WorldWideScience

Sample records for supports 3d dynamic

  1. A support-operator method for 3-D rupture dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Geoffrey P.; Day, Steven M.; Minster, Jean-Bernard

    2009-06-01

    We present a numerical method to simulate spontaneous shear crack propagation within a heterogeneous, 3-D, viscoelastic medium. Wave motions are computed on a logically rectangular hexahedral mesh, using the generalized finite-difference method of Support Operators (SOM). This approach enables modelling of non-planar surfaces and non-planar fault ruptures. Our implementation, the Support Operator Rupture Dynamics (SORD) code, is highly scalable, enabling large-scale, multiprocessors calculations. The fault surface is modelled by coupled double nodes, where rupture occurs as dictated by the local stress conditions and a frictional failure law. The method successfully performs test problems developed for the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC)/U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) dynamic earthquake rupture code validation exercise, showing good agreement with semi-analytical boundary integral method results. We undertake further dynamic rupture tests to quantify numerical errors introduced by shear deformations to the hexahedral mesh. We generate a family of meshes distorted by simple shearing, in the along-strike direction, up to a maximum of 73°. For SCEC/USGS validation problem number 3, grid-induced errors increase with mesh shear angle, with the logarithm of error approximately proportional to angle over the range tested. At 73°, rms misfits are about 10 per cent for peak slip rate, and 0.5 per cent for both rupture time and total slip, indicating that the method (which, up to now, we have applied mainly to near-vertical strike-slip faulting) is also capable of handling geometries appropriate to low-angle surface-rupturing thrust earthquakes. Additionally, we demonstrate non-planar rupture effects, by modifying the test geometry to include, respectively, cylindrical curvature and sharp kinks.

  2. Dynamic stall and 3D effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerck, A.; Thor, S.E. [Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    The JOULE II project `Dynamic stall and 3D effects` started in January 1994 and was completed in September 1995. The objective of the project has been to increase the understanding of the three-dimensional and unsteady aerodynamics of stall controlled HAWT`s. The objectives have also been to develop `engineering models` suitable for inclusion into aero-elastic codes. The project included the participation of 13 parties within Europe. This paper describes an overview of the work carried out within the project and key results. 3 refs, 4 figs

  3. Dynamic 3D MR-defecography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratz, V.; Wech, T.; Schindele, A.; Dierks, A.; Sauer, A.; Reibetanz, J.; Borzi, A.; Bley, T.; Koestler, H.

    2016-09-15

    Epidemiological studies have estimated the incidence of chronic constipation to be up to 27% of the general population. The gold standard to evaluate affected patients is the dynamic entero-colpo-cysto-defecography. In the clinical routine 2 D MR-defecography is also performed, but only one to three 2 D slices at a temporal footprint of about one second are acquired. To improve the detection of lateral localized pathologies, we developed and implemented dynamic 3 D MR-defecography. Each 3 D block consisted of seven slices with an in-plane spatial resolution of 1.3 x 1.3 mm{sup 2} to 2.3 x 2.3 mm{sup 2} and an image update rate between 0.8 s and 1.3 s. We used a fast bSSFP sequence with a modified stack-of-stars sampling scheme for data acquisition and a modified FISTA compressed sensing algorithm to reconstruct the undersampled datasets. We performed a study including 6 patients to optimize the acquisition parameters with respect to image quality.

  4. Dynamic 3D MR-defecography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratz, V.; Wech, T.; Schindele, A.; Dierks, A.; Sauer, A.; Reibetanz, J.; Borzi, A.; Bley, T.; Koestler, H.

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have estimated the incidence of chronic constipation to be up to 27% of the general population. The gold standard to evaluate affected patients is the dynamic entero-colpo-cysto-defecography. In the clinical routine 2 D MR-defecography is also performed, but only one to three 2 D slices at a temporal footprint of about one second are acquired. To improve the detection of lateral localized pathologies, we developed and implemented dynamic 3 D MR-defecography. Each 3 D block consisted of seven slices with an in-plane spatial resolution of 1.3 x 1.3 mm 2 to 2.3 x 2.3 mm 2 and an image update rate between 0.8 s and 1.3 s. We used a fast bSSFP sequence with a modified stack-of-stars sampling scheme for data acquisition and a modified FISTA compressed sensing algorithm to reconstruct the undersampled datasets. We performed a study including 6 patients to optimize the acquisition parameters with respect to image quality.

  5. Mobile 3D Viewer Supporting RFID System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J J; Yang, S W; Choi, Y [Chungang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    As hardware capabilities of mobile devices are being rapidly enhanced, applications based upon mobile devices are also being developed in wider areas. In this paper, a prototype mobile 3D viewer with the object identification through RFID system is presented. To visualize 3D engineering data such as CAD data, we need a process to compute triangulated data from boundary based surface like B-rep solid or trimmed surfaces. Since existing rendering engines on mobile devices do not provide triangulation capability, mobile 3D programs have focused only on an efficient handling with pre-tessellated geometry. We have developed a light and fast triangulation process based on constrained Delaunay triangulation suitable for mobile devices in the previous research. This triangulation software is used as a core for the mobile 3D viewer on a PDA with RFID system that may have potentially wide applications in many areas.

  6. Mobile 3D Viewer Supporting RFID System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. J.; Yang, S. W.; Choi, Y.

    2007-01-01

    As hardware capabilities of mobile devices are being rapidly enhanced, applications based upon mobile devices are also being developed in wider areas. In this paper, a prototype mobile 3D viewer with the object identification through RFID system is presented. To visualize 3D engineering data such as CAD data, we need a process to compute triangulated data from boundary based surface like B-rep solid or trimmed surfaces. Since existing rendering engines on mobile devices do not provide triangulation capability, mobile 3D programs have focused only on an efficient handling with pre-tessellated geometry. We have developed a light and fast triangulation process based on constrained Delaunay triangulation suitable for mobile devices in the previous research. This triangulation software is used as a core for the mobile 3D viewer on a PDA with RFID system that may have potentially wide applications in many areas

  7. Simulating coronal condensation dynamics in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschou, S. P.; Keppens, R.; Xia, C.; Fang, X.

    2015-12-01

    We present numerical simulations in 3D settings where coronal rain phenomena take place in a magnetic configuration of a quadrupolar arcade system. Our simulation is a magnetohydrodynamic simulation including anisotropic thermal conduction, optically thin radiative losses, and parametrised heating as main thermodynamical features to construct a realistic arcade configuration from chromospheric to coronal heights. The plasma evaporation from chromospheric and transition region heights eventually causes localised runaway condensation events and we witness the formation of plasma blobs due to thermal instability, that evolve dynamically in the heated arcade part and move gradually downwards due to interchange type dynamics. Unlike earlier 2.5D simulations, in this case there is no large scale prominence formation observed, but a continuous coronal rain develops which shows clear indications of Rayleigh-Taylor or interchange instability, that causes the denser plasma located above the transition region to fall down, as the system moves towards a more stable state. Linear stability analysis is used in the non-linear regime for gaining insight and giving a prediction of the system's evolution. After the plasma blobs descend through interchange, they follow the magnetic field topology more closely in the lower coronal regions, where they are guided by the magnetic dips.

  8. An Evaluative Review of Simulated Dynamic Smart 3d Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeijn, H.; Sheth, F.; Pettit, C. J.

    2012-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) modelling of plants can be an asset for creating agricultural based visualisation products. The continuum of 3D plants models ranges from static to dynamic objects, also known as smart 3D objects. There is an increasing requirement for smarter simulated 3D objects that are attributed mathematically and/or from biological inputs. A systematic approach to plant simulation offers significant advantages to applications in agricultural research, particularly in simulating plant behaviour and the influences of external environmental factors. This approach of 3D plant object visualisation is primarily evident from the visualisation of plants using photographed billboarded images, to more advanced procedural models that come closer to simulating realistic virtual plants. However, few programs model physical reactions of plants to external factors and even fewer are able to grow plants based on mathematical and/or biological parameters. In this paper, we undertake an evaluation of plant-based object simulation programs currently available, with a focus upon the components and techniques involved in producing these objects. Through an analytical review process we consider the strengths and weaknesses of several program packages, the features and use of these programs and the possible opportunities in deploying these for creating smart 3D plant-based objects to support agricultural research and natural resource management. In creating smart 3D objects the model needs to be informed by both plant physiology and phenology. Expert knowledge will frame the parameters and procedures that will attribute the object and allow the simulation of dynamic virtual plants. Ultimately, biologically smart 3D virtual plants that react to changes within an environment could be an effective medium to visually represent landscapes and communicate land management scenarios and practices to planners and decision-makers.

  9. Dynamic analysis of centrifugal machines rotors supported on ball bearings by combined application of 3D and beam finite element models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlenko, I. V.; Simonovskiy, V. I.; Demianenko, M. M.

    2017-08-01

    This research paper is aimed to investigating rotor dynamics of multistage centrifugal machines with ball bearings by using the computer programs “Critical frequencies of the rotor” and “Forced oscillations of the rotor,” which are implemented the mathematical model based on the use of beam finite elements. Free and forces oscillations of the rotor for the multistage centrifugal oil pump NPS 200-700 are observed by taking into account the analytical dependence of bearing stiffness on rotor speed, which is previously defined on the basis of results’ approximation for the numerical simulation in ANSYS by applying 3D finite elements. The calculations found that characteristic and constrained oscillations of rotor and corresponded to them forms of vibrations, as well as the form of constrained oscillation on the actual frequency for acceptable residual unbalance are determined.

  10. 3D Display of Spacecraft Dynamics Using Real Telemetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanguk Lee

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available 3D display of spacecraft motion by using telemetry data received from satellite in real-time is described. Telemetry data are converted to the appropriate form for 3-D display by the real-time preprocessor. Stored playback telemetry data also can be processed for the display. 3D display of spacecraft motion by using real telemetry data provides intuitive comprehension of spacecraft dynamics.

  11. STREAM PROCESSING ALGORITHMS FOR DYNAMIC 3D SCENE ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-15

    PROCESSING ALGORITHMS FOR DYNAMIC 3D SCENE ANALYSIS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8750-14-2-0072 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62788F 6...of Figures 1 The 3D processing pipeline flowchart showing key modules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2 Overall view (data flow) of the proposed...pipeline flowchart showing key modules. from motion and bundle adjustment algorithm. By fusion of depth masks of the scene obtained from 3D

  12. Dynamic 3D echocardiography in virtual reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoons Maarten L

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This pilot study was performed to evaluate whether virtual reality is applicable for three-dimensional echocardiography and if three-dimensional echocardiographic 'holograms' have the potential to become a clinically useful tool. Methods Three-dimensional echocardiographic data sets from 2 normal subjects and from 4 patients with a mitral valve pathological condition were included in the study. The three-dimensional data sets were acquired with the Philips Sonos 7500 echo-system and transferred to the BARCO (Barco N.V., Kortrijk, Belgium I-space. Ten independent observers assessed the 6 three-dimensional data sets with and without mitral valve pathology. After 10 minutes' instruction in the I-Space, all of the observers could use the virtual pointer that is necessary to create cut planes in the hologram. Results The 10 independent observers correctly assessed the normal and pathological mitral valve in the holograms (analysis time approximately 10 minutes. Conclusion this report shows that dynamic holographic imaging of three-dimensional echocardiographic data is feasible. However, the applicability and use-fullness of this technology in clinical practice is still limited.

  13. 3D Protein Dynamics in the Cell Nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anand P; Galland, Rémi; Finch-Edmondson, Megan L; Grenci, Gianluca; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste; Studer, Vincent; Viasnoff, Virgile; Saunders, Timothy E

    2017-01-10

    The three-dimensional (3D) architecture of the cell nucleus plays an important role in protein dynamics and in regulating gene expression. However, protein dynamics within the 3D nucleus are poorly understood. Here, we present, to our knowledge, a novel combination of 1) single-objective based light-sheet microscopy, 2) photoconvertible proteins, and 3) fluorescence correlation microscopy, to quantitatively measure 3D protein dynamics in the nucleus. We are able to acquire >3400 autocorrelation functions at multiple spatial positions within a nucleus, without significant photobleaching, allowing us to make reliable estimates of diffusion dynamics. Using this tool, we demonstrate spatial heterogeneity in Polymerase II dynamics in live U2OS cells. Further, we provide detailed measurements of human-Yes-associated protein diffusion dynamics in a human gastric cancer epithelial cell line. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Annular dynamics of memo3D annuloplasty ring evaluated by 3D transesophageal echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Hiroyuki; Toda, Koichi; Miyagawa, Shigeru; Yoshikawa, Yasushi; Fukushima, Satsuki; Yoshioka, Daisuke; Sawa, Yoshiki

    2018-04-01

    We assessed the mitral annular motion after mitral valve repair with the Sorin Memo 3D® (Sorin Group Italia S.r.L., Saluggia, Italy), which is a unique complete semirigid annuloplasty ring intended to restore the systolic profile of the mitral annulus while adapting to the physiologic dynamism of the annulus, using transesophageal real-time three-dimensional echocardiography. 17 patients (12 male; mean age 60.4 ± 14.9 years) who underwent mitral annuloplasty using the Memo 3D ring were investigated. Mitral annular motion was assessed using QLAB®version8 allowing for a full evaluation of the mitral annulus dynamics. The mitral annular dimensions were measured throughout the cardiac cycle using 4D MV assessment2® while saddle shape was assessed through sequential measurements by RealView®. Saddle shape configuration of the mitral annulus and posterior and anterior leaflet motion could be observed during systole and diastole. The mitral annular area changed during the cardiac cycle by 5.7 ± 1.8%.The circumference length and diameter also changed throughout the cardiac cycle. The annular height was significantly higher in mid-systole than in mid-diastole (p 3D ring maintained a physiological saddle-shape configuration throughout the cardiac cycle. Real-time three-dimensional echocardiography analysis confirmed the motion and flexibility of the Memo 3D ring upon implantation.

  15. Dynamic Frames Based Generation of 3D Scenes and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Radošević

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern graphic/programming tools like Unity enables the possibility of creating 3D scenes as well as making 3D scene based program applications, including full physical model, motion, sounds, lightning effects etc. This paper deals with the usage of dynamic frames based generator in the automatic generation of 3D scene and related source code. The suggested model enables the possibility to specify features of the 3D scene in a form of textual specification, as well as exporting such features from a 3D tool. This approach enables higher level of code generation flexibility and the reusability of the main code and scene artifacts in a form of textual templates. An example of the generated application is presented and discussed.

  16. Critical bifurcation surfaces of 3D discrete dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Sonis

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the analytical representation of bifurcations of each 3D discrete dynamics depending on the set of bifurcation parameters. The procedure of bifurcation analysis proposed in this paper represents the 3D elaboration and specification of the general algorithm of the n-dimensional linear bifurcation analysis proposed by the author earlier. It is proven that 3D domain of asymptotic stability (attraction of the fixed point for a given 3D discrete dynamics is bounded by three critical bifurcation surfaces: the divergence, flip and flutter surfaces. The analytical construction of these surfaces is achieved with the help of classical Routh–Hurvitz conditions of asymptotic stability. As an application the adjustment process proposed by T. Puu for the Cournot oligopoly model is considered in detail.

  17. A new algorithm for 3D reconstruction from support functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardner, Richard; Kiderlen, Markus

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a new algorithm for reconstructing an unknown shape from a finite number of noisy measurements of its support function. The algorithm, based on a least squares procedure, is very easy to program in standard software such as Matlab and allows, for the first time, good 3D reconstructio...

  18. Oblique Photogrammetry Supporting 3d Urban Reconstruction of Complex Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toschi, I.; Ramos, M. M.; Nocerino, E.; Menna, F.; Remondino, F.; Moe, K.; Poli, D.; Legat, K.; Fassi, F.

    2017-05-01

    Accurate 3D city models represent an important source of geospatial information to support various "smart city" applications, such as space management, energy assessment, 3D cartography, noise and pollution mapping as well as disaster management. Even though remarkable progress has been made in recent years, there are still many open issues, especially when it comes to the 3D modelling of complex urban scenarios like historical and densely-built city centres featuring narrow streets and non-conventional building shapes. Most approaches introduce strong building priors/constraints on symmetry and roof typology that penalize urban environments having high variations of roof shapes. Furthermore, although oblique photogrammetry is rapidly maturing, the use of slanted views for façade reconstruction is not completely included in the reconstruction pipeline of state-of-the-art software. This paper aims to investigate state-of-the-art methods for 3D building modelling in complex urban scenarios with the support of oblique airborne images. A reconstruction approach based on roof primitives fitting is tested. Oblique imagery is then exploited to support the manual editing of the generated building models. At the same time, mobile mapping data are collected at cm resolution and then integrated with the aerial ones. All approaches are tested on the historical city centre of Bergamo (Italy).

  19. Overview of fast algorithm in 3D dynamic holographic display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Jia, Jia; Pan, Yijie; Wang, Yongtian

    2013-08-01

    3D dynamic holographic display is one of the most attractive techniques for achieving real 3D vision with full depth cue without any extra devices. However, huge 3D information and data should be preceded and be computed in real time for generating the hologram in 3D dynamic holographic display, and it is a challenge even for the most advanced computer. Many fast algorithms are proposed for speeding the calculation and reducing the memory usage, such as:look-up table (LUT), compressed look-up table (C-LUT), split look-up table (S-LUT), and novel look-up table (N-LUT) based on the point-based method, and full analytical polygon-based methods, one-step polygon-based method based on the polygon-based method. In this presentation, we overview various fast algorithms based on the point-based method and the polygon-based method, and focus on the fast algorithm with low memory usage, the C-LUT, and one-step polygon-based method by the 2D Fourier analysis of the 3D affine transformation. The numerical simulations and the optical experiments are presented, and several other algorithms are compared. The results show that the C-LUT algorithm and the one-step polygon-based method are efficient methods for saving calculation time. It is believed that those methods could be used in the real-time 3D holographic display in future.

  20. Support-free interior carving for 3D printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Xie

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent interior carving methods for functional design necessitate a cumbersome cut-and-glue process in fabrication. We propose a method to generate interior voids which not only satisfy the functional purposes but are also support-free during the 3D printing process. We introduce a support-free unit structure for voxelization and derive the wall thicknesses parametrization for continuous optimization. We also design a discrete dithering algorithm to ensure the printability of ghost voxels. The interior voids are iteratively carved by alternating the optimization and dithering. We apply our method to optimize the static and rotational stability, and print various results to evaluate the efficacy. Keywords: Interior carving, Support-free, Voxels dithering, Shape optimization, 3D printing

  1. NASA-VOF3D, 3-D Transient, Free Surface, Incompressible Fluid Dynamic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrey, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: NASA-VOF3D is a three- dimensional, transient, free surface, incompressible fluid dynamics program. It is specifically designed to calculate confined flows in a low gravity environment in which surface physics must be accurately treated. It allows multiple free surfaces with surface tension and wall adhesion and includes a partial cell treatment that allows curved boundaries and internal obstacles. Variable mesh spacing is permitted in all three coordinate directions. Boundary conditions available are rigid free-slip wall, rigid no-slip, wall, continuative, periodic, and specified pressure outflow boundary. 2 - Method of solution: NASA-VOF3D simulates incompressible flows with free surfaces using the volume-of-fluid (VOF) algorithm. This technique is based on the use of donor-acceptor differencing to track the free surface across an Eulerian grid. The free surfaces are treated by introducing a function defined to be unity at any point occupied by the fluid and zero elsewhere. The complete Navier- Stokes equations for an incompressible fluid are solved by finite differences with surface tension effects included. Wall adhesion may be included or neglected as a user option. The pressures (and velocities) are advanced in time throughout the computing mesh by either a conjugate residual method or the successive over-relaxation (SOR) method. The conjugate residual method is vectorized for the Cray and uses a scaled coefficient matrix. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: NASA-VOF3D is restricted to cylindrical coordinate representation of the geometry. A three-dimensional wall-adhesion procedure is available only for straight-walled containers

  2. Comprehending 3D Diagrams: Sketching to Support Spatial Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnier, Kristin M; Atit, Kinnari; Ormand, Carol J; Shipley, Thomas F

    2017-10-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines commonly illustrate 3D relationships in diagrams, yet these are often challenging for students. Failing to understand diagrams can hinder success in STEM because scientific practice requires understanding and creating diagrammatic representations. We explore a new approach to improving student understanding of diagrams that convey 3D relations that is based on students generating their own predictive diagrams. Participants' comprehension of 3D spatial diagrams was measured in a pre- and post-design where students selected the correct 2D slice through 3D geologic block diagrams. Generating sketches that predicated the internal structure of a model led to greater improvement in diagram understanding than visualizing the interior of the model without sketching, or sketching the model without attempting to predict unseen spatial relations. In addition, we found a positive correlation between sketched diagram accuracy and improvement on the diagram comprehension measure. Results suggest that generating a predictive diagram facilitates students' abilities to make inferences about spatial relationships in diagrams. Implications for use of sketching in supporting STEM learning are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  3. Multitasking the code ARC3D. [for computational fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, John T.; Hsiung, Christopher C.

    1986-01-01

    The CRAY multitasking system was developed in order to utilize all four processors and sharply reduce the wall clock run time. This paper describes the techniques used to modify the computational fluid dynamics code ARC3D for this run and analyzes the achieved speedup. The ARC3D code solves either the Euler or thin-layer N-S equations using an implicit approximate factorization scheme. Results indicate that multitask processing can be used to achieve wall clock speedup factors of over three times, depending on the nature of the program code being used. Multitasking appears to be particularly advantageous for large-memory problems running on multiple CPU computers.

  4. Dynamical localization in the 3-D kicked Rydberg atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, E.; Yoshida, S.; Tong, X.-M.; Reinhold, C.; Burgdoerfer, J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The dynamical localization for the 3D periodically kicked Rydberg atom is analyzed. For the 1D kicked atom, earlier work shows dynamical localization as the quantum suppression of classically fast ionization associated with unbounded chaotic trajectories. The corresponding wave functions localize around unstable periodic orbits. For the experimental observation, the crucial question is the dependence of the dynamical localization on the dimension. As the first step, we simulate the full 3D evolution of an extreme parabolic initial state elongated in the direction of the unidirectional kicks. We compare this simulation with the 1D model and find signatures of localization also in 3D. We further examine the dependence of quantum localization on the parabolic quantum number of the initial state. In the limit of high kick frequencies, the origin of the localization can be understood in terms of Stark states in the average field. We discuss conditions for where an experimental observation of the localization is most likely. (author)

  5. Self-expressive Dictionary Learning for Dynamic 3D Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Enliang; Ji, Dinghuang; Dunn, Enrique; Frahm, Jan-Michael

    2017-08-22

    We target the problem of sparse 3D reconstruction of dynamic objects observed by multiple unsynchronized video cameras with unknown temporal overlap. To this end, we develop a framework to recover the unknown structure without sequencing information across video sequences. Our proposed compressed sensing framework poses the estimation of 3D structure as the problem of dictionary learning, where the dictionary is defined as an aggregation of the temporally varying 3D structures. Given the smooth motion of dynamic objects, we observe any element in the dictionary can be well approximated by a sparse linear combination of other elements in the same dictionary (i.e. self-expression). Our formulation optimizes a biconvex cost function that leverages a compressed sensing formulation and enforces both structural dependency coherence across video streams, as well as motion smoothness across estimates from common video sources. We further analyze the reconstructability of our approach under different capture scenarios, and its comparison and relation to existing methods. Experimental results on large amounts of synthetic data as well as real imagery demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  6. The ER in 3D: a multifunctional dynamic membrane network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Jonathan R; Voeltz, Gia K

    2011-12-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a large, singular, membrane-bound organelle that has an elaborate 3D structure with a diversity of structural domains. It contains regions that are flat and cisternal, ones that are highly curved and tubular, and others adapted to form contacts with nearly every other organelle and with the plasma membrane. The 3D structure of the ER is determined by both integral ER membrane proteins and by interactions with the cytoskeleton. In this review, we describe some of the factors that are known to regulate ER structure and discuss how this structural organization and the dynamic nature of the ER membrane network allow it to perform its many different functions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Untangling Slab Dynamics Using 3-D Numerical and Analytical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, A. F.; Royden, L.; Becker, T. W.

    2016-12-01

    Increasingly sophisticated numerical models have enabled us to make significant strides in identifying the key controls on how subducting slabs deform. For example, 3-D models have demonstrated that subducting plate width, and the related strength of toroidal flow around the plate edge, exerts a strong control on both the curvature and the rate of migration of the trench. However, the results of numerical subduction models can be difficult to interpret, and many first order dynamics issues remain at least partially unresolved. Such issues include the dominant controls on trench migration, the interdependence of asthenospheric pressure and slab dynamics, and how nearby slabs influence each other's dynamics. We augment 3-D, dynamically evolving finite element models with simple, analytical force-balance models to distill the physics associated with subduction into more manageable parts. We demonstrate that for single, isolated subducting slabs much of the complexity of our fully numerical models can be encapsulated by simple analytical expressions. Rates of subduction and slab dip correlate strongly with the asthenospheric pressure difference across the subducting slab. For double subduction, an additional slab gives rise to more complex mantle pressure and flow fields, and significantly extends the range of plate kinematics (e.g., convergence rate, trench migration rate) beyond those present in single slab models. Despite these additional complexities, we show that much of the dynamics of such multi-slab systems can be understood using the physics illuminated by our single slab study, and that a force-balance method can be used to relate intra-plate stress to viscous pressure in the asthenosphere and coupling forces at plate boundaries. This method has promise for rapid modeling of large systems of subduction zones on a global scale.

  8. A 3D Geometry Model Search Engine to Support Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Gary K. L.; Lau, Rynson W. H.; Zhao, Jianmin

    2009-01-01

    Due to the popularity of 3D graphics in animation and games, usage of 3D geometry deformable models increases dramatically. Despite their growing importance, these models are difficult and time consuming to build. A distance learning system for the construction of these models could greatly facilitate students to learn and practice at different…

  9. Motion robust high resolution 3D free-breathing pulmonary MRI using dynamic 3D image self-navigator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenwen; Ong, Frank; Johnson, Kevin M; Nagle, Scott K; Hope, Thomas A; Lustig, Michael; Larson, Peder E Z

    2018-06-01

    To achieve motion robust high resolution 3D free-breathing pulmonary MRI utilizing a novel dynamic 3D image navigator derived directly from imaging data. Five-minute free-breathing scans were acquired with a 3D ultrashort echo time (UTE) sequence with 1.25 mm isotropic resolution. From this data, dynamic 3D self-navigating images were reconstructed under locally low rank (LLR) constraints and used for motion compensation with one of two methods: a soft-gating technique to penalize the respiratory motion induced data inconsistency, and a respiratory motion-resolved technique to provide images of all respiratory motion states. Respiratory motion estimation derived from the proposed dynamic 3D self-navigator of 7.5 mm isotropic reconstruction resolution and a temporal resolution of 300 ms was successful for estimating complex respiratory motion patterns. This estimation improved image quality compared to respiratory belt and DC-based navigators. Respiratory motion compensation with soft-gating and respiratory motion-resolved techniques provided good image quality from highly undersampled data in volunteers and clinical patients. An optimized 3D UTE sequence combined with the proposed reconstruction methods can provide high-resolution motion robust pulmonary MRI. Feasibility was shown in patients who had irregular breathing patterns in which our approach could depict clinically relevant pulmonary pathologies. Magn Reson Med 79:2954-2967, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  10. Modeling tree crown dynamics with 3D partial differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Robert; Letort, Véronique; Cournède, Paul-Henry

    2014-01-01

    We characterize a tree's spatial foliage distribution by the local leaf area density. Considering this spatially continuous variable allows to describe the spatiotemporal evolution of the tree crown by means of 3D partial differential equations. These offer a framework to rigorously take locally and adaptively acting effects into account, notably the growth toward light. Biomass production through photosynthesis and the allocation to foliage and wood are readily included in this model framework. The system of equations stands out due to its inherent dynamic property of self-organization and spontaneous adaptation, generating complex behavior from even only a few parameters. The density-based approach yields spatially structured tree crowns without relying on detailed geometry. We present the methodological fundamentals of such a modeling approach and discuss further prospects and applications.

  11. FLOWPLOT2, 2-D, 3-D Fluid Dynamic Plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, C.K.; Tunstall, J.N.

    1989-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: FLOWPLOT2 is a plotting program used with numerical or analytical fluid dynamics codes to create velocity vector plots, contour plots of up to three fluid parameters (e.g. pressure, density, and temperature), two-dimensional profile plots, three-dimensional curve plots, and/or three-dimensional surface plots for either the u or v velocity components. If the fluid dynamics code computes a transient or simulated time related solution, FLOWPLOT2 can also be used to generate these plots for any specified time interval. Multiple cases generating different plots for different time intervals may be run in one execution of the program. In addition, plots can be created for selected two- dimensional planes of three-dimensional steady-state problems. The user has the option of producing plots on CalComp or Versatec plotters or microfiche and of creating a compressed dataset before plotting. 2 - Method of solution: FLOWPLOT2 reads a dataset written by the fluid dynamics code. This dataset must be written in a specified format and must contain parametric data at the nodal points of a uniform or non-uniform rectangular grid formed by the intersection of the grid lines of the model. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 2500 nodes, 40 y-values for 2-D profile plots and 3-D curve plots, 20 contour values, 3 fluid parameters

  12. A parallel algorithm for 3D dislocation dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiqiang; Ghoniem, Nasr; Swaminarayan, Sriram; LeSar, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Dislocation dynamics (DD), a discrete dynamic simulation method in which dislocations are the fundamental entities, is a powerful tool for investigation of plasticity, deformation and fracture of materials at the micron length scale. However, severe computational difficulties arising from complex, long-range interactions between these curvilinear line defects limit the application of DD in the study of large-scale plastic deformation. We present here the development of a parallel algorithm for accelerated computer simulations of DD. By representing dislocations as a 3D set of dislocation particles, we show here that the problem of an interacting ensemble of dislocations can be converted to a problem of a particle ensemble, interacting with a long-range force field. A grid using binary space partitioning is constructed to keep track of node connectivity across domains. We demonstrate the computational efficiency of the parallel micro-plasticity code and discuss how O(N) methods map naturally onto the parallel data structure. Finally, we present results from applications of the parallel code to deformation in single crystal fcc metals

  13. The ER in 3-D: a multifunctional dynamic membrane network

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, Jonathan R.; Voeltz, Gia K.

    2011-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a large, singular, membrane-bound organelle that has an elaborate 3-D structure with a diversity of structural domains. It contains regions that are flat and cisternal, ones that are highly curved and tubular, and others adapted to form contact with nearly every other organelle and with the plasma membrane. ER 3-D structure is determined by both integral ER membrane proteins and by interactions with the cytoskeleton. Here, we describe some of the factors that...

  14. Coupling of the computational fluid dynamics code ANSYS CFX with the 3D neutron kinetic core model DYN3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kliem, S.; Grahn, A.; Rohde, U.; Schuetze, J.; Frank, Th.

    2010-01-01

    The computational fluid dynamics code ANSYS CFX has been coupled with the neutron-kinetic core model DYN3D. ANSYS CFX calculates the fluid dynamics and related transport phenomena in the reactors coolant and provides the corresponding data to DYN3D. In the fluid flow simulation of the coolant, the core itself is modeled within the porous body approach. DYN3D calculates the neutron kinetics and the fuel behavior including the heat transfer to the coolant. The physical data interface between the codes is the volumetric heat release rate into the coolant. In the prototype that is currently available, the coupling is restricted to single-phase flow problems. In the time domain an explicit coupling of the codes has been implemented so far. Steady-state and transient verification calculations for two small-size test problems confirm the correctness of the implementation of the prototype coupling. The first test problem was a mini-core consisting of nine real-size fuel assemblies with quadratic cross section. Comparison was performed with the DYN3D stand-alone code. In the steady state, the effective multiplication factor obtained by the DYN3D/ANSYS CFX codes hows a deviation of 9.8 pcm from the DYN3D stand-alone solution. This difference can be attributed to the use of different water property packages in the two codes. The transient test case simulated the withdrawal of the control rod from the central fuel assembly at hot zero power in the same mini-core. Power increase during the introduction of positive reactivity and power reduction due to fuel temperature increase are calculated in the same manner by the coupled and the stand-alone codes. The maximum values reached during the power rise differ by about 1 MW at a power level of 50 MW. Beside the different water property packages, these differences are caused by the use of different flow solvers. The same calculations were carried for a mini-core with seven real-size fuel assemblies with hexagonal cross section in

  15. [Dynamic study of the female levator ani muscle using MRI 3D vectorial modeling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmas, Vincent; Ami, Olivier; Iba-Zizen, Marie-Thérèse

    2010-06-01

    The levator ani muscle has a major role in the female pelvic floor, and is involved in the pathophysiology of pelvic prolapse and stress urinary incontinence. We conducted an anatomical and morphological study of this muscle using dynamic 3D vectorial reconstruction MRI, in order to analyze the contraction of two major components of the levator ani: the iliococcygeus and pubococcygeus. Three volunteer healthy continent nulliparous women aged from 19 to 22 underwent dynamic pelvic MRI. Coronal T2-weighted pelvic images were obtained in the supine position, at rest, holding back, and during Valsalva stress effort. 3D vectorial models were reconstructed by manual segmentation of the source images, and were set up on bony anatomic marks. Iliococcygeus and pubococcygeus volumes were measured in the three positions. Volumetrics, displacement and dynamic morphing changes were analyzed with 3D vectorial animation software. The urogenital hiatus extended more holding back (mean +4.31 mm) than on effort (mean +2.78 mm). The iliococcygeus lowered (mean -3.95 mm) and deviated outward (mean +3.01 mm). The basic tone of the iliococcygeus muscle gives it a dome shape, and its reflex contraction against abdominal strain ensures anal and urinary continence The levator ani is more than a pelvic diaphragm: it is a truly dynamic pelvic floor. Its points of support on the stiff osseous frame allow it to retain the pelvic organs. The levator ani muscle seems to prevent anal prolapse during stress strain.

  16. Face recognition based on matching of local features on 3D dynamic range sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeagaray-Patrón, B. A.; Kober, Vitaly

    2016-09-01

    3D face recognition has attracted attention in the last decade due to improvement of technology of 3D image acquisition and its wide range of applications such as access control, surveillance, human-computer interaction and biometric identification systems. Most research on 3D face recognition has focused on analysis of 3D still data. In this work, a new method for face recognition using dynamic 3D range sequences is proposed. Experimental results are presented and discussed using 3D sequences in the presence of pose variation. The performance of the proposed method is compared with that of conventional face recognition algorithms based on descriptors.

  17. Computational Modelling of Piston Ring Dynamics in 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dlugoš Jozef

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Advanced computational models of a piston assembly based on the level of virtual prototypes require a detailed description of piston ring behaviour. Considering these requirements, the piston rings operate in regimes that cannot, in general, be simplified into an axisymmetric model. The piston and the cylinder liner do not have a perfect round shape, mainly due to machining tolerances and external thermo-mechanical loads. If the ring cannot follow the liner deformations, a local loss of contact occurs resulting in blow-by and increased consumption of lubricant oil in the engine. Current computational models are unable to implement such effects. The paper focuses on the development of a flexible 3D piston ring model based on the Timoshenko beam theory using the multibody system (MBS. The MBS model is compared to the finite element method (FEM solution.

  18. Flux ropes and 3D dynamics in the relaxation scaling experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intrator, T P; Feng, Y; Weber, T E; Swan, H O; Sun, X; Dorf, L; Sears, J A

    2013-01-01

    Flux ropes form basic building blocks for magnetic dynamics in many plasmas, are macroscopic analogues of magnetic field lines, and are irreducibly three dimensional (3D). We have used the relaxation scaling experiment (RSX) to study flux ropes, and have found many new features involving 3D dynamics, kink instability driven reconnection, nonlinearly stable but kinking flux ropes, and large flows. (paper)

  19. Modeling radiation belt dynamics using a 3-D layer method code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Ma, Q.; Tao, X.; Zhang, Y.; Teng, S.; Albert, J. M.; Chan, A. A.; Li, W.; Ni, B.; Lu, Q.; Wang, S.

    2017-08-01

    A new 3-D diffusion code using a recently published layer method has been developed to analyze radiation belt electron dynamics. The code guarantees the positivity of the solution even when mixed diffusion terms are included. Unlike most of the previous codes, our 3-D code is developed directly in equatorial pitch angle (α0), momentum (p), and L shell coordinates; this eliminates the need to transform back and forth between (α0,p) coordinates and adiabatic invariant coordinates. Using (α0,p,L) is also convenient for direct comparison with satellite data. The new code has been validated by various numerical tests, and we apply the 3-D code to model the rapid electron flux enhancement following the geomagnetic storm on 17 March 2013, which is one of the Geospace Environment Modeling Focus Group challenge events. An event-specific global chorus wave model, an AL-dependent statistical plasmaspheric hiss wave model, and a recently published radial diffusion coefficient formula from Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) statistics are used. The simulation results show good agreement with satellite observations, in general, supporting the scenario that the rapid enhancement of radiation belt electron flux for this event results from an increased level of the seed population by radial diffusion, with subsequent acceleration by chorus waves. Our results prove that the layer method can be readily used to model global radiation belt dynamics in three dimensions.

  20. Progression of 3D Protein Structure and Dynamics Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato-Tomita, Ayana; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Yuji C.

    2018-06-01

    New measurement methodologies have begun to be proposed with the recent progress in the life sciences. Here, we introduce two new methodologies, X-ray fluorescence holography for protein structural analysis and diffracted X-ray tracking (DXT), to observe the dynamic behaviors of individual single molecules.

  1. Nonlinear 3-D dynamic time history analysis in the reracking modifications for a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Y.; Stevenson, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    An independent seismic response evaluation of spent fuel storage racks was performed on the reracking modifications for a typical operating pressurized water reactor type nuclear power plant using nonlinear dynamic time history analysis methods per the U. S. nuclear regulatory commission (USNRC) criteria. The submerged free standing rack system and surrounding water are coupled due to fluid-structure-interaction effects using potential theory. Three dimensional (3-D) single rack and whole pool multiple rack finite element models were developed with features that allow the consideration of geometrically and materially nonlinearities including (1) the impact of a fuel bundle to a rack cell, a rack to adjacent racks or pool walls, and rack support legs to a pool floor; (2) the hydrodynamic coupling of a fuel assembly with a rack and of a rack with adjacent racks or pool walls; and (3) the tilting and frictional sliding of the rack supports. The methodologies and typical results using a 3-D single rack model as well as a 3-D whole pool multiple rack model developed herein are presented. (orig.)

  2. 3D Printing PDMS Elastomer in a Hydrophilic Support Bath via Freeform Reversible Embedding

    OpenAIRE

    Hinton, Thomas J.; Hudson, Andrew; Pusch, Kira; Lee, Andrew; Feinberg, Adam W.

    2016-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer is used in a wide range of biomaterial applications including microfluidics, cell culture substrates, flexible electronics, and medical devices. However, it has proved challenging to 3D print PDMS in complex structures due to its low elastic modulus and need for support during the printing process. Here we demonstrate the 3D printing of hydrophobic PDMS prepolymer resins within a hydrophilic Carbopol gel support via freeform reversible embedding (FRE). In...

  3. Low Complexity Connectivity Driven Dynamic Geometry Compression for 3D Tele-Immersion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.N. Mekuria (Rufael); D.C.A. Bulterman (Dick); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractGeometry based 3D Tele-Immersion is a novel emerging media application that involves on the fly reconstructed 3D mesh geometry. To enable real-time communication of such live reconstructed mesh geometry over a bandwidth limited link, fast dynamic geometry compression is needed. However,

  4. 3D video-based deformation measurement of the pelvis bone under dynamic cyclic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freslier Marie

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dynamic three-dimensional (3D deformation of the pelvic bones is a crucial factor in the successful design and longevity of complex orthopaedic oncological implants. The current solutions are often not very promising for the patient; thus it would be interesting to measure the dynamic 3D-deformation of the whole pelvic bone in order to get a more realistic dataset for a better implant design. Therefore we hypothesis if it would be possible to combine a material testing machine with a 3D video motion capturing system, used in clinical gait analysis, to measure the sub millimetre deformation of a whole pelvis specimen. Method A pelvis specimen was placed in a standing position on a material testing machine. Passive reflective markers, traceable by the 3D video motion capturing system, were fixed to the bony surface of the pelvis specimen. While applying a dynamic sinusoidal load the 3D-movement of the markers was recorded by the cameras and afterwards the 3D-deformation of the pelvis specimen was computed. The accuracy of the 3D-movement of the markers was verified with 3D-displacement curve with a step function using a manual driven 3D micro-motion-stage. Results The resulting accuracy of the measurement system depended on the number of cameras tracking a marker. The noise level for a marker seen by two cameras was during the stationary phase of the calibration procedure ± 0.036 mm, and ± 0.022 mm if tracked by 6 cameras. The detectable 3D-movement performed by the 3D-micro-motion-stage was smaller than the noise level of the 3D-video motion capturing system. Therefore the limiting factor of the setup was the noise level, which resulted in a measurement accuracy for the dynamic test setup of ± 0.036 mm. Conclusion This 3D test setup opens new possibilities in dynamic testing of wide range materials, like anatomical specimens, biomaterials, and its combinations. The resulting 3D-deformation dataset can be used for a better

  5. Development of multi-physics code systems based on the reactor dynamics code DYN3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kliem, Soeren; Gommlich, Andre; Grahn, Alexander; Rohde, Ulrich [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany); Schuetze, Jochen [ANSYS Germany GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Frank, Thomas [ANSYS Germany GmbH, Otterfing (Germany); Gomez Torres, Armando M.; Sanchez Espinoza, Victor Hugo [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    The reactor dynamics code DYN3D has been coupled with the CFD code ANSYS CFX and the 3D thermal hydraulic core model FLICA4. In the coupling with ANSYS CFX, DYN3D calculates the neutron kinetics and the fuel behavior including the heat transfer to the coolant. The physical data interface between the codes is the volumetric heat release rate into the coolant. In the coupling with FLICA4 only the neutron kinetics module of DYN3D is used. Fluid dynamics and related transport phenomena in the reactor's coolant and fuel behavior is calculated by FLICA4. The correctness of the coupling of DYN3D with both thermal hydraulic codes was verified by the calculation of different test problems. These test problems were set-up in such a way that comparison with the DYN3D stand-alone code was possible. This included steady-state and transient calculations of a mini-core consisting of nine real-size PWR fuel assemblies with ANSYS CFX/DYN3D as well as mini-core and a full core steady-state calculation using FLICA4/DYN3D. (orig.)

  6. Development of multi-physics code systems based on the reactor dynamics code DYN3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kliem, Soeren; Gommlich, Andre; Grahn, Alexander; Rohde, Ulrich; Schuetze, Jochen; Frank, Thomas; Gomez Torres, Armando M.; Sanchez Espinoza, Victor Hugo

    2011-01-01

    The reactor dynamics code DYN3D has been coupled with the CFD code ANSYS CFX and the 3D thermal hydraulic core model FLICA4. In the coupling with ANSYS CFX, DYN3D calculates the neutron kinetics and the fuel behavior including the heat transfer to the coolant. The physical data interface between the codes is the volumetric heat release rate into the coolant. In the coupling with FLICA4 only the neutron kinetics module of DYN3D is used. Fluid dynamics and related transport phenomena in the reactor's coolant and fuel behavior is calculated by FLICA4. The correctness of the coupling of DYN3D with both thermal hydraulic codes was verified by the calculation of different test problems. These test problems were set-up in such a way that comparison with the DYN3D stand-alone code was possible. This included steady-state and transient calculations of a mini-core consisting of nine real-size PWR fuel assemblies with ANSYS CFX/DYN3D as well as mini-core and a full core steady-state calculation using FLICA4/DYN3D. (orig.)

  7. Development and application of visual support module for remote operator in 3D virtual environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kyung Hyun; Cho, Soo Jeong; Yang, Kyung Boo; Bae, Chang Hyun

    2006-02-01

    In this research, the 3D graphic environment was developed for remote operation, and included the visual support module. The real operation environment was built by employing a experiment robot, and also the identical virtual model was developed. The well-designed virtual models can be used to retrieve the necessary conditions for developing the devices and processes. The integration of 3D virtual models, the experimental operation environment, and the visual support module was used for evaluating the operation efficiency and accuracy by applying different methods such as only monitor image and with visual support module

  8. Development and application of visual support module for remote operator in 3D virtual environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyung Hyun; Cho, Soo Jeong; Yang, Kyung Boo [Cheju Nat. Univ., Jeju (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Chang Hyun [Pusan Nat. Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    In this research, the 3D graphic environment was developed for remote operation, and included the visual support module. The real operation environment was built by employing a experiment robot, and also the identical virtual model was developed. The well-designed virtual models can be used to retrieve the necessary conditions for developing the devices and processes. The integration of 3D virtual models, the experimental operation environment, and the visual support module was used for evaluating the operation efficiency and accuracy by applying different methods such as only monitor image and with visual support module.

  9. Local 3D matrix microenvironment regulates cell migration through spatiotemporal dynamics of contractility-dependent adhesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Andrew D.; Carvajal, Nicole; Jin, Albert; Matsumoto, Kazue; Yamada, Kenneth M.

    2015-11-01

    The physical properties of two-dimensional (2D) extracellular matrices (ECMs) modulate cell adhesion dynamics and motility, but little is known about the roles of local microenvironmental differences in three-dimensional (3D) ECMs. Here we generate 3D collagen gels of varying matrix microarchitectures to characterize their regulation of 3D adhesion dynamics and cell migration. ECMs containing bundled fibrils demonstrate enhanced local adhesion-scale stiffness and increased adhesion stability through balanced ECM/adhesion coupling, whereas highly pliable reticular matrices promote adhesion retraction. 3D adhesion dynamics are locally regulated by ECM rigidity together with integrin/ECM association and myosin II contractility. Unlike 2D migration, abrogating contractility stalls 3D migration regardless of ECM pore size. We find force is not required for clustering of activated integrins on 3D native collagen fibrils. We propose that efficient 3D migration requires local balancing of contractility with ECM stiffness to stabilize adhesions, which facilitates the detachment of activated integrins from ECM fibrils.

  10. Towards a Decision Support Tool for 3d Visualisation: Application to Selectivity Purpose of Single Object in a 3d City Scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuville, R.; Pouliot, J.; Poux, F.; Hallot, P.; De Rudder, L.; Billen, R.

    2017-10-01

    This paper deals with the establishment of a comprehensive methodological framework that defines 3D visualisation rules and its application in a decision support tool. Whilst the use of 3D models grows in many application fields, their visualisation remains challenging from the point of view of mapping and rendering aspects to be applied to suitability support the decision making process. Indeed, there exists a great number of 3D visualisation techniques but as far as we know, a decision support tool that facilitates the production of an efficient 3D visualisation is still missing. This is why a comprehensive methodological framework is proposed in order to build decision tables for specific data, tasks and contexts. Based on the second-order logic formalism, we define a set of functions and propositions among and between two collections of entities: on one hand static retinal variables (hue, size, shape…) and 3D environment parameters (directional lighting, shadow, haze…) and on the other hand their effect(s) regarding specific visual tasks. It enables to define 3D visualisation rules according to four categories: consequence, compatibility, potential incompatibility and incompatibility. In this paper, the application of the methodological framework is demonstrated for an urban visualisation at high density considering a specific set of entities. On the basis of our analysis and the results of many studies conducted in the 3D semiotics, which refers to the study of symbols and how they relay information, the truth values of propositions are determined. 3D visualisation rules are then extracted for the considered context and set of entities and are presented into a decision table with a colour coding. Finally, the decision table is implemented into a plugin developed with three.js, a cross-browser JavaScript library. The plugin consists of a sidebar and warning windows that help the designer in the use of a set of static retinal variables and 3D environment

  11. High temperature dislocation processes in precipitation hardened crystals investigated by a 3D discrete dislocation dynamics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Záležák, Tomáš; Svoboda, Jiří; Dlouhý, Antonín

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 97, OCT (2017), s. 1-23 ISSN 0749-6419 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22834S; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/09/2073; GA ČR(CZ) GD106/09/H035; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0214; GA MŠk OC 162 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 309916 - Z-ULTRA Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : 3D discrete dislocation dynamics * Dislocations * Strengthening mechanisms * Low angle grain boundaries * Particulate reinforced material Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials OBOR OECD: Composites (including laminates, reinforced plastics, cermets, combined natural and synthetic fibre fabrics Impact factor: 5.702, year: 2016

  12. Simulation of Missing Pellet Surface thermal behavior with 3D dynamic gap element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyo Chan; Yang, Yong Sik; Koo, Yang Hyun; Kang, Chang Hak; Lee Sung Uk; Yang, Dong Yol

    2014-01-01

    Most of the fuel performance codes that are able to simulate a multidimensional analysis are used to calculate the radial temperature distribution and perform a multidimensional mechanical analysis based on a one-dimensional (1D) temperature result. The FRAPCON-FRAPTRAN code system incorporates a 1D thermal module and two-dimensional (2D) mechanical module when FEM option is activated. In this method, the multidimensional gap conductance model is not required because one-dimensional thermal analysis is carried out. On the other hand, a gap conductance model for a multi-dimension should be developed in the code to perform a multidimensional thermal analysis. ALCYONE developed by CEA introduces an equivalent heat convection coefficient that represents the multidimensional gap conductance. However, the code does not employ dynamic gap conductance which is a function of gap thickness and gap characteristics in direct. The BISON code, which has been developed by INL (Idaho National Laboratory), employed a thermo-mechanical contact method that is specifically designed for tightly-coupled implicit solutions that employ Jacobian-free solution methods. Owing to tightly-coupled implicit solutions, the BISON code solves gap conductance and gap thickness simultaneously with given boundary conditions. In this paper, 3D dynamic gap element has been proposed to resolve convergence issue and nonlinear characteristic of multidimensional gap conductance. To evaluate 3D dynamic gap element module, 3D thermomechanical module using FORTRAN77 has been implemented incorporating 3D dynamic gap element. To demonstrate effect of 3D dynamic gap element, thermal behavior of missing pellet surface (MPS) has been simulated by the developed module. LWR fuel performance codes should incorporate thermo-mechanical loop to solve gap conductance problem, iteratively. However, gap conductance in multidimensional model is difficult issue owing to its nonlinearity and convergence characteristics. In

  13. 3D Printing PDMS Elastomer in a Hydrophilic Support Bath via Freeform Reversible Embedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Thomas J; Hudson, Andrew; Pusch, Kira; Lee, Andrew; Feinberg, Adam W

    2016-10-10

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer is used in a wide range of biomaterial applications including microfluidics, cell culture substrates, flexible electronics, and medical devices. However, it has proved challenging to 3D print PDMS in complex structures due to its low elastic modulus and need for support during the printing process. Here we demonstrate the 3D printing of hydrophobic PDMS prepolymer resins within a hydrophilic Carbopol gel support via freeform reversible embedding (FRE). In the FRE printing process, the Carbopol support acts as a Bingham plastic that yields and fluidizes when the syringe tip of the 3D printer moves through it, but acts as a solid for the PDMS extruded within it. This, in combination with the immiscibility of hydrophobic PDMS in the hydrophilic Carbopol, confines the PDMS prepolymer within the support for curing times up to 72 h while maintaining dimensional stability. After printing and curing, the Carbopol support gel releases the embedded PDMS prints by using phosphate buffered saline solution to reduce the Carbopol yield stress. As proof-of-concept, we used Sylgard 184 PDMS to 3D print linear and helical filaments via continuous extrusion and cylindrical and helical tubes via layer-by-layer fabrication. Importantly, we show that the 3D printed tubes were manifold and perfusable. The results demonstrate that hydrophobic polymers with low viscosity and long cure times can be 3D printed using a hydrophilic support, expanding the range of biomaterials that can be used in additive manufacturing. Further, by implementing the technology using low cost open-source hardware and software tools, the FRE printing technique can be rapidly implemented for research applications.

  14. 3D printing PLA and silicone elastomer structures with sugar solution support material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Armita; Jain, Shrenik; Tadesse, Yonas

    2017-04-01

    3D printing technology has been used for rapid prototyping since 1980's and is still developing in a way that can be used for customized products with complex design and miniature features. Among all the available 3D printing techniques, Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) is one of the most widely used technologies because of its capability to build different structures by employing various materials. However, complexity of parts made by FDM is greatly limited by restriction of using support materials. Support materials are often used in FDM for several complex geometries such as fully suspended shapes, overhanging surfaces and hollow features. This paper describes an approach to 3D print a structure using silicone elastomer and polylactide fiber (PLA) by employing a novel support material that is soluble in water. This support material is melted sugar which can easily be prepared at a low cost. Sugar is a carbohydrate, which is found naturally in plants such as sugarcane and sugar beets; therefore, it is completely organic and eco-friendly. As another advantage, the time for removing this material from the part is considerably less than other commercially available support materials and it can be removed easily by warm water without leaving any trace. Experiments were done using an inexpensive desktop 3D printer to fabricate complex structures for use in soft robots. The results envision that further development of this system would contribute to a method of fabrication of complex parts with lower cost yet high quality.

  15. 3D dynamic pituitary MR imaging with CAIPIRINHA: Initial experience and comparison with 2D dynamic MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fushimi, Yasutaka, E-mail: yfushimi@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Okada, Tomohisa; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Yamamoto, Akira; Kanda, Yumiko; Sakamoto, Ryo [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Hojo, Masato; Takahashi, Jun C.; Miyamoto, Susumu [Department of Neurosurgery, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Togashi, Kaori [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)

    2014-10-15

    Objectives: To evaluate the validity of 3D dynamic pituitary MR imaging with controlled aliasing in parallel imaging results in higher acceleration (CAIPIRINHA), with special emphasis on demarcation of pituitary posterior lobe and stalk. Methods: Participants comprised 32 patients who underwent dynamic pituitary MR imaging due to pituitary or parasellar lesions. 3D dynamic MR with CAIPIRINHA was performed at 3 T with 20-s-interval, precontrast, 1st to 5th dynamic images. Normalized values and enhanced ratios (dynamic postcontrast image values divided by precontrast ones) were compared between 3D and 2D dynamic MR imaging for patients with visual identification of posterior lobe and stalk. Results: In 3D, stalk was identified in 29 patients and unidentified in 3, and posterior lobe was identified in 28 and unidentified in 4. In 2D, stalk was identified in 26 patients and unidentified in 6 patients, and posterior lobe was identified in 15 and unidentified in 17. Normalized values of pituitary posterior lobe and stalk were higher in 3D than 2D (P < 0.001). No significant difference in enhancement ratio was seen between 3D and 2D. Conclusions: 3D dynamic pituitary MR provided better identification and higher normalized values of pituitary posterior lobe and stalk than 2D.

  16. Imaging of the 3D dynamics of flagellar beating in human sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Villalobos, F; Pimentel, J A; Darszon, A; Corkidi, G

    2014-01-01

    The study of the mechanical and environmental factors that regulate a fundamental event such as fertilization have been subject of multiple studies. Nevertheless, the microscopical size of the spermatozoa and the high beating frequency of their flagella (up to 20 Hz) impose a series of technological challenges for the study of the mechanical factors implicated. Traditionally, due to the inherent characteristics of the rapid sperm movement, and to the technological limitations of microscopes (optical or confocal) to follow in three dimensions (3D) their movement, the analysis of their dynamics has been studied in two dimensions, when the head is confined to a surface. Flagella propel sperm and while their head can be confined to a surface, flagellar movement is not restricted to 2D, always displaying 3D components. In this work, we present a highly novel and useful tool to analyze sperm flagella dynamics in 3D. The basis of the method is a 100 Hz oscillating objective mounted on a bright field optical microscope covering a 16 microns depth space at a rate of ~ 5000 images per second. The best flagellum focused subregions were associated to their respective Z real 3D position. Unprecedented graphical results making evident the 3D movement of the flagella are shown in this work and supplemental material illustrating a 3D animation using the obtained experimental results is also included.

  17. Solar Potential Analysis and Integration of the Time-Dependent Simulation Results for Semantic 3d City Models Using Dynamizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, K.; Willenborg, B.; Sindram, M.; Kolbe, T. H.

    2017-10-01

    Semantic 3D city models play an important role in solving complex real-world problems and are being adopted by many cities around the world. A wide range of application and simulation scenarios directly benefit from the adoption of international standards such as CityGML. However, most of the simulations involve properties, whose values vary with respect to time, and the current generation semantic 3D city models do not support time-dependent properties explicitly. In this paper, the details of solar potential simulations are provided operating on the CityGML standard, assessing and estimating solar energy production for the roofs and facades of the 3D building objects in different ways. Furthermore, the paper demonstrates how the time-dependent simulation results are better-represented inline within 3D city models utilizing the so-called Dynamizer concept. This concept not only allows representing the simulation results in standardized ways, but also delivers a method to enhance static city models by such dynamic property values making the city models truly dynamic. The dynamizer concept has been implemented as an Application Domain Extension of the CityGML standard within the OGC Future City Pilot Phase 1. The results are given in this paper.

  18. Real-time 3D radiation risk assessment supporting simulation of work in nuclear environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szoke, I; Louka, M N; Bryntesen, T R; Bratteli, J; Edvardsen, S T; RøEitrheim, K K; Bodor, K

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the latest developments at the Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) in Norway, in the field of real-time 3D (three-dimensional) radiation risk assessment for the support of work simulation in nuclear environments. 3D computer simulation can greatly facilitate efficient work planning, briefing, and training of workers. It can also support communication within and between work teams, and with advisors, regulators, the media and public, at all the stages of a nuclear installation’s lifecycle. Furthermore, it is also a beneficial tool for reviewing current work practices in order to identify possible gaps in procedures, as well as to support the updating of international recommendations, dissemination of experience, and education of the current and future generation of workers. IFE has been involved in research and development into the application of 3D computer simulation and virtual reality (VR) technology to support work in radiological environments in the nuclear sector since the mid 1990s. During this process, two significant software tools have been developed, the VRdose system and the Halden Planner, and a number of publications have been produced to contribute to improving the safety culture in the nuclear industry. This paper describes the radiation risk assessment techniques applied in earlier versions of the VRdose system and the Halden Planner, for visualising radiation fields and calculating dose, and presents new developments towards implementing a flexible and up-to-date dosimetric package in these 3D software tools, based on new developments in the field of radiation protection. The latest versions of these 3D tools are capable of more accurate risk estimation, permit more flexibility via a range of user choices, and are applicable to a wider range of irradiation situations than their predecessors. (paper)

  19. Real-time 3D radiation risk assessment supporting simulation of work in nuclear environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szőke, I; Louka, M N; Bryntesen, T R; Bratteli, J; Edvardsen, S T; RøEitrheim, K K; Bodor, K

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the latest developments at the Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) in Norway, in the field of real-time 3D (three-dimensional) radiation risk assessment for the support of work simulation in nuclear environments. 3D computer simulation can greatly facilitate efficient work planning, briefing, and training of workers. It can also support communication within and between work teams, and with advisors, regulators, the media and public, at all the stages of a nuclear installation's lifecycle. Furthermore, it is also a beneficial tool for reviewing current work practices in order to identify possible gaps in procedures, as well as to support the updating of international recommendations, dissemination of experience, and education of the current and future generation of workers.IFE has been involved in research and development into the application of 3D computer simulation and virtual reality (VR) technology to support work in radiological environments in the nuclear sector since the mid 1990s. During this process, two significant software tools have been developed, the VRdose system and the Halden Planner, and a number of publications have been produced to contribute to improving the safety culture in the nuclear industry.This paper describes the radiation risk assessment techniques applied in earlier versions of the VRdose system and the Halden Planner, for visualising radiation fields and calculating dose, and presents new developments towards implementing a flexible and up-to-date dosimetric package in these 3D software tools, based on new developments in the field of radiation protection. The latest versions of these 3D tools are capable of more accurate risk estimation, permit more flexibility via a range of user choices, and are applicable to a wider range of irradiation situations than their predecessors.

  20. 3D dynamic simulation of crack propagation in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijerathne, M. L. L.; Hori, Muneo; Sakaguchi, Hide; Oguni, Kenji

    2010-06-01

    Some experimental observations of Shock Wave Lithotripsy(SWL), which include 3D dynamic crack propagation, are simulated with the aim of reproducing fragmentation of kidney stones with SWL. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is the fragmentation of kidney stones by focusing an ultrasonic pressure pulse onto the stones. 3D models with fine discretization are used to accurately capture the high amplitude shear shock waves. For solving the resulting large scale dynamic crack propagation problem, PDS-FEM is used; it provides numerically efficient failure treatments. With a distributed memory parallel code of PDS-FEM, experimentally observed 3D photoelastic images of transient stress waves and crack patterns in cylindrical samples are successfully reproduced. The numerical crack patterns are in good agreement with the experimental ones, quantitatively. The results shows that the high amplitude shear waves induced in solid, by the lithotriptor generated shock wave, play a dominant role in stone fragmentation.

  1. 3D wake dynamics of the VAWT : Experimental and numerical investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, C.; Hofemann, C.; Dixon, K.; Van Kuik, G.A.M.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.

    2010-01-01

    The Vertical Axis Wind Turbine, in its 2D form, is characterized by a complex unsteady aerodynamic flow, including dynamic stall and blade vortex interaction. Adding to this complexity, the 3D flow causes spanwise effects and the presence of trailing vorticity and tip vortices. The objective of the

  2. Research Summary 3-D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Model Of The Human Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD) has developed a 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the human respiratory system that allows for the simulation of particulate based contaminant deposition and clearance, while being adaptable for age, ethnicity,...

