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Sample records for supported ionic liquids

  1. Supported ionic liquid-phase (SILP) catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus; Wasserscheid, P.

    2005-01-01

    The concept of supported ionic liquid-phase (SILP) catalysis has been demonstrated for gas- and liquid-phase continuous fixed-bed reactions using rhodium phosphine catalyzed hydroformylation of propene and 1-octene as examples. The nature of the support had important influence on both the catalytic...

  2. Supported ionic liquids fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fehrmann, Rasmus; Haumann, Marco

    2013-01-01

    This unique book gives a timely overview about the fundamentals and applications of supported ionic liquids in modern organic synthesis. It introduces the concept and synthesis of SILP materials and presents important applications in the field of catalysis (e.g. hydroformylation, hydrogenation, coupling reactions, fine chemical synthesis) as well as energy technology and gas separation. Written by pioneers in the field, this book is an invaluable reference book for organic chemists in academia or industry.

  3. Supported Ionic Liquid Phase (SILP) catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus; Haumann, Marco

    2006-01-01

    Applications of ionic liquids to replace conventional solvents in homogeneous transition-metal catalysis have increased significantly during the last decade. Biphasic ionic liquid/organic liquid systems offer advantages with regard to product separation, catalyst stability, and recycling but util...

  4. Alkaline ionic liquids applied in supported ionic liquid catalyst for selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eero eSalminen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The challenge in preparation of ionic liquids containing a strong alkaline anion is to identify a suitable cation which can tolerate the harsh conditions induced by the anion. In this study, a commercial quaternary ammonium compound (quat benzalkonium [ADBA] (alkyldimethylbenzylammonium was used as a cation in the synthesis of different alkaline ionic liquids. In fact, the precursor, benzalkonium chloride, is a mixture of alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chlorides of various alkyl chain lengths and is commonly used in the formulation of various antiseptic products. The prepared ionic liquids were utilized as Supported Ionic Liquid Catalysts (SILCAs. Typically, a SILCA contains metal nanoparticles, enzymes or metal complexes in an ionic liquid layer which is immobilized on a solid carrier material such as an active carbon cloth (ACC. The catalysts were applied in the selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal which is an important perfumery chemical. Interestingly, 70 % molar yield towards citronellal was achieved over a catalyst containing the alkaline ionic liquid benzalkonium methoxide.

  5. Alkaline ionic liquids applied in supported ionic liquid catalyst for selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Eero; Virtanen, Pasi; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka

    2014-02-01

    The challenge in preparation of ionic liquids containing a strong alkaline anion is to identify a suitable cation which can tolerate the harsh conditions induced by the anion. In this study, a commercial quaternary ammonium compound (quat) benzalkonium [ADBA] (alkyldimethylbenzylammonium) was used as a cation in the synthesis of different alkaline ionic liquids. In fact, the precursor, benzalkonium chloride, is a mixture of alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chlorides of various alkyl chain lengths and is commonly used in the formulation of various antiseptic products. The prepared ionic liquids were utilized as Supported Ionic Liquid Catalysts (SILCAs). Typically, a SILCA contains metal nanoparticles, enzymes or metal complexes in an ionic liquid layer which is immobilized on a solid carrier material such as an active carbon cloth (ACC). The catalysts were applied in the selective hydrogenation of citral to citronellal which is an important perfumery chemical. Interestingly, 70 % molar yield towards citronellal was achieved over a catalyst containing the alkaline ionic liquid benzalkonium methoxide.

  6. The Use of Supported Acidic Ionic Liquids in Organic Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Skoda-Földes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Catalysts obtained by the immobilisation of acidic ionic liquids (ILs on solid supports offer several advantages compared to the use of catalytically active ILs themselves. Immobilisation may result in an increase in the number of accessible active sites of the catalyst and a reduction of the amount of the IL required. The ionic liquid films on the carrier surfaces provide a homogeneous environment for catalytic reactions but the catalyst appears macroscopically as a dry solid, so it can simply be separated from the reaction mixture. As another advantage, it can easily be applied in a continuous fixed bed reactor. In the present review the main synthetic strategies towards the preparation of supported Lewis acidic and Brønsted acidic ILs are summarised. The most important characterisation methods and structural features of the supported ionic liquids are presented. Their efficiency in catalytic reactions is discussed with special emphasis on their recyclability.

  7. CO2 sorption by supported amino acid ionic liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention concerns the absorption and desorption behaviour of carbon dioxide (CO2) using ionic liquids derived from amino acids adsorbed on porous carrier materials.......The present invention concerns the absorption and desorption behaviour of carbon dioxide (CO2) using ionic liquids derived from amino acids adsorbed on porous carrier materials....

  8. Gold Functionalized Supported Ionic Liquids Catalyst for CO Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Ivanova

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study tries to give an insight to the combination of the homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic properties in a new class of materials. Well dispersed gold nanoparticles on an ionic liquid layer supported on a mineral carrier have been prepared. This work is concentrated on the characterizations and understanding of the interactions between all the components of the catalytic system. The application of the materials in the reaction of oxidation of carbon monoxide shows rather unexpected results—a good catalytic activity completely independent of the temperature.

  9. Study of Alginate-Supported Ionic Liquid and Pd Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Guibal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available New catalytic materials, based on palladium immobilized in ionic liquid supported on alginate, were elaborated. Alginate was associated with gelatin for the immobilization of ionic liquids (ILs and the binding of palladium. These catalytic materials were designed in the form of highly porous monoliths (HPMs, in order to be used in a column reactor. The catalytic materials were tested for the hydrogenation of 4-nitroaniline (4-NA in the presence of formic acid as hydrogen donor. The different parameters for the elaboration of the catalytic materials were studied and their impact analyzed in terms of microstructures, palladium sorption properties and catalytic performances. The characteristics of the biopolymer (proportion of β-D-mannuronic acid (M and α-L-guluronic acid (G in the biopolymer defined by the M/G ratio, the concentration of the porogen agent, and the type of coagulating agent significantly influenced catalytic performances. The freezing temperature had a significant impact on structural properties, but hardly affected the catalytic rate. Cellulose fibers were incorporated as mechanical strengthener into the catalytic materials, and allowed to enhance mechanical properties and catalytic efficiency but required increasing the amount of hydrogen donor for catalysis.

  10. Silica-gel-confined ionic liquids: a new attempt for the development of supported nanoliquid catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Feng; Zhang, Qinghua; Li, Dongmei; Deng, Youquan

    2005-09-05

    A new concept of designing and synthesizing highly dispersed ionic-liquid catalysts was developed through physical confinement or encapsulation of ionic liquids (with or without metal complex) in a silica-gel matrix through a sol-gel process. We studied ionic liquids such as EMImBF4, BuMImBF4, DMImBF4, CMImBF4, BuMImPF6, either with or without [Pd(PPh3)2Cl2] and [Rh(PPh3)3Cl], in a silica-gel matrix (E = ethyl, Bu = butyl M = methyl, D = decyl, C = cetyl and Im = imidazolium). The contents of ionic liquids and loadings of Pd or Rh were 8-53 wt % and 0.1 approximately 0.15 wt %, respectively. Analyses of FT-Raman spectra showed that abnormal Raman spectra of the confined ionic liquids were observed in comparison with the bulk and pure ionic liquids. EMImBF4 and BuMImBF4 ionic liquids could be completely washed out from the silica-gel matrix under vigorous reflux conditions, but ionic liquids with larger molecular size, for example, DMImBF4 or CMImBF4, could be confined into the silica-gel nanopores relatively firmly. These results suggested that the ionic liquids were physically confined or encapsulated into the silica gel. The N2 adsorption measurements indicated that the silica-gel skeleton was mesoporous with 50-110 A pore size after the BuMImBF4 ionic liquid was removed completely. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that the silica-gel matrix was amorphous and non-uniformly mesoporous. Carbonylation of aniline and nitrobenzene for synthesis of diphenyl urea, carbonylation of aniline for synthesis of carbamates, and oxime transformation between cyclohexanone oxime and acetone were used as test reactions for these catalysts. Catalytic activities were remarkably enhanced with much lower amounts of ionic liquids needed with respect to bulk ionic-liquid catalysts or silica-supported ionic-liquid catalysts prepared with simple impregnation, in which the ionic liquid may be deposited as a thin layer on the support. Such

  11. Highly Selective Continuous Gas-Phase Methoxycarbonylation of Ethylene with Supported Ionic Liquid Phase (SILP) Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khokarale, Santosh Govind; Garcia Suárez, Eduardo José; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    Supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) technology was applied for the first time to the Pd-catalyzed continuous, gas-phase methoxycarbonylation of ethylene to selectively produce methyl propanoate (MP) in high yields. The influence of catalyst and reaction parameters such as, for example, ionic liquid...

  12. Ionic Liquids Enabling Revolutionary Closed-Loop Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Brittany R.; Abney, Morgan B.; Karr, Laurel; Stanley, Christine M.; Paley, Steve

    2017-01-01

    Minimizing resupply from Earth is essential for future long duration manned missions. The current oxygen recovery system aboard the International Space Station is capable of recovering approximately 50% of the oxygen from metabolic carbon dioxide. For long duration manned missions, a minimum of 75% oxygen recovery is targeted with a goal of greater than 90%. Theoretically, the Bosch process can recover 100% of oxygen, making it a promising technology for oxygen recovery for long duration missions. However, the Bosch process produces elemental carbon which ultimately fouls the catalyst. Once the catalyst performance is compromised, it must be replaced resulting in undesired resupply mass. Based on the performance of a Bosch system designed by NASA in the 1990's, a three year Martian mission would require approximately 1315 kg (2850 lbs) of catalyst resupply. It may be possible to eliminate catalyst resupply with a fully regenerable system using an Ionic Liquid (IL)-based Bosch system. In 2016, we reported the feasibility of using ILs to produce an iron catalyst on a copper substrate and to regenerate the iron catalyst by extracting the iron from the copper substrate and product carbon. Additionally, we described a basic system concept for an IL-based Bosch. Here we report the results of efforts to scale catalyst preparation, to scale catalyst regeneration, and to scale the carbon formation processing rate of a single reactor.

  13. First application of supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) catalysis for continuous methanol carbonylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, Anders; Jørgensen, Betina; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2006-01-01

    A solid, silica-supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) rhodium iodide Monsanto-type catalyst system, [BMIM][Rh(CO)(2)I-2]-[BMIM]I -SiO2, exhibits excellent activity and selectivity towards acetyl products in fixed-bed, continuous gas-phase methanol carbonylation.......A solid, silica-supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) rhodium iodide Monsanto-type catalyst system, [BMIM][Rh(CO)(2)I-2]-[BMIM]I -SiO2, exhibits excellent activity and selectivity towards acetyl products in fixed-bed, continuous gas-phase methanol carbonylation....

  14. Spectroscopic Studies of Amino Acid Ionic Liquid-Supported Schiff Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Ossowicz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Amino acid ionic liquid-supported Schiff bases, derivatives of salicylaldehyde and various amino acids (L-threonine, L-valine, L-leucine, L-isoleucine and L-histidine have been investigated by means of various spectroscopic techniques (NMR, UV-Vis, IR, MS and deuterium isotope effects on 13C-NMR chemical shifts. The results have shown that in all studied amino acid ionic liquid-supported Schiff bases (except the L-histidine derivative a proton transfer equilibrium exists and the presence of the COO− group stabilizes the proton transferred NH-form.

  15. Thermotropic Ionic Liquid Crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Sabine Laschat; Axenov, Kirill V

    2011-01-01

    The last five years’ achievements in the synthesis and investigation of thermotropic ionic liquid crystals are reviewed. The present review describes the mesomorphic properties displayed by organic, as well as metal-containing ionic mesogens. In addition, a short overview on the ionic polymer and self-assembled liquid crystals is given. Potential and actual applications of ionic mesogens are also discussed.

  16. Stability and kinetic studies of supported ionic liquid phase catalysts for hydroformylation of propene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus; Haumann, Marco

    2005-01-01

    Supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) catalysts have been studied with regard to their long-term stability in the continuous gas-phase hydroformylation of propene. Kinetic data have been acquired by variation of temperature, pressure, syngas composition, substrate concentration, and residence time...

  17. Silica-supported ionic liquid as highly efficient catalyst for one-pot ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    supported ionic liquid as highly efficient catalyst for one-pot synthesis of acenaphtho[1,2-b]furan compounds. REZA SANDAROOSa,∗, MOHAMMAD TAGHI GOLDANIb,∗ and SAMAN DAMAVANDIc. aDepartment of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, ...

  18. Tuning the Chemoselective Hydrogenation of Nitrostyrenes Catalyzed by Ionic Liquid-Supported Platinum Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Matthias Josef; Andanson, Jean-Michel; Baiker, Alfons

    2012-01-01

    Pt nanoparticles (NPs) in the range of 1.7–3.4 nm were synthesized in an ionic liquid (IL). Subsequent immobilization on various solid supports (silica, alumina, titania, carbon nanotubes (CNTs)) in some cases proved to be beneficial. These catalysts exhibited excellent performance...

  19. Group 15 quaternary alkyl bistriflimides: Ionic liquids with potential application in electropositive metal deposition and as supporting electrolytes

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatt, Anand I.; May, Iain; Volkovich, Vladimir A.; Hetherington, Melissa E.; Lewin, Bob G.; Thied, Robert C.; Ertok, Nigar

    2002-01-01

    The eletrochemical properties of Group 15 quaternary alkyl bistriflimides salts were reported. The ionic liquids with potential application in electropositive metal deposition when used as supporting electrolytes in MeCN was also discussed. It was found that the three Group 15 based ionic liquids that were prepared have extremely large electrochemical windows.

  20. Continuous fixed-bed gas-phase hydroformylation using supported ionic liquid-phase (SILP) Rh catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, Anders; Wasserscheid, Peter; Van Hal, R.

    2003-01-01

    Continuous flow gas-phase hydroformylation of propene was performed using novel supported ionic liquid-phase (SILP) catalysts containing immobilized Rh complexes of the biphosphine ligand sulfoxantphos in the ionic liquids 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate and halogen-free 1-n...

  1. Chloride reduction from brackish water by hollow fiber supported liquid membranes (HFSLM) using ionic liquids as a carrier

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmeister, Markus; Slusarek, Tobias; Madaj, Rafal; Strömbäck, William

    2013-01-01

    The project “Chloride reduction from brackish water by hollow fiber supported liquid membranes (HFSLM) using ionic liquids as a carrier “ is about developing an alternative and cost effective solution for the Abrera drinking water treatment plant to desalinate water from Llobregat river while accomplishing drinking water standards. With a constant increase of the world's population, the demand for drinking water also increases. However, the supply of drinking water is limited, so desalination...

  2. A paper-supported graphene-ionic liquid array for e-nose application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X; Liu, D; Chen, Q; Lin, L; Jiang, S; Zhou, H; Zhao, J; Wu, J

    2016-02-18

    A flexible graphene sensor array has been fabricated by in situ reduction of a graphene oxide (GO) array patterned on a paper chip. To achieve cross-reactive sensing and gas discrimination ability, the surface of each reduced GO (rGO) spot was modified with different types of ionic liquids (ILs), which could significantly alter the semiconductor properties and consequently the gas sensing behaviour of the paper-supported rGO sensor.

  3. Supported imidazolium ionic liquid phases: a new material for solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanals, Núria; Ronka, Sylwia; Borrull, Francesc; Trochimczuk, Andrzej W; Marcé, Rosa M

    2009-11-15

    This study reports a material that is based on the concept of ionic liquid analogue: a slightly crosslinked polymer-supported imidazolium trifluoroacetate salt (IL-CF(3)COO(-)) that favorably combines the properties of ionic liquids (ILs) and the advantages of a solid support. The ionic liquid-supported material was evaluated for the first time as a solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent for selectively and quantitatively extracting pharmaceuticals from aqueous samples. The novel IL-CF(3)COO(-) was evaluated under reversed-phase (RP), weak anion exchange (WAX), strong anion exchange (SAX) and strong cation exchange (SCX) SPE procedures, and we found that SAX conditions are the most suitable for investigating the behaviour of the IL-CF(3)COO(-) material. Under SAX conditions, the IL-CF(3)COO(-) material was capable of selectively and quantitatively extracting a group of acidic compounds from aqueous samples, while washing basic analytes that were also present in the sample. The SPE method using IL-CF(3)COO(-) material was used to analyse 1000 ml of different aqueous samples (ultrapure, tap and river) with complete recovery of the acidic compounds studied. Moreover, the method provided clean chromatogram and high recoveries when percolating complex real samples, such as 1000 ml of river water and 250 ml of effluent wastewater from a sewage treatment plant spiked at low levels with the analytes studied.

  4. Specialist gelator for ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanabusa, Kenji; Fukui, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Masahiro; Shirai, Hirofusa

    2005-11-08

    Cyclo(l-beta-3,7-dimethyloctylasparaginyl-L-phenylalanyl) (1) and cyclo(L-beta-2-ethylhexylasparaginyl-L-phenylalanyl) (2), prepared from L-asparaginyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester, have been found to be specialist gelators for ionic liquids. They can gel a wide variety of ionic liquids, including imizazolium, pyridinium, pyrazolidinium, piperidinium, morpholinium, and ammonium salts. The mean minimum gel concentrations (MGCs) necessary to make gels at 25 degrees C were determined for ionic liquids. The gel strength increased at a rate nearly proportional to the concentration of added gelator. The strength of the transparent gel of 1-butylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate ([C(4)py]BF(4)), prepared at a concentration of 60 g L(-1) (gelator 1/[C(4)py]BF(4)), was ca. 1500 g cm(-2). FT-IR spectroscopy indicated that a driving force for gelation was intermolecular hydrogen bonding between amides and that the phase transition from gel to liquid upon heating was brought about by the collapse of hydrogen bonding. The gels formed from ionic liquids were very thermally stable; no melting occurs up to 140 degrees C when the gels were prepared at a concentration of 70 g L(-1) (gelator/ionic liquid). The ionic conductivities of the gels were nearly the same as those of pure ionic liquids. The gelator had electrochemical stability and a wide electrochemical window. When the gels were prepared from ionic liquids containing propylene carbonate, the ionic conductivities of the resulting gels increased to levels rather higher than those of pure ionic liquids. The gelators also gelled ionic liquids containing supporting electrolytes.

  5. Cellulose-Supported Ionic Liquids for Low-Cost Pressure Swing CO2 Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G. Reed

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the cost of capturing CO2 from point source emitters is a major challenge facing carbon capture, utilization, and storage. While solid ionic liquids (SoILs have been shown to allow selective and rapid CO2 capture by pressure swing separation of flue gases, expectations of their high cost hinders their potential application. Cellulose is found to be a reliable, cheap, and sustainable support for a range of SoILs, reducing the total sorbent cost by improving the efficiency of the ionic liquid (IL through increased ionic surface area that results from coating. It was also found that cellulose support imparts surface characteristics, which increased total sorbent uptake. Combined, these effects allowed a fourfold to eightfold improvement in uptake per gram of IL for SoILs that have previously shown high uptake and a 9- to 39-fold improvement for those with previously poor uptake. This offers the potential to drastically reduce the amount of IL required to separate a given gas volume. Furthermore, the fast kinetics are retained, with adsorb–desorb cycles taking place over a matter of seconds. This means that rapid cycling can be achieved, which results in high cumulative separation capacity relative to a conventional temperature swing process. The supported materials show an optimum at 75% cellulose:25% IL as a result of even coating of the cellulose surface. The projected reduction in plant size and operational costs represents a potentially ground-breaking step forward in carbon dioxide capture technologies.

  6. Performance evaluation of microbial electrochemical systems operated with Nafion and supported ionic liquid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koók, László; Nemestóthy, Nándor; Bakonyi, Péter; Zhen, Guangyin; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Lu, Xueqin; Su, Lianghu; Saratale, Ganesh Dattatraya; Kim, Sang-Hyoun; Gubicza, László

    2017-05-01

    In this work, the performance of dual-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) constructed either with commonly used Nafion® proton exchange membrane or supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs) was assessed. The behavior of MFCs was followed and analyzed by taking the polarization curves and besides, their efficiency was characterized by measuring the electricity generation using various substrates such as acetate and glucose. By using the SILMs containing either [C6mim][PF6] or [Bmim][NTf2] ionic liquids, the energy production of these MFCs from glucose was comparable to that obtained with the MFC employing polymeric Nafion® and the same substrate. Furthermore, the MFC operated with [Bmim][NTf2]-based SILM demonstrated higher energy yield in case of low acetate loading (80.1 J g-1 CODin m-2 h-1) than the one with the polymeric Nafion® N115 (59 J g-1 CODin m-2 h-1). Significant difference was observed between the two SILM-MFCs, however, the characteristics of the system was similar based on the cell polarization measurements. The results suggest that membrane-engineering applying ionic liquids can be an interesting subject field for bioelectrochemical system research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Continuous gas-phase hydroformylation of 1-butene using supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haumann, Marco; Dentler, Katharina; Joni, Joni

    2007-01-01

    The concept of supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) catalysis has been extended to 1-butene hydroformylation. A rhodium-sulfoxantphos complex was dissolved in [BMIM][n-C8H17OSO3] and this solution was highly dispersed on silica. Continuous gas-phase experiments in a fixed-bed reactor revealed...... another excellent hint for truly homogeneous catalysis in the SILP system. Compared to former studies using propene, the SILP system showed significantly higher activity and selectivity with 1-butene as feedstock. These findings could be elucidated by solubility measurements using a magnetic microbalance....

  8. Separation of Flue Gas Components by SILP (Supported Ionic Liquid-Phase) Absorbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, P.; Kunov-Kruse, Andreas Jonas; Mossin, Susanne L.

    2013-01-01

    -Phase (SILP) absorber materials. The use of solid SILP absorbers with selected ILs were found to significantly improve the absorption capacity and sorption dynamics at low flue gas concentration, thus making the applicability of ILs viable in technical, continuous flow processes for flue gas cleaning....... The results show that CO2, NO and SO2 can be reversible and selective absorbed using different ILs and that Supported Ionic Liquid-Phase (SILP) absorbers are promising materials for industrial flue gas cleaning. Absorption/desorption dynamics can be tuned by temperature, pressure and gas concentration. © 2012...

  9. Ionic liquids in tribology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Ichiro

    2009-06-24

    Current research on room-temperature ionic liquids as lubricants is described. Ionic liquids possess excellent properties such as non-volatility, non-flammability, and thermo-oxidative stability. The potential use of ionic liquids as lubricants was first proposed in 2001 and approximately 70 articles pertaining to fundamental research on ionic liquids have been published through May 2009. A large majority of the cations examined in this area are derived from 1,3-dialkylimidazolium, with a higher alkyl group on the imidazolium cation being beneficial for good lubrication, while it reduces the thermo-oxidative stability. Hydrophobic anions provide both good lubricity and significant thermo-oxidative stability. The anions decompose through a tribochemical reaction to generate metal fluoride on the rubbed surface. Additive technology to improve lubricity is also explained. An introduction to tribology as an interdisciplinary field of lubrication is also provided.

  10. Interactions of Aqueous Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquid Mixtures with Solid-Supported Phospholipid Vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Losada-Pérez

    Full Text Available Despite the environmentally friendly reputation of ionic liquids (ILs, their safety has been recently questioned given their potential as cytotoxic agents. The fundamental mechanisms underlying the interactions between ILs and cells are less studied and by far not completely understood. Biomimetic films are here important biophysical model systems to elucidate fundamental aspects and mechanisms relevant for a large range of biological interaction ranging from signaling to drug reception or toxicity. Here we use dissipative quartz crystal microbalance QCM-D to examine the effect of aqueous imidazolium-based ionic liquid mixtures on solid-supported biomimetic membranes. Specifically, we assess in real time the effect of the cation chain length and the anion nature on a supported vesicle layer of the model phospholipid DMPC. Results indicate that interactions are mainly driven by the hydrophobic components of the IL, which significantly distort the layer and promote vesicle rupture. Our analyses evidence the gradual decrease of the main phase transition temperature upon increasing IL concentration, reflecting increased disorder by weakening of lipid chain interactions. The degree of rupture is significant for ILs with long hydrophobic cation chains and large hydrophobic anions whose behavior is reminiscent of that of antimicrobial peptides.

  11. Self-Supporting, Hydrophobic, Ionic Liquid-Based Reference Electrodes Prepared by Polymerization-Induced Microphase Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopade, Sujay A; Anderson, Evan L; Schmidt, Peter W; Lodge, Timothy P; Hillmyer, Marc A; Bühlmann, Philippe

    2017-10-27

    Interfaces of ionic liquids and aqueous solutions exhibit stable electrical potentials over a wide range of aqueous electrolyte concentrations. This makes ionic liquids suitable as bridge materials that separate in electroanalytical measurements the reference electrode from samples with low and/or unknown ionic strengths. However, methods for the preparation of ionic liquid-based reference electrodes have not been explored widely. We have designed a convenient and reliable synthesis of ionic liquid-based reference electrodes by polymerization-induced microphase separation. This technique allows for a facile, single-pot synthesis of ready-to-use reference electrodes that incorporate ion conducting nanochannels filled with either 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide or 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethyl sulfonyl)imide as ionic liquid, supported by a mechanically robust cross-linked polystyrene phase. This synthesis procedure allows for the straightforward design of various reference electrode geometries. These reference electrodes exhibit a low resistance as well as good reference potential stability and reproducibility when immersed into aqueous solutions varying from deionized, purified water to 100 mM KCl, while requiring no correction for liquid junction potentials.

  12. Self-Supporting, Hydrophobic, Ionic Liquid-Based Reference Electrodes Prepared by Polymerization-Induced Microphase Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopade, Sujay A.; Anderson, Evan L.; Schmidt, Peter W.; Lodge, Timothy P.; Hillmyer, Marc A.; Bühlmann, Philippe (UMM)

    2017-09-25

    Interfaces of ionic liquids and aqueous solutions exhibit stable electrical potentials over a wide range of aqueous electrolyte concentrations. This makes ionic liquids suitable as bridge materials that separate in electroanalytical measurements the reference electrode from samples with low and/or unknown ionic strengths. However, methods for the preparation of ionic liquid-based reference electrodes have not been explored widely. We have designed a convenient and reliable synthesis of ionic liquid-based reference electrodes by polymerization-induced microphase separation. This technique allows for a facile, single-pot synthesis of ready-to-use reference electrodes that incorporate ion conducting nanochannels filled with either 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide or 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethyl sulfonyl)imide as ionic liquid, supported by a mechanically robust cross-linked polystyrene phase. This synthesis procedure allows for the straightforward design of various reference electrode geometries. These reference electrodes exhibit a low resistance as well as good reference potential stability and reproducibility when immersed into aqueous solutions varying from deionized, purified water to 100 mM KCl, while requiring no correction for liquid junction potentials.

  13. Life Support Catalyst Regeneration Using Ionic Liquids and In Situ Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Karr, Laurel J.; Paley, Mark S.; Donovan, David N.; Kramer, Teersa J.

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen recovery from metabolic carbon dioxide is an enabling capability for long-duration manned space flight. Complete recovery of oxygen (100%) involves the production of solid carbon. Catalytic approaches for this purpose, such as Bosch technology, have been limited in trade analyses due in part to the mass penalty for high catalyst resupply caused by carbon fouling of the iron or nickel catalyst. In an effort to mitigate this challenge, several technology approaches have been proposed. These approaches have included methods to prolong the life of the catalysts by increasing the total carbon mass loading per mass catalyst, methods for simplified catalyst introduction and removal to limit the resupply container mass, methods of using in situ resources, and methods to regenerate catalyst material. Research and development into these methods is ongoing, but only use of in situ resources and/or complete regeneration of catalyst material has the potential to entirely eliminate the need for resupply. The use of ionic liquids provides an opportunity to combine these methods in a technology approach designed to eliminate the need for resupply of oxygen recovery catalyst. Here we describe the results of an initial feasibility study using ionic liquids and in situ resources for life support catalyst regeneration, we discuss the key challenges with the approach, and we propose future efforts to advance the technology.

  14. Are Ionic Liquids Chemically Stable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Binshen; Qin, Li; Mu, Tiancheng; Xue, Zhimin; Gao, Guohua

    2017-05-24

    Ionic liquids have attracted a great deal of interest in recent years, illustrated by their applications in a variety of areas involved with chemistry, physics, biology, and engineering. Usually, the stabilities of ionic liquids are highlighted as one of their outstanding advantages. However, are ionic liquids really stable in all cases? This review covers the chemical stabilities of ionic liquids. It focuses on the reactivity of the most popular imidazolium ionic liquids at structural positions, including C2 position, N1 and N3 positions, and C4 and C5 positions, and decomposition on the imidazolium ring. Additionally, we discuss decomposition of quaternary ammonium and phosphonium ionic liquids and hydrolysis and nucleophilic reactions of anions of ionic liquids. The review aims to arouse caution on potential decomposition of ionic liquids and provides a guide for better utilization of ionic liquids.

  15. Reusable and Efficient Polystryrene-supported Acidic Ionic Liquid Catalyst for Mononitration of Aromatic Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Li Xia; Ling, Qi Long; Liu, Zu Liang; Xing, Xiao Dong; Zhu, Xiao Qin; Meng, Xiao [Nanjing Univ. of Science and Technology, Nanjing (China)

    2012-10-15

    A series of polystyrene-supported 1-(propyl-3-sulfonate)-3-methyl-imidazolium hydrosulfate acidic ionic liquid (PS-[SO{sub 3}H-PMIM][HSO{sub 4}]) catalysts were prepared and tested for mononitration of simple aromatics compounds with nitric acid. It was found that the reactivity of the catalysts increased with increasing [SO{sub 3}HPMIM][HSO{sub 4}] content. The para-selectivity was not only related to the [SO{sub 3}H-PMIM][HSO{sub 4}] content but also the substituent groups in aromatics. A reaction mechanism of nitration over this new catalyst was proposed. The catalytic activity of this catalyst decreased slightly after fifth runs in the synthesis of nitrotoluene.

  16. Catalytic Alkylation of 2-Methylfuran with Formalin Using Supported Acidic Ionic Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hu; Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Yang, Song

    2015-01-01

    Biphasic alkylation of 2-methylfuran (2-MF) with formalin was carried out with a series of SBA-15 supported acidic ionic liquid catalysts (acidic SILCs) under mild reaction conditions. Acidic SILC with sulfonic acid groups (SO3H) and long alkyl chains was observed to have higher catalytic activity...... than commercial sulfonic acid resin catalysts for the alkylation reaction in terms of TONs/TOFs as well as selectivity (90%) toward the C11 oxygenate bis(5-methylfuran-2-yl)methane (BMFM). The reaction product was easily separated by addition of the nonpolar solvent n-heptane and additional water...... to form a biphasic system. The reactivity of other biomass-based substrates such as 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde, furfural, glycolaldehyde, and glyceraldehyde was also investigated over acidic SILCs, and excellent yields of about 80% or higher were obtained of the corresponding condensed products (except...

  17. Supported Ionic Liquid Phase (SILP) Catalysis for the Production of Acetic acid by Methanol Carbonylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanning, Christopher William

    The work presented here is focused on the development of a new reaction process. It applies Supported Ionic Liquid Phase (SILP) catalysis to a specific reaction. By reacting methanol and carbon monoxide over a rhodium catalyst, acetic acid can be formed. This reaction is important on a large scale...... industrially, with millions of tonnes of acetic acid being produced annually. Acetic acid is an important precursor for making adhesives, plastics and fabrics. By using the SILP concept we are able to carry out the reaction in a continuous system, allowing a steady production of acetic acid without having...... to stop and re-start the reaction. This sort of continuous flow reaction is a subject of great research effort in recent years as it is more sustainable (and in some cases financially viable) that the current method of carrying out chemical reactions in large size batch reactions The project started right...

  18. Transformations of Liquid Metals in Ionic Liquid

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Fujun; Yu, Yongze; Liu, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Experimental studies were carried out on the motions and transformations of liquid metal in ionic liquid under applied electric field. The induced vortex rings and flows of ionic liquid were determined via the photographs taken sequentially over the experiments. The polarization of electric double layer of liquid metals was employed to explain the flow of ionic liquid with the presence of liquid metal. Unlike former observation of liquid metal machine in conventional solution, no gas bubble w...

  19. Ionic liquids in chemical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Sebastian; Haumann, Marco; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The development of engineering applications with ionic liquids stretches back to the mid-1990s when the first examples of continuous catalytic processes using ionic liquids and the first studies of ionic liquid-based extractions were published. Ever since, the use of ionic liquids has seen tremendous progress in many fields of chemistry and engineering, and the first commercial applications have been reported. The main driver for ionic liquid engineering applications is to make practical use of their unique property profiles, which are the result of a complex interplay of coulombic, hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions. Remarkably, many ionic liquid properties can be tuned in a wide range by structural modifications at their cation and anion. This review highlights specific examples of ionic liquid applications in catalysis and in separation technologies. Additionally, the application of ionic liquids as working fluids in process machines is introduced.

  20. The Effect of Microporous Polymeric Support Modification on Surface and Gas Transport Properties of Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsu A. Akhmetshina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Microporous polymers based on anionic macroinitiator and toluene 2,4-diisocyanate were used as a support for 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6] and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonylimide ([emim][Tf2N] immobilization. The polymeric support was modified by using silica particles associated in oligomeric media, and the influence of the modifier used on the polymeric structure was studied. The supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs were tested for He, N2, NH3, H2S, and CO2 gas separation and ideal selectivities were calculated. The high values of ideal selectivity for ammonia-based systems with permanent gases were observed on polymer matrixes immobilized with [bmim][PF6] and [emim][Tf2N]. The modification of SILMs by nanosize silica particles leads to an increase of NH3 separation relatively to CO2 or H2S.

  1. Functionalized ionic liquids and their applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hariprakasha, Humcha Krishnamurthy; Rangan, Krishnaswamy Kasthuri; Sudarshan, Tirumalai Srinivas

    2018-01-16

    Disclosure of functionalized ionic liquids. Use of disclosed ionic liquids as solvent for carbon dioxide. Use of disclosed ionic liquids as flame retardant. Use of disclosed ionic liquids for coating fabric to obtain flame retardant fabric.

  2. CO2 capture technologies: current status and new directions using supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) absorbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolding, Helene; Fehrmann, Rasmus; Riisager, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art techniques for CO2 capture are presented and discussed. Post-combustion capture of CO2 by absorption is the technology most easily retrofitted to existing installations, but at present this is not economically viable to install and run. Using ionic liquids instead of aque...

  3. Characterization and parametrical study of Rh-TPPTS supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) catalysts for ethylene hydroformylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanh, Nguyen Thi Ha; Duc, Duc Truong; Thang, Vu Dao

    2012-01-01

    , BET surface area and pore morphology of the catalysts depended on the content of ionic liquid. Hence, catalysts with high ionic liquid loading content showed deactivation at high reaction temperatures, possibly caused by redistribution of ionic liquid out of the pores under these conditions. (C) 2012...

  4. Molecular sieve supported ionic liquids as efficient adsorbent for CO2 capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Na

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available [NH3e-mim][BF4], [OHe-mim][BF4] and [HOEAm] were selected and supported onto molecular sieves NaY, USY, SAPO-34 and MCM-41, to prepare supported ionic liquids. It was found that [NH3e-mim][BF4]/NaY has excellent CO2 adsorption performance, with adsorption capacity of 0.108 mmolCO2/g. This paper investigates the optimal adsorption conditions and recyclability of [NH3e-mim][BF4]/NaY. The results show that [NH3e-mim][BF4]/NaY has good CO2 adsorption under the condition of 20°C and 20% ILs loading amount. By vacuum heating, CO2 adsorption capacity reaches 0.451mmolCO2/g at fifth runs and reduces to 0.29mmolCO2/g at tenth runs. The structure and characterization of the [NH3e-mim][BF4]/NaY was examined by FT-IR, XRD, SEM and TG-DSC. TG-DSC also shows that it has good thermostability below 50°C.

  5. Pyrrolidinium Ionic Liquid Crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Goossens, Karel; Lava, Kathleen; Nockemann, Peter; Van Hecke, Kristof; Van Meervelt, Luc; Driesen, Kris; Görller-Walrand, Christiane; Binnemans, Koen; Cardinaels, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    N-Alkyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium cations have been used for the design of ionic liquid crystals, including a new type of uranium-containing metallomesogen. Pyrrolidinium salts with bromide, bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide, tetrafluoroborate, hexafluorophosphate, thiocyanate, tetrakis(2-thenoyltrifluoroacetonato)europate(III) and tetrabromouranyl] counteranions were prepared. For the bromide salts and tetrabromouranyl compounds, the chain length of the alkyl group CnH2n+1 was varied from eight...

  6. An Efficient, Versatile, and Safe Access to Supported Metallic Nanoparticles on Porous Silicon with Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Darwich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The metallization of porous silicon (PSi is generally realized through physical vapor deposition (PVD or electrochemical processes using aqueous solutions. The former uses a strong vacuum and does not allow for a conformal deposition into the pores. In the latter, the water used as solvent causes oxidation of the silicon during the reduction of the salt precursors. Moreover, as PSi is hydrophobic, the metal penetration into the pores is restricted to the near-surface region. Using a solution of organometallic (OM precursors in ionic liquid (IL, we have developed an easy and efficient way to fully metallize the pores throughout the several-µm-thick porous Si. This process affords supported metallic nanoparticles characterized by a narrow size distribution. This process is demonstrated for different metals (Pt, Pd, Cu, and Ru and can probably be extended to other metals. Moreover, as no reducing agent is necessary (the decomposition in an argon atmosphere at 50 °C is fostered by surface silicon hydride groups borne by PSi, the safety and the cost of the process are improved.

  7. Hollow fiber-supported designer ionic liquid sponges for post-combustion CO2 scrubbing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, JS; Hillesheim, PC; Huang, DK; Lively, RP; Oh, KH; Dai, S; Koros, WJ

    2012-11-30

    A proof of concept study for a new type of carbon capture system is considered for post-combustion CO2 capture based on porous hollow fiber sorbents with ionic liquids sorbed in the cell walls of the fiber. This study proves that delicate morphological features in the open-celled porous wall can be maintained during the infusion process. Mixtures of task specific ionic liquid (i.e. [BMIM][Tf2N]) and superbase (i.e. DBU) were loaded into polyamide-imide (PAI) fibers by a so-called two-step non-solvent infusion protocol. In the protocol, methanol carries ionic liquids into the pore cell walls of hollow fibers and then hexane carries superbase to create an efficient CO2 sorbent. Our ionic liquid/superbase impregnation technique overcomes a serious increase in mass transfer resistance upon reaction with CO2, thereby allowing its large scale utilization for post-combustion CO2 capture. The investigation on the effect of different pore former additives (different molecular weights of polyvinylpyrrolidone, lithium nitrate, and their mixtures) suggested that a large molecular weight of PVP (M-w; 1300k) including dope composition produces highly interconnected open cell pore structures of PAI hollow fibers. Lastly, a lumen side barrier layer was successfully formed on the bore side of neat PAI fibers by using a mixture of Neoprene (R) with crosslinking agents (TSR-633) via a post-treatment process. The lumen layer will enable heat removal from the fiber sorbents during their application in rapid thermal swing cycling processes. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. IONIC LIQUIDS: PREPARATIONS AND LIMITATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzulkefly Kuang Abdullah

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquids are considered as an ideal alternative to volatile organic solvents and chemical industries in the future,because they are non-volatile. Ionic liquids are also considered as new novel chemical agents and widely regarded as agreener alternative to many commonly used solvents. Ionic liquids have been studied for a wide range of syntheticapplications and have attracted considerable interest for use as electrolytes in the areas of organic synthesis, catalysis,solar cell, fuel cells, electrodeposition and supercapacitors. However, some ionic liquids suffer from more or less somedrawbacks such as toxicity, preparation and high cost in the process for use. Most recently, three types of ionic liquidsare attracted much attentions specifically traditional ionic liquid, protic ionic liquid and deep eutectic solvent, wheretheir preparation, mechanism and limitation were differentiated. However, those liquids are having their ownadvantages and limitations based on applications. Traditional ionic liquid and protic ionic liquid are highly cost andtoxic for applied engineering research, but they consist of micro-biphasic systems composed of ionic compounds whichhave more varieties in the applications. The deep eutectic solvent is very economic for large-scale possessing but thereare only limited ionic mixtures to certain application such as electrochemistry.

  9. Metal-organic framework supported ionic liquid membranes for CO2 capture: anion effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Krishna M; Chen, Yifei; Hu, Zhongqiao; Jiang, Jianwen

    2012-04-28

    IRMOF-1 supported ionic liquid (IL) membranes are investigated for CO(2) capture by atomistic simulation. The ILs consist of identical cation 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium [BMIM](+), but four different anions, namely hexafluorophosphate [PF(6)](-), tetrafluoroborate [BF(4)](-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [Tf(2)N](-), and thiocyanate [SCN](-). As compared with the cation, the anion has a stronger interaction with IRMOF-1 and a more ordered structure in IRMOF-1. The small anions [PF(6)](-), [BF(4)](-), and [SCN](-) prefer to locate near to the metal-cluster, particularly the quasi-spherical [PF(6)](-) and [BF(4)](-). In contrast, the bulky and chain-like [BMIM](+) and [Tf(2)N](-) reside near the phenyl ring. Among the four anions, [Tf(2)N](-) has the weakest interaction with IRMOF-1 and thus the strongest interaction with [BMIM](+). With increasing the weight ratio of IL to IRMOF-1 (W(IL/IRMOF-1)), the selectivity of CO(2)/N(2) at infinite dilution is enhanced. At a given W(IL/IRMOF-1), the selectivity increases as [Tf(2)N](-) calculation. In the [BMIM][SCN]/IRMOF-1 membrane with W(IL/IRMOF-1) = 1, [SCN](-) is identified to be the most favorable site for CO(2) adsorption. [BMIM][SCN]/IRMOF-1 outperforms polymer membranes and polymer-supported ILs in CO(2) permeability, and its performance surpasses Robeson's upper bound. This simulation study reveals that the anion has strong effects on the microscopic properties of ILs and suggests that MOF-supported ILs are potentially intriguing for CO(2) capture. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2012

  10. Recent development of ionic liquid stationary phases for liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xianzhe; Qiao, Lizhen; Xu, Guowang

    2015-11-13

    Based on their particular physicochemical characteristics, ionic liquids have been widely applied in many fields of analytical chemistry. Many types of ionic liquids were immobilized on a support like silica or monolith as stationary phases for liquid chromatography. Moreover, different approaches were developed to bond covalently ionic liquids onto the supporting materials. The obtained ionic liquid stationary phases show multi-mode mechanism including hydrophobic, hydrophilic, hydrogen bond, anion exchange, π-π, and dipole-dipole interactions. Therefore, they could be used in different chromatographic modes including ion-exchange, RPLC, NPLC and HILIC to separate various classes of compounds. This review mainly summarizes the immobilized patterns and types of ionic liquid stationary phases, their retention mechanisms and applications in the recent five years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Graphene-ionic liquid composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksay, Ilhan A.; Korkut, Sibel; Pope, Michael; Punckt, Christian

    2016-11-01

    Method of making a graphene-ionic liquid composite. The composite can be used to make elec-trodes for energy storage devices, such as batteries and supercapacitors. Dis-closed and claimed herein is method of making a graphene-ionic liquid com-posite, comprising combining a graphene source with at least one ionic liquid and heating the combination at a temperature of at least about 130 .degree. C.

  12. Selective gas absorption by ionic liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Kegnæs, Søren; Due-Hansen, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Reversible absorption performance for the flue gas components CO 2, NO and SO2 has been tested for several different ionic liquids (ILs) at different temperatures and flue gas compositions. Furthermore, different porous, high surface area carriers have been applied as supports for the ionic liquids...... to obtain Supported Ionic Liquid-Phase (SILP) absorber materials. The use of solid SILP absorbers with selected ILs were found to significantly improve the absorption capacity and sorption dynamics at low flue gas concentration, thus making the applicability of ILs viable in technical, continuous flow...... processes for flue gas cleaning. The results show that CO 2, NO and SO2 can be reversible and selective absorbed using different ILs and that Supported Ionic Liquid-Phase (SILP) absorbers are promising materials for industrial flue gas cleaning. Absorption/desorption dynamics can be tuned by temperatures...

  13. Ionic Liquids: Synthesis and Applications in Catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni Ratti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquids have emerged as an environmentally friendly alternative to the volatile organic solvents. Being designer solvents, they can be modulated to suit the reaction conditions, therefore earning the name “task specific ionic liquids.” Though primarily used as solvents, they are now finding applications in various fields like catalysis, electrochemistry, spectroscopy, and material science to mention a few. The present review is aimed at exploring the applications of ionic liquids in catalysis as acid, base, and organocatalysts and as soluble supports for catalysts.

  14. Fluctuating hydrodynamics for ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaridis, Konstantinos [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Washington State University, Pullman, 99163 (United States); Wickham, Logan [Department of Computer Science, Washington State University, Richland, 99354 (United States); Voulgarakis, Nikolaos, E-mail: n.voulgarakis@wsu.edu [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Washington State University, Pullman, 99163 (United States)

    2017-04-25

    We present a mean-field fluctuating hydrodynamics (FHD) method for studying the structural and transport properties of ionic liquids in bulk and near electrified surfaces. The free energy of the system consists of two competing terms: (1) a Landau–Lifshitz functional that models the spontaneous separation of the ionic groups, and (2) the standard mean-field electrostatic interaction between the ions in the liquid. The numerical approach used to solve the resulting FHD-Poisson equations is very efficient and models thermal fluctuations with remarkable accuracy. Such density fluctuations are sufficiently strong to excite the experimentally observed spontaneous formation of liquid nano-domains. Statistical analysis of our simulations provides quantitative information about the properties of ionic liquids, such as the mixing quality, stability, and the size of the nano-domains. Our model, thus, can be adequately parameterized by directly comparing our prediction with experimental measurements and all-atom simulations. Conclusively, this work can serve as a practical mathematical tool for testing various theories and designing more efficient mixtures of ionic liquids. - Highlights: • A new fluctuating hydrodynamics method for ionic liquids. • Description of ionic liquid morphology in bulk and near electrified surfaces. • Direct comparison with experimental measurements.

  15. Modeling electrokinetics in ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Bao, Jie; Pan, Wenxiao; Sun, Xin

    2017-07-01

    Using direct numerical simulations, we provide a thorough study regarding the electrokinetics of ionic liquids. In particular, modified Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations are solved to capture the crowding and overscreening effects characteristic of an ionic liquid. For modeling electrokinetic flows in an ionic liquid, the modified Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations are coupled with Navier-Stokes equations to study the coupling of ion transport, hydrodynamics, and electrostatic forces. Specifically, we consider the ion transport between two parallel charged surfaces, charging dynamics in a nanopore, capacitance of electric double-layer capacitors, electroosmotic flow in a nanochannel, electroconvective instability on a plane ion-selective surface, and electroconvective flow on a curved ion-selective surface. We also discuss how crowding and overscreening and their interplay affect the electrokinetic behaviors of ionic liquids in these application problems. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Ionic Liquid Epoxy Resin Monomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paley, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Ionic liquid epoxide monomers capable of reacting with cross-linking agents to form polymers with high tensile and adhesive strengths. Ionic liquid epoxide monomers comprising at least one bis(glycidyl) N-substituted nitrogen heterocyclic cation are made from nitrogen heterocycles corresponding to the bis(glycidyl) N-substituted nitrogen heterocyclic cations by a method involving a non-nucleophilic anion, an alkali metal cation, epichlorohydrin, and a strong base.

  17. Exploring the effect of fluorinated anions on the CO2/N2 separation of supported ionic liquid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Andreia S L; Tomé, Liliana C; Lozinskaya, Elena I; Shaplov, Alexander S; Vygodskii, Yakov S; Marrucho, Isabel M

    2017-11-01

    The CO2 and N2 permeation properties of ionic liquids (ILs) based on the 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium cation ([C2mim](+)) and different fluorinated anions, namely 2,2,2-trifluoromethylsulfonyl-N-cyanoamide ([TFSAM](-)), bis(fluorosulfonyl) imide ([FSI](-)), nonafluorobutanesulfonate ([C4F9SO3](-)), tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate ([FAP](-)), and bis(pentafluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ([BETI](-)) anions, were measured using supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs). The results show that pure ILs containing [TFSAM](-) and [FSI](-) anions present the highest CO2 permeabilities, 753 and 843 Barrer, as well as the greatest CO2/N2 permselectivities of 43.9 and 46.1, respectively, with CO2/N2 separation performances on top of or above the Robeson 2008 upper bound. The re-design of the [TFSAM](-) anion by structural unfolding was investigated through the use of IL mixtures. The gas transport and CO2/N2 separation properties through a pure [C2mim][TFSAM] SILM are compared to those of two different binary IL mixtures containing fluorinated and cyano-functionalized groups in the anions. Although the use of IL mixtures is a promising strategy to tailor gas permeation through SILMs, the pure [C2mim][TFSAM] SILM displays higher CO2 permeability, diffusivity and solubility than the selected IL mixtures. Nevertheless, both the prepared mixtures present CO2 separation performances that are on top of or above the Robeson plot.

  18. Phenyl and ionic liquid based bifunctional periodic mesoporous organosilica supported copper: An efficient nanocatalyst for clean production of polyhydroquinolines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhamifar, Dawood; Ardeshirfard, Hakimeh

    2017-11-01

    A novel phenyl and ionic liquid based bifunctional periodic mesoporous organosilica supported copper (Cu@BPMO-Ph-IL) is prepared, characterized and its catalytic application is developed in the clean production of polyhydroquinolines. The Cu@BPMO-Ph-IL was prepared via chemical grafting of ionic liquid groups onto phenyl-based PMO followed by treatment with copper acetate. This nanocatalyst was characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTs), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), nitrogen-sorption and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses. This was successfully applied in the one-pot Hantzsch condensation of aldehydes, ammonium acetate, alkylacetoacetates and dimedone to prepare a set of different derivatives of polyhydroquinolines in high yields and selectivity. The catalyst was effectively recovered and reused several times without important decrease in efficiency. The recovered catalyst was also characterized with TEM analysis to study its stability and durability under applied conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Lipid processing in ionic liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lue, Bena-Marie; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing

    2007-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been touted as “green” alternatives to traditional molecular solvents and have many unique properties which make them extremely desirable substitutes. Among their most attractive properties are their lack of vapour pressure, broad liquid range, strong solvating power...

  20. The Heck Reaction in Ionic Liquids: Progress and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Bellina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available As the interest for environmental increases and environmental laws become more stringent, the need to replace existing processes with new more sustainable technologies becomes a primary objective. The use of ionic liquids to replace organic solvents in metal catalyzed reactions has recently gained much attention and great progress has been accomplished in this area in the last years. This paper reviews the recent developments in the application of ionic liquids and related systems (supported ionic liquids, ionic polymers, and so on in the Heck reaction. Merits and achievements of ionic liquids were analyzed and discussed considering the possibility of increasing the effectiveness of industrial processes.

  1. Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes and Ion-Jelly® Membranes with [BMIM][DCA]: Comparison of Its Performance for CO2 Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Couto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a supported ionic liquid membrane (SILM was prepared by impregnating a PVDF membrane with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide ([BMIM][DCA] ionic liquid. This membrane was tested for its permeability to pure gases (CO2, N2 and O2 and ideal selectivities were calculated. The SILM performance was also compared to that of Ion-Jelly® membranes, a new type of gelled membranes developed recently. It was found that the PVDF membrane presents permeabilities for pure gases similar or lower to those presented by the Ion-Jelly® membranes, but with increased ideal selectivities. This membrane presents also the highest ideal selectivity (73 for the separation of CO2 from N2 when compared with SILMs using the same PVDF support but with different ionic liquids.

  2. Catalytic Ionic-Liquid Membranes: The Convergence of Ionic-Liquid Catalysis and Ionic-Liquid Membrane Separation Technologies.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Izák, Pavel; Bobbink, F.D.; Hulla, M.; Klepic, M.; Friess, K.; Hovorka, Š.; Dyson, P.J.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 1 (2018), s. 7-18 ISSN 2192-6506 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-00089S; GA ČR GA17-05421S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : heterogeneous catalysis * ionic liquids * membranes Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.797, year: 2016

  3. Surface tension of ionic liquids and ionic liquid solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Mohammad; Freire, Mara G; Saramago, Benilde; Coutinho, João A P; Lopes, José N Canongia; Rebelo, Luís Paulo N

    2012-01-21

    Some of the most active scientific research fronts of the past decade are centered on ionic liquids. These fluids present characteristic surface behavior and distinctive trends of their surface tension versus temperature. One way to explore and understand their unique nature is to study their surface properties. This critical review analyses most of the surface tension data reported between 2001 and 2010 (187 references).

  4. Hydrogen bonding in ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Patricia A; Ashworth, Claire R; Matthews, Richard P

    2015-03-07

    Ionic liquids (IL) and hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) are two diverse fields for which there is a developing recognition of significant overlap. Doubly ionic H-bonds occur when a H-bond forms between a cation and anion, and are a key feature of ILs. Doubly ionic H-bonds represent a wide area of H-bonding which has yet to be fully recognised, characterised or explored. H-bonds in ILs (both protic and aprotic) are bifurcated and chelating, and unlike many molecular liquids a significant variety of distinct H-bonds are formed between different types and numbers of donor and acceptor sites within a given IL. Traditional more neutral H-bonds can also be formed in functionalised ILs, adding a further level of complexity. Ab initio computed parameters; association energies, partial charges, density descriptors as encompassed by the QTAIM methodology (ρBCP), qualitative molecular orbital theory and NBO analysis provide established and robust mechanisms for understanding and interpreting traditional neutral and ionic H-bonds. In this review the applicability and extension of these parameters to describe and quantify the doubly ionic H-bond has been explored. Estimating the H-bonding energy is difficult because at a fundamental level the H-bond and ionic interaction are coupled. The NBO and QTAIM methodologies, unlike the total energy, are local descriptors and therefore can be used to directly compare neutral, ionic and doubly ionic H-bonds. The charged nature of the ions influences the ionic characteristics of the H-bond and vice versa, in addition the close association of the ions leads to enhanced orbital overlap and covalent contributions. The charge on the ions raises the energy of the Ylp and lowers the energy of the X-H σ* NBOs resulting in greater charge transfer, strengthening the H-bond. Using this range of parameters and comparing doubly ionic H-bonds to more traditional neutral and ionic H-bonds it is clear that doubly ionic H-bonds cover the full range of weak

  5. Ionic liquid-tolerant cellulase enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladden, John; Park, Joshua; Singer, Steven; Simmons, Blake; Sale, Ken

    2017-10-31

    The present invention provides ionic liquid-tolerant cellulases and method of producing and using such cellulases. The cellulases of the invention are useful in saccharification reactions using ionic liquid treated biomass.

  6. Ionic and Molecular Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaban, Vitaly V.; Prezhdo, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    applications of RTILs in combination with molecular liquids, concentrating on three significant areas: (1) the use of molecular liquids to decrease the viscosity of RTILs; (2) the role of RTIL micelle formation in water and organic solvents; and (3) the ability of RTILs to adsorb pollutant gases. Current...

