, No 1 (2004)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of interacting variables on the release properties of chloroquine and aminophylline suppositories · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. M A Odeniyi, K T Jaiyeoba, 285-290. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v3i1.14611 ...

  20. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Validation of an HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Analysis of Dextromethorphan HBr, Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate and Sodium Benzoate in Cough Mixture Abstract · Vol 26, No 1 (2008) - Articles Short Communication: Comparative Quality Evaluation of Some Brands of Paracetamol Tablets, Suppositories and Syrups

  1. Mænd med rejsningsbesvær efter radikal prostatektomi bør behandles efter sædvanlige retningslinjer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Hansen, Rikke Bølling; Maigaard, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Penile rehabilitation programmes aim to improve long-term sexual function after nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy. Programmes aim to improve cavernous oxygenation to avoid structural damage in penile tissue. Especially, daily use of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors has been studied. T......, urethral suppositories and penile implants....

  2. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olatejusoa, SOA. Vol 12, No 2 (2012) - Articles Awareness and Use of Diclofenac Suppository for Postoperative Pain Relief by Nigerian Anaesthetists Abstract. ISSN: 0794-2184. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

  3. Mænd med rejsningsbesvær efter radikal prostatektomi bør behandles efter sædvanlige retningslinjer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Hansen, Rikke Bølling; Maigaard, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Penile rehabilitation programmes aim to improve long-term sexual function after nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy. Programmes aim to improve cavernous oxygenation to avoid structural damage in penile tissue. Especially, daily use of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors has been studied. T......, urethral suppositories and penile implants....

  4. Journal of Pharmacy & Bioresources - Vol 5, No 2 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of some surfactants on the release of metronidazole from suppositories formulated with goat fat and palm kernel oil admixtures · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. A Attama. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jpb.v5i2.52990 ...

  5. 10. Radionuclides in galenical pharmacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, P.

    1981-01-01

    Methods are discussed of studying resorption of drugs (tablets, coated tablets, pills, suppositories, ointments) in the organism using radioactive tracers 24 NaCl, Na 131 I. The resorption and penetration are discussed of salts dissolved in medicinal baths. Techniques are described using beta scattering for studying stability of heterogeneous systems (suspensions, emulsions, powders) used in the preparation of drugs. (H.S.)

  6. Synergistic combination therapy of antitumor agents, membrane modification agents and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watarai, Jiro; Itagaki, Takatomo; Akutsu, Thoru; Yamaguchi, Kouichi; Kato, Isao

    1983-01-01

    Larygeal cancer were treated with synergistic combination therapy of Futraful in suppository, vitamin A, cepharanthin and irradiation from April 1981 to June 1982. This combination therapy resulted in high percentage of the tumor regression in the case of the invading laryngeal cancer and negligible complication. (author)

  7. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Igbarago, P. Vol 10, No 1 (2013) - Articles The potential use ofKhaya senegalensis oil as base in paracetamol suppository formulation. Abstract. ISSN: 1596-8499. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

  8. The Effect of Low‑Dose Ketamine (Preemptive Dose) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Average dosage of diclofenac suppository and mean time for taking the first dosage of opioids have not statistical difference too (respectively; P = 0.76, P = 0.87). Average dose of pethidine was lesser than placebo statistically. It means, the case group did not take pethidine but this amount was 6 (20%) in the control one (P ...

  9. Microbicides and HIV prevention | Sibeko | Obstetrics and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbicide agents come in different preparations and/or formulations. The first generation microbicides are gels and creams; whereas subsequent generations include vaginal rings, films, sponges, gels with barrier devices and suppositories, and work by altering the environment of the genital tract to make it unsuitable for

  10. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adenekan, AT. Vol 9, No 2 (2009) - Articles Trauma admissions to the ICU of a tertiary hospital in a low resource setting. Abstract · Vol 12, No 2 (2012) - Articles Awareness and Use of Diclofenac Suppository for Postoperative Pain Relief by Nigerian Anaesthetists Abstract. ISSN: 0794-2184. AJOL African Journals Online.

  11. Preparation and in vitro/in vivo evaluation of metformin hydrochloride rectal dosage forms for treatment of patients with type II diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghloul, Abdel-Azim; Lila, Ahmad; Abd-Allah, Fathy; Nada, Aly

    2017-06-01

    Metformin hydrochloride (MtHCL) is an oral antidiabetic drug and has many other therapeutic benefits. It has poor bioavailability, narrow absorption window and extensive liver metabolism. Moreover, children and elders face difficulty to swallow the commercial oral tablets. Preparation, in vitro/in vivo evaluation of MtHCL suppositories for rectal administration to solve some of these problems. Suppository fatty bases (Witepsol ® , Suppocire ® and Massa ® ; different grades) and PEG bases 1000, 4000 and 6000 (different ratios), were used to prepare rectal suppository formulations each containing 500 mg drug. These were characterized for manufacturing defects, and pharmacotechnical performance and formulations showing superior results were subjected to bioavailability testing in human volunteers compared with the commercial oral tablet (Ref) applying LC-MS/MS developed analytical technique. The preparation method produced suppositories with satisfactory characteristics and free of manufacturing defects. The fatty bases were superior compared with PEG bases regarding the physical characteristics. Three formulations were chosen for bioavailability testing and the results showed comparable bioavailability compared to the Ref. The fatty bases showed superior characteristics compared with the PEG bases. MtHCL formulated in selected fatty bases could be a potential alternative to the commercial oral tablets particularly for pediatric and geriatric patients.

  12. Method of Abdominal Cavity Postoperative Infiltrates Treatment in Children with Appendiceal Peritonitis

    OpenAIRE

    Melnichenko, M. G.; Antoniuk, V. V.; Tkachenko, L. P.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of postoperative abdominal infiltrates in children operated on appendicular peritonitis with the use of antibiotics and physical factors on the abdominal region according to the utility model includes two stages. The first stage involves regional antibacterial electrophoresis and therapeutic antibacterial microclysters. The second stage includes the impact of diadynamic therapy in infiltration projection and NSAIDs as rectal suppositories.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of rectal paracetamol after repeated dosing in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, T W; Henneberg, S W; Holm-Knudsen, R J

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-three children (aged between 9 weeks and 11 yr) were given paracetamol suppositories 25 mg kg-1 every 6 h (maximum 5 days) after major surgery and serum and saliva concentrations were measured. There was a good correlation (r = 0.91, P

  14. Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Phase 2 Trial of a Lactobacillus crispatus Probiotic Given Intravaginally for Prevention of Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Stapleton, Ann E.; Au-Yeung, Melissa; Hooton, Thomas M.; Fredricks, David N.; Roberts, Pacita L.; Czaja, Christopher A.; Yarova-Yarovaya, Yuliya; Fiedler, Tina; Cox, Marsha; Stamm, Walter E.

    2011-01-01

    In a double-blind placebo-controlled trial of a Lactobacillus crispatus intravaginal suppository probiotic (LACTIN-VÜ, Osel, Inc.) for prevention of recurrent UTI (rUTI) in pre-menopausal women, LACTIN-V was safe, well tolerated, and associated with a reduction in rUTI.

  15. Targeting Chemerin Receptor CMKLR1 in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    polycaprylactone. Oral delivery systems include tablets and capsules. These can contain excipients such as binders (e.g...Transmucosal delivery systems include patches, tablets , suppositories, pessaries, gels and creams, and can contain excipients such as solubilizers and...with no further testing. Magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI ) of the brain and spine is often used during the diagnostic process. MRI shows areas of

  16. [Comparative study of combined local treatment (sulfadimidine, metronidazole and nystatin) and the standard monotherapy in uncomplicated bacterial vaginosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milánkovits, Márton; Baksay, László; Plachy, János

    2002-12-22

    Comparative, in vivo, human, prospective, single blind, clinical and microbiological diagnoses based and randomised study of the treatment of uncomplicated bacterial vaginosis with two forms of combined (metronidazole + nystatin + sulfadimidin) vaginal suppositories (laminated and mixed containing the same ingredients) and the standard preparations available in the Hungarian market (Dalacin vaginal cream and Klion vaginal suppository). The examinations involved 60 volunteers and were performed in the Gynecological Outpatient Clinic of the Council of Erd, the microbiological samples were examined at Saint Rókus Hospital in Budapest. The combined treatment was better tolerated and resulted in normal vaginal pH significantly more often at the same rate of recovery. The combined treatment is simultaneously effective in cases of the most prevalent coinfections too.

  17. UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRY APPLICATION FOR QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF VINPOCETINE IN DRUG FORMULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. V. Monaykina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In this paper simple, rapid and sensitive assay methods for quantitative determination of vinpocetine in two new drug formulations (suppositories and nasal cream are proposed. Analysis has been performed directly by using zero-order UV spectrophotometry. It is known from the special literature that the chromatographic techniques used for vinpocetine assay require expensive equipment and are rather time consuming. Therefore UV spectrophotometry is preferable due to its accuracy and simplicity. The object of this study was to develop new, simple, rapid, precise and accurate UV spectrophotometric procedure for the quantitative determination of vinpocetine in suppositories and nasal cream and evaluation of some validation characteristics of the methods. Materials and methods. The objects of the study were the new drug formulations of vinpocetine, namely 0,01 suppositories and 0,5% nasal cream developed by the scientists of The Chair of Technology of Drugs of Zaporizhzhia State Medical University. Distilled water and 0.05M HCl were used as the solvents, working standard sample of vinpocetine was used as a reference standard. Analytical equipment: spectrophotometer Specord 200, electronic balance ABT-120-5DM, measuring glassware of class A. Assay procedure: An accurately weighed sample of cream (1,200 – 2,000 g or one suppository was dissolved in 0.05M HCl and filtered into a 50,00 ml volumetric flask. Then the solution was brought to the mark with the same solvent and stirred. 3,00 ml or 4,00 ml of the resulting solutions (for suppositories or cream respectively were transferred into a 25,00 ml volumetric flask and brought to the mark with distilled water. Absorbance was measured at a wavelength of 272 nm on the blank of distilled water. The parallel measurement with 1,00 ml of 0,064% vinpocetine standard solution was carried out. The content of active substance was calculated according to standard formulas. Results. The suggested

  18. APPLICATION OF UV-SPECTROPHOTOMETRY FOR THE QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF CAPTOPRIL IN DRUG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Monaykina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In this paper the simple, rapid and sensitive assay method for the quantitative determination of captopril in two new pharmaceutical formulations (suppositories and nasal gel is proposed. Analysis was performed directly by using zero-order UV spectrophotometry. It is known from the special literature that the chromatographic techniques used for captopril assay require the expensive equipment and are rather time consuming. Therefore UV spectrophotometry is preferable due to its accuracy, sensitivity and simplicity. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new, simple, rapid, precise and accurate UV spectrophotometric method for the quantitative determination of captopril in suppositories and nasal gel. Materials and methods. The objects of the study were the new drug formulations of captopril, namely 0,05 suppositories and 2,5% nasal gel developed by the scientists of The Chair of Technology of Drugs ofZaporozhye State Medical University. Distilled water was used as the solvent, working standard sample of captopril was used as a reference standard. Analytical equipment: spectrophotometer Specord 200, electronic balance ABT-120-5DM, measuring glassware of class A. Assay procedure: An accurately weighed sample of gel (0,4000 –0,8000 g or one suppository was dissolved in distilled water and filtered into a volumetric flask (50,00 ml for gel and 250,0 ml for suppository . Then the solution was brought to the mark with the same solvent and stirred. 1,00 ml of the resulting solution was transferred into a 25,00 ml volumetric flask and brought to the mark with distilled water. Absorbance was measured at a wavelength of 203 nm on the blank of a solvent. The parallel measurement with 1,00 ml of 0,03% captopril standard solution was carried out. The content of active substance was calculated according to standard formulas. Results. The suggested procedure was successfully applied for the analysis of two new pharmaceutical

  19. The Evidence Base on the Efficacy and Safety of Ibuprofen in Pediatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Marushko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with an analysis of the world literature of recent years, the aim of which was to study the efficacy and safety of ibuprofen use as first-line antipyretic in pediatric practice. Special attention was paid to researches on the study the pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety of ibuprofen in fever in children of all ages, as well as the use of different forms of ibuprofen (suspension, suppositories.

  20. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF LEVITIRACETAM MATRIX TABLETS

    OpenAIRE

    Kalepu Swathi*and Dr. P. Narayana Raju

    2018-01-01

    For many years the treatment of acute or chronic sicknesses were carried out normally via the transport of medication to sufferers through diverse pharmaceutical forms encompass pills, pills, creams, suppositories, drinks, ointments, aerosols and injectables. The kinds conventional oral drug delivery systems are regarded to provide delivery of the drug. Therefore to reap as well as to hold the drug awareness within the range of healing effectiveness required for the treatment. Levetiracetam m...

  1. ANALGESIC EFFICACY OF TRAMADOL IN PEDIATRIC TONSILLECTOMY WITH ADENOIDECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Benedik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tonsillectomy is one of the most commonly performed surgical prcedures in childhood. Acute pain after tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy can be treated with non-opioid and opioid analgesics. Our hypothesis stated that tramadol iv after induction of anaesthesia has superior analgesic effect compared to acetaminophen.Methods:  In a prospective, randomised study we compared analgesic efficacy of tramadol (group T: 2 mg/kgBW iv and acetaminophen (group A: elixir 15 mg/kgBW before op. procedure in a group of 108 children (age 3-7 years. Exclusion critheria: allergy, liver or kidney failure, epilepsy, febrile convulsions. A standard anaesthetic technique was used: propofol, alfentanil, vecuronium, positive pressure ventilation with 60% nitrous oxide in oxygen. After the procedure each child received acetaminophen suppositories (10 mg/kgBW/4-6h and combined suppositories. Monitoring: vital signs during and after op. procedure, pain intensity on the ward (facial pain score.    Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in age distribution (mean age 5,2 years, ASA physical status, body weight, operative procedure, pain scores (VAS 6h after operative procedure; group T: 4,21±1,45; group A: 4,06±1,33, oxygen saturation, pulse frequency and the consumption of acetaminophen suppositories. Significant difference was in the consumption of combined suppositories (group T: 1,85±0,79; group A: 1,43±0,69, p=0,003.   Conclusion: Our study has shown, that tramadol is not a superior analgesic for the relief of posttonsillectomy pain in children compared to acetaminophen. 

  2. Underground Management: An Examination of World War II Resistance Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-24

    documents verified. All males under forty were sent as forced labor to Germany. All girls between seventeen and twenty-five were shipped to East Prussia for...compartments, microfilm, anal suppositories containing microfilm, concealment of messages in women’s bras and panties were some of the methods used to...including hidden compartments in cases and the utilization of women as couriers, hiding the messages in their bras and panties . He tells an amusing

  3. Optimal Treatment of Symptomatic Hemorrhoids

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Seok-Gyu; Kim, Soung-Ho

    2011-01-01

    Hemorrhoids are the most common anorectal complaint, and approximately 10 to 20 percent of patients with symptomatic hemorrhoids require surgery. Symptoms of hemorrhoids, such as painless rectal bleeding, tissue protrusion and mucous discharge, vary. The traditional therapeutic strategies of medicine include surgical, as well as non-surgical, treatment. To alleviate symptoms caused by hemorrhoids, oral treatments, such as fiber, suppositories and Sitz baths have been applied to patients. Othe...

  4. Spreading characteristics of proprietary rectal steroid preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    Three types of rectal steroid preparation were labelled with Technetium 99 or Indium 111, and the extent of spread of each within the bowel was followed, immediately after administration and at 2hrs, using a gamma camera. Patients with ulcerative colitis were compared with controls. Results indicate that 'Colifoam' enema and 'Predsol' suppository act mainly in the rectum, but 'Predsol retention' enema spreads further into the colon, making it more useful for patients with extensive ulcerative colitis. (U.K.)

  5. The treatment of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy with ovestin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kicovic, P.M.; Cortesprieto, J.; Milojevic, S.; Haspels, A.A.; Aljinovic, A.

    1980-01-01

    Seventy-four postmenopausal women presenting with vaginal atrophy were treated with either Ovestin® vaginal cream (Group A, 23 women: 1 mg/day E3; Group B, 30 women: 0.5 mg/day E3) or vaginal suppositories (Group C, 21 women: 0.5 mg/day E3), applied daily for 3 wk (A and B) or 2 wk (C) before

  6. Radiolabelling of potential colonic delivery systems by neutron activation. An evaluation based on physiochemical properties of excipients and formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrabi, Sayeh

    1999-01-01

    The effects of neutron irradiation on the physicochemical properties of some potential release-controlling excipients for oral delivery to colon (based on microbially degradable polysaccharide or a combination of pH- and time-dependent mechanisms) were initially investigated. The aim was to choose the most irradiation-resistant ones for the development of a colonic delivery system to be radiolabelled by the neutron activation procedure. However, no correlation between the extent of irradiation-induced changes of the release-controlling polymers and the in vitro properties of the final formulation was observed. Incorporation of samarium oxide (Sm 2 O 3 ) resulted in retardation of the drug release through the diffusion layer. The influence of neutron activation factors on the properties of some suppository combinations was also studied. The effect of the admixture of Sm 2 O 3 on the dissolution and disintegration of the suppositories was more profound than the effect of neutron irradiation. In hydrophilic suppositories, the effect of Sm 2 O 3 was dependent on the type, amount and the physicochemical characteristics of the incorporated drug. In lipophilic suppositories, the release-controlling effect of Sm 2 O 3 was hypothesised to be due to its insoluble micronised particles blocking the drug diffusion layer. The neutron activation procedure could be utilised for radiolabelling potential oral and rectal colonic drug delivery systems. However, to avoid alteration in the crucial in vitro characteristics of the formulations, the amount, the particle size and the aggregated particle characteristics of the lanthanide salt (e.g. Sm 2 O 3 or samarium stearate) together with the neutron irradiation dose should be controlled precisely for each dosage system. For the systems investigated in this work the release-controlling mechanism of the dosage form seems to be a key parameter to predict the extent of the influence of neutron activation factors on the in vitro properties

  7. Radiation proctitis after the high dose rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitano, Masashi; Katsumata, Tomoe; Satoh, Takefumi

    2006-01-01

    We reviewed the medical records of 12 patients treated for rectal bleeding after high-dose rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer. All patients developed grade 2 proctitis according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAC) and no patients needed blood transfusion. The patients were treated with argon plasma coagulation (APC) and/or steroid suppositories. The bleeding stopped or improved in 11 patients. Although re-bleeding was noticed in 7 patients the same treatment was effective in 5 patients. (author)

  8. Diclofenac pharmacokinetic meta-analysis and dose recommendations for surgical pain in children aged 1-12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standing, Joseph F; Tibboel, Dick; Korpela, Reijo; Olkkola, Klaus T

    2011-03-01

    Diclofenac is an effective, opiate-sparing analgesic for acute pain in children, which is commonly used in pediatric surgical units. Recently, a Cochrane review concluded the major knowledge gap in diclofenac use is dosing information. A pharmacokinetic meta-analysis has been undertaken with the aim of recommending a dose for children aged 1-12 years. Studies containing diclofenac pharmacokinetic data were identified during a Cochrane systematic review, and authors were asked to provide raw data. A pooled population analysis was undertaken in NONMEM to define the pharmacokinetics of intravenous, oral, and rectal diclofenac in children. Simulations were performed to recommend a dose yielding an equivalent area under diclofenac concentration-time curve (AUC) to a 50-mg dispersible tablet in adults. Data from 111 children aged 1-14 years consisting of 375 samples following intravenous, oral suspension, and suppositories were used. Adult dispersible tablet and suspension data were added to provide a reference AUC and support the absorption modeling, respectively. A three-compartment model described disposition, a dual-absorption compartment model was used for suspension and dispersible tablet data, and single-absorption compartment model for suppositories. The estimate of clearance was 16.5 l·h(-1) ·70 kg(-1) and bioavailabilities were 0.36, 0.63, and 0.35 for suspension, suppository, and dispersible tablets, respectively. Single doses of 0.3 mg·kg(-1) for intravenous, 0.5 mg·kg(-1) for suppositories, and 1 mg·kg(-1) for oral diclofenac in children aged 1-12 years are recommended as they yield a similar AUC to 50 mg in adults. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. MEDICINAL USES AND PHYTOCONSTITUENTS OF PAEONIA OFFICINALIS

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad F; Tabassum N; Rasool S

    2012-01-01

    Paeonia officinalis (European peony, Common peony) has been cultivated in Europe for years. The root has been used medicinally for over 2,000 years mainly in the treatment for epilepsy and to promote menstruation. Root is also antispasmodic, diuretic, sedative and tonic and has been successfully employed in the treatment of convulsions and spasmodic nervous affections such as epilepsy. It has also been used in the treatment of whooping cough whilst suppositories are sometimes made of the root...

  10. Emulsions and rectal formulations containing myrrh essential oil for better patient compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etman, M; Amin, M; Nada, A H; Shams-Eldin, M; Salama, O

    2011-06-01

    Myrrh has long been used for its circulatory, disinfectant, analgesic, antirheumatic, antidiabetic, and schistosomicidal properties. Myrrh essential oil (MEO) was extracted from the oleo-gum resin of Commiphora molmol and formulated into emulsions and suppositories to mask/avoid its bitter taste. Three oil-in-water emulsions (E1-E3) were formulated and taste was evaluated by 10 volunteers. Particle size distribution was measured and correlated with excipients and the method of preparation. Physical and chemical stability testing was carried out for the optimum formulation (E2). Seven suppository formulations were investigated (F1-F7). Suppocire AML (F1) and Suppocire CM (F2) were chosen as fatty bases, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 1500 (F3), PEG 4000 (F4), and a PEG blend (50% PEG 6000 + 30% PEG 1500 + 20% PEG 400) (F5) were chosen as water-soluble bases. A blend of PEG 1500 and Suppocire CM was also used (F7). Camphor (5%) was added to PEG 1500 (F6). Disintegration time, release rate, DSC, fracture points, and weight uniformity were evaluated. The overall average bitterness for formulations E1, E2, and E3 was 6.44, 4.15, and 3.45, respectively. Suppositories containing Suppocire AML had the fastest disintegration time (1.5 min) with dissolution efficiency (DE) of 56.8%. F3 containing PEG 1500 had a fast disintegration time of 2.5 min and maximum DE of 93.5%. The PEG blend had satisfactory release: (DE = 90.9%). A mixed fatty and water-soluble base (F7) had a disintegration time of 5 min and low DE (33.4%). A stable MEO emulsion with acceptable taste was formulated to improve patient acceptance and compliance. F3 suppositories yielded satisfactory results, while formulations containing fatsoluble bases exhibited poor release.

  11. Use of diclofenac sodium post milligan-morgan hemorrhoidectomy reduces the risk of post-operative urinary retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.T.J.; Saeed, S.; Ali, A.; Qureshi, M.A.; Alam, S.N.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of a single dose of diclofenac-sodium suppository on urinary retention in patients undergoing Milligan-Morgan-hemorrhoidectomy. Methodology: A total of 186 patients with 3rd and 4th degree hemorrhoids undergoing Milligan-Morgan-hemorrhoidectomy were recruited in the study. All were randomly assigned into group-A or group-B with a total of 93 patients in each group. Rectal diclofenac-sodium suppository (100mg) was given to group-B, whereas group-A was given a placebo at the end of Milligan-Morgan hemorrhoidectomy. Frequency of urinary retention was determined in first 24 hours postoperatively. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and Minitab. Results: Mean age of the patients was 35.83±11.16 years. 153 (82.3%) patients were males whereas 33 (17.7%) were females, with male to female ratio being 4.6:1. In group A, urinary retention was recorded in 15 patients (16.1%), while in group B, 5 patients (5.4%) developed urinary retention (p=0.03). Conclusion: Placement of rectal diclofenac suppository at the end of hemorrhoidectomy was effective in reducing urinary retention. (author)

  12. Efficacy of Acute Pain Control Protocol in Triage Department on Analgesics Administration Time and Patients' Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedhossein Seyyedhoseini Davaraani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Current study was conducted to develop a pain control protocol by Morphine Sulfate (MS Suppository in triage ward with the main primary outcomes of first analgesic administration time, patients' satisfaction and also the changes in pain intensity. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 318 consecutive patients attending to an academic tertiary health care center in Tehran, Iran in 2011 and 2012 were enrolled. The patients were randomly assigned to receive either routine pain control by emergency medicine residents in emergency department (n=132 or pain control protocol in triage level by nurses (n=186. Those with pain in control group were treated with conventional pain control program and those in intervention group with pain intensities higher than four were treated with suppository stat 10 mg dose of MS administered by nurses in triage ward. Results: The mean change in pain intensity was significantly (P<0.0001 higher in intervention group (4.2 versus 0.2 and the first analgesic administration time was significantly different between groups (P<0.05 being less in the intervention group (43.1 versus 4.6. Also the patients' satisfaction was significantly higher in the intervention group (P<0.0001. No drug adverse effects were seen. Conclusions: Totally, according to the obtained results, it may be concluded that acute pain control protocol in triage department by suppository of MS would result in reduced analgesics administration time and higher patients' satisfaction.   Keywords: Analgesia; Emergency Department; Pain Control

  13. Hair analysis to monitor abuse of analgesic combinations containing butalbital and propyphenazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Anna; Tiraferri, Ilaria; Palazzoli, Federica; Verri, Patrizia; Vandelli, Daniele; Marchesi, Filippo; Ciccarese, Michela; Licata, Manuela

    2015-11-10

    Butalbital, a barbiturate, is present in analgesic combinations used by headache sufferers. Overuse/abuse of these combinations may cause dependence, chronic migraine, and medication-overuse headache (MOH). MOH is difficult to manage: it improves interrupting analgesic overuse, but requires monitoring, because relapses are frequent. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for hair analysis has been developed and validated to document abuse of an analgesic combination containing butalbital and propyphenazone by a patient with MOH. For over ten years the patient managed her headache using eight suppositories/day of an analgesic combination containing butalbital 150mg, caffeine 75mg, and propyphenazone 375mg per suppository. An outpatient detoxification treatment was carried out. After three weeks, the patient reduced the consumption to one suppository/day. At the first control visit, after three months from the beginning of detoxification, the patient increased the use of the combination to four suppositories/day and at the second control visit, after seven months from the beginning of detoxification, she was back to eight suppositories/day. At the two control visits, a hair sample was taken for determination of butalbital and propyphenazone. Moreover blood and urine samples for determination of butalbital were drawn at the beginning of detoxification treatment and at the two control visits. With the segmental analysis of two hair samples the medication history of ten months could be estimated. In the first hair sample, collected at the first control visit, in the distal segment, butalbital and propyphenazone concentrations were, respectively, 17.5ng/mg and 56.0ng/mg, confirming the prolonged abuse; in the proximal segment, concurrently with the detoxification treatment, butalbital and propyphenazone concentrations had reduced respectively to 5.45ng/mg and 11.1ng/mg. The second hair sample, collected at the second control visit, proved the fair course

  14. A comparative bioavailability study of two ibuprofen formulations after single-dose administration in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metta S.S. Wiria

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate the bioequivalence of ibuprofen 125 mg suppository formulation (Ibukal®, test formulation from PT. Kalbe Farma, Tbk., Jakarta and the ibuprofen suppository comparative formulation (Proris®, from PT. Pharos Indonesia, Jakarta in 12 healthy volunteers. The pharmacokinetic parameters used in this study were the area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to hour 10 (AUC0-t, the area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to infinite (AUC0-inf, the maximum concentration (Cmax, and the time needed to reach the maximum concentration (tmax. The study was designed as a random cross-over fashion, single-blinded which included 12 healthy adult volunteers. The volunteers were fasted overnight and in the morning they received a suppository of the test drug (Ibukal® or a suppository of the comparative drug (Proris®. Blood samples were withdrawn on hour 0 (control, 20 min; 40 min; 1; 1.5; 2; 2.5; 3; 4; 6; 8; and 10 time points after the administration of the drug. Following a wash-out period of 1 week, this procedure was repeated using the other drug. The serum concentration of the drug was determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. The results of the study showed that, the mean (SD of AUC0-t, AUC0-inf, Cmax and tmax of the test drug were, respectively, 28.59(3.37 μg.h.mL-1, 30.47(3.56 μg.h.mL-1, 8.24(1.44 μg/mL, and 1.33(0.44 h. The mean (SD of AUC0-t, AUC0-inf, Cmax and tmax of the comparative drug were, respectively, 28.13(8.14 μg.h.mL-1, 30.56(8.05 μg.h.mL-1, 8.27(2.88 μg/mL, and 1.79(0.33 h. The geometric means ratio of the test to the comparative drug were 104.38% (CI 90%: 90.38-120.54% for AUC0-t, 101.97% (CI 90%: 89.51-116.16% for AUC0-inf, and 104.02% (CI 90%: 85.73-126.16% for Cmax. There was no side effect of the drug detected in this study. From the results we can conclude that the 125 mg of ibuprofen suppository of PT Kalbe Farma

  15. Modelling the costs and consequences of treating paediatric faecal impaction in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Julian F; Clegg, John P

    2006-01-01

    To compare the costs and consequences of using oral macrogol 3350 plus electrolytes (macrogol 3350; Movicol) compared to enemas/suppositories, manual evacuation and naso-gastric administration of macrogol (NGA-PEG) lavage solution in treating paediatric faecal impaction in Australia. A decision model was constructed using published clinical outcomes, utilities and clinician-derived resource utilisation estimates. The model was used to determine the expected Commonwealth and parent costs associated with each treatment over the period of disimpaction and 12 weeks post-disimpaction, in Australian dollars at 2003/2004 prices. 92% of oral macrogol 3350-treated patients are expected to be disimpacted within 6 days following initial treatment, compared with 79% of patients treated with enemas and suppositories who are expected to be disimpacted within 8 days. All patients are expected to be disimpacted within 5 days following a manual evacuation and within 2 days following NGA-PEG. The level of health gain at 12 weeks post-disimpaction irrespective of treatment for disimpaction and subsequent maintenance is expected to be the same; the expected quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) being 0.20 (95% CI: 0.17; 0.23). Starting treatment with oral macrogol 3350 in an outpatient setting is expected to lead to a Commonwealth cost of $758, compared to $1838 with NGA-PEG, $2125 with enemas and suppositories, $3931 with oral macrogol 3350 in an inpatient setting and $4478 with manual evacuation. Resource use associated with maintenance following initial disimpaction is expected to be broadly similar, irrespective of initial laxative. Hence, the expected Commonwealth cost is primarily affected by the treatment used to initially disimpact a patient. Expected parents' costs are expected to be comparable irrespective of treatment ranging from $89 to $112 per patient. Within the limitations of our model, using oral macrogol 3350 in an outpatient setting for treating faecally impacted

  16. A randomized trial of rectal indomethacin and sublingual nitrates to prevent post-ERCP pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotoudehmanesh, Rasoul; Eloubeidi, Mohamad Ali; Asgari, Ali Ali; Farsinejad, Maryam; Khatibian, Morteza

    2014-06-01

    Acute pancreatitis is the most common adverse event of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Recent data suggest that indomethacin can reduce the risk of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) in high-risk individuals. However, whether the combination of indomethacin and sublingual nitrates is superior to indomethacin alone is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of rectally administered indomethacin plus sublingual nitrate compared with indomethacin alone to prevent PEP. During a 17-month period, all eligible patients who underwent ERCP were enrolled in this study. We excluded patients who had undergone a prior endoscopic sphincterotomy. In a double-blind controlled randomized trial, patients received a suppository containing 100 mg of indomethacin, plus 5 mg of sublingual nitrate (group A), or a suppository containing 100 mg of indomethacin, plus sublingual placebo (group B), before ERCP. Serum amylase levels and clinically pertinent evaluations were measured in all patients after ERCP. Of the 300 enrolled patients, 150 received indomethacin plus nitrate. Thirty-three patients developed pancreatitis: 10 (6.7%) in group A and 23 (15.3%) in group B (P=0.016, risk ratio=0.39, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.18-0.86). More than 80% of the patients were at high risk of developing pancreatitis after ERCP. Absolute risk reduction, relative risk reduction, and number needed to treat for the prevention of PEP were 8.6% (95% CI: 4.7-14.5), 56.2% (95% CI: 50.6-60.8), and 12 (95% CI: 7-22), respectively. Combination of rectal indomethacin and sublingual nitrate given before ERCP was significantly more likely to reduce the incidence of PEP than indomethacin suppository alone. Multicenter trials to confirm these promising findings are needed.

  17. Development of the rectal dosage form with silver-coated glass beads for local-action applications in lower sections of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siczek, Krzysztof; Fichna, Jakub; Zatorski, Hubert; Karolewicz, Bożena; Klimek, Leszek; Owczarek, Artur

    2018-03-01

    Recent findings indicating the anti-inflammatory action of silver preparations through modulation of the gut microbiota and apoptosis of inflammatory cells predestine silver use in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of our study was to validate the possibility of effective silver release from silver-coated glass beads for anti-inflammatory local application in the lower sections of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Silver-coated glass beads were prepared using magnetron method. Release of silver from the silver-coated glass bead surface was carried out in BIO-DIS reciprocating cylinder apparatus. Erosion of silver coating and indirect estimation of the silver release dynamics was assessed using scanning electron microscope. Rectal suppositories containing silver-coated glass beads were prepared using five different methods (M1-M5) and X-ray scanned for their composition. The XR microanalysis and the chemical composition analysis evidenced for a rapid (within 30 min) release of nearly 50% of silver from the coating of the glass beads, which remained stable up to 24 h of incubation. The most homogeneous distribution of beads in the entire volume of the suppository was obtained for formulation M5, where the molten base was poured into mold placed in an ice bath, and the beads were added after 10 s. Our study is the first to present the concept of enclosing silver-coated glass beads in the lipophilic suppository base to attenuate inflammation in the lower GI tract and promises efficient treatment with reduced side effects.

  18. Effect of a prostaglandin - given rectally for prevention of radiation-induced acute proctitis - on late rectal toxicity. Results of phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, Tereza; Herrmann, Markus K.A.; Christiansen, Hans; Hermann, Robert M.; Hess, Clemens F.; Hille, Andrea; Zapf, Antonia; Pradier, Olivier; Schmidberger, Heinz

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: to assess the late effect of a prostaglandin, given rectally during irradiation, on late rectal toxicity. In the acute treatment setting no significant differences in reducing the incidence of acute proctitis symptoms in patients receiving misoprostol, however, significantly more rectal bleeding had been reported. Patients and methods: a total of 100 patients who had undergone radiotherapy for prostate cancer had been entered into this phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study with misoprostol or placebo suppositories. The toxicity was evaluated yearly after cessation of irradiation by the RTOG/LENT-SOMA scale. Results: the median follow-up was 50 months. 20 patients suffered from grade 1, four patients from grade 2 as well, and three patients only from grade 2 toxicity. Frequency, bleeding and urgency were the most commonly reported symptoms. In keeping with other studies and clinical experience, the symptoms peaked within the first 2 years with a median for grade 1 of 13 months and for grade 2 of 15 months. The presence of acute toxicity grade 2 showed a correlation with the development of any late toxicity (p = 0.03). Any acute rectal bleeding was significant correlated with any late rectal bleeding (p = 0.017). Conclusion: misoprostol given as once-daily suppository for prevention of acute radiation-induced proctitis does neither influence the incidence and severity of radiation-induced acute nor late rectal toxicity. Misoprostol has no negative impact on the incidence and severity of late rectal bleeding, in contrast to acute rectal bleeding. The routine clinical use of misoprostol suppositories cannot be recommended. (orig.)

  19. BOWEL PREPARATION BEFORE COLONOSCOPY FOR CHILDREN: comparison of efficacy of three different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohsen DEHGHANI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background - Colonoscopy is an important diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. Adequate bowel preparation is mandatory. Several regimens were discussed in the literature. Among the drugs which has recently used, polyethylene glycol is one of the most popular agents. Objectives - The aim of this study was to compare efficacy of three different methods for 1 day preparation before colonoscopy. Methods - This study included children with the range of ages (2-21 who had an indication of colonoscopy. Exclusion criteria were based on the history of previous surgery, parental disagreement, and patients who did not use preparation protocol. Three methods for bowel preparation were studied: 1- Polyethylene glycol only; 2- Polyethylene glycol and bisacodyl suppositories; 3- Polyethylene glycol plus normal saline enema. Boston Bowel Preparation Score was used for evaluation of preparation. SPSS version 16.0 (Chicago, IL, USA were used for data analysis. Results - In this study 83 cases completed the bowel preparation completely. Acceptable bowel preparation was seen in 24 (85.71%, 36 (94.73%, and 14 (82.35% of cases in PEG, PEG + bisacodyl, and PEG + normal saline enema groups respectively. PEG + bisacodyl suppositories was more effective than PEG + normal saline for the preparation of the first segment ( P=0.05. For second and third segment of colon, BPPS score was higher in PEG + bisacodyl suppositories compared to other regimens, but this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion - There was no significant difference between 1 day colonoscopy regimens in terms of bowel preparation score. Lowest score was seen in PEG + enema group compared to other group.

  20. Effect of a prostaglandin - given rectally for prevention of radiation-induced acute proctitis - on late rectal toxicity. Results of phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kertesz, Tereza; Herrmann, Markus K.A.; Christiansen, Hans; Hermann, Robert M.; Hess, Clemens F.; Hille, Andrea [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Univ. of Goettingen (Germany); Zapf, Antonia [Dept. of Medical Statistics, Univ. of Goettingen (Germany); Pradier, Olivier [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Univ. of Brest (France); Schmidberger, Heinz [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Univ. of Mainz (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    Background and purpose: to assess the late effect of a prostaglandin, given rectally during irradiation, on late rectal toxicity. In the acute treatment setting no significant differences in reducing the incidence of acute proctitis symptoms in patients receiving misoprostol, however, significantly more rectal bleeding had been reported. Patients and methods: a total of 100 patients who had undergone radiotherapy for prostate cancer had been entered into this phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study with misoprostol or placebo suppositories. The toxicity was evaluated yearly after cessation of irradiation by the RTOG/LENT-SOMA scale. Results: the median follow-up was 50 months. 20 patients suffered from grade 1, four patients from grade 2 as well, and three patients only from grade 2 toxicity. Frequency, bleeding and urgency were the most commonly reported symptoms. In keeping with other studies and clinical experience, the symptoms peaked within the first 2 years with a median for grade 1 of 13 months and for grade 2 of 15 months. The presence of acute toxicity grade 2 showed a correlation with the development of any late toxicity (p = 0.03). Any acute rectal bleeding was significant correlated with any late rectal bleeding (p = 0.017). Conclusion: misoprostol given as once-daily suppository for prevention of acute radiation-induced proctitis does neither influence the incidence and severity of radiation-induced acute nor late rectal toxicity. Misoprostol has no negative impact on the incidence and severity of late rectal bleeding, in contrast to acute rectal bleeding. The routine clinical use of misoprostol suppositories cannot be recommended. (orig.)