  3. How Spatial Abilities and Dynamic Visualizations Interplay When Learning Functional Anatomy with 3D Anatomical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berney, Sandra; Bétrancourt, Mireille; Molinari, Gaëlle; Hoyek, Nady

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of dynamic visualizations of three-dimensional (3D) models in anatomy curricula may be an adequate solution for spatial difficulties encountered with traditional static learning, as they provide direct visualization of change throughout the viewpoints. However, little research has explored the interplay between learning material…

  4. On the Dynamic Programming Approach for the 3D Navier-Stokes Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manca, Luigi

    2008-01-01

    The dynamic programming approach for the control of a 3D flow governed by the stochastic Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible fluid in a bounded domain is studied. By a compactness argument, existence of solutions for the associated Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation is proved. Finally, existence of an optimal control through the feedback formula and of an optimal state is discussed

  5. Usefulness of 3D-VIBE method in breast dynamic MRI. Imaging parameters and contrasting effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchikoshi, Masato; Ueda, Takashi; Nishiki, Shigeo; Satou, Kouichi; Wada, Akihiko; Imaoka, Izumi; Matsuo, Michimasa

    2003-01-01

    MR imaging (MRI) has been reported to be a useful modality to characterize breast tumors and to evaluate disease extent. Contrast-enhanced dynamic MRI, in particular, allows breast lesions to be characterized with high sensitivity and specificity. Our study was designed to develop three-dimensional volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (3D-VIBE) techniques for the evaluation of breast tumors. First, agarose/Gd-DTPA phantoms with various concentrations of Gd-DTPA were imaged using 3D-VIBE and turbo spin echo (TSE). Second, one of the phantoms was imaged with 3D-VIBE using different flip angles. Finally, water excitation (WE) and a chemical shift-selective (CHESS) pulse were applied to the images. Each image was analyzed for signal intensity, signal-to-noise ratio (1.25*Ms/Mb) (SNR), and contrast ratio [(Ms1-Ms2)/{(Ms1+Ms2)/2}]. The results showed that 3D-VIBE provided better contrast ratios with a linear fit than TSE, although 3D-VIBE showed a lower SNR. To reach the best contrast ratio, the optimized flip angle was found to be 30 deg for contrast-enhanced dynamic study. Both WE and CHESS pulses were reliable for obtaining fat- suppressed images. In conclusion, the 3D-VIBE technique can image the entire breast area with high resolution and provide better contrast than TSE. Our phantom study suggests that optimized 3D-VIBE may be useful for the assessment of breast tumors. (author)

  6. Diagnositc value of 3D-gradient echo dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ik; Chung, Soo Young; Park, Hai Jung; Lee, Yul; Chung, Bong Wha; Shim, Jeong Won

    1997-01-01

    To assess the usefulness of 3D-gradient echo dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (3D-DMRI) in the diagnosis of breast cancer and to determine the most useful parameter for this diagnosis. Using a 1.0T MR unit, (Magnetom, Siemens, Erlaugen, Germany), 3D-DMRI (TR/TE=3D30/12) with Gd-DTPA was performed in 38 cases of breast cancer, 22 of fibroadenoma, and in three normal volunteers. We retrospectively evaluated the findings according to the speed on dynamic study and maximal amount of contrast enhancement during the delayed phase;we calculated the contrast index and morphology of the cancers and compared diagnostic accuracy among these three diagnostic parameters. On conventional spin-echo T1-and T2-weighted images, there was no significant difference of signal intensity between benign fibroadenoma and breast carcinoma. Rapid contrast enhancement (within one minute) was noted in 35 breast cancer lesions (92.1%), but relatively low and slow contrast enhancement (after five minutes) was noted in three such lesions (7.9%). Gradual contrast enhancement was noted in 21 lesions of fibroadenoma(95.5%), but a moderate degree of rapid contrast enhancement (from three to five minutes) was noted in the other case (7.9%). of On the delayed enhanced phase of 3D-DMRI, the maximal amount of contrast enhancement showed no significant difference between fibroadenoma and cancer. On 3D-DMRI, an irregular, spiculated border, with high contrast enhancement was noted in all cases of breast cancer, in particular, irregular thick peripheral contrast enhancement with central necrosis was noted 11cases(28.9%). For the diagnosis of breast cancer, 3D-DMRI is a useful technique. Among the diagnostic criteria of speed, maximal amount of contrast enhancement and morphology, morphologic change after contrast enhancement study was the most useful diagnostic parameter.=20

  7. Diagnositc value of 3D-gradient echo dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ik; Chung, Soo Young; Park, Hai Jung; Lee, Yul; Chung, Bong Wha; Shim, Jeong Won [Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-10-01

    To assess the usefulness of 3D-gradient echo dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (3D-DMRI) in the diagnosis of breast cancer and to determine the most useful parameter for this diagnosis. Using a 1.0T MR unit, (Magnetom, Siemens, Erlaugen, Germany), 3D-DMRI (TR/TE=3D30/12) with Gd-DTPA was performed in 38 cases of breast cancer, 22 of fibroadenoma, and in three normal volunteers. We retrospectively evaluated the findings according to the speed on dynamic study and maximal amount of contrast enhancement during the delayed phase;we calculated the contrast index and morphology of the cancers and compared diagnostic accuracy among these three diagnostic parameters. On conventional spin-echo T1-and T2-weighted images, there was no significant difference of signal intensity between benign fibroadenoma and breast carcinoma. Rapid contrast enhancement (within one minute) was noted in 35 breast cancer lesions (92.1%), but relatively low and slow contrast enhancement (after five minutes) was noted in three such lesions (7.9%). Gradual contrast enhancement was noted in 21 lesions of fibroadenoma(95.5%), but a moderate degree of rapid contrast enhancement (from three to five minutes) was noted in the other case (7.9%). of On the delayed enhanced phase of 3D-DMRI, the maximal amount of contrast enhancement showed no significant difference between fibroadenoma and cancer. On 3D-DMRI, an irregular, spiculated border, with high contrast enhancement was noted in all cases of breast cancer, in particular, irregular thick peripheral contrast enhancement with central necrosis was noted 11cases(28.9%). For the diagnosis of breast cancer, 3D-DMRI is a useful technique. Among the diagnostic criteria of speed, maximal amount of contrast enhancement and morphology, morphologic change after contrast enhancement study was the most useful diagnostic parameter.=20.

  8. 3-D subduction dynamics in the western Pacific: Mantle pressure, plate kinematics, and dynamic topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, A. F.; Royden, L.; Becker, T. W.; Faccenna, C.

    2017-12-01

    While it is well established that the slab pull of negatively buoyant oceanic plates is the primary driving force of plate tectonics, the dynamic "details" of subduction have proved difficult to pin down. We use the Philippine Sea Plate region of the western Pacific as a site to explore links between kinematic observables (e.g. topography and plate motions) and the dynamics of the subduction system (e.g. mantle flow, mantle pressure). To first order, the Philippine Sea Plate can be considered to be the central plate of a double slab system containing two slabs that dip in the same direction, to the west. This subduction configuration presents the opportunity to explore subduction dynamics in a setting where two closely spaced slabs interact via subduction-induced mantle flow and stresses transmitted through the intervening plate. We use a 3-D numerical approach (e.g. Holt et al., 2017), augmented by semi-analytical models (e.g. Jagoutz et al., 2017), to develop relationships between dynamic processes and kinematic properties, including plate velocities, lithospheric stress state, slab dip angles, and topography. When combined with subduction zone observables, this allows us to isolate the first order dynamic processes that are in operation in the Philippine Sea Plate region. Our results suggest that positive pressure build-up occurs in the asthenosphere between the two slabs (Izu-Bonin-Mariana and Ryukyu-Nankai), and that this is responsible for producing much of the observed kinematic variability in the region, including the steep dip of the Pacific slab at the Izu-Bonin-Mariana trench, as compared to the flat dip of the Pacific slab north of Japan. We then extend our understanding of the role of asthenospheric pressure to examine the forces responsible for the plate kinematics and dynamic topography of the entire Western Pacific subduction margin(s). References:Holt, A. F., Royden, L. H., Becker, T. W., 2017. Geophys. J. Int., 209, 250-265Jagoutz, O., Royden, L

  9. Industrial Decision Support System with Assistance of 3D Game Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Context. Industrial Decision Support System(DSS) traditionally relies on 2D approach to visualize the scenarios. For some abstract information, like chronological sequence of tasks or data trend, it provides a good visualization. For concrete information, such as location and spatial relationships, 2D visualizations are too abstract. Techniques from Game design, 3D modeling, virtual reality(VR) and animation provides many inspiration to develop a DSS tools for industrial applications. Objecti...

  10. Dynamic scattering theory for dark-field electron holography of 3D strain fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubk, Axel; Javon, Elsa; Cherkashin, Nikolay; Reboh, Shay; Gatel, Christophe; Hÿtch, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Dark-field electron holography maps strain in crystal lattices into reconstructed phases over large fields of view. Here we investigate the details of the lattice strain-reconstructed phase relationship by applying dynamic scattering theory both analytically and numerically. We develop efficient analytic linear projection rules for 3D strain fields, facilitating a straight-forward calculation of reconstructed phases from 3D strained materials. They are used in the following to quantify the influence of various experimental parameters like strain magnitude, specimen thickness, excitation error and surface relaxation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Interim results of the sixth three-dimensional AER dynamic benchmark problem calculation. Solution of problem with DYN3D and RELAP5-3D codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadek, J.; Kral, P.; Macek, J.

    2001-01-01

    The paper gives a brief survey of the 6 th three-dimensional AER dynamic benchmark calculation results received with the codes DYN3D and RELAPS-3D at NRI Rez. This benchmark was defined at the 10 th AER Symposium. Its initiating event is a double ended break in the steam line of steam generator No. I in a WWER-440/213 plant at the end of the first fuel cycle and in hot full power conditions. Stationary and burnup calculations as well as tuning of initial state before the transient were performed with the code DYN3D. Transient calculations were made with the system code RELAPS-3D.The KASSETA library was used for the generation of reactor core neutronic parameters. The detailed six loops model of NPP Dukovany was adopted for the 6 th AER dynamic benchmark purposes. The RELAPS-3D full core neutronic model was connected with seven coolant channels thermal-hydraulic model of the core (Authors)

  12. Towards high resolution mapping of 3-D mesoscale dynamics from observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Buongiorno Nardelli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The MyOcean R&D project MESCLA (MEsoSCaLe dynamical Analysis through combined model, satellite and in situ data was devoted to the high resolution 3-D retrieval of tracer and velocity fields in the oceans, based on the combination of in situ and satellite observations and quasi-geostrophic dynamical models. The retrieval techniques were also tested and compared with the output of a primitive equation model, with particular attention to the accuracy of the vertical velocity field as estimated through the Q vector formulation of the omega equation. The project focused on a test case, covering the region where the Gulf Stream separates from the US East Coast. This work demonstrated that innovative methods for the high resolution mapping of 3-D mesoscale dynamics from observations can be used to build the next generations of operational observation-based products.

  13. Preliminary results of the seventh three-dimensional AER dynamic benchmark problem calculation. Solution with DYN3D and RELAP5-3D codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bencik, M.; Hadek, J.

    2011-01-01

    The paper gives a brief survey of the seventh three-dimensional AER dynamic benchmark calculation results received with the codes DYN3D and RELAP5-3D at Nuclear Research Institute Rez. This benchmark was defined at the twentieth AER Symposium in Hanassari (Finland). It is focused on investigation of transient behaviour in a WWER-440 nuclear power plant. Its initiating event is opening of the main isolation valve and re-connection of the loop with its main circulation pump in operation. The WWER-440 plant is at the end of the first fuel cycle and in hot full power conditions. Stationary and burnup calculations were performed with the code DYN3D. Transient calculation was made with the system code RELAP5-3D. The two-group homogenized cross sections library HELGD05 created by HELIOS code was used for the generation of reactor core neutronic parameters. The detailed six loops model of NPP Dukovany was adopted for the seventh AER dynamic benchmark purposes. The RELAP5-3D full core neutronic model was coupled with 49 core thermal-hydraulic channels and 8 reflector channels connected with the three-dimensional model of the reactor vessel. The detailed nodalization of reactor downcomer, lower and upper plenum was used. Mixing in lower and upper plenum was simulated. The first part of paper contains a brief characteristic of RELAP5-3D system code and a short description of NPP input deck and reactor core model. The second part shows the time dependencies of important global and local parameters. (Authors)

  14. First application of the 3D-MHB on dynamic compressive behavior of UHPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cadoni Ezio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the dynamic behaviour of material in confined conditions a new machine was conceived and called 3D-Modified Hopkinson Bar (3D-MHB. It is a Modified Hopkinson Bar apparatus designed to apply dynamic loading in materials having a tri-axial stress state. It consists of a pulse generator system (with pre-tensioned bar and brittle joint, 1 input bar, and 5 output bars. The first results obtained on Ultra High Performance Concrete in compression with three different mono-axial compression states are presented. The results show how the pre-stress states minimize the boundary condition and a more uniform response is obtained.

  15. Development of 3D dynamic gap element for simulation of asymmetric fuel behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyochan; Yang, Yongsik; Koo, Yanghyun; Kang, Changhak; Lee, Sunguk; Yang, Dongyol

    2014-01-01

    The accurate modeling of heat transfer across the gap between fuel pellets and the protective cladding is essential to understanding the fuel performance, including cladding stress and behavior under irradiated conditions. To establish a heat transfer model through a gap in the fuel performance code, the gap conductance based on the Ross and Stoute model was employed in most previous works. In this model, the gap conductance that determines the temperature gradient within the gap is a function of gap thickness, which is dependent on mechanical behavior. Recently, many researchers have been developing fuel performance codes based on the finite element method (FE) to calculate the temperature, stress, and strain in 2D or 3D. The gap conductance model for FE can be a challenging issue in terms of convergence and nonlinearity because the elements that are positioned in a gap have a different gap conductance, and the boundary conditions of the gap vary at each iteration step. In this paper, the specified 3D dynamic gap element has been proposed and implemented to simulate asymmetric thermo-mechanical fuel behavior. A thermo-mechanical 3D finite element module incorporating a gap element has been implemented using FORTRAN77. To evaluate the proposed 3D gap element, the missing pellet surface (MPS), which results in an asymmetric heat transfer in the pellet and cladding, was simulated. As a result, the maximum temperature of a pellet for the MPS problem calculated with the specified 3D gap element is much higher than the temperature calculated with a uniform gap conductance model that a multidimensional fuel performance code employs. The results demonstrate that a 3D simulation is essential to evaluate the temperature and stress of the pellet and cladding for an asymmetric geometry simulation. (author)

  16. Intelligent Fault Diagnosis of Delta 3D Printers Using Attitude Sensors Based on Support Vector Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun He

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Health condition is a vital factor affecting printing quality for a 3D printer. In this work, an attitude monitoring approach is proposed to diagnose the fault of the delta 3D printer using support vector machines (SVM. An attitude sensor was mounted on the moving platform of the printer to monitor its 3-axial attitude angle, angular velocity, vibratory acceleration and magnetic field intensity. The attitude data of the working printer were collected under different conditions involving 12 fault types and a normal condition. The collected data were analyzed for diagnosing the health condition. To this end, the combination of binary classification, one-against-one with least-square SVM, was adopted for fault diagnosis modelling by using all channels of attitude monitoring data in the experiment. For comparison, each one channel of the attitude monitoring data was employed for model training and testing. On the other hand, a back propagation neural network (BPNN was also applied to diagnose fault using the same data. The best fault diagnosis accuracy (94.44% was obtained when all channels of the attitude monitoring data were used with SVM modelling. The results indicate that the attitude monitoring with SVM is an effective method for the fault diagnosis of delta 3D printers.

  17. Intelligent Fault Diagnosis of Delta 3D Printers Using Attitude Sensors Based on Support Vector Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kun; Yang, Zhijun; Bai, Yun; Long, Jianyu; Li, Chuan

    2018-01-01

    Health condition is a vital factor affecting printing quality for a 3D printer. In this work, an attitude monitoring approach is proposed to diagnose the fault of the delta 3D printer using support vector machines (SVM). An attitude sensor was mounted on the moving platform of the printer to monitor its 3-axial attitude angle, angular velocity, vibratory acceleration and magnetic field intensity. The attitude data of the working printer were collected under different conditions involving 12 fault types and a normal condition. The collected data were analyzed for diagnosing the health condition. To this end, the combination of binary classification, one-against-one with least-square SVM, was adopted for fault diagnosis modelling by using all channels of attitude monitoring data in the experiment. For comparison, each one channel of the attitude monitoring data was employed for model training and testing. On the other hand, a back propagation neural network (BPNN) was also applied to diagnose fault using the same data. The best fault diagnosis accuracy (94.44%) was obtained when all channels of the attitude monitoring data were used with SVM modelling. The results indicate that the attitude monitoring with SVM is an effective method for the fault diagnosis of delta 3D printers. PMID:29690641

  18. Intelligent Fault Diagnosis of Delta 3D Printers Using Attitude Sensors Based on Support Vector Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kun; Yang, Zhijun; Bai, Yun; Long, Jianyu; Li, Chuan

    2018-04-23

    Health condition is a vital factor affecting printing quality for a 3D printer. In this work, an attitude monitoring approach is proposed to diagnose the fault of the delta 3D printer using support vector machines (SVM). An attitude sensor was mounted on the moving platform of the printer to monitor its 3-axial attitude angle, angular velocity, vibratory acceleration and magnetic field intensity. The attitude data of the working printer were collected under different conditions involving 12 fault types and a normal condition. The collected data were analyzed for diagnosing the health condition. To this end, the combination of binary classification, one-against-one with least-square SVM, was adopted for fault diagnosis modelling by using all channels of attitude monitoring data in the experiment. For comparison, each one channel of the attitude monitoring data was employed for model training and testing. On the other hand, a back propagation neural network (BPNN) was also applied to diagnose fault using the same data. The best fault diagnosis accuracy (94.44%) was obtained when all channels of the attitude monitoring data were used with SVM modelling. The results indicate that the attitude monitoring with SVM is an effective method for the fault diagnosis of delta 3D printers.

  19. A 3-D model of tumor progression based on complex automata driven by particle dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wcisło, Rafał; Dzwinel, Witold; Yuen, David A; Dudek, Arkadiusz Z

    2009-12-01

    The dynamics of a growing tumor involving mechanical remodeling of healthy tissue and vasculature is neglected in most of the existing tumor models. This is due to the lack of efficient computational framework allowing for simulation of mechanical interactions. Meanwhile, just these interactions trigger critical changes in tumor growth dynamics and are responsible for its volumetric and directional progression. We describe here a novel 3-D model of tumor growth, which combines particle dynamics with cellular automata concept. The particles represent both tissue cells and fragments of the vascular network. They interact with their closest neighbors via semi-harmonic central forces simulating mechanical resistance of the cell walls. The particle dynamics is governed by both the Newtonian laws of motion and the cellular automata rules. These rules can represent cell life-cycle and other biological interactions involving smaller spatio-temporal scales. We show that our complex automata, particle based model can reproduce realistic 3-D dynamics of the entire system consisting of the tumor, normal tissue cells, blood vessels and blood flow. It can explain phenomena such as the inward cell motion in avascular tumor, stabilization of tumor growth by the external pressure, tumor vascularization due to the process of angiogenesis, trapping of healthy cells by invading tumor, and influence of external (boundary) conditions on the direction of tumor progression. We conclude that the particle model can serve as a general framework for designing advanced multiscale models of tumor dynamics and it is very competitive to the modeling approaches presented before.

  20. Influence of 3D aggregation on the photoluminescence dynamics of CdSe quantum dot films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alejo, T. [Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad de Salamanca, E-37008 Salamanca (Spain); Paulo, Pedro M.R. [Centro de Química Estrutural, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Merchán, M.D. [Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad de Salamanca, E-37008 Salamanca (Spain); Garcia-Fernandez, Emilio; Costa, Sílvia M.B. [Centro de Química Estrutural, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Velázquez, M.M., E-mail: mvsal@usal.es [Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad de Salamanca, E-37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2017-03-15

    Thin films of semiconductor CdSe quantum dots, QDs, directly deposited onto quartz as well as onto a Langmuir-Blodgett film of the Gemini surfactant ethyl-bis (dimethyl octadecyl ammonium bromide have been prepared and their photoluminescence properties were characterized by confocal fluorescence lifetime microscopy. 3D aggregates of QDs were observed in QD films directly deposited onto the solid while the Gemini surfactant film avoids the 3D aggregation. The photoluminescence decay analysis was performed by a phenomenological model previously proposed by us which considers that the luminescence dynamics is affected by energy transport and trapping processes and the relative contribution of these processes depends on film morphology. Thus, in the non-aggregated and more homogeneous QD films, QDs deposited onto the surfactant, the relative contribution of the energy transport process increases with trap concentration while 3D aggregation favors the energy transport even at low density of energy traps. - Highlights: • Photoluminescence dynamics of QDs films. • Photoluminescence response related to energy transport and trapping processes. • Dependence of photoluminescence dynamics on film morphology.

  1. Influence of 3D aggregation on the photoluminescence dynamics of CdSe quantum dot films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alejo, T.; Paulo, Pedro M.R.; Merchán, M.D.; Garcia-Fernandez, Emilio; Costa, Sílvia M.B.; Velázquez, M.M.

    2017-01-01

    Thin films of semiconductor CdSe quantum dots, QDs, directly deposited onto quartz as well as onto a Langmuir-Blodgett film of the Gemini surfactant ethyl-bis (dimethyl octadecyl ammonium bromide have been prepared and their photoluminescence properties were characterized by confocal fluorescence lifetime microscopy. 3D aggregates of QDs were observed in QD films directly deposited onto the solid while the Gemini surfactant film avoids the 3D aggregation. The photoluminescence decay analysis was performed by a phenomenological model previously proposed by us which considers that the luminescence dynamics is affected by energy transport and trapping processes and the relative contribution of these processes depends on film morphology. Thus, in the non-aggregated and more homogeneous QD films, QDs deposited onto the surfactant, the relative contribution of the energy transport process increases with trap concentration while 3D aggregation favors the energy transport even at low density of energy traps. - Highlights: • Photoluminescence dynamics of QDs films. • Photoluminescence response related to energy transport and trapping processes. • Dependence of photoluminescence dynamics on film morphology.

  2. Static/dynamic fluid-structure interaction analysis for 3-D rotary blade model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Yu Sung; Kim, Dong Man; Park, Kang Kyun

    2009-01-01

    In this study, static/dynamic fluid-structure interaction analyses have been conducted for a 3D rotary blade model like a turbo-machinery or wind turbine blade. Advanced computational analysis system based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Computational Structural Dynamics (CSD) has been developed in order to investigate detailed dynamic responses of rotary type models. Fluid domains are modeled using the computational grid system with local grid deforming techniques. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with various turbulence model are solved for unsteady flow problems of the rotating blade model. Detailed static/dynamic responses and instantaneous pressure contours on the blade surfaces considering flow-separation effects are presented to show the multi-physical phenomenon of the rotating blades.

  3. 3D bioprinting of biomimetic aortic vascular constructs with self-supporting cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukgul, Can; Ozler, S Burce; Inci, Ilyas; Karakas, Ezgi; Irmak, Ster; Gozuacik, Devrim; Taralp, Alpay; Koc, Bahattin

    2015-04-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of deaths throughout the world. Vascular diseases are mostly treated with autografts and blood vessel transplantations. However, traditional grafting methods have several problems including lack of suitable harvest sites, additional surgical costs for harvesting procedure, pain, infection, lack of donors, and even no substitutes at all. Recently, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine approaches are used to regenerate damaged or diseased tissues. Most of the tissue engineering investigations have been based on the cell seeding into scaffolds by providing a suitable environment for cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. Because of the challenges such as difficulties in seeding cells spatially, rejection, and inflammation of biomaterials used, the recent tissue engineering studies focus on scaffold-free techniques. In this paper, the development of novel computer aided algorithms and methods are developed for 3D bioprinting of scaffold-free biomimetic macrovascular structures. Computer model mimicking a real human aorta is generated using imaging techniques and the proposed computational algorithms. An optimized three-dimensional bioprinting path planning are developed with the proposed self-supported model. Mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cell aggregates and support structures (hydrogels) are 3D bioprinted layer-by-layer according to the proposed self-supported method to form an aortic tissue construct. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. PRONTO3D users` instructions: A transient dynamic code for nonlinear structural analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attaway, S.W.; Mello, F.J.; Heinstein, M.W.; Swegle, J.W.; Ratner, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zadoks, R.I. [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

    1998-06-01

    This report provides an updated set of users` instructions for PRONTO3D. PRONTO3D is a three-dimensional, transient, solid dynamics code for analyzing large deformations of highly nonlinear materials subjected to extremely high strain rates. This Lagrangian finite element program uses an explicit time integration operator to integrate the equations of motion. Eight-node, uniform strain, hexahedral elements and four-node, quadrilateral, uniform strain shells are used in the finite element formulation. An adaptive time step control algorithm is used to improve stability and performance in plasticity problems. Hourglass distortions can be eliminated without disturbing the finite element solution using either the Flanagan-Belytschko hourglass control scheme or an assumed strain hourglass control scheme. All constitutive models in PRONTO3D are cast in an unrotated configuration defined using the rotation determined from the polar decomposition of the deformation gradient. A robust contact algorithm allows for the impact and interaction of deforming contact surfaces of quite general geometry. The Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics method has been embedded into PRONTO3D using the contact algorithm to couple it with the finite element method.

  5. Stereoscopic 3D display with dynamic optical correction for recovering from asthenopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Takashi; Kawai, Takashi; Otsuki, Masaki; Miyake, Nobuyuki; Yoshihara, Yoshihiro; Iwasaki, Tsuneto

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to consider a practical application of a newly developed stereoscopic 3-D display that solves the problem of discrepancy between accommodation and convergence. The display uses dynamic optical correction to reduce the discrepancy, and can present images as if they are actually remote objects. The authors thought the display may assist in recovery from asthenopia, which is often caused when the eyes focus on a nearby object for a long time, such as in VDT (Visual Display Terminal) work. In general, recovery from asthenopia, and especially accommodative asthenopia, is achieved by focusing on distant objects. In order to verify this hypothesis, the authors performed visual acuity tests using Landolt rings before and after presenting stereoscopic 3-D images, and evaluated the degree of recovery from asthenopia. The experiment led to three main conclusions: (1) Visual acuity rose after viewing stereoscopic 3-D images on the developed display. (2) Recovery from asthenopia was particularly effective for the dominant eye in comparison with the other eye. (3) Interviews with the subjects indicated that the Landolt rings were particularly clear after viewing the stereoscopic 3-D images.

  6. Shape optimization of 3D curved slots and its application to the squirrel-cage elastic support design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Zhang, Weihong; Wang, Zhenpei; Zhu, Jihong

    2010-10-01

    The squirrel-cage elastic support is one of the most important components of an aero-engine rotor system. A proper structural design will favor the static and dynamic performances of the system. In view of the deficiency of the current shape optimization techniques, a new mapping approach is proposed to define shape design variables based on the parametric equations of 3D curves and surfaces. It is then applied for the slot shape optimization of a squirrel-cage elastic support. To this end, an automatic design procedure that integrates the Genetic Algorithm (GA) is developed to solve the problem. Two typical examples with different shape constraints are considered. Numerical results provide reasonable optimum designs for the improvement of stiffness and strength of the squirrel-cage elastic support.

  7. Dynamic scattering theory for dark-field electron holography of 3D strain fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubk, Axel; Javon, Elsa; Cherkashin, Nikolay; Reboh, Shay; Gatel, Christophe; Hÿtch, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Dark-field electron holography maps strain in crystal lattices into reconstructed phases over large fields of view. Here we investigate the details of the lattice strain–reconstructed phase relationship by applying dynamic scattering theory both analytically and numerically. We develop efficient analytic linear projection rules for 3D strain fields, facilitating a straight-forward calculation of reconstructed phases from 3D strained materials. They are used in the following to quantify the influence of various experimental parameters like strain magnitude, specimen thickness, excitation error and surface relaxation. - Author-Highlights: • We derive a simple dynamic scattering formalism for dark field electron holography based on a perturbative two-beam theory. • The formalism facilitates the projection of 3D strain fields by a simple weighting integral. • The weighted projection depends analytically on the diffraction order, the excitation error and the specimen thickness. • The weighting integral formalism represents an important prerequisite towards the development of tomographic strain reconstruction techniques

  8. Supported 3-D Pt nanostructures: the straightforward synthesis and enhanced electrochemical performance for methanol oxidation in an acidic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zesheng; Ji, Shan; Pollet, Bruno G.; Shen, Pei Kang

    2013-01-01

    Noble metal nanostructures with branched morphologies [i.e., 3-D Pt nanoflowers (NFs)] by tri-dimensionally integrating onto conductive carbon materials are proved to be an efficient and durable electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation. The well-supported 3-D Pt NFs are readily achieved by an efficient cobalt-induced/carbon-mediated galvanic reaction approach. Due to the favorable nanostructures (3-D Pt configuration allowing a facile mass transfer) and supporting effects (including framework stabilization, spatially separate feature, and improved charge transport effects), these 3-D Pt NFs manifest much higher electrocatalytic activity and stability toward methanol oxidation than that of the commercial Pt/C and Pt-based electrocatalysts

  9. Supported 3-D Pt nanostructures: the straightforward synthesis and enhanced electrochemical performance for methanol oxidation in an acidic medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zesheng [Sun Yat-sen University, The State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, and Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Low-carbon Chemistry and Energy Conservation, School of Physics and Engineering (China); Ji, Shan; Pollet, Bruno G. [University of the Western Cape, South African Institute for Advanced Materials Chemistry (SAIAMC) (South Africa); Shen, Pei Kang, E-mail: stsspk@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Sun Yat-sen University, The State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, and Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Low-carbon Chemistry and Energy Conservation, School of Physics and Engineering (China)

    2013-10-15

    Noble metal nanostructures with branched morphologies [i.e., 3-D Pt nanoflowers (NFs)] by tri-dimensionally integrating onto conductive carbon materials are proved to be an efficient and durable electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation. The well-supported 3-D Pt NFs are readily achieved by an efficient cobalt-induced/carbon-mediated galvanic reaction approach. Due to the favorable nanostructures (3-D Pt configuration allowing a facile mass transfer) and supporting effects (including framework stabilization, spatially separate feature, and improved charge transport effects), these 3-D Pt NFs manifest much higher electrocatalytic activity and stability toward methanol oxidation than that of the commercial Pt/C and Pt-based electrocatalysts.

  10. Foot roll-over evaluation based on 3D dynamic foot scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, William; Van Hamme, Angèle; Sanchez, Stéphane; Chèze, Laurence; Van Sint Jan, Serge; Feipel, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Foot roll-over is commonly analyzed to evaluate gait pathologies. The current study utilized a dynamic foot scanner (DFS) to analyze foot roll-over. The right feet of ten healthy subjects were assessed during gait trials with a DFS system integrated into a walkway. A foot sole picture was computed by vertically projecting points from the 3D foot shape which were lower than a threshold height of 15 mm. A 'height' value of these projected points was determined; corresponding to the initial vertical coordinates prior to projection. Similar to pedobarographic analysis, the foot sole picture was segmented into anatomical regions of interest (ROIs) to process mean height (average of height data by ROI) and projected surface (area of the projected foot sole by ROI). Results showed that these variables evolved differently to plantar pressure data previously reported in the literature, mainly due to the specificity of each physical quantity (millimeters vs Pascals). Compared to plantar pressure data arising from surface contact by the foot, the current method takes into account the whole plantar aspect of the foot, including the parts that do not make contact with the support surface. The current approach using height data could contribute to a better understanding of specific aspects of foot motion during walking, such as plantar arch height and the windlass mechanism. Results of this study show the underlying method is reliable. Further investigation is required to validate the DFS measurements within a clinical context, prior to implementation into clinical practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The computer simulation of 3d gas dynamics in a gas centrifuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borman, V. D.; Bogovalov, S. V.; Borisevich, V. D.; Tronin, I. V.; Tronin, V. N.

    2016-09-01

    We argue on the basis of the results of 2D analysis of the gas flow in gas centrifuges that a reliable calculation of the circulation of the gas and gas content in the gas centrifuge is possible only in frameworks of 3D numerical simulation of gas dynamics in the gas centrifuge (hereafter GC). The group from National research nuclear university, MEPhI, has created a computer code for 3D simulation of the gas flow in GC. The results of the computer simulations of the gas flows in GC are presented. A model Iguassu centrifuge is explored for the simulations. A nonaxisymmetric gas flow is produced due to interaction of the hypersonic rotating flow with the scoops for extraction of the product and waste flows from the GC. The scoops produce shock waves penetrating into a working camera of the GC and form spiral waves there.

  12. The computer simulation of 3d gas dynamics in a gas centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borman, V D; Bogovalov, S V; Borisevich, V D; Tronin, I V; Tronin, V N

    2016-01-01

    We argue on the basis of the results of 2D analysis of the gas flow in gas centrifuges that a reliable calculation of the circulation of the gas and gas content in the gas centrifuge is possible only in frameworks of 3D numerical simulation of gas dynamics in the gas centrifuge (hereafter GC). The group from National research nuclear university, MEPhI, has created a computer code for 3D simulation of the gas flow in GC. The results of the computer simulations of the gas flows in GC are presented. A model Iguassu centrifuge is explored for the simulations. A nonaxisymmetric gas flow is produced due to interaction of the hypersonic rotating flow with the scoops for extraction of the product and waste flows from the GC. The scoops produce shock waves penetrating into a working camera of the GC and form spiral waves there. (paper)

  13. New version of the reactor dynamics code DYN3D for Sodium cooled Fast Reactor analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, Evgeny [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) e.V., Dresden (Germany); Fridman, Emil; Bilodid, Yuri; Kliem, Soeren [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) e.V., Dresden (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    The reactor dynamics code DYN3D being developed at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf is currently under extension for Sodium cooled Fast Reactor analyses. This paper provides an overview on the new version of DYN3D to be used for SFR core calculations. The current article shortly describes the newly implemented thermal mechanical models, which can account for thermal expansion effects of the reactor core. Furthermore, the methodology used in Sodium cooled Fast Reactor analyses to generate homogenized few-group cross sections is summarized. The conducted and planned verification and validation studies are briefly presented. Related publications containing more detailed descriptions are outlined for the completeness of this overview.

  14. 3D ion-scale dynamics of BBFs and their associated emissions in Earth's magnetotail using 3D hybrid simulations and MMS multi-spacecraft observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuillard, H.; Aunai, N.; Le Contel, O.; Catapano, F.; Alexandrova, A.; Retino, A.; Cozzani, G.; Gershman, D. J.; Giles, B. L.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Ergun, R.; Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.; Magnes, W.; Plaschke, F.; Nakamura, R.; Fuselier, S. A.; Turner, D. L.; Schwartz, S. J.; Torbert, R. B.; Burch, J.

    2017-12-01

    Transient and localized jets of hot plasma, also known as Bursty Bulk Flows (BBFs), play a crucial role in Earth's magnetotail dynamics because the energy input from the solar wind is partly dissipated in their vicinity, notably in their embedded dipolarization front (DF). This dissipation is in the form of strong low-frequency waves that can heat and accelerate energetic particles up to the high-latitude plasma sheet. The ion-scale dynamics of BBFs have been revealed by the Cluster and THEMIS multi-spacecraft missions. However, the dynamics of BBF propagation in the magnetotail are still under debate due to instrumental limitations and spacecraft separation distances, as well as simulation limitations. The NASA/MMS fleet, which features unprecedented high time resolution instruments and four spacecraft separated by kinetic-scale distances, has also shown recently that the DF normal dynamics and its associated emissions are below the ion gyroradius scale in this region. Large variations in the dawn-dusk direction were also observed. However, most of large-scale simulations are using the MHD approach and are assumed 2D in the XZ plane. Thus, in this study we take advantage of both multi-spacecraft observations by MMS and large-scale 3D hybrid simulations to investigate the 3D dynamics of BBFs and their associated emissions at ion-scale in Earth's magnetotail, and their impact on particle heating and acceleration.

  15. Fixation free femoral hernia repair with a 3D dynamic responsive implant. A case series report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, G; Romano, G; Agrusa, A; Gordini, L; Gulotta, E; Erdas, E; Calò, P G

    2018-04-23

    To date, no gold standard for the surgical treatment of femoral hernia exists. Pure tissue repair as well as mesh/plug implantation, open or laparoscopic, are the most performed methods. Nevertheless, all these techniques need sutures or mesh fixation. This implies the risk of damaging sensitive structures of the femoral area, along with complications related to tissue tear and postoperative discomfort consequent to poor quality mesh incorporation. The present retrospective multicenter case series highlights the results of femoral hernia repair procedures performed with a 3D dynamic responsive implant in a cohort of 32 patients during a mean follow up of 27 months. Aiming to simplify the surgical procedure and reduce complications, a 3D dynamic responsive implant was delivered for femoral hernia repair, in a patient cohort. After returning the hernia sack to the abdominal cavity, the implant was simply delivered into the hernia defect where it remained, thanks to its inherent centrifugal expansion, obliterating the hernia opening without need of fixation. Postoperative pain assessment was determined using the VAS score system. The use of the 3D prosthetic device allowed for easier and faster surgical repair in a fixation free fashion. None of the typical fixation related complications occurred in the examined patients. Postoperative pain assessment with VAS score showed a very low level of pain, allowing the return of patients to normal activities in extremely reduced times. In the late postoperative period, no discomfort or chronic pain was reported. Femoral hernia repair with the 3D dynamic revealed a quick and safe placement procedure. The reduced pain intensity, as well as the absence of adverse events consequent to sutures or mesh fixation, seems to be a significant benefit of the motile compliance of the device. Furthermore, this 3D prosthesis has already proven to induce an enhanced probiotic response showing ingrowth in the implant of the typical tissue

  16. Fast isotropic banding-free bSSFP imaging using 3D dynamically phase-cycled radial bSSFP (3D DYPR-SSFP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benkert, Thomas; Blaimer, Martin; Breuer, Felix A. [Research Center Magnetic Resonance Bavaria (MRB), Wuerzburg (Germany); Ehses, Philipp [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Neuroimaging; Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Tuebingen (Germany). High-Field MR Center; Jakob, Peter M. [Research Center Magnetic Resonance Bavaria (MRB), Wuerzburg (Germany); Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Experimental Physics 5

    2016-05-01

    Aims: Dynamically phase-cycled radial balanced steady-state free precession (DYPR-SSFP) is a method for efficient banding artifact removal in bSSFP imaging. Based on a varying radiofrequency (RF) phase-increment in combination with a radial trajectory, DYPR-SSFP allows obtaining a banding-free image out of a single acquired k-space. The purpose of this work is to present an extension of this technique, enabling fast three-dimensional isotropic banding-free bSSFP imaging. Methods: While banding artifact removal with DYPR-SSFP relies on the applied dynamic phase-cycle, this aspect can lead to artifacts, at least when the number of acquired projections lies below a certain limit. However, by using a 3D radial trajectory with quasi-random view ordering for image acquisition, this problem is intrinsically solved, enabling 3D DYPR-SSFP imaging at or even below the Nyquist criterion. The approach is validated for brain and knee imaging at 3 Tesla. Results: Volumetric, banding-free images were obtained in clinically acceptable scan times with an isotropic resolution up to 0.56 mm. Conclusion: The combination of DYPR-SSFP with a 3D radial trajectory allows banding-free isotropic volumetric bSSFP imaging with no expense of scan time. Therefore, this is a promising candidate for clinical applications such as imaging of cranial nerves or articular cartilage.

  17. The northern tidal dynamic of Aceh waters: A 3D numerical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irham, M.; Miswar, E.; Ilhamsyah, Y.; Setiawan, I.

    2018-05-01

    The northern tidal dynamic of Aceh waters studied by employing three-dimensional (3D) numerical hydrodynamic model. The purpose of this study is to understand the phenomena and the characteristic of the northern tidal dynamic of Aceh waters. The research used the explicit-splitting scheme numerical model of Navier-Stokes formulation. The result displays that the vertical rotation of flow movement (vertical eddy) at a depth of 15 to 25 meter eastern part of the study area. Hence, the result also informs that the current circulation identically to the upwelling in the western region of Aceh during the wet season and vice versa. However, during the transitional season, the flow circulation depends on how the tidal dynamic occurs in the area.

  18. Quantification of Diaphragm Mechanics in Pompe Disease Using Dynamic 3D MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Mogalle

    Full Text Available Diaphragm weakness is the main reason for respiratory dysfunction in patients with Pompe disease, a progressive metabolic myopathy affecting respiratory and limb-girdle muscles. Since respiratory failure is the major cause of death among adult patients, early identification of respiratory muscle involvement is necessary to initiate treatment in time and possibly prevent irreversible damage. In this paper we investigate the suitability of dynamic MR imaging in combination with state-of-the-art image analysis methods to assess respiratory muscle weakness.The proposed methodology relies on image registration and lung surface extraction to quantify lung kinematics during breathing. This allows for the extraction of geometry and motion features of the lung that characterize the independent contribution of the diaphragm and the thoracic muscles to the respiratory cycle.Results in 16 3D+t MRI scans (10 Pompe patients and 6 controls of a slow expiratory maneuver show that kinematic analysis from dynamic 3D images reveals important additional information about diaphragm mechanics and respiratory muscle involvement when compared to conventional pulmonary function tests. Pompe patients with severely reduced pulmonary function showed severe diaphragm weakness presented by minimal motion of the diaphragm. In patients with moderately reduced pulmonary function, cranial displacement of posterior diaphragm parts was reduced and the diaphragm dome was oriented more horizontally at full inspiration compared to healthy controls.Dynamic 3D MRI provides data for analyzing the contribution of both diaphragm and thoracic muscles independently. The proposed image analysis method has the potential to detect less severe diaphragm weakness and could thus be used to determine the optimal start of treatment in adult patients with Pompe disease in prospect of increased treatment response.

  19. A biplanar X-ray approach for studying the 3D dynamics of human track formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatala, Kevin G; Perry, David A; Gatesy, Stephen M

    2018-05-09

    Recent discoveries have made hominin tracks an increasingly prevalent component of the human fossil record, and these data have the capacity to inform long-standing debates regarding the biomechanics of hominin locomotion. However, there is currently no consensus on how to decipher biomechanical variables from hominin tracks. These debates can be linked to our generally limited understanding of the complex interactions between anatomy, motion, and substrate that give rise to track morphology. These interactions are difficult to study because direct visualization of the track formation process is impeded by foot and substrate opacity. To address these obstacles, we developed biplanar X-ray and computer animation methods, derived from X-ray Reconstruction of Moving Morphology (XROMM), to analyze the 3D dynamics of three human subjects' feet as they walked across four substrates (three deformable muds and rigid composite panel). By imaging and reconstructing 3D positions of external markers, we quantified the 3D dynamics at the foot-substrate interface. Foot shape, specifically heel and medial longitudinal arch deformation, was significantly affected by substrate rigidity. In deformable muds, we found that depths measured across tracks did not directly reflect the motions of the corresponding regions of the foot, and that track outlines were not perfectly representative of foot size. These results highlight the complex, dynamic nature of track formation, and the experimental methods presented here offer a promising avenue for developing and refining methods for accurately inferring foot anatomy and gait biomechanics from fossil hominin tracks. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Magnetic resonance velocity mapping of 3D cerebrospinal fluid flow dynamics in hydrocephalus: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadlbauer, Andreas; Salomonowitz, Erich; Brenneis, Christian; Ungersboeck, Karl; Riet, Wilma van der; Buchfelder, Michael; Ganslandt, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the detectability of CSF flow alterations in the ventricular system of patients with hydrocephalus using time-resolved 3D MR velocity mapping. MR velocity mapping was performed in 21 consecutive hydrocephalus patients and 21 age-matched volunteers using a 3D phase-contrast (PC) sequence. Velocity vectors and particle path lines were calculated for visualisation of flow dynamics. CSF flow was classified as ''hypomotile flow'' if it showed attenuated dynamics and as ''hypermotile flow'' if it showed increased dynamics compared with volunteers. Diagnostic efficacy was compared with routine 2D cine PC-MRI. Seven patients showed hypomotile CSF flow: six had non-communicating hydrocephalus due to aqueductal stenosis. One showed oscillating flow between the lateral ventricles after craniotomy for intracranial haemorrhage. Seven patients showed normal flow: six had hydrocephalus ex vacuo due to brain atrophy. One patient who underwent ventriculostomy 10 years ago showed a flow path through the opening. Seven patients showed hypermotile flow: three had normal pressure hydrocephalus, three had dementia, and in one the diagnosis remained unclear. The diagnostic efficacy of velocity mapping was significantly higher except for that of aqueductal stenosis. Our approach may be useful for diagnosis, therapy planning, and follow-up of different kinds of hydrocephalus. (orig.)

  1. Magnetic resonance velocity mapping of 3D cerebrospinal fluid flow dynamics in hydrocephalus: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadlbauer, Andreas [Landesklinikum St. Poelten, MR Physics Group, Department of Radiology, St. Poelten (Austria); University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Neurosurgery, Erlangen (Germany); Salomonowitz, Erich [Landesklinikum St. Poelten, MR Physics Group, Department of Radiology, St. Poelten (Austria); Brenneis, Christian [Landesklinikum St. Poelten, Department of Neurology, St. Poelten (Austria); Ungersboeck, Karl [Landesklinikum St. Poelten, Department of Neurosurgery, St. Poelten (Austria); Riet, Wilma van der [European MRI Consultancy (EMRIC), Strasbourg (France); Buchfelder, Michael; Ganslandt, Oliver [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Neurosurgery, Erlangen (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    To investigate the detectability of CSF flow alterations in the ventricular system of patients with hydrocephalus using time-resolved 3D MR velocity mapping. MR velocity mapping was performed in 21 consecutive hydrocephalus patients and 21 age-matched volunteers using a 3D phase-contrast (PC) sequence. Velocity vectors and particle path lines were calculated for visualisation of flow dynamics. CSF flow was classified as ''hypomotile flow'' if it showed attenuated dynamics and as ''hypermotile flow'' if it showed increased dynamics compared with volunteers. Diagnostic efficacy was compared with routine 2D cine PC-MRI. Seven patients showed hypomotile CSF flow: six had non-communicating hydrocephalus due to aqueductal stenosis. One showed oscillating flow between the lateral ventricles after craniotomy for intracranial haemorrhage. Seven patients showed normal flow: six had hydrocephalus ex vacuo due to brain atrophy. One patient who underwent ventriculostomy 10 years ago showed a flow path through the opening. Seven patients showed hypermotile flow: three had normal pressure hydrocephalus, three had dementia, and in one the diagnosis remained unclear. The diagnostic efficacy of velocity mapping was significantly higher except for that of aqueductal stenosis. Our approach may be useful for diagnosis, therapy planning, and follow-up of different kinds of hydrocephalus. (orig.)

  2. Versatile, immersive, creative and dynamic virtual 3-D healthcare learning environments: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Margaret M

    2008-09-01

    The author provides a critical overview of three-dimensional (3-D) virtual worlds and "serious gaming" that are currently being developed and used in healthcare professional education and medicine. The relevance of this e-learning innovation for teaching students and professionals is debatable and variables influencing adoption, such as increased knowledge, self-directed learning, and peer collaboration, by academics, healthcare professionals, and business executives are examined while looking at various Web 2.0/3.0 applications. There is a need for more empirical research in order to unearth the pedagogical outcomes and advantages associated with this e-learning technology. A brief description of Roger's Diffusion of Innovations Theory and Siemens' Connectivism Theory for today's learners is presented as potential underlying pedagogical tenets to support the use of virtual 3-D learning environments in higher education and healthcare.

  3. Evolutionary dynamics of 3D genome architecture following polyploidization in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Maojun; Wang, Pengcheng; Lin, Min; Ye, Zhengxiu; Li, Guoliang; Tu, Lili; Shen, Chao; Li, Jianying; Yang, Qingyong; Zhang, Xianlong

    2018-02-01

    The formation of polyploids significantly increases the complexity of transcriptional regulation, which is expected to be reflected in sophisticated higher-order chromatin structures. However, knowledge of three-dimensional (3D) genome structure and its dynamics during polyploidization remains poor. Here, we characterize 3D genome architectures for diploid and tetraploid cotton, and find the existence of A/B compartments and topologically associated domains (TADs). By comparing each subgenome in tetraploids with its extant diploid progenitor, we find that genome allopolyploidization has contributed to the switching of A/B compartments and the reorganization of TADs in both subgenomes. We also show that the formation of TAD boundaries during polyploidization preferentially occurs in open chromatin, coinciding with the deposition of active chromatin modification. Furthermore, analysis of inter-subgenomic chromatin interactions has revealed the spatial proximity of homoeologous genes, possibly associated with their coordinated expression. This study advances our understanding of chromatin organization in plants and sheds new light on the relationship between 3D genome evolution and transcriptional regulation.

  4. The 3-D alignment of objects in dynamic PET scans using filtered sinusoidal trajectories of sinogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostopoulos, Aristotelis E.; Happonen, Antti P.; Ruotsalainen, Ulla

    2006-01-01

    In this study, our goal is to employ a novel 3-D alignment method for dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) scans. Because the acquired data (i.e. sinograms) often contain noise considerably, filtering of the data prior to the alignment presumably improves the final results. In this study, we utilized a novel 3-D stackgram domain approach. In the stackgram domain, the signals along the sinusoidal trajectory signals of the sinogram can be processed separately. In this work, we performed angular stackgram domain filtering by employing well known 1-D filters: the Gaussian low-pass filter and the median filter. In addition, we employed two wavelet de-noising techniques. After filtering we performed alignment of objects in the stackgram domain. The local alignment technique we used is based on similarity comparisons between locus vectors (i.e. the signals along the sinusoidal trajectories of the sinogram) in a 3-D neighborhood of sequences of the stackgrams. Aligned stackgrams can be transformed back to sinograms (Method 1), or alternatively directly to filtered back-projected images (Method 2). In order to evaluate the alignment process, simulated data with different kinds of additive noises were used. The results indicated that the filtering prior to the alignment can be important concerning the accuracy

  5. 3D Discrete Dislocation Dynamics Applied to Interactions between Dislocation Walls and Particles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Záležák, Tomáš; Dlouhý, Antonín

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 3 (2012), s. 450-452 ISSN 0587-4246. [International Symposium on Physics of Materials /12./ - ISPMA 12. Prague, 04.09.2011-08.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GD106/09/H035; GA ČR GA202/09/2073; GA MŠk OC 162 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : 3D discrete dislocation dynamics * tilt boundary * migration * diffusion * pecipitation hardening Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 0.531, year: 2012

  6. Time resolved 3D momentum imaging of ultrafast dynamics by coherent VUV-XUV radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturm, F. P., E-mail: fpsturm@lbl.gov [Ultrafast X-Ray Science Lab, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Institut für Kernphysik, Universität Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Wright, T. W.; Ray, D.; Zalyubovskaya, I.; Shivaram, N.; Slaughter, D. S.; Belkacem, A.; Weber, Th. [Ultrafast X-Ray Science Lab, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Ranitovic, P. [Ultrafast X-Ray Science Lab, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); ELI-ALPS, ELI-Hu Nkft, Dugonics ter 13, Szeged H6720 (Hungary)

    2016-06-15

    We present a new experimental setup for measuring ultrafast nuclear and electron dynamics of molecules after photo-excitation and ionization. We combine a high flux femtosecond vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) source with an internally cold molecular beam and a 3D momentum imaging particle spectrometer to measure electrons and ions in coincidence. We describe a variety of tools developed to perform pump-probe studies in the VUV-XUV spectrum and to modify and characterize the photon beam. First benchmark experiments are presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the system.

  7. Dynamic 3D culture promotes spontaneous embryonic stem cell differentiation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Jörg C; Hout, Mariah; Edsbagge, Josefina; Björquist, Petter; Lübberstedt, Marc; Miki, Toshio; Stachelscheid, Harald; Schmelzer, Eva; Schatten, Gerald; Zeilinger, Katrin

    2010-02-01

    Spontaneous in vitro differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) is promoted by a dynamic, three-dimensional (3D), tissue-density perfusion technique with continuous medium perfusion and exchange in a novel four-compartment, interwoven capillary bioreactor. We compared ectodermal, endodermal, and mesodermal immunoreactive tissue structures formed by mESC at culture day 10 with mouse fetal tissue development at gestational day E9.5. The results show that the bioreactor cultures more closely resemble mouse fetal tissue development at gestational day E9.5 than control mESC cultured in Petri dishes.

  8. Development of a version of the reactor dynamics code DYN3D applicable for High Temperature Reactors; Entwicklung einer Version des Reaktordynamikcodes DYN3D fuer Hochtemperaturreaktoren. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohde, Ulrich; Apanasevich, Pavel; Baier, Silvio; Duerigen, Susan; Fridman, Emil; Grahn, Alexander; Kliem, Soeren; Merk, Bruno

    2012-07-15

    Based on the reactor dynamics code DYN3D for the simulation of transient processes in Light Water Reactors, a code version DYN3D-HTR for application to graphitemoderated, gas-cooled block-type high temperature reactors has been developed. This development comprises: - the methodical improvement of the 3D steady-state neutron flux calculation for the hexagonal geometry of the HTR fuel element blocks - the development of methods for the generation of homogenised cross section data taking into account the double heterogeneity of the fuel element block structure - the implementation of a 3D model for heat conduction and heat transport in the graphite matrix. The nodal method for neutron flux calculation based on SP3 transport approximation was extended to hexagonal fuel element geometry, where the hexagons are subdivided into triangles, thus the method had finally to be derived for triangular geometry. In triangular geometry, a subsequent subdivision of the hexagonal elements can be considered, and therefore, the effect of systematic mesh refinement can be studied. The algorithm was verified by comparison with Monte Carlo reference solutions, on the node-wise level, as well as also on the pin-wise level. New procedures were developed for the homogenization of the double-heterogeneous fuel element structures. One the one hand, the so-called Reactivity equivalent Physical Transformation (RPT), the two-step homogenization method based on 2D deterministic lattice calculations, was extended to cells with different temperatures of the materials. On the other hand, the progress in development of Monte Carlo methods for spectral calculations, in particular the development of the code SERPENT, opened a new, fully consistent 3D approach, where all details of the structures on fuel particle, fuel compact and fuel block level can be taken into account within one step. Moreover, a 3D heat conduction and heat transport model was integrated into DYN3D to be able to simulate radial

  9. Influence of neuromuscular noise and walking speed on fall risk and dynamic stability in a 3D dynamic walking model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Paulien E; Dingwell, Jonathan B

    2013-06-21

    Older adults and those with increased fall risk tend to walk slower. They may do this voluntarily to reduce their fall risk. However, both slower and faster walking speeds can predict increased risk of different types of falls. The mechanisms that contribute to fall risk across speeds are not well known. Faster walking requires greater forward propulsion, generated by larger muscle forces. However, greater muscle activation induces increased signal-dependent neuromuscular noise. These speed-related increases in neuromuscular noise may contribute to the increased fall risk observed at faster walking speeds. Using a 3D dynamic walking model, we systematically varied walking speed without and with physiologically-appropriate neuromuscular noise. We quantified how actual fall risk changed with gait speed, how neuromuscular noise affected speed-related changes in fall risk, and how well orbital and local dynamic stability measures predicted changes in fall risk across speeds. When we included physiologically-appropriate noise to the 'push-off' force in our model, fall risk increased with increasing walking speed. Changes in kinematic variability, orbital, and local dynamic stability did not predict these speed-related changes in fall risk. Thus, the increased neuromuscular variability that results from increased signal-dependent noise that is necessitated by the greater muscular force requirements of faster walking may contribute to the increased fall risk observed at faster walking speeds. The lower fall risk observed at slower speeds supports experimental evidence that slowing down can be an effective strategy to reduce fall risk. This may help explain the slower walking speeds observed in older adults and others. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An Integrated Web-Based 3d Modeling and Visualization Platform to Support Sustainable Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirebrahimi, S.; Rajabifard, A.

    2012-07-01

    Sustainable Development is found as the key solution to preserve the sustainability of cities in oppose to ongoing population growth and its negative impacts. This is complex and requires a holistic and multidisciplinary decision making. Variety of stakeholders with different backgrounds also needs to be considered and involved. Numerous web-based modeling and visualization tools have been designed and developed to support this process. There have been some success stories; however, majority failed to bring a comprehensive platform to support different aspects of sustainable development. In this work, in the context of SDI and Land Administration, CSDILA Platform - a 3D visualization and modeling platform -was proposed which can be used to model and visualize different dimensions to facilitate the achievement of sustainability, in particular, in urban context. The methodology involved the design of a generic framework for development of an analytical and visualization tool over the web. CSDILA Platform was then implemented via number of technologies based on the guidelines provided by the framework. The platform has a modular structure and uses Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA). It is capable of managing spatial objects in a 4D data store and can flexibly incorporate a variety of developed models using the platform's API. Development scenarios can be modeled and tested using the analysis and modeling component in the platform and the results are visualized in seamless 3D environment. The platform was further tested using number of scenarios and showed promising results and potentials to serve a wider need. In this paper, the design process of the generic framework, the implementation of CSDILA Platform and technologies used, and also findings and future research directions will be presented and discussed.

  11. Insights from 3D numerical simulations on the dynamics of the India-Asia collision zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusok, A. E.; Kaus, B.; Popov, A.

    2013-12-01

    The dynamics of the India-Asia collision zone remains one of the most remarkable topics of the current research interest: the transition from subduction to collision and uplift, followed by the rise of the abnormally thick Tibetan plateau, and the deformation at its Eastern and Western syntaxes, are processes still not fully understood. Models that have addressed this topic include wholescale underthrusting of Indian lithospheric mantle under Tibet, distributed homogeneous shortening or the thin-sheet model, slip-line field model for lateral extrusion or lower crustal flow models for the exhumation of the Himalayan units and lateral spreading of the Tibetan plateau. Of these, the thin-sheet model has successfully illustrated some of the basic physics of continental collision and has the advantage of a 3D model being reduced to 2D, but one of its major shortcomings is that it cannot simultaneously represent channel flow and gravitational collapse of the mantle lithosphere, since these mechanisms require the lithosphere to interact with the underlying mantle, or to have a vertically non-homogeneous rheology. As a consequence, 3D models are emerging as powerful tools to understand the dynamics of coupled systems. However, because of yet recent developments and various complexities, the current 3D models simulating the dynamics of continent collision zones have relied on certain explicit assumptions, such as replacing part of the asthenosphere with various types of boundary conditions that mimic the effect of mantle flow, in order to focus on the lithospheric/crustal deformation. Here, we employ the parallel 3D code LaMEM (Lithosphere and Mantle Evolution Model), with a finite difference staggered grid solver, which is capable of simulating lithospheric deformation while simultaneously taking mantle flow and a free surface into account. We present qualitative results on lithospheric and upper-mantle scale simulations in which the Indian lithosphere is subducted and

  12. Investigating dynamic stall, 3-D and rotational effects on wind turbine blades by means of an unsteady quasi-3D Navier-Stokes solver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaviaropoulos, P.K. [CRES-Center for Renewable Energy Sources, Pikermi Attiki (Greece)

    1997-08-01

    The blade element codes provide surprisingly accurate predictions of the aerodynamic loads provided that they are `fed` with proper lift and drag - incidence curves for the profiles mounted on the rotor blades. The evident question is how one can obtain such data. It is common experience that the use of the mostly available steady two-dimensional profile data may lead to serious discrepancies between measured and simulated loads. Although several correction techniques have been proposed as a remedy during the last years, from simplified dynamic stall models suitably tuned for wind turbines to 3-D correction schemes for profile data, the problem is by no means over-passed. Especially for the three-dimensional effects it seems that part of the difficulty is due to our limited understanding of the physical mechanism which is responsible for the extra loading of the inner part of the blades. Recognizing the importance of the above aspects two relevant Joule projects have been launched, the concluded `Dynamic Stall and 3-D Effects` JOU2-CT93-0345 and the ongoing `VISCWIND` JOR3-CT95-0007 project. Part of the activities in the first and all the activities in the second project are devoted to the identification and quantification of the dynamic stall and three-dimensional effects experienced by the wind turbine blades using Navier-Stokes computations. The contribution of CRES in these two projects is briefly presented in this paper. (EG)

  13. Innovative LIDAR 3D Dynamic Measurement System to estimate fruit-tree leaf area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Cortiella, Ricardo; Llorens-Calveras, Jordi; Escolà, Alexandre; Arnó-Satorra, Jaume; Ribes-Dasi, Manel; Masip-Vilalta, Joan; Camp, Ferran; Gràcia-Aguilá, Felip; Solanelles-Batlle, Francesc; Planas-DeMartí, Santiago; Pallejà-Cabré, Tomàs; Palacin-Roca, Jordi; Gregorio-Lopez, Eduard; Del-Moral-Martínez, Ignacio; Rosell-Polo, Joan R

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a LIDAR-based 3D Dynamic Measurement System is presented and evaluated for the geometric characterization of tree crops. Using this measurement system, trees were scanned from two opposing sides to obtain two three-dimensional point clouds. After registration of the point clouds, a simple and easily obtainable parameter is the number of impacts received by the scanned vegetation. The work in this study is based on the hypothesis of the existence of a linear relationship between the number of impacts of the LIDAR sensor laser beam on the vegetation and the tree leaf area. Tests performed under laboratory conditions using an ornamental tree and, subsequently, in a pear tree orchard demonstrate the correct operation of the measurement system presented in this paper. The results from both the laboratory and field tests confirm the initial hypothesis and the 3D Dynamic Measurement System is validated in field operation. This opens the door to new lines of research centred on the geometric characterization of tree crops in the field of agriculture and, more specifically, in precision fruit growing.

  14. A novel two-level dynamic parallel data scheme for large 3-D SN calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoden, G.E.; Shedlock, D.; Haghighat, A.; Yi, C.

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a new dynamic parallel memory optimization scheme for executing large scale 3-D discrete ordinates (Sn) simulations on distributed memory parallel computers. In order for parallel transport codes to be truly scalable, they must use parallel data storage, where only the variables that are locally computed are locally stored. Even with parallel data storage for the angular variables, cumulative storage requirements for large discrete ordinates calculations can be prohibitive. To address this problem, Memory Tuning has been implemented into the PENTRAN 3-D parallel discrete ordinates code as an optimized, two-level ('large' array, 'small' array) parallel data storage scheme. Memory Tuning can be described as the process of parallel data memory optimization. Memory Tuning dynamically minimizes the amount of required parallel data in allocated memory on each processor using a statistical sampling algorithm. This algorithm is based on the integral average and standard deviation of the number of fine meshes contained in each coarse mesh in the global problem. Because PENTRAN only stores the locally computed problem phase space, optimal two-level memory assignments can be unique on each node, depending upon the parallel decomposition used (hybrid combinations of angular, energy, or spatial). As demonstrated in the two large discrete ordinates models presented (a storage cask and an OECD MOX Benchmark), Memory Tuning can save a substantial amount of memory per parallel processor, allowing one to accomplish very large scale Sn computations. (authors)

  15. A parallel 3D particle-in-cell code with dynamic load balancing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfheimer, Felix; Gjonaj, Erion; Weiland, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    A parallel 3D electrostatic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code including an algorithm for modelling Space Charge Limited (SCL) emission [E. Gjonaj, T. Weiland, 3D-modeling of space-charge-limited electron emission. A charge conserving algorithm, Proceedings of the 11th Biennial IEEE Conference on Electromagnetic Field Computation, 2004] is presented. A domain decomposition technique based on orthogonal recursive bisection is used to parallelize the computation on a distributed memory environment of clustered workstations. For problems with a highly nonuniform and time dependent distribution of particles, e.g., bunch dynamics, a dynamic load balancing between the processes is needed to preserve the parallel performance. The algorithm for the detection of a load imbalance and the redistribution of the tasks among the processes is based on a weight function criterion, where the weight of a cell measures the computational load associated with it. The algorithm is studied with two examples. In the first example, multiple electron bunches as occurring in the S-DALINAC [A. Richter, Operational experience at the S-DALINAC, Proceedings of the Fifth European Particle Accelerator Conference, 1996] accelerator are simulated in the absence of space charge fields. In the second example, the SCL emission and electron trajectories in an electron gun are simulated

  16. A parallel 3D particle-in-cell code with dynamic load balancing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfheimer, Felix [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder, Schlossgartenstr.8, 64283 Darmstadt (Germany)]. E-mail: wolfheimer@temf.de; Gjonaj, Erion [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder, Schlossgartenstr.8, 64283 Darmstadt (Germany); Weiland, Thomas [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder, Schlossgartenstr.8, 64283 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2006-03-01

    A parallel 3D electrostatic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code including an algorithm for modelling Space Charge Limited (SCL) emission [E. Gjonaj, T. Weiland, 3D-modeling of space-charge-limited electron emission. A charge conserving algorithm, Proceedings of the 11th Biennial IEEE Conference on Electromagnetic Field Computation, 2004] is presented. A domain decomposition technique based on orthogonal recursive bisection is used to parallelize the computation on a distributed memory environment of clustered workstations. For problems with a highly nonuniform and time dependent distribution of particles, e.g., bunch dynamics, a dynamic load balancing between the processes is needed to preserve the parallel performance. The algorithm for the detection of a load imbalance and the redistribution of the tasks among the processes is based on a weight function criterion, where the weight of a cell measures the computational load associated with it. The algorithm is studied with two examples. In the first example, multiple electron bunches as occurring in the S-DALINAC [A. Richter, Operational experience at the S-DALINAC, Proceedings of the Fifth European Particle Accelerator Conference, 1996] accelerator are simulated in the absence of space charge fields. In the second example, the SCL emission and electron trajectories in an electron gun are simulated.

  17. 3D Multisource Full‐Waveform Inversion using Dynamic Random Phase Encoding

    KAUST Repository

    Boonyasiriwat, Chaiwoot

    2010-10-17

    We have developed a multisource full‐waveform inversion algorithm using a dynamic phase encoding strategy with dual‐randomization—both the position and polarity of simultaneous sources are randomized and changed every iteration. The dynamic dual‐randomization is used to promote the destructive interference of crosstalk noise resulting from blending a large number of common shot gathers into a supergather. We compare our multisource algorithm with various algorithms in a numerical experiment using the 3D SEG/EAGE overthrust model and show that our algorithm provides a higher‐quality velocity tomogram than the other methods that use only monorandomization. This suggests that increasing the degree of randomness in phase encoding should improve the quality of the inversion result.

  18. A high sensitive 66 dB linear dynamic range receiver for 3-D laser radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Zheng, Hao; Zhu, Zhangming

    2017-08-01

    This study presents a CMOS receiver chip realized in 0.18 μm standard CMOS technology and intended for high precision 3-D laser radar. The chip includes an adjustable gain transimpedance pre-amplifier, a post-amplifier and two timing comparators. An additional feedback is employed in the regulated cascode transimpedance amplifier to decrease the input impedance, and a variable gain transimpedance amplifier controlled by digital switches and analog multiplexer is utilized to realize four gain modes, extending the input dynamic range. The measurement shows that the highest transimpedance of the channel is 50 k {{Ω }}, the uncompensated walk error is 1.44 ns in a wide linear dynamic range of 66 dB (1:2000), and the input referred noise current is 2.3 pA/\\sqrt{{Hz}} (rms), resulting in a very low detectable input current of 1 μA with SNR = 5.