  7. Nanoparticle enhanced ionic liquid heat transfer fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Elise B.; Visser, Ann E.; Bridges, Nicholas J.; Gray, Joshua R.; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.

    2014-08-12

    A heat transfer fluid created from nanoparticles that are dispersed into an ionic liquid is provided. Small volumes of nanoparticles are created from e.g., metals or metal oxides and/or alloys of such materials are dispersed into ionic liquids to create a heat transfer fluid. The nanoparticles can be dispersed directly into the ionic liquid during nanoparticle formation or the nanoparticles can be formed and then, in a subsequent step, dispersed into the ionic liquid using e.g., agitation.

  8. Absorption of Flue-Gas Components by Ionic Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolding, Helene; Thomassen, Peter Langelund; Mossin, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Gas separation by ionic liquids (ILs) is a promising new research field with several potential applications of industrial interest. Thus cleaning of industrial off gases seems to be attractive by use of ILs and Supported Ionic Liquid Phase (SILP) materials. The potential of selected ILs...

  9. Predicting the ecotoxicity of ionic liquids towards Vibrio fischeri using genetic function approximation and least squares support vector machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuying; Lv, Min; Deng, Fangfang; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Zhai, Honglin; Lv, Wenjuan

    2015-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are widely used in industrial production for their unique physicochemical properties, and they are even regarded as green solvents. However, the recent study showed ILs might pose a potential risk to aquatic ecosystems. In the present work, the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models, including genetic function approximation (GFA) and least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) were developed for predicting the ecotoxicity of ILs towards the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri based on the descriptors calculated from cations and anions. Five descriptors were selected by GFA and used to develop the linear model. From the discussion of descriptors, the cation structure was the main factor to the toxicity, which mainly depended on the size, lipophilic, and 3D molecular structure of cations. In order to capture the nonlinear nature, the LSSVM model was also built for more accurately predicting the ecotoxicity. The GFA and LSSVM models were performed the rigorous internal and external validation, further verifying these models with excellent robustness and predictive ability. Therefore, both of models can be used for the prediction of the ecotoxicity of newly synthesized and untested ILs, and can provide reference information and theoretical guidance for designing and synthesizing safer and more eco-friendly ILs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of ionic liquids in hydrometallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jesik; Jung, Yeojin; Kusumah, Priyandi; Lee, Jinyoung; Kwon, Kyungjung; Lee, Churl Kyoung

    2014-08-29

    Ionic liquids, low temperature molten salts, have various advantages manifesting themselves as durable and environmentally friendly solvents. Their application is expanding into various fields including hydrometallurgy due to their unique properties such as non-volatility, inflammability, low toxicity, good ionic conductivity, and wide electrochemical potential window. This paper reviews previous literatures and our recent results adopting ionic liquids in extraction, synthesis and processing of metals with an emphasis on the electrolysis of active/light, rare earth, and platinum group metals. Because the research and development of ionic liquids in this area are still emerging, various, more fundamental approaches are expected to popularize ionic liquids in the metal manufacturing industry.

  11. Long range electrostatic forces in ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbie, Matthew A; Smith, Alexander M; Dobbs, Howard A; Lee, Alpha A; Warr, Gregory G; Banquy, Xavier; Valtiner, Markus; Rutland, Mark W; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Perkin, Susan; Atkin, Rob

    2017-01-19

    Ionic liquids are pure salts that are liquid under ambient conditions. As liquids composed solely of ions, the scientific consensus has been that ionic liquids have exceedingly high ionic strengths and thus very short Debye screening lengths. However, several recent experiments from laboratories around the world have reported data for the approach of two surfaces separated by ionic liquids which revealed remarkable long range forces that appear to be electrostatic in origin. Evidence has accumulated demonstrating long range surface forces for several different combinations of ionic liquids and electrically charged surfaces, as well as for concentrated mixtures of inorganic salts in solvent. The original interpretation of these forces, that ionic liquids could be envisioned as "dilute electrolytes," was controversial, and the origin of long range forces in ionic liquids remains the subject of discussion. Here we seek to collate and examine the evidence for long range surface forces in ionic liquids, identify key outstanding questions, and explore possible mechanisms underlying the origin of these long range forces. Long range surface forces in ionic liquids and other highly concentrated electrolytes hold diverse implications from designing ionic liquids for energy storage applications to rationalizing electrostatic correlations in biological self-assembly.

  12. Ionic Liquids to Replace Hydrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelfgen, Syri; Sims, Joe; Forton, Melissa; Allan, Barry; Rogers, Robin; Shamshina, Julia

    2011-01-01

    A method for developing safe, easy-to-handle propellants has been developed based upon ionic liquids (ILs) or their eutectic mixtures. An IL is a binary combination of a typically organic cation and anion, which generally produces an ionic salt with a melting point below 100 deg C. Many ILs have melting points near, or even below, room temperature (room temperature ionic liquids, RTILs). More importantly, a number of ILs have a positive enthalpy of formation. This means the thermal energy released during decomposition reactions makes energetic ILs ideal for use as propellants. In this specific work, to date, a baseline set of energetic ILs has been identified, synthesized, and characterized. Many of the ILs in this set have excellent performance potential in their own right. In all, ten ILs were characterized for their enthalpy of formation, density, melting point, glass transition point (if applicable), and decomposition temperature. Enthalpy of formation was measured using a microcalorimeter designed specifically to test milligram amounts of energetic materials. Of the ten ILs characterized, five offer higher Isp performance than hydrazine, ranging between 10 and 113 seconds higher than the state-of-the-art propellant. To achieve this level of performance, the energetic cations 4- amino-l,2,4-triazolium and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazolium were paired with various anions in the nitrate, dicyanamide, chloride, and 3-nitro-l,2,4-triazole families. Protonation, alkylation, and butylation synthesis routes were used for creation of the different salts.

  13. Optimization of Pore Structure of Cathodic Carbon Supports for Solvate Ionic Liquid Electrolytes Based Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shiguo; Ikoma, Ai; Li, Zhe; Ueno, Kazuhide; Ma, Xiaofeng; Dokko, Kaoru; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2016-10-04

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are a promising energy-storage technology owing to their high theoretical capacity and energy density. However, their practical application remains a challenge because of the serve shuttle effect caused by the dissolution of polysulfides in common organic electrolytes. Polysulfide-insoluble electrolytes, such as solvate ionic liquids (ILs), have recently emerged as alternative candidates and shown great potential in suppressing the shuttle effect and improving the cycle stability of Li-S batteries. Redox electrochemical reactions in polysulfide-insoluble electrolytes occur via a solid-state process at the interphase between the electrolyte and the composite cathode; therefore, creating an appropriate interface between sulfur and a carbon support is of great importance. Nevertheless, the porous carbon supports established for conventional organic electrolytes may not be suitable for polysulfide-insoluble electrolytes. In this work, we investigated the effect of the porous structure of carbon materials on the Li-S battery performance in polysulfide-insoluble electrolytes using solvate ILs as a model electrolyte. We determined that the pore volume (rather than the surface area) exerts a major influence on the discharge capacity of S composite cathodes. In particular, inverse opal carbons with three-dimensionally ordered interconnected macropores and a large pore volume deliver the highest discharge capacity. The battery performance in both polysulfide-soluble electrolytes and solvate ILs was used to study the effect of electrolytes. We propose a plausible mechanism to explain the different porous structure requirements in polysulfide-soluble and polysulfide-insoluble electrolytes.

  14. Organosilica Membrane with Ionic Liquid Properties for Separation of Toluene/H2 Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yohei; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Miyamoto, Manabu; Nishiyama, Norikazu

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we present a new concept in chemically stabilized ionic liquid membranes: an ionic liquid organosilica (ILOS) membrane, which is an organosilica membrane with ionic liquid-like properties. A silylated ionic liquid was used as a precursor for synthesis. The permselectivity, permeation mechanism, and stability of the membrane in the H2/toluene binary system were then compared with a supported ionic liquid membrane. The membrane showed a superior separation factor of toluene/H2 (>17,000) in a binary mixture system based on a solution–diffusion mechanism with improved durability over the supported ionic liquid membrane. PMID:28771202

  15. Membrane separation of ionic liquid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Daniel; Feiring, Andrew Edward; Majumdar, Sudipto; Nemser, Stuart

    2015-09-01

    A membrane separation process using a highly fluorinated polymer membrane that selectively permeates water of an aqueous ionic liquid solution to provide dry ionic liquid. Preferably the polymer is a polymer that includes polymerized perfluoro-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxole (PDD). The process is also capable of removing small molecular compounds such as organic solvents that can be present in the solution. This membrane separation process is suitable for drying the aqueous ionic liquid byproduct from precipitating solutions of biomass dissolved in ionic liquid, and is thus instrumental to providing usable lignocellulosic products for energy consumption and other industrial uses in an environmentally benign manner.

  16. Improved Ionic Liquids as Space Lubricants Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ionic liquids are candidate lubricant materials. However for application in low temperature space mechanisms their lubrication performance needs to be enhanced. UES...

  17. "Practical" Electrospinning of Biopolymers in Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamshina, Julia L; Zavgorodnya, Oleksandra; Bonner, Jonathan R; Gurau, Gabriela; Di Nardo, Thomas; Rogers, Robin D

    2017-01-10

    To address the need to scale up technologies for electrospinning of biopolymers from ionic liquids to practical volumes, a setup for the multi-needle electrospinning of chitin using the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [C2 mim]-[OAc], was designed, built, and demonstrated. Materials with controllable and high surface area were prepared at the nanoscale using ionic-liquid solutions of high-molecular-weight chitin extracted with the same ionic liquid directly from shrimp shells. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Ionic-Liquid-Tethered Nanoparticles: Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Moganty, Surya S.

    2010-10-22

    A new class of solventless electrolytes was created by tethering ionic liquids to hard inorganic ZrO2 nanostructures (see picture; NIM=nanoscale ionic material). These hybrid fluids exhibit exceptional redox stability windows, excellent thermal stability, good lithium transference numbers, long-term interfacial stability in the presence of a lithium anode and, when doped with lithium salt, reasonable ionic conductivities.

  19. Dielectric study on mixtures of ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, E; Sippel, P; Reuter, D; Weiß, M; Loidl, A; Krohns, S

    2017-08-07

    Ionic liquids are promising candidates for electrolytes in energy-storage systems. We demonstrate that mixing two ionic liquids allows to precisely tune their physical properties, like the dc conductivity. Moreover, these mixtures enable the gradual modification of the fragility parameter, which is believed to be a measure of the complexity of the energy landscape in supercooled liquids. The physical origin of this index is still under debate; therefore, mixing ionic liquids can provide further insights. From the chemical point of view, tuning ionic liquids via mixing is an easy and thus an economic way. For this study, we performed detailed investigations by broadband dielectric spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry on two mixing series of ionic liquids. One series combines an imidazole based with a pyridine based ionic liquid and the other two different anions in an imidazole based ionic liquid. The analysis of the glass-transition temperatures and the thorough evaluations of the measured dielectric permittivity and conductivity spectra reveal that the dynamics in mixtures of ionic liquids are well defined by the fractions of their parent compounds.

  20. Improved ionic model of liquid uranium dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gryaznov, [No Value; Iosilevski, [No Value; Yakub, E; Fortov, [No Value; Hyland, GJ; Ronchi, C

    The paper presents a model for liquid uranium dioxide, obtained by improving a simplified ionic model, previously adopted to describe the equation of state of this substance [1]. A "chemical picture" is used for liquid UO2 of stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric composition. Several ionic species

  1. Aqueous solutions of ionic liquids: microscopic assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vicent-Luna, J.M.; Dubbeldam, D.; Gómez-Álvarez, P.; Calero, S.

    2016-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of ionic liquids are of special interest, due to the distinctive properties of ionic liquids, in particular, their amphiphilic character. A better understanding of the structure-property relationships of such systems is hence desirable. One of the crucial molecular-level

  2. Engineered microorganisms having resistance to ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruegg, Thomas Lawrence; Thelen, Michael P.

    2016-03-22

    The present invention provides for a method of genetically modifying microorganisms to enhance resistance to ionic liquids, host cells genetically modified in accordance with the methods, and methods of using the host cells in a reaction comprising biomass that has been pretreated with ionic liquids.

  3. Thermal boundary conductance of hydrophilic and hydrophobic ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyake, Takafumi; Sakata, Masanori; Yada, Susumu; Shiomi, Junichiro

    2015-03-01

    A solid/liquid interface plays a critical role for understanding mechanisms of biological and physical science. Moreover, carrier density of the surface is dramatically enhanced by electric double layer with ionic liquid, salt in the liquid state. Here, we have measured the thermal boundary conductance (TBC) across an interface of gold thin film and ionic liquid by using time-domain thermoreflectance technique. Following the prior researches, we have identified the TBC of two interfaces. One is gold and hydrophilic ionic liquid, N,N-Diethyl-N-methyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl) ammonium tetrafluoroborate (DEME-BF4), which is a hydrophilic ionic liquid, and the other is N,N-Diethyl-N-methyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl) ammonium bis (trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (DEME-TFSI), which is a hydrophobic ionic liquid. We found that the TBC between gold and DEME-TFIS (19 MWm-2K-1) is surprisingly lower than the interface between gold and DEME-BF4 (45 MWm-2K-1). With these data, the importance of the wetting angle and ion concentration for the thermal transport at the solid/ionic liquid interface is discussed. Part of this work is financially supported by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) and Japan Science and Technology Agency. The author is financially supported by JSPS Fellowship.

  4. Harnessing Poly(ionic liquid)s for Sensing Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Guterman, Ryan; Ambrogi, Martina; Yuan, Jiayin

    2016-01-01

    The interest in poly(ionic liquids) for sensing applications are derived from their strong interactions to a variety of analytes. By combining the desirable mechanical properties of polymers with the physical and chemical properties of ILs, new materials can be created. The tunable nature of both ionic liquids and polymers allows for incredible diversity, which is exemplified in their broad applicability. In this article we examine the new field of poly(ionic liquid) sensors by providing a de...

  5. Application of Ionic Liquids in Hydrometallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesik Park

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquids, low temperature molten salts, have various advantages manifesting themselves as durable and environmentally friendly solvents. Their application is expanding into various fields including hydrometallurgy due to their unique properties such as non-volatility, inflammability, low toxicity, good ionic conductivity, and wide electrochemical potential window. This paper reviews previous literatures and our recent results adopting ionic liquids in extraction, synthesis and processing of metals with an emphasis on the electrolysis of active/light, rare earth, and platinum group metals. Because the research and development of ionic liquids in this area are still emerging, various, more fundamental approaches are expected to popularize ionic liquids in the metal manufacturing industry.

  6. Metathesis and hydroformylation reactions in ionic liquids.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs), consisting of ions that are liquid at ambient temperatures, can act as solvents for a broad spectrum of chemical processes. These ionic liquids are attracting increasing attention from industry because they promise significant environmental as well as product and process benefits. ILs were used as solvents for two industrially important homogeneous reactions namely metathesis of 1-octene and the hydroformylation of vinyl acetate. In the metathesis of 1-octene, several rea...

  7. The structure of ionic liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Gontrani, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    This volume describes the most recent findings on the structure of ILs interpreted through cutting-edge experimental and theoretical methods. Research in the field of ionic liquids (ILs) keeps a fast and steady pace. Since these new-generation molten salts first appeared in the chemistry and physics landscape, a large number of new compounds has been synthesized. Most of them display unexpected behaviour and possess stunning properties. The coverage in this book ranges from the mesoscopic structure of ILs to their interaction with proteins. The reader will learn how diffraction techniques (small and large angle X-Ray and neutron scattering, powder methods), X-Ray absorption spectroscopies (EXAFS/XANES), optical methods (IR, RAMAN), NMR and calorimetric methods can help the study of ILs, both as neat liquids and in mixtures with other compounds. It will enable the reader to choose the best method to suit their experimental needs. A detailed survey of theoretical methods, both quantum-chemical and classical, ...

  8. Extraction of organic compounds with room temperature ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Colin F; Poole, Salwa K

    2010-04-16

    Room temperature ionic liquids are novel solvents with a rather specific blend of physical and solution properties that makes them of interest for applications in separation science. They are good solvents for a wide range of compounds in which they behave as polar solvents. Their physical properties of note that distinguish them from conventional organic solvents are a negligible vapor pressure, high thermal stability, and relatively high viscosity. They can form biphasic systems with water or low polarity organic solvents and gases suitable for use in liquid-liquid and gas-liquid partition systems. An analysis of partition coefficients for varied compounds in these systems allows characterization of solvent selectivity using the solvation parameter model, which together with spectroscopic studies of solvent effects on probe substances, results in a detailed picture of solvent behavior. These studies indicate that the solution properties of ionic liquids are similar to those of polar organic solvents. Practical applications of ionic liquids in sample preparation include extractive distillation, aqueous biphasic systems, liquid-liquid extraction, liquid-phase microextraction, supported liquid membrane extraction, matrix solvents for headspace analysis, and micellar extraction. The specific advantages and limitations of ionic liquids in these studies is discussed with a view to defining future uses and the need not to neglect the identification of new room temperature ionic liquids with physical and solution properties tailored to the needs of specific sample preparation techniques. The defining feature of the special nature of ionic liquids is not their solution or physical properties viewed separately but their unique combinations when taken together compared with traditional organic solvents. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Modeling electrokinetics in ionic liquids: General

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chao [Physical and Computational Science Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Bao, Jie [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Pan, Wenxiao [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison WI USA; Sun, Xin [Physical and Computational Science Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA

    2017-04-07

    Using direct numerical simulations we provide a thorough study on the electrokinetics of ionic liquids. In particular, the modfied Poisson-Nernst-Planck (MPNP) equations are solved to capture the crowding and overscreening effects that are the characteristics of an ionic liquid. For modeling electrokinetic flows in an ionic liquid, the MPNP equations are coupled with the Navier-Stokes equations to study the coupling of ion transport, hydrodynamics, and electrostatic forces. Specifically, we consider the ion transport between two parallel plates, charging dynamics in a 2D straight-walled pore, electro-osmotic ow in a nano-channel, electroconvective instability on a plane ion-selective surface, and electroconvective ow on a curved ion-selective surface. We discuss how the crowding and overscreening effects and their interplay affect the electrokinetic behaviors of ionic liquids in these application problems.

  10. Ionic Liquid Epoxy Composite Cryotanks Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this work is to determine the optimal process for manufacturing lightweight linerless cryogenic storage tanks using ionic liquid epoxy composite...

  11. Ionic liquid polyoxometalates as light emitting materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz-acosta, Denisse [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Del Sesto, Rico E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scott, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bennett, Bryan L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Purdy, Geraldine M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Muenchausen, Ross E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Kigney, Edward [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gilbertson, Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The low melting point, negligible vapor pressure, good solubility, and thermal and chemical stability make ionic liquids useful materials for a wide variety of applications. Polyoxometalates are early transition metal oxygen clusters that can be synthesized in many different sizes and with a variety of heterometals. The most attractive feature of POMs is that their physical properties, in particular electrical, magnetic, and optical properties, can be easily modified following known procedures. It has been shown that POMs can exhibit cooperative properties, as superconductivity and energy transfer. POM ionic liquids can be obtained by selecting the appropliate cation. Different alkyl ammonium and alkyl phosphonium salts are being used to produce new POM ionic liquids together with organic or inorganic luminescent centers to design light emitting materials. Ammonium and phosphonium cations with activated, polymerizable groups are being used to further polymerize the ionic liquid into transparent, solid materials with high metal density.

  12. The Solubility Parameters of Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Marciniak

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The Hildebrand’s solubility parameters have been calculated for 18 ionic liquids from the inverse gas chromatography measurements of the activity coefficients at infinite dilution. Retention data were used for the calculation. The solubility parameters are helpful for the prediction of the solubility in the binary solvent mixtures. From the solubility parameters, the standard enthalpies of vaporization of ionic liquids were estimated.

  13. Study of thioglycosylation in ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragauskas Arthur

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A novel, green chemistry, glycosylation strategy was developed based upon the use of ionic liquids. Research studies demonstrated that thiomethyl glycosides could readily be activated with methyl trifluoromethane sulfonate, using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate as a solvent. This green chemistry glycosylation strategy provided disaccharides with typical yields averaging 75%. The ionic liquid solvent could be readily reused for five sequential glycosylation reactions with no impact on product yield.

  14. Superbase-derived protic ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Baker, Gary A.

    2013-09-03

    Protic ionic liquids having a composition of formula (A.sup.-)(BH.sup.+) wherein A.sup.- is a conjugate base of an acid HA, and BH.sup.+ is a conjugate acid of a superbase B. In particular embodiments, BH.sup.+ is selected from phosphazenium species and guanidinium species encompassed, respectively, by the general formulas: ##STR00001## The invention is also directed to films and membranes containing these protic ionic liquids, with particular application as proton exchange membranes for fuel cells.

  15. Poly(ionic liquid) functionalized polypyrrole nanotubes supported gold nanoparticles: An efficient electrochemical sensor to detect epinephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Hui; Zhang, Haifeng; Jiang, Wei; Liang, Jiachen; Sun, Ying; Zhang, Yu; Wu, Qiuhua; Zhang, Guolin; Song, Xi-Ming

    2017-06-01

    Poly(ionic liquids) (PILs) have been applied as the linkers between Au nanoparticles (NPs) and polypyrrole nanotubes (PPyNTs) for the synthesis of Au/PILs/PPyNTs hybrids. Due to the presence of PILs, high-density and well-dispersed Au NPs have been deposited on the surface of PILs/PPyNTs by anion-exchange with Au precursor and the in-situ reduction of metal ions. The obtained Au/PILs/PPyNTs hybrids can be used as a good steady electrode material for sensitively and selectively detecting epinephrine (EP). The catalytic oxidation peak currents obtained from differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) increased linearly with increasing EP concentrations in the range of 35-960μM with a detection limit of 298.9nM according to the criterion of a signal-to-noise ratio=3 (S/N=3), respectively, which showed the excellent electrocatalytic activity towards this significant hormone in human life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The distillation and volatility of ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Martyn J.; Esperança, José M. S. S.; Gilea, Manuela A.; Canongia Lopes, José N.; Rebelo, Luís P. N.; Magee, Joseph W.; Seddon, Kenneth R.; Widegren, Jason A.

    2006-02-01

    It is widely believed that a defining characteristic of ionic liquids (or low-temperature molten salts) is that they exert no measurable vapour pressure, and hence cannot be distilled. Here we demonstrate that this is unfounded, and that many ionic liquids can be distilled at low pressure without decomposition. Ionic liquids represent matter solely composed of ions, and so are perceived as non-volatile substances. During the last decade, interest in the field of ionic liquids has burgeoned, producing a wealth of intellectual and technological challenges and opportunities for the production of new chemical and extractive processes, fuel cells and batteries, and new composite materials. Much of this potential is underpinned by their presumed involatility. This characteristic, however, can severely restrict the attainability of high purity levels for ionic liquids (when they contain poorly volatile components) in recycling schemes, as well as excluding their use in gas-phase processes. We anticipate that our demonstration that some selected families of commonly used aprotic ionic liquids can be distilled at 200-300°C and low pressure, with concomitant recovery of significant amounts of pure substance, will permit these currently excluded applications to be realized.

  17. Ionic Liquid Immobilized Organocatalysts for Asymmetric Reactions in Aqueous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan D. Headley

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquids are organic salts with melting points typically below ambient or reaction temperature. The unique combination of physical properties of ionic liquids, such as lack of measurable vapor pressure, high thermal and chemical stability, make them ideal to be used as reusable homogenous support for catalysts. In addition, the solubility of ionic liquids in various reaction media can be controlled and easily fine-tuned by modification of the structures of their cations and anions. As a result, ionic liquid immobilized organocatalysts are very effective in aqueous media and can be separated easily from organic solvents, as well as aqueous phases by simply adjusting the polarity of the media. Ionic liquid immobilized organocatalysts are not only very versatile compounds that are effective catalysts for a wide spectrum of reactions, but are also environmentally friendly and recyclable organocatalysts. Herein, we provide a summary of the past decade in the area of asymmetric catalysis in aqueous media for a wide variety of reactions in which ionic liquid and related ammonium salt immobilized organocatalysts are used.

  18. Ionic Liquids: The Synergistic Catalytic Effect in the Synthesis of Cyclic Carbonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora T.T. Ng

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This review presents the synergistic effect in the catalytic system of ionic liquids (ILs for the synthesis of cyclic carbonate from carbon dioxide and epoxide. The emphasis of this review is on three aspects: the catalytic system of metal-based ionic liquids, the catalytic system of hydrogen bond-promoted ionic liquids and supported ionic liquids. Metal and ionic liquids show a synergistic effect on the cycloaddition reactions of epoxides. The cations and anions of ionic liquids show a synergistic effect on the cycloaddition reactions. The functional groups in cations or supports combined with the anions have a synergistic effect on the cycloaddition reactions. Synergistic catalytic effects of ILs play an important role of promoting the cycloaddition reactions of epoxides. The design of catalytic system of ionic liquids will be possible if the synergistic effect on a molecular level is understood.

  19. Cellulose multilayer Membranes manufacture with Ionic liquid

    KAUST Repository

    Livazovic, Sara

    2015-05-09

    Membrane processes are considered energy-efficient for water desalination and treatment. However most membranes are based on polymers prepared from fossil petrochemical sources. The development of multilayer membranes for nanofiltration and ultrafiltration, with thin selective layers of naturally available cellulose has been hampered by the availability of non-aggressive solvents. We propose the manufacture of cellulose membranes based on two approaches: (i) silylation, coating from solutions in tetrahydrofuran, followed by solvent evaporation and cellulose regeneration by acid treatment; (ii) casting from solution in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolum acetate ([C2mim]OAc), an ionic liquid, followed by phase inversion in water. By these methods porous supports could be easily coated with semi-crystalline cellulose. The membranes were hydrophilic with contact angles as low as 22.0°, molecular weight cut-off as low as 3000 g mol-1 with corresponding water permeance of 13.8 Lm−2 h−1 bar−1. Self-standing cellulose membranes were also manufactured without porous substrate, using only ionic liquid as green solvent. This membrane was insoluble in water, tetrahydrofuran, hexane, N,N-dimethylformamide, 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone and N,N-dimethylacetamide.

  20. Ionic liquid processing of cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Gurau, Gabriela; Rogers, Robin D

    2012-02-21

    Utilization of natural polymers has attracted increasing attention because of the consumption and over-exploitation of non-renewable resources, such as coal and oil. The development of green processing of cellulose, the most abundant biorenewable material on Earth, is urgent from the viewpoints of both sustainability and environmental protection. The discovery of the dissolution of cellulose in ionic liquids (ILs, salts which melt below 100 °C) provides new opportunities for the processing of this biopolymer, however, many fundamental and practical questions need to be answered in order to determine if this will ultimately be a green or sustainable strategy. In this critical review, the open fundamental questions regarding the interactions of cellulose with both the IL cations and anions in the dissolution process are discussed. Investigations have shown that the interactions between the anion and cellulose play an important role in the solvation of cellulose, however, opinions on the role of the cation are conflicting. Some researchers have concluded that the cations are hydrogen bonding to this biopolymer, while others suggest they are not. Our review of the available data has led us to urge the use of more chemical units of solubility, such as 'g cellulose per mole of IL' or 'mol IL per mol hydroxyl in cellulose' to provide more consistency in data reporting and more insight into the dissolution mechanism. This review will also assess the greenness and sustainability of IL processing of biomass, where it would seem that the choices of cation and anion are critical not only to the science of the dissolution, but to the ultimate 'greenness' of any process (142 references).

  1. Ionic liquids behave as dilute electrolyte solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbie, Matthew A; Valtiner, Markus; Banquy, Xavier; Fox, Eric T; Henderson, Wesley A; Israelachvili, Jacob N

    2013-06-11

    We combine direct surface force measurements with thermodynamic arguments to demonstrate that pure ionic liquids are expected to behave as dilute weak electrolyte solutions, with typical effective dissociated ion concentrations of less than 0.1% at room temperature. We performed equilibrium force-distance measurements across the common ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([C4mim][NTf2]) using a surface forces apparatus with in situ electrochemical control and quantitatively modeled these measurements using the van der Waals and electrostatic double-layer forces of the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory with an additive repulsive steric (entropic) ion-surface binding force. Our results indicate that ionic liquids screen charged surfaces through the formation of both bound (Stern) and diffuse electric double layers, where the diffuse double layer is comprised of effectively dissociated ionic liquid ions. Additionally, we used the energetics of thermally dissociating ions in a dielectric medium to quantitatively predict the equilibrium for the effective dissociation reaction of [C4mim][NTf2] ions, in excellent agreement with the measured Debye length. Our results clearly demonstrate that, outside of the bound double layer, most of the ions in [C4mim][NTf2] are not effectively dissociated and thus do not contribute to electrostatic screening. We also provide a general, molecular-scale framework for designing ionic liquids with significantly increased dissociated charge densities via judiciously balancing ion pair interactions with bulk dielectric properties. Our results clear up several inconsistencies that have hampered scientific progress in this important area and guide the rational design of unique, high-free-ion density ionic liquids and ionic liquid blends.

  2. Water Contaminant Mitigation in Ionic Liquid Propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, David; Ziemer, John

    2009-01-01

    Appropriate system and operational requirements are needed in order to ensure mission success without unnecessary cost. Purity requirements applied to thruster propellants may flow down to materials and operations as well as the propellant preparation itself. Colloid electrospray thrusters function by applying a large potential to a room temperature liquid propellant (such as an ionic liquid), inducing formation of a Taylor cone. Ions and droplets are ejected from the Taylor cone and accelerated through a strong electric field. Electrospray thrusters are highly efficient, precise, scaleable, and demonstrate low thrust noise. Ionic liquid propellants have excellent properties for use as electrospray propellants, but can be hampered by impurities, owing to their solvent capabilities. Of foremost concern is the water content, which can result from exposure to atmosphere. Even hydrophobic ionic liquids have been shown to absorb water from the air. In order to mitigate the risks of bubble formation in feed systems caused by water content of the ionic liquid propellant, physical properties of the ionic liquid EMI-Im are analyzed. The effects of surface tension, material wetting, physisorption, and geometric details of the flow manifold and electrospray emitters are explored. Results are compared to laboratory test data.

  3. Key Developments in Ionic Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Alvarez Fernandez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquid crystals are materials that combine the classes of liquid crystals and ionic liquids. The first one is based on the multi-billion-dollar flat panel display industry, whilst the latter quickly developed in the past decades into a family of highly-tunable non-volatile solvents. The combination yields materials with a unique set of properties, but also with many challenges ahead. In this review, we provide an overview of the key concepts in ionic liquid crystals, particularly from a molecular perspective. What are the important molecular parameters that determine the phase behavior? How should they be introduced into the molecules? Finally, which other tools does one have to realize specific properties in the material?

  4. Molecular Design of Polymerized Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanoja, Gabriel Eduardo

    Polymerized ionic liquids are an emerging class of functional materials with ionic liquid moieties covalently attached to a polymer backbone. As such, they synergistically combine the structural hierarchy of polymers with the versatile physicochemical properties of ionic liquids. Unlike other ion-containing polymers that are typically constrained to high glass transition temperatures, polymerized ionic liquids can exhibit low glass transition temperatures due to weak electrostatic interactions even at high charge fractions. Promising applications relevant to electrochemical energy conversion and CO2 capture and sequestration have been demonstrated for polymerized ionic liquids, but a molecular design strategy that allows for elucidation of their structure-property relationships is yet to be developed. A combination of anionic polymerization, click chemistry, and ion metathesis allows for fine and independent control over polymer properties including the number of repeat units, fraction of ionic liquid moieties, composition, and architecture. This strategy has been exploited to elucidate the effect of lamellar domain spacing on the ionic conductivity of block copolymers based on hydrated protic polymerized ionic liquids. The conductivity relationship demonstrated in this study suggests that a mechanically robust material can be designed without compromising its ability to transport ions. The vast set of ion pair combinations in polymerized liquids provides a unique opportunity to develop functional materials where properties can be controlled with subtle changes in molecular structure via ion metathesis. We illustrate the case of a polymerized ionic liquid that combines the low toxicity and macromolecular dimensions of poly(ethylene glycol) with the magnetic functionality of ion pairs containing iron(III). This material can yield novel theranostic agents with controlled residence time within the human body, and paramagnetic functionality to enhance 1H nuclei

  5. Polarization versus Temperature in Pyridinium Ionic Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaban, V. V.; Prezhdo, O. V.

    2014-01-01

    Electronic polarization and charge transfer effects play a crucial role in thermodynamic, structural, and transport properties of room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). These nonadditive interactions constitute a useful tool for tuning physical chemical behavior of RTILs. Polarization and charge...... interactions changes negligibly between 300 and 900 K, while the average dipole moment increases due to thermal fluctuations of geometries. Our results contribute to the fundamental understanding of electronic effects in the condensed phase of ionic systems and foster progress in physical chemistry...

  6. Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of azoic dyes based on pyrazolone derivatives catalyzed by an acidic ionic liquid supported on silica-coated magnetite nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaad, Jalal; El Achari, Ahmida

    2018-02-01

    Novel family of azoic dyes pyrazolone based were prepared by an efficient and rapid methodology through diazotization reaction of different pyrazolone amine derivatives, in the presence of acidic ionic liquid supported on silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles as acidic catalyst at room temperature and under solvent-free conditions. The attractive advantages of the present process include short reaction times, milder and cleaner conditions, higher purity and yields, easy isolation of products, easier work-up procedure and lower generation of waste or pollution. This catalyst was easily separated by an external magnet and the recovered catalyst was reused several times without any significant loss of activity. Therefore, this method provides improved protocol over the existing methods.

  7. Comparison of different imidazolium supported ionic liquid polymeric phases with strong anion-exchange character for the extraction of acidic pharmaceuticals from complex environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratkowska, Dominika; Fontanals, Núria; Ronka, Sylwia; Trochimczuk, Andrzej W; Borrull, Francesc; Marcé, Rosa M

    2012-08-01

    Two imidazolium supported ionic liquid phases (SILPs) containing different anions, trifluoromethanesulphonate [CF(3)SO(3)(-)], and tetrafluoroborate [BF(4)(-)], were synthesized and evaluated as solid-phase extraction sorbents for extracting acidic pharmaceuticals from aqueous samples under strong anion-exchange conditions, which include an effective cleanup of the sample. The best SILP material [MI(+)][CF(3)SO(3)(-) ] was selected and successfully applied to the determination of acidic pharmaceuticals in different types of water samples (river water and effluent wastewater). The results were then compared to the previously synthesized SILP material based on [MI(+)][CF(3)COO(-)] and the commercially available Oasis MAX sorbent. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. TETRAALKYLPHOSPHONIUM POLYOXOMETALATES AS NOVEL IONIC LIQUIDS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DIETZ,M.L.; RICKERT, P.G.; ANTONIO, M.R.; FIRESTONE, M.A.; WISHART, J.F.; SZREDER, T.

    2007-11-30

    The pairing of a Lindqvist or Keggin polyoxometalate (POM) anion with an appropriate tetraalkylphosphonium cation, [R{sub 3}R{prime}P]{sup +}, has been shown to yield an original family of ionic liquids (POM-ILs), among them salts liquid at or near ambient temperature. The physicochemical properties of several such 'inorganic liquids', in particular their thermal properties, suggests the possible application of these compounds as robust, thermally-stable solvents for liquid-liquid extraction. A preliminary evaluation of the potential of POM-ILs in this application is presented.

  9. Functional ionic liquids; Funktionelle ionische Fluessigkeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baecker, Tobias

    2012-07-01

    In the thesis at hand, new functional ionic liquids were investigated. Main focus was attended to their structure property relations and the structural features leading to a decrease of the melting point. New compounds of the type 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(N,Ndialkyldithiocarbamato) uranylate with variously substituated dithiocarbamato ligands were synthesized and characterized. Ligands with asymmetrical substitution pattern proved to be most suitable for ionic liquid formation. The single-crystal X-ray structures revealed the interactions in the solid state. Here, the first spectroscopic investigation of the U-S bond in sulfur donated uranyl complexes, up to now only observed in single-crystal X-ray structures, is presented, and the participation of the uranium f-orbitals is shown by theoretical calculations. Electrochemical investigations showed the accessibility of the respective U{sup V}O{sub 2}{sup +} compounds. As well, ionic liquids with [FeCl{sub 4}]{sup -} and [Cl{sub 3}FeOFeCl{sub 3}]{sup 2-} as anion were synthesized. Both of these anions contain high-spin Fe(III) centres in distorted tetrahedral environment, but exhibit different magnetic behaviour. The tetrachloroferrates show the usual paramagnetism, the m-oxobis(trichloroferrate) exhibits unexpectedly strong antiferromagnetic coupling, as was observed by NMR experiments and susceptibility measurements. To investigate structure-property relations in functionalized ionic liquids, a set of protic, primary alkylammonium and aprotic, quarternary trimethylalkylammonium based ionic liquids was synthesized, and characterized. The length of the alkyl chain was systematically varied, and all compounds were synthesized with and without hydroxyl group, as well as formate and bis(triflyl)amide salts, aiming at getting insight into the influence of the different structure parts on the respective ionic liquid's properties.

  10. Computationally Efficient Prediction of Ionic Liquid Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaban, V. V.; Prezhdo, O. V.

    2014-01-01

    Due to fundamental differences, room-temperature ionic liquids (RTIL) are significantly more viscous than conventional molecular liquids and require long simulation times. At the same time, RTILs remain in the liquid state over a much broader temperature range than the ordinary liquids. We exploit...... the ability of RTILs to stay liquid at several hundred degrees Celsius and introduce a straightforward and computationally efficient method for predicting RTIL properties at ambient temperature. RTILs do not alter phase behavior at 600-800 K. Therefore, their properties can be smoothly extrapolated down...... to ambient temperatures. We numerically prove the validity of the proposed concept for density and ionic diffusion of four different RTILs. This simple method enhances the computational efficiency of the existing simulation approaches as applied to RTILs by more than an order of magnitude....

  11. Fast Conversion of Ionic Liquids and Poly(Ionic Liquid)s into Porous Nitrogen-Doped Carbons in Air

    OpenAIRE

    Yongjun Men; Martina Ambrogi; Baohang Han; Jiayin Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Ionic liquids and poly(ionic liquid)s have been successfully converted into nitrogen-doped porous carbons with tunable surface area up to 1200 m2/g at high temperatures in air. Compared to conventional carbonization process conducted under inert gas to produce nitrogen-doped carbons, the new production method was completed in a rather shorter time without noble gas protection.

  12. Physicochemical properties and toxicities of hydrophobicpiperidinium and pyrrolidinium ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kumar, R. Anand; Lee,Jong-Min; Kerr, John; Newman, John; Prausnitz, John M.

    2007-06-25

    Some properties are reported for hydrophobic ionic liquids (IL) containing 1-methyl-1-propyl pyrrolidinium [MPPyrro]{sup +}, 1-methyl-1-butyl pyrrolidinium [MBPyrro]{sup +}, 1-methyl-1-propyl piperidinium [MPPip]{sup +}, 1-methyl-1-butyl piperidinium [MBPip]{sup +}, 1-methyl-1-octylpyrrolidinium [MOPyrro]{sup +} and 1-methyl-1-octylpiperidinium [MOPip]{sup +} cations. These liquids provide new alternatives to pyridinium and imidazolium ILs. High thermal stability of an ionic liquid increases safety in applications like rechargeable lithium-ion batteries and other electrochemical devices. Thermal properties, ionic conductivities, viscosities, and mutual solubilities with water are reported. In addition, toxicities of selected ionic liquids have been measured using a human cancer cell-line. The ILs studied here are sparingly soluble in water but hygroscopic. We show some structure-property relationships that may help to design green solvents for specific applications. While ionic liquids are claimed to be environmentally-benign solvents, as yet few data have been published to support these claims.

  13. Ionic Liquids in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balducci, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are among the most widespread energy storage devices in our society. In order to introduce these devices in new key applications such as transportation, however, their safety and their operative temperature range need to be significantly improved. These improvements can be obtained only by developing new electrolytes. Ionic liquids are presently considered among the most attractive electrolytes for the development of advanced and safer lithium-ion batteries. In this manuscript, the use of various types of ionic liquids, e.g. aprotic and protic, in lithium-ion batteries is considered. The advantages and the limits associated to the use of these innovative electrolytes are critically analysed.

  14. Ionic liquid-nanoparticle hybrid electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yingying

    2012-01-01

    We investigate physical and electrochemical properties of a family of organic-inorganic hybrid electrolytes based on the ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfone) imide covalently tethered to silica nanoparticles (SiO 2-IL-TFSI). The ionic conductivity exhibits a pronounced maximum versus LiTFSI composition, and in mixtures containing 13.4 wt% LiTFSI, the room-temperature ionic conductivity is enhanced by over 3 orders of magnitude relative to either of the mixture components, without compromising lithium transference number. The SiO 2-IL-TFSI/LiTFSI hybrid electrolytes are thermally stable up to 400°C and exhibit tunable mechanical properties and attractive (4.25V) electrochemical stability in the presence of metallic lithium. We explain these observations in terms of ionic coupling between counterion species in the mobile and immobile (particle-tethered) phases of the electrolytes. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  15. Task-specific microextractions using ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Qichao; Anderson, Jared L. [University of Toledo, Department of Chemistry, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2011-06-15

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been the focus of many scientific investigations including the field of analytical microextractions. ILs have many advantages over traditional organic solvents making them excellent candidates as extraction media for a variety of microextraction techniques. Many physical properties of ILs can be varied, and the structural design and make-up can be tuned to impart desired functionality for enhancement of analyte extraction selectivity, efficiency, and sensitivity. This paper provides a brief overview of ionic liquids and highlights trends in three important sample-preparation techniques, namely, single drop microextraction, solid-phase microextraction, and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction in terms of performing task-specific extractions using these highly versatile solvents. (orig.)

  16. Physical Chemistry of Reaction Dynamics in Ionic Liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroncelli, Mark [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2016-10-02

    Work completed over the past year mainly involves finishing studies related to solvation dynamics in ionic liquids, amplifying and extending our initial PFG-NMR work on solute diffusion, and learning how to probe rotational dynamics in ionic liquids.

  17. Applications of ionic liquids in polymer science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book summarizes the latest knowledge in the science and technology of ionic liquids and polymers in different areas. Ionic liquids (IL) are actively being investigated in polymer science and technology for a number of different applications. In the first part of the book the authors present the particular properties of ionic liquids as speciality solvents. The state-of-the art in the use of ionic liquids in polymer synthesis and modification reactions including polymer recycling is outlined. The second part focuses on the use of ionic liquids as speciality additives such as plasticizers or antistatic agents.  The third part examines the use of ionic liquids in the design of functional polymers (usually called polymeric ionic liquids (PIL) or poly(ionic liquids)). Many important applications in diverse scientific and industrial areas rely on these polymers, like polymer electrolytes in electrochemical devices, building blocks in materials science, nanocomposites, gas membranes, innovative anion sensitive...

  18. CPE OF URANIUM (VI USING IONIC LIQUID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANAA NAÏT-TAHAR

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cloud point extraction (CPE was used to extract uranium (VI from an aqueous solution in acetate media. The methodology used is based on the formation of uranyl-ionic liquid (I complexes and uranyl-D2EHPA soluble in a micellar phase of non-ionic surfactant (Triton X-100. The uranium (VI complexes are then extracted into the surfactant-rich phase at ambient temperature. The ionic liquid (IL used as a chelating agent was synthesized and characterized in this study. It is composed of N-butyl N’-triethoxy methyl imidazolium cation and diethylhexylphosphate (D2EHPA-H as anion. The effect of the IL on the extraction efficiency was studied in presence and in absence of IL’s cation in acetate medium.

  19. Redox-active Crosslinkable Poly(ionic liquid)s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sui, Xiaofeng; Hempenius, Mark A.; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of a new class of cross-linkable redox-responsive poly(ferrocenylsilane)-based poly(ionic liquid)s (PFS-PILs) is reported. PFS-PILs self-cross-link at low concentrations into nanogels or form macroscopic hydrogel networks at higher concentrations. PFS-PILs proved to be efficient

  20. VOC and HAP recovery using ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael R. Milota : Kaichang Li

    2007-05-29

    During the manufacture of wood composites, paper, and to a lesser extent, lumber, large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as terpenes, formaldehyde, and methanol are emitted to air. Some of these compounds are hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). The air pollutants produced in the forest products industry are difficult to manage because the concentrations are very low. Presently, regenerative thermal oxidizers (RTOs and RCOs) are commonly used for the destruction of VOCs and HAPs. RTOs consume large amounts of natural gas to heat air and moisture. The combustion of natural gas generates increased CO2 and NOx, which have negative implications for global warming and air quality. The aforementioned problems are addressed by an absorption system containing a room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) as an absorbent. RTILs are salts, but are in liquid states at room temperature. RTILs, an emerging technology, are receiving much attention as replacements for organic solvents in industrial processes with significant cost and environmental benefits. Some of these processes include organic synthesis, extraction, and metal deposition. RTILs would be excellent absorbents for exhausts from wood products facilities because of their unique properties: no measurable vapor pressure, high solubility of wide range of organic compounds, thermal stability to 200°C (almost 400°F), and immisciblity with water. Room temperature ionic liquids were tested as possible absorbents. Four were imidizolium-based and were eight phosphonium-based. The imidizolium-based ionic liquids proved to be unstable at the conditions tested and in the presence of water. The phosphonium-based ionic liquids were stable. Most were good absorbents; however, cleaning the contaminates from the ionic liquids was problematic. This was overcome with a higher temperature (120°C) than originally proposed and a very low pressure (1 kPa. Absorption trials were conducted with tetradecy

  1. Reactions of Starch in Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    We found that starches are found to be soluble at 80 ºC in ionic liquids such as 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide (BMIMdca) in concentration up to 10% (w/w). Higher concentrations of biopolymers in these novel solvents resulted in solutions w...

  2. Ionic-liquid based electrochemical ethylene sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zevenbergen, M.A.G.; Wouters, D.; Dam, V.-A.T.; Brongersma, S.H.; Crego-Calama, M.

    2011-01-01

    We present an electrochemical ethylene sensor that exploits a thin ionic-liquid (IL) layer as electrolyte. ILs are fluids that completely consist of ions at room temperature and have emerged as extremely promising electrolytes for the following reasons: first, the vapor pressure is practically

  3. Catalytic Alkene Metathesis in Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischmeister, Cédric

    Olefin metathesis has found a tremendous number of application in the past 25 years. Immobilisation of olefin metathesis (pre)catalysts in room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) offers the opportunity to recover and reuse the catalyst and also to reduce the level of ruthenium (Ru) contaminants in the products.

  4. Cr(VI) transport via a supported ionic liquid membrane containing CYPHOS IL101 as carrier: system analysis and optimization through experimental design strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez de San Miguel, Eduardo; Vital, Xóchitl; de Gyves, Josefina

    2014-05-30

    Chromium(VI) transport through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) system containing the commercial ionic liquid CYPHOS IL101 as carrier was studied. A reducing stripping phase was used as a mean to increase recovery and to simultaneously transform Cr(VI) into a less toxic residue for disposal or reuse. General functions which describe the time-depending evolution of the metal fractions in the cell compartments were defined and used in data evaluation. An experimental design strategy, using factorial and central-composite design matrices, was applied to assess the influence of the extractant, NaOH and citrate concentrations in the different phases, while a desirability function scheme allowed the synchronized optimization of depletion and recovery of the analyte. The mechanism for chromium permeation was analyzed and discussed to contribute to the understanding of the transfer process. The influence of metal concentration was evaluated as well. The presence of different interfering ions (Ca(2+), Al(3+), NO3(-), SO4(2-), and Cl(-)) at several Cr(VI): interfering ion ratios was studied through the use of a Plackett and Burman experimental design matrix. Under optimized conditions 90% of recovery was obtained from a feed solution containing 7mgL(-1) of Cr(VI) in 0.01moldm(-3) HCl medium after 5h of pertraction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ionic Liquids and Poly(ionic liquid)s for Morphosynthesis of Inorganic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Min-Rui; Yuan, Jiayin; Antonietti, Markus

    2017-04-24

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are new, innovative ionic solvents with rich physicochemical properties and intriguing pre-organized solvent structures; these materials offer great potential to impact across versatile areas of scientific research, for example, synthetic inorganic chemistry. Recent use of ILs as precursors, templates, and solvents has led to inorganic materials with tailored sizes, dimensionalities, morphologies, and functionalities that are difficult to obtain, or even not accessible, by using conventional solvents. Poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs) polymerized from IL monomers also raise the prospect of modifying nucleation, growth, and crystallization of inorganic objects, shedding light on the synthesis of a wide range of new materials. Here we survey recent key progress in using ILs and PILs in the field of synthetic inorganic chemistry. As well as highlighting the unique features of ILs and PILs that enable advanced synthesis, the effects of adding other solvents to the final products, along with the emerging applications of the created inorganic materials will be discussed. We finally provide an outlook on several development opportunities that could lead to new advancements of this exciting research field. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Ionic liquid containing hydroxamate and N-alkyl sulfamate ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friesen, Cody A.; Wolfe, Derek; Johnson, Paul Bryan

    2016-03-15

    Embodiments of the invention are related to ionic liquids and more specifically to ionic liquids used in electrochemical metal-air cells in which the ionic liquid includes a cation and an anion selected from hydroxamate and/or N-alkyl sulfamate anions.

  7. Ionic conductivity studies of gel polyelectrolyte based on ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, E.H. [The Faculty of Liberal Arts (Chemistry), Hoseo University, Asan Choongnam 336-795 (Korea); Lim, S.A. [Functional Proteomics Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea); Park, J.H. [Department of Herbal Medicine, Hoseo University, Asan Choongnam 336-795 (Korea); Kim, D.W. [Department of Chemical Technology, Han Bat National University, Daejon 305-719 (Korea); Macfarlane, D.R. [School of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton, Vic. 3800 (Australia)

    2008-04-01

    Novel lithium polyelectrolyte-ionic liquids have been prepared and characterized of their properties. Poly(lithium 2-acrylamido-2-methyl propanesulfonate) (PAMPSLi) and its copolymer with N-vinyl formamide (VF) also has been prepared as a copolymer. 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tricyanomethanide (emImTCM) and N,N-dimethyl-N-propyl-N-butyl ammonium tricyanomethanide (N{sub 1134}TCM) which are chosen because of the same with the anion of ionic liquid were prepared. The ionic conductivity of copolymer system (PAMPSLi/PVF/emImTCM: 5.43 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} at 25 C) exhibits about over four times higher than that of homopolymer system (PAMPSLi/emImTCM: 1.28 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} at 25 C). Introduction of vinyl formamide into the copolymer type can increase the dissociation of the lithium cations from the polymer backbone. The ionic conductivity of copolymer with emImTCM (PAMPSLi/PVF/emImTCM) exhibits the higher conductivity than that of PAMPSLi/PVF/N{sub 1134}TCM (2.48 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1}). Because of using the polymerizable anion it is seen to maintain high flexibility of imidazolium cation effectively to exhibit the higher conductivity. And also the viscosity of emImTCM (19.56 cP) is lower than that of N{sub 1134}TCM (28.61 cP). Low viscosity leads to a fast rate of diffusion of redox species. (author)

  8. Hydrogen production from glucose in ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assenbaum, D.W.; Taccardi, N.; Berger, M.E.M.; Boesmann, A.; Enzenberger, F.; Woelfel, R.; Wasserscheid, P. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer chemische Reaktionstechnik

    2010-07-01

    technologies suffer from the fact that the overall reaction rates are often restricted by mass and heat transport problems. Lastly, there are severe limitations concerning the feedstock selection as for some important substrates, such as e.g. glucose, the process can only be operated in very diluted systems to avoid rapid tar formation [22,23,24]. In this contribution we describe for the first time a catalytic reaction system producing hydrogen from glucose in astonishingly high selectivities using a single reaction step under very mild conditions. The catalytic reaction system is characterized by its homogeneous nature and comprises a Ru-complex catalyst dissolved and stabilized in an ionic liquid medium. Ionic liquids are salts of melting points below 100 C [25]. These liquid materials have attracted much interest in the last decade as solvents for catalytic reactions [26] and separation technologies (extraction, distillation) [27,28,29,30,31,32]. Besides, these liquids have found industrial applications as process fluids for mechanic [33] and electrochemical applications [34]. Finally, from the pioneering work of Rogers and co-workers, it is known that ionic liquids are able to dissolve significant amounts of water-insoluble biopolymers (such as e.g. cellulose and chitin)[35] and even complex biopolymer mixtures, such as e.g. wood, have been completely dissolved in some ionic liquids [36]. In our specific application, the role of the ionic liquid is threefold: a) the ionic liquid dissolves the carbohydrate starting material thus expanding the range of applicable carbohydrate to water insoluble polymers; b) the ionic liquid provides a medium to dissolve and stabilize the catalyst; c) the ionic liquid dissolves hydrogen at a very low level, so inhibiting any possible collateral hydrogen-consuming process (detailed investigation of the hydrogen solubility in ionic liquids have been reported by e.g. Brennecke and coworkers [37]). (orig.)

  9. Active chemisorption sites in functionalized ionic liquids for carbon capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guokai; Wang, Jianji; Zhang, Suojiang

    2016-07-25

    Development of novel technologies for the efficient and reversible capture of CO2 is highly desired. In the last decade, CO2 capture using ionic liquids has attracted intensive attention from both academia and industry, and has been recognized as a very promising technology. Recently, a new approach has been developed for highly efficient capture of CO2 by site-containing ionic liquids through chemical interaction. This perspective review focuses on the recent advances in the chemical absorption of CO2 using site-containing ionic liquids, such as amino-based ionic liquids, azolate ionic liquids, phenolate ionic liquids, dual-functionalized ionic liquids, pyridine-containing ionic liquids and so on. Other site-containing liquid absorbents such as amine-based solutions, switchable solvents, and functionalized ionic liquid-amine blends are also investigated. Strategies have been discussed for how to activate the existent reactive sites and develop novel reactive sites by physical and chemical methods to enhance CO2 absorption capacity and reduce absorption enthalpy. The carbon capture mechanisms of these site-containing liquid absorbents are also presented. Particular attention has been paid to the latest progress in CO2 capture in multiple-site interactions by amino-free anion-functionalized ionic liquids. In the last section, future directions and prospects for carbon capture by site-containing ionic liquids are outlined.

  10. High-Surface-Area CO2 Sponge: High Performance CO2 Scrubbing Based on Hollow Fiber-Supported Designer Ionic Liquid Sponges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-09-01

    IMPACCT Project: The team from ORNL and Georgia Tech is developing a new technology that will act like a sponge, integrating a new, alcohol-based ionic liquid into hollow fibers (magnified image, right) to capture CO2 from the exhaust produced by coal-fired power plants. Ionic liquids, or salts that exist in liquid form, are promising materials for carbon capture and storage, but their tendency to thicken when combined with CO2 limits their efficiency and poses a challenge for their development as a cost-effective alternative to current-generation solutions. Adding alcohol to the mix limits this tendency to thicken in the presence of CO2 but can also make the liquid more likely to evaporate, which would add significantly to the cost of CO2 capture. To solve this problem, ORNL is developing new classes of ionic liquids with high capacity for absorbing CO2. ORNL’s sponge would reduce the cost associated with the energy that would need to be diverted from power plants to capture CO2 and release it for storage.