  1. BOWEL PREPARATION BEFORE COLONOSCOPY FOR CHILDREN: comparison of efficacy of three different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir; Haghighat, Mahmood; Imanieh, Mohammad-Hadi; Ghanbari, Saeed

    2015-12-01

    Colonoscopy is an important diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. Adequate bowel preparation is mandatory. Several regimens were discussed in the literature. Among the drugs which has recently used, polyethylene glycol is one of the most popular agents. The aim of this study was to compare efficacy of three different methods for 1 day preparation before colonoscopy. This study included children with the range of ages (2-21) who had an indication of colonoscopy. Exclusion criteria were based on the history of previous surgery, parental disagreement, and patients who did not use preparation protocol. Three methods for bowel preparation were studied: 1- Polyethylene glycol only; 2- Polyethylene glycol and bisacodyl suppositories; 3- Polyethylene glycol plus normal saline enema. Boston Bowel Preparation Score was used for evaluation of preparation. SPSS version 16.0 (Chicago, IL, USA) were used for data analysis. In this study 83 cases completed the bowel preparation completely. Acceptable bowel preparation was seen in 24 (85.71%), 36 (94.73%), and 14 (82.35%) of cases in PEG, PEG + bisacodyl, and PEG + normal saline enema groups respectively. PEG + bisacodyl suppositories was more effective than PEG + normal saline for the preparation of the first segment ( P=0.05). For second and third segment of colon, BPPS score was higher in PEG + bisacodyl suppositories compared to other regimens, but this difference was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference between 1 day colonoscopy regimens in terms of bowel preparation score. Lowest score was seen in PEG + enema group compared to other group.

  2. Bioavailability of the antiemetic metopimazine given as a microenema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrstedt, J.; Jørgensen, M.; Angelo, H.R.

    1996-01-01

    The absorption of the antiemetic metopimazine (MPZ) given as a single dose of (a) 40 mg microenema, (b) 40 mg orally and (c) 10 mg as a 60 min i.v. continuous infusion was investigated in six healthy volunteers. Blood samples were drawn and the serum concentrations of MPZ and its acid metabolite ...... were measured. The bioavailability of MPZ given orally and as enemas was 22.3 and 19.5% respectively. Partial avoidance of hepatic first pass metabolism was seen with the enemas, which in contrast to suppositories, seems to represent a reliable form of rectal administration....

  3. CLINICAL CASE OF CO-INFECTION CAUSED BY HEPATITIS B АND D IN A CHILD OF THE FIRST YEAR OF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Cherednychenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a case of own observation of a child in the first year of life with co-infection of hepatitis viruses B and D. The child was born to a mother with chronic hepatitis B and D. The co-infection was typical and mild. The treatment was carried out with interferon-α2b — viferon (rectal suppositories in a daily dose of 1 mio IU during 6 months. The outcome of the disease was recovery with elimination of the pathogen. 

  4. Transfer of estradiol to human milk. [Radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, S.; Nygren, K.G.; Johansson, E.D.B.

    1978-11-15

    A radioimmunoassay for the measurement of estradiol in human milk is evaluated. The detection limit was found to be 25 pg of estradiol per milliliter of milk. In milk samples collected from four lactating women during three to four months and from one pregnant and lactating woman, the concentration of estradiol was found to be below the detection limit of the assay. When six lactating women were given vaginal suppositories containing 50 or 100 mg of estradiol, it was possible to estimate the estradiol concentration in milk. A ratio of transfer of estradiol from plasma to milk during physiologic conditions is calculated to be less than 100 : 10.

  5. Transfer of estradiol to human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, S.; Nygren, K.G.; Johansson, E.D.B.

    1978-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for the measurement of estradiol in human milk is evaluated. The detection limit was found to be 25 pg of estradiol per milliliter of milk. In milk samples collected from four lactating women during three to four months and from one pregnant and lactating woman, the concentration of estradiol was found to be below the detection limit of the assay. When six lactating women were given vaginal suppositories containing 50 or 100 mg of estradiol, it was possible to estimate the estradiol concentration in milk. A ratio of transfer of estradiol from plasma to milk during physiologic conditions is calculated to be less than 100 : 10

  6. Radiolabelling of potential colonic delivery systems by neutron activation. An evaluation based on physiochemical properties of excipients and formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrabi, Sayeh

    1999-07-01

    The effects of neutron irradiation on the physicochemical properties of some potential release-controlling excipients for oral delivery to colon (based on microbially degradable polysaccharide or a combination of pH- and time-dependent mechanisms) were initially investigated. The aim was to choose the most irradiation-resistant ones for the development of a colonic delivery system to be radiolabelled by the neutron activation procedure. However, no correlation between the extent of irradiation-induced changes of the release-controlling polymers and the in vitro properties of the final formulation was observed. Incorporation of samarium oxide (Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}) resulted in retardation of the drug release through the diffusion layer. The influence of neutron activation factors on the properties of some suppository combinations was also studied. The effect of the admixture of Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the dissolution and disintegration of the suppositories was more profound than the effect of neutron irradiation. In hydrophilic suppositories, the effect of Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} was dependent on the type, amount and the physicochemical characteristics of the incorporated drug. In lipophilic suppositories, the release-controlling effect of Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} was hypothesised to be due to its insoluble micronised particles blocking the drug diffusion layer. The neutron activation procedure could be utilised for radiolabelling potential oral and rectal colonic drug delivery systems. However, to avoid alteration in the crucial in vitro characteristics of the formulations, the amount, the particle size and the aggregated particle characteristics of the lanthanide salt (e.g. Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} or samarium stearate) together with the neutron irradiation dose should be controlled precisely for each dosage system. For the systems investigated in this work the release-controlling mechanism of the dosage form seems to be a key parameter to predict the extent of the influence of neutron

  7. The treatment of severe malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondorp, Arjen M; Day, Nick P J

    2007-07-01

    In the SEAQUAMAT trial, parenteral artesunate was shown to be associated with a considerably lower mortality than quinine, and is now the recommended treatment for severe malaria in low-transmission areas and in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. A trial is underway to establish its role in African children. The development of artesunate suppositories may provide the means to treat patients with severe disease in remote rural settings, potentially buying the time needed to reach a health care facility. The increasing availability of basic intensive care facilities in developing countries also has the potential to further reduce mortality.

  8. [Dimenhydrinate overdosage in a 3(1/2) year-old-girl with dilative cardiomyopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girisch, M; Hofbeck, M; Rauch, R; Apitz, C; Sieverding, L

    2009-01-01

    Dimenhydrinate overdosage in a 3(1/2) year-old-girl with dilative cardiomyopathy. Dimenhydrinate (Vomex(R)) is frequently used in the treatment of sickness and vomiting. The symptoms of overdosage present like an anticholinergic syndrome. We report on the clinical findings of an intoxication with dimenhydrinate in a 3(1/2) year-old-girl with functional dilative cardiomyopathy following a congenital left ventricular diverticle. Especially in small children, with the application of 40 mg suppositories once or twice per day the maximum dose of 3.75 mg/kgBW/d is achieved.

  9. Pregravid preparation of fertile aged women with infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podolskyi Vl.V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective — to develop and assess the effectiveness of the pregravid training methods for the fertile aged women with infertility. Patients and methods. The study involved 50 fertile aged women with infertility, who were divided into groups: Group I — with primary infertility and group II — with secondary infertility. Bacteriological studies were conducted with the aim of evaluation of the species and quantitative composition of the microflora of the women's vagina after the treatment course of autonomic disorders of the nervous system. According to the obtained results about a state of microbiocenosis urogenital organs at the first stage of treatment women with inflammation of genital organs had received basic treatment which was developed especially for women with such diseases and the effectiveness of which has been proven; the second stage of included application of Api-Norm preparation in the form of vaginal suppositories and for sexual partners of these women — Api-Norm in the form of rectal suppositories. Statistical analysis of the obtained results of research was carried out by the use of standard computer packages «Data Analysis» Microsoft Excel for Windows 2007. The values of the arithmetic mean are — the value (M, the average error of the mean value (m, the level of reliability of differences (p. Evaluation of the reliability of the obtained data is carried out by the conventional manner by means of t&test. Reliability was considered established if its reliability was equal to at least 95% (0.05. Results. The obtained data are pointed on the excess of diagnostic levels of conditionally pathogenic microflora in the vast majority of women. It is noted that qualitative and quantitative indicators of pathogenic microflora in women with secondary infertility are higher than diagnostic levels and more common than in women with primary infertility, which may certifies about the presence of chronic inflammatory diseases of the

  10. IMPROVEMENT OF QUALITY OF LIFE AND MORPHOFUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SPERMATOZOA IN MEN WITH CHRONIC NONBACTERIAL PROSTATITIS AND IN A PROGRAM OF PRECONCEPTION PREPARATION TO FATHERHOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Zhukov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the results of diagnostics and treatment of 30 men aged 30–45 (mean age 36.2 ± 5.3 years with chronic nonbacterial prostatitis (CNP and male factor infertility in marriage are presented. Among the patients, 15 patients had CNP and secretory infertility (1st group; mean age 35.2 ± 4.3 years, 15 men with infertility caused by CNP and varicocele in the postoperative period (2nd group; mean age 33.6 ± 3.3 years. Duration of the male factor infertility varied from 1 to 4.5 years, and on average it was 2.8 ± 1.6 years. After detailed questioning and examination, including a spermiogram, determination of antisperm antibodies, DNA fragmentation test, and electron microscopy of the ejaculate, patients in the 1st group received Prostatilen AC as rectal suppositories for 10 days. Patients in the second group received Prostatilen AC in the form of rectal suppositories for 20 days. We showed an improvement of quality of life and spermatogenesis characteristics with decreased MAR test (more pronounced in the 2nd group, a decrease in the DNA fragmentation index, and an improvement in ultrastructural morphofunctional characteristics of spermatozoa. We justify the use of Prostatilen AC to increase effectiveness of assisted reproductive technologies in men in programs of preconception preparation to fatherhood. 

  11. Intravaginal Administration of Sildenafil Citrate Increases Blood Flow in the Bovine Uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzięcioł Michał

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of sildenafil citrate administrated intravaginaly on the blood flow in the bovine uterus during dioestrus. Uterine blood flow was examined in six healthy adult cows. Sildenafil was administrated intravaginaly to each co w between the 6th and 8th d of the ovarian cycle, in the form of vaginal suppositories containing 100 mg of active substance at a dose of 100, 200, or 300 mg per animal. Uterine perfusion was estimated by the colour Doppler examination, and obtained results were analysed with the Pixel Flux Software (Chameleon, Germany. Moreover, cardiovascular parameters were also evaluated. Animals were examined before and five times after drug application (two times at 15 min intervals, and three times at 2 h intervals. A placebo suppository was also given to the cows. The analysis of the intensity and velocity of blood flow in the uterus proved that sildenafil administrated intravaginaly significantly increased blood flow in the uterus and the effect of increased perfusion was observed for 4 h and 30 min after administration. The effect of increased uterine perfusion was observed after low as well as high doses of sildenafil. Significant changes in the cardio-vascular parameters were not detected. There were no changes in the uterine perfusion as well as in cardiovascular parameters after placebo administration.

  12. [Diagnosis and treatment of pediatric anismus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shu-qing; Ding, Yi-jiang; Chen, Yong-tian; Ye, Hui

    2006-11-01

    To explore the diagnosis and treatment methods of pediatric anismus. Twenty-nine patients with idiopathic chronic constipation, diagnosed with anismus by colon barium contrast and anorectal manometry from Nov. 2001 to Nov. 2004 in our hospital, were investigated retrospectively. This group consisted of 13 men and 16 women whose mean age was (6.7+/-4.0) years. Hirschsprung diseases were excluded from the patients by colon barium contrast and rectoanal inhibitory reflex (RAIR) examination. Normal RAIR (5-10 ml elicited) was showed on 21 cases while weakened RAIR (15-30 ml elicited) was showed on 8 cases. After the diagnosis, the patients were treated by toilet training, diet regulation and laxative for 1-2 months. 4 cases were recovered, 5 cases were improved and 20 cases were relied on glycerin suppository. Four cases, relied on glycerin suppository, underwent Lynn procedure and had good results after 5-24 months follow-up. Two cases were re-examined by anorectal manometry 3 and 6 months after surgery, the resting pressure and the high pressure zone (HPZ) decreased, but the simulation defecation reflex was still abnormal. The diagnosis of pediatric anismus relies on history of constipation, combined with anorectal manometry and colon barium contrast. Lynn procedure could be chosen for the patients unsatisfied in toilet training and other non-operative treatment.

  13. Radiotherapy combined with Tegafur (FT-207s) for brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Yoshiro

    1981-01-01

    5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) has anti-tumor effects as an anti-metabolite, but it cannot pass the Blood-Brain-Barrier (BBB). FT-207 a masked-compound of 5-FU, is easily lipid soluble and is able to pass the BBB. Twenty eight patients of primary brain tumor and 8 patients of metastatic brain tumor were treated with irradiation combined with 750 mg of FT-207 suppository. Twenty four patients of primary brain tumor were treated only with irradiation as control. The mean survival time was 20.4 +- 11.8 months for the combined therapy group and 17.6 +- 8.6 months for the control. The concentration of FT-207 and 5-FU in serum and in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was investigated after administration of 750 mg of FT-207 suppository per annum. The maximum concentration of FT-207 and of 5-FU in serum was 20.4 +- 11.8 mcg/ml and 0.06 +- 0.02 mcg/ml, respectively. There were observed several side effects, such as anorexia, nausea, exanthema and etc. These side effects were not so great as to interrupt the therapy at the dose level of 750 mg of FT-207. However, at the dose of 1500 mg, one case showed disturbance of consciousness, to which attention should be called. (author)

  14. Management of erectile dysfunction post-radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh A

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Alan Saleh, Hamid Abboudi, MB Ghazal-Aswad, Erik K Mayer, Justin A Vale Division of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, St Mary's Hospital, London, UK Abstract: Radical prostatectomy is a commonly performed procedure for the treatment of localized prostate cancer. One of the long-term complications is erectile dysfunction. There is little consensus on the optimal management; however, it is agreed that treatment must be prompt to prevent fibrosis and increase oxygenation of penile tissue. It is vital that patient expectations are discussed, a realistic time frame of treatment provided, and treatment started as close to the prostatectomy as possible. Current treatment regimens rely on phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors as a first-line therapy, with vacuum erection devices and intraurethral suppositories of alprostadil as possible treatment combination options. With nonresponders to these therapies, intracavernosal injections are resorted to. As a final measure, patients undergo the highly invasive penile prosthesis implantation. There is no uniform, objective treatment program for erectile dysfunction post-radical prostatectomy. Management plans are based on poorly conducted and often underpowered studies in combination with physician and patient preferences. They involve the aforementioned drugs and treatment methods in different sequences and doses. Prospective treatments include dietary supplements and gene therapy, which have shown promise with there proposed mechanisms of improving erectile function but are yet to be applied successfully in human patients. Keywords: erectile dysfunction, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors, vacuum erection devices, intraurethral suppositories, intracavernosal injections

  15. Effect of Prostatilene® AC and Prostatilene® on the ejaculate level of antisperm antibodies in the treatment of patients with chronic abacterial prostatitis and concomitant reproductive dysfunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kh. Al’-Shukri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the comparative effects of Prostatilene® AC (rectal suppositories and Prostatilene® (rectal suppositories 30 mg on the ejaculate level of antisperm antibodies in the treatment of patients with chronic abacterial prostatitis and concomitant reproductive dysfunctions.Subjects and methods. A total of 98 men aged 25–45 years with a verified diagnosis of chronic abacterial prostatitis and related reproductive functions were examined. The patients were treated and examined in an outpatient setting at 2 specialized research centers. A study group (n = 49 received therapy with Prostatilene® AC, a control group (n = 49 had Prostatilene®. A direct mixed antiglobulin reaction (MAR test was used to determine antisperm antibody levels in all the patients before and after a cycle of therapy. The findings were compared.Results. Primary examination revealed the presence of ejaculate antisperm antibodies in 43 (87.8 % and 40 (81.6 % cases in the study and control groups, respectively. After treatment, Prostatilene® was found to affect ejaculate antisperm antibody levels. The latter were reduced by Prostatilene® AC treatment. Final examination showed that 17 (34.6 % patients had antisperm antibodies in the ejaculate.Conclusion. Prostatilene® AC, unlike and Prostatilene®, is able to lower the ejaculate level of antisperm antibodies in patients with chronic abacterial prostatitis and concomitant reproductive dysfunctions.

  16. Efficacy of dry extract of ivy leaves in children with bronchial asthma--a review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, D; Hecker, M; Völp, A

    2003-03-01

    To investigate if extracts from dried ivy leaves (Hedera helix L.) are effective in the treatment of chronic airway obstruction in children suffering from bronchial asthma. Systematic review of trials documented in the literature with re-analysis of original data. 5 randomized controlled trials investigating the efficacy of ivy leaf extract preparations in chronic bronchitis, 3 of which were conducted in children and met our selection criteria. One compared ivy leaf extract cough drops to placebo, one compared suppositories to drops and one tested syrup against drops. Body-plethysmographic and spirometric measures. Drops were significantly superior to placebo in reducing airway resistance (primary outcome measure; p = 0.04 two-sided) and descriptively superior in all other 'objective' measures. For syrup and suppositories, at least 54%, resp. 35% of the effect against placebo were preserved. The trials included in this review indicate that ivy leaf extract preparations have effects with respect to an improvement of respiratory functions of children with chronic bronchial asthma, but more far-reaching conclusions can hardly be drawn because of a meagre database, including the fact that only one primary trial included a placebo control. Further research, particularly into the long-term efficacy of the herbal extract, is needed.

  17. Prospective trial of aggressive postoperative bowel stimulation following radical hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanning, J; Yu-Brekke, S

    1999-06-01

    Postoperative traditional feeding protocols are not based on scientific studies, but rather on anecdotal evidence. We present the first prospective trial of aggressive postoperative bowel stimulation following radical hysterectomy in an attempt to determine its effect on the length of hospital stay. Twenty consecutive patients undergoing radical hysterectomy were entered onto a prospective trial of aggressive postoperative bowel stimulation, which consisted of 30 cc milk of magnesia p.o. b.i.d. starting on postoperative day 1 and biscolic suppositories q.d. starting on day 2. A clear liquid diet was begun following flatus or bowel movement and patients were discharged 12 h after tolerating a clear liquid diet. Diet was slowly advanced at home. Median time to flatus was 3 days, bowel movement 3 days, and clear liquid diet 3 days. Median time to discharge was 4 days. No patients developed ileus or bowel obstructions and there were no readmissions for bowel complications. Our median time to discharge of 4 days represents a 50% reduction in hospital stay compared to our previous prospective study using traditional postoperative bowel management (8 days), which was statistically significant at P = 0.001. Aggressive bowel stimulation with milk of magnesia and biscolic suppositories resulted in early return of bowel function and early discharge with no noticeable complications. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  18. Diagnostic and therapeutic advancements for aerobic vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Cha; Wu, Wenjuan; Fan, Aiping; Wang, Yingmei; Zhang, Huiying; Chu, Zanjun; Wang, Chen; Xue, Fengxia

    2015-02-01

    Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is a newly defined clinical entity that is distinct from candidiasis, trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis (BV). Because of the poor recognition of AV, this condition can lead to treatment failures and is associated with severe complications, such as pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, preterm birth and foetal infections. This review describes the diagnosis and treatment of AV and the relationship between AV and pregnancy. The characteristics of AV include severely depressed levels of lactobacilli, increased levels of aerobic bacteria and an inflamed vagina. The diagnosis is made by microscopy on wet mounts of fresh vaginal fluid, and some distinct clinical features are recognized. Vaginal suppositories that contain kanamycin or clindamycin have shown curative effects in nonpregnant women. Additionally, the application of topical probiotics can restore the vaginal flora and reduce the recurrence of AV. Clindamycin vaginal suppositories and probiotics may be a better choice for gravida with AV than metronidazole. AV requires prompt attention, and the early diagnosis and treatment of AV during pregnancy significantly improves perinatal outcomes. Further research is needed to define the pathogenesis, diagnostic criteria and standard treatment guidelines for AV.

  19. Efficacy of vitamin B complex as an adjuvant therapy for the treatment of complicated vulvovaginal candidiasis: An in vivo and in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mei-Guo; Huang, Ying; Xu, Yuan-Hong; Cao, Yun-Xia

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to explore the efficacy of vitamin B complex as an adjuvant therapy for the treatment of complicated vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) in vitro and in vivo. One-hundred fifty-eight complicated VVC patients were randomly divided into group A (treated with suppository+oral antifungal agents), group B (treated with suppository+vaginal cream), and group C (treated with suppository+vaginal cream+oral vitamin B complex). A mouse model of VVC was established. Eighty VVC mice were randomly divided into 4 groups according to the dose of vitamin B complex (20 mice in each group): V1 group (injected with 150μL normal salin), V2 group (injected with 50μL vitamin B complex solution+100μL normal saline), V3 group (injected with 100μL vitamin B complex solution+50μL normal saline), and V4 group (injected with 150μL vitamin B complex solution). After 4 weeks of treatment, the vaginal secretion was obtained for microscopic smear examination. HE stainning was performed to observe histopathological changes of vaginal tissues. The expressions of inflammatory factors were detected by ELISA. Meanwhile, VVC model of vaginal epithelial cells was established. The effects of different concentrations of vitamin B complex on anti-fungal effect of fluconazole were detected in vitro. After the treatment, complicated patients in the group C had significantly higher effective rates than those in the group A and group B. After the intra-gastric administration, the microscopic smear examination found that obvious pseudohypha in cluster with a lot of blastospores can be seen in the vaginal secretions of mice in the V1 group under the microscope. There was significant difference between mice treated with different dosages of vitamin B complex. The inflammatory response of mice in the V1 group was significantly higher than those in other groups and the inflammation response reduced with the increase of vitamin B complex dosage. The vitamin B complex elevated the curative effects of

  20. Treatment and prognosis of patients with late rectal bleeding after intensity-modulated radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemoto, Shinya; Kataoka, Hiromi; Mimura, Mikio; Shibamoto, Yuta; Ayakawa, Shiho; Nagai, Aiko; Hayashi, Akihiro; Ogino, Hiroyuki; Baba, Fumiya; Yanagi, Takeshi; Sugie, Chikao

    2012-01-01

    Radiation proctitis after intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) differs from that seen after pelvic irradiation in that this adverse event is a result of high-dose radiation to a very small area in the rectum. We evaluated the results of treatment for hemorrhagic proctitis after IMRT for prostate cancer. Between November 2004 and February 2010, 403 patients with prostate cancer were treated with IMRT at 2 institutions. Among these patients, 64 patients who developed late rectal bleeding were evaluated. Forty patients had received IMRT using a linear accelerator and 24 by tomotherapy. Their median age was 72 years. Each patient was assessed clinically and/or endoscopically. Depending on the severity, steroid suppositories or enemas were administered up to twice daily and Argon plasma coagulation (APC) was performed up to 3 times. Response to treatment was evaluated using the Rectal Bleeding Score (RBS), which is the sum of Frequency Score (graded from 1 to 3 by frequency of bleeding) and Amount Score (graded from 1 to 3 by amount of bleeding). Stoppage of bleeding over 3 months was scored as RBS 1. The median follow-up period for treatment of rectal bleeding was 35 months (range, 12–69 months). Grade of bleeding was 1 in 31 patients, 2 in 26, and 3 in 7. Nineteen of 45 patients (42%) observed without treatment showed improvement and bleeding stopped in 17 (38%), although mean RBS did not change significantly. Eighteen of 29 patients (62%) treated with steroid suppositories or enemas showed improvement (mean RBS, from 4.1 ± 1.0 to 3.0 ± 1.8, p = 0.003) and bleeding stopped in 9 (31%). One patient treated with steroid enema 0.5-2 times a day for 12 months developed septic shock and died of multiple organ failure. All 12 patients treated with APC showed improvement (mean RBS, 4.7 ± 1.2 to 2.3 ± 1.4, p < 0.001) and bleeding stopped in 5 (42%). After adequate periods of observation, steroid suppositories/enemas are expected to be effective. However, short

  1. Treatment and prognosis of patients with late rectal bleeding after intensity-modulated radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takemoto Shinya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiation proctitis after intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT differs from that seen after pelvic irradiation in that this adverse event is a result of high-dose radiation to a very small area in the rectum. We evaluated the results of treatment for hemorrhagic proctitis after IMRT for prostate cancer. Methods Between November 2004 and February 2010, 403 patients with prostate cancer were treated with IMRT at 2 institutions. Among these patients, 64 patients who developed late rectal bleeding were evaluated. Forty patients had received IMRT using a linear accelerator and 24 by tomotherapy. Their median age was 72 years. Each patient was assessed clinically and/or endoscopically. Depending on the severity, steroid suppositories or enemas were administered up to twice daily and Argon plasma coagulation (APC was performed up to 3 times. Response to treatment was evaluated using the Rectal Bleeding Score (RBS, which is the sum of Frequency Score (graded from 1 to 3 by frequency of bleeding and Amount Score (graded from 1 to 3 by amount of bleeding. Stoppage of bleeding over 3 months was scored as RBS 1. Results The median follow-up period for treatment of rectal bleeding was 35 months (range, 12–69 months. Grade of bleeding was 1 in 31 patients, 2 in 26, and 3 in 7. Nineteen of 45 patients (42% observed without treatment showed improvement and bleeding stopped in 17 (38%, although mean RBS did not change significantly. Eighteen of 29 patients (62% treated with steroid suppositories or enemas showed improvement (mean RBS, from 4.1 ± 1.0 to 3.0 ± 1.8, p = 0.003 and bleeding stopped in 9 (31%. One patient treated with steroid enema 0.5-2 times a day for 12 months developed septic shock and died of multiple organ failure. All 12 patients treated with APC showed improvement (mean RBS, 4.7 ± 1.2 to 2.3 ± 1.4, p  Conclusions After adequate periods of observation, steroid suppositories

  2. Optimal Treatment of Symptomatic Hemorrhoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soung-Ho

    2011-01-01

    Hemorrhoids are the most common anorectal complaint, and approximately 10 to 20 percent of patients with symptomatic hemorrhoids require surgery. Symptoms of hemorrhoids, such as painless rectal bleeding, tissue protrusion and mucous discharge, vary. The traditional therapeutic strategies of medicine include surgical, as well as non-surgical, treatment. To alleviate symptoms caused by hemorrhoids, oral treatments, such as fiber, suppositories and Sitz baths have been applied to patients. Other non-surgical treatments, such as infrared photocoagulation, injection sclerotherapy and rubber band ligation have been used to fixate the hemorrhoid's cushion. If non-surgical treatment has no effect, surgical treatments, such as a hemorrhoidectomy, procedure for prolapsed hemorrhoids, and transanal hemorrhoidal dearterialization are used. PMID:22259741

  3. Historical essay: An Arabic surgeon, Ibn al Quff's (1232–1286) account on surgical pain relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takrouri, Mohamad Said Maani

    2010-01-01

    This is a review of Ibn al Quff's account of surgical pain relief in his surgical book Al Omdah, in which he mentioned the word anesthetic (Al moukhadder) and the involvement of physician (al tabbaaee) to give mixture of drugs to prevent pain in a surgical condition to relieve the patient from pain or to make surgical management possible. Hich indicated one rare occasion to such description in Arabic medical texts. Methods of administration of these drugs were inhalation, ingestion and by rectal suppositories. The drugs used in anesthetic sponges include all the drugs that are recorded in the modern literature of anesthesia. They are as follows: opium, mandrake, Hyocymus albus, belladonna, Cannabis sativus, Cannabis indica, wild lettuce. The anesthetic sponge, mentioned in many references as an inhalation method, may be of symbolic value to surgery. PMID:25885079

  4. Acupuncture for treatment of hospital-induced constipation in children: a retrospective case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Eric Falk; Findeisen, Annette; Nowak, Andreas; Rüdiger, Mario; Usichenko, Taras Ivanovich

    2012-12-01

    Acupuncture is a promising option in the treatment of functional bowel disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptance of acupuncture for the treatment of hospital-induced constipation (HIC) in children. Bilateral stimulation of acupuncture point LI11 was applied in 10 children with HIC using fixed indwelling acupuncture needles (0.9 mm long) before considering starting conventional local constipation therapy with laxative suppositories. The clinical records were studied retrospectively for feasibility, acceptance and effectiveness of acupuncture. Acupuncture was feasible in all children and application of the indwelling needles was tolerated without fear. Side effects were not observed. After a median of 3 days of HIC, all children defaecated within 2 h after LI11 stimulation. No patient required conventional local constipation therapy. Acupuncture for the treatment of HIC is feasible and acceptable. Its effect should be verified in a randomised controlled trial.

  5. A possible role for reproductive hormones in newborn boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Schmidt, I M; Skakkebaek, N E

    2000-01-01

    Healthy boys have a considerable production of reproductive hormones during the first postnatal months, the biological significance of which is poorly understood. We report on cases of male infants with hypogonadism (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, n = 1; panhypopituitarism, n = 2) who showed lack...... of penile growth and involution of the scrotum. In two boys, diagnoses were obtained in early infancy and hormonal measurements at 3-4 months of age showed serum testosterone levels below detection limits in both low inhibin B (37 and 199 pg/mL, respectively; normal range, 193-563 pg/mL) and low......RH. All cases required hormonal treatment with testosterone, administered as suppositories in daily doses between 1 and 5 mg, which reintroduced male genital development. Our observations suggest that normal phallic and scrotal development in humans is dependent on intact testosterone secretion during...

  6. Ketamine infusion was effective for severe pain of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoki Nishiyama

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A 52 years old man with a Non-Hodgkin lymphoma had severe pain at right buttock and lower leg. Sustained-release tablet of morphine 90 mg/day, intravenous morphine 40 mg/day, granisetron 9 mg/day, metoclopramide 30 mg/day, domperidone suppository 60 mg/day, intravenous hydroxyzine 25 mg/day, and haloperidol 20 mg/day did not decrease pain and side effects. Intravenous ketamine 10 mg in 15 min was quite effective for analgesia. Then infusion of ketamine started with 7 mg/h and increased to 10 mg/h with morphine 20 mg/day, which could control pain well with no side effects until his death. Keywords: Ketamine, Morphine, Cancer pain, Terminal

  7. The definitive analysis of the Bendandi's methodology performed with a specific software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballabene, Adriano; Pescerelli Lagorio, Paola; Georgiadis, Teodoro

    2015-04-01

    The presentation aims to clarify the "Method Bendandi" supposed, in the past, to be able to forecast earthquakes and never let expressly resolved by the geophysicist from Faenza to posterity. The geoethics implications of the Bendandi's forecasts, and those that arise around the speculation of possible earthquakes inferred from suppositories "Bendandiane" methodologies, rose up in previous years caused by social alarms during supposed occurrences of earthquakes which never happened but where widely spread by media following some 'well informed' non conventional scientists. The analysis was conducted through an extensive literature search of the archive 'Raffaele Bendandi' at Geophy sical Observatory of Faenza and the forecasts analyzed utilising a specially developed software, called "Bendandiano Dashboard", that can reproduce the planetary configurations reported in the graphs made by Italian geophysicist. This analysis should serve to clarify 'definitively' what are the basis of the Bendandi's calculations as well as to prevent future unwarranted warnings issued on the basis of supposed prophecies and illusory legacy documents.

  8. Combined Therapy at Persistent Herpes Virus Infection in Sickly Children

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    F. S. Kharlamova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined 40 sickly children with recurrent croup (RC — 28 and bronchial obstruction (ROB — 8, (RC + ROB — 4 aged from 18 months till 14 years. We found that high frequency of persistent herpes viruses usually occurs as associations with CMV, EBV and human herpes virus 6 type. We substantiated anti viral and immune corrective therapy in two schemes compared in efficacy: the 1st group was administered monotherapy with Viferon, and the 2nd group received combined therapy Viferon + Arbidol in doses according to the age during three months. We received a more expressed clinical immunologic effect from the therapy with decreased antigenic load and frequency of recurrence of RC and ROB with Viferon application in suppositories in combination with Arbidol per orally in the intermittent scheme during three months. 

  9. Gas chromatographic--mass spectrometric quantitation of 16, 16-dimethyl-trans-delta 2-PGE1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimov, V.; Green, K.; Bygdeman, M.; Konishi, Y.; Imaki, K.; Hayashi, M.

    1983-02-01

    Di-deuterated and di-tritiated 16,16-dimethyl-trans-delta 2-PGE1 has been synthesized and used for development of a GC-MS method for quantitation of corresponding unlabelled drug in patient plasma. Although these carrier/internal standard molecules only contain 2 deuterium atoms the lower limit of detection at each injection is as low as about 40 pg. The maximum plasma levels of this drug following administration of vaginal suppositories used in clinical studies (1 mg 16,16-dimethyl-trans-delta 2-PGE1 methyl ester in 0.8 g Witepsol S-52) were 100-350 pg/ml i.e. in the same order of magnitude as earlier seen for 16,16-dimethyl-PGE2.

  10. A case of parotid tumor showing remarkable regression following hyperthermo-chemo-radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Takashi; Yonemura, Yutaka; Kamata, Toru

    1987-01-01

    A 72-year-old woman developed adenocarcinoma of the left parotid gland. Because of the excessive size of her tumor and the fact that she suffered from severe liver dysfunction, she was treated by hyperthermo-chemo-radiotherapy (HCR therapy). After ten sessions of radiofrequency hyperthermia with HEH 500 (13.56 MHz radiofrequency wave), 50-Gy irradiation from a linac and administration of 33.0 g of tegafur in suppository form, the tumor mass showed remarkable regression decreasing in size by as much as 84 % on computed tomography. Histologically, the tumor which was resected under local anesthesia, showed almost total necrosis. The multidisciplinary HCR therapy was well tolerated and effective as a therapy for cancer in this case. (author)

  11. IMMUNOPATHOGENESIS OF ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS AND TACTICS OF RATIONAL CHOICE OF ETIOTROPIC IMMUNOMODULATORY THERAPIES IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Malinovskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article demonstrates that the basis for pathogenesis of acute respiratory infection (ARI is a deficiency in a number of factors of virus protection. This deficiency manifests itself through low concentration of interferon and secretory IgA in the nasal mucosa at higher levels of IL-8, alongside with low serum antiviral activity and significant inhibition of interferon production and reduction of the compensatory mechanisms of adaptive immunity. These disorders require prescription of alpha-interferon preparations. For infants and children with a burdened pre-morbid background, regardless of age, such preparations can be administered with all clinical forms of ARI; in older children — with severe forms, including complications. Alpha-interferon preparations can be introduced at in any stage of the disease. Combination therapy with alpha-interferon drugs (VIFERON® suppositories and VIFERON® ointment allows for enhanced clinical and immunological effects of therapy.

  12. Naturopathic Management of Females with Cervical Atypia: A Delphi Process to Explore Current Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Ann Leaver

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Human papillomavirus is the most significant factor contributing to cervical cancer. Naturopathic doctors (NDs implement an integrative approach to treat cervical atypia. This study explored practice consensus and variance among NDs. Methods A purposefully selected panel of six NDs participated in a modified Delphi study to validate practice. Three electronic web-based surveys were completed over nine months. Results Local and systemic treatments were included in all ND protocols. Six protocols included cervical cancer screening guidelines, green tea suppositories, and oral folic acid. Five protocols included oral green tea, diindoylemethane (DIM, and cartenoids. Four protocols incorporated Vitamin C. Two NDs considered escharotics when managing cervical atypia. All NDs included health behavior management in their protocols. Conclusion Naturopathic management of cervical atypia varies across practitioners. However, in general, elements of management include (1 cervical cancer screening guidelines, (2 local and systemic treatments, (3 health behavior/lifestyle recommendations, and (4 immune system support.

  13. Gas chromatographic--mass spectrometric quantitation of 16, 16-dimethyl-trans-delta 2-PGE1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimov, V.; Green, K.; Bygdeman, M.; Konishi, Y.; Imaki, K.; Hayashi, M.

    1983-01-01

    Di-deuterated and di-tritiated 16,16-dimethyl-trans-delta 2-PGE1 has been synthesized and used for development of a GC-MS method for quantitation of corresponding unlabelled drug in patient plasma. Although these carrier/internal standard molecules only contain 2 deuterium atoms the lower limit of detection at each injection is as low as about 40 pg. The maximum plasma levels of this drug following administration of vaginal suppositories used in clinical studies (1 mg 16,16-dimethyl-trans-delta 2-PGE1 methyl ester in 0.8 g Witepsol S-52) were 100-350 pg/ml i.e. in the same order of magnitude as earlier seen for 16,16-dimethyl-PGE2

  14. Use of ethonium in the treatment of late radiation injuries of the skin, radiation cystitis and rectitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardychev, M.S.; Kurpesheva, A.K.; Petrik, V.D.

    1979-01-01

    Conducted has been investigation of therapeutic effectiveness of ethonium in 71 patients of late radiation injuries of the skin, urinary bladder and rectum. Local radiation injuries developed after radiotherapy of malignant tumours. Shown is comparatively low effectiveness of application of 0.5-2 % aqueous solutions and 2 % ethonium ointment in the expressed necrotic-inflammatory process in radiation ulcer of skin and its expressed effectiveness at granulating late radiation ulcers of skin. Application of 0.02-0.05 % ethonium solution in the form of microclusters and suppositories of 0.05 g of the preparation proved to be effective at catarrhal rectitis and rectosigmoids. An attempt to treat radiation cyctitis aroused aggravation of the inflammatory process of the mucous membrane off the ucinary bladder

  15. IMMUNOMODULATING THERAPY BY RECOMBINANT ALPHA-2B INTERFERON AMONG CHILDREN WITH TIMOMEGALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Nikulin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the enlarged thymus gland syndrome is extremely important for understanding of the immune system formation and functioning mechanisms. the purpose of this study is to conduct clinical and immunological analysis of the children, suffering from the syndrome of the enlarged thymus gland II and III degrees, who received recombinant alpha2b interferon (in suppositories. The revealed changes in the immune sys tem during timomegalia are complex and conducive to the development of the infectious and inflammatory diseases among infants, thus, determining the necessity for the adequate immune correction. The application of the recombinant alpha 2b interferon among such children allows one to uncover the immunomodulating effects, normalizing the imbalances in the immune system of children with timomegalia.Key words: timomegalia, alpha 2b interferon, immunity, immune correction, children.

  16. Functional constipation in infants: Diagnosis and therapy in practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kamalova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As of now, constipation in children, especially in babies during the first years of life, is a common complaint during a visit to a pediatrician and a gastroenterologist. Despite the fact that the current guidelines for the management of this patient group have been elaborated, there has been no consensus of opinion among parents and specialists regarding the therapy and prevention of constipation in children so far. The article discusses the diagnosis and treatment of functional constipation in children. The authors give their own observations and experience with the rectal suppositories Glycelax® pediatric in the therapy of proctogenic and mixed constipation in infants.

  17. Protective Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    General Magnaplate Corporation's pharmaceutical machine is used in the industry for high speed pressing of pills and capsules. Machine is automatic system for molding glycerine suppositories. These machines are typical of many types of drug production and packaging equipment whose metal parts are treated with space spinoff coatings that promote general machine efficiency and contribute to compliance with stringent federal sanitation codes for pharmaceutical manufacture. Collectively known as "synergistic" coatings, these dry lubricants are bonded to a variety of metals to form an extremely hard slippery surface with long lasting self lubrication. The coatings offer multiple advantages; they cannot chip, peel or be rubbed off. They protect machine parts from corrosion and wear longer, lowering maintenance cost and reduce undesired heat caused by power-robbing friction.