  19. The boundary element method applied to 3D magneto-electro-elastic dynamic problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igumnov, L. A.; Markov, I. P.; Kuznetsov, Iu A.

    2017-11-01

    Due to the coupling properties, the magneto-electro-elastic materials possess a wide number of applications. They exhibit general anisotropic behaviour. Three-dimensional transient analyses of magneto-electro-elastic solids can hardly be found in the literature. 3D direct boundary element formulation based on the weakly-singular boundary integral equations in Laplace domain is presented in this work for solving dynamic linear magneto-electro-elastic problems. Integral expressions of the three-dimensional fundamental solutions are employed. Spatial discretization is based on a collocation method with mixed boundary elements. Convolution quadrature method is used as a numerical inverse Laplace transform scheme to obtain time domain solutions. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the capability of the proposed approach to treat highly dynamic problems.

  20. Ceramic-Based 3D Printed Supports for Photocatalytic Treatment of Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Hernández-Afonso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing technology has become a powerful tool to produce 3D structures in any type of materials. In this work, 3D printing technology is used to produce 3D porous structures in CaSO4 which can be later activated with an appropriate photocatalyst. TiO2 was selected as an ideal photocatalyst producing activated 3D structures which can be used to study their effectiveness in the degradation of pollutants in wastewater. Methylene blue was used as a model molecule in these studies. The photocatalytic studies showed that TiO2-activated 3D structures using nanoparticles of SiO2 in the process produce more than 50% of conversion of methylene blue in just 1 h of irradiation and almost 90% in 5 h.

  1. Integration of knowledge to support automatic object reconstruction from images and 3D data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boochs, F.; Truong, H; Marbs, A.; Karmacharya, A.; Cruz, C.; Habed, A.; Nicolle, C.; Voisin, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Object reconstruction is a important task in many fields of application as it allows to generate digital representations of our physical world used as base for analysis, planning, construction, visualization or other aims. A reconstruction itself normally is based on reliable data (images, 3D point clouds for example) expressing the object in his complete extension. This data then has to be compiled and analyzed in order to extract all necessary geometrical elements, which represent the object and form a digital copy of it. Traditional strategies are largely based on manual interaction and interpretation, because with increasing complexity of objects human understanding is inevitable to achieve acceptable and reliable results. But human interaction is time consuming and expensive, why many research has already been invested to integrate algorithmic support, what allows to speed up the process and reduce manual work load. Presently most such algorithms are data-driven and concentrate on specific features of the objects, being accessible to numerical models. By means of these models, which normally will represent geometrical (flatness, roughness, for example) or physical features (color, texture), the data is classified and analyzed. This is succesful for objects with a limited complexity, but gets to its limits with increasing complexity of objects. Then purely numerical strategies are not able to sufficiently model the reality. Therefore, the intention of our approach is to take human cogni-tive strategy as an example, and to simulate extraction processes based on available knowledge for the objects of interest. Such processes will introduce a semantic structure for the objects and guide the algorithms used to detect and recognize objects, which will yield a higher effectiveness. Hence, our research proposes an approach using knowledge to guide the algorithms in 3D point cloud and image processing.

  2. Employing 3D Virtual Reality and the Unity Game Engine to Support Nuclear Verification Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, T.

    2015-01-01

    This project centres on the development of a virtual nuclear facility environment to assist non-proliferation and nuclear arms control practitioners - including researchers, negotiators, or inspectors - in developing and refining a verification system and secure chain of custody of material or equipment. The platform for creating the virtual facility environment is the Unity 3D game engine. This advanced platform offers both the robust capability and flexibility necessary to support the design goals of the facility. The project also employs Trimble SketchUp and Blender 3D for constructing the model components. The development goal of this phase of the project was to generate a virtual environment that includes basic physics in which avatars can interact with their environment through actions such as picking up objects, operating vehicles, dismantling a warhead through a spherical representation system, opening/closing doors through a custom security access system, and conducting CCTV surveillance. Initial testing of virtual radiation simulation techniques was also explored in preparation for the next phase of development. Some of the eventual utilities and applications for this platform include: 1. conducting live multi-person exercises of verification activities within a single, shared virtual environment, 2. refining procedures, individual roles, and equipment placement in the contexts of non-proliferation or arms control negotiations 3. hands on training for inspectors, and 4. a portable tool/reference for inspectors to use while carrying out inspections. This project was developed under the Multilateral Verification Project, led by the Verification Research, Training and Information Centre (VERTIC) in the United Kingdom, and financed by the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The environment was constructed at the Vienna Center for Disarmament and Non-Proliferation (VCDNP). (author)

  3. Dynamic mechanical properties of 3D fiber-deposited PEOT/PBT scaffolds: An experimental and numerical analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moroni, Lorenzo; Poort, G.; van Keulen, F.; de Wijn, J.R.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens

    2006-01-01

    Mechanical properties of three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds can be appropriately modulated through novel fabrication techniques like 3D fiber deposition (3DF), by varying scaffold's pore size and shape. Dynamic stiffness, in particular, can be considered as an important property to optimize the

  4. Layout of PWR in-core instrumentation system tubing and support structure with Bechtel 3D-CADD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, T.; Pfeifer, B.W.; Mulay, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    The optimization study of the PWR In-Core Instrumentation System (ICIS) tubing layout and support structure presented an opportunity to utilize the Bechtel 3D-CADD program to perform this task. This paper provides a brief summary of the Bechtel 3D-CADD program development and capabilities and outlines the process of developing and optimizing the ICIS tube layout. Specific aspects relating to the ICIS tube layout criteria, support, alignment, electronic interference check and erection sequence are provided. (orig.)

  5. Complex scenes and situations visualization in hierarchical learning algorithm with dynamic 3D NeoAxis engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, James; Ternovskiy, Igor V.

    2013-06-01

    We applied a two stage unsupervised hierarchical learning system to model complex dynamic surveillance and cyber space monitoring systems using a non-commercial version of the NeoAxis visualization software. The hierarchical scene learning and recognition approach is based on hierarchical expectation maximization, and was linked to a 3D graphics engine for validation of learning and classification results and understanding the human - autonomous system relationship. Scene recognition is performed by taking synthetically generated data and feeding it to a dynamic logic algorithm. The algorithm performs hierarchical recognition of the scene by first examining the features of the objects to determine which objects are present, and then determines the scene based on the objects present. This paper presents a framework within which low level data linked to higher-level visualization can provide support to a human operator and be evaluated in a detailed and systematic way.

  6. Surface 3D nanostructuring by tightly focused laser pulse: simulations by Lagrangian code and molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inogamov, Nail A.; Zhakhovsky, Vasily V.

    2016-02-01

    There are many important applications in which the ultrashort diffraction-limited and therefore tightly focused laser pulses irradiates metal films mounted on dielectric substrate. Here we present the detailed picture of laser peeling and 3D structure formation of the thin (relative to a depth of a heat affected zone in the bulk targets) gold films on glass substrate. The underlying physics of such diffraction-limited laser peeling was not well understood previously. Our approach is based on a physical model which takes into consideration the new calculations of the two-temperature (2T) equation of state (2T EoS) and the two-temperature transport coefficients together with the coupling parameter between electron and ion subsystems. The usage of the 2T EoS and the kinetic coefficients is required because absorption of an ultrashort pulse with duration of 10-1000 fs excites electron subsystem of metal and transfers substance into the 2T state with hot electrons (typical electron temperatures 1-3 eV) and much colder ions. It is shown that formation of submicrometer-sized 3D structures is a result of the electron-ion energy transfer, melting, and delamination of film from substrate under combined action of electron and ion pressures, capillary deceleration of the delaminated liquid metal or semiconductor, and ultrafast freezing of molten material. We found that the freezing is going in non-equilibrium regime with strongly overcooled liquid phase. In this case the Stefan approximation is non-applicable because the solidification front speed is limited by the diffusion rate of atoms in the molten material. To solve the problem we have developed the 2T Lagrangian code including all this reach physics in. We also used the high-performance combined Monte- Carlo and molecular dynamics code for simulation of surface 3D nanostructuring at later times after completion of electron-ion relaxation.

  7. 3D Visualization Tools to Support Soil Management In Relation to Sustainable Agriculture and Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen

    2017-04-01

    game engines as tools for supporting archaeology and the reconstruction of cultural heritage - the case-study of the Roman villa of Casal de Freiria, Journal of Archaeological Science, 38(12): 3296-3308. Wang, C., Miller, D.R., Brown I., Jiang Y., Castellazzi M, "Visualisation Techniques to Support Public Interpretation of Future Climate Change and Land Use Choices: A Case Study from N-E Scotland", International Journal of Digital Earth, Volume 9, Issue 6, pp.586-605, 2016. VLT, http://www.hutton.ac.uk/learning/exhibits/vlt Scotland's soil, http://www.soils-scotland.gov.uk/ Wang, C., Miller, D.R., Jiang Y., Donaldson-Selby, "Use of 3D Visualisation Tools for Representing Urban Greenspace Spatial Planning", 2015 IEEE International Conference on Information Science and Control Engineering Shanghai, China, April 24-26, 2015. Tobias, S., Buser, T., Buchecker, M. (2016) Does real-time visualization support local stakeholders in developing landscape visions? Environment and Planning B:Planning and Design, 43: 84¨ C197. Li.Y, Zhu. A-Xing, Shi. Z, Liu. J and Du. F, "Supplemental sampling for digital soil mapping based on prediction uncertainty from both the feature domain and the spatial domain", The Global Journal of Soil Science, Volume 284, pp 73-84, 2016. Warren-Kretzschmar. B and Haaren, C, "Communicating spatial planning decisions at the landscape and farm level with landscape visualization", Journal of Biogeosciences and Forestry, volume 7, pp 434-442, 2014.

  8. 3-D dynamic rupture simulations of the 2016 Kumamoto, Japan, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urata, Yumi; Yoshida, Keisuke; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Kubo, Hisahiko

    2017-11-01

    Using 3-D dynamic rupture simulations, we investigated the 2016 Mw7.1 Kumamoto, Japan, earthquake to elucidate why and how the rupture of the main shock propagated successfully, assuming a complicated fault geometry estimated on the basis of the distributions of the aftershocks. The Mw7.1 main shock occurred along the Futagawa and Hinagu faults. Within 28 h before the main shock, three M6-class foreshocks occurred. Their hypocenters were located along the Hinagu and Futagawa faults, and their focal mechanisms were similar to that of the main shock. Therefore, an extensive stress shadow should have been generated on the fault plane of the main shock. First, we estimated the geometry of the fault planes of the three foreshocks as well as that of the main shock based on the temporal evolution of the relocated aftershock hypocenters. We then evaluated the static stress changes on the main shock fault plane that were due to the occurrence of the three foreshocks, assuming elliptical cracks with constant stress drops on the estimated fault planes. The obtained static stress change distribution indicated that Coulomb failure stress change (ΔCFS) was positive just below the hypocenter of the main shock, while the ΔCFS in the shallow region above the hypocenter was negative. Therefore, these foreshocks could encourage the initiation of the main shock rupture and could hinder the propagation of the rupture toward the shallow region. Finally, we conducted 3-D dynamic rupture simulations of the main shock using the initial stress distribution, which was the sum of the static stress changes caused by these foreshocks and the regional stress field. Assuming a slip-weakening law with uniform friction parameters, we computed 3-D dynamic rupture by varying the friction parameters and the values of the principal stresses. We obtained feasible parameter ranges that could reproduce the characteristic features of the main shock rupture revealed by seismic waveform analyses. We also

  9. A 3D dynamical model of the colliding winds in binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, E. R.; Pittard, J. M.

    2008-08-01

    We present a three-dimensional (3D) dynamical model of the orbital-induced curvature of the wind-wind collision region in binary star systems. Momentum balance equations are used to determine the position and shape of the contact discontinuity between the stars, while further downstream the gas is assumed to behave ballistically. An Archimedean spiral structure is formed by the motion of the stars, with clear resemblance to high-resolution images of the so-called `pinwheel nebulae'. A key advantage of this approach over grid or smoothed particle hydrodynamic models is its significantly reduced computational cost, while it also allows the study of the structure obtained in an eccentric orbit. The model is relevant to symbiotic systems and γ-ray binaries, as well as systems with O-type and Wolf-Rayet stars. As an example application, we simulate the X-ray emission from hypothetical O+O and WR+O star binaries, and describe a method of ray tracing through the 3D spiral structure to account for absorption by the circumstellar material in the system. Such calculations may be easily adapted to study observations at wavelengths ranging from the radio to γ-ray.

  10. Description of patellar movement by 3D parameters obtained from dynamic CT acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá Rebelo, Marina; Moreno, Ramon Alfredo; Gobbi, Riccardo Gomes; Camanho, Gilberto Luis; de Ávila, Luiz Francisco Rodrigues; Demange, Marco Kawamura; Pecora, Jose Ricardo; Gutierrez, Marco Antonio

    2014-03-01

    The patellofemoral joint is critical in the biomechanics of the knee. The patellofemoral instability is one condition that generates pain, functional impairment and often requires surgery as part of orthopedic treatment. The analysis of the patellofemoral dynamics has been performed by several medical image modalities. The clinical parameters assessed are mainly based on 2D measurements, such as the patellar tilt angle and the lateral shift among others. Besides, the acquisition protocols are mostly performed with the leg laid static at fixed angles. The use of helical multi slice CT scanner can allow the capture and display of the joint's movement performed actively by the patient. However, the orthopedic applications of this scanner have not yet been standardized or widespread. In this work we present a method to evaluate the biomechanics of the patellofemoral joint during active contraction using multi slice CT images. This approach can greatly improve the analysis of patellar instability by displaying the physiology during muscle contraction. The movement was evaluated by computing its 3D displacements and rotations from different knee angles. The first processing step registered the images in both angles based on the femuŕs position. The transformation matrix of the patella from the images was then calculated, which provided the rotations and translations performed by the patella from its position in the first image to its position in the second image. Analysis of these parameters for all frames provided real 3D information about the patellar displacement.

  11. 3D digital dynamic management of maintenance projects for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Baizhong; Luo Yalin; Fang Hao; Ma Li; Zhang Jie; Wang Ruobing; Xie Min

    2005-01-01

    The whole process for the application of digital plant technique in the equipment transport in reactor building and the dynamic management of the spatial arrangement in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station was introduced in the paper. The establishment of 3D digital Daya Bay plant, and the method and procedure to apply it in the nuclear power plant maintenance project have been discussed. This project utilizes the outer database to preserve the maintenance status of equipments, and avoids the damage or changing of the original 3D final model. Based on the maintenance procedure, the spatial arrangement and schedule for the maintenance of nuclear power station have been simulated and optimized for the whole process. This technique can simulate and optimize the arrangement and spatial arrangement for maintenance in limited space. It has been applied successfully in the reactor vessel head replacement for Unit 2 of Daya Bay NPP to shorten the time for key routes and the total time of this project by 16 hours and 92.5 hours, respectively. (author)

  12. Quantification of diaphragm mechanics in Pompe disease using dynamic 3D MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogalle, Katja; Perez-Rovira, Adria; Ciet, Pierluigi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diaphragm weakness is the main reason for respiratory dysfunction in patients with Pompe disease, a progressive metabolic myopathy affecting respiratory and limb-girdle muscles. Since respiratory failure is the major cause of death among adult patients, early identification of respira......BACKGROUND: Diaphragm weakness is the main reason for respiratory dysfunction in patients with Pompe disease, a progressive metabolic myopathy affecting respiratory and limb-girdle muscles. Since respiratory failure is the major cause of death among adult patients, early identification...... methodology relies on image registration and lung surface extraction to quantify lung kinematics during breathing. This allows for the extraction of geometry and motion features of the lung that characterize the independent contribution of the diaphragm and the thoracic muscles to the respiratory cycle....... RESULTS: Results in 16 3D+t MRI scans (10 Pompe patients and 6 controls) of a slow expiratory maneuver show that kinematic analysis from dynamic 3D images reveals important additional information about diaphragm mechanics and respiratory muscle involvement when compared to conventional pulmonary function...

  13. Design of new dusty plasma apparatus to view 3D particle dynamics of fluorescent dust clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thome, Kathreen; Fontanetta, Alexandra; Zwicker, Andrew

    2008-11-01

    Particles suspended in dusty plasmas represent both contamination in industrial plasmas and a primary interstellar medium component. Typically, dusty plasma behavior is studied by laser scattering techniques that provide 2D dust cloud images. However, the 3D structure of the dust cloud is essential to understand the waves, group dynamics, and stabilities of the cloud. Techniques used to study this structure include stereoscopic particle image velocimetry and rapid laser scanning. Our UV illumination technique reveals translational and rotational velocities of fluorescent dust particles as a function of UV intensity. The new argon DC glow discharge experiment designed to study the 3D aspects of fluorescent dust consists of a 13.25'' diameter chamber, two 8'' window ports for CCD cameras, one along the plasma and another transverse to it, two additional 8'' window ports transverse to the plasma for laser or UV light illumination of the dust cloud, and a diagnostic probe port. Results from different electrodes--including mesh and ring--observations and imaging will be presented.

  14. Mutual information as a measure of image quality for 3D dynamic lung imaging with EIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabb, M G; Davidson, J L; Little, R; Wright, P; Morgan, A R; Miller, C A; Naish, J H; Parker, G J M; Kikinis, R; McCann, H; Lionheart, W R B

    2014-05-01

    We report on a pilot study of dynamic lung electrical impedance tomography (EIT) at the University of Manchester. Low-noise EIT data at 100 frames per second were obtained from healthy male subjects during controlled breathing, followed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) subsequently used for spatial validation of the EIT reconstruction. The torso surface in the MR image and electrode positions obtained using MRI fiducial markers informed the construction of a 3D finite element model extruded along the caudal-distal axis of the subject. Small changes in the boundary that occur during respiration were accounted for by incorporating the sensitivity with respect to boundary shape into a robust temporal difference reconstruction algorithm. EIT and MRI images were co-registered using the open source medical imaging software, 3D Slicer. A quantitative comparison of quality of different EIT reconstructions was achieved through calculation of the mutual information with a lung-segmented MR image. EIT reconstructions using a linear shape correction algorithm reduced boundary image artefacts, yielding better contrast of the lungs, and had 10% greater mutual information compared with a standard linear EIT reconstruction.

  15. Self-Consistent 3D Modeling of Electron Cloud Dynamics and Beam Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, Miguel; Furman, M.A.; Celata, C.M.; Kireeff-Covo, M.; Sonnad, K.G.; Vay, J.-L.; Venturini, M.; Cohen, R.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.; Molvik, A.; Stoltz, P.

    2007-01-01

    We present recent advances in the modeling of beam electron-cloud dynamics, including surface effects such as secondary electron emission, gas desorption, etc, and volumetric effects such as ionization of residual gas and charge-exchange reactions. Simulations for the HCX facility with the code WARP/POSINST will be described and their validity demonstrated by benchmarks against measurements. The code models a wide range of physical processes and uses a number of novel techniques, including a large-timestep electron mover that smoothly interpolates between direct orbit calculation and guiding-center drift equations, and a new computational technique, based on a Lorentz transformation to a moving frame, that allows the cost of a fully 3D simulation to be reduced to that of a quasi-static approximation

  16. Development of an environment for 3D visualization of riser dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardes Junior, Joao Luiz; Martins, Clovis de Arruda [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica]. E-mails: joao.bernardes@poli.usp.br; cmartins@usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the merging of Virtual Reality and Scientific Visualization techniques in the development of Riser View, a multi platform 3D environment for real time, interactive visualization of riser dynamics. Its features, architecture, unusual collision detection algorithm and how up was customized for the project are discussed. Using Open GL through VRK, the software is able to make use of the resources available in most modern Graphics. Acceleration Hardware to improve performance. IUP/LED allows for native loo-and-feel in MS-Windows or Linux platform. The paper discusses conflicts that arise between scientific visualization and aspects such as realism and immersion, and how the visualization is prioritized. (author)

  17. 3D Analysis of Fuel Cell Electrocatalyst Degradation on Alternate Carbon Supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Brian T; Cullen, David A; Reeves, Kimberly S; Dyck, Ondrej E; Langlois, David A; Mukundan, Rangachary; Borup, Rodney L; More, Karren L

    2017-09-06

    Understanding the mechanisms associated with Pt/C electrocatalyst degradation in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) cathodes is critical for the future development of higher-performing materials; however, there is a lack of information regarding Pt coarsening under PEMFC operating conditions within the cathode catalyst layer. We report a direct and quantitative 3D study of Pt dispersions on carbon supports (high surface area carbon (HSAC), Vulcan XC-72, and graphitized carbon) with varied surface areas, graphitic character, and Pt loadings ranging from 5 to 40 wt %. This is accomplished both before and after catalyst-cycling accelerated stress tests (ASTs) through observations of the cathode catalyst layer of membrane electrode assemblies. Electron tomography results show Pt nanoparticle agglomeration occurs predominantly at junctions and edges of aggregated graphitized carbon particles, leading to poor Pt dispersion in the as-prepared catalysts and increased coalescence during ASTs. Tomographic reconstructions of Pt/HSAC show much better initial Pt dispersions, less agglomeration, and less coarsening during ASTs in the cathode. However, a large loss of the electrochemically active surface area (ECSA) is still observed and is attributed to accelerated Pt dissolution and nanoparticle coalescence. Furthermore, a strong correlation between Pt particle/agglomerate size and measured ECSA is established and is proposed as a more useful metric than average crystallite size in predicting degradation behavior across different catalyst systems.

  18. Boosting Bifunctional Oxygen Electrocatalysis with 3D Graphene Aerogel-Supported Ni/MnO Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Gengtao; Yan, Xiaoxiao; Chen, Yifan; Xu, Lin; Sun, Dongmei; Lee, Jong-Min; Tang, Yawen

    2018-02-01

    Electrocatalysts for oxygen-reduction and oxygen-evolution reactions (ORR and OER) are crucial for metal-air batteries, where more costly Pt- and Ir/Ru-based materials are the benchmark catalysts for ORR and OER, respectively. Herein, for the first time Ni is combined with MnO species, and a 3D porous graphene aerogel-supported Ni/MnO (Ni-MnO/rGO aerogel) bifunctional catalyst is prepared via a facile and scalable hydrogel route. The synthetic strategy depends on the formation of a graphene oxide (GO) crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel that allows for the efficient capture of highly active Ni/MnO particles after pyrolysis. Remarkably, the resulting Ni-MnO/rGO aerogels exhibit superior bifunctional catalytic performance for both ORR and OER in an alkaline electrolyte, which can compete with the previously reported bifunctional electrocatalysts. The MnO mainly contributes to the high activity for the ORR, while metallic Ni is responsible for the excellent OER activity. Moreover, such bifunctional catalyst can endow the homemade Zn-air battery with better power density, specific capacity, and cycling stability than mixed Pt/C + RuO 2 catalysts, demonstrating its potential feasibility in practical application of rechargeable metal-air batteries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Quantifying Key Climate Parameter Uncertainties Using an Earth System Model with a Dynamic 3D Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, R.; Sriver, R. L.; Goes, M. P.; Urban, N.; Matthews, D.; Haran, M.; Keller, K.

    2011-12-01

    Climate projections hinge critically on uncertain climate model parameters such as climate sensitivity, vertical ocean diffusivity and anthropogenic sulfate aerosol forcings. Climate sensitivity is defined as the equilibrium global mean temperature response to a doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Vertical ocean diffusivity parameterizes sub-grid scale ocean vertical mixing processes. These parameters are typically estimated using Intermediate Complexity Earth System Models (EMICs) that lack a full 3D representation of the oceans, thereby neglecting the effects of mixing on ocean dynamics and meridional overturning. We improve on these studies by employing an EMIC with a dynamic 3D ocean model to estimate these parameters. We carry out historical climate simulations with the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model (UVic ESCM) varying parameters that affect climate sensitivity, vertical ocean mixing, and effects of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols. We use a Bayesian approach whereby the likelihood of each parameter combination depends on how well the model simulates surface air temperature and upper ocean heat content. We use a Gaussian process emulator to interpolate the model output to an arbitrary parameter setting. We use Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to estimate the posterior probability distribution function (pdf) of these parameters. We explore the sensitivity of the results to prior assumptions about the parameters. In addition, we estimate the relative skill of different observations to constrain the parameters. We quantify the uncertainty in parameter estimates stemming from climate variability, model and observational errors. We explore the sensitivity of key decision-relevant climate projections to these parameters. We find that climate sensitivity and vertical ocean diffusivity estimates are consistent with previously published results. The climate sensitivity pdf is strongly affected by the prior assumptions, and by the scaling

  20. International training program in support of safety analysis. 3D S.UN.COP-scaling uncertainty and 3D thermal-hydraulics/neutron-kinetics coupled codes seminars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petruzzi, Alessandro; D'Auria, Francesco; Bajs, Tomislav; Reventos, Francesc; Hassan, Yassin

    2007-01-01

    Thermal-hydraulic system computer codes are extensively used worldwide for analysis of nuclear facilities by utilities, regulatory bodies, nuclear power plant designers and vendors, nuclear fuel companies, research organizations, consulting companies, and technical support organizations. The computer code user represents a source of uncertainty that can influence the results of system code calculations. This influence is commonly known as the user effect' and stems from the limitations embedded in the codes as well as from the limited capability of the analysis to use the codes. Code user training and qualification is an effective means for reducing the variation of results caused by the application of the codes by different users. This paper describes a systematic approach to training code users who, upon completion of the training, should be able to perform calculations making the best possible use of the capabilities of best estimate codes. In other words, the program aims at contributing towards solving the problem of user effect. The 3D S.UN.COP (Scaling, Uncertainty and 3D COuPled code calculations) seminars have been organized as follow-up of the proposal to IAEA for the Permanent Training Course for System Code Users. Six seminars have been held at University of Pisa (2003, 2004), at The Pennsylvania State University (2004), at University of Zagreb (2005), at the School of Industrial Engineering of Barcelona (January-February 2006) and in Buenos Aires, Argentina (October 2006), being this last one requested by ARN (Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear), NA-SA (Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A) and CNEA (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica). It was recognized that such courses represented both a source of continuing education for current code users and a mean for current code users to enter the formal training structure of a proposed 'permanent' stepwise approach to user training. The 3D S.UN.COP 2006 in Barcelona was successfully held with the attendance of 33

  1. International Training Program in Support of Safety Analysis: 3D S.UN.COP-Scaling, Uncertainty and 3D Thermal-Hydraulics/Neutron-Kinetics Coupled Codes Seminars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petruzzi, Alessandro; D'Auria, Francesco; Bajs, Tomislav; Reventos, Francesc

    2006-01-01

    Thermal-hydraulic system computer codes are extensively used worldwide for analysis of nuclear facilities by utilities, regulatory bodies, nuclear power plant designers and vendors, nuclear fuel companies, research organizations, consulting companies, and technical support organizations. The computer code user represents a source of uncertainty that can influence the results of system code calculations. This influence is commonly known as the 'user effect' and stems from the limitations embedded in the codes as well as from the limited capability of the analysts to use the codes. Code user training and qualification is an effective means for reducing the variation of results caused by the application of the codes by different users. This paper describes a systematic approach to training code users who, upon completion of the training, should be able to perform calculations making the best possible use of the capabilities of best estimate codes. In other words, the program aims at contributing towards solving the problem of user effect. The 3D S.UN.COP (Scaling, Uncertainty and 3D COuPled code calculations) seminars have been organized as follow-up of the proposal to IAEA for the Permanent Training Course for System Code Users [1]. Five seminars have been held at University of Pisa (2003, 2004), at The Pennsylvania State University (2004), at University of Zagreb (2005) and at the School of Industrial Engineering of Barcelona (2006). It was recognized that such courses represented both a source of continuing education for current code users and a mean for current code users to enter the formal training structure of a proposed 'permanent' stepwise approach to user training. The 3D S.UN.COP 2006 was successfully held with the attendance of 33 participants coming from 18 countries and 28 different institutions (universities, vendors, national laboratories and regulatory bodies). More than 30 scientists (coming from 13 countries and 23 different institutions) were

  2. a Webgis to Support Gpr 3d Data Acquisition: a First Step for the Integration of Underground Utility Networks in 3d City Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabarro, P. G.; Pouliot, J.; Fortier, R.; Losier, L.-M.

    2017-10-01

    For the planning and sustainable development of large cities, it is critical to accurately locate and map, in 3D, existing underground utility networks (UUN) such as pipelines, cables, ducts, and channels. An emerging non-invasive instrument for collecting underground data such as UUN is the ground-penetrating radar (GPR). Although its capabilities, handling GPR and extracting relevant information from its data are not trivial tasks. For instance, both GPR and its complimentary software stack provide very few capabilities to co-visualize GPR collected data and other sources of spatial data such as orthophotography, DEM or road maps. Furthermore, the GPR interface lacks functionalities for adding annotation, editing geometric objects or querying attributes. A new approach to support GPR survey is proposed in this paper. This approach is based on the integration of multiple sources of geospatial datasets and the use of a Web-GIS system and relevant functionalities adapted to interoperable GPR data acquisition. The Web-GIS is developed as an improved module in an existing platform called GVX. The GVX-GPR module provides an interactive visualization of multiple layers of structured spatial data, including GPR profiles. This module offers new features when compared to traditional GPR surveys such as geo-annotated points of interest for identifying spatial clues in the GPR profiles, integration of city contextual data, high definition drone and satellite pictures, as-built, and more. The paper explains the engineering approach used to design and develop the Web GIS and tests for this survey approach, mapping and recording UUN as part of 3D city model.

  3. A WEBGIS TO SUPPORT GPR 3D DATA ACQUISITION: A FIRST STEP FOR THE INTEGRATION OF UNDERGROUND UTILITY NETWORKS IN 3D CITY MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Tabarro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For the planning and sustainable development of large cities, it is critical to accurately locate and map, in 3D, existing underground utility networks (UUN such as pipelines, cables, ducts, and channels. An emerging non-invasive instrument for collecting underground data such as UUN is the ground-penetrating radar (GPR. Although its capabilities, handling GPR and extracting relevant information from its data are not trivial tasks. For instance, both GPR and its complimentary software stack provide very few capabilities to co-visualize GPR collected data and other sources of spatial data such as orthophotography, DEM or road maps. Furthermore, the GPR interface lacks functionalities for adding annotation, editing geometric objects or querying attributes. A new approach to support GPR survey is proposed in this paper. This approach is based on the integration of multiple sources of geospatial datasets and the use of a Web-GIS system and relevant functionalities adapted to interoperable GPR data acquisition. The Web-GIS is developed as an improved module in an existing platform called GVX. The GVX-GPR module provides an interactive visualization of multiple layers of structured spatial data, including GPR profiles. This module offers new features when compared to traditional GPR surveys such as geo-annotated points of interest for identifying spatial clues in the GPR profiles, integration of city contextual data, high definition drone and satellite pictures, as-built, and more. The paper explains the engineering approach used to design and develop the Web GIS and tests for this survey approach, mapping and recording UUN as part of 3D city model.

  4. Effect of fiber directionality on the static and dynamic mechanical properties of 3D SiCf/SiC composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Zhenhua; Luo, Ruiying; Yang, Wei; Xu, Huaizhe; Han, Tao

    2016-01-01

    The static and dynamic mechanical properties of three-dimensional (3D) 4-directional and 3D 5-directional braided SiC f /SiC composites fabricated by polymer infiltration and pyrolysis (PIP) were investigated using static and dynamic bending tests, as well as microstructural characterization. X-ray diffraction revealed that polycarbosilane was converted into a matrix of crystalline β-SiC after PIP cycling. Test results indicated that the density, flexural strength, elastic modulus, fracture toughness, and storage modulus of 3D 5-directional SiC f /SiC composites were superior to those of 3D 4-directional braided SiC f /SiC composites; the former also showed a smaller internal friction than the latter. Results from Weibull statistical analysis indicated that the scale parameter σ 0 (736.9 MPa) and Weibull modulus m (21.7) of the 3D 5-directional specimen were higher than those of 3D 4-directional braided SiC f /SiC composites (629.6 MPa, 14.7). Both 3D braided composites demonstrated good toughness and avoided catastrophic brittle fractures under loading because of the effective crack energy dissipating mechanisms of crack deflection, interface debonding, and fiber pull-out. The internal friction and storage modulus of the 3D braided composites were sensitive to temperature. The cross angle of fiber placement in the preform and the direction of the applied force, as well as the pre-crack propagation remarkably influenced the static mechanical properties and failure behavior of the 3D braided SiC f /SiC composites. The dynamic mechanical properties of the 3D braided composites, including internal friction and storage modulus, were also considerably affected by fiber directionality in their preforms.

  5. Dynamic analysis and electronic circuit implementation of a novel 3D autonomous system without linear terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kengne, J.; Jafari, S.; Njitacke, Z. T.; Yousefi Azar Khanian, M.; Cheukem, A.

    2017-11-01

    Mathematical models (ODEs) describing the dynamics of almost all continuous time chaotic nonlinear systems (e.g. Lorenz, Rossler, Chua, or Chen system) involve at least a nonlinear term in addition to linear terms. In this contribution, a novel (and singular) 3D autonomous chaotic system without linear terms is introduced. This system has an especial feature of having two twin strange attractors: one ordinary and one symmetric strange attractor when the time is reversed. The complex behavior of the model is investigated in terms of equilibria and stability, bifurcation diagrams, Lyapunov exponent plots, time series and Poincaré sections. Some interesting phenomena are found including for instance, period-doubling bifurcation, antimonotonicity (i.e. the concurrent creation and annihilation of periodic orbits) and chaos while monitoring the system parameters. Compared to the (unique) case previously reported by Xu and Wang (2014) [31], the system considered in this work displays a more 'elegant' mathematical expression and experiences richer dynamical behaviors. A suitable electronic circuit (i.e. the analog simulator) is designed and used for the investigations. Pspice based simulation results show a very good agreement with the theoretical analysis.

  6. The Shock Dynamics of Heterogeneous YSO Jets: 3D Simulations Meet Multi-epoch Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E. C.; Frank, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627-0171 (United States); Hartigan, P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, 6100 S. Main, Houston, TX 77521-1892 (United States); Lebedev, S. V. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-10

    High-resolution observations of young stellar object (YSO) jets show them to be composed of many small-scale knots or clumps. In this paper, we report results of 3D numerical simulations designed to study how such clumps interact and create morphologies and kinematic patterns seen in emission line observations. Our simulations focus on clump scale dynamics by imposing velocity differences between spherical, over-dense regions, which then lead to the formation of bow shocks as faster clumps overtake slower material. We show that much of the spatial structure apparent in emission line images of jets arises from the dynamics and interactions of these bow shocks. Our simulations show a variety of time-dependent features, including bright knots associated with Mach stems where the shocks intersect, a “frothy” emission structure that arises from the presence of the Nonlinear Thin Shell Instability along the surfaces of the bow shocks, and the merging and fragmentation of clumps. Our simulations use a new non-equilibrium cooling method to produce synthetic emission maps in H α and [S ii]. These are directly compared to multi-epoch Hubble Space Telescope observations of Herbig–Haro jets. We find excellent agreement between features seen in the simulations and the observations in terms of both proper motion and morphologies. Thus we conclude that YSO jets may be dominated by heterogeneous structures and that interactions between these structures and the shocks they produce can account for many details of YSO jet evolution.

  7. 3D Spatially Resolved Models of the Intracellular Dynamics of the Hepatitis C Genome Replication Cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Knodel, Markus

    2017-10-02

    Mathematical models of virus dynamics have not previously acknowledged spatial resolution at the intracellular level despite substantial arguments that favor the consideration of intracellular spatial dependence. The replication of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) viral RNA (vRNA) occurs within special replication complexes formed from membranes derived from endoplasmatic reticulum (ER). These regions, termed membranous webs, are generated primarily through specific interactions between nonstructural virus-encoded proteins (NSPs) and host cellular factors. The NSPs are responsible for the replication of the vRNA and their movement is restricted to the ER surface. Therefore, in this study we developed fully spatio-temporal resolved models of the vRNA replication cycle of HCV. Our simulations are performed upon realistic reconstructed cell structures-namely the ER surface and the membranous webs-based on data derived from immunostained cells replicating HCV vRNA. We visualized 3D simulations that reproduced dynamics resulting from interplay of the different components of our models (vRNA, NSPs, and a host factor), and we present an evaluation of the concentrations for the components within different regions of the cell. Thus far, our model is restricted to an internal portion of a hepatocyte and is qualitative more than quantitative. For a quantitative adaption to complete cells, various additional parameters will have to be determined through further in vitro cell biology experiments, which can be stimulated by the results deccribed in the present study.

  8. A novel time dependent gamma evaluation function for dynamic 2D and 3D dose distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podesta, Mark; Persoon, Lucas CGG; Verhaegen, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Modern external beam radiotherapy requires detailed verification and quality assurance so that confidence can be placed on both the delivery of a single treatment fraction and on the consistency of delivery throughout the treatment course. To verify dose distributions, a comparison between prediction and measurement must be made. Comparisons between two dose distributions are commonly performed using a Gamma evaluation which is a calculation of two quantities on a pixel by pixel basis; the dose difference, and the distance to agreement. By providing acceptance criteria (e.g. 3%, 3 mm), the function will find the most appropriate match within its two degrees of freedom. For complex dynamic treatments such as IMRT or VMAT it is important to verify the dose delivery in a time dependent manner and so a gamma evaluation that includes a degree of freedom in the time domain via a third parameter, time to agreement, is presented here. A C++ (mex) based gamma function was created that could be run on either CPU and GPU computing platforms that would allow a degree of freedom in the time domain. Simple test cases were created in both 2D and 3D comprising of simple geometrical shapes with well-defined boundaries varying over time. Changes of varying magnitude in either space or time were introduced and repeated gamma analyses were performed varying the criteria. A clinical VMAT case was also included, artificial air bubbles of varying size were introduced to a patient geometry, along with shifts of varying magnitude in treatment time. For all test cases where errors in distance, dose or time were introduced, the time dependent gamma evaluation could accurately highlight the errors. The time dependent gamma function presented here allows time to be included as a degree of freedom in gamma evaluations. The function allows for 2D and 3D data sets which are varying over time to be compared using appropriate criteria without penalising minor offsets of subsequent radiation

  9. A 3D intestinal tissue model supports Clostridioides difficile germination, colonization, toxin production and epithelial damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Lamyaa; Chen, Ying; Fasciano, Alyssa C; Lin, Yinan; Kaplan, David L; Kumamoto, Carol A; Mecsas, Joan

    2018-04-01

    Endospore-forming Clostridioides difficile is a causative agent of antibiotic-induced diarrhea, a major nosocomial infection. Studies of its interactions with mammalian tissues have been hampered by the fact that C. difficile requires anaerobic conditions to survive after spore germination. We recently developed a bioengineered 3D human intestinal tissue model and found that low O 2 conditions are produced in the lumen of these tissues. Here, we compared the ability of C. difficile spores to germinate, produce toxin and cause tissue damage in our bioengineered 3D tissue model versus in a 2D transwell model in which human cells form a polarized monolayer. 3D tissue models or 2D polarized monolayers on transwell filters were challenged with the non-toxin producing C. difficile CCUG 37787 serotype X (ATCC 43603) and the toxin producing UK1 C. difficile spores in the presence of the germinant, taurocholate. Spores germinated in both the 3D tissue model as well as the 2D transwell system, however toxin activity was significantly higher in the 3D tissue models compared to the 2D transwells. Moreover, the epithelium damage in the 3D tissue model was significantly more severe than in 2D transwells and damage correlated significantly with the level of toxin activity detected but not with the amount of germinated spores. Combined, these results show that the bioengineered 3D tissue model provides a powerful system with which to study early events leading to toxin production and tissue damage of C. difficile with mammalian cells under anaerobic conditions. Furthermore, these systems may be useful for examining the effects of microbiota, novel drugs and other potential therapeutics directed towards C. difficile infections. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 3D instantaneous dynamics modeling of present-day Aegean subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glerum, Anne; Spakman, Wim; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Pranger, Casper

    2017-04-01

    To study the sensitivity of surface observables to subduction and mantle flow, i.e. the coupling of crustal tectonics and the underlying mantle dynamics, we have developed 3D numerical models of the instantaneous crust-mantle dynamics of the eastern Mediterranean. These models comprise both a realistic crust-lithosphere system and the underlying mantle. The focus for this presentation lies on the regional crustal flow response to the present-day Aegean subduction system. Our curved model domain measures 40°x40°x2900km with the Aegean subduction system taken as the geographic center. Model set-ups are based on geological and geophysical data of the eastern Mediterranean. We first create a 3D synthetic geometry of the crust-lithosphere system in a stand-alone program, including the present-day configuration of the plates in the region and crust and lithosphere thickness variations abstracted from Moho and LAB maps (Faccenna et al., 2014, Carafa et al., 2015). In addition we construct the geometry of the Aegean slab from a seismic tomography model (UU-P07; Amaru, 2007) and earthquake hypocenters (NCEDC, 2014). Geometries are then imported into the finite element code ASPECT (Kronbichler et al., 2012) using specially designed plugins. The mantle initial temperature conditions can include deviations from an adiabatic profile obtained from conversion of the UU-P07 seismic velocity anomalies to temperature anomalies using a depth-dependent scaling (Karato, 2008). We model compressible mantle flow for which material properties are obtained from thermodynamics P-T lookup-tables (Perple_X, Connolly, 2009) in combination with nonlinear viscoplastic rheology laws. Sublithospheric flow through the lateral model boundaries is left free via open boundary conditions (Chertova et al., 2012), while plate motion is prescribed at the model sides in terms of relative as well as absolute plate motion velocities (e.g. Doubrovine et al., 2012). So far, we used a free-slip surface, but

  11. Dynamic earthquake rupture simulations on nonplanar faults embedded in 3D geometrically complex, heterogeneous elastic solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duru, Kenneth, E-mail: kduru@stanford.edu [Department of Geophysics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Dunham, Eric M. [Department of Geophysics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Institute for Computational and Mathematical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Dynamic propagation of shear ruptures on a frictional interface in an elastic solid is a useful idealization of natural earthquakes. The conditions relating discontinuities in particle velocities across fault zones and tractions acting on the fault are often expressed as nonlinear friction laws. The corresponding initial boundary value problems are both numerically and computationally challenging. In addition, seismic waves generated by earthquake ruptures must be propagated for many wavelengths away from the fault. Therefore, reliable and efficient numerical simulations require both provably stable and high order accurate numerical methods. We present a high order accurate finite difference method for: a) enforcing nonlinear friction laws, in a consistent and provably stable manner, suitable for efficient explicit time integration; b) dynamic propagation of earthquake ruptures along nonplanar faults; and c) accurate propagation of seismic waves in heterogeneous media with free surface topography. We solve the first order form of the 3D elastic wave equation on a boundary-conforming curvilinear mesh, in terms of particle velocities and stresses that are collocated in space and time, using summation-by-parts (SBP) finite difference operators in space. Boundary and interface conditions are imposed weakly using penalties. By deriving semi-discrete energy estimates analogous to the continuous energy estimates we prove numerical stability. The finite difference stencils used in this paper are sixth order accurate in the interior and third order accurate close to the boundaries. However, the method is applicable to any spatial operator with a diagonal norm satisfying the SBP property. Time stepping is performed with a 4th order accurate explicit low storage Runge–Kutta scheme, thus yielding a globally fourth order accurate method in both space and time. We show numerical simulations on band limited self-similar fractal faults revealing the complexity of rupture

  12. Microscopic 3D measurement of dynamic scene using optimized pulse-width-modulation binary fringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yan; Chen, Qian; Feng, Shijie; Tao, Tianyang; Li, Hui; Zuo, Chao

    2017-10-01

    Microscopic 3-D shape measurement can supply accurate metrology of the delicacy and complexity of MEMS components of the final devices to ensure their proper performance. Fringe projection profilometry (FPP) has the advantages of noncontactness and high accuracy, making it widely used in 3-D measurement. Recently, tremendous advance of electronics development promotes 3-D measurements to be more accurate and faster. However, research about real-time microscopic 3-D measurement is still rarely reported. In this work, we effectively combine optimized binary structured pattern with number-theoretical phase unwrapping algorithm to realize real-time 3-D shape measurement. A slight defocusing of our proposed binary patterns can considerably alleviate the measurement error based on phase-shifting FPP, making the binary patterns have the comparable performance with ideal sinusoidal patterns. Real-time 3-D measurement about 120 frames per second (FPS) is achieved, and experimental result of a vibrating earphone is presented.

  13. How the venetian blind percept emerges from the laminar cortical dynamics of 3D vision

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Yongqiang; Grossberg, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The 3D LAMINART model of 3D vision and figure-ground perception is used to explain and simulate a key example of the Venetian blind effect and to show how it is related to other well-known perceptual phenomena such as Panum's limiting case. The model proposes how lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and hierarchically organized laminar circuits in cortical areas V1, V2, and V4 interact to control processes of 3D boundary formation and surface filling-in that simulate many properties of 3D vision ...

  14. Supporting Distributed Team Working in 3D Virtual Worlds: A Case Study in Second Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minocha, Shailey; Morse, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on a study into how a three-dimensional (3D) virtual world (Second Life) can facilitate socialisation and team working among students working on a team project at a distance. This models the situation in many commercial sectors where work is increasingly being conducted across time zones and between…

  15. Dynamic implicit 3D adaptive mesh refinement for non-equilibrium radiation diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, B.; Wang, Z.; Berrill, M. A.; Birke, M.; Pernice, M.

    2014-04-01

    The time dependent non-equilibrium radiation diffusion equations are important for solving the transport of energy through radiation in optically thick regimes and find applications in several fields including astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion. The associated initial boundary value problems that are encountered often exhibit a wide range of scales in space and time and are extremely challenging to solve. To efficiently and accurately simulate these systems we describe our research on combining techniques that will also find use more broadly for long term time integration of nonlinear multi-physics systems: implicit time integration for efficient long term time integration of stiff multi-physics systems, local control theory based step size control to minimize the required global number of time steps while controlling accuracy, dynamic 3D adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to minimize memory and computational costs, Jacobian Free Newton-Krylov methods on AMR grids for efficient nonlinear solution, and optimal multilevel preconditioner components that provide level independent solver convergence.

  16. Dynamic implicit 3D adaptive mesh refinement for non-equilibrium radiation diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philip, B.; Wang, Z.; Berrill, M.A.; Birke, M.; Pernice, M.

    2014-01-01

    The time dependent non-equilibrium radiation diffusion equations are important for solving the transport of energy through radiation in optically thick regimes and find applications in several fields including astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion. The associated initial boundary value problems that are encountered often exhibit a wide range of scales in space and time and are extremely challenging to solve. To efficiently and accurately simulate these systems we describe our research on combining techniques that will also find use more broadly for long term time integration of nonlinear multi-physics systems: implicit time integration for efficient long term time integration of stiff multi-physics systems, local control theory based step size control to minimize the required global number of time steps while controlling accuracy, dynamic 3D adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to minimize memory and computational costs, Jacobian Free Newton–Krylov methods on AMR grids for efficient nonlinear solution, and optimal multilevel preconditioner components that provide level independent solver convergence

  17. Optimal design of wind barriers using 3D computational fluid dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, H.; Wu, X.; Yang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Desertification is a significant global environmental and ecological problem that requires human-regulated control and management. Wind barriers are commonly used to reduce wind velocity or trap drifting sand in arid or semi-arid areas. Therefore, optimal design of wind barriers becomes critical in Aeolian engineering. In the current study, we perform 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for flow passing through wind barriers with different structural parameters. To validate the simulation results, we first inter-compare the simulated flow field results with those from both wind-tunnel experiments and field measurements. Quantitative analyses of the shelter effect are then conducted based on a series of simulations with different structural parameters (such as wind barrier porosity, row numbers, inter-row spacing and belt schemes). The results show that wind barriers with porosity of 0.35 could provide the longest shelter distance (i.e., where the wind velocity reduction is more than 50%) thus are recommended in engineering designs. To determine the optimal row number and belt scheme, we introduce a cost function that takes both wind-velocity reduction effects and economical expense into account. The calculated cost function show that a 3-row-belt scheme with inter-row spacing of 6h (h as the height of wind barriers) and inter-belt spacing of 12h is the most effective.

  18. Fluido-Dynamic and Electromagnetic Characterization of 3D Carbon Dielectrophoresis with Finite Element Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Martinez-Duarte

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The following work presents the fluido-dynamic and electromagnetic characterization of an array of 3D electrodes to be used in high throughput and high efficiency Carbon Dielectrophoresis (CarbonDEP applications such as filters, continuous particle enrichment and positioning of particle populations for analysis. CarbonDEP refers to the induction of Dielectrophoresis (DEP by carbon surfaces. The final goal is, through an initial stage of modeling and analysis, to reduce idea-to-prototype time and cost of CarbonDEP devices to be applied in the health care field. Finite Element Analysis (FEA is successfully conducted to model flow velocity and electric fields established by polarized high aspect ratio carbon cylinders, and its planar carbon connecting leads, immersed in a water-based medium. Results demonstrate correlation between a decreasing flow velocity gradient and an increasing electric field gradient toward electrodes’ surfaces which is optimal for selected CarbonDEP applications. Simulation results are experimentally validated in the proposed applications.

  19. Spectral history modeling in the reactor dynamics code DYN3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilodid, Yurii

    2014-01-01

    A new method of treating spectral history effects in reactor core calculations was developed and verified in this dissertation. The nature of history effects is a dependence of fuel properties not only on the burnup, but also on the local spectral conditions during burnup. The basic idea of the proposed method is the use of the plutonium-239 concentration as the spectral history indicator. The method was implemented in the reactor dynamics code DYN3D and provides a correction for nodal cross sections according to the local spectral history. A verification of the new method was performed by single-assembly calculations in comparison with results of the lattice code HELIOS. The application of plutonium-based history correction significantly improves the cross section estimation accuracy both for UOX and MOX fuel, with quadratic and hexagonal geometry. The new method was applied to evaluate the influence of history effects on full-core calculation results. Analysis of a PWR equilibrium fuel cycle has shown a significant effect on the axial power distribution during a whole cycle, which causes axial temperature and burnup redistributions. The observed neutron flux redistribution improves neutron economy, so the fuel cycle is longer than in calculations without history corrections. Analyses of hypothetical control rod ejection accidents have shown a minor influence of history effects on the transient course and safety relevant parameters.

  20. Dynamic 3-D computer graphics for designing a diagnostic tool for patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Attila; Papathomas, Thomas V; Silverstein, Steven M; Kourtev, Hristiyan; Papayanopoulos, John F

    2016-11-01

    We introduce a novel procedure that uses dynamic 3-D computer graphics as a diagnostic tool for assessing disease severity in schizophrenia patients, based on their reduced influence of top-down cognitive processes in interpreting bottom-up sensory input. Our procedure uses the hollow-mask illusion, in which the concave side of the mask is misperceived as convex, because familiarity with convex faces dominates sensory cues signaling a concave mask. It is known that schizophrenia patients resist this illusion and their resistance increases with illness severity. Our method uses virtual masks rendered with two competing textures: (a) realistic features that enhance the illusion; (b) random-dot visual noise that reduces the illusion. We control the relative weights of the two textures to obtain psychometric functions for controls and patients and assess illness severity. The primary novelty is the use of a rotating mask that is easy to implement on a wide variety of portable devices and avoids the use of elaborate stereoscopic devices that have been used in the past. Thus our method, which can also be used to assess the efficacy of treatments, provides clinicians the advantage to bring the test to the patient's own environment, instead of having to bring patients to the clinic.

  1. Effect of a Material Contrast on a Dynamic Rupture: 3-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R. A.; Day, S. M.

    2003-12-01

    We use numerical simulations of spontaneously propagating ruptures to examine the effect of a material contrast on earthquake dynamics. We specifically study the case of a lateral contrast whereby the fault is the boundary between two different rock-types. This scenario was previously studied in two-dimensions by Harris and Day [BSSA, 1997], and Andrews and Ben-Zion [JGR, 1997], in addition to subsequent 2-D studies, but it has not been known if the two-dimensional results are applicable to the real three-dimensional world. The addition of the third dimension implies a transition from pure mode II (i.e., plane-strain) to mixed-mode crack dynamics, which is more complicated since in mode II the shear and normal stresses are coupled whereas in mode III (i.e., anti-plane strain) they are not coupled. We use a slip-weakening fracture criterion and examine the effect on an earthquake rupture of material contrasts of up to 50 percent across the fault zone. We find a surprisingly good agreement between our earlier 2-D results, and our 3-D results for along-strike propagation. We find that the analytical solution presented in Harris and Day [BSSA, 1997] does an excellent job at predicting the bilateral, along-strike rupture velocities for the three-dimensional situation. In contrast, the along-dip propagation behaves much as expected for a purely mode-III rupture, with the rupture velocities up-dip and down-dip showing the expected symmetries.

  2. Two millennia of soil dynamics derived from ancient desert terraces using high resolution 3-D data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filin, Sagi; Arav, Reuma; Avni, Yoav

    2017-04-01

    Large areas in the arid southern Levant are dotted with ancient terrace-based agriculture systems which were irrigated by runoff harvesting techniques. They were constructed and maintained between the 3rd - 9th centuries AD and abandoned in the 10th century AD. During their 600 years of cultivation, these terraces documented the gradual aggradation of alluvial soils, erosion processes within the drainage basins, as well as flashflood damage. From their abandonment and onwards, they documented 1000 years and more of land degradation and soil erosion processes. Examination of these installations presents an opportunity to study natural and anthropogenic induced changes over almost two millennia. On a global scale, such an analysis is unique as it is rare to find intact manifestations of anthropogenic influences over such time-scales because of landscape dynamics. It is also rare to find a near millennia documentation of soil erosion processes. We study in this paper the aggradation processes within intact agriculture plots in the region surrounding the world heritage Roman-Byzantine ancient city of Avdat, Negev Highlands. We follow the complete cycle of the historical desert agriculture, from the configuration pre-dating the first anthropogenic intervention, through the centuries of cultivation, and up to the present erosion phase, which spans over more than a millennium. We use high resolution 3-D laser scans to document the erosion and the environmental dynamics during these two millennia. The high-resolution data is then utilized to compute siltation rates as well as erosion rates. The long-term measures of soil erosion and land degradation we present here significantly improve our understanding of the mechanism of long-term environmental change acting in arid environments. For sustainable desert inhabitation, the study offers insights into better planning of modern agriculture in similar zones as well as insights on strategies needed to protect such historical

  3. 3D Discrete Dislocation Dynamics: Influence of Segment Mobility on Critical Shear Stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Záležák, Tomáš; Dlouhý, Antonín

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 128, č. 4 (2015), s. 654-656 ISSN 0587-4246. [ISPMA 13 - International Symposium on Physics of Materials /13./. Praha, 31.08.2014-04.09.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0214; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22834S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : metal matrix composites * discrete dislocation dynamics * high temperature creep Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 0.525, year: 2015

  4. Grammar-Supported 3d Indoor Reconstruction from Point Clouds for As-Built Bim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, S.; Peter, M.; Fritsch, D.

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents a grammar-based approach for the robust automatic reconstruction of 3D interiors from raw point clouds. The core of the approach is a 3D indoor grammar which is an extension of our previously published grammar concept for the modeling of 2D floor plans. The grammar allows for the modeling of buildings whose horizontal, continuous floors are traversed by hallways providing access to the rooms as it is the case for most office buildings or public buildings like schools, hospitals or hotels. The grammar is designed in such way that it can be embedded in an iterative automatic learning process providing a seamless transition from LOD3 to LOD4 building models. Starting from an initial low-level grammar, automatically derived from the window representations of an available LOD3 building model, hypotheses about indoor geometries can be generated. The hypothesized indoor geometries are checked against observation data - here 3D point clouds - collected in the interior of the building. The verified and accepted geometries form the basis for an automatic update of the initial grammar. By this, the knowledge content of the initial grammar is enriched, leading to a grammar with increased quality. This higher-level grammar can then be applied to predict realistic geometries to building parts where only sparse observation data are available. Thus, our approach allows for the robust generation of complete 3D indoor models whose quality can be improved continuously as soon as new observation data are fed into the grammar-based reconstruction process. The feasibility of our approach is demonstrated based on a real-world example.

  5. Development, Validation, and Evaluation of Literacy 3D: A Package Supporting Tier 1 Preschool Literacy Instruction Implementation and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Charles R.; Abbott, Mary; Beecher, Constance; Atwater, Jane; Petersen, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly, prekindergarten programs with literacy outcome goals are seeking to implement evidence-based practices to improve results. Such efforts require instructional intervention strategies to engage children as well as strategies to support teacher implementation. Reported is the iterative development of Literacy 3D, an enhanced support…

  6. Centering Single Cells in Microgels via Delayed Crosslinking Supports Long-Term 3D Culture by Preventing Cell Escape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamperman, Tom; Henke, Sieger; Visser, Claas Willem; Karperien, Marcel; Leijten, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    Single-cell-laden microgels support physiological 3D culture conditions while enabling straightforward handling and high-resolution readouts of individual cells. However, their widespread adoption for long-term cultures is limited by cell escape. In this work, it is demonstrated that cell escape is

  7. How the Venetian Blind Percept Emergesfrom the Laminar Cortical Dynamics of 3D Vision

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen eGrossberg

    2014-01-01

    The 3D LAMINART model of 3D vision and figure-ground perception is used to explain and simulate a key example of the Venetian blind effect and show how it is related to other well-known perceptual phenomena such as Panum's limiting case. The model shows how identified neurons that interact in hierarchically organized laminar circuits of the visual cortex can simulate many properties of 3D vision percepts, notably consciously seen surface percepts, which are predicted to arise when filled-in s...

  8. On the unsteady wake dynamics behind a circular disk using fully 3D proper orthogonal decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jianzhi; Liu, Minghou; Gu, Hailin; Yao, Mengyun [Department of Thermal Science and Energy Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Wu, Guang, E-mail: mhliu@ustc.edu.cn [Technical Services Engineer, ANSYS, Inc (United States)

    2017-02-15

    In the present work, the wakes behind a circular disk at various transitional regimes are numerically explored using fully 3D proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). The Reynolds numbers considered in this study (Re = 152, 170, 300 and 3000) cover four transitional states, i.e. the reflectional-symmetry-breaking (RSB) mode, the standing wave (SW) mode, a weakly chaotic state, and a higher-Reynolds-number state. Through analysis of the spatial POD modes at different wake states, it is found that a planar-symmetric vortex shedding mode characterized by the first mode pair is persistent in all the states. When the wake develops into a weakly chaotic state, a new vortex shedding mode characterized by the second mode pair begins to appear and completely forms at the higher-Reynolds-number state of Re = 3000, i.e. planar-symmetry-breaking vortex shedding mode. On the other hand, the coherent structure at Re = 3000 extracted from the first two POD modes shows a good resemblance to the wake configuration in the SW mode, while the coherent structure reconstructed from the first four POD modes shows a good resemblance to the wake configuration in the RSB mode. The present results indicate that the dynamics or flow instabilities observed at transitional RSB and SW modes are still preserved in a higher-Reynolds-number regime. (paper)

  9. A numerical method for simulating the dynamics of 3D axisymmetric vesicles suspended in viscous flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerapaneni, Shravan K.; Gueyffier, Denis; Biros, George; Zorin, Denis

    2009-10-01

    We extend [Shravan K. Veerapaneni, Denis Gueyffier, Denis Zorin, George Biros, A boundary integral method for simulating the dynamics of inextensible vesicles suspended in a viscous fluid in 2D, Journal of Computational Physics 228(7) (2009) 2334-2353] to the case of three-dimensional axisymmetric vesicles of spherical or toroidal topology immersed in viscous flows. Although the main components of the algorithm are similar in spirit to the 2D case—spectral approximation in space, semi-implicit time-stepping scheme—the main differences are that the bending and viscous force require new analysis, the linearization for the semi-implicit schemes must be rederived, a fully implicit scheme must be used for the toroidal topology to eliminate a CFL-type restriction and a novel numerical scheme for the evaluation of the 3D Stokes single layer potential on an axisymmetric surface is necessary to speed up the calculations. By introducing these novel components, we obtain a time-scheme that experimentally is unconditionally stable, has low cost per time step, and is third-order accurate in time. We present numerical results to analyze the cost and convergence rates of the scheme. To verify the solver, we compare it to a constrained variational approach to compute equilibrium shapes that does not involve interactions with a viscous fluid. To illustrate the applicability of method, we consider a few vesicle-flow interaction problems: the sedimentation of a vesicle, interactions of one and three vesicles with a background Poiseuille flow.

  10. Nonlinear complexity behaviors of agent-based 3D Potts financial dynamics with random environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yani; Wang, Jun

    2018-02-01

    A new microscopic 3D Potts interaction financial price model is established in this work, to investigate the nonlinear complexity behaviors of stock markets. 3D Potts model, which extends the 2D Potts model to three-dimensional, is a cubic lattice model to explain the interaction behavior among the agents. In order to explore the complexity of real financial markets and the 3D Potts financial model, a new random coarse-grained Lempel-Ziv complexity is proposed to certain series, such as the price returns, the price volatilities, and the random time d-returns. Then the composite multiscale entropy (CMSE) method is applied to the intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and the corresponding shuffled data to study the complexity behaviors. The empirical results indicate that the 3D financial model is feasible.

  11. Characterizing interstate vibrational coherent dynamics of surface adsorbed catalysts by fourth-order 3D SFG spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingmin; Wang, Jiaxi; Clark, Melissa L.; Kubiak, Clifford P.; Xiong, Wei

    2016-04-01

    We report the first fourth-order 3D SFG spectroscopy of a monolayer of the catalyst Re(diCN-bpy)(CO)3Cl on a gold surface. Besides measuring the vibrational coherences of single vibrational modes, the fourth-order 3D SFG spectrum also measures the dynamics of interstate coherences and vibrational coherences states between two vibrational modes. By comparing the 3D SFG to the corresponding 2D and third-order 3D IR spectroscopy of the same molecules in solution, we found that the interstate coherences exist in both liquid and surface systems, suggesting that the interstate coherence is not disrupted by surface interactions. However, by analyzing the 3D spectral lineshape, we found that the interstate coherences also experience non-negligible homogenous dephasing dynamics that originate from surface interactions. This unique ability of determining interstate vibrational coherence dynamics of the molecular monolayer can help in understanding of how energy flows within surface catalysts and other molecular monolayers.

  12. How the venetian blind percept emerges from the laminar cortical dynamics of 3D vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yongqiang; Grossberg, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The 3D LAMINART model of 3D vision and figure-ground perception is used to explain and simulate a key example of the Venetian blind effect and to show how it is related to other well-known perceptual phenomena such as Panum's limiting case. The model proposes how lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and hierarchically organized laminar circuits in cortical areas V1, V2, and V4 interact to control processes of 3D boundary formation and surface filling-in that simulate many properties of 3D vision percepts, notably consciously seen surface percepts, which are predicted to arise when filled-in surface representations are integrated into surface-shroud resonances between visual and parietal cortex. Interactions between layers 4, 3B, and 2/3 in V1 and V2 carry out stereopsis and 3D boundary formation. Both binocular and monocular information combine to form 3D boundary and surface representations. Surface contour surface-to-boundary feedback from V2 thin stripes to V2 pale stripes combines computationally complementary boundary and surface formation properties, leading to a single consistent percept, while also eliminating redundant 3D boundaries, and triggering figure-ground perception. False binocular boundary matches are eliminated by Gestalt grouping properties during boundary formation. In particular, a disparity filter, which helps to solve the Correspondence Problem by eliminating false matches, is predicted to be realized as part of the boundary grouping process in layer 2/3 of cortical area V2. The model has been used to simulate the consciously seen 3D surface percepts in 18 psychophysical experiments. These percepts include the Venetian blind effect, Panum's limiting case, contrast variations of dichoptic masking and the correspondence problem, the effect of interocular contrast differences on stereoacuity, stereopsis with polarity-reversed stereograms, da Vinci stereopsis, and perceptual closure. These model mechanisms have also simulated properties of 3D neon

  13. Preparation of 3D nanoporous copper-supported cuprous oxide for high-performance lithium ion battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dequan; Yang, Zhibo; Wang, Peng; Li, Fei; Wang, Desheng; He, Deyan

    2013-03-07

    Three-dimensional (3D) nanoporous architectures can provide efficient and rapid pathways for Li-ion and electron transport as well as short solid-state diffusion lengths in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). In this work, 3D nanoporous copper-supported cuprous oxide was successfully fabricated by low-cost selective etching of an electron-beam melted Cu(50)Al(50) alloy and subsequent in situ thermal oxidation. The architecture was used as an anode in lithium ion batteries. In the first cycle, the sample delivered an extremely high lithium storage capacity of about 2.35 mA h cm(-2). A high reversible capacity of 1.45 mA h cm(-2) was achieved after 120 cycles. This work develops a promising approach to building reliable 3D nanostructured electrodes for high-performance lithium ion batteries.