  11. Interactions in ion pairs of protic ionic liquids: Comparison with aprotic ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuzuki, Seiji, E-mail: s.tsuzuki@aist.go.jp [Research Initiative of Computational Sciences (RICS), Nanosystem Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Shinoda, Wataru [Health Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan); Miran, Md. Shah; Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Masayoshi [Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)

    2013-11-07

    The stabilization energies for the formation (E{sub form}) of 11 ion pairs of protic and aprotic ionic liquids were studied by MP2/6-311G{sup **} level ab initio calculations to elucidate the difference between the interactions of ions in protic ionic liquids and those in aprotic ionic liquids. The interactions in the ion pairs of protic ionic liquids (diethylmethylammonium [dema] and dimethylpropylammonium [dmpa] based ionic liquids) are stronger than those of aprotic ionic liquids (ethyltrimethylammonium [etma] based ionic liquids). The E{sub form} for the [dema][CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}] and [dmpa][CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}] complexes (−95.6 and −96.4 kcal/mol, respectively) are significantly larger (more negative) than that for the [etma][CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}] complex (−81.0 kcal/mol). The same trend was observed for the calculations of ion pairs of the three cations with the Cl{sup −}, BF{sub 4}{sup −}, TFSA{sup −} anions. The anion has contact with the N–H bond of the dema{sup +} or dmpa{sup +} cations in the most stable geometries of the dema{sup +} and dmpa{sup +} complexes. The optimized geometries, in which the anions locate on the counter side of the cations, are 11.0–18.0 kcal/mol less stable, which shows that the interactions in the ions pairs of protic ionic liquids have strong directionality. The E{sub form} for the less stable geometries for the dema{sup +} and dmpa{sup +} complexes are close to those for the most stable etma{sup +} complexes. The electrostatic interaction, which is the major source of the attraction in the ion pairs, is responsible for the directionality of the interactions and determining the magnitude of the interaction energy. Molecular dynamic simulations of the [dema][TFSA] and [dmpa][TFSA] ionic liquids show that the N–H bonds of the cations have contact with the negatively charged (oxygen and nitrogen) atoms of TFSA{sup −} anion, while the strong directionality of the interactions was not suggested from the simulation

  12. A DFT investigation on interactions between lignin and ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ju; Shi, Xiaoqin; Du, Xihua; Cao, Weiliang

    2017-08-01

    The interactions of the lignin model, the lignin oligomer with degree of polymerization n = 2, with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid were investigated through DFT calculations in detail. Computational results revealed that lignin dissolution in ionic liquids should be a result of the joint interactions of lignin with anion and cation of ionic liquid, and the formation of ion pair weakens the interactions between lignin and ionic liquid components. Unlike the dominant H-bonds within the lignin-anion interactions, the lignin-cation interactions involve a combination of hydrogen bond and π-stacking. These results would provide mechanistic insights and suggestions for lignocellulosic dissolution in ionic liquids.

  13. Synthetic Organic Electrochemistry in Ionic Liquids: The Viscosity Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott T. Handy

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquids are obvious candidates for use in electrochemical applications due to their ionic character. Nevertheless, relatively little has been done to explore their application in electrosynthesis. We have studied the Shono oxidation of arylamines and carbamates using ionic liquids as recyclable solvents and have noted that the viscosity of the medium is a major problem, although with the addition of sufficient co-solvent, good results and excellent recovery and recycling of the ionic liquid can be achieved.

  14. [Advances of poly (ionic liquid) materials in separation science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cuicui; Guo, Ting; Su, Rina; Gu, Yuchen; Deng, Qiliang

    2015-11-01

    Ionic liquids, as novel ionization reagents, possess beneficial characteristics including good solubility, conductivity, thermal stability, biocompatibility, low volatility and non-flammability. Ionic liquids are attracting a mass of attention of analytical chemists. Poly (ionic liquid) materials have common performances of ionic liquids and polymers, and have been successfully applied in separation science area. In this paper, we discuss the interaction mechanisms between the poly(ionic liquid) materials and analytes including hydrophobic/hydrophilic interactions, hydrogen bond, ion exchange, π-π stacking and electrostatic interactions, and summarize the application advances of the poly(ionic liquid) materials in solid phase extraction, chromatographic separation and capillary electrophoresis. At last, we describe the future prospect of poly(ionic liquid) materials.

  15. Aerobic Oxidation of 5-(Hydroxymethyl)furfural in Ionic Liquids with Solid Ruthenium Hydroxide Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ståhlberg, Tim Johannes Bjarki; Eyjolfsdottir, Ester; Gorbanev, Yury

    2012-01-01

    The aerobic oxidation of 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural was investigated over solid ruthenium hydroxide catalysts in ionic liquids at elevated temperatures and pressures. Several different catalyst supports were tested in combination with various ionic liquids. The best result was obtained in [EMIm...

  16. Nontoxic Ionic Liquid Fuels for Exploration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coil, Millicent

    2015-01-01

    The toxicity of propellants used in conventional propulsion systems increases not only safety risks to personnel but also costs, due to special handling required during the entire lifetime of the propellants. Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC) has developed and tested novel nontoxic ionic liquid fuels for propulsion applications. In Phase I of the project, the company demonstrated the feasibility of several ionic liquid formulations that equaled the performance of conventional rocket propellant monomethylhydrazine (MMH) and also provided low volatility and low toxicity. In Phase II, ORBITEC refined the formulations, conducted material property tests, and investigated combustion behavior in droplet and microreactor experiments. The company also explored the effect of injector design on performance and demonstrated the fuels in a small-scale thruster. The ultimate goal is to replace propellants such as MMH with fuels that are simultaneously high-performance and nontoxic. The fuels will have uses in NASA's propulsion applications and also in a range of military and commercial functions.

  17. X-ray Reflectivity Study of the Interaction of an Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquid with a Soft Supported Lipid Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, G; Giri, R P; Saxena, H; Agrawal, V V; Gupta, A; Mukhopadhyay, M K; Ghosh, S K

    2017-02-07

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are important for their antimicrobial activity and are found to be toxic to some microorganisms. To shed light on the mechanism of their activities, the interaction of an imidazolium-based IL 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrfluoroborate ([BMIM][BF4]) with E. coli bacteria and cell-membrane-mimicking lipid mono- and bilayers has been studied. The survival of the bacteria and corresponding growth inhibition are observed to be functions of the concentration of the IL. The IL alters the pressure-area isotherm of the monolayer formed at an air-water interface by the 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) lipid. The in-plane elasticity of the lipid layer is reduced as a consequence of the insertion of this IL. The X-ray reflectivity study from a polymer-supported lipid bilayer shows strong perturbation in the self-assembled structure of the bilayer due to the interaction. As a consequence, there is a considerable decrease in bilayer thickness and a corresponding increase in electron density. These results, however, depend on the chain configurations of the lipid molecules.

  18. Two Coexisting Liquid Phases in Switchable Ionic Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Juan; Lao, David; Sui, Xiao; Zhou, Yufan; Nune, Satish K.; Ma, Xiang; Troy, Tyler; Ahmed, Musahid; Zhu, Zihua; Heldebrant, David J.; Yu, Xiao-Ying

    2017-08-30

    In situ time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) coupled with a vacuum compatible microfluidic reactor, System for Analysis at Liquid Vacuum Interface (SALVI), has enabled the first spatial mapping of the switchable ionic liquids (SWILs) derived from 1,8-diazabicycloundec-7-ene (DBU) and 1-hexanol. As predicted by molecular dynamic simulations, our molecular imaging results confirmed a dynamic heterogeneous molecular structure with ionic regions (high CO2 concentration) coexisting with non-ionic regions (no CO2) where stoichiometry would indicate otherwise. Chemical speciation was also found to be more complex than initially thought, with spectral principal component analysis identifying dimers that ultimately highlight a highly complex molecular structure unique to SWILs. The spatial chemical mapping enabled by ToF-SIMS and SALVI advances the understanding of how the heterogeneous molecular structure impacts the dynamic physical and thermodynamic properties or SWILs.

  19. Selective Reversible Absorption of the Industrial Off-Gas Components CO2 and NOx by Ionic Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaas-Larsen, Peter Kjartan; Thomassen, P.; Schill, Leonhard

    2016-01-01

    Ionic liquids are promising new materials for climate and pollution control by selective absorption of CO2 and NOx in industrial off-gases. In addition practical cleaning of industrial off gases seems to be attractive by use of ionic liquids distributed on the surface of porous, high surface area...... carriers in the form of so-called Supported Ionic Liquid Phase (SILP) materials. The potential of selected ionic liquids for absorption of CO2 and NOx are demonstrated and the possible interference of other gases influencing the stability and absorption capacity of the ionic liquids are investigated...

  20. An easy method for the preparation of anion exchange membranes: Graft-polymerization of ionic liquids in porous supports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merle, Geraldine; Chairuna, Annisa; van de Ven, Erik; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.

    2013-01-01

    A novel way for anion exchange membrane (AEM) preparation has been investigated, avoiding the use of expensive and toxic chemicals. This new synthetic approach to prepare AEMs was based on the use of a porous polybenzylimidazole membrane as support in which functionalized ILs were introduced and

  1. Ionic liquid based multifunctional double network gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Kumkum; Higashihara, Tomoya; Arafune, Hiroyuki; Kamijo, Toshio; Morinaga, Takashi; Sato, Takaya; Furukawa, Hidemitsu

    2015-04-01

    Gels are a promising class of soft and wet materials with diverse application in tissue engineering and bio-medical purpose. In order to accelerate the development of gels, it is required to synthesize multi-functional gels of high mechanical strength, ultra low surface friction and suitable elastic modulus with a variety of methods and new materials. Among many types of gel ionic gel made from ionic liquids (ILs) could be used for diverse applications in electrochemical devices and in the field of tribology. IL, a promising materials for lubrication, is a salt with a melting point lower than 100 °C. As a lubricant, ILs are characterized by an extremely low vapor pressure, high thermal stability and high ion conductivity. In this work a novel approach of making double network DN ionic gel using IL has been made utilizing photo polymerization process. A hydrophobic monomer Methyl methacrylate (MMA) has been used as a first network and a hydrophobic IL monomer, N,N-diethyl-N-(2-mthacryloylethyl)-N-methylammonium bistrifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (DEMM-TFSI) has been used as a second network using photo initiator benzophenon and crosslinker triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA). The resulting DN ionic gel shows transparency, flexibility, high thermal stability, good mechanical toughness and low friction coefficient value which can be a potential candidate as a gel slider in different mechanical devices and can open a new area in the field of gel tribology.

  2. Use of ionic liquids as coordination ligands for organometallic catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zaiwei [Moreno Valley, CA; Tang, Yongchun [Walnut, CA; Cheng,; Jihong, [Arcadia, CA

    2009-11-10

    Aspects of the present invention relate to compositions and methods for the use of ionic liquids with dissolved metal compounds as catalysts for a variety of chemical reactions. Ionic liquids are salts that generally are liquids at room temperature, and are capable of dissolving a many types of compounds that are relatively insoluble in aqueous or organic solvent systems. Specifically, ionic liquids may dissolve metal compounds to produce homogeneous and heterogeneous organometallic catalysts. One industrially-important chemical reaction that may be catalyzed by metal-containing ionic liquid catalysts is the conversion of methane to methanol.

  3. Aluminium electrodeposition in chloroaluminate ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lipeng; Wang, Enqi; Mu, Jiechen; Yu, Xianjin; Wang, Qiannan; Yang, Lina; Zhao, Zengdian

    2014-08-01

    An efficient microwave enhanced synthesis of ambient temperature chloroaluminate ionic liquid ([EMIM]Br) that preceeds reaction of 1-methylimidazolium with bromoethane in a closed vessel, was described in our work. The reaction time was drastically reduced as compared to the conventional methods. The electrochemical techniques of impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry were used to investigate the mechanism of Al electrodeposition from 2:1 (molar ratio) AlCl3/[EMIM]Br ionic liquid at room temperature. Results indicated that Al electrode- position from this ionic liqud was a quasi-reversible process, and the kinetic complications during the reaction was probably attributed to the electron transfer or mass transport cooperative controlled processes, instantaneous nucleation with diffusion-controlled growth was also investigated. Electrodepositon experiment was conducted using constant current density of 40 mA·cm(-2) for 20 minutes at room temperature and the qualitative analysis of the deposits were performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS). The deposits obtained on copper cathode were dense and compact and most Al crystal shows granular structure spherical with high purity.

  4. Liquid-Liquid Extraction in Systems Containing Butanol and Ionic Liquids – A Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Artur Kubiczek; Władysław Kamiński

    2017-01-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are a moderately new class of liquid substances that are characterized by a great variety of possible anion-cation combinations giving each of them different properties...

  5. Ionic liquids for addressing unmet needs in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agatemor, Christian; Ibsen, Kelly N; Tanner, Eden E L; Mitragotri, Samir

    2018-01-01

    Advances in the field of ionic liquids have opened new applications beyond their traditional use as solvents into other fields especially healthcare. The broad chemical space, rich with structurally diverse ions, and coupled with the flexibility to form complementary ion pairs enables task-specific optimization at the molecular level to design ionic liquids for envisioned functions. Consequently, ionic liquids now are tailored as innovative solutions to address many problems in medicine. To date, ionic liquids have been designed to promote dissolution of poorly soluble drugs and disrupt physiological barriers to transport drugs to targeted sites. Also, their antimicrobial activity has been demonstrated and could be exploited to prevent and treat infectious diseases. Metal-containing ionic liquids have also been designed and offer unique features due to incorporation of metals. Here, we review application-driven investigations of ionic liquids in medicine with respect to current status and future potential.

  6. Theoretical study on interactions between lignocellulose components and ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Zhuang, W. C.; Shi, X. Q.; Cao, W. L.

    2017-09-01

    Interactions between lignocellulose and ionic liquids have been studied by designed lignocellulose components models, and their complexes with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride. All the structures were optimized by DFT methods and hydrogen bonds within lignocelluloses components, and their complexes with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride were investigated by AIM calculations. Our calculated results demonstrate that when dissolved in ionic liquids, the stable intermolecular hydrogen bonds and weak π-stacking interactions between ionic liquids and lignocelluloses components reduce the energy of complex systems, which are advantageous for lignocelluloses components dissolution in ionic liquids. Moreover, there are deformation accrued for both lignocelluloses components and ionic liquids, which may be a prerequisite for lignocelluloses components dissolution in ionic liquids.

  7. Comparing two tetraalkylammonium ionic liquids. I. Liquid phase structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Thamires A.; Paschoal, Vitor H.; Faria, Luiz F. O.; Ribeiro, Mauro C. C., E-mail: mccribei@iq.usp.br [Laboratório de Espectroscopia Molecular, Departamento de Química Fundamental, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 26077, CEP 05513-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Giles, Carlos [Departamento de Física da Matéria Condensada, Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2016-06-14

    X-ray scattering experiments at room temperature were performed for the ionic liquids n-butyl-trimethylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, [N{sub 1114}][NTf{sub 2}], and methyl-tributylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, [N{sub 1444}][NTf{sub 2}]. The peak in the diffraction data characteristic of charge ordering in [N{sub 1444}][NTf{sub 2}] is shifted to longer distances in comparison to [N{sub 1114}][NTf{sub 2}], but the peak characteristic of short-range correlations is shifted in [N{sub 1444}][NTf{sub 2}] to shorter distances. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed for these ionic liquids using force fields available from the literature, although with new sets of partial charges for [N{sub 1114}]{sup +} and [N{sub 1444}]{sup +} proposed in this work. The shifting of charge and adjacency peaks to opposite directions in these ionic liquids was found in the static structure factor, S(k), calculated by MD simulations. Despite differences in cation sizes, the MD simulations unravel that anions are allowed as close to [N{sub 1444}]{sup +} as to [N{sub 1114}]{sup +} because anions are located in between the angle formed by the butyl chains. The more asymmetric molecular structure of the [N{sub 1114}]{sup +} cation implies differences in partial structure factors calculated for atoms belonging to polar or non-polar parts of [N{sub 1114}][NTf{sub 2}], whereas polar and non-polar structure factors are essentially the same in [N{sub 1444}][NTf{sub 2}]. Results of this work shed light on controversies in the literature on the liquid structure of tetraalkylammonium based ionic liquids.

  8. Smectic phases in ionic liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Hendrik; Bier, Markus; Dietrich, S

    2017-11-22

    Ionic liquid crystals (ILCs) are anisotropic mesogenic molecules which carry charges and therefore combine properties of liquid crystals, e.g. the formation of mesophases, and of ionic liquids, such as low melting temperatures and tiny triple-point pressures. Previous density functional calculations have revealed that the phase behavior of ILCs is strongly affected by their molecular properties, i.e. their aspect ratio, the loci of the charges, and their interaction strengths. Here, we report new findings concerning the phase behavior of ILCs as obtained by density functional theory and Monte Carlo simulations. The most important result is the occurrence of a novel, wide smectic-A phase [Formula: see text], at low temperature, the layer spacing of which is larger than that of the ordinary high-temperature smectic-A phase [Formula: see text]. Unlike the ordinary smectic S A phase, the structure of the [Formula: see text] phase consists of alternating layers of particles oriented parallel to the layer normal and oriented perpendicular to it.

  9. Aerogels from Chitosan Solutions in Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Santos-López

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan aerogels conjugates the characteristics of nanostructured porous materials, i.e., extended specific surface area and nano scale porosity, with the remarkable functional properties of chitosan. Aerogels were obtained from solutions of chitosan in ionic liquids (ILs, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (BMIMAc, and 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate (EMIMAc, in order to observe the effect of the solvent in the structural characteristics of this type of materials. The process of elaboration of aerogels comprised the formation of physical gels through anti-solvent vapor diffusion, liquid phase exchange, and supercritical CO2 drying. The aerogels maintained the chemical identity of chitosan according to Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR spectroscopy, indicating the presence of their characteristic functional groups. The internal structure of the obtained aerogels appears as porous aggregated networks in microscopy images. The obtained materials have specific surface areas over 350 m2/g and can be considered mesoporous. According to swelling experiments, the chitosan aerogels could absorb between three and six times their weight of water. However, the swelling and diffusion coefficient decreased at higher temperatures. The structural characteristics of chitosan aerogels that are obtained from ionic liquids are distinctive and could be related to solvation dynamic at the initial state.

  10. Aerobic, catalytic oxidation of alcohols in ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Roberto F. de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and simple catalytic system based on RuCl3 dissolved in ionic liquids has been developed for the oxidation of alcohols into aldehydes and ketones under mild conditions. A new fluorinated ionic liquid, 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium pentadecafluorooctanoate, was synthesized and demonstrated better performance that the other ionic liquids employed. Moreover this catalytic system utilizes molecular oxygen as an oxidizing agent, producing water as the only by-product.

  11. Fluorine-functionalized ionic liquids with high oxygen solubility

    OpenAIRE

    Vanhoutte, Gijs; Hojniak, Sandra; Bardé, Fanny; Binnemans, Koen; Fransaer, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Eight fluorine-functionalized ionic liquids were synthesized and the oxygen solubility was compared to commercial ionic liquids without the extra fluorinated chain. The concentration of dissolved oxygen increased with the fluorine content of the alkyl chain, which can be attached either to the cation or the anion. This approach maintains the freedom to design an ionic liquid for a specific application, while at the same time the oxygen solubility is increased.

  12. Electro-tactic ionic liquid droplets

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Wayne; Wagner, Klaudia; Beirne, Stephen; Officer, David; Wallace, Gordon; Florea, Larisa; Diamond, Dermot

    2015-01-01

    Here we report for the first time electro-guided, self-propelled droplets, which are composed solely of an ionic liquid (IL), namely trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium chloride ([P6,6,6,14][Cl]). These self-propelled droplets travel along an aqueous-air boundary and are guided to specific destinations within the fluidic network through the use of electro-chemically generated Cl- gradients. The direction of movement can be controlled by switching the impressed voltage (9V, ON or OFF) and polarity...

  13. Design of Separation Processes with Ionic Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng-noo, Worawit; Kulajanpeng, Kusuma; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    A systematic methodology for screening and designing of Ionic Liquid (IL)-based separation processes is proposed and demonstrated using several case studies of both aqueous and non-aqueous systems, for instance, ethanol + water, ethanol + hexane, benzene + hexane, and toluene + methylcyclohexane....... The best four ILs of each mixture are [mmim][dmp], [emim][bti], [emim][etso4] and [hmim][tcb], respectively. All of them were used as entrainers in the extractive distillation. A process simulation of each system was carried out and showed a lower both energy requirement and solvent usage as compared...

  14. ZnO-ionic liquid nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanes, Jose; Carrion, Francisco-Jose [Grupo de Ciencia de Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Departamento de Ingenieria de Materiales y Fabricacion, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Campus de la Muralla del Mar, C/ Doctor Fleming s/n, 30202 Cartagena (Spain); Bermudez, Maria-Dolores, E-mail: mdolores.bermudez@upct.es [Grupo de Ciencia de Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Departamento de Ingenieria de Materiales y Fabricacion, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Campus de la Muralla del Mar, C/ Doctor Fleming s/n, 30202 Cartagena (Spain)

    2009-02-15

    The mixture of nanostructures derived from the surface interactions and reactivity of ZnO nanoparticles with the room-temperature ionic liquid (IL1) 1-hexyl, 3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate has been studied. Results are discussed on the basis of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) determinations. Size and morphology changes in ZnO nanoparticles by surface modification with IL1 are observed. ZnF{sub 2} crystalline needles due to reaction with the hexafluorophosphate anion are also formed.

  15. Research and Development of Energetic Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    certainly achieved • Performance near TNT • Synthesis undertaken seeking IL with higher energy cation, AMT (1-amino-3- methyl -1,2,3 triazolium...Distribution A: Public Release, Distribution unlimited.” AMT-DNT Properties Properties of AMT-DNT improvement over HEAT-DNT 1-amino-3- methyl -1,2,3- triazolium...Navy/AF) – USAF AF-M315E • Propellant uses ionic liquids to yield low vapor toxicity 22 – Sweden/ECAPS LMP-103S • Propellant uses ADN -based formulation

  16. Ionic Liquids in HPLC and CE: A Hope for Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Imran; Suhail, Mohd; Sanagi, Mohd Marsin; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2017-07-04

    The ionic liquids (ILs) are salts with melting points below 100°C. These are called as ionic fluids, ionic melts, liquid electrolytes, fused salts, liquid salts, ionic glasses, designer solvents, green solvents and solvents of the future. These have a wide range of applications, including medical, pharmaceutical and chemical sciences. Nowadays, their use is increasing greatly in separation science, especially in chromatography and capillary electrophoresis due to their remarkable properties. The present article describes the importance of ILs in high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. Efforts were also made to highlight the future expectations of ILs.

  17. Lipid extraction from microalgae using a single ionic liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Roberto Di; Reich, Alton; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Teixeira, Rodrigo

    2013-05-28

    A one-step process for the lysis of microalgae cell walls and separation of the cellular lipids for use in biofuel production by utilizing a hydrophilic ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium. The hydrophilic ionic liquid both lyses the microalgae cell walls and forms two immiscible layers, one of which consists of the lipid contents of the lysed cells. After mixture of the hydrophilic ionic liquid with a suspension of microalgae cells, gravity causes a hydrophobic lipid phase to move to a top phase where it is removed from the mixture and purified. The hydrophilic ionic liquid is recycled to lyse new microalgae suspensions.

  18. Notre Dame Geothermal Ionic Liquids Research: Ionic Liquids for Utilization of Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennecke, Joan F. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    2017-03-07

    The goal of this project was to develop ionic liquids for two geothermal energy related applications. The first goal was to design ionic liquids as high temperature heat transfer fluids. We identified appropriate compounds based on both experiments and molecular simulations. We synthesized the new ILs, and measured their thermal stability, measured storage density, viscosity, and thermal conductivity. We found that the most promising compounds for this application are aminopyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide based ILs. We also performed some measurements of thermal stability of IL mixtures and used molecular simulations to better understand the thermal conductivity of nanofluids (i.e., mixtures of ILs and nanoparticles). We found that the mixtures do not follow ideal mixture theories and that the addition of nanoparticles to ILs may well have a beneficial influence on the thermal and transport properties of IL-based heat transfer fluids. The second goal was to use ionic liquids in geothermally driven absorption refrigeration systems. We performed copious thermodynamic measurements and modeling of ionic liquid/water systems, including modeling of the absorption refrigeration systems and the resulting coefficients of performance. We explored some IL/organic solvent mixtures as candidates for this application, both with experimentation and molecular simulations. We found that the COPs of all of the IL/water systems were higher than the conventional system – LiBr/H2O. Thus, IL/water systems appear very attractive for absorption refrigeration applications.

  19. Aprotic Heterocyclic Anion Triazolide Ionic Liquids - A New Class of Ionic Liquid Anion Accessed by the Huisgen Cycloaddition Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Robert [National Energy Technology Laboratory; Damodaran, Krishnan [Department of Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh; Luebke, David [National Energy Technology Laboratory; Nulwala, Hunaid [National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2013-04-18

    The triazole core is a highly versatile heterocyclic ring which can be accessed easily with the Cu(I)-catalyzed Huisgen cycloaddition reaction. Herein we present the preparation of ionic liquids that incorporate a 1,2,3-triazolide anion. These ionic liquids were prepared by a facile procedure utilizing a base-labile pivaloylmethyl group at the 1-position, which can act as precursors to 1H- 4-substituted 1,2,3-triazole. These triazoles were then subsequently converted into ionic liquids after deprotonation using an appropriate ionic liquid cation hydroxide. The densities and thermal decompositions of these ionic liquids were measured. These novel ionic liquids have potential applications in gas separations and in metal-free catalysis.

  20. Extraction of proteins with ionic liquid aqueous two-phase system based on guanidine ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qun; Wang, Yuzhi; Li, Na; Huang, Xiu; Ding, Xueqin; Lin, Xiao; Huang, Songyun; Liu, Xiaojie

    2013-11-15

    Eight kinds of green ionic liquids were synthesized, and an ionic liquid aqueous two-phase system (ILATPS) based on 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguandine acrylate (TMGA) guanidine ionic liquid was first time studied for the extraction of proteins. Single factor experiments proved that the extraction efficiency of bovine serum albumin (BSA) was influenced by the mass of IL, K2HPO4 and BSA, also related to the separation time and temperature. The optimum conditions were determined through orthogonal experiment by the five factors described above. The results showed that under the optimum conditions, the extraction efficiency could reach up to 99.6243%. The relative standard deviations (RSD) of extraction efficiencies in precision experiment, repeatability experiment and stability experiment were 0.8156% (n=5), 1.6173% (n=5) and 1.6292% (n=5), respectively. UV-vis and FT-IR spectra confirmed that there were no chemical interactions between BSA and ionic liquid in the extraction process, and the conformation of the protein was not changed after extraction. The conductivity, DLS and TEM were combined to investigate the microstructure of the top phase and the possible mechanism for the extraction. The results showed that hydrophobic interaction, hydrogen bonding interaction and the salt out effect played important roles in the transferring process, and the aggregation and embrace phenomenon was the main driving force for the separation. All these results proved that guanidine ionic liquid-based ATPSs have the potential to offer new possibility in the extraction of proteins. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. An adaptive self-healing ionic liquid nanocomposite membrane for olefin-paraffin separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitsch, Fee; Krull, Florian F; Agel, Friederike; Schulz, Peter; Wasserscheid, Peter; Melin, Thomas; Wessling, Matthias

    2012-08-16

    An adaptive self-healing ionic liquid nanocomposite membrane comprising a multi-layer support structure hosting the ionic salt [Ag](+) [Tf(2) N](-) is used for the separation of the olefin propylene and the paraffin propane. The ionic salt renders liquid like upon complexation with propylene, resulting in facilitated transport of propylene over propane at benchmark-setting selectivity and permeance levels. The contacting with acetylene causes the ionic salt to liquefy without showing evidence of forming explosive silver acetylide. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. High CO{sub 2} solubility in ionic liquids and a tetraalkylammonium-based poly(ionic liquid)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supasitmongkol, S.; Styring, P. [University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) absorption in several imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs), pyridinium-based ionic liquids and a tetraalkylammonium-based poly(ionic liquid) (PIL), poly((p-vinylbenzyl) trimethylammonium hexafluorophosphate) P((VBTMA)(PF6)), was studied. The trend of CO{sub 2} solubility in all of the ILs increases dramatically with decreasing absorption temperature. Based on the same bis(triflamide) (Tf2N) anion, imidazolium, pyridinium and trihexyltetradecylphosphonium-based ionic liquids all show relatively similar CO{sub 2} solubilities, which were higher than for the ES anion. The highest CO{sub 2} absorption was found in a poly(ionic liquid) P((VBTMA)(PF6)); however, the monomer also showed higher CO{sub 2} capacity than the other ionic liquids. The poly(ionic liquid) is remarkable in that it can adsorb 77% of its body weight of CO{sub 2} with a selectivity over nitrogen of 70:1. The absorbed CO{sub 2} gas can be readily desorbed from ionic liquids and poly(ionic liquid) and the selectivity for CO{sub 2} over N{sub 2} was consistent over repeated cycles. The materials can be reused several times for consecutive sorption/desorption cycles, without loss of performance in a large-scale reactor and therefore represent serious candidates for use in commercial adsorbers.

  3. Anodic dissolution of metals in ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Abbott

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The anodic dissolution of metals is an important topic for battery design, material finishing and metal digestion. Ionic liquids are being used in all of these areas but the research on the anodic dissolution is relatively few in these media. This study investigates the behaviour of 9 metals in an ionic liquid [C4mim][Cl] and a deep eutectic solvent, Ethaline, which is a 1:2 mol ratio mixture of choline chloride and ethylene glycol. It is shown that for the majority of metals studied a quasi-passivation of the metal surface occurs, primarily due to the formation of insoluble films on the electrode surface. The behaviour of most metals is different in [C4mim][Cl] to that in Ethaline due in part to the differences in viscosity. The formation of passivating salt films can be decreased with stirring or by increasing the electrolyte temperature, thereby increasing ligand transport to the electrode surface.

  4. Choline-derivative-based ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernak, Juliusz; Syguda, Anna; Mirska, Ilona; Pernak, Anna; Nawrot, Jan; Pradzyńska, Aleksandra; Griffin, Scott T; Rogers, Robin D

    2007-01-01

    A total of sixty-three choline derivative-based ionic liquids in the forms of chlorides, acesulfamates, and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imides have been prepared and their physical properties (density, viscosity, solubility, and thermal stability) have been determined. Thirteen of these salts are known chlorides: precursors to the 26 water-soluble acesulfamates, 12 acesulfamates only partially miscible with water, and 12 water-insoluble imides. The crystal structures for two of the chloride salts-(2-hydroxyethyl)dimethylundecyloxymethylammonium chloride and cyclododecyloxymethyl(2-hydroxyethyl)dimethylammonium chloride-were determined. The antimicrobial (cocci, rods, and fungi) activities of the new hydrophilic acesulfamate-based ILs were measured and 12 were found to be active. The alkoxymethyl(2-hydroxyethyl)dimethylammonium acesulfamates have been shown to be insect feeding deterrents and thus open up a new generation of synthetic deterrents based on ionic liquids. The alkoxymethyl(2-decanoyloxyethyl)dimethylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imides have also been shown to act as fixatives for soft tissues and can furthermore be used as substitutes for formalin and also preservatives for blood.

  5. Toxicity of ionic liquids prepared from biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, W; Jorge, T F; Martins, S; Meireles, M; Carolino, M; Cruz, C; Almeida, T V; Araújo, M E M

    2014-06-01

    In search of environmentally-friendly ionic liquids (ILs), 14 were prepared based on the imidazolium, pyridinium and choline cations, with bromide and several amino acids as anions. Good yields were obtained in the synthesis of pyridinium ILs and those prepared from choline and amino acids. Four of the ILs synthesized from choline and the amino acids arginine, glutamine, glutamic acid and cystine are described here for the first time. The toxicity of the synthesized ILs was checked against organisms of various levels of organization: the crustacean Artemia salina; Human cell HeLa (cervical carcinoma); and bacteria with different types of cell wall, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. The toxicity was observed to depend on both the cation and anion. Choline-amino acid ILs showed a remarkable low toxicity to A. salina and HeLa cell culture, ten times less than imidazolium and pyridinium ILs. None of ionic liquids exhibited marked toxicity to bacteria, and the effect was 2-3 orders of magnitude smaller than that of the antibiotic chloramphenicol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Anion exchange in ionic liquid mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Seoncheol; Kim, Doseok

    2015-11-28

    Advantage of ionic liquids as designer solvents can be maximized by mixing different ionic liquids (ILs) for a possibility of continuous tunability of material properties. The property of these mixed ILs would be determined by their microscopic conformation between cations and anions. The mixtures of two ILs having 1-butyl-3-methylimidaolium cations and different anions were investigated by IR and NMR spectroscopy, utilizing that the vibrational frequencies of the C-H stretching and bending modes of the most acidic proton in the imidazolium ring of the cation and the NMR chemical shift for the corresponding proton were clearly distinct between the ILs having different anions. The IR absorption spectra of the IL mixtures at different concentrations were well-matched to weighted sums of the two spectra of the pure ILs. In contrast, the two distinct peaks in the NMR spectra of the pure ILs coalesced into a single peak, which shifted continuously following the relative portion of two different ILs in the mixture. IR spectroscopy in the optical frequency range seems to take the instantaneous snapshot of the cation-anion interaction, while NMR spectroscopy in the radio-frequency (∼500 MHz) range samples over a much longer timescale, enough for the cation to interact with different anion species in the mixture.

  7. Immobilized Ionic Liquid-Catalyzed Synthesis of Pyrano[3,2-b]indole Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Damavandi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An ionic liquid-catalyzed synthesis of 2-amino-4,5-dihydro-4-arylpyrano[3,2-b]indole-3-carbonitrile derivatives through a novel three-component condensation of 3-hydroxyindole, aromatic aldehydes and malononitrile in the presence of silica supported ionic liquid of [pmim]HSO4SiO2 (silica supported 1-methyl-3-(triethoxysilylpropylimidazolium hydrogensulfate as an efficient catalyst is described.

  8. Corrosion behavior of construction materials for ionic liquid hydrogen compressor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arjomand Kermani, Nasrin; Petrushina, Irina; Nikiforov, Aleksey Valerievich

    2016-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of various commercially available stainless steels and nickel-based alloys as possible construction materials for components which are in direct contact with one of five different ionic liquids was evaluated. The ionic liquids, namely: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium triflate, 1...... liquid hydrogen compressor. An electrochemical cell was specially designed, and steady-state cyclic voltammetry was used to measure the corrosion resistance of the alloys in the ionic liquids at 23 °C, under atmospheric pressure. The results showed a very high corrosion resistance and high stability...... for all the alloys tested. The two stainless steels, AISI 316L and AISI 347 showed higher corrosion resistance compared to AISI 321 in all the ionic liquids tested. It was observed that small addition of molybdenum, tantalum, and niobium to the alloys increased the corrosion stability in the ionic liquids...

  9. Ionic liquid supported on an electrodeposited polycarbazole film for the headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography determination of aromatic esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Faqiong; Zeng, Baizhao

    2015-05-01

    A polycarbazole film was electrodeposited on a stainless-steel wire from a solution of N,N-dimethylformamide/propylene carbonate (1:9 v/v) containing 0.10 M carbazole and 0.10 M tetrabutylammonium perchlorate. The obtained polycarbazole fiber was immersed into an ionic liquid (1-hydroxyethyl-3-methyl imidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide) solution (in dimethylsulfoxide) for 30 min, followed by drying under an infrared lamp. The resulting polycarbazole/ionic liquid fiber was applied to the headspace solid-phase microextraction and determination of aromatic esters by coupling with gas chromatography and flame ionization detection. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection were below 61 ng/L (S/N = 3) and the linear ranges were 0.061-500 μg/L with correlation coefficients above 0.9876. The relative standard deviations were below 4.8% (n = 5) for a single fiber, and below 9.9% for multi-fiber (n = 4). This fiber also exhibited good stability. It could be used for more than 160 times of headspace solid-phase microextraction and could withstand a high temperature up to 350°C. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Detection of bisphenol A based on conducting binder supported hydrophobic 1,10-PhenanNTf2 ionic liquid onto flat silver electrode by electrochemical approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M. Rahman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of room-temperature stable ionic liquids was obtained via metathesis reaction, which was accomplished by the reaction 1,10-Phenanthroline monohydrate hydrochloride with lithium-bis(trifluoromethanesulfonamide in water (shortly, 1,10-PhenanNTf2. The prepared 1,10-PhenanNTf2 was characterized in details with various conventional methods. Finally, it was mixed with conducting binders and deposited on flat-silver electrode (AgE to result in a sensor that has a fast response to bisphenol A (BPA in the phosphate buffer phase (PBP. Features include high sensitivity, low-sample volume, reliability, reproducibility, ease of integration, long-term stability, and enhanced electrochemical responses. The calibration plot is linear (r2 = 0.9789 over the 0.1 nM–0.1 mM BPA concentration range. The sensitivity is ∼1.485 μA μM cm−2, and the detection limit is 0.09 ± 0.01 nM (at a signal-to-noise-ratio, SNR of 3. We believe that the developed approach significantly opens up a simple, fast, highly sensitive, and environment-friendly path to fabricate ionic liquid based chemical sensors with broad application prospects.

  11. Advanced Ionic Liquid Monopropellant for Payload Ascent Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a monopropellant replacement for hydrazine using eutectic mixtures of ionic liquids (EILs). These liquids offer us the ability to tailor fluid...

  12. Investigation of 1, 10-Phenanthroline based Ionic Liquids using X ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data (fitting models) for other than 1, 3-dialkyimidazolium based ionic liquids are required and need to be developed. 1, 10-Phenanthrolinium based ionic liquids are among the new compounds reported recently. However, no attempt is observed to investigate the electronic ...

  13. Silica coated ionic liquid templated mesoporous silica nanoparticles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis indicates that the particles obtained were in spherical shape with decreasing size as the alkyl chain length of ionic liquid increases. The materials also show increase of BET surface value as the alkyl chain length increases from the range 19 m2/g to 23 m2/g. Keywords: mesoporous silica; ionic liquid, pyridinium; ...

  14. Multi-responsive ionic liquid emulsions stabilized by microgels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteillet, H.; Workamp, M.; Li, X.; Schuur, Boelo; Kleijn, J.M.; Leermakers, F.; Sprakel, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a complete toolbox to use responsive ionic liquid (IL) emulsions for extraction purposes. IL emulsions stabilized by responsive microgels are shown to allow rapid extraction and reversible breaking and re-emulsification. Moreover, by using a paramagnetic ionic liquid, droplets can be

  15. An Ionic Liquid Solution of Chitosan as Organocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Wilhelm

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan, which is derived from the biopolymer chitin, can be readily dissolved in different ionic liquids. The resulting homogeneous solutions were applied in an asymmetric Aldol reaction. Depending on the type of ionic liquid used, high asymmetric inductions were found. The influence of different additives was also studied. The best results were obtained in [BMIM][Br] without an additive.

  16. Absorption and oxidation of no in ionic liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention concerns the absorption and in situ oxidation of nitric oxide (NO) in the presence of water and oxygen in ionic liquid compositions at ambient temperature.......The present invention concerns the absorption and in situ oxidation of nitric oxide (NO) in the presence of water and oxygen in ionic liquid compositions at ambient temperature....

  17. Near-wall molecular ordering of dilute ionic liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jitvisate, Monchai; Seddon, James Richard Thorley

    2017-01-01

    The interfacial behavior of ionic liquids promises tunable lubrication as well as playing an integral role in ion diffusion for electron transfer. Diluting the ionic liquids optimizes bulk parameters, such as electric conductivity, and one would expect dilution to disrupt the near-wall molecular

  18. Reversible physical absorption of SO2 by ionic liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Jun; Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    Ionic liquids can reversibly absorb large amounts of molecular SO2 gas under ambient conditions with the gas captured in a restricted configuration, possibly allowing SO2 to probe the internal cavity structures in ionic liquids besides being useful for SO2 removal in pollution control....

  19. Phase Behavior of Mixtures of Ionic Liquids and Organic Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildskov, Jens; Ellegaard, Martin Dela; O’Connell, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    A corresponding-states form of the generalized van der Waals equation, previously developed for mixtures of an ionic liquid and a supercritical solute, is here extended to mixtures including an ionic liquid and a solvent (water or organic). Group contributions to characteristic parameters...

  20. Polarity of the interface in ionic liquid in oil microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andújar-Matalobos, María; García-Río, Luis; López-García, Susana; Rodríguez-Dafonte, Pedro

    2011-11-01

    Ionic liquid based microemulsions were characterized by absorption solvatochromic shifts, (1)H NMR and kinetic measurements in order to investigate the properties of the ionic liquid within the restricted geometry provided by microemulsions and the interactions of the ionic liquid with the interface. Experimental results show a significant difference between the interfaces of normal water and the new ionic liquid microemulsions. Absorption solvatochromic shift experiments and kinetic studies on the aminolysis of 4-nitrophenyl laurate by n-decylamine show that the polarity at the interface of the ionic liquid in oil microemulsions (IL/O) is higher than at the interface of water in oil microemulsions (W/O) despite the fact that the polarity of [bmim][BF(4)(-)] is lower than the polarity of water. (1)H NMR experiments showed that an increase in the ionic liquid content of the microemulsion led to an increase in the interaction between [bmim][BF(4)(-)] and TX-100. The reason for the higher polarity of the microemulsions with the ionic liquid can be explained in terms of the incorporation of higher levels of the ionic liquid at the interface of the microemulsions, as compared to water in the traditional systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Combined reactions and separations using ionic liquids and carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    A new and general type of process for the chemical industry is presented using ionic liquids and supercritical carbon dioxide as combined reaction and separation media. In this process, the carbon dioxide pressure controls the miscibility of reactants, products, catalyst and ionic liquid, enabling

  2. Investigation of hybrid molecular material prepared by ionic liquid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    1-Butyl 3-methyl imidazolium bromide; molecular material; phosphotungstic acid; near IR. 1. Introduction. Ionic liquids are gaining importance in the synthesis of hybrid materials. 1. The 'ionic liquid' moniker is used for low melting point salts that contain organic cations. 2 ... class of solid acid catalytic materials with Brønsted.

  3. Ionic Liquids and Green Chemistry: A Lab Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Annegret; Ott, Denise; Kralisch, Dana; Kreisel, Guenter; Ondruschka, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Although ionic liquids have been investigated as solvents for many applications and are starting to be used in industrial processes, only a few lab experiments are available to introduce students to these materials. Ionic liquids have been discussed in the context of green chemistry, but few investigations have actually assessed the degree of…

  4. Ionic Liquid-Based Ultrasonic/Microwave-Assisted Extraction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop a more green, efficient and low cost process for the extraction of steroidal saponins from Dioscorea Zingiberensis C. H. Wright. Methods: Six kinds of ionic liquids with different cations and anions were evaluated. In addition, the extraction parameters of the ionic liquid based ultrasonic/microwave ...

  5. Dispersion polymerization of L-lactide utilizing ionic liquids as reaction medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmiati, Sri; Minami, Hideto; Haryono, Agus; Adilina, Indri B.

    2017-11-01

    Dispersion polymerization of L-lactide was proceeded in various ionic liquids. Ionic liquids as 1-Hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluormethylsulfonyl) imide, [HMIM] [TFSI], 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide, [BMP] [TFSI], and N,N,N-Trimethyl-N-Propylammonium Bis (trifloromethanesulfonyl) imide, [TMPA] [TFSI], were employed as reaction medium that dissolved both of lactide and stabilizer (polyvinylprrolidone). Sn-supported on bentonite was used as a ring opening catalyst of L-lactide. Gel Permeation Chromatography result showed that poly-(L-lactic acid) were formed in ionic liquids [HMIM] [TFSI] and [BMP] [TFSI] with molecular weight as 19390 and 20844, respectively.

  6. Interactions between water and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadeeva, Tatiana A; Husson, Pascale; DeVine, Jessalyn A; Costa Gomes, Margarida F; Greenbaum, Steven G; Castner, Edward W

    2015-08-14

    We report experimental results on the diffusivity of water in two ionic liquids obtained using the pulsed-gradient spin-echo NMR method. Both ionic liquids have the same cation, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium, but different trifluoromethyl-containing anions. One has a strongly hydrophobic anion, bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide, while the second has a hydrophilic anion, trifluoromethylsulfonate. Transport of water in these ionic liquids is much faster than would be predicted from hydrodynamic laws, indicating that the neutral water molecules experience a very different friction than the anions and cations at the molecular level. Temperature-dependent viscosities, conductivities, and densities are reported as a function of water concentration to further analyze the properties of the ionic liquid-water mixtures. These results on the properties of water in ionic liquids should be of interest to researchers in diverse areas ranging from separations, solubilizing biomass and energy technologies.

  7. Ternary liquid-liquid equilibria for mixtures of toluene + n-heptane + an ionic liquid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meindersma, G.W.; Podt, J.G.; de Haan, A.B.

    2006-01-01

    This research has been focused on a study of sulfolane and four ionic liquids as solvents in liquid–liquid extraction. Liquid–liquid equilibria data were obtained for mixtures of (sulfolane or 4-methyl-N-butylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate ([mebupy]BF4) or 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate

  8. New triazolium based ionic liquid crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stappert, Kathrin [Ruhr-Universitat Bochum; Unal, Derya [Ruhr-Universitat Bochum; Mallick, Bert [Ruhr Universitat Bochum; Mudring, Anja-Verena [Ames Laboratory

    2014-01-01

    A set of novel 1,2,3-triazolium based ionic liquid crystals was synthesized and their mesomorphic behaviour studied by DSC (differential scanning calorimetry), POM (polarizing optical microscopy) and SAXS (small angle X-ray scattering). Beside the variation of the chain length (C10, C12 and C14) at the 1,2,3-triazolium cation also the anion has been varied (Br-, I-, I3-, BF4-, SbF6-, N(CN)2-, Tf2N-) to study the influence of ion size, symmetry and H-bonding capability on the mesophase formation. Interestingly, for the 1,3-didodecyl-1,2,3-triazolium cation two totally different conformations were found in the crystal structure of the bromide (U-shaped) and the triiodide (rod shaped).

  9. Metsulfuron-methyl-based herbicidal ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernak, Juliusz; Niemczak, Michał; Shamshina, Julia L; Gurau, Gabriela; Głowacki, Grzegorz; Praczyk, Tadeusz; Marcinkowska, Katarzyna; Rogers, Robin D

    2015-04-08

    Ten sulfonylurea-based herbicidal ionic liquids (HILs) were prepared by combining the metsulfuron-methyl anion with various cation types including quaternary ammonium ([bis(2-hydroxyethyl)methyloleylammonium](+), [2-hydroxyethyltrimethylammonium](+)), pyridinium ([1-dodecylpyridinium](+)), piperidinium ([1-methyl-1-propylpiperidinium](+)), imidazolium ([1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium](+), [1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium](+)), pyrrolidinium ([1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium](+)), morpholinium ([4-decyl-4-methylmorpholinium](+)), and phosphonium ([trihexyltetradecylphosphonium](+) and [tetrabutylphosphonium](+)). Their herbicidal efficacy was studied in both greenhouse tests and field trials. Preliminary results for the greenhouse tests showed at least twice the activity for all HILs when compared to the activity of commercial Galmet 20 SG, with HILs with phosphonium cations being the most effective. The results of two-year field studies showed significantly less enhancement of activity than observed in the greenhouse; nonetheless, it was found that the herbicidal efficacy was higher than that of the commercial analog, and efficacy varied depending on the plant species.

  10. Inorganic materials synthesis in ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Janiak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of "inorganic materials from ionic liquids" (ILs is a young and dynamically growing research area for less than 10 years. The ionothermal synthesis in ILs is often connected with the preparation of nanomaterials, the use of microwave heating and in part also ultrasound. Inorganic material synthesis in ILs allows obtaining phases which are not accessible in conventional organic or aqueous solvents or with standard methods of solid-state chemistry or under such mild conditions. Cases at hand include "ligand-free" metal nanoparticles without added stabilizing capping ligands, inorganic or inorganic-organic hybrid solid-state compounds, large polyhedral clusters and exfoliated graphene from low-temperature synthesis. There are great expectations that ILs open routes towards new, possibly unknown, inorganic materials with advantageous properties that cannot (or only with great difficulty be made via conventional processes.

  11. Ionic Liquids as Advanced Lubricant Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco-José Carrión

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquids (ILs are finding technological applications as chemical reaction media and engineering fluids. Some emerging fields are those of lubrication, surface engineering and nanotechnology. ILs are thermally stable, non-flammable highly polar fluids with negligible volatility, these characteristics make them ideal candidates for new lubricants under severe conditions, were conventional oils and greases or solid lubricants fail. Such conditions include ultra-high vacuum and extreme temperatures. Other very promising areas which depend on the interaction between IL molecules and material surfaces are the use of ILs in the lubrication of microelectromechanic and nanoelectromechanic systems (MEMS and NEMS, the friction and wear reduction of reactive light alloys and the modification of nanophases.

  12. Behavior of hydrophobic ionic liquids as liquid membranes on phenol removal: Experimental study and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Y S; Hashim, M A

    2014-01-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids show potential as an alternative to conventional organic membrane solvents mainly due to their properties of low vapor pressure, low volatility and they are often stable. In the present work, the technical feasibilities of room temperature ionic liquids as bulk liquid membranes for phenol removal were investigated experimentally. Three ionic liquids with high hydrophobicity were used and their phenol removal efficiency, membrane stability and membrane loss were studied. Besides that, the effects of several parameters, namely feed phase pH, feed concentration, NaOH concentration and stirring speeds on the performance of best ionic liquid membrane were also evaluated. Lastly, an optimization study on bulk ionic liquid membrane was conducted and the maximum phenol removal efficiency was compared with the organic liquid membranes. The preliminary study shows that high phenol extraction and stripping efficiencies of 96.21% and 98.10%, respectively can be achieved by ionic liquid memb...

  13. Predictions of Physicochemical Properties of Ionic Liquids with DFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Karu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, density functional theory (DFT-based high-throughput computational approach is becoming more efficient and, thus, attractive for finding advanced materials for electrochemical applications. In this work, we illustrate how theoretical models, computational methods, and informatics techniques can be put together to form a simple DFT-based throughput computational workflow for predicting physicochemical properties of room-temperature ionic liquids. The developed workflow has been used for screening a set of 48 ionic pairs and for analyzing the gathered data. The predicted relative electrochemical stabilities, ionic charges and dynamic properties of the investigated ionic liquids are discussed in the light of their potential practical applications.

  14. Shock Wave Energy Dissipation using Polymerized Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaejun; Ren, Yi; Evans, Christopher; Moore, Jeffrey; Sottos, Nancy

    2017-06-01

    Polymerized ionic liquids composed of alkyl-imidazolium cations and bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonamide anions exhibit intriguing shock wave energy absorption performance. In prior work, we observed a shock-induced disorder-to-order change in network forming ionic liquids. We hypothesize that this shock-induced ordering is strongly associated with the microstructure of the ionic liquids. Polymerized ionic liquids, which have similar microstructures but slower relaxation times compared to the ionic liquids, are prepared to demonstrate the ordering transition mechanism and to exploit relaxation processes for the energy dissipation. By employing size-tunable alkyl backbone spacers between cations, we explore the effect of the relative microstructural heterogeneity on the activation of shock-induced ordering. Relaxation time, which is adjustable by the alkyl spacer length, also plays an important role in the energy dissipation process. Absorption properties of a series of thin film (ca. 50 μm) polymerized ionic liquids are evaluated using a laser-induced shock wave testing protocol. Superior shock wave mitigating performance of polymerized ionic liquids was achieved compared to polyurea films.

  15. Adsorption Kinetics at Silica Gel/Ionic Liquid Solution Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Flieger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of imidazolium and pyridinium ionic liquids with different anions (Cl−, Br−, BF4−, PF6− has been evaluated for their adsorption activity on silica gel. Quantification of the ionic liquids has been performed by the use of RP-HPLC with organic-aqueous eluents containing an acidic buffer and a chaotropic salt. Pseudo-second order kinetic models were applied to the experimental data in order to investigate the kinetics of the adsorption process. The experimental data showed good fitting with this model, confirmed by considerably high correlation coefficients. The adsorption kinetic parameters were determined and analyzed. The relative error between the calculated and experimental amount of ionic liquid adsorbed at equilibrium was within 7%. The effect of various factors such as initial ionic liquid concentration, temperature, kind of solvent, kind of ionic liquid anion and cation on adsorption efficiency were all examined in a lab-scale study. Consequently, silica gel showed better adsorptive characteristics for imidazolium-based ionic liquids with chaotropic anions from aqueous solutions in comparison to pyridinium ionic liquids. The adsorption was found to decrease with the addition of organic solvents (methanol, acetonitrile but it was not sensitive to the change of temperature in the range of 5–40 °C.

  16. Soft Ionization of Thermally Evaporated Hypergolic Ionic Liquid Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Christine J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Liu, Chen-Lin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Harmon, Christopher W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Strasser, Daniel [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Golan, Amir [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kostko, Oleg [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chambreau, Steven D. [Edwards Air Force Base, ERC Inc., CA (United States); Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam L. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base, CA (United States); Leone, Stephen R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-04-20

    Isolated ion pairs of a conventional ionic liquid, 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Emim+][Tf2N–]), and a reactive hypergolic ionic liquid, 1-Butyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Dicyanamide ([Bmim+][Dca–]), are generated by vaporizing ionic liquid submicrometer aerosol particles for the first time; the vaporized species are investigated by dissociative ionization with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light, exhibiting clear intact cations, Emim+ and Bmim+, presumably originating from intact ion pairs. Mass spectra of ion pair vapor from an effusive source of the hypergolic ionic liquid show substantial reactive decomposition due to the internal energy of the molecules emanating from the source. Also, hotoionization efficiency curves in the near threshold ionization region of isolated ion pairs of [Emim+][Tf2N] ionic liquid vapor are compared for an aerosol source and an effusive source, revealing changes in the appearance energy due to the amount of internal energy in the ion pairs. The aerosol source has a shift to higher threshold energy (~0.3 eV), attributed to reduced internal energy of the isolated ion pairs. Lastly, the method of ionic liquid submicrometer aerosol particle vaporization, for reactive ionic liquids such as hypergolic species, is a convenient, thermally “cooler” source of isolated intact ion pairs in the gas phase compared to effusive sources.