  18. First intramuscular administration in the U.S. space program. [of motion sickness drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagian, James P.

    1991-01-01

    In the past, the only kind of medicines used for symptomatic treatment of space motion sickness (SMS) in space had been oral, transdermal, or suppositories. This paper describes the effect of the first intramuscular (IM) administration of Phenergan (50-mg in single dose) on SMS in one subject who exhibited grade-3 symptoms and signs which persisted unabated throughout the first and the second flight days aboard the Space Shuttle. Thirty minutes after the injection, the subject had completely recovered. His symptoms were gone, his appetite was back, and he had no recurrences for the remainder of the flight. Since that experiment, intramuscular injections have been given nine more times on subsequent flights, with similar results.

  19. Clinical feature of disturbance in the lower gastrointestinal tract development after radiation to tumor in the pelvis and its countermeasure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Sadahito; Sunagawa, Shigenobu; Matsumura, Shigejiro; Masaoka, Takao; Uegaki, Kazuo

    1975-01-01

    The clinical features and the countermeasure were examined on 40 disturbances in the lower gastrointestinal tract developed after radiotherapy of cancer of the uterus, the ovary and the penis. Two to nine months after the irradiation with 10,000 R of Telecobalt and about 5,000 mch of 60 Co, complications such as melena, stenosis and fistula formation were developed. Seventeen of the 40 patients complained of melena and were treated as outpatient. Of the rest 23 patients, 11 were radiation proctitis with a large amount of melena, 9 were recto-sigmoid stenosis, 2 were rectovaginal fistula and 1 was fecal fistula formation. These patients received internal therapy composed of transfusion, hemostatic agent, steroid, solcoseryl suppository, antiulcerative drug and vitamin. However, the prognosis of them, particularly of the patients who were exposed a large amount of radiation, was very poor and the death rate reached 9 to 43%. (Kanao, N.)

  20. A new type of defecation disorder due to insufficient fixation of the rectum to the sacrum is improved by rectopexy: A report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Sumida

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic constipation is the most common clinical disorder in children. However, some cases of constipation do not meet the criteria defined by Rome III. We encountered such defecation disorders in three patients who presented with constipation as a chief complaint along with excessive strain and bleeding hemorrhoids during defecation despite normal stools. Contrast enema revealed that the rectum was separated from the sacrum in each patient, which may have been caused by insufficient fixation of the rectum. Conservative treatment with laxatives and suppositories failed to achieve improvement. Therefore, all underwent a laparoscopic rectopexy. After surgery, each patient was able to evacuate without strain and the hemorrhoids disappeared. Insufficient fixation of the rectum should be considered as a potential cause of defecation disorders. Rectopexy is effective for this type of defecation disorder.

  1. Rectal route in the 21st Century to treat children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannin, Vincent; Lemagnen, Gilles; Gueroult, Pascale; Larrouture, Denis; Tuleu, Catherine

    2014-06-01

    The rectal route can be considered a good alternative to the oral route for the paediatric population because these dosage forms are neither to be swallowed nor need to be taste-masked. Rectal forms can also be administered in an emergency to unconscious or vomiting children. Their manufacturing cost is low with excipients generally regarded as safe. Some new formulation strategies, including mucoadhesive gels and suppositories, were introduced to increase patient acceptability. Even if recent paediatric clinical studies have demonstrated the equivalence of the rectal route with others, in order to enable the use of this promising route for the treatment of children in the 21st Century, some effort should be focused on informing and educating parents and care givers. This review is the first ever to address all the aforementioned items, and to list all drugs used in paediatric rectal forms in literature and marketed products in developed countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Menthol differs from other terpenic essential oil constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolassa, Norbert

    2013-02-01

    The European Medicines Agency concluded that there is a risk of suppositories containing terpenic derivatives, which are used to treat coughs and colds, inducing neurological disorders, especially convulsions, in infants and small children. Terpenic derivatives are found in essential oils obtained from plants and include camphor, eucalyptol (syn. 1,8-cineol), thujone, and menthol. Chemistry, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of these compounds are clearly different and explain the appearance of convulsions following camphor, thujone, and eucalyptus oil overdose/poisoning, whereas no convulsions have been reported in cases of menthol overdose/poisoning in accordance with the pharmacological properties of menthol. Thus, a general verdict on all terpenic derivatives without differentiation appears inappropriate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Review of organic causes of fecal incontinence in children: evaluation and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambartsumyan, Lusine; Nurko, Samuel

    2013-09-01

    Even though fecal incontinence (FI) in children is most commonly the result of functional constipation, there are organic conditions that can be associated with incontinence. FI has a major impact on the quality of life of those children who experience it. The general objectives of any bowel program are to achieve predictability and independence. This is achieved by manipulating colonic transit and stool consistency and by producing more controlled evacuations, usually with the use of rectal interventions. Dietary interventions and medications can be used to change stool consistency or to manipulate transit by accelerating or slowing it down. Biofeedback or other interventions that increase sphincter pressure can also be used to improve anorectal function. Enemas or suppositories can be used to empty the sigmoid colon in a more controlled manner. With the recent advent of the antegrade colonic enemas, the patient can have predictable bowel movements and become independent.

  4. Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perito, Emily R; Mileti, Elizabeth; Dalal, Deepal H; Cho, Soo-Jin; Ferrell, Linda D; McCracken, Marjorie; Heyman, Melvin B

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the presenting symptoms, endoscopic and histologic findings, and clinical courses of pediatric patients diagnosed with solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS). We describe 15 cases of SRUS diagnosed at our institution during a 13-year period. Cases were identified by review of a pathology database and chart review and confirmed by review of biopsies. Data were collected by retrospective chart review. Presenting symptoms were consistent but nonspecific, most commonly including blood in stools, diarrhea alternating with constipation, and abdominal/perianal pain. Fourteen of 15 patients had normal hemoglobin/hematocrit, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and albumin at diagnosis. Endoscopic findings, all limited to the distal rectum, ranged from erythema to ulceration and polypoid lesions. Histology revealed characteristic findings. Stool softeners and mesalamine suppositories improved symptoms, but relapse was common. SRUS in children presents with nonspecific symptoms and endoscopic findings. Clinical suspicion is required, and diagnosis requires histologic confirmation. Response to present treatments is variable.

  5. Rectal benzodiazepines for premedication in children. Review and personal experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govaerts, M J; Capouet, V

    1987-01-01

    Modern anesthetic techniques have modified the aims of premedication in pediatric practice. Anxiolysis, amnesia and easiness of induction are now the the main targets. This paper reviews both the literature and the personal experience of the authors on the subject. Many authors now prefer a benzodiazepine. Rectal instillation of benzodiazepine in solution avoids the trauma of the intramuscular route and produces a faster and more predictable effect, than suppositories. Diazepam (.1 to .2 mg/kg) and flunitrazepam (40 to 80 micrograms/kg) have been extensively used in this indication. Diazepam's duration of elimination being much longer than that of flunitrazepam, this last drug is preferred by many pediatric anesthetists. Midazolam (.4 to .5 mg/kg) has a much faster onset and shorter duration of action. It should thus be preferred if the environment enables the administration of premedication within 10 to 15 minutes of induction.

  6. Ovarian Ectopic Pregnancy: a Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Lotfian

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Ovarian pregnancy is an uncommon form of ectopic pregnancy which usually diagnosed so late. The aim of this study is to report a case of ovarian ectopic pregnancy Case presentation: A 19 years old woman, with a history of polycystic ovary, first pregnancy, gestation age 9 weeks and 4 days, visited the doctor. She was complaining of severe abdomen pain and vaginal spotting and she was bedridden because of threatened miscarriage. She had discharged from hospital with progesterone suppository prescription. Requesting a transvaginal ultrasound and heterogeneous echogenic mass (size18×8/5 was shown near the left ovary. It was shown as ectopic pregnancy. The patient was hospitalized by ectopic pregnancy in ovary diagnosis and she was treated by methotrexate. Conclusion: In pregnant women that complain of bleeding and spotting in early pregnancy, in addition to threatened abortion, ectopic pregnancy should exist even in the absence of clinical symptoms, should be considered.

  7. Primary encopresis: evaluation and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, S; Ross, L V; Christophersen, E R

    1986-01-01

    Cathartic and behavioral treatment procedures for eliminating diurnal and nocturnal primary encopresis were investigated using a multiple-baseline design across four children. The dependent and independent variables measured were appropriate bowel movements, soiling accidents, independent toiletings, and cathartic use. Over 177 reliability observations (home visits) were conducted. For two of the children, treatment with cathartics and child-time remedied their soiling accidents and increased their independent toiletings in 8 to 11 weeks. While the cathartics and child-time increased the rate of appropriate bowel movements, they did not eliminate the soiling accidents with the other two children. Independent toiletings for these two children were achieved after 32 to 39 weeks of treatment when punishment procedures (positive practice, time-out, and hourly toilet sits) were incorporated and the suppositories were faded systematically. PMID:3733585

  8. Semi-Solid and Solid Dosage Forms for the Delivery of Phage Therapy to Epithelia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovski, Steve; Chan, Hiu Tat; Angove, Michael J.; Tucci, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    The delivery of phages to epithelial surfaces for therapeutic outcomes is a realistic proposal, and indeed one which is being currently tested in clinical trials. This paper reviews some of the known research on formulation of phages into semi-solid dosage forms such as creams, ointments and pastes, as well as solid dosage forms such as troches (or lozenges and pastilles) and suppositories/pessaries, for delivery to the epithelia. The efficacy and stability of these phage formulations is discussed, with a focus on selection of optimal semi-solid bases for phage delivery. Issues such as the need for standardisation of techniques for formulation as well as for assessment of efficacy are highlighted. These are important when trying to compare results from a range of experiments and across different delivery bases. PMID:29495355

  9. Training of medical staff positively influences postoperative pain management at home in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepponen, K; Kokki, H; Ahonen, R

    1999-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe how parents manage their child's postoperative pain at home following day-case surgery. The incidence of pain, different analgesics used and problems related to administering medications were the main interests of the study. A postal questionnaire was sent to the parents of 275 children who were under 8 years of age and had undergone an ear, nose and throat (ENT) day-case operation. The questionnaire was sent to the parents a week after discharge from hospital. Altogether, the parents of 227 children answered the questionnaire (response rate 83%). The study was divided into two phases (preintervention and postintervention), and incorporated a training program for doctors and nurses between these two phases. The training program aimed to improve the treatment practices of postoperative pain in children. Seventy-eight per cent of the children in the preintervention study and 75% in the postintervention study experienced at least mild pain after discharge. The training program for doctors and nurses affected the home treatment practices of postoperative pain. The proportion of parents treating their children increased from 68% to 80% after the training program (p = 0.028). Many parents faced problems while treating their children; for example, 19% (n = 30) of the children refused to take their medicine, and suppositories were regarded to be an especially unpleasant dosage form. However, no serious adverse effects were reported. We conclude that due to the pain experienced at home by the great majority of children following day-case ENT operations, parents need information on how to manage their child's pain. A training program for doctors and nurses can improve the treatment of children's pain even at home. Since some children dislike suppositories, it would be worth considering the use of small tablets or mixtures instead.

  10. Comparison of the Effect of Rectal Misoprostol and IM Syntometrin in the Prevention of Post Partum Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Samimi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: In developing countries, postpartum hemorrhage is one of the preventable causes of maternal mortality. The aim of this study is comparison of the effect of rectal misoprostol and intramascular syntometerine in the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage. Materials & Methods: This study was a double blind randomized clinical trial and carried on 200 pregnant women referred to Shabiehkhani maternity center in 2010. The first group received 1ml intramuscular syntometrine and the second group received 600 µg misoprostol rectal suppository after placental delivery. The two groups were matched for confounding variables. All of the study subjects were followed up for 24hrs and their blood pressure, pulse rate, uterine tone, before and after delivery hemoglobin, need to additional uterotonic drugs and drug side effects were evaluated and the results were recorded in an information sheet. Finally all the data were entered into SPSS software and analyzed with statistical tests. Results: The mean age of subjects was 25.61±4.75 years, mean gestational age was 38.8±1.2 weeks, and Mean neonatal birth weight was 3346.2±349.56 grams. The mean fall in hemoglobin level in misorostol group was significantly lower than in syntometrin group (P=0.009. But there weren't any significant differences between the two groups in uterine tone, blood pressure, and pulse rate and also in drug side effects. Conclusion: In this study we demonstrated that rectal misoprostol suppository was more effective than injection syntometrin in decreasing postpartum hemorrhage. Thus, it can be used as a choice drug for third stage management (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2011;18(2:38-44

  11. Estabilidad de los supositorios de quitina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yania Suárez Pérez

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Los supositorios de quitina constituyen una nueva opción en la terapéutica anorrectal, cuya estabilidad debe ser evaluada. Se analizó el comportamiento de 3 lotes de supositorios elaborados a escala piloto, almacenados en tiras de aluminio termosellable, a 3 temperaturas diferentes, por un período de 2 a. Se realizaron comprobaciones periódicas de las propiedades organolépticas, de los parámetros peso y tiempo de liquefacción, así como del contenido de quitina, con la combinación de una técnica gravimétrica y la espectroscopia infrarroja (IR. Se investigó la estabilidad desde el punto de vista microbiológico mediante conteo diferencial. Los resultados fueron satisfactorios para cada parámetro evaluado, ya que se encontraron dentro de los límites, aun transcurridos 2 a de elaborado el producto, para cada una de las temperaturas de almacenamiento ensayadas.Chitin suppositories are a new option in anorectal threapeutics, whose stability should be evaluated. The behaviour of 3 lots of suppositories made at a pilot scale and stored at 3 different temperatures by a period of 2 years was analyzed. Periodical checkings of the organoleptic properties, of the weight and liquefaction time parameters, as well as of the content of chitin were carried out by combining a gravimetric technique and infrared spectroscopy . The stability was investigated from the microbiological point of view by a differential count. The results were statisfactory for each evaluated parameter, since they were still within the limits for each of the assayed storage temperatures 2 years later.

  12. Efficacy of VIFERON® in the combination therapy of viral encephalitis in infants

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    N. V. Skripchenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides the clinical and ettological characteristics of viral encephalitis in 103 children aged 1 month to 3 years and the results of a comparative study of the efficiency of recombinant interferon-a 2b (VIFERON® as rectal suppositories incorporated into the combination therapy of the disease. The VIFERON® regimen and duration in the study were determined by the pattern of encephalitis. In the acute course of the latter, VIFERON® was given twice daily for 14 days; in its protracted or chronical course, the drug was used twice daily for 14 days, then thrice daily for 1 and 3 months, respectively. The administration of VIFERON® in viral encephalitis was established to accelerate sanogenetic processes and to reduce the time of progression and preservation of major extracerebral and cerebral symptoms and the length of sanitization of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and viremia. The use of VIFERON® resulted in better disease outcomes, prevented deaths, decreased the rate of an autonomic state from 8 to 1,8%, increased recovery rates without defects from 22 to 51%, and reduced the rate of cystic and gliotic changes in the brain by 2,1 times. Slower CSF sanitization and longer viremia were ascertained in children with chronic and protracted viral encephalitis, which necessitated the longer administration of VIFERON®. Incorporation of recombinant interferon-a 2b into the therapy of viral encephalitis in infants ensures higher serum concentrations of interferon-a and helps keep compensatory capacities for its production, leading to the promptest recovery. The findings suggest that the incorporation of VIFERON® as rectal suppositories into the therapy of viral encephalitis is effective and safe in infants.

  13. Comparison of treatment strategies for Space Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. R.; Jennings, R. T.; Beck, B. G.

    1992-01-01

    Treatment strategies for Space Motion Sickness were compared using the results of postflight oral debriefings. Standardized questionnaires were administered to all crewmembers immediately following Space Shuttle flights by NASA flight surgeons. Cases of Space Motion Sickness were graded as mild, moderate or severe based on published criteria, and medication effectiveness was judged based on subjective reports of symptom relief. Since October 1989, medication effectiveness is reported inflight through Private Medical Conferences with the crew. A symptom matrix was analyzed for 19 crewmembers treated with an oral combination of scopolamine and dextroamphetamine (scopdex) and 15 crewmembers treated with promethazine delivered by intramuscular (IM) or suppository routes. Scopdex has been given preflight as prophaxis for Space Motion Sickness but analysis showed delayed symptom presentation in 9 crewmembers or failed to prevent symptoms in 7. Only three crewmembers who took scopdex had no symptoms inflight. Fourteen out of 15 crewmembers treated with IM promethazine and 6 of 8 treated with promethazine suppositories after symptom development had immediate (within 12 h) symptom relief and required no additional medication. There were no cases of delayed symptom presentation in the crewmembers treated with promethazine. This response is in contrast to untreated crewmembers who typically have slow symptom resolution over 72-96 h. We conclude that promethazine is an effective treatment of Space Motion Sickness symptoms inflight. NASA policy currently recommends treating crewmembers with Space Motion Sickness after symptom development, and no longer recommends prophylaxis with scopdex due to delayed symptom development and apparent variable absorption of oral medications during early flight days.

  14. Rectal budesonide and mesalamine formulations in active ulcerative proctosigmoiditis: efficacy, tolerance, and treatment approach

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    Christophi GP

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available George P Christophi, Arvind Rengarajan, Matthew A Ciorba Division of Gastroenterology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA Abstract: Ulcerative colitis (UC is an immune-mediated disease of the colon that is characterized by diffuse and continuous inflammation contiguous from the rectum. Half of UC patients have inflammation limited to the distal colon (proctitis or proctosigmoiditis that primarily causes symptoms of bloody diarrhea and urgency. Mild-to-moderate distal UC can be effectively treated with topical formulations (rectal suppositories, enemas, or foam of mesalamine or steroids to reduce mucosal inflammation and alleviate symptoms. Enemas or foam formulations adequately reach up to the splenic flexure, have a minimal side-effect ­profile, and induce remission alone or in combination with systemic immunosuppressive therapy. Herein, we compare the efficacy, cost, patient tolerance, and side-effect profiles of steroid and mesalamine rectal formulations in distal UC. Patients with distal mild-to-moderate UC have a remission rate of approximately 75% (NNT =2 after treatment for 6 weeks with mesalamine enemas. Rectal budesonide foam induces remission in 41.2% of patients with mild-to-moderate active distal UC compared to 24% of patient treated with placebo (NNT =5. However, rectal budesonide has better patient tolerance profile compared to enema formulations. Despite its favorable efficacy, safety, and cost profiles, patients and physicians significantly underuse topical treatments for treating distal colitis. This necessitates improved patient education and physician familiarity regarding the indications, effectiveness, and potential financial and tolerability barriers in using rectal formulations. Keywords: inflammatory bowel disease, treatment cost effectiveness, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, colon mucosa, proctitis suppositories, topical immunosuppressive therapy

  15. Effect of Progesterone on Latent Phase Prolongation in Patients With Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes

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    Fatemeh Abdali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM is a condition leading to an increased risk of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in pregnant women. To prevent this complication, some studies have proposed using prophylactic progesterone. However, due to lack of sufficient relevant data, there is still need for further studies in this regard. This study was performed to determine the effect of rectal progesterone on the latent phase and maternal and neonatal outcome variables in females with PPROM. During the present randomized clinical trial study (IRCT201512077676N4, a total of 120 patients with PPROM at pregnancy ages between 26 and 32 weeks were randomly assigned to 2 equal intervention and control groups. In the intervention group, progesterone suppositories (400 mg per night were administered until delivery or completion of the 34th gestational week and was compared with placebo effect in control group. The latent phase and maternal and neonatal outcome variables were compared between the two groups. The mean age of patients was 29.56±5.66 (19-42 and 29.88±5.57 (17-40 years in the intervention and control group, respectively. The two groups were almost identical in the confounding factors. The median latent phase was 8.5 days in the intervention group vs. 5 days in the control group in the 28th-30th weeks of gestation, which was significantly higher in the intervention group (P=0.001. Among maternal and neonatal outcome variables, only the mean birth-weight was significantly higher in the intervention group than that in the controls (1609.92±417.28 gr vs. 1452.03±342.35 gr, P=0.03. Administration of progesterone suppository in patients with PPROM at gestational ages of 28 to 30 weeks is effective in elongating the latent phase and increasing birth-weight with no significant complications.

  16. Pre-operative rectal indomethacin for reduction of postoperative nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a double-blind randomized clinical trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazouki, A.; Cheraghali, R.; Saeedimotahhar, H.; Jesmi, F.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of pre-operative indomethacin suppository on postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Study Design: A double blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. Place and Duration of Study: Hazrat Rasoul Akram Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from February 2010 to September 2012. Methodology: One hundred and thirty patients, scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy, were randomly divided into case and control groups. Sixty-five patients received indomethacin suppository and 70 patients received rectal placebo in the case and control groups respectively. All patients underwent the same protocol in laparoscopic surgery and anesthesia, then nausea and vomiting was recorded after 1, 6, 12 and 24 hours postoperatively and compared between the two groups. Independent-sample t-test or Mann-Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis. Level of statistical significance was set at P = 0.05. Results: Patients' nausea was statistically lower in the case group at the 1st hour (43.1 vs. 92.9%), 6th hour (20.0 vs. 68.6%) and 12th hour (7.7 vs. 24.3%) after surgery (for all periods, P < 0.001). Fewer patients in the case group experienced vomiting at the first (13.8 vs. 51.4%) and 6th hour (0 vs. 20%) after surgery (for both P < 0.001). The use of pethidine was also statistically less in the case group in the same hours after surgery (for all of them, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Rectal indomethacin before laparoscopic cholecystectomy led to lower postoperative nausea and vomiting. (author)

  17. Introducing the concept of a new pre-referral treatment for severely ill febrile children at community level: a sociological approach in Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeersch, Audrey; Libaud-Moal, Anaëlle; Rodrigues, Amabelia; White, Nicholas J; Olliaro, Piero; Gomes, Melba; Ashley, Elizabeth A; Millet, Pascal

    2014-02-06

    Innovative strategies are needed to tackle childhood mortality in the rural tropics. Artesunate suppositories were developed to bring emergency treatment closer to severely ill children with malaria in rural areas where injectable treatment is not possible for several hours. Adding an antibacterial rectal drug would extend this strategy to treat non-malarial febrile illness as well. The objective of these studies was to assess acceptability of such a new pre-referral strategy by healthcare providers and likely uptake by the population. Two qualitative studies were conducted between May and July 2009. Study 1 investigated the acceptability of introducing a combined antimalarial-antibacterial suppository by interviewing 27 representatives of the three administrative levels (central government, regional, local) of the health sector; Study 2 investigated treatment-seeking behaviour and acceptability of this intervention at community level by interviewing 74 mothers in 2 villages. Up to 92% of health representatives were in favour of introducing a new pre-referral strategy to tackle both malaria and non-malaria related severe illnesses in Guinea-Bissau, provided it was endorsed by international health authorities. The main obstacles to implementation were the very limited human and financial resources. In the two villages surveyed, 44% of the mothers associated severe illness with fever only, or fever plus one additional symptom. Mothers' judgement of severity and ensuing decisions were not specific for serious illness, indicating that initial training to recognize signs of severe disease and treatment availability for non-severe, fever-associated symptoms will be required to prevent overuse of a new intervention designed as a pre-referral treatment for severely ill children. Level C health centres were the first resort in both villages (50% and 87% of respondents respectively). This information is encouraging for the implementation of a pre-referral treatment.

  18. Acute pain management: acetaminophen and ibuprofen are often under-dosed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Gregorio P; Benini, Franca; Dell'Era, Laura; Silvagni, Davide; Podestà, Alberto F; Mancusi, Rossella Letizia; Fossali, Emilio F

    2017-07-01

    Most children with pain are managed by either acetaminophen or ibuprofen. However, no study has so far investigated if children are prescribed adequate doses of acetaminophen or ibuprofen in emergency department. Aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the prevalence of under-dosage of these drugs in children presenting with pain in emergency department. Children initially prescribed with acetaminophen or ibuprofen for pain management were included. The χ 2 automatic interaction detection method was used considering the percentage variation from the minimum of the appropriate dose as dependent variable while prescribed drug, age, gender, body weight, type of hospital (pediatric or general), and availability of internal guidelines on pediatric pain management in the emergency department as independent variables. Data on 1471 children managed for pain were available. Under-dosage was prescribed in 893 subjects (61%), of whom 577 were prescribed acetaminophen and 316 ibuprofen. The use of acetaminophen suppositories, body weight 40 kg, and the use of oral ibuprofen identified clusters of children associated with under-dosage prescription. Prescription of acetaminophen and ibuprofen was frequently under-dosed. The use of suppositories, lower and higher body weight, and the use of ibuprofen were associated with under-dosage. Under-dosing may reflect prescription of anti-pyretic doses. Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco-Observational Study Register (RSO). Registration code: PIERRE/1 What is Known: • Pain is frequent in children presented to emergency department. • International recommendations on pain management are often not implemented. What is New: • Acetaminophen and ibuprofen were frequently underdosed in children prescribed for pain in the Italian emergency departments. • Under-dosage may be related to the habit of using acetaminophen and ibuprofen in the recommended range for fever treatment.

  19. Idiopathic megarectum in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbole, P P; Pinfield, A; Stringer, M D

    2001-02-01

    There is scant information about the management of idiopathic megarectum in childhood. Children with idiopathic megarectum referred to a single institution between 1994 and 1998 were identified prospectively. Those with Hirschsprung's disease or an anorectal malformation were excluded. The remaining patient group, 22 boys and 7 girls, had a median age of 8.0 years (range 3.5-14.0 y). Median duration of symptoms prior to referral was 2.0 years (range 0.4-11 y). Chronic soiling was the dominant complaint in 28/29 (97%) cases. 23 children had received regular stimulant laxatives for periods ranging from 1 month to 11 years, and 9 children had been treated with regular enemas. The degree of megarectum assessed by both abdominal palpation and plain radiography was: grade 1 (below umbilical level) n=6; grade 2 (at umbilical level) n=15; and grade 3 (above umbilical level) n=8. Hirschsprung's disease was specifically excluded by rectal biopsy in all cases and no patient had evidence of spinal dysraphism. Three boys with massive megarectums and intractable symptoms were treated by a staged Duhamel sigmoid pull-through with excellent functional results. Fifteen patients (52%) were treated by a single manual evacuation under general anaesthesia followed by a daily Bisacodyl 5-10 mg suppository. After a median follow-up of 16 months, 13 continue to respond well with a daily bowel action and no soiling (4 of the 13 have discontinued treatment and remain well). The remaining 11 patients (38%) have continued conventional treatment with oral laxatives but with limited success. Idiopathic megarectum is poorly described in children. It is more common in boys and is often resistant to laxative therapy alone. After appropriate preparation, treatment with stimulant suppositories can be effective. Surgery has a valuable role in selected patients with a massive megarectum.

  20. DETERMINATION OF TAMSULOSIN HYDROCHLORIDE RELEASE PHARMACOKINETICS IN PROSTATE GLAND BY A RADIOTRACER METHOD

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    V. I. Grytsenko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: recently in Ukraine prostate diseases have taken one of the leading places among male urological pathologies. Prostate gland hyperplasia is one of the most common ones. Causes of hyperplasia have not been reliably established so far, however, it has been proved that the poor state of androgen production in men is an integral condition for the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia. One of the urgent tasks of modern pharmaceutical science is to create new high-performance drugs in such dosage forms that provide optimal therapeutic effect with minimal adverse complications. Among a large number of drugs for the treatment of prostate diseases a prominent place is occupied by alpha-adrenoblockers – drugs of the first-line treatments that affect the α1А-adrenergic receptors, reduce or completely eliminate the muscle tone of the prostatic urethra and bladder neck. Tamsulosin hydrochloride is a selective and competitive blocker of postsynaptic α1А-adrenergic receptors. The selectivity of tamsulosin to α1А-adrenergic receptors, which are located in the bladder, is 20 times greater than its ability to interact with α1В-adrenoceptors that are located in vascular smooth muscles. Objective: to study the pharmacokinetics of tamsulosin hydrochloride release into prostate gland after oral and rectal administration by a radioactive-tracer technique. Materials and methods of research: tamsulosin hydrochloride substance and suppositories with this substance labeled by 14С with a specific activity of 3.7× 107Bq/mg. Pharmacokinetic studies of tamsulosin hydrochloride in the prostate were performed after oral and rectal administration. The experiments were carried out on white mature male rats of Wistar line weighing 210 ± 10 g. Pharmacokinetic studies were performed using a radioactive-tracer technique (tracers after oral and rectal administration of tamsulosin. Results and their discussion: after rectal administration the release of

  1. Comparison of Intravenous Infusion of Tramadol Alone with Combination of Tramadol and Paracetamol for Postoperative Pain after Major Abdominal Surgery in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shayesta; Sofi, Khalid; Dar, Abdul Qayoom

    2017-01-01

    Pain is a common complaint after surgery and seems to be difficult to manage in children because of fear of complications of pain treatment or misconception that infants and small children do not feel pain at all or feel less pain. A survey reported that 40% of pediatric surgical patients experienced moderate or severe postoperative pain and that more than 75% had insufficient analgesia. Our study was carried to provide continuous infusion of intravenous (i.v.) tramadol alone using a dedicated infusion device Graseby 2100 syringe pump and compared it to a combination of i.v. tramadol infusion and per rectal paracetamol. A total of 124 children aged 1-8 years selected for the study were randomized into two groups using a table of random numbers. Power calculation had suggested a sample size of 62 in each group with a power of 80% and significance level of 5%. Group A comprising 62 children, received i.v. infusion of tramadol in a dose of 0.25 mg/kg/h for 24 h postoperatively. Group B comprising 62 children, received i.v. infusion of tramadol in a dose of 0.25 mg/kg/h for 24 h postoperatively in addition to per rectal suppository of paracetamol in a dose of 90 mg/kg in 24 h (30 mg/kg as first dose followed by 20 mg/kg every 6 hourly for the next 18 h). Postoperatively, patients were observed for 24 h. A statistically significant difference ( P ≤ 0.001) in Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability pain scores was seen between two groups at 4, 6, and 8 h. Pain scores being less in Group B patients who had received infusion of tramadol and per rectal suppositories of paracetamol compared to Group A patients who received only infusion of tramadol. A statistically significant difference ( P < 0.05) was found in mean analgesic consumption during the first 24 h between the groups. Consumption was more in Group A as compared to Group B. In Group A, 13 patients (21%) required rescue analgesia as compared to only 4 patients (6.5%) in Group B. We recommend use of an infusion

  2. The Effect of Subcutaneous Ketamine Infiltration on Postoperative Pain in Elective Cesarean Section under Spinal Anesthesia

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    N. Manouchehrian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Appropriate analgesia after cesarean section helps women feel more comfortable and increase the mobility of the mother's and also their ability to take better care of their newborns. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of subcutaneous infiltration of ketamine on postoperative pain reduction and hemodynamic status of patients after elective cesarean section. Materials & Methods: This study was designed as a double blinded prospective, randomized clinical trial and 60 cases of women undergoing elective cesarean section under spinal anes-thesia were randomly assigned into two groups. For 30 cases in the ketamine group, infiltra-tion of subcutaneous ketamine 0.5 mg / kg was administered after closure of surgical inci-sion. 30 patients in the placebo group received subcutaneous infiltration of saline. During the patient's recovery time and after transferring to the ward, the VAS of pain and vital signs were continuously assessed. if VAS ? 3, 100 mg diclofenac suppository was administered and if there were no response, 30 mg intravenous pethidine was also administered. Prescribed number of suppositories and pethidine dosage were compared. The complications, such as hallucination, nystagmus, nausea, vomiting and drowsiness in patients were also recorded and compared. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS16 software and ?2 and t-test. P< 0.05 was considered statistically significant in all of the cases. Results: In the course of systolic blood pressure, heart rate and arterial blood oxygen satura-tion during the first 24 hours, no significant differences were mentioned between the two groups. At the time of arrival to the recovery room and 30 minutes later, the mean VAS was not significantly different in the groups. However, the mean VAS at 1, 2 , 4 , 6 , 8 and 12 hours after surgery were significantly lower in the ketamine group (0.61±059 than in the sa-line group (3.37±096 (P<0.001. The mean

  3. Rectal drug administration: clinical pharmacokinetic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, A G; Moolenaar, F; de Leede, L G; Breimer, D D

    1982-01-01

    The human rectum represents a body cavity in which drugs can be easily introduced and retained and from which absorption is well possible. There are important therapeutic reasons why it is sometimes preferable to give a drug rectally rather than orally, e.g. in cases of nausea and vomiting. Drawbacks of rectal drug administration include the interruption of absorption by defaecation and lack of patient acceptability. The mechanism of drug absorption from the rectum is probably no different to that in the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract, despite the fact that the physiological circumstances (e.g. pH, fluid content) differ substantially, Absorption from aqueous and alcoholic solutions may occur very rapidly, which has proved to be of considerable therapeutic value in the rapid suppression of acute convulsive attacks by diazepam (e.g. in children), but absorption from suppositories is generally slower and very much dependent on the nature of the suppository base, the use of surfactants or other additives, particle size of the active ingredient, etc. There is some evidence that hepatic first-pass elimination of high clearance drugs is partially avoided after rectal administration, e.g. lignocaine. This can be explained by the rectal venous blood supply: the upper part is connected with the portal system, whereas the lower part is directly connected with the systemic circulation. Plasma concentration data following rectal administration of representatives of several classes of drugs are reviewed: anticonvulsants, non-narcotic analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, hypnosedatives and anaesthetics, strong analgesics, theophylline and derivatives, corticosteroids, antibacterial agents, thiazinamium, promethazine, hyoscine-N-butyl-bromide, streptokinase, progesterone, ergotamine tartrate and levodopa. Only limited number of cases has it been adequately shown that the rectal route of administration gives plasma concentrations which are comparable to

  4. Multimodal Preincisional Premedication to Prevent Acute Pain After Cholecystectomy

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    Dawood Aghamohammadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Postoperative pain as an important medical concern is usually treated by opioids which also are of various inevitable side effects. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of multimodal preincisional premedication on preventing post-cholecystectomy acute pain. Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, sixty patients undergoing open cholecystectomy were randomized into two groups. Before anesthesia induction, Diclofenac suppository (100 mg and oral Clonidine (0.2 mg were administered in the first group. Immediately before operation, patients received Ketamine (1 mg/kg IV while the control group received placebo. The site of incision was infiltrated by the surgeon with 20 mL Bupivacaine 0.25% in both groups. Anesthesia induction and maintenance were similar in both groups. The severity of pain was recorded 2, 4, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours after operation according to Visual Analogue Scale. Results: The severity of pain at two defined stages (6 and 12 hours later was significantly less in the intervention group than the control group (P<0.005. The average pain severity score was less than the control group (P<0.005. Conclusion: In our study, the administration of Clonidine, Diclofenac and Ketamine and bupivacaine infiltration to the site of incision, altogether was associated with a significant decrease in pain score and opioid requirement after cholecystectomy in comparison to bupivacaine infiltration to the site of incision.

  5. Bioavailability of Promethazine during Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Jason L.; Wang, Zuwei; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2009-01-01

    Promethazine (PMZ) is the choice anti-motion sickness medication for treating space motion sickness (SMS) during flight. The side effects associated with PMZ include dizziness, drowsiness, sedation, and impaired psychomotor performance which could impact crew performance and mission operations. Early anecdotal reports from crewmembers indicate that these central nervous system side effects of PMZ are absent or greatly attenuated in microgravity, potentially due to changes in pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics in microgravity. These changes could also affect the therapeutic effectiveness of drugs in general and PMZ, in particular. In this investigation, we examined bioavailability and associated pharmacokinetics of PMZ in astronauts during and after space flight. Methods. Nine astronauts received, per their preference, PMZ (25 or 50 mg as intramuscular injection, oral tablet, or rectal suppository) on flight day one for the treatment of SMS and subsequently collected saliva samples and completed sleepiness scores for 72 h post dose. Thirty days after the astronauts returned to Earth, they repeated the protocol. Bioavailability and PK parameters were calculated and compared between flight and ground. Results. Maximum concentration (Cmax) was lower and time to reach Cmax (tmax) was longer in flight than on the ground. Area under the curve (AUC), a measure of bioavailability, was lower and biological half-life (t1/2) was longer in flight than on the ground. Conclusion. Results indicate that bioavailability of PMZ is reduced during spaceflight. Number of samples, sampling method, and sampling schedule significantly affected PK parameter estimates.

  6. Management and treatment of distal ulcerative colitis

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    Andrea Calafiore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis (UC is a chronic inflammatory condition that is confined to the colonic mucosa. Its main symptoms include diarrhea, rectal bleeding and abdominal pain. Approximately two-thirds of UC patients have disease confined distal to the splenic flexure, which can be treated effectively with topical therapy. This means the active drug can be delivered directly to the site of inflammation, limiting the systemic absorption and potential side effects. Topical treatment with aminosalicylates is the most effective approach in the treatment of these forms, provided that the formulation reaches the upper margin of the disease. Given this, the suppository formulation is the treatment of choice for proctitis and distal sigmoiditis. Thanks to their proximal spread, enemas, foams and gels represent the treatment of choice for proctosigmoiditis and for distal ulcerative colitis. Oral aminosalicylates are less effective than topical therapies in patients with active disease, while the combination of topical and oral treatment is more effective in patients refractory to topical or oral mono-therapy. Topically administered aminosalicylates play an important role in the maintenance of remission, but the long-term adhesion to therapy is poor. For this reason, the oral formulation is the first-line therapy in the maintenance of remission. Refractory patients can be treated with topical steroids or systemic steroids and TNF-alpha inhibitors in severe forms.

  7. Proteflazid® and local immunity in diseases caused by human papillomavirus, herpesvirus and mixed urogenital infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Vjacheslav; Chernyshov, Viktor; Grynevych, Oleksandr; Benyuk, Vasil; Kornatskaya, Alla; Shalko, Miroslava; Usevich, Igor; Revenko, Oleg; Shepetko, Maxim; Solomakha, Ludmila

    2017-03-21

    Reporting of clinical trials results for Proteflazid® in the drug formulation suppositories and vaginal swabs soaked in the solution of the drug to the local immunity of the female reproductive tract. The aim of study was to examine the state of local immunity in the reproductive tract of women with sexually transmitted diseases caused by human papillomavirus, herpes viruses (Type 1, 2) and mixed infection (herpes viruses + chlamydia). The trials involved 216 women with viral sexually transmitted diseases: Cervical Dysplasia associated with papillomavirus infection (HPV) (Group 1); Herpes genitalis type 1 (HSV- 1) and type 2 (HSV-1) (Group 2); mixed infection - HSV-1, HSV-2 and chlamydia (Group 3). Treatment results have confirmed that Proteflazid® contributes to sustainable performance improvement of basic factors of local immunity - sIgA, lysozyme and complement component C3 in the cervical mucus for all three groups of women. Proteflazid® enhances level of local immunity markers (sIgA, lysozyme, C3 complement component) and improves their ratios. Also it intensifies anticontagious activity of mucosal protection and female reproductive system as whole, during treatment diseases caused by human papillomavirus, herpesvirus and mixed urogenital infections (herpesvirus and chlamydia).