  14. The 3D Elevation Program—Landslide recognition, hazard assessment, and mitigation support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Vicki; Carswell, Jr., William J.

    2017-01-27

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Landslide Hazards Program conducts landslide hazard assessments, pursues landslide investigations and forecasts, provides technical assistance to respond to landslide emergencies, and engages in outreach. All of these activities benefit from the availability of high-resolution, three-dimensional (3D) elevation information in the form of light detection and ranging (lidar) data and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IfSAR) data. Research on landslide processes addresses critical questions of where and when landslides are likely to occur as well as their size, speed, and effects. This understanding informs the development of methods and tools for hazard assessment and situational awareness used to guide efforts to avoid or mitigate landslide impacts. Such research is essential for the USGS to provide improved information on landslide potential associated with severe storms, earthquakes, volcanic activity, coastal wave erosion, and wildfire burn areas.Decisionmakers in government and the private sector increasingly depend on information the USGS provides before, during, and following disasters so that communities can live, work, travel, and build safely. The USGS 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) provides the programmatic infrastructure to generate and supply lidar-derived superior terrain data to address landslide applications and a wide range of other urgent needs nationwide. By providing data to users, 3DEP reduces users’ costs and risks and allows them to concentrate on their mission objectives. 3DEP includes (1) data acquisition partnerships that leverage funding, (2) contracts with experienced private mapping firms, (3) technical expertise, lidar data standards, and specifications, and (4) most important, public access to high-quality 3D elevation data.

  15. Enhancing photogrammetric 3d city models with procedural modeling techniques for urban planning support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubiger-Banz, S; Arisona, S M; Zhong, C

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a workflow to increase the level of detail of reality-based 3D urban models. It combines the established workflows from photogrammetry and procedural modeling in order to exploit distinct advantages of both approaches. The combination has advantages over purely automatic acquisition in terms of visual quality, accuracy and model semantics. Compared to manual modeling, procedural techniques can be much more time effective while maintaining the qualitative properties of the modeled environment. In addition, our method includes processes for procedurally adding additional features such as road and rail networks. The resulting models meet the increasing needs in urban environments for planning, inventory, and analysis

  16. Dynamic representation of 3D auditory space in the midbrain of the free-flying echolocating bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Essential to spatial orientation in the natural environment is a dynamic representation of direction and distance to objects. Despite the importance of 3D spatial localization to parse objects in the environment and to guide movement, most neurophysiological investigations of sensory mapping have been limited to studies of restrained subjects, tested with 2D, artificial stimuli. Here, we show for the first time that sensory neurons in the midbrain superior colliculus (SC) of the free-flying echolocating bat encode 3D egocentric space, and that the bat’s inspection of objects in the physical environment sharpens tuning of single neurons, and shifts peak responses to represent closer distances. These findings emerged from wireless neural recordings in free-flying bats, in combination with an echo model that computes the animal’s instantaneous stimulus space. Our research reveals dynamic 3D space coding in a freely moving mammal engaged in a real-world navigation task. PMID:29633711

  17. 3D based integrated support concept for improving safety and cost-efficiency of nuclear decommissioning projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szoeke, Istvan

    2016-01-01

    New concepts enabled by emerging computing technologies based on 3D simulation, virtual (VR) and augmented reality (AR), advanced user interfaces (UI), mobile and wearable computing devices, and geographical information systems have great potential for improving nuclear decommissioning strategies. Such techniques offer very effective new opportunities for improving early characterisation and strategical decision making, knowledge management, on-site management of radiological waste, and regulatory compliance. In addition, such methods allow for an effective training of foreseen decommissioning workers to begin during operation and transition phase without disturbance to normal operation of the plant. Improved plant information systems enabled by 3D simulation, advanced user interface, and mobile computing technologies, offer better ways for acquiring and managing the radiological and other plant information that are required for informed decision making in the early planning phase of decommissioning activities. User friendly, realistic management and visualisation of available radiological information, and results of radiological data analyses, allows decision makers to have a better understanding of the radiological conditions expected when decontamination and dismantling work starts, without high need for physical presence in the environment. Such functionalities, combined with capabilities for easy evaluation of possible decommissioning (decontamination, dismantling) options allow decision makers to make informed decisions, and enable a seamless communication (common language) within a multidisciplinary decommissioning planning team. Support systems, enabled by modern information technologies are expected to improve information and knowledge management in decommissioning projects, especially during transition from the operation phase. Traditionally, inefficient transfer of knowledge from the design and operation phase, results in suboptimal work strategies and

  18. Novel enzymatically cross-linked hyaluronan hydrogels support the formation of 3D neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broguiere, Nicolas; Isenmann, Luca; Zenobi-Wong, Marcy

    2016-08-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is an essential component of the central nervous system's extracellular matrix and its high molecular weight (MW) form has anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic properties relevant for regenerative medicine. Here, we introduce a new hydrogel based on high MW HA which is cross-linked using the transglutaminase (TG) activity of the activated blood coagulation factor XIII (FXIIIa). These HA-TG gels have significant advantages for neural tissue engineering compared to previous HA gels. Due to their chemical inertness in the absence of FXIIIa, the material can be stored long-term, is stable in solution, and shows no cytotoxicity. The gelation is completely cell-friendly due to the specificity of the enzyme and the gelation rate can be tuned from seconds to hours at physiological pH and independently of stiffness. The gels are injectable, and attach covalently to fibrinogen and fibrin, two common bioactive components in in vitro tissue engineering, as well as proteins present in vivo, allowing the gels to covalently bind to brain or spinal cord defects. These optimal chemical and bioactive properties of HA-TG gels enabled the formation of 3D neuronal cultures of unprecedented performance, showing fast neurite outgrowth, axonal and dendritic speciation, strong synaptic connectivity in 3D networks, and rapidly-occurring and long-lasting coordinated electrical activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. How the Venetian Blind Percept Emergesfrom the Laminar Cortical Dynamics of 3D Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eGrossberg

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The 3D LAMINART model of 3D vision and figure-ground perception is used to explain and simulate a key example of the Venetian blind effect and show how it is related to other well-known perceptual phenomena such as Panum's limiting case. The model shows how identified neurons that interact in hierarchically organized laminar circuits of the visual cortex can simulate many properties of 3D vision percepts, notably consciously seen surface percepts, which are predicted to arise when filled-in surface representations are integrated into surface-shroud resonances between visual and parietal cortex. The model describes how monocular and binocular oriented filtering interacts with later stages of 3D boundary formation and surface filling-in in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN and cortical areas V1, V2, and V4. It proposes how interactions between layers 4, 3B, and 2/3 in V1 and V2 contribute to stereopsis, and how binocular and monocular information combine to form 3D boundary and surface representations. The model suggests how surface-to-boundary feedback from V2 thin stripes to pale stripes enables computationally complementary boundary and surface formation properties to generate a single consistent percept, eliminate redundant 3D boundaries, and trigger figure-ground perception. The model also shows how false binocular boundary matches may be eliminated by Gestalt grouping properties. In particular, a disparity filter, which helps to solve the Correspondence Problem by eliminating false matches, is predicted to be realized as part of the boundary grouping process in layer 2/3 of cortical area V2. The model has been used to simulate the consciously seen 3D surface percepts in 18 psychophysical experiments. These percepts include the Venetian blind effect, Panum's limiting case, contrast variations of dichoptic masking and the correspondence problem, the effect of interocular contrast differences on stereoacuity, stereopsis with polarity

  20. Concept and Design of a 3D Printed Support to Assist Hand Scanning for the Realization of Customized Orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronio, Gabriele; Volonghi, Paola; Signoroni, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    In the rehabilitation field, the use of additive manufacturing techniques to realize customized orthoses is increasingly widespread. Obtaining a 3D model for the 3D printing phase can be done following different methodologies. We consider the creation of personalized upper limb orthoses, also including fingers, starting from the acquisition of the hand geometry through accurate 3D scanning. However, hand scanning procedure presents differences between healthy subjects and patients affected by pathologies that compromise upper limb functionality. In this work, we present the concept and design of a 3D printed support to assist hand scanning of such patients. The device, realized with FDM additive manufacturing techniques in ABS material, allows palmar acquisitions, and its design and test are motivated by the following needs: (1) immobilizing the hand of patients during the palmar scanning to reduce involuntary movements affecting the scanning quality and (2) keeping hands open and in a correct position, especially to contrast the high degree of hypertonicity of spastic subjects. The resulting device can be used indifferently for the right and the left hand; it is provided in four-dimensional sizes and may be also suitable as a palmar support for the acquisition of the dorsal side of the hand.

  1. Architecture-Level Exploration of Alternative Interconnection Schemes Targeting 3D FPGAs: A Software-Supported Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostas Siozios

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In current reconfigurable architectures, the interconnection structures increasingly contribute more to the delay and power consumption. The demand for increased clock frequencies and logic density (smaller area footprint makes the problem even more important. Three-dimensional (3D architectures are able to alleviate this problem by accommodating a number of functional layers, each of which might be fabricated in different technology. However, the benefits of such integration technology have not been sufficiently explored yet. In this paper, we propose a software-supported methodology for exploring and evaluating alternative interconnection schemes for 3D FPGAs. In order to support the proposed methodology, three new CAD tools were developed (part of the 3D MEANDER Design Framework. During our exploration, we study the impact of vertical interconnection between functional layers in a number of design parameters. More specifically, the average gains in operation frequency, power consumption, and wirelength are 35%, 32%, and 13%, respectively, compared to existing 2D FPGAs with identical logic resources. Also, we achieve higher utilization ratio for the vertical interconnections compared to existing approaches by 8% for designing 3D FPGAs, leading to cheaper and more reliable devices.

  2. Concept and Design of a 3D Printed Support to Assist Hand Scanning for the Realization of Customized Orthosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Baronio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the rehabilitation field, the use of additive manufacturing techniques to realize customized orthoses is increasingly widespread. Obtaining a 3D model for the 3D printing phase can be done following different methodologies. We consider the creation of personalized upper limb orthoses, also including fingers, starting from the acquisition of the hand geometry through accurate 3D scanning. However, hand scanning procedure presents differences between healthy subjects and patients affected by pathologies that compromise upper limb functionality. In this work, we present the concept and design of a 3D printed support to assist hand scanning of such patients. The device, realized with FDM additive manufacturing techniques in ABS material, allows palmar acquisitions, and its design and test are motivated by the following needs: (1 immobilizing the hand of patients during the palmar scanning to reduce involuntary movements affecting the scanning quality and (2 keeping hands open and in a correct position, especially to contrast the high degree of hypertonicity of spastic subjects. The resulting device can be used indifferently for the right and the left hand; it is provided in four-dimensional sizes and may be also suitable as a palmar support for the acquisition of the dorsal side of the hand.

  3. Can molecular dynamics simulations help in discriminating correct from erroneous protein 3D models?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibrat Jean-François

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent approaches for predicting the three-dimensional (3D structure of proteins such as de novo or fold recognition methods mostly rely on simplified energy potential functions and a reduced representation of the polypeptide chain. These simplifications facilitate the exploration of the protein conformational space but do not permit to capture entirely the subtle relationship that exists between the amino acid sequence and its native structure. It has been proposed that physics-based energy functions together with techniques for sampling the conformational space, e.g., Monte Carlo or molecular dynamics (MD simulations, are better suited to the task of modelling proteins at higher resolutions than those of models obtained with the former type of methods. In this study we monitor different protein structural properties along MD trajectories to discriminate correct from erroneous models. These models are based on the sequence-structure alignments provided by our fold recognition method, FROST. We define correct models as being built from alignments of sequences with structures similar to their native structures and erroneous models from alignments of sequences with structures unrelated to their native structures. Results For three test sequences whose native structures belong to the all-α, all-β and αβ classes we built a set of models intended to cover the whole spectrum: from a perfect model, i.e., the native structure, to a very poor model, i.e., a random alignment of the test sequence with a structure belonging to another structural class, including several intermediate models based on fold recognition alignments. We submitted these models to 11 ns of MD simulations at three different temperatures. We monitored along the corresponding trajectories the mean of the Root-Mean-Square deviations (RMSd with respect to the initial conformation, the RMSd fluctuations, the number of conformation clusters, the evolution of

  4. Characterization and modelling of signal dynamics in 3D-DDTC detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoboli, A.; Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Gabos, P.; Piemonte, C.; Ronchin, S.; Zorzi, N.

    2010-01-01

    In the past few years we have developed 3D detector technologies within a collaboration between INFN and FBK-irst aiming at a simplification of the fabrication technology with respect to the original 3D design. These detectors are the object of an increasing interest from the HEP community because of their intrinsic radiation hardness, making them appealing for innermost layers of tracking at the foreseen upgrades of the large hadron collider. In this paper we evaluate the signal shape in response to localized and uniform charge deposition both by solving Ramo's theorem and with the aid of TCAD simulations. Signals observed in 3D diodes, stimulated by lasers at different wavelengths, are compared with simulations results.

  5. Characterization and modelling of signal dynamics in 3D-DDTC detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoboli, A., E-mail: zoboli@disi.unitn.i [INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento), and Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita di Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, I-38050 Povo (Trento) (Italy); Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi, Via Sommarive, 18, I-38050 Povo (Trento) (Italy); Bosisio, L. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste, e Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Gabos, P. [INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento), and Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita di Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, I-38050 Povo (Trento) (Italy); Piemonte, C.; Ronchin, S.; Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi, Via Sommarive, 18, I-38050 Povo (Trento) (Italy)

    2010-05-21

    In the past few years we have developed 3D detector technologies within a collaboration between INFN and FBK-irst aiming at a simplification of the fabrication technology with respect to the original 3D design. These detectors are the object of an increasing interest from the HEP community because of their intrinsic radiation hardness, making them appealing for innermost layers of tracking at the foreseen upgrades of the large hadron collider. In this paper we evaluate the signal shape in response to localized and uniform charge deposition both by solving Ramo's theorem and with the aid of TCAD simulations. Signals observed in 3D diodes, stimulated by lasers at different wavelengths, are compared with simulations results.

  6. A 3D City Model with Dynamic Behaviour Based on Geospatial Managed Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, Erik; Kolář, Jan

    2014-01-01

    of a geographic data representation of the world. The combination of 3D city models and real time information based systems though can provide a whole new setup for data fusion within an urban environment and provide time critical information preserving our limited resources in the most sustainable way. Using 3D......One of the major development efforts within the GI Science domain are pointing at real time information coming from geographic referenced features in general. At the same time 3D City models are mostly justified as being objects for visualization purposes rather than constituting the foundation...... occasions we have been advocating for a new and advanced formulation of real world features using the concept of Geospatial Managed Objects (GMO). This chapter presents the outcome of the InfraWorld project, a 4 million Euro project financed primarily by the Norwegian Research Council where the concept...

  7. Order reconstruction phenomena and temperature-driven dynamics in a 3D zenithally bistable device

    KAUST Repository

    Raisch, A.

    2014-07-01

    We model the zenithally bistable device (ZBD) in three dimensions (3D), within the Landau-de Gennes theory, and find three stable static states in 3D without an applied field: the vertically aligned nematic (VAN) state, the hybrid aligned nematic (HAN) state and a third, high-tilt state, which we call the THAN state, with an interior and a surface defect. We recover the order reconstruction (OR) phenomenon around the defects in the HAN and THAN states and the 3D THAN and HAN solutions exhibit stable biaxial cylinders connecting defects on opposite faces of the ZBD device. We demonstrate a two-way temperature-driven switching between high-tilt and low-tilt states through controlled heating and cooling procedures in two dimensions (2D), with no applied fields. © CopyrightEPLA, 2014.

  8. 3D time-lapse analysis of Rab11/FIP5 complex: spatiotemporal dynamics during apical lumen formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Anthony; Prekeris, Rytis

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent imaging of fixed cells grown in two-dimensional (2D) cultures is one of the most widely used techniques for observing protein localization and distribution within cells. Although this technique can also be applied to polarized epithelial cells that form three-dimensional (3D) cysts when grown in a Matrigel matrix suspension, there are still significant limitations in imaging cells fixed at a particular point in time. Here, we describe the use of 3D time-lapse imaging of live cells to observe the dynamics of apical membrane initiation site (AMIS) formation and lumen expansion in polarized epithelial cells.

  9. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of blood flow regularized by 3D phase contrast MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rispoli, Vinicius C; Nielsen, Jon; Nayak, Krishna S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) is used clinically for quantitative assessment of cardiovascular flow and function, as it is capable of providing directly-measured 3D velocity maps. Alternatively, vascular flow can be estimated from model-based computation fluid dyn...

  10. Dynamics of electron emission in double photoionization processes near the krypton 3d threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penent, F; Sheinerman, S; Andric, L; Lablanquie, P; Palaudoux, J; Becker, U; Braune, M; Viefhaus, J; Eland, J H D

    2008-01-01

    Two-electron emission following photoabsorption near the Kr 3d threshold is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. On the experimental side, electron/electron coincidences using a magnetic bottle time-of-flight spectrometer allow us to observe the complete double photo ionization (DPI) continua of selected Kr 2+ final states, and to see how these continua are affected by resonant processes in the vicinity of the Kr 3d threshold. The analysis is based on a quantum mechanical approach that takes into account the contribution of three different processes: (A) Auger decay of the inner 3d vacancy with the associated post-collision interaction (PCI) effects, (B) capture of slow photoelectrons into discrete states followed by valence multiplet decay (VMD) of the excited ionic states and (C) valence shell DPI. The dominant process for each Kr 2+ (4p -2 ) final state is the photoionization of the inner shell followed by Auger decay of the 3d vacancies. Moreover, for the 4p -2 ( 3 P) and 4p -2 ( 1 D) final ionic states an important contribution comes from the processes of slow photoelectron capture followed by VMD as well as from double ionization of the outer shell involving also VMD

  11. The First Static and Dynamic Analysis of 3-D Printed Sintered Ceramics for Body Armor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    hardness , and fracture strength) and semi-infinite penetration performance of 3-D printed sintered alumina. These results are compared with traditionally...parameters (including density, hardness , and fracture strength), semi-infinite penetration performance, and the fracture profile following impact of 3...of advanced ceramics differs mostly in terms of the initial green part formation when compared with a traditional manufacturing process. The

  12. 3D Dynamic Modeling of the Head-Neck Complex for Fast Eye and Head Orientation Movements Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Sierra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3D dynamic computer model for the movement of the head-neck complex is presented. It incorporates anatomically correct information about the diverse elements forming the system. The skeleton is considered as a set of interconnected rigid 3D bodies following the Newton-Euler laws of movement. The muscles are modeled using Enderle's linear model, which shows equivalent dynamic characteristics to Loeb's virtual muscle model. The soft tissues, namely, the ligaments, intervertebral disks, and facet joints, are modeled considering their physiological roles and dynamics. In contrast with other head and neck models developed for safety research, the model is aimed to study the neural control of the complex during fast eye and head movements, such as saccades and gaze shifts. In particular, the time-optimal hypothesis and the feedback control ones are discussed.

  13. Can CH-53K 3D Technical Data Support the Provisioning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    support for all National Stock Number (NSN) items in the Federal Catalog System (FCS) used in supply management operations by the military services...Engineering Data Management Information and Control System ; SSR = supply support request. The data flow between the four activities in the... supportability re- quirements.  JEDMICS. The JEDMICS is a DoD standard engineering data manage - ment and repository system . JEDMICS provides the

  14. EUROPEANA AND 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pletinckx

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  15. 3-D Dynamic rupture simulation for the 2016 Kumamoto, Japan, earthquake sequence: Foreshocks and M6 dynamically triggered event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, R.; Aoki, Y.; Uchide, T.; Imanishi, K.; Matsumoto, S.; Nishimura, T.

    2016-12-01

    A couple of interesting earthquake rupture phenomena were observed associated with the sequence of the 2016 Kumamoto, Japan, earthquake sequence. The sequence includes the April 15, 2016, Mw 7.0, mainshock, which was preceded by multiple M6-class foreshock. The mainshock mainly broke the Futagawa fault segment striking NE-SW direction extending over 50km, and it further triggered a M6-class earthquake beyond the distance more than 50km to the northeast (Uchide et al., 2016, submitted), where an active volcano is situated. Compiling the data of seismic analysis and InSAR, we presumed this dynamic triggering event occurred on an active fault known as Yufuin fault (Ando et al., 2016, JPGU general assembly). It is also reported that the coseismic slip was significantly large at a shallow portion of Futagawa Fault near Aso volcano. Since the seismogenic depth becomes significantly shallower in these two areas, we presume the geothermal anomaly play a role as well as the elasto-dynamic processes associated with the coseismic rupture. In this study, we conducted a set of fully dynamic simulations of the earthquake rupture process by assuming the inferred 3D fault geometry and the regional stress field obtained referring the stress tensor inversion. As a result, we showed that the dynamic rupture process was mainly controlled by the irregularity of the fault geometry subjected to the gently varying regional stress field. The foreshocks ruptures have been arrested at the juncture of the branch faults. We also show that the dynamic triggering of M-6 class earthquakes occurred along the Yufuin fault segment (located 50 km NE) because of the strong stress transient up to a few hundreds of kPa due to the rupture directivity effect of the M-7 event. It is also shown that the geothermal condition may lead to the susceptible condition of the dynamic triggering by considering the plastic shear zone on the down dip extension of the Yufuin segment, situated in the vicinity of an

  16. Use of magnetic micro-cantilevers to study the dynamics of 3D engineered smooth muscle constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Alan; Zhao, Ruogang; Copeland, Craig; Chen, Christopher; Reich, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    The normal and pathological response of arterial tissue to mechanical stimulus sheds important light on such conditions as atherosclerosis and hypertension. While most previous methods of determining the biomechanical properties of arteries have relied on excised tissue, we have devised a system that enables the growth and in situ application of forces to arrays of stable suspended microtissues consisting of arterial smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Briefly, this magnetic microtissue tester system consists of arrays of pairs of elastomeric magnetically actuated micro-cantilevers between which SMC-infused 3D collagen gels self-assemble and remodel into aligned microtissue constructs. These devices allow us to simultaneously apply force and track stress-strain relationships of multiple microtissues per substrate. We have studied the dilatory capacity and subsequent response of the tissues and find that the resulting stress-strain curves show viscoelastic behavior as well as a linear dynamic recovery. These results provide a foundation for elucidating the mechanical behavior of this novel model system as well as further experiments that simulate pathological conditions. Supported in part by NIH grant HL090747.

  17. New sparse matrix solver in the KIKO3D 3-dimensional reactor dynamics code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panka, I.; Kereszturi, A.; Hegedus, C.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a more effective method Bi-CGSTAB for accelerating the large sparse matrix equation solution in the KIKO3D code. This equation system is obtained by using the factorization of the improved quasi static (IQS) method for the time dependent nodal kinetic equations. In the old methodology standard large sparse matrix techniques were considered, where Gauss-Seidel preconditioning and a GMRES-type solver were applied. The validation of KIKO3D using Bi-CGSTAB has been performed by solving of a VVER-1000 kinetic benchmark problem. Additionally, the convergence characteristics were investigated in given macro time steps of Control Rod Ejection transients. The results have been obtained by the old GMRES and new Bi-CGSTAB methods are compared. (author)

  18. 3D patient-specific models for left atrium characterization to support ablation in atrial fibrillation patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valinoti, Maddalena; Fabbri, Claudio; Turco, Dario; Mantovan, Roberto; Pasini, Antonio; Corsi, Cristiana

    2018-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is an important and promising therapy for atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. Optimization of patient selection and the availability of an accurate anatomical guide could improve RFA success rate. In this study we propose a unified, fully automated approach to build a 3D patient-specific left atrium (LA) model including pulmonary veins (PVs) in order to provide an accurate anatomical guide during RFA and without PVs in order to characterize LA volumetry and support patient selection for AF ablation. Magnetic resonance data from twenty-six patients referred for AF RFA were processed applying an edge-based level set approach guided by a phase-based edge detector to obtain the 3D LA model with PVs. An automated technique based on the shape diameter function was designed and applied to remove PVs and compute LA volume. 3D LA models were qualitatively compared with 3D LA surfaces acquired during the ablation procedure. An expert radiologist manually traced the LA on MR images twice. LA surfaces from the automatic approach and manual tracing were compared by mean surface-to-surface distance. In addition, LA volumes were compared with volumes from manual segmentation by linear and Bland-Altman analyses. Qualitative comparison of 3D LA models showed several inaccuracies, in particular PVs reconstruction was not accurate and left atrial appendage was missing in the model obtained during RFA procedure. LA surfaces were very similar (mean surface-to-surface distance: 2.3±0.7mm). LA volumes were in excellent agreement (y=1.03x-1.4, r=0.99, bias=-1.37ml (-1.43%) SD=2.16ml (2.3%), mean percentage difference=1.3%±2.1%). Results showed the proposed 3D patient-specific LA model with PVs is able to better describe LA anatomy compared to models derived from the navigation system, thus potentially improving electrograms and voltage information location and reducing fluoroscopic time during RFA. Quantitative assessment of LA volume derived from our 3D LA

  19. Enhanced Solubility of the Support in an FDM-Based 3D Printed Structure Using Hydrogen Peroxide under Ultrasonication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Je Park

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fused deposition modeling (FDM, one of the archetypal 3D printing processes, typically requires support structures matched to printed model parts that principally have undercut or overhung features. Thus, the support removal is an essential postprocessing step after the FDM process. Here, we present an efficient and rapid method to remove the support part of an FDM-manufactured product using the phenomenon of oxidative degradation of hydrogen peroxide. This mechanism was significantly effective on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA, which has been widely used as a support material in the FDM process. Compared to water, hydrogen peroxide provided a two times faster dissolution rate of the PVA material. This could be increased another two times by applying ultrasonication to the solvent. In addition to the rapidness, we confirmed that amount of the support residues removed was enhanced, which was essentially caused by the surface roughness of the FDM-fabricated part. Furthermore, we demonstrated that there was no deterioration with respect to the mechanical properties or shape geometries of the obtained 3D printed parts. Taken together, these results are expected to help enhance the productivity of FDM by reducing the postprocessing time and to allow the removal of complicated and fine support structures, thereby improving the design capability of the FDM technique.

  20. Motion field estimation for a dynamic scene using a 3D LiDAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingquan; Zhang, Liang; Mao, Qingzhou; Zou, Qin; Zhang, Pin; Feng, Shaojun; Ochieng, Washington

    2014-09-09

    This paper proposes a novel motion field estimation method based on a 3D light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensor for motion sensing for intelligent driverless vehicles and active collision avoidance systems. Unlike multiple target tracking methods, which estimate the motion state of detected targets, such as cars and pedestrians, motion field estimation regards the whole scene as a motion field in which each little element has its own motion state. Compared to multiple target tracking, segmentation errors and data association errors have much less significance in motion field estimation, making it more accurate and robust. This paper presents an intact 3D LiDAR-based motion field estimation method, including pre-processing, a theoretical framework for the motion field estimation problem and practical solutions. The 3D LiDAR measurements are first projected to small-scale polar grids, and then, after data association and Kalman filtering, the motion state of every moving grid is estimated. To reduce computing time, a fast data association algorithm is proposed. Furthermore, considering the spatial correlation of motion among neighboring grids, a novel spatial-smoothing algorithm is also presented to optimize the motion field. The experimental results using several data sets captured in different cities indicate that the proposed motion field estimation is able to run in real-time and performs robustly and effectively.

  1. Motion Field Estimation for a Dynamic Scene Using a 3D LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingquan Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel motion field estimation method based on a 3D light detection and ranging (LiDAR sensor for motion sensing for intelligent driverless vehicles and active collision avoidance systems. Unlike multiple target tracking methods, which estimate the motion state of detected targets, such as cars and pedestrians, motion field estimation regards the whole scene as a motion field in which each little element has its own motion state. Compared to multiple target tracking, segmentation errors and data association errors have much less significance in motion field estimation, making it more accurate and robust. This paper presents an intact 3D LiDAR-based motion field estimation method, including pre-processing, a theoretical framework for the motion field estimation problem and practical solutions. The 3D LiDAR measurements are first projected to small-scale polar grids, and then, after data association and Kalman filtering, the motion state of every moving grid is estimated. To reduce computing time, a fast data association algorithm is proposed. Furthermore, considering the spatial correlation of motion among neighboring grids, a novel spatial-smoothing algorithm is also presented to optimize the motion field. The experimental results using several data sets captured in different cities indicate that the proposed motion field estimation is able to run in real-time and performs robustly and effectively.

  2. Facile fabrication of homogeneous 3D silver nanostructures on gold-supported polyaniline membranes as promising SERS substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ping; Mack, Nathan H; Jeon, Sea-Ho; Doorn, Stephen K; Han, Xijiang; Wang, Hsing-Lin

    2010-06-01

    We report a facile synthesis of large-area homogeneous three-dimensional (3D) Ag nanostructures on Au-supported polyaniline (PANI) membranes through a direct chemical reduction of metal ions by PANI. The citric acid absorbed on the Au nuclei that are prefabricated on PANI membranes directs Ag nanoaprticles (AgNPs) to self-assemble into 3D Ag nanosheet structures. The fabricated hybrid metal nanostructures display uniform surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) responses throughout the whole surface area, with an average enhancement factor of 10(6)-10(7). The nanocavities formed by the stereotypical stacking of these Ag nanosheets and the junctions and gaps between two neighboring AgNPs are believed to be responsible for the strong SERS response upon plasmon absorption. These homogeneous metal nanostructure decorated PANI membranes can be used as highly efficient SERS substrates for sensitive detection of chemical and biological analytes.

  3. Space-charge-dominated beam dynamics simulations using the massively parallel processors (MPPs) of the Cray T3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.

    1996-01-01

    Computer simulations using the multi-particle code PARMELA with a three-dimensional point-by-point space charge algorithm have turned out to be very helpful in supporting injector commissioning and operations at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab, formerly called CEBAF). However, this algorithm, which defines a typical N 2 problem in CPU time scaling, is very time-consuming when N, the number of macro-particles, is large. Therefore, it is attractive to use massively parallel processors (MPPs) to speed up the simulations. Motivated by this, the authors modified the space charge subroutine for using the MPPs of the Cray T3D. The techniques used to parallelize and optimize the code on the T3D are discussed in this paper. The performance of the code on the T3D is examined in comparison with a Parallel Vector Processing supercomputer of the Cray C90 and an HP 735/15 high-end workstation

  4. 3D Multisource Full‐Waveform Inversion using Dynamic Random Phase Encoding

    KAUST Repository

    Boonyasiriwat, Chaiwoot; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a multisource full‐waveform inversion algorithm using a dynamic phase encoding strategy with dual‐randomization—both the position and polarity of simultaneous sources are randomized and changed every iteration. The dynamic dual

  5. Pulmonary hilar lymph nodes in lung cancer: assessment with 3D-dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Ichiro; Eguchi, Keisuke; Kohda, Ehiichi; Tanami, Yutaka; Mori, Toru; Hatabu, Hiroto; Kuribayashi, Sachio

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: We performed 3D-dynamic MRI on patients with primary lung cancer to identify its usefulness for detecting hilar adenopathy shown at surgery. Methods and materials: 30 consecutive patients with peripheral lung cancer underwent preoperative 3D-dynamic Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI. Two thoracic radiologists blinded to histopathologic findings reviewed those studies independently for hilar adenopathy visualization. The results were correlated with surgical and histopathologic findings. Interreader agreement for the detection of hilar adenopathy was assessed by means of the κ statistic. Results: Dynamic MRI demonstrated hilar adenopathy, with or without metastasis revealed at surgery, in all of 15 patients. Adenopathy without metastasis was shown in four patients. Dynamic MRI also revealed metastatic adenopathy in 11 of 12 patients with pathologically proven metastasis. There was only one case with lymph node metastasis that did not have adenopathy either on MRI or even at surgery. The diagnostic accuracy of dynamic MRI for adenopathy with or without metastases revealed at surgery were as follows; sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 100%; positive predictive value, 100%; and negative predictive value, 100%, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of dynamic MRI for hilar lymph nodes metastasis were as follows; sensitivity, 92%; specificity, 78%; positive predictive value, 73%; and negative predictive value, 93%. Interreader agreement was substantial (κ=0.73) for detection of hilar adenopathy. Conclusion: Hilar adenopathy on 3D-dynamic MRI correlated well with that of surgical finding on patients with primary lung cancer. It may have the potential to make an accurate preoperative evaluation of hilar lymph node metastasis from lung cancer

  6. Modelling atmospheric transport of persistent organic pollutants in the Northern Hemisphere with a 3-D dynamical model: DEHM-POP

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen , K. M.; Christensen , J. H.; Brandt , J.; Frohn , L. M.; Geels , C.

    2004-01-01

    International audience; The Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM) is a 3-D dynamical atmospheric transport model originally developed to describe the atmospheric transport of sulphur into the Arctic. A new version of the model, DEHM-POP, developed to study the atmospheric transport and environmental fate of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is presented. During environmental cycling, POPs can be deposited and re-emitted several times before reaching a final destination. A description of...

  7. Dynamic domains of amyloid fibrils can be site-specifically assigned with proton detected 3D NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, Alexander S.; Siemer, Ansgar B., E-mail: asiemer@usc.edu [Keck School of Medicine of USC, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Several amyloid fibrils have cores framed by highly dynamic, intrinsically disordered, domains that can play important roles for function and toxicity. To study these domains in detail using solid-state NMR spectroscopy, site-specific resonance assignments are required. Although the rapid dynamics of these domains lead to considerable averaging of orientation-dependent NMR interactions and thereby line-narrowing, the proton linewidths observed in these samples is far larger than what is regularly observed in solution. Here, we show that it is nevertheless possible to record 3D HNCO, HNCA, and HNcoCA spectra on these intrinsically disordered domains and to obtain site-specific assignments.

  8. Effect of dynamic 3-D culture on proliferation, distribution, and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stiehler, Maik; Bünger, Cody; Baatrup, Anette

    2009-01-01

    Ex vivo engineering of autologous bone tissue as an alternative to bone grafting is a major clinical need. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of 3-D dynamic spinner flask culture on the proliferation, distribution, and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Immortalized...... human MSCs were cultured on porous 75:25 PLGA scaffolds for up to 3 weeks. Dynamically cultured cell/scaffold constructs demonstrated a 20% increase in DNA content (21 days), enhanced ALP specific activity (7 days and 21 days), a more than tenfold higher Ca2+ content (21 days), and significantly...

  9. Application of 3D Laser Scanning Technology in Inspection and Dynamic Reserves Detection of Open-Pit Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhumin; Wei, Shiyu; Jiang, Jun

    2017-10-01

    The traditional open-pit mine mining rights verification and dynamic reserve detection means rely on the total station and RTK to collect the results of the turning point coordinates of mining surface contours. It resulted in obtaining the results of low precision and large error in the means that is limited by the traditional measurement equipment accuracy and measurement methods. The three-dimensional scanning technology can obtain the three-dimensional coordinate data of the surface of the measured object in a large area at high resolution. This paper expounds the commonly used application of 3D scanning technology in the inspection and dynamic reserve detection of open mine mining rights.

  10. Dynamic domains of amyloid fibrils can be site-specifically assigned with proton detected 3D NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, Alexander S.; Siemer, Ansgar B.

    2016-01-01

    Several amyloid fibrils have cores framed by highly dynamic, intrinsically disordered, domains that can play important roles for function and toxicity. To study these domains in detail using solid-state NMR spectroscopy, site-specific resonance assignments are required. Although the rapid dynamics of these domains lead to considerable averaging of orientation-dependent NMR interactions and thereby line-narrowing, the proton linewidths observed in these samples is far larger than what is regularly observed in solution. Here, we show that it is nevertheless possible to record 3D HNCO, HNCA, and HNcoCA spectra on these intrinsically disordered domains and to obtain site-specific assignments.

  11. Menaquinone-4 enhances osteogenic potential of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells cultured in 2D and 3D dynamic culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandatori, Domitilla; Penolazzi, Letizia; Pipino, Caterina; Di Tomo, Pamela; Di Silvestre, Sara; Di Pietro, Natalia; Trevisani, Sara; Angelozzi, Marco; Ucci, Mariangela; Piva, Roberta; Pandolfi, Assunta

    2018-02-01

    Menaquinones, also known as Vitamin K2 family, regulate calcium homeostasis in a 'bone-vascular cross-talk' and recently received particular attention for their positive effect on bone formation. Given that the correlation between menaquinones and bone metabolism to date is still unclear, the objective of our study was to investigate the possible role of menaquinone-4 (MK-4), an isoform of the menaquinones family, in the modulation of osteogenesis. For this reason, we used a model of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (hAFMSCs) cultured both in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D; RCCS™bioreactor) in vitro culture systems. Furthermore, to mimic the 'bone remodelling unit' in vitro, hAFMSCs were co-cultured in the 3D system with human monocyte cells (hMCs) as osteoclast precursors. The results showed that in a conventional 2D culture system, hAFMSCs were responsive to the MK-4, which significantly improved the osteogenic process through γ-glutamyl carboxylase-dependent pathway. The same results were obtained in the 3D dynamic system where MK-4 treatment supported the osteoblast-like formation promoting the extracellular bone matrix deposition and the expression of the osteogenic-related proteins (alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, collagen type-1 and osteocalcin). Notably, when the hAFMSCs were co-cultured in a 3D dynamic system with the hMCs, the presence of MK-4 supported the cellular aggregate formation as well as the osteogenic function of hAFMSCs, but negatively affected the osteoclastogenic process. Taken together, our results demonstrate that MK-4 supported the aggregate formation of hAFMSCs and increased the osteogenic functions. Specifically, our data could help to optimize bone regenerative medicine combining cell-based approaches with MK-4 treatment. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. 3D Bearing Capacity of Structured Cells Supported on Cohesive Soil: Simplified Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Galván Sergio Antonio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a simplified analysis method to compute the bearing capacity of structured cell foundations subjected to vertical loading and supported in soft cohesive soil is proposed. A structured cell is comprised by a top concrete slab structurally connected to concrete external walls that enclose the natural soil. Contrary to a box foundation it does not include a bottom slab and hence, the soil within the walls becomes an important component of the structured cell. This simplified method considers the three-dimensional geometry of the cell, the undrained shear strength of cohesive soils and the existence of structural continuity between the top concrete slab and the surrounding walls, along the walls themselves and the walls structural joints. The method was developed from results of numerical-parametric analyses, from which it was found that structured cells fail according to a punching-type mechanism.

  13. WARP3D-Release 10.8: Dynamic Nonlinear Analysis of Solids using a Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient Software Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppenhoefer, Kyle C.; Gullerud, Arne S.; Ruggieri, Claudio; Dodds, Robert H., Jr.; Healy, Brian E.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes theoretical background material and commands necessary to use the WARP3D finite element code. WARP3D is under continuing development as a research code for the solution of very large-scale, 3-D solid models subjected to static and dynamic loads. Specific features in the code oriented toward the investigation of ductile fracture in metals include a robust finite strain formulation, a general J-integral computation facility (with inertia, face loading), an element extinction facility to model crack growth, nonlinear material models including viscoplastic effects, and the Gurson-Tver-gaard dilatant plasticity model for void growth. The nonlinear, dynamic equilibrium equations are solved using an incremental-iterative, implicit formulation with full Newton iterations to eliminate residual nodal forces. The history integration of the nonlinear equations of motion is accomplished with Newmarks Beta method. A central feature of WARP3D involves the use of a linear-preconditioned conjugate gradient (LPCG) solver implemented in an element-by-element format to replace a conventional direct linear equation solver. This software architecture dramatically reduces both the memory requirements and CPU time for very large, nonlinear solid models since formation of the assembled (dynamic) stiffness matrix is avoided. Analyses thus exhibit the numerical stability for large time (load) steps provided by the implicit formulation coupled with the low memory requirements characteristic of an explicit code. In addition to the much lower memory requirements of the LPCG solver, the CPU time required for solution of the linear equations during each Newton iteration is generally one-half or less of the CPU time required for a traditional direct solver. All other computational aspects of the code (element stiffnesses, element strains, stress updating, element internal forces) are implemented in the element-by- element, blocked architecture. This greatly improves

  14. Persistent and automatic intraoperative 3D digitization of surfaces under dynamic magnifications of an operating microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ankur N; Miga, Michael I; Pheiffer, Thomas S; Chambless, Lola B; Thompson, Reid C; Dawant, Benoit M

    2015-01-01

    One of the major challenges impeding advancement in image-guided surgical (IGS) systems is the soft-tissue deformation during surgical procedures. These deformations reduce the utility of the patient's preoperative images and may produce inaccuracies in the application of preoperative surgical plans. Solutions to compensate for the tissue deformations include the acquisition of intraoperative tomographic images of the whole organ for direct displacement measurement and techniques that combines intraoperative organ surface measurements with computational biomechanical models to predict subsurface displacements. The later solution has the advantage of being less expensive and amenable to surgical workflow. Several modalities such as textured laser scanners, conoscopic holography, and stereo-pair cameras have been proposed for the intraoperative 3D estimation of organ surfaces to drive patient-specific biomechanical models for the intraoperative update of preoperative images. Though each modality has its respective advantages and disadvantages, stereo-pair camera approaches used within a standard operating microscope is the focus of this article. A new method that permits the automatic and near real-time estimation of 3D surfaces (at 1 Hz) under varying magnifications of the operating microscope is proposed. This method has been evaluated on a CAD phantom object and on full-length neurosurgery video sequences (∼1 h) acquired intraoperatively by the proposed stereovision system. To the best of our knowledge, this type of validation study on full-length brain tumor surgery videos has not been done before. The method for estimating the unknown magnification factor of the operating microscope achieves accuracy within 0.02 of the theoretical value on a CAD phantom and within 0.06 on 4 clinical videos of the entire brain tumor surgery. When compared to a laser range scanner, the proposed method for reconstructing 3D surfaces intraoperatively achieves root mean square

  15. Persistent and automatic intraoperative 3D digitization of surfaces under dynamic magnifications of an operating microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ankur N.; Miga, Michael I.; Pheiffer, Thomas S.; Chambless, Lola B.; Thompson, Reid C.; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2014-01-01

    One of the major challenges impeding advancement in image-guided surgical (IGS) systems is the soft-tissue deformation during surgical procedures. These deformations reduce the utility of the patient’s preoperative images and may produce inaccuracies in the application of preoperative surgical plans. Solutions to compensate for the tissue deformations include the acquisition of intraoperative tomographic images of the whole organ for direct displacement measurement and techniques that combines intraoperative organ surface measurements with computational biomechanical models to predict subsurface displacements. The later solution has the advantage of being less expensive and amenable to surgical workflow. Several modalities such as textured laser scanners, conoscopic holography, and stereo-pair cameras have been proposed for the intraoperative 3D estimation of organ surfaces to drive patient-specific biomechanical models for the intraoperative update of preoperative images. Though each modality has its respective advantages and disadvantages, stereo-pair camera approaches used within a standard operating microscope is the focus of this article. A new method that permits the automatic and near real-time estimation of 3D surfaces (at 1Hz) under varying magnifications of the operating microscope is proposed. This method has been evaluated on a CAD phantom object and on full-length neurosurgery video sequences (~1 hour) acquired intraoperatively by the proposed stereovision system. To the best of our knowledge, this type of validation study on full-length brain tumor surgery videos has not been done before. The method for estimating the unknown magnification factor of the operating microscope achieves accuracy within 0.02 of the theoretical value on a CAD phantom and within 0.06 on 4 clinical videos of the entire brain tumor surgery. When compared to a laser range scanner, the proposed method for reconstructing 3D surfaces intraoperatively achieves root mean square

  16. RVA. 3-D Visualization and Analysis Software to Support Management of Oil and Gas Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keefer, Donald A. [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Shaffer, Eric G. [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Storsved, Brynne [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Vanmoer, Mark [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Angrave, Lawrence [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Damico, James R. [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Grigsby, Nathan [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2015-12-01

    A free software application, RVA, has been developed as a plugin to the US DOE-funded ParaView visualization package, to provide support in the visualization and analysis of complex reservoirs being managed using multi-fluid EOR techniques. RVA, for Reservoir Visualization and Analysis, was developed as an open-source plugin to the 64 bit Windows version of ParaView 3.14. RVA was developed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, with contributions from the Illinois State Geological Survey, Department of Computer Science and National Center for Supercomputing Applications. RVA was designed to utilize and enhance the state-of-the-art visualization capabilities within ParaView, readily allowing joint visualization of geologic framework and reservoir fluid simulation model results. Particular emphasis was placed on enabling visualization and analysis of simulation results highlighting multiple fluid phases, multiple properties for each fluid phase (including flow lines), multiple geologic models and multiple time steps. Additional advanced functionality was provided through the development of custom code to implement data mining capabilities. The built-in functionality of ParaView provides the capacity to process and visualize data sets ranging from small models on local desktop systems to extremely large models created and stored on remote supercomputers. The RVA plugin that we developed and the associated User Manual provide improved functionality through new software tools, and instruction in the use of ParaView-RVA, targeted to petroleum engineers and geologists in industry and research. The RVA web site (http://rva.cs.illinois.edu) provides an overview of functions, and the development web site (https://github.com/shaffer1/RVA) provides ready access to the source code, compiled binaries, user manual, and a suite of demonstration data sets. Key functionality has been included to support a range of reservoirs visualization and analysis needs, including

  17. Thunderstorms in my computer : The effect of visual dynamics and sound in a 3D environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtkamp, J.; Schuurink, E.L.; Toet, A.

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the effects of the addition of dynamic visual elements and sounds to a levee patroller training game on the appraisal of the environment and weather conditions, the engagement of the users and their performance. Results show that the combination of visual dynamics and sounds best conveys

  18. 3D Self-Supported Nanoarchitectured Arrays Electrodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional self-supported nanoarchitectured arrays electrodes (3DSNAEs consisting of a direct growth of nanoarchitectured arrays on the conductive current collector, including homogeneous and heterogeneous nanoarchitectured arrays structures, have been currently studied as the most promising electrodes owing to their synergies resulting from the multistructure hybrid and integrating heterocomponents to address the requirements (high energy and power density of superperformance lithium ion batteries (LIBs applied in portable electronic consumer devices, electric vehicles, large-scale electricity storage, and so on. In the paper, recent advances in the strategies for the fabrication, selection of the different current collector substrates, and structural configuration of 3DSNAEs with different cathode and anode materials are investigated in detail. The intrinsic relationship of the unique structural characters, the conductive substrates, and electrochemical kinetic properties of 3DSNAEs is minutely analyzed. Finally, the future design trends and directions of 3DSNAEs are highlighted, which may open a new avenue of developing ideal multifunctional 3DSNAEs for further advanced LIBs.

  19. Comprehensive support for nuclear decommissioning based on 3D simulation and advanced user interface technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szőke, István; Louka, Michael N.; Bryntesen, Tom-Robert; Edvardsen, Svein-Tore; Bratteli, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing international focus on the need to optimise decommissioning strategies, driven by the anticipation of high costs and major effort for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the coming decades. The goals are to control and mitigate costs and negative impacts on workers, the general public, and the environment. The methods presently employed for many decommissioning tasks do not apply the latest advancements of science and technology. Therefore, there is growing interest in research and development into the adoption of novel techniques for improving safety, reducing costs, and increasing transparency. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the authors' results from investigating how current and emerging technologies can be applied to enhance the international decommissioning strategy, focussing in particular on three-dimensional simulation, virtual reality, advanced user interfaces, mobile and wearable devices, and geographical information systems. Our results demonstrate that emerging technologies have great potential for supporting adoption of new instrumentation, improving data and knowledge management, optimising project plans, briefing and training field operators, and for communication, surveillance, and education in general. (author)

  20. Development of nanocellulose scaffolds with tunable structures to support 3D cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Cheng, Fang; Grénman, Henrik; Spoljaric, Steven; Seppälä, Jukka; E Eriksson, John; Willför, Stefan; Xu, Chunlin

    2016-09-05

    Swollen three-dimensional nanocellulose films and their resultant aerogels were prepared as scaffolds towards tissue engineering application. The nanocellulose hydrogels with various swelling degree (up to 500 times) and the resultant aerogels with desired porosity (porosity up to 99.7% and specific surface area up to 308m(2)/g) were prepared by tuning the nanocellulose charge density, the swelling media conditions, and the material processing approach. Representative cell-based assays were applied to assess the material biocompatibility and efficacy of the human extracellular matrix (ECM)-mimicking nanocellulose scaffolds. The effects of charge density and porosity of the scaffolds on the biological tests were investigated for the first time. The results reveal that the nanocellulose scaffolds could promote the survival and proliferation of tumor cells, and enhance the transfection of exogenous DNA into the cells. These results suggest the usefulness of the nanocellulose-based matrices in supporting crucial cellular processes during cell growth and proliferation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mutual information as a measure of reconstruction quality in 3D dynamic lung EIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabb, M G; Lionheart, W R B; Davidson, J L; Wright, P; McCann, H; Little, R; Naish, J H; Parker, G J M; Kikinis, R

    2013-01-01

    We report on a pilot study with healthy subjects who had an MR scan in addition to EIT data acquired with the Manchester fEITER system. The MR images are used to inform the external shape of a 3D EIT reconstruction model of the thorax, and small changes in the boundary that occur during respiration are addressed by incorporating the sensitivity with respect to boundary shape into a robust reconstruction algorithm. A quantitative comparison of the image quality for different EIT reconstructions is achieved through calculation of their mutual information with a segmented MR image. A shape corrected reconstruction algorithm reduces boundary artefacts relative to a standard reconstruction, and has a greater mutual information of approximately 4% with the segmented MR image.

  2. 3D analytical method for the external dynamics of ship collisions and investigation of the coefficient of restitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Junfeng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The analytical method for predicting the dynamic responses of a ship in a collision scenario features speed and accuracy,and the external dynamics constitute an important part. A 3D simplified analytical method is implemented by MATLAB and used to calculate the energy dissipation of ship-ship collisions. The results obtained by the proposed method are then compared with those of a 2D simplified analytical method. The total dissipated energy can be obtained through the proposed analytical method, and the influence of the collision heights,angles and locations on the dissipated energy is discussed on that basis. Furthermore,the effects of restitution on the conservative coefficients and the effects of conservative coefficients on energy dissipation are discussed. It is concluded that the proposed 3D analysis yields a lesser energy dissipation than that of the 2D analysis,and the collision height has a significant influence on the dissipated energy. In using the proposed simplified method,it is not safe to simplify the conservative coefficient as zero when the collision angle is greater than 90 degrees. In the future research, to get more accurate energy dissipation, it is a good way to adopt the 3D simplified analytical method instead of the 2D method.

  3. The solvent at antigen-binding site regulated C3d-CR2 interactions through the C-terminal tail of C3d at different ion strengths: insights from molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Guo, Jingjing; Li, Lanlan; Liu, Xuewei; Yao, Xiaojun; Liu, Huanxiang

    2016-10-01

    The interactions of complement receptor 2 (CR2) and the degradation fragment C3d of complement component C3 play important links between the innate and adaptive immune systems. Due to the importance of C3d-CR2 interaction in the design of vaccines and inhibitors, a number of studies have been performed to investigate C3d-CR2 interaction. Many studies have indicated C3d-CR2 interactions are ionic strength-dependent. To investigate the molecular mechanism of C3d-CR2 interaction and the origin of effects of ionic strength, molecular dynamics simulations for C3d-CR2 complex together with the energetic and structural analysis were performed. Our results revealed the increased interactions between charged protein and ions weaken C3d-CR2 association, as ionic strengths increase. Moreover, ion strengths have similar effects on antigen-binding site and CR2 binding site. Meanwhile, Ala17 and Gln20 will transform between the activated and non-activated states mediated by His133 and Glu135 at different ion strengths. Our results reveal the origins of the effects of ionic strengths on C3d-CR2 interactions are due to the changes of water, ion occupancies and distributions. This study uncovers the origin of the effect of ionic strength on C3d-CR2 interaction and deepens the understanding of the molecular mechanism of their interaction, which is valuable for the design of vaccines and small molecule inhibitors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Platelet lysate 3D scaffold supports mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis: an improved approach in cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, Andrei; Bittencourt, Renata Aparecida Camargo; Almeida, Renan Padron; Felisbino, Sérgio Luis; Deffune, Elenice

    2013-01-01

    Articular lesions are still a major challenge in orthopedics because of cartilage's poor healing properties. A major improvement in therapeutics was the development of autologous chondrocytes implantation (ACI), a biotechnology-derived technique that delivers healthy autologous chondrocytes after in vitro expansion. To obtain cartilage-like tissue, 3D scaffolds are essential to maintain chondrocyte differentiated status. Currently, bioactive 3D scaffolds are promising as they can deliver growth factors, cytokines, and hormones to the cells, giving them a boost to attach, proliferate, induce protein synthesis, and differentiate. Using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiated into chondrocytes, one can avoid cartilage harvesting. Thus, we investigated the potential use of a platelet-lysate-based 3D bioactive scaffold to support chondrogenic differentiation and maintenance of MSCs. The MSCs from adult rabbit bone marrow (n = 5) were cultivated and characterized using three antibodies by flow cytometry. MSCs (1 × 10(5)) were than encapsulated inside 60 µl of a rabbit platelet-lysate clot scaffold and maintained in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium Nutrient Mixture F-12 supplemented with chondrogenic inductors. After 21 days, the MSCs-seeded scaffolds were processed for histological analysis and stained with toluidine blue. This scaffold was able to maintain round-shaped cells, typical chondrocyte metachromatic extracellular matrix deposition, and isogenous group formation. Cells accumulated inside lacunae and cytoplasm lipid droplets were other observed typical chondrocyte features. In conclusion, the usage of a platelet-lysate bioactive scaffold, associated with a suitable chondrogenic culture medium, supports MSCs chondrogenesis. As such, it offers an alternative tool for cartilage engineering research and ACI.

  5. Dynamical system of scalar field from 2-dimension to 3-D and its cosmological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Wei [Shanghai Normal University, Department of Physics, Shanghai (China); The Shanghai Key Lab for Astrophysics, Shanghai (China); Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Tu, Hong [Shanghai Normal University, Department of Physics, Shanghai (China); The Shanghai Key Lab for Astrophysics, Shanghai (China); Huang, Jiasheng [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Shu, Chenggang [The Shanghai Key Lab for Astrophysics, Shanghai (China)

    2016-09-15

    We give the three-dimensional dynamical autonomous systems for most of the popular scalar field dark energy models including (phantom) quintessence, (phantom) tachyon, K-essence, and general non-canonical scalar field models, change the dynamical variables from variables (x, y, λ) to observable related variables (w{sub φ}, Ω{sub φ}, λ), and show the intimate relationships between those scalar fields that the three-dimensional system of K-essence can reduce to (phantom) tachyon, general non-canonical scalar field can reduce to (phantom) quintessence and K-essence can also reduce to (phantom) quintessence for some special cases. For the applications of the three-dimensional dynamical systems, we investigate several special cases and give the exactly dynamical solutions in detail. In the end of this paper, we argue that it is more convenient and also has more physical meaning to express the differential equations of dynamical systems in (w{sub φ}, Ω{sub φ}, λ) instead of variables (x, y, λ) and to investigate the dynamical system in three dimensions instead of two dimensions. We also raise a question about the possibility of the chaotic behavior in the spatially flat single scalar field FRW cosmological models in the presence of ordinary matter. (orig.)

  6. Modeling of light dynamic cone penetration test - Panda 3 ® in granular material by using 3D Discrete element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Quoc Anh; Chevalier, Bastien; Benz, Miguel; Breul, Pierre; Gourvès, Roland

    2017-06-01

    The recent technological developments made on the light dynamic penetration test Panda 3 ® provide a dynamic load-penetration curve σp - sp for each impact. This curve is influenced by the mechanical and physical properties of the investigated granular media. In order to analyze and exploit the load-penetration curve, a numerical model of penetration test using 3D Discrete Element Method is proposed for reproducing tests in dynamic conditions in granular media. All parameters of impact used in this model have at first been calibrated by respecting mechanical and geometrical properties of the hammer and the rod. There is a good agreement between experimental results and the ones obtained from simulations in 2D or 3D. After creating a sample, we will simulate the Panda 3 ®. It is possible to measure directly the dynamic load-penetration curve occurring at the tip for each impact. Using the force and acceleration measured in the top part of the rod, it is possible to separate the incident and reflected waves and then calculate the tip's load-penetration curve. The load-penetration curve obtained is qualitatively similar with that obtained by experimental tests. In addition, the frequency analysis of the measured signals present also a good compliance with that measured in reality when the tip resistance is qualitatively similar.

  7. Unravelling earth flow dynamics with 3-D time series derived from UAV-SfM models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapuyt, François; Vanacker, Veerle; Schlunegger, Fritz; Van Oost, Kristof

    2017-12-01

    Accurately assessing geo-hazards and quantifying landslide risks in mountainous environments are gaining importance in the context of the ongoing global warming. For an in-depth understanding of slope failure mechanisms, accurate monitoring of the mass movement topography at high spatial and temporal resolutions remains essential. The choice of the acquisition framework for high-resolution topographic reconstructions will mainly result from the trade-off between the spatial resolution needed and the extent of the study area. Recent advances in the development of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-based image acquisition combined with the structure-from-motion (SfM) algorithm for three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction make the UAV-SfM framework a competitive alternative to other high-resolution topographic techniques. In this study, we aim at gaining in-depth knowledge of the Schimbrig earthflow located in the foothills of the Central Swiss Alps by monitoring ground surface displacements at very high spatial and temporal resolution using the efficiency of the UAV-SfM framework. We produced distinct topographic datasets for three acquisition dates between 2013 and 2015 in order to conduct a comprehensive 3-D analysis of the landslide. Therefore, we computed (1) the sediment budget of the hillslope, and (2) the horizontal and (3) the three-dimensional surface displacements. The multitemporal UAV-SfM based topographic reconstructions allowed us to quantify rates of sediment redistribution and surface movements. Our data show that the Schimbrig earthflow is very active, with mean annual horizontal displacement ranging between 6 and 9 m. Combination and careful interpretation of high-resolution topographic analyses reveal the internal mechanisms of the earthflow and its complex rotational structure. In addition to variation in horizontal surface movements through time, we interestingly showed that the configuration of nested rotational units changes through time. Although

  8. Unravelling earth flow dynamics with 3-D time series derived from UAV-SfM models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Clapuyt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurately assessing geo-hazards and quantifying landslide risks in mountainous environments are gaining importance in the context of the ongoing global warming. For an in-depth understanding of slope failure mechanisms, accurate monitoring of the mass movement topography at high spatial and temporal resolutions remains essential. The choice of the acquisition framework for high-resolution topographic reconstructions will mainly result from the trade-off between the spatial resolution needed and the extent of the study area. Recent advances in the development of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV-based image acquisition combined with the structure-from-motion (SfM algorithm for three-dimensional (3-D reconstruction make the UAV-SfM framework a competitive alternative to other high-resolution topographic techniques. In this study, we aim at gaining in-depth knowledge of the Schimbrig earthflow located in the foothills of the Central Swiss Alps by monitoring ground surface displacements at very high spatial and temporal resolution using the efficiency of the UAV-SfM framework. We produced distinct topographic datasets for three acquisition dates between 2013 and 2015 in order to conduct a comprehensive 3-D analysis of the landslide. Therefore, we computed (1 the sediment budget of the hillslope, and (2 the horizontal and (3 the three-dimensional surface displacements. The multitemporal UAV-SfM based topographic reconstructions allowed us to quantify rates of sediment redistribution and surface movements. Our data show that the Schimbrig earthflow is very active, with mean annual horizontal displacement ranging between 6 and 9 m. Combination and careful interpretation of high-resolution topographic analyses reveal the internal mechanisms of the earthflow and its complex rotational structure. In addition to variation in horizontal surface movements through time, we interestingly showed that the configuration of nested rotational units changes through

  9. Present-Day Mars' Seismicity Predicted From 3-D Thermal Evolution Models of Interior Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesa, A.-C.; Knapmeyer, M.; Golombek, M. P.; Breuer, D.; Grott, M.; Kawamura, T.; Lognonné, P.; Tosi, N.; Weber, R. C.

    2018-03-01

    The Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport mission, to be launched in 2018, will perform a comprehensive geophysical investigation of Mars in situ. The Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure package aims to detect global and regional seismic events and in turn offer constraints on core size, crustal thickness, and core, mantle, and crustal composition. In this study, we estimate the present-day amount and distribution of seismicity using 3-D numerical thermal evolution models of Mars, taking into account contributions from convective stresses as well as from stresses associated with cooling and planetary contraction. Defining the seismogenic lithosphere by an isotherm and assuming two end-member cases of 573 K and the 1073 K, we determine the seismogenic lithosphere thickness. Assuming a seismic efficiency between 0.025 and 1, this thickness is used to estimate the total annual seismic moment budget, and our models show values between 5.7 × 1016 and 3.9 × 1019 Nm.

  10. A rigidity transition and glassy dynamics in a model for confluent 3D tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Matthias; Manning, M. Lisa

    The origin of rigidity in disordered materials is an outstanding open problem in statistical physics. Recently, a new type of rigidity transition was discovered in a family of models for 2D biological tissues, but the mechanisms responsible for rigidity remain unclear. This is not just a statistical physics problem, but also relevant for embryonic development, cancer growth, and wound healing. To gain insight into this rigidity transition and make new predictions about biological bulk tissues, we have developed a fully 3D self-propelled Voronoi (SPV) model. The model takes into account shape, elasticity, and self-propelled motion of the individual cells. We find that in the absence of self-propulsion, this model exhibits a rigidity transition that is controlled by a dimensionless model parameter describing the preferred cell shape, with an accompanying structural order parameter. In the presence of self-propulsion, the rigidity transition appears as a glass-like transition featuring caging and aging effects. Given the similarities between this transition and jamming in particulate solids, it is natural to ask if the two transitions are related. By comparing statistics of Voronoi geometries, we show the transitions are surprisingly close but demonstrably distinct. Furthermore, an index theorem used to identify topologically protected mechanical modes in jammed systems can be extended to these vertex-type models. In our model, residual stresses govern the transition and enter the index theorem in a different way compared to jammed particles, suggesting the origin of rigidity may be different between the two.

  11. Dynamics of 3D Timoshenko gyroelastic beams with large attitude changes for the gyros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpour, Soroosh; Heppler, G. R.

    2016-01-01

    This work is concerned with the theoretical development of dynamic equations for undamped gyroelastic beams which are dynamic systems with continuous inertia, elasticity, and gyricity. Assuming unrestricted or large attitude changes for the axes of the gyros and utilizing generalized Hooke's law, Duleau torsion theory, and Timoshenko bending theory, the energy expressions and equations of motion for the gyroelastic beams in three-dimensional space are derived. The so-obtained comprehensive gyroelastic beam model is compared against earlier gyroelastic beam models developed using Euler-Bernoulli beam models and is used to study the dynamics of gyroelastic beams through numerical examples. It is shown that there are significant differences between the developed unrestricted Timoshenko gyroelastic beam model and the previously derived zero-order restricted Euler-Bernoulli gyroelastic beam models. These differences are more pronounced in the short beam and transverse gyricity cases.