  17. Soft ionization of thermally evaporated hypergolic ionic liquid aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of California; ERC, Incorporated, Edwards Air Force Base; Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base; National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC); Institute of Chemistry, Hebrew University; Koh, Christine J.; Liu, Chen-Lin; Harmon, Christopher W.; Strasser, Daniel; Golan, Amir; Kostko, Oleg; Chambreau, Steven D.; Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam L.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2011-07-19

    Isolated ion pairs of a conventional ionic liquid, 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Emim+][Tf2N?]), and a reactive hypergolic ionic liquid, 1-Butyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Dicyanamide ([Bmim+][Dca?]), are generated by vaporizing ionic liquid submicron aerosol particles for the first time; the vaporized species are investigated by dissociative ionization with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light, exhibiting clear intact cations, Emim+ and Bmim+, presumably originating from intact ion pairs. Mass spectra of ion pair vapor from an effusive source of the hypergolic ionic liquid show substantial reactive decomposition due to the internal energy of the molecules emanating from the source. Photoionization efficiency curves in the near threshold ionization region of isolated ion pairs of [Emim+][Tf2N?]ionic liquid vapor are compared for an aerosol source and an effusive source, revealing changes in the appearance energy due to the amount of internal energy in the ion pairs. The aerosol source has a shift to higher threshold energy (~;;0.3 eV), attributed to reduced internal energy of the isolated ion pairs. The method of ionic liquid submicron aerosol particle vaporization, for reactive ionic liquids such as hypergolic species, is a convenient, thermally ?cooler? source of isolated intact ion pairs in the gas phase compared to effusive sources.

  18. Correlation between ion diffusional motion and ionic conductivity for different electrolytes based on ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Dilraj Preet; Yamada, K; Park, Jin-Soo; Sekhon, S S

    2009-04-23

    Room temperature ionic liquid 2,3-dimethyl-1-hexylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide (DMHxImTFSI) has been synthesized and used in the preparation of polymer gel electrolytes containing polymethylmethacrylate and propylene carbonate (PC). The onset of ion diffusional motion has been studied by (1)H and (19)F NMR spectroscopy and the results obtained for ionic liquid, liquid electrolytes, and polymer gel electrolytes have been correlated with the ionic conductivity results for these electrolytes in the 100-400 K temperature range. The temperature at which (1)H and (19)F NMR lines show motional narrowing and hence ion diffusional motion starts has been found to be closely related to the temperature at which a large increase in ionic conductivity has been observed for these electrolytes. Polymer gel electrolytes have high ionic conductivity over a wide range of temperatures. Thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry studies show that the ionic liquid (DMHxImTFSI) used in the present study is thermally stable up to 400 degrees C, whereas the addition of PC lowers the thermal stability of polymer gel electrolytes containing the ionic liquid. Different electrolytes have been observed to show high ionic conductivity in different range of temperatures, which can be helpful in the design of polymer gel electrolytes for specific applications.

  19. Graphene and graphene oxide modified by deep eutectic solvents and ionic liquids supported on silica as adsorbents for solid-phase extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoqin; Li, Guizhen; Row, Kyung Ho [Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    A novel deep eutectic solvent (DES) and ionic liquid (IL)-modified graphene (G) and graphene oxide (GO) were synthesized and used as effective adsorbents for the preconcentration of three chlorophenols (CPs), 4-chlorophenol (4-CP), 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), in environmental water samples prior to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The new materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (S-4200) and Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry. The prepared functionalized GO@silica shows remarkable adsorption capacity toward CPs. When used as solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbents, a superior recovery (88.49–89.70%) could be obtained compared to commercial sorbents, such as silica and aminosilica. Based on this, a method for the analysis of CPs in water samples was established by coupling SPE with HPLC. These results highlight the potential new role of DES and IL-modified GO in the preparation of analytical samples.

  20. Influence of organic solvent on the separation of an ionic liquid from a lignin-ionic liquid mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerachanchai, Piyarat; Lim, Kok Hwa; Lee, Jong-Min

    2014-03-01

    Sixteen solvents added in lignin-ionic liquid mixture provide four types of solubility characteristics. The distinct characteristics can be classified by considering solubility parameters including ET Scale, Kamlet-Taft parameters and solubility parameters. Group 1 solvent shows promising solvents for lignin-ionic liquid separation, contributing full dissolution of ionic liquid with lignin precipitation. Isopropanol, the most potential solvent has solubility properties as following normalized molar electronic transition energies (ET(N))=0.57, hydrogen-bond acidity (α)=0.76 and Hildebrand solubility parameter (δT)=23.58. This study examines potential solvents for ionic recovery, provides simple method of separation and leads to the feasibility of using ionic liquids in industrial applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Chelating ionic liquids for reversible zinc electrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Mega; Winther-Jensen, Bjorn; Forsyth, Maria; MacFarlane, Douglas R

    2013-05-21

    Advanced, high energy-density, metal-air rechargeable batteries, such as zinc-air, are of intense international interest due to their important role in energy storage applications such as electric and hybrid vehicles, and to their ability to deal with the intermittency of renewable energy sources such as solar and wind. Ionic liquids offer a number of ideal thermal and physical properties as potential electrolytes in such large-scale energy storage applications. We describe here the synthesis and characterisation of a family of novel "chelating" ILs designed to chelate and solubilize the zinc ions to create electrolytes for this type of battery. These are based on quaternary alkoxy alkyl ammonium cations of varying oligo-ether side chains and anions such as p-toluene sulfonate, bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide and dicyanoamides. This work shows that increasing the ether chain length in the cation from two to four oxygens can increase the ionic conductivity and reduce the melting point from 67 °C to 15 °C for the tosylate system. Changing the anion also plays a significant role in the nature of the zinc deposition electrochemistry. We show that zinc can be reversibly deposited from [N(222(20201))][NTf2] and [N(222(202020201))][NTf2] beginning at -1.4 V and -1.7 V vs. SHE, respectively, but not in the case of tosylate based ILs. This indicates that the [NTf2] is a weaker coordinating anion with the zinc cation, compared to the tosylate anion, allowing the coordination of the ether chain to dominate the behavior of the deposition and stripping of zinc ions.

  2. Ionic liquids-mediated interactions between nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhou; Zhang, Fei; Huang, Jingsong; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Qiao, Rui

    2017-10-01

    Surface forces mediated by room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) play an essential role in diverse applications including self-assembly, lubrication, and electrochemical energy storage. Therefore, their fundamental understanding is critical. Using molecular simulations, we study the interactions between two nanorods immersed in model RTILs at rod-rod separations where both structural and double layer forces are important. The interaction force between neutral rods oscillates as the two rods approach each other, similar to the classical structural forces. Such oscillatory force originates from the density oscillation of RTILs near each rod and is affected by the packing constraints imposed by the neighboring rods. The oscillation period and decay length of the oscillatory force are mainly dictated by the ion density distribution near isolated nanorods. When charges are introduced on the rods, the interaction force remains short-range and oscillatory, similar to the interactions between planar walls mediated by some protic RTILs reported earlier. Nevertheless, introducing net charges to the rods greatly changes the rod-rod interactions, e.g., by delaying the appearance of the first force trough and increasing the oscillation period and decay length of the interaction force. The oscillation period and decay length of the oscillatory force and free energy are commensurate with those of the space charge density near an isolated, charged rod. The free energy of rod-rod interactions reaches local minima (maxima) at rod-rod separations when the space charges near the two rods interfere constructively (destructively). The insight on the short-range interactions between nanorods in RTILs helps guide the design of novel materials, e.g., ionic composites based on rigid-rod polyanions and RTILs.

  3. Spectral SAR Ecotoxicology of Ionic Liquids: The Daphnia magna Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai V. Putz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to provide a unified theory of ionic liquids ecotoxicity, the recent spectral structure activity relationship (S-SAR algorithm is employed for testing the two additive models of anionic-cationic interaction containing ionic liquid activity: the causal and the endpoint, |0+〉 and |1+〉 models, respectively. As a working system, the Daphnia magna ecotoxicity was characterized through the formulated and applied spectral chemical-ecobiological interaction principles. Specific anionic-cationic-ionic-liquid rules of interaction along the developed mechanistic hypersurface map of the main ecotoxicity paths together with the so-called resonance limitation of the standard statistical correlation analysis were revealed.

  4. Graphene oxide doped ionic liquid ultrathin composite membranes for efficient CO2 capture

    KAUST Repository

    Karunakaran, Madhavan

    2016-11-28

    Advanced membrane systems with high flux and sufficient selectivity are required for industrial gas separation processes. In order to achieve high flux and high selectivity, the membrane material should be as thin as possible and it should have selective sieving channels and long term stability. This could be achieved by designing a three component material consisting of a blend of an ionic liquid and graphene oxide covered by a highly permeable low selective polymeric coating. By using a simple dip coating technique, we prepared high flux and CO selective ultrathin graphene oxide (GO)/ionic liquid membranes on a porous ultrafiltration support. The ultrathin composite membranes derived from GO/ionic liquid complex displays remarkable combinations of permeability (CO flux: 37 GPU) and selectivity (CO/N selectivity: 130) that surpass the upper bound of ionic liquid membranes for CO/N separation. Moreover, the membranes were stable when tested for 120 hours.

  5. Highly efficient conductivity modulation of cinnamate-based light-responsive ionic liquids in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Wang, Huiyong; Wang, Jianji; Zhang, Yue; Guo, Zhongjia

    2014-12-11

    A new class of cinnamate-based light-responsive ionic liquids was synthesized and characterized, and these ionic liquids with longer alkyl chains showed a remarkable increase in ionic conductivity under UV light irradiation in aqueous solutions.

  6. Long-range electrostatic screening in ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbie, Matthew A; Dobbs, Howard A; Valtiner, Markus; Israelachvili, Jacob N

    2015-06-16

    Electrolyte solutions with high concentrations of ions are prevalent in biological systems and energy storage technologies. Nevertheless, the high interaction free energy and long-range nature of electrostatic interactions makes the development of a general conceptual picture of concentrated electrolytes a significant challenge. In this work, we study ionic liquids, single-component liquids composed solely of ions, in an attempt to provide a novel perspective on electrostatic screening in very high concentration (nonideal) electrolytes. We use temperature-dependent surface force measurements to demonstrate that the long-range, exponentially decaying diffuse double-layer forces observed across ionic liquids exhibit a pronounced temperature dependence: Increasing the temperature decreases the measured exponential (Debye) decay length, implying an increase in the thermally driven effective free-ion concentration in the bulk ionic liquids. We use our quantitative results to propose a general model of long-range electrostatic screening in ionic liquids, where thermally activated charge fluctuations, either free ions or correlated domains (quasiparticles), take on the role of ions in traditional dilute electrolyte solutions. This picture represents a crucial step toward resolving several inconsistencies surrounding electrostatic screening and charge transport in ionic liquids that have impeded progress within the interdisciplinary ionic liquids community. More broadly, our work provides a previously unidentified way of envisioning highly concentrated electrolytes, with implications for diverse areas of inquiry, ranging from designing electrochemical devices to rationalizing electrostatic interactions in biological systems.

  7. Simultaneous Design of Ionic Liquids and Azeotropic Separation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roughton, Brock C.; White, John; Camarda, Kyle V.

    2011-01-01

    A methodology for the design of azeotrope separation processes using ionic liquids as entrainers is outlined. A Hildebrand solubility parameter group contribution model has been developed to screen for or design an ionic liquid entrainer that is soluble with the azeotropic components. Using the b...... % [BMPy][BF4] added. The driving force concept is used to design an extractive distillation process that minimizes energy inputs. The methodology given can be expanded to the use of ionic liquids as entrainers in any azeotropic system of interest.......A methodology for the design of azeotrope separation processes using ionic liquids as entrainers is outlined. A Hildebrand solubility parameter group contribution model has been developed to screen for or design an ionic liquid entrainer that is soluble with the azeotropic components. Using...... the best candidate, vapor-liquid equilibria data is predicted using a new ionic liquid UNIFAC model that has been developed. The UNIFAC model is used to confirm the breaking of the azeotrope. The methanol-acetone azeotrope at 1 atm is used as an example. The azeotrope was predicted to break with 10 mol...

  8. Ecotoxicological evaluation of magnetic ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sintra, Tânia E; Nasirpour, Maryam; Siopa, Filipa; Rosatella, Andreia A; Gonçalves, Fernando; Coutinho, João A P; Afonso, Carlos A M; Ventura, Sónia P M

    2017-09-01

    Although magnetic ionic liquids (MILs) are not yet industrially applied, their continued development and eventual commercial use may lead to their appearance into the aquatic ecosystem through accidental spills or effluents, consequently promoting aquatic contaminations. Furthermore, the deficient information and uncertainty surrounding the environmental impact of MILs could be a major barrier to their widespread industrial application and international registration. Thus, in the present work, a range of cholinium salt derivatives with magnetic properties was synthesized and their ecotoxicity was evaluated towards the luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The results suggest that all MILs structures tested are moderately toxic, or even toxic, to the bacteria. Furthermore, their toxicity is highly dependent on the structural modifications of the cation, namely the alkyl side chain length and the number of hydroxyethyl groups, as well as the atomic number of the metal anion. Finally, from the magnetic anions evaluated, the [MnCl4](2-) is the less toxic. In order to improve the knowledge for the prospective design of environmentally safer MILs, it is important to expand this study to other aquatic organisms at different trophic levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Review of Ionic Liquid Lubricants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony E. Somers

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to ever increasing demands on lubricants, such as increased service intervals, reduced volumes and reduced emissions, there is a need to develop new lubricants and improved wear additives. Ionic liquids (ILs are room temperature molten salts that have recently been shown to offer many advantages in this area. The application of ILs as lubricants in a diverse range of systems has found that these materials can show remarkable protection against wear and significantly reduce friction in the neat state. Recently, some researchers have shown that a small family of ILs can also be incorporated into non-polar base oils, replacing traditional anti-wear additives, with excellent performance of the neat IL being maintained. ILs consist of large asymmetrical ions that may readily adsorb onto a metal surface and produce a thin, protective film under boundary lubrication conditions. Under extreme pressure conditions, certain IL compounds can also react to form a protective tribofilm, in particular when fluorine, phosphorus or boron atoms are present in the constituent ions.

  10. Enhanced Mixed Feedstock Processing Using Ionic Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Blake A [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-10-22

    Biomass pretreatment using certain ionic liquids (ILs) is very efficient, generally producing a substrate that is amenable to saccharification with fermentable sugar yields approaching theoretical limits. Although promising, several challenges must be addressed before IL pretreatment technology becomes commercially viable. Once of the most significant challenges is the affordable and scalable recovery and recycle or the IL itself. Pervaporation is a highly selective and scalable membrane separation process for quantitatively recovering volatile solutes or solvents directly from non-volatile solvents that could prove more versatile for IL dehydration than traditional solvent extraction processes, as well as efficient and energetically more advantageous than standard evaporative techniques. In this study we evaluated a commercially available pervaporation system for IL dehydration and recycling as part of an integrated IL pretreatment process using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2C1Im][OAc]) that has been proven to be very effective as a biomass pretreatment solvent. We demonstrate that >99.9 wt% [C2C1Im][OAc] can be recovered from aqueous solution and recycled at least five times. A preliminary techno-economic analysis validated the promising role of pervaporation in improving overall biorefinery process economics, especially in the case where other IL recovery technologies might lead to significant losses. These findings establish the foundation for further development of pervaporation as an effective method of recovering and recycling ILs using a commercially viable process technology.

  11. Permeation of Ionic Liquids through the skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Júlio

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Alternative forms of drug delivery such as delivery through the skin, have been developed to explore other routes. However, the incorporation of poorly soluble or partially insoluble drugs into these delivery systems represents a major problem. Ionic liquids (ILs may be incorporated in aqueous, oily or hydroalcoholic solutions and thus, may be used as excipients in drug delivery systems to increase/improve the topical and transdermal drug delivery. However, it is fundamental to consider the cytotoxicity of these salts and it is also crucial to evaluate if these compounds permeate through the skin. Herein, three imidazole-based ILs: [C2mim][Br], [C4mim][Br] and [C6mim][Br], were synthesized and each IL was incorporated within caffeine saturated solutions. Permeation studies of the active (caffeine in these solutions were performed to evaluate the amount of IL that permeated through the porcine ear skin in the presence of the active. To achieve this, gravimetric studies of the receptor compartment were performed. Results showed that the more lipophilic IL [C6mim][Br] presented the highest permeation through the skin. The permeation is dependent upon the size of the alkyl chain of the IL, and as more than 60% of the ILs permeate is it vital to consider the cytotoxicity of these salts when considering their incorporation in topical systems.

  12. Ionic Liquid-Based Optical and Electrochemical Carbon Dioxide Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalakanta Behera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to their unusual physicochemical properties (e.g., high thermal stability, low volatility, high intrinsic conductivity, wide electrochemical windows and good solvating ability, ionic liquids have shown immense application potential in many research areas. Applications of ionic liquid in developing various sensors, especially for the sensing of biomolecules, such as nucleic acids, proteins and enzymes, gas sensing and sensing of various important ions, among other chemosensing platforms, are currently being explored by researchers worldwide. The use of ionic liquids for the detection of carbon dioxide (CO2 gas is currently a major topic of research due to the associated importance of this gas with daily human life. This review focuses on the application of ionic liquids in optical and electrochemical CO2 sensors. The design, mechanism, sensitivity and detection limit of each type of sensor are highlighted in this review.

  13. Dissolution of cellulose in ionic liquid: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd, N.; Draman, S. F. S.; Salleh, M. S. N.; Yusof, N. B.

    2017-02-01

    Dissolution of cellulose with ionic liquids (IL) and deep eutectic solvent (DES) lets the comprehensive dissolution of cellulose. Basically, cellulose can be dissolved, in some hydrophilic ionic liquids, such as 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) and 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AMIMCl). Chloride based ionic liquids are suitable solvents for cellulose dissolution. Although the ILs is very useful in fine chemical industry, its application in the pharmaceutical and food industry have been very limited due to issues with toxicity, purity, and high cost. Seeing to these limitations, new green alternative solvent which is DES was used. This green solvents, may be definitely treated as the next-generation reagents for more sustainable industrial development. Thus, this review aims to discuss the dissolution of cellulose either with ionic liquids or DES and its application.

  14. Non-Toxic Ionic Liquid Fuels for Exploration Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop and test new, non-toxic ionic liquid fuels for propulsion applications. Vintage propulsion systems frequently use highly toxic...

  15. Production of biofuels and chemicals with ionic liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Zhen; Qi, Xinhua

    2013-01-01

    This book explores the application of ionic liquids to biomass for producing biofuels and chemicals. Covers pretreatment, fermentation, cellulose transformation, reaction kinetics and more, as well as subsequent production of biofuels and platform chemicals.

  16. Ionic Liquids – Development and Challenges in Industrial Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvjetko Bubalo, M.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of novel, highly productive, and sustainable processes for the production of industrially important compounds is becoming a growing area of research. Due to non-volatility, inflammability, great thermal, chemical and electrochemical stability and also recyclability, ionic liquids are extensively studied as possible green replacement for widely used conventional molecular solvents. Due to the extremely large number of possible chemical structures of ionic liquids, the ability to design ionic liquids for specific applications makes them unique solvents in electrochemistry, analytical chemistry, organic synthesis and (biocatalysis, separation processes, as well as functional fluids (lubricants, heat transfer fluids, corrosion inhibitors etc.. This paper presents a review of the scientific and technical literature related to ionic liquids, their basic properties, preparation and application, as well as the challenges of their application on an industrial scale.

  17. An ionic liquid supported CeO2 nanoparticles–carbon nanotubes composite-enhanced electrochemical DNA-based sensor for the detection of Pb2+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available An electrochemical sensor incorporating a signal enhancement for the determination of lead (II ions (Pb2+ was designed on the basis of the thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA as a molecular recognition element and ionic liquid supported cerium oxide (CeO2 nanoparticles–carbon nanotubes composite modification. The composite comprises nanoparticles CeO2, multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs and hydrophobic room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMIMBF4. The electrochemical sensors were fabricated by immersing the CeO2–MWNTs–EMIMBF4 modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE into the solution of TBA probe. In the presence of Pb2+, the TBA probe could form stable G-quartet structure by the specific binding interactions between Pb2+ and TBA. The TBA-bound Pb2+ can be electrochemically reduced, which provides a readout signal for quantitative detection of Pb2+. The reduction peak current is linearly related to the concentration of Pb2+ from 1.0×10–8 M to 1.0×10–5 M with a detection limit of 5×10–9 M. This work demonstrates that the CeO2–MWNTs–EMIMBF4 nanocomposite modified GCE provides a promising platform for immobilizing the TBA probe and enhancing the sensitivity of the DNA-based sensors. Keywords: Electrochemical, DNA-based sensor, Lead (II ion, Ionic liquid, CeO2 nanoparticle, Multi-wall carbon nanotubes

  18. Membrane contactor assisted extraction/reaction process employing ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yupo J [Naperville, IL; Snyder, Seth W [Lincolnwood, IL

    2012-02-07

    The present invention relates to a functionalized membrane contactor extraction/reaction system and method for extracting target species from multi-phase solutions utilizing ionic liquids. One preferred embodiment of the invented method and system relates to an extraction/reaction system wherein the ionic liquid extraction solutions act as both extraction solutions and reaction mediums, and allow simultaneous separation/reactions not possible with prior art technology.

  19. Lead-Salt Quantum-Dot Ionic Liquids

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Liangfeng

    2010-03-08

    PbS quantum dots (QDs) are functionalized using ionic liquids with thiol moieties as capping ligands. The resulting amphiphilic QD ionic liquids exhibit fluidlike behavior at room temperature, even in the absence of solvents. The photostability of the QDs is dramatically improved compared to the as-synthesized oleic acid-capped QDs dispersed in toluene. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. The Colloidal Stability of Magnetic Nanoparticles in Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-03

    NOTES 14. ABSTRACT During the reporting period the development of the ionic liquid ferrofluid (ILFF) based on EMIM-NTf2 was continued. The...nitrate (EAN) miscible ferrofluid based on the high-boiling-point solvent sulfolane. As part of this collaboration we have also been investigating new... ferrofluids based on other high-boiling solvents. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Electric Propulsion, Ionic liquids 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION

  1. Magnetic field tunable capacitive dielectric:ionic-liquid sandwich composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ye; Bhalla, Amar; Guo, Ruyan

    2016-03-01

    We examined the tunability of the capacitance for GaFeO3-ionic liquid-GaFeO3 composite material by external magnetic and electric field. Up to 1.6 folds of capacitance tunability could be achieved at 957 kHz with voltage 4 V and magnetic field 0.02 T applied. We show that the capacitance enhancement is due to the polarization coupling between dielectric layer and ionic liquid layer.

  2. The Twentieth International Symposium on Molten Salts and Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-29

    Heterocyclic Carbene Involved?" by Hyung Kim "Carbon Dioxide Absorption Behavior and Cabronate Ion Transport of Lithium Orthosilicate/Molten Carbonate...Electrodeposition of Metals" by Remana Reddy "In Situ TEM Observations of Lithium Electrodeposition/Stripping Process in Ionic Liquid" by Tetsuya Tsuda "Green... America . iii Preface The 20th International Symposium on Molten Salts and Ionic Liquids Symposium was held on October 2 - 7, 2016, in Honolulu, Hawaii as

  3. Thermomorphic phase separation in ionic liquid-organic liquid systems - conductivity and spectroscopic characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus; Berg, Rolf W.

    2005-01-01

    Electrical conductivity, FT-Raman and NMR measurements are demonstrated as useful tools to probe and determine phase behavior of thermomorphic ionic liquid-organic liquid systems. To illustrate the methods, consecutive conductivity measurements of a thermomorphic methoxyethoxyethyl-imidazolium io...... of the components in the system, the liquid-liquid equilibrium phase diagram of the binary mixture, and signify the importance of hydrogen bonding between the ionic liquid and the hydroxyl group of the alcohol....

  4. Ionic Liquids with Ammonium Cations as Lubricants or Additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jun [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Truhan, Jr., John J [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    Friction and wear are estimated to cost 6% of the US gross national product, or around $700 billion annually. A new class of more effective lubricants could lead to huge energy savings. Limited recent literature has suggested potential for using room-temperature ionic liquids as lubricants, however only a few out of millions (or more) of species have been evaluated. Recent ORNL work discovered a new category of ionic liquids with ammonium cations that have demonstrated promising lubricating properties as net lubricants or lubricant additives, particularly in lubricating difficult-to-lubricate metals like aluminum. More than 30% friction reduction has been observed on ammonium-based ionic liquids compared to conventional hydrocarbon oils. The inherent polarity of ionic liquids is believed to provide strong adhesion to contact surfaces and form a boundary lubricating film leading to friction and wear reductions. Other advantages of ionic liquids include (1) negligible volatility, (2) high thermal stability, (3) non-flammability, and (4) better intrinsic properties that eliminate the necessity of many expensive lubricant additives. With very flexible molecular structures, this new class of lubricants, particularly ammonium-based ionic liquids, can be tailored to fit a big variety of applications including but not limited to bearings, combustion engines, MEMS, and metal forming.

  5. IONIC LIQUIDS MATERIAL AS MODERN CONTEXT OF CHEMISTRY IN SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernani Hernani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available One way to improve students’ chemistry literacy which is demanded in the modernization of modern technology-based chemistry learning is by studying ionic liquids. Low level of scientific literacy of students in Indonesia as revealed in the PISA in 2012 was the main reason of the research. Ionic liquids-based technology are necessary to be applied as a context for learning chemistry because: (1 the attention of the scientific an technology community in the use of ionic liquids as a new generation of green solvent, electrolyte material and fluidic engineering in recent years becomes larger, in line with the strong demands of the industry for the provision of new materials that are reliable, safe, and friendly for various purposes; (2 scientific explanations related to the context of the ionic liquid contains a lot of facts, concepts, principles, laws, models and theories can be used to reinforce the learning content as a media to develop thinking skill (process/competence as demanded by PISA; (3 The modern technology-based ionic liquid can also be used as a discourse to strengthen scientific attitude. The process of synthesis of ionic liquid involves fairly simple organic reagents, so it deserves to be included in the chemistry subject in school.

  6. Modern ab initio valence bond theory calculations reveal charge shift bonding in protic ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Amol Baliram; Bhanage, Bhalchandra Mahadeo

    2016-06-21

    The nature of bonding interactions between the cation and the anion of an ionic liquid is at the heart of understanding ionic liquid properties. A particularly interesting case is a special class of ionic liquids known as protic ionic liquids. The extent of proton transfer in protic ionic liquids has been observed to vary according to the interacting species. Back proton transfer renders protic ionic liquids volatile and to be considered as inferior ionic liquids. We try to address this issue by employing modern ab initio valence bond theory calculations. The results indicate that the bonding in the cation and the anion of a prototypical ionic liquid, ethylammonium nitrate, is fundamentally different. It is neither characteristic of covalent/polar covalent bonding nor ionic bonding but rather charge shift bonding as a resonance hybrid of two competing ionic molecular electronic structure configurations. An investigation of other analogous protic ionic liquids reveals that this charge shift bonding seems to be a typical characteristic of protic ionic liquids while the ionic solid analogue compound ammonium nitrate has less charge shift bonding character as compared to protic ionic liquids. Further the extent of charge shift bonding character has been found to be congruent with the trends in many physicochemical properties such as melting point, conductivity, viscosity, and ionicity of the studied ionic liquids indicating that percentage charge shift character may serve as a key descriptor for large scale computational screening of ionic liquids with desired properties.

  7. Protic Cationic Oligomeric Ionic Liquids of the Urethane Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shevchenko, V. V.; Stryutsky, A. V.; Klymenko, N. S.

    2014-01-01

    Protic oligomeric cationic ionic liquids of the oligo(ether urethane) type are synthesized via the reaction of an isocyanate prepolymer based on oligo(oxy ethylene)glycol with M = 1000 with hexamethylene-diisocyanate followed by blocking of the terminal isocyanate groups with the use of amine der...... orders of magnitude. The resulting compounds are thermally stable up to 200-270 degrees C....... derivatives of imidazole, pyridine, and 3-methylpyridine and neutralization of heterocycles with ethanesulfonic acid and p-toluenesulfonic acid. The structures and properties of the synthesized oligomeric ionic liquids substantially depend on the structures of the ionic groups. They are amorphous at room...

  8. Acidic ionic liquids for n-alkane isomerization in a liquid-liquid or slurry-phase reaction mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, C.; Hager, V.; Geburtig, D.; Kohr, C.; Wasserscheid, P. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Chemische Reaktionstechnik; Haumann, M. [Chemical Reaction Engineering, FAU Busan Campus, Korea (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    Highly acidic ionic liquid (IL) catalysts offer the opportunity to convert n-alkanes at very low reaction temperatures. The results of IL catalyzed isomerization and cracking reactions of pure n-octane are presented. Influence of IL composition, [C{sub 4}C{sub 1}Im]Cl / AlCl{sub 3} / H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and [C{sub 4}C{sub 1}Im]Cl / AlCl{sub 3} / 1-chlorooctane, on catalyst activity and selectivities to branched alkanes was investigated. Acidic chloroaluminate IL catalysts form liquid-liquid biphasic systems with unpolar organic product mixtures. Thus, recycling of the acidic IL is enabled by simple phase separation in the liquid-liquid biphasic reaction mode or the IL can be immobilized on an inorganic support with a large specific surface area. These supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) catalysts offer the advantage to get a macroscopically heterogeneous system while still preserving all benefits of the homogeneous catalyst which can be used for the slurry-phase n-alkane isomerization. The interaction of the solid support and acidic IL influences strongly the catalytic activity. (orig.)

  9. Microstructures and dynamics of tetraalkylphosphonium chloride ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Lei; Li, Bin; Sarman, Sten; Laaksonen, Aatto

    2017-12-01

    Atomistic simulations have been performed to investigate the effect of aliphatic chain length in tetraalkylphosphonium cations on liquid morphologies, microscopic ionic structures, and dynamical quantities of tetraalkylphosphonium chloride ionic liquids. The liquid morphologies are characterized by sponge-like interpenetrating polar and apolar networks in ionic liquids consisting of tetraalkylphosphonium cations with short aliphatic chains. The lengthening aliphatic chains in tetraalkylphosphonium cations lead to polar domains consisting of chloride anions and central polar groups in cations being partially or totally segregated in ionic liquid matrices due to a progressive expansion of apolar domains in between. Prominent polarity alternation peaks and adjacency correlation peaks are observed at low and high q range in total X-ray scattering structural functions, respectively, and their peak positions gradually shift to lower q values with lengthening aliphatic chains in tetraalkylphosphonium cations. The charge alternation peaks registered in the intermediate q range exhibit complicated tendencies due to a cancellation of peaks and anti-peaks in partial structural functions for ionic subcomponents. The particular microstructures and liquid morphologies in tetraalkylphosphonium chloride ionic liquids intrinsically contribute to distinct dynamics characterized by mean square displacements, van Hove correlation functions, and non-Gaussian parameters for ionic species in the heterogeneous ionic environment. Most tetraalkylphosphonium cations have higher translational mobilities than their partner anions due to strong coordination of chloride anions with central polar groups in tetraalkylphosphonium cations through strong Coulombic and hydrogen bonding interactions. The increase of aliphatic chain length in tetraalkylphosphonium cations leads to a concomitant shift of van Hove correlation functions and non-Gaussian parameters to larger radial distances and longer time

  10. Ionic structure in liquids confined by dielectric interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yufei; Jadhao, Vikram; Zwanikken, Jos W.; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica

    2015-11-01

    The behavior of ions in liquids confined between macromolecules determines the outcome of many nanoscale assembly processes in synthetic and biological materials such as colloidal dispersions, emulsions, hydrogels, DNA, cell membranes, and proteins. Theoretically, the macromolecule-liquid boundary is often modeled as a dielectric interface and an important quantity of interest is the ionic structure in a liquid confined between two such interfaces. The knowledge gleaned from the study of ionic structure in such models can be useful in several industrial applications, such as in the design of double-layer supercapacitors for energy storage and in the extraction of metal ions from wastewater. In this article, we compute the ionic structure in a model system of electrolyte confined by two planar dielectric interfaces using molecular dynamics simulations and liquid state theory. We explore the effects of high electrolyte concentrations, multivalent ions, dielectric contrasts, and external electric field on the ionic distributions. We observe the presence of non-monotonic ionic density profiles leading to a layered structure in the fluid which is attributed to the competition between electrostatic and steric (entropic) interactions. We find that thermal forces that arise from symmetry breaking at the interfaces can have a profound effect on the ionic structure and can oftentimes overwhelm the influence of the dielectric discontinuity. The combined effect of ionic correlations and inhomogeneous dielectric permittivity significantly changes the character of the effective interaction between the two interfaces.

  11. Thermo-responsive poly(ionic liquid) valves for microfluidic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Tudor, Alexandru; Saez, Janire; Florea, Larisa; Benito-Lopez, Fernando; Diamond, Dermot

    2016-01-01

    Poly(ionic liquid)s (PIL) are a class of ionic liquids that feature polymerizable groups in the cation, the anion or both. They retain most of the properties present in ionic liquids, including ionic conductivity, low vapour pressure and tunable physico-chemical properties. Several phosphonium ionic liquids have been shown to possess a lower critical solution temperature, making them suitable materials for the synthesis of temperature-responsive smart materials.1,2 Herein, we present the synt...

  12. Fast Conversion of Ionic Liquids and Poly(Ionic Liquids into Porous Nitrogen-Doped Carbons in Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Men

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquids and poly(ionic liquids have been successfully converted into nitrogen-doped porous carbons with tunable surface area up to 1200 m2/g at high temperatures in air. Compared to conventional carbonization process conducted under inert gas to produce nitrogen-doped carbons, the new production method was completed in a rather shorter time without noble gas protection.

  13. Method and apparatus using an active ionic liquid for algae biofuel harvest and extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Roberto Di; Reich, Alton; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Teixeira, Rodrigo

    2012-11-06

    The invention relates to use of an active ionic liquid to dissolve algae cell walls. The ionic liquid is used to, in an energy efficient manner, dissolve and/or lyse an algae cell walls, which releases algae constituents used in the creation of energy, fuel, and/or cosmetic components. The ionic liquids include ionic salts having multiple charge centers, low, very low, and ultra low melting point ionic liquids, and combinations of ionic liquids. An algae treatment system is described, which processes wet algae in a lysing reactor, separates out algae constituent products, and optionally recovers the ionic liquid in an energy efficient manner.

  14. Utilization of Ionic Liquids for the Separation of Organic Liquids from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    components in the ionic liquid obtained by gas chromatography were used to determine the capability of [EMIM][EtSO4] and. [EMpy][EtSO4] as extracting ... Additional separation steps are required to purify the raffinate, extract and solvent ... ionic liquids were stored in a moisture-free environment such as desiccators and ...

  15. Densities and isothermal compressibilities of ionic liquids - Modelling and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildskov, Jens; Ellegaard, Martin Dela; O’Connell, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    Two corresponding-states forms have been developed for direct correlation function integrals in liquids to represent pressure effects on the volume of ionic liquids over wide ranges of temperature and pressure. The correlations can be analytically integrated from a chosen reference density to pro...

  16. Absorption and oxidation of nitrogen oxide in ionic liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunov-Kruse, Andreas Jonas; Thomassen, Peter Langelund; Riisager, Anders

    2016-01-01

    A new strategy for capturing nitrogen oxide, NO, from the gas phase is presented. Dilute NO gas is removed from the gas phase by ionic liquids under ambient conditions. The nitrate anion of the ionic liquid catalyzes the oxidation of NO to nitric acid by atmospheric oxygen in the presence of water...... investigations of the reaction and products are presented. The procedure reveals a new vision for removing the pollutant NO by absorption into a non-volatile liquid and converting it into a useful bulk chemical, that is, HNO3....

  17. Mapping the pharmaceutical design space by amorphous ionic liquid strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiest, Johannes; Saedtler, Marco; Balk, Anja; Merget, Benjamin; Widmer, Toni; Bruhn, Heike; Raccuglia, Marc; Walid, Elbast; Picard, Franck; Stopper, Helga; Dekant, Wolfgang; Lühmann, Tessa; Sotriffer, Christoph; Galli, Bruno; Holzgrabe, Ulrike; Meinel, Lorenz

    2017-10-31

    Poor water solubility of drugs fuels complex formulations and jeopardizes patient access to medication. Simplifying these complexities we systematically synthesized a library of 36 sterically demanding counterions and mapped the pharmaceutical design space for amorphous ionic liquid strategies for Selurampanel, a poorly water soluble drug used against migraine. Patients would benefit from a rapid uptake after oral administration to alleviate migraine symptoms. Therefore, we probed the ionic liquids for the flux, supersaturation period and hygroscopicity leading to algorithms linking molecular counterion descriptors to predicted pharmaceutical outcome. By that, 30- or 800-fold improvements of the supersaturation period and fluxes were achieved as were immediate to sustained release profiles through structural counterions' optimization compared to the crystalline free acid of Selurampanel. Guided by ionic liquid structure, in vivo profiles ranged from rapid bioavailability and high maximal plasma concentrations to sustained patterns. In conclusion, the study outlined and predicted the accessible pharmaceutical design space of amorphous ionic liquid based and excipient-free formulations pointing to the enormous pharmaceutical potential of ionic liquid designs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Unimolecular Solvolyses in Ionic Liquid: Alcohol Dual Solvent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth D. Kochly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken of the solvolysis of pivaloyl triflate in a variety of ionic liquid:alcohol solvent mixtures. The solvolysis is a kΔ process (i.e., a process in which ionization occurs with rearrangement, and the resulting rearranged carbocation intermediate reacts with the alcohol cosolvent via two competing pathways: nucleophilic attack or elimination of a proton. Five different ionic liquids and three different alcohol cosolvents were investigated to give a total of fifteen dual solvent systems. 1H-NMR analysis was used to determine relative amounts of elimination and substitution products. It was found, not surprisingly, that increasing the bulkiness of alcohol cosolvent led to increased elimination product. The change in the amount of elimination product with increasing ionic liquid concentration, however, varied greatly between ionic liquids. These differences correlate strongly, though not completely, to the Kamlet–Taft solvatochromic parameters of the hydrogen bond donating and accepting ability of the solvent systems. An additional factor playing into these differences is the bulkiness of the ionic liquid anion.

  19. Novel developments in hydrogen storage, hydrogen activation and ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doroodian, Amir

    2010-12-03

    This dissertation is divided into three chapters. Recently, metal-free hydrogen activation using phosphorous compounds has been reported in science magazine. We have investigated the interaction between hydrogen and phosphorous compounds in presence of strong Lewis acids (chapter one). A new generation of metal-free hydrogen activation, using amines and strong Lewis acids with sterically demanding nature, was already developed in our group. Shortage of high storage capacity using large substitution to improve sterical effect led us to explore the amine borane derivatives, which are explained in chapter two. Due to the high storage capacity of hydrogen in aminoborane derivatives, we have explored these materials to extend hydrogen release. These compounds store hydrogen as proton and hydride on adjacent atoms or ions. These investigations resulted in developing hydrogen storage based on ionic liquids containing methyl guanidinium cation. Then we have continued to develop ionic liquids based on methyl guanidinium cation with different anions, such as tetrafluoro borate (chapter three). We have replaced these anions with transition metal anions to investigate hydrogen bonding and catalytic activity of ionic liquids. This chapter illustrates the world of ionic liquid as a green solvent for organic, inorganic and catalytic reactions and combines the concept of catalysts and solvents based on ionic liquids. The catalytic activity is investigated particularly with respect to the interaction with CO{sub 2}. (orig.)

  20. Molecular Orbital Based Design Guidelines for Hypergolic Energetic Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Paper from semi-empirical quantum calculations. Chambreau et al. [10] reported Fourier transform infrared experiments and ab initio calculations to... Fourier Transform In- frared Studies in Hypergolic Ignition of Ionic Liquids, J. Phys. Chem. A 2008, 112, 7816. [11] D. Sengupta, J. V. Cole, Quantum...D. McCrary, G. Chatel, S. A. Alaniz, O. A. Cojocaru, P. A. Beas- ley , L. A. Flores, S. P. Kelley, P. S. Barber, R. D. Rogers, Evaluating Ionic

  1. Determination of sulfonamides in butter samples by ionic liquid magnetic bar liquid-phase microextraction high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lijie; Song, Ying; Hu, Mingzhu; Xu, Xu; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin; Ma, Qiang; Wang, Ziming

    2015-01-01

    A novel, simple, and environmentally friendly pretreatment method, ionic liquid magnetic bar liquid-phase microextraction, was developed for the determination of sulfonamides in butter samples by high-performance liquid chromatography. The ionic liquid magnetic bar was prepared by inserting a stainless steel wire into the hollow of a hollow fiber and immobilizing ionic liquid in the micropores of the hollow fiber. In the extraction process, the ionic liquid magnetic bars were used to stir the mixture of sample and extraction solvent and enrich the sulfonamides in the mixture. After extraction, the analyte-adsorbed ionic liquid magnetic bars were readily isolated with a magnet from the extraction system. It is notable that the present method was environmentally friendly since water and only several microliters of ionic liquid were used in the whole extraction process. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized, including the type of ionic liquid, sample-to-extraction solvent ratio, the number of ionic liquid magnetic bars, extraction temperature, extraction time, salt concentration, stirring speed, pH of the extraction solvent, and desorption conditions. The recoveries were in the range of 73.25-103.85 % and the relative standard deviations were lower than 6.84 %. The experiment results indicated that the present method was effective for the extraction of sulfonamides in high-fat content samples.

  2. Perspective: Chemical reactions in ionic liquids monitored through the gas (vacuum)/liquid interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, F.; Niedermaier, I.; Steinrück, H.-P.

    2017-05-01

    This perspective analyzes the potential of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions to follow chemical reactions in ionic liquids in situ. Traditionally, only reactions occurring on solid surfaces were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in situ. This was due to the high vapor pressures of common liquids or solvents, which are not compatible with the required UHV conditions. It was only recently realized that the situation is very different when studying reactions in Ionic Liquids (ILs), which have an inherently low vapor pressure, and first studies have been performed within the last years. Compared to classical spectroscopy techniques used to monitor chemical reactions, the advantage of XPS is that through the analysis of their core levels all relevant elements can be quantified and their chemical state can be analyzed under well-defined (ultraclean) conditions. In this perspective, we cover six very different reactions which occur in the IL, with the IL, or at an IL/support interface, demonstrating the outstanding potential of in situ XPS to gain insights into liquid phase reactions in the near-surface region.

  3. Separation of Berberine Hydrochloride and Tetrahydropalmatine and Their Quantitative Analysis with Thin Layer Chromatography Involved with Ionic Liquids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Jing; Ma, Hong-yan; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Zhi-guo; Yao, Shun

    2015-01-01

    .... Supported imidazole ionic liquid with hydroxide ion on silica gel (SiO2·Im+·OH−) was synthesized through simple procedure and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR...

  4. Single-Molecule Electrochemical Gating in Ionic Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kay, Nicola J.; Higgins, Simon J.; Jeppesen, Jan O.

    2012-01-01

    The single-molecular conductance of a redox active molecular bridge has been studied in an electrochemical single-molecule transistor configuration in a room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL). The redox active pyrrolo-tetrathiafulvalene (pTTF) moiety was attached to gold contacts at both ends through...... −(CH2)6S– groups, and gating of the redox state was achieved with the electrochemical potential. The water-free, room-temperature, ionic liquid environment enabled both the monocationic and the previously inaccessible dicationic redox states of the pTTF moiety to be studied in the in situ scanning...... relaxation. Using this view, reorganization energies of ∼1.2 eV have been estimated for both the first and second redox transitions for the pTTF bridge in the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate (BMIOTf) ionic liquid environment. By contrast, in aqueous environments, a much smaller...

  5. Synthesis and properties of chiral ammonium-based ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernak, Juliusz; Feder-Kubis, Joanna

    2005-07-18

    New chiral ammonium-based ionic liquids containing the (1R,2S,5R)-(-)-menthyl group can be easily and efficiently prepared under ambient conditions. The preparation and characterization of trialkyl[(1R,2S,5R)-(-)-menthoxymethyl]ammonium salts is reported. The salts have been demonstrated to be air- and moisture-stable under ambient conditions and can be readily used in a variety of standard experimental procedures. The single-crystal X-ray structure of butyldimethyl[(1R,2S,5R)-(-)-menthoxymethyl]ammonium chloride has been determined. The chiral, room-temperature ionic liquids have been characterized by physical properties such as specific rotation, density, viscosity, thermal degradation, and glass transition temperature. Trialkyl[(1R,2S,5R)-(-)-menthoxymethyl]ammonium chloride prototype ionic liquids have also been found to exhibit strong antimicrobial and high antielectrostatic activities.

  6. Synthesis and testing of hypergolic ionic liquids for chemical propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovbun, S. V.; Shchegolikhin, A. N.; Usachev, S. V.; Khomik, S. V.; Medvedev, S. P.

    2017-06-01

    Synthesis of new highly energetic ionic liquids (ILs) is described, and their hypergolic ignition properties are tested. The synthesized ILs combine the advantages of conventional rocket propellants with the energy characteristics of acetylene derivatives. To this end, N-alkylated imidazoles (alkyl = ethyl, butyl) have been synthesized and alkylated with propargyl bromide. The desired ionic liquids have been produced by metathesis using Ag dicyanamide. Modified hypergolic drop tests with white fuming nitric acid have been performed for N-ethyl (IL-1) and N-butyl propargylimidazolium (IL-2) ionic liquids. In the modified drop tests, high-speed shadowgraph imaging is used to visualize the process, and the temperature rise due to ignition is monitored with a two-color photodetector. It is shown that the ignition delay is shorter for IL-1 as compared to IL-2. The ignition of IL-1 occurs in two stages, whereas the combustion of IL-2 proceeds smoothly without secondary flashes.

  7. Liquid-Liquid Extraction in Systems Containing Butanol and Ionic Liquids – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubiczek Artur

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs are a moderately new class of liquid substances that are characterized by a great variety of possible anion-cation combinations giving each of them different properties. For this reason, they have been termed as designer solvents and, as such, they are particularly promising for liquid-liquid extraction, which has been quite intensely studied over the last decade. This paper concentrates on the recent liquid-liquid extraction studies involving ionic liquids, yet focusing strictly on the separation of n-butanol from model aqueous solutions. Such research is undertaken mainly with the intention of facilitating biological butanol production, which is usually carried out through the ABE fermentation process. So far, various sorts of RTILs have been tested for this purpose while mostly ternary liquid-liquid systems have been investigated. The industrial design of liquid-liquid extraction requires prior knowledge of the state of thermodynamic equilibrium and its relation to the process parameters. Such knowledge can be obtained by performing a series of extraction experiments and employing a certain mathematical model to approximate the equilibrium. There are at least a few models available but this paper concentrates primarily on the NRTL equation, which has proven to be one of the most accurate tools for correlating experimental equilibrium data. Thus, all the presented studies have been selected based on the accepted modeling method. The reader is also shown how the NRTL equation can be used to model liquid-liquid systems containing more than three components as it has been the authors’ recent area of expertise.

  8. Tuning the stimuli-responsive properties of poly(ionic liquid)s

    OpenAIRE

    Tudor, Alexandru; Florea, Larisa; Diamond, Dermot

    2015-01-01

    Poly(Ionic Liquid)s (PILs) are a class of ionic liquids that feature polymerizable groups in either the cation, the anion or both. PILs can be used in various applications, including solid ion conductors or for CO2 absorption. Several PILs show the presence of a lower critical solution temperature (LCST), making them suitable precursors for the synthesis of stimuli-responsive materials that have the ability to change their conformation in response to variations in their external environment. ...

  9. Energy Efficient Electrochromic Windows Incorporating Ionic Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheri Boykin; James Finley; Donald Anthony; Julianna Knowles; Richard Markovic; Michael Buchanan; Mary Ann Fuhry; Lisa Perrine

    2008-11-30

    One approach to increasing the energy efficiency of windows is to control the amount of solar radiation transmitted through a window by using electrochromic technology. What is unique about this project is that the electrochromic is based on the reduction/oxidation reactions of cathodic and anodic organic semi-conducting polymers using room temperature ionic liquids as ion transport electrolytes. It is believed that these types of coatings would be a lower cost alternative to traditional all inorganic thin film based electrochromic technologies. Although there are patents1 based on the proposed technology, it has never been reduced to practice and thoroughly evaluated (i.e. durability and performance) in a window application. We demonstrate that by using organic semi-conductive polymers, specific bands of the solar spectrum (specifically visible and near infrared) can be targeted for electrochemical variable transmittance responsiveness. In addition, when the technology is incorporated into an insulating glass unit, the energy parameters such as the solar heat gain coefficient and the light to solar gain ratio are improved over that of a typical insulating glass unit comprised of glass with a low emissivity coating. A minimum of {approx}0.02 quads of energy savings per year with a reduction of carbon emissions for electricity of {approx}320 MKg/yr benefit is achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. Note that these values include a penalty in the heating season. If this penalty is removed (i.e. in southern climates or commercial structures where cooling is predominate year-round) a maximum energy savings of {approx}0.05 quad per year and {approx}801 MKg/yr can be achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. In its current state, the technology is not durable enough for an exterior window application. The primary downfall is that the redox chemistry fails to

  10. Extractive Deep Desulfurization of Liquid Fuels Using Lewis-Based Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil A. Dharaskar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new class of green solvents, known as ionic liquids (ILs, has recently been the subject of intensive research on the extractive desulfurization of liquid fuels because of the limitation of traditional hydrodesulfurization method. In present work, eleven Lewis acid ionic liquids were synthesized and employed as promising extractants for deep desulfurization of the liquid fuel containing dibenzothiophene (DBT to test the desulfurization efficiency. [Bmim]Cl/FeCl3 was the most promising ionic liquid and performed the best among studied ionic liquids under the same operating conditions. It can remove dibenzothiophene from the model liquid fuel in the single-stage extraction process with the maximum desulfurization efficiency of 75.6%. It was also found that [Bmim]Cl/FeCl3 may be reused without regeneration with considerable extraction efficiency of 47.3%. Huge saving on energy can be achieved if we make use of this ionic liquids behavior in process design, instead of regenerating ionic liquids after every time of extraction.

  11. Impact of gate geometry on ionic liquid gated ionotronic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Wong

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquid electrolytes are gaining widespread application as a gate dielectric used to control ion transport in functional materials. This letter systematically examines the important influence that device geometry in standard “side gate” 3-terminal geometries plays in device performance of a well-known oxygen ion conductor. We show that the most influential component of device design is the ratio between the area of the gate electrode and the active channel, while the spacing between these components and their individual shapes has a negligible contribution. These findings provide much needed guidance in device design intended for ionotronic gating with ionic liquids.

  12. Impact of gate geometry on ionic liquid gated ionotronic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, A. T.; Noh, J. H.; Pudasaini, P. R.; Wolf, B.; Balke, N.; Herklotz, A.; Sharma, Y.; Haglund, A. V.; Dai, S.; Mandrus, D.; Rack, P. D.; Ward, T. Z.

    2017-04-01

    Ionic liquid electrolytes are gaining widespread application as a gate dielectric used to control ion transport in functional materials. This letter systematically examines the important influence that device geometry in standard "side gate" 3-terminal geometries plays in device performance of a well-known oxygen ion conductor. We show that the most influential component of device design is the ratio between the area of the gate electrode and the active channel, while the spacing between these components and their individual shapes has a negligible contribution. These findings provide much needed guidance in device design intended for ionotronic gating with ionic liquids.

  13. Synthesis of novel ionic liquids from lignin-derived compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socha, Aaron; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A.; Bergeron, Maxime

    2017-09-19

    Methods and compositions are provided for synthesizing ionic liquids from lignin derived compounds comprising: contacting a starting material comprising lignin with a depolymerization agent to depolymerize the lignin and form a mixture of aldehyde containing compounds; contacting the mixture of aldehyde containing compounds with an amine under conditions suitable to convert the mixture of aldehyde containing compounds to a mixture of amine containing compounds; and contacting the mixture of amine containing compounds with an acid under conditions suitable to form an ammonium salt, thereby preparing the ionic liquid.

  14. Preparation of microfibers from wood/ionic liquid solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polaskova, Martina; Cermak, Roman; Verney, Vincent; Ponizil, Petr; Commereuc, Sophie; Gomes, Margarida F Costa; Padua, Agilio A H; Mokrejs, Pavel; Machovsky, Michal

    2013-01-30

    Two types of ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolim acetate and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium lactate, were employed for the direct processing of pine wood into microfibers. The concentration of 5 wt.% of wood in ionic liquids was rated as the most appropriate for electrospinning. The fibers were electrospun into the collector water bath. The final structure varied from individual microfibers to fiber bundles. It was demonstrated that 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium lactate is a powerful solvent and provides the direct transformation of pristine pine wood into the non-wovens. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Novel types of ionic thermotropic liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Duncan W.; Dunmur, David A.; Lalinde, Elena; Maitlis, Peter M.; Styring, Peter

    1986-10-01

    Liquid crystals are usually categorized as either lyotropic mesophases in which fluid anisotropy results from polar headgroup packing of amphiphilic molecules, or as thermotropic mesophases where the orientational order arises from interactions between partially rigid anisotropic molecules. The phase types exhibited by lyotropic and thermotropic liquid crystals have distinctive structures, optical textures and physical properties. Inclusion of a rigid anisotropic moiety into a lyotropic liquid crystal gives an additional source of orientational ordering, and can lead to phase behaviour encompassing both thermotropic and lyotropic liquid crystals. We have prepared a series of silver-containing thermotropic liquid crystals based on the bis(stilbazole) silver (I) cation. Some members of this series, in association with the amphiphilic counter-ion lauryl sulphate, form liquid crystal mesophases characteristic of both lyotropic and thermotropic liquid crystals.

  16. Palladium catalyst system comprising zwitterion and/or acid-​functionalized ionic liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention concerns a catalyst system in particular a catalyst system comprising Palladium (Pd), a zwitterion and/or an acid-functionalized ionic liquid, and one or more phosphine ligands, wherein the Pd catalyst can be provided by a complex precursor, such as Pd(CH3COO)2, PdCI2, Pd(CH3...... methyl methacrylate and/or methacrylic acid. Catalyst systems according to the invention are suitable for reactions forming separable product and catalyst phases and supported ionic liquid phase SILP applications....

  17. SISGR: Physical Chemistry of Reaction Dynamics in Ionic Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, David [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2017-10-30

    Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are liquids made up of atomic and molecular ions. This is in contrast with more common liquids, such as water, that are made up of neutral molecules. The additional charges on the atoms and molecules can alter the properties of these liquids, for example they tend to have a very high vapor pressure and the ability to shield charge in electronic devices. For these and other reasons RTILs have recently been deployed in a number of applications that involve production of free electrons in the liquid, such as batteries, capacitors, nuclear power plants, and solar cells. Electrons tend to be very reactive, and understanding their behaviour in these liquids is important for the future design of ionic liquids to be employed in these environments. This study investigated the behavior of electrons generated in RTILs by pulses of ultraviolet light, including how long they survive, and how reactive they are with the both the surrounding liquid and impurities in the liquid. The ionic liquid studied was one of the most commonly used, called N-alkyl-N-methyl-pyrrolidinium bistriflimide. What the study revealed was that the majority of the electrons initially created, about 96%, had a very short lifetime of less than one picosecond (10-12 second) due to a process called geminate recombination. The study also demonstrated that the electrons are very reactive at the moment they are detached from the molecules in the liquid by light, but that they relax very quickly and lose almost all of their reactivity in much less than one picosecond. The short lifetime and rapid loss of reactivity both serve as important mechanisms that protect the liquid from radiolytic damage.