  8. Analgesic Effect of Intraperitoneal Bupivacaine Hydrochloride After Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy: a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamdari, Nasser Malekpour; Bakhtiyari, Mahmood; Gholizadeh, Barmak; Shariati, Catrine

    2018-03-01

    The indications for sleeve gastrectomy as a primary procedure for the surgical treatment of morbid obesity have increased worldwide. Pain is the most common complaint for patients on the first day after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. There are various methods for decreasing pain after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy such as the use of intraperitoneal bupivacaine hydrochloride. This clinical trial was an attempt to discover the effects of intraperitoneal bupivacaine hydrochloride on alleviating postoperative pain after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. In general, 120 patients meeting the inclusion criteria were enrolled. Patients were randomly allocated into two interventions and control groups using a balanced block randomization technique. One group received intraperitoneal bupivacaine hydrochloride (30 cm 3 ), and the other group served as the control one and did not receive bupivacaine hydrochloride. Diclofenac suppository and paracetamol injection were administered to both groups for postoperative pain management. The mean subjective postoperative pain score was significantly decreased in patients who received intraperitoneal bupivacaine hydrochloride within the first 24 h after the surgery; thus, the instillation of bupivacaine hydrochloride was beneficial in managing postoperative pain. The intraoperative peritoneal irrigation of bupivacaine hydrochloride (30 cm 3 , 0.25%) in sleeve gastrectomy patients was safe and effective in reducing postoperative pain, nausea, and vomiting (IRCT2016120329181N4).

  9. CLINICAL EVIDENCE OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF VIFERON® MEDICATIONS IN THE TREATMENT OF ARVI AND INFLUENZA IN ADULTS

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    V. V. Malinovskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative analysis of the results of clinical laboratory trials carried out on the basis of 10 different medical and preventive treatment facilities drawing on the principles and methodology of evidence-based medicine, which confirmed the certainty of clinical effectiveness of Viferon® medications in the treatment of acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI and influenza in adults. The algorithm included an assessment of antiviral, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant actions of the medication under the conditions of concurrent, unmasked, randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical immunological studies and a retrospective analysis in keeping with the “Guidelines for Good Clinical Practice”. Thereby, it was shown that the use of Viferon® medications (suppositories, gel in the treatment of adults with influenza and ARVI, whether with viral or viral-bacterial etiology, contributes to a statistically significant reduction in duration of principal clinical symptoms and the disease as a whole, as well as a decrease of immune and interferon system imbalance and a faster elimination of viral antigens. On the basis of the proven antiviral therapeutic effectiveness and immunomodulatory action, safety and high tolerability, easy-to-administer form in the  outpatient settings, Viferon® has been recommended as a disease-modifying agent in the treatment of influenza and ARVI in adults.

  10. [Application of percutaneous trans esophageal gastro-tubing (PTEG) in to home care for a patient with terminal stage of gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, H; Murata, J; Shirotani, N; Kameoka, S

    1998-12-01

    Since 1994, we devised and have continued to develop a percutaneous trans esophageal gastro-tubing (PTEG) as an effective technique to drain gastrointestinal contents of critical patients suffering from gastric carcinoma. Here we report our satisfactory experience with a critical gastric cancer patient for whom we improved QOL by the application of the PTEG technique. The patient suffered from severe stenosis or obstruction of the digestive tract. This method was found to be effective enough to enable the patient to receive further medical care at home. The patient was a 36-year-old female who had far-advanced, inoperable gastric carcinoma. It was therefore decided to use the PTEG method. The PTEG method was performed using a rupture-free balloon (RFB) catheter to drain the gastrointestinal contents. A reservoir-port for IVH use was embedded to control the patient's nutrition. A morphine hydrochloride suppository was then given for the pain. PTEG was found to be effective, safe and simple; moreover, it is a less-invasive, intestine-maintaining method, which enabled the patient to continue receiving further medical treatment at home.

  11. Simultaneous determination of hyoscine N-butyl bromide and paracetamol in their binary mixture by RP-HPLC method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouruddin W. Ali

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available RP-HPLC chromatographic method was developed for the determination of hyoscine N-butyl bromide (HBB and Paracetamol (PAR. In this chromatographic method, HBB and PAR were separated using C18 (25 cm × 4.6 mm i.d. 5 μm particle size column as a stationary phase and water: methanol (50:50, V/V pH adjusted to 3.9 with CF3COOH acid as a mobile phase, maintaining the flow rate at 1.0 mL min−1 with UV detection at 210 nm. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of HBB and PAR in pure form over a concentration range of 2.0–50.0 μg mL−1 for HBB with mean percentage recovery of 100.10 ± 0.475 and over a concentration range of 5.0–200.0 μg mL−1 for PAR with mean percentage recovery of 99.87 ± 0.942 and in their pharmaceutical formulations (Buscopan plus® tablets, Buscamol® tablets and Buscopan plus® suppositories.

  12. Charging for hospital pharmaceutical services: flat free based on the medication record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, B K

    1979-03-01

    A 200-bed hospital's change in pricing drug products from a cost-plus-fee system to a flat fee per dose based on the medication administration record (MAR) is described. With the flat-fee system, drug charges are not recorded when the drug is dispensed by the pharmacy; data for charging doses are obtained directly from the MAR forms generated by the nursing staff. Charges are 55 cents per oral or suppository dose and $3.00 per injection dose. Drugs administered intravenously, topical drugs, injections costing more than $10.00 per dose, and miscellaneous nondrug items are still charged on a cost-plus-fee basis. Man-hours are saved in the pharmacy department because of the elimination of the pricing function and maintenance of price lists. The need for nursing staff to charge for any doses administered from emergency or Schedule II floor-stock supplies is eliminated. The workload for business office personnel is reduced because the number of individual charges is less than with the cost-plus charging system. The system is accepted by patients and third-party payers and has made a complete unit dose drug distribution system possible at lower cost.

  13. Gamma scintigraphy in the evaluation of pharmaceutical dosage forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, S.S.; Hardy, J.G.; Newman, S.P.; Wilding, I.R.

    1992-01-01

    Gamma-scintigraphy is applied extensively in the development and evaluation of pharmaceutical drug delivery systems. It is used particularly for monitoring formulations in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. The radiolabelling is generally achieved by the incorporation of an appropriate technetium-99m or indium-111 labelled radiopharmaceutical into the formulation. In the case of complex dosage forms, such as enteric-coated tablets, labelling is best undertaken by the addition of a non-radioactive tracer such as samarium-152 or erbium-170 followed by neutron activation of the final product. Systems investigated include tablets and multiparticulates for oral administration, enemas and suppositories, metered dose inhalers and nebulisers, and nasal sprays and drops. Gamma-scintigraphy provides information on the deposition, dispersion and movement of the formulation. The combination of such studies with the assay of drug levels in blood or urine specimens, pharmacoscintigraphy, provides information concerning the sites of drug release and absorption. Data acquired from the scintigraphic evaluation of pharmaceutical dosage forms are now being used increasingly at all stages of product development, from the assessment of prototype delivery systems to supporting the product licence application. (orig.)

  14. Perinatal HIV-infection in Sankt Petersburg and Modern Therapy Concomitant Viral Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Timchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study included 338 HIV-infected children (B-23 and 350 children with perinatal contact HIV infection (R-75, consisting on the dispensary in the department of maternal and child the St. Petersburg City AIDS Center. In 32 persons (9.5% diagnosed with secondary infections. In the structure of viral opportunistic infections (herpesvirus, SARS amounted to 39.8%, bacterial (bronchitis, tonsillitis, pyoderma, tuberculosis — 34.8%, fungal and parasitic (candidiasis of the oral mucosa, PCP — 25.4 %. Combined therapy (causal, pathogenetic, symptomatic SARS in children with B-23 and R-75, allows you to get in early (6th d. Treatment regress the main symptoms of acute respiratory diseases. Modern therapy of congenital cytomegalovirus infection (VTSMI in children with B-23 and R-75 of the first year of life with antitsitomegalovirusnogo immunoglobulin and preparation of human recombinant interferon alfa-2b in the form of rectal suppositories — VIFERON, causes persistent normalization of clinical and laboratory parameters.

  15. Anti-snake venom: use and adverse reaction in a snake bite study clinic in Bangladesh

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    MR Amin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Snakebites can present local or systemic envenomation, while neurotoxicity and respiratory paralysis are the main cause of death. The mainstay of management is anti-snake venom (ASV, which is highly effective, but liable to cause severe adverse reactions including anaphylaxis. The types of adverse reaction to polyvalent anti-snake venom have not been previously studied in Bangladesh. In this prospective observational study carried out between 1999 and 2001, in the Snake Bite Study Clinic of Chittagong Medical College Hospital, 35 neurotoxic-snake-bite patients who had received polyvalent anti-snake venom were included while the ones sensitized to different antitoxins and suffering from atopy were excluded. The common neurotoxic features were ptosis (100%, external ophthalmoplegia (94.2%, dysphagia (77.1%, dysphonia (68.5% and broken neck sign (80%. The percentage of anti-snake venom reaction cases was 88.57%; pyrogenic reaction was 80.64%; and anaphylaxis was 64.51%. The common features of anaphylaxis were urticaria (80%; vomiting and wheezing (40%; and angioedema (10%. The anti-snake venom reaction was treated mainly with adrenaline for anaphylaxis and paracetamol suppository in pyrogenic reactions. The average recovery time was 4.5 hours. Due to the danger of reactions the anti-snake venom should not be withheld from a snakebite victim when indicated and appropriate guidelines should be followed for its administration.

  16. Diclofenac Is Associated With a Reduced Incidence of Post–Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography Pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leerhøy, Bonna; Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas; Novovic, Srdan

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical effect of diclofenac administered as a single dose for the prevention of postprocedure pancreatitis in a consecutive series of patients who had undergone endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). METHODS: Patients with a nat......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical effect of diclofenac administered as a single dose for the prevention of postprocedure pancreatitis in a consecutive series of patients who had undergone endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). METHODS: Patients...... with a native papilla Vateri subjected to ERCP during 2010 (control group, n = 218) and 2012 (diclofenac group, n = 182) were included. Patients with a history of chronic pancreatitis or recent acute pancreatitis were excluded. From January 2012, a rectal suppository containing 100 mg of diclofenac...... patients in the diclofenac group (P = 0.002). Moderate to severe pancreatitis occurred in 22 (10.1%) of the 218 patients in the control group versus 8 (4.4%) of the 182 patients in the diclofenac group (P = 0.036). CONCLUSIONS: This controlled cohort study suggests that the implementation of a single dose...

  17. Advanced topical drug delivery system for the management of vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johal, Himmat Singh; Garg, Tarun; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal candidiasis or vulvovaginal candidiasis (VC) is a common mucosal infection of vagina, mainly caused by Candida species. The major symptoms of VC are dyspareunia, pruritis, itching, soreness, vagina as well as vulvar erythema and edema. Most common risk factors that lead to the imbalance in the vaginal micro biota are the use of antibiotics, pregnancy, diabetes mellitus, immuno suppression as in AIDS or HIV patients, frequent sexual intercourse, spermicide and intra-uterine devices and vaginal douching. Various anti-fungal drugs are available for effective treatment of VC. Different conventional vaginal formulations (creams, gels, suppositories, powder, ointment, etc.) for VC are available today but have limited efficacy because of lesser residence time on vaginal epithelium due to self-cleansing action of vagina. So to overcome this problem, an extended and intimate contact with vaginal mucosa is desired; which can be accomplished by utilizing mucoadhesive polymers. Mucoadhesive polymers have an excellent binding capacity to mucosal tissues for considerable period of time. This unique property of these polymers significantly enhances retention time of different formulations on mucosal tissues. Currently, various novel formulations such as liposomes, nano- and microparticles, micro-emulsions, bio-adhesive gel and tablets are used to control and treat VC. In this review, we focused on current status of vaginal candidiasis, conventional and nanotechnology inspired formulation approaches.

  18. Development and validation of a thin-layer chromatography method for stability studies of naproxen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Hernandez, Yaslenis; Suarez Perez, Yania; Garcia Pulpeiro, Oscar; Rodriguez Borges, Tania

    2011-01-01

    The validation of an analytical method was carried out to be applied to the stability studies of the future formulations of naproxen suppositories for infant and adult use. The factors which mostly influenced in the naproxen stability were determined, the major degradation occurred in oxidizing acid medium and by action of light. The possible formation of esters between the free carboxyl group present in naproxen and the glyceryl monoestereate present in the base was identified as one of the degradation paths in the new formulation. The results were satisfactory. A thin-layer chromatography-based method was developed as well as the best chromatographic conditions were selected. GF 254 silica gel plates and ultraviolet developer at 254 nm were employed. Three solvent systems were evaluated of which A made up of glacial acetic: tetrahydrofurane:toluene (3:9:90 v/v/v)allowed adequate resolution between the analyte and the possible degradation products, with detection limit of 1 μg. The use of the suggested method was restricted to the identification of possible degradation products just for qualitative purposes and not as final test. The method proved to be sensitive and selective enough to be applied for the stated objective, according to the validation results

  19. Non-Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Urinary Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariëlle Beerepoot

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing antimicrobial resistance has stimulated interest in non-antibiotic prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs. Well-known steps in the pathogenesis of UTIs are urogenital colonization and adherence of uropathogens to uroepithelial cell receptors. To prevent colonization in postmenopausal women, vaginal, but not oral, estrogens have been shown to restore the vagina lactobacilli flora, reduce vaginal colonization with Enterobacteriaceae, and reduce the number of UTIs compared to placebo. Different lactobacilli strains show different results in the prevention of recurrent UTIs. Intravaginal suppositories with Lactobacillus crispatus in premenopausal women and oral capsules with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 in postmenopausal women are promising. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C cannot be recommended for the prevention of UTIs. Cranberries are thought to contain proanthocyanidins that can inhibit adherence of P-fimbriated E. coli to the uroepithelial cell receptors. Cranberry products decreased UTI recurrences about 30%–40% in premenopausal women with recurrent UTIs, but are less effective than low-dose antimicrobial prophylaxis. However, the optimal dose of cranberry product has still to be determined. Initially OM-89, a vaccine with 18 heat-killed E. coli extracts, seemed promising, but this was not confirmed in a recently randomized trial.

  20. The application characteristics of Zhongjing external prescription medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the application characteristics of Zhongjing prescription topical Chinese medicine. Methods: in this paper, according to the dosage form, Zhongjing topical agent will be divided into suppository, smoked lotion, apply is scattered, plug nasal powder four categories. Through an analysis on its books, records, and clinical applications, we are able to sum up the application characteristics of the zhongjing agent for external use. Results: in the clinical medicine, topical Zhongjing prescription cure of the disease has a long history of the role, through the analysis of Zhongjing topical prescription whole thinking, dialectical thinking, and thinking and characteristics of treatment technology that has the characteristics of topical drugs, dosage form differentiation flexible, external treatment for internal diseases, both inside and outside. Conclusion: topical medicine not only in the clinical treatment effect is good, and to inherit and develop Zhang Zhongjing thought of medicine, medical practice, law, strengthen Zhong Jing prescription and medicine, to enrich TCM clinical diagnosis and treatment methods to improve the clinical efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine, Chinese medicine clinics provide high standards of service for patients.

  1. Probiotics and the urologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Andrew W; Reid, Gregor

    2003-04-01

    Emerging from the stigma of once being referred to as "snake oil", excellent scientific and clinical evidence now exists to indicate that probiotics do indeed have a role to play in medicine. The proper definition of probiotics is important "Live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host", for several reasons. It rules out so-called probiotics that have no clinically proven, peer-reviewed data, and it states the need to have viable bacteria present, unlike these pseudo products which are often wrongly labeled, poorly manufactured, with low or no viability at time of use. Guidelines, prepared by the United Nations and World Health Organization are now available to guide physicians and consumers as to the types of strains with documented benefits. In urology, the most studied strains are Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and L. fermentum B-54 and RC-14. Their use daily in oral form, or once to three times weekly as a vaginal suppository, have been shown to reduce the urogenital pathogen load and the risk of urinary tract and vaginal infections. Organisms such as Oxalobacter formigenes, still in the R&D phase, offer great potential to reduce kidney stone formation via oxalate degradation in the intestine. Some studies using L. casei Shirota suggest a possible effect against bladder cancer, while studies using L. plantarum 299 show significantly reduced infection rates in patients undergoing major surgical procedures. In short, specific probiotic strains hold much promise for use in the urology setting.

  2. Evaluation of the acceptability of intravaginal prasterone ovule administration using an applicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesino, Marlene; Labrie, Fernand; Archer, David F; Zerhouni, Jaâfar; Côté, Isabelle; Lavoie, Lyne; Beauregard, Adam; Martel, Céline; Vaillancourt, Mario; Moyneur, Erick; Balser, John

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the acceptability of the intravaginal administration of ovules/suppositories of DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone, prasterone) for the treatment of vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) in women with moderate to severe dyspareunia who were administered daily for 12 weeks intravaginal 0.50% (6.5 mg) DHEA or placebo. There were a total of 373 women in the per-protocol population who responded to the questionnaire for both treatment groups. While it was planned that the applicator would be evaluated as suitable if at least 80% of participants have a global score  ≤ 2 units, 99% and 100% of participants had a score  ≤ 2 units in the placebo and DHEA groups, respectively, for the global score (mean of 5 questions). When asked about like and dislike the technique of drug administration, 284 comments were positive, while 114 women gave no comment. About 92-94% of women indicated that they were very confident to be able use the applicator successfully in the future. The survey shows a high degree of satisfaction and of confidence to use the applicator successfully in the future.

  3. Hemorrhoids: From basic pathophysiology to clinical management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohsiriwat, Varut

    2012-01-01

    This review discusses the pathophysiology, epidemiology, risk factors, classification, clinical evaluation, and current non-operative and operative treatment of hemorrhoids. Hemorrhoids are defined as the symptomatic enlargement and distal displacement of the normal anal cushions. The most common symptom of hemorrhoids is rectal bleeding associated with bowel movement. The abnormal dilatation and distortion of the vascular channel, together with destructive changes in the supporting connective tissue within the anal cushion, is a paramount finding of hemorrhoids. It appears that the dysregulation of the vascular tone and vascular hyperplasia might play an important role in hemorrhoidal development, and could be a potential target for medical treatment. In most instances, hemorrhoids are treated conservatively, using many methods such as lifestyle modification, fiber supplement, suppository-delivered anti-inflammatory drugs, and administration of venotonic drugs. Non-operative approaches include sclerotherapy and, preferably, rubber band ligation. An operation is indicated when non-operative approaches have failed or complications have occurred. Several surgical approaches for treating hemorrhoids have been introduced including hemorrhoidectomy and stapled hemorrhoidopexy, but postoperative pain is invariable. Some of the surgical treatments potentially cause appreciable morbidity such as anal stricture and incontinence. The applications and outcomes of each treatment are thoroughly discussed. PMID:22563187

  4. In vivo acute toxicological studies of an antioxidant extract from Mangifera indica L. (Vimang).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Gabino; Rodeiro, Idania; Hernández, Ivones; García, Gastón; Pérez, Gema; Merino, Nelson; Núñez-Sellés, Alberto; Delgado, René

    2009-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) stem bark aqueous extract (MSBE) is a natural product with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and immunomodulatory effects. Its formulations (e.g., tablets, capsules, syrup, vaginal oval, and suppositories) are known by the brand name of Vimang. In view of the ethnomedical, preclinical, and clinical uses of this extract and the necessity to assess its possible toxicological effect on man, a toxicological analysis of a standard extract is reported in this paper. Acute toxicity was evaluated in mice and rats by oral, dermal, and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration. The extract, by oral or dermal administration, showed no lethality at the limit doses of 2,000 mg/kg body weight and no adverse effects were found. Deaths occurred with the i.p. administration at 200, but not 20 mg/kg in mice. MSBE was also studied on irritant tests in rabbits, and the results showed that it was nonirritating on skin, ocular, or rectal mucosa. The extract had minimal irritancy following vaginal application.

  5. Evaluación analítica de óvulos de quitina Analytical evaluation of chitin pessaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yania Suárez Pérez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Los óvulos de quitina constituyen nuevos productos en fase de investigación. Para la evaluación analítica de estos, se desarrolló un método gravimétrico directo para supositorios vaginales de diferente dosificación. La técnica se basa en la separación de la quitina de los demás componentes de la formulación según sus diferencias de solubilidad, con el empleo de la filtración al vacío. El método se validó para control de calidad, y se obtuvieron resultados satisfactorios en los parámetros evaluados: linealidad, precisión, exactitud y selectividad.Chitin pessaries are new products under research. For their analytical evaluation, a direct gravimetric method for vaginal suppositories of various dosing was designed. This technique was based on separation of chitin from the rest of the formulation components according to their solubility characteristics, by using vacuum filtering. The method was validated for quality control and the results were satisfactory in terms of the evaluated parameters such as linearity, precision, accuracy and selectivity.

  6. [Constipation in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dito, L

    2002-01-01

    Constipation is a common disease in paediatric age, with an incidence ranging from 0.3 to 8% in paediatric patients, and from 10 to 25% among paediatric gastroenterological patients. In 90-95% of cases constipation is a functional, and often due to an exclusively milky diet or, in advanced age, to an inadequate fibres intake. Among the organic forms causing constipation, especially in new-born age, Hirshsprung disease, anorectal malformations, intestinal atresiae and stenosis are frequent. Moreover, recent studies have shown that constipation is often the symptom of a cow's milk proteins intolerance, that leadis to colorectal mucosa inflammation, with peristalsis decrease and fecal slackness. In these patients a milk's proteins free diet recovers constipation. In most persistent forms, total intestinal transit time (TITT), anorectal manometry, sphynteric muscles electromyografy and defecofraphy are useful to the diagnosis. In more than 90% of cases simple diet revisions, fecal softening, evacuative suppositories and enemas recovers constipation, some times a psychological approach is useful. Furthermore, excellent results can be obtained by giving low doses of polietiltnglycol (PEG), which has been recently introduced for the treatment of functional chronic constipation.

  7. MODERN APPROACHES TO THE THERAPY OF VIRAL PAPILLOMA SKIN INFECTION IN INFANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.K. Aslamazian

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the methods of prevention and treatment of viral papilloma infection, the researchers examined 80 children, suffering from skin forms of a disease. They examined peculiarities of a disease and interferon status of all the children. The data of clinic and laboratory research allowed them to assume that viral papilloma infection grows along with the reduction of immune mechanisms and it grows among the children, suffering from the genetic burden to viral diseases. All the patients, suffering from the disorder of interferon status, have undergone the complex therapy, which included medications of recombinant interferon (Viferon in suppositories and extrinsic. For the first time, the researchers removed the skin papillomas by a combination method: cryofreezing and photovaporization. The analysis of treatment and observation within a year and a half showed that in a group of children, who received a combination treatment, including Viferon therapy and removal of verrucas by 2 surgical methods. No backset of a disease detected. In general, the findings of the research pointed out the high efficiency of topical and systemic Viferon medications, as well as combination method of verruca removal in complex treatment of viral papilloma skin infection among the children.Key words: interferon status of children, interferon al'fa 2b, verrucas, viral papilloma infection.

  8. Development of a Taste-Masked Orodispersible Film Containing Dimenhydrinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Breitkreutz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Orodispersible dosage forms are promising new approaches for drug delivery. They enable an easy application, as there is no need to drink high amounts of liquids or swallow large solid dosage forms. The aim of the study was to develop an orodispersible film (ODF as an alternative to tablets, syrups or suppositories for the treatment of vomiting and nausea, especially for the pediatric population. Formulations were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron and polarized light microscopy. Additionally, two commercially available electronic taste sensing systems were used to investigate the applied taste-masking strategies. Results obtained from X-ray-diffraction and polarized light microscopy showed no recrystallization of dimenhydrinate in the formulation when cyclodextrin or maltodextrin were used as solubilizing and complexing agent. All ODFs showed fast disintegration depending on the characterization method. In order to get taste information, the dimenhydrinate formulations were analytically compared to pure drug and drug-free formulations by electronic tongues. Results obtained from both systems are comparable and were used together for the first time. It was possible to develop an ODF of dimenhydrinate that is fast disintegrating even in small volumes of liquid. Furthermore, in vitro taste assessment by two electronic tongues revealed taste-masking effects by the excipients.

  9. The effect of hyperthermia in the preoperative combined treatment of radiation, hyperthermia and chemotherapy for rectal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, Fumio; Furuta, Kazuhiro; Saito, Yukio; Kataoka, Takashi; Kashiwagi, Hiroshi; Okada, Masaki; Kanazawa, Kyotaro; Sugahara, Tadashi; Shinohara, Naohiro (Jichi Medical School, Minamikawachi, Tochigi (Japan))

    1994-03-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of hyperthermia in the preoperative combined treatment of radiation, chemotherapy and hyperthermia for rectal carcinoma, two groups were compared. Group A consisted of 18 patients in whom hyperthermia, radiation and chemotherapy were performed. Group B consisted of 18 patients in whom only chemotherapy and radiation were performed. The total dose of radiation in both of the two groups was 40.5 Gy, and a radiation field covering the whole pelvis was used. Hyperthermia was performed using 8 MHz radiofrequency waves (Thermotron RF8, Yamamoto Vinyter, Japan), and tumors were heated at about 42 degrees C for 50 minutes. Hyperthermia was repeated five times during the preoperative treatment. Chemotherapy was performed by giving 5-fluorouracil suppositories to a total dose of 3400 mg. Mean tumor reduction rates on barium enema were 31.8% in group A and 18.2% in group B. The difference was statistically significant. The result of the histological assessment of tumor necrosis showed that there was a significantly higher degree of necrosis in group A than in group B. These results showed that the addition of hyperthermia enhanced tumor necrosis. It was concluded that the addition of hyperthermia would be an effective preoperative treatment of rectal carcinoma. (author).

  10. IMMUNOTHERAPY IN TREATMENT OF PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS IN ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Lvova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive examination of 62 adolescents, hospitalized for pulmonary tuberculosis, established high spread of clinical and laboratory markers of secondary immune deficiency: chronic diseases of ear, throat and nose (59,6%, recurrent infection caused by the herpes simplex viruses (SPGV (55,8% ; serological SPGV activation (90,4% and cytomegalovirus infection (CMV (94,2%; absolute lymphopenia (53,8%, low level and lack of interferon-alpha (28,9% and interferongamma (76,9%. Validity, effectiveness and safety of modern technology immunization with interferon -α-2b (VIFERON® 3 million IU and 1 million IU suppositories in 1 month course in the complex treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis was proved with a random research by a «case-control» method. Significant positive clinical and laboratory dynamics was registered: increase in body weight in 84,6 % of adolescents; reduction in the frequency of arrhythmias; increase absolute lymphocyte count (46,1%, decrease in serological SPGV activation (30,8% and CMV infection (61,5% increase in the amount of interferon-alpha (61,5%, and interferon-gamma (61,5% and absence of intolerance and 3 times less undesirable effects of chemotherapy.

  11. Clinicopathological studies on three preoperative combined treatments for rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Yuji; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Iizuka, Ryouji; Hagiwara, Akeo; Sawai, Kiyoshi; Yamaguchi, Toshiharu; Takahashi, Toshio

    1995-01-01

    To prevent postoperative local recurrence of rectal cancer, we treated patients using preoperative hyperthermia (5-6 times), irradiation (total 30 Gy) and 5-fluorouracil suppository (2,000-2,500 mg). The subjects were 31 patients given combined treatments and 28 patients given surgery alone. The results were as follows: Histologically, therapeutic effects were recognized in 80.6% of patients receiving combined treatments. The mean distance from the adventitia to the site of cancer infiltration was 6.54 mm in the combined treatments group and 3.35 mm in the surgery alone group. The difference between the two was significant (p<0.05). The rate of local recurrence in the combined treatments group was less than that in the surgery alone group. No systemic side effects nor severe complications were observed during hospitalization in the combined treatments group. The survival rate of the combined treatments group was higher than that of the surgery alone group. It was considered that combined preoperative treatments for rectal cancer were beneficial to survival and local control. (author)

  12. Radiation injury in the digestive system after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horie, Yoshiaki; Mishima, Yoshio; Hara, Kosuke; Tomiyama, Jiro; Nakano, Haruo

    1975-01-01

    This paper described the investigation of 18 patients with injury in the digestive system who received surgical procedure after radiotherapy of cancer for the past ten years. The patients consisted of 6 males and 12 females with the age ranging 21 to 66 years old. Primary diseases were 9 cancers of the cervix of the uterus, seminoma and cancer of the ovary, the rectum and the other regions. Radiotherapy was applicable to each of the diseases, and more than 3,000 rads of irradiation given for over a month. Symptoms developed 3 months to 4 and a half years after irradiation and the mean period was about a year except one patient in whom cancer of the colon occurred after 13 years. Operation was performed about several months after the onset of disease in the average. Of 18 patients who received operation, cancer was suspected at preoperative diagnosis in all of 3 patients in whom gastric lesion was resected, 3 of 4 in whom the colon was resected, 1 with small intestine lesion and 1 of 4 with rectum lesion. It was characteristic of these lesions that recurrence of cancer was preoperatively suspected in most of the patients. In the patient with rectum lesion, steroids suppository was given postoperatively. In addition, historical background of radiation injury, difference in period of the occurrence of radiation injury, local injury in delayed period, predisposing cause, classification, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of radiation injury were also mentioned. (Kanao, N.)

  13. The effect of hyperthermia in the preoperative combined treatment of radiation, hyperthermia and chemotherapy for rectal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Fumio; Furuta, Kazuhiro; Saito, Yukio; Kataoka, Takashi; Kashiwagi, Hiroshi; Okada, Masaki; Kanazawa, Kyotaro; Sugahara, Tadashi; Shinohara, Naohiro

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of hyperthermia in the preoperative combined treatment of radiation, chemotherapy and hyperthermia for rectal carcinoma, two groups were compared. Group A consisted of 18 patients in whom hyperthermia, radiation and chemotherapy were performed. Group B consisted of 18 patients in whom only chemotherapy and radiation were performed. The total dose of radiation in both of the two groups was 40.5 Gy, and a radiation field covering the whole pelvis was used. Hyperthermia was performed using 8 MHz radiofrequency waves (Thermotron RF8, Yamamoto Vinyter, Japan), and tumors were heated at about 42 degrees C for 50 minutes. Hyperthermia was repeated five times during the preoperative treatment. Chemotherapy was performed by giving 5-fluorouracil suppositories to a total dose of 3400 mg. Mean tumor reduction rates on barium enema were 31.8% in group A and 18.2% in group B. The difference was statistically significant. The result of the histological assessment of tumor necrosis showed that there was a significantly higher degree of necrosis in group A than in group B. These results showed that the addition of hyperthermia enhanced tumor necrosis. It was concluded that the addition of hyperthermia would be an effective preoperative treatment of rectal carcinoma. (author)

  14. CLINICAL AND IMMUNOLOGICAL EFFICACY OF THE RECOMBINANT INTERFERON alfa-2b OF ACUTE EPSTEIN-BARR VIRAL MONONUCLEOSIS IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Timchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conducted clinical and immunological examination of 51 children with acute Epstein-Barr viral mononucleosis (EBV in age from 1 year to 7 years. All children diagnosed with a moderate degree of the disease. In the treatment of 25 people (comparison group used the standard treatment (pathogenetic, symptomatic, treatment 26 people (main group included the use as antiviral and immunotropic means of the preparation of human recombinant interferon Alfa-2b in the form of rectal suppositories — VIFERON®. The immunological survey was conducted in dynamics: at the height of the disease and in the convalescence period. The blood was determined indicators of cellular immunity (leukocytes, lymphocytes, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD56+, HLAII+, CD95+, CD1 6+, CD25+, the concentration of IFN-a, IFN-y, IL-4 levels in spontaneous and induced production, in the serum. At milestones children of the main group noted rapid regression of clinical symptoms, normalization of body temperature, reducing intoxication, positive dynamics lymphoproliferative syndrome, a significant reduction in bed-days, no layering respiratory viral infections. Interferon had also expressed a positive impact on the changed parameters of cellular immunity and cytokine links. At the same time, 80% of patients after basic treatment is established the predominance of Th2 type immune response, indicating a high risk of developing chronic course of EBV-mononucleosis.

  15. Gamma scintigraphy in the evaluation of pharmaceutical dosage forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.S.; Hardy, J.G.; Newman, S.P.; Wilding, I.R. (Pharmaceutical Profiles Ltd., Nottingham (United Kingdom))

    1992-11-01

    Gamma-scintigraphy is applied extensively in the development and evaluation of pharmaceutical drug delivery systems. It is used particularly for monitoring formulations in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. The radiolabelling is generally achieved by the incorporation of an appropriate technetium-99m or indium-111 labelled radiopharmaceutical into the formulation. In the case of complex dosage forms, such as enteric-coated tablets, labelling is best undertaken by the addition of a non-radioactive tracer such as samarium-152 or erbium-170 followed by neutron activation of the final product. Systems investigated include tablets and multiparticulates for oral administration, enemas and suppositories, metered dose inhalers and nebulisers, and nasal sprays and drops. Gamma-scintigraphy provides information on the deposition, dispersion and movement of the formulation. The combination of such studies with the assay of drug levels in blood or urine specimens, pharmacoscintigraphy, provides information concerning the sites of drug release and absorption. Data acquired from the scintigraphic evaluation of pharmaceutical dosage forms are now being used increasingly at all stages of product development, from the assessment of prototype delivery systems to supporting the product licence application. (orig.).

  16. Modern state of the assortment drugs for the treatment of vaginal candidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юлия Валентиновна Левачкова

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Today the problem of treatment of vaginal candidosis and creation of effective drugs for the treatment of this disease is actual for modern gynecology and pharmacy.Aim: to explore the structure of the assortment of drugs for the treatment of vaginal candidosis, presented in the Ukrainian pharmaceutical market.Methods: Statistical and marketing methods of investigation of electronic and paper sources of information. Implemented analysis assortment based on the materials of the State Register drugs in Ukraine and Compendium.Results: in the treatment of vaginal candidosis greatest efficiency belongs fluconazole. According to the ATC classification drugs with fluconazole includes to 2 anatomical groups, among which the main proportion of drugs for systemic use. In the pharmaceutical market of Ukraine registered 103 drugs with a fluconazole, which are mainly represented by import manufacturers. The largest share of preparations (84.8% constitute solid forms (capsules and tablets.Conclusions: vaginal medications with fluconazole are not present. Considering that the suppositories have several advantages over other pharmaceutical forms, creation of the new drugs with fluconazole is a perspective direction for modern medicine and pharmacy

  17. Recommendations on Chronic Constipation (Including Constipation Associated with Irritable Bowel Syndrome Treatment

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    Pierre Paré

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available While chronic constipation (CC has a high prevalence in primary care, there are no existing treatment recommendations to guide health care professionals. To address this, a consensus group of 10 gastroenterologists was formed to develop treatment recommendations. Although constipation may occur as a result of organic disease, the present paper addresses only the management of primary CC or constipation associated with irritable bowel syndrome. The final consensus group was assembled and the recommendations were created following the exact process outlined by the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology for the following areas: epidemiology, quality of life and threshold for treatment; definitions and diagnostic criteria; lifestyle changes; bulking agents and stool softeners; osmotic agents; prokinetics; stimulant laxatives; suppositories; enemas; other drugs; biofeedback and behavioural approaches; surgery; and probiotics. A treatment algorithm was developed by the group for CC and constipation associated with irritable bowel syndrome. Where possible, an evidence-based approach and expert opinions were used to develop the statements in areas with insufficient evidence. The nature of the underlying pathophysiology for constipation is often unclear, and it can be tricky for physicians to decide on an appropriate treatment strategy for the individual patient. The myriad of treatment options available to Canadian physicians can be confusing; thus, the main aim of the recommendations and treatment algorithm is to optimize the approach in clinical care based on available evidence.

  18. Progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth: indications, when to initiate, efficacy and safety

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    Helen Y How

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Helen Y How, Baha M SibaiDivision of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH USAAbstract: Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity and long-term disability of non-anomalous infants. Previous studies have identified a prior early spontaneous preterm birth as the risk factor with the highest predictive value for recurrence. Two recent double blind randomized placebo controlled trials reported lower preterm birth rate with the use of either intramuscular 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (IM 17OHP-C or intravaginal micronized progesterone suppositories in women at risk for preterm delivery. However, it is still unclear which high-risk women would truly benefit from this treatment in a general clinical setting and whether socio-cultural, racial and genetic differences play a role in patient’s response to supplemental progesterone. In addition the patient’s acceptance of such recommendation is also in question. More research is still required on identification of at risk group, the optimal gestational age at initiation, mode of administration, dose of progesterone and long-term safety.Keywords: preterm birth prevention, 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate

  19. Prescription pattern of medication in the elderly residing in nursing homes in Tehran

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    Sabour Malihe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to investigate prescription patterns for older people in nursing homes of Tehran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the data of 170 older people, sampled random cluster gathering method, using medical records, questionnaires and interview with nurses and physicians. Results: The mean average age of the sample was 79.75. 64.7% of them were female. 62.4% received more than 5 types of medicines. The mean number of medicines was 7.55 with the ranging of 1-19 drugs. The most medicine forms used by older people were: tablets 98.2%, injection medicines 20.6 %, drops 13.5%, syrup 8.8%, sprays 6.5%, ointments and suppositories 2.9%. There was not a significant relationship between participating in geriatric educational course And the mean numbers of the prescribed medications (P>0.05., as well as between covering by health insurance specialty in medicine and the mean of the numbers of mediations (P>0.05. There was a significant relationship between having insurance and the mean number of prescribed medicine (P<0.05. Conclusion: Developing educational programs on geriatric pharmacology general practitioners and more supervision on residential care homes practices may have affects on prescription pattern.

  20. Magnetic resonance assessment of prostate localization variability in intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villeirs, Geert M.; Meerleer, Gert O. de; Verstraete, Koenraad L.; Neve, Wilfried J. de

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To measure prostate motion with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during a course of intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Methods and materials: Seven patients with prostate carcinoma were scanned supine on a 1.5-Tesla MRI system with weekly pretreatment and on-treatment HASTE T2-weighted images in 3 orthogonal planes. The bladder and rectal volumes and position of the prostatic midpoint (PMP) and margins relative to the bony pelvis were measured. Results: All pretreatment positions were at the mean position as computed from the on-treatment scans in each patient. The PMP variability (given as 1 SD) in the anterior-posterior (AP), superior-inferior (SI), and right-left (RL) directions was 2.6, 2.4, and 1.0 mm, respectively. The largest variabilities occurred at the posterior (3.2 mm), superior (2.6 mm), and inferior (2.6 mm) margins. A strong correlation was found between large rectal volume (>95th percentile) and anterior PMP displacement. A weak correlation was found between bladder volume and superior PMP displacement. Conclusions: All pretreatment positions were representative of the subsequent on-treatment positions. A clinical target volume (CTV) expansion of 5.3 mm in any direction was sufficient to ascertain a 95% coverage of the CTV within the planning target volume (PTV), provided that a rectal suppository is administered to avoid rectal overdistension and that the patient has a comfortably filled bladder (<300 mL)

  1. Outcomes of bowel program in spinal cord injury patients with neurogenic bowel dysfunction

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    Zuhal Ozisler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to determine gastrointestinal problems associated with neurogenic bowel dysfunction in spinal cord injury patients and to assess the efficacy of bowel program on gastrointestinal problems and the severity of neurogenic bowel dysfunction. Fifty-five spinal cord injury patients were included in this study. A bowel program according to the characteristics of neurogenic bowel dysfunction was performed for each patient. Before and after bowel program, gastrointestinal problems (constipation, difficult intestinal evacuation, incontinence, abdominal pain, abdominal distension, loss of appetite, hemorrhoids, rectal bleeding and gastrointestinal induced autonomic dysreflexia and bowel evacuation methods (digital stimulation, oral medication, suppositories, abdominal massage, Valsalva maneuver and manual evacuation were determined. Neurogenic bowel dysfunction score was used to assess the severity of neurogenic bowel dysfunction. At least one gastrointestinal problem was identified in 44 (80% of the 55 patients before bowel program. Constipation (56%, 31/55 and incontinence (42%, 23/55 were the most common gastrointestinal problems. Digital rectal stimulation was the most common method for bowel evacuation, both before (76%, 42/55 and after (73%, 40/55 bowel program. Oral medication, enema and manual evacuation application rates were significantly decreased and constipation, difficult intestinal evacuation, abdominal distention, and abdominal pain rates were significantly reduced after bowel program. In addition, mean neurogenic bowel dysfunction score was decreased after bowel program. An effective bowel program decreases the severity of neurogenic bowel dysfunction and reduces associated gastrointestinal problems in patients with spinal cord injury.