  12. Dynamic Transitions and Baroclinic Instability for 3D Continuously Stratified Boussinesq Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şengül, Taylan; Wang, Shouhong

    2018-02-01

    The main objective of this article is to study the nonlinear stability and dynamic transitions of the basic (zonal) shear flows for the three-dimensional continuously stratified rotating Boussinesq model. The model equations are fundamental equations in geophysical fluid dynamics, and dynamics associated with their basic zonal shear flows play a crucial role in understanding many important geophysical fluid dynamical processes, such as the meridional overturning oceanic circulation and the geophysical baroclinic instability. In this paper, first we derive a threshold for the energy stability of the basic shear flow, and obtain a criterion for local nonlinear stability in terms of the critical horizontal wavenumbers and the system parameters such as the Froude number, the Rossby number, the Prandtl number and the strength of the shear flow. Next, we demonstrate that the system always undergoes a dynamic transition from the basic shear flow to either a spatiotemporal oscillatory pattern or circle of steady states, as the shear strength of the basic flow crosses a critical threshold. Also, we show that the dynamic transition can be either continuous or catastrophic, and is dictated by the sign of a transition number, fully characterizing the nonlinear interactions of different modes. Both the critical shear strength and the transition number are functions of the system parameters. A systematic numerical method is carried out to explore transition in different flow parameter regimes. In particular, our numerical investigations show the existence of a hypersurface which separates the parameter space into regions where the basic shear flow is stable and unstable. Numerical investigations also yield that the selection of horizontal wave indices is determined only by the aspect ratio of the box. We find that the system admits only critical eigenmodes with roll patterns aligned with the x-axis. Furthermore, numerically we encountered continuous transitions to multiple

  13. Community ecology in 3D: Tensor decomposition reveals spatio-temporal dynamics of large ecological communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frelat, Romain; Lindegren, Martin; Dencker, Tim Spaanheden

    2017-01-01

    it to multiple dimensions. This extension allows for the synchronized study of multiple ecological variables measured repeatedly in time and space. We applied this comprehensive approach to explore the spatio-temporal dynamics of 65 demersal fish species in the North Sea, a marine ecosystem strongly altered...... by human activities and climate change. Our case study demonstrates how tensor decomposition can successfully (i) characterize the main spatio-temporal patterns and trends in species abundances, (ii) identify sub-communities of species that share similar spatial distribution and temporal dynamics, and (iii...

  14. Dynamic diffraction-limited light-coupling of 3D-maneuvered wave-guided optical waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villangca, Mark; Bañas, Andrew; Palima, Darwin; Glückstad, Jesper

    2014-07-28

    We have previously proposed and demonstrated the targeted-light delivery capability of wave-guided optical waveguides (WOWs). As the WOWs are maneuvered in 3D space, it is important to maintain efficient light coupling through the waveguides within their operating volume. We propose the use of dynamic diffractive techniques to create diffraction-limited spots that will track and couple to the WOWs during operation. This is done by using a spatial light modulator to encode the necessary diffractive phase patterns to generate the multiple and dynamic coupling spots. The method is initially tested for a single WOW and we have experimentally demonstrated dynamic tracking and coupling for both lateral and axial displacements.

  15. Dynamic diffraction-limited light-coupling of 3D-maneuvered wave-guided optical waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villangca, Mark Jayson; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Palima, Darwin

    2014-01-01

    We have previously proposed and demonstrated the targeted-light delivery capability of wave-guided optical waveguides (WOWs). As the WOWs are maneuvered in 3D space, it is important to maintain efficient light coupling through the waveguides within their operating volume. We propose the use...... of dynamic diffractive techniques to create diffraction-limited spots that will track and couple to the WOWs during operation. This is done by using a spatial light modulator to encode the necessary diffractive phase patterns to generate the multiple and dynamic coupling spots. The method is initially tested...... for a single WOW and we have experimentally demonstrated dynamic tracking and coupling for both lateral and axial displacements....

  16. Development of dynamic 3-D surface profilometry using stroboscopic interferometric measurement and vertical scanning techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, K-C [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1, Sec. 4 Roosevelt Rd, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, L-C [Graduate Institute of Automation Technology, National Taipei University of Technology, 1 Sec. 3 Chung-Hsiao East Rd, Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China); Lin, C-D [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1, Sec. 4 Roosevelt Rd, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Calvin C [Industrial Technology Research Institute, Centre for Measurement Standards, 321 Sec. 2, Kuang Fu Rd, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 300 (China); Kuo, C-F [Industrial Technology Research Institute, Centre for Measurement Standards, 321 Sec. 2, Kuang Fu Rd, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 300 (China); Chou, J-T [Industrial Technology Research Institute, Centre for Measurement Standards, 321 Sec. 2, Kuang Fu Rd, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 300 (China)

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this technical advance is to provide a single optical interferometric framework and methodology to be capable of delivering both nano-scale static and dynamic surface profilometry. Microscopic interferometry is a powerful technique for static and dynamic characterization of micro (opto) electromechanical systems (M (O) EMS). In view of this need, a microscopic prototype based on white-light stroboscopic interferometry and the white light vertical scanning principle, was developed to achieve dynamic full-field profilometry and characterization of MEMS devices. The system primarily consists of an optical microscope, on which a Mirau interferometric objective embedded with a piezoelectric vertical translator, a high-power LED light module with dual operation modes and light synchronizing electronics unit are integrated. A micro cantilever beam used in AFM was measured to verify the system capability in accurate characterization of dynamic behaviours of the device. The full-field second-mode vibration at a vibratory frequency of 68.60 kHz can be fully characterized and 3-5 nm of vertical measurement resolution as well as tens of micrometers of vertical measurement range can be easily achieved.

  17. Dynamic 3D cell rearrangements guided by a fibronectin matrix underlie somitogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel G Martins

    Full Text Available Somites are transient segments formed in a rostro-caudal progression during vertebrate development. In chick embryos, segmentation of a new pair of somites occurs every 90 minutes and involves a mesenchyme-to-epithelium transition of cells from the presomitic mesoderm. Little is known about the cellular rearrangements involved, and, although it is known that the fibronectin extracellular matrix is required, its actual role remains elusive. Using 3D and 4D imaging of somite formation we discovered that somitogenesis consists of a complex choreography of individual cell movements. Epithelialization starts medially with the formation of a transient epithelium of cuboidal cells, followed by cell elongation and reorganization into a pseudostratified epithelium of spindle-shaped epitheloid cells. Mesenchymal cells are then recruited to this medial epithelium through accretion, a phenomenon that spreads to all sides, except the lateral side of the forming somite, which epithelializes by cell elongation and intercalation. Surprisingly, an important contribution to the somite epithelium also comes from the continuous egression of mesenchymal cells from the core into the epithelium via its apical side. Inhibition of fibronectin matrix assembly first slows down the rate, and then halts somite formation, without affecting pseudopodial activity or cell body movements. Rather, cell elongation, centripetal alignment, N-cadherin polarization and egression are impaired, showing that the fibronectin matrix plays a role in polarizing and guiding the exploratory behavior of somitic cells. To our knowledge, this is the first 4D in vivo recording of a full mesenchyme-to-epithelium transition. This approach brought new insights into this event and highlighted the importance of the extracellular matrix as a guiding cue during morphogenesis.

  18. An efficient quasi-3D particle tracking-based approach for transport through fractures with application to dynamic dispersion calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lichun; Cardenas, M Bayani

    2015-08-01

    The quantitative study of transport through fractured media has continued for many decades, but has often been constrained by observational and computational challenges. Here, we developed an efficient quasi-3D random walk particle tracking (RWPT) algorithm to simulate solute transport through natural fractures based on a 2D flow field generated from the modified local cubic law (MLCL). As a reference, we also modeled the actual breakthrough curves (BTCs) through direct simulations with the 3D advection-diffusion equation (ADE) and Navier-Stokes equations. The RWPT algorithm along with the MLCL accurately reproduced the actual BTCs calculated with the 3D ADE. The BTCs exhibited non-Fickian behavior, including early arrival and long tails. Using the spatial information of particle trajectories, we further analyzed the dynamic dispersion process through moment analysis. From this, asymptotic time scales were determined for solute dispersion to distinguish non-Fickian from Fickian regimes. This analysis illustrates the advantage and benefit of using an efficient combination of flow modeling and RWPT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Foot deformation during walking: differences between static and dynamic 3D foot morphology in developing feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barisch-Fritz, Bettina; Schmeltzpfenning, Timo; Plank, Clemens; Grau, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The complex functions of feet require a specific composition, which is progressively achieved by developmental processes. This development should take place without being affected by footwear. The aim of this study is to evaluate differences between static and dynamic foot morphology in developing feet. Feet of 2554 participants (6-16 years) were recorded using a new scanner system (DynaScan4D). Each foot was recorded in static half and full weight-bearing and during walking. Several foot measures corresponding to those used in last construction were calculated. The differences were identified by one-way ANOVA and paired Student's t-test. Static and dynamic values of each foot measure must be considered to improve the fit of footwear. In particular, footwear must account for the increase of forefoot width and the decrease of midfoot girth. Furthermore, the toe box should have a more rounded shape. The findings are important for the construction of footwear for developing feet.

  20. 3D dynamic modeling of spherical wheeled self-balancing mobile robot

    OpenAIRE

    İnal, Ali Nail

    2012-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering and the Graduate School of Engineering and Science of Bilkent University, 2012. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2012. Includes bibliographical references. In recent years, dynamically stable platforms that move on spherical wheels, also known as BallBots, gained popularity in the robotics literature as an alternative locomotion method to statically stable wheeled mobile robots. In contrast to wheeled ...

  1. Estimation of Pulmonary Motion in Healthy Subjects and Patients with Intrathoracic Tumors Using 3D-Dynamic MRI: Initial Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plathow, Christian; Schoebinger, Max; Meinzer, Heinz Peter [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Herth, Felix; Tuengerthal, Siegfried [Clinic of Thoracic Disease, Heidelberg (Germany); Kauczor, Hans Ulrich [University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    To estimate a new technique for quantifying regional lung motion using 3D-MRI in healthy volunteers and to apply the technique in patients with intra- or extrapulmonary tumors. Intraparenchymal lung motion during a whole breathing cycle was quantified in 30 healthy volunteers using 3D-dynamic MRI (FLASH [fast low angle shot] 3D, TRICKS [time-resolved interpolated contrast kinetics]). Qualitative and quantitative vector color maps and cumulative histograms were performed using an introduced semiautomatic algorithm. An analysis of lung motion was performed and correlated with an established 2D-MRI technique for verification. As a proof of concept, the technique was applied in five patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 5 patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). The correlation between intraparenchymal lung motion of the basal lung parts and the 2D-MRI technique was significant (r = 0.89, p < 0.05). Also, the vector color maps quantitatively illustrated regional lung motion in all healthy volunteers. No differences were observed between both hemithoraces, which was verified by cumulative histograms. The patients with NSCLC showed a local lack of lung motion in the area of the tumor. In the patients with MPM, there was global diminished motion of the tumor bearing hemithorax, which improved significantly after chemotherapy (CHT) (assessed by the 2D- and 3D-techniques) (p < 0.01). Using global spirometry, an improvement could also be shown (vital capacity 2.9 {+-} 0.5 versus 3.4 L {+-} 0.6, FEV1 0.9 {+-} 0.2 versus 1.4 {+-} 0.2 L) after CHT, but this improvement was not significant. A 3D-dynamic MRI is able to quantify intraparenchymal lung motion. Local and global parenchymal pathologies can be precisely located and might be a new tool used to quantify even slight changes in lung motion (e.g. in therapy monitoring, follow-up studies or even benign lung diseases)

  2. Numerical simulation of 3D unsteady flow in a rotating pump by dynamic mesh technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, S; Guo, J; Yang, F X

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the numerical simulation of unsteady flow for three kinds of typical rotating pumps, roots blower, roto-jet pump and centrifugal pump, were performed using the three-dimensional Dynamic Mesh technique. In the unsteady simulation, all the computational domains, as stationary, were set in one inertial reference frame. The motions of the solid boundaries were defined by the Profile file in FLUENT commercial code, in which the rotational orientation and speed of the rotors were specified. Three methods (Spring-based Smoothing, Dynamic Layering and Local Re-meshing) were used to achieve mesh deformation and re-meshing. The unsteady solutions of flow field and pressure distribution were solved. After a start-up stage, the flow parameters exhibit time-periodic behaviour corresponding to blade passing frequency of rotor. This work shows that Dynamic Mesh technique could achieve numerical simulation of three-dimensional unsteady flow field in various kinds of rotating pumps and have a strong versatility and broad application prospects

  3. Microscopic description of fission dynamics: Toward a 3D computation of the time dependent GCM equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regnier D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate knowledge of fission fragment yields is an essential ingredient of numerous applications ranging from the formation of elements in the r-process to fuel cycle optimization in nuclear energy. The need for a predictive theory applicable where no data is available, together with the variety of potential applications, is an incentive to develop a fully microscopic approach to fission dynamics. One of the most promising theoretical frameworks is the time dependent generator coordinate method (TDGCM applied under the Gaussian overlap approximation (GOA. However, the computational cost of this method makes it difficult to perform calculations with more than two collective degree of freedom. Meanwhile, it is well-known from both semi-phenomenological and fully microscopic approaches that at least four or five dimensions may play a role in the dynamics of fission. To overcome this limitation, we develop the code FELIX aiming to solve the TDGCM+GOA equation for an arbitrary number of collective variables. In this talk, we report the recent progress toward this enriched description of fission dynamics. We will briefly present the numerical methods adopted as well as the status of the latest version of FELIX. Finally, we will discuss fragments yields obtained within this approach for the low energy fission of major actinides.

  4. Microscopic description of fission dynamics: Toward a 3D computation of the time dependent GCM equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnier, D.; Dubray, N.; Schunck, N.; Verrière, M.

    2017-09-01

    Accurate knowledge of fission fragment yields is an essential ingredient of numerous applications ranging from the formation of elements in the r-process to fuel cycle optimization in nuclear energy. The need for a predictive theory applicable where no data is available, together with the variety of potential applications, is an incentive to develop a fully microscopic approach to fission dynamics. One of the most promising theoretical frameworks is the time dependent generator coordinate method (TDGCM) applied under the Gaussian overlap approximation (GOA). However, the computational cost of this method makes it difficult to perform calculations with more than two collective degree of freedom. Meanwhile, it is well-known from both semi-phenomenological and fully microscopic approaches that at least four or five dimensions may play a role in the dynamics of fission. To overcome this limitation, we develop the code FELIX aiming to solve the TDGCM+GOA equation for an arbitrary number of collective variables. In this talk, we report the recent progress toward this enriched description of fission dynamics. We will briefly present the numerical methods adopted as well as the status of the latest version of FELIX. Finally, we will discuss fragments yields obtained within this approach for the low energy fission of major actinides.

  5. Network Support for Social 3-D Immersive Tele-Presence with Highly Realistic Natural and Synthetic Avatar Users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.N. Mekuria (Rufael); A. Frisiello (Antonella); M Pasin (Marco); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractThe next generation in 3D tele-presence is based on modular systems that combine live captured object based 3D video and synthetically authored 3D graphics content. This paper presents the design, implementation and evaluation of a network solution for multi-party real-time communication

  6. Dynamic 3D FE modelling of the human temporomandibular joint during whiplash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez del Palomar, A; Doblaré, M

    2008-07-01

    Rear-end impacts account for more than one-third of vehicle accidents, and nearly 40% of these accidents produce whiplash injuries. Whiplash injury to the neck has often been considered a significant risk factor for the development of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The objective of this study was to simulate the dynamic response of the temporomandibular joint during two types of impacts: a rear end and a frontal impact. To understand the dynamic forces acting on the joint, we extended a previous human temporomandibular joint model and analyzed the stress distributions in the soft elements of the joint. In the rear-end impact, it could be appreciated that the inertia of the mandible caused it to move posteriorly slower than the head, and this resulted in downward and forward displacements of the disc-condyle complex relative to the cranial base. Consequently, a rapid and big mouth opening occurs. In contrast, during the frontal impact, the mouth hardly opened, because the superior maxilla pushed the mandible to move together. There was not differential movement between bony components of the joint and therefore the soft tissues of the joint were not subjected to high loads. From these results, and despite the limitations of the simulations performed, we could conclude that neither a rear-end impact at low-velocity nor a frontal impact would produce damage to the soft tissues of the joint.

  7. MERIDIONAL CIRCULATION DYNAMICS FROM 3D MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC GLOBAL SIMULATIONS OF SOLAR CONVECTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passos, Dário; Charbonneau, Paul; Miesch, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The form of solar meridional circulation is a very important ingredient for mean field flux transport dynamo models. However, a shroud of mystery still surrounds this large-scale flow, given that its measurement using current helioseismic techniques is challenging. In this work, we use results from three-dimensional global simulations of solar convection to infer the dynamical behavior of the established meridional circulation. We make a direct comparison between the meridional circulation that arises in these simulations and the latest observations. Based on our results, we argue that there should be an equatorward flow at the base of the convection zone at mid-latitudes, below the current maximum depth helioseismic measures can probe (0.75 R ⊙ ). We also provide physical arguments to justify this behavior. The simulations indicate that the meridional circulation undergoes substantial changes in morphology as the magnetic cycle unfolds. We close by discussing the importance of these dynamical changes for current methods of observation which involve long averaging periods of helioseismic data. Also noteworthy is the fact that these topological changes indicate a rich interaction between magnetic fields and plasma flows, which challenges the ubiquitous kinematic approach used in the vast majority of mean field dynamo simulations

  8. Dynamic CT myocardial perfusion imaging: performance of 3D semi-automated evaluation software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebersberger, Ullrich [Medical University of South Carolina, Heart and Vascular Center, Charleston, SC (United States); Heart Center Munich-Bogenhausen, Department of Cardiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Munich (Germany); Marcus, Roy P.; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Bamberg, Fabian [University of Munich, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Schoepf, U.J.; Gray, J.C.; McQuiston, Andrew D. [Medical University of South Carolina, Heart and Vascular Center, Charleston, SC (United States); Lo, Gladys G. [Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hong Kong (China); Wang, Yining [Medical University of South Carolina, Heart and Vascular Center, Charleston, SC (United States); Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Blanke, Philipp [Medical University of South Carolina, Heart and Vascular Center, Charleston, SC (United States); University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Freiburg (Germany); Geyer, Lucas L. [Medical University of South Carolina, Heart and Vascular Center, Charleston, SC (United States); University of Munich, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Cho, Young Jun [Medical University of South Carolina, Heart and Vascular Center, Charleston, SC (United States); Konyang University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Scheuering, Michael; Canstein, Christian [Siemens Healthcare, CT Division, Forchheim (Germany); Hoffmann, Ellen [Heart Center Munich-Bogenhausen, Department of Cardiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Munich (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    To evaluate the performance of three-dimensional semi-automated evaluation software for the assessment of myocardial blood flow (MBF) and blood volume (MBV) at dynamic myocardial perfusion computed tomography (CT). Volume-based software relying on marginal space learning and probabilistic boosting tree-based contour fitting was applied to CT myocardial perfusion imaging data of 37 subjects. In addition, all image data were analysed manually and both approaches were compared with SPECT findings. Study endpoints included time of analysis and conventional measures of diagnostic accuracy. Of 592 analysable segments, 42 showed perfusion defects on SPECT. Average analysis times for the manual and software-based approaches were 49.1 ± 11.2 and 16.5 ± 3.7 min respectively (P < 0.01). There was strong agreement between the two measures of interest (MBF, ICC = 0.91, and MBV, ICC = 0.88, both P < 0.01) and no significant difference in MBF/MBV with respect to diagnostic accuracy between the two approaches for both MBF and MBV for manual versus software-based approach; respectively; all comparisons P > 0.05. Three-dimensional semi-automated evaluation of dynamic myocardial perfusion CT data provides similar measures and diagnostic accuracy to manual evaluation, albeit with substantially reduced analysis times. This capability may aid the integration of this test into clinical workflows. (orig.)

  9. Micro-patterning of self-supporting layers with conducting polymer wires for 3D-chip interconnection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, J.; Videlot, C.; Nguyen, T.N.; Wang, L.; Sarro, P.M.; Crawley, D.; Nikolic, K.; Forshaw, M.

    2003-01-01

    Highly conducting polymers have attracted much interest because of their potential applications in sensors and electronic devices. By the use of templates like porous membranes during polymerization conducting molecular wires can be formed with highly anisotropic properties which can be used as interconnecting layers in a three-dimensional (3D)-chip stacking. We focussed on two electrochemical polymerization (ECP) techniques to produce molecular wires based on polypyrrole (PPy) embedded in isolating porous polycarbonate membranes as self-supporting layers. The growth of the polymer through the membrane pores was investigated in order to achieve a good conductivity through the pores, but with a small cross-talk between them. A new polymerization technique based on a structured cathode has been developed in order to control the polymerization locally. By that technique micro-patterned membranes with separated conducting polymer wires could be produced

  10. Proteinaceous Light Diffusers and Dynamic 3D Skin Texture in Cephalopods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-24

    150 µm spacer. The cells were intentionally ruptured via changes in osmolarity, and the spacer allowed the particles to move via Brownian motion...muscles that are responsible for movement also provide structural support in the absence of rigid elements, the Small dorsal papillae function as...unstimulated natural muscle movement , even many hours post-mortem, and (ii) muscle complexity, which made it difficult to separate the effects of the

  11. Can mastication in children with cerebral palsy be analyzed by clinical observation, dynamic ultrasound and 3D kinematics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remijn, L; Groen, B E; Speyer, R; van Limbeek, J; Vermaire, J A; van den Engel-Hoek, L; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, M W G

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of the Mastication Observation and Evaluation (MOE) instrument, dynamic ultrasound and 3D kinematic measurements to describe mastication in children with spastic cerebral palsy and typically developing children. Masticatory movements during five trials of eating a biscuit were assessed in 8 children with cerebral palsy, spastic type (mean age 9.08years) and 14 typically developing children (mean age 9.01years). Differences between trials were tested (t-test) and the mastication of individual children with cerebral palsy was analyzed. MOE scores ranged from 17 to 31 (median 24) for the children with cerebral palsy and from 28 to 32 (median 31) for the typically developing children. There was an increased chewing cycle duration, a smaller left-right and up-down tongue displacement and larger anterior mandible movements for the trials (n=40) of cerebral palsy children (pmastication between individual children with cerebral palsy. The MOE items 'jaw movement' and 'fluency and coordination' showed the most similarity with the objective measurements. Objective measurements of dynamic ultrasound and 3D kinematics complemented data from the MOE instrument. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Multi-coupling dynamic model and 3d simulation program for in-situ leaching of uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Kaixuan; Zeng Sheng; Sang Xiao; Sun Bing

    2010-01-01

    The in-situ leaching of uranium mining is a very complicated non-linear dynamic system, which involves couplings and positive/negative feedback among many factors and processes. A comprehensive, coupled multi-factors and processes dynamic model and simulation method was established to study the in-situ leaching of uranium mining. The model accounts for most coupling among various processes as following: (1) rock texture mechanics and its evolution, (2)the incremental stress rheology of rock deformation, (3) 3-D viscoelastic/ plastic multi-deformation processes, (4) hydrofracturing, (5) tensorial (anisotropic) fracture and rock permeability, (6) water-rock interactions and mass-transport (both advective and diffusive), (7) dissolution-induced chemical compaction, (8) multi-phase fluid flow. A 3-D simulation program was compiled based on Fortran and C++. An example illustrating the application of this model to simulating acidification, production and terminal stage of in situ leaching of uranium mining is presented for the some mine in Xinjiang, China. This model and program can be used for theoretical study, mine design, production management, the study of contaminant transport and restoration in groundwater of in-situ leaching of uranium mining. (authors)

  13. Morphology and Dynamics of Solar Prominences from 3D MHD Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terradas, J.; Soler, R.; Luna, M.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a numerical study of the time evolution of solar prominences embedded in sheared magnetic arcades. The prominence is represented by a density enhancement in a background-stratified atmosphere and is connected to the photosphere through the magnetic field. By solving the ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations in three dimensions, we study the dynamics for a range of parameters representative of real prominences. Depending on the parameters considered, we find prominences that are suspended above the photosphere, i.e., detached prominences, but also configurations resembling curtain or hedgerow prominences whose material continuously connects to the photosphere. The plasma-β is an important parameter that determines the shape of the structure. In many cases magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and oscillatory phenomena develop. Fingers and plumes are generated, affecting the whole prominence body and producing vertical structures in an essentially horizontal magnetic field. However, magnetic shear is able to reduce or even to suppress this instability.

  14. MORPHOLOGY AND DYNAMICS OF SOLAR PROMINENCES FROM 3D MHD SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terradas, J.; Soler, R.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L. [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Luna, M., E-mail: jaume.terradas@uib.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2015-01-20

    In this paper we present a numerical study of the time evolution of solar prominences embedded in sheared magnetic arcades. The prominence is represented by a density enhancement in a background-stratified atmosphere and is connected to the photosphere through the magnetic field. By solving the ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations in three dimensions, we study the dynamics for a range of parameters representative of real prominences. Depending on the parameters considered, we find prominences that are suspended above the photosphere, i.e., detached prominences, but also configurations resembling curtain or hedgerow prominences whose material continuously connects to the photosphere. The plasma-β is an important parameter that determines the shape of the structure. In many cases magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and oscillatory phenomena develop. Fingers and plumes are generated, affecting the whole prominence body and producing vertical structures in an essentially horizontal magnetic field. However, magnetic shear is able to reduce or even to suppress this instability.

  15. Light-induced dynamic structural color by intracellular 3D photonic crystals in brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Garcia, Martin; Masters, Nathan; O'Brien, Heath E; Lennon, Joseph; Atkinson, George; Cryan, Martin J; Oulton, Ruth; Whitney, Heather M

    2018-04-01

    Natural photonic crystals are responsible for strong reflectance at selective wavelengths in different natural systems. We demonstrate that intracellular opal-like photonic crystals formed from lipids within photosynthetic cells produce vivid structural color in the alga Cystoseira tamariscifolia . The reflectance of the opaline vesicles is dynamically responsive to environmental illumination. The structural color is present in low light-adapted samples, whereas higher light levels produce a slow disappearance of the structural color such that it eventually vanishes completely. Once returned to low-light conditions, the color re-emerges. Our results suggest that these complex intracellular natural photonic crystals are responsive to environmental conditions, changing their packing structure reversibly, and have the potential to manipulate light for roles beyond visual signaling.

  16. Depth-kymography: high-speed calibrated 3D imaging of human vocal fold vibration dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Nibu A; Mul, Frits F M de; Qiu Qingjun; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Schutte, Harm K

    2008-01-01

    We designed and developed a laser line-triangulation endoscope compatible with any standard high-speed camera for a complete three-dimensional profiling of human vocal fold vibration dynamics. With this novel device we are able to measure absolute values of vertical and horizontal vibration amplitudes, length and width of vocal folds as well as the opening and closing velocities from a single in vivo measurement. We have studied, for the first time, the generation and propagation of mucosal waves by locating the position of its maximum vertical position and the propagation velocity. Precise knowledge about the absolute dimensions of human vocal folds and their vibration parameters has significant importance in clinical diagnosis and treatment as well as in fundamental research in voice. The new device can be used to investigate different kinds of pathological conditions including periodic or aperiodic vibrations. Consequently, the new device has significant importance in investigating vocal fold paralysis and in phonosurgical applications

  17. Depth-kymography: high-speed calibrated 3D imaging of human vocal fold vibration dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Nibu A; Mul, Frits F M de; Qiu Qingjun; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Schutte, Harm K [Groningen Voice Research Lab, Department of Biomedical Engineering, University Medical Center Groningen and University of Groningen, 9700 AD Groningen (Netherlands)

    2008-05-21

    We designed and developed a laser line-triangulation endoscope compatible with any standard high-speed camera for a complete three-dimensional profiling of human vocal fold vibration dynamics. With this novel device we are able to measure absolute values of vertical and horizontal vibration amplitudes, length and width of vocal folds as well as the opening and closing velocities from a single in vivo measurement. We have studied, for the first time, the generation and propagation of mucosal waves by locating the position of its maximum vertical position and the propagation velocity. Precise knowledge about the absolute dimensions of human vocal folds and their vibration parameters has significant importance in clinical diagnosis and treatment as well as in fundamental research in voice. The new device can be used to investigate different kinds of pathological conditions including periodic or aperiodic vibrations. Consequently, the new device has significant importance in investigating vocal fold paralysis and in phonosurgical applications.

  18. Micronozzles: 3D numerical structural and gas dynamics modeling, fabrication, and preliminary experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovkov, Alexei I.; Pyatishev, Evgenij N.; Lurie, Mihail S.; Korshunov, Andrey V.; Akulshin, Y. D.; Dolganov, A. G.; Sabadash, V. O.

    2001-02-01

    The tiny engines, founded on the principle of reactive thrust, are one of most perspective actuators developed by modern micromechanics. These engines can be applied for such apparent problems, as orientation and stabilization of small space objects, but also as local or distributed reactive thrust of new phylum of aerospace objects, for control of boundary layer of flying objects and in series of converting power devices of different purposes. Distinctive features of jet tiny engines are profitability (very large thrust-to-weight ratio) and high (milliseconds) response, which makes them to irreplaceable elements in control systems and, specially, in distributed power generations. These features are provided the minimum sizes, high pressure in working chambers and hypersonic velocity of propulsive jet. Topologically micronozzles are designed as the flat batch devices (3 layers as minimum). The lower and upper layers make flat walls of the nozzle and mainly influence on strength properties of the device. The mean layer reshapes geometry and determines gas dynamic characteristic of the nozzle. A special problem is the opening-up of the combustion-mixture, which is not esteemed in this work. It is necessary to allow for effect of considerable local stresses arising at the expense of static and dynamic loading at design of the jet tiny engines. Thermal gas dynamic processes in the chamber and nozzle determine the values and nature of these stresses, which are hardly studied for the microdevices. The priority is mathematical and experimental simulation of these processes. The most suitable object for initial phase of experimental simulation is the 'cold' engine. The demanded chamber static pressure is formed by external compressed air. In Laboratory of Microtechnology and MicroElectroMechanical Systems a number of such tiny engines with different shapes of the chamber's and the nozzles' surfaces were designed, made and tested. The engines were produced from photosensing

  19. PROGRESS IN THE PEELING-BALLOONING MODEL OF ELMS: NUMERICAL STUDIES OF 3D NONLINEAR ELM DYNAMICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SNYDER, P.B.; WILSON, H.R.; XU, X.Q.

    2004-01-01

    Nonlinear simulations with the 3D electromagnetic two-fluid BOUT code are employed to study the dynamics of edge localized modes (ELMs) driven by intermediate wavelength peeling-ballooning modes. It is found that the early behavior of the modes is similar to expectations from linear, ideal peeling-ballooning mode theory, with the modes growing linearly at a fraction of the Alfven frequency. In the nonlinear phase, the modes grow explosively, forming a number of extended filaments which propagate rapidly from the outer closed flux region into the open flux region toward the outboard wall. Similarities to non-linear ballooning theory, as well as additional complexities are observed. Comparison to observations reveals a number of similarities. Implications of the simulations and proposals for the dynamics of the full ELM crash are discussed

  20. Dynamic 3D shape of the plantar surface of the foot using coded structured light: a technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabet, Ali K; Trucco, Emanuele; Salvi, Joaquim; Wang, Weijie; Abboud, Rami J

    2014-01-23

    The foot provides a crucial contribution to the balance and stability of the musculoskeletal system, and accurate foot measurements are important in applications such as designing custom insoles/footwear. With better understanding of the dynamic behavior of the foot, dynamic foot reconstruction techniques are surfacing as useful ways to properly measure the shape of the foot. This paper presents a novel design and implementation of a structured-light prototype system providing dense three dimensional (3D) measurements of the foot in motion. The input to the system is a video sequence of a foot during a single step; the output is a 3D reconstruction of the plantar surface of the foot for each frame of the input. Engineering and clinical tests were carried out to test the accuracy and repeatability of the system. Accuracy experiments involved imaging a planar surface from different orientations and elevations and measuring the fitting errors of the data to a plane. Repeatability experiments were done using reconstructions from 27 different subjects, where for each one both right and left feet were reconstructed in static and dynamic conditions over two different days. The static accuracy of the system was found to be 0.3 mm with planar test objects. In tests with real feet, the system proved repeatable, with reconstruction differences between trials one week apart averaging 2.4 mm (static case) and 2.8 mm (dynamic case). The results obtained in the experiments show positive accuracy and repeatability results when compared to current literature. The design also shows to be superior to the systems available in the literature in several factors. Further studies need to be done to quantify the reliability of the system in clinical environments.

  1. Dynamic 3D shape of the plantar surface of the foot using coded structured light: a technical report

    KAUST Repository

    Thabet, Ali Kassem

    2014-01-23

    Background The foot provides a crucial contribution to the balance and stability of the musculoskeletal system, and accurate foot measurements are important in applications such as designing custom insoles/footwear. With better understanding of the dynamic behavior of the foot, dynamic foot reconstruction techniques are surfacing as useful ways to properly measure the shape of the foot. This paper presents a novel design and implementation of a structured-light prototype system providing dense three dimensional (3D) measurements of the foot in motion. The input to the system is a video sequence of a foot during a single step; the output is a 3D reconstruction of the plantar surface of the foot for each frame of the input. Methods Engineering and clinical tests were carried out to test the accuracy and repeatability of the system. Accuracy experiments involved imaging a planar surface from different orientations and elevations and measuring the fitting errors of the data to a plane. Repeatability experiments were done using reconstructions from 27 different subjects, where for each one both right and left feet were reconstructed in static and dynamic conditions over two different days. Results The static accuracy of the system was found to be 0.3 mm with planar test objects. In tests with real feet, the system proved repeatable, with reconstruction differences between trials one week apart averaging 2.4 mm (static case) and 2.8 mm (dynamic case). Conclusion The results obtained in the experiments show positive accuracy and repeatability results when compared to current literature. The design also shows to be superior to the systems available in the literature in several factors. Further studies need to be done to quantify the reliability of the system in clinical environments.

  2. Quantification of Single- and Multi-Phase Hydrodynamic Dispersion in Rocks Using Dynamic 3D PET Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, R.; Vandehey, N. T.; O'Neil, J.; Benson, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    We report results of an experimental investigation into the effects of small-scale (mm-cm) heterogeneities and hydrodynamic dispersion on miscible and immiscible displacements in a Berea Sandstone core. Pulse-radiotracer tests were carried out by measuring breakthrough curves at distinct flow rates and gas/water saturation ratios, while simultaneously imaging the internal displacement of the radioactive solution by [11C]PET. Dynamic multidimensional maps of the tracer concentration in the rock sample have been obtained with a spatial resolution of about 10 mm3 and provide evidence for significant macrodispersion effects caused by the presence of heterogeneities at the same scale. The numerical solution of the classic Advection-Dispersion Equation (ADE) applied in 1D form fails to describe the measured breakthrough curves and significantly overestimates longitudinal dispersivity. An excellent agreement with the experiments is attained by explicitly accounting for permeability heterogeneity, while reducing the contribution of "Fickian" dispersivity. Heterogeneity was introduced in the model by discretising the rock sample into independent parallel streamlines, which were generated based on a previously determined 3D permeability map, and by solving the 1D ADE for each of them. The use of streamlines is supported by direct quantitative observations from the PET scans; remarkably, this approach leads to an accurate representation of both the temporal behaviour and spatial distribution of the tracer concentration in the sample. It is shown that when the length-scale of permeability variations is similar in order as the size of the sample, the effect of the former can be as significant as hydrodynamic dispersion. The presence of a second immiscible fluid phase further complicates the flow field and, accordingly, the interpretation of the experiments. The ability to decouple these effects leads to the estimation of dispersion coefficients that aren't sample specific and

  3. 3D multidisciplinary numerical model of polychlorinated biphenyl dynamics on the Black Sea north-western shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaiev, Andrii; Ivanov, Vitaliy

    2014-05-01

    The Black Sea north-western shelf plays a key role in economics of the developing countries such as Ukraine due to food supply, invaluable recreational potential and variety of the relevant maritime shipping routes. On the other hand, a shallow flat shelf is mostly affected by anthropogenic pollution, eutrophication, hypoxia and harmful algae blooms. The research is focused on modeling the transport and transformation of PCBs (PolyChlorinated Biphenyls) because they are exceedingly toxic and highly resistant to degradation, hence cumulatively affect marine ecosystems. Being lipophilic compounds, PCBs demonstrate the distinguishing sorption/desorption activity taking part in the biogeochemical fluxes via the organic matter particles and sediments. In the framework of the research, the coastal in-situ data on PCB concentration in the water column and sediments are processed, visualized and analyzed. It is concluded that the main sources of PCBs are related to the Danube discharge and resuspension from the shallow-water sediments. Developed 3D numerical model is aimed at simulation of PCB contamination of the water column and sediment. The model integrates the full physics hydrodynamic block as well as modules, which describe detritus transport and transformation and PCB dynamics. Three state variables are simulated in PCB transport module: concentration in solute, on the settling particles of detritus and in the top layer of sediments. PCB adsorption/desorption on detritus; the reversible PCB fluxes at the water-sediment boundary; destruction of detritus are taken into consideration. Formalization of PCB deposition/resuspension in the sediments is adapted from Van Rijn's model of the suspended sediment transport. The model was spun up to reconstruct the short term scenario of the instantaneous PCB release from the St. George Arm of Danube. It has been shown that PCB transport on sinking detritus represents the natural buffer mechanism damping the spreading PCB

  4. The application of the 3D transient computational fluid dynamics to the radionuclide dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Eliene B.S. da; Sampaio, Paulo A.B. de

    2013-01-01

    The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) provides powerful tools for the study of dispersion of radionuclides, including problems where there is radioactive decay. This work presents a treatment to the dispersion of radionuclides through the usage of CFD, namely from the internal dispersion to the external one through either atmospheric or aquatic via. The first one is of fundamental importance, for example, to optimize the design of a room that will shelter the radioactive material, with the intent of aiming at the safety and the minimization of the dose in case of dispersion. The second one concerns the external dispersion, being of major relevance in accidents with releasing out from nuclear power plants, in order to study the safety analysis and also the environmental impact in the surroundings of the installation. In this work, the equations governing momentum, energy and transport with decay of radioactive materials are discretized in order that numerical solutions can be obtained. Finite element meshes and techniques for parallel and distributed computing are combined into a computer code, designed to take into account the effect of turbulence locally in the dispersion of the radioactive material released. Additionally, the code developed employs Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of turbulence. (author)

  5. 3D Multiphysical Modelling of Fluid Dynamics and Mass Transfer in Laser Welding of Dissimilar Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiazhou Wu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional multiphysical transient model was developed to investigate keyhole formation, weld pool dynamics, and mass transfer in laser welding of dissimilar materials. The coupling of heat transfer, fluid flow, keyhole free surface evolution, and solute diffusion between dissimilar metals was simulated. The adaptive heat source model was used to trace the change of keyhole shape, and the Rayleigh scattering of the laser beam was considered. The keyhole wall was calculated using the fluid volume equation, primarily considering the recoil pressure induced by metal evaporation, surface tension, and hydrostatic pressure. Fluid flow, diffusion, and keyhole formation were considered simultaneously in mass transport processes. Welding experiments of 304L stainless steel and industrial pure titanium TA2 were performed to verify the simulation results. It is shown that spatters are shaped during the welding process. The thickness of the intermetallic reaction layer between the two metals and the diffusion of elements in the weld are calculated, which are important criteria for welding quality. The simulation results correspond well with the experimental results.

  6. PROGRESS IN THE PEELING-BALLOONING MODEL OF ELMS: TOROIDAL ROTATION AND 3D NONLINEAR DYNAMICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SNYDER, P.B.; WILSON, H.R.; XU, X.Q.; WEBSTER, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the physics of the H-Mode pedestal and edge localized modes (ELMs) is very important to next-step fusion devices for two primary reasons: (1) The pressure at the top of the edge barrier (''pedestal height'') strongly impacts global confinement and fusion performance, and (2) large ELMs lead to localized transient heat loads on material surfaces that may constrain component lifetimes. The development of the peeling-ballooning model has shed light on these issues by positing a mechanism for ELM onset and constraints on the pedestal height. The mechanism involves instability of ideal coupled ''peeling-ballooning'' modes driven by the sharp pressure gradient and consequent large bootstrap current in the H-mode edge. It was first investigated in the local, high-n limit [1], and later quantified for non-local, finite-n modes in general toroidal geometry [2,3]. Important aspects are that a range of wavelengths may potentially be unstable, with intermediate n's (n ∼ 3-30) generally limiting in high performance regimes, and that stability bounds are strongly sensitive to shape [Fig l(a)], and to collisionality (i.e. temperature and density) [4] through the bootstrap current. The development of efficient MHD stability codes such as ELITE [3,2] and MISHKA [5] has allowed detailed quantification of peeling-ballooning stability bounds (e.g. [6]) and extensive and largely successful comparisons with observation (e.g. [2,6-9]). These previous calculations are ideal, static, and linear. Here we extend this work to incorporate the impact of sheared toroidal rotation, and the non-ideal, nonlinear dynamics which must be studied to quantify ELM size and heat deposition on material surfaces

  7. 3D Surgical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308

  8. Amorphous MnO2 supported on 3D-Ni nanodendrites for large areal capacitance supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Kang; Li, Jing-Wei; Chen, Gao-Feng; Liu, Zhao-Qing; Li, Nan; Su, Yu-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel 3D dendrites-like MnO2 @Ni has been prepared by a simple electrochemical process. • The as-prepared 3D metal Ni can be improved the electrochemical performance by decorating MnO2. • The findings indicate that the novel 3D architectures offer a very promising design for supercapacitors. - Abstract: In this paper, we report a metal oxide/metal MnO 2 /3D dendrites-like Ni core-shell electrode on Ni foam for high-performance supercapacitors. The MnO 2 /3D-Ni electrode exhibits a large areal capacitance (837.6 mF cm −2 ) at high loading mass of MnO 2 (3 mg cm −2 ). Moreover, MnO 2 /3D-Ni composite electrodes exhibit excellent rate capability and high cycling stability (16% degradation after 2000 cycles). The high electrochemical properties of MnO 2 /3D-Ni electrode can be attributed to the high conductivity of the Ni metal core, high porous and large specific surface structure of the MnO 2 /3D-Ni nanocomposites, which facilitates electrolyte diffusion, electron transport, and material utilization. These results indicate highly conductive 3D dendrites-like Ni nanoparticles may could provide new opportunities for the development of high performance supercapacitors

  9. Comparison of hemodynamics of intracranial aneurysms between MR fluid dynamics using 3D cine phase-contrast MRI and MR-based computational fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoda, Haruo; Sakahara, Harumi; Ohkura, Yasuhide; Kosugi, Takashi; Hirano, Masaya; Alley, Marcus T.; Bammer, Roland; Pelc, Norbert J.; Namba, Hiroki

    2010-01-01

    Hemodynamics is thought to play a very important role in the initiation, growth, and rupture of intracranial aneurysms. The purpose of our study was to compare hemodynamics of intracranial aneurysms of MR fluid dynamics (MRFD) using 3D cine PC MR imaging (4D-Flow) at 1.5 T and MR-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD). 4D-Flow was performed for five intracranial aneurysms by a 1.5 T MR scanner. 3D TOF MR angiography was performed for geometric information. The blood flow in the aneurysms was modeled using CFD simulation based on the finite element method. We used MR angiographic data as the vascular models and MR flow information as boundary conditions in CFD. 3D velocity vector fields, 3D streamlines, shearing velocity maps, wall shear stress (WSS) distribution maps and oscillatory shear index (OSI) distribution maps were obtained by MRFD and CFD and were compared. There was a moderate to high degree of correlation in 3D velocity vector fields and a low to moderate degree of correlation in WSS of aneurysms between MRFD and CFD using regression analysis. The patterns of 3D streamlines were similar between MRFD and CFD. The small and rotating shearing velocities and higher OSI were observed at the top of the spiral flow in the aneurysms. The pattern and location of shearing velocity in MRFD and CFD were similar. The location of high oscillatory shear index obtained by MRFD was near to that obtained by CFD. MRFD and CFD of intracranial aneurysms correlated fairly well. (orig.)

  10. Combined dynamic contrast-enhancement and serial 3D-subtraction analysis in magnetic resonance imaging of osteoid osteomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalle, T. von; Winkler, P. [Klinikum Stuttgart Olgahospital, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Stuttgart (Germany); Langendoerfer, M.; Fernandez, F.F. [Klinikum Stuttgart Olgahospital, Department of Paediatric Orthopaedics, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively correlate the results of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with histological and clinical diagnoses in patients with osteoid osteomas. Fifty-four patients with the MR diagnosis of osteoid osteoma were studied. MRI (1.5 Tesla) consisted of thin-section STIR sequences, dynamic 3D T1 gradient echo sequences during application of contrast material, and high-resolution postcontrast T1 spin echo sequences with fat saturation (maximum voxel size 0.6 x 0.6 x 3.0 mm). Evaluation was focused on serial image subtraction during the early phase after contrast injection and on time-intensity curves. The surrounding edema was helpful in finding the nidus in each lesion. In 49 of 54 patients (90.7%), the diagnosis of osteoid osteoma was certain or highly probable (sensitivity 1.0, positive predictive value 0.91). A total of 38 of 54 osteoid osteomas were histologically proven. Five MRI diagnoses were regarded as false positives. A similar proportion has been reported for computed tomography. Tailored high-resolution MR examinations with dynamic contrast enhancement can reliably diagnose osteoid osteomas and exactly localize the nidus without radiation exposure. We propose a stepwise approach with STIR sequences, dynamic contrast-enhanced scanning, and high-resolution postcontrast T1 spin echo sequences with fat saturation. (orig.)

  11. Combined dynamic contrast-enhancement and serial 3D-subtraction analysis in magnetic resonance imaging of osteoid osteomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalle, T. von; Winkler, P.; Langendoerfer, M.; Fernandez, F.F.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively correlate the results of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with histological and clinical diagnoses in patients with osteoid osteomas. Fifty-four patients with the MR diagnosis of osteoid osteoma were studied. MRI (1.5 Tesla) consisted of thin-section STIR sequences, dynamic 3D T1 gradient echo sequences during application of contrast material, and high-resolution postcontrast T1 spin echo sequences with fat saturation (maximum voxel size 0.6 x 0.6 x 3.0 mm). Evaluation was focused on serial image subtraction during the early phase after contrast injection and on time-intensity curves. The surrounding edema was helpful in finding the nidus in each lesion. In 49 of 54 patients (90.7%), the diagnosis of osteoid osteoma was certain or highly probable (sensitivity 1.0, positive predictive value 0.91). A total of 38 of 54 osteoid osteomas were histologically proven. Five MRI diagnoses were regarded as false positives. A similar proportion has been reported for computed tomography. Tailored high-resolution MR examinations with dynamic contrast enhancement can reliably diagnose osteoid osteomas and exactly localize the nidus without radiation exposure. We propose a stepwise approach with STIR sequences, dynamic contrast-enhanced scanning, and high-resolution postcontrast T1 spin echo sequences with fat saturation. (orig.)

  12. 3D FEM Analysis of a Pile-Supported Riverine Platform under Environmental Loads Incorporating Soil-Pile Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise-Penelope N. Kontoni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An existing riverine platform in Egypt, together with its pile group foundation, is analyzed under environmental loads using 3D FEM structural analysis software incorporating soil-pile interaction. The interaction between the transfer plate and the piles supporting the platform is investigated. Two connection conditions were studied assuming fixed or hinged connection between the piles and the reinforced concrete platform for the purpose of comparison of the structural behavior. The analysis showed that the fixed or hinged connection condition between the piles and the platform altered the values and distribution of displacements, normal force, bending moments, and shear forces along the length of each pile. The distribution of piles in the pile group affects the stress distribution on both the soil and platform. The piles were found to suffer from displacement failure rather than force failure. Moreover, the resulting bending stresses on the reinforced concrete plate in the case of a fixed connection between the piles and the platform were almost doubled and much higher than the allowable reinforced concrete stress and even exceeded the ultimate design strength and thus the environmental loads acting on a pile-supported riverine offshore platform may cause collapse if they are not properly considered in the structural analysis and design.

  13. Aquilion ONE / ViSION Edition CT scanner realizing 3D dynamic observation with low-dose scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazama, Masahiro; Saito, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scanners have been continuously advancing as essential diagnostic imaging equipment for the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of diseases, including the three major disease classes of cerebrovascular disease, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Through the development of helical CT scanners and multislice CT scanners, Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation has developed the Aquilion ONE, a CT scanner with a scanning range of up to 160 mm per rotation that can obtain three-dimensional (3D) images of the brain, heart, and other organs in a single rotation. We have now developed the Aquilion ONE / ViSION Edition, a next-generation 320-row multislice CT scanner incorporating the latest technologies that achieves a shorter scanning time and significant reduction in dose compared with conventional products. This product with its low-dose scanning technology will contribute to the practical realization of new diagnosis and treatment modalities employing four-dimensional (4D) data based on 3D dynamic observations through continuous rotations. (author)

  14. Rational design of methicillin resistance staphylococcus aureus inhibitors through 3D-QSAR, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballu, Srilata; Itteboina, Ramesh; Sivan, Sree Kanth; Manga, Vijjulatha

    2018-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a gram positive bacterium. It is the leading cause of skin and respiratory infections, osteomyelitis, Ritter's disease, endocarditis, and bacteraemia in the developed world. We employed combined studies of 3D QSAR, molecular docking which are validated by molecular dynamics simulations and in silico ADME prediction have been performed on Isothiazoloquinolones inhibitors against methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) study was applied using comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) with Q 2 of 0.578, R 2 of 0.988, and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) with Q 2 of 0.554, R 2 of 0.975. The predictive ability of these model was determined using a test set of molecules that gave acceptable predictive correlation (r 2 Pred) values 0.55 and 0.57 of CoMFA and CoMSIA respectively. Docking, simulations were employed to position the inhibitors into protein active site to find out the most probable binding mode and most reliable conformations. Developed models and Docking methods provide guidance to design molecules with enhanced activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dynamical analysis of a PWR internals using super-elements in an integrated 3-D model model. Part 2: dynamical tests and seismic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus Miranda, C.A. de.

    1992-01-01

    The results of the test analysis (frequencies) for the isolated super-elements and for the developed 3-D model of the internals core support structures of a PWR research reactor are presented. Once certified of the model effectiveness for this type of analysis the seismic spectral analysis was performed. From the results can be seen that the structures are rigid for this load, isolated or together with the other in the 3-D model, and there are no impacts among them during the earthquake (OBE). (author)

  16. Using Parameters of Dynamic Pulse Function for 3d Modeling in LOD3 Based on Random Textures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadehashrafi, B.

    2015-12-01

    The pulse function (PF) is a technique based on procedural preprocessing system to generate a computerized virtual photo of the façade with in a fixed size square(Alizadehashrafi et al., 2009, Musliman et al., 2010). Dynamic Pulse Function (DPF) is an enhanced version of PF which can create the final photo, proportional to real geometry. This can avoid distortion while projecting the computerized photo on the generated 3D model(Alizadehashrafi and Rahman, 2013). The challenging issue that might be handled for having 3D model in LoD3 rather than LOD2, is the final aim that have been achieved in this paper. In the technique based DPF the geometries of the windows and doors are saved in an XML file schema which does not have any connections with the 3D model in LoD2 and CityGML format. In this research the parameters of Dynamic Pulse Functions are utilized via Ruby programming language in SketchUp Trimble to generate (exact position and deepness) the windows and doors automatically in LoD3 based on the same concept of DPF. The advantage of this technique is automatic generation of huge number of similar geometries e.g. windows by utilizing parameters of DPF along with defining entities and window layers. In case of converting the SKP file to CityGML via FME software or CityGML plugins the 3D model contains the semantic database about the entities and window layers which can connect the CityGML to MySQL(Alizadehashrafi and Baig, 2014). The concept behind DPF, is to use logical operations to project the texture on the background image which is dynamically proportional to real geometry. The process of projection is based on two vertical and horizontal dynamic pulses starting from upper-left corner of the background wall in down and right directions respectively based on image coordinate system. The logical one/zero on the intersections of two vertical and horizontal dynamic pulses projects/does not project the texture on the background image. It is possible to define

  17. Complexity dynamics and Hopf bifurcation analysis based on the first Lyapunov coefficient about 3D IS-LM macroeconomics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junhai; Ren, Wenbo; Zhan, Xueli

    2017-04-01

    Based on the study of scholars at home and abroad, this paper improves the three-dimensional IS-LM model in macroeconomics, analyzes the equilibrium point of the system and stability conditions, focuses on the parameters and complex dynamic characteristics when Hopf bifurcation occurs in the three-dimensional IS-LM macroeconomics system. In order to analyze the stability of limit cycles when Hopf bifurcation occurs, this paper further introduces the first Lyapunov coefficient to judge the limit cycles, i.e. from a practical view of the business cycle. Numerical simulation results show that within the range of most of the parameters, the limit cycle of 3D IS-LM macroeconomics is stable, that is, the business cycle is stable; with the increase of the parameters, limit cycles becomes unstable, and the value range of the parameters in this situation is small. The research results of this paper have good guide significance for the analysis of macroeconomics system.

  18. Limitations on Inferring 3D Architecture and Dynamics From Surface Velocities in the India-Eurasia Collision Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flesch, L.; Bendick, R.; Bischoff, S.

    2018-02-01

    Surface velocities derived from Global Positioning System observations and Quaternary fault slip rates measured throughout an extended region of high topography in South Asia vary smoothly over thousands of kilometers and are broadly symmetrical, with components of both north-south shortening and east-west extension relative to stable Eurasia. The observed velocity field does not contain discontinuities or steep gradients attributable to along-strike differences in collision architecture, despite the well-documented presence of a lithospheric slab beneath the Pamir but not the Tibetan Plateau. We use a modified Akaike information criterion (AICc) to show that surface velocities do not efficiently constrain 3D rheology, geometry, or force balance. Therefore, although other geophysical and geological observations may indicate the presence of mechanical or dynamic heterogeneities within the Indian-Asian collision, the surface Global Positioning System velocities contain little or no usable information about them.

  19. 3D Dynamics of the Near-Surface Layer of the Ocean in the Presence of Freshwater Influx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, C.; Soloviev, A.

    2015-12-01

    Freshwater inflow due to convective rains or river runoff produces lenses of freshened water in the near surface layer of the ocean. These lenses are localized in space and typically involve both salinity and temperature anomalies. Due to significant density anomalies, strong pressure gradients develop, which result in lateral spreading of freshwater lenses in a form resembling gravity currents. Gravity currents inherently involve three-dimensional dynamics. The gravity current head can include the Kelvin-Helmholtz billows with vertical density inversions. In this work, we have conducted a series of numerical experiments using computational fluid dynamics tools. These numerical simulations were designed to elucidate the relationship between vertical mixing and horizontal advection of salinity under various environmental conditions and potential impact on the pollution transport including oil spills. The near-surface data from the field experiments in the Gulf of Mexico during the SCOPE experiment were available for validation of numerical simulations. In particular, we observed a freshwater layer within a few-meter depth range and, in some cases, a density inversion at the edge of the freshwater lens, which is consistent with the results of numerical simulations. In conclusion, we discuss applicability of these results to the interpretation of Aquarius and SMOS sea surface salinity satellite measurements. The results of this study indicate that 3D dynamics of the near-surface layer of the ocean are essential in the presence of freshwater inflow.

  20. Stress analysis of different prosthesis materials in implant-supported fixed dental prosthesis using 3D finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedram Iranmanesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the present study, the finite element method (FEM was used to investigate the effects of prosthesis material types on stress distribution of the bone surrounding implants and to evaluate stress distribution in three-unit implant-supported fixed dental prosthesis (FDP. Materials and Methods: A three-dimensional (3D finite element FDP model of the maxillary second premolar to the second molar was designed. Three load conditions were statically applied on the functional cusps in horizontal (57.0 N, vertical (200.0 N, and oblique (400.0 N, θ = 120° directions. Four standard framework materials were evaluated: Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA, base-metal, porcelain fused to metal, andporcelain. Results: The maximum of von Mises stress in the oblique direction was higher than the vertical and horizontal directions in all conditions. In the bone-crestal section, the maximum von Mises stress (53.78 MPa was observed in PMMA within oblique load. In FDPs, the maximum stress was generated at the connector region in all conditions. Conclusion: A noticeable difference was not observed in the bone stress distribution pattern with different prosthetic materials. Although, higher stress value could be seen in polymethyl methacrylate, all types of prosthesis yielded the same stress distribution pattern in FDP. More clinical studies are needed to evaluate the survival rate of these materials.

  1. Collagenous matrix supported by a 3D-printed scaffold for osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahimipour, Farahnaz; Dashtimoghadam, Erfan; Rasoulianboroujeni, Morteza; Yazdimamaghani, Mostafa; Khoshroo, Kimia; Tahriri, Mohammadreza; Yadegari, Amir; Gonzalez, Jose A; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Lobner, Douglas C; Jafarzadeh Kashi, Tahereh S; Tayebi, Lobat

    2018-02-01

    A systematic characterization of hybrid scaffolds, fabricated based on combinatorial additive manufacturing technique and freeze-drying method, is presented as a new platform for osteoblastic differentiation of dental pulp cells (DPCs). The scaffolds were consisted of a collagenous matrix embedded in a 3D-printed beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) as the mineral phase. The developed construct design was intended to achieve mechanical robustness owing to 3D-printed β-TCP scaffold, and biologically active 3D cell culture matrix pertaining to the Collagen extracellular matrix. The β-TCP precursor formulations were investigated for their flow-ability at various temperatures, which optimized for fabrication of 3D printed scaffolds with interconnected porosity. The hybrid constructs were characterized by 3D laser scanning microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and compressive strength testing. The in vitro characterization of scaffolds revealed that the hybrid β-TCP/Collagen constructs offer superior DPCs proliferation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity compared to the 3D-printed β-TCP scaffold over three weeks. Moreover, it was found that the incorporation of TCP into the Collagen matrix improves the ALP activity. The presented results converge to suggest the developed 3D-printed β-TCP/Collagen hybrid constructs as a new platform for osteoblastic differentiation of DPCs for craniomaxillofacial bone regeneration. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. 3D visual analysis tool in support of the SANDF's growing ground based air defence simulation capability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duvenhage, B

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available and live field exercises. The 3D visualisation resulted in improved situational awareness during experiment analysis, in increased involvement of the SANDF in experiment analysis and in improved credibility of analysis results presented during live or after...

  3. Assessment of dynamic contrast enhancement of the small bowel in active Crohn's disease using 3D MR enterography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knuesel, Patrick R.; Kubik, Rahel A.; Crook, David W.; Eigenmann, Franz; Froehlich, Johannes M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively compare the dynamic contrast enhancement of the small bowel segments with and without active Crohn's disease at 3D MR enterography (MRE). Materials and methods: Thirteen patients (five men, eight women; mean age 41.2 years; range 29-56) were imaged on a 1.5-T MR scanner (Sonata, Siemens Medical) with standard MR sequences after having ingested 1000 ml of a 3% mannitol solution. Subsequently, high resolution 3D gradient-echo (volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination = VIBE) data sets were obtained pre-contrast and 20-40 s, 60-80 s, and 120-140 s after i.v. Gd-DOTA administration (0.2 mmol/kg). Signal enhancement was measured on single slices both in normal and histologically confirmed (12/13) inflamed small bowel wall segments as well as in the aorta, the psoas muscle, and the background to calculate signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR). Results: Small bowel wall enhancement was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in inflamed compared to normal segments at 20-40 s (SNR inflamed: 58.7 ± 33.8 vs normal: 36.0 ± 19.8; p = 0.048; CNR inflamed: 34.8 ± 23.4 vs normal: 16.3 ± 11.2; p = 0.017) and at 60-80 s (SNR: 60.3 ± 25.1 vs 41.9 ± 20.0; p = 0.049; CNR: 34.9 ± 15.1 vs 19.3 ± 13.2; p = 0.01) after i.v. contrast administration, respectively. Even at 120-140 s CNR was still increased in inflamed segments (33.7 ± 16.0 vs 18.1 ± 13.2; p = 0.04), while differences in SNR did not attain statistical significance (63.0 ± 26.2 vs 45.3 ± 23.3; p = 0.15). Conclusion: In active Crohn's disease, histologically confirmed inflamed small bowel wall segments demonstrate a significantly increased early uptake of gadolinium on 3D VIBE sequences compared to normal small bowel segments.

  4. RESEARCH ON COORDINATE TRANSFORMATION METHOD OF GB-SAR IMAGE SUPPORTED BY 3D LASER SCANNING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the image plane of GB-SAR, identification of deformation distribution is usually carried out by artificial interpretation. This method requires analysts to have adequate experience of radar imaging and target recognition, otherwise it can easily cause false recognition of deformation target or region. Therefore, it is very meaningful to connect two-dimensional (2D plane coordinate system with the common three-dimensional (3D terrain coordinate system. To improve the global accuracy and reliability of the transformation from 2D coordinates of GB-SAR images to local 3D coordinates, and overcome the limitation of traditional similarity transformation parameter estimation method, 3D laser scanning data is used to assist the transformation of GB-SAR image coordinates. A straight line fitting method for calculating horizontal angle was proposed in this paper. After projection into a consistent imaging plane, we can calculate horizontal rotation angle by using the linear characteristics of the structure in radar image and the 3D coordinate system. Aided by external elevation information by 3D laser scanning technology, we completed the matching of point clouds and pixels on the projection plane according to the geometric projection principle of GB-SAR imaging realizing the transformation calculation of GB-SAR image coordinates to local 3D coordinates. Finally, the effectiveness of the method is verified by the GB-SAR deformation monitoring experiment on the high slope of Geheyan dam.

  5. Research on Coordinate Transformation Method of Gb-Sar Image Supported by 3d Laser Scanning Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P.; Xing, C.

    2018-04-01

    In the image plane of GB-SAR, identification of deformation distribution is usually carried out by artificial interpretation. This method requires analysts to have adequate experience of radar imaging and target recognition, otherwise it can easily cause false recognition of deformation target or region. Therefore, it is very meaningful to connect two-dimensional (2D) plane coordinate system with the common three-dimensional (3D) terrain coordinate system. To improve the global accuracy and reliability of the transformation from 2D coordinates of GB-SAR images to local 3D coordinates, and overcome the limitation of traditional similarity transformation parameter estimation method, 3D laser scanning data is used to assist the transformation of GB-SAR image coordinates. A straight line fitting method for calculating horizontal angle was proposed in this paper. After projection into a consistent imaging plane, we can calculate horizontal rotation angle by using the linear characteristics of the structure in radar image and the 3D coordinate system. Aided by external elevation information by 3D laser scanning technology, we completed the matching of point clouds and pixels on the projection plane according to the geometric projection principle of GB-SAR imaging realizing the transformation calculation of GB-SAR image coordinates to local 3D coordinates. Finally, the effectiveness of the method is verified by the GB-SAR deformation monitoring experiment on the high slope of Geheyan dam.

  6. Modeling 3D Dynamic Rupture on Arbitrarily-Shaped faults by Boundary-Conforming Finite Difference Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, D.; Zhu, H.; Luo, Y.; Chen, X.

    2008-12-01

    We use a new finite difference method (FDM) and the slip-weakening law to model the rupture dynamics of a non-planar fault embedded in a 3-D elastic media with free surface. The new FDM, based on boundary- conforming grid, sets up the mapping equations between the curvilinear coordinate and the Cartesian coordinate and transforms irregular physical space to regular computational space; it also employs a higher- order non-staggered DRP/opt MacCormack scheme which is of low dispersion and low dissipation so that the high accuracy and stability of our rupture modeling are guaranteed. Compared with the previous methods, not only we can compute the spontaneous rupture of an arbitrarily shaped fault, but also can model the influence of the surface topography on the rupture process of earthquake. In order to verify the feasibility of this method, we compared our results and other previous results, and found out they matched perfectly. Thanks to the boundary-conforming FDM, problems such as dynamic rupture with arbitrary dip, strike and rake over an arbitrary curved plane can be handled; and supershear or subshear rupture can be simulated with different parameters such as the initial stresses and the critical slip displacement Dc. Besides, our rupture modeling is economical to be implemented owing to its high efficiency and does not suffer from displacement leakage. With the help of inversion data of rupture by field observations, this method is convenient to model rupture processes and seismograms of natural earthquakes.