  18. Benzene solubility in ionic liquids: working toward an understanding of liquid clathrate formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jorge F B; Flores, Luis A; Wang, Hui; Rogers, Robin D

    2014-11-17

    The solubility of benzene in 15 imidazolium, pyrrolidinium, pyridinium, and piperidinium ionic liquids has been determined; the resulting, benzene-saturated ionic liquid solutions, also known as liquid clathrates, were examined with (1) H and (19) F nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to try and understand the molecular interactions that control liquid clathrate formation. The results suggest that benzene interacts primarily with the cation of the ionic liquid, and that liquid clathrate formation (and benzene solubility) is controlled by the strength of the cation-anion interactions, that is, the stronger the cation-anion interaction, the lower the benzene solubility. Other factors that were determined to be important in the final amount of benzene in any given liquid clathrate phase included attractive interactions between the anion and benzene (when significant), and larger steric or free volume demands of the ions, both of which lead to greater benzene solubility. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Simulated Moving Bed Chromatography: Separation and Recovery of Sugars and Ionic Liquid from Biomass Hydrolysates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caes, Benjamin R.; Van Oosbree, Thomas R.; Lu, Fachuang; Ralph, John; Maravelias, Christos T.

    2015-01-01

    Simulated moving bed chromatography, a continuous separation method, enables the nearly quantitative recovery of sugar products and ionic liquid solvent from chemical hydrolysates of biomass. The ensuing sugars support microbial growth, and the residual lignin from the process is intact. PMID:23939991

  20. Acidic Brønsted Ionic Liquids Catalyzed the Preparation of 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    naphthalen-2-ol derivatives. The inexpensive and non-toxic ionic liquids can be reused several times without noticeable loss of their activities. KEYWORDS Aldehyde, 2-aminobenzothiazole, β-naphthol, ionic liquids, catalyst, green chemistry.

  1. Influence of Nanosegregation on the Surface Tension of Fluorinated Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luís, Andreia; Shimizu, Karina; Araújo, João M. M.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Lopes-da-Silva, José A.; Canongia Lopes, José N.; Rebelo, Luís Paulo N.; Coutinho, João A. P.; Freire, Mara G.; Pereiro, Ana B.

    2017-01-01

    We have investigated, both theoretically and experimentally, the balance between the presence of alkyl and perfluoroalkyl side chains on the surface organization and surface tension of fluorinated ionic liquids (FILs). A series of ILs composed of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cations ([CnC1im] with n = 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 or 12) combined with the perfluorobutanesulfonate anion was used. The surface tensions of the investigated liquid salts are considerably lower than those reported for non-fluorinated ionic liquids. The most surprising and striking feature was the identification, for the first time, of a minimum at n = 8 in the surface tension versus the length of the IL cation alkyl side chain. Supported by molecular dynamic simulations it was found that this trend is a result of the competition between the two nonpolar domains (perfluorinated and aliphatic) on pointing towards the gas-liquid interface, a phenomenon which occurs in ionic liquids with perfluorinated anions. Furthermore, these ionic liquids present the lowest surface entropy reported to date. PMID:27218210

  2. Recent Developments in Chemical Synthesis with Biocatalysts in Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh K. Potdar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, a variety of ionic liquids have emerged as greener solvents for use in the chemical manufacturing industries. Their unique properties have attracted the interest of chemists worldwide to employ them as replacement for conventional solvents in a diverse range of chemical transformations including biotransformations. Biocatalysts are often regarded as green catalysts compared to conventional chemical catalysts in organic synthesis owing to their properties of low toxicity, biodegradability, excellent selectivity and good catalytic performance under mild reaction conditions. Similarly, a selected number of specific ionic liquids can be considered as greener solvents superior to organic solvents owing to their negligible vapor pressure, low flammability, low toxicity and ability to dissolve a wide range of organic and biological substances, including proteins. A combination of biocatalysts and ionic liquids thus appears to be a logical and promising opportunity for industrial use as an alternative to conventional organic chemistry processes employing organic solvents. This article provides an overview of recent developments in this field with special emphasis on the application of more sustainable enzyme-catalyzed reactions and separation processes employing ionic liquids, driven by advances in fundamental knowledge, process optimization and industrial deployment.

  3. Synthesis of 1-alkyl triazolium triflate room temperature ionic liquids ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sci. Vol. 127, No. 9, September 2015, pp. 1539–1545. c Indian Academy of Sciences. DOI 10.1007/s12039-015-0919-6. Synthesis of 1-alkyl triazolium triflate room temperature ionic liquids and their catalytic studies in multi-component Biginelli reaction. SANKARANARAYANAN NAGARAJAN, TANVEER M SHAIKH and.

  4. Ionic liquid modified carbon paste electrode and investigation of its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 37; Issue 3 ... Biosensor; ionic liquid; 1-methyl-3-butylimidazolium bromide; carbon paste electrode; horseradish peroxidase. ... Carbon paste bio-sensor has been constructed by entrapping horseradish peroxidase in graphite and IL mixed with paraffin oil as a binder.

  5. IONIC LIQUID-CATALYZED ALKYLATION OF ISOBUTANE WITH 2-BUTENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    A detailed study of the alkylation of isobutane with 2-butene in ionic liquid media has been conducted using 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium halides?aluminum chloride encompassing various alkyl groups (butyl-, hexyl-, and octyl-) and halides (Cl, Br, and I) on its cations and anions,...

  6. Enzymatic isomerization of glucose and xylose in ionic liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ståhlberg, Tim Johannes Bjarki; Woodley, John; Riisager, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Glucose isomerase has been found for the first time to catalyze the isomerization of glucose to fructose in the ionic liquid N, N-dibutylethanolammonium octanoate (DBAO). Isomerization was achieved at temperatures of 60-80 degrees C although a substantial amount of mannose was formed at elevated...

  7. Green oxidation of alkenes in ionic liquid solvent by hydrogen ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 126; Issue 3. Green oxidation of alkenes in ionic liquid solvent by hydrogen peroxide over high performance Fe(III) Schiff base complexes immobilized on MCM-41. Mohammad Taghi Goldani Ali Mohammadi Reza Sandaroos. Regular Articles Volume 126 Issue 3 May ...

  8. Are Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids Dilute Electrolytes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alpha A; Vella, Dominic; Perkin, Susan; Goriely, Alain

    2015-01-02

    An important question in understanding the structure of ionic liquids is whether ions are truly "free" and mobile, which would correspond to a concentrated ionic melt, or are rather "bound" in ion pairs, that is, a liquid of ion pairs with a small concentration of free ions. Recent surface force balance experiments from different groups have given conflicting answers to this question. We propose a simple model for the thermodynamics and kinetics of ion pairing in ionic liquids. Our model takes into account screened ion-ion, dipole-dipole, and dipole-ion interactions in the mean-field limit. The results of this model suggest that almost two-thirds of the ions are free at any instant, and ion pairs have a short lifetime comparable to the characteristic time scale for diffusion. These results suggest that there is no particular thermodynamic or kinetic preference for ions to reside in pairs. We therefore conclude that ionic liquids are concentrated, rather than dilute, electrolytes.

  9. Lunar Oxygen Production and Metals Extraction Using Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marone, Matthew; Paley, Mark Steven; Donovan, David N.; Karr, Laurel J.

    2009-01-01

    Initial results indicate that ionic liquids are promising media for the extraction of oxygen from lunar regolith. IL acid systems can solubilize regolith and produce water with high efficiency. IL electrolytes are effective for water electrolysis, and the spent IL acid media are capable of regeneration.

  10. Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids for Electrochemical Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fireman, Heather; Yowell, Leonard; Moloney, Padraig G.; Arepalli, Sivaram; Nikolaev, P.; Huffman, C.; Ready, Jud; Higgins, C.D.; Turano, S. P.; Kohl, P.A.; hide

    2009-01-01

    A document discusses room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) used as electrolytes in carbon-nanotube-based, electrochemical, double-layer capacitors. Unlike the previous electrolyte (EtNB4 in acetonitrile), the RTIL used here does not produce cyanide upon thermal decomposition and does not have a moisture sensitivity.

  11. High performance batteries with carbon nanomaterials and ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen [Littleton, CO

    2012-08-07

    The present invention is directed to lithium-ion batteries in general and more particularly to lithium-ion batteries based on aligned graphene ribbon anodes, V.sub.2O.sub.5 graphene ribbon composite cathodes, and ionic liquid electrolytes. The lithium-ion batteries have excellent performance metrics of cell voltages, energy densities, and power densities.

  12. High performance ultracapacitors with carbon nanomaterials and ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen; Henry, Kent Douglas

    2012-10-09

    The present invention is directed to the use of carbon nanotubes and/or electrolyte structures in various electrochemical devices, such as ultracapacitors having an ionic liquid electrolyte. The carbon nanotubes are preferably aligned carbon nanotubes. Compared to randomly entangled carbon nanotubes, aligned carbon nanotubes can have better defined pore structures and higher specific surface areas.

  13. Thermoelectric Power in Bilayer Graphene Device with Ionic Liquid Gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Yung-Yu; Yuan, Hongtao; Wang, Chang-Ran; Lee, Wei-Li

    2016-02-08

    The quest for materials showing large thermoelectric power has long been one of the important subjects in material science and technology. Such materials have great potential for thermoelectric cooling and also high figure of merit ZT thermoelectric applications. We have fabricated bilayer graphene devices with ionic-liquid gating in order to tune its band gap via application of a perpendicular electric field on a bilayer graphene. By keeping the Fermi level at charge neutral point during the cool-down, we found that the charge puddles effect can be greatly reduced and thus largely improve the transport properties at low T in graphene-based devices using ionic liquid gating. At (Vig, Vbg) = (-1 V, +23 V), a band gap of about 36.6 ± 3 meV forms, and a nearly 40% enhancement of thermoelectric power at T = 120 K is clearly observed. Our works demonstrate the feasibility of band gap tuning in a bilayer graphene using ionic liquid gating. We also remark on the significant influence of the charge puddles effect in ionic-liquid-based devices.

  14. DABCO CONTAINING ACIDIC POLY(IONIC LIQUID): AN EFFICIENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. 1,4-Diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) containing acidic poly(ionic liquid) (DAIL) has been prepared via condensation of 1,4-dichloro butane and DABCO, as an efficient acidic catalyst and has been applied in the one-pot preparation of 2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-one derivatives. This catalyst has been ...

  15. About the Purification Route of Ionic Liquid Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo De Francesco

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work a purification route of precursors for ionic liquids tailored to electrochemical energy storage systems is reported and described. The study was carried out on the N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bromide (PYR14Br precursor, which represents the intermediate product of the synthesis process of the N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonylimide (PYR14TFSI hydrophobic ionic liquid. The target is to develop an easy and cost-effective approach for efficiently purifying several kinds of ionic liquid precursors and determining their purity content. The PYR14Br precursor was synthesized through an eco-friendly preparation procedure, which requires water as the only processing solvent, and purified through sorbent materials, such as activated charcoal and alumina. The effect of the treatment/nature/content of sorbents and processing temperature/time was investigated. The impurity content was detected by UV-VIS spectrophotometry measurements. Additionally, a correlation between the measured absorbance and the content of impurities within the precursor was obtained. The purity level of the precursor was seen to play a key role in the electrochemical performance of the ionic liquids.

  16. Method for synthesis of titanium dioxide nanotubes using ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jun; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng

    2013-11-19

    The invention is directed to a method for producing titanium dioxide nanotubes, the method comprising anodizing titanium metal in contact with an electrolytic medium containing an ionic liquid. The invention is also directed to the resulting titanium dioxide nanotubes, as well as devices incorporating the nanotubes, such as photovoltaic devices, hydrogen generation devices, and hydrogen detection devices.

  17. Ionic Liquid Electrolytes for Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite...Gorlov, M. Ionic Liquid Electrolyte for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells. RSC DaltonTrans. 2008, 20, 2655–2666. 7. Zakeeruddin, S. M.; Wang, P.; Humphry

  18. Ionic liquid-facilitated preparation of lignocellulosic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignocellulosic composites (LCs) were prepared by partially dissolving cotton along with steam exploded Aspen wood and burlap fabric reinforcements utilizing an ionic liquid (IL) solvent. Two methods of preparation were employed. In the first method, a controlled amount of IL was added to preassembl...

  19. Ionic liquid modified carbon paste electrode and investigation of its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    mixed using pestle and mortar with the required amount of graphite. This ionic liquid modified carbon paste was tightly packed into a cavity (3⋅3 mm diameter) of a glass tube and the electrical contact was established via copper wire. Then 2 mg of horseradish peroxidase was added and the paste was mixed for 10 min.

  20. Determination of Lipophilic Extractives in Ionic Liquid Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of Lipophilic Extractives in Ionic Liquid Extracts of Eucalyptus Pulp by Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry. ... The effect of temperature of the added precipitating solvent during cellulose regeneration on the recovery of extractives was also studied. Recovery of extractives increased with increasing ...

  1. Structure and lifetimes in ionic liquids and their mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrke, Sascha; von Domaros, Michael; Clark, Ryan; Hollóczki, Oldamur; Brehm, Martin; Welton, Tom; Luzar, Alenka; Kirchner, Barbara

    2017-09-21

    With the aid of molecular dynamics simulations, we study the structure and dynamics of different ionic liquid systems, with focus on hydrogen bond, ion pair and ion cage formation. To do so, we report radial distribution functions, their number integrals, and various time-correlation functions, from which we extract well-defined lifetimes by means of the reactive flux formalism. We explore the influence of polarizable force fields vs. non-polarizable ones with downscaled charges (±0.8) for the example of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide. Furthermore, we use 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate to investigate the impact of temperature and mixing with water as well as with the chloride ionic liquid. Smaller coordination numbers, larger distances, and tremendously accelerated dynamics are observed when the polarizable force field is applied. The same trends are found with increasing temperature. Adding water decreases the ion-ion coordination numbers whereas the water-ion and water-water coordination is enhanced. A domain analysis reveals that the nonpolar parts of the ions are dispersed and when more water is added the water clusters increase in size. The dynamics accelerate in general upon addition of water. In the ionic liquid mixture, the coordination number around the cation changes between the two anions, but the number integrals of the cation around the anions remain constant and the dynamics slow down with increasing content of the chloride ionic liquid.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of ionic liquid (EMImBF4)/Li+ - chitosan membranes for ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasaribu, Marvin H.; Arcana, I. Made; Wahyuningrum, Deana

    2015-09-01

    Lithium ion battery has been currently developed and produced because it has a longer life time, high energycapacity, and the efficient use of lithium ion battery that is suitable for storing electrical energy. However, this battery has some drawbacks such as use liquid electrolytes that are prone to leakage and flammability during the battery charging process in high temperature. In this study, an ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMImBF4) containing Li+ ions was synthesized and combined with chitosan polymer host as a polymer electrolyte membrane for lithium-ion batteries to solve this problems. This ionic liquid was obtained from the anion metathesis reaction between EMImBr and LiBF4 salt, while EMImBr was synthesized from the reaction between 1-methylimidazole and ethyl bromide utilizing Microwave Assisted Organic Synthesis (MAOS) method. The ionic liquid obtained was characterized by microstructure analysis with using NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. The polymer electrolyte membrane was characterized by analysis functional groups (FTIR), ionic conductivity (EIS), and surface morphology (SEM). The analysis results of ion conductivity by the EIS method showed the increase the ionic conductivity value of membranes from 1.30 × 10-2 S cm- 1 for chitosan to 1.30 × 10-2 S cm-1 for chitosan with EMImBF4/Li+, and this result was supported by analysis the surface morphology (SEM).

  3. Fission-Product Separation Based on Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Huimin; Hussey, Charles L.

    2005-09-30

    The objectives of this project are (a) to synthesize new ionic liquids tailored for the extractive separation of Cs + and Sr 2+; (b) to select optimum macrocyclic extractants through studies of complexation of fission products with macrocyclic extractants and transport in new extraction systems based on ionic liquids; (c) to develop efficient processes to recycle ionic liquids and crown ethers; and (d) to investigate chemical stabilities of ionic liquids under strong acid, strong base, and high-level-radiation conditions.

  4. Fission-Product Separation Based on Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Huimin

    2006-11-15

    The objectives of this project are (a) to synthesize new ionic liquids tailored for the extractive separation of Cs + and Sr 2+; (b) to select optimum macrocyclic extractants through studies of complexation of fission products with macrocyclic extractants and transport in new extraction systems based on ionic liquids; (c) to develop efficient processes to recycle ionic liquids and crown ethers; and (d) to investigate chemical stabilities of ionic liquids under strong acid, strong base, and high-level-radiation conditions.

  5. Formation of a liquid-crystalline interpenetrating poly-(ionic liquid) network hydrogel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becht, G. A.; Sofos, M.; Seifert, S.; Firestone, M. A. (Materials Science Division); ( XSD)

    2011-02-21

    Preparation of a liquid-crystalline ionic-liquid (IL)-based interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) is described. The IPN is prepared sequentially by first photopolymerizing a self-assembled aqueous mixture of an IL monomer (1-(10-(acryloyloxy)decyl)-3-methylimidazolium chloride) that possesses an acryloyl moiety at the terminus of a C{sub 10} alkyl chain of the IL cation. In the second step, an acrylate counteranion is introduced and then photopolymerized to yield a durable self-supporting network polymer. Thermal analysis indicates the formation of a homogeneous (well-blended constituent polymers) IPN. The IPN adopts a lamellar structure possessing some residual in-plane tetragonal perforations, as evidenced by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The IPN can absorb large quantities of water, swelling to nearly 60 times its original volume, but retains mechanical integrity making it a durable hydrogel.

  6. Multimodal porous carbon derived from ionic liquids: correlation between pore sizes and ionic clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jun Hui; Lee, Je Seung; Roh, Kwang Chul; Kim, Kwang-Bum

    2017-10-05

    In this proof of concept study on the synthesis of ionic liquid (IL)-derived multimodal porous carbon using ionic clusters of different sizes as porogens, the carbonization behaviors of binary IL mixtures of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide (EMIM-dca) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (EMIM-Tf 2 N) were systematically investigated to demonstrate the formation of multimodal porous carbons with hierarchical structures originating from the ionic cluster porogens. The multimodal porous structures of the resulting IL-derived porous carbons were characterized based on the quenched solid density functional theory, and the role of the ionic clusters as porogens is discussed. From the viewpoint of green and sustainable chemistry, the IL-based synthesis using ionic clusters as porogens is a simple, effective, and sustainable technique for synthesizing multimodal porous carbons with hierarchical structures. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that a multimodal porous structure of IL-derived porous carbons could be systematically manipulated with the aid of ionic clusters of different sizes as porogens.

  7. Force microscopy of layering and friction in an ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoth, Judith; Hausen, Florian; Müser, Martin H; Bennewitz, Roland

    2014-07-16

    The mechanical properties of the ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tris(pentafluoroethyl) trifluorophosphate ([Py1,4][FAP]) in confinement between a SiOx and a Au(1 1 1) surface are investigated by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM) under electrochemical control. Up to 12 layers of ion pairs can be detected through force measurements while approaching the tip of the AFM to the surface. The particular shape of the force versus distance curve is explained by a model for the interaction between tip, gold surface and ionic liquid, which assumes an exponentially decaying oscillatory force originating from bulk liquid density correlations. Jumps in the tip-sample distance upon approach correspond to jumps of the compliant force sensor between branches of the oscillatory force curve. Frictional force between the laterally moving tip and the surface is detected only after partial penetration of the last double layer between tip and surface.

  8. Acrylate Functionalized Tetraalkylammonium Salts with Ionic Liquid Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Janietz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Acrylate functionalized ionic liquids based on tetraalkylammonium salts with terminal acrylates- and methylacrylates were synthesized. Melting points and ionic conductivity of twenty compounds in six groups were determined. Within one group the effect of three different counterions was investigated and discussed. The groups differ in cationic structure elements because of their functional groups such as acrylate and methacrylate, alkyl residues at the nitrogen and number of quaternary ammonium atoms within the organic cation. The effect of these cationic structure elements has been examined concerning the compiled parameters with a view to qualifying them as components for solid state electrolytes. The newly synthesized ionic liquids were characterized by NMR and FTIR analysis. The exchange of halide ions like bromide as counter ions to weakly coordinating [PF6], [OTf] or [TFSI] reduces the melting points significantly and leads to an ion conductivity of about 10−4 S/cm at room temperature. In the case of the dicationic ionic liquid, an ion conductivity of about 10−3 S/cm was observed.

  9. Detection of Ionic liquid using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuicui; Zhao, Xiaojing; Liu, Shangjian; Zuo, Jian; Zhang, Cunlin

    2018-01-01

    Terahertz (THz, THz+1012Hz) spectroscopy is a far-infrared analytical technology with spectral bands locating between microware and infrared ranges. Being of excellent transmission, non-destruction and high discrimination, this technology has been applied in various fields such as physics, chemistry, nondestructive detection, communication, biomedicine public security. Terahertz spectrum is corresponding with vibration and rotation of liquid molecules, which is suitable to identify and study the liquid molecular dynamics. It is as a powerful spectral detection technology, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy is widely used in solution detection. can enable us to extract the material parameters or dielectric spectrum that show material micro-structure and dynamics by measuring amplitude and phase from coherent terahertz pulses. Ionic liquid exists in most biological tissues, and it is very important for life. It has recently been suggested that near-fired terahertz ionic contrast microscopy can be employed to image subtle changes in ionic concentrations arising from neuronal activity. In this paper, we detected Ionic liquid with different concentrations at room temperature by THz-TDS technique in the range of 0.2-1.5 THz. The liquid cell with a thickness of 0.2mm is made of quartz. The absorption coefficient, refractive index and dielectric function of solutions can be extracted based on THz-TDS. We use an expanded model for fitting the dielectric function based on a combination of a Debye relation for the anions and cations. We find A linear increase of the real and imaginary part of the dielectric function compared with pure water with increasing ion concentrations. A good agreement between the model and the experimental results is obtained. By means of dielectric relaxation process, it was found that the characteristic time of molecular movement and the information related to the liquid molecular structure and movement was obtained.

  10. Simultaneous Design of Ionic Liquids and Azeotropic Separation for Systems Containing Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roughton, Brock; Camarda, Kyle V.; Gani, Rafiqul

    interaction parameters were fitted for the newly defined ionic liquid groups. The ionic liquid UNIFAC model was used to predict vapor-liquid equilibria for several aqueous azeotropic systems. The ionic liquids were evaluated for use as an entrainer for water in binary azeotropic mixtures where the mole....... Since a large number of azeotropes encountered include water as one of the compounds, the use of ionic liquids in solvent-based separation of water in azeotropic systems has been investigated. Along with the design of the ionic liquid being used to entrain water, the extractive distillation process has...... to check for consistency. The ionic liquid UNIFAC model was developed for a selected set of ionic liquid cations and anions. Group volume and area parameters were calculated using a three step procedure. First, the rules of Bondi were used for any applicable molecular groups within the cation or anion...

  11. Ionic Liquids: Radiation Chemistry, Solvation Dynamics and Reactivity Patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wishart,J.F.

    2008-09-29

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are a rapidly expanding family of condensed-phase media with important applications in energy production, nuclear fuel and waste processing, improving the efficiency and safety of industrial chemical processes, and pollution prevention. ILs are generally nonvolatile, noncombustible, highly conductive, recyclable and capable of dissolving a wide variety of materials. They are finding new uses in chemical synthesis, catalysis, separations chemistry, electrochemistry and other areas. Ionic liquids have dramatically different properties compared to conventional molecular solvents, and they provide a new and unusual environment to test our theoretical understanding of charge transfer and other reactions. We are interested in how IL properties influence physical and dynamical processes that determine the stability and lifetimes of reactive intermediates and thereby affect the courses of chemical reactions and product distributions. Successful use of ionic liquids in radiation-filled environments, where their safety advantages could be significant, requires an understanding of ionic liquid radiation chemistry. For example, characterizing the primary steps of IL radiolysis will reveal radiolytic degradation pathways and suggest ways to prevent them or mitigate their effects on the properties of the material. An understanding of ionic liquid radiation chemistry will also facilitate pulse radiolysis studies of general chemical reactivity in ILs, which will aid in the development of applications listed above. Very early in our radiolysis studies it became evident that slow solvation dynamics of the excess electron in ILs (which vary over a wide viscosity range) increases the importance of pre-solvated electron reactivity and consequently alters product distributions. Parallel studies of IL solvation phenomena using coumarin-153 dynamic Stokes shifts and polarization anisotropy decay rates are done to compare with electron solvation studies and to evaluate

  12. SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES OF STRUCTURE, DYNAMICS AND REACTIVITY IN IONIC LIQUIDS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WISHART,J.F.

    2007-11-30

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are a rapidly expanding family of condensed-phase media with important applications in energy production, nuclear fuel and waste processing, improving the efficiency and safety of industrial chemical processes, and pollution prevention. ILs are generally nonvolatile, noncombustible, highly conductive, recyclable and capable of dissolving a wide variety of materials. They are finding new uses in chemical synthesis, catalysis, separations chemistry, electrochemistry and other areas. Ionic liquids have dramatically different properties compared to conventional molecular solvents, and they provide a new and unusual environment to test our theoretical understanding of charge transfer and other reactions. We are interested in how IL properties influence physical and dynamical processes that determine the stability and lifetimes of reactive intermediates and thereby affect the courses of chemical reactions and product distributions. Successful use of ionic liquids in radiation-filled environments, where their safety advantages could be significant, requires an understanding of ionic liquid radiation chemistry. For example, characterizing the primary steps of IL radiolysis will reveal radiolytic degradation pathways and suggest ways to prevent them or mitigate their effects on the properties of the material. An understanding of ionic liquid radiation chemistry will also facilitate pulse radiolysis studies of general chemical reactivity in ILs, which will aid in the development of applications listed above. Very early in our radiolysis studies it became evident that slow solvation dynamics of the excess electron in ILs (which vary over a wide viscosity range) increases the importance of pre-solvated electron reactivity and consequently alters product distributions. Parallel studies of IL solvation phenomena using coumarin-153 dynamic Stokes shifts and polarization anisotropy decay rates are done to compare with electron solvation studies and to evaluate

  13. Applications of ionic liquids in biphasic separation: Aqueous biphasic systems and liquid-liquid equilibria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shashi Kant; Pandey, Shubha; Pandey, Siddharth

    2017-10-10

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been receiving much attention in many fields of analytical chemistry because of their various interesting properties which distinguish them from volatile organic compounds. They offer both directional and non-directional forces towards a solute molecule and therefore act as excellent solvents for a wide range of polar and non-polar compounds. Because of the presence of various possible interactions, ILs easily undergo biphasic separation with water and other less polar/non-polar organic solvents. Their ability to create biphasic splitting makes them a promising candidate for liquid-liquid separation processes, such as aqueous biphasic systems and liquid-liquid equilibria. Various aspects of ILs in these separation methods are discussed in view of the origin of physical forces responsible for the biphasic interactions, the effect of structural components, temperature, pressure, pH and additives. The specific advantages of using ILs in aqueous biphasic systems and liquid-liquid equilibria in binary and ternary systems are discussed with a view to defining their future role in separation processes by giving major emphasis on developing non-toxic ILs with physical and solution properties tailored to the needs of specific sample preparation techniques. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Simultaneous design of ionic liquid entrainers and energy efficient azeotropic separation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roughton, Brock C.; Christian, Brianna; White, John

    2012-01-01

    design (CAMD) method and the UNIFAC-IL model is used to screen design candidates based on minimum ionic liquid concentration needed to break the azeotrope. Once the ionic liquid has been designed, the extractive distillation column for the azeotropic mixture is designed using the driving force method...... with a new proposed feed stage scaling to minimize energy inputs. Along with the distillation column, an ionic liquid recovery stage is designed and simulations are used to determine the overall heat duty for the entire process for the best ionic liquid candidates. Use of a designed ionic liquid reduces......A methodology and tool set for the simultaneous design of ionic liquid entrainers and azeotropic separation processes is presented. By adjusting the cation, anion, and alkyl chain length on the cation, the properties of the ionic liquid can be adjusted to design an entrainer for a given azeotropic...

  15. Ionic Liquid-Doped Gel Polymer Electrolyte for Flexible Lithium-Ion Polymer Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruisi Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Application of gel polymer electrolytes (GPE in lithium-ion polymer batteries can address many shortcomings associated with liquid electrolyte lithium-ion batteries. Due to their physical structure, GPEs exhibit lower ion conductivity compared to their liquid counterparts. In this work, we have investigated and report improved ion conductivity in GPEs doped with ionic liquid. Samples containing ionic liquid at a variety of volume percentages (vol % were characterized for their electrochemical and ionic properties. It is concluded that excess ionic liquid can damage internal structure of the batteries and result in unwanted electrochemical reactions; however, samples containing 40–50 vol % ionic liquid exhibit superior ionic properties and lower internal resistance compared to those containing less or more ionic liquids.

  16. Ionic Liquid-Doped Gel Polymer Electrolyte for Flexible Lithium-Ion Polymer Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruisi; Chen, Yuanfen; Montazami, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Application of gel polymer electrolytes (GPE) in lithium-ion polymer batteries can address many shortcomings associated with liquid electrolyte lithium-ion batteries. Due to their physical structure, GPEs exhibit lower ion conductivity compared to their liquid counterparts. In this work, we have investigated and report improved ion conductivity in GPEs doped with ionic liquid. Samples containing ionic liquid at a variety of volume percentages (vol %) were characterized for their electrochemical and ionic properties. It is concluded that excess ionic liquid can damage internal structure of the batteries and result in unwanted electrochemical reactions; however, samples containing 40–50 vol % ionic liquid exhibit superior ionic properties and lower internal resistance compared to those containing less or more ionic liquids.

  17. Investigation of polymer electrolyte based on agar and ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibility to use natural polymer as ionic conducting matrix was investigated in this study. Samples of agarbased electrolytes with different ionic liquids were prepared and characterized by physical and chemical analyses. The ionic liquids used in this work were 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate, [C2mim][C2SO4], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [C2mim][OAc] and trimethyl-ethanolammonium acetate, [Ch][OAc]. Samples of solvent-free electrolytes were prepared and characterized by ionic conductivity measurements, thermal analysis, electrochemical stability, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy. Electrolyte samples are thermally stable up to approximately 190°C. All the materials synthesized are semicrystalline. The electrochemical stability domain of all samples is about 2.0 V versus Li/Li+. The preliminary studies carried out with electrochromic devices (ECDs incorporating optimized compositions have confirmed that these materials may perform as satisfactory multifunctional component layers in the field of ‘smart windows’, as well as ECD-based devices.

  18. Zinc Acetate Immobilized on Mesoporous Materials by Acetate Ionic Liquids as Catalysts for Vinyl Acetate Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquid containing active ingredient Zn(CH3COO2 was loaded in mesoporous silica gel to form supported ionic liquids catalyst (SILC which was used to synthesize vinyl acetate monomer (VAM. SILC was characterized by 1HNMR, FT-IR, TGA, BET, and N2 adsorption/desorption and the acetylene method was used to evaluate SILC catalytic activity and stability in fixed reactor. The result shows that 1-allyl-3-acetic ether imidazole acetate ionic liquid is successfully fixed within mesoporous channel of silica gel. The average thickness of ionic liquid catalyst layer is about 1.05 nm. When the catalytic temperature is 195°C, the acetic acid (HAc conversion is 10.9% with 1.1 g vinyl acetate yield and 98% vinyl acetate (VAc selectivity. The HAc conversion is increased by rise of catalytic temperature and molar ratio of C2H2 : HAc and decreased by mass space velocity (WHSV. The catalyst activity is not significantly reduced within 7 days and VAc selectivity has a slight decrease.

  19. Supercritical CO2-ionic liquid mixtures for modification of organoclays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livi, Sébastien; Duchet-Rumeau, Jannick; Gérard, Jean-François

    2011-01-01

    The use of supercritical CO(2) as solvent in the modification of montmorillonite by imidazolium and phosphonium ionic liquids bearing long alkyl chains (C(18)) known for their excellent thermal stability is described. The objective is to combine the environmentally friendly character of ionic liquids and supercritical carbon dioxide for the organophilic treatment of lamellar silicates. Dialkyl imidazolium and alkyl phosphonium salts were synthesized to be used as new surfactants for cationic exchange of layered silicates. Then, the synthesized phosphonium (MMT-P) or imidazolium (MMT-I) modified montmorillonites, cationically exchanged under supercritical carbon dioxide with or without co-solvent, have been analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and compared to montmorillonites treated by conventional cationic exchange. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Acceleration effect of ionic liquids on polycyclotrimerization of dicyanate esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fainleib

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The polycyclotrimerization reaction of dicyanate ester of bisphenol E (DCBE in the presence of varying amounts (from 0.5 to 5 wt% of 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([OMIm][BF4] ionic liquid has been investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR techniques, after a curing stage at 150 °C for 6 h. It is noteworthy that an amount of [OMIm][BF4] as low as 0.5 wt% accelerates dramatically the thermal curing process leading to the formation of a polycyanurate network. The conversion of DCBE increased with increasing [OMIm][BF4] content in the temperature range studied. A reaction mechanism associated with the ionic liquid-catalyzed DCBE polycyclotrimerization is newly proposed via the involvement of a [CN]δ+–[OMIm]δ– complex as a key intermediate.

  1. Fabrication of Polyacrylonitrile Hollow Fiber Membranes from Ionic Liquid Solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Dooli

    2015-10-08

    The interest in green processes and products has increased to reduce the negative impact of many industrial processes to the environment. Solvents, which play a crucial role in the fabrication of membranes, need to be replaced by sustainable and less toxic solvent alternatives for commonly used polymers. The purpose of this study is the fabrication of greener hollow fiber membranes based on polyacrylonitrile (PAN), substituting dimethylformamide (DMF) by less toxic mixtures of ionic liquids (IL) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). A thermodynamic analysis was conducted, estimating the Gibbs free energy of mixing to find the most convenient solution compositions. Hollow fiber membranes were manufactured and optimized. As a result, a uniform pattern and high porosity were observed in the inner surface of the membranes prepared from the ionic liquid solutions. The membranes were coated with a polyamide layer by interfacial polymerization the hollow fiber membranes were applied in forward osmosis experiments by using sucrose solutions as draw solution.

  2. Betaine and Carnitine Derivatives as Herbicidal Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernak, Juliusz; Niemczak, Michał; Chrzanowski, Łukasz; Ławniczak, Łukasz; Fochtman, Przemysław; Marcinkowska, Katarzyna; Praczyk, Tadeusz

    2016-08-16

    This study focused on the synthesis and subsequent characterization of herbicidal ionic liquids based on betaine and carnitine, two derivatives of amino acids, which were used as cations. Four commonly used herbicides (2,4-D, MCPA, MCPP and Dicamba) were used as anions in simple (single anion) and oligomeric (two anions) salts. The obtained salts were subjected to analyzes regarding physicochemical properties (density, viscosity, refractive index, thermal decomposition profiles and solubility) as well as evaluation of their herbicidal activity under greenhouse and field conditions, toxicity towards rats and biodegradability. The obtained results suggest that the synthesized herbicidal ionic liquids displayed low toxicity (classified as category 4 compounds) and showed similar or improved efficacy against weed compared to reference herbicides. The highest increase was observed during field trials for salts containing 2,4-D as the anion, which also exhibited the highest biodegradability (>75 %). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Sparingly soluble pesticide dissolved in ionic liquid aqueous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Tengfei; Wu, Xuemin; Peng, Qingrong

    2014-10-02

    Ionic liquids may be considered as "environment-friendly solvents" for sparingly soluble pesticides. In this study, a series of aqueous ionic liquids (ILs) with different cations and different anions was used as environment-friendly alternative to harmful organic solvents sparingly dissolved in soluble pesticides (metolachlor, acetochlor, clethodim, thiamethoxam, and prochloraz). The aggregation behavior of aqueous ILs was investigated through surface tension measurement. Minimum area per IL molecule (Amin) values from the surface tension measurement showed that alkyl chain length and the halide anions strongly affect the aggregation behavior of ILs and the solubilization of pesticides. The solubility of metolachlor, acetochlor, clethodim, thiamethoxam, nitenpyram, and prochloraz in aqueous ILs increased. More importantly, the solubility of prochloraz in [C10mim][I] became 5771-fold higher than that in pure water. The substantially enhanced solubility of the above pesticides proved that aqueous ILs are promising environment-friendly solvents for pesticides that are commercially processed in emulsifiable concentrate (EC) formulation.

  4. Reactions of Lignin Model Compounds in Ionic Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holladay, John E.; Binder, Joseph B.; Gray, Michel J.; White, James F.; Zhang, Z. Conrad

    2009-09-15

    Lignin, a readily available form of biomass, awaits novel chemistry for converting it to valuable aromatic chemicals. Recent work has demonstrated that ionic liquids are excellent solvents for processing woody biomass and lignin. Seeking to exploit ionic liquids as media for depolymerization of lignin, we investigated reactions of lignin model compounds in these solvents. Using Brønsted acid catalysts in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium triflate at moderate temperatures, we obtained up to 11.6% yield of the dealkylation product guaiacol from the model compound eugenol and cleaved phenethyl phenyl ether, a model for lignin ethers. Despite these successes, acid catalysis failed in dealkylation of the unsaturated model compound 4-ethylguaiacol and did not produce monomeric products from organosolv lignin, demonstrating that further work is required to understand the complex chemistry of lignin depolymerization.

  5. The radiation stability of organic ionic liquids in biphasic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howett, S.E.; Noel, J.J.; Wren, J.C., E-mail: jjnoel@uwo.ca [Univ. of Westen Ontario. London, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The influence of γ-radiation on the stability of biphasic water/ionic liquid (IL) and gas/IL systems was studied. The behaviours of two phosphonium-based ionic liquids with the same cation and differing anions were compared. Exposure to γ-radiation did not significantly impact IL-stability, but it did speed up processes that occurred even in the absence of radiation. The two most significant effects of irradiation were the promotion of faster emulsion layer formation and the precipitation of a fine white solid. Precipitate formation could be deleterious,whereas emulsion layer formation could be either beneficial or detrimental, in an IL-based separations process. (author)

  6. IONIC LIQUIDS: RADIATION CHEMISTRY, SOLVATION DYNAMICS AND REACTIVITY PATTERNS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WISHART,J.F.

    2007-10-01

    energy production, nuclear fuel and waste processing, improving the efficiency and safety of industrial chemical processes, and pollution prevention. ILs are generally nonvolatile, noncombustible, highly conductive, recyclable and capable of dissolving a wide variety of materials. They are finding new uses in chemical synthesis, catalysis, separations chemistry, electrochemistry and other areas. Ionic liquids have dramatically different properties compared to conventional molecular solvents, and they provide a new and unusual environment to test our theoretical understanding of charge transfer and other reactions. We are interested in how IL properties influence physical and dynamical processes that determine the stability and lifetimes of reactive intermediates and thereby affect the courses of chemical reactions and product distributions. Successful use of ionic liquids in radiation-filled environments, where their safety advantages could be significant, requires an understanding of ionic liquid radiation chemistry. For example, characterizing the primary steps of IL radiolysis will reveal radiolytic degradation pathways and suggest ways to prevent them or mitigate their effects on the properties of the material. An understanding of ionic liquid radiation chemistry will also facilitate pulse radiolysis studies of general chemical reactivity in ILs, which will aid in the development of applications listed above. Very early in our radiolysis studies it became evident that slow solvation dynamics of the excess electron in ILs (which vary over a wide viscosity range) increases the importance of pre-solvated electron reactivity and consequently alters product distributions. Parallel studies of IL solvation phenomena using coumarin-153 dynamic Stokes shifts and polarization anisotropy decay rates are done to compare with electron solvation studies and to evaluate the influence of ILs on charge transport processes. Methods. Picosecond pulse radiolysis studies at BNL

  7. Maillard reaction products from chitosan-xylan ionic liquid solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuqiong; Ling, Yunzhi; Wang, Xiaoying; Han, Yang; Zeng, Xianjie; Sun, Runcang

    2013-10-15

    A facile method is reported to prepare Maillard reaction products (MRPs) from chitosan and xylan in co-solvent ionic liquid. UV absorbance and fluorescence changes were regarded as indicators of the occurrence of Maillard reaction. FT-IR, NMR, XRD and TG were used to investigate the structure of chitosan-xylan conjugate. The results revealed that when chitosan reacted with xylan in ionic liquid, the hydrogen bonds in chitosan were destroyed, the facts resulted in the formation of chitosan-xylan MRPs. Moreover, when the mass ratio of chitosan to xylan was 1:1, the Maillard reaction proceeded easily. In addition, relatively high antioxidant property was also noted for the chitosan-xylan conjugate with mass ratio 1:1. So the obtained chitosan-xylan MRP is a promising antioxidant agent for food industry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ionic Liquids: evidence of the viscosity scale-dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrod, Quentin; Ferdeghini, Filippo; Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Judeinstein, Patrick; Lairez, Didier; García Sakai, Victoria; Czakkel, Orsolya; Fouquet, Peter; Constantin, Doru

    2017-05-22

    Ionic Liquids (ILs) are a specific class of molecular electrolytes characterized by the total absence of co-solvent. Due to their remarkable chemical and electrochemical stability, they are prime candidates for the development of safe and sustainable energy storage systems. The competition between electrostatic and van der Waals interactions leads to a property original for pure liquids: they self-organize in fluctuating nanometric aggregates. So far, this transient structuration has escaped to direct clear-cut experimental assessment. Here, we focus on a imidazolium based IL and use particle-probe rheology to (i) catch this phenomenon and (ii) highlight an unexpected consequence: the self-diffusion coefficient of the cation shows a one order of magnitude difference depending whether it is inferred at the nanometric or at the microscopic scale. As this quantity partly drives the ionic conductivity, such a peculiar property represents a strong limiting factor to the performances of ILs-based batteries.

  9. (Vapour + liquid) equilibria of ternary systems with ionic liquids using headspace gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtarani, Babak [Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Research Center of Iran, P.O. Box 14335-186, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gmehling, Juergen, E-mail: gmehling@tech.chem.uni-oldenburg.d [Carl von Ossietzky Universitaet Oldenburg, Technische Chemie, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    (Vapour + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) data for the ternary systems (hexane + benzene), (hexane + cyclohexane), (benzene + cyclohexane), and (ethanol + water) with an ionic liquid as entrainer for extractive distillation were measured by headspace gas chromatography. As ionic liquids, 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis (trifluoromethyl-sulfonyl) imide [HMIM][BTI], 1-octyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis (trifluoromethyl-sulfonyl) imide [OMIM][BTI], 1-octyl-3-methyl-imidazolium trifluoro-methanesulfonate [OMIM][OTF], and 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium trifluoro-methanesulfonate [BMIM][OTF] were used. The experimental data show that the ionic liquids investigated have a great influence on the separation factors of the systems (hexane + benzene), (hexane + cyclohexane), and (benzene + cyclohexane). The experimental data were compared with the predicted results using mod. UNIFAC (Do). The predicted results are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  10. Ionic Liquids in Polymer Design: From Energy to Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-19

    masters degrees Names of personnel receiving PHDs Names of other research staff Inventions (DD882) Scientific Progress This grant provided travel...at the 2015 American Chemical Society National Meeting through the POLY division at Boston, Massachusetts. This symposium was organized by Yossef A...2:30-2:45pm break 2.45-3:10pm Dynamics of Polymerized Ionic Liquids and their Monomers U Hyeok Choi, ANUJ MITTAL, Terry Price, Harry W. Gibson

  11. Thermo-responsive poly(ionic liquid) hydrogel microfluidic valves

    OpenAIRE

    Tudor, Alexandru; Saez, Janire; Florea, Larisa; Benito-Lopez, Fernando; Diamond, Dermot

    2016-01-01

    Several phosphonium ionic liquid monomers have been shown to possess a lower critical solution temperature [1][2]. This property was kept when the monomers were used to synthesize both linear and crosslinked polymers, thus making them suitable materials for the synthesis of stimuli-responsive hydrogels [2]. Herein, we present the synthesis of a thermo-responsive tributylhexyl phosphonium 3-sulfopropyl acrylate (PSPA) crosslinked PIL, followed by its inclusion in a microfluidic device to be us...

  12. Ionic liquid electrolyte for supercapacitor with high temperature compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Mazharul; Li, Qi; Kuzmenko, Volodymyr; Smith, Anderson D.; Enoksson, Peter

    2017-11-01

    This work describes the electrochemical investigation of two ionic liquids (ILs), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIM Ac) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIM Cl), as electrolytes in supercapacitors (SC). A comprehensive study on high temperature (HT) endurance that is required for system integration in microelectronics has also been carried out. It has been found that EMIM Ac containing SC performs better than a BMIM Cl containing SC, and HT treatment improves the capacitive performance.

  13. Synthesis and mesomorphic properties of rigid-core ionic liquid crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouwer, P.H.J.; Swager, T.M.

    2007-01-01

    Ionic liquid crystals combine the unique solvent properties of ionic liquids with self-organization found for liquid crystals. We report a detailed analysis of the structure-property relationship of a series of new imidazolium-based liquid crystals with an extended aromatic core. Investigated

  14. Understanding the impact of ionic liquid pretreatment on eucalyptus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Centikol, Ozgul [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Dibble, Dean [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Cheng, Gang [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Kent, Michael S [ORNL; Knierim, Manfred [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The development of cost-competitive biofuels necessitates the realization of advanced biomass pretreatment technologies. Ionic liquids provide a basis for one of the most promising pretreatment technologies and are known to allow effective processing of cellulose and some biomass species. Here, we demonstrate that the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium acetate, [C2mim][OAc], induces structural changes at the molecular level in the cell wall of Eucalyptus globulus. Deacetylation of xylan, acetylation of the lignin units, selective removal of guaiacyl units (increasing the syringyl:guaiacyl ratio) and decreased {beta}-ether content were the most prominent changes observed. Scanning electron microscopy images of the plant cell wall sections reveal extensive swelling during [C2mim][OAc] pretreatment. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate a change in cellulose crystal structure from cellulose I to cellulose II after [C2mim][OAc] pretreatment. Enzymatic saccharification of the pretreated material produced increased sugar yields and improved hydrolysis kinetics after [C2mim][OAc] pretreatment. These results provide new insight into the mechanism of ionic liquid pretreatment and reaffirm that this approach may be promising for the production of cellulosic biofuels from woody biomass.

  15. Exceptionally High Electric Double Layer Capacitances of Oligomeric Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Michio; Shimizu, Sunao; Sotoike, Rina; Watanabe, Masayoshi; Iwasa, Yoshihiro; Itoh, Yoshimitsu; Aida, Takuzo

    2017-11-15

    Electric double layer (EDL) capacitors are promising as next-generation energy accumulators if their capacitances and operation voltages are both high. However, only few electrolytes can simultaneously fulfill these two requisites. Here we report that an oligomeric ionic liquid such as IL4 TFSI with four imidazolium ion units in its structure provides a wide electrochemical window of ∼5.0 V, similar to monomeric ionic liquids. Furthermore, electrochemical impedance measurements using Au working electrodes demonstrated that IL4 TFSI exhibits an exceptionally high EDL capacitance of ∼66 μF/cm 2 , which is ∼6 times as high as those of monomeric ionic liquids so far reported. We also found that an EDL-based field effect transistor (FET) using IL4 TFSI as a gate dielectric material and SrTiO 3 as a channel material displays a very sharp transfer curve with an enhanced carrier accumulation capability of ∼64 μF/cm 2 , as determined by Hall-effect measurements.

  16. Fabrication of Greener Membranes from Ionic Liquid Solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, DooLi

    2017-06-01

    Membrane technology plays a crucial role in different separation processes such as biotechnology, pharmaceutical, and food industries, drinking water supply, and wastewater treatment. However, there is a growing concern that solvents commonly used for membrane fabrication, such as dimethylformamide (DMF), dimethylacetamide (DMAc), and 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), are toxic to the environment and human health. To explore the possibility of substituting these toxic solvents by less toxic or safer solvents, polymers commonly used for membrane fabrication, such as polyacrylonitrile (PAN), cellulose acetate (CA), polyethersulfone (PES), and poly(ether imide sulfone) (EXTEMTM), were dissolved in ionic liquids. Flat sheet and hollow fiber membranes were then fabricated. The thermodynamics of the polymer solutions, the kinetics of phase inversion and other factors, which resulted in significant differences in the membrane structure, compared to those of membranes fabricated from more toxic solvents, were investigated. Higher water permeance with smaller pores, unique and uniform morphologies, and narrower pore size distribution, were observed in the ionic liquid-based membranes. Furthermore, comparable performance on separation of peptides and proteins with various molecular weights was achieved with the membranes fabricated from ionic liquid solutions. In summary, we propose less hazardous polymer solutions to the environment, which can be used for the membrane fabrication with better performance and more regular morphology.

  17. Carbons, ionic liquids and quinones for electrochemical capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul eDiaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbons are the main electrode materials used in electrochemical capacitors, which are electrochemical energy storage devices with high power densities and long cycling lifetimes. However, increasing their energy density will improve their potential for commercial implementation. In this regard, the use of high surface area carbons and high voltage electrolytes are well known strategies to increase the attainable energy density, and lately ionic liquids have been explored as promising alternatives to current state of the art acetonitrile-based electrolytes. Also, in terms of safety and sustainability ionic liquids are attractive electrolyte materials for electrochemical capacitors. In addition, it has been shown that the matching of the carbon pore size with the electrolyte ion size further increases the attainable electric double layer (EDL capacitance and energy density.The use of pseudocapacitive reactions can significantly increase the attainable energy density, and quinonic-based materials offer a potentially sustainable and cost effective research avenue for both the electrode and the electrolyte. This perspective will provide an overview of the current state of the art research on electrochemical capacitors based on combinations of carbons, ionic liquids and quinonic compounds, highlighting performances and challenges and discussing possible future research avenues. In this regard, current interest is mainly focused on strategies which may ultimately lead to commercially competitive sustainable high performance electrochemical capacitors for different applications including those requiring mechanical flexibility and biocompatibility.

  18. Electrochemically stable fluorohydrogenate ionic liquids based on quaternary phosphonium cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanematsu, Shunsuke; Matsumoto, Kazuhiko; Hagiwara, Rika [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    Fluorohydrogenate ionic liquids of quaternary phosphonium cations, tri-n-butylmethylphosphonium (P{sub 4441}) fluorohydrogenate, tetra-n-butylphosphonium (P{sub 4444}) fluorohydrogenate, and tri-n-butyl-n-octylphosphonium (P{sub 4448}) fluorohydrogenate, have been synthesized by the metatheses of anhydrous hydrogen fluoride and the corresponding phosphonium chloride precursors. All the obtained salts have melting points below room-temperature with a vacuum-stable composition of P{sub 444m}(FH){sub 2.3}F (m = 1, 4, and 8) and were characterized by density, conductivity, and viscosity measurements. Linear sweep voltammetry with a glassy carbon working electrode shows that the P{sub 444m}(FH){sub 2.3}Fs have wide electrochemical windows exceeding 5.2 V. In particular, P{sub 4441}(FH){sub 2.3}F has an electrochemical window of 6.0 V, which is the widest among fluorohydrogenate ionic liquids reported to date. The thermal stability of these ionic liquids is also improved compared to the salts of N-heterocyclic ammonium cations. (author)

  19. Liquid-liquid miscibility and volumetric properties of aqueous solutions of ionic liquids as a function of temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Silu; Jacquemin, Johan; Husson, Pascale; Hardacre, Christpher; Costa Gomes, Margarita F.

    2009-01-01

    The volumetric properties of seven {water + ionic liquid} binary mixtures have been studied as a function of temperature from (293 to 343) K. The phase behaviour of the systems was first investigated using a nephelometric method and excess molar volumes were calculated from densities measured using an Anton Paar densimeter and fitted using a Redlich-Kister type equation. Two ionic liquids fully miscible with water (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([CCIm][BF]) and 1-ethyl-3-methy...

  20. Recent Advances in Understanding the Reactivity of Energetic Ionic Liquids in Propulsion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-12

    Thermal decomposition of ionic liquids – Basicity & nucleophilicity • gas phase vs. GIL model • Reactive scattering • VUV- PIMS of catalytic ionic...Obtain higher purity ionic liquid. • VUV- PIMS : – HEHN on catalyst 27 Distribution A:  Approved for public release; distribution unlimited

  1. Tetraalkylphosphonium polyoxometalate ionic liquids: novel, organic-inorganic hybrid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickert, Paul G; Antonio, Mark R; Firestone, Millicent A; Kubatko, Karrie-Ann; Szreder, Tomasz; Wishart, James F; Dietz, Mark L

    2007-05-10

    Pairing of a Keggin or Lindqvist polyoxometalate (POM) anion with an appropriate tetraalkylphosphonium cation is shown to yield the first members of a new family of ionic liquids (ILs). Detailed characterization of one of them, an ambient-temperature "liquid POM" comprising the Lindqvist salt of the trihexyl(tetradecyl) phosphonium cation, by voltammetry, viscometry, conductimetry, and thermal analysis indicates that it exhibits conductivity and viscosity comparable to those of the one previously described inorganic-organic POM-IL hybrid but with substantially improved thermal stability.

  2. Tetraalkylphosphonium polyoxometalate ionic liquids : novel, organic-inorganic hybrid materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickert, P. G.; Antonio, M. P.; Firestone, M. A.; Kubatko, K.-A.; Szreder, T.; Wishart, J. F.; Dietz, M. L.; Chemistry; Univ. of Notre Dame; BNL

    2007-01-01

    Pairing of a Keggin or Lindqvist polyoxometalate (POM) anion with an appropriate tetraalkylphosphonium cation is shown to yield the first members of a new family of ionic liquids (ILs). Detailed characterization of one of them, an ambient-temperature 'liquid POM' comprising the Lindqvist salt of the trihexyl(tetradecyl) phosphonium cation, by voltammetry, viscometry, conductimetry, and thermal analysis indicates that it exhibits conductivity and viscosity comparable to those of the one previously described inorganic-organic POM-IL hybrid but with substantially improved thermal stability.