  2. Clinicopathological studies on preoperative three combined treatments with hyperthermo-chemo-radiotherapy for rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Yuji

    1995-01-01

    To prevent local recurrence of rectal cancer postoperatively, we treated patients using preoperative hyperthermia (5-6 times), irradiation (total 30 Gy) and a 5-Fluorouracil suppository (2000-2500 mg). The subjects were 31 patients given combined preoperative treatments and 28 patients given surgery alone. The results were as follows: Histologically, therapeutic effects were recognized in 80.6% of the combined treatments group. The mean distance from the adventitia to the site of cancer infiltration was 6.44 mm in the combined treatments group and 3.35 mm in the surgery alone group. The difference between the two was significant (p<0.05). The combined treatments produced a reduced tumor infiltration into the anal side, and resulted in making a safe margin for anastomosis. The rate of local recurrence in the combined treatments group was less than that of the surgery alone group. No systematic side effects or severe complications were observed during hospitalization in the combined treatments group. The survival rate of the combined treatments group was higher than that of the surgery alone group. It was considered that combined preoperative treatments for rectal cancer is beneficial to expand indications of super low anterior resection. (author)

  3. Comparative pharmacokinetic study of dosage forms with morpholinium 2-[5-(pyridin-4-yl-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio] acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Bushueva

    2014-12-01

    ] acetate elimination from the body of the animal occurs within 1 hour, and then only trace amount of the drug substanceis detected in serum. After oral and rectal dosage forms of morpholinium 2-[5-(pyridin-4-yl-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio] acetate its maximum concentration in the blood of laboratory animals is recorded at 60 minutes after administration of the capsules and suppositories respectively. Thereafter, for 2-2, 5 it is supported at a high level. At the same time, no significant differences in the kinetics of the drug administered dose. 24 hours after single oral administration and rectal capsules and suppositories of morpholinium 2-[5-(pyridin-4-yl-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio] acetate is not detected in the serum. Comparative analysis of the pharmacokinetics of morpholinium 2-[5-(pyridin-4-yl-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio] acetate depending on the kind of administration and the dosage form shows that after oral administration in capsule form, and rectal administration as a suppository absorption rate constants, elimination, half-life periods floor suction and depending on the dose administered differ slightly. Also, almost no relationship between dose and orally administered rectally morpholinium 2-[5-(pyridin-4-yl-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio] acetate and total quantities (of plasma clearance, since the difference between the drug administered in doses of 5 times the value of the latter increased only 1.2 times. Degree of morpholinium 2-[5-(pyridin-4-yl-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio] acetate absolute bioavailability after oral and rectal administration, is practically independent from the dose. The magnitude of this indicator for rectal suppository almost 3 times higher than that for oral capsules of morpholinium 2-[5-(pyridin-4-yl-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio] acetate. This indicates the great promise of his rectal dosage form. Conclusion. The degree of its absolute bioavailability for rectal dosage form doesn’t depend on administered dose and is nearly twice higher than for the oral solid

  4. Aspirin resistance following pediatric cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholette, Jill M; Mamikonian, Lara; Alfieris, George M; Blumberg, Neil; Lerner, Norma B

    2010-09-01

    Aspirin is often used to prevent thrombosis in pediatric cardiac surgery. The primary study aim was to assess aspirin resistance in this context. Secondary aims were to evaluate (1) the relationship between elevated inflammatory markers and thrombosis and (2) aspirin's effect on these levels. This was a prospective observational study of children undergoing cardiac surgery managed with and without aspirin. Aspirin response was assessed using the VerifyNow system and urinary 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 (uTxB2) measurements. Laboratory studies of inflammation were also obtained. 101 subjects were studied; 50 received aspirin. Six subjects (5.9%), 5 aspirin-treated, experienced symptomatic thrombosis. When measured by VerifyNow resistance was 43% after aspirin suppositories and 14% after additional days of oral aspirin. There was no correlation with thrombosis. Upper quartile post-operative day (POD) #5 uTxB2 was correlated with thrombosis in aspirin treated subjects (pchildren with high levels of uTxB2 despite aspirin therapy and/or those with elevated preoperative CRP are at increased risk for thrombosis. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Physical activity may decrease the likelihood of children developing constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenfaden, Sandra; Ormarsson, Orri Thor; Lund, Sigrun H; Bjornsson, Einar S

    2018-01-01

    Childhood constipation is common. We evaluated children diagnosed with constipation, who were referred to an Icelandic paediatric emergency department, and determined the effect of lifestyle factors on its aetiology. The parents of children who were diagnosed with constipation and participated in a phase IIB clinical trial on laxative suppositories answered an online questionnaire about their children's lifestyle and constipation in March-April 2013. The parents of nonconstipated children that visited the paediatric department of Landspitali University Hospital or an Icelandic outpatient clinic answered the same questionnaire. We analysed responses regarding 190 children aged one year to 18 years: 60 with constipation and 130 without. We found that 40% of the constipated children had recurrent symptoms, 27% had to seek medical attention more than once and 33% received medication per rectum. The 47 of 130 control group subjects aged 10-18 were much more likely to exercise more than three times a week (72%) and for more than a hour (62%) than the 26 of 60 constipated children of the same age (42% and 35%, respectively). Constipation risk factors varied with age and many children diagnosed with constipation had recurrent symptoms. Physical activity may affect the likelihood of developing constipation in older children. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Bowel Management and Quality of Life in Children With Spina Bifida in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Kyoung; Im, Young Jae; Han, Sang Won

    Bowel management is a concern in patients with spina bifida. We evaluated the status of bowel management in children with spina bifida (SB) and the effects on quality of life (QoL) of children and their caregivers. Data were collected from 173 children with SB between January and June 2011, whose bowel management status and QoL were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Of the 173 children, 38 (22.0%) reported normal defecation, 73 (42.2%) reported constipation only, and 62 (35.8%) reported fecal incontinence with/without constipation. For defecation, 59 children (34.1%) used digital stimulation or manual extraction, 28 (16.2%) used suppositories or enemas, 35 (20.3%) used laxatives, 4 (2.3%) used an antegrade continence enema, and 3 (1.7%) used transanal irrigation. There were significant differences in QoL, depending on defecation symptoms. Children with fecal incontinence and their caregivers had difficulties in travel and socialization (p children with SB and their caregivers. Therefore, more attention should be paid to bowel problems and help should be provided to children and their caregivers to improve QoL.

  7. [Effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and paracetamol on hemodynamic changes during postoperative analgesia in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leont'ev, D V; Babaev, B D; Shishkov, M V; Ostreĭkov, I F

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to comparatively assess the adequacy of postoperative analgesia using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and paracetamol in children undergone "minor" surgical interventions. For postoperative analgesia in children, the authors used paracetamol in a single dose of 25-30 mg/kg, diclofenac in a dose of 1.5-2.0 mg/kg, which were rectally administered as suppositories, as well as diclofenac in the same dose as intramuscular injections (Group 1). A comparison was made with postoperative analgesia using analgin and promedole (Group 2 (control)). Group 1 comprised 63 patients and Group 2 included 26 patients with identical diseases (inguinal hernias, varicocele, phimosis). Functional parameters were recorded in patients in the lying position before, 30 min, 1, 2, and 3 hours after surgery. The efficiency of postoperative analgesia was evaluated, by using central hemodynamic parameters that many investigators consider to be one of the major criteria for the adequacy of anesthesia. Comparison of postoperative data has revealed a difference between the groups, which suggests that the use of NSAIDs and paracetamol for preventive and postoperative analgesia in children substantially improves the postoperative period and promotes a rapid rehabilitation in patients. Comparative analysis of the efficiency of postoperative analgesia of the above agents has indicated that diclofenac and paracetamol have a sufficient analgesic activity and at the same time do not show the adverse reactions unique to narcotic analgesics.

  8. Prospective observational study of adverse drug reactions to diclofenac in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standing, Joseph F; Ooi, Kuan; Keady, Simon; Howard, Richard F; Savage, Imogen; Wong, Ian C K

    2009-01-01

    AIM The aim of this study was to investigate the type of common (occurring in >1% of patients) adverse reactions caused by diclofenac when given to children for acute pain. METHODS A prospective observational study was undertaken on paediatric surgical patents aged ≤12 years at Great Ormond Street and University College London Hospitals. All adverse events were recorded, and causality assessment used to judge the likelihood of them being due to diclofenac. Prospective recruitment meant not all patients were prescribed diclofenac, allowing an analysis of utilization. Causality of all serious adverse events was reviewed by an expert panel. RESULTS Children prescribed diclofenac were significantly older, and stayed in hospital for shorter periods than those who were not. Diclofenac was not avoided in asthmatic patients. Data on 380 children showed they suffer similar types of nonserious adverse reactions to adults. The incidence (95% confidence interval) of rash was 0.8% (0.016, 2.3); minor central nervous system disturbance 0.5% (0.06, 1.9); rectal irritation with suppositories 0.3% (0.009, 1.9); and diarrhoea 0.3% (0.007, 1.5). No serious adverse event was judged to be caused by diclofenac, meaning the incidence of serious adverse reactions to diclofenac in children is Children given diclofenac for acute pain appeared to suffer similar types of adverse reactions to adults; the incidence of serious adverse reaction is <0.8%. PMID:19694745

  9. Development and validation of an LC-MS/MS method for the determination of mesalazine in beagle dog plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Juan; Di, Xin; Wang, Xin; Liu, Youping

    2015-02-01

    A simple, specific and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of mesalazine in beagle dog plasma. The plasma samples were prepared by protein precipitation, then the separation of the analyte was achieved on a Waters Spherisorb C6 column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) with a mobile phase consisting of 0.2% formic acid in water-methanol (20:80, v/v). The flow rate was set at 1.0 mL/min with a split ratio of 3:2. Mass spectrometric detection was achieved by a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray source interface in positive ionization mode. Quantitation was performed using selected reaction monitoring of precursor-product ion transitions at m/z 154 → m/z 108 for mesalazine and m/z 285 → m/z 193 for diazepam (internal standard). The linear calibration curve of mesalazine was obtained over the concentration range 50-30,000 ng/mL. The matrix effect of mesalazine was within ±9.8%. The intra- and inter-day precisions were dogs after rectal administration of mesalazine suppository. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Plantago major in Traditional Persian Medicine and modern phytotherapy: a narrative review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafian, Younes; Hamedi, Shokouh Sadat; Farshchi, Masoumeh Kaboli

    2018-01-01

    Plantago major has been used widely since ancient times, to manage a wide range of diseases including constipation, coughs and wounds. The aim of this study is to review the traditional application, botanical characterization, pharmacological activities, phytochemistry effects and toxicity of Plantago major. In this review study, medicinal properties of Plantago major are collected from credible pharmacopeias, textbooks of traditional Persian medicine (TPM) belonging to the 10–18th century AD, such as “The Canon of Medicine”, “Makhzan-Al- Advia” and so on. Moreover, electronic databases including Scopus, Medline and Web of science were explored for this purpose. Plantago major has been prescribed in various forms such as roasted seeds, decoction, syrup, liniment, gargle, rectal enema, vaginal suppository, eye and nasal drop for each illness by TPM scholars. Some of its traditional properties including wound healing, antipyretic, antitussive, anti-infective, anti-hemorrhagic, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, laxative, astringent and hemostatic have been confirmed in recent researches. Phytochemical investigations showed that Plantago major contains volatile compounds, triterpenoids, phenolic acids and flavonoids. Modern pharmacological studies have proven some of the traditional applications of Plantago major. Nevertheless, more investigations are required on this plant, because it has the potential to be used to produce various natural medications. PMID:29629064

  11. Use of intravenous acetaminophen (paracetamol) in a pediatric patient at the end of life: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Adam D; Keefer, Patricia; Saul, D'Anna

    2013-12-01

    For the better part of 100 years, acetaminophen (or paracetamol as it is known outside of the United States) has been a common first-line analgesic in pediatrics and is typically well tolerated with minimal side effects. Its use as an anti-pyretic is also well-documented and thus it is used broadly for symptom control in the general pediatric population. In pediatric palliative care, acetaminophen is also used as an adjuvant to opioid therapy for pain as well as an anti-pyretic. For many pediatric patients near end-of-life, however, the ability to tolerate oral intake is diminished and rectal suppository administration can be distressing or contraindicated as in the setting of neutropenia, thus limiting use of acetaminophen by its usual routes. In Europe and Australia, an intravenous formulation of acetaminophen has been used for many years and has only recently become available in the United States. Here, we describe a case using intravenous acetaminophen in a pediatric patient at the end of life.

  12. Clinicopathological studies on preoperative three combined treatments with hyperthermo-chemo-radiotherapy for rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, Yuji [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)

    1995-08-01

    To prevent local recurrence of rectal cancer postoperatively, we treated patients using preoperative hyperthermia (5-6 times), irradiation (total 30 Gy) and a 5-Fluorouracil suppository (2000-2500 mg). The subjects were 31 patients given combined preoperative treatments and 28 patients given surgery alone. The results were as follows: Histologically, therapeutic effects were recognized in 80.6% of the combined treatments group. The mean distance from the adventitia to the site of cancer infiltration was 6.44 mm in the combined treatments group and 3.35 mm in the surgery alone group. The difference between the two was significant (p<0.05). The combined treatments produced a reduced tumor infiltration into the anal side, and resulted in making a safe margin for anastomosis. The rate of local recurrence in the combined treatments group was less than that of the surgery alone group. No systematic side effects or severe complications were observed during hospitalization in the combined treatments group. The survival rate of the combined treatments group was higher than that of the surgery alone group. It was considered that combined preoperative treatments for rectal cancer is beneficial to expand indications of super low anterior resection. (author).

  13. Radiation injury in the digestive system after radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horie, Y; Mishima, Y; Hara, K; Tomiyama, J; Nakano, H [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1975-03-01

    This paper described the investigation of 18 patients with injury in the digestive system who received surgical procedure after radiotherapy of cancer for the past ten years. The patients consisted of 6 males and 12 females with the age ranging 21 to 66 years old. Primary diseases were 9 cancers of the cervix of the uterus, seminoma and cancer of the ovary, the rectum and the other regions. Radiotherapy was applicable to each of the diseases, and more than 3,000 rads of irradiation given for over a month. Symptoms developed 3 months to 4 and a half years after irradiation and the mean period was about a year except one patient in whom cancer of the colon occurred after 13 years. Operation was performed about several months after the onset of disease in the average. Of 18 patients who received operation, cancer was suspected at preoperative diagnosis in all of 3 patients in whom gastric lesion was resected, 3 of 4 in whom the colon was resected, 1 with small intestine lesion and 1 of 4 with rectum lesion. It was characteristic of these lesions that recurrence of cancer was preoperatively suspected in most of the patients. In the patient with rectum lesion, steroids suppository was given postoperatively. In addition, historical background of radiation injury, difference in period of the occurrence of radiation injury, local injury in delayed period, predisposing cause, classification, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of radiation injury were also mentioned.

  14. PROFAM now self-supporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Mexico's 6-year contraceptive social marketing organization, known as PROFAM, has realized its goal of becoming self supporting. The organization now serves a much smaller consumer base than during its past subsidized years, yet it has been selling a mix of products to reach self sufficiency. According to Luis de la Macorra, the director, the organization established its own manufacturing plant and office, and the program's cost is now sustained by sales revenues. PROFAM's current cost per couple-years-protection (CYP) compares favorably with other programs. PROFAM rebounded from 2 devastating setbacks to expand its operations, while trimming its cost per CYP from $18.60 US in 1979 to $2.85 (exclusive of contraceptives) in 1983. Both setbacks occurred in 1981, when a change of political administration led to a government withdrawal of support, abrupt cessation of US Agency for International Development financial backing, and a cancellation of the program's permits to sell all products but condoms. Cancelled products included an oral contraceptive as well as foam and cream spermicides and a vaginal suppository. In 1984 PROFAM once again began social marketing sales of pills and injectables and selling spermicides and IUDs at regular prices. Additionally, the program has begun to branch out, expanding its family planning clinics to cover marginally urban locales and selling both a broad line of medical equipment and various consumer goods. Since its creation in 1978, PROFAM has substantially increased consumer awareness of contraceptives.

  15. Management of constipation in residents with dementia: sorbitol effectiveness and cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volicer, Ladislav; Lane, Patricia; Panke, JoAnn; Lyman, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this report is to describe a cost-effective strategy for management of constipation in nursing home residents with dementia. We conducted a prospective observational quality improvement study of 41 residents with chronic constipation and receiving an osmotic laxative. Sorbitol was substituted for lactulose. The study was conducted at a dementia special care unit at a Veterans Administration hospital. We measured the number and amount of laxative use over a period of 4 weeks that were required to maintain regular bowel function. There was no difference in efficacy of lactulose and sorbitol. Use of additional laxatives was infrequent: Milk of Magnesia on approximately 10% of days/patient, bisacodyl suppository on 2% to 4% of days/patient, and Fleet enema only on 3 occasions. The cost of constipation management using routine administration of sorbitol and as-needed use of other laxatives was 27% to 55% lower than the cost of other constipation management strategies reported in the literature. Substitution of sorbitol for lactulose does not change efficacy of the treatment and decreases cost. Regular use of an osmotic laxative avoids the costs and discomforts of rectal laxatives.

  16. Prevalence and treatment of aerobic vaginitis among non-pregnant women: evaluation of the evidence for an underestimated clinical entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansarli, G S; Kostaras, E K; Athanasiou, S; Falagas, M E

    2013-08-01

    We sought to evaluate the evidence on the prevalence of aerobic vaginitis (AV) among symptomatic non-pregnant women, as well as the treatment administered for this clinical entity. The PubMed and Scopus databases were systematically searched. Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria, 11 of which reported on the prevalence of possible AV, two on the prevalence of diagnosed AV, and three on the treatment and outcomes of women with diagnosed AV. The prevalence of diagnosed AV varied from 5 to 10.5 %. Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most commonly identified Gram-positive pathogens among women with possible AV, with prevalences of up to 58.7, 41.7, and 37.4 %, respectively, while Escherichia coli was the most common Gram-negative pathogen identified, with a prevalence of up to 23 % among symptomatic women. Regarding antibiotic treatment for AV, the antibiotic schemes administered, which mainly consisted of suppositories of aminoglycosides, showed good effectiveness without serious adverse events provided by any of the included studies. The currently available data suggest that the prevalence of AV is not negligible, while the prevalence of possible AV is considerable. Well-designed studies comparing the prevalence of aerobic pathogens between symptomatic and asymptomatic women are warranted.

  17. Randomized, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial of a Lactobacillus crispatus probiotic given intravaginally for prevention of recurrent urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Ann E; Au-Yeung, Melissa; Hooton, Thomas M; Fredricks, David N; Roberts, Pacita L; Czaja, Christopher A; Yarova-Yarovaya, Yuliya; Fiedler, Tina; Cox, Marsha; Stamm, Walter E

    2011-05-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common among women and frequently recur. Depletion of vaginal lactobacilli is associated with UTI risk, which suggests that repletion may be beneficial. We conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled trial of a Lactobacillus crispatus intravaginal suppository probiotic (Lactin-V; Osel) for prevention of recurrent UTI in premenopausal women. One hundred young women with a history of recurrent UTI received antimicrobials for acute UTI and then were randomized to receive either Lactin-V or placebo daily for 5 d, then once weekly for 10 weeks. Participants were followed up at 1 week and 10 weeks after intervention and for UTIs; urine samples for culture and vaginal swabs for real-time quantitative 16S ribosomal RNA gene polymerase chain reaction for L. crispatus were collected. Recurrent UTI occurred in 7/48 15% of women receiving Lactin-V compared with 13/48 27% of women receiving placebo (relative risk [RR], .5; 95% confidence interval, .2-1.2). High-level vaginal colonization with L. crispatus (≥10(6) 16S RNA gene copies per swab) throughout follow-up was associated with a significant reduction in recurrent UTI only for Lactin-V (RR for Lactin-V, .07; RR for placebo, 1.1; P < .01). Lactin-V after treatment for cystitis is associated with a reduction in recurrent UTI. Larger efficacy trials of this novel preventive method for recurrent UTI are warranted. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION. NCT00305227.

  18. Use of Lactobacillus spp. to prevent recurrent urinary tract infections in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Qin Xiang; Peters, Christina; Venkatanarayanan, Nandini; Goh, Yan Yih; Ho, Collin Yih Xian; Yeo, Wee-Song

    2018-05-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common bacterial infections seen in the community, especially amongst females. The widespread use of antibiotics has led to the increased occurrence of E. coli resistant isolates worldwide. A promising non-antibiotic approach is the use of probiotic lactobacilli strains. This paper hypothesizes that Lactobacillus spp. containing products are able to prevent recurrent urinary tract infections in females. Using the keywords [lactobacillus OR lactobacilli OR probiotic] and [urinary tract infection OR UTI OR cystitis], a preliminary search on the PubMed, Ovid, Google Scholar and ClinicalTrials.gov database yielded 1,647 papers published in English between 1-Jan-1960 and 1-May-2017. 9 clinical trials with a total of 726 patients were reviewed. Different lactobacilli strains (in either oral or suppository formulation) were utilized and they demonstrated varying efficacy in the prevention of recurrent UTIs. Using a random-effects model, pooled risk ratio of at least one recurrent UTI episode during the entire study duration was 0.684 (95% CI 0.438 to 0.929, p probiotics for UTIs is plausible and supported by current data. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC14 were the most commonly studied lactobacilli strains. Further and more robust randomized controlled trials with standardized lactobacilli strains and formulation are required for confirmation of effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A patch test confirmed phenobarbital-induced fixed drug eruption in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadly, Zohra; Aouam, Karim; Chaabane, Amel; Belhadjali, Hichem; Abderrazzak Boughattas, Naceur; Zili, Jamel Eddine

    2014-06-01

    A-10-year-old girl was referred to our department for multiple hyperpigmented plaques. One week previously, she had been given one suppository of acetylsalicylic acid - phenobarbital for fever. Twelve hours after the drug intake the child developed pruritic red plaques on the left thigh. Six weeks after resolution of the acute reaction, patch tests were performed separately, with phenobarbital and acetylsalicylic acid. On 48-hour reading, only the phenobarbital patch test on residual pigmented lesion was positive. Because of possible cross-reactions between aromatic anticonvulsants, subsequent patch tests using carbamazepine and phenytoin on residual pigmented lesions were performed. They were all negative at 48-hour reading. To our knowledge, only two isolated pediatric cases of Phenobarbital-induced FDE have been reported in the literature. In this case report, as it was difficult to determine whether phenobarbital or acetylsalicylic acid was responsible for this reaction, subsequent patch tests allowed the identification of the culprit component since it was positive to phenobarbital.

  20. A formulation of pancreatic pro-enzymes provides potent anti-tumour efficacy: a pilot study focused on pancreatic and ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perán, Macarena; López-Ruiz, Elena; García, María Ángel; Nadaraia-Hoke, Shorena; Brandt, Ralf; Marchal, Juan A; Kenyon, Julian

    2017-10-25

    Proteolytic enzymes have shown efficacy in cancer therapy. We present a combination of the two pro-enzymes Trypsinogen and Chymotrypsinogen A with potent in vitro and in vivo anti-tumour efficacy. A synergetic anti-tumour effect for Trypsinogen and Chymotrypsinogen A was determined at a ratio 1:6 (named PRP) using 24 human cancer cell lines. The antiangiogenic effect of PRP was analysed by matrigel-based tube formation and by fibrous capsule formation assays. Furthermore, cell invasion and wound healing assays together with qRT-PCR determination of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers were performed on human cancer cells treated with PRP. Additionally, in vivo pharmacokinetic studies were implemented and the PRP's anti-tumour efficacy was explored against orthotopic pancreatic and ovarian cancer tumours. PRP formulation was proven to inhibit in vitro angiogenesis, tumour growth, cancer cell migration and invasiveness; and to be an effective and well tolerated in vivo anti-tumour treatment. Finally, the clinical efficacy of a suppository formulation containing both pancreatic pro-enzymes in the context of a UK Pharmaceuticals Special Scheme was evaluated in advanced cancer patients. Consequently, PRP could have relevant oncological clinical applications for the treatment of advanced or metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma and advanced epithelial ovarian cancer.

  1. News and controversy in inflammatory bowel disease treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Straforini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The treatment of Inflammatory bowel disease comes from many years of esperience, clinical trials and mistakes. Discussion: In patients with active Crohn disease steroids are considerated the first choice, but recently, the introduction of anti-TNF alfa agents (infliximab and adalimumab has changed the protocols. Anti-TNF are also used for closing fistula after surgical curettage. An efficently preventive treatment of Crohn disease still has not been found but hight dose of oral salicylates, azatioprine or 6-MP and antibiotics might be useful. In severe attacks of ulcerative colitis, high dose iv treatment of steroids are required for a few days. Later on, a further treatment with anti- TNF might delay the need of surgery. In patients with mild to moderate attacks of ulcerative colitis, topical treatment is preferred, it consists of enemas, suppositories or foams containing 5-aminosalycilic acid, traditional steroids, topical active steroids. Topical treatment can be associated with oral steroids or oral salicylates. Oral salicylates or azatioprine are used for prevention of relaps.

  2. Stability of Pharmaceuticals in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Y-Uyen

    2009-01-01

    Stability testing is a tool used to access shelf life and effects of storage conditions for pharmaceutical formulations. Early research from the International Space Station (ISS) revealed that some medications may have degraded while in space. This potential loss of medication efficacy would be very dangerous to Crew health. The aim of this research project, Stability of Pharmacotherapeutic Compounds, is to study how the stability of pharmaceutical compounds is affected by environmental conditions in space. Four identical pharmaceutical payload kits containing medications in different dosage forms (liquid for injection, tablet, capsule, ointment and suppository) were transported to the ISS aboard a Space Shuttle. One of the four kits was stored on that Shuttle and the other three were stored on the ISS for return to Earth at various time intervals aboard a pre-designated Shuttle flight. The Pharmacotherapeutics laboratory used stability test as defined by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), to access the degree of degradation to the Payload kit medications that may have occurred during space flight. Once these medications returned, the results of stability test performed on them were compared to those from the matching ground controls stored on Earth. Analyses of the results obtained from physical and chemical stability assessments on these payload medications will provide researchers additional tools to promote safe and efficacious medications for space exploration.

  3. Is Fibre an Effective Strategy to Improve Laxation in Long-Term Care Residents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Wendy J; Mendoza, Daniela Rivero

    2018-03-01

    The high prevalence of constipation in long-term care (LTC) residents has been a long-standing issue for caregivers, attending health professionals, and the residents themselves. The traditional medical response has been to utilize pharmaceutical laxatives, enemas, and suppositories for treatment. The purpose of this review was to determine if fibre supplementation (including fibre added to foods) is effective in increasing stool frequency, improving stool consistency, and decreasing laxative use in LTC residents. A systematic search was conducted using PubMed and CINAHL databases, inclusive to March 2017. Search terms included: "long-term care" or "nursing home" AND "fiber (fibre)," "bran," "psyllium," "inulin," or "prebiotic." Intervention trials of fibre supplementation with ≥5 LTC residents were included. The search generated 456 articles following removal of duplicates; 8 studies met the inclusion criteria. Three additional trials were identified through a hand search of references of pertinent articles. Current evidence suggests that added fibre may be effective in increasing stool frequency and/or decreasing laxative use in LTC residents and, thus, may lessen the burden of constipation. However, randomized controlled trials are needed to clearly demonstrate the effects of adding fibre to foods, particularly insoluble and less fermentable sources, on constipation in LTC residents.

  4. Determinants of antipyretic misuse in children up to 5 years of age: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilenko, Natalya; Tessler, Hedva; Okbe, Ranya; Press, Joseph; Gorodischer, Rafael

    2006-05-01

    package inserts compared with Bedouin caregivers [25.7% vs 6.0%; P children to higher-than-recommended antipyretic doses (48.0% vs 21.8%; P children in the family, a significant and independent inverse relationship was found between child's weight and higher-than-recommended acetaminophen doses, in which for each additional kilogram of body weight, a 30% decrease in the proportion of children administered higher-than-recommended doses was found (odds ratio [OR], 0.7 for each additional kg; 95% CI, 0.59-0.89; P = 0.002). In addition, a significant and independent relationship was found between the formulation of acetaminophen and the administration of higher-than-recommended doses (OR, 4.9; 95% CI, 2.32-10.23; P suppositories related to the administration of higher-than-recommended dose by 4.9-fold. The results of this survey concerning antipyretic treatment of children by their Jewish and Bedouin Moslem caregivers suggest that lighter body weight and the use of acetaminophen rectal suppositories were associated with the administration of higher-than-recommended doses of acetaminophen. Recommended doses of acetaminophen must be based not on the age but on the weight of the child.

  5. Vaginal contraception--an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, D A; Thompson, S

    1982-04-01

    A number of new and innovative methods of vaginal contraceptive have been developed in recent years and are currently being evaluated. Some of these methods are described briefly and the available data on their safety and efficacy are presented. 3 types of contraceptive sponges have been developed--collagen sponge, intravaginal insert, and Secure sponge--and are now being evaluated. The collagen sponge, a cylindrical-shaped disk, exerts its contraceptive effect by acting as a physical barrier to the sperm and through its ability to absorb semen much in excess of its own weight. Preliminary data confirm the effectiveness of the sponge obtained from post-coital tests. The intravaginal insert (IVI) is made of a polyester material incorporating the spermicide nonoxynol-9. In a small clinical evaluation of the IVI, 49 women were followed up for 1 month. No pregnancies or unexpected adverse reactions were reported. The Secure sponge is made of polyurethane and incorporates 1 g of the spermicide nonoxynol-9. Its primary mode of action in preventing pregnancy is through the release of nonoxynol-9. In a multiclinic phase 2 evaluation of the Secure, which included 382 women, the 6-month gross life-table pregnancy rate was 3.8 +or- 1.3/100 women; the 6-month gross discontinuation rate for all reasons was 26.2 +or- 3.4/100 women. Sufficient data from the comparative trials of the Secure and Neo Sampoon foaming suppository studies conducted in Yugoslavia, Taiwan, and Bangladesh have been reported to the International Fertility Research Program (IFRP). The 12-month life-table rates for reasons leading to discontinuation of the contraceptive methods were not significantly different except for the category of "other personal reasons." The advantages Secure provides over other vaginal contraceptives are identified. Foaming vaginal suppositories similar to Neo Sampoon but containing 100 mg nonoxynol-9 are being developed and evaluated in the U.S. Clinical data on these products are

  6. Interventions for postoperative pain in children: An overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boric, Krste; Dosenovic, Svjetlana; Jelicic Kadic, Antonia; Batinic, Marijan; Cavar, Marija; Urlic, Marjan; Markovina, Nikolina; Puljak, Livia

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct an overview of systematic reviews that summarizes the results about efficacy and safety from randomized controlled trials involving the various strategies used for postoperative pain management in children. We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHL, Database of Reviews of Effect, Embase, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO from the earliest date to January 24, 2016. This overview included 45 systematic reviews that evaluated interventions for postoperative pain in children. Out of 45 systematic reviews that investigated various interventions for postoperative pain in children, 19 systematic reviews (42%) presented conclusive evidence of efficacy. Positive conclusive evidence was reported in 18 systematic reviews (40%) for the efficacy of diclofenac, ketamine, caudal analgesia, dexmedetomidine, music therapy, corticosteroid, epidural analgesia, paracetamol, and/or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and transversus abdominis plane block. Only one systematic review reported conclusive evidence of equal efficacy that involved a comparison of dexmedetomidine vs morphine and fentanyl. Safety of interventions was reported as conclusive in 14 systematic reviews (31%), with positive conclusive evidence for dexmedetomidine, corticosteroid, epidural analgesia, transversus abdominis plane block, and clonidine. Seven systematic reviews reported equal conclusive safety for epidural infusion, diclofenac intravenous vs ketamine added to opioid analgesia, bupivacaine, ketamine, paracetamol, and dexmedetomidine vs intravenous infusions of various opioid analgesics, oral suspension and suppository of diclofenac, only opioid, normal saline, no treatment, placebo, and midazolam. Negative conclusive statement for safety was reported in one systematic review for caudal analgesia vs noncaudal regional analgesia. More than half of systematic reviews included in this overview were rated as having medium methodological quality. Of 45 included

  7. Abortion. Is RU 486/PG in its current form likely to be appropriate for women in Bangladesh?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, S; Germain, A

    1992-01-01

    In 1991 in Bangladesh, women's health advocates presented a paper at the International Symposium on Antiprogestins on the pros and cons of a clinical trial of RU-486 and a prostaglandin (RU-486/PG) in Bangladesh where women now depend on menstrual regulation (MR). Even though RU-486/PG does not depend on a transcervical procedure as does MR, it requires a pelvic examination to determine gestation and completeness of abortion. Bangladeshi women consider it an invasive procedure. Thus, the often proclaimed benefit of noninvasiveness does not apply. Further, pelvic exams carry the risk of infection. Other sources of infection with RU-486/PG are insertion of PG vaginal suppository, retained conceptus, and management of blood loss. There is a sizable risk of infection in a not tightly controlled trial because women may not recognize incomplete abortion. MR also has similar risk of infection, especially the more serious risk of upper genital tract infection. RU-486/PG is most effective within 7-8 weeks after the last menstrual period. Yet, most women in rural Bangladesh present for MR at or after 8 weeks, and clinics countrywide have turned away 20-40% of women because they present no earlier than 10 weeks. Like MR, RU-486/PG does not allow Bangladeshi women any privacy because they must go to the clinic 3 times and both family and community know when they are bleeding. A clinical trial would determine whether Bangladeshi women would have the sense of control as expressed by French women. RU-486/PG would not necessarily lower costs for the health system or women. Further, it would not prevent deaths from septic abortions. The advocates recommended a trail in Bangladesh, if certain conditions were met such as involvement of women's health advocates in every stage of the trial and use of only the highest possible quality service providers. It should only occur in carefully controlled clinical situations.

  8. Hospital-Level Variation in Practice Patterns and Patient Outcomes for Pediatric Patients Hospitalized With Functional Constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Librizzi, Jamie; Flores, Samuel; Morse, Keith; Kelleher, Kelly; Carter, Jodi; Bode, Ryan

    2017-06-01

    Constipation is a common pediatric condition with a prevalence of 3% to 5% in children aged 4 to 17 years. Currently, there are no evidence-based guidelines for the management of pediatric patients hospitalized with constipation. The primary objective was to evaluate practice patterns and patient outcomes for the hospital management of functional constipation in US children's hospitals. We conducted a multicenter, retrospective cohort study of children aged 0 to 18 years hospitalized for functional constipation from 2012 to 2014 by using the Pediatric Health Information System. Patients were included by using constipation and other related diagnoses as classified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision . Patients with complex chronic conditions were excluded. Outcome measures included percentage of hospitalizations due to functional constipation, therapies used, length of stay, and 90-day readmission rates. Statistical analysis included means with 95% confidence intervals for individual hospital outcomes. A total of 14 243 hospitalizations were included, representing 12 804 unique patients. The overall percentage of hospitalizations due to functional constipation was 0.65% (range: 0.19%-1.41%, P hospitalization included: electrolyte laxatives: 40% to 96%; sodium phosphate enema: 0% to 64%; mineral oil enema: 0% to 61%; glycerin suppository: 0% to 37%; bisacodyl 0% to 47%; senna: 0% to 23%; and docusate 0% to 11%. Mean length of stay was 1.97 days (range: 1.31-2.73 days, P hospitalized with functional constipation across US children's hospitals. Collaborative initiatives to adopt evidence-based best practices guidelines could help standardize the hospital management of pediatric functional constipation. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Therapeutic properties and uses of marine invertebrates in the ancient Greek world and early Byzantium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voultsiadou, Eleni

    2010-07-20

    Marine organisms are currently investigated for the therapeutic potential of their natural products with very promising results. The human interest for their use in healing practices in the Eastern Mediterranean goes back to the antiquity. An attempt is made in the present work to investigate the therapeutic properties of marine invertebrates and the ways they were used in the medical practice during the dawn of the western medicine. The classical Greek texts of the Ancient Greek (Classical, Hellenistic and Roman) and early Byzantine period were studied and the data collected were analysed in order to extract detailed information on the parts of animal bodies and the ways they were used for healing purposes. Thirty-eight marine invertebrates were recorded for their therapeutic properties and uses in 40 works of 20 classical authors, covering a time period of 11 centuries (5th c. BC to 7th c. AD). The identified taxa were classified into 7 phyla and 11 classes of the animal kingdom, while molluscs were the dominant group. Marine invertebrates were more frequently used for their properties relevant to digestive, genitourinary and skin disorders. Flesh, broth, skeleton, or other special body parts of the animals were prepared as drinks, collyria, suppositories, cataplasms, compresses, etc. Marine invertebrates were well known for their therapeutic properties and had a prominent role in the medical practice during the Ancient Greek and the early Byzantine period. The diversity of animal species and their medicinal uses reflect the maritime nature of the Greek civilization, which flourished on the coasts and islands of the Aegean Sea. Most of them were common species exploited by humans for food or other everyday uses. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Applied biotechnology for improving fertility of herds in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongiardino, M.E.; Dick, A.R.; Murray, R.; Ramos, G.; Balbiani, G.; Maciel, M.