  7. Comparison between 3D dynamics filter technique, field-in-field, electronic compensator in breast cancer; Comparacao entre tecnica 3D com filtro dinamico, field-in-field e compensacao eletronica para cancer de mama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trindade, Cassia; Silva, Leonardo P.; Martins, Lais P.; Garcia, Paulo L.; Santos, Maira R.; Bastista, Delano V.S.; Vieira, Anna Myrian M.T.L.; Rocha, Igor M., E-mail: cassiatr@gmail.com [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-12-15

    The radiotherapy has been used in a wild scale in breast cancer treatment. With this high demand, new technologies have been developed to improve the dose distribution in the target while reducing the dose delivered in critical organs. In this study, performed with one clinical case, three planning were done for comparison: 3D technique with dynamic filter, 3D with field-in-field technique (forward-planned IMRT) and 3D technique using electronic compensator (ECOMP). The planning were done with a 6MV photon beam using the Eclipse software, version 8.6 (Varian Medical Systems). The PTV was drawn covering the whole breast and the critical organs were: the lung on the irradiated side, the heart, the contralateral breast and the anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). The planning using the compensator technique permitted more homogeneous dose distribution in the target volume. The V20 value of the lung on the irradiated side was 8,3% for the electronic compensator technique, 8,9% for the field-in-field technique and 8,2% for the dynamic filter technique. For the heart the dose range was 15.7 - 139.9 cGy, 16.3 - 148.4 cGy for the dynamic filter technique and 19.6 - 157.0 cGy for the field-in-field technique. The dose gradient was 11% with compensator electronic, 15% dynamic filter technique and 13% with field-in-field. The application of electronic technique in breast cancer treatment allows better dose distribution while reduces dose in critical organs, but in the same time requires a quality assurance. (author)

  8. Dynamical analysis of a PWR internals using super-elements in an integrated 3-D model model. Part 1: model description and static tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus Miranda, C.A. de.

    1992-01-01

    An integrated 3-D model of a research PWR reactor core support internals structures was developed for its dynamic analyses. The static tests for the validation of the model are presented. There are about 90 super-elements with, approximately, 85000 degrees of freedom (DoF), 8200 masters DoF, 12000 elements with about 8400 thin shell elements. A DEC VAX computer 11/785 model and the ANSYS program were used. If impacts occurs the spectral seismic analysis will be changed to a non-linear one with direct integration of the displacement pulse derived from the seismic accelerogram. This last will be obtained from the seismic acceleration response spectra. (author)

  9. Nonperturbative summation over 3D discrete topologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freidel, Laurent; Louapre, David

    2003-01-01

    The group field theories realizing the sum over all triangulations of all topologies of 3D discrete gravity amplitudes are known to be nonuniquely Borel summable. We modify these models to construct a new group field theory which is proved to be uniquely Borel summable, defining in an unambiguous way a nonperturbative sum over topologies in the context of 3D dynamical triangulations and spin foam models. Moreover, we give some arguments to support the fact that, despite our modification, this new model is similar to the original one, and therefore could be taken as a definition of the sum over topologies of 3D quantum gravity amplitudes

  10. A Dynamic Multi-Projection-Contour Approximating Framework for the 3D Reconstruction of Buildings by Super-Generalized Optical Stereo-Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yiming; Su, Nan; Zhao, Chunhui; Wang, Liguo

    2017-09-19

    In this paper, a novel framework of the 3D reconstruction of buildings is proposed, focusing on remote sensing super-generalized stereo-pairs (SGSPs). As we all know, 3D reconstruction cannot be well performed using nonstandard stereo pairs, since reliable stereo matching could not be achieved when the image-pairs are collected at a great difference of views, and we always failed to obtain dense 3D points for regions of buildings, and cannot do further 3D shape reconstruction. We defined SGSPs as two or more optical images collected in less constrained views but covering the same buildings. It is even more difficult to reconstruct the 3D shape of a building by SGSPs using traditional frameworks. As a result, a dynamic multi-projection-contour approximating (DMPCA) framework was introduced for SGSP-based 3D reconstruction. The key idea is that we do an optimization to find a group of parameters of a simulated 3D model and use a binary feature-image that minimizes the total differences between projection-contours of the building in the SGSPs and that in the simulated 3D model. Then, the simulated 3D model, defined by the group of parameters, could approximate the actual 3D shape of the building. Certain parameterized 3D basic-unit-models of typical buildings were designed, and a simulated projection system was established to obtain a simulated projection-contour in different views. Moreover, the artificial bee colony algorithm was employed to solve the optimization. With SGSPs collected by the satellite and our unmanned aerial vehicle, the DMPCA framework was verified by a group of experiments, which demonstrated the reliability and advantages of this work.

  11. New insights into the short pitch corrugation development enigma based on 3D-FE dynamic vehicle-track coupled modelling in frictional rolling contact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, S.; Li, Z.; Nunez Vicencio, Alfredo; Dollevoet, R.P.B.J.

    2017-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) dynamic frictional rolling contact model is presented for the study of short pitch corrugation that considers direct and instantaneous coupling between the contact mechanics and the structural dynamics in a vehicle-track system. In this study, we examine

  12. A 3D Dynamic Lumped Parameter Thermal Network of Air-Cooled YASA Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla Hussein Mohamed

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To find the temperature rise for high power density yokeless and segmented armature (YASA axial flux permanent magnet synchronous (AFPMSM machines quickly and accurately, a 3D lumped parameter thermal model is developed and validated experimentally and by finite element (FE simulations on a 4 kW YASA machine. Additionally, to get insight in the thermal transient response of the machine, the model accounts for the thermal capacitance of different machine components. The model considers the stator, bearing, and windage losses, as well as eddy current losses in the magnets on the rotors. The new contribution of this work is that the thermal model takes cooling via air channels between the magnets on the rotor discs into account. The model is parametrized with respect to the permanent magnet (PM angle ratio, the PM thickness ratio, the air gap length, and the rotor speed. The effect of the channels is incorporated via convection equations based on many computational fluid dynamics (CFD computations. The model accuracy is validated at different values of parameters by FE simulations in both transient and steady state. The model takes less than 1 s to solve for the temperature distribution.

  13. Modelling atmospheric transport of α-hexachlorocyclohexane in the Northern Hemispherewith a 3-D dynamical model: DEHM-POP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Hansen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM is a 3-D dynamical atmospheric transport model originally developed to describe the atmospheric transport of sulphur into the Arctic. A new version of the model, DEHM-POP, developed to study the atmospheric transport and environmental fate of persistent organic pollutants (POPs is presented. During environmental cycling, POPs can be deposited and re-emitted several times before reaching a final destination. A description of the exchange processes between the land/ocean surfaces and the atmosphere is included in the model to account for this multi-hop transport. The α-isomer of the pesticide hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH is used as tracer in the model development. The structure of the model and processes included are described in detail. The results from a model simulation showing the atmospheric transport for the years 1991 to 1998 are presented and evaluated against measurements. The annual averaged atmospheric concentration of α-HCH for the 1990s is well described by the model; however, the shorter-term average concentration for most of the stations is not well captured. This indicates that the present simple surface description needs to be refined to get a better description of the air-surface exchange processes of POPs.

  14. Atmospheric transport of persistent organic pollutants - development of a 3-d dynamical transport model covering the northern hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, K. M.; Christensen, J. H.; Geels, C.; Frohn, L. M.; Brandt, J.

    2003-04-01

    The Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM) is a 3-D dynamical atmospheric transport model originally developed to describe the atmospheric transport of sulphur, lead, and mercury to the Arctic. The model has been validated carefully for these compounds. A new version of DEHM is currently being developed to describe the atmospheric transport of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) which are toxic, lipophilic and bio-accumulating compounds showing great persistence in the environment. The model has a horizontal resolution of 150 km x 150 km and 18 vertical layers, and it is driven by meteorological data from the numerical weather prediction model MM5V2. During environmental cycling POPs can be deposited and re-emitted several times before reaching a final destination. A description of the exchange processes between the land/ocean surfaces and the atmosphere is included in the model to account for this multi-hop transport. The present model version describes the atmospheric transport of the pesticide alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH). Other POPs may be included when proper data on emissions and physical-chemical parameters becomes available. The model-processes and the first model results are presented. The atmospheric transport of alpha-HCH for the 1990s is well described by the model.

  15. Modelling atmospheric transport of α-hexachlorocyclohexane in the Northern Hemispherewith a 3-D dynamical model: DEHM-POP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, K. M.; Christensen, J. H.; Brandt, J.; Frohn, L. M.; Geels, C.

    2004-07-01

    The Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM) is a 3-D dynamical atmospheric transport model originally developed to describe the atmospheric transport of sulphur into the Arctic. A new version of the model, DEHM-POP, developed to study the atmospheric transport and environmental fate of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is presented. During environmental cycling, POPs can be deposited and re-emitted several times before reaching a final destination. A description of the exchange processes between the land/ocean surfaces and the atmosphere is included in the model to account for this multi-hop transport. The α-isomer of the pesticide hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) is used as tracer in the model development. The structure of the model and processes included are described in detail. The results from a model simulation showing the atmospheric transport for the years 1991 to 1998 are presented and evaluated against measurements. The annual averaged atmospheric concentration of α-HCH for the 1990s is well described by the model; however, the shorter-term average concentration for most of the stations is not well captured. This indicates that the present simple surface description needs to be refined to get a better description of the air-surface exchange processes of POPs.

  16. Modelling atmospheric transport of persistent organic pollutants in the Northern Hemisphere with a 3-D dynamical model: DEHM-POP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, K. M.; Christensen, J. H.; Brandt, J.; Frohn, L. M.; Geels, C.

    2004-03-01

    The Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM) is a 3-D dynamical atmospheric transport model originally developed to describe the atmospheric transport of sulphur into the Arctic. A new version of the model, DEHM-POP, developed to study the atmospheric transport and environmental fate of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is presented. During environmental cycling, POPs can be deposited and re-emitted several times before reaching a final destination. A description of the exchange processes between the land/ocean surfaces and the atmosphere is included in the model to account for this multi-hop transport. The α-isomer of the pesticide hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) is used as tracer in the model development. The structure of the model and processes included are described in detail. The results from a model simulation showing the atmospheric transport for the years 1991 to 1998 are presented and evaluated against measurements. The annual averaged atmospheric concentration of α-HCH for the 1990s is well described by the model; however, the shorter-term average concentration for most of the stations is not well captured. This indicates that the present simple surface description needs to be refined to get a better description of the air-surface exchange proceses of POPs.

  17. A new dynamic 3D virtual methodology for teaching the mechanics of atrial septation as seen in the human heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleich, Jean-Marc; Dillenseger, Jean-Louis; Houyel, Lucile; Almange, Claude; Anderson, Robert H

    2009-01-01

    Learning embryology remains difficult, since it requires understanding of many complex phenomena. The temporal evolution of developmental events has classically been illustrated using cartoons, which create difficulty in linking spatial and temporal aspects, such correlation being the keystone of descriptive embryology. We synthesized the bibliographic data from recent studies of atrial septal development. On the basis of this synthesis, consensus on the stages of atrial septation as seen in the human heart has been reached by a group of experts in cardiac embryology and pediatric cardiology. This has permitted the preparation of three-dimensional (3D) computer graphic objects for the anatomical components involved in the different stages of normal human atrial septation. We have provided a virtual guide to the process of normal atrial septation, the animation providing an appreciation of the temporal and morphologic events necessary to separate the systemic and pulmonary venous returns. We have shown that our animations of normal human atrial septation increase significantly the teaching of the complex developmental processes involved, and provide a new dynamic for the process of learning.

  18. Effects of Added Mass and Structural Damping on Dynamic Responses of a 3D Wedge Impacting on Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyao Yu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact between the wave and the bottom of a high-speed vessel is often simplified as water-entry problems of wedges. Most investigations focus on the water entry of two dimensional (2D wedges. The effects of added mass and structural damping are still not fully investigated. By combining the normal mode method, the hydrodynamic impact model of rigid wedges and the potential flow theory, a dynamic model for predicting the response of a three dimensional (3D wedge impacting on water with a constant velocity is established in this paper. The present model can selectively consider the effects of the added mass and the structural damping. The present method has been validated through comparisons with results of published literatures and commercial software. It is found that the added mass can increase the stress response before the flow separation, and reduce the vibration frequency after the flow separation. Due to the effect of the added mass, the stress response of some positions after the flow separation is even higher than that before the flow separation. The structural damping has a negligible effect on the stress before the flow separation, but it can reduce vibration stress after the flow separation.

  19. Rapid Reconstitution Packages (RRPs) implemented by integration of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and 3D printed microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Albert; Curi, Sebastian; Clayton, Kevin; Luciano, David; Klauber, Kameron; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo; D'hers, Sebastian; Elman, Noel M

    2014-08-01

    Rapid Reconstitution Packages (RRPs) are portable platforms that integrate microfluidics for rapid reconstitution of lyophilized drugs. Rapid reconstitution of lyophilized drugs using standard vials and syringes is an error-prone process. RRPs were designed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques to optimize fluidic structures for rapid mixing and integrating physical properties of targeted drugs and diluents. Devices were manufactured using stereo lithography 3D printing for micrometer structural precision and rapid prototyping. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) was selected as the initial model drug to test the RRPs as it is unstable in solution. tPA is a thrombolytic drug, stored in lyophilized form, required in emergency settings for which rapid reconstitution is of critical importance. RRP performance and drug stability were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to characterize release kinetics. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were performed to test for drug activity after the RRPs were exposed to various controlled temperature conditions. Experimental results showed that RRPs provided effective reconstitution of tPA that strongly correlated with CFD results. Simulation and experimental results show that release kinetics can be adjusted by tuning the device structural dimensions and diluent drug physical parameters. The design of RRPs can be tailored for a number of applications by taking into account physical parameters of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), excipients, and diluents. RRPs are portable platforms that can be utilized for reconstitution of emergency drugs in time-critical therapies.

  20. Microcirculation in the murine liver: a computational fluid dynamic model based on 3D reconstruction from in vivo microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piergiovanni, Monica; Bianchi, Elena; Capitani, Giada; Li Piani, Irene; Ganzer, Lucia; Guidotti, Luca G; Iannacone, Matteo; Dubini, Gabriele

    2017-10-03

    The liver is organized in hexagonal functional units - termed lobules - characterized by a rather peculiar blood microcirculation, due to the presence of a tangled network of capillaries - termed sinusoids. A better understanding of the hemodynamics that governs liver microcirculation is relevant to clinical and biological studies aimed at improving our management of liver diseases and transplantation. Herein, we built a CFD model of a 3D sinusoidal network, based on in vivo images of a physiological mouse liver obtained with a 2-photon microscope. The CFD model was developed with Fluent 16.0 (ANSYS Inc., Canonsburg, PA), particular care was taken in imposing the correct boundary conditions representing a physiological state. To account for the remaining branches of the sinusoids, a lumped parameter model was used to prescribe the correct pressure at each outlet. The effect of an adhered cell on local hemodynamics is also investigated for different occlusion degrees. The model here proposed accurately reproduces the fluid dynamics in a portion of the sinusoidal network in mouse liver. Mean velocities and mass flow rates are in agreement with literature values from in vivo measurements. Our approach provides details on local phenomena, hardly described by other computational studies, either focused on the macroscopic hepatic vasculature or based on homogeneous porous medium model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 3D self-supported hierarchical Ni−Co architectures with integrated capacitive performance and enhanced electronic conductivity for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, YanRu; Cheng, Baohai

    2016-01-01

    3D self-supported hierarchical Ni and Co co-hydroxide architectures are promising electrode materials for supercapacitor application attributed to their prominent properties such as binder-free electrode fabrication process and high power density. However, the intrinsic conductivity of Ni and Co co-hydroxide is poor. How to develop a new type of supercapacitors exhibiting enhanced electronic conductivity and involving pseudocapacitive performance and electric double-layer capacitive performance is still challenging. Herein, we present a facile co-electrodeposition method to fabricate self-standing Ni_xCo_2_x(OH)_y@Ni/ITO monolithic electrode by growing a layer of Ni_xCo_2_x(OH)_y with layered structure on surface of conductive Ni nanotube, which increases specific surface area and prompts fast ion adsorption/de-adsotption (electrochemical double layer capacitance performance) and fast surface redox reactions (pseudo-capacitance performance). With the conductive Ni nanotube as current collector and electronic conductor, the binder-free Ni_xCo_2_x(OH)_y@Ni/ITO electrode exhibits high specific capacitance (92.4 mF cm"−"2 at 0.1 mA cm"−"2, the mass of active material per cm"−"2 is typically in 100 s μg). Moreover, Ni_xCo_2_x(OH)_y@Ni/ITO hybrids display excellent cycling stability with 93.3% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles. The results suggest Ni_xCo_2_x(OH)_y@Ni/ITO nanostructure constructed based on integrated features of pseudocapacitive performance and electric double-layer capacitive performance and enhanced electronic conductivity is expected to be a type of excellent electrode material for supercapacitor. - Highlights: • Ni−Co electrode is fabricated by growing layered structure on Ni nanotube surface. • The layered structure prompts fast ion adsorption/de-adsotption and redox reactions. • The Ni nanotube serves as nanostructured current collector and electronic conductor. • The Ni−Co hybrids display 93.3% capacitance retention

  2. 3D game environments create professional 3D game worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Ahearn, Luke

    2008-01-01

    The ultimate resource to help you create triple-A quality art for a variety of game worlds; 3D Game Environments offers detailed tutorials on creating 3D models, applying 2D art to 3D models, and clear concise advice on issues of efficiency and optimization for a 3D game engine. Using Photoshop and 3ds Max as his primary tools, Luke Ahearn explains how to create realistic textures from photo source and uses a variety of techniques to portray dynamic and believable game worlds.From a modern city to a steamy jungle, learn about the planning and technological considerations for 3D modelin

  3. Fusion of CT coronary angiography and whole-heart dynamic 3D cardiac MR perfusion: building a framework for comprehensive cardiac imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Spiczak, Jochen; Manka, Robert; Gotschy, Alexander; Oebel, Sabrina; Kozerke, Sebastian; Hamada, Sandra; Alkadhi, Hatem

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a framework for 3D fusion of CT coronary angiography (CTCA) and whole-heart dynamic 3D cardiac magnetic resonance perfusion (3D-CMR-Perf) image data-correlating coronary artery stenoses to stress-induced myocardial perfusion deficits for the assessment of coronary artery disease (CAD). Twenty-three patients who underwent CTCA and 3D-CMR-Perf for various indications were included retrospectively. For CTCA, image quality and coronary diameter stenoses > 50% were documented. For 3D-CMR-Perf, image quality and stress-induced perfusion deficits were noted. A software framework was developed to allow for 3D image fusion of both datasets. Computation steps included: (1) fully automated segmentation of coronary arteries and heart contours from CT; (2) manual segmentation of the left ventricle in 3D-CMR-Perf images; (3) semi-automatic co-registration of CT/CMR datasets; (4) projection of the 3D-CMR-Perf values on the CT left ventricle. 3D fusion analysis was compared to separate inspection of CTCA and 3D-CMR-Perf data. CT and CMR scans resulted in an image quality being rated as good to excellent (mean scores 3.5 ± 0.5 and 3.7 ± 0.4, respectively, scale 1-4). 3D-fusion was feasible in all 23 patients, and perfusion deficits could be correlated to culprit coronary lesions in all but one case (22/23 = 96%). Compared to separate analysis of CT and CMR data, coronary supply territories of 3D-CMR-Perf perfusion deficits were refined in two cases (2/23 = 9%), and the relevance of stenoses in CTCA was re-judged in four cases (4/23 = 17%). In conclusion, 3D fusion of CTCA/3D-CMR-Perf facilitates anatomic correlation of coronary lesions and stress-induced myocardial perfusion deficits thereby helping to refine diagnostic assessment of CAD.

  4. 3D Digital Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøl, Jesper

    wave of new building information modelling tools demands further investigation, not least because of industry representatives' somewhat coarse parlance: Now the word is spreading -3D digital modelling is nothing less than a revolution, a shift of paradigm, a new alphabet... Research qeustions. Based...... on empirical probes (interviews, observations, written inscriptions) within the Danish construction industry this paper explores the organizational and managerial dynamics of 3D Digital Modelling. The paper intends to - Illustrate how the network of (non-)human actors engaged in the promotion (and arrest) of 3...... important to appreciate the analysis. Before turning to the presentation of preliminary findings and a discussion of 3D digital modelling, it begins, however, with an outline of industry specific ICT strategic issues. Paper type. Multi-site field study...

  5. Technique development of 3D dynamic CS-EPSI for hyperpolarized 13 C pyruvate MR molecular imaging of human prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Yu; Larson, Peder E Z; Gordon, Jeremy W; Bok, Robert A; Ferrone, Marcus; van Criekinge, Mark; Carvajal, Lucas; Cao, Peng; Pauly, John M; Kerr, Adam B; Park, Ilwoo; Slater, James B; Nelson, Sarah J; Munster, Pamela N; Aggarwal, Rahul; Kurhanewicz, John; Vigneron, Daniel B

    2018-03-25

    The purpose of this study was to develop a new 3D dynamic carbon-13 compressed sensing echoplanar spectroscopic imaging (EPSI) MR sequence and test it in phantoms, animal models, and then in prostate cancer patients to image the metabolic conversion of hyperpolarized [1- 13 C]pyruvate to [1- 13 C]lactate with whole gland coverage at high spatial and temporal resolution. A 3D dynamic compressed sensing (CS)-EPSI sequence with spectral-spatial excitation was designed to meet the required spatial coverage, time and spatial resolution, and RF limitations of the 3T MR scanner for its clinical translation for prostate cancer patient imaging. After phantom testing, animal studies were performed in rats and transgenic mice with prostate cancers. For patient studies, a GE SPINlab polarizer (GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI) was used to produce hyperpolarized sterile GMP [1- 13 C]pyruvate. 3D dynamic 13 C CS-EPSI data were acquired starting 5 s after injection throughout the gland with a spatial resolution of 0.5 cm 3 , 18 time frames, 2-s temporal resolution, and 36 s total acquisition time. Through preclinical testing, the 3D CS-EPSI sequence developed in this project was shown to provide the desired spectral, temporal, and spatial 5D HP 13 C MR data. In human studies, the 3D dynamic HP CS-EPSI approach provided first-ever simultaneously volumetric and dynamic images of the LDH-catalyzed conversion of [1- 13 C]pyruvate to [1- 13 C]lactate in a biopsy-proven prostate cancer patient with full gland coverage. The results demonstrate the feasibility to characterize prostate cancer metabolism in animals, and now patients using this new 3D dynamic HP MR technique to measure k PL , the kinetic rate constant of [1- 13 C]pyruvate to [1- 13 C]lactate conversion. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  6. A dynamic 3D biomechanical evaluation of the load on the low back during different patient-handling tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotte, J H; Essendrop, M; Hansen, A F; Schibye, B

    2002-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the low-back loading during common patient-handling tasks. Ten female health care workers without formal training in patient handling performed nine patient-handling tasks including turning, lifting and repositioning a male stroke patient. The low-back loading was quantified by net moment, compression, and shear forces at the L4/L5 joint, measured muscle activity (EMG) in erector spinae muscles and rate of perceived exertion (RPE; Borg scale). The experiments were videotaped with a 50Hz video system using five cameras, and the ground and bedside reaction forces of the health care worker were recorded by means of force platforms and force transducers on the bed. The biomechanical load was calculated using a dynamic 3D seven-segment model of the lower part of the body, and the forces at the L4/L5 joint were estimated by a 14 muscles cross-sectional model of the low back (optimisation procedure). Compression force and torque showed high task dependency whereas the EMG data and the RPE values were more dependent on the subject. The peak compression during two tasks involving lifting the patient (4132/4433N) was significantly higher than all other tasks. Four tasks involving repositioning the patient in the bed (3179/3091/2932/3094N) did not differ, but showed higher peak compression than two tasks turning the patient in the bed (1618/2197N). Thus, in this study the patient-handling tasks could be classified into three groups-characterised by lifting, repositioning or turning-with different levels of peak net torque and compression at the L4/L5 joint.

  7. Computational methods and implementation of the 3-D PWR core dynamics SIMTRAN code for online surveillance and prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragones, J.M.; Ahnert, C.

    1995-01-01

    New computational methods have been developed in our 3-D PWR core dynamics SIMTRAN code for online surveillance and prediction. They improve the accuracy and efficiency of the coupled neutronic-thermalhydraulic solution and extend its scope to provide, mainly, the calculation of: the fission reaction rates at the incore mini-detectors; the responses at the excore detectors (power range); the temperatures at the thermocouple locations; and the in-vessel distribution of the loop cold-leg inlet coolant conditions in the reflector and core channels, and to the hot-leg outlets per loop. The functional capabilities implemented in the extended SIMTRAN code for online utilization include: online surveillance, incore-excore calibration, evaluation of peak power factors and thermal margins, nominal update and cycle follow, prediction of maneuvers and diagnosis of fast transients and oscillations. The new code has been installed at the Vandellos-II PWR unit in Spain, since the startup of its cycle 7 in mid-June, 1994. The computational implementation has been performed on HP-700 workstations under the HP-UX Unix system, including the machine-man interfaces for online acquisition of measured data and interactive graphical utilization, in C and X11. The agreement of the simulated results with the measured data, during the startup tests and first months of actual operation, is well within the accuracy requirements. The performance and usefulness shown during the testing and demo phase, to be extended along this cycle, has proved that SIMTRAN and the man-machine graphic user interface have the qualities for a fast, accurate, user friendly, reliable, detailed and comprehensive online core surveillance and prediction

  8. 3D simulation of the influence of internal mixing dynamics on the propagation of river plumes in Lake Constance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflugbeil, Thomas; Pöschke, Franziska; Noffke, Anna; Winde, Vera; Wolf, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Lake Constance is one of most important drinking water resources in southern Germany. Furthermore, the lake and its catchment is a meaningful natural habitat as well as economical and cultural area. In this context, sustainable development and conservation of the lake ecosystem and drinking water quality is of high importance. However, anthropogenic pressures (e.g. waste water, land use, industry in catchment area) on the lake itself and its external inflows are high. The project "SeeZeichen" (ReWaM-project cluster by BMBF, funding number 02WRM1365) is investigating different immission pathways (groundwater, river, superficial inputs) and their impact on the water quality of Lake Constance. The investigation includes the direct inflow areas as well as the lake-wide context. The present simulation study investigates the mixing dynamics of Lake Constance and its impacts on river inflows and vice versa. It considers different seasonal (mixing and stratification periods), hydrological (flood events, average and low discharge) and transport conditions (sediment loads). The simulations are focused on two rivers: The River Alpenrhein delivers about 60 % of water and material input into Lake Constance. The River Schussen was chosen since it is highly anthropogenic influenced. For this purpose, a high-resolution three-dimensional hydrodynamic model of the Lake Constance is set up with Delft3D-Flow model system. The model is calibrated and validated with long term data sets of water levels, discharges and temperatures. The model results will be analysed for residence times of river water within the lake and particle distributions to evaluate potential impacts of river plume water constituents on the general water quality of the lake.

  9. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of an innovative start-up method of high temperature fuel cells using dynamic 3d model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupecki Jakub

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a numerical analysis of an innovative method for starting systems based on high temperature fuel cells. The possibility of preheating the fuel cell stacks from the cold state to the nominal working conditions encounters several limitations related to heat transfer and stability of materials. The lack of rapid and safe start-up methods limits the proliferation of MCFCs and SOFCs. For that reason, an innovative method was developed and verified using the numerical analysis presented in the paper. A dynamic 3D model was developed that enables thermo-fluidic investigations and determination of measures for shortening the preheating time of the high temperature fuel cell stacks. The model was implemented in ANSYS Fluent computational fluid dynamic (CFD software and was used for verification of the proposed start-up method. The SOFC was chosen as a reference fuel cell technology for the study. Results obtained from the study are presented and discussed.

  10. Empty-electronic-state evolution for Sc and electron dynamics at the 3p-3d giant dipole resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Y.; Wagener, T.J.; Gao, Y.; Weaver, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    Inverse photoemission has been used to study the developing electronic states of an early transition metal, Sc, during thin-film growth and to investigate the effects of these states on the 3p-3d giant dipole resonance. Energy- and coverage-dependent intensity variations of the empty Sc states show that the 3d maximum moves 1.1 eV toward the Fermi level as the thickness of the Sc film increases from 1 to 300 A as measured with an incident electron energy of 41.25 eV, an effect attributed to metallic band formation via hybridization of atomic 4s and 3d states. Incident-energy-dependent intensity variations for these empty Sc features show resonant photon emission for incident electron energies above the 3p threshold, with maxima at 43 and 44 eV for 300- and 5-A-thick films, respectively. Considerations of hybridization-induced energy shifts of the empty Sc 3d states demonstrate that the radiative energy changes very little with Sc coverages. These studies indicate coupling of decay channels involving the inverse photoemission continuum and the recombination of the atomic 3p-3d giant dipole transition, the energy of the latter being determined by atomic 3p-3d excitation processes

  11. Comparison of 2D and 3D modeled tumor motion estimation/prediction for dynamic tumor tracking during arc radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wu; Ma, Xiangyu; Yan, Huagang; Chen, Zhe; Nath, Ravinder; Li, Haiyun

    2017-05-01

    Many real-time imaging techniques have been developed to localize a target in 3D space or in a 2D beam’s eye view (BEV) plane for intrafraction motion tracking in radiation therapy. With tracking system latency, the 3D-modeled method is expected to be more accurate even in terms of 2D BEV tracking error. No quantitative analysis, however, has been reported. In this study, we simulated co-planar arc deliveries using respiratory motion data acquired from 42 patients to quantitatively compare the accuracy between 2D BEV and 3D-modeled tracking in arc therapy and to determine whether 3D information is needed for motion tracking. We used our previously developed low kV dose adaptive MV-kV imaging and motion compensation framework as a representative of 3D-modeled methods. It optimizes the balance between additional kV imaging dose and 3D tracking accuracy and solves the MLC blockage issue. With simulated Gaussian marker detection errors (zero mean and 0.39 mm standard deviation) and ~155/310/460 ms tracking system latencies, the mean percentage of time that the target moved  >2 mm from the predicted 2D BEV position are 1.1%/4.0%/7.8% and 1.3%/5.8%/11.6% for the 3D-modeled and 2D-only tracking, respectively. The corresponding average BEV RMS errors are 0.67/0.90/1.13 mm and 0.79/1.10/1.37 mm. Compared to the 2D method, the 3D method reduced the average RMS unresolved motion along the beam direction from ~3 mm to ~1 mm, resulting in on average only  <1% dosimetric advantage in the depth direction. Only for a small fraction of the patients, when tracking latency is long, the 3D-modeled method showed significant improvement of BEV tracking accuracy, indicating potential dosimetric advantage. However, if the tracking latency is short (~150 ms or less), those improvements are limited. Therefore, 2D BEV tracking has sufficient targeting accuracy for most clinical cases. The 3D technique is, however, still important in solving the MLC blockage problem

  12. 3D Surgical Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive ...

  13. Development of a general coupling interface for the fuel performance code TRANSURANUS – Tested with the reactor dynamics code DYN3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, L.; Rohde, U.; Seidl, M.; Schubert, A.; Van Uffelen, P.; Macián-Juan, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A general coupling interface was developed for couplings of the TRANSURANUS code. • With this new tool simplified fuel behavior models in codes can be replaced. • Applicable e.g. for several reactor types and from normal operation up to DBA. • The general coupling interface was applied to the reactor dynamics code DYN3D. • The new coupled code system DYN3D–TRANSURANUS was successfully tested for RIA. - Abstract: A general interface is presented for coupling the TRANSURANUS fuel performance code with thermal hydraulics system, sub-channel thermal hydraulics, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) or reactor dynamics codes. As first application the reactor dynamics code DYN3D was coupled at assembly level in order to describe the fuel behavior in more detail. In the coupling, DYN3D provides process time, time-dependent rod power and thermal hydraulics conditions to TRANSURANUS, which in case of the two-way coupling approach transfers parameters like fuel temperature and cladding temperature back to DYN3D. Results of the coupled code system are presented for the reactivity transient scenario, initiated by control rod ejection. More precisely, the two-way coupling approach systematically calculates higher maximum values for the node fuel enthalpy. These differences can be explained thanks to the greater detail in fuel behavior modeling. The numerical performance for DYN3D–TRANSURANUS was proved to be fast and stable. The coupled code system can therefore improve the assessment of safety criteria, at a reasonable computational cost

  14. Evaluation of the scale dependent dynamic SGS model in the open source code caffa3d.MBRi in wall-bounded flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Martin; Usera, Gabriel

    2015-04-01

    The Scale Dependent Dynamic Model (SDDM) has been widely validated in large-eddy simulations using pseudo-spectral codes [1][2][3]. The scale dependency, particularly the potential law, has been proved also in a priori studies [4][5]. To the authors' knowledge there have been only few attempts to use the SDDM in finite difference (FD) and finite volume (FV) codes [6][7], finding some improvements with the dynamic procedures (scale independent or scale dependent approach), but not showing the behavior of the scale-dependence parameter when using the SDDM. The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the SDDM in the open source code caffa3d.MBRi, an updated version of the code presented in [8]. caffa3d.MBRi is a FV code, second-order accurate, parallelized with MPI, in which the domain is divided in unstructured blocks of structured grids. To accomplish this, 2 cases are considered: flow between flat plates and flow over a rough surface with the presence of a model wind turbine, taking for this case the experimental data presented in [9]. In both cases the standard Smagorinsky Model (SM), the Scale Independent Dynamic Model (SIDM) and the SDDM are tested. As presented in [6][7] slight improvements are obtained with the SDDM. Nevertheless, the behavior of the scale-dependence parameter supports the generalization of the dynamic procedure proposed in the SDDM, particularly taking into account that no explicit filter is used (the implicit filter is unknown). [1] F. Porté-Agel, C. Meneveau, M.B. Parlange. "A scale-dependent dynamic model for large-eddy simulation: application to a neutral atmospheric boundary layer". Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 2000, 415, 261-284. [2] E. Bou-Zeid, C. Meneveau, M. Parlante. "A scale-dependent Lagrangian dynamic model for large eddy simulation of complex turbulent flows". Physics of Fluids, 2005, 17, 025105 (18p). [3] R. Stoll, F. Porté-Agel. "Dynamic subgrid-scale models for momentum and scalar fluxes in large-eddy simulations of

  15. Method for dose-reduced 3D catheter tracking on a scanning-beam digital x-ray system using dynamic electronic collimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkerley, David A. P.; Funk, Tobias; Speidel, Michael A.

    2016-03-01

    Scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) is an inverse geometry x-ray fluoroscopy system capable of tomosynthesis-based 3D catheter tracking. This work proposes a method of dose-reduced 3D tracking using dynamic electronic collimation (DEC) of the SBDX scanning x-ray tube. Positions in the 2D focal spot array are selectively activated to create a regionof- interest (ROI) x-ray field around the tracked catheter. The ROI position is updated for each frame based on a motion vector calculated from the two most recent 3D tracking results. The technique was evaluated with SBDX data acquired as a catheter tip inside a chest phantom was pulled along a 3D trajectory. DEC scans were retrospectively generated from the detector images stored for each focal spot position. DEC imaging of a catheter tip in a volume measuring 11.4 cm across at isocenter required 340 active focal spots per frame, versus 4473 spots in full-FOV mode. The dose-area-product (DAP) and peak skin dose (PSD) for DEC versus full field-of-view (FOV) scanning were calculated using an SBDX Monte Carlo simulation code. DAP was reduced to 7.4% to 8.4% of the full-FOV value, consistent with the relative number of active focal spots (7.6%). For image sequences with a moving catheter, PSD was 33.6% to 34.8% of the full-FOV value. The root-mean-squared-deviation between DEC-based 3D tracking coordinates and full-FOV 3D tracking coordinates was less than 0.1 mm. The 3D distance between the tracked tip and the sheath centerline averaged 0.75 mm. Dynamic electronic collimation can reduce dose with minimal change in tracking performance.

  16. Stereolithographic hydrogel printing of 3D culture chips with biofunctionalized complex 3D perfusion networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Rujing; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2017-01-01

    the required freedom in design, detail and chemistry for fabricating truly 3D constructs have remained limited. Here, we report a stereolithographic high-resolution 3D printing technique utilizing poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA, MW 700) to manufacture diffusion-open and mechanically stable hydrogel...... and material flexibility by embedding a highly compliant cell-laden gelatin hydrogel within the confines of a 3D printed resilient PEGDA hydrogel chip of intermediate compliance. Overall, our proposed strategy represents an automated, cost-effective and high resolution technique to manufacture complex 3D......Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro models capturing both the structural and dynamic complexity of the in vivo situation are in great demand as an alternative to animal models. Despite tremendous progress in engineering complex tissue/organ models in the past decade, approaches that support...

  17. Discriminating between benign and malignant breast tumors using 3D convolutional neural network in dynamic contrast enhanced-MR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Fan, Ming; Zhang, Juan; Li, Lihua

    2017-03-01

    Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are the state-of-the-art deep learning network architectures that can be used in a range of applications, including computer vision and medical image analysis. It exhibits a powerful representation learning mechanism with an automated design to learn features directly from the data. However, the common 2D CNNs only use the two dimension spatial information without evaluating the correlation between the adjoin slices. In this study, we established a method of 3D CNNs to discriminate between malignant and benign breast tumors. To this end, 143 patients were enrolled which include 66 benign and 77 malignant instances. The MRI images were pre-processed for noise reduction and breast tumor region segmentation. Data augmentation by spatial translating, rotating and vertical and horizontal flipping is applied to the cases to reduce possible over-fitting. A region-of-interest (ROI) and a volume-of-interest (VOI) were segmented in 2D and 3D DCE-MRI, respectively. The enhancement ratio for each MR series was calculated for the 2D and 3D images. The results for the enhancement ratio images in the two series are integrated for classification. The results of the area under the ROC curve(AUC) values are 0.739 and 0.801 for 2D and 3D methods, respectively. The results for 3D CNN which combined 5 slices for each enhancement ratio images achieved a high accuracy(Acc), sensitivity(Sens) and specificity(Spec) of 0.781, 0.744 and 0.823, respectively. This study indicates that 3D CNN deep learning methods can be a promising technology for breast tumor classification without manual feature extraction.

  18. Extension of the reactor dynamics code MGT-3D for pebblebed and blocktype high-temperature-reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Dunfu

    2015-01-01

    The High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor (HTGR) is an improved, gas cooled nuclear reactor. It was chosen as one of the candidates of generation IV nuclear plants [1]. The reactor can be shut down automatically because of the negative reactivity feedback due to the temperature's increasing in designed accidents. It is graphite moderated and Helium cooled. The residual heat can be transferred out of the reactor core by inactive ways as conduction, convection, and thermal radiation during the accident. In such a way, a fuel temperature does not go beyond a limit at which major fission product release begins. In this thesis, the coupled neutronics and fluid mechanics code MGT-3D used for the steady state and time-dependent simulation of HTGRs, is enhanced and validated [2]. The fluid mechanics part is validated by SANA experiments in steady state cases as well as transient cases. The fuel temperature calculation is optimized by solving the heat conduction equation of the coated particles. It is applied in the steady state and transient simulation of PBMR, and the results are compared to the simulation with the old overheating model. New approaches to calculate the temperature profile of the fuel element of block-type HTGRs, and the calculation of the homogeneous conductivity of composite materials are introduced. With these new developments, MGT-3D is able to simulate block-type HTGRs as well. This extended MGT-3D is used to simulate a cuboid ceramic block heating experiment in the NACOK-II facility. The extended MGT-3D is also applied to LOFC and DLOFC simulation of GT-MHR. It is a fluid mechanics calculation with a given heat source. This calculation result of MGT-3D is verified with the calculation results of other codes. The design of the Japanese HTTR is introduced. The deterministic simulation of the LOFC experiment of HTTR is conducted with the Monte-Carlo code Serpent and MGT-3D, which is the LOFC Project organized by OECD/NEA [3]. With Serpent the burnup

  19. Developing Automated Spectral Analysis Tools for Interstellar Features Extractionto Support Construction of the 3D ISM Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspitarini, L.; Lallement, R.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Chen, H.-C.; Malasan, H. L.; Aprilia; Arifyanto, M. I.; Irfan, M.

    2018-04-01

    One of the ways to obtain a detailed 3D ISM map is by gathering interstellar (IS) absorption data toward widely distributed background target stars at known distances (line-of-sight/LOS data). The radial and angular evolution of the LOS measurements allow the inference of the ISM spatial distribution. For a better spatial resolution, one needs a large number of the LOS data. It requires building fast tools to measure IS absorption. One of the tools is a global analysis that fit two different diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) simultaneously. We derived the equivalent width (EW) ratio of the two DIBs recorded in each spectrum of target stars. The ratio variability can be used to study IS environmental conditions or to detect DIB family.

  20. Development of support system for large-scale underground structures using WEB 3D technology and RDBMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Zhaofeng; Itakura, Ken-ichi; Yamachi, Hiroshi; Sato, Toshinori; Matsui, Hiroya

    2015-01-01

    In the process of underground space development, enormous information is collected in each developing stage, such as investigation, plan, design and construction. It is important to properly feed back these information to design and construction in order to realize rational design and construction of an underground space. And more, these information also become basic data in a plane of structure management. However, it is almost impossible that it is controlled in the individual ability, since collected information quantity is too enormous. For the purpose of intuitively controlling and processing these enormous information, we devised the system for the data management by freely moving in virtual reality space. In this paper, the basic structure of the system constructed by adopting WEB 3D and RDBMS, is described, and the practicability is verified. (author)

  1. NiO nanoparticles supported on graphene 3D network current collector for high-performance electrochemical energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Mingjun; Song, Xuefen; Dai, Shuge; Xu, Weina; Yang, Qi; Liu, Jianlin; Hu, Chenguo; Wei, Dapeng

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the faradaic oxidation and reduction reactions mainly taking place on surface, enlarging the specific surface of redox materials is one of the most effective ways to achieve excellent electrochemical performance. Here we report a binder-free three dimensional (3D) architecture electrode consisting of a graphene 3D network (G3DN) structure growing on flexible carbon paper (CP) by chemical vapor deposition and NiO nanoparticles growing on the G3DN by in-situ thermal decomposition for high rate battery and high-performance electrochemical capacitors. Such a nanostructure provides a large specific surface and fast electronic transmission channels. The unique structure design for this electrode enables outstanding performance, showing high specific capacity of 89.1 mAh cm −2 (119.2 mAh/g) at current density of 0.5 mA cm −2 (0.67 A/g) with the NiO loading of 0.7471 mg cm −2 . Meanwhile the electrode displays excellent rate capability and cycling stability, which keeps 85.48% of initial capacity after 3000 deep-discharge cycles. Furthermore, a solid-state symmetric electrochemical capacitor based on two NiO/G3DN/CP electrodes with an area of 4 cm 2 each is fabricated, and two pieces of them in series can light up 100 green LEDs for 2 min. The architecture of G3DN loaded with NiO might be generally applied to different kinds of nanomaterials for high-rate energy storage to improve their overall electrochemical performance.

  2. 2D and 3D parameter images for analysis of contrast medium enhancement based on dynamic CT and MR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beier, J.; Stroszczynski, C.; Oellinger, H.; Felix, R.; Buege, T.; Fleck, E.

    1998-01-01

    Aim: For dynamic contrast medium (CM) studies, parameter images exploit specific features of the time/intensity curve (TIC) of each pixel and represent these values in a new image. Existing concepts of two-dimensional CM analysis are extended for three-dimensional applications using adequate computer graphic visualization. Results: In first-pass analyses, TMIP and TG allowed the simultaneous or separted presentation of different temporal phases of the CM bolus. Correlation images emphasized regions with similarities to given TIC patterns. Three-dimensional computer graphic techniques enabled (1) anatomical/function mapping of original image and CM accumulation and (2) fused display of both spatial CM enhancement and color-encoded time of TIC peak in one common image. Conclusions: The quantifiction of presence, magnitude, and time-of-peak of CM accumulation in local image regions supports the assessment of vascularization and of ischemic or necrotic areas. (orig./AJ) [de

  3. Multi-camera and structured-light vision system (MSVS) for dynamic high-accuracy 3D measurements of railway tunnels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Dong; Yu, Long; Xiao, Jian; Chen, Tanglong

    2015-04-14

    Railway tunnel 3D clearance inspection is critical to guaranteeing railway operation safety. However, it is a challenge to inspect railway tunnel 3D clearance using a vision system, because both the spatial range and field of view (FOV) of such measurements are quite large. This paper summarizes our work on dynamic railway tunnel 3D clearance inspection based on a multi-camera and structured-light vision system (MSVS). First, the configuration of the MSVS is described. Then, the global calibration for the MSVS is discussed in detail. The onboard vision system is mounted on a dedicated vehicle and is expected to suffer from multiple degrees of freedom vibrations brought about by the running vehicle. Any small vibration can result in substantial measurement errors. In order to overcome this problem, a vehicle motion deviation rectifying method is investigated. Experiments using the vision inspection system are conducted with satisfactory online measurement results.

  4. Multi-Camera and Structured-Light Vision System (MSVS for Dynamic High-Accuracy 3D Measurements of Railway Tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Zhan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Railway tunnel 3D clearance inspection is critical to guaranteeing railway operation safety. However, it is a challenge to inspect railway tunnel 3D clearance using a vision system, because both the spatial range and field of view (FOV of such measurements are quite large. This paper summarizes our work on dynamic railway tunnel 3D clearance inspection based on a multi-camera and structured-light vision system (MSVS. First, the configuration of the MSVS is described. Then, the global calibration for the MSVS is discussed in detail. The onboard vision system is mounted on a dedicated vehicle and is expected to suffer from multiple degrees of freedom vibrations brought about by the running vehicle. Any small vibration can result in substantial measurement errors. In order to overcome this problem, a vehicle motion deviation rectifying method is investigated. Experiments using the vision inspection system are conducted with satisfactory online measurement results.

  5. Hardware Support for Dynamic Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleuniger, Pascal; Karlsson, Sven; Probst, Christian W.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, dynamic programming languages have enjoyed increasing popularity. For example, JavaScript has become one of the most popular programming languages on the web. As the complexity of web applications is growing, compute-intensive workloads are increasingly handed off to the client...... side. While a lot of effort is put in increasing the performance of web browsers, we aim for multicore systems with dedicated cores to effectively support dynamic languages. We have designed Tinuso, a highly flexible core for experimentation that is optimized for high performance when implemented...... on FPGA. We composed a scalable multicore configuration where we study how hardware support for software speculation can be used to increase the performance of dynamic languages....

  6. Pulse dose-rate brachytherapy and treatment of uterine cervix cancer: impact of a 3D or a 2D dosimetric support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tournat, H.; Chilles, A.; Charra-Brunaud, C.; Peiffert, D.; Ahmad, F.; Metayer, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate two dosimetric supports used in pulse dose rate brachytherapy (P.D.R.): coverage of target volumes, dose to organs at risk, residual tumor after surgery, survival. Patients and methods Twenty patients treated for uterine cervix tumor first by brachytherapy P.D.R. had a dosimetric CT-scan after implantation. For 9 patients, the treatment was planned from standard radiographies and then reported on CT-scan images. For 11 patients, it was directly planned from CT-scan. Six weeks after, 18 patients underwent surgery. Results With a median follow-up of 22 months, 2 year actuarial survival was 89%. Six patients developed grade II urinary or gynecological complications (LENT SOMA scale). No residual tumor was found for 12 patients (7 with a 3D treatment and 5 a 2 D treatment). Ninety-five percent of C.T.V.H.R. received 53 Gy (2D treatment) or 63 Gy (3D treatment). Two cm 3 of bladder wall received 63 Gy (2D) or 74 Gy (3D) although 2 cm 3 of rectal wall received 37 Gy (2D) and 35 Gy (3D). Conclusion Using CT-scan made us improve the coverage of the uterine cervix but increase the dose received by the bladder, without increasing the rate of histological remission after surgery. We should be prudent before changing our practice. (authors)

  7. Worldwide Protein Data Bank biocuration supporting open access to high-quality 3D structural biology data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, John D; Feng, Zukang; Persikova, Irina; Sala, Raul; Sen, Sanchayita; Berrisford, John M; Swaminathan, G Jawahar; Oldfield, Thomas J; Gutmanas, Aleksandras; Igarashi, Reiko; Armstrong, David R; Baskaran, Kumaran; Chen, Li; Chen, Minyu; Clark, Alice R; Di Costanzo, Luigi; Dimitropoulos, Dimitris; Gao, Guanghua; Ghosh, Sutapa; Gore, Swanand; Guranovic, Vladimir; Hendrickx, Pieter M S; Hudson, Brian P; Ikegawa, Yasuyo; Kengaku, Yumiko; Lawson, Catherine L; Liang, Yuhe; Mak, Lora; Mukhopadhyay, Abhik; Narayanan, Buvaneswari; Nishiyama, Kayoko; Patwardhan, Ardan; Sahni, Gaurav; Sanz-García, Eduardo; Sato, Junko; Sekharan, Monica R; Shao, Chenghua; Smart, Oliver S; Tan, Lihua; van Ginkel, Glen; Yang, Huanwang; Zhuravleva, Marina A; Markley, John L; Nakamura, Haruki; Kurisu, Genji; Kleywegt, Gerard J; Velankar, Sameer; Berman, Helen M; Burley, Stephen K

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is the single global repository for experimentally determined 3D structures of biological macromolecules and their complexes with ligands. The worldwide PDB (wwPDB) is the international collaboration that manages the PDB archive according to the FAIR principles: Findability, Accessibility, Interoperability and Reusability. The wwPDB recently developed OneDep, a unified tool for deposition, validation and biocuration of structures of biological macromolecules. All data deposited to the PDB undergo critical review by wwPDB Biocurators. This article outlines the importance of biocuration for structural biology data deposited to the PDB and describes wwPDB biocuration processes and the role of expert Biocurators in sustaining a high-quality archive. Structural data submitted to the PDB are examined for self-consistency, standardized using controlled vocabularies, cross-referenced with other biological data resources and validated for scientific/technical accuracy. We illustrate how biocuration is integral to PDB data archiving, as it facilitates accurate, consistent and comprehensive representation of biological structure data, allowing efficient and effective usage by research scientists, educators, students and the curious public worldwide. Database URL: https://www.wwpdb.org/ PMID:29688351

  8. 3D analysis of the gas dynamic loads in the KKB containment resulting from combustion of radiolysis gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotchourko, A.; Breitung, W.; Dorofeev, S.; Ohlmeyer, H.

    2003-01-01

    The radiolysis gas explosion in the KKB power plant was recalculated in 3D simulations as followed: The total energy released was limited as far as possible. - Pressure generation and dispersion across the containment was calculated for three different initial energies. - Loads in the near field were simulated assuming the most probable total energy (about 14 MJ) and using three different models of the explosion process. The calculation with direct simulation of detonation inside the tube provided realistic results, according to the authors. - Transient local pressure and temperature loads were recorded in specified local points and evaluated in further damage analyses. The results showed that modern 3D flow and combustion calculations provide valuable information on pressure and temperature loads resulting from radiolysis gas reactions in big complex safety containments. (orig.) [de

  9. Application of an unstructured 3D finite volume numerical model to flows and salinity dynamics in the San Francisco Bay-Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyr-Koller, R.C.; Kernkamp, H.W.J.; Van Dam, Anne A.; Mick van der Wegen,; Lucas, Lisa; Knowles, N.; Jaffe, B.; Fregoso, T.A.

    2017-01-01

    A linked modeling approach has been undertaken to understand the impacts of climate and infrastructure on aquatic ecology and water quality in the San Francisco Bay-Delta region. The Delft3D Flexible Mesh modeling suite is used in this effort for its 3D hydrodynamics, salinity, temperature and sediment dynamics, phytoplankton and water-quality coupling infrastructure, and linkage to a habitat suitability model. The hydrodynamic model component of the suite is D-Flow FM, a new 3D unstructured finite-volume model based on the Delft3D model. In this paper, D-Flow FM is applied to the San Francisco Bay-Delta to investigate tidal, seasonal and annual dynamics of water levels, river flows and salinity under historical environmental and infrastructural conditions. The model is driven by historical winds, tides, ocean salinity, and river flows, and includes federal, state, and local freshwater withdrawals, and regional gate and barrier operations. The model is calibrated over a 9-month period, and subsequently validated for water levels, flows, and 3D salinity dynamics over a 2 year period.Model performance was quantified using several model assessment metrics and visualized through target diagrams. These metrics indicate that the model accurately estimated water levels, flows, and salinity over wide-ranging tidal and fluvial conditions, and the model can be used to investigate detailed circulation and salinity patterns throughout the Bay-Delta. The hydrodynamics produced through this effort will be used to drive affiliated sediment, phytoplankton, and contaminant hindcast efforts and habitat suitability assessments for fish and bivalves. The modeling framework applied here will serve as a baseline to ultimately shed light on potential ecosystem change over the current century.

  10. Application of an unstructured 3D finite volume numerical model to flows and salinity dynamics in the San Francisco Bay-Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyr-Koller, R. C.; Kernkamp, H. W. J.; van Dam, A.; van der Wegen, M.; Lucas, L. V.; Knowles, N.; Jaffe, B.; Fregoso, T. A.

    2017-06-01

    A linked modeling approach has been undertaken to understand the impacts of climate and infrastructure on aquatic ecology and water quality in the San Francisco Bay-Delta region. The Delft3D Flexible Mesh modeling suite is used in this effort for its 3D hydrodynamics, salinity, temperature and sediment dynamics, phytoplankton and water-quality coupling infrastructure, and linkage to a habitat suitability model. The hydrodynamic model component of the suite is D-Flow FM, a new 3D unstructured finite-volume model based on the Delft3D model. In this paper, D-Flow FM is applied to the San Francisco Bay-Delta to investigate tidal, seasonal and annual dynamics of water levels, river flows and salinity under historical environmental and infrastructural conditions. The model is driven by historical winds, tides, ocean salinity, and river flows, and includes federal, state, and local freshwater withdrawals, and regional gate and barrier operations. The model is calibrated over a 9-month period, and subsequently validated for water levels, flows, and 3D salinity dynamics over a 2 year period. Model performance was quantified using several model assessment metrics and visualized through target diagrams. These metrics indicate that the model accurately estimated water levels, flows, and salinity over wide-ranging tidal and fluvial conditions, and the model can be used to investigate detailed circulation and salinity patterns throughout the Bay-Delta. The hydrodynamics produced through this effort will be used to drive affiliated sediment, phytoplankton, and contaminant hindcast efforts and habitat suitability assessments for fish and bivalves. The modeling framework applied here will serve as a baseline to ultimately shed light on potential ecosystem change over the current century.

  11. Evaluation of dose coverage to target volume and normal tissue sparing in the adjuvant radiotherapy of gastric cancers: 3D-CRT compared with dynamic IMRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Kk; Shukeili, Ka; Kumar, Ss; Davis, Ca; Chandran, Rr; Namrata, S

    2010-01-01

    To assess the potential advantage of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) over 3D-conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) planning in postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy for patients with gastric carcinoma. In a retrospective study, for plan comparison, dose distribution was recalculated in 15 patients treated with 3D-CRT on the contoured structures of same CT images using an IMRT technique. 3D-conformal plans with three fields and four-fields were compared with seven-field dynamic IMRT plans. The different plans were compared by analyzing the dose coverage of planning target volume using TV(95), D(mean), uniformity index, conformity index and homogeneity index parameters. To assess critical organ sparing, D(mean), D(max), dose to one-third and two-third volumes of the OARs and percentage of volumes receiving more than their tolerance doses were compared. The average dose coverage values of PTV with 3F-CRT and 4F-CRT plans were comparable, where as IMRT plans achieved better target coverage(p3D-CRT plans. The doses to the liver and bowel reduced significantly (p3D-CRT plans. For all OARs the percentage of volumes receiving more than their tolerance doses were reduced with the IMRT plans. This study showed that a better target coverage and significant dose reduction to OARs could be achieved with the IMRT plans. The IMRT can be preferred with caution for organ motion. The authors are currently studying organ motion in the upper abdomen to use IMRT for patient treatment.

  12. Feasibility study of P2P-type system architecture with 3D medical image data support for medical integrated network systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noji, Tamotsu; Arino, Masashi; Suto, Yasuzo

    2010-01-01

    We are investigating an integrated medical network system with an electronic letter of introduction function and a 3D image support function operating in the Internet environment. However, the problems with current C/S (client/server)-type systems are inadequate security countermeasures and insufficient transmission availability. In this report, we propose a medical information cooperation system architecture that employs a P2P (peer-to-peer)-type communication method rather than a C/S-type method, which helps to prevent a reduction in processing speed when large amounts of data (such as 3D images) are transferred. In addition, a virtual clinic was created and a feasibility study was conducted to evaluate the P2P-type system. The results showed that efficiency was improved by about 77% in real-time transmission, suggesting that this system may be suitable for practical application. (author)

  13. 3D Animation Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  14. 3D video

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, Laurent; Loscos, Céline

    2013-01-01

    While 3D vision has existed for many years, the use of 3D cameras and video-based modeling by the film industry has induced an explosion of interest for 3D acquisition technology, 3D content and 3D displays. As such, 3D video has become one of the new technology trends of this century.The chapters in this book cover a large spectrum of areas connected to 3D video, which are presented both theoretically and technologically, while taking into account both physiological and perceptual aspects. Stepping away from traditional 3D vision, the authors, all currently involved in these areas, provide th

  15. Dynamic characteristics of a pump-turbine during hydraulic transients of a model pumped-storage system: 3D CFD simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X X; Cheng, Y G; Xia, L S; Yang, J D

    2014-01-01

    The runaway process in a model pumped-storage system was simulated for analyzing the dynamic characteristics of a pump-turbine. The simulation was adopted by coupling 1D (One Dimensional) pipeline MOC (Method of Characteristics) equations with a 3D (Three Dimensional) pump-turbine CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) model, in which the water hammer wave in the 3D zone was defined by giving a pressure dependent density. We found from the results that the dynamic performances of the pump-turbine do not coincide with the static operating points, especially in the S-shaped characteristics region, where the dynamic trajectories follow ring-shaped curves. Specifically, the transient operating points with the same Q 11 and M 11 in different moving directions of the dynamic trajectories give different n 11 . The main reason of this phenomenon is that the transient flow patterns inside the pump-turbine are influenced by the ones in the previous time step, which leads to different flow patterns between the points with the same Q 11 and M 11 in different moving directions of the dynamic trajectories

  16. Dynamic characteristics of a pump-turbine during hydraulic transients of a model pumped-storage system: 3D CFD simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. X.; Cheng, Y. G.; Xia, L. S.; Yang, J. D.

    2014-03-01

    The runaway process in a model pumped-storage system was simulated for analyzing the dynamic characteristics of a pump-turbine. The simulation was adopted by coupling 1D (One Dimensional) pipeline MOC (Method of Characteristics) equations with a 3D (Three Dimensional) pump-turbine CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) model, in which the water hammer wave in the 3D zone was defined by giving a pressure dependent density. We found from the results that the dynamic performances of the pump-turbine do not coincide with the static operating points, especially in the S-shaped characteristics region, where the dynamic trajectories follow ring-shaped curves. Specifically, the transient operating points with the same Q11 and M11 in different moving directions of the dynamic trajectories give different n11. The main reason of this phenomenon is that the transient flow patterns inside the pump-turbine are influenced by the ones in the previous time step, which leads to different flow patterns between the points with the same Q11 and M11 in different moving directions of the dynamic trajectories.

  17. High-Throughput Cancer Cell Sphere Formation for Characterizing the Efficacy of Photo Dynamic Therapy in 3D Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chih; Lou, Xia; Zhang, Zhixiong; Ingram, Patrick; Yoon, Euisik

    2015-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), wherein light sensitive non-toxic agents are locally and selectively activated using light, has emerged as an appealing alternative to traditional cancer chemotherapy. Yet to date, PDT efficacy has been mostly characterized using 2D cultures. Compared to 2D cultures, 3D sphere culture generates unique spatial distributions of nutrients and oxygen for the cells that better mimics the in-vivo conditions. Using a novel polyHEMA (non-adherent polymer) fabrication process, we developed a microfluidic sphere formation platform that can (1) generate 1,024 uniform (size variation successfully characterized the different responses in 2D and 3D cell culture to PDT. Furthermore, we investigated the treatment resistance effect in cancer cells induced by tumor associated fibroblasts (CAF). Although the CAFs can enhance the resistance to traditional chemotherapy agents, no significant difference in PDT was observed. The preliminary results suggest that the PDT can be an attractive alternative cancer therapy, which is less affected by the therapeutic resistance induced by cancer associated cells.

  18. Development of a general coupling interface for the fuel performance code transuranus tested with the reactor dynamic code DYN3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, L.; Rohde, U.; Seidl, M.; Schubert, A.; Van Uffelen, P.

    2013-01-01

    Several institutions plan to couple the fuel performance code TRANSURANUS developed by the European Institute for Transuranium Elements with their own codes. One of these codes is the reactor dynamic code DYN3D maintained by the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf. DYN3D was developed originally for VVER type reactors and was extended later to western type reactors. Usually, the fuel rod behavior is modeled in thermal hydraulics and neutronic codes in a simplified manner. The main idea of this coupling is to describe the fuel rod behavior in the frame of core safety analysis in a more detailed way, e.g. including the influence of the high burn-up structure, geometry changes and fission gas release. It allows to take benefit from the improved computational power and software achieved over the last two decades. The coupling interface was developed in a general way from the beginning. Thence it can be easily used also by other codes for a coupling with TRANSURANUS. The user can choose between a one-way as well as a two-way online coupling option. For a one-way online coupling, DYN3D provides only the time-dependent rod power and thermal hydraulics conditions to TRANSURANUS, but the fuel performance code doesn’t transfer any variable back to DYN3D. In a two-way online coupling, TRANSURANUS in addition transfers parameters like fuel temperature and cladding temperature back to DYN3D. This list of variables can be extended easily by geometric and further variables of interest. First results of the code system DYN3D-TRANSURANUS will be presented for a control rod ejection transient in a modern western type reactor. Pre-analyses show already that a detailed fuel rod behavior modeling will influence the thermal hydraulics and thence also the neutronics due to the Doppler reactivity effect of the fuel temperature. The coupled code system has therefore a potential to improve the assessment of safety criteria. The developed code system DYN3D-TRANSURANUS can be used also

  19. IMPLEMENTATION OF 3D TOOLS AND IMMERSIVE EXPERIENCE INTERACTION FOR SUPPORTING LEARNING IN A LIBRARY-ARCHIVE ENVIRONMENT. VISIONS AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Angeletaki

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an experimental environment of 3D books combined with a game application that has been developed by a collaboration project between the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim, Norway the NTNU University Library, and the Percro laboratory of Santa Anna University in Pisa, Italy. MUBIL is an international research project involving museums, libraries and ICT academy partners aiming to develop a consistent methodology enabling the use of Virtual Environments as a metaphor to present manuscripts content through the paradigms of interaction and immersion, evaluating different possible alternatives. This paper presents the results of the application of two prototypes of books augmented with the use of XVR and IL technology. We explore immersive-reality design strategies in archive and library contexts for attracting new users. Our newly established Mubil-lab has invited school classes to test the books augmented with 3D models and other multimedia content in order to investigate whether the immersion in such environments can create wider engagement and support learning. The metaphor of 3D books and game designs in a combination allows the digital books to be handled through a tactile experience and substitute the physical browsing. In this paper we present some preliminary results about the enrichment of the user experience in such environment.

  20. Implementation of 3d Tools and Immersive Experience Interaction for Supporting Learning in a Library-Archive Environment. Visions and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeletaki, A.; Carrozzino, M.; Johansen, S.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we present an experimental environment of 3D books combined with a game application that has been developed by a collaboration project between the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim, Norway the NTNU University Library, and the Percro laboratory of Santa Anna University in Pisa, Italy. MUBIL is an international research project involving museums, libraries and ICT academy partners aiming to develop a consistent methodology enabling the use of Virtual Environments as a metaphor to present manuscripts content through the paradigms of interaction and immersion, evaluating different possible alternatives. This paper presents the results of the application of two prototypes of books augmented with the use of XVR and IL technology. We explore immersive-reality design strategies in archive and library contexts for attracting new users. Our newly established Mubil-lab has invited school classes to test the books augmented with 3D models and other multimedia content in order to investigate whether the immersion in such environments can create wider engagement and support learning. The metaphor of 3D books and game designs in a combination allows the digital books to be handled through a tactile experience and substitute the physical browsing. In this paper we present some preliminary results about the enrichment of the user experience in such environment.

  1. E3D, 3-D Elastic Seismic Wave Propagation Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, S.; Harris, D.; Schultz, C.; Maddix, D.; Bakowsky, T.; Bent, L.