  3. Ionic liquid based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the extraction of pesticides from bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelo-Pérez, Lidia M; Hernández-Borges, Javier; Asensio-Ramos, María; Rodríguez-Delgado, Miguel Angel

    2009-10-23

    This paper describes a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) procedure using room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection capable of quantifying trace amounts of eight pesticides (i.e. thiophanate-methyl, carbofuran, carbaryl, tebuconazole, iprodione, oxyfluorfen, hexythiazox and fenazaquin) in bananas. Fruit samples were first homogenized and extracted (1g) with acetonitrile and after suitable evaporation and reconstitution of the extract in 10 mL of water, a DLLME procedure using 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C(6)MIM][PF(6)]) as extraction solvent was used. Experimental conditions affecting the DLLME procedure (sample pH, sodium chloride percentage, ionic liquid amount and volume of disperser solvent) were optimized by means of an experimental design. In order to determine the presence of a matrix effect, calibration curves for standards and fortified banana extracts (matrix matched calibration) were studied. Mean recovery values of the extraction of the pesticides from banana samples were in the range of 69-97% (except for thiophanate-methyl and carbofuran, which were 53-63%) with a relative standard deviation lower than 8.7% in all cases. Limits of detection achieved (0.320-4.66 microg/kg) were below the harmonized maximum residue limits established by the European Union (EU). The proposed method, was also applied to the analysis of this group of pesticides in nine banana samples taken from the local markets of the Canary Islands (Spain). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of RTILs as extraction solvents for DLLME of pesticides from samples different than water.

  4. Pesticide extraction from table grapes and plums using ionic liquid based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelo-Pérez, Lidia M; Hernández-Borges, Javier; Herrera-Herrera, Antonio V; Rodríguez-Delgado, Miguel Angel

    2009-12-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have been used as extraction solvents in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) for the determination of eight multi-class pesticides (i.e. thiophanate-methyl, carbofuran, carbaryl, tebuconazole, iprodione, oxyfluorfen, hexythiazox, and fenazaquin) in table grapes and plums. The developed method involves the combination of DLLME and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. Samples were first homogenized and extracted with acetonitrile. After evaporation and reconstitution of the extract in water containing sodium chloride, a quick DLLME procedure that used the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C(6)MIM][PF(6)]) and methanol was developed. The RTIL dissolved in a very small volume of acetonitrile was directed injected in the chromatographic system. The comparison between the calibration curves obtained from standards and from spiked sample extracts (matrix-matched calibration) showed the existence of a strong matrix effect for most of the analyzed pesticides. A recovery study was also developed with five consecutive extractions of the two types of fruits spiked at three concentration levels. Mean recovery values were in the range of 72-100% for table grapes and 66-105% for plum samples (except for thiophanate-methyl and carbofuran, which were 64-75% and 58-66%, respectively). Limits of detection (LODs) were in the range 0.651-5.44 microg/kg for table grapes and 0.902-6.33 microg/kg for plums, representing LODs below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) established by the European Union in these fruits. The potential of the method was demonstrated by analyzing 12 commercial fruit samples (six of each type).

  5. ELECTROCATALYSIS OF HEMOGLOBIN IN IONIC LIQUID ...

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    studied for the potential applications in biosensor and bioreactor [1]. Due to the difficult of ... Nanospheres had many potential applications in the filed of chemistry, biotechnology and materials science [20] .... advantages of large surface area, tunable porosity and high stability, which can be used as the support to assembly ...

  6. Ionic Liquid Confined in Mesoporous Polymer Membrane with Improved Stability for CO2/N2 Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Tan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs have a promising prospect of application in flue gas separation, owing to its high permeability and selectivity of CO2. However, existing SILMs have the disadvantage of poor stability due to the loss of ionic liquid from the large pores of the macroporous support. In this study, a novel SILM with high stability was developed by confining ionic liquid in a mesoporous polymer membrane. First, a mesoporous polymer membrane derived from a soluble, low-molecular-weight phenolic resin precursor was deposited on a porous Al2O3 support, and then 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([emim][BF4] was immobilized inside mesopores of phenolic resin, forming the SILM under vacuum. Effects of trans-membrane pressure difference on the SILM separation performance were investigated by measuring the permeances of CO2 and N2. The SILM exhibits a high ideal CO2/N2 selectivity of 40, and an actual selectivity of approximately 25 in a mixed gas (50% CO2 and 50% N2 at a trans-membrane pressure difference of 2.5 bar. Compared to [emim][BF4] supported by polyethersulfone membrane with a pore size of around 0.45 μm, the [emim][BF4] confined in a mesoporous polymer membrane exhibits an improved stability, and its separation performance remained stable for 40 h under a trans-membrane pressure difference of 1.5 bar in a mixed gas before the measurement was intentionally stopped.

  7. Predictive model for ionic liquid extraction solvents for rare earth elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabda, Mariusz; Oleszek, Sylwia [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM), Tohoku University, 2,1-Katahira, 2-Chome, 980-8577 Sendai (Japan); Institute of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. M. Sklodowskiej-Curie 34, 41-819, Zabrze (Poland); Panigrahi, Mrutyunjay; Kozak, Dmytro; Shibata, Etsuro; Nakamura, Takashi [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM), Tohoku University, 2,1-Katahira, 2-Chome, 980-8577 Sendai (Japan); Eckert, Franck [COSMOlogic GmbH & Co KG, Imbacher Weg 46, 50379 Leverkusen (Germany)

    2015-12-31

    The purpose of our study was to select the most effective ionic liquid extraction solvents for dysprosium (III) fluoride using a theoretical approach. Conductor-like Screening Model for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS), based on quantum chemistry and the statistical thermodynamics of predefined DyF{sub 3}-ionic liquid systems, was applied to reach the target. Chemical potentials of the salt were predicted in 4,400 different ionic liquids. On the base of these predictions set of ionic liquids’ ions, manifesting significant decrease of the chemical potentials, were selected. Considering the calculated physicochemical properties (hydrophobicity, viscosity) of the ionic liquids containing these specific ions, the most effective extraction solvents for liquid-liquid extraction of DyF{sub 3} were proposed. The obtained results indicate that the COSMO-RS approach can be applied to quickly screen the affinity of any rare earth element for a large number of ionic liquid systems, before extensive experimental tests.

  8. Dynamic electrowetting and dewetting of ionic liquids at a hydrophobic solid-liquid interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Paneru, Mani; Sedev, Rossen; Ralston, John

    2013-02-26

    The dynamic electrowetting and dewetting of ionic liquids are investigated with high-speed video microscopy. Five imidazolium-based ionic liquids ([BMIM]BF(4), [BMIM]PF(6), [BMIM]NTf(2), [HMIM]NTf(2), and [OMIM]BF(4)) are used as probe liquids. Droplets of ionic liquids are first spread on an insulated electrode by applying an external voltage (electrowetting) and then allowed to retract (dewetting) when the voltage is switched off. The base area of the droplet varies exponentially during both the electrowetting and retraction processes. The characteristic time increases with the viscosity of the ionic liquid. The electrowetting and retraction kinetics (dynamic contact angle vs contact line speed) can be described by the hydrodynamic or the molecular-kinetic model. Energy dissipation occurs by viscous and molecular routes with a larger proportion of energy dissipated at the three-phase contact line when the liquid meniscus retracts from the solid surface. The outcomes from this research have implications for the design and control of electro-optical imaging systems, microfluidics, and fuel cells.

  9. Effect of pyrrolidinium based ionic liquid on the channel form of gramicidin in lipid vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra Kumar; Dohare, Neeraj; Mishra, Prabhash; Singh, Prashant; Bohidar, Himadri B; Patel, Rajan

    2015-08-01

    The present work is focused on the interaction between membrane bound gramicidin and 1-butyl-1-methyl-2-oxopyrrolidinium bromide (BMOP) ionic liquid. Ionic liquids (ILs) are solvents that are often liquid at room temperature and composed of organic cation and appropriate anion. The gramicidin peptide forms prototypical ion channels for cations, which have been extensively used to study the organization, dynamics, and function of membrane spanning channels. The interaction was studied by circular dichroism, steady state, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy in combination with dynamic surface tension and field emission scanning electron microscopic methods (FESEM). The results obtained from circular dichroism shows that the BMOP interacts with the channel form of gramicidin in lipid vesicle without any considerable effect on its conformation. The Red-edge excitation shift (REES) also supported the above findings. In addition, the fluorescence studies suggested that BMOP makes ground state complex with ion channel, which was further supported by time resolved measurements. Furthermore, dynamic surface tension analysis shows the faster adsorption of BMOP with membrane bound gramicidin at the air-water interface. Additionally, FESEM results indicated that BMOP forms a film around the membrane bound gramicidin at higher concentration. These results are potentially useful to analyze the effect of ionic liquids on the behaviour of membrane proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Novel thiosalicylate-based ionic liquids for heavy metal extractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyma, Raphlin; Platzer, Sonja [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Jirsa, Franz [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Zoology, University of Johannesburg, PO Box 524, Auckland Park, 2006, Johannesburg (South Africa); Kandioller, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.kandioller@univie.ac.at [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Krachler, Regina; Keppler, Bernhard K. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Six thiosalicylate-based ammonium and phosphonium ionic liquids (ILs) were newly synthesized. • ILs showed good extraction of cadmium, copper, and zinc. • Phosphonium ILs showed better extraction efficiencies than their ammonium counterparts. - Abstract: This study aims to develop novel ammonium and phosphonium ionic liquids (ILs) with thiosalicylate (TS) derivatives as anions and evaluate their extracting efficiencies towards heavy metals in aqueous solutions. Six ILs were synthesized, characterized, and investigated for their extracting efficacies for cadmium, copper, and zinc. Liquid-liquid extractions of Cu, Zn, or Cd with ILs after 1–24 h using model solutions (pH 7; 0.1 M CaCl{sub 2}) were assessed using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (F-AAS). Phosphonium-based ILs trihexyltetradecylphosphonium 2-(propylthio)benzoate [P{sub 66614}][PTB] and 2-(benzylthio)benzoate [P{sub 66614}][BTB] showed best extraction efficiency for copper and cadmium, respectively and zinc was extracted to a high degree by [P{sub 66614}][BTB] exclusively.

  11. Polysiloxane ionic liquids as good solvents for β-cyclodextrin-polydimethylsiloxane polyrotaxane structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcisa Marangoci

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An ionic liquid based on polydimethylsiloxane with imidazolium salt brushes was synthesized as a good solvent for β-cyclodextrin-polydimethylsiloxane rotaxane. As expected the PDMS-Im/Br ionic liquid had a liquid-like non-Newtonian behavior with rheological parameters dependent on frequency and temperature. The addition of rotaxane to the ionic liquid strengthened the non-Newtonian character of the sample and a type of stable liquid-like network was formed due to the contribution of weak ionic interactions. The structure is stable in the 20 to 80 °C domain as proved by the oscillatory and rotational rheological tests.

  12. Ionic liquids and derived materials for lithium and sodium batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiwei; Zhang, Zhaoqiang; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Xing, Huabin; Dai, Sheng

    2018-02-02

    The ever-growing demand for advanced energy storage devices in portable electronics, electric vehicles and large scale power grids has triggered intensive research efforts over the past decade on lithium and sodium batteries. The key to improve their electrochemical performance and enhance the service safety lies in the development of advanced electrode, electrolyte, and auxiliary materials. Ionic liquids (ILs) are liquids consisting entirely of ions near room temperature, and are characterized by many unique properties such as ultralow volatility, high ionic conductivity, good thermal stability, low flammability, a wide electrochemical window, and tunable polarity and basicity/acidity. These properties create the possibilities of designing batteries with excellent safety, high energy/power density and long-term stability, and also provide better ways to synthesize known materials. IL-derived materials, such as poly(ionic liquids), ionogels and IL-tethered nanoparticles, retain most of the characteristics of ILs while being endowed with other favourable features, and thus they have received a great deal of attention as well. This review provides a comprehensive review of the various applications of ILs and derived materials in lithium and sodium batteries including Li/Na-ion, dual-ion, Li/Na-S and Li/Na-air (O2) batteries, with a particular emphasis on recent advances in the literature. Their unique characteristics enable them to serve as advanced resources, medium, or ingredient for almost all the components of batteries, including electrodes, liquid electrolytes, solid electrolytes, artificial solid-electrolyte interphases, and current collectors. Some thoughts on the emerging challenges and opportunities are also presented in this review for further development.

  13. Nanoconfined ionic liquids: Disentangling electrostatic and viscous forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhermerout, Romain; Perkin, Susan

    2018-01-01

    Recent reports of surface forces across nanoconfined ionic liquids have revealed the existence of an anomalously long-ranged interaction apparently of electrostatic origin. Ionic liquids are viscous, and therefore it is important to inspect rigorously whether the observed repulsive forces are indeed equilibrium forces or, rather, arise from the viscous force during drainage of the fluid between two confining surfaces. In this paper we present our direct measurements of surface forces between mica sheets approaching in the ionic liquid [C2C1Im ] [NTf2] , exploring three orders of magnitude in approach velocity. Trajectories are systematically fitted by solving the equation of motion, allowing us to disentangle the viscous and equilibrium contributions. First, we find that the drainage obeys classical hydrodynamics with a negative slip boundary condition in the range of the structural force, implying that a nanometer -thick portion of the liquid in the vicinity of the solid surface is composed of ordered molecules that do not contribute to the flow. Second, we show that a long-range static force must indeed be invoked, in addition to the viscous force, in order to describe the data quantitatively. This equilibrium interaction decays exponentially and with decay length in agreement with the screening length reported for the same system in previous studies. In those studies the decay was simply checked to be independent of velocity and measured at a low approach rate, rather than explicitly taking account of viscous effects: we explain why this gives indistinguishable outcomes for the screening length by noting that the viscous force is linear to very good approximation over a wide range of distances.

  14. New frontiers in materials science opened by ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torimoto, Tsukasa; Tsuda, Tetsuya; Okazaki, Ken-ichi; Kuwabata, Susumu

    2010-03-19

    Ionic liquids (ILs) including ambient-temperature molten salts, which exist in the liquid state even at room temperature, have a long research history. However, their applications were once limited because ILs were considered as highly moisture-sensitive solvents that should be handled in a glove box. After the first synthesis of moisture-stable ILs in 1992, their unique physicochemical properties became known in all scientific fields. ILs are composed solely of ions and exhibit several specific liquid-like properties, e.g., some ILs enable dissolution of insoluble bio-related materials and the use as tailor-made lubricants in industrial applications under extreme physicochemical conditions. Hybridization of ILs and other materials provides quasi-solid materials, which can be used to fabricate highly functional devices. ILs are also used as reaction media for electrochemical and chemical synthesis of nanomaterials. In addition, the negligible vapor pressure of ILs allows the fabrication of electrochemical devices that are operated under ambient conditions, and many liquid-vacuum technologies, such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of liquids, electron microscopy of liquids, and sputtering and physical vapor deposition onto liquids. In this article, we review recent studies on ILs that are employed as functional advanced materials, advanced mediums for materials production, and components for preparing highly functional materials.

  15. Headspace single drop microextraction versus dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction using magnetic ionic liquid extraction solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jiwoo; Rahn, Kira L; Anderson, Jared L

    2017-05-15

    A headspace single drop microextraction (HS-SDME) method and a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) method were developed using two tetrachloromanganate ([MnCl42-])-based magnetic ionic liquids (MIL) as extraction solvents for the determination of twelve aromatic compounds, including four polyaromatic hydrocarbons, by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The analytical performance of the developed HS-SDME method was compared to the DLLME approach employing the same MILs. In the HS-SDME approach, the magnetic field generated by the magnet was exploited to suspend the MIL solvent from the tip of a rod magnet. The utilization of MILs in HS-SDME resulted in a highly stable microdroplet under elevated temperatures and long extraction times, overcoming a common challenge encountered in traditional SDME approaches of droplet instability. The low UV absorbance of the [MnCl42-]-based MILs permitted direct analysis of the analyte enriched extraction solvent by HPLC. In HS-SDME, the effects of ionic strength of the sample solution, temperature of the extraction system, extraction time, stir rate, and headspace volume on extraction efficiencies were examined. Coefficients of determination (R2) ranged from 0.994 to 0.999 and limits of detection (LODs) varied from 0.04 to 1.0μgL-1 with relative recoveries from lake water ranging from 70.2% to 109.6%. For the DLLME method, parameters including disperser solvent type and volume, ionic strength of the sample solution, mass of extraction solvent, and extraction time were studied and optimized. Coefficients of determination for the DLLME method varied from 0.997 to 0.999 with LODs ranging from 0.05 to 1.0μgL-1. Relative recoveries from lake water samples ranged from 68.7% to 104.5%. Overall, the DLLME approach permitted faster extraction times and higher enrichment factors for analytes with low vapor pressure whereas the HS-SDME approach exhibited better extraction efficiencies for analytes with

  16. $\\beta$-NMR of copper isotopes in ionic liquids

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to test the feasibility of spin-polarization and $\\beta$-NMR studies on several short-lived copper isotopes, $^{58}$ Cu, $^{74}$Cu and $^{75}$Cu in crystals and liquids. The motivation is given by biological studies of Cu with $\\beta$-NMR in liquid samples, since Cu is present in a large number of enzymes involved in electron transfer and activation of oxygen. The technique is based on spin-polarization via optical pumping in the new VITO beamline. We will use the existing lasers, NMR magnet and NMR chambers and we will prepare a new optical pumping system. The studies will be devoted to tests of achieved $\\beta$-asymmetry in solid hosts, the behaviour of asymmetry when increasing vacuum, and finally NMR scans in ionic liquids. The achieved spin polarization will be also relevant for the plans to measure with high precision the magnetic moments of neutron-rich Cu isotopes.

  17. Ionic Liquid Assisted Exfoliation of Layered Magnesium Diboride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnam, Devina; Das, Saroj Kumar; Jasuja, Kabeer

    2017-08-01

    The discovery of graphene showcased anability to isolate atomic thin sheet from layered graphite, and presented a precedent to the scientific community for exploring a similar possibility in other layered materials. Magnesium diboride (MgB2), which has metal atoms sandwiched in between boron honeycomb planes, represents an ionic layered material isostructural to intercalated graphite. We show that ultrasonication of MgB2 in ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetrafluoroborate)results in a stable dispersion of few-layer-thick boron based nanosheets. Furthermore, these nanosheets (∼3-6 µm wide, ∼2 nm thick) are found to exhibit an optical band-gap of ∼3.3eV alongwith excitation wavelength dependent photoluminescence.

  18. Ion shape effect on dynamics of ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongjun; Maginn, Edward

    2012-02-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are a group of salts composing of an organic cation and organic or inorganic anion with melting points below 100 ^oC and have many suitable properties, such as negligible vapor pressure, low flammability, high ionic conductivity and high thermal stability for various applications. Moreover, a great number of ILs with a variety of physical and chemical properties can be synthesized from a combination of different cations (most differently substituted imidazolium, pyridinium, and quaternary ammonium or phosphonium ions) and anions. One can judiciously select from a multitude of ILs to suit a specific application, where the concept of designer solvent comes from. To expedite the development process of target ILs, it is crucial to understand the relationship between ion shape and dynamics of ILs. We studied a wide range of ILs with different ion shape pairings and found the planar-planar paired ILs have a better dynamics as a whole.

  19. Graphene/Ionic liquid composite films and ion exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yufei; Wan, Yunfang; Chau, Alicia; Huang, Fuchuan

    2014-06-27

    Wettability of graphene is adjusted by the formation of various ionic surfaces combining ionic liquid (IL) self-assembly with ion exchange. The functionalized ILs were designed and synthesized with the goal of obtaining adjustable wettability. The wettability of the graphene surface bearing various anions was measured systematically. The effect of solvent systems on ion exchange ratios on the graphene surface has also been investigated. Meanwhile, the mechanical properties of the graphene/IL composite films were investigated on a nanometer scale. The elasticity and adhesion behavior of the thin film was determined with respected to the indentation deformation by colloid probe nanoindentation method. The results indicate that anions played an important role in determining graphene/IL composite film properties. In addition, surface wetting and mechanics can be quantitatively determined according to the counter-anions on the surface. This study might suggest an alternate way for quantity detection of surface ions by surface force.

  20. Dye-sensitized solar cells using ionic liquids as redox mediator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denizalti, Serpil; Ali, Abdulrahman Khalaf; Ela, Çağatay; Ekmekci, Mesut; Erten-Ela, Sule

    2018-01-01

    In this research, the influence of ionic liquid on the conversion efficiency, incident photons to converted electrons (IPCE) and performance of fabricated solar cell was investigated using various ionic liquids. Ionic liquids with different substituents and ions were prepared and used as redox mediators in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Ionic liquids were characterized 1H and 13C NMR spectra. We practically investigated the performance of ionic liquid salts were used as the mobile ions and found that the efficiencies of DSSCs were increased up to 40% comparing commercial electrolyte system. The ionic liquid compounds were incorporated in DSSCs to obtain an efficient charge transfer, solving the corrosion problem of platinum layer in counter electrode compared to commercial electrolyte.

  1. Tuning ionic liquids for high gas solubility and reversible gas sorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Jun; Riisager, Anders; Berg, Rolf W.

    2008-01-01

    a moderate association between gas and liquid, which also could be confirmed by Raman and UV–vis spectroscopy on the gas-saturated (1 bar) ionic liquids. Knowledge of gas solubilities and the reversible gas absorption capacity of ionic liquids are believed to have importance for their possible application...

  2. Controlled electrodeposition of Au monolayer film on ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Qiang; Pang, Liuqing; Li, Man; Zhang, Yunxia; Ren, Xianpei [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, National Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Engineering Lab for Advanced Energy Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China); Liu, Shengzhong Frank, E-mail: szliu@dicp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, National Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Engineering Lab for Advanced Energy Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China); Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • We fabricate Au monolayer film on Ionic liquid substrate using an electrochemical deposition technique. • Au monolayer film was deposited on a “soft substrate” for the first time. • Au monolayer film can contribute extra Raman enhancement. - Abstract: Gold (Au) nanoparticles have been attractive for centuries for their vibrant appearance enhanced by their interaction with sunlight. Nowadays, there have been tremendous research efforts to develop them for high-tech applications including therapeutic agents, sensors, organic photovoltaics, medical applications, electronics and catalysis. However, there remains to be a challenge to fabricate a monolayer Au coating with complete coverage in controlled fashion. Here we present a facile method to deposit a uniform Au monolayer (ML) film on the [BMIM][PF{sub 6}] ionic liquid substrate using an electrochemical deposition process. It demonstrates that it is feasible to prepare a solid phase coating on the liquid-based substrate. Moreover, the thickness of the monolayer coating can be controlled to a layer-by-layer accuracy.

  3. Electrochemical transistors with ionic liquids for enzymatic sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Kevin J.; Yang, Sang Yoon; Cicoira, Fabio; Curto, Vincenzo F.; Byrne, Robert; Benito-Lopez, Fernando; Khodagholy, Dion; Owens, Róisín M.; Malliaras, George G.; Diamond, Dermot

    2011-10-01

    Over the past decade conducting polymer electrodes have played an important role in bio-sensing and actuation. Recent developments in the field of organic electronics have made available a variety of devices that bring unique capabilities at the interface with biology. One example is organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) that are being developed for a variety of bio-sensing applications, including the detection of ions, and metabolites, such as glucose and lactate. Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are organic salts, which are liquid at ambient temperature. Their nonvolatile character and thermal stability makes them an attractive alternative to conventional organic solvents. Here we report an enzymatic sensor based on an organic electro-chemical transistor with RTIL's as an integral part of its structure and as an immobilization medium for the enzyme and the mediator. Further investigation shows that these platforms can be incorporated into flexible materials such as carbon cloth and can be utilized for bio-sensing. The aim is to incorporate the overall platform in a wearable sensor to improve athlete performance with regards to training. In this manuscript an introduction to ionic liquids (ILs), IL - enzyme mixtures and a combination of these novel materials being used on OECTs are presented.

  4. Thermodynamic studies of ionic hydration and interactions for amino acid ionic liquids in aqueous solutions at 298.15 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagade, Dilip H; Madkar, Kavita R; Shinde, Sandeep P; Barge, Seema S

    2013-01-31

    Amino acid ionic liquids are a special class of ionic liquids due to their unique acid-base behavior, biological significance, and applications in different fields such as templates in synthetic chemistry, stabilizers for biological macromolecules, etc. The physicochemical properties of these ionic liquids can easily be altered by making the different combinations of amino acids as anion along with possible cation modification which makes amino acid ionic liquids more suitable to understand the different kinds of molecular and ionic interactions with sufficient depth so that they can provide fruitful information for a molecular level understanding of more complicated biological processes. In this context, volumetric and osmotic coefficient measurements for aqueous solutions containing 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ([Emim]) based amino acid ionic liquids of glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, and isoleucine are reported at 298.15 K. From experimental osmotic coefficient data, mean molal activity coefficients of ionic liquids were estimated and analyzed using the Debye-Hückel and Pitzer models. The hydration numbers of ionic liquids in aqueous solutions were obtained using activity data. Pitzer ion interaction parameters are estimated and compared with other electrolytes reported in the literature. The nonelectrolyte contribution to the aqueous solutions containing ionic liquids was studied by calculating the osmotic second virial coefficient through an application of the McMillan-Mayer theory of solution. It has been found that the second osmotic virial coefficient which includes volume effects correlates linearly with the Pitzer ion interaction parameter estimated independently from osmotic data as well as the hydrophobicity of ionic liquids. The enthalpy-entropy compensation effect, explained using the Starikov-Nordén model of enthalpy-entropy compensation, and partial molar entropy analysis for aqueous [Emim][Gly] solutions are made by using experimental Gibb

  5. Task-Specific Ionic Liquids for Mars Exploration (Green Chemistry for a Red Planet)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, L. J.; Curreri, P. A.; Paley, M. S.; Kaukler, W. F.; Marone, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    Ionic Liquids (ILs) are organic salts with low melting points that are liquid at or near room temperature. The combinations of available ions and task-specific molecular designability make them suitable for a huge variety of tasks. Because of their low flammability, low vapor pressure, and stability in harsh environments (extreme temperatures, hard vacuum) they are generally much safer and "greener" than conventional chemicals and are thus suitable for a wide range of applications that support NASA exploration goals. This presentation describes several of the ongoing applications that are being developed at MSFC.

  6. The moment sum-rules for ionic liquids at criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantoni, Riccardo

    2017-07-01

    We discuss the first three well known moment charge-charge sum-rules for a general ionic liquid. For the special symmetric case of the Restricted Primitive Model, Das, Kim, and Fisher (2011) has recently discovered, through Monte Carlo simulations, that the Stillinger-Lovett or second-moment sum-rule fails at criticality. We critically discuss a possible explanation for this unexpected behavior. On the other hand the fourth-moment sum-rule turns out to be able to account for the results of the simulations at criticality.

  7. Ionic Liquids as Benign Solvents for the Extraction of Aromatics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Md. Anwar; Lee, Jeesun; Kim, Dai Hyun; Nguyen, Dinh Quan; Cheong, Minserk; Kim, Hoon Sik [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been extensively investigated as promising alternatives to conventional organic solvents such as sulfolane and N,N-dimethylformamide for the selective extraction of aromatic hydrocarbons from the C{sub 6}-C{sub 10} hydrocarbon mixtures produced from the cracking processes of naphtha and light oils. The most important advantage of ILs over conventional organic solvents is that they are immiscible with aliphatic hydrocarbons, and thus the back extraction of ILs from the raffinate phases and top hydrocarbon-rich layers is not necessary. In this paper, a brief review on the state of the art in the utilization of ILs for aromatics separation is presented.

  8. Useful halophilic, thermostable and ionic liquids tolerant cellulases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Tao; Datta, Supratim; Simmons, Blake A.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2016-06-28

    The present invention provides for an isolated or recombinant polypeptide comprising an amino acid sequence having at least 70% identity with the amino acid sequence of a Halorhabdus utahensis cellulase, such as Hu-CBH1, wherein said amino acid sequence has a halophilic thermostable and/or thermophilic cellobiohydrolase (CBH) activity. In some embodiments, the polypeptide has a CBH activity that is resistant to up to about 20% of ionic liquids. The present invention also provides for compositions comprising and methods using the isolated or recombinant polypeptide.

  9. Crystal structure of dimethylformamidium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonylamide: an ionic liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Jay P. Cardenas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available At 100 K, the title molecular salt, C3H8NO+·C2F6NO4S2−, has orthorhombic (P212121 symmetry; the amino H atom of bis(trifluoromethanesulfonylamine (HNTf2 was transferred to the basic O atom of dimethylformamide (DMF when the ionic liquid components were mixed. The structure displays an O—H...N hydrogen bond, which links the cation to the anion, which is reinforced by a non-conventional C—H...O interaction, generating an R22(7 loop. A further very weak C—H...O interaction generates an [001] chain.

  10. Ionic liquids as an alternative to formalin in histopathological diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernak, Agnieszka; Iwanik, Katarzyna; Majewski, Przemysław; Grzymisławski, Marian; Pernak, Juliusz

    2005-01-01

    Asymmetry of cations and the type of anions play a key role in the properties of ionic liquids (ILs) as fixatives for tissue preservation. 1-Methyl-3-octyloxymethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate has proven to be a very good fixative, with similar effects as formalin. Our study shows that it is applicable for both histological and immunohistochemical purposes. After treatment with 1-methyl-3-octyloxymethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, tissue sections are more intensely stained. With respect to expression patterns and staining intensity, immunohistochemical staining is comparable in tissues fixed in formalin and the selected ILs. The present study demonstrates the properties of 1-methyl-3-octyloxymethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate for tissue preservation in histopathological procedures, eliminating the requirement of formalin.

  11. Synthesis and properties of trigeminal tricationic ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernak, Juliusz; Skrzypczak, Andrzej; Lota, Grzegorz; Frackowiak, Elzbieta

    2007-01-01

    Novel trigeminal tricationic ionic liquids (TTILs) have been successfully synthesized in high yields by means of Menschutkin quaternization via an S(N)1 mechanism. This reaction presents a new convenient method for transforming glycerol into multifunctional compounds. The physical properties of a series of TTILs were characterized by using a variety of techniques. The prepared salts were tested for antimicrobial activity. Electrochemical characterization of TTILs was also performed, which allowed the estimation of the conductivity of these new compounds, to establish their electrochemical stability window and capacitance properties over a wide range of temperatures. A good correlation of the physical properties of TTILs with capacitance values was observed.

  12. Long-alkyl-chain quaternary ammonium lactate based ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cybulski, Jacek; Wiśniewska, Anna; Kulig-Adamiak, Anna; Lewicka, Lidia; Cieniecka-Rosłonkiewicz, Anna; Kita, Kazimierz; Fojutowski, Andrzej; Nawrot, Jan; Materna, Katarzyna; Pernak, Juliusz

    2008-01-01

    A new group of quaternary ammonium lactate based ionic liquids have been prepared and characterized. Didecyldimethylammonium (DDA) and benzalkonium (BA) D,L- and L-lactates are air-stable, hydrophilic, surface-active salts. They are very effective antibacterial and antifungal agents, especially the DDA lactates, against Streptococcus mutants and Candida albicans. Their activities are comparable or more effective than the original benzalkonium chloride. In addition, they have been shown to be good insect-feeding deterrents. However, they are poor antifungal agents for wood preservation. The toxicity of the DDA and BA lactates has also been studied and the results are presented in this paper.

  13. Physical Chemistry of Reaction Dynamics in Ionic Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margulis, Claudio Javier [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2016-10-31

    The Margulis group BES funded research at the University of Iowa is part of a broader collaborative effort that includes the groups of Blank (U. Minnesota), Castner (Rutgers U.), Maroncelli (Penn. State U.) and Wishart (BNL). The goal of this group of PIs is to better understand from an experimental and a theoretical perspective different aspects of photo-initiated electron transfer processes in a set of different room-temperature ionic-liquid systems. The Margulis contribution is theoretical and computational. Details are presented in the attached documentation.

  14. Sugarcane bagasse pretreatment using three imidazolium-based ionic liquids; mass balances and enzyme kinetics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karatzos, Sergios Kimon; Edye, Leslie Alan; Doherty, William Orlando Sinclair

    2012-01-01

    Effective pretreatment is key to achieving high enzymatic saccharification efficiency in processing lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars, biofuels and value-added products. Ionic liquids (ILs...

  15. Efficient dehydration and recovery of ionic liquid after lignocellulosic processing using pervaporation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Jian; Shi, Jian; Murthy Konda, N. V. S. N; Campos, Dan; Liu, Dajiang; Nemser, Stuart; Shamshina, Julia; Dutta, Tanmoy; Berton, Paula; Gurau, Gabriela; Rogers, Robin D; Simmons, Blake A; Singh, Seema

    2017-01-01

    Biomass pretreatment using certain ionic liquids (ILs) is very efficient, generally producing a substrate that is amenable to saccharification with fermentable sugar yields approaching theoretical limits...

  16. Facile Synthesis of Benzaldehyde-Functionalized Ionic Liquids and Their Flexible Functional Group Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Three benzaldehyde-functionalized ionic liquids were readily synthesized by quaternization of N-alkylimidazole with benzaldehyde-functionalized alkyl bromides under microwave irradiation in good yield. These aldehyde-functionalized ionic liquids could easily be oxidized in the presence of H2O2/KOH or be reduced by NaBH4 leading to the formation of the corresponding carboxyl-functionalized ionic liquids or benzylic alcohol-functionalized ionic liquids. In addition, the condensations of these functionalized ones with hydrazine hydrate and with aniline under reductive amination conditions were demonstrated.

  17. Effect of phosphonium-based ionic liquids on the corrosion of carbon steel under gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morco, R.P.; Joseph, J.M.; Musa, A.Y.; Wren, J.C., E-mail: rmorco@uwo.ca [Univ. of Western Ontario, Dept. of Chemistry, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    The interactions of two ionic liquids with carbon steel surfaces were studied in absence and presence of γ-radiation. Both studied ionic liquids were found to corrode the carbon steel. One of the ionic liquids (labelled [P{sub 66614}]{sup +} [Br]{sup -}) was found to produce corrosion products both with and without radiation present. The second ionic liquid (labelled [P{sub 66614}]{sup +} [NTf{sub 2}]{sup -}) did not corrode the steel in absence of γ-radiation, but did corrode it in the presence of γ-radiation. (author)

  18. Explaining ionic liquid water solubility in terms of cation and anion hydrophobicity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ranke, Johannes; Othman, Alaa; Fan, Ping; Müller, Anja

    2009-01-01

    .... In this contribution, the activity coefficients of ionic liquids in water are split into cation and anion contributions by regression against cation hydrophobicity parameters that are experimentally...

  19. Palladium catalyst system comprising zwitterion and/or acid-functionalized ionic liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention concerns a catalyst system in particular a catalyst system comprising Palladium (Pd), a zwitterion and/or an acid-functionalized ionic liquid, and one or more phosphine ligands, wherein the Pd catalyst can be provided by a complex precursor, such as Pd(CH3COO)2, PdCI2, Pd(CH3......COCHCOCH3), Pd (CF3COO)2, Pd(PPh3)4 or Pd2(dibenzylideneacetone)3. Such catalyst systems can be used for e.g. alkoxycarbonylation reactions, carboxylation reactions, and/or in a co-polymerization reaction, e.g. in the production of methyl propionate and/or propanoic acid, optionally in processes forming...... methyl methacrylate and/or methacrylic acid. Catalyst systems according to the invention are suitable for reactions forming separable product and catalyst phases and supported ionic liquid phase SILP applications....

  20. Perspective: Chemical reactions in ionic liquids monitored through the gas (vacuum)/liquid interface

    OpenAIRE

    Maier, Florian; Niedermaier, Inga; Steinrück, Hans-Peter

    2017-01-01

    This perspective analyzes the potential of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions to follow chemical reactions in ionic liquids in situ. Traditionally, only reactions occurring on solid surfaces were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in situ. This was due to the high vapor pressures of common liquids or solvents, which are not compatible with the required UHV conditions. It was only recently realized that the situation is very different w...

  1. Ionic liquids, new class of industrial solvents; Les liquides ioniques, nouvelle classe de solvants industriels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepetit, V

    2004-02-01

    Ionic liquids are liquid salts at ambient temperature and can solubilize the organo-metallic compounds like enzymes. Their potential applications concern: the petrochemistry, the bio-catalysis and the treatment of nuclear effluents (extraction of actinides). They are neither volatile, nor flammable, they are good electrical conductors, they have high solvent properties and they are not miscible with most of the organic solvents. Their properties (viscosity, density etc..) can be modified by simply changing the cation and proton. (J.S.)

  2. Innovative polyelectrolytes/poly(ionic liquid)s for energy and environment

    OpenAIRE

    Ajjan, Fátima N.; Ambrogi, Martina; Tiruye, Girum Ayalneh; Cordella, Daniela; Fernandes, Ana M.; Grygiel, Konrad; Isik, Mehmet; Patil, Nagaraj; Porcarelli, Luca; Rocasalbas, Gillem; Bendramientto, Giordano; Zeglio, Erica; Antonietti, Markus; Detrembleur, Christophe; Inganäs, Olle

    2017-01-01

    This manuscript presents the work carried out within the European Project RENAISSANCE-ITN, which was dedicated to the development of innovative polyelectrolytes for energy and environmental applications. Within the project different types of innovative polyelectrolytes were synthesized such as poly(ionic liquid)s coming from renewable or natural ions, thiazolium cations, cathechol functionalities or from a new generation of cheap deep-eutectic monomers. Further, macromolecular architectures s...

  3. Dispelling some myths about the CO2 solubility in ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, P J; Kurnia, K A; Coutinho, J A P

    2016-06-01

    Ionic liquids have been objects of extensive research for physical sorption of CO2 and a number of myths have been perpetuated in the literature, for lack of a critical analysis, concerning their potential for CO2 capture. This study carries a critical analysis of a number of widely accepted ideas and others not so well accepted that have been repeatedly expressed in the literature concerning the CO2 physical sorption in ionic liquids. Using the CO2 solubility in eicosane as benchmark, it will be shown that there is no evidence that ILs display a physical sorption of CO2 larger than n-alkanes when analyzed in adequate concentration units; the fluorination of the ions has no impact on the CO2 solubility and the oxygenation will marginally contribute to a decrease of the solubility. Ionic liquid-based deep eutectic systems are also shown to have a poor CO2 solubility. Although these widely used approaches to physically enhance the CO2 solubility in ILs do not seem to have any positive influence, this does not mean that other types of interaction cannot provide enhanced CO2 solubility as in the case of the anion [B(CN)4] confirmed here by a critical analysis of the published data. The mechanism of CO2 physical sorption in ionic liquids is discussed based on the results analyzed, supported by spectroscopic measurements and molecular simulations previously reported and further suggestions of possibilities for enhanced physical sorption based on fluorinated aromatic rings, other cyano based anions, mixtures with other ILs or solvents or the use of porous liquids are proposed.

  4. Fast Measurement of Methanol Concentration in Ionic Liquids by Potential Step Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Hainstock

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of direct methanol fuel cells required the attention to the electrolyte. A good electrolyte should not only be ionic conductive but also be crossover resistant. Ionic liquids could be a promising electrolyte for fuel cells. Monitoring methanol was critical in several locations in a direct methanol fuel cell. Conductivity could be used to monitor the methanol content in ionic liquids. The conductivity of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate had a linear relationship with the methanol concentration. However, the conductivity was significantly affected by the moisture or water content in the ionic liquid. On the contrary, potential step could be used in sensing methanol in ionic liquids. This method was not affected by the water content. The sampling current at a properly selected sampling time was proportional to the concentration of methanol in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate. The linearity still stood even when there was 2.4 M water present in the ionic liquid.

  5. Elastohydrodynamic Performance of a Bio-Based, Non-Corrosive Ionic Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Björling

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To improve performance of machine components, lubrication is one of the most important factors. Especially for use in extreme environments, researchers look for other solutions rather than common lubricant base stocks like mineral oils or vegetable oils. One such example is ionic liquids. Ionic liquids have been defined as molten salts with melting points below 100 ∘ C that are entirely ionic in nature, comprising both cationic and anionic species. The industrial use of ionic liquids is mostly as solvents, electrolytes, extractants and catalysts. In tribological applications, ionic liquids are mainly studied in boundary lubrication and in pure sliding contacts. In this work, the elastohydrodynamic performance of a bio-based, non-corrosive, [choline][l-proline] ionic liquid is evaluated in terms of pressure-viscosity response, film forming capability and friction. The results show a pressure-viscosity coefficient of below 8 GPa − 1 at 25 ∘ C, among the lowest reported for any ionic liquid. The ionic liquid generated up to 70% lower friction than a reference paraffin oil with a calculated difference in film thickness of 11%. It was also shown that this ionic liquid is very hygroscopic, which is believed to explain part of the low friction results, but also has to be considered in practical applications since the water content will influence the properties and thus the performance of the lubricant.

  6. Oxygen Production from Lunar Regolith using Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paley, Mark Steven; Karr, Laurel J.; Curreri, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work and future follow-on work is to develop a safe, efficient, and recyclable method for oxygen and/or metals extraction from lunar regolith, in support of establishing a manned lunar outpost. The approach is to solubilize the oxides that comprise lunar regolith in media consisting of ionic liquids (ILs) and/or their mixtures at temperatures at or below 300 C. Once in solution, electrolysis can either be performed in-situ to generate oxygen at the anode and hydrogen and/or metals (silicon, iron, aluminum, titanium, etc.) at the cathode. Alternatively, the water that is generated during the solubilization process can be distilled out and condensed into a separate IL and then electrolysized to produce hydrogen and oxygen. In the case of lunar regolith, this method could theoretically produce 44g oxygen per 100g of regolith. The oxygen can be used for human life support and/or as an oxidizer for rocket fuels, and the metals can be used as raw materials for construction and/or device fabrication. Moreover, the hydrogen produced can be used to re-generate the acidic medium, which can then be used to process additional regolith, thereby making the materials recyclable and limiting upmass requirements. An important advantage of IL acid systems is that they are much "greener" and safer than conventional materials used for regolith processing such as sulfuric or hydrochloric acids. They have very low vapor pressures, which means that they contain virtually no toxic and/or flammable volatile content, they are relatively non-corrosive, and they can exhibit good stability in harsh environments (extreme temperatures, hard vacuum, etc.). Furthermore, regolith processing can be achieved at lower temperatures than other processes such as molten oxide electrolysis or hydrogen reduction, thereby reducing initial power requirements. Six ILs have been synthesized and tested for their capability to dissolve lunar simulant, and for electrochemical and thermal

  7. Molecular Simulation of Ionic Polyimides and Composites with Ionic Liquids as Gas-Separation Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini, Asghar; Crabtree, Ellis; Bara, Jason E; Turner, C Heath

    2017-10-24

    Polyimides are at the forefront of advanced membrane materials for CO2 capture and gas-purification processes. Recently, ionic polyimides (i-PIs) have been reported as a new class of condensation polymers that combine structural components of both ionic liquids (ILs) and polyimides through covalent linkages. In this study, we report CO2 and CH4 adsorption and structural analyses of an i-PI and an i-PI + IL composite containing [C4mim][Tf2N]. The combination of molecular dynamics (MD) and grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations is used to compute the gas solubility and the adsorption performance with respect to the density, fractional free volume (FFV), and surface area of the materials. Our results highlight the polymer relaxation process and its correlation to the gas solubility. In particular, the surface area can provide meaningful guidance with respect to the gas solubility, and it tends to be a more sensitive indicator of the adsorption behavior versus only considering the system density and FFV. For instance, as the polymer continues to relax, the density, FFV, and pore-size distribution remain constant while the surface area can continue to increase, enabling more adsorption. Structural analyses are also conducted to identify the nature of the gas adsorption once the ionic liquid is added to the polymer. The presence of the IL significantly displaces the CO2 molecules from the ligand nitrogen sites in the neat i-PI to the imidazolium rings in the i-PI + IL composite. However, the CH4 molecules move from the imidazolium ring sites in the neat i-PI to the ligand nitrogen atoms in the i-PI + IL composite. These molecular details can provide critical information for the experimental design of highly selective i-PI materials as well as provide additional guidance for the interpretation of the simulated adsorption systems.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of ionic polymer networks in a room-temperature ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanzione, Joseph F; Jensen, Robert E; Costanzo, Philip J; Palmese, Giuseppe R

    2012-11-01

    Ionic liquid gels (ILGs) for potential use in ion transport and separation applications were generated via a free radical copolymerization of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS) and N,N'-methylene(bis)acrylamide (MBA) using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate (IL) as a room temperature ionic liquid solvent medium. The AMPS and MBA monomer solubility window in the IL in the temperature range of 25 to 65 °C was determined. In situ ATR-FTIR showed near complete conversion of monomers to a cross-linked polymer network. ILGs with glass transition temperatures (T(g)s) near -50 °C were generated with T(g) decreasing with increasing IL content. The elastic moduli in compression (200 to 6600 kPa) decreased with increasing IL content and increasing AMPS content while the conductivities (0.35 to 2.14 mS cm⁻¹) increased with increasing IL content and decreasing MBA content. The polymer-IL interaction parameter (χ) (0.48 to 0.55) was determined via a modified version of the Bray and Merrill equation.

  9. Comparing two tetraalkylammonium ionic liquids. II. Phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Thamires A.; Paschoal, Vitor H.; Faria, Luiz F. O.; Ribeiro, Mauro C. C.; Ferreira, Fabio F.; Costa, Fanny N.; Giles, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Phase transitions of the ionic liquids n-butyl-trimethylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, [N1114][NTf2], and methyl-tributylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, [N1444][NTf2], were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, and Raman spectroscopy. XRD and Raman spectra were obtained as a function of temperature at atmospheric pressure, and also under high pressure at room temperature using a diamond anvil cell (DAC). [N1444][NTf2] experiences glass transition at low temperature, whereas [N1114][NTf2] crystallizes or not depending on the cooling rate. Both the ionic liquids exhibit glass transition under high pressure. XRD and low-frequency Raman spectra provide a consistent physical picture of structural ordering-disordering accompanying the thermal events of crystallization, glass transition, cold crystallization, pre-melting, and melting. Raman spectra in the high-frequency range of some specific cation and anion normal modes reveal conformational changes of the molecular structures along phase transitions.

  10. Polarizability effects on the structure and dynamics of ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, Ary de Oliveira, E-mail: arycavalcante@ufam.edu.br [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas – UNICAMP, Cx. P. 6154, Campinas, SP 13084-862 (Brazil); Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Av. Rodrigo Octávio, 6200, Coroado, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Ribeiro, Mauro C. C. [Laboratório de Espectroscopia Molecular, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP C.P. 26077, 05513 970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Skaf, Munir S. [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas – UNICAMP, Cx. P. 6154, Campinas, SP 13084-862 (Brazil)

    2014-04-14

    Polarization effects on the structure and dynamics of ionic liquids are investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. Four different ionic liquids were simulated, formed by the anions Cl{sup −} and PF{sub 6}{sup −}, treated as single fixed charge sites, and the 1-n-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cations (1-ethyl and 1-butyl-), which are polarizable. The partial charge fluctuation of the cations is provided by the electronegativity equalization model (EEM) and a complete parameter set for the cations electronegativity (χ) and hardness (J) is presented. Results obtained from a non-polarizable model for the cations are also reported for comparison. Relative to the fixed charged model, the equilibrium structure of the first solvation shell around the imidazolium cations shows that inclusion of EEM polarization forces brings cations closer to each other and that anions are preferentially distributed above and below the plane of the imidazolium ring. The polarizable model yields faster translational and reorientational dynamics than the fixed charges model in the rotational-diffusion regime. In this sense, the polarizable model dynamics is in better agreement with the experimental data.

  11. Using Ionic Liquids in Selective Hydrocarbon Conversion Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Yongchun; Periana, Roy; Chen, Weiqun; van Duin, Adri; Nielsen, Robert; Shuler, Patrick; Ma, Qisheng; Blanco, Mario; Li, Zaiwei; Oxgaard, Jonas; Cheng, Jihong; Cheung, Sam; Pudar, Sanja

    2009-09-28

    This is the Final Report of the five-year project Using Ionic Liquids in Selective Hydrocarbon Conversion Processes (DE-FC36-04GO14276, July 1, 2004- June 30, 2009), in which we present our major accomplishments with detailed descriptions of our experimental and theoretical efforts. Upon the successful conduction of this project, we have followed our proposed breakdown work structure completing most of the technical tasks. Finally, we have developed and demonstrated several optimized homogenously catalytic methane conversion systems involving applications of novel ionic liquids, which present much more superior performance than the Catalytica system (the best-to-date system) in terms of three times higher reaction rates and longer catalysts lifetime and much stronger resistance to water deactivation. We have developed in-depth mechanistic understandings on the complicated chemistry involved in homogenously catalytic methane oxidation as well as developed the unique yet effective experimental protocols (reactors, analytical tools and screening methodologies) for achieving a highly efficient yet economically feasible and environmentally friendly catalytic methane conversion system. The most important findings have been published, patented as well as reported to DOE in this Final Report and our 20 Quarterly Reports.

  12. Desulfurization performance of azole-based ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liubei CHENG

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the addition of functional groups in ionic liquid anion and cation to achieve better absorbing of SO2, the 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine triazole ( is synthesized using 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine and triazole as raw materials. The desulfurization performance of the synthesized is systematically studied. The desulfurization performance and desulfurization mechanism of the are discussed. The results show that the has good performance of desulfurization and regeneration. At the atmospheric pressure, 1 mol of the absorbs 2.964 mol of SO2 at 20 ℃. With the increase of temperature, the desulfurization capacity of the decreases gradually. The molar absorption ratio increases with the increase of SO2 partial pressure, and under the conditions of 130 ℃, the desorption rate of the ionic liquid after saturated adsorption reaches over 95%. The mechanism investigation results show that the interaction of SO2 and is the combination of chemical absorption and physical absorption. The results have a certain reference value to improve the efficiency of flue gas treatment.

  13. Development of an Ionic-Liquid Absorption Heat Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, Don

    2011-03-29

    Solar Fueled Products (SFP) is developing an innovative ionic-liquid absorption heat pump (ILAHP). The development of an ILAHP is extremely significant, as it could result in annual savings of more than 190 billion kW h of electrical energy and $19 billion. This absorption cooler uses about 75 percent less electricity than conventional cooling and heating units. The ILAHP also has significant environmental sustainability benefits, due to reduced CO2 emissions. Phase I established the feasibility and showed the economic viability of an ILAHP with these key accomplishments: • Used the breakthrough capabilities provided by ionic liquids which overcome the key difficulties of the common absorption coolers. • Showed that the theoretical thermodynamic performance of an ILAHP is similar to existing absorption-cooling systems. • Established that the half-effect absorption cycle reduces the peak generator temperature, improving collector efficiency and reducing collector area. • Component testing demonstrated that the most critical components, absorber and generator, operate well with conventional heat exchangers. • Showed the economic viability of an ILAHP. The significant energy savings, sustainability benefits, and economic viability are compelling reasons to continue the ILAHP development.

  14. Comparing two tetraalkylammonium ionic liquids. II. Phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Thamires A.; Paschoal, Vitor H.; Faria, Luiz F. O.; Ribeiro, Mauro C. C., E-mail: mccribei@iq.usp.br [Laboratório de Espectroscopia Molecular, Departamento de Química Fundamental, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 26077, CEP 05513-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Fabio F.; Costa, Fanny N. [Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Giles, Carlos [Depto. de Física da Matéria Condensada, Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2016-06-14

    Phase transitions of the ionic liquids n-butyl-trimethylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, [N{sub 1114}][NTf{sub 2}], and methyl-tributylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, [N{sub 1444}][NTf{sub 2}], were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, and Raman spectroscopy. XRD and Raman spectra were obtained as a function of temperature at atmospheric pressure, and also under high pressure at room temperature using a diamond anvil cell (DAC). [N{sub 1444}][NTf{sub 2}] experiences glass transition at low temperature, whereas [N{sub 1114}][NTf{sub 2}] crystallizes or not depending on the cooling rate. Both the ionic liquids exhibit glass transition under high pressure. XRD and low-frequency Raman spectra provide a consistent physical picture of structural ordering-disordering accompanying the thermal events of crystallization, glass transition, cold crystallization, pre-melting, and melting. Raman spectra in the high-frequency range of some specific cation and anion normal modes reveal conformational changes of the molecular structures along phase transitions.

  15. Biomass Conversion in Ionic Liquids - in-situ Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunov-Kruse, Andreas Jonas

    activation energies suggest that the ionic liquid acts co-catalytic by stabilizing the oxocarbenium transition state. The chromium catalyzed conversion of glucose to HMF in ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride with CrCl3⋅6H2O and CrCl2 as catalysts was investigated. The CrCl3⋅6H2O catalyst...... exhibited high initial conversion rates but suffered from pronounced product inhibition. The rates were 2-3 higher if water was removed simultaneously during reaction. Independent of whether water was presence or not activation energies energies were found to be 100-102 kJ/mol. For CrCl2 the initial rates...... were around 8 times lower but the activation energy was identical the the ones found for CrCl3⋅6H2O. Thus the activity was attributed to around 12 % of chromium(III) that was found to present in the sample. The CrCl2 showed no sign of product inhibition and followed first order kinetics, which resulted...

  16. Organocatalytic Imidazolium Ionic Liquids H/D Exchange Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanatta, Marcileia; Dos Santos, Francisco P; Biehl, Cristina; Marin, Graciane; Ebeling, Gunter; Netz, Paulo A; Dupont, Jairton

    2017-03-03

    Simple 1,2,3-trialkylimidazolium cation associated with basic anions, such as hydrogen carbonate, prolinate, and imidazolate, is an active catalyst for the H/D exchange reaction of various substrates using CDCl3 as D source, without the addition of any extra bases or metal. High deuterium incorporation (up to 49%) in acidic C-H bonds of ketone and alkyne substrates (pKa from 18.7 to 28.8) was found at room temperature. The reaction proceeds through the fast and reversible deuteration of the 2-methyl H of the imidazolium cation followed by D transfer to the substrate. The IL acts as a neutral base catalyst in which the contact ion pair is maintained in the course of the reaction. The basic active site is due to the presence of a remote basic site in the anion namely, OH of bicarbonate, NH of prolinate, and activated water in the imidazolate anion. Detailed kinetic experiments demonstrate that the reaction is first order on the substrate and pseudozero order relative to the ionic liquid, due to the fast reversible reaction involving the deuteration of the ionic liquid by the solvent.

  17. Selective extraction of copper, mercury, silver and palladium ionsfrom water using hydrophobic ionic liquids.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Lee, Jong-Min; Salminen, Justin; VonStosch, Moritz; Prausnitz, John M.

    2007-06-25

    Extraction of dilute metal ions from water was performed near room temperature with a variety of ionic liquids. Distribution coefficients are reported for fourteen metal ions extracted with ionic liquids containing cations 1-octyl-4-methylpyridinium [4MOPYR]{sup +}, 1-methyl-1-octylpyrrolidinium [MOPYRRO]{sup +} or 1-methyl-1-octylpiperidinium [MOPIP]{sup +}, and anions tetrafluoroborate [BF{sub 4}]{sup +}, trifluoromethyl sulfonate [TfO]{sup +} or nonafluorobutyl sulfonate [NfO]{sup +}. Ionic liquids containing octylpyridinium cations are very good for extracting mercury ions. However, other metal ions were not significantly extracted by any of these ionic liquids. Extractions were also performed with four new task-specific ionic liquids. Such liquids containing a disulfide functional group are efficient and selective for mercury and copper, whereas those containing a nitrile functional group are efficient and selective for silver and palladium.