    1990-01-01

    In an attempt to find methods to shorten the calving to conception interval of dairy cattle in Argentina, three research projects were carried out: (1) use of hormonal treatments in the early post-partum period to increase fertility in non-cycling cows; (2) treatments to increase the fertility of cycling cows; and (3) management systems to improve the efficiency of oestrus detection. In non-cycling cows, fewer services per conception and earlier pregnancies were obtained when a progesterone suppository was placed intravaginally (PRID treatment) 24-31 days post-partum. No statistical reduction in days open was observed, however, because of the great variability in response within groups. GnRH injection given 24 and 25 days post-partum did not improve reproductive indices. In cycling cows, clitoral massage after AI did not enhance fertility, while GnRH 14 days post-service resulted in pregnancy rates of 68.4% compared with 25% in the control group. In an attempt to improve the efficiency of oestrus detection successive periods of either 10 or 14 days of 'heat' observation followed by similar periods of no observation, combined with the systematic use of an oestrus synchronizer (cloprostenol), resulted in the same reproductive performance as in control cows observed continuously but with a saving of 50% in time spent in oestrus detection. In a seasonally bred herd, a reduction of 12 days in interval to conception and subsequent improvement in milk produced in the following season were obtained by synchronizing oestrus at the start of the breeding season with a norgestomet implant followed by a prostaglandin injection one day before implant removal. In repeat breeders, a second implant 9 days and 21 days later was found to be effective. (author). 24 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  11. Knowledge and acceptability of the rectal treatment route in Laos and its application for pre-referral emergency malaria treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Elizabeth A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rectal artesunate has been shown to reduce death and disability from severe malaria caused by delays in reaching facilities capable of providing appropriate treatment. Acceptability of this mode of drug delivery in Laos is not known. In 2009 the acceptability of rectal treatments was evaluated among the general Lao population and Lao doctors in a national survey. Methods A cross sectional survey was performed of 985 households selected through a multi-stage random sampling process from 85 villages in 12/18 provinces and of 315 health staff randomly selected at each administrative level. Results Out of 985 families, 9% had used the rectal route to treat children (the main indication was seizures or constipation. The population considered it less effective than other routes. Other concerns raised included pain (28%, discomfort for children (40% and the possibility of other side effects (20%. Of 300 health staff surveyed (nurses 44%, doctors 66%, only 51% had already used the rectal route with a suppository, mostly to treat fever (76%. Health staff working in provincial hospitals had more experience of using the rectal route than those in urban areas. The majority (92% were keen to use the rectal route to treat malaria although oral and intramuscular routes were preferred and considered to be more efficacious. Discussion and conclusion Use of rectal treatments is uncommon in Laos and generally not considered to be very effective. This view is shared by the population and health care workers. More information and training are needed to convince the population and health staff of the efficacy and advantages of the rectal route for malaria treatment.

  12. The Effect of Inhalation of Aromatherapy Blend containing Lavender Essential Oil on Cesarean Postoperative Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olapour, Alireza; Behaeen, Kaveh; Akhondzadeh, Reza; Soltani, Farhad; Al Sadat Razavi, Forough; Bekhradi, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Pain is a major problem in patients after cesarean and medication such as aromatherapy which is a complementary therapy, in which the essences of the plants oils are used to reduce such undesirable conditions. In this study, the effect of aromatherapy using Lavender (Lavandula) essential oil on cesarean postoperative pain was assessed. In a triple blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial study, 60 pregnant women who were admitted to a general hospital for cesarean section, were divided randomly into two groups. After cesarean, the Lavender group inhaled about 3 drops of 10% Lavender oil essence and the placebo group inhaled 3 drops of placebo after the start of postoperative pain, four, eight and 12 hours later, for 5 minutes from the 10 cm distance. Patient's pain was measured by the VAS (Visual Analog Scale) score before and after each intervention, and vital sign, complications and level of satisfaction of every patient were recorded before and after aromatherapy. There was no statistically significant difference between groups in age, height, weight, and time to the first analgesic requirement. Patients in the Lavender group had less postoperative pain in four (P = 0.008), eight (P = 0.024) and 12 (P = 0.011) hours after first medication than the placebo group. The decreased heart rate and patients' level of satisfaction with analgesia were significantly higher in the Lavender group (P = 0.001). In the placebo group, the use of diclofenac suppositories for complete analgesia was also significantly higher than the Lavender group (P = 0.008). The inhaled Lavender essence may be used as a part of the multidisciplinary treatment of pain after cesarean section, but it is not recommended as the sole pain management.

  13. Comparative economic evaluation of home-based and hospital-based palliative care for terminal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Koki; Fukuda, Haruhisa

    2017-11-01

    To quantify the difference between adjusted costs for home-based palliative care and hospital-based palliative care in terminally ill cancer patients. We carried out a case-control study of home-care patients (cases) who had died at home between January 2009 and December 2013, and hospital-care patients (controls) who had died at a hospital between April 2008 and December 2013. Data on patient characteristics were obtained from insurance claims data and medical records. We identified the determinants of home care using a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to examine treatment duration in both types of care, and a generalized linear model was used to estimate the reduction in treatment costs associated with home care. The case and control groups comprised 48 and 99 patients, respectively. Home care was associated with one or more person(s) living with the patient (adjusted OR 6.54, 95% CI 1.18-36.05), required assistance for activities of daily living (adjusted OR 3.61, 95% CI 1.12-10.51), non-use of oxygen inhalation therapy (adjusted OR 12.75, 95% CI 3.53-46.02), oral or suppository opioid use (adjusted OR 5.74, 95% CI 1.11-29.54) and transdermal patch opioid use (adjusted OR 8.30, 95% CI 1.97-34.93). The adjusted hazard ratio of home care for treatment duration was not significant (adjusted OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.59-1.53). However, home care was significantly associated with a reduction of $7523 (95% CI $7093-7991, P = 0.015) in treatment costs. Despite similar treatment durations between the groups, treatment costs were substantially lower in the home-care group. These findings might inform the policymaking process for improving the home-care support system. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 2247-2254. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  14. Vaginal health and hygiene practices and product use in Canada: a national cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crann, Sara E; Cunningham, Shannon; Albert, Arianne; Money, Deborah M; O'Doherty, Kieran C

    2018-03-23

    The vaginal microbiome influences quality of life and health. The composition of vaginal microbiota can be affected by various health behaviors, such as vaginal douching. The purpose of this study was to examine the types and prevalence of diverse vaginal/genital health and hygiene behaviors among participants living in Canada and to examine associations between behavioral practices and adverse gynecological health conditions. An anonymous online survey, available in English and French, was distributed across Canada. The sample consisted of 1435 respondents, 18 years or older, living in Canada. Respondents reported engaging in diverse vaginal/genital health and hygiene behavioral practices, including the use of commercially manufactured products and homemade and naturopathic products and practices. Over 95% of respondents reported using at least one product in or around the vaginal area. Common products and practices included vaginal/genital moisturizers, anti-itch creams, feminine wipes, washes, suppositories, sprays, powders, and waxing and shaving pubic hair. The majority of the sample (80%) reported experiencing one or more adverse vaginal/genital symptom in their lifetime. Participants who had used any vaginal/genital product(s) had approximately three times higher odds of reporting an adverse health condition. Several notable associations between specific vaginal/genital health and hygiene products and adverse health conditions were identified. This study is the first of its kind to identify the range and prevalence of vaginal/genital health and hygiene behaviors in Canada. Despite a lack of credible information about the impact of these behaviors on women's health, the use of commercially manufactured and homemade products for vaginal/genital health and hygiene is common. Future research can extend the current exploratory study by identifying causal relationships between vaginal/genital health and hygiene behaviors and changes to the vaginal microbiome.

  15. Determination of piroxicam in pharmaceutical preparations by ultraviolet direct spectrophotometry, ultraviolet difference spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackmann, E.R.M.; Santos Gianotto, E.A. dos; Miritello Santoro, M.I.R. (Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil))

    1993-02-01

    Piroxicam in pharmaceutical preparations (capsules (C), tablets (T), oral drops (OD), suppositories (S) and simulated sample (SS)) was determined by UV direct spectrophotometry (UVS) at 333 nm, by UV difference spectrophotometry (UVDS) at 327 nm, and in C and T, by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). For UVS, Beer's law was obeyed in the range 3.0-8.5 [mu]g/mL. The coefficient of correlation (CC), absolute precision (AP) and relative precision (RP) were 0.9999, 0.02 and 0.33%, respectively. The coefficient of variation (CV) for C, T, OD, S and SS were 0.48%, 0.35%, 0.48% and 0.19%, respectively. The recovery average (RA) was 100.22%. For UVDS, Beer's law was obeyed in the range 5.0-15.0 [mu]g/mL. The CC, AP and RP were respectively 0.9999, 0.05 and 0.47%. The CV for C, T, OD, S and SS were 0.64%, 0.84%, 0.62%, 0.54% and 0.15%, respectively. The RA was 99.02%. In HPLC determination, a LiChrospher[reg sign] 100 RP-18 (5 [mu]m) in LiChroCART[reg sign] 125-4 column at ambient temperature with a mobile phase consisting of methanol: (buffer solution citric acid-dibasic sodium phosphate pH 3.0) (55:45) and UV detection at 254 nm enabled the determination of piroxicam in C and T. The response peak area versus concentration presented linearity in the range 10.0-100.0 [mu]g/mL. The CC, AP and RP were 0.9997, 0.45 and 0.90%, respectively. The CV was 0.51%-0.82% and the RA, 97.13%. 14 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  16. Internet pseudoscience: Testing opioid containing formulations with tampering potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascali, Jennifer P; Fais, Paolo; Vaiano, Fabio; Pigaiani, Nicola; D'Errico, Stefano; Furlanetto, Sandra; Palumbo, Diego; Bertol, Elisabetta

    2018-05-10

    Drug tampering practices, with the aim to increase availability of drug delivery and/or enhance drug effects, are accessible on Internet and are practiced by some portion of recreational drug users. Not rarely, recreational misuse may result in toxic and even fatal results. The aim of the present study was to assess the tampering risk of medicaments containing different formulations of an opioid in combination with paracetamol or dexketoprofen, following the procedures reported in dedicated forums on the web. Tablets and suppositories containing codeine, tramadol and oxycodone were extracted following the reported "Cold water extraction"; dextromethorphan was extracted from cough syrup following the procedure reported as "Acid/base extraction" and fentanyl was extracted from transdermal patches according the procedure reported in Internet. The tampered products and opportunely prepared calibrators in water were analysed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The separation of the analytes was carried on Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse Plus C18 (RRHT 2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.8 μm) by the gradient elution of 0.01% formic acid in water and 0.01% formic acid in methanol. Acquisition was by MRM mode considering at least two transitions for compound. Declared recoveries for these home-made extractions claimed to exceed 99% for the opioid and to complete remove paracetamol, often associated to liver toxicity and thus to obtain a "safer" preparation. In this study, the authors demonstrated that rarely the recoveries for the opioid reached 90% and that up to 60% of the paracetamol amount remained in solution. Thus, high risks for health remained both for the potential lethality of the opioid content, but also for the sub-lethal chronic use of these mixtures, which contained still uncontrolled, ignored, but often important amounts of paracetamol. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Metodología para estudios de estabilidad química en formulaciones de quitina

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    Yania Suárez Pérez

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Se propuso combinar la gravimetría directa como método cuantitativo con la espectroscopia infrarroja como técnica cualitativa complementaria, con el objetivo de establecer la metodología para el seguimiento de la estabilidad química de la quitina como fármaco en diferentes formas farmacéuticas: suspensión, crema, supositorio. La determinación del contenido de quitina por técnicas gravimétricas se validó en cada caso según los parámetros: linealidad, precisión, exactitud y especificidad. El análisis cuantitativo mostró resultados satisfactorios con respecto al contenido de fármaco en el tiempo en todas las formulaciones evaluadas. Estos resultados fueron corroborados por los espectros infrarrojos, manifestándose que la quitina es el único producto retenido en los filtros y que desde el punto de vista químico no ha sufrido alteraciones transcurridos 2 a de estudio.We proposed to combine direct gravimetry as a quantitative method with infrared spectrophotometry as a supplementary qualitative technique so as to establish a methodology for monitoring chemical stability of chitin as a drug in various pharmaceutical forms: suspension, cream and suppository. The determination of chitin by gravimetric techniques was valiadated in every case according to linearity, precision, accuracy and specificity parameters. The qualitative analyses showed satisfactory results in the drug contents in time in all the evaluated formulations. These outcomes were corroborrated by infrared spectra, which showed that chitin is the only product left in filters and that it has not changed from the clinical viewpoint after two year of study.

  18. Evaluation of the effect of indomethacin and piroxicam administration before embryo transfer on pregnancy rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbasar, Serkan; Gül, Özer; Şık, Aytek

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) administration before embryo transfer (ET) on pregnancy rates in women undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection ET. Our study included 255 patients diagnosed with primary or secondary infertility caused by a male or tubal-related factor, endometriosis or unexplained factors. The patients were divided randomly into three groups. Two groups were administered oral piroxicam (10 mg capsules) or 100 mg indomethacin (rectal suppository), respectively, 1-2 h before ET. As a control, the third group did not receive any form of treatment before ET. Basal levels of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and level 17β-estradiol on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration, the collected and transferred number of embryos, and the number of grade A embryos obtained were determined in all patients. The implantation, clinical pregnancy, and miscarriage rates of the groups were compared. The clinical pregnancy rate per ET and the implantation rate were 35.2% and 12.15% in the piroxicam group, 31.7% and 10.9% in the indomethacin group, and 32.9% and 12.5% in the control, respectively. The miscarriage rates of groups 1, 2 and 3 were 12%, 11.7% and 11.7%, respectively (P = 0.964). The differences in clinical pregnancy rates among the groups were not statistically significant (P = 0.887). There were also no significant differences in the implantation rates (P = 0.842). These results suggest that NSAID administration before ET has no additional effect on pregnancy outcome in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. Characteristics of neurogenic bowel in spinal cord injury and perceived quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardee, Connie; Bricker, Diedre; Rundquist, Jeanine; MacRae, Christi; Tebben, Cherisse

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the association between characteristics of individuals with spinal cord injury and neurogenic bowel and their perceived quality of life. The study design is an exploratory, descriptive correlational design. To measure the variables of the study the Quality of Life Survey developed by Randell et al. (2001) was used to measure perceived quality of life related to bowel management. Individual bowel management preferences and subjective costs and benefits of the preferences were gathered through the Neurogenic Bowel Characteristics Survey. PARTICIPANTS/METHOD: Data were collected from a random half of the individuals who met the inclusion criteria from the patient database (n=1193). Two hundred and forty one surveys were analyzed for this study. More than half of the sample (n=134) provided their own bowel management consisting of digital stimulation, suppositories, and other aids; 8% (n=19) had a colostomy. Regardless of the bowel management program 54% (n=127) were satisfied with current methods. Although time reported to complete bowel programs ranged from 1 to 120 minutes, there was no difference in rating of satisfaction with time. There was a statistically significant difference between those satisfied and dissatisfied with current bowel management and quality of life; those satisfied demonstrated a higher quality of life on three subscales, work function (p= .021), bowel problems (p< .001), and social function (p< .001). Those dissatisfied with their bowel program perceived a lower quality of life and indicated problems of time (p= .001), pain or discomfort (p= .033), and poor results (p< .001). Research data provide the patient's perspective on bowel management characteristics, complications, satisfaction, and their perceived quality of life. Results of this research will be incorporated into bowel management education and possible modification of the current inpatient bowel management program. © 2012 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  20. Vaginal nystatin versus oral fluconazole for the treatment for recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shangrong; Liu, Xiaoping; Wu, Cong; Xu, Lixuan; Li, Jianling

    2015-02-01

    Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) is a common condition that can physically and psychologically impact patients. We compared the efficacy and safety of vaginal nystatin suppositories for 14 days each month versus standard oral fluconazole regimens for the treatment for RVVC. Patients (n = 293) were enrolled in the study from April 2010 to September 2013. After the initial therapy, the mycological cure rates were 78.3% (119/152) and 73.8% (104/141) in the nystatin group and fluconazole group, respectively (95% CI, 0.749-2.197, p > 0.05). The mycological cure rates at the end of maintenance therapy were 80.7% (96/119) and 72.7% (72/99) in the two groups, respectively (95% CI, 0.954-3.293, p > 0.05).The mycological cure rates at the end without treatment for 6 months were 81.25% (78/96) and 82.19% (60/73) in the two groups, respectively (95% CI, 0.427-2.066, p > 0.05). The mycological cure rates of RVVC caused by C. albicans were 84.0% (89/106) and 81.8% (99/121) in the two groups, respectively. The mycological cure rates of RVVC caused by C. glabrata were 64.3% (27/42) and 12.5% (2/16) in the two groups, respectively. The initial and 6-month maintenance therapy were successful in five of the nine patients in the nystatin group with RVVC caused by fluconazole-resistant Candida, whereas in the fluconazole group, initial therapy failed in all patients with RVVC caused by fluconazole-resistant Candida (n = 7). We conclude that both fluconazole and nystatin therapies are effective in treating RVVC. Nystatin may also be effective for the treatment for RVVC caused by C. glabrata or fluconazole-resistant Candida.

  1. Predictive Parameters of Symptomatic Hematochezia Following 5-Fraction Gantry-Based SABR in Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musunuru, Hima Bindu; Davidson, Melanie; Cheung, Patrick; Vesprini, Danny; Liu, Stanley; Chung, Hans; Chu, William; Mamedov, Alexandre; Ravi, Ananth; D'Alimonte, Laura; Commisso, Kristina; Helou, Joelle; Deabreu, Andrea; Zhang, Liying; Loblaw, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study identified predictors of high-grade late hematochezia (HH) following 5-fraction gantry-based stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR). Methods and Materials: Hematochezia data for 258 patients who received 35 to 40 Gy SABR in 5-fractions as part of sequential phase 2 prospective trials was retrieved. Grade 2 or higher late rectal bleeding was labeled HH. Hematochezia needing steroid suppositories, 4% formalin, or 1 to 2 sessions of argon plasma coagulation (APC) was labeled grade 2. More than 2 sessions of APC, blood transfusion, or a course of hyperbaric oxygen was grade 3 and development of visceral fistula, grade 4. Various dosimetric and clinical factors were analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and recursive partitioning analysis were used to determine clinically valid cut-off points and identify risk groups, respectively. Results: HH was observed in 19.4%, grade ≥3 toxicity in 3.1%. Median follow-up was 29.7 months (interquartile range [IQR]: 20.6-61.7) Median time to develop HH was 11.7 months (IQR: 9.0-15.2) from the start of radiation. At 2 years, cumulative HH was 4.9%, 27.2%, and 42.1% in patients who received 35 Gy to prostate (4-mm planning target volume [PTV] margin), 40 Gy to prostate (5-mm PTV margin), and 40 Gy to prostate/seminal vesicles (5-mm PTV margin), respectively (P 30%. Conclusions: Rectal V38 and 2 clinical factors were strong predictors of HH following 5-fraction SABR. Planning constraints should keep rectal V38 below 2.0 cm"3.

  2. Tribenoside and lidocaine in the local treatment of hemorrhoids: an overview of clinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenc, Z; Gökçe, Ö

    2016-06-01

    The combination of tribenoside+lidocaine (Procto-Glyvenol®) is a medical preparation for the local treatment of hemorrhoids, delivered as a suppository or rectal cream. This product has been used for decades in the therapy of hemorrhoids. This review discusses available evidence on the use of tribenoside/lidocaine in clinical practice. Papers were retrieved by a PubMed search, using different combinations of pertinent keywords (e.g. tribenoside AND hemorrhoids), without any limitations in terms of publication date and language. Documents from Authors' personal collection of literature could also be considered. Papers were selected for inclusion according to their relevance for the topic, as judged by the Authors. The efficacy of the combination of tribenoside+lidocaine in relieving symptoms caused by hemorrhoids and its safety have been assessed in several clinical studies on patients of either gender, either versus its two individual components (tribenoside and lidocaine) or versus steroids in the same setting. Five studies compared the combination treatment with each of its single components, and of these, three studies compared tribenoside+ lidocaine with a tribenoside-free semi-placebo preparation containing only lidocaine, and two studies compared this combination with lidocaine-free preparations containing only tribenoside. Tribenoside+lidocaine was compared with steroid-containing preparations in six studies. Last, two studies evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of the tribenoside+lidocaine combination in women with hemorrhoids as a consequence of pregnancy or delivery. All the above-mentioned studies were well-conducted and can provide a comprehensive evaluation of tribenoside+lidocaine in the treatment of hemorrhoids. Enough evidence exists to recommend the use of this combination therapy as a fast, effective and safe option for the local treatment of low-grade hemorrhoids.

  3. Initial North American experience with botulinum toxin type A for treatment of anismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, J S; Agachan, F; Wolff, B; Nogueras, J J; Wexner, S D

    1996-10-01

    Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A), produced by Clostridium botulinum, is a potent neurotoxin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of BTX-A for treatment of anismus. All patients treated with BTX-A for anismus were evaluated. Eligibility criteria included a history of chronic assisted evacuation (laxatives, enemas, or suppositories), demonstration of anismus by cinedefecogram and electromyography, and failure of a minimum of three sessions of supervised biofeedback therapy (BF). Contingent on body mass, 6 to 15 units of BTX-A was injected bilaterally under electromyography guidance into the external sphincter or the puborectalis muscle. Treatment was repeated as necessary for a maximum of three sessions during a three-month period. Success was considered as discontinuation of evacuatory assistance and was evaluated between one and three months and again at up to one year. Between July 1994 and May 1995, four patients ranging from 29 to 82 years in age (2 females, 2 males) had anismus that failed to respond to between 3 and 15 biofeedback sessions. All patients improved between one and three months after BTX-A injection, and two had sustained improvement for a range of three months to one year. There was no morbidity or mortality associated with BTX-A injection. BTX-A is extremely successful for temporary treatment of anismus that is refractory to BF management. However, because the mechanism of action is short, longer term results are only 50 percent successful. Hopefully, modifications in the strain of BTX-A and dose administered will allow longer periods of success or a repeat trial of BF. Nonetheless, this preliminary report is very encouraging in offering a method of managing this recalcitrant condition.

  4. Single dose caudal tramadol with bupivacaine and bupivacaine alone in pediatric inguinoscrotal surgeries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, A.; Siddiqui, S.Z.; Aftab, S.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the postoperative analgesic effect of Tramadol when given with caudally administered Bupivacaine in children undergoing inguinoscrotal surgeries. A total of 60 children, undergoing inguinoscrotal surgeries, aged from 1 to 12 years, ASA 1 and 2, were included. The patients were divided into two equal groups. The group given Bupivacaine with Tramadol was called group BT and the group which was given only Bupivacaine was labeled as group B. Group BT was given 0.25%, 0.8 ml/kg Bupivacaine and Tramadol 2 mg/kg while the other group B was given 0.25%, 0.8 ml/kg Bupivacaine through caudal route after induction of general anesthesia. No other analgesic was given intraoperatively. The postoperative pain was evaluated by using visual analogue scale/Ocher face scale/CHEOPS and sedation was assessed by 5 points sedation score at immediate postoperative period 1,2,3,4,6,12 and 24 hours. Supplemental analgesia in the form of paracetamol suppositories and syrup ibuprofen was given accordingly. SaO 2, pulse, blood pressure, and motor block were monitored in all the patients. Addition of Tramadol with Bupivacaine resulted in meaningfully increased postoperative analgesic period (16.06 +- 4.04 hours). No other side effects like respiratory depression, pruritus, urinary retention were found in both the groups except for nausea and vomiting. The demand for supplemental analgesia was more in the patients belonging to B group than BT group. The sedation scores were similar in both the groups. The use of Tramadol as an additive with local anesthetics can prolong the postoperative analgesic period when administered caudally. Its use is safe in children. (author)

  5. Ureteral stent retrieval using the crochet hook technique in females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kawahara

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We developed a method for ureteral stent removal in female patients that requires no cystoscopy or fluoroscopic guidance using a crochet hook. In addition, we also investigated the success rate, complications and pain associated with this procedure. METHODS: A total of 40 female patients (56 stents underwent the removal of ureteral stents. All procedures were carried out with the patients either under anesthesia, conscious sedation, or analgesic suppositories as deemed appropriate for each procedure including Shock Wave Lithotripsy (SWL, Ureteroscopy (URS, Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL, and ureteral stent removal. At the time of these procedures, fluoroscopy and/or cystoscopy were prepared, but they were not used unless we failed to successfully remove the ureteral stent using the crochet hook. In addition, matched controls (comprising 50 stents which were removed by standard ureteral stent removal using cystoscopy were used for comparison purposes. RESULTS: A total of 47 of the 56 stents (83.9% were successfully removed. In addition, 47 of 52 (90.4% were successfully removed except for two migrated stents and two heavily encrusted stents which could not be removed using cystoscopy. Ureteral stent removal using the crochet hook technique was unsuccessful in nine patients, including two encrustations and two migrations. Concerning pain, ureteral stent removal using the crochet hook technique showed a lower visual analogue pain scale (VAPS score than for the standard technique using cystoscopy. CONCLUSIONS: Ureteral stent removal using a crochet hook is considered to be easy, safe, and cost effective. This technique is also easy to learn and is therefore considered to be suitable for use on an outpatient basis.

  6. Bioavailability and Pharmacodynamics of Promethazine in Human Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putcha, Lakshmi; Flynn, Chris; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Space Motion Sickness (SMS) is often treated in space with promethazine (PMZ). Anecdotal reports indicate that the common side effects of drowsiness and decrements in cognitive performance that are associated with PMZ administration (50 mg IM on the ground, are absent or less pronounced in space suggesting I that-the bioavailability and/or pharmacodynamic behavior of PMZ may be altered during space flight. There are limited flight opportunities available for clinical research in space, the NRA-99, therefore, solicits research required to improve, or answer specific questions about in-flight diagnosis, therapy, and post-flight rehabilitation. We propose here, to establish a noninvasive method for pharmacodynamic and therapeutic assessment of PMZ. The specific objectives of the proposed research are to, 1. Establish a saliva to plasma ratio of PMZ after administration, 2. Estimate the relative bioavailability of the three flight-specific dosage forms of PMZ, and 3. Establish the dose-response relationship of PMZ. We will estimate the bioavailability of intramuscular injection (IM), oral tablets and rectal suppositories in normal subjects during ambulatory and antiorthostatic; bed rest (ABR) conditions using novel stable isotope techniques. Drowsiness, cognitive performance and salivary flow rate will be measured as a function of circulating drug concentrations after administration of three IM doses of PMZ. We will compare and contrast the bioavailability of PMZ during normal and ABR conditions to examine whether or not ABR can simulate changes in drug, absorption and availability similar to those anticipated in a microgravity environment. Results of this study will validate methods for an approved study with this medication awaiting a flight opportunity for manifestation. These data will also provide the much needed information on the dynamics and therapeutic index. of this medication and their implications on crew fatigue and performance in space. Key words

  7. Parental knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding fever in children: an interview study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kelly

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fever is one of the most common childhood symptoms. It causes significant worry and concern for parents. Every year there are numerous cases of over- and under-dosing with antipyretics. Caregivers seek reassurance from a variety of sources including healthcare practitioners. The aim of this study was to describe parental knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding management of childhood fever in children aged 5 years and under. Method Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 parents at six ante-natal clinics in the south west of Ireland during March and April 2015. The Francis method was used to detect data saturation and thereby identify sample size. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Results Twenty-three parents participated in the study. Five themes emerged from the data: assessing and managing the fever; parental knowledge and beliefs regarding fever; knowledge source; pharmaceutical products; initiatives. Parents illustrated a good knowledge of fever as a symptom. However, management practices varied between participants. Parents revealed a reluctance to use medication in the form of suppositories. There was a desire for more accessible, consistent information to be made available for use by parents when their child had a fever or febrile illness. Conclusion Parents indicated that further initiatives are required to provide trustworthy information on the management of fever and febrile illness in children. Healthcare professionals should play a significant role in educating parents in how to manage fever and febrile illnesses in their children. The accessible nature and location of pharmacies could provide useful support for both parents and General Practitioners.

  8. Salvage external beam radiotherapy for clinical failure after cryosurgery for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonough, Michael J.; Feldmeier, John J.; Parsai, Ishmael; Dobelbower, Ralph R.; Selman, Steven H.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the role of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) as salvage treatment of prostate cancer after cryosurgery failure. Methods and Materials: Between 1993 and 1998, 6 patients underwent EBRT with curative intent for local recurrence of prostate cancer after cryosurgery. All 6 patients had biopsy-proven recurrence and palpable disease on digital rectal examination at the time of EBRT. The median follow-up was 34 months (range 8-46). The median prostate-specific antigen level was 2.3 ng/mL (range 0.8-4.1). No patient had evidence of metastatic disease. Two patients received hormonal therapy before beginning EBRT. No patient received hormonal therapy after EBRT completion. The median elapsed time between cryosurgery and EBRT was 3 years (range 1.5-4). The median delivered dose was 66 Gy (range 62-70.2) using a 10-MeV photon beam. An in-house-developed three-dimensional treatment planning system was used to plan delivery of the prescribed dose with conformal radiotherapy techniques. Results: After EBRT, all patients had complete resolution of palpable disease. Four patients (66%) were disease free at the time of the last follow-up. Two patients developed biochemical failure as defined by the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology consensus definition. One of these patients had a prostate-specific antigen level of 97 ng/mL before cryosurgery. No patient developed distant metastasis during follow-up. Two patients (33%) developed proctitis; 1 case resolved with Rowasa suppositories and 1 required blood transfusion. Conclusions: Our preliminary results suggest that EBRT can render a significant number of patients biochemically free of disease and can cause complete resolution of clinically palpable disease after initial cryosurgery. The results also showed that EBRT can be given without excessive morbidity. EBRT should be considered as a treatment option in these potentially curable cases

  9. Results and DVH analysis of late rectal bleeding in patients treated with 3D-CRT or IMRT for localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Someya, Masanori; Hori, Masakazu; Tateoka, Kunihiko; Nakata, Kensei; Saito, Masato; Hirokawa, Naoki; Sakata, Koh-ichi; Takagi, Masaru; Hareyama, Masato

    2015-01-01

    In patients undergoing radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer, dose-volume histograms and clinical variables were examined to search for correlations between radiation treatment planning parameters and late rectal bleeding. We analyzed 129 patients with localized prostate cancer who were managed from 2002 to 2010 at our institution. They were treated with 3D conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT, 70 Gy/35 fractions, 55 patients) or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT, 76 Gy/38 fractions, 74 patients). All radiation treatment plans were retrospectively reconstructed, dose-volume histograms of the rectum were generated, and the doses delivered to the rectum were calculated. Time to rectal bleeding ranged from 9 - 53 months, with a median of 18.7 months. Of the 129 patients, 33 patients had Grade 1 bleeding and were treated with steroid suppositories, while 25 patients with Grade 2 bleeding received argon plasma laser coagulation therapy (APC). Three patients with Grade 3 bleeding required both APC and blood transfusion. The 5-year incidence rate of Grade 2 or 3 rectal bleeding was 21.8% for the 3D-CRT group and 21.6% for the IMRT group. Univariate analysis showed significant differences in the average values from V65 to V10 between Grades 0 - 1 and Grades 2 - 3. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that patients with V65 ≥ 17% had a significantly increased risk (P = 0.032) of Grade 2 or 3 rectal bleeding. Of the 28 patients of Grade 2 or 3 rectal bleeding, 17 patients (60.7%) were cured by a single session of APC, while the other 11 patients required two sessions. Thus, none of the patients had any further rectal bleeding after the second APC session. (author)

  10. Treatments for irritable bowel syndrome: patients' attitudes and acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Lesley

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Irritable Bowel Syndrome, a highly prevalent chronic disorder, places significant burden on the health service and the individual. Symptomatic distress and reduced quality of life are compounded by few efficacious treatments available. As researchers continue to demonstrate the clinical efficacy of alternative therapies, it would be useful to gain a patient-perspective of treatment acceptability and identify patient's attitudes towards those modalities considered not acceptable. Methods Six hundred and forty-five participants identified from an earlier IBS-prevalence study received a postal questionnaire to evaluate preferences and acceptability of nine forms of treatment. Proportions accepting each form of treatment were calculated and thematic analysis of qualitative data undertaken. Results A total of 256 (39.7% of 645 potential respondents completed the questionnaire (mean age 55.9 years, 73% female. Tablets were most acceptable (84%, followed by lifestyle changes (diet (82%, yoga (77%. Acupuncture (59% and suppositories (57% were less acceptable. When explaining lack of acceptability, patient views fell into four broad categories: dislike treatment modality, do not perceive benefit, general barriers and insufficient knowledge. Scepticism, lack of scientific rationale and fear of CAM were mentioned, although others expressed a dislike of conventional medical treatments. Past experiences, age and health concerns, and need for proof of efficacy were reported. Conclusion Most patients were willing to accept various forms of treatment. However, the reservations expressed by this patient-population must be recognised with particular focus directed towards allaying fears and misconceptions, seeking further evidence base for certain therapies and incorporating physician support and advice.

  11. 'Better medicines for children' within the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness framework: a qualitative inquiry in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsabagasani, Xavier; Ogwal-Okeng, Japer; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Mbonye, Anthony; Muyinda, Herbert; Ssengooba, Freddie

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses is the main approach for treating children in more than 100 low income countries worldwide. In 2007, the World Health Assembly urged countries to integrate 'better medicines for children' into their essential medicines lists and treatment guidelines. WHO regularly provides generic algorithms for IMCI and publishes the Model Essential Medicines List with child-friendly medicines based on new evidence for member countries to adopt. However, the status of 'better medicines for children' within the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses approach in Uganda has not been studied. Qualitative interviews were conducted with: two officials from the ministry of health; two district health officials and, 22 health workers from public health facilities. Interview transcripts were manually analyzed for manifest and latent content. Child-appropriate dosage formulations were not included in the package for the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses and ministry officials attributed this to resource constraints and lack of initial guidance from the World Health Organization. Underfunding reportedly undercut efforts to: orient health workers; do support supervision and update treatment guidelines to reflect 'better medicines for children'. Health workers reported difficulties in administering tablets and capsules to under-five children and that's why they preferred liquid oral dosage formulations, suppositories and injections. The IMCI strategy in Uganda was not revised to reflect child-appropriate dosage formulations - a missed opportunity for improving the quality of management of childhood illnesses. Funding was an obstacle to the integration of child-appropriate dosage formulations. Ministry of health should prioritize funding for the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses and revising the Essential Medicines and Health Supplies List of Uganda, the Uganda Clinical Guidelines and, the Treatment Charts for the

  12. Validation and clinical utility of a bowel habit questionnaire in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Ellen R; Jagodzinski, Tanya D; Moyer, Stacey C L; Wald, Arnold; Eickhoff, Jens C; Edmonson, M Bruce

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the study was to validate a brief Bowel Habit Questionnaire (BHQ) with prospectively obtained data from a 14-day diary and to determine whether the BHQ predicts the development of medically significant constipation (MSC) during the following year. The BHQ was distributed to parents of children ages 5 to 8 years during health supervision visits. Both the BHQ and subsequent diary were scored to indicate constipation if at least 2 of the following were reported: infrequent bowel movements, stool accidents, straining, avoidance, discomfort with defecation, or passing large stools >25% of the time. One year later, the BHQ was repeated to assess for MSC, defined as medical encounters about constipation or use of enemas, suppositories, laxatives, or stool softeners. MSC was reported for 57 (13.7%) of 416 children on the first BHQ. Paired BHQ and diary data were obtained for 269 children; 54 (20.1%) had diary scores indicating constipation. BHQ had a sensitivity of 59.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 46.7%-71.4%) and a specificity of 82.6% (95% CI 77.0%-87.1%). One year later, 11 children (5.2%) had developed new-onset MSC; 7 (63.6%) of these children had initial BHQ scores of at least 2. Positive and negative predictive values for MSC were 19.4% (95% CI 9.8%-35.0%) and 97.7% (94.2%-99.1%), respectively. Parents often do not recognize constipation in young school-age children and most constipated children remain untreated. A brief screening questionnaire in this population proved to be valid but only moderately sensitive; efforts to improve sensitivity are needed before recommending it for routine use.

  13. Parental knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding fever in children: an interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Maria; Sahm, Laura J; Shiely, Frances; O'Sullivan, Ronan; McGillicuddy, Aoife; McCarthy, Suzanne

    2016-07-11

    Fever is one of the most common childhood symptoms. It causes significant worry and concern for parents. Every year there are numerous cases of over- and under-dosing with antipyretics. Caregivers seek reassurance from a variety of sources including healthcare practitioners. The aim of this study was to describe parental knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding management of childhood fever in children aged 5 years and under. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 parents at six ante-natal clinics in the south west of Ireland during March and April 2015. The Francis method was used to detect data saturation and thereby identify sample size. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Twenty-three parents participated in the study. Five themes emerged from the data: assessing and managing the fever; parental knowledge and beliefs regarding fever; knowledge source; pharmaceutical products; initiatives. Parents illustrated a good knowledge of fever as a symptom. However, management practices varied between participants. Parents revealed a reluctance to use medication in the form of suppositories. There was a desire for more accessible, consistent information to be made available for use by parents when their child had a fever or febrile illness. Parents indicated that further initiatives are required to provide trustworthy information on the management of fever and febrile illness in children. Healthcare professionals should play a significant role in educating parents in how to manage fever and febrile illnesses in their children. The accessible nature and location of pharmacies could provide useful support for both parents and General Practitioners.