    2004-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: E3D is capable of simulating seismic wave propagation in a 3D heterogeneous earth. Seismic waves are initiated by earthquake, explosive, and/or other sources. These waves propagate through a 3D geologic model, and are simulated as synthetic seismograms or other graphical output. 2 - Methods: The software simulates wave propagation by solving the elasto-dynamic formulation of the full wave equation on a staggered grid. The solution scheme is 4-order accurate in space, 2-order accurate in time

  2. Multishelled Si@Cu Microparticles Supported on 3D Cu Current Collectors for Stable and Binder-free Anodes of Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zailei; Wang, Zhong Lin; Lu, Xianmao

    2018-04-24

    Silicon has proved to be a promising anode material of high-specific capacity for the next-generation lithium ion batteries (LIBs). However, during repeated discharge/charge cycles, Si-based electrodes, especially those in microscale size, pulverize and lose electrical contact with the current collectors due to large volume expansion. Here, we introduce a general method to synthesize Cu@M (M = Si, Al, C, SiO 2 , Si 3 N 4 , Ag, Ti, Ta, SnIn 2 O 5 , Au, V, Nb, W, Mg, Fe, Ni, Sn, ZnO, TiN, Al 2 O 3 , HfO 2 , and TiO 2 ) core-shell nanowire arrays on Cu substrates. The resulting Cu@Si nanowire arrays were employed as LIB anodes that can be reused via HCl etching and H 2 -reduction. Multishelled Cu@Si@Cu microparticles supported on 3D Cu current collectors were further prepared as stable and binder-free LIB anodes. This 3D Cu@Si@Cu structure allows the interior conductive Cu network to effectively accommodate the volume expansion of the electrode and facilitates the contact between the Cu@Si@Cu particles and the current collectors during the repeated insertion/extraction of lithium ions. As a result, the 3D Cu@Si@Cu microparticles at a high Si-loading of 1.08 mg/cm 2 showed a capacity retention of 81% after 200 cycles. In addition, charging tests of 3D Cu@Si@Cu-LiFePO 4 full cells by a triboelectric nanogenerator with a pulsed current demonstrated that LIBs with silicon anodes can effectively store energy delivered by mechanical energy harvesters.

  3. The preliminary 3D dynamic simulation on the RSR dismantling process of the KRR-1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee-Reyoung; Kim, Sung-Kyun; Seo, Bum-Kyoung; Lee, Kune-Woo; Park, Jin-Ho

    2003-01-01

    A three-dimensional graphic simulation has been carried out for the dismantling process of the Rotary Specimen Rack(RSR) in the Korea Research Reactor-1 and 2 (KRR-1 and 2). First of all, the general steps of the graphic simulation were established and reviewed for the dismantling process of the object. Four dismantling processes, which are the removal of RSR, reactor core region, beam tube, and thermal column and activated concrete, were selected for the graphic simulation on the virtual space by the consideration of the activation, worker training, work difficulty and so on. In the present study, the dismantling procedure of the RSR was divided into several steps and its visual simulation was performed by the 3D graphic software. Finally, the simulation result was converted to moving file with extension of AVI so that easy approach can be made on window OS system

  4. Dynamic DNA devices and assemblies formed by shape-complementary, non-base pairing 3D components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerling, Thomas; Wagenbauer, Klaus F.; Neuner, Andrea M.; Dietz, Hendrik

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate that discrete three-dimensional (3D) DNA components can specifically self-assemble in solution on the basis of shape-complementarity and without base pairing. Using this principle, we produced homo- and heteromultimeric objects, including micrometer-scale one- and two-stranded filaments and lattices, as well as reconfigurable devices, including an actuator, a switchable gear, an unfoldable nanobook, and a nanorobot. These multidomain assemblies were stabilized via short-ranged nucleobase stacking bonds that compete against electrostatic repulsion between the components’ interfaces. Using imaging by electron microscopy, ensemble and single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer spectroscopy, and electrophoretic mobility analysis, we show that the balance between attractive and repulsive interactions, and thus the conformation of the assemblies, may be finely controlled by global parameters such as cation concentration or temperature and by an allosteric mechanism based on strand-displacement reactions.

  5. Biomechanical comparison of two different collar structured implants supporting 3-unit fixed partial denture: a 3-D FEM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriç, Gökçe; Erkmen, Erkan; Kurt, Ahmet; Eser, Atilim; Ozden, Ahmet Utku

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of two distinct collar geometries of implants on stress distribution in the bone as well as in the fixture-abutment complex, in the framework and in the veneering material of 3-unit fixed partial denture (FPD). The 3-dimensional finite element analysis method was selected to evaluate the stress distribution in the system composed of 3-unit FPD supported by two different dental implant systems with two distinct collar geometries; microthread collar structure (MCS) and non-microthread collar structure (NMCS). In separate load cases, 300 N vertical, 150 N oblique and 60 N horizontal, forces were utilized to simulate the multidirectional chewing forces. Tensile and compressive stress values in the cortical and cancellous bone and von Mises stresses in the fixture-abutment complex, in the framework and veneering material, were simulated as a body and investigated separately. In the cortical bone lower stress values were found in the MCS model, when compared with NMCS. In the cancellous bone, lower stress values were observed in the NMCS model when compared with MCS. In the implant-abutment complex, highest von Mises stress values were noted in the NMCS model; however, in the framework and veneering material, highest stress values were calculated in MCS model. MCS implants when compared with NMCS implants supporting 3-unit FPDs decrease the stress values in the cortical bone and implant-abutment complex. The results of the present study will be evaluated as a base for our ongoing FEA studies focused on stress distribution around the microthread and non-microthread collar geometries with various prosthesis design.

  6. Free-breathing dynamic liver examination using a radial 3D T1-weighted gradient echo sequence with moderate undersampling for patients with limited breath-holding capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaltenbach, Benjamin, E-mail: benjamin.kaltenbach@kgu.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Roman, Andrei; Polkowski, Christoph; Gruber-Rouh, Tatjana [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Bauer, Ralf W. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Divison of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Kantonsspital, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Hammerstingl, Renate; Vogl, Thomas J.; Zangos, Stephan [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Respiratory artifacts are a frequent problem in abdominal MR imaging. • Non-diagnostic examinations could be reduced using free-breathing us-radial-VIBE for dynamic liver examination in challenging patients. • Streak artifacts are characteristic for an undersampled radial acquisition but do not affect diagnostic validity. - Abstract: Purpose: To compare free-breathing radial VIBE with moderate undersampling (us-radial-VIBE) with a standard breathhold T1-weighted volumetric interpolated sequence (3D GRE VIBE) in patients unable to suspend respiration during dynamic liver examination. Material and methods: 23 consecutive patients underwent dynamic liver MR examination using the free-breathing us-radial-VIBE sequence as part of their oncologic follow-up. All patients were eligible for the free-breathing protocol due to severe respiratory artifacts at the planning or precontrast sequences. The us-radial-VIBE acquisitions were compared to the patientś last staging liver MRI including a standard breathhold 3D GRE VIBE. For an objective image evaluation, signal intensity (SI), image noise (IN), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-enhancement ratio (CER) were compared. Representative image quality parameters, including typical artifacts were independently, retrospectively and blindly scored by four readers. Results: Us-radial-VIBE had significant lower SNR (p < 0.0001) and higher IN (p < 0.0001), whereas SI did not differ (p = 0.62). Temporal resolution assessed with CER in the arterial phase showed higher values for us-radial-VIBE (p = 0.028). Subjective image quality parameters received generally slightly higher scores for 3D GRE VIBE. In a smaller subgroup comprising patients with severe respiratory artifacts also at reference breathhold 3D GRE VIBE examination, us-radial-VIBE showed significantly higher image quality scores. Furthermore, there were generally more severe respiratory artifacts in 3D GRE VIBE, whereas streaking was characteristic

  7. Electro-thermal analysis and optimisation of edge termination of power diode supported by 2-D/3-D numerical modelling and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Príbytný, P; Donoval, D; Chvála, A; Marek, J; Molnár, M

    2014-01-01

    Numerical modelling and simulation provide an efficient tool for analysis and optimization of device structure design. In this paper we present the analysis and the geometry optimization of the power module with high power pin diode structure supported by the advanced 2-D/3-D mixed-mode electro-thermal device simulation. The structure under investigation is P + NN + power diode device designed for high reverse voltages and very high forward currents, with a maximum forward surge current up to 2.7 kA.

  8. The detailed 3D multi-loop aggregate/rosette chromatin architecture and functional dynamic organization of the human and mouse genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoch, Tobias A; Wachsmuth, Malte; Kepper, Nick

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The dynamic three-dimensional chromatin architecture of genomes and its co-evolutionary connection to its function-the storage, expression, and replication of genetic information-is still one of the central issues in biology. Here, we describe the much debated 3D architecture...... of the human and mouse genomes from the nucleosomal to the megabase pair level by a novel approach combining selective high-throughput high-resolution chromosomal interaction capture (T2C), polymer simulations, and scaling analysis of the 3D architecture and the DNA sequence. RESULTS: The genome is compacted...... into a chromatin quasi-fibre with ~5 ± 1 nucleosomes/11 nm, folded into stable ~30-100 kbp loops forming stable loop aggregates/rosettes connected by similar sized linkers. Minor but significant variations in the architecture are seen between cell types and functional states. The architecture and the DNA sequence...

  9. The clinical value of 3D dynamic contrast enhanced MR angiography on haemorrhage of esophageal and gastric varices compared with endoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zhou; Liang Biling; Li Yong; Zhong Jinglian; Ye Ruixin; Wang Dongye; Li Chuqiang; Yuan Yuhong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical value of three dimensional dynamic contrast enhanced MRA (3D DCE MRA) on esophageal and gastric varices compared with endoscopy. Methods: From April 2003 to June 2008, 153 patients with portal hypertension who underwent both 3D DCE MRA and endoscopy were reviewed retrospectively. All the patients were divided into bleeding group and non-bleeding group according to the clinical symptoms. The location and degree of the esophagogastric varices on 3D DCE MRA were assessed with postprocessing images, including subtraction, MIP and thin-slab masimum intensity projection (tin-MIP), and were compared with the results of endoscopy. The maximum, minimum and mean diameters of esophagogastric varices inside and outside of the wall were measured on the reformed images. The correlation between the findings of 3D DCE MRA and endoscopy were analyzed with Spearman rank correlation coefficient test. The rates of esophagogastric varices outside of the wall in bleeding and non-bleeding group were compared by means of Chi-square test. Results: In bleeding group, severe esophageal varices were documented in 59 patients, moderate in 6 patients, mild in 5 patients; in non-bleeding group, severe esophageal varices were documented in 32 patients, moderate in 4 patients, mild in 5 patients. Severe, moderate, and mild gastric varices were documented in 28, 34 and 16 in bleeding group, while they were 7, 12 and 9 in non-bleeding group. Esophageal and gastric varices can be wholly pressnted on MIP images after subtraction, while the esophagogastric varices inside and outside of the wall can be differentiated on thin-MIP images. The location and degree of esophagogastric varices on 3D DCE MRA were correlated with the findings of the endoscopy. The range of r was from 0.544 to 0.878 (P 2 =7.199, P<0.01). In 35 patients with severe gastric varices, 22 patients showed adventitial gastric varices in bleeding group (n=28) and 4 patients showed adventitial

  10. Separation of left and right lungs using 3D information of sequential CT images and a guided dynamic programming algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Cheol; Leader, Joseph Ken; Tan, Jun; Lee, Guee Sang; Kim, Soo Hyung; Na, In Seop; Zheng, Bin

    2011-01-01

    Objective this article presents a new computerized scheme that aims to accurately and robustly separate left and right lungs on CT examinations. Methods we developed and tested a method to separate the left and right lungs using sequential CT information and a guided dynamic programming algorithm using adaptively and automatically selected start point and end point with especially severe and multiple connections. Results the scheme successfully identified and separated all 827 connections on the total 4034 CT images in an independent testing dataset of CT examinations. The proposed scheme separated multiple connections regardless of their locations, and the guided dynamic programming algorithm reduced the computation time to approximately 4.6% in comparison with the traditional dynamic programming and avoided the permeation of the separation boundary into normal lung tissue. Conclusions The proposed method is able to robustly and accurately disconnect all connections between left and right lungs and the guided dynamic programming algorithm is able to remove redundant processing. PMID:21412104

  11. 3D biometrics systems and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, David

    2013-01-01

    Includes discussions on popular 3D imaging technologies, combines them with biometric applications, and then presents real 3D biometric systems Introduces many efficient 3D feature extraction, matching, and fusion algorithms Techniques presented have been supported by experimental results using various 3D biometric classifications

  12. Improvement of temporal and dynamic subtraction images on abdominal CT using 3D global image matching and nonlinear image warping techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, E; Sanada, S; Suzuki, M; Takemura, A; Matsui, O

    2007-01-01

    Accurate registration of the corresponding non-enhanced and arterial-phase CT images is necessary to create temporal and dynamic subtraction images for the enhancement of subtle abnormalities. However, respiratory movement causes misregistration at the periphery of the liver. To reduce these misregistration errors, we developed a temporal and dynamic subtraction technique to enhance small HCC by 3D global matching and nonlinear image warping techniques. The study population consisted of 21 patients with HCC. Using the 3D global matching and nonlinear image warping technique, we registered current and previous arterial-phase CT images or current non-enhanced and arterial-phase CT images obtained in the same position. The temporal subtraction image was obtained by subtracting the previous arterial-phase CT image from the warped current arterial-phase CT image. The dynamic subtraction image was obtained by the subtraction of the current non-enhanced CT image from the warped current arterial-phase CT image. The percentage of fair or superior temporal subtraction images increased from 52.4% to 95.2% using the new technique, while on the dynamic subtraction images, the percentage increased from 66.6% to 95.2%. The new subtraction technique may facilitate the diagnosis of subtle HCC based on the superior ability of these subtraction images to show nodular and/or ring enhancement

  13. Integrating intracellular dynamics using CompuCell3D and Bionetsolver: applications to multiscale modelling of cancer cell growth and invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi Andasari

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a multiscale, individual-based simulation environment that integrates CompuCell3D for lattice-based modelling on the cellular level and Bionetsolver for intracellular modelling. CompuCell3D or CC3D provides an implementation of the lattice-based Cellular Potts Model or CPM (also known as the Glazier-Graner-Hogeweg or GGH model and a Monte Carlo method based on the metropolis algorithm for system evolution. The integration of CC3D for cellular systems with Bionetsolver for subcellular systems enables us to develop a multiscale mathematical model and to study the evolution of cell behaviour due to the dynamics inside of the cells, capturing aspects of cell behaviour and interaction that is not possible using continuum approaches. We then apply this multiscale modelling technique to a model of cancer growth and invasion, based on a previously published model of Ramis-Conde et al. (2008 where individual cell behaviour is driven by a molecular network describing the dynamics of E-cadherin and β-catenin. In this model, which we refer to as the centre-based model, an alternative individual-based modelling technique was used, namely, a lattice-free approach. In many respects, the GGH or CPM methodology and the approach of the centre-based model have the same overall goal, that is to mimic behaviours and interactions of biological cells. Although the mathematical foundations and computational implementations of the two approaches are very different, the results of the presented simulations are compatible with each other, suggesting that by using individual-based approaches we can formulate a natural way of describing complex multi-cell, multiscale models. The ability to easily reproduce results of one modelling approach using an alternative approach is also essential from a model cross-validation standpoint and also helps to identify any modelling artefacts specific to a given computational approach.

  14. Thermal fluid dynamics study of nuclear advanced reactors of high temperature using RELAP5-3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scari, Maria Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Fourth Generation nuclear reactors (GEN-IV) are being designed with special features such as intrinsic safety, reduction of isotopic inventory and use of fuel in proliferation-resistant cycles. Therefore, the investigation and evaluation of operational and safety aspects of the GEN-IV reactors have been the subject of numerous studies by the international community and also in Brazil. In 2008, in Brazil, was created the National Institute of Science and Technology of Innovative Nuclear Reactors, focusing on studies of projects and systems of new generation reactors, which included GEN-IV reactors as well as advanced PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) concepts. The Department of Nuclear Engineering of the Federal University of Minas Gerais (DEN-UFMG) is a partner of this Institute, having started studies on the GEN-IV reactors in the year 2007. Therefore, in order to add knowledge to these studies, in this work, three projects of advanced reactors were considered to verify the simulation capability of the thermo-hydraulic RELAP5-3D code for these systems, either in stationary operation or in transient situations. The addition of new working fluids such as ammonia, carbon dioxide, helium, hydrogen, various types of liquid salts, among them Flibe, lead, lithium-bismuth, lithium-lead, was a major breakthrough in this version of the code, allowing also the simulation of GEN-IV reactors. The modeling of the respective core of an HTTR (High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor), HTR-10 (High Temperature Test Module Reactor) and LS-VHTR (Liquid-Salt-Cooled Very-High-Temperature Reactor) were developed and verified in steady state comparing the values found through the calculations with reference data from other simulations, when it is possible. The first two reactors use helium gas as coolant and the LS-VHTR uses a mixture of 66% LiF and 34% of BeF 2 , the LiF-BeF 2 , also know as Flibe. All the studied reactors use enriched uranium as fuel, in form of TRISO (Tristructural

  15. Multi-slice CT (MSCT) in cardiac function imaging: threshold-value-supported 3D volume reconstructions to determine the left ventricular ejection fraction in comparison to MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhard, K.; Oberholzer, K.; Gast, K.; Mildenberger, P.; Kreitner, K.F.; Thelen, M.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To assess MSCT of the heart to determining left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) based on threshold-value-supported 3D volume reconstructions compared to MRI. Methods: Cardiac MSCT was performed in 7 patients. Images were reconstructed during end-systolic and end-diastolic phases of the cardiac cycle and transformed to 3D volumes to determine end-systolic (ESV) and end-diastolic volume (EDV) by using different lower threshold values: besides fixed lower threshold values, identical for each image sequence, individual lower threshold values dependent on contrast enhancement of the left ventricle were applied. The latter represent the mean value calculated by combining the average CT-density of the myocardium and the contrast-enhanced blood in the left ventricle. The EF derived from ESV and EDV. Results: The best correlation with MR imaging was obtained for ESV and EDV by using the individual lower threshold values for the respective sequence. The correlation coefficient for ESV was 0.95 and for EDV it was 0.93. On average, the ESV was overestimated by 3.72 ml, while the ESD was underestimated by 2.85 ml. The respective standard deviation for the ESV was 14,87 ml, for the EDV it was 26.83 ml. On average, the EF was underestimated by 3.57% with a standard deviation of 9.43% and a correlation coefficient of 0.83 in comparison to MRI. Conclusion: The threshold-value-supported 3D volume reconstruction of the left ventricle represents a good method to determine the left ventricular function parameters. Due to the differences in the contrast enhancement, the use of an individual lower threshold value for every image sequence is of particular importance. (orig.) [de

  16. Design and verification of a simple 3D dynamic model of speed skating which mimics observed forces and motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kruk, E; Veeger, H E J; van der Helm, F C T; Schwab, A L

    2017-11-07

    Advice about the optimal coordination pattern for an individual speed skater, could be addressed by simulation and optimization of a biomechanical speed skating model. But before getting to this optimization approach one needs a model that can reasonably match observed behaviour. Therefore, the objective of this study is to present a verified three dimensional inverse skater model with minimal complexity, which models the speed skating motion on the straights. The model simulates the upper body transverse translation of the skater together with the forces exerted by the skates on the ice. The input of the model is the changing distance between the upper body and the skate, referred to as the leg extension (Euclidean distance in 3D space). Verification shows that the model mimics the observed forces and motions well. The model is most accurate for the position and velocity estimation (respectively 1.2% and 2.9% maximum residuals) and least accurate for the force estimations (underestimation of 4.5-10%). The model can be used to further investigate variables in the skating motion. For this, the input of the model, the leg extension, can be optimized to obtain a maximal forward velocity of the upper body. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Study of Propagation Mechanisms in Dynamical Railway Environment to Reduce Computation Time of 3D Ray Tracing Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siham Hairoud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to better assess the behaviours of the propagation channel in a confined environment such as a railway tunnel for subway application, we present an optimization method for a deterministic channel simulator based on 3D ray tracing associated to the geometrical optics laws and the uniform theory of diffraction. This tool requires a detailed description of the environment. Thus, the complexity of this model is directly bound to the complexity of the environment and specifically to the number of facets that compose it. In this paper, we propose an algorithm to identify facets that have no significant impact on the wave propagation. This allows us to simplify the description of the geometry of the modelled environment by removing them and by this way, to reduce the complexity of our model and therefore its computation time. A comparative study between full and simplified environment is led and shows the impact of this proposed method on the characteristic parameters of the propagation channel. Thus computation time obtained from the simplified environment is 6 times lower than the one of the full model without significant degradation of simulation accuracy.

  18. A Low-Power High-Dynamic-Range Receiver System for In-Probe 3-D Ultrasonic Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attarzadeh, Hourieh; Xu, Ye; Ytterdal, Trond

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a dual-mode low-power, high dynamic-range receiver circuit is designed for the interface with a capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer. The proposed ultrasound receiver chip enables the development of an in-probe digital beamforming imaging system. The flexibility of having two operation modes offers a high dynamic range with minimum power sacrifice. A prototype of the chip containing one receive channel, with one variable transimpedance amplifier (TIA) and one analog to digital converter (ADC) circuit is implemented. Combining variable gain TIA functionality with ADC gain settings achieves an enhanced overall high dynamic range, while low power dissipation is maintained. The chip is designed and fabricated in a 65 nm standard CMOS process technology. The test chip occupies an area of 76[Formula: see text] 170 [Formula: see text]. A total average power range of 60-240 [Formula: see text] for a sampling frequency of 30 MHz, and a center frequency of 5 MHz is measured. An instantaneous dynamic range of 50.5 dB with an overall dynamic range of 72 dB is obtained from the receiver circuit.

  19. Preparation of high bioactivity multilayered bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cell sheets for myocardial infarction using a 3D-dynamic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingwei; Zhang, Jianhua; Qin, Zixi; Fan, Zepei; Lu, Cheng; Chen, Baoxin; Zhao, Jupeng; Li, Xiaojuan; Xiao, Fei; Lin, Xi; Wu, Zheng

    2018-05-01

    Cell sheet techniques offer a promising future for myocardial infarction (MI) therapy; however, insufficient nutrition supply remains the major limitation in maintaining stem cell bioactivity in vitro. In order to enhance cell sheet mechanical strength and bioactivity, a decellularized porcine pericardium (DPP) scaffold was prepared by the phospholipase A2 method, and aspartic acid was used as a spacer arm to improve the vascular endothelial growth factor crosslink efficiency on the DPP scaffold. Based on this scaffold, multilayered bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell sheets were rapidly constructed, using RAD16-I peptide hydrogel as a temporary 3D scaffold, and cell sheets were cultured in either the 3D-dynamic system (DCcs) or the traditional static condition (SCcs). The multilayered structure, stem cell bioactivity, and ultrastructure of DCcs and SCcs were assessed. The DCcs exhibited lower apoptosis, lower differentiation, and an improved paracrine effect after a 48 h culture in vitro compared to the SCcs. Four groups were set to evaluate the cell sheet effect in rat MI model: sham group, MI control group, DCcs group, and SCcs group. The DCcs group improved cardiac function and decreased the infarcted area compared to the MI control group, while no significant improvements were observed in the SCcs group. Improved cell survival, angiogenesis, and Sca-1 + cell and c-kit + cell amounts were observed in the DCcs group. In conclusion, the DCcs maintained higher stem cell bioactivity by using the 3D-dynamic system to provide sufficient nutrition, and transplanting DCcs significantly improved the cardiac function and angiogenesis. This study provides an efficient method to prepare vascular endothelial growth factor covalent decellularized pericardium scaffold with aspartic acid, and a multilayered bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) sheet is constructed on it using a 3D-dynamic system. The dynamic nutrition supply showed a significant benefit on BMSC bioactivity

  20. Solution of the 6th dynamic AER benchmark using the coupled core DYN3D/ATHLET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, A.; Kliem, S.

    2001-01-01

    The 6 th dynamic benchmark is a logical continuation of the work to validate systematically coupled neutron kinetics/thermohydraulics code systems for the estimation of the transient behaviour of WWER type nuclear power plant which was started in the 5 th dynamic benchmark. This benchmark concerns a double ended break of the main steam line (asymmetrical MSLB) in a WWER plant. The core is at the end of first cycle in full power conditions. The asymmetric leak causes a different depressurization of all steam generators. New features in comparison to the 5 th dynamic benchmark were included: asymmetric operation of the feed water system, consideration of incomplete coolant mixing in the reactor vessel, and the definition of a fixed isothermal recriticality temperature for normalising the nuclear data (Authors)

  1. Tracer diffusion in a polymer gel: simulations of static and dynamic 3D networks using spherical boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamerlin, Natasha; Elvingson, Christer

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated an alternative to the standard periodic boundary conditions for simulating the diffusion of tracer particles in a polymer gel by performing Brownian dynamics simulations using spherical boundary conditions. The gel network is constructed by randomly distributing tetravalent cross-linking nodes and connecting nearest pairs. The final gel structure is characterised by the radial distribution functions, chain lengths and end-to-end distances, and the pore size distribution. We have looked at the diffusion of tracer particles with a wide range of sizes, diffusing in both static and dynamic networks of two different volume fractions. It is quantitatively shown that the dynamical effect of the network becomes more important in facilitating the diffusional transport for larger particle sizes, and that one obtains a finite diffusion also for particle sizes well above the maximum in the pore size distribution. (paper)

  2. Dynamic 3D-MR-angiography for assessing rheumatoid disease of the hand—A feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notohamiprodjo, Mike; Glaser, Christian; Horng, Annie; Helck, Andreas; Bauner, Kerstin U.; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Hatz, Hans J.; Weckbach, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate highly temporally resolved MR-angiography (MRA) with time-resolved imaging with stochastic trajectories (TWIST) of the hand as supplementary tool for dynamic assessment of synovitis and vascular pathologies in rheumatoid diseases. Material and methods: A coronal dynamic TWIST–MRA-sequence (0.7 mm × 0.7 mm × 1.4 mm, temporal resolution 2.5 s, time of acquisition 4 min) of the predominantly affected hand of 17 patients with suspected rheumatoid disease was acquired after contrast administration (Multihance, Bracco Imaging SpA) at 3 T (Magnetom VERIO, 8-channel-knee-coil, Siemens Healthcare). As standard of reference, contrast enhanced non fat-saturated coronal and fat-saturated axial T1-w sequences were acquired. These static sequences and the dynamic TWIST–MRA–maximum-intensity-projections (MIP) were separately assessed by two readers in consensus, recording the number of synovial lesions (wrist, intercarpal, metacarpophaleangal/proximal/distal interphalangeal joints), signs of tenosynovitis and vasculitis. Diagnostic confidence was rated (4-point-scale: 4 = excellent; 1 = non-diagnostic). Statistical significance was tested using the Wilcoxon-rank-sum-test. Results: An insignificantly lower number of synovial lesions (n = 72 vs. 89; p = 0.1) and only 3/9 cases with tenosynovitis were identified by the TWIST–MRA. For detected lesions, diagnostic confidence was comparable (MRA: 3.64; static T1-w post contrast: 3.47). In patients with high clinical activity dynamic MRA showed very early synovial enhancement. Only dynamic MRA detected 3 cases of vasculitis (subsequently confirmed with digital-subtraction-angiography). Conclusion: TWIST–MRA facilitates fast detection of synovitis. Although dynamic MRA of the hand is inferior to static contrast enhanced sequences in assessing the number of synovitic and tenosynovitic lesions, its high temporal resolution allows for fast visual grading of disease activity and assessment of vasculitis

  3. 3D dynamic displacement-field measurement for structural health monitoring using inexpensive RGB-D based sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelbarr, Mohamed; Chen, Yulu Luke; Jahanshahi, Mohammad R.; Masri, Sami F.; Shen, Wei-Men; Qidwai, Uvais A.

    2017-12-01

    The advent of inexpensive digital cameras with depth sensing capabilities (RGB-D cameras) has opened the door to numerous useful applications that need quantitative measures of dynamic fields whose simultaneous time history quantification (at many points as dictated by the resolution of the camera) provides capabilities that were previously accessible only through expensive sensors (e.g., laser scanners). This paper presents a comprehensive experimental and computational study to evaluate the performance envelope of a representative RGB-D sensor (the first generation of Kinect sensor) with the aim of assessing its suitability for the class of problems encountered in the structural dynamics field, where reasonably accurate information of evolving displacement fields (as opposed to few discrete locations) that have simultaneous dynamic planar translational motion with significant rotational (torsional) components. This study investigated the influence of key system parameters of concern in selecting an appropriate sensor for such structural dynamic applications, such as amplitude range, spectral content of the dynamic displacements, location and orientation of sensors relative to target structure, fusing of measurements from multiple sensors, sensor noise effects, rolling-shutter effects, etc. The calibration results show that if the observed displacement field generates discrete (pixel) sensor measurements with sufficient resolution (observed displacements more than 10 mm) beyond the sensor noise floor, then the subject sensors can typically provide reasonable accuracy for transnational motion (about 5%) when the frequency range of the evolving field is within about 10 Hz. However, the expected error for torsional measurements is around 6% for static motion and 10% for dynamic rotation for measurements greater than 5°.

  4. Study of proximal femoral bone perfusion with 3D T1 dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budzik, Jean-Francois [Groupe Hospitalier de l' Institut Catholique de Lille / Faculte Libre de Medecine, Service d' Imagerie Medicale, Lille (France); Centre de Consultation et d' Imagerie de l' Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU de Lille, Service de Radiologie et Imagerie Musculosquelettique, Lille (France); Universite Catholique de Lille, Lille (France); Universite Nord de France, Lille (France); EA 4490 PMOI (Physiopathologie des Maladies Osseuses Inflammatoires) IFR 114 PRES Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Lefebvre, Guillaume; El Rafei, Mazen [Centre de Consultation et d' Imagerie de l' Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU de Lille, Service de Radiologie et Imagerie Musculosquelettique, Lille (France); Universite Nord de France, Lille (France); CHU Lille, Lille (France); Forzy, Gerard [Universite Catholique de Lille, Lille (France); Universite Nord de France, Lille (France); Groupe Hospitalier de l' Institut Catholique de Lille, Laboratoire de Biologie, Departement de Biostatistiques, Lille (France); Chechin, David [Philips Medical Systems, Suresnes (France); Cotten, Anne [Centre de Consultation et d' Imagerie de l' Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU de Lille, Service de Radiologie et Imagerie Musculosquelettique, Lille (France); Universite Nord de France, Lille (France); EA 4490 PMOI (Physiopathologie des Maladies Osseuses Inflammatoires) IFR 114 PRES Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); CHU Lille, Lille (France)

    2014-12-15

    The objective of this study was to compare measurements of semi-quantitative and pharmacokinetic parameters in areas of red (RBM) and yellow bone marrow (YBM) of the hip, using an in-house high-resolution DCE T1 sequence, and to assess intra- and inter-observer reproducibility of these measurements. The right hips of 21 adult patients under 50 years of age were studied. Spatial resolution was 1.8 x 1.8 x 1.8 mm{sup 3}, and temporal resolution was 13.5 seconds. Two musculoskeletal radiologists independently processed DCE images and measured semi-quantitative and pharmacokinetic parameters in areas of YBM and RBM. Signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNR) ratios were calculated. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility was assessed. Area under the curve (AUC) and initial slope (IS) were significantly greater for RBM than for YBM (p < 0.05). K{sup trans} and k{sub ep} were also significantly greater for RBM (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in time to peak between the regions (p < 0.05). SNR, CNR, and intra- and inter-observer reproducibility were all good. DCE study of the whole hip is feasible with high spatial resolution using a 3D T1 sequence. Measures were possible even in low vascularized areas of the femoral head. K{sup trans}, k{sub ep}, AUC, and IS values were significantly different between red and yellow marrow, whereas TTP values were not. (orig.)

  5. Second-Order Inelastic Dynamic Analysis of 3D Semi-Rigid Steel Frames Under Earthquake Loads with Three Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozakgul, Kadir

    2008-01-01

    In this study, it has been presented an algorithm for second-order elastoplastic dynamic time-history analysis of three dimensional frames that have steel members with semirigid joints. The proposed analysis accounts for material, geometric and connection nonlinearities. Material nonlinearity have been modeled by the Ramberg-Osgood relation. While the geometric nonlinearity caused by axial force has been described by the use of the geometric stiffness matrix, the nonlinearity caused by the interaction between the axial force and bending moment has been also described by the use of the stability functions. The independent hardening model has been used to describe the nonlinear behaviour of semi-rigid connections. Dynamic equation of motion has been solved by Newmark's constant acceleration method in time history domain

  6. SU-D-213-03: Towards An Optimized 3D Scintillation Dosimetry Tool for Quality Assurance of Dynamic Radiotherapy Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rilling, M [Département de physique, de génie physique et d’optique, Université Laval, Quebec City, QC (Canada); Centre de Recherche sur le Cancer, Hôtel-Dieu de Québec, Quebec City, QC (Canada); Département de radio-oncologie, CHU de Québec, Quebec City, QC (Canada); Center for Optics, Photonics and Lasers, Université Laval, Quebec City, QC, CA (Canada); Goulet, M [Département de radio-oncologie, CHU de Québec, Quebec City, QC (Canada); Thibault, S [Département de physique, de génie physique et d’optique, Université Laval, Quebec City, QC (Canada); Center for Optics, Photonics and Lasers, Université Laval, Quebec City, QC, CA (Canada); Archambault, L [Département de physique, de génie physique et d’optique, Université Laval, Quebec City, QC (Canada); Centre de Recherche sur le Cancer, Hôtel-Dieu de Québec, Quebec City, QC (Canada); Département de radio-oncologie, CHU de Québec, Quebec City, QC (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    specifications. This work leads the way to improving the 3D dosimeter’s achievable resolution, efficiency and build for providing a quality assurance tool fully meeting clinical needs. M.R. is financially supported by a Master’s Canada Graduate Scholarship from the NSERC. This research is also supported by the NSERC Industrial Research Chair in Optical Design.

  7. Open 3D Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician ALECU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many professionals and 3D artists consider Blender as being the best open source solution for 3D computer graphics. The main features are related to modeling, rendering, shading, imaging, compositing, animation, physics and particles and realtime 3D/game creation.

  8. Boundary conditions for 3D dynamic models of ablation of ceramics by pulsed mid-infrared lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vila Verde, A. [Department of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Ramos, Marta M.D. [Department of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)]. E-mail: marta@fisica.uminho.pt

    2005-07-15

    We present and discuss a set of boundary conditions (BCs) to use in three-dimensional, mesoscopic, finite element models of mid-infrared pulsed laser ablation of brittle materials. These models allow the study of the transient displacement and stress fields generated at micrometer scales during and after one laser pulse, where using conventional BCs may lead to some results without physical significance that can be considered an artefact of the calculations. The proposed BCs are tested and applied to a micrometer-scale continuous model of human dental enamel under CO{sub 2} radiation (10.6 {mu}m, 0.35 {mu}s pulse, sub-ablative fluence), giving rise to the following results: the highest stress is obtained at the irradiated surface of the model, at the end of the laser pulse, but afterwards it decreases rapidly until it becomes significantly lower than the stress in a region 2.5 {mu}m deep in the model; a thermally induced vibration in the material is predicted. This non-intuitive dynamics in stress and displacement distribution cannot be neglected and has to be considered in dynamic laser ablation models, since it may have serious implications in the mechanisms of ablation.

  9. Acquired experience on organizing 3D S.UN.COP: international course to support nuclear license by user training in the areas of scaling, uncertainty, and 3D thermal-hydraulics/neutron-kinetics coupled codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petruzzi, Alessandro; D' Auria, Francesco [University of Pisa, San Piero a Grado (Italy). Nuclear Research Group San Piero a Grado (GRNSPG); Galetti, Regina, E-mail: regina@cnen.gov.b [National Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bajs, Tomislav [University of Zagreb (Croatia). Fac. of Electrical Engineering and Computing. Dept. of Power Systems; Reventos, Francesc [Technical University of Catalonia, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Physics and Nuclear Engineering

    2011-07-01

    Thermal-hydraulic system computer codes are extensively used worldwide for analysis of nuclear facilities by utilities, regulatory bodies, nuclear power plant designers, vendors, and research organizations. Computer code user represents a source of uncertainty that may significantly affect the results of system code calculations. Code user training and qualification represent an effective means for reducing the variation of results caused by the application of the codes by different users. This paper describes the experience in applying a systematic approach to training code users who, upon completion of the training, should be able to perform calculations making the best possible use of the capabilities of best estimate codes. In addition, this paper presents the organization and the main features of the 3D S.UN.COP (scaling, uncertainty, and 3D coupled code calculations) seminars during which particular emphasis is given to practical applications in connection with the licensing process of best estimate plus uncertainty methodologies, showing the designer, utility and regulatory approaches. (author)

  10. Acquired experience on organizing 3D S.UN.COP: international course to support nuclear license by user training in the areas of scaling, uncertainty, and 3D thermal-hydraulics/neutron-kinetics coupled codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petruzzi, Alessandro; D'Auria, Francesco; Galetti, Regina; Bajs, Tomislav; Reventos, Francesc

    2011-01-01

    Thermal-hydraulic system computer codes are extensively used worldwide for analysis of nuclear facilities by utilities, regulatory bodies, nuclear power plant designers, vendors, and research organizations. Computer code user represents a source of uncertainty that may significantly affect the results of system code calculations. Code user training and qualification represent an effective means for reducing the variation of results caused by the application of the codes by different users. This paper describes the experience in applying a systematic approach to training code users who, upon completion of the training, should be able to perform calculations making the best possible use of the capabilities of best estimate codes. In addition, this paper presents the organization and the main features of the 3D S.UN.COP (scaling, uncertainty, and 3D coupled code calculations) seminars during which particular emphasis is given to practical applications in connection with the licensing process of best estimate plus uncertainty methodologies, showing the designer, utility and regulatory approaches. (author)

  11. NoSQL Based 3D City Model Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, B.; Harrie, L.; Cao, J.; Wu, Z.; Shen, J.

    2014-04-01

    To manage increasingly complicated 3D city models, a framework based on NoSQL database is proposed in this paper. The framework supports import and export of 3D city model according to international standards such as CityGML, KML/COLLADA and X3D. We also suggest and implement 3D model analysis and visualization in the framework. For city model analysis, 3D geometry data and semantic information (such as name, height, area, price and so on) are stored and processed separately. We use a Map-Reduce method to deal with the 3D geometry data since it is more complex, while the semantic analysis is mainly based on database query operation. For visualization, a multiple 3D city representation structure CityTree is implemented within the framework to support dynamic LODs based on user viewpoint. Also, the proposed framework is easily extensible and supports geoindexes to speed up the querying. Our experimental results show that the proposed 3D city management system can efficiently fulfil the analysis and visualization requirements.

  12. Distinct 3D Architecture and Dynamics of the Human HtrA2(Omi Protease and Its Mutated Variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Gieldon

    Full Text Available HtrA2(Omi protease controls protein quality in mitochondria and plays a major role in apoptosis. Its HtrA2S306A mutant (with the catalytic serine routinely disabled for an X-ray study to avoid self-degradation is a homotrimer whose subunits contain the serine protease domain (PD and the regulatory PDZ domain. In the inactive state, a tight interdomain interface limits penetration of both PDZ-activating ligands and PD substrates into their respective target sites. We successfully crystalized HtrA2V226K/S306A, whose active counterpart HtrA2V226K has had higher proteolytic activity, suggesting higher propensity to opening the PD-PDZ interface than that of the wild type HtrA2. Yet, the crystal structure revealed the HtrA2V226K/S306A architecture typical of the inactive protein. To get a consistent interpretation of crystallographic data in the light of kinetic results, we employed molecular dynamics (MD. V325D inactivating mutant was used as a reference. Our simulations demonstrated that upon binding of a specific peptide ligand NH2-GWTMFWV-COOH, the PDZ domains open more dynamically in the wild type protease compared to the V226K mutant, whereas the movement is not observed in the V325D mutant. The movement relies on a PDZ vs. PD rotation which opens the PD-PDZ interface in a lid-like (budding flower-like in trimer fashion. The noncovalent hinges A and B are provided by two clusters of interfacing residues, harboring V325D and V226K in the C- and N-terminal PD barrels, respectively. The opening of the subunit interfaces progresses in a sequential manner during the 50 ns MD simulation. In the systems without the ligand only minor PDZ shifts relative to PD are observed, but the interface does not open. Further activation-associated events, e.g. PDZ-L3 positional swap seen in any active HtrA protein (vs. HtrA2, were not observed. In summary, this study provides hints on the mechanism of activation of wtHtrA2, the dynamics of the inactive HtrA2V325D

  13. The quantum structure of matter grand challenge project: Large-scale 3-D solutions in relativistic quantum dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.C.; Oberacker, V.E.; Umar, A.S.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the numerical methods used to solve the time-dependent Dirac equation on a three-dimensional Cartesian lattice. Efficient algorithms are required for computationally intensive studies of nonperturbative relativistic quantum dynamics. Discretization is achieved through the lattice basis-spline collocation method, in which quantum-state vectors and coordinate-space operators are expressed in terms of basis-spline functions on a spatial lattice. All numerical procedures reduce to a series of matrix-vector operations which we perform on the Intel iPSC/860 hypercube, making full use of parallelism. We discuss our solutions to the problems of limited node memory and node-to-node communication overhead inherent in using distributed-memory, multiple-instruction, multiple-data stream parallel computers

  14. Quantitative comparison of hemodynamics in simulated and 3D angiography models of cerebral aneurysms by use of computational fluid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saho, Tatsunori; Onishi, Hideo

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated hemodynamics using simulated models and determined how cerebral aneurysms develop in simulated and patient-specific models based on medical images. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was analyzed by use of OpenFOAM software. Flow velocity, stream line, and wall shear stress (WSS) were evaluated in a simulated model aneurysm with known geometry and in a three-dimensional angiographic model. The ratio of WSS at the aneurysm compared with that at the basilar artery was 1:10 in simulated model aneurysms with a diameter of 10 mm and 1:18 in the angiographic model, indicating similar tendencies. Vortex flow occurred in both model aneurysms, and the WSS decreased in larger model aneurysms. The angiographic model provided accurate CFD information, and the tendencies of simulated and angiographic models were similar. These findings indicate that hemodynamic effects are involved in the development of aneurysms.

  15. High-definition polymeric membranes: construction of 3D lithographed channel arrays through control of natural building blocks dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speranza, Valentina; Trotta, Francesco; Drioli, Enrico; Gugliuzza, Annarosa

    2010-02-01

    The fabrication of well-defined interfaces is in high demand in many fields of biotechnologies. Here, high-definition membrane-like arrays are developed through the self-assembly of water droplets, which work as natural building blocks for the construction of ordered channels. Solution viscosity together with the dynamics of the water droplets can decide the final formation of three-dimensional well-ordered patterns resembling anodic structures, especially because solvents denser than water are used. Particularly, the polymer solution viscosity is demonstrated to be a powerful tool for control of the mobility of submerged droplets during the microfabrication process. The polymeric patterns are structured at very high levels of organization and exhibit well-established transport-surface property relationships, considered basics for any types of advanced biotechnologies.

  16. Dynamic pulse buckling of cylindrical shells under axial impact: A benchmark study of 2D and 3D finite element calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, E.L.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    A series of tests investigating dynamic pulse buckling of a cylindrical shell under axial impact is compared to several 2D and 3D finite element simulations of the event. The purpose of the work is to investigate the performance of various analysis codes and element types on a problem which is applicable to radioactive material transport packages, and ultimately to develop a benchmark problem to qualify finite element analysis codes for the transport package design industry. During the pulse buckling tests, a buckle formed at each end of the cylinder, and one of the two buckles became unstable and collapsed. Numerical simulations of the test were performed using PRONTO, a Sandia developed transient dynamics analysis code, and ABAQUS/Explicit with both shell and continuum elements. The calculations are compared to the tests with respect to deformed shape and impact load history

  17. 3D Dynamic Rupture Simulations along Dipping Faults, with a focus on the Wasatch Fault Zone, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, K.; Moschetti, M. P.

    2017-12-01

    We study dynamic rupture and ground motion from dip-slip faults in regions that have high-seismic hazard, such as the Wasatch fault zone, Utah. Previous numerical simulations have modeled deterministic ground motion along segments of this fault in the heavily populated regions near Salt Lake City but were restricted to low frequencies ( 1 Hz). We seek to better understand the rupture process and assess broadband ground motions and variability from the Wasatch Fault Zone by extending deterministic ground motion prediction to higher frequencies (up to 5 Hz). We perform simulations along a dipping normal fault (40 x 20 km along strike and width, respectively) with characteristics derived from geologic observations to generate a suite of ruptures > Mw 6.5. This approach utilizes dynamic simulations (fully physics-based models, where the initial stress drop and friction law are imposed) using a summation by parts (SBP) method. The simulations include rough-fault topography following a self-similar fractal distribution (over length scales from 100 m to the size of the fault) in addition to off-fault plasticity. Energy losses from heat and other mechanisms, modeled as anelastic attenuation, are also included, as well as free-surface topography, which can significantly affect ground motion patterns. We compare the effect of material structure and both rate and state and slip-weakening friction laws have on rupture propagation. The simulations show reduced slip and moment release in the near surface with the inclusion of plasticity, better agreeing with observations of shallow slip deficit. Long-wavelength fault geometry imparts a non-uniform stress distribution along both dip and strike, influencing the preferred rupture direction and hypocenter location, potentially important for seismic hazard estimation.

  18. Quantifying Hyporheic Exchanges in a Large Scale River Reach Using Coupled 3-D Surface and Subsurface Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, Glenn Edward; Bao, J; Huang, M; Hou, Z; Perkins, W; Harding, S; Titzler, S; Ren, H; Thorne, P; Suffield, S; Murray, C; Zachara, J

    2017-03-01

    Hyporheic exchange is a critical mechanism shaping hydrological and biogeochemical processes along a river corridor. Recent studies on quantifying the hyporheic exchange were mostly limited to local scales due to field inaccessibility, computational demand, and complexity of geomorphology and subsurface geology. Surface flow conditions and subsurface physical properties are well known factors on modulating the hyporheic exchange, but quantitative understanding of their impacts on the strength and direction of hyporheic exchanges at reach scales is absent. In this study, a high resolution computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that couples surface and subsurface flow and transport is employed to simulate hyporheic exchanges in a 7-km long reach along the main-stem of the Columbia River. Assuming that the hyporheic exchange does not affect surface water flow conditions due to its negligible magnitude compared to the volume and velocity of river water, we developed a one-way coupled surface and subsurface water flow model using the commercial CFD software STAR-CCM+. The model integrates the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation solver with a realizable κ-ε two-layer turbulence model, a two-layer all y+ wall treatment, and the volume of fluid (VOF) method, and is used to simulate hyporheic exchanges by tracking the free water-air interface as well as flow in the river and the subsurface porous media. The model is validated against measurements from acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) in the stream water and hyporheic fluxes derived from a set of temperature profilers installed across the riverbed. The validated model is then employed to systematically investigate how hyporheic exchanges are influenced by surface water fluid dynamics strongly regulated by upstream dam operations, as well as subsurface structures (e.g. thickness of riverbed and subsurface formation layers) and hydrogeological properties (e.g. permeability). The results

  19. Technical and functional analysis of Spanish windmills: 3D modeling, computational-fluid-dynamics simulation and finite-element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas-Sola, José Ignacio; Bouza-Rodríguez, José Benito; Menéndez-Díaz, Agustín

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Technical and functional analysis of the two typologies of windmills in Spain. • Spatial distribution of velocities and pressures by computational-fluid dynamics (CFD). • Finite-element analysis (FEA) of the rotors of these two types of windmills. • Validation of the operative functionality of these windmills. - Abstract: A detailed study has been made of the two typologies of windmills in Spain, specifically the rectangular-bladed type, represented by the windmill ‘Sardinero’, located near the town of Campo de Criptana (Ciudad Real province, Spain) and the type with triangular sails (lateens), represented by the windmill ‘San Francisco’, in the town of Vejer de la Frontera (Cádiz province, Spain). For this, an ad hoc research methodology has been applied on the basis of three aspects: three-dimensional geometric modeling, analysis by computational-fluid dynamics (CFD), and finite-element analysis (FEA). The results found with the CFD technique show the correct functioning of the two windmills in relation to the spatial distribution of the wind velocities and pressures to which each is normally exposed (4–7 m/s in the case of ‘Sardinero’, and 5–11 for ‘San Francisco’), thereby validating the operative functionality of both types. In addition, as a result of the FEA, the spatial distribution of stresses on the rotor has revealed that the greatest concentrations of these occurs in the teeth of the head wheel in ‘Sardinero’, reaching a value of 12 MPa, and at the base of the masts in the case of the ‘San Francisco’, with a value of 24 MPa. Also, this analysis evidences that simple, effective designs to reinforce the masts absorb a great concentration of stresses that would otherwise cause breakage. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the oak wood from which the rotors were made functioned properly, as the windmill never exceeded the maximum admissible working stress, demonstrating the effectiveness of the materials

  20. Novel method to dynamically load cells in 3D-gel culture for primary blast injury studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sory, David; Cepa-Areias, Anabela; Overby, Darryl; Proud, William; Institute of Shock Physics, Department of Bioengineering; Royal British Legion CentreBlast I Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    For at least a century explosive devices have been reported as one of the most important causes of injuries on battlefield in military conflicts as well as in terrorist attacks. Although significant experimental and modelling efforts have been focussed on blast injury at the organ or tissue level, few studies have investigated the mechanism of blast injury at the cellular level. This paper introduces an in vitro method compatible with living cells to examine the effects of high stress and short-duration pulses similar to those observed in blast waves. The experimental phase involved high strain rate axial compression of biological cylindrical specimens within a hermetically sealed sample holder made of a biocompatible polymer. Numerical simulations were performed in order to characterize the loading path within the sample and assess the loading conditions. A proof of concept is presented so as to establish a new window to address fundamental questions regarding primary blast injury at the cellular level. The Institute of Shock Physics acknowledges the support of AWE, Aldermaston, UK and Imperial College London. The Centre for Blast Injury Studies acknowledges the support of the Royal British Legion and Imperial College London.

  1. 3d Operational Hydrodinamic Modelling System as a Support to Oil Spill Responses in the Ligurian Sea (North-Western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giudice, T.; Quagliati, M.; Bertolotto, R.; Pedroncini, A.; Cusati, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Accidental oil spills have a significant impact on marine ecosystems reminding us the importance of an efficiency emergency planning to ensure a quick and proper response. In this phase, the numerical modelling approach emerges as a useful tool in order to simulate the scenarios and addresses the issue of oil dispersion in the case of a spill. The 3D operational hydrodynamic modelling system of the Ligurian Sea (North-Western Mediterranean) is used as a base to predict the possible oil trajectory and to track the path and fate of spilled oil under the prevailing hydrodynamic and meteorological conditions. The operative chain of the hydrodynamic model was developed by DHI Italia for the Regional Environment Protection Agency (ARPAL) operating in the Ligurian region (Italy) with the objective to preserve the environment, support the activities of the Civil Protection Department and promote a sustainable, healthy and safety management of the local resources. In this chain the MFS Mediterranean 3D model (operated within MyOcean EU Project - Copernicus Programme) was downscaled from 6.5 km to finer nearshore mesh (500 m). The increased spatial resolution allows the correct simulation of current developments in the vicinity of morphological discontinuities such as the promontory of Portofino on the Ligurian coast. The meteorological forcing is provided by MOLOCH, a LAM model operated by ARPAL together with fresh water discharges from the main rivers through hydrological modelling. Since the Ligurian Sea recently hosted the transfer of wreck Costa Concordia some real time simulations of hypothetical oil spill were performed to support the crisis unit of the Genoa Coast Guard. Simulations led to interesting results concerning the importance of updated weather conditions, which strongly influence current trends, focusing on the importance of the continuity of the modelling chain.

  2. Analytical study of performance evaluation for seismic retrofitting of reinforced concrete building using 3D dynamic nonlinear finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuichi; Kajihara, Shinichi; Kaneko, Yoshio

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents three-dimensional finite element (FE) analyses of an all-frame model of a three-story reinforced concrete (RC) building damaged in the 1999 Taiwan Chi-Chi Earthquake. Non-structural brick walls of the building acted as a seismic resistant element although their contributions were neglected in the design. Hence, the entire structure of a typical frame was modeled and static and dynamic nonlinear analyses were conducted to evaluate the contributions of the brick walls. However, the results of the analyses were considerably overestimated due to coarse mesh discretizations, which were unavoidable due to limited computer resources. This study corrects the overestimations by modifying (1) the tensile strengths and (2) shear stiffness reduction factors of concrete and brick. The results indicate that brick walls improve frame strength although shear failures are caused in columns shortened by spandrel walls. Then, the effectiveness of three types of seismic retrofits is evaluated. The maximum drift of the first floor is reduced by 89.3%, 94.8%, and 27.5% by Steel-confined, Full-RC, and Full-brick models, respectively. Finally, feasibility analyses of models with soils were conducted. The analyses indicated that the soils elongate the natural period of building models although no significant differences were observed.

  3. Structural insights of Staphylococcus aureus FtsZ inhibitors through molecular docking, 3D-QSAR and molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballu, Srilata; Itteboina, Ramesh; Sivan, Sree Kanth; Manga, Vijjulatha

    2018-02-01

    Filamentous temperature-sensitive protein Z (FtsZ) is a protein encoded by the FtsZ gene that assembles into a Z-ring at the future site of the septum of bacterial cell division. Structurally, FtsZ is a homolog of eukaryotic tubulin but has low sequence similarity; this makes it possible to obtain FtsZ inhibitors without affecting the eukaryotic cell division. Computational studies were performed on a series of substituted 3-arylalkoxybenzamide derivatives reported as inhibitors of FtsZ activity in Staphylococcus aureus. Quantitative structure-activity relationship models (QSAR) models generated showed good statistical reliability, which is evident from r 2 ncv and r 2 loo values. The predictive ability of these models was determined and an acceptable predictive correlation (r 2 Pred ) values were obtained. Finally, we performed molecular dynamics simulations in order to examine the stability of protein-ligand interactions. This facilitated us to compare free binding energies of cocrystal ligand and newly designed molecule B1. The good concordance between the docking results and comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA)/comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) contour maps afforded obliging clues for the rational modification of molecules to design more potent FtsZ inhibitors.

  4. Gender dimorphic ACL strain in response to combined dynamic 3D knee joint loading: implications for ACL injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Kiyonori; Andrish, Jack T; van den Bogert, Antonie J; McLean, Scott G

    2009-12-01

    While gender-based differences in knee joint anatomies/laxities are well documented, the potential for them to precipitate gender-dimorphic ACL loading and resultant injury risk has not been considered. To this end, we generated gender-specific models of ACL strain as a function of any six degrees of freedom (6DOF) knee joint load state via a combined cadaveric and analytical approach. Continuously varying joint forces and torques were applied to five male and five female cadaveric specimens and recorded along with synchronous knee flexion and ACL strain data. All data (approximately 10,000 samples) were submitted to specimen-specific regression analyses, affording ACL strain predictions as a function of the combined 6 DOF knee loads. Following individual model verifications, generalized gender-specific models were generated and subjected to 6 DOF external load scenarios consistent with both a clinical examination and a dynamic sports maneuver. The ensuing model-based strain predictions were subsequently examined for gender-based discrepancies. Male and female specimen-specific models predicted ACL strain within 0.51%+/-0.10% and 0.52%+/-0.07% of the measured data respectively, and explained more than 75% of the associated variance in each case. Predicted female ACL strains were also significantly larger than respective male values for both simulated 6 DOF load scenarios. Outcomes suggest that the female ACL will rupture in response to comparatively smaller external load applications. Future work must address the underlying anatomical/laxity contributions to knee joint mechanical and resultant ACL loading, ultimately affording prevention strategies that may cater to individual joint vulnerabilities.

  5. Refined 3d-3d correspondence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alday, Luis F.; Genolini, Pietro Benetti; Bullimore, Mathew; Loon, Mark van [Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Andrew Wiles Building,Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Woodstock Road, Oxford, OX2 6GG (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-28

    We explore aspects of the correspondence between Seifert 3-manifolds and 3d N=2 supersymmetric theories with a distinguished abelian flavour symmetry. We give a prescription for computing the squashed three-sphere partition functions of such 3d N=2 theories constructed from boundary conditions and interfaces in a 4d N=2{sup ∗} theory, mirroring the construction of Seifert manifold invariants via Dehn surgery. This is extended to include links in the Seifert manifold by the insertion of supersymmetric Wilson-’t Hooft loops in the 4d N=2{sup ∗} theory. In the presence of a mass parameter for the distinguished flavour symmetry, we recover aspects of refined Chern-Simons theory with complex gauge group, and in particular construct an analytic continuation of the S-matrix of refined Chern-Simons theory.

  6. A 3d-3d appetizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Du; Ye, Ke [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, 91125 (United States)

    2016-11-02

    We test the 3d-3d correspondence for theories that are labeled by Lens spaces. We find a full agreement between the index of the 3d N=2 “Lens space theory” T[L(p,1)] and the partition function of complex Chern-Simons theory on L(p,1). In particular, for p=1, we show how the familiar S{sup 3} partition function of Chern-Simons theory arises from the index of a free theory. For large p, we find that the index of T[L(p,1)] becomes a constant independent of p. In addition, we study T[L(p,1)] on the squashed three-sphere S{sub b}{sup 3}. This enables us to see clearly, at the level of partition function, to what extent G{sub ℂ} complex Chern-Simons theory can be thought of as two copies of Chern-Simons theory with compact gauge group G.

  7. Confirmatory analysis of the AP1000 passive residual heat removal heat exchanger with 3-D computational fluid dynamic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwall, James R.; Karim, Naeem U.; Thakkar, Jivan G.; Taylor, Creed; Schulz, Terry; Wright, Richard F.

    2006-01-01

    The AP1000 is an 1100 MWe advanced nuclear power plant that uses passive safety features to enhance plant safety and to provide significant and measurable improvements in plant simplification, reliability, investment protection and plant costs. The AP1000 received final design approval from the US-NRC in 2004. The AP1000 design is based on the AP600 design that received final design approval in 1999. Wherever possible, the AP1000 plant configuration and layout was kept the same as AP600 to take advantage of the maturity of the design and to minimize new design efforts. As a result, the two-loop configuration was maintained for AP1000, and the containment vessel diameter was kept the same. It was determined that this significant power up-rate was well within the capability of the passive safety features, and that the safety margins for AP1000 were greater than those of operating PWRs. A key feature of the passive core cooling system is the passive residual heat removal heat exchanger (PRHR HX) that provides decay heat removal for postulated LOCA and non-LOCA events. The PRHR HX is a C-tube heat exchanger located in the in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST) above the core promoting natural circulation heat removal between the reactor cooling system and the tank. Component testing was performed for the AP600 PRHR HX to determine the heat transfer characteristics and to develop correlations to be used for the AP1000 safety analysis codes. The data from these tests were confirmed by subsequent integral tests at three separate facilities including the ROSA facility in Japan. Owing to the importance of this component, an independent analysis has been performed using the ATHOS-based computational fluid dynamics computer code PRHRCFD. Two separate models of the PRHR HX and IRWST have been developed representing the ROSA test geometry and the AP1000 plant geometry. Confirmation of the ROSA test results were used to validate PRHRCFD, and the AP1000 plant model

  8. A 3-D functional-structural grapevine model that couples the dynamics of water transport with leaf gas exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junqi; Dai, Zhanwu; Vivin, Philippe; Gambetta, Gregory A; Henke, Michael; Peccoux, Anthony; Ollat, Nathalie; Delrot, Serge

    2017-12-23

    Predicting both plant water status and leaf gas exchange under various environmental conditions is essential for anticipating the effects of climate change on plant growth and productivity. This study developed a functional-structural grapevine model which combines a mechanistic understanding of stomatal function and photosynthesis at the leaf level (i.e. extended Farqhuhar-von Caemmerer-Berry model) and the dynamics of water transport from soil to individual leaves (i.e. Tardieu-Davies model). The model included novel features that account for the effects of xylem embolism (fPLC) on leaf hydraulic conductance and residual stomatal conductance (g0), variable root and leaf hydraulic conductance, and the microclimate of individual organs. The model was calibrated with detailed datasets of leaf photosynthesis, leaf water potential, xylem sap abscisic acid (ABA) concentration and hourly whole-plant transpiration observed within a soil drying period, and validated with independent datasets of whole-plant transpiration under both well-watered and water-stressed conditions. The model well captured the effects of radiation, temperature, CO2 and vapour pressure deficit on leaf photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance and leaf water potential, and correctly reproduced the diurnal pattern and decline of water flux within the soil drying period. In silico analyses revealed that decreases in g0 with increasing fPLC were essential to avoid unrealistic drops in leaf water potential under severe water stress. Additionally, by varying the hydraulic conductance along the pathway (e.g. root and leaves) and changing the sensitivity of stomatal conductance to ABA and leaf water potential, the model can produce different water use behaviours (i.e. iso- and anisohydric). The robust performance of this model allows for modelling climate effects from individual plants to fields, and for modelling plants with complex, non-homogenous canopies. In addition, the model provides a

  9. Effect of support conditions on structural response under dynamic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, T.; Memon, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    In design practice, dynamic structural analysis is carried out with base of structure considered as fixed; this means that foundation is placed on rock like soil material. While conducting this type of analyses the role of foundation and soil behaviour is totally neglected. The actions in members and loads transferred at foundation level obtained in this manner do not depict the true structural behaviour. FEM (Finite Element Methods) analysis where both superstructure and foundation soil are coupled together is quite complicated and expensive for design environments. A simplified model is required to depict dynamic response of structures with foundations based on flexible soils. The primary purpose of this research is to compare the superstructure dynamic responses of structural systems with fixed base to that of simple soil model base. The selected simple soil model is to be suitable for use in a design environment to give more realistic results. For this purpose building models are idealized with various heights and structural systems in both 2D (Two Dimensional) and 3D (Three Dimensional) space. These models are then provided with visco-elastic supports representing three soil bearing capacities and the analysis results are compared to that of fixed supports models. The results indicate that fixed support system underestimates natural time period of the structures. Dynamic behavior and force response of visco-elastic support is different from fixed support model. Fixed support models result in over designed base columns and under designed beams. (author)

  10. Towards a fully kinetic 3D electromagnetic particle-in-cell model of streamer formation and dynamics in high-pressure electronegative gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, D. V.; Welch, D. R.; Clark, R. E.; Thoma, C.; Zimmerman, W. R.; Bruner, N.; Rambo, P. K.; Atherton, B. W.

    2011-01-01

    Streamer and leader formation in high pressure devices is dynamic process involving a broad range of physical phenomena. These include elastic and inelastic particle collisions in the gas, radiation generation, transport and absorption, and electrode interactions. Accurate modeling of these physical processes is essential for a number of applications, including high-current, laser-triggered gas switches. Towards this end, we present a new 3D implicit particle-in-cell simulation model of gas breakdown leading to streamer formation in electronegative gases. The model uses a Monte Carlo treatment for all particle interactions and includes discrete photon generation, transport, and absorption for ultra-violet and soft x-ray radiation. Central to the realization of this fully kinetic particle treatment is an algorithm that manages the total particle count by species while preserving the local momentum distribution functions and conserving charge [D. R. Welch, T. C. Genoni, R. E. Clark, and D. V. Rose, J. Comput. Phys. 227, 143 (2007)]. The simulation model is fully electromagnetic, making it capable of following, for example, the evolution of a gas switch from the point of laser-induced localized breakdown of the gas between electrodes through the successive stages of streamer propagation, initial electrode current connection, and high-current conduction channel evolution, where self-magnetic field effects are likely to be important. We describe the model details and underlying assumptions used and present sample results from 3D simulations of streamer formation and propagation in SF 6 .

  11. Towards a fully kinetic 3D electromagnetic particle-in-cell model of streamer formation and dynamics in high-pressure electronegative gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, D. V.; Welch, D. R.; Clark, R. E.; Thoma, C.; Zimmerman, W. R.; Bruner, N.; Rambo, P. K.; Atherton, B. W.