  18. Investigation of Carbon-2 Substituted Imidazoles and Their Corresponding Ionic Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Chen [ORNL; Xiang, Zhu [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The functionality at the C-2 position of the imidazole ring plays a key role in defining the chemical properties of the imidazoles and their corresponding ionic liquids. Imidazoles 1 6 with different C-2 functionality were synthesized and their corresponding ionic liquids were systematically investigated. Based on their physical properties the six imidazoles can be divided into three groups. 1) The imidazoles 2 and 3 are capable of self-polymerization to form poly(ionic liquid)s, and they are characterized with a strong leaving group at the C-2 position. 2) The imidazoles 4 and 5 can form ionic liquids, but they are very sensitive to moisture. 3) The imidazoles 1 and 6 can form stable ionic liquids, and their stabilities were influenced by the electronic effects of the substituents at the C-2 position.

  19. Poly(ionic liquid)/Ionic Liquid Ion-Gels with High "Free" Ionic Liquid Content: Platform Membrane Materials for CO2/Light Gas Separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Matthew G; Gin, Douglas L; Noble, Richard D

    2016-04-19

    -films (ca. 100-nm-thick active layer). Traditional polymeric membrane materials are limited by a trade-off between permeability and selectivity empirically described by the "Robeson upper bound"-placing the desired membrane properties beyond reach. Therefore, the investigation of advanced and composite materials that can overcome the limitations of traditional polymeric materials is the focus of significant academic and industrial research. In particular, there has been substantial work on ionic-liquid (IL)-based materials due to their gas transport properties. This review provides an overview of our collaborative work on developing poly(ionic liquid)/ionic liquid (PIL/IL) ion-gel membrane technology. We detail developmental work on the preparation of PIL/IL composites and describe how this chemical technology was adapted to allow the roll-to-roll processing and preparation of membranes with defect-free active layers ca. 100 nm thick, CO2 permeances of over 6000 GPU, and CO2/N2 selectivity of ≥20-properties with the potential to reduce the cost of CO2 removal from coal-fired power plant flue gas to ca. $15 per ton of CO2 captured. Additionally, we examine the materials developments that have produced advanced PIL/IL composite membranes. These advancements include cross-linked PIL/IL blends, step-growth PIL/IL networks with facilitated transport groups, and PIL/IL composites with microporous additives for CO2/CH4 separations.

  20. Ionic Liquids and New Proton Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belieres, Jean-Philippe

    2004-01-01

    There is currently a great surge of activity in fuel cell research as laboratories across the world seek to take advantage of the high energy capacity provided by &el cells relative to those of other portable electrochemical power systems. Much of this activity is aimed at high temperature fie1 cells, and a vital component of such &el cells must be the availability of a high temperature stable proton-permeable membrane. NASA Glenn Research Center is greatly involved in developing this technology. Other approaches to the high temperature fuel cell involve the use of single- component or almost-single-component electrolytes that provide a path for protons through the cell. A heavily researched case is the phosphoric acid fuel cell, in which the electrolyte is almost pure phosphoric acid and the cathode reaction produces water directly. The phosphoric acid fie1 cell delivers an open circuit voltage of 0.9 V falling to about 0.7 V under operating conditions at 170 C. The proton transport mechanism is mainly vehicular in character according to the viscosity/conductance relation. Here we describe some Proton Transfer Ionic Liquids (PTILs) with low vapor pressure and high temperature stability that have conductivities of unprecedented magnitude for non-aqueous systems. The first requirement of an ionic liquid is that, contrary to experience with most liquids consisting of ions, it must have a melting point that is not much above room temperature. The limit commonly suggested is 100 C. PTILs constitute an interesting class of non-corrosive proton-exchange electrolyte, which can serve well in high temperature (T = 100 - 250 C) fuel cell applications. We will present cell performance data showing that the open circuit voltage output, and the performance of a simple H2(g)Pt/PTIL/Pt/O2(g) fuel cell may be superior to those of the equivalent phosphoric acid electrolyte fuel cell both at ambient temperature and temperatures up to and above 200 C. My work at NASA Glenn Research

  1. Immobilization of Candida antarctic Lipase B on Functionalized Ionic Liquid Modified MWNTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaomei; Tang, Susu; Xiang, Xinran; Huang, He; Hu, Yi

    2017-11-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were modified by imidazole-based ionic liquids with different alkyl groups. The modified support samples were characterized by scanning transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectra, thermogravimetric analyses, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The samples were used to immobilize Candida antarctic lipase (CALB) and the influence of alkyl chain length of ionic liquids on enzymatic properties was investigated by the hydrolysis reaction of triacetin. The results revealed that functionalized ionic liquids modification did not destroy the structure of MWNTs. Compared with the immobilized CALB on MWNTs, the immobilized CALB on novel carriers all exhibited higher activity, thermal stability, and reusability. Especially, the activity of MWNTs-IL (8C)-CALB improved 15.23-folds than MWNTs-CALB, meanwhile, after incubation at 70 °C for 20 min, residual enzyme activity of MWNTs-IL (8C)-CALB was 46% of the initial activity, while MWNTs-CALB already lost all activity. Besides, MWNTs-IL (8C)-CALB retained 64.5% of its initial activity after 4 cycles, while MWNTs-CALB retained only 2.12%. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  2. Polyethersulfone flat sheet and hollow fiber membranes from solutions in ionic liquids

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Dooli

    2017-06-10

    We fabricated flat-sheet and hollow fiber membranes from polyethersulfone (PES) solutions in two ionic liquids: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate ([EMIM]DEP) and 1,3-dimethylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate ([MMIM]DMP). The solvents are non-volatile and less toxic than organic solvents, such as dimethylformamide (DMF). The membranes morphologies were compared with those of membranes prepared from solutions in DMF, using electron microscopy. Water permeance, solute rejection and mechanical strengths were evaluated. Membranes were applied to DNA separation. While membranes based on PES were successfully prepared, polysulfone (PSf) does not dissolve in the same ionic liquids. The discrepancy between PES and PSf could not be explained using classical Flory-Huggins theory, which does not consider the coulombic contributions in ionic liquids. The differences in solubility could be understood, by applying density functional theory to estimate the interaction energy between the different polymers and solvents. The theoretical results were supported by experimental measurements of intrinsic viscosity and dynamic light scattering (DLS).

  3. Interfacial structure and structural forces in mixtures of ionic liquid with a polar solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Samuel W; Smith, Alexander M; Fedorov, Maxim V; Hausen, Florian; Perkin, Susan

    2017-09-21

    Many applications of ionic liquids involve their mixtures with neutral molecular solvents. The chemical physics of these high-concentration electrolytes, in particular at interfaces, still holds many challenges. In this contribution we begin to unravel the relationship between measurements of structural ('solvation') forces in mixtures of ionic liquid with polar solvent and the corresponding structure determined by molecular dynamics simulations of the same mixtures. In order to make the quantitative link between experiments with mica surfaces and simulations with fixed-charge surfaces, we present an experimental procedure for determining the effective surface charge on mica in ionic liquid. We find that a structural cross-over recently inferred from force measurements appears to be supported by the simulations: at the cross-over, the charge-oscillatory structure switches to charge-monotonic, and solvent layering becomes dominant. Finally, we map out a phase diagram in composition-surface charge space delineating regions of charge-oscillatory interfacial structure and regions of charge-monotonic decay. We note that these features of structure and oscillatory forces are distinct from (acting simultaneously with) the recently reported longer range monotonic forces arising from anomalously long bulk screening lengths in high-concentration electrolytes.

  4. Conductivity-Relaxation Relations in Nanocomposite Polymer Electrolytes Containing Ionic Liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaatalhosseini, Mansoureh; Elamin, Khalid; Swenson, Jan

    2017-10-19

    In this study, we have used nanocomposite polymer electrolytes, consisting of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), δ-Al2O3 nanoparticles, and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesolfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) salt (with 4 wt % δ-Al2O3 and PEO:Li ratios of 16:1 and 8:1), and added different amounts of the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesolfonyl)imide (BMITFSI). The aim was to elucidate whether the ionic liquid is able to dissociate the Li-ions from the ether oxygens and thereby decouple the ionic conductivity from the segmental polymer dynamics. The results from DSC and dielectric spectroscopy show that the ionic liquid speeds up both the segmental polymer dynamics and the motion of the Li(+) ions. However, a close comparison between the structural (α) relaxation process, given by the segmental polymer dynamics, and the ionic conductivity shows that the motion of the Li(+) ions decouples from the segmental polymer dynamics at higher concentrations of the ionic liquid (≥20 wt %) and instead becomes more related to the viscosity of the ionic liquid. This decoupling increases with decreasing temperature. In addition to the structural α-relaxation, two more local relaxation processes, denoted β and γ, are observed. The β-relaxation becomes slightly faster at the highest concentration of the ionic liquid (at least for the lower salt concentration), whereas the γ-relaxation is unaffected by the ionic liquid, over the whole concentration range 0-40 wt %.

  5. Self-segregated nanostructure in room temperature ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontoni, Diego; Haddad, Julia; Di Michiel, Marco; Deutsch, Moshe

    2017-10-04

    The nanosegregated bulk structure, and its evolution with the cation's alkyl length n, are studied by X-ray scattering for an unprecedentedly broad homologous series of a model room-temperature ionic liquid, [CnMIM][NTf2] (n = 4-22). A tri-periodic local structure is found, with the lateral periodicities, dII and dIII independent of n, and a longitudinal one, dI, linearly increasing with n. The results are consistent with a local structure comprising alternating layers of polar headgroups and apolar, interdigitated, partly overlapping, cations' alkyl tails, of an average macroscopic mass density close to that of liquid alkanes. A slope decrease in the linear dI(n) suggests a change from a lower to a higher rate of increase with n of chain overlap for n ≥ 12. The order decay lengths of the layering, and of the lateral chain packing, increase with n, as expected from the increasing van der Waals interaction's domination of the structure. The headgroups' lateral packing decay length decreases with n, due to increasing frustration between the longer lateral periodicity preferred by the headgroups, and the shorter lateral periodicity preferred by the chains. A comparison of the bulk and surface structures highlights the surface's ordering effect, which, however, does not induce here a surface phase different from the bulk, as it does in liquid crystals and liquid alkanes.

  6. Ionic Liquids as Electrolytes for Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitors: Structures that Optimize Specific Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Maral P S; Wilson, Benjamin E; Kashefolgheta, Sadra; Anderson, Evan L; He, Siyao; Bühlmann, Philippe; Stein, Andreas

    2016-02-10

    Key parameters that influence the specific energy of electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) are the double-layer capacitance and the operating potential of the cell. The operating potential of the cell is generally limited by the electrochemical window of the electrolyte solution, that is, the range of applied voltages within which the electrolyte or solvent is not reduced or oxidized. Ionic liquids are of interest as electrolytes for EDLCs because they offer relatively wide potential windows. Here, we provide a systematic study of the influence of the physical properties of ionic liquid electrolytes on the electrochemical stability and electrochemical performance (double-layer capacitance, specific energy) of EDLCs that employ a mesoporous carbon model electrode with uniform, highly interconnected mesopores (3DOm carbon). Several ionic liquids with structurally diverse anions (tetrafluoroborate, trifluoromethanesulfonate, trifluoromethanesulfonimide) and cations (imidazolium, ammonium, pyridinium, piperidinium, and pyrrolidinium) were investigated. We show that the cation size has a significant effect on the electrolyte viscosity and conductivity, as well as the capacitance of EDLCs. Imidazolium- and pyridinium-based ionic liquids provide the highest cell capacitance, and ammonium-based ionic liquids offer potential windows much larger than imidazolium and pyridinium ionic liquids. Increasing the chain length of the alkyl substituents in 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonimide does not widen the potential window of the ionic liquid. We identified the ionic liquids that maximize the specific energies of EDLCs through the combined effects of their potential windows and the double-layer capacitance. The highest specific energies are obtained with ionic liquid electrolytes that possess moderate electrochemical stability, small ionic volumes, low viscosity, and hence high conductivity, the best performing ionic liquid tested being 1-ethyl-3

  7. Ionic Liquid as a Solvent and Catalyst for Acylation of Maltodextrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalyst-free esterification of maltodextrin was carried out in ionic liquid. Stearate esters of maltodextrin were obtained in various degree of substitution (DS) when vinyl stearate or stearic acid was heated with maltodextrin in ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cyanamide (bmim[dca]). Re...

  8. Comparison of Dilute Acid and Ionic Liquid Pretreatment of Switchgrass: Biomass Recalcitrance, Delignification and Enzymatic Saccharification

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficiency of two biomass pretreatment technologies, dilute acid hydrolysis and dissolution in an ionic liquid, are compared in terms of delignification, saccharification efficiency and saccharide yields with switchgrass serving as a model bioenergy crop. When subject to ionic liquid pretreatme...

  9. Stability, Deactivation, and Regeneration of Chloroaluminate Ionic Liquid as Catalyst for Industrial C4 Alkylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Alkylation of isobutane and 2-butene was carried out in a continuous unit using triethylamine hydrochloride (Et3NHCl-aluminum chloride (AlCl3 ionic liquid (IL as catalyst. The effects of impurities such as water, methanol, and diethyl ether on the stability of the catalytic properties and deactivation of the ionic liquid were studied in the continuous alkylation. In the Et3NHCl-2AlCl3 ionic liquid, only one half of the aluminum chloride could act as the active site. With a molar ratio of 1:1, the active aluminum chloride in the ionic liquid was deactivated by water by reaction or by diethyl ether through complexation while the complexation of aluminum chloride with two molecular proportions of methanol inactivated the active aluminum chloride in the ionic liquid. The deactivation of chloroaluminate ionic liquid was observed when the active aluminum chloride, i.e., one half of the total aluminum chloride in the ionic liquid, was consumed completely. The regeneration of the deactivated ionic liquid was also investigated and the catalytic activity could be recovered by means of replenishment with fresh aluminum chloride.

  10. Ionic liquids for enhancing the enantioselectivity of isolated BVMO-catalysed oxidations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, Cristina; de Gonzalo, Gonzalo; Fraaije, Marco W.; Gotor, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    The present study describes the first-time usage of an isolated thermostable Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase (phenylacetone monooxygenase, PAMO) in the presence of ionic liquids. The stability, activity and selectivity of PAMO as an oxidative enzyme in the presence of different ionic liquids were

  11. Novel carbohydrate-based chiral ammonium ionic liquids derived from isomannide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Vineet; Pei, Cao; Olsen, Carl E.

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the synthesis and characterization of novel carbohydrate-based chiral ammonium ionic liquids using isomannide as a biorenewable substrate. The diastereomeric interactions of these chiral ammonium ionic liquids with racemic Mosher's acid salt have been studied using NMR, whic...

  12. Synthesis of 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural in Ionic Liquids - Paving the Way to Renewable Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ståhlberg, Tim; Fu, Wenjing; Woodley, John

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF) in ionic liquids is a field that has grown rapidly in recent years. Unique dissolving properties for crude biomass in combination with a high selectivity for HMF formation from hexose sugars make ionic liquids attractive reaction media for the prod...

  13. Determination of water in room temperature ionic liquids by cathodic stripping voltammetry at a gold electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chuan; Bond, Alan M; Lu, Xunyu

    2012-03-20

    An electrochemical method based on cathodic stripping voltammetry at a gold electrode has been developed for the determination of water in ionic liquids. The technique has been applied to two aprotic ionic liquids, (1-butyl-3-ethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate), and two protic ionic liquids, (bis(2-hydroxyethyl)ammonium acetate and triethylammonium acetate). When water is present in an ionic liquid, electrooxidation of a gold electrode forms gold oxides. Thus, application of an anodic potential scan or holding the potential of the electrode at a very positive value leads to accumulation of an oxide film. On applying a cathodic potential scan, a sensitive stripping peak is produced as a result of the reduction of gold oxide back to gold. The magnitude of the peak current generated from the stripping process is a function of the water concentration in an ionic liquid. The method requires no addition of reagents and can be used for the sensitive and in situ determination of water present in small volumes of ionic liquids. Importantly, the method allows the determination of water in the carboxylic acid-based ionic liquids, such as acetate-based protic ionic liquids, where the widely used Karl Fischer titration method suffering from an esterification side reaction which generates water as a side product.

  14. Long alkyl chain bis-quaternary ammonium-based ionic liquids as biologically active xanthene dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pernak, Juliusz; Swierczynska, Anna; Walkiewicz, Filip [Poznan Univ. of Technology, Poznan (Poland). Faculty of Chemical Technology; Krystkowiak, Ewa [A. Mickiewicz University, Poznan, (Poland). Faculty of Chemistry; Maciejewski, Andrzej [A. Mickiewicz University, Poznan (Poland). Centre of Ultrafast Laser Spectroscopy

    2009-07-01

    New examples of air- and moisture-stable, hydrophobic and hydrophilic bis-quaternary ammonium derived ionic liquids have been prepared. These ionic liquids have been proposed to act as biological active dyes with characteristic unique physicochemical properties, providing alternatives to some conventional anionic xanthene dyes such as eosine Y, fluorescein and erythrosine. (author)

  15. Metal-air cell comprising an electrolyte with a room temperature ionic liquid and hygroscopic additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Cody A.; Krishnan, Ramkumar; Tang, Toni; Wolfe, Derek

    2014-08-19

    An electrochemical cell comprising an electrolyte comprising water and a hydrophobic ionic liquid comprising positive ions and negative ions. The electrochemical cell also includes an air electrode configured to absorb and reduce oxygen. A hydrophilic or hygroscopic additive modulates the hydrophobicity of the ionic liquid to maintain a concentration of the water in the electrolyte is between 0.001 mol % and 25 mol %.

  16. Thermophysical properties of pure and water-saturated tetradecyltrihexylphosphonium-based ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, Catarina M.S.S.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Freire, Mara G. [Departamento de Quimica, CICECO, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Coutinho, Joao A.P., E-mail: jcoutinho@ua.p [Departamento de Quimica, CICECO, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Density and viscosity data of seven pure phosphonium ionic liquids are reported. {yields} Water content of saturated phosphonium ionic liquids is presented. {yields} Density and viscosity data of water-saturated ionic liquids are reported. {yields} Density data is only marginally affected by the presence of water. {yields} The presence of water has a large impact in viscosities. - Abstract: In this work, the solubility of water in several tetradecyltrihexylphosphonium-based ionic liquids at 298.15 K, and densities and viscosities of both pure and water-saturated ionic liquids in a broad temperature range were measured. The selected ionic liquids comprise the common tetradecyltrihexylphosphonium cation combined with the following anions: bromide, chloride, bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, decanoate, methanesulfonate, dicyanamide and bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinate. The isobaric thermal expansion coefficients for pure and water-saturated ionic liquids were determined based on the density dependence with temperature. Taking into account that the excess molar volumes of the current hydrophobic water-saturated ionic liquids are negligible, the solubility of water was additionally estimated from the gathered density data and compared with the experimental solubilities obtained. Moreover, the experimental densities were compared with those predicted by the Gardas and Coutinho model while viscosity data were correlated using the Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher method.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Dimeric Ionic Liquids by Conventional Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatimah Alias

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The 1H-NMR shifts of the imidazolium protons of some novel dimeric ionic liquids were examined in various deuterated solvents. Interactions between the solvent and the imidazolium salt of butyl substituted ionic liquids were observed to give higher chemical shifts than methyl substitution.

  18. A critical review of ionic liquids for the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Reddy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquids have been the subject of active research over the course of the last decade and have in the past been touted as one of the most promising technologies for revolutionising the chemical and petro-chemical industries. The sheer abundance of potential ionic liquid structures coupled with their tuneable physico-chemical properties has endeared ionic liquids to the scientific community across a broad range of disciplines with potential applications that include pharmaceuticals, electrolytes, thermal energy storage media and liquid mirror telescopes. Within the context of a biorefinery for the production of biofuels and other bio-based products from renewable resources, the unique abilities of some ionic liquids to selectively dissolve biomass components or whole native biomass have been demonstrated. This ability has sparked extensive investigations of ionic liquids for the pretreatment of different biomass types, particularly for the production of cellulosic biofuels. However, the esoteric nature of ionic liquids persists and constructing a fundamental framework for correlating ionic liquid structures with useful applications remains a significant challenge. In addition to the above, the more practical challenges of toxicity, high costs, high viscosities, low solids loading and complex recycling are key factors hindering the wide-scale uptake of ionic liquids as pretreatment solvents in a commercial biorefinery. This critical review provides insights from academic studies and the implications thereof for elevating ionic liquids from the status of �promising� to �commercialisable� in the pretreatment of biomass. It is vital that key hurdles for the commercialisation of ionic liquids in the form of high costs, high viscosities, poor water tolerance, toxicity, low solids loading and recovery/recycling be addressed.

  19. Theoretical Study of Renewable Ionic Liquids in the Pure State and with Graphene and Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Gregorio; Atilhan, Mert; Aparicio, Santiago

    2015-09-17

    The N-ethyl-N-(furan-2-ylmethyl)ethanaminium dihydrogen phosphate ionic liquid was studied as a model of ionic liquids which can be produced from totally renewable sources. A computational study using both molecular dynamics and density functional theory methods was carried out. The properties, structuring, and intermolecular interactions (hydrogen bonding) of this fluid in the pure state were studied as a function of pressure and temperature. Likewise, the adsorption on graphene and the confinement between graphene sheets was also studied. The solvation of single walled carbon nanotubes in the selected ionic liquid was analyzed together with the behavior of ions confined inside these nanotubes. The reported results show remarkable properties for this fluid, which show that many of the most relevant properties of ionic liquids and their ability to interact with carbon nanosystems may be maintained and even improved using new families of renewable compounds instead of classic types of ionic liquids with worse environmental, toxicological, and economical profiles.

  20. Shifts in the temperature of maximum density (TMD) of ionic liquid aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, M; Esperança, J M S S; Soromenho, M R C; Rebelo, L P N; Lopes, J N Canongia

    2013-07-14

    This work investigates for the first time shifts in the temperature of maximum density (TMD) of water caused by ionic liquid solutes. A vast amount of high-precision volumetric data--more than 6000 equilibrated (static) high-precision density determination corresponding to ∼90 distinct ionic liquid aqueous solutions of 28 different types of ionic liquid--allowed us to analyze the TMD shifts for different homologous series or similar sets of ionic solutes and explain the overall effects in terms of hydrophobic, electrostatic and hydrogen-bonding contributions. The differences between the observed TMD shifts in the -2 liquids and are consistent with previous results that established hydrophobic and hydrophilic scales for ionic liquid ions based on their specific interactions with water and other probe molecules.

  1. Oxidative desulfurization of fuel oil by pyridinium-based ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dishun; Wang, Yanan; Duan, Erhong

    2009-10-28

    In this work, an N-butyl-pyridinium-based ionic liquid [BPy]BF(4) was prepared. The effect of extraction desulfurization on model oil with thiophene and dibenzothiophene (DBT) was investigated. Ionic liquids and hydrogen peroxide (30%) were tested in extraction-oxidation desulfurization of model oil. The results show that the ionic liquid [BPy]BF(4) has a better desulfurization effect. The best technological conditions are: V(IL)/V(Oil) /V(H(2)O(2)) = 1:1:0.4, temperature 55 degrees C, the time 30 min. The ratio of desulfurization to thiophene and DBT reached 78.5% and 84.3% respectively, which is much higher than extraction desulfurization with simple ionic liquids. Under these conditions, the effect of desulfurization on gasoline was also investigated. The used ionic liquids can be recycled up to four times after regeneration.

  2. Research progress of SO2 removal from flue gas by functionalized ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinle SHI

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Functionalized ionic liquids are receiving increasing attention in the field of flue gas desulfurization due to its unique physical and chemical properties. Research progress on the field of SO2 removal by ionic liquids (ILs including guanidinium-based, amines-based and ether-based ILs is summarized. Industrial application of polymerization ILs and loaded ILs to desulfurization is reviewed. Relevant suggestions on industrial application of ionic liquids based on fundamental research are put forward. The first thing is to develop functional ionic liquid for desulfurization,and thus investigate and propose its desulfurization mechanism and model; the second is to carry out the research work on immobilized ionic liquid, and explore its recycling properties, thus prolonging its service life.

  3. Corrosion Inhibition of Cast Iron in Arabian Gulf Seawater by Two Different Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed M. Sherif

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report on the corrosion inhibition of cast iron in Arabian Gulf seawater by two different ionic liquids namely, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([EMIm]Cl and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium chloride ([Py1,4]Cl. The inhibiting influence of the employed ionic liquids was investigated by weight loss, open circuit potential electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and cyclic potentiodynamic polarization. The results show the corrosion inhibition impact of the employed ionic liquids (ILs. Compared with [Py1,4]Cl, [EMIm]Cl shows a higher inhibition efficiency at a short immersion time, for the examined ILs concentrations. However, [Py1,4]Cl exhibits a higher efficiency upon increasing the immersion time indicating the persistence of the inhibiting influence. The corrosion inhibition of the employed ionic liquids is attributed to the adsorption of the cations of the ionic liquids onto the surface of cast iron forming a corrosion barrier.

  4. Corrosion Inhibition of Cast Iron in Arabian Gulf Seawater by Two Different Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, El-Sayed M.; Abdo, Hany S.; Zein El Abedin, Sherif

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we report on the corrosion inhibition of cast iron in Arabian Gulf seawater by two different ionic liquids namely, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([EMIm]Cl) and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium chloride ([Py1,4]Cl). The inhibiting influence of the employed ionic liquids was investigated by weight loss, open circuit potential electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and cyclic potentiodynamic polarization. The results show the corrosion inhibition impact of the employed ionic liquids (ILs). Compared with [Py1,4]Cl, [EMIm]Cl shows a higher inhibition efficiency at a short immersion time, for the examined ILs concentrations. However, [Py1,4]Cl exhibits a higher efficiency upon increasing the immersion time indicating the persistence of the inhibiting influence. The corrosion inhibition of the employed ionic liquids is attributed to the adsorption of the cations of the ionic liquids onto the surface of cast iron forming a corrosion barrier. PMID:28793413

  5. Ionic liquids, method for the production thereof, and use of same as electrolytes for electrochemical energy storage devices

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel, Irene de; Herradón García, Bernardo; Mann, Enrique; Morales, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to ionic liquids of general formula (I), to the synthesis thereof, and to the use of said ionic liquids as electrolytes in electrochemical electrical energy storage devices.

  6. Phase behavior and ionic conductivity of concentrated solutions of polystyrene-poly(ethylene oxide) diblock copolymers in an ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Peter M; Lodge, Timothy P

    2009-12-01

    Concentrated solutions of poly(styrene-b-ethylene oxide) (PS-PEO) diblock copolymers were prepared using the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [EMI][TFSI] as the solvent. The self-assembled microstructures adopted by the copolymer solutions have been characterized using small-angle X-ray scattering. Lyotropic mesophase transitions were observed, with a progression from hexagonally packed cylinders of PEO, to lamellae, to hexagonally packed cylinders of PS upon increasing [EMI][TFSI] content. The change in lamellar domain spacing with ionic liquid concentration was found to be comparable to that reported for other block copolymers in strongly selective solvents. The ionic conductivity of the concentrated PS-PEO/[EMI][TFSI] solutions was measured via impedance spectroscopy, and ranged from 1 x 10(-7) to 1 x 10(-3) S/cm at temperatures from 25 - 100 degrees C. Additionally, the ionic conductivity of the solutions was found to increase with both ionic liquid concentration and molecular weight of the PEO blocks. The ionic conductivity of PEO homopolymer/[EMI][TFSI] solutions was also measured in order to compare the conductivity of the PS-PEO solutions to the expected limit for a lamellar sample with randomly oriented microstructure grains.

  7. Nonlinear transport in ionic liquid gated strontium titanate nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretz-Sullivan, Terence M.; Goldman, A. M., E-mail: goldman@physics.umn.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2015-09-14

    Measurements of the current-voltage (I–V) characteristics of ionic liquid gated nanometer scale channels of strontium titanate have been carried out. At low gate voltages, the I–V characteristics exhibit a large voltage threshold for conduction and a nonlinear power law behavior at all temperatures measured. The source-drain current of these nanowires scales as a power law of the difference between the source-drain voltage and the threshold voltage. The scaling behavior of the I–V characteristic is reminiscent of collective electronic transport through an array of quantum dots. At large gate voltages, the narrow channel acts as a quasi-1D wire whose conductance follows Landauer's formula for multichannel transport.

  8. Poly (ether imide sulfone) membranes from solutions in ionic liquids

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Dooli

    2017-11-20

    A membrane manufacture method based on non-volatile solvents and a high performance polymer, poly (ether imide sulfone) (EXTEM™), is proposed, as greener alternative to currently industrial process. We dissolved EXTEM™ in pure ionic liquids: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidalzolium thiocyanate ([EMIM]SCN), 1-butyl-3-methylimidalzolium thiocyanate ([BMIM]SCN), and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidalzolium acetate ([EMIM]OAc). The following polymer solution parameters were evaluated to optimize the manufacture: Gibbs free energy of mixing (G), intrinsic viscosity ([]) and hydrodynamic diameter. Membranes with sponge-like structure and narrow pore size distribution were obtained from solutions in [EMIM]SCN. They were tested for separation of proteins and deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA). Due to the polymer stability, we foresee that applications in more demanding chemical separations would be possible. [EMIM]SCN was 96 % purified and recovered after the membrane fabrication, contributing to the sustainability of the whole manufacturing process.

  9. Multiple headspace extraction for gas detection in ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, D; Fühl, M; Pinkwart, K; Baltes, N

    2014-10-16

    In this study multiple headspace extraction was used for the first time to measure the saturation concentration of carbon monoxide and oxygen in various ionic liquids (ILs). Many processes in ILs involve the reaction of gases so that the reactant solubility is not a mere characteristical parameter, but understanding the solubility of gases in ILs is required for assessing the feasibility of possible applications. Multiple headspace extraction has proofed to be a powerful tool to obtain solubilities in good accordance with literature data. The measured saturation concentration for carbon monoxide and oxygen in ILs based on rarely researched tetracyanoborates and other anions was in the range of 1.5-6.5mmol/L. The great advantage of multiple headspace extraction is that it is a nonexpensive method that can be realised in most analytical laboratories by combination of a simple gas chromatograph and an eligible headspace injector. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Study on epoxy resin modified by polyether ionic liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, X. C.; Guo, L. Y.; Deng, L. L.; Wu, H.

    2017-06-01

    Chloride 1-carboxyl polyether-3-methyl imidazole ionic liquid (PIIL) was synthesized. Then blended with epoxy resin(EP) to prepare the composite materials of PIIL/EP, which cured with aniline curing agent. The structure and curing performance of PIIL/EP were determined by FT-IR and DSC. The effects of the content of PIIL on strength of EP were studied. The results show that the PIIL was the target product. The strength was improved significantly with increase of the PIIL content. The obvious rubber elasticity of PIIL/EP after cured was showed when the content of PIIL accounts for 40% and the impact strength was up to 15.95kJ/m2.

  11. What Happens during Natural Protein Fibre Dissolution in Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingyu; Vongsanga, Kylie; Wang, Xungai; Byrne, Nolene

    2014-08-28

    Here, we monitor the dissolution of several natural protein fibres such as wool, human hair and silk, in various ionic liquids (ILs). The dissolution of protein-based materials using ILs is an emerging area exploring the production of new materials from waste products. Wool is a keratin fibre, which is extensively used in the textiles industry and as a result has considerable amounts of waste produced each year. Wool, along with human hair, has a unique morphology whereby the outer layer, the cuticle, is heavily cross linked with disulphide bonds, whereas silk does not have this outer layer. Here we show how ILs dissolve natural protein fibres and how the mechanism of dissolution is directly related to the structure and morphology of the wool fibre.

  12. What Happens during Natural Protein Fibre Dissolution in Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyu Chen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Here, we monitor the dissolution of several natural protein fibres such as wool, human hair and silk, in various ionic liquids (ILs. The dissolution of protein-based materials using ILs is an emerging area exploring the production of new materials from waste products. Wool is a keratin fibre, which is extensively used in the textiles industry and as a result has considerable amounts of waste produced each year. Wool, along with human hair, has a unique morphology whereby the outer layer, the cuticle, is heavily cross linked with disulphide bonds, whereas silk does not have this outer layer. Here we show how ILs dissolve natural protein fibres and how the mechanism of dissolution is directly related to the structure and morphology of the wool fibre.

  13. Energy Efficient Hybrid Gas Separation with Ionic Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xinyan; Liang, Xiaodong; Gani, Rafiqul

    2017-01-01

    and membranes together with distillation require less energy and have attracted much attention. With the property of non-volatility and good stability, ionic liquids (ILs) have been considered as new potential solvents for the absorption step. However, the enormous number of potential ILs that can......Shale gas, like natural gas, contains H2, CO2, CH4 and that light hydrocarbon gases needs processing to separate the gases for conversion to higher value products. Currently, distillation based separation is employed, which is energy intensive. Hybrid gas separation processes, combining absorption...... systems is established for process design-analysis. A strategy for hybrid gas separation process synthesis where distillation and IL-based absorption are employed for energy efficient gas processing is developed and its application is highlighted for a model shale gas processing case study....

  14. Corrosion inhibition performance of a ionic liquid surfactant Br

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing LIU

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the novel green organic mercury-substituting inhibitors, the ionic liquid surfactant 1-methyl-3-dodecyl imidazole bromide ( Br is synthesized with N-methyl imidazole and 1-bromodecane as raw materials. The corrosion inhibition of Br for zinc in zinc-manganese batteries is investigated using electrochemical methods and weight loss methods. The results show that corrosion inhibition efficiency increases with the increase of the concentration of Br, and when the concentration is higher than 8×10-3 mol/L, the inhibition efficiency tends to be stable. The polarization curve shows that Br belongs to mixed-type corrosion inhibitor. The thermodynamic parameters show that Br is spontaneously adsorbed on the zinc surface, forming a monomolecular adsorption layer, which fits with Langmuir adsorption isotherm with physical and chemical adsorption mechanism.

  15. Ionic liquid-based green processes for energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suojiang; Sun, Jian; Zhang, Xiaochun; Xin, Jiayu; Miao, Qingqing; Wang, Jianji

    2014-11-21

    To mitigate the growing pressure on resource depletion and environment degradation, the development of green processes for the production of renewable energy is highly required. As a class of novel and promising media, ionic liquids (ILs) have shown infusive potential applications in energy production. Aiming to offer a critical overview regarding the new challenges and opportunities of ILs for developing green processes of renewable energy, this article emphasises the role of ILs as catalysts, solvents, or electrolytes in three broadly interesting energy production processes from renewable resources, such as CO2 conversion to fuels and fuel additives, biomass pretreatment and conversion to biofuels, as well as solar energy and energy storage. It is expected that this article will stimulate a generation of new ideas and new technologies in IL-based renewable energy production.

  16. Magnetic ionic liquids in analytical chemistry: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin D; Nacham, Omprakash; Purslow, Jeffrey A; Pierson, Stephen A; Anderson, Jared L

    2016-08-31

    Magnetic ionic liquids (MILs) have recently generated a cascade of innovative applications in numerous areas of analytical chemistry. By incorporating a paramagnetic component within the cation or anion, MILs exhibit a strong response toward external magnetic fields. Careful design of the MIL structure has yielded magnetoactive compounds with unique physicochemical properties including high magnetic moments, enhanced hydrophobicity, and the ability to solvate a broad range of molecules. The structural tunability and paramagnetic properties of MILs have enabled magnet-based technologies that can easily be added to the analytical method workflow, complement needed extraction requirements, or target specific analytes. This review highlights the application of MILs in analytical chemistry and examines the important structural features of MILs that largely influence their physicochemical and magnetic properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Thermophoretic transport of ionic liquid droplets in carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajegowda, Rakesh; Kannam, Sridhar Kumar; Hartkamp, Remco; Sathian, Sarith P.

    2017-04-01

    Thermal-gradient induced transport of ionic liquid (IL) and water droplets through a carbon nanotube (CNT) is investigated in this study using molecular dynamics simulations. Energetic analysis indicates that IL transport through a CNT is driven primarily by the fluid-solid interaction, while fluid-fluid interactions dominate in water-CNT systems. Droplet diffusion analysis via the moment scaling spectrum reveals sub-diffusive motion of the IL droplet, in contrast to the self-diffusive motion of the water droplet. The Soret coefficient and energetic analysis of the systems suggest that the CNT shows more affinity for interaction with IL than with the water droplet. Thermophoretic transport of IL is shown to be feasible, which can create new opportunities in nanofluidic applications.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of ionic liquid (EMImBF{sub 4})/Li{sup +} - chitosan membranes for ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasaribu, Marvin H., E-mail: marvin-shady88@yahoo.com; Arcana, I Made, E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id; Wahyuningrum, Deana, E-mail: deana@chem.itb.ac.id [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, InstitutTeknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha No. 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Lithium ion battery has been currently developed and produced because it has a longer life time, high energycapacity, and the efficient use of lithium ion battery that is suitable for storing electrical energy. However, this battery has some drawbacks such as use liquid electrolytes that are prone to leakage and flammability during the battery charging process in high temperature. In this study, an ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMImBF4) containing Li{sup +} ions was synthesized and combined with chitosan polymer host as a polymer electrolyte membrane for lithium-ion batteries to solve this problems. This ionic liquid was obtained from the anion metathesis reaction between EMImBr and LiBF4 salt, while EMImBr was synthesized from the reaction between 1-methylimidazole and ethyl bromide utilizing Microwave Assisted Organic Synthesis (MAOS) method. The ionic liquid obtained was characterized by microstructure analysis with using NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. The polymer electrolyte membrane was characterized by analysis functional groups (FTIR), ionic conductivity (EIS), and surface morphology (SEM). The analysis results of ion conductivity by the EIS method showed the increase the ionic conductivity value of membranes from 1.30 × 10{sup −2} S cm{sup −1} for chitosan to 1.30 × 10{sup −2} S cm{sup −1} for chitosan with EMImBF4/Li{sup +}, and this result was supported by analysis the surface morphology (SEM)

  19. Amphiphilic and phase-separable ionic liquids for biomass processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holding, Ashley J; Heikkilä, Mikko; Kilpeläinen, Ilkka; King, Alistair W T

    2014-05-01

    One main limiting factor for the technoeconomics of future bioprocesses that use ionic liquids (ILs) is the recovery of the expensive and potentially toxic IL. We have demonstrated a new series of phase-separable ionic liquids, based on the hydrophobic tetraalkylphosphonium cation ([PRRRR](+)), that can dissolve lignin in the neat state but also hemicellulose and high-purity cellulose in the form of their electrolyte solutions with dipolar aprotic solvents. For example, the IL trioctylmethylphosphonium acetate ([P8881][OAc]) was demonstrated to dissolve up to 19 wt % of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) at 60 °C with the addition of 40 wt % of DMSO. It was found that the MCC saturation point is dependent on the molar ratio of DMSO and IL in solution. At the optimum saturation, a ∼1:1 molar ratio of [P8881][OAc] to anhydroglucose units is observed, which demonstrates highly efficient solvation. This is attributed to the positive contribution that these more amphiphilic cation-anion pairs provide, in the context of the Lindman hypothesis. This effective dissolution is further illustrated by solution-state HSQC NMR spectroscopy on MCC. Finally, it is also demonstrated that these electrolytes are phase separable by the addition of aqueous solutions. The addition of 10 % NaOAc solution allows a near quantitative recovery of high-purity [P8881][OAc]. However, increased volumes of aqueous solution reduced the recovery. The regenerated material was found to partially convert into the cellulose II crystalline polymorph. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Electrochemical performance of potentiodynamically deposited polyaniline electrodes in ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Dipali S., E-mail: dipali.patilphy@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Yeungnam University, Gyeonbuk 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Thin Film Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004 (India); Pawar, S.A. [Thin Film Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004 (India); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500 757 (Korea, Republic of); Patil, S.K.; Salavi, P.P.; Kolekar, S.S. [Department of Chemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004 (India); Devan, R.S.; Ma, Y.R. [Department of Physics, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 97401, Taiwan (China); Kim, J.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500 757 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, J.C. [Department of Physics, Yeungnam University, Gyeonbuk 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Patil, P.S., E-mail: patilps_2000@yahoo.com [Thin Film Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004 (India)

    2015-10-15

    Present work reports electropolymerization of aniline onto stainless steel substrate using room temperature ionic liquid N-methyl-2-pyrrolidonium hydrogensulfate [NMP][HSO{sub 4}] by potentiodynamic electrodeposition method. To study the effect of electropolymerization cycle number on the electrochemical performance, the number of scans is varied from 1{sup st} to 5{sup th} cycle. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used for the phase identification of polyaniline (PANI) films. Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) was used to study the electrochemical activity of PANI films. The highest specific capacitance of 581 Fg{sup −1} and energy density of 96.6 whkg{sup −1} are obtained for the sample, deposited using four cycle. - Graphical abstract: We have synthesized PANI samples with different thickness (or deposited mass) on stainless steel as a function of deposition cycles by potentiodynamic electrodeposition in room temperature IL [NMP][HSO{sub 4}]. A globular nanostructural growth of PANI is observed over the compact background of PANI for sample P{sub 2}. The sample P{sub 4} revealed a globular structure with spongy porous morphology. This nanostructure and porous structure is useful for supercapacitor, because it reduces the diffusion resistance of the electrolyte into electrode matrix. - Highlights: • Electropolymerization of aniline using room temperature ionic liquid N-methyl-2-pyrrolidonium hydrogensulfate [NMP][HSO4]. • The highest specific capacitance of 581 Fg{sup −1} and energy density of 96.60 Whkg{sup −1} is observed for the optimized sample. • The improved specific capacitance of PANI electrode material can be used to develop high performance supercapacitor.

  1. Investigations on Green Blends Comprising Biodegradable Polymer and Ionic Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ting Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The green blends of an ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-propylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonylimide {[EPrI][TFSI]}, and a biodegradable polymer, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB, were investigated in this study. The influence of an ionic liquid on the crystallization behaviors of a biodegradable polymer was explored. In the blends, the presence of [EPrI][TFSI] decreased the Tg and Tm of PHB. Incorporating [EPrI][TFSI] in the blends reduced the degree of crystallinity of PHB, inferring that the [EPrI][TFSI] weakened the crystallization of PHB. It further showed retarded isothermal and non-isothermal crystallization for PHB with the presence of [EPrI][TFSI]. The smaller K and 1/t0.5 estimated by the Avrami equation for the blends indicated that [EPrI][TFSI] weakened the isothermal crystallization of PHB with exhibiting the slower crystallization rate. The present study also discussed non-isothermal crystallization of the blends. We found that the Mo model, which is generally used to discuss the non-isothermal crystallization, adequately described the non-isothermal behaviors of the [EPrI][TFSI]/PHB blends. By increasing the [EPrI][TFSI] content, the rate-related parameter F(T systematically increased, inferring a decreased crystallization rate of PHB with the addition of [EPrI][TFSI] in the blends. The FTIR results suggested an ion–dipole interaction between [EPrI][TFSI] and PHB. This proposes the occurrence of possible complexation between [EPrI][TFSI] and PHB.

  2. Characterization of PVdF(HFP) gel electrolytes based on 1-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-3-methyl imidazolium ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Sun-Hwa; Kim, Ki-Sub; Choi, Sukjeong; Cha, Jong-Ho; Lee, Huen

    2005-09-29

    Poly(vinylidenefluoride)-hexafluoropropylene (PVdF(HFP))-ionic liquid gel electrolytes were prepared using ionic liquids based on 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methyl imidazolium tetrafluoroborate and 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methyl imidazolium hexafluorophosphate. A conventional metathesis reaction was used to prepare these ionic liquids, which have high purity and exhibit a liquid state at room temperature. The prepared polymer-ionic liquid gel proved to be a free-standing and rubbery film in which the degree of transparency differed according to the ratio and type of ionic liquid used. TGA and FTIR analyses confirmed that the solvent, N,N-Dimethylacetamide (DMAC), used for mixing PVdF(HFP) polymer with ionic liquid was almost totally removed during the gelling and drying processes. SEM photographs were taken of the surface structure of the PVdF(HFP)-ionic liquid gel in order to evaluate the morphology of the film's surface according to the mixing ratio and the nature of the ionic liquid. The thermal behaviors of PVdF(HFP)-ionic liquid gels were observed to be similar to those of neat ionic liquids through DSC analysis, and the compatibility between the polymer and ionic liquid was investigated by XRD analysis. The ionic conductivities of all the gels were 10(-3)-10(-5) S cm(-1) in a temperature range of 20-70 degrees C.

  3. Suppression of deleterious effects of free silanols in liquid chromatography by imidazolium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliszan, Roman; Marszałł, Michał Piotr; Markuszewski, Michał Jan; Baczek, Tomasz; Pernak, Juliusz

    2004-03-19

    Silica-based stationary phases are commonly used in liquid chromatography, but their surface acidity causes known problems, especially when separating basic compounds. Deleterious effects of free silanols are not fully removed by standard prevention procedures consisting in adding alkylamines or other amino quenchers to the eluents. We found that ionic liquids of the imidazolium tetrafluoroborate class, added to mobile phases at concentrations of 0.5-1.5% (v/v), blocked silanols and provided excellent thin-layer chromatographic separations of strongly basic drugs which were otherwise not eluted, even with neat acetonitrile as the mobile phase. The silanol suppressing potency of imidazolium tetrafluoroborates was demonstrated to markedly exceed that of the standard mobile phase additives, like triethylamine, dimethyloctylamine and ammonia. The proposed new mobile phase additives were also demonstrated to provide reliable lipophilicity parameters of base drug analytes as determined by gradient mode of high-performance liquid chromatography. By applying the readily available and environmentally friendly imidazolium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquids, simple and efficient means of improvement of liquid chromatographic analysis of organic bases were elaborated.

  4. Liquid-Crystalline Ionic Liquids as Ordered Reaction Media for the Diels-Alder Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Duncan W; Gao, Yanan; Canongia Lopes, José Nuno; Shimizu, Karina; Slattery, John M

    2016-11-02

    Liquid-crystalline ionic liquids (LCILs) are ordered materials that have untapped potential to be used as reaction media for synthetic chemistry. This paper investigates the potential for the ordered structures of LCILs to influence the stereochemical outcome of the Diels-Alder reaction between cyclopentadiene and methyl acrylate. The ratio of endo- to exo-product from this reaction was monitored for a range of ionic liquids (ILs) and LCILs. Comparison of the endo:exo ratios in these reactions as a function of cation, anion and liquid crystallinity of the reaction media, allowed for the effects of liquid crystallinity to be distinguished from anion effects or cation alkyl chain length effects. These data strongly suggest that the proportion of exo-product increases as the reaction media is changed from an isotropic IL to a LCIL. A detailed molecular dynamics (MD) study suggests that this effect is related to different hydrogen bonding interactions between the reaction media and the exo- and endo-transition states in solvents with layered, smectic ordering compared to those that are isotropic. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Dynamic Mass Transfer of Hemoglobin at the Aqueous/Ionic-Liquid Interface Monitored with Liquid Core Optical Waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuwei; Yang, Xu; Zeng, Wanying; Wang, Jianhua

    2015-08-04

    Protein transfer from aqueous medium into ionic liquid is an important approach for the isolation of proteins of interest from complex biological samples. We hereby report a solid-cladding/liquid-core/liquid-cladding sandwich optical waveguide system for the purpose of monitoring the dynamic mass-transfer behaviors of hemoglobin (Hb) at the aqueous/ionic liquid interface. The optical waveguide system is fabricated by using a hydrophobic IL (1,3-dibutylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, BBimPF6) as the core, and protein solution as one of the cladding layer. UV-vis spectra are recorded with a CCD spectrophotometer via optical fibers. The recorded spectra suggest that the mass transfer of Hb molecules between the aqueous and ionic liquid media involve accumulation of Hb on the aqueous/IL interface followed by dynamic extraction/transfer of Hb into the ionic liquid phase. A part of Hb molecules remain at the interface even after the accomplishment of the extraction/transfer process. Further investigations indicate that the mass transfer of Hb from aqueous medium into the ionic liquid phase is mainly driven by the coordination interaction between heme group of Hb and the cationic moiety of ionic liquid, for example, imidazolium cation in this particular case. In addition, hydrophobic interactions also contribute to the transfer of Hb.

  6. Synthesis and Physico-Chemical Properties of New Tetraethylammonium-Based Amino Acid Chiral Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Basyaruddin Abdul Rahman

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the synthesis of a series of new tetraethylammonium-based amino acid chiral ionic liquids (CILs. Their physico-chemical properties, including melting point, thermal stability, viscosity and ionic conductivity, have been comprehensively studied. The obtained results indicated that the decomposition for these salts proceeds in one step and the temperature of decomposition (Tonset is in the range of 168–210 °C. Several new CILs prepared in this work showed high ionic conductivity compared to the amino acid ionic liquids (AAILs found in the literature.

  7. Hydrogen-Bond Dynamics in a Protic Ionic Liquid: Evidence of Large-Angle Jumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Johannes; Sonnleitner, Thomas; Liu, Liyuan; Buchner, Richard; Bonn, Mischa; Bakker, Huib J

    2012-10-18

    We study the molecular rotation of the protic room-temperature ionic liquid ethylammonium nitrate with dielectric relaxation spectroscopy and femtosecond-infrared spectroscopy (fs-IR) of the ammonium N-H vibrations. The results suggest that the rotation of ethylammonium ion takes place via large angular jumps. Such nondiffusive reorientational dynamics is unique to strongly hydrogen-bonded liquids such as water and indicates that the intermolecular interaction is highly directional in this class of ionic liquids.

  8. Development of a LSSVM-GC model for estimating the electrical conductivity of ionic liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gharagheizi, Farhad; Ilani-Kashkouli, Poorandokht; Sattari, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    In this communication, an extensive set of 1077 experimental electrical conductivity data for 54 ionic liquids (ILs) was collected from 21 different literature sources. Using this dataset, a reliable least square support vector machine-group contribution (LSSVM-GC) model has been developed, which...... employs a total of 22 sub-structures in addition to the temperature to represent/predict the electrical conductivity of ILs. In order to distinguish the effects of the anion and cation on the electrical conductivity of ILs, 11 sub-structures related to the chemical structure of anions, and 11 sub...

  9. Absorption degree analysis on biogas separation with ionic liquid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Suojiang; Bao, Di; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Xiangping

    2015-01-01

    For biogas upgrading, present work mainly focuses on either thermodynamics or mass transfer properties. A systematical study on these two aspects is important for developing a new biogas separation process. In this work, a new criterion "absorption degree", which combines both thermodynamics and mass transfer properties, was proposed for the first time to comprehensively evaluate the absorption performance. Henry's law constants of CO2 and CH4 in ionic liquids-polyethylene glycol dimethyl ethers mixtures were investigated. The liquid-side mass transfer coefficients (kL) were determined. The results indicate that IL-NHD mixtures exhibit not only a high CO2/CH4 selectivity, but also a fast kL for CO2 absorption. The [bmim][NO3]+NHD mixtures present a high absorption degree value for CO2 but a low value for CH4. For presenting a highest relative absorption degree value, the 50wt% [bmim][NO3]+50wt% NHD mixture is recommended for biogas upgrading. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Applications of Ionic Liquids in Electrochemical Sensors and Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra V. Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquids (ILs are salt that exist in the liquid phase at and around 298 K and are comprised of a bulky, asymmetric organic cation and the anion usually inorganic ion but some ILs also with organic anion. ILs have attracted much attention as a replacement for traditional organic solvents as they possess many attractive properties. Among these properties, intrinsic ion conductivity, low volatility, high chemical and thermal stability, low combustibility, and wide electrochemical windows are few. Due to negligible or nonzero volatility of these solvents, they are considered “greener” for the environment as they do not evaporate like volatile organic compounds (VOCs. ILs have been widely used in electrodeposition, electrosynthesis, electrocatalysis, electrochemical capacitor, lubricants, plasticizers, solvent, lithium batteries, solvents to manufacture nanomaterials, extraction, gas absorption agents, and so forth. Besides a brief discussion of the introduction, history, and properties of ILs the major purpose of this review paper is to provide an overview on the advantages of ILs for the synthesis of conducting polymer and nanoparticle when compared to conventional media and also to focus on the electrochemical sensors and biosensors based on IL/composite modified macrodisk electrodes. Subsequently, recent developments and major strategies for enhancing sensing performance are discussed.

  11. Influence of cation structure on binary liquid-liquid equilibria for systems containing ionic liquids based on trifluoromethanesulfonate anion with hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Andrzej; Karczemna, Ewa

    2010-04-29

    Binary liquid-liquid equilibria for 15 systems containing an ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate, 1-butyl-3-methylpyridinium trifluoromethanesulfonate, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium trifluoromethanesulfonate) with a hydrocarbon (n-hexane, n-heptane, cyclohexane, benzene, toluene) were measured by the dynamic method. The influence of cation structure of trifluoromethanesulfonate anion based ionic liquids on solubility of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons is discussed.

  12. Physical and electrochemical characterization of ionic liquids based on quaternary phosphonium cations containing a carbon-carbon double bond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsunashima, Katsuhiko, E-mail: tsunashima@wakayama-nct.ac.j [Department of Materials Science, Wakayama National College of Technology, 77 Noshima, Nada-cho, Gobo, Wakayama 644-0023 (Japan); Ono, Yasushi [Center for Basic Research and Development in Natural Sciences, Instrumental Analysis Laboratory, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Sugiya, Masashi [Nippon Chemical Industrial Co., Ltd., 9-11-1 Kameido, Koto-ku, Tokyo 136-8515 (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: The unsaturated phosphonium ionic liquids showed lower melting point than those of the corresponding saturated phosphonium ionic liquids. The unsaturated phosphonium ionic liquids exhibited high thermal stability when compared to the corresponding saturated phosphonium ionic liquids. The unsaturated phosphonium ionic liquids were lower viscous and higher conductive than the corresponding saturated phosphonium ionic liquids. The unsaturated phosphonium ionic liquids exhibited high cathodic stability as much as the corresponding saturated phosphonium ionic liquids. Iithium redox reaction was observed in the unsaturated phosphonium ionic liquids, which means the possibility to use for lithium battery electrolytes. - Abstract: Physical and electrochemical characterizations of novel two ionic liquids based on quaternary phosphonium cations containing an unsaturated carbon-carbon bond (triethyl(4-pentenyl)phosphonium and allyltributylphosphonium cations) are presented in this report. It was found that both unsaturated phosphonium cations gave low-melting salts in combination with a bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide anion. The thermogravimetric analysis suggested that the unsaturated phosphonium ionic liquids showed higher thermal stability than those of the corresponding saturated phosphonium ILs. The unsaturated phosphonium ionic liquids also exhibited relatively low viscosity and high conductivities when compared to those of the corresponding saturated phosphonium ionic liquids. These results indicate an improving effect of introducing a carbon-carbon double bond into the phosphonium cations on both the thermal stability and the transport property. The voltammetric measurements suggested that the triethyl(4-pentenyl)phosphonium-based ionic liquid showed a high cathodic stability, enabling the deposition and dissolution of metallic lithium in the phosphonium ionic liquid system.

  13. Catalytic Oxidation and Depolymerization of Lignin in Aqueous Ionic Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalitendu Das

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Lignin is an integral part of the plant cell wall, which provides rigidity to plants, also contributes to the recalcitrance of the lignocellulosic biomass to biochemical and biological deconstruction. Lignin is a promising renewable feedstock for aromatic chemicals; however, an efficient and economic lignin depolymerization method needs to be developed to enable the conversion. In this study, we investigated the depolymerization of alkaline lignin in aqueous 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [C2C1Im][OAc] under oxidizing conditions. Seven different transition metal catalysts were screened in presence of H2O2 as oxidizing agent in a batch reactor. CoCl2 and Nb2O5 proved to be the most effective catalysts in degrading lignin to aromatic compounds. A central composite design was used to optimize the catalyst loading, H2O2 concentration, and temperature for product formation. Results show that lignin was depolymerized, and the major degradation products found in the extracted oil were guaiacol, syringol, vanillin, acetovanillone, and homovanillic acid. Lignin streams were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography to determine effects of the experimental parameters on lignin depolymerization. The weight-average molecular weight (Mw of liquid stream lignin after oxidation, for CoCl2 and Nb2O5 catalysts were 1,202 and 1,520 g mol−1, respectively, lower than that of Kraft lignin. Polydispersity index of the liquid stream lignin increased as compared with Kraft lignin, indicating wide span of the molecular weight distribution as a result of lignin depolymerization. Results from this study provide insights into the role of oxidant and transition metal catalysts and the oxidative degradation reaction sequence of lignin toward product formation in presence of aqueous ionic liquid.

  14. Synthesis and Applications of Ionic Liquids Derived from Natural Sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappe, Cinzia; Marra, Alberto; Mele, Andrea

    Aiming to develop environmentally compatible chemical syntheses, the replacement of traditional organic solvents with ionic liquids (ILs) has attracted considerable attention. ILs are special molten salts with melting points below 100°C that are typically constituted of organic cations (imidazolium, pyridinium, sulfonium, phosphonium, etc.) and inorganic anions. Due to their ionic nature, they are endowed with high chemical and thermal stability, good solvent properties, and non-measurable vapor pressure. Although the recovery of unaltered ILs and recycling partly compensate their rather high cost, it is important to develop new synthetic approaches to less expensive and environmentally sustainable ILs based on renewable raw materials. In fact, most of these alternative solvents are still prepared starting from fossil feedstocks. Until now, only a limited number of ILs have been prepared from renewable sources. Surprisingly, the most available and inexpensive raw material, i.e., carbohydrates, has been hardly exploited in the synthesis of ILs. In 2003 imidazolium-based ILs were prepared from d-fructose and used as solvents in Mizoroki-Heck and Diels-Alder reactions. Later on, the first chiral ILs derived from sugars were prepared from methyl d-glucopyranoside. In the same year, a family of new chiral ILs, obtained from commercial isosorbide (dianhydro-d-glucitol), was described. A closely related approach was followed by other researchers to synthesize mono- and bis-ammonium ILs from isomannide (dianhydro-d-mannitol). Finally, a few ILs bearing a pentofuranose unit as the chiral moiety were prepared using sugar phosphates as glycosyl donors and 1-methylimidazole as the acceptor.

  15. On the collective network of ionic liquid/water mixtures. IV. Kinetic and rotational depolarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Christian; Sega, Marcello; Schmollngruber, Michael; Gailberger, Elias; Braun, Daniel; Steinhauser, Othmar

    2014-05-28

    Dielectric spectroscopy is a measure of the collective Coulomb interaction in liquid systems. Adding ionic liquids to an aqueous solution results in a decrease of the static value of the generalized dielectric constant which cannot be attributed to kinetic depolarization models characterized by the static conductivity and rotational relaxation constant. However, a dipolar Poisson-Boltzmann model computing the water depolarization in the proximity of ions is not only successful for simple electrolytes but also in case of molecular ionic liquids. Moreover, our simple geometric hydration model is also capable to explain the dielectric depolarization. Both models compute the dielectric constant of water and obtain the overall dielectric constant by averaging the values of its components, water and the ionic liquid, weighted by their volume occupancies. In this sense, aqueous ionic liquid mixtures seem to behave like polar mixtures.

  16. On the solid, liquid and solution structural organization of imidazolium ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dupont Jairton

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available 1,3-dialkyl imidazolium salts are one of the most popular and investigated classes of room temperature ionic liquids. Although in various cases the physical-chemical properties and/or the outcome of the processes in these liquids significantly differ from those performed in "classical" dipolar organic solvents, they are still regarded as merely homogeneous solvents. In this brief overview it is developed the concept that pure 1,3-dialkylimidazolium ionic liquids are better described as hydrogen-bonded polymeric supramolecules of the type {[(DAIx(Xx-n] n+ [(DAIx-n(Xx] n-}n where DAI is the 1,3-dialkylimidazolium cation and X the anion. This structural pattern is a general trend for the solid phase and is maintained to a great extent in the liquid phase and even in the gas phase. The introduction of other molecules and macromolecules occurs with a disruption of the hydrogen bond network and in some cases can generate nano-structures with polar and non-polar regions where inclusion-type compounds can be formed.

  17. Effect of hydrophobic ionic liquids on petroleum asphaltene dispersion and determination using UV-visible spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Zeeshan; Wilfredand, Cecilia Devi; Murugesan, Thanabalan

    2017-10-01

    Asphaltene aggregation and flocculation is one of the main problems faced by upstream industry. The aim of this research activity is to explore the effect of synthesized imidazolium and pyridinium based ionic liquids on the prevention of asphaltene aggregation problem in crude oil. In this research, number of hydrophobic and hydrophilic ionic liquids were tested. The investigations were performed for evaluating; the dispersion yield, effect of temperature, effect of stirring time and effect of solvent to flocculant ratio. Analysis were done using UV-visible Spectroscopy. The results depicted that the investigated hydrophobic ionic liquids have the tendency to abate asphaltene aggregation and can be considered as deflocculants.

  18. Immobilization of Lipase on Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Ionic Liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Han Ki; Lee, Jae Kwan; Kim, Mahn Joo [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Cheol Jin [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    A lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia was immobilized onto single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in two different ways in each of two solvent systems (buffer and ionic liquid). The most efficient immobilization was achieved in ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, BMIM-BF4). In this procedure, carbon nanotubes were first functionalized noncovalently with 1-pyrenebutyric acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester and then subject to the coupling reaction with the lipase in ionic liquid. The resulting immobilized enzyme displayed the highest activity in the transesterification of 1-phenylethyl alcohol in the presence of vinyl acetate in toluene.

  19. Thermophysical properties of two ionic liquids based on benzyl imidazolium cation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deive, Francisco J. [Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Rivas, Miguel A. [Applied Physics Department, University of Vigo, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Rodriguez, Ana, E-mail: aroguez@uvigo.e [Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo, 36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2011-03-15

    Density, refractive index, and dynamic viscosity of two new ionic liquids involving the 1-benzyl-3-methyl imidazolium cation and the common anions chloride and methylsulfate have been determined and correlated as a function of temperature. Volumetric properties for the ionic liquids are calculated from the density and the results are also enclosed. The Lorentz-Lorenz, Dale-Gladstone, Eykman, Oster, Arago-Biot, and Newton equations, as well as a modified Eykman were used to correlate satisfactorily the relation between the densities and refractive indices of the selected ionic liquids. The influence of the benzyl group on the density was compared with other alkyl imidazolium cations and the same anions.

  20. New for old. Password to the thermodynamics of the protic ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verevkin, Sergey P; Zaitsau, Dzmitry H; Tong, Bo; Welz-Biermann, Urs

    2011-07-28

    Activity coefficients at infinite dilution of some common solvents in a protic ionic liquid ethylammonium nitrate have been measured using well established gas-chromatography-method. This method was possible to apply due to extremely low vapour pressure of ethylammonium nitrate at temperatures below 100 °C. Activity coefficients and separation factors were compared with those for aprotic ionic liquids. A new window for intensive accumulation of thermodynamic properties of protic ionic liquids has been opened. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  1. Effect of UV exposure on the surface chemistry of wood veneers treated with ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patachia, Silvia, E-mail: st.patachia@unitbv.ro [' Transilvania' University of Brasov, Chemistry Department, Eroilor 29 Str., 500036, Brasov (Romania); Croitoru, Catalin, E-mail: c.croitoru@unitbv.ro [' Transilvania' University of Brasov, Chemistry Department, Eroilor 29 Str., 500036, Brasov (Romania); Friedrich, Christian [Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, Stefan-Meier-Str. 28, Freiburg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, the influence of four types of imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) on the chemical alteration of the surface of wood veneers exposed to 254 nm UV irradiation have been studied by using image analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and surface energy calculation. The wood treated with ionic liquids showed better stability to UV light, as demonstrated by the low lignin, carbonyl index and cellulose crystallinity index variation, as well as very small color modification of the surface with the increase of the UV exposure period, by comparing to non-treated wood. The results show that the tested ionic liquids could be effective as UV stabilizers.

  2. Electrochemical synthesis of indium(0) nanoparticles in haloindate(III) ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estager, Julien; Nockemann, Peter; Seddon, Kenneth R; Srinivasan, Geetha; Swadźba-Kwaśny, Małgorzata

    2012-01-09

    A synthetic route to indium(0) nanoparticles via an electrochemical reduction of haloindate(III) ionic liquids to indium(I), and its subsequent disproportionation to indium(0) and indium(III) in the bulk electrolyte, is described. In this sustainable method, the ionic liquid acts simultaneously as metal source, templating agent, and stabilising agent, with the electron as the only reducing agent. The nature of the ionic liquid cation is demonstrated to strongly affect the morphology and size distribution of the indium(0) nanoparticles. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Preparation and characterization of novel ionic liquid based on benzotriazolium cation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Sumei; Hou, Yawei; Huang, Weiguo; Shan, Yongkui [Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2005-07-25

    Six novel ionic liquids based on benzotriazolium ion were synthesized by an improved method. These ionic liquids were characterized by IR, {sup 1}H NMR, and elemental analysis. Their melting point, thermal stability, conductivity, electrochemical window and solubility properties in common solvents were investigated. The results indicate that these ionic liquids show the higher thermal stability (up to 345 C), the larger electrochemical window of 3 V, the peculiar solubility in traditional solvents and the excellent electrochemical medium in the electrochemical oxidation of naphthalene and ferrocene. (author)

  4. Nanofriction of Graphene/Ionic Liquid-Infused Block Copolymer Homoporous Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Rong; Fan, Pengpeng; Yan, Nina; Ji, Qingmin; Sunkulp, Goel; Wang, Yong

    2017-10-24

    We have infused graphene/ionic liquid into block copolymer homoporous membranes (HOMEs), which have highly ordered uniform cylindrical nanopores, to form compact, dense, and continuous graphene/ionic liquid (Gr/IL) lubricating layers at interfaces, enabling a reduction in the friction coefficient. Raman and XPS analyses, confirmed the parallel alignment of the cation of ILs on graphene by the π-π stacking interaction of the imidazolium ring with the graphene layer. This alignment loosens the lattice spacing of Gr in Gr/ILs, leading to a larger lattice spacing of 0.36 nm in Gr of Gr/ILs hybrids than the pristine Gr (0.33 nm). The loose graphene layers, which are caused by the coexistence of graphene and ILs, would make the sliding easier, and favor the lubrication. An increase in the friction coefficient was observed on ILs-infused block copolymer HOMEs, as compared to Gr/ILs-infused ones, due to the absence of Gr and the unstably formed ILs film. Gr/ILs-infused block copolymer HOMEs also exhibit much smaller residual indentation depth and peak indentation depth in comparison with ILs-infused ones. This indicates that the existence of stably supported Gr/ILs hybrid liquid films aids the reduction of the friction coefficient by preventing the thinning of the lubricant layer and exposure of the underlying block copolymer HOMEs.

  5. Li Ion Conducting Polymer Gel Electrolytes Based on Ionic Liquid/PVDF-HFP Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hui; Huang, Jian; Xu, Jun John; Khalfan, Amish; Greenbaum, Steve G.

    2009-01-01

    Ionic liquids thermodynamically compatible with Li metal are very promising for applications to rechargeable lithium batteries. 1-methyl-3-propylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (P13TFSI) is screened out as a particularly promising ionic liquid in this study. Dimensionally stable, elastic, flexible, nonvolatile polymer gel electrolytes (PGEs) with high electrochemical stabilities, high ionic conductivities and other desirable properties have been synthesized by dissolving Li imide salt (LiTFSI) in P13TFSI ionic liquid and then mixing the electrolyte solution with poly(vinylidene-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) copolymer. Adding small amounts of ethylene carbonate to the polymer gel electrolytes dramatically improves the ionic conductivity, net Li ion transport concentration, and Li ion transport kinetics of these electrolytes. They are thus favorable and offer good prospects in the application to rechargeable Li batteries including open systems like Li/air batteries, as well as more “conventional” rechargeable lithium and lithium ion batteries. PMID:20354587

  6. Homogeneous Liquid–Liquid Extraction of Rare Earths with the Betaine—Betainium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide Ionic Liquid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogerstraete, Tom Vander; Onghena, Bieke; Binnemans, Koen

    2013-01-01

    Several fundamental extraction parameters such as the kinetics and loading were studied for a new type of metal solvent extraction system with ionic liquids. The binary mixture of the ionic liquid betainium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and water shows thermomorphic behavior with an upper critical solution temperature (UCST), which can be used to avoid the slower mass transfer due to the generally higher viscosity of ionic liquids. A less viscous homogeneous phase and mixing on a molecular scale are obtained when the mixture is heated up above 55 °C. The influence of the temperature, the heating and cooling times, were studied for the extraction of neodymium(III) with betaine. A plausible and equal extraction mechanism is proposed in bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, nitrate, and chloride media. After stripping of the metals from the ionic liquid phase, a higher recovery of the ionic liquid was obtained by salting-out of the ionic liquid fraction lost by dissolution in the aqueous phase. The change of the upper critical solution temperature by the addition of HCl or betaine was investigated. In addition, the viscosity was measured below and above the UCST as a function of the temperature. PMID:24169434

  7. Structural investigation of room-temperature ionic liquids and high-temperature ionic melts using triplet correlation functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhabal, Debdas; Gupta, Aditya; Kashyap, Hemant K.

    2017-03-01

    We use means of molecular dynamics simulation to understand the local structural arrangements in three trihexyltetradecylphosphonium (P6,6,6 ,14 +) based room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) by using triplet correlation functions (TCFs) along with pair correlation functions (PCFs) and X-ray scattering structure functions (S(q)s). The anions in these RTILs are either spherically symmetric but with different effective sizes (bromide (Br-) and tetrafluoroborate (BF4-)) or angular such as dicyanamide (DCA-). The simulated PCFs, S(q)s, and TCFs of the three RTILs have been compared with three high-temperature ionic melts (HTIMs); NaBr, NaCl, and NaF. In general, the pair correlation function gives angle-averaged probability as a function of inter-particle distance whereas the TCFs associated with equilateral and isosceles triangle configurations can be used to delineate angle-resolved information of liquids structure within nearest solvation shells. For the three ionic liquids studied, a very careful examination of co-ionic and counter-ionic TCFs associated with the equilateral triangular configuration within the nearest solvation shells of the ions reveals that co-ions (cat-cat-cat and an-an-an) favor close-packed local arrangement, but with lower probability for the DCA- RTIL. Co-ionic and counter-ionic TCFs obtained for HTIMs are found to be similar to that of RTILs with spherical anions. The TCFs associated with the isosceles triangle configuration signify that the ionic liquid with Br- anions tends to exhibit larger anion-cation-anion angle than that in the other two RTILs. Moreover, diffused counter-ionic angular correlations are observed in the DCA- system. We also observed angle-dependent charge ordering in all the three RTILs although its extent is enhanced for RTILs with spherical anions, very similar to what we find for NaBr, NaCl, and NaF melts. This study suggests that the presence of charge ordering is a generic feature of both the RTILs and HTIMs.

  8. Bimolecular electron transfer in ionic liquids: are reaction rates anomalously high?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Min; Kaintz, Anne; Baker, Gary A; Maroncelli, Mark

    2012-02-02

    Steady-state and picosecond time-resolved emission spectroscopy are used to monitor the bimolecular electron transfer reaction between the electron acceptor 9,10-dicyanoanthracene in its S(1) state and the donor N,N-dimethylaniline in a variety of ionic liquids and several conventional solvents. Detailed study of this quenching reaction was undertaken in order to better understand why rates reported for similar diffusion-limited reactions in ionic liquids sometimes appear much higher than expected given the viscous nature of these liquids. Consistent with previous studies, Stern-Volmer analyses of steady-state and lifetime data provide effective quenching rate constants k(q), which are often 10-100-fold larger than simple predictions for diffusion-limited rate constants k(D) in ionic liquids. Similar departures from k(D) are also observed in conventional organic solvents having comparably high viscosities, indicating that this behavior is not unique to ionic liquids. A more complete analysis of the quenching data using a model combining approximate solution of the spherically symmetric diffusion equation with a Marcus-type description of electron transfer reveals the reasons for frequent observation of k(q) ≫ k(D). The primary cause is that the high viscosities typical of ionic liquids emphasize the transient component of diffusion-limited reactions, which renders the interpretation of rate constants derived from Stern-Volmer analyses ambiguous. Using a more appropriate description of the quenching process enables satisfactory fits of data in both ionic liquid and conventional solvents using a single set of physically reasonable electron transfer parameters. Doing so requires diffusion coefficients in ionic liquids to exceed hydrodynamic predictions by significant factors, typically in the range of 3-10. Direct, NMR measurements of solute diffusion confirm this enhanced diffusion in ionic liquids.

  9. Ionic Liquids as a Basis Context for Developing High school Chemistry Teaching Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernani; Mudzakir, A.; Sumarna, O.

    2017-02-01

    This research aims to produce a map of connectedness highschool chemical content with the context of the modern chemical materials applications based on ionic liquids. The research method is content analysis of journal articles related to the ionic liquid materials and the textbooks of high school chemistry and textbooks of general chemistry at the university. The instrument used is the development format of basic text that connect and combine content and context. The results showed the connectedness between: (1) the context lubricants ionic liquid with the content of ionic bonding, covalent bonding, metal bonding, interaction between the particles of matter, the elements of main group, the elements of transition group, and the classification of macromolecules; (2) the context of fuel cell electrolite with the content of ionic bonding, covalent bonding, metal bonding, interaction between the particles of matter, Volta cell, and electrolysis cell; (3) the contect of nanocellulose with the content of ionic bonding, covalent bonding, metal bonding, interaction between the particles of matter, colloid, carbon compound, and the classification of macromolecules; and (4) the context of artificial muscle system with the content of ionic bond, covalent bond, metal bonding, interaction between the particles of matter, hydrocarbons, electrolytes and non-electrolytes, and the classification of macromolecules. Based on the result of this content analysis, the context of ionic liquid is predicted can be utilized for the enrichment of high school chemistry and has the potential to become teaching material’s context of high school chemistry in the future.

  10. The Formation of pH-Sensitive Wormlike Micelles in Ionic Liquids Driven by the Binding Ability of Anthranilic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing You

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Wormlike micelles are typically formed by mixing cationic and anionic surfactants because of attractive interactions in oppositely charged head-groups. The structural transitions of wormlike micelles triggered by pH in ionic liquids composed of N-alkyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bromide-based ILs (ionic liquids and anthranilic acid were investigated. These structures were found responsible for the variations in flow properties identified by rheology and dynamic light scattering, and account for the structures observed with cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM. High-viscosity, shear-thinning behavior, and Maxwell-type dynamic rheology shown by the system at certain pH values suggested that spherical micelles grow into entangled wormlike micelles. Light scattering profiles also supported the notion of pH-sensitive microstructural transitions in the solution. Cryo-TEM images confirmed the presence of spherical micelles in the low-viscosity sample and entangled wormlike micelles in the peak viscosity sample. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis revealed that the pH sensitivity of ionic liquid systems originated from the pH-dependent binding ability of anthranilic acid to the cationic headgroup of ionic liquids.

  11. Catalytic Reaction Engineering using Ionic liquids: Hydroformylation of 1-Octene

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Amit

    2009-01-01

    Une démarche de type génie de la réaction chimique est appliquée à l'hydroformylation modèle d'oct-1-ène par des complexes lipophobes du rhodium préparés à partir de Rh(CO)2(acac) en phase liquide ionique ([Bmim][PF6]) ou en phase liquide ionique supportée sur silice. La réaction étant contrôlée par la concentration des réactifs dans la phase liquide ionique catalytique, une première étape a consisté à mesurer ces concentrations tant pour les deux gaz (H2 et CO) que pour l'oct-1-ène à différe...

  12. Complex Permittivity of Ionic Liquid Mixtures Investigated by Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Sen; Rubano, Andrea; Paparo, Domenico

    2017-08-03

    Ionic liquids are salts found in their liquid state at ambient temperature. The physicochemical properties of ionic liquids can be tailored by selecting constituent cation and anion from numerous available ions. The physicochemical properties can be further tuned by mixing different neat ionic liquids. Reported data of ionic liquid mixtures reveal that frequently investigated properties such as density, viscosity, and thermal stability follow corresponding mixing laws. Complex permittivity in the interval of terahertz frequencies is of great importance to understand the molecular interactions and the solvation dynamics which drive the macroscopic properties of ionic liquids; however, to the best of our knowledge, there are few reports about the mixing behavior of complex permittivity in ionic liquid mixtures. In this contribution, binary mixtures of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazoulium iodide ([C4C1im]I) and 1-butyl-3- methylimidazoulium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([C4C1im][NTf2]) are investigated in the terahertz spectral range, and the resulting low-energy spectra are analyzed in order to clarify the mixing laws at play. The results show that the complex permittivity of mixtures of [C4C1im]I and ([C4C1im][NTf2] obeys a linear mixing law.

  13. Morphology and Ionic Conductivity of Block Copolymer Electrolytes Containing Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Moon Jeong

    2015-03-01

    The global energy crisis and an increase in environmental pollution in the recent years have drawn the attention of the scientific community towards the development of efficient electrochemical devices. Polymers containing charged species have the potential to serve as electrolytes in next-generation devices and achieving high ion transport properties in these electrolytes is the key to improving their efficiency. Although the synthesis and characterization of a wide variety of ion-containing polymers have been extensively reported over the last decade, quantitative understanding of the factors governing the ion transport properties of these materials is in its infancy. In this talk, I will present the current understanding of the diverse factors affecting the thermodynamics, morphologies and ion transport of ion-containing polymers by focusing on the use of ionic liquids (ILs). Various strategies for accessing improved transport properties of IL-containing polymers are elucidated by focusing on the role of IL-polymer interactions. The major accomplishment of obtaining well-defined morphologies for these IL-containing polymers by the use of block copolymer is particularly emphasized as a novel means of controlling the transport properties. The application of IL-incorporated polymer electrolytes in high temperature fuel cells and electro-active actuators is also enclosed.

  14. Li-Doped Ionic Liquid Electrolytes: From Bulk Phase to Interfacial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Justin B.; Lawson, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Ionic liquids have been proposed as candidate electrolytes for high-energy density, rechargeable batteries. We present an extensive computational analysis supported by experimental comparisons of the bulk and interfacial properties of a representative set of these electrolytes as a function of Li-salt doping. We begin by investigating the bulk electrolyte using quantum chemistry and ab initio molecular dynamics to elucidate the solvation structure of Li(+). MD simulations using the polarizable force field of Borodin and coworkers were then performed, from which we obtain an array of thermodynamic and transport properties. Excellent agreement is found with experiments for diffusion, ionic conductivity, and viscosity. Combining MD simulations with electronic structure computations, we computed the electrochemical window of the electrolytes across a range of Li(+)-doping levels and comment on the role of the liquid environment. Finally, we performed a suite of simulations of these Li-doped electrolytes at ideal electrified interfaces to evaluate the differential capacitance and the equilibrium Li(+) distribution in the double layer. The magnitude of differential capacitance is in good agreement with our experiments and exhibits the characteristic camel-shaped profile. In addition, the simulations reveal Li(+) to be highly localized to the second molecular layer of the double layer, which is supported by additional computations that find this layer to be a free energy minimum with respect to Li(+) translation.

  15. The aquatic impact of ionic liquids on freshwater organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Susana P F; Pinto, Paula C A G; Saraiva, M Lúcia M F S; Rocha, Fábio R P; Santos, Joyce R P; Monteiro, Regina T R

    2015-11-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs), also known as liquid electrolytes, are powerful solvents with a wide variety of academic and industrial applications. Bioassays with aquatic organisms constitute an effective tool for the evaluation of ILs' toxicity, as well as for the prediction and identification of possible moieties that act as toxicophores. In this work, the acute toxicity of six ILs and two commonly used organic solvents was evaluated using freshwater organisms: Daphnia magna, Raphidocelis subcapitata and Hydra attenuata. The bioassays were performed by exposing the organisms to increasing concentrations of the ILs and observing D. magna immobilization, R. subcapitata growth inhibition, and the morphological or mortality effects in H. attenuata. The results demonstrate that the tested organisms are not equally susceptible to the ILs, e.g., bmpyr [BF4] was the least toxic compound for R. subcapitata, N1,1 [N1,1,1OOH] for D. magna and emim [Tf2N] for H. attenuata. This highlights the importance of applying a battery of assays in toxicological analysis. Additionally, Hydra proved to be the most tolerant species to the tested ILs. According to their hazard rankings, the tested ILs are considered practically harmless or moderately toxic, except (Hex)3(TDec)P [Cl], which was classified as highly toxic. The ILs were revealed to be more harmful to aquatic systems than the tested organic solvents, reaffirming the need to analyze carefully the (eco)toxicological impact of these compounds. The present study provides additional data in the evaluation of the potential hazard and the impact of ILs in the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Formation of Boundary Film from Ionic Liquids Enhanced by Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Nyberg

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs have several properties that make them interesting candidates as base fluids for extreme conditions. However, a lack of compatibility with tribo-improving additives combined with an often overly aggressive nature is limiting their use as base fluids. To overcome these drawbacks, hydrocarbon-imitating RTIL base fluids have recently been developed. In this study, the effects of several common additives in the novel RTIL (P-SiSO were examined by laboratory tribotesting. A reciprocating steel-steel ball-on-flat setup in an air atmosphere was used, where the lubricant performance was evaluated over a range of loads and temperatures. Surface analyses after testing were carried out using optical profilometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS. Neat P-SiSO displayed high performance in the tribotests. At an elevated load and temperature, a shift in lubrication mode was observed with an accompanying increase in friction and wear. Surface analysis revealed a boundary film rich in Si and O in the primary lubrication mode, while P was detected after a shift to the secondary lubrication mode. An amine additive was effective in reducing wear and friction under harsh conditions. The amine was determined to increase formation of the protective Si–O film, presumably by enhancing the anion activity.

  17. Thermoresponsive ketoprofen-imprinted monolith prepared in ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuan; Zhao, Chun-Yan; Wang, Xian-Hua; Huang, Yan-Ping; Liu, Zhao-Sheng

    2014-09-01

    A thermoresponsive imprinted monolith with the ability of molecular recognition for ketoprofen was prepared for the first time. The smart monolith was synthesized in a stainless steel column using acrylamide (AAm) and 2-acrylamide-2-methyl propanesulfonic acid (AMPS) as functional monomers, which can form interpolymer complexation to restrict access of the analyte to the imprinted networks at low temperatures. To avoid a high back pressure of the column derived from neat dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a porogenic solvent that is needed to solve polar AMPS, an ionic liquid, [BMIM]BF4, was introduced into the pre-polymerization mixture. The molecular recognition ability towards ketoprofen of the resulting thermoresponsive molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) monolith displayed significant dependence on temperature compared with a non-imprinted column (NIP), and the greatest imprinting factor was achieved at the transition temperature of 35 °C (above 10). Furthermore, the number of binding sites of the smart MIP monolith at 35 °C was about 76 times as large as that at 25 °C. In addition, Freundlich analyses indicated that the thermoresponsive MIP monolith had homogeneous affinity sites at both 25 and 35 °C with heterogeneity index 0.9251 and 0.9851, respectively.

  18. Inorganic/Organic Double-Network Gels Containing Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamio, Eiji; Yasui, Tomoki; Iida, Yu; Gong, Jian Ping; Matsuyama, Hideto

    2017-12-01

    Highly robust ion gels, termed double-network (DN) ion gels, composed of inorganic/organic interpenetrating networks and a large amount of ionic liquids (ILs), are fabricated. The DN ion gels with an 80 wt% IL content show extraordinarily high mechanical strength: more than 28 MPa of compressive fracture stress. In the DN ion gel preparation, a brittle inorganic network of physically bonded silica nanoparticles and a ductile organic network of polydimethylacrylamide (PDMAAm) are formed in the IL. Because of the different reaction mechanisms of the inorganic/organic networks, the DN ion gels can be formed by an easy and free-shapeable one-pot synthesis. They can be prepared in a controllable manner by manipulating the formation order of the inorganic and organic networks via not only multistep but also single-step processes. When silica particles form a network prior to the PDMAAm network formation, DN ion gels can be prepared. The brittle silica particle network in the DN ion gel, serving as sacrificial bonds, easily ruptures under loading to dissipate energy, while the ductile PDMAAm network maintains the shape of the material by the rubber elasticity. Given the reversible physical bonding between the silica particles, the DN ion gels exhibit a significant degree of self-recovery by annealing. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Towards Rational Design of Nanoparticle Catalysis in Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Yan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This feature article introduces the strategies on the design of highly efficient nanoparticle (NP catalytic systems in ionic liquids (ILs. The employment of functional ILs as the media for NP preparation and catalysis could prove advantageous in terms of enhancing both NP stability and catalytic activity. Hydroxyl group functionalized ILs, in particular, exhibited a remarkable promotion effect on a variety of reactions catalyzed by NPs, such as hydrogenation over Rh NPs, hydrodehalogenation over Pt NPs and Suzuki reaction over Pd NPs. In some cases, tailor-made stabilizer is used in addition to keep the NPs sufficiently stable. For example, a carboxylic group modified polyvinylpyrrolidone endows NPs three-fold stabilization, including steric, electrostatic and ligand stabilizations, which leads to excellent stability of the NPs. The catalytic activities of these NPs, on the other hand, are not compromised, as each of these stabilizations is not too strong. Following that, the article describes our recent work on the rational design of bimetallic NPs in ILs and the development of multifunctional systems involving NPs for a tandem reaction sequence that convert lignin-derived phenolic compounds into fuels.

  20. Electrochemistry of magnesium electrolytes in ionic liquids for secondary batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardar, Gulin; Sleightholme, Alice E S; Naruse, Junichi; Hiramatsu, Hidehiko; Siegel, Donald J; Monroe, Charles W

    2014-10-22

    The electrochemistry of Mg salts in room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) was studied using plating/stripping voltammetry to assess the viability of IL solvents for applications in secondary Mg batteries. Borohydride (BH4(-)), trifluoromethanesulfonate (TfO(-)), and bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Tf2N(-)) salts of Mg were investigated. Three ILs were considered: l-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (BMIM)-Tf2N, N-methyl-N-propylpiperidinium (PP13)-Tf2N, and N,N-diethyl-N-methyl(2-methoxyethyl)ammonium (DEME(+)) tetrafluoroborate (BF4(-)). Salts and ILs were combined to produce binary solutions in which the anions were structurally similar or identical, if possible. Contrary to some prior reports, no salt/IL combination appeared to facilitate reversible Mg plating. In solutions containing BMIM(+), oxidative activity near 0.8 V vs Mg/Mg(2+) is likely associated with the BMIM cation, rather than Mg stripping. The absence of voltammetric signatures of Mg plating from ILs with Tf2N(-) and BF4(-) suggests that strong Mg/anion Coulombic attraction inhibits electrodeposition. Cosolvent additions to Mg(Tf2N)2/PP13-Tf2N were explored but did not result in enhanced plating/stripping activity. The results highlight the need for IL solvents or cosolvent systems that promote Mg(2+) dissociation.

  1. Ionic Liquid based polymer electrolytes for electrochemical sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Altšmíd

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Amperometric NO2 printed sensor with a new type of solid polymer electrolyte and a carbon working electrode has been developed. The electrolytes based on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonylimide [EMIM][N(Tf2], 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate [BMIM][CF3SO3] and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [EMIM][BF4] ionic liquids were immobilized in poly(vinylidene fluoride matrix [PVDF]. The analyte, gaseous nitrogen dioxide, was detected by reduction at -500 mV vs. platinum pseudoreference electrode. The sensors showed a linear behavior in the whole tested range, i.e., 0 - 5 ppm and their sensitivities were in order of 0.3 x∙10-6 A/ppm. The sensor sensitivity was influenced by the electric conductivity of printing formulation; the higher the conductivity, the higher the sensor sensitivity. The rise/recovery times were in order of tens of seconds. The use of  screen printing technology and platinum pseudoreference electrode simplify the sensor fabrication and it does not have any negative effect on the sensor stability.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.3.7371

  2. Enhanced performance of dicationic ionic liquid electrolytes by organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song; Zhang, Pengfei; Fulvio Pasquale, F; Hillesheim Patrick, C; Feng, Guang; Dai, Sheng; Cummings Peter, T

    2014-07-16

    The use of dicationic ionic liquid (DIL) electrolytes in supercapacitors is impeded by the slow dynamics of DILs, whereas the addition of organic solvents into DIL electrolytes improves ion transport and then enhances the power density of supercapacitors. In this work, the influences of organic solvents on the conductivity of DILs and the electrical double layer (EDL) of DIL-based supercapacitors are investigated using classical molecular dynamics simulation. Two types of organic solvents, acetonitrile (ACN) and propylene carbonate (PC), were used to explore the effects of different organic solvents on the EDL structure and capacitance of DIL/organic solvent-based supercapacitors. Firstly, it was found that the conductivity of DIL electrolytes was greatly enhanced in the presence of the organic solvent ACN. Secondly, a stronger adsorption of PC on graphite results in different EDL structures formed by DIL/ACN and DIL/PC electrolytes. The expulsion of co-ions from EDLs was observed in DIL/organic solvent electrolytes rather than neat DILs and this feature is more evident in DIL/PC. Furthermore, the bell-shaped differential capacitance-electric potential curve was not essentially changed by the presence of organic solvents. Comparing DIL/organic solvent electrolytes with neat DILs, the capacitance is slightly increased by organic solvents, which is in agreement with experimental observation.

  3. Preparation of polyoxometalates in ionic liquids by ionothermal synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shiwei; Liu, Wenli; Li, Yangguang; Wu, Qiong; Wang, Enbo; Zhang, Zhiming

    2010-02-21

    Ionothermal synthesis was applied to the formation of polyoxometalates (POMs) and two new compounds [EMIM](8)Na(9)[WFe(9)(micro(3)-O)(3)(micro(2)-OH)(6)O(4)H(2)O(SiW(9)O(34))(3)].7H(2)O (, [EMIM](8)Na(9)[].7H(2)O, EMIM = 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium) and [EMIM](4)[SiMo(12)O(40)].12H(2)O (), have been successfully produced in the ionic liquid (IL) [EMIM](4)Br. They were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, UV-vis, IR and TG analysis. Furthermore, the magnetic properties of and the electrochemical properties of were studied. is a high-nuclear transition metal substituted polyoxometalate (TMSP) and the unprecedented polyoxoanion of is composed of three [alpha-SiW(9)O(34)](10-) Keggin moieties connected by a {WFe(9)} cluster core. is a heteropolyoxometalate with the polyoxoanion of alpha-Keggin type.

  4. Freezing Point Determination of Water–Ionic Liquid Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yanrong; Meyer, Anne S.; Nie, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Freezing points ofaqueous solutions of HOEtpyBr, HOEtmimBr, AmimCl,EtOMmimCl, EmimDep, and EmimAc were measured using a modified Beckmannapparatus with automatic data logging. The ionic liquids (ILs) inthis study exhibited features similar to those of inorganic saltsin depressing the freezing point.......841 K in thefirst system and at a water mole fraction of 0.657 and 202.565 K inthe second system. Water activities in aqueous IL solutions were predictedby COSMO-RS and COSMO-SAC and compared to water activities derivedfrom the experimentally determined freezing points. The COSMO-RS predictionswere...... of water. On the basis of the cryoscopicbehavior recorded, the solid phases formed at higher IL contents werepresumed to be hydrates of the form IL·nH2O. The HOEtpyBr+H2O and HOEtmimBr+H2O systems formed simple eutectic systems. The eutectic points werefound to be at a water mole fraction of 0.617 and 219...

  5. Paramagnetic ionic liquids for measurements of density using magnetic levitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwambok, David K; Thuo, Martin M; Atkinson, Manza B J; Mirica, Katherine A; Shapiro, Nathan D; Whitesides, George M

    2013-09-03

    Paramagnetic ionic liquids (PILs) provide new capabilities to measurements of density using magnetic levitation (MagLev). In a typical measurement, a diamagnetic object of unknown density is placed in a container containing a PIL. The container is placed between two magnets (typically NdFeB, oriented with like poles facing). The density of the diamagnetic object can be determined by measuring its position in the magnetic field along the vertical axis (levitation height, h), either as an absolute value or relative to internal standards of known density. For density measurements by MagLev, PILs have three advantages over solutions of paramagnetic salts in aqueous or organic solutions: (i) negligible vapor pressures; (ii) low melting points; (iii) high thermal stabilities. In addition, the densities, magnetic susceptibilities, glass transition temperatures, thermal decomposition temperatures, viscosities, and hydrophobicities of PILs can be tuned over broad ranges by choosing the cation-anion pair. The low melting points and high thermal stabilities of PILs provide large liquidus windows for density measurements. This paper demonstrates applications and advantages of PILs in density-based analyses using MagLev.

  6. Functionalization of Cellulose Nanocrystals in Choline Lactate Ionic Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Montes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs are valuable nanomaterials obtained from renewable resources. Their properties make them suitable for a wide range of applications, including polymer reinforcement. However, due to their highly hydrophilic character, it is necessary to modify their surface with non-polar functional groups before their incorporation into a hydrophobic polymer matrix. In this work, cellulose nanocrystals were modified using a silane coupling agent and choline lactate, an ionic liquid derived from renewable resources, as a reaction medium. Modified cellulose nanocrystals were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, showing new peaks associated to the modification performed. X-ray diffraction was used to analyze the crystalline structure of functionalized cellulose nanocrystals and to optimize the amount of silane for functionalization. Poly(lactic acid (PLA nanocomposites containing 1 wt % of functionalized cellulose nanocrystals were prepared. They were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM and mechanical tests. The use of choline lactate as reaction media has been shown to be an alternative method for the dispersion and silanization of the cellulose nanocrystals without the addition of an external catalyst.

  7. Osmotic heat engine using thermally responsive ionic liquids

    KAUST Repository

    Zhong, Yujiang

    2017-07-11

    The osmotic heat engine (OHE) is a promising technology for converting low grade heat to electricity. Most of the existing studies have focused on thermolytic salt systems. Herein, for the first time, we proposed to use thermally responsive ionic liquids (TRIL) that have either an upper critical solution temperature (UCST) or lower critical solution temperature (LCST) type of phase behavior as novel thermolytic osmotic agents. Closed-loop TRIL-OHEs were designed based on these unique phase behaviors to convert low grade heat to work or electricity. Experimental studies using two UCST-type TRILs, protonated betaine bis(trifluoromethyl sulfonyl)imide ([Hbet][Tf2N]) and choline bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Choline][Tf2N]) showed that (1) the specific energy of the TRIL-OHE system could reach as high as 4.0 times that of the seawater and river water system, (2) the power density measured from a commercial FO membrane reached up to 2.3 W/m2, and (3) the overall energy efficiency reached up to 2.6% or 18% of the Carnot efficiency at no heat recovery and up to 10.5% or 71% of the Carnet efficiency at 70% heat recovery. All of these results clearly demonstrated the great potential of using TRILs as novel osmotic agents to design high efficient OHEs for recovery of low grade thermal energy to work or electricity.

  8. Sensing of Zinc-Containing Nanopollutants with an Ionic Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid maturing of nanotechnology and its wide range of applications not bring benefits only, so the downsides are worth noting. Nanopollutants, generally undetectable, are often found as byproducts involved in various chemical or physical reactions. Many nanopollutants are concerned and suspected of causing negative impact on human health due to their unpredictable existence in the environment. Unlike the traditional sensing systems which can detect select gaseous molecules, effective nanoparticle sensing methods are still lacking in the literature. In this paper, sensing of zinc-containing nanopollutants suspended in N2 with a room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL ([C4mim][PF6] (1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium hexafluorophosphate has been studied. The sensitivities (RIL/Rnano obtained by determination of the RTIL resistance to the absorbed phosphor fly ash (<200 nm is 7.0, while the RTIL has higher sensitivity of 11 and 10, respectively, to ZnO and ZnS nanoparticles By component-fitted X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES spectroscopy, it seems that the N-methyl imidazole (mim complexes are formed during sensing of the phosphor fly ash, ZnO and ZnS nanoparticles with the RTIL. The 1H and 31P NMR observations also suggest that the (mim behaves as a carrier during sensing of nanopollutants with the RTIL.

  9. Proactive aquatic ecotoxicological assessment of room-temperature ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulacki, K.J.; Chaloner, D.T.; Larson, J.H.; Costello, D.M.; Evans-White, M. A.; Docherty, K.M.; Bernot, R.J.; Brueseke, M.A.; Kulpa, C.F.; Lamberti, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Aquatic environments are being contaminated with a myriad of anthropogenic chemicals, a problem likely to continue due to both unintentional and intentional releases. To protect valuable natural resources, novel chemicals should be shown to be environmentally safe prior to use and potential release into the environment. Such proactive assessment is currently being applied to room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs). Because most ILs are water-soluble, their effects are likely to manifest in aquatic ecosystems. Information on the impacts of ILs on numerous aquatic organisms, focused primarily on acute LC50 and EC50 endpoints, is now available, and trends in toxicity are emerging. Cation structure tends to influence IL toxicity more so than anion structure, and within a cation class, the length of alkyl chain substituents is positively correlated with toxicity. While the effects of ILs on several aquatic organisms have been studied, the challenge for aquatic toxicology is now to predict the effects of ILs in complex natural environments that often include diverse mixtures of organisms, abiotic conditions, and additional stressors. To make robust predictions about ILs will require coupling of ecologically realistic laboratory and field experiments with standard toxicity bioassays and models. Such assessments would likely discourage the development of especially toxic ILs while shifting focus to those that are more environmentally benign. Understanding the broader ecological effects of emerging chemicals, incorporating that information into predictive models, and conveying the conclusions to those who develop, regulate, and use those chemicals, should help avoid future environmental degradation. ?? 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

  10. Ether-Bond-Containing Ionic Liquids as Supercapacitor Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Anthony J R; Sanchez-Ramirez, Nédher; Torresi, Roberto M; Hall, Peter J

    2013-09-05

    Electrochemical capacitors (ECs) are electrical energy storage devices that have the potential to be very useful in a wide range of applications, especially where there is a large disparity between peak and average power demands. The use of ionic liquids (ILs) as electrolytes in ECs can increase the energy density of devices; however, the viscosity and conductivity of ILs adversely influence the power density of the device. We present experimental results where several ILs containing different cations have been employed as the electrolyte in cells containing mesoporous carbon electrodes. Specifically, the behavior of ILs containing an ether bond in an alkyl side chain are compared with those of a similar structure and size but containing purely alkyl side chains. Using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and constant current cycling, we show that the presence of the ether bond can dramatically increase the specific capacitance and reduce device resistance. These results have the important implication that such ILs can be used to tailor the physical properties and electrochemical performance of IL-based electrolytes.

  11. EFFECTS OF GAMMA RADIATION ON ELECTROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF IONIC LIQUIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, A; Nicholas Bridges, N; Thad Adams, T; John Mickalonis, J; Mark02 Williamson, M

    2009-04-21

    The electrochemical properties of ionic liquids (ILs) make them attractive for possible replacement of inorganic salts in high temperature molten salt electrochemical processing of nuclear fuel. To be a feasible replacement solvent, ILs need to be stable in moderate and high doses of radiation without adverse chemical and physical effects. Here, we exposed seven different ILs to a 1.2 MGy dose of gamma radiation to investigate their physical and chemical properties as they related to radiological stability. The azolium-based ILs experienced the greatest change in appearance, but these ILs were chemically more stable to gamma radiation than some of the other classes of ILs tested, due to the presence of aromatic electrons in the azolium ring. All the ILs exhibited a decrease in their conductivity and electrochemical window (at least 1.1 V), both of which could affect the utility of ILs in electrochemical processing. The concentration of the irradiation decomposition products was less than 3 mole %, with no impurities detectable using NMR techniques.

  12. Method of making ionic liquid mediated sol-gel sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Abdul; Shearrow, Anne M.

    2017-01-31

    Ionic liquid (IL)-mediated sol-gel hybrid organic-inorganic materials present enormous potential for effective use in analytical microextraction. One obstacle to materializing this prospect arises from high viscosity of ILs significantly slowing down sol-gel reactions. A method was developed which provides phosphonium-based, pyridinium-based, and imidazolium-based IL-mediated advanced sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid materials for capillary microextraction. Scanning electron microscopy results demonstrate that ILs can serve as porogenic agents in sol-gel reactions. IL-mediated sol-gel coatings prepared with silanol-terminated polymers provided up to 28 times higher extractions compared to analogous sol-gel coatings prepared without any IL in the sol solution. This study shows that IL-generated porous morphology alone is not enough to provide effective extraction media: careful choice of the organic polymer and the precursor with close sol-gel reactivity must be made to ensure effective chemical bonding of the organic polymer to the created sol-gel material to be able to provide the desired sorbent characteristics.

  13. Osmotic Heat Engine Using Thermally Responsive Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yujiang; Wang, Xinbo; Feng, Xiaoshuang; Telalovic, Selvedin; Gnanou, Yves; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Hu, Xiao; Lai, Zhiping

    2017-08-15

    The osmotic heat engine (OHE) is a promising technology for converting low grade heat to electricity. Most of the existing studies have focused on thermolytic salt systems. Herein, for the first time, we proposed to use thermally responsive ionic liquids (TRIL) that have either an upper critical solution temperature (UCST) or lower critical solution temperature (LCST) type of phase behavior as novel thermolytic osmotic agents. Closed-loop TRIL-OHEs were designed based on these unique phase behaviors to convert low grade heat to work or electricity. Experimental studies using two UCST-type TRILs, protonated betaine bis(trifluoromethyl sulfonyl)imide ([Hbet][Tf 2 N]) and choline bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([choline][Tf 2 N]) showed that (1) the specific energy of the TRIL-OHE system could reach as high as 4.0 times that of the seawater and river water system, (2) the power density measured from a commercial FO membrane reached up to 2.3 W/m 2 , and (3) the overall energy efficiency reached up to 2.6% or 18% of the Carnot efficiency at no heat recovery and up to 10.5% or 71% of the Carnet efficiency at 70% heat recovery. All of these results clearly demonstrated the great potential of using TRILs as novel osmotic agents to design high efficient OHEs for recovery of low grade thermal energy to work or electricity.

  14. Advanced Materials Based on Polymers and Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, Yuzo; Ueno, Kazuhide; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2017-09-19

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are ambient temperature molten salts, which have attracted considerable attention owing to their unique properties. In this contribution, we review advanced materials composed of ILs and polymers for the basis of a new design protocol to fabricate novel materials. As electrolytes for electrochemical devices, cross-linked polymers containing ILs (ion gels) are endowed with functional properties inherited from ILs and mechanical consistency derived from polymers. To create such materials, micro-phase separation of block copolymers and colloidal arrays in the ILs are utilized. Based on the molecular design of task-specific ILs, the resultant ion gels are applicable as electrolytes for actuator, fuel cell, and secondary battery applications. Thermo- and photo-responsive polymers in ILs are also highlighted, whereby such stimuli elicit changes in the solubility of the self-assembly of block copolymers and colloidal arrays in the ILs. Further, thermo- and photo-reversible changes in the self-assembled structure can be exploited to demonstrate sol-gel transitions and fabricate photo-healable materials. © 2017 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Hydroxycarbonylation of olefins and alcohols in ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, A.L.; Eliseev, O.L.; Bondarenko, T.N.; Stepin, N.N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). N.D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry

    2006-07-01

    Palladium-catalysed hydroxycarbonylation of olefins and alcohols proceeds in ionic liquid media. Terminal and internal olefins, cyclohexene, styrene, methanol, ethanol, n-butanol, cyclohexanol, benzyl alcohol and 1-phenylethanol were tested as substrates for the reaction. A number of molten salts were applied as a reaction medium and tetrabutylammonium bromide (m.p. 103 C) seemed to be the best. Carbon monoxide pressure of 2 MPa and reaction temperature of 110 C are suitable conditions to furnish the reaction in 2 hours in the presence of palladium acetate as a precursor. Triphenylphosphine added as a ligand reduces reaction rate. The critical role of counter anion in molten salt was also recognised. Yield of acids decreased in the order: Br{sup -} > Cl{sup -} > BF{sub 4} {approx}PF{sub 6}{sup -}. A two-route reaction scheme is proposed to explain the regularities of styrene and 1-phenylethanol hydroxycarbonylation. The catalytic system can be used repeatedly by simple extraction of products with diethyl ether. Nine cycles were carried out without loss of activity. (orig.)

  16. Hydrogen bonding in the protic ionic liquid triethylammonium nitrate explored by density functional tight binding simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentel, Tobias; Kühn, Oliver

    2016-12-21

    The applicability of the density functional based tight binding (DFTB) method to the description of hydrogen bond dynamics and infrared (IR) spectroscopy is addressed for the exemplary protic ionic liquid triethylammonium nitrate. Potential energy curves for proton transfer in gas and liquid phases are shown to be comparable to the high level coupled cluster theory in the thermally accessible range of bond lengths. Geometric correlations in the hydrogen bond dynamics are analyzed for a cluster of six ion pairs. Comparing DFTB and DFT data lends further support for the reliability of the DFTB method. Therefore, DFTB bulk simulations are performed to quantify the extent of geometric correlations in terms of Pauling's bond order model. Further, IR absorption spectra are obtained using DFTB and analyzed putting emphasis on the signatures of hydrogen bonding in the NH-stretching and far IR hydrogen bond range.

  17. Hydrogen bonding in the protic ionic liquid triethylammonium nitrate explored by density functional tight binding simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Zentel, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    The applicability of the density functional based tight binding (DFTB) method to the description of hydrogen bond dynamics and infrared spectroscopy is addressed for the exemplary protic ionic liquid triethylammonium nitrate. Potential energy curves for proton transfer in gas and liquid phase are shown to be comparable to high level coupled cluster theory in the thermally accessible range of bond lengths. Geometric correlations in the hydrogen bond dynamics are analyzed for a cluster of six ion pairs. Comparing DFTB and regular DFT data lends further support for the reliability of the DFTB method. Therefore, DFTB bulk simulations are performed to quantify the extent of geometric correlations in terms of Pauling's bond order model. Further, infrared (IR) absorption spectra are obtained and analyzed putting emphasis on the signatures of hydrogen bonding in the NH-stretching and far IR hydrogen bond range.

  18. Process intensification of biodiesel production by using microwave and ionic liquids as catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handayani, Prima Astuti [Department of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University (Indonesia); Chemical Engineering Program, Faculty of Engineering, Semarang State University (Indonesia); Abdullah; Hadiyanto, Dan, E-mail: hadiyanto@live.undip.ac.id [Department of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    The energy crisis pushes the development and intensification of biodiesel production process. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats and conventionally produced by using acid/base catalyst. However, the conventional method requires longer processing time and obtains lower yield of biodiesel. The microwave has been intensively used to accelerate production process and ionic liquids has been introduced as source of catalyst. This paper discusses the overview of the development of biodiesel production through innovation using microwave irradiation and ionic liquids catalyst to increase the yield of biodiesel. The potential microwave to reduce the processing time will be discussed and compared with other energy power, while the ionic liquids as a new generation of catalysts in the chemical industry will be also discussed for its use. The ionic liquids has potential to enhance the economic and environmental aspects because it has a low corrosion effect, can be recycled, and low waste form.

  19. Scale-up and evaluation of high solid ionic liquid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of switchgrass

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Chenlin; Tanjore, Deepti; He, Wei; Wong, Jessica; Gardner, James L; Sale, Kenneth L; Simmons, Blake A; Singh, Seema

    2013-01-01

    Ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment is receiving significant attention as a potential process that enables fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass and produces high yields of fermentable sugars suitable for the production of renewable fuels...

  20. Novel Ionic Liquid with Both Lewis and Brønsted Acid Sites for Michael Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runpu Shen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquid with both Lewis and Brønsted acid sites has been synthesized and its catalytic activities for Michael addition were carefully studied. The novel ionic liquid was stable to water and could be used in aqueous solution. The molar ratio of the Lewis and Brønsted acid sites could be adjusted to match different reactions. The results showed that the novel ionic liquid was very efficient for Michael addition with good to excellent yields within several min. Operational simplicity, high stability to water and air, small amount used, low cost of the catalyst used, high yields, chemoselectivity, applicability to large-scale reactions and reusability are the key features of this methodology, which indicated that this novel ionic liquid also holds great potential for environmentally friendly processes.

  1. Life Cycle Assessment of an Ionic LIquid versus Traditional Solvents and Their Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been claimed as "greener" replacements to traditional solvents. HOwever, the environmental impacts of the life cycle phases including the making of ILs, their application, separation, etc., and comparison with alternative methods have not been studied. Su...

  2. Effect of the presence of surfactant and ionic liquids on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of the presence of surfactant and ionic liquids on the esterification of oleic acid catalyzed by immobilized lipase. MLB Queiroz, HM Alvarez, RF Boaventura, NB Carvalho, CMF Soares, AS Lima, MF Heredia, C Dariva, AT Fricks ...

  3. Expanding the Applicability of Poly(Ionic Liquids) in Solid Phase Microextraction: Pyrrolidinium Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David J. S. Patinha; Liliana C. Tomé; Mehmet Isik; David Mecerreyes; Armando J. D. Silvestre; Isabel M. Marrucho

    2017-01-01

    Crosslinked pyrrolidinium-based poly(ionic liquids) (Pyrr-PILs) were synthesized through a fast, simple, and solventless photopolymerization scheme, and tested as solid phase microextraction (SPME) sorbents...

  4. Process intensification of biodiesel production by using microwave and ionic liquids as catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, Prima Astuti; Abdullah, dan Hadiyanto

    2015-12-01

    The energy crisis pushes the development and intensification of biodiesel production process. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats and conventionally produced by using acid/base catalyst. However, the conventional method requires longer processing time and obtains lower yield of biodiesel. The microwave has been intensively used to accelerate production process and ionic liquids has been introduced as source of catalyst. This paper discusses the overview of the development of biodiesel production through innovation using microwave irradiation and ionic liquids catalyst to increase the yield of biodiesel. The potential microwave to reduce the processing time will be discussed and compared with other energy power, while the ionic