  14. Principles of etiopathogenetic therapy for acute respiratory viral infections in frequently ill children

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    L. A. Kharitonova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the impact of incorporation of cycloferon into a therapy regimen on the efficiency of treatment for acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI in frequently ill children. Subjects and methods. The results of treatment were analyzed in 117 children divided into three groups according to the therapy regimen. Thus, symptomatic and local antiviral therapies (interferon nasal ointment and viferon suppositories were prescribed to all the children; furthermore, Group 1 (control used antibiotic therapy; Group 2 (Comparison Group 1 took antibiotics and cycloferon (tablets, and Group 3 (Comparison Group 2 had Cycloferon. Results: At the beginning of treatment, there was a reduction in interferon-a and interferon-y values with preserved serum interferon levels, suggesting the diminished compensatory responses ensuring antiviral protection. Analysis of the immune status revealed that virtually half of the children exhibited activation of compensatory mechanisms (stimulation of CD4+ and CD8+ production and an increase in NST test activity, one third displayed a disturbance (decreases in CD4+, CDlfrf, IgA, and NST test activity. After treatment, interferonogenesis was recovered in the majority (86,7% of the patients taking Cycloferon, in 74,1% of those who had a treatment regimen containing cycloferon and antibiotics, and only in 47,1 % of those who received antibiotics. Comparison of the immunological indicators during therapy with antibiotics alone or in combination with cycloferon demonstrated a more noticeable and balanced response to the latter: the normalized CD4+ and CD8+ values in the patients on antibiotic therapy was 8,9 and 5,8%, respectively, and 11,1 % in those who received antibiotics and cycloferon. Conclusion. Incorporation of cycloferon into ARVI treatment regimens for frequently ill patients has the positive effect on immunological indicators, which shows itself as recovery of initially diminished interferonogenesis

  15. A systematic review of the use of dosage form manipulation to obtain required doses to inform use of manipulation in paediatric practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, Roberta H; Hughes, Clare; Craig, Jean V; Shah, Utpal U; Ford, James L; Barker, Catrin E; Peak, Matthew; Nunn, Anthony J; Turner, Mark A

    2017-02-25

    This study sought to determine whether there is an evidence base for drug manipulation to obtain the required dose, a common feature of paediatric clinical practice. A systematic review of the data sources, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, IPA and the Cochrane database of systematic reviews, was used. Studies that considered the dose accuracy of manipulated medicines of any dosage form, evidence of safety or harm, bioavailability, patient experience, tolerability, contamination and comparison of methods of manipulation were included. Case studies and letters were excluded. Fifty studies were eligible for inclusion, 49 of which involved tablets being cut, split, crushed or dispersed. The remaining one study involved the manipulation of suppositories of one drug. No eligible studies concerning manipulation of oral capsules or liquids, rectal enemas, nebuliser solutions, injections or transdermal patches were identified. Twenty four of the tablet studies considered dose accuracy using weight and/or drug content. In studies that considered weight using adapted pharmacopoeial specifications, the percentage of halved tablets meeting these specifications ranged from 30% to 100%. Eighteen studies investigated bioavailability, pharmacokinetics or clinical outcomes following manipulations which included nine delayed or modified release formulations. In each of these nine studies the entirety of the dosage form was administered. Only one of the 18 studies was identified where drugs were manipulated to obtain a proportion of the dosage form, and that proportion administered. The five studies that considered patient perception found that having to manipulate the tablets did not have a negative impact on adherence. Of the 49 studies only two studies reported investigating children. This review yielded limited evidence to support manipulation of medicines for children. The results cannot be extrapolated between dosage forms, methods of manipulation or between different brands of the same

  16. International Children's Continence Society's recommendations for therapeutic intervention in congenital neuropathic bladder and bowel dysfunction in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawashdeh, Y F; Austin, P; Siggaard, C; Bauer, S B; Franco, I; de Jong, T P; Jorgensen, T M

    2012-06-01

    and complications. Finally, the treatment on neuropathic bowel dysfunction with rectal suppositories irrigation and transrectal stimulation are scrutinized. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Dhatakyadi Varti - An effective local treatment for Upapluta Yonivyapad (vulvovaginitis during pregnancy): A standard controlled randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Nilofar Mohamad Shafi; Dei, Laxmipriya; Donga, Shilpa

    2016-01-01

    Pregnant women are more prone to vulvovaginitis which is a great challenge for obstetricians today. In Ayurveda , Upapluta Yonivyapad described by Acharya Charaka , Sharangadhara , and both Vagbhata can be compared to vulvovaginitis during pregnancy. The present study aimed to evaluate efficacy of Dhatakyadi Varti in the management of Upapluta Yonivyapad (vulvovaginitis during pregnancy). A total of 80 female patients in the age group of 19-40 years were registered and divided into two groups. In Group A ( n = 46), Dhatakyadi Varti was inserted intravaginally, and in Group B ( n = 34), Clingen vaginal suppository was inserted intravaginally once at bed time for 14 days. The effect of therapy was assessed on the basis of relief in subjective and objective criteria, i.e., vaginal smear test. In subjective parameters, such as Yoni Srava , Yoni Kandu , Yoni Vedana , Yoni Daha and Yoni Daurgandhya , better result was observed in trial Group A receiving Dhatakyadi Varti . Highly significant relief ( P < 0.001) was observed in fungal infection, and significant relief ( P = 0.005) was observed in Gram - negative bacterial infection and pus cells in Group A. In Group A, 34.88% patients had complete remission, marked improvement was found in 34.88% cases, and only 2.32% patients remained unchanged, while in Group B, 33.33% patients reported complete remission, marked improvement was found in 10% cases, and 20% patients remained unchanged. It was concluded from the clinical trial that Dhatakyadi Varti is highly effective in reducing subjective and objective variables of Upapluta Yonivyapad and can be introduced as a safe herbal therapy of vaginal discharge during pregnancy.

  18. Clinical Evaluation of Commiphora Mukul, a Botanical resin, in the Management of Hemorrhoids: A randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Mahdi; Mahdavi, Mohammad Reza Vaez; Hosseini, Seyed Mousalreza; Bahrami, Abdollah; Davati, Ali; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Faghihzadeh, Sograt

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hemorrhoids complaint is one of the most common problems in most society, especially in Asian countries. Current drug treatment protocols cannot cure the disease, and they are palliative. According to Persian traditional medicine, Commiphora Mukul (CM) resin is a medication choice. Aim: This randomized study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy and safety of crude CM resin compared to a combination of lactolose and anti-hemorrhoid (LandA) in patients with uncomplicated hemorrhoids grade 1 and 2. Materials and Methods: This trial was carried out on 99 patients with hemorrhoids, in Ghaem and Imam Reaza Hospitals of the Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran. They randomly received CM 3 g/d for 4 weeks (as study group) or LandA (Lactolose syrup in laxative dose for 1 month and anti-hemorrhoid suppository daily for 10 days) as control group. Subjective and objectives variables including painful defecation, flatulence, constipation, gastro-esophageal reflux (GER), dyspepsia, proctorrhagia, anal protrusion, and colonoscopic grading were assessed before, immediately after, and 4 weeks after the treatment period. An intent-to-treat analysis was used. Safety was assessed with evaluation of clinical adverse effects by common toxicity criteria version 4.0. Forty-nine patients were assigned randomly to receive LandA and 50 to receive CM. After 4 weeks, flatulence, dyspepsia, GER, and colonoscopic grading scores significantly decreased in study group, whereas in control group constipation, painful defecation, and proctorrhagia showed better but not significant improvement. After 4-weak follow-up, the rate of constipation, and proctorrhagia also showed significantly improvement in study group. Constipation and proctorrhagia in control group recurred significantly in 4-week follow-up than after the treatment, whereas this recurrence in test group was not seen. Conclusion: CM was more effective than LandA in 4-week treatment of patients with uncomplicated

  19. Simultaneous determination of carboprost methylate and its active metabolite carboprost in dog plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with positive/negative ion-switching electrospray ionization and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lei; Meng, Xiangjun; Zhou, Xiaotong; Zhang, Tinglan; Sun, Heping; Yang, Zhichao; Yang, Bo; Xiao, Ning; Fawcett, J Paul; Yang, Yan; Gu, Jingkai

    2015-08-15

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method using positive/negative electrospray ionization (ESI) switching for the simultaneous quantitation of carboprost methylate and carboprost in dog plasma has been developed and validated. After screening, the esterase inhibitor, dichlorvos was added to the whole blood at a ratio of 1:99 (v/v) to stabilize carboprost methylate during blood collection, sample storage and LLE. Indomethacin was added to plasma to inhibit prostaglandins synthesis after sampling. After liquid-liquid extraction of 500μL plasma with ethyl ether-dichloromethane (75:25, v/v), analytes and internal standard (IS), alprostadil-d4, were chromatographed on a CAPCELL PAK Phenyl column (150×2.0mm, 5μm) using acetonitrile-5mM ammonium acetate as mobile phase. Carboprost methylate was detected by positive ion electrospray ionization followed by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of the transition at m/z 400.5→329.3; the carboprost and IS were detected by negative ion electrospray ionization followed by MRM of the transitions at m/z 367.2→323.2, and 357.1→321.2, respectively. The method was linear for both analytes in the concentration range 0.05-30ng/mL with intra- and inter-day precisions (as relative standard deviation) of ≤6.75% and accuracy (as relative error) of ≤7.21% and limit of detection (LOD) values were 10 and 20pg/mL, respectively. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of the analytes in beagle dogs after intravaginal administration of a suppository containing 0.5mg carboprost methylate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of lyophilized lactobacilli and 0.03 mg estriol (Gynoflor®) on vaginitis and vaginosis with disrupted vaginal microflora: a multicenter, randomized, single-blind, active-controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, G G G; Van Bulck, B; Van de Walle, P; Kaiser, R R; Pohlig, G; Gonser, S; Graf, F

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of lyophilized lactobacilli in combination with 0.03 mg estriol when compared to metronidazole in the treatment of bacterial vaginal infections. Multicenter, randomized, single-blind, active-controlled pilot study in 3 independent gynecological practices in Belgium. Forty-six, 18- to 50-year-old premenopausal women with a disrupted vaginal flora due to a bacterial vaginal infection (bacterial vaginosis, aerobic vaginitis) were included, provided that fresh phase-contrast microscopy of the vaginal fluid showed lactobacillary flora grade 2B or 3. Patients were given a blinded box with either 12 vaginal tablets of Gynoflor® (study medication) or 6 vaginal suppositories containing 500 mg metronidazole (control medication). Eight efficacy variables were studied to assess the status of the vaginal flora at entry, 3-7 days (control 1), 4-6 (control 2) weeks and 4 months after the end of therapy. At control 1, the combined variables equally improved in the lactobacilli group as in the metronidazole group. At control 2, the lactobacillus preparation showed slightly inferior results when compared to metronidazole. At 4 months, this analysis could not be performed due to low numbers, but analysis of recurrence rate and extra medication needed was not different between both groups. Lyophilized lactobacilli in combination with low-dose estriol are equivalent to metronidazole in the short-term treatment of bacterial vaginal infections, but have less effect after 1 month. Further studies are required to evaluate the long-term efficacy of lactobacilli when applied repeatedly. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Dhatakyadi Varti – An effective local treatment for Upapluta Yonivyapad (vulvovaginitis during pregnancy): A standard controlled randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Nilofar Mohamad Shafi; Dei, Laxmipriya; Donga, Shilpa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pregnant women are more prone to vulvovaginitis which is a great challenge for obstetricians today. In Ayurveda, Upapluta Yonivyapad described by Acharya Charaka, Sharangadhara, and both Vagbhata can be compared to vulvovaginitis during pregnancy. Aims: The present study aimed to evaluate efficacy of Dhatakyadi Varti in the management of Upapluta Yonivyapad (vulvovaginitis during pregnancy). Materials and Methods: A total of 80 female patients in the age group of 19–40 years were registered and divided into two groups. In Group A (n = 46), Dhatakyadi Varti was inserted intravaginally, and in Group B (n = 34), Clingen vaginal suppository was inserted intravaginally once at bed time for 14 days. The effect of therapy was assessed on the basis of relief in subjective and objective criteria, i.e., vaginal smear test. Results: In subjective parameters, such as Yoni Srava, Yoni Kandu, Yoni Vedana, Yoni Daha and Yoni Daurgandhya, better result was observed in trial Group A receiving Dhatakyadi Varti. Highly significant relief (P < 0.001) was observed in fungal infection, and significant relief (P = 0.005) was observed in Gram - negative bacterial infection and pus cells in Group A. In Group A, 34.88% patients had complete remission, marked improvement was found in 34.88% cases, and only 2.32% patients remained unchanged, while in Group B, 33.33% patients reported complete remission, marked improvement was found in 10% cases, and 20% patients remained unchanged. Conclusion: It was concluded from the clinical trial that Dhatakyadi Varti is highly effective in reducing subjective and objective variables of Upapluta Yonivyapad and can be introduced as a safe herbal therapy of vaginal discharge during pregnancy. PMID:29200747

  2. Maintenance Therapy by Vaginal Progesterone after Threatened Idiopathic Preterm Labor: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Double-blind Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyede Hajar Sharami

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with arrested preterm labor (PTL are at increased risk for recurrence ofpreterm birth (PTB. Maintenance tocolysis after arrest of acute PTL is of questionable value. Theobjective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 200 mg vaginal progesterone in order toprevent PTB in women with episodes of threatened PTL.Materials and Methods: This is a randomized double blind clinical trial study.Women with singletonpregnancies between 28-36 weeks of gestation, who were hospitalized for PTL were included. Atotal of 173 pregnant patients were randomly allocated to receive 200 mg vaginal progesteronesuppositories (n=86 or placebo (n=87 daily until the 36th gestational week. The two groups werecompared relative to demographic characteristics, incidence of PTB before 34 and 37 weeks, andmaternal and neonatal complications. Data were analyzed by chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests.Results: Mean latency until delivery in the cases was longer than the control group (23.88 ± 18.01vs. 16.67 ± 12.9; p=0.004.Treatment with progesterone was not associated with a reduction inthe rate of PTB before 34 weeks [cases: 9 (10.8% vs. controls: 8 (10%] and 37 weeks [cases: 45(54.2% vs. controls: 33 (41.2%]. Log rank analysis revealed a significant difference for mean timeto delivery between the two groups (p=0.028. There were no significant differences for neonataland maternal complications in the two groups.Conclusion: Prophylactic administration of 200 mg vaginal progesterone suppositories aftersuccessful tocolysis in patients with threatened idiopathic PTL is associated with a longer latencyto delivery, but failed to reduce the rate of PTB (Registeration Number: IRCT138706051096N1.

  3. Effects of single dose GnRH agonist as luteal support on pregnancy outcome in frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles: an RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robab Davar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is no doubt that luteal phase support is essential to enhance the reproductive outcome in IVF cycles. In addition to progesterone and human chorionic gonadotropin, several studies have described GnRH agonists as luteal phase support to improve implantation rate, pregnancy rate and live birth rate, whereas other studies showed dissimilar conclusions. All of these studies have been done in fresh IVF cycles. Objective: To determine whether an additional GnRH agonist administered at the time of implantation for luteal phase support in frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET improves the embryo developmental potential. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective controlled trial study in 200 FET cycles, patients were randomized on the day of embryo transfer into group 1 (n=100 to whom a single dose of GnRH agonist (0.1 mg triptorelin was administered three days after transfer and group 2 (n=100, who did not receive agonist. Both groups received daily vaginal progesterone suppositories plus estradiol valerate 6 mg daily. Primary outcome measure was clinical pregnancy rate. Secondary outcome measures were implantation rate, chemical, ongoing pregnancy rate and abortion rate. Results: A total of 200 FET cycles were analyzed. Demographic data and embryo quality were comparable between two groups. No statistically significant difference in clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates was observed between the two groups (26% versus 21%, p=0.40 and 21% versus 17%, p=0.37, respectively. Conclusion: Administration of a subcutaneous GnRH agonist at the time of implantation does not increase clinical or ongoing pregnancy.

  4. Comparison between Preoperative Rectal Diclofenac Plus Paracetamol and Diclofenac Alone for PostoperativePain of Hysterectomy.

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    Saghar Samimi Sede

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To detect whether the preoperative combined administration of rectal diclofenac and paracetamol is superior to placebo or rectal diclofenac alone for pain after abdominal hysterectomy.Ninety female patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA physical status I-II, scheduled for abdominal hysterectomy were recruited to this double blind trial and were randomized to receive one of three modalities before surgery: rectal combination of diclofenac and paracetamol, rectal diclofenac alone or rectal placebo alone which were given as a suppository one hour prior to surgery. The primary outcomes were visual analogue pain scores measured at 0, 0.5, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 24 hours after surgery and the time of first administration and also total amount of morphine used in the first 24 hour after surgery. A 10 cm visual analog scale (VAS was used to assess pain intensity at rest.In patients receiving the combination of diclofenac and paracetamol total dose of morphine used in the first 24 hour after surgery was significantly lower (13.9 ± 2.7 mg compared to diclofenac group (16.8± 2.8 mg and placebo group (20.1 ± 3.6 mg (p<0.05. VAS pain score was significantly lower in combination group compared to other groups all time during first 24 hours (p<0.05. There had been a significant difference between combination group and the two other groups in terms of the first request of morphine (p<0.05.According to our study Patients who receive the rectal diclofenac-paracetamol combination experience significantly a lower pain scale in the first 24 hour after surgery compared with patients receiving diclofenac or placebo alone. Their need to supplementary analgesic is significantly later and lower compared to placebo and diclofenac alone.

  5. Placebo controlled comparison of the opioid sparing effect of meloxicam and diclofenac after abdominal hysterectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwari, Jamil S.; Anjum, S.; Al-Khunain, S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to compare the opioid sparing effect of meloxicam and diclofenac after abdominal hysterectomy. This study was conducted at the Riyadh Military Hospital, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from February 2004 to November 2006. Women of American Society of Anesthesiologist's classification I or II of ages 25-60 years scheduled for abdominal hysterectomy were included. Those with significant systematic disease or contraindication to opioid or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were excluded from the study. All patients received general anesthesia and intravenous (IV) morphine and were intubated and ventilated for the operation. The patients were randomized and rectally received meloxicam (15 mg), diclofenac (100 mg) or placebo suppository. Patients, postoperatively blinded were blinded to these drugs. In the recover room, (IV) patient controlled morphine was commenced. The information sought included patient characteristic (age, weight), duration operation and doses of morphine consumed in 24 hours. Seventy-five patients (25 in each group) participated in this study and only 5 patients dropped out. There was no difference in age and body weight of the patients and duration of operation. All underwent either total or sub-total hysterectomy. The mean (SD) morphine consumption in the 24 hour postoperative period was 37.7 (11.1) mg for the diclofenac group, 40.1 (7.8) mg for the meloxicam group and 45.2 (9.8) mg for the placebo group. As compared to placebo, the mean morphine consumption in diclofenac (but not in meloxicam) group was significantly (p<0.05) reduced. Our study demonstrates a significant opioid sparing effect after abdominal hysterectomy with diclofenac but not with meloxicam. (author)

  6. Stability of Dosage Forms in the Pharmaceutical Payload Aboard Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Brian J.; Daniels, Vernie; Boyd, Jason L.; Crady, Camille; Satterfield, Rick; Younker, Diane R.; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2009-01-01

    Efficacious pharmaceuticals with adequate shelf lives are essential for successful space medical operations. Stability of pharmaceuticals, therefore, is of paramount importance for assuring the health and wellness of astronauts on future space exploration missions. Unique physical and environmental factors of space missions may contribute to the instability of pharmaceuticals, e.g., radiation, humidity and temperature variations. Degradation of pharmaceutical formulations can result in inadequate efficacy and/or untoward toxic effects, which could compromise astronaut safety and health. Methods: Four identical pharmaceutical payload kits containing 31 medications in different dosage forms (liquid, tablet, capsule, ointment and suppository) were transported to the International Space Station aboard the Space Shuttle (STS-121). One of the 4 kits was stored on the Shuttle and the other 3 were stored on the International Space Station (ISS) for return to Earth at 6-month interval aboard a pre-designated Shuttle flight for each kit. The kit stored on the Shuttle was returned to Earth aboard STS-121 and 2 kits from ISS were returned on STS 117 and STS-122. Results: Analysis of standard physical and chemical parameters of degradation was completed for pharmaceuticals returned by STS-121 after14 days, STS - 117 after11 months and STS 122 after 19 months storage aboard ISS. Analysis of all flight samples along with ground-based matching controls was completed and results were compiled. Conclusion: Evaluation of results from the shuttle (1) and ISS increments (2) indicate that the number of formulations degraded in space increased with duration of storage in space and was higher in space compared to their ground-based counterparts. Rate of degradation for some of the formulations tested was faster in space than on Earth. Additionally, some of the formulations included in the medical kits were unstable, more so in space than on the ground. These results indicate that the

  7. EFFECT OF PROSTATILEN® AC ON SPERM DNA FRAGMENTATION DURING TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC NONBACTERIAL PROSTATITIS AND CONCOMITANT DISORDERS OF THE REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Borovets

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study objective is to analyze the effect of Prostatilen® AC on sperm DNA fragmentation during treatment of patients with chronic nonbacterial prostatitis and concomitant disorders of the reproductive function.Materials and methods. The study is based on the results of treatment of 25 men aged 24 to 45 years (mean age 35.3 ± 4.4 years with a verified diagnosis of chronic nonbacterial prostatitis and complaints of early-stage missed miscarriage in a spouse/sexual partner. All patients received Prostatilen® AC daily in rectal suppositories formulation. The duration of treatment was 10 days with retreatment after 20 days. In all patients before treatment and 20 days after it, spermiogram parameters (5th ed., WHO, 2010 and sperm DNA fragmentation level using SCSA (sperm chromatin structure assay by FACSCantoll with monoclonal antibodies (Roche, Germany were determined, and all patients underwent the MAR (mixed antiglobulin reaction test with normal value considered to be 10 % or less. The normal value of sperm DNA fragmentation was considered to be 15 % or less (low risk of fertility impairment. The analysis of the obtained data was carried out using the IBM SPSS Statistics program 22.Results. Before the treatment, pathologic level of sperm DNA fragmentation was observed in 6 (43 % of 14 patients with normozoospermia and in 7 (63 % of 11 patients with pathozoospermia (χ² = 1.06; p <0.3. Thus, there weren’t any significant difference between the rates of occurrence of increased sperm DNA fragmentation in patients with normo- and pathozoospermia. A correlation was found between the level of sperm DNA fragmentation and the results of MAR test before treatment (r = 0.8, p <0.05, which varied between 0 and 99 % (mean 16.48 ± 31.64 %. Meanwhile, increased sperm DNA fragmentation was observed in 7 (53 % of 13 patients with pathological MAR test results, and in 2 (40 % of 5 patients with normal MAR test results (χ² = 0.67; p <0.01. The level

  8. Long-term efficacy and cost-effectiveness of polyethylene glycol 3350 plus electrolytes in chronic constipation: a retrospective study in a disabled population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migeon-Duballet, I; Chabin, M; Gautier, A; Mistouflet, T; Bonnet, M; Aubert, J M; Halphen, M

    2006-06-01

    The efficacy and safety of treatments for constipation in severely intellectually disabled patients and their associated cost-effectiveness are an under-investigated area of clinical practice. Aiming to address this, the objectives of the study were to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of polyethylene glycol 3350 plus electrolytes (Movicol; PEG+E) by comparing clinical data collected before and after its introduction to a stable population of residents of a mental health care, long-stay institution. The study also attempted an economic evaluation of the use of PEG+E in this setting. This was a retrospective study of 54/66 severely intellectually and physically disabled residents of a specialist unit at La Milétrie University Hospital, Poitiers, France, who suffered regularly from constipation. A total of 54 residents were treated with PEG+E (1-3 sachets a day) for 24 months. The number of stools, episodes of diarrhoea (defined as frequent stools, not necessarily watery), body weights and blood biochemistry were recorded. Data were compared with those recorded during the 21 months preceding the introduction of PEG+E for 16/54 residents who had been treated regularly with a range of other interventions for the relief of constipation. The monthly use and costs of laxatives, enemas and suppositories was obtained from hospital pharmacy records, and the total hospital costs before and after the introduction of PEG+E treatment was calculated. The mean (+/- standard deviation) number of stools per patient per month was significantly greater following the introduction of PEG+E (24.9 +/- 6.3) compared to before its use (12.4 +/- 3.4) (p PEG+E was 0.1 +/- 0.1 and 6.3 +/- 2.9, respectively (p PEG+E was not associated with adverse effects on body weight or blood biochemistry values. Introduction of PEG+E and its increasing use reduced the total hospital medical ward expenditure on laxatives from 3788 to 1767 Euros per month. PEG+E is effective in the clinical management

  9. Investigation of excipients’ nature influence on the quality indices of effervescent tablets of acetylsalicylic acid, paracetamol and ascorbic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. V. Tryhubchak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The priority objective of pharmaceutical science remains the creation and rational use of medicines. In recent years among these medicines particular attention is paid to the form of sparkling (fast-dissolving, gaseous or effervescent solid dosage forms – tablets, granules, powders, microspheres, capsules, suppositories and others. In the development of effervescent tablets, which are absent in the domestic market, a combination of acetylsalicylic acid, paracetamol and ascorbic acid was selected for experimental studies. The purpose of the work is to study the influence of excipients on the pharmaco-technological properties of effervescent tablets of acetylsalicylic acid, paracetamol and ascorbic acid. Materials and methods. In the course of the experiment, nine excipients from groups of fillers, leavens and binders were investigated. By studying qualitative factors, one of the plans of dispersion analysis was used, namely a three-factorial experiment based on the Hyper-Greek-Latin square. In experiments we used modern equipment for determining the bulk density of powders (ERWEKA GT, Germany, bulk density (ERWEKA SVM 202, Germany, tablet press (Korsh XL-100, Germany, uniformity of the weight of tablets (Mettler Toledo AB54-S, Switzerland, crushing resistance (ERWEKA TBH-525 WTO, Germany, abradability (ERWEKA TAR 200, Germany, disintegration time (ERWEKA ZT 33, Germany. Results. As a result of the statistical processing of experimental results, the influence of excipients on the pharmaco-technological parameters of mass for tableting (bulk density, density after compression, Carr's index, flow ability, slope angle, tableting process, tablet appearance, mass uniformity, abradability, resistance to crushing, disintegration and transparency of the solution were investigated. Conclusions. The influence of nine excipients on the pharmaco-technological characteristics of effervescent tablets of acetylsalicylic acid, paracetamol and ascorbic acid was

  10. Acute renal failure associated with an accidental overdose of colchicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrás-Blasco, J; Enriquez, R; Sirvent, A E; Amoros, F; Navarro-Ruiz, A; Reyes, A

    2005-10-01

    A 47-year-old man with a history of polyarticular gout was admitted to the nephrology service because of severe renal insufficiency (creatinine 6.25 mg/dl). Three days before admission he had a pain crisis in his knees and ankles and self-administered 20 x 1 mg granules of colchicine p.o. over a period of 4 - 5 hours together with six suppositories each containing 100 mg of indomethacin. The patient began vomiting within 24 hours, experienced diarrhea which persisted for three days and then came to the hospital. The patient reported oliguria during the preceding 24 hours. In hospital, attempts to correct water and electrolyte balance were initiated. The patient became stabilized hemo-dynamically, the diarrhea disappeared within 24 hours, diuresis resumed and the renal function progressively improved. Leukopenia and thrombopenia were diagnosed, the transaminases increased: AST = 79 U/l, ALT = 132 U/l on the eighth day after taking the colchicine. The serology for hepatitis A, B, C and HIV viruses was negative; the serology for CMV and VEB revealed a previous infection. After being discharged from hospital 11 days after admission, the patient presented with the following parameters: hematocrit 39%, leukocytes 5,920/microl (3 470 neutrophils), prothrombin time 13 seconds, urea 44 mg/dl, creatinine 1.29 mg/dl, AST 16 U/l and ALT 35 U/l. The patient mistakenly ingested 20 mg ofcolchicine p.o. (0.22 mg/kg). The intoxication was associated with gastroenterocolitis, dehydration and renal failure during the first three days after ingestion. The patient also developed leukopenia, thrombopenia and mild hepatocellular injury. Renal failure due to colchicine intoxication is due to various factors such as depletion of volume/hypotension, rhabdomyolysis and multiorgan failure. In this case, the hypovolemia was probably the fundamental cause of the acute renal insufficiency as demonstrated by the quick recovery after administering fluids. It is possible that indomethacin may have

  11. Libertas: rationale and study design of a multicentre, Phase II, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled investigation to evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of locally applied NRL001 in patients with faecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siproudhis, L; Jones, D; Shing, R Ng Kwet; Walker, D; Scholefield, J H

    2014-03-01

    Faecal incontinence affects up to 8% of adults. Associated social isolation and subsequent depression can have devastating effects on quality of life (QoL). Faecal incontinence is an underreported health problem as the social isolation and stigma that patients experience makes it difficult for sufferers to discuss their condition with a physician. There have been few well-designed, placebo-controlled clinical trials of treatment for faecal incontinence and little clinical evidence is available to inform the most appropriate management strategies. Libertas, a robustly designed study will investigate the efficacy and safety of NRL001 (1R,2S-methoxamine), an α1 -adrenoceptor agonist, in the treatment of faecal incontinence. Libertas is a multicentre, Phase II, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel group study. Patient recruitment took place across 55 study centres in Europe. Patients suffering with faecal incontinence were randomised into four groups (approximately 110 each) to receive once daily self-administered doses of NRL001 (5, 7.5 or 10 mg or placebo in a suppository formulation) for 8 weeks. The primary objective of Libertas is to assess the impact of once daily administration of NRL001 on the severity and frequency of incontinence episodes as assessed by the Wexner score at 4 weeks, compared with placebo. Secondary outcomes include measures of efficacy of NRL001 compared with placebo following 8 weeks treatment; safety and tolerability; evaluation of plasma pharmacokinetics; establishment of any pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship to adverse events; dose-response relationship; the efficacy of NRL001 therapy at 4 and 8 weeks assessed by the Vaizey score; and QoL using the Faecal Incontinence Quality of Life and the EQ-5D-5L Healthcare Questionnaires following 4 and 8 weeks NRL001 therapy. Overall patient satisfaction with the treatment will also be evaluated. This is the first randomised controlled study to investigate the efficacy

  12. Managing neurogenic bowel dysfunction: what do patients prefer? A discrete choice experiment of patient preferences for transanal irrigation and standard bowel management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafees B

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Beenish Nafees,1 Andrew J Lloyd,2 Rachel S Ballinger,2 Anton Emmanuel3 1Health Outcomes Research, Nafees Consulting Limited, London, 2Patient-Reported Outcomes Research, ICON plc, Oxford, 3Department of Gastroenterology and Nutrition, University College Hospital, London, UK Background: Most patients with bowel dysfunction secondary to neurological illness are managed by a range of nonsurgical methods, including dietary changes, laxatives, and suppository use to transanal irrigation (TAI. The aim of the present study was to explore individuals’ preferences regarding TAI devices and furthermore investigate willingness to pay (WTP for attributes in devices in the UK. Methods: A discrete choice experiment survey was conducted to evaluate the patients’ perceived value of TAI devices. Attributes were selected based upon a literature review and input from clinicians. Interviews were conducted with three clinicians and the survey was developed and finalized with the input from both patients and professionals. The final attributes were “risk of urinary tract infections” (UTIs, “risk of fecal incontinence” (FI, “frequency of use”, “time spent on toilet”, “ease of use”, “level of control/independence”, and “cost”. Participants were recruited by a patient panel of TAI device users in the UK. Data were analyzed using the conditional logit model whereby the coefficients obtained from the model provided an estimate of the (log odds ratios (ORs of preference for attributes. WTP was also estimated for each attribute. Results: A total of 129 participants were included in the final analyses. Sixty two percent of the participants had suffered from three UTIs in the preceding year and 58% of patients reported currently experiencing FI using their current device. All attributes were significant predictors of choice. The most important attributes for participants were the “risk of FI”, “frequency of use”, and “risk of UTIs

  13. Upper limb artery segmental occlusions due to chronic use of ergotamine combined with itraconazole, treated by thrombolysis

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    Nodari Franco

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ergotamine tartrate associated with certain categories of drugs can lead to critical ischemia of the extremities. Discontinuation of taking ergotamine is usually sufficient for the total regression of ischemia, but in some cases it could be necessary thrombolytic and anticoagulant therapy to avoid amputation. Case report A woman of 62 years presented with a severe pain left forearm appeared 10 days ago, with a worsening trend. The same symptoms appeared after 5 days also in the right forearm. Physical examination showed the right arm slightly hypothermic, with radial reduced pulse in presence of reduced sensitivity. The left arm was frankly hypothermic, pulse less on radial and with an ulnar humeral reduced pulse, associated to a decreased sensitivity and motility. Clinical history shows a chronic headache for which the patient took a daily basis for years Cafergot suppository (equivalent to 3.2 mg of ergotamine. From about ten days had begun therapy with itraconazole for vaginal candidiasis. The Color-Doppler ultrasound shown arterial thrombosis of the upper limbs (humeral and radial bilateral, with minimal residual flow to the right and no signal on the humeral and radial left artery. Results Angiography revealed progressive reduction in size of the axillary artery and right humeral artery stenosis with right segmental occlusions and multiple hypertrophic collateral circulations at the elbow joint. At the level of the right forearm was recognizable only the radial artery, decreased in size. Does not recognize the ulnar, interosseous artery was thin. To the left showed progressive reduction in size of the distal subclavian and humeral artery, determined by multiple segmental steno-occlusion with collateral vessels serving only a thin hypotrophic interosseous artery. Arteriographic findings were compatible with systemic drug-induced disease. The immediate implementation of thrombolysis, continued for 26 hours, with

  14. Predictive Parameters of Symptomatic Hematochezia Following 5-Fraction Gantry-Based SABR in Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musunuru, Hima Bindu [Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Davidson, Melanie [Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Odette Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Cheung, Patrick; Vesprini, Danny; Liu, Stanley; Chung, Hans; Chu, William [Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Mamedov, Alexandre [Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ravi, Ananth [Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Odette Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); D' Alimonte, Laura [Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Commisso, Kristina [Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Helou, Joelle [Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Deabreu, Andrea [Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Zhang, Liying [MacroStat, Inc, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Loblaw, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.loblaw@sunnybrook.ca [Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Health Policy, Measurement and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-04-01

    Purpose: This study identified predictors of high-grade late hematochezia (HH) following 5-fraction gantry-based stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR). Methods and Materials: Hematochezia data for 258 patients who received 35 to 40 Gy SABR in 5-fractions as part of sequential phase 2 prospective trials was retrieved. Grade 2 or higher late rectal bleeding was labeled HH. Hematochezia needing steroid suppositories, 4% formalin, or 1 to 2 sessions of argon plasma coagulation (APC) was labeled grade 2. More than 2 sessions of APC, blood transfusion, or a course of hyperbaric oxygen was grade 3 and development of visceral fistula, grade 4. Various dosimetric and clinical factors were analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and recursive partitioning analysis were used to determine clinically valid cut-off points and identify risk groups, respectively. Results: HH was observed in 19.4%, grade ≥3 toxicity in 3.1%. Median follow-up was 29.7 months (interquartile range [IQR]: 20.6-61.7) Median time to develop HH was 11.7 months (IQR: 9.0-15.2) from the start of radiation. At 2 years, cumulative HH was 4.9%, 27.2%, and 42.1% in patients who received 35 Gy to prostate (4-mm planning target volume [PTV] margin), 40 Gy to prostate (5-mm PTV margin), and 40 Gy to prostate/seminal vesicles (5-mm PTV margin), respectively (P<.0001). In the ROC analysis, volume of rectum receiving radiation dose of 38 Gy (V38) was a strong predictor of HH with an area under the curve of 0.65. In multivariate analysis, rectal V38 (≥2.0 cm{sup 3}; odds ratio [OR]: 4.7); use of anticoagulants in the follow-up period (OR: 6.5) and presence of hemorrhoids (OR: 2.7) were the strongest predictors. Recursive partitioning analysis showed rectal V38 < 2.0 cm{sup 3}, and use of anticoagulants or rectal V38 ≥ 2.0 cm{sup 3} plus 1 other risk factor resulted in an HH risk of >30%. Conclusions: Rectal V38 and 2

  15. [Necessary and unnecessary treatment options for hemorrhoids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zindel, Joel; Inglin, Roman; Brügger, Lukas

    2014-12-01

    Up to one third of the general population suffers from symptoms caused by hemorrhoids. Conservative treatment comes first unless the patient presents with an acute hemorrhoidal prolapse or a thrombosis. A fiber enriched diet is the primary treatment option, recommended in the perioperative period as well as a long-term prophylaxis. A timely limited application of topical ointments or suppositories and/or flavonoids are further treatment options. When symptoms persist interventional procedures for grade I-II hemorrhoids, and surgery for grade III-IV hemorrhoids should be considered. Rubber band ligation is the interventional treatment of choice. A comparable efficacy using sclerosing or infrared therapy has not yet been demonstrated. We therefore do not recommend these treatment options for the cure of hemorrhoids. Self-treatment by anal insertion of bougies is of lowrisk and may be successful, particularly in the setting of an elevated sphincter pressure. Anal dilation, sphincterotomy, cryosurgery, bipolar diathermy, galvanic electrotherapy, and heat therapy should be regarded as obsolete given the poor or missing data reported for these methods. For a long time, the classic excisional hemorrhoidectomy was considered to be the gold standard as far as surgical procedures are concerned. Primary closure (Ferguson) seems to be superior compared to the "open" version (Milligan Morgan) with respect to postoperative pain and wound healing. The more recently proposed stapled hemorrhoidopexy (Longo) is particularly advisable for circular hemorrhoids. Compared to excisional hemorrhoidectomy the Longo-operation is associated with reduced postoperative pain, shorter operation time and hospital stay as well as a faster recovery, with the disadvantage though of a higher recurrence rate. Data from Hemorrhoidal Artery Ligation (HAL)-, if appropriate in combination with a Recto-Anal Repair (HAL/RAR)-, demonstrates a similar trend towards a better tolerance of the procedure at the

  16. Postoperative Pain After Abdominal Hysterectomy: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial Comparing the Effects of Tramadol and Gabapentin as Premedication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzi, Farnoush; Naderi Nabi, Bahram; Mirmansouri, Ali; Fakoor, Fereshteh; Atrkar Roshan, Zahra; Biazar, Gelareh; Zarei, Tayyebeh

    2016-02-01

    Uncontrolled postoperative pain, characteristic to abdominal hysterectomy, results in multiple complications. One of the methods for controlling postoperative pain is preemptive analgesia. Gabapentin and tramadol are both used for this purpose. This study aims to compare the effects of tramadol and gabapentin, as premedication, in decreasing the pain after hysterectomy. This clinical trial was performed on 120 eligible elective abdominal hysterectomy patients, divided in three groups of 40, receiving tramadol, gabapentin and placebo, respectively. Two hours before the surgery, the first group was given 300 mg gabapentin, the second one was given 100 mg tramadol, while the other group was given placebo, with 50 ml water. After the surgery, in case of visual analog pain scale (VAS) > 3, up to 3 mg of diclofenac suppository would be used. Pain score, nausea, vomiting, sedation, patient's satisfaction and the number of meperidine administered during 24 hours (1 - 4 - 8 - 12 - 16 - 20 - 24 hours) were recorded. If patients had VAS > 3, despite using diclofenac, intravenous meperidine (0.25 mg/kg) would be prescribed. Data were analyzed using SPSS 21 software, chi-square test, general linear model and repeated measurement. The three groups were similar regarding age and length of surgery (up to 2 hours). The average VAS, in the placebo group, was higher than in the other two groups (P = 0.0001) and the average received doses of meperidine during 24-hour time were considerably higher in placebo group, compared to the other two groups (55.62 mg in placebo, 18.75 mg in gabapentin and 17.5 mg in tramadol groups, P = 0.0001). Nausea, vomiting and sedation, in the tramadol group, were higher than in the other two groups, although they were not significant. Patients' dissatisfaction, in the placebo group, during initial hours, especially in the fourth hour, was higher (P = 0.0001). In the gabapentin and tramadol groups, the trend of changes in satisfaction score was similar

  17. [Pierre Famel, his pharmacy, laboratories and pharmaceutical products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patard, Louis

    2010-04-01

    After difficult beginnings as a farm boy in Brittany, and then as a dish-washer at a chemist's in Paris, Pierre Famel (1855-1934) obtained his grammar certificate in 1879 and then his 2nd class chemist diploma from the Ecole de pharmacie de Paris in 1885. He was employed by the Laboratoire municipal de la Ville de Paris as an expert chemist. In 1886 he set himself up in a pharmacy at 86, rue de la Réunion, in Paris, known as the Pharmacie Famel. In 1912 he created the Laboratoires Famel for the manufacture of pharmaceutical products with sales representation in several European, North and South American as well as Canadian cities. He marketed among other things Famel Syrup, Famel suppositories, Langlebert glycophosphated wine, Sulfogène Famel and Optraex. The Famel firm obtained several awards at Exhibitions in France and elsewhere. On the death of Pierre Famel, the dispensary was sold, while his daughter and his granddaughter formed a partnership to manage the Laboratories. They still exist today as a finance company, the main activity of which is the management of its heritage. Pierre Famel was a foreign trade adviser, a vice-president of the Franco-Czechoslovakian and Franco-Iranian Chambers of Commerce. He created a prize for commercial attachés, as well as annual fellowships for students from foreign medical faculties. He was a sponsor of several youth clubs and charitable organizations, as well as a member of several Breton associations. He was the President of the Society of the Friends of the Pharmacology Faculty in Paris as well as the founder of the Museum devoted to Henri Moissan, the first French winner of the Nobel Price in Chemistry, who was for him a guide and a teacher in his early life and studies. He was a Commander of the Legion of Honour (1925) and was awarded the Gold Medal of foreign trade (1933). Also briefly mentioned are his wife, Marie Famel, an enamel painter, his daughter Yvonne Famel, and his son-in-law, Sylvain Rosengart, with whom

  18. A retrospective study of external beam radiation, neutron brachytherapy, and concurrent chemotherapy for patients with localized advanced carcinoma of the esophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Kai; Wang, Qifeng; Li, Tao; Liu, Huiming; Liu, Bo; Jia, Xitang; Li, Shufeng; Lang, Junyuan; Zhang, Mingzhi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively observe and analyze the long-term treatment outcomes of a total of 140 esophageal cancer patients who were treated with californium-252 ( 252 Cf) neutron brachytherapy (NBT) in combination with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and concurrent chemotherapy (CCT). From January 2002 to November 2012, 140 patients with esophageal cancer underwent NBT in combination with EBRT and CCT. The distribution of the patient numbers over the various cancer stages of IIA, IIB, and III were 43, 7, and 90, respectively. The total radiation dose to the reference point via NBT was 8–25 Gy-eq in two to five fractions with one fraction per week. The total dose via EBRT was 50–60 Gy, which was delivered over a period of five to six weeks with normal fractionation. Fifty-four and 86 patients received tegafur suppositories (TS) and continuous infusion of fluorouracil (5-Fu) with cisplatin (CDDP), respectively. The median follow-up time was 42 months. The minimum follow-up was three months, and the maximum was 106 months. The overall median survival including death from all causes was 29.5 months. The five-year overall survival rate (OS) and local control (LC) were 33.4% and 55.9%, respectively. The chemotherapy regimen was a factor that was significantly associated with OS (p = 0.025) according to univariate analysis. The five-year OSs were 27.4% and 44.3% for the PF and TS chemotherapy regimens, respectively. Regarding acute toxicity, no incidences of fistula or massive bleeding were observed during this treatment period. The incidence of severe, late complications was related to the PF chemotherapy regimen (p = 0.080). The clinical data indicated that NBT in combination with EBRT and CRT produced favorable local control and long-term survival rates for patients with esophageal cancer and that the side effects were tolerable. A reasonable CRT regimen can decrease the rate of severe, late complications

  19. UV spectrophotometry of the Metronidazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Panasenko

    2013-10-01

    range 228-230 nm and 276-332 nm in specifying solvents. Quantitative determination methods of Metronidazole in the substance (water and 95% ethanol at 230 nm, 0,5% solution for infusion (water at 230 nm and vaginal suppositories of 0,1 g (water at 230 nm have been developed and proposed. The error in the determination of metronidazole in the substance did not exceed ± 0,03, and in dosage forms - ± 0,05.

  20. Population Pharmacokinetics of Artesunate and Dihydroartemisinin following Intra-Rectal Dosing of Artesunate in Malaria Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Julie A; Agbenyega, Tsiri; Barnes, Karen I; Perri, Gianni Di; Folb, Peter; Gomes, Melba; Krishna, Sanjeev; Krudsood, Srivicha; Looareesuwan, Sornchai; Mansor, Sharif; McIlleron, Helen; Miller, Raymond; Molyneux, Malcolm; Mwenechanya, James; Navaratnam, Visweswaran; Nosten, Francois; Olliaro, Piero; Pang, Lorrin; Ribeiro, Isabela; Tembo, Madalitso; van Vugt, Michele; Ward, Steve; Weerasuriya, Kris; Win, Kyaw; White, Nicholas J

    2006-01-01

    Background Intra-rectal artesunate has been developed as a potentially life-saving treatment of severe malaria in rural village settings where administration of parenteral antimalarial drugs is not possible. We studied the population pharmacokinetics of intra-rectal artesunate and the relationship with parasitological responses in patients with moderately severe falciparum malaria. Methods and Findings Adults and children in Africa and Southeast Asia with moderately severe malaria were recruited in two Phase II studies (12 adults from Southeast Asia and 11 children from Africa) with intensive sampling protocols, and three Phase III studies (44 children from Southeast Asia, and 86 children and 26 adults from Africa) with sparse sampling. All patients received 10 mg/kg artesunate as a single intra-rectal dose of suppositories. Venous blood samples were taken during a period of 24 h following dosing. Plasma artesunate and dihydroartemisinin (DHA, the main biologically active metabolite) concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. The pharmacokinetic properties of DHA were determined using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling. Artesunate is rapidly hydrolysed in vivo to DHA, and this contributes the majority of antimalarial activity. For DHA, a one-compartment model assuming complete conversion from artesunate and first-order appearance and elimination kinetics gave the best fit to the data. The mean population estimate of apparent clearance (CL/F) was 2.64 (l/kg/h) with 66% inter-individual variability. The apparent volume of distribution (V/F) was 2.75 (l/kg) with 96% inter-individual variability. The estimated DHA population mean elimination half-life was 43 min. Gender was associated with increased mean CL/F by 1.14 (95% CI: 0.36–1.92) (l/kg/h) for a male compared with a female, and weight was positively associated with V/F. Larger V/Fs were observed for the patients requiring early rescue treatment compared

  1. Role of traditional healers in the management of severe malaria among children below five years of age: the case of Kilosa and Handeni Districts, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitua Andrew Y

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current malaria control strategy of WHO centres on early diagnosis and prompt treatment using effective drugs. Children with severe malaria are often brought late to health facilities and traditional health practitioners are said to be the main cause of treatment delay. In the context of the Rectal Artesunate Project in Tanzania, the role of traditional healers in the management of severe malaria in children was studied. Methodology A community cross-sectional study was conducted in Kilosa and Handeni Districts, involving four villages selected on the basis of existing statistics on the number of traditional health practitioners involved in the management of severe malaria. A total of 41 traditional health practitioners were selected using the snowballing technique, whereby in-depth interviews were used to collect information. Eight Focus Group Discussions (FGDs involving traditional health practitioners, caregivers and community leaders were carried out in each district. Results Home management of fever involving sponging or washing with warm water at the household level, was widely practiced by caregivers. One important finding was that traditional health practitioners and mothers were not linking the local illness termed degedege, a prominent feature in severe malaria, to biomedically-defined malaria. The majority of mothers (75% considered degedege to be caused by evil spirits. The healing process was therefore organized in stages and failure to abide to the procedure could lead to relapse of degedege, which was believed to be caused by evil spirits. Treatment seeking was, therefore, a complex process and mothers would consult traditional health practitioners and modern health care providers, back and forth. Referrals to health facilities increased during the Rectal Artesunate Project, whereby project staff facilitated the process after traditional medical care with the provision of suppositories. This finding is

  2. Population pharmacokinetics of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin following intra-rectal dosing of artesunate in malaria patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Simpson

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Intra-rectal artesunate has been developed as a potentially life-saving treatment of severe malaria in rural village settings where administration of parenteral antimalarial drugs is not possible. We studied the population pharmacokinetics of intra-rectal artesunate and the relationship with parasitological responses in patients with moderately severe falciparum malaria.Adults and children in Africa and Southeast Asia with moderately severe malaria were recruited in two Phase II studies (12 adults from Southeast Asia and 11 children from Africa with intensive sampling protocols, and three Phase III studies (44 children from Southeast Asia, and 86 children and 26 adults from Africa with sparse sampling. All patients received 10 mg/kg artesunate as a single intra-rectal dose of suppositories. Venous blood samples were taken during a period of 24 h following dosing. Plasma artesunate and dihydroartemisinin (DHA, the main biologically active metabolite concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. The pharmacokinetic properties of DHA were determined using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling. Artesunate is rapidly hydrolysed in vivo to DHA, and this contributes the majority of antimalarial activity. For DHA, a one-compartment model assuming complete conversion from artesunate and first-order appearance and elimination kinetics gave the best fit to the data. The mean population estimate of apparent clearance (CL/F was 2.64 (l/kg/h with 66% inter-individual variability. The apparent volume of distribution (V/F was 2.75 (l/kg with 96% inter-individual variability. The estimated DHA population mean elimination half-life was 43 min. Gender was associated with increased mean CL/F by 1.14 (95% CI: 0.36-1.92 (l/kg/h for a male compared with a female, and weight was positively associated with V/F. Larger V/Fs were observed for the patients requiring early rescue treatment compared with the remainder

  3. Prophylactic use of laxative for constipation in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masri Yasser

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : This study was designed to evaluate the use of laxative prophylaxis for constipation in intensive care unit (ICU and the impact of early versus late bowel movement on patient′s outcome. Methods : The study was a prospective, randomized controlled trial in critically ill ventilated adult patients, who were expected to stay on ventilator for >72 h. Control group did not receive any intervention for bowel movement for the first 72 h, whereas interventional group received prophylactic dose of lactulose 20 cc enterally every 12 h for the first 72 h. The parameters measured during the study were admission diagnosis, age, gender, comorbid conditions, admission Simplified Acute Physiologic Score (SAPS II, sedative and narcotic agents with doses and duration, timing and tolerance of nutrition, daily assessment of bowel movement, total use of prokinetic, doses of suppositories, and enema for first bowel movement, total number of days on ventilator, weaning failures, extubation or tracheostomy, ICU length of stay, and death or discharge. Results : A total of 100 patients were enrolled, 50 patients in each control and interventional group. Mean age was 38.8 years, and both groups had male predominance. Mean SAPS II score for both was 35. Mean dose of Fentanyl (323.8 ± 108.89 mcg/h in control and 345.83 ± 94.43 mcg/h in interventional group and mean dose of Midazolam (11.1 ± 4.04 mg/h in control and 12.4 ± 3.19 mg/h in interventional group. There were only two (4% patients in control, while nine (18% patients in interventional group who had bowel movement in <72 h (P < 0.05. Mean ventilator days were 16.19, and 17.36 days in control and interventional groups, respectively. Subgroup analysis showed that the patients who moved bowel in <5 days in both groups had mean ventilator days of 18.5, whereas it was 15.88 days for the patients who moved bowel after 5 days in both groups (P< 0.05. Mean ICU days for control was 21.15 ± 10.44 and 20

  4. THE RATIONALE FOR ALPHA-INTERFERON IMMUNOTHERAPY IN INFANTS WITH FUNCTIONAL GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS AND ACUTE INVASIVE INTESTINAL INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Meskina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute intestinal  infections  in children are a considerable  medical and social problem  worldwide. Immune therapy  could  help  to reduce the frequency of post-infectious functional intestinal dysfunction  in patients  with comorbidities. Aim: To evaluate  the  efficacy of human  recombinant interferon  alpha-2b, administered at acute  phase  of an acute  invasive intestinal  infection to infants in the first months  of age, suffering from functional  bowel  disorders. Materials and methods: This  was  an  open-label,  randomized (envelope method, prospective  study in two parallel groups. The study included  59 infants of the  first months  of life, who were breastfed, had a history of intestinal  dysfunction  and were hospitalized  to  an  infectious  department. We studied  efficacy of recombinant interferon  alpha-2b administered in rectal suppositories  at a dose  of   chromatography with measurement of short-chain fatty acids. Results: Standard treatment was ineffective in 63.3% (95% CI 43.9–80.0% of patients. Administration   of  interferon   alpha-2b   reduced the rate of treatment failure by day 14 to 32% (95% CI 9–56% and  the  risk of persistent  diarrhea  for more than  one month  to 29% (95% CI 5–53%. In those patients  who were administered interferon, inflammation at days 25 to 55 was less severe and the levels of i-forms of short-chain fatty acids were lower. Conclusion: Immunotherapy with recombinant interferon alpha-2b seems to be a promising way to improve  combination treatment of acute invasive intestinal infections in infants with a history of intestinal dysfunction, as it reduces the risk of post-infectious intestinal disorders.

  5. Vaginal progesterone combined with cervical pessary: A chance for pregnancies at risk for preterm birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Nathanael; Timmesfeld, Nina; Kyvernitakis, Ioannis; Goerges, Janina; Arabin, Birgit

    2016-06-01

    Precocious cervical ripening, as defined by cervical shortening on transvaginal sonography, has prompted a broad evaluation of secondary strategies (such as cerclage, vaginal progesterone, or a cervical pessary) to prevent preterm delivery. However, there is still a lack of direct comparisons between individual treatments or their combinations. We sought to compare at-risk patients and screening patients who had been treated with cervical pessary alone with patients who had been treated with pessary plus vaginal progesterone. This is a pre- and postintervention cohort study from a preterm labor clinic where placement of a cervical pessary has been the standard treatment since 2008 for at-risk women defined by (1) a history of spontaneous preterm birth at suppositories) was prescribed in addition to the pessary. Both at-risk patients (n = 55) and screening patients (n = 51) were treated at the time of diagnosis. The primary outcome was the rate of preterm deliveries at <34 weeks of gestation. Secondary outcomes included deliveries at <28, <32, and <37 weeks of gestation, the days from start of therapy until delivery, a composite index of neonatal outcome, and the number of days in the neonatal intensive care unit. Primary and secondary outcomes were compared between groups with the use of multivariable models to adjust for possible confounders. Delivery at <34 weeks of gestation occurred in 17 of 53 patients (32.1%) who were treated with pessary plus progesterone, compared with 13 of 53 patients (24.5%) who were treated with pessary alone (P = .57). Similarly, there was no difference in the rate of preterm delivery at <28, <32, or <37 weeks of gestation. The composite poor neonatal outcome was 15.1% in the pessary group vs 18.9% in the combined group (P = .96). The mean duration of stay in the neonatal intensive care unit was 46.5 days (range, 9-130 days) in the combined vs 52.0 days (range, 3-151 days) in the pessary group (P < .001). In this cohort study

  6. Population pharmacokinetics of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin following intra-rectal dosing of artesunate in malaria patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Julie A; Agbenyega, Tsiri; Barnes, Karen I; Di Perri, Gianni; Folb, Peter; Gomes, Melba; Krishna, Sanjeev; Krudsood, Srivicha; Looareesuwan, Sornchai; Mansor, Sharif; McIlleron, Helen; Miller, Raymond; Molyneux, Malcolm; Mwenechanya, James; Navaratnam, Visweswaran; Nosten, Francois; Olliaro, Piero; Pang, Lorrin; Ribeiro, Isabela; Tembo, Madalitso; van Vugt, Michele; Ward, Steve; Weerasuriya, Kris; Win, Kyaw; White, Nicholas J

    2006-11-01

    Intra-rectal artesunate has been developed as a potentially life-saving treatment of severe malaria in rural village settings where administration of parenteral antimalarial drugs is not possible. We studied the population pharmacokinetics of intra-rectal artesunate and the relationship with parasitological responses in patients with moderately severe falciparum malaria. Adults and children in Africa and Southeast Asia with moderately severe malaria were recruited in two Phase II studies (12 adults from Southeast Asia and 11 children from Africa) with intensive sampling protocols, and three Phase III studies (44 children from Southeast Asia, and 86 children and 26 adults from Africa) with sparse sampling. All patients received 10 mg/kg artesunate as a single intra-rectal dose of suppositories. Venous blood samples were taken during a period of 24 h following dosing. Plasma artesunate and dihydroartemisinin (DHA, the main biologically active metabolite) concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. The pharmacokinetic properties of DHA were determined using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling. Artesunate is rapidly hydrolysed in vivo to DHA, and this contributes the majority of antimalarial activity. For DHA, a one-compartment model assuming complete conversion from artesunate and first-order appearance and elimination kinetics gave the best fit to the data. The mean population estimate of apparent clearance (CL/F) was 2.64 (l/kg/h) with 66% inter-individual variability. The apparent volume of distribution (V/F) was 2.75 (l/kg) with 96% inter-individual variability. The estimated DHA population mean elimination half-life was 43 min. Gender was associated with increased mean CL/F by 1.14 (95% CI: 0.36-1.92) (l/kg/h) for a male compared with a female, and weight was positively associated with V/F. Larger V/Fs were observed for the patients requiring early rescue treatment compared with the remainder, independent

  7. Hirschsprung's disease: problems with transition-zone pull-through.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, S I; Squire, B R; Stringer, M D; Batcup, G; Crabbe, D C

    2000-12-01

    It is generally accepted that if surgery for Hirschsprung's disease is to be successful, ganglionic bowel must be anastomosed to the lower rectum or anal canal. Above the aganglionic distal bowel lies a transition zone (TZ) where more subtle abnormalities of innervation are apparent. The significance of this transition zone in respect to the functional outcome of surgery has received little attention. The aim of this study was to identify the incidence of transition zone pull-through (TZPT) in a cohort of children who underwent surgery for Hirschsprung's disease, to identify the reasons why TZPTs occurred, and to identify the functional consequences. The authors report the long-term outcome of these children with emphasis on bowel function and the results of subsequent surgery. A Retrospective study was conducted of children treated at a single institution from 1979 through 1994. TZPT patients were subject to detailed review of surgical records and histopathologic material. Thirteen children were identified with a TZPT. In 12 cases, histopathologic errors contributed to the TZPT: in 5 cases this was caused by single point biopsies missing an asymmetrical TZ, whereas in 7 cases the histopathologic features of the TZ were not recognized. In 1 case the TZPT was caused by surgical error. As a consequence of the TZPT 7 children underwent repeat pull-through. One child is fully continent, one has daytime fecal continence, and 2 others are incontinent. Two children have permanent stomas. One child is clean with antegrade colonic washouts. Repeat pull-throughs were not attempted in 6 children. Two children have achieved full continence, 2 have permanent stomas, 1 is clean with antegrade colonic washouts, and 1 child receives regular suppositories. Transition zone pull-throughs occurred because of a combination of surgical and histopathologic errors. The transition zone may follow an asymmetric course around the circumference of the bowel and may be missed if single

  8. [Current status of and prospects for contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzolari, E; Parisi, C

    1989-01-01

    It is estimated that at the current rate of growth the world's population will reach 8.5 billion by the year 2025 and 10-11 billion by the end of the 21st century. 90% of this population increase would occur in developing countries, where only 38% of couples used contraceptives during 1980-81 compared to 68% in developed countries. About 300 million couples in the Third World do not use contraceptives, although they do not want more children. Some of these contraceptives include natural steroids, such as progesterone and 17 beta-estradiol that is used for treatment of menopause (1-2 mg daily po). Medroxyprogesterone acetate and norethisterone enanthate depot injections have long-acting properties with low failure rates (3.6% + 0.7 pregnancies/100 women years) if given every 3 months, amenorrhea may occur. RU-486, substance with antiprogesterone activity, inhibits hormonal metabolism during ovulation in a dose of 100 mg/day, just like norgestimate. HRP 102 consists of 50 mg norethisterone enanthate and 5 mg estradiol valerate and cycloprovera contains 25 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate with 5 mg of estradiol cypionate. Both of these agents are effective contraceptives for 2 months. Norplant is implanted subcutaneously in capsule forms. It releases levonorgestrel/LNG for 6-7 years, and in a study of 992 women 2.6 pregnancies occurred for 100 women in the course of 5 years. Vaginal suppositories can release 20 mg/day LNG, or 5-10 mg progesterone/day, and they are considered ideal for nursing mothers. The IUD has been used by 60 million women, however, pelvic inflammatory disease may be associated with its use. Sulprostone and RU-486 (mifepristone) are post ovulatory agents with effectiveness of up to 90 day. Female sterilization has problems of reversibility, male sterilization is less accepted, and other male endocrine approaches producing azoospermia are in the testing phase. The ideal contraceptive with properties of wide acceptability, reversibility, and

  9. Stated product formulation preferences for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among women in the VOICE-D (MTN-003D) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecke, Ellen H; Cheng, Helen; Woeber, Kubashni; Nakyanzi, Teopista; Mudekunye-Mahaka, Imelda C; van der Straten, Ariane

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) requires consistent and correct product use, thus a deeper understanding of women's stated product formulation preferences, and the correlates of those preferences, can help guide future research. VOICE-D (MTN-003D), a qualitative ancillary study conducted after the VOICE trial, retrospectively explored participants' tablet and gel use, as well as their preferences for other potential PrEP product formulations. We conducted an analysis of quantitative and qualitative data from VOICE-D participants. During in-depth interviews, women were presented with pictures and descriptions of eight potential PrEP product formulations, including the oral tablet and vaginal gel tested in VOICE, and asked to discuss which product formulations they would prefer to use and why. Seven of the original product formulations displayed were combined into preferred product formulation categories based on exploratory factor and latent class analyses. We examined demographic and behavioural correlates of these preferred product formulation categories. In-depth interviews with participants were conducted, coded, and analysed for themes related to product preference. Of the 68 female participants who completed in-depth interviews (22 South Africa, 24 Zimbabwe, 22 Uganda), median age was 28 (range 21-41), 81% were HIV negative, and 49% were married or living with a partner. Four preferred product formulation categories were identified via exploratory factor analysis: 1) oral tablets; 2) vaginal gel; 3) injectable, implant, or vaginal ring; and 4) vaginal film or suppository. A majority of women (81%) expressed a preference for product formulations included in category 3. Characteristics significantly associated with each preferred product category differed. Attributes described by participants as being important in a preferred product formulation included duration of activity, ease of use, route of administration, clinic- versus self

  10. Spread of tetracycline resistance genes at a conventional dairy farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina eKyselkova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics in animal husbandry contributes to the worldwide problem of increasing antibiotic resistance in animal and human pathogens. Intensive animal production is considered an important source of antibiotic resistance genes released to the environment, while the contribution of smaller farms remains to be evaluated. Here we monitor the spread of tetracycline resistance (TC-r genes at a middle-size conventional dairy farm, where chlortetracycline (CTC, as intrauterine suppository is prophylactically used after each calving. Our study has shown that animals at the farm acquired the TC-r genes in their early age (1-2 weeks, likely due to colonization with TC-resistant bacteria from their mothers and/or the farm environment. The relative abundance of the TC-r genes tet(W, tet(Q and tet(M in fresh excrements of calves was about 1-2 orders of magnitude higher compared to heifers and dairy cows, possibly due to the presence of antibiotic residues in milk fed to calves. The occurrence and abundance of TC-r genes in fresh excrements of heifers and adult cows remained unaffected by intrauterine CTC applications, with tet(O, tet(Q and tet(W representing a ‘core TC-resistome’ of the farm, and tet(A, tet(M, tet(Y and tet(X occurring occasionally. The genes tet(A, tet(M, tet(Y and tet(X were shown to be respectively harbored by Shigella, Lactobacillus and Clostridium, Acinetobacter, and Wautersiella. Soil in the farm proximity, as well as field soil to which manure from the farm was applied, was contaminated with TC-r genes occurring in the farm, and some of the TC-r genes persisted in the field over 3 months following the manure application. Concluding, our study shows that antibiotic resistance genes may be a stable part of the intestinal metagenome of cattle even if antibiotics are not used for growth stimulation, and that smaller dairy farms may also contribute to environmental pollution with antibiotic resistance genes.

  11. [Academic discussion of adverse reaction of clinical trials of new traditional Chinese medicines and relevant influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-ping; Yu, Ming; Wang, Li; Jiang, Xi-ren; Li, Xiao-bin; Wang, Hua-wei; Cao, Ying; Liu, Kai; Huang, Lu-qi

    2015-01-01

    Data of clinical trial projects involved by clinical trial institutions certified by the State Food and Drug Administration from 2002 to November 2012 were collected to summarize adverse reactions in project summary/statistical reports, analyze the rate of adverse reactions of clinical trials of new traditional Chinese medicines and relevant influencing factors, and increase the awareness of the safety of new traditional Chinese medicines. A total of 73 050 cases in 209 projects of 14 specialties were collected, including 49 689 cases in the new traditional Chinese medicine group and 271 adverse reaction cases, with an incidence rate of adverse reactions at 0.55%. The adverse reaction rate in 3 months 0.63% for injection > 0.50% for oral. In the administration of only the test drug, the adverse reaction rate of patches was the highest (2.68%), whereas that of aerosols and suppositories was lowest (0). In the combined administration of the test drug and the simulation agent, the adverse reaction rate of external test patch + capsule was the highest (3.38%), whereas that of capsule + oral liquid, pills + granules, tablets + oral liquid, tablets + pills, tablet + capsule was the lowest (0). In the administration of only the test drug, the adverse reaction rate was 0.47%; In the combined administration with simulation agent (drug volume increase), the adverse reaction rate was 0.74%. Different doses caused adverse reaction different rates; The adverse reaction rate of drugs with whole-course dose between 1 100-1 200 g was the highest (3.36%), that for whole-course doses of 500-600, 900-1 000, 1 400-1 500, 1 600-1 700, 1 800-1 900 g was the lowest (0). In conclusion, the adverse reaction rate of new traditional Chinese medicines was still up to 0.55%, with the adverse reaction rate between 0.47% and 0.72% over the 11 years, without significant difference in each year. The adverse reaction rate was closely related to course of treatment, approach of administration

  12. Application of radionuclide imaging in grading and therapeutic evaluation in patients with fallopian tube dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhixiang; Zhang Yanhua; Li Guangzhou; Zhang Peisen; Xie Hai; Sun Tao; Ren Chun'e; Zhang Shizhuang; Jiang Aifang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To observe the conception status of patients with fallopian tube dysfunction after medical treatment and to guide treatment strategy for patients with different degrees of tubal injury by radionuclide imaging. Methods Six hundred and two patients with at least one side of patent fallopian tube underwent modified fallopian tube radionuclide imaging. The patients were graded as: mild, moderate or severe injury, non-functioning or tubal obstruction. The conception status was analyzed after medical treatment, including abdominal hot pack with Chinese medicine, oral intake of Guizhi tuckahoe capsules,and Kangfu anti-inflammatory anal suppository. The constituent ratios of conception in different groups were compared using χ 2 test and the curative and effective rates were calculated. Results: After 1-6 cycles of medical treatment,patients with fallopian tube dysfunction had a curative rate of 29.5% (46/156) and effective rate of 71.8% (112/156). There was a statistically significant difference among the different degrees of oviduct injury (χ 2 =166.4, P<0.05). After medical treatment,the natural pregnancy rate for patients with bilateral mild, moderate and severe injury was 52.6% (102/194), 42.6% (46/108) and 13.8% (16/116), respectively. The rate for patients with one side of normal tubal function was 78.3% (144/184), which was significantly higher than that of patients with bilateral mild, moderate and severe injury (χ 2 =37.86, 52.09 and 121.71, all P<0.05). The natural pregnancy rates of both mild and moderate injury groups were significantly different from the severe injury group (χ 2 =67.29, 42.82, both P<0.05), but there was no difference between the mild and moderate injury groups (χ 2 =3.29, P>0.05). In the severe injury group, 32.8% (38/116) patients were naturally infertile after the medical treatment, while 53.4% (62/116) patients underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF) and 51.6% (32/62) of them succeeded in pregnancy. Conclusions: The natural

  13. An effective method of handling PRN orders to reduce labor and improve efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, G K; Poe, W D

    1990-11-01

    Rex Hospital, Raleigh, NC, found its method of PRN (unit dose) medication delivery to be time consuming, labor intensive, and repetitive. Thus, it was decided to evaluate this system and to find a more efficient method of PRN delivery. A 24 hour supply of unit dose medication is delivered daily using a cart exchange system at this hospital. Three approaches were used to reduce the handling of PRN medications: (1) Removing all PRN orders of Milk of Magnesia, cascara, and mineral oil from the patient drawer. These three medications are now floor stock items at each nursing station; (2) Removing all PRN orders of 325 mg aspirin and acetaminophen tablets, 600 mg aspirin, and 650 mg acetaminophen suppositories. These items are now kept at the nurses station as a "no charge" floor stock item; and (3) Using zip-lock bags for all other non-controlled PRN medication orders. A 48 hour supply of medication is sent upon receipt of the original order, and not filled again until the empty bag is returned to the pharmacy. The plastic bag is identified by a computer generated label containing the patient's name, room number, and medication identification. The patient medication drawer is divided into two areas, one for storing standing medication orders and one for PRN orders. A time study showed a 40% improvement in cart filling time. The 48 hour supply of PRN medications rarely need refilling. Milk of Magnesia, cascara, and mineral oil PRN orders are often ordered, but seldom used. Thus, floor stocking these items has not been a problem. Floor stocking aspirin and acetaminophen as no charge items has been very successful. All medication orders, including aspirin, acetaminophen, Milk of Magnesia, and so forth are entered onto the patient's medication profile even though they are not sent from the pharmacy. Drug allergies or drug-drug interactions can be detected by reviewing the patient profile when the original order is entered onto the profile. Nursing is very pleased with the

  14. [Parental representations of children's cough and expectations on its management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventaja, G; Steyer, E; Machu, J-L; Boivin, J-M

    2016-04-01

    Providing medications for the management of acute cough in infants less than 24 months, a frequent reason for medical consultation, has recently been reduced by the contraindication of various antitussive specialties in France. The objective of this study was to assess the expectations and fears of coughing infants' parents, to determine their representations of coughing, and to quantify the use of self-medication and the risk of a deferral requests to prescribe other drug classes. An opinion and cross-survey was carried out with parents of infants under 24 months of age. A multiple-choice questionnaire was proposed to them in day care centers and Mother and Infant Welfare centers. The data collected were analyzed descriptively and using the Chi(2) test. Logistic regression enabled us to interpret some of the results. Sixty-four percent of parents expect an antitussive treatment from the doctor. For most parents, lifestyle modifications are well integrated (nasal irrigation, considered effective cough relief, hydration, smoking cessation). For 33 % of parents, corticosteroids are an alternative therapy to stop cough. Nearly half (43 %) of parents have sought treatment from their doctor, usually nasal suspensions, corticosteroids, and saline irrigation. Regarding self-medication, 30 % of parents have already given cough syrup or an antitussive suppository without a prescription, in order to stop the cough rapidly for 66 % of them. These parents seem more worried by coughing than other parents (P=0.0110, CI: 0.217; 1.751) as did those who had only one child (P=0.0029, CI: 0.120; 0.582). This study suggests that a large majority of parents understand and accept the new recommendations. But one-third of parents are still worried, not knowing what to do without prescribed medications, which led them to give nonprescription cough syrups and ask for inappropriate treatments. It seems essential to inform parents about the natural history of infant coughing and educate them

  15. [PROFAMILIA studies the effectiveness of contraceptive marketing programs in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    A recent study by PROFAMILIA, the private Colombian family planning organization, indicates that community based distribution programs and social marketing programs are not totally interchangeable forms of contraceptive distribution. Comparison of the efficacy of different systems in making contraceptives more accessible to the low income population led the researchers to conclude that social marketing programs work as well as community based distribution programs in rural areas which already have high rates of contraceptive usage. Community based distribution programs appear more effective than social marketing programs in areas where contraceptive usage is not yet well established. PROFAMILIA researchers conducted operational studies in 3 different states, each of which had a community based distribution program. In the first state the community based distribution program was suspended and a vender who had previously supplied only urban outlets added rural pharmacies to his route. The vender handled 3 kinds of pills, 2 types of spermicidal suppositories, and condoms. In a neighboring state, 3 instructors belonging to the community based distribution program were offered commissions of about 10% of the value of the products if the distributors they supervised met monthly sales quotas. The community based distribution program was left unchanged in the third state but a 2-member mobile team was trained to travel through the region by jeep, talking to community groups about the advantage of contraception. At the end of 18 months, sales of contraceptives had declined in the state where the community based distribution program was replaced by the social marketing program. The decline was believed to be related to unforeseen price increases for pills and devaluation of the Colombian peso. The social marketing project was however much more cost effective than the other 2, which continued to require PROFAMILIA subsidies. Contraceptive usage increased in the other 2 areas

  16. Medical practice in the ancient Asclepeion in Kos island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironidou-Tzouveleki, Maria; Tzitzis, Panagiotis M

    2014-01-01

    Asclepius was called "a great doctor for every disease". Asclepius was born in Trikala, Thessaly, in the middle of Greece, where the first Asclepeion was established. Patients coming to the Asclepeia were first taking cleaning baths and then entered the main Asclepeion, where they were examined by priests-therapists and were accommodated in certain areas-rooms of the Asclepeion. Inscriptions found in marble plaques describe treatment of some diseases and the sum of money paid for every treatment. These were the first medical records and fees in ancient Greece. Patients were considered as a unique psychosomatic entity. Patients followed many instructions in order to relax and rest, submitted daily baths, exercises, massages, entertainment attending theatrical or poetic or athletic races, reading special books, promenades, special diets or were kept fasting and were instructed to take many kinds of medicine per os, suppositories, ointments, eye drops etc. The main diseases treated in the Asclepeia were: chronic neuropsychological disorders, skin diseases and chronic lung diseases. Other diseases gynaecological, ophthalmic and surgical were also treated. Today, like in the ancient Asclepeia, the psychology of patients is important and certain preparatory drugs are administered before the actual main treatment of surgery or of some psychic disorders. In Aalborg, Denmark, a large prototype medical university hospital, is scheduled to be built in an area of 350acres within the next 15 years. The psychosomatic dogma and principals of a "green building" will be well respected. The Asclepeion of the island of Kos, where as we know Hippocrates was born, was built on the 5th century B.C. and functioned till the 4th century A.D. and had three floors. The Asclepeion had many dedications, of which many parts of the human body in marble: an ear, a damaged penis and two breasts. Surgical tools were also found and are now exhibited in the Dion Museum. After the 4th century A.D. the

  17. A arte de curar dos profissionais de saúde popular em tempo de cólera: Grão-Pará do século XIX The curative art of specialists in folk medicine in times of cholera: 19th century Grão-Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Felipe Beltrão

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Durante a epidemia de cólera que assolou o Grão-Pará, em 1855, pouco mais de uma dezena de anônimos profissionais de saúde popular inscreveram suas artes de curar nos anais da história. As terapias não eram muitas, mas foram disseminadas nos jornais provinciais ou pela forte tradição oral presente na Amazônia. Uma dessas terapias - o uso do sumo de limão - chegou a ser avalizada pelos médicos da província como cientificamente correta. Os homens que "não eram médicos, nem cirurgiões" usavam ervas e frutos medicinais preparados em sumos, infusões, banhos, emplastos e supositórios, rompendo as fronteiras estabelecidas pela arte oficial de curar, a medicina alopática, que tentava estabelecer-se hegemonicamente. Descrevo a trilha da cólera até o Grão-Pará e analiso o contexto social da epidemia; os conhecimentos sobre a cólera: as possibilidades de socorro oferecidas à população e as práticas curativas então adotadas.During the cholera epidemics that affected the Grão-Pará Province in 1855, not more than ten anonymous public health professionals registered in history their curing powers as they relieved cholera victims. There were not too many therapies, but they were publicized in letters printed in local newspapers. The therapeutical powers of alternative medicine was disseminated throughout the Amazon thanks to the strong oral history tradition. One of such therapies - the usage of lemon juice - was adopted by medical doctors in the Province and later on scientifically accredited. Citizens who "were not doctors, nor surgeons" used medicinal herbs and fruits to prepare juices, infusions, baths, plasters and suppositories. They went over the limits established by the official medicine, allopathy, which acted hegemonically. The article describes the path that cholera traveled to reach Grão-Pará and the ensuing scourge of Belém. Data are presented on mortality, the social context of the event, health-care knowledge

  18. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) for prevention or treatment of pain in newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Arne; Shah, Prakeshkumar S

    2016-10-07

    conditions, the use of paracetamol and comparison interventions and the outcome measures differed. Paracetamol compared with water, cherry elixir or EMLA cream (eutectic mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine) did not significantly reduce pain following heel lance. The Premature Infant Pain Profile score (PIPP) within three minutes following lancing was higher in the paracetamol group than in the oral glucose group (mean difference (MD) 2.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72 to 3.70; one study, 38 infants). Paracetamol did not reduce "modified facies scores" after assisted vaginal birth (one study, 119 infants). In another study (n = 123), the Échelle de Douleur et d'Inconfort du Nouveau-Né score at two hours of age was significantly higher in the group that received paracetamol suppositories than in the placebo suppositories group (MD 1.00, 95% CI 0.60 to 1.40). In that study, when infants were subjected to a heel lance at two to three days of age, Bernese Pain Scale for Neonates scores were higher in the paracetamol group than in the placebo group, and infants spent a longer time crying (MD 19 seconds, 95% CI 14 to 24). For eye examinations, no significant reduction in PIPP scores in the first or last 45 seconds of eye examination was reported, nor at five minutes after the eye examination. In one study (n = 81), the PIPP score was significantly higher in the paracetamol group than in the 24% sucrose group (MD 3.90, 95% CI 2.92 to 4.88). In one study (n = 114) the PIPP score during eye examination was significantly lower in the paracetamol group than in the water group (MD -2.70, 95% CI -3.55 to 1.85). For postoperative care following major surgery, the total amount of morphine (µg/kg) administered over 48 hours was significantly less among infants assigned to the paracetamol group than to the morphine group (MD -157 µg/kg, 95% CI -27 to -288). No adverse events were noted in any study. The quality of evidence according to GRADE was low. The paucity and low quality of

  19. Non-surgical management of recurrent urinary tract infections in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamin, Paul A; Kiosoglous, Anthony J

    2017-07-01

    One in three women will experience a clinically significant urinary tract infection (UTI) by age twenty-four and almost half will have at least one in their lifetime. Recurrent UTIs (rUTIs) are defined as having greater than two infections in a 6-month period, or three infections over twelve months, with complete resolution for at least two weeks. These may be due to relapse from incomplete treatment (persistence) or re-infection (new source). It may be difficult to distinguish between the two, where the same organism is cultured. There are several risk factors for rUTIs including an impairment of the body's immune system and virulence factors. Reversible or treatable causes are sought and excluded in the patient's initial review. Patient's with rUTI are often complex and difficult to manage. The long-term management options in women are multimodal and should focus on prevention of relapse and recurrence. Behavioural factors include adequate hydration, care with sexual hygiene, reducing one's body mass index (BMI) and post-void residual (PVR) volume. There are several non-antimicrobial options for rUTIs which have become a multi-billion-dollar business. Unfortunately, there are numerous studies which fail to show any major benefit or having conflicting data. Vaccines are currently being explored as a prevention strategy, delivered through injection, intra-nasal sprays, or vaginal suppositories, which are made from combinations of heat killed uro-pathogenic strains. There are no widely available vaccines at present due to limited clinical success. It is well established that appropriate antibiotic therapy results in higher rates of symptom relief and bacterial eradication in women with uncomplicated cystitis. There are several options for antimicrobial use which have been shown to be highly effective in reducing the risk of rUTI in women. The pain and discomfort of the UTI must be balanced with the cost and risk of developing resistance when using antimicrobials

  20. Total versus subtotal Laparoscopic Hysterectomy: A comparative study in Arash Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samiei H

    2009-09-01

    control pain during hospitalization after both surgeries with analgesic injection were not significantly different, but with suppositories analgesic in SLH more than TLH. The time of return to normal activity was reported (p<0.0001 significantly shorter after SLH than TLH (13.12±18.1 and 5.04±1.79, p=0.0001. Sexual function had no significant difference between two groups but dysparunia in SLH was significantly lower than TLH (p=0.02. Cyclic bleeding and cervical prolaps, was not reported in two groups. Finally intra and post operative complications were more frequent in TLH."n"nConclusions: SLH is a safe and effective surgery. Our data suggest that SLH can replace TLH in selected cases.