    2011-09-01

    Streamer and leader formation in high pressure devices is dynamic process involving a broad range of physical phenomena. These include elastic and inelastic particle collisions in the gas, radiation generation, transport and absorption, and electrode interactions. Accurate modeling of these physical processes is essential for a number of applications, including high-current, laser-triggered gas switches. Towards this end, we present a new 3D implicit particle-in-cell simulation model of gas breakdown leading to streamer formation in electronegative gases. The model uses a Monte Carlo treatment for all particle interactions and includes discrete photon generation, transport, and absorption for ultra-violet and soft x-ray radiation. Central to the realization of this fully kinetic particle treatment is an algorithm that manages the total particle count by species while preserving the local momentum distribution functions and conserving charge [D. R. Welch, T. C. Genoni, R. E. Clark, and D. V. Rose, J. Comput. Phys. 227, 143 (2007)]. The simulation model is fully electromagnetic, making it capable of following, for example, the evolution of a gas switch from the point of laser-induced localized breakdown of the gas between electrodes through the successive stages of streamer propagation, initial electrode current connection, and high-current conduction channel evolution, where self-magnetic field effects are likely to be important. We describe the model details and underlying assumptions used and present sample results from 3D simulations of streamer formation and propagation in SF6.

  12. Characterization of fracture reservoirs using static and dynamic data: From sonic and 3D seismic to permeability distribution. Annual report, March 1, 1996--February 28, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, J.O.; Collier, H.A.; Owen, T.E. [and others

    1997-06-01

    In low porosity, low permeability zones, natural fractures are the primary source of permeability which affect both production and injection of fluids. The open fractures do not contribute much to porosity, but they provide an increased drainage network to any porosity. They also may connect the borehole to remote zones of better reservoir characteristics. An important approach to characterizing the fracture orientation and fracture permeability of reservoir formations is one based on the effects of such conditions on the propagation of acoustic and seismic waves in the rock. The project is a study directed toward the evaluation of acoustic logging and 3D-seismic measurement techniques as well as fluid flow and transport methods for mapping permeability anisotropy and other petrophysical parameters for the understanding of the reservoir fracture systems and associated fluid dynamics. The principal application of these measurement techniques and methods is to identify and investigate the propagation characteristics of acoustic and seismic waves in the Twin Creek hydrocarbon reservoir owned by Union Pacific Resources (UPR) and to characterize the fracture permeability distribution using production data. This site is located in the overthrust area of Utah and Wyoming. UPR drilled six horizontal wells, and presently UPR has two rigs running with many established drill hole locations. In addition, there are numerous vertical wells that exist in the area as well as 3D seismic surveys. Each horizontal well contains full FMS logs and MWD logs, gamma logs, etc.

  13. Development of a 3D cell-centered Lagrangian scheme for the numerical modeling of the gas dynamics and hyper-elasticity systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georges, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) flows are multi-material flows characterized by strong shock waves and large changes in the domain shape due to rare faction waves. Numerical schemes based on the Lagrangian formalism are good candidates to model this kind of flows since the computational grid follows the fluid motion. This provides accurate results around the shocks as well as a natural tracking of multi-material interfaces and free-surfaces. In particular, cell-centered Finite Volume Lagrangian schemes such as GLACE (Godunov-type Lagrangian scheme Conservative for total Energy) and EUCCLHYD (Explicit Unstructured Cell-Centered Lagrangian Hydrodynamics) provide good results on both the modeling of gas dynamics and elastic-plastic equations. The work produced during this PhD thesis is in continuity with the work of Maire and Nkonga [JCP, 2009] for the hydrodynamic part and the work of Kluth and Despres [JCP, 2010] for the hyper elasticity part. More precisely, the aim of this thesis is to develop robust and accurate methods for the 3D extension of the EUCCLHYD scheme with a second-order extension based on MUSCL (Monotonic Upstream-centered Scheme for Conservation Laws) and GRP (Generalized Riemann Problem) procedures. A particular care is taken on the preservation of symmetries and the monotonicity of the solutions. The scheme robustness and accuracy are assessed on numerous Lagrangian test cases for which the 3D extensions are very challenging. (author) [fr

  14. Towards a fully kinetic 3D electromagnetic particle-in-cell model of streamer formation and dynamics in high-pressure electronegative gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, D. V.; Welch, D. R.; Clark, R. E.; Thoma, C.; Zimmerman, W. R.; Bruner, N. [Voss Scientific, LLC, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87108 (United States); Rambo, P. K.; Atherton, B. W. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Streamer and leader formation in high pressure devices is dynamic process involving a broad range of physical phenomena. These include elastic and inelastic particle collisions in the gas, radiation generation, transport and absorption, and electrode interactions. Accurate modeling of these physical processes is essential for a number of applications, including high-current, laser-triggered gas switches. Towards this end, we present a new 3D implicit particle-in-cell simulation model of gas breakdown leading to streamer formation in electronegative gases. The model uses a Monte Carlo treatment for all particle interactions and includes discrete photon generation, transport, and absorption for ultra-violet and soft x-ray radiation. Central to the realization of this fully kinetic particle treatment is an algorithm that manages the total particle count by species while preserving the local momentum distribution functions and conserving charge [D. R. Welch, T. C. Genoni, R. E. Clark, and D. V. Rose, J. Comput. Phys. 227, 143 (2007)]. The simulation model is fully electromagnetic, making it capable of following, for example, the evolution of a gas switch from the point of laser-induced localized breakdown of the gas between electrodes through the successive stages of streamer propagation, initial electrode current connection, and high-current conduction channel evolution, where self-magnetic field effects are likely to be important. We describe the model details and underlying assumptions used and present sample results from 3D simulations of streamer formation and propagation in SF{sub 6}.

  15. 3D-QSAR, molecular docking, and molecular dynamic simulations for prediction of new Hsp90 inhibitors based on isoxazole scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Maryam; Sadeghi-Aliabadi, Hojjat; Amanlou, Massoud

    2018-05-01

    Heat shock protein 90(Hsp90), as a molecular chaperone, play a crucial role in folding and proper function of many proteins. Hsp90 inhibitors containing isoxazole scaffold are currently being used in the treatment of cancer as tumor suppressers. Here in the present studies, new compounds based on isoxazole scaffold were predicted using a combination of molecular modeling techniques including three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR), molecular docking and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations. Comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) were also done. The steric and electrostatic contour map of CoMFA and CoMSIA were created. Hydrophobic, hydrogen bond donor and acceptor of CoMSIA model also were generated, and new compounds were predicted by CoMFA and CoMSIA contour maps. To investigate the binding modes of the predicted compounds in the active site of Hsp90, a molecular docking simulation was carried out. MD simulations were also conducted to evaluate the obtained results on the best predicted compound and the best reported Hsp90 inhibitors in the 3D-QSAR model. Findings indicate that the predicted ligands were stable in the active site of Hsp90.

  16. Markerless 3D Face Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walder, Christian; Breidt, Martin; Bulthoff, Heinrich

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel algorithm for the markerless tracking of deforming surfaces such as faces. We acquire a sequence of 3D scans along with color images at 40Hz. The data is then represented by implicit surface and color functions, using a novel partition-of-unity type method of efficiently...... the scanned surface, using the variation of both shape and color as features in a dynamic energy minimization problem. Our prototype system yields high-quality animated 3D models in correspondence, at a rate of approximately twenty seconds per timestep. Tracking results for faces and other objects...

  17. 3D virtuel udstilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tournay, Bruno; Rüdiger, Bjarne

    2006-01-01

    3d digital model af Arkitektskolens gård med virtuel udstilling af afgangsprojekter fra afgangen sommer 2006. 10 s.......3d digital model af Arkitektskolens gård med virtuel udstilling af afgangsprojekter fra afgangen sommer 2006. 10 s....

  18. Underwater 3D filming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rinaldi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After an experimental phase of many years, 3D filming is now effective and successful. Improvements are still possible, but the film industry achieved memorable success on 3D movie’s box offices due to the overall quality of its products. Special environments such as space (“Gravity” and the underwater realm look perfect to be reproduced in 3D. “Filming in space” was possible in “Gravity” using special effects and computer graphic. The underwater realm is still difficult to be handled. Underwater filming in 3D was not that easy and effective as filming in 2D, since not long ago. After almost 3 years of research, a French, Austrian and Italian team realized a perfect tool to film underwater, in 3D, without any constrains. This allows filmmakers to bring the audience deep inside an environment where they most probably will never have the chance to be.

  19. Effects of tire inclination (turning traffic and dynamic loading on the pavement stress–strain responses using 3-D finite element modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodi Hu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ABAQUS finite element (FE modeling in three-dimensional (3-D loading mode was utilized to analytically investigate and quantify the effects of tire inclination and dynamic loading on the stress–strain responses of a pavement structure under varying loading and environmental conditions. The input variables for modeling consisted of actual laboratory and field data obtained from an in-service highway US 59 and included the in-situ pavement structure, material properties (i.e., modulus and shear strength, traffic, and climatic (i.e., temperature data. Computational modeling and sensitivity analyses were conducted through variation of the following two input variables with a focus on the top surfacing hot-mix asphalt (HMA layer: a tire inclination angle to simulate turning traffic, and, b dynamic loading to simulate accelerating, steady rolling, and decelerating (braking traffic. The generated maximum shear stress and vertical strain responses were then analyzed and correlated to the HMA material strength and the actual measured/observed field rutting performance data. The corresponding results indicated that inclined tires (simulating turning traffic and decelerating (braking vehicles induced the most severe shear stresses and vertical strains on the pavement structure in terms of magnitude (i.e., increased; exceeding the HMA material strength in some cases. Thus, for pavement design and structural analysis purposes, the following critical highway areas that may be subjected to extreme stresses and strains due to turning and stopping (braking traffic, particularly in high temperature environments, should be given more attention with respect to material strength characterization to mitigate potential shear/rutting failures: intersections, junctions; urban stop–go sections, and curves. Keywords: 3-D FE stress–strain modeling, Rutting, Shear deformation, Shear stress, Vertical strains

  20. Orbital and escape dynamics in barred galaxies - III. The 3D system: correlations between the basins of escape and the NHIMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotos, Euaggelos E.; Jung, Christof

    2018-01-01

    The escape dynamics of the stars in a barred galaxy composed of a spherically symmetric central nucleus, a bar, a flat thin disc and a dark matter halo component is investigated by using a realistic three degrees of freedom (3-d.o.f.) dynamical model. Modern colour-coded diagrams are used for distinguishing between bounded and escaping motion. In addition, the smaller alignment index method is deployed for determining the regular, sticky or chaotic nature of bounded orbits. We reveal the basins of escape corresponding to the escape through the two symmetrical escape channels around the Lagrange points L2 and L3 and also we relate them with the corresponding distribution of the escape times of the orbits. Furthermore, we demonstrate how the stable manifolds, around the index-1 saddle points, accurately define the fractal basin boundaries observed in the colour-coded diagrams. The development scenario of the fundamental vertical Lyapunov periodic orbit is thoroughly explored for obtaining a more complete view of the unfolding of the singular behaviour of the dynamics at the cusp values of the parameters. Finally, we examine how the combination of the most important parameters of the bar (such as the semimajor axis and the angular velocity) influences the observed stellar structures (rings and spirals), which are formed by escaping stars guided by the invariant manifolds near the saddle points.

  1. Dynamic pulse buckling of cylindrical shells under axial impact: A comparison of 2D and 3D finite element calculations with experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, E.L.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1995-04-01

    A series of tests investigating dynamic pulse buckling of a cylindrical shell under axial impact is compared to several 2D and 3D finite element simulations of the event. The purpose of the work is to investigate the performance of various analysis codes and element types on a problem which is applicable to radioactive material transport packages, and ultimately to develop a benchmark problem to qualify finite element analysis codes for the transport package design industry. Four axial impact tests were performed on 4 in-diameter, 8 in-long, 304 L stainless steel cylinders with a 3/16 in wall thickness. The cylinders were struck by a 597 lb mass with an impact velocity ranging from 42.2 to 45.1 ft/sec. During the impact event, a buckle formed at each end of the cylinder, and one of the two buckles became unstable and collapsed. The instability occurred at the top of the cylinder in three tests and at the bottom in one test. Numerical simulations of the test were performed using the following codes and element types: PRONTO2D with axisymmetric four-node quadrilaterals; PRONTO3D with both four-node shells and eight-node hexahedrons; and ABAQUS/Explicit with axisymmetric two-node shells and four-node quadrilaterals, and 3D four-node shells and eight-node hexahedrons. All of the calculations are compared to the tests with respect to deformed shape and impact load history. As in the tests, the location of the instability is not consistent in all of the calculations. However, the calculations show good agreement with impact load measurements with the exception of an initial load spike which is proven to be the dynamic response of the load cell to the impact. Finally, the PRONIT02D calculation is compared to the tests with respect to strain and acceleration histories. Accelerometer data exhibited good qualitative agreement with the calculations. The strain comparisons show that measurements are very sensitive to gage placement

  2. Set-up improvement in head and neck radiotherapy using a 3D off-line EPID-based correction protocol and a customised head and neck support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Emile N.J. Th. van; Vight, Lisette van der; Huizenga, Henk; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.; Visser, Andries G.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: First, to investigate the set-up improvement resulting from the introduction of a customised head and neck (HN) support system in combination with a technologist-driven off-line correction protocol in HN radiotherapy. Second, to define margins for planning target volume definition, accounting for systematic and random set-up uncertainties. Methods and materials: In 63 patients 498 treatment fractions were evaluated to develop and implement a 3D shrinking action level correction protocol. In the comparative study two different HN-supports were compared: a flexible 'standard HN-support' and a 'customised HN-support'. For all three directions (x, y and z) random and systematic set-up deviations (1 S.D.) were measured. Results: The customised HN-support improves the patient positioning compared to the standard HN-support. The 1D systematic errors in the x, y and z directions were reduced from 2.2-2.3 mm to 1.2-2.0 mm (1 S.D.). The 1D random errors for the y and z directions were reduced from 1.6 and 1.6 mm to 1.1 and 1.0 mm (1 S.D.). The correction protocol reduced the 1D systematic errors further to 0.8-1.1 mm (1 S.D.) and all deviations in any direction were within 5 mm. Treatment time per measured fraction was increased from 10 to 13 min. The total time required per patient, for the complete correction procedure, was approximately 40 min. Conclusions: Portal imaging is a powerful tool in the evaluation of the department specific patient positioning procedures. The introduction of a comfortable customised HN-support, in combination with an electronic portal imaging device-based correction protocol, executed by technologists, led to an improvement of overall patient set-up. As a result, application of proposed recipes for CTV-PTV margins indicates that these can be reduced to 3-4 mm

  3. Underwater 3D filming

    OpenAIRE

    Rinaldi, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    After an experimental phase of many years, 3D filming is now effective and successful. Improvements are still possible, but the film industry achieved memorable success on 3D movie’s box offices due to the overall quality of its products. Special environments such as space (“Gravity” ) and the underwater realm look perfect to be reproduced in 3D. “Filming in space” was possible in “Gravity” using special effects and computer graphic. The underwater realm is still difficult to be handled. Unde...

  4. Blender 3D cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Valenza, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    This book is aimed at the professionals that already have good 3D CGI experience with commercial packages and have now decided to try the open source Blender and want to experiment with something more complex than the average tutorials on the web. However, it's also aimed at the intermediate Blender users who simply want to go some steps further.It's taken for granted that you already know how to move inside the Blender interface, that you already have 3D modeling knowledge, and also that of basic 3D modeling and rendering concepts, for example, edge-loops, n-gons, or samples. In any case, it'

  5. 3D Pit Stop Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Lael; Shaw, Daniel; Gaidds, Kimberly; Lyman, Gregory; Sorey, Timothy

    2018-01-01

    Although solving an engineering design project problem with limited resources or structural capabilities of materials can be part of the challenge, students making their own parts can support creativity. The authors of this article found an exciting solution: 3D printers are not only one of several tools for making but also facilitate a creative…

  6. Dynamism in Electronic Performance Support Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffey, James

    1995-01-01

    Describes a model for dynamic electronic performance support systems based on NNAble, a system developed by the training group at Apple Computer. Principles for designing dynamic performance support are discussed, including a systems approach, performer-centered design, awareness of situated cognition, organizational memory, and technology use.…

  7. One-step synthesis of 3D sulfur/nitrogen dual-doped graphene supported nano silicon as anode for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruihong; Li, Junli; Qi, Kaiyu; Ge, Xin; Zhang, Qiwei; Zhang, Bangwen

    2018-03-01

    Silicon is one of the most promising candidates for next-generation anode of Lithium-ion batteries. However, poor electrical conductivity and large volume change during alloying/dealloying hinder its practical use. Here we reported a three-dimensional (3D) nitrogen and sulfur codoped graphene supported silicon nanoparticles composite (SN-G/Si) through one-step hydrothermal self-assembly. The obtained SN-G/Si was investigated in term of instrumental characterizations and electrochemical properties. The results show that SN-G/Si as a freestanding anode in LIBs delivers a reversible capacity of 2020 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles with coulombic efficiency of nearly 97%. The excellent electrochemical performance is associated with the unique structure and the synergistic effect of SN-G/Si, in which SN-G provides volume buffer for nano Si as the flexible loader, short paths/fast channels for electron/Li ion transport as porous skeleton, and low charge-transfer resistance.

  8. DELTA 3D PRINTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ȘOVĂILĂ Florin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing is a very used process in industry, the generic name being “rapid prototyping”. The essential advantage of a 3D printer is that it allows the designers to produce a prototype in a very short time, which is tested and quickly remodeled, considerably reducing the required time to get from the prototype phase to the final product. At the same time, through this technique we can achieve components with very precise forms, complex pieces that, through classical methods, could have been accomplished only in a large amount of time. In this paper, there are presented the stages of a 3D model execution, also the physical achievement after of a Delta 3D printer after the model.

  9. Professional Papervision3D

    CERN Document Server

    Lively, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Professional Papervision3D describes how Papervision3D works and how real world applications are built, with a clear look at essential topics such as building websites and games, creating virtual tours, and Adobe's Flash 10. Readers learn important techniques through hands-on applications, and build on those skills as the book progresses. The companion website contains all code examples, video step-by-step explanations, and a collada repository.

  10. Impact of time-of-flight on indirect 3D and direct 4D parametric image reconstruction in the presence of inconsistent dynamic PET data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotasidis, F. A.; Mehranian, A.; Zaidi, H.

    2016-05-01

    reconstruction can substantially prevent kinetic parameter error propagation either from erroneous kinetic modelling, inter-frame motion or emission/transmission mismatch. Furthermore, we demonstrate the benefits of TOF in parameter estimation when conventional post-reconstruction (3D) methods are used and compare the potential improvements to direct 4D methods. Further improvements could possibly be achieved in the future by combining TOF direct 4D image reconstruction with adaptive kinetic models and inter-frame motion correction schemes.

  11. In Silico Exploration of 1,7-Diazacarbazole Analogs as Checkpoint Kinase 1 Inhibitors by Using 3D QSAR, Molecular Docking Study, and Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Gao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1 is an important serine/threonine kinase with a self-protection function. The combination of Chk1 inhibitors and anti-cancer drugs can enhance the selectivity of tumor therapy. In this work, a set of 1,7-diazacarbazole analogs were identified as potent Chk1 inhibitors through a series of computer-aided drug design processes, including three-dimensional quantitative structure–activity relationship (3D-QSAR modeling, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics simulations. The optimal QSAR models showed significant cross-validated correlation q2 values (0.531, 0.726, fitted correlation r2 coefficients (higher than 0.90, and standard error of prediction (less than 0.250. These results suggested that the developed models possess good predictive ability. Moreover, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations were applied to highlight the important interactions between the ligand and the Chk1 receptor protein. This study shows that hydrogen bonding and electrostatic forces are key interactions that confer bioactivity.

  12. 3D discrete angiogenesis dynamic model and stochastic simulation for the assessment of blood perfusion coefficient and impact on heat transfer between nanoparticles and malignant tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yifat, Jonathan; Gannot, Israel

    2015-03-01

    Early detection of malignant tumors plays a crucial role in the survivability chances of the patient. Therefore, new and innovative tumor detection methods are constantly searched for. Tumor-specific magnetic-core nano-particles can be used with an alternating magnetic field to detect and treat tumors by hyperthermia. For the analysis of the method effectiveness, the bio-heat transfer between the nanoparticles and the tissue must be carefully studied. Heat diffusion in biological tissue is usually analyzed using the Pennes Bio-Heat Equation, where blood perfusion plays an important role. Malignant tumors are known to initiate an angiogenesis process, where endothelial cell migration from neighboring vasculature eventually leads to the formation of a thick blood capillary network around them. This process allows the tumor to receive its extensive nutrition demands and evolve into a more progressive and potentially fatal tumor. In order to assess the effect of angiogenesis on the bio-heat transfer problem, we have developed a discrete stochastic 3D model & simulation of tumor-induced angiogenesis. The model elaborates other angiogenesis models by providing high resolution 3D stochastic simulation, capturing of fine angiogenesis morphological features, effects of dynamic sprout thickness functions, and stochastic parent vessel generator. We show that the angiogenesis realizations produced are well suited for numerical bio-heat transfer analysis. Statistical study on the angiogenesis characteristics was derived using Monte Carlo simulations. According to the statistical analysis, we provide analytical expression for the blood perfusion coefficient in the Pennes equation, as a function of several parameters. This updated form of the Pennes equation could be used for numerical and analytical analyses of the proposed detection and treatment method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dynamic simulation and modeling of the motion modes produced during the 3D controlled manipulation of biological micro/nanoparticles based on the AFM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraee, Mahdieh B; Korayem, Moharam H

    2015-08-07

    Determining the motion modes and the exact position of a particle displaced during the manipulation process is of special importance. This issue becomes even more important when the studied particles are biological micro/nanoparticles and the goals of manipulation are the transfer of these particles within body cells, repair of cancerous cells and the delivery of medication to damaged cells. However, due to the delicate nature of biological nanoparticles and their higher vulnerability, by obtaining the necessary force of manipulation for the considered motion mode, we can prevent the sample from interlocking with or sticking to the substrate because of applying a weak force or avoid damaging the sample due to the exertion of excessive force. In this paper, the dynamic behaviors and the motion modes of biological micro/nanoparticles such as DNA, yeast, platelet and bacteria due to the 3D manipulation effect have been investigated. Since the above nanoparticles generally have a cylindrical shape, the cylindrical contact models have been employed in an attempt to more precisely model the forces exerted on the nanoparticle during the manipulation process. Also, this investigation has performed a comprehensive modeling and simulation of all the possible motion modes in 3D manipulation by taking into account the eccentricity of the applied load on the biological nanoparticle. The obtained results indicate that unlike the macroscopic scale, the sliding of nanoparticle on substrate in nano-scale takes place sooner than the other motion modes and that the spinning about the vertical and transverse axes and the rolling of nanoparticle occur later than the other motion modes. The simulation results also indicate that the applied force necessary for the onset of nanoparticle movement and the resulting motion mode depend on the size and aspect ratio of the nanoparticle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Thermal fluid dynamics study of nuclear advanced reactors of high temperature using RELAP5-3D; Estudo termofluidodinâmico de reatores nucleares avançados de alta temperatura utilizando o RELAP5-3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scari, Maria Elizabeth

    2017-07-01

    Fourth Generation nuclear reactors (GEN-IV) are being designed with special features such as intrinsic safety, reduction of isotopic inventory and use of fuel in proliferation-resistant cycles. Therefore, the investigation and evaluation of operational and safety aspects of the GEN-IV reactors have been the subject of numerous studies by the international community and also in Brazil. In 2008, in Brazil, was created the National Institute of Science and Technology of Innovative Nuclear Reactors, focusing on studies of projects and systems of new generation reactors, which included GEN-IV reactors as well as advanced PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) concepts. The Department of Nuclear Engineering of the Federal University of Minas Gerais (DEN-UFMG) is a partner of this Institute, having started studies on the GEN-IV reactors in the year 2007. Therefore, in order to add knowledge to these studies, in this work, three projects of advanced reactors were considered to verify the simulation capability of the thermo-hydraulic RELAP5-3D code for these systems, either in stationary operation or in transient situations. The addition of new working fluids such as ammonia, carbon dioxide, helium, hydrogen, various types of liquid salts, among them Flibe, lead, lithium-bismuth, lithium-lead, was a major breakthrough in this version of the code, allowing also the simulation of GEN-IV reactors. The modeling of the respective core of an HTTR (High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor), HTR-10 (High Temperature Test Module Reactor) and LS-VHTR (Liquid-Salt-Cooled Very-High-Temperature Reactor) were developed and verified in steady state comparing the values found through the calculations with reference data from other simulations, when it is possible. The first two reactors use helium gas as coolant and the LS-VHTR uses a mixture of 66% LiF and 34% of BeF{sub 2}, the LiF-BeF{sub 2}, also know as Flibe. All the studied reactors use enriched uranium as fuel, in form of TRISO

  15. Real-Time Extraction of Course Track Networks in Confined Waters as Decision Support for Vessel Navigation in 3-D Nautical Chart

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Porathe, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    In an information design project at Malardalen University in Sweden a computer based 3-D nautical chart system is designed based on human factors principles of more intuitive navigation in high speeds...

  16. First report on 3D-QSAR and molecular dynamics based docking studies of GCPII inhibitors for targeted drug delivery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Amit; Sengupta, Sagnik; Krishnan, Mena Asha; Reddy, Ramesh B.; Sharma, Rajesh; Venkatesh, Chelvam

    2018-05-01

    Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) or Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) has been identified as an important target in diagnosis and therapy of prostate cancer. Among several types of inhibitors, urea based inhibitors are the most common and widely employed in preclinical and clinical studies. Computational studies have been carried out to uncover active sites and interaction of PSMA inhibitors with the protein by modifying the core structure of the ligand. Analysis of the literature, however, show lack of 3-D quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) and molecular dynamics based molecular docking study to identify structural modifications responsible for better GCPII inhibitory activity. The present study aims to fulfil this gap by analysing well known PSMA inhibitors reported in the literature with known experimental PSMA inhibition constants. Also in order to validate the in silico study, a new GCPII inhibitor 7 was designed, synthesized and experimental PSMA enzyme inhibition was evaluated by using freshly isolated PSMA protein from human cancer cell line derived from lymph node, LNCaP. 3D-QSAR CoMFA models on 58 urea based GCPII inhibitors were generated, and the best correlation was obtained in Gast-Huck charge assigning method with q2, r2 and predictive r2 values as 0.592, 0.995 and 0.842 respectively. Moreover, steric, electrostatic, and hydrogen bond donor field contribution analysis provided best statistical values from CoMSIA model (q2, r2 and predictive r2 as 0.527, 0.981 and 0.713 respectively). Contour maps study revealed that electrostatic field contribution is the major factor for discovering better binding affinity ligands. Further molecular dynamic assisted molecular docking was also performed on GCPII receptor (PDB ID 4NGM) and most active GCPII inhibitor, DCIBzL. 4NGM co-crystallised ligand, JB7 was used to validate the docking procedure and the amino acid interactions present in JB7 are compared with DCIBzL. The results

  17. Dynamics of leaf gas exchange, xylem and phloem transport, water potential and carbohydrate concentration in a realistic 3-D model tree crown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikinmaa, Eero; Sievänen, Risto; Hölttä, Teemu

    2014-09-01

    Tree models simulate productivity using general gas exchange responses and structural relationships, but they rarely check whether leaf gas exchange and resulting water and assimilate transport and driving pressure gradients remain within acceptable physical boundaries. This study presents an implementation of the cohesion-tension theory of xylem transport and the Münch hypothesis of phloem transport in a realistic 3-D tree structure and assesses the gas exchange and transport dynamics. A mechanistic model of xylem and phloem transport was used, together with a tested leaf assimilation and transpiration model in a realistic tree architecture to simulate leaf gas exchange and water and carbohydrate transport within an 8-year-old Scots pine tree. The model solved the dynamics of the amounts of water and sucrose solute in the xylem, cambium and phloem using a fine-grained mesh with a system of coupled ordinary differential equations. The simulations predicted the observed patterns of pressure gradients and sugar concentration. Diurnal variation of environmental conditions influenced tree-level gradients in turgor pressure and sugar concentration, which are important drivers of carbon allocation. The results and between-shoot variation were sensitive to structural and functional parameters such as tree-level scaling of conduit size and phloem unloading. Linking whole-tree-level water and assimilate transport, gas exchange and sink activity opens a new avenue for plant studies, as features that are difficult to measure can be studied dynamically with the model. Tree-level responses to local and external conditions can be tested, thus making the approach described here a good test-bench for studies of whole-tree physiology.

  18. Deployment case study of a global applied 3D modeling process of pipe supports; Estudo de caso da aplicacao de uma ferramenta para automatizacao e controle do processo de modelagem de suportes para tubulacoes em maquetes 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbi, Diego Junca Gonzaga; Oliveira, Renato Fonseca; Pinto, Rogerio Dias [Promon Engenharia, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    An activity in engineering projects has been changed over the past two decades with regarding to working practices. Difficulties arising from the increasing complexity of projects, especially in industrial sectors, have taken this activity a constant search for new methods and tools which enable increased speed in performing tasks of daily life of the project. Currently, the development of these tools has been based on a friendlier interface to the end user, minimizing the need for extensive and repetitive training. Moreover, the industry responsible for this development of these kind of tools is still in the search for knowledge in order to explore the plain capabilities within wide projects on solutions offered. This article deals with one of these innovations on the spotlight, besides of being not a technology issue. It's based on the same basic platform available since the creation of models used together with databases. However, this new vision of work inserts one more specialty in the virtual designing of structures to support industrial pipes, as well as other design disciplines, nor taken advantage of these capabilities with regard to the generation of information, its control and management. (author)

  19. Molecular Modeling Studies of 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 Inhibitors through Receptor-Based 3D-QSAR and Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Qian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1 is a potential target for the treatment of numerous human disorders, such as diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. In this work, molecular modeling studies combining molecular docking, 3D-QSAR, MESP, MD simulations and free energy calculations were performed on pyridine amides and 1,2,4-triazolopyridines as 11β-HSD1 inhibitors to explore structure-activity relationships and structural requirement for the inhibitory activity. 3D-QSAR models, including CoMFA and CoMSIA, were developed from the conformations obtained by docking strategy. The derived pharmacophoric features were further supported by MESP and Mulliken charge analyses using density functional theory. In addition, MD simulations and free energy calculations were employed to determine the detailed binding process and to compare the binding modes of inhibitors with different bioactivities. The binding free energies calculated by MM/PBSA showed a good correlation with the experimental biological activities. Free energy analyses and per-residue energy decomposition indicated the van der Waals interaction would be the major driving force for the interactions between an inhibitor and 11β-HSD1. These unified results may provide that hydrogen bond interactions with Ser170 and Tyr183 are favorable for enhancing activity. Thr124, Ser170, Tyr177, Tyr183, Val227, and Val231 are the key amino acid residues in the binding pocket. The obtained results are expected to be valuable for the rational design of novel potent 11β-HSD1 inhibitors.

  20. Molecular Modeling Studies of 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 Inhibitors through Receptor-Based 3D-QSAR and Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Haiyan; Chen, Jiongjiong; Pan, Youlu; Chen, Jianzhong

    2016-09-19

    11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) is a potential target for the treatment of numerous human disorders, such as diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. In this work, molecular modeling studies combining molecular docking, 3D-QSAR, MESP, MD simulations and free energy calculations were performed on pyridine amides and 1,2,4-triazolopyridines as 11β-HSD1 inhibitors to explore structure-activity relationships and structural requirement for the inhibitory activity. 3D-QSAR models, including CoMFA and CoMSIA, were developed from the conformations obtained by docking strategy. The derived pharmacophoric features were further supported by MESP and Mulliken charge analyses using density functional theory. In addition, MD simulations and free energy calculations were employed to determine the detailed binding process and to compare the binding modes of inhibitors with different bioactivities. The binding free energies calculated by MM/PBSA showed a good correlation with the experimental biological activities. Free energy analyses and per-residue energy decomposition indicated the van der Waals interaction would be the major driving force for the interactions between an inhibitor and 11β-HSD1. These unified results may provide that hydrogen bond interactions with Ser170 and Tyr183 are favorable for enhancing activity. Thr124, Ser170, Tyr177, Tyr183, Val227, and Val231 are the key amino acid residues in the binding pocket. The obtained results are expected to be valuable for the rational design of novel potent 11β-HSD1 inhibitors.

  1. Realistic dynamic stope support testing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ortlepp, WD

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available -August 1999. Construction of the steel superstructure commenced early in November 1999 and was completed within two weeks. Progress in commissioning the portal crane and the main compressed air hoist was hampered by small design faults and lack...’ for innovative developments. In particular, techniques for preventing collapses between support units and over the work area between the front line of support and the stope face can be explored. There can be little doubt that the facility could also serve a...

  2. From 3D view to 3D print

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  3. Wearable 3D measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Yoshitsugu; Imura, Masataka; Tsuchiya, Masanobu; Yasumuro, Yoshihiro; Chihara, Kunihiro

    2003-01-01

    Wearable 3D measurement realizes to acquire 3D information of an objects or an environment using a wearable computer. Recently, we can send voice and sound as well as pictures by mobile phone in Japan. Moreover it will become easy to capture and send data of short movie by it. On the other hand, the computers become compact and high performance. And it can easy connect to Internet by wireless LAN. Near future, we can use the wearable computer always and everywhere. So we will be able to send the three-dimensional data that is measured by wearable computer as a next new data. This paper proposes the measurement method and system of three-dimensional data of an object with the using of wearable computer. This method uses slit light projection for 3D measurement and user"s motion instead of scanning system.

  4. 3D analysis of thermo-fluid dynamics of a dry storage fuel container in stationary conditions; Analisis 3D de la termo-fluidodinamica de un contenedor de almacenamiento en seco de combustible en condiciones estacionarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penalva, J.; Feria, F.; Herranz, L. E.

    2012-07-01

    Dry storage containers must ensure the cooling of the fuel housing. Compliance with this requirement is of huge importance to preserve the integrity of spent fuel. In this sense, the thermo-fluid dynamics of containers is a point to consider in safety studies of this storage system. The aim of this work is to achieve a three-dimensional model of thermo-fluid dynamics of the HI-STORM 100S container using Fluent code. In addition to the fundamental characterization of the device, we have studied the impact of design variations associated with the input and output channels air. In the future, the model presented here will provide a basis for analysis of transient and accidental conditions.

  5. 3D ARCHITECTURAL VIDEOMAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Catanese

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available 3D architectural mapping is a video projection technique that can be done with a survey of a chosen building in order to realize a perfect correspondence between its shapes and the images in projection. As a performative kind of audiovisual artifact, the real event of the 3D mapping is a combination of a registered video animation file with a real architecture. This new kind of visual art is becoming very popular and its big audience success testifies new expressive chances in the field of urban design. My case study has been experienced in Pisa for the Luminara feast in 2012.

  6. Interaktiv 3D design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villaume, René Domine; Ørstrup, Finn Rude

    2002-01-01

    Projektet undersøger potentialet for interaktiv 3D design via Internettet. Arkitekt Jørn Utzons projekt til Espansiva blev udviklet som et byggesystem med det mål, at kunne skabe mangfoldige planmuligheder og mangfoldige facade- og rumudformninger. Systemets bygningskomponenter er digitaliseret som...... 3D elementer og gjort tilgængelige. Via Internettet er det nu muligt at sammenstille og afprøve en uendelig  række bygningstyper som  systemet blev tænkt og udviklet til....

  7. 3D Projection Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halskov, Kim; Johansen, Stine Liv; Bach Mikkelsen, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional projection installations are particular kinds of augmented spaces in which a digital 3-D model is projected onto a physical three-dimensional object, thereby fusing the digital content and the physical object. Based on interaction design research and media studies, this article ...... Fingerplan to Loop City, is a 3-D projection installation presenting the history and future of city planning for the Copenhagen area in Denmark. The installation was presented as part of the 12th Architecture Biennale in Venice in 2010....

  8. Herramientas SIG 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco R. Feito Higueruela

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Applications of Geographical Information Systems on several Archeology fields have been increasing during the last years. Recent avances in these technologies make possible to work with more realistic 3D models. In this paper we introduce a new paradigm for this system, the GIS Thetrahedron, in which we define the fundamental elements of GIS, in order to provide a better understanding of their capabilities. At the same time the basic 3D characteristics of some comercial and open source software are described, as well as the application to some samples on archeological researchs

  9. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iliesiu, Luca [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Kos, Filip; Poland, David [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Pufu, Silviu S. [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Simmons-Duffin, David [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Yacoby, Ran [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions 〈ψψψψ〉 in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ×ψ OPE, and also on the central charge C{sub T}. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the Gross-Neveu models at large N. We also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  10. Background and Pickup Ion Velocity Distribution Dynamics in Titan's Plasma Environment: 3D Hybrid Simulation and Comparison with CAPS T9 Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatov, A. S.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Hartle, R. E.; Cooper, J. F.; Simpson, D. G.

    2011-01-01

    In this report we discuss the ion velocity distribution dynamics from the 3D hybrid simulation. In our model the background, pickup, and ionospheric ions are considered as a particles, whereas the electrons are described as a fluid. Inhomogeneous photoionization, electron-impact ionization and charge exchange are included in our model. We also take into account the collisions between the ions and neutrals. The current simulation shows that mass loading by pickup ions H(+); H2(+), CH4(+) and N2(+) is stronger than in the previous simulations when O+ ions are introduced into the background plasma. In our hybrid simulations we use Chamberlain profiles for the atmospheric components. We also include a simple ionosphere model with average mass M = 28 amu ions that were generated inside the ionosphere. The moon is considered as a weakly conducting body. Special attention will be paid to comparing the simulated pickup ion velocity distribution with CAPS T9 observations. Our simulation shows an asymmetry of the ion density distribution and the magnetic field, including the formation of the Alfve n wing-like structures. The simulation also shows that the ring-like velocity distribution for pickup ions relaxes to a Maxwellian core and a shell-like halo.

  11. Accuracy and feasibility of dynamic contrast-enhanced 3D MR imaging in the assessment of lung perfusion: comparison with Tc-99 MAA perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, E.; Akkoclu, A.; Degirmenci, B.; Cooper, R.A.; Sengun, B.; Gulcu, A.; Osma, E.; Ucan, E.S.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to correlate findings of perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and perfusion scintigraphy in cases where there was a suspicion of abnormal pulmonary vasculature, and to evaluate the usefulness of MRI in the detection of perfusion deficits of the lung. METHODS: In all, 17 patients with suspected abnormality of the pulmonary vasculature underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. T1-weighted 3D fast-field echo pulse sequences were obtained (TR/TE 3.3/1.58 ms; flip angle 30 deg ; slice thickness 12 to 15 mm). The dynamic study was acquired in the coronal plane following administration of 0.1 mmol/kg gadopentetate dimeglumine. A total of 8 to 10 sections repeated 20 to 25 times at intervals of 1 s were performed. Perfusion lung scintigraphy was carried out a maximum of 48 h before the MR examination in all cases. Two radiologists, who were blinded to the clinical data and results of other imaging methods, reviewed all coronal sections. MR perfusion images were independently assessed in terms of segmental or lobar perfusion defects in the 85 lobes of the 17 individuals, and the findings were compared with the results of scintigraphy. RESULTS: Of the 17 patients, 8 were found to have pulmonary emboli, 2 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with emphysema, 2 bullous emphysema, 2 Takayasu arteritis and 1 had a hypoplastic pulmonary artery. Pulmonary perfusion was completely normal in 2 cases. In 35 lobes, perfusion defects were detected using both methods, in 4 with MR alone and in 9 only with scintigraphy. There was good agreement between MRI and scintigraphy findings (kappa=0.695). CONCLUSION: Pulmonary perfusion MRI is a new alternative to scintigraphy in the evaluation of pulmonary perfusion for various lung disorders. In addition, this technique allows measurement and quantification of pulmonary perfusion abnormalities

  12. Shaping 3-D boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Madsen, Claus B.

    2011-01-01

    Enabling users to shape 3-D boxes in immersive virtual environments is a non-trivial problem. In this paper, a new family of techniques for creating rectangular boxes of arbitrary position, orientation, and size is presented and evaluated. These new techniques are based solely on position data...

  13. 3D Wire 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordi, Moréton; F, Escribano; J. L., Farias

    This document is a general report on the implementation of gamification in 3D Wire 2015 event. As the second gamification experience in this event, we have delved deeply in the previous objectives (attracting public areas less frequented exhibition in previous years and enhance networking) and have...

  14. 3D Harmonic Echocardiography:

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Voormolen (Marco)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThree dimensional (3D) echocardiography has recently developed from an experimental technique in the ’90 towards an imaging modality for the daily clinical practice. This dissertation describes the considerations, implementation, validation and clinical application of a unique

  15. Validation of Perfusion Quantification with 3D Gradient Echo Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using a Blood Pool Contrast Agent in Skeletal Swine Muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hindel

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to validate perfusion quantification in a low-perfused tissue by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI with shared k-space sampling using a blood pool contrast agent. Perfusion measurements were performed in a total of seven female pigs. An ultrasonic Doppler probe was attached to the right femoral artery to determine total flow in the hind leg musculature. The femoral artery was catheterized for continuous local administration of adenosine to increase blood flow up to four times the baseline level. Three different stable perfusion levels were induced. The MR protocol included a 3D gradient-echo sequence with a temporal resolution of approximately 1.5 seconds. Before each dynamic sequence, static MR images were acquired with flip angles of 5°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. Both static and dynamic images were used to generate relaxation rate and baseline magnetization maps with a flip angle method. 0.1 mL/kg body weight of blood pool contrast medium was injected via a central venous catheter at a flow rate of 5 mL/s. The right hind leg was segmented in 3D into medial, cranial, lateral, and pelvic thigh muscles, lower leg, bones, skin, and fat. The arterial input function (AIF was measured in the aorta. Perfusion of the different anatomic regions was calculated using a one- and a two-compartment model with delay- and dispersion-corrected AIFs. The F-test for model comparison was used to decide whether to use the results of the one- or two-compartment model fit. Total flow was calculated by integrating volume-weighted perfusion values over the whole measured region. The resulting values of delay, dispersion, blood volume, mean transit time, and flow were all in physiologically and physically reasonable ranges. In 107 of 160 ROIs, the blood signal was separated, using a two-compartment model, into a capillary and an arteriolar signal contribution, decided by the F-test. Overall flow in hind leg muscles

  16. Resonance modulation, annihilation and generation of anti-resonance and anti-phasonance in 3D neuronal systems: interplay of resonant and amplifying currents with slow dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotstein, Horacio G

    2017-08-01

    Subthreshold (membrane potential) resonance and phasonance (preferred amplitude and zero-phase responses to oscillatory inputs) in single neurons arise from the interaction between positive and negative feedback effects provided by relatively fast amplifying currents and slower resonant currents. In 2D neuronal systems, amplifying currents are required to be slave to voltage (instantaneously fast) for these phenomena to occur. In higher dimensional systems, additional currents operating at various effective time scales may modulate and annihilate existing resonances and generate antiresonance (minimum amplitude response) and antiphasonance (zero-phase response with phase monotonic properties opposite to phasonance). We use mathematical modeling, numerical simulations and dynamical systems tools to investigate the mechanisms underlying these phenomena in 3D linear models, which are obtained as the linearization of biophysical (conductance-based) models. We characterize the parameter regimes for which the system exhibits the various types of behavior mentioned above in the rather general case in which the underlying 2D system exhibits resonance. We consider two cases: (i) the interplay of two resonant gating variables, and (ii) the interplay of one resonant and one amplifying gating variables. Increasing levels of an amplifying current cause (i) a response amplification if the amplifying current is faster than the resonant current, (ii) resonance and phasonance attenuation and annihilation if the amplifying and resonant currents have identical dynamics, and (iii) antiresonance and antiphasonance if the amplifying current is slower than the resonant current. We investigate the underlying mechanisms by extending the envelope-plane diagram approach developed in previous work (for 2D systems) to three dimensions to include the additional gating variable, and constructing the corresponding envelope curves in these envelope-space diagrams. We find that antiresonance and

  17. Graphene oxide hydrogel as a restricted-area nanoreactor for synthesis of 3D graphene-supported ultrafine TiO2 nanorod nanocomposites for high-rate lithium-ion battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jianli; Gu, Guifang; Ni, Wei; Guan, Qun; Li, Yinchuan; Wang, Bin

    2017-07-01

    Three-dimensional graphene-supported TiO2 nanorod nanocomposites (3D GS-TNR) are prepared using graphene oxide hydrogel as a restricted-area nanoreactor in the hydrothermal process, in which well-distributed TiO2 nanorods with a width of approximately 5 nm and length of 30 nm are conformally embedded in the 3D interconnected graphene network. The 3D graphene oxide not only works as a restricted-area nanoreactor to constrain the size, distribution and morphology of the TiO2; it also work as a highly interconnected conducting network to facilitate electrochemical reactions and maintain good structural integration when the nanocomposites are used as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries. Benefiting from the nanostructure, the 3D GS-TNR nanocomposites show high capacity and excellent long-term cycling capability at high current rates. The 3D GS-TNR composites deliver a high initial charge capacity of 280 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C and maintain a reversible capacity of 115 mAh g-1, with a capacity retention of 83% at 20 C after 1000 cycles. Meanwhile, compared with that of previously reported TiO2-based materials, the 3D GS-TNR nanocomposites show much better performance, including higher capacity, better rate capability and long-term cycling stability.

  18. DYNA3D2000*, Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.

    2002-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: DYNA3D2000 is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation. 2 - Method of solution: Discretization of a continuous model transforms partial differential equations into algebraic equations. A numerical solution is then obtained by solving these algebraic equations through a direct time marching scheme. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Recent software improvements have eliminated most of the user identified limitations with dynamic memory allocation and a very large format description that has pushed potential problem sizes beyond the reach of most users. The dominant restrictions remain in code execution speed and robustness, which the developers constantly strive to improve

  19. Applying 3D Dynamic Visualisation to (Palaeo) Geomorphic Reconstruction: Modelling a Tenth Century Jökulhlaup at Sólheimajökull Glacier, South Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Laura; Isaacs, John

    2014-05-01

    Models of the area with aerial photography to create a 3D virtual environment, which provides the basis for entering field data to the geomorphic reconstruction. The result is a visual simulation of Sólheimajökull's Tenth Century physical environment which places the flood into geomorphic and topographic context. The wider implications of developing this tool are many when considering its ease of use and first-person navigational controls. The animations allow immediate exposure to environments that are otherwise lost in reality. VolcVis is a powerful tool in bringing reconstructed palaeo-environments back to life, albeit in the virtual sphere. It allows a uniquely contemporary appreciation of an elapsed event; yet which was a critical episode in the geomorphic evolution of this dynamic region. When field data are pieced together into a simulation, they hold a greater cohesive strength, giving the results wider applicability and relevance to a range of users and decision-makers, serving both technical and nontechnical perspectives. VolcVis' ability to dynamically display field data presents new possibilities for generating hypotheses, and for data sharing with Icelandic hazard mitigation authorities and the general public.

  20. 3D images and expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Jun-ichi

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an expert system called 3D-IMPRESS for supporting applications of three dimensional (3D) image processing. This system can automatically construct a 3D image processing procedure based on a pictorial example of the goal given by a user. In the paper, to evaluate the performance of the system, it was applied to construction of procedures for extracting specific component figures from practical chest X-ray CT images. (author)

  1. Pharmacophore generation, atom-based 3D-QSAR, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation studies on benzamide analogues as FtsZ inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Swayansiddha; Azam, Mohammed Afzal; Jupudi, Srikanth; Sahu, Susanta Kumar

    2017-10-11

    FtsZ is an appealing target for the design of antimicrobial agent that can be used to defeat the multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens. Pharmacophore modelling, molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies were performed on a series of three-substituted benzamide derivatives. In the present study a five-featured pharmacophore model with one hydrogen bond acceptors, one hydrogen bond donors, one hydrophobic and two aromatic rings was developed using 97 molecules having MIC values ranging from .07 to 957 μM. A statistically significant 3D-QSAR model was obtained using this pharmacophore hypothesis with a good correlation coefficient (R 2  = .8319), cross validated coefficient (Q 2  = .6213) and a high Fisher ratio (F = 103.9) with three component PLS factor. A good correlation between experimental and predicted activity of the training (R 2  = .83) and test set (R 2  = .67) molecules were displayed by ADHRR.1682 model. The generated model was further validated by enrichment studies using the decoy test and MAE-based criteria to measure the efficiency of the model. The docking studies of all selected inhibitors in the active site of FtsZ protein showed crucial hydrogen bond interactions with Val 207, Asn 263, Leu 209, Gly 205 and Asn-299 residues. The binding free energies of these inhibitors were calculated by the molecular mechanics/generalized born surface area VSGB 2.0 method. Finally, a 15 ns MD simulation was done to confirm the stability of the 4DXD-ligand complex. On a wider scope, the prospect of present work provides insight in designing molecules with better selective FtsZ inhibitory potential.

  2. A Combination of 3D-QSAR, Molecular Docking and Molecular Dynamics Simulation Studies of Benzimidazole-Quinolinone Derivatives as iNOS Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixun Liu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS has been involved in a variety of diseases, and thus it is interesting to discover and optimize new iNOS inhibitors. In previous studies, a series of benzimidazole-quinolinone derivatives with high inhibitory activity against human iNOS were discovered. In this work, three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships (3D-QSAR, molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD simulation approaches were applied to investigate the functionalities of active molecular interaction between these active ligands and iNOS. A QSAR model with R2 of 0.9356, Q2 of 0.8373 and Pearson-R value of 0.9406 was constructed, which presents a good predictive ability in both internal and external validation. Furthermore, a combined analysis incorporating the obtained model and the MD results indicates: (1 compounds with the proper-size hydrophobic substituents at position 3 in ring-C (R3 substituent, hydrophilic substituents near the X6 of ring-D and hydrophilic or H-bond acceptor groups at position 2 in ring-B show enhanced biological activities; (2 Met368, Trp366, Gly365, Tyr367, Phe363, Pro344, Gln257, Val346, Asn364, Met349, Thr370, Glu371 and Tyr485 are key amino acids in the active pocket, and activities of iNOS inhibitors are consistent with their capability to alter the position of these important residues, especially Glu371 and Thr370. The results provide a set of useful guidelines for the rational design of novel iNOS inhibitors.

  3. Microfocal X-ray computed tomography post-processing operations for optimizing reconstruction volumes of stented arteries during 3D computational fluid dynamics modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladisa, John F; Olson, Lars E; Ropella, Kristina M; Molthen, Robert C; Haworth, Steven T; Kersten, Judy R; Warltier, David C; Pagel, Paul S

    2005-08-01

    Restenosis caused by neointimal hyperplasia (NH) remains an important clinical problem after stent implantation. Restenosis varies with stent geometry, and idealized computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models have indicated that geometric properties of the implanted stent may differentially influence NH. However, 3D studies capturing the in vivo flow domain within stented vessels have not been conducted at a resolution sufficient to detect subtle alterations in vascular geometry caused by the stent and the subsequent temporal development of NH. We present the details and limitations of a series of post-processing operations used in conjunction with microfocal X-ray CT imaging and reconstruction to generate geometrically accurate flow domains within the localized region of a stent several weeks after implantation. Microfocal X-ray CT reconstruction volumes were subjected to an automated program to perform arterial thresholding, spatial orientation, and surface smoothing of stented and unstented rabbit iliac arteries several weeks after antegrade implantation. A transfer function was obtained for the current post-processing methodology containing reconstructed 16 mm stents implanted into rabbit iliac arteries for up to 21 days after implantation and resolved at circumferential and axial resolutions of 32 and 50 microm, respectively. The results indicate that the techniques presented are sufficient to resolve distributions of WSS with 80% accuracy in segments containing 16 surface perturbations over a 16 mm stented region. These methods will be used to test the hypothesis that reductions in normalized wall shear stress (WSS) and increases in the spatial disparity of WSS immediately after stent implantation may spatially correlate with the temporal development of NH within the stented region.

  4. 3D treatment planning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Cheng B; Li, Sicong

    2018-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning systems have evolved and become crucial components of modern radiation therapy. The systems are computer-aided designing or planning softwares that speed up the treatment planning processes to arrive at the best dose plans for the patients undergoing radiation therapy. Furthermore, the systems provide new technology to solve problems that would not have been considered without the use of computers such as conformal radiation therapy (CRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). The 3D treatment planning systems vary amongst the vendors and also the dose delivery systems they are designed to support. As such these systems have different planning tools to generate the treatment plans and convert the treatment plans into executable instructions that can be implemented by the dose delivery systems. The rapid advancements in computer technology and accelerators have facilitated constant upgrades and the introduction of different and unique dose delivery systems than the traditional C-arm type medical linear accelerators. The focus of this special issue is to gather relevant 3D treatment planning systems for the radiation oncology community to keep abreast of technology advancement by assess the planning tools available as well as those unique "tricks or tips" used to support the different dose delivery systems. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. GPR17: Molecular modeling and dynamics studies of the 3-D structure and purinergic ligand binding features in comparison with P2Y receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranghino Graziella

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GPR17 is a G-protein-coupled receptor located at intermediate phylogenetic position between two distinct receptor families: the P2Y and CysLT receptors for extracellular nucleotides and cysteinyl-LTs, respectively. We previously showed that GPR17 can indeed respond to both classes of endogenous ligands and to synthetic compounds active at the above receptor families, thus representing the first fully characterized non-peptide "hybrid" GPCR. In a rat brain focal ischemia model, the selective in vivo knock down of GPR17 by anti-sense technology or P2Y/CysLT antagonists reduced progression of ischemic damage, thus highlighting GPR17 as a novel therapeutic target for stroke. Elucidation of the structure of GPR17 and of ligand binding mechanisms are the necessary steps to obtain selective and potent drugs for this new potential target. On this basis, a 3-D molecular model of GPR17 embedded in a solvated phospholipid bilayer and refined by molecular dynamics simulations has been the first aim of this study. To explore the binding mode of the "purinergic" component of the receptor, the endogenous agonist UDP and two P2Y receptor antagonists demonstrated to be active on GPR17 (MRS2179 and cangrelor were then modeled on the receptor. Results Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that GPR17 nucleotide binding pocket is similar to that described for the other P2Y receptors, although only one of the three basic residues that have been typically involved in ligand recognition is conserved (Arg255. The binding pocket is enclosed between the helical bundle and covered at the top by EL2. Driving interactions are H-bonds and salt bridges between the 6.55 and 6.52 residues and the phosphate moieties of the ligands. An "accessory" binding site in a region formed by the EL2, EL3 and the Nt was also found. Conclusion Nucleotide binding to GPR17 occurs on the same receptor regions identified for already known P2Y receptors. Agonist

  6. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LITTLE, CHARLES Q.; PETERS, RALPH R.; RIGDON, J. BRIAN; SMALL, DANIEL E.

    1999-01-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene

  7. Tangible 3D Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejlesen, Aske K.; Ovesen, Nis

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental approach to teaching 3D modelling techniques in an Industrial Design programme. The approach includes the use of tangible free form models as tools for improving the overall learning. The paper is based on lecturer and student experiences obtained through...... facilitated discussions during the course as well as through a survey distributed to the participating students. The analysis of the experiences shows a mixed picture consisting of both benefits and limits to the experimental technique. A discussion about the applicability of the technique and about...

  8. Laser printing of cells into 3D scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovsianikov, A; Gruene, M; Koch, L; Maiorana, F; Chichkov, B; Pflaum, M; Wilhelmi, M; Haverich, A

    2010-01-01

    One of the most promising approaches in tissue engineering is the application of 3D scaffolds, which provide cell support and guidance in the initial tissue formation stage. The porosity of the scaffold and internal pore organization influence cell migration and play a major role in its biodegradation dynamics, nutrient diffusion and mechanical stability. In order to control cell migration and cellular interactions within the scaffold, novel technologies capable of producing 3D structures in accordance with predefined design are required. The two-photon polymerization (2PP) technique, used in this report for the fabrication of scaffolds, allows the realization of arbitrary 3D structures with submicron spatial resolution. Highly porous 3D scaffolds, produced by 2PP of acrylated poly(ethylene glycol), are seeded with cells by means of laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT). In this laser printing approach, a propulsive force, resulting from laser-induced shock wave, is used to propel individual cells or cell groups from a donor substrate towards the receiver substrate. We demonstrate that with this technique printing of multiple cell types into 3D scaffolds is possible. Combination of LIFT and 2PP provides a route for the realization of 3D multicellular tissue constructs and artificial ECM engineered on the microscale.

  9. Preparation of environment-friendly 3D eggshell membrane-supported anatase TiO2 as a reusable photocatalyst for degradation of organic dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaling; Zhou, Ji; Fan, Yunde; Ye, Yong; Tang, Bin

    2017-12-01

    We fabricated a low-cost and efficient composite photocatalyst material, combining eggshell membrane (ESM) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles, through self-assembly method. ESM with 3D porous structures provide scaffolds for TiO2 nanoparticles. Polyethyleneimine (PEI) was used to modify ESM by grafting amine groups. The microstructure and property of the fabricated composites were studied by various characterization methods. The composite was used for the photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RhB). The results demonstrate that the composite catalyst possesses good photocatalytic performance for dye degradation under sunlight irradiation simulated by a xenon lamp. Functionalization based on nanomaterials may promote the applications of ESM.

  10. Dynamic accommodative response to different visual stimuli (2D vs 3D) while watching television and while playing Nintendo 3DS console.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sílvia; Jorge, Jorge; González-Méijome, José M

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the accommodative response to the same visual content presented in two dimensions (2D) and stereoscopically in three dimensions (3D) while participants were either watching a television (TV) or Nintendo 3DS console. Twenty-two university students, with a mean age of 20.3 ± 2.0 years (mean ± S.D.), were recruited to participate in the TV experiment and fifteen, with a mean age of 20.1 ± 1.5 years took part in the Nintendo 3DS console study. The accommodative response was measured using a Grand Seiko WAM 5500 autorefractor. In the TV experiment, three conditions were used initially: the film was viewed in 2D mode (TV2D without glasses), the same sequence was watched in 2D whilst shutter-glasses were worn (TV2D with glasses) and the sequence was viewed in 3D mode (TV3D). Measurements were taken for 5 min in each condition, and these sections were sub-divided into ten 30-s segments to examine changes within the film. In addition, the accommodative response to three points of different disparity of one 3D frame was assessed for 30 s. In the Nintendo experiment, two conditions were employed - 2D viewing and stereoscopic 3D viewing. In the TV experiment no statistically significant differences were found between the accommodative response with TV2D without glasses (-0.38 ± 0.32D, mean ± S.D.) and TV3D (-0.37 ± 0.34D). Also, no differences were found between the various segments of the film, or between the accommodative response to different points of one frame (p > 0.05). A significant difference (p = 0.015) was found, however, between the TV2D with (-0.32 ± 0.32D) and without glasses (-0.38 ± 0.32D). In the Nintendo experiment the accommodative responses obtained in modes 2D (-2.57 ± 0.30D) and 3D (-2.49 ± 0.28D) were significantly different (paired t-test p = 0.03). The need to use shutter-glasses may affect the accommodative response during the viewing of displays, and the accommodative response when playing

  11. 3D cine phase-contrast MRI at 3T in intracranial aneurysms compared with patient-specific computational fluid dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooij, P.; Schneiders, J. J.; Marquering, H. A.; Majoie, C. B.; van Bavel, E.; Nederveen, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    CFD has been proved valuable for simulating blood flow in intracranial aneurysms, which may add to better rupture risk assessment. However, CFD has drawbacks such as the sensitivity to assumptions needed for the model, which may hinder its clinical implementation. 3D PC-MR imaging is a technique

  12. 3D Architecture, dynamics as well as functional implications of genome organization of the Prader-Willi/Angelmann syndrome region & the Immunoglobin Heavy-Chain locus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Knoch (Tobias)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe general 3D architecture of the immunoglobin heavy-chain (Igh) locus was determined by a novel interdisciplinary combination of high-resolution FISH and high-resolution epifluorescence spectral distance microscopy with analytical analysis, computer simulations, as well as

  13. Mesoporous NiCo2O4 nano-needles supported by 3D interconnected carbon network on Ni foam for electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Congxiang; Liu, Wen-wen; Pan, Hui; Tay, Beng Kang; Wang, Xingli; Liang, Kun; Wei, Xuezhe

    2018-05-01

    In this work, a three dimensional (3D) interconnected carbon network consisting of ultrathin graphite (UG) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on Ni foam is fabricated and employed as a novel type of substrate for mesoporous NiCo2O4 nano-needles. The successfully synthesized NiCo2O4 nano-needles/CNTs/UG on Ni foam has many advantages including facile electrolyte access and direct conducting pathways towards current collectors, which enable it to be a promising electrode material in battery-like electrochemical energy storage. Encouragingly, a high capacity of 135.1 mAh/g at the current density of 1 A/g, superior rate performance and also stable cycling for 1200 cycles at the current density of 5 A/g have been demonstrated in this novel material.

  14. High-Capacity and Ultrafast Na-Ion Storage of a Self-Supported 3D Porous Antimony Persulfide-Graphene Foam Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanying; Zhang, Ning; Jiang, Shuang; Zhang, Yudong; Zhou, Meng; Tao, Zhanliang; Archer, Lynden A; Chen, Jun

    2017-06-14

    The key challenge for high-performance sodium-ion batteries is the exploitation of appropriate electrode materials with a long cycling stability and high rate capability. Here, we report Sb 2 S 5 nanoparticles (∼5 nm) uniformly encapsulated in three-dimensional (3D) porous graphene foam, which were fabricated by a facile hydrothermal coassembly strategy, as a high-performance anode material for sodium-ion batteries. The as-prepared composite can be directly used as electrodes without adding a binder or current collector, exhibiting outstanding electrochemical performance with a high reversible capacity (845 mA h g -1 at 0.1 A g -1 ), ultralong cycling life (91.6% capacity retention after 300 cycles at 0.2 A g -1 ), and exceptional rate capability (525 mA h g -1 at 10.0 A g -1 ). This is attributed to fast Na + ion diffusion from the ultrasmall nanoparticles and excellent electric transport between the active material and 3D porous graphene, which also provide an effective strategy for anchoring the nanoparticles. Experimental results show that the Sb 2 S 5 undergoes a reversible reaction of Sb 2 S 5 + 16Na ↔ 5Na 2 S + 2Na 3 Sb during sodiation/desodiation. Moreover, a full cell with Na 3 (VO 0.5 ) 2 (PO 4 ) 2 F 2 /C cathode and the as-prepared composite anode was assembled, displaying high output voltage (∼2.2 V) with a stable capacity of 828 mA h g -1 for anode material (with 100 cycles at 0.1 A g -1 ), showing the potential for practical application.

  15. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  16. 3D PHOTOGRAPHS IN CULTURAL HERITAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Schuhr

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper on providing "oo-information" (= objective object-information on cultural monuments and sites, based on 3D photographs is also a contribution of CIPA task group 3 to the 2013 CIPA Symposium in Strasbourg. To stimulate the interest in 3D photography for scientists as well as for amateurs, 3D-Masterpieces are presented. Exemplary it is shown, due to their high documentary value ("near reality", 3D photography support, e.g. the recording, the visualization, the interpretation, the preservation and the restoration of architectural and archaeological objects. This also includes samples for excavation documentation, 3D coordinate calculation, 3D photographs applied for virtual museum purposes and as educational tools. In addition 3D photography is used for virtual museum purposes, as well as an educational tool and for spatial structure enhancement, which in particular holds for inscriptions and in rock arts. This paper is also an invitation to participate in a systematic survey on existing international archives of 3D photographs. In this respect it is also reported on first results, to define an optimum digitization rate for analog stereo views. It is more than overdue, in addition to the access to international archives for 3D photography, the available 3D photography data should appear in a global GIS(cloud-system, like on, e.g., google earth. This contribution also deals with exposing new 3D photographs to document monuments of importance for Cultural Heritage, including the use of 3D and single lense cameras from a 10m telescope staff, to be used for extremely low earth based airborne 3D photography, as well as for "underwater staff photography". In addition it is reported on the use of captive balloon and drone platforms for 3D photography in Cultural Heritage. It is liked to emphasize, the still underestimated 3D effect on real objects even allows, e.g., the spatial perception of extremely small scratches as well as of nuances in

  17. FUN3D Manual: 13.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; hide

    2018-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.3, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  18. FUN3D Manual: 12.8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; hide

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.8, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  19. FUN3D Manual: 13.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; hide

    2017-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.1, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  20. FUN3D Manual: 13.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; hide

    2017-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.2, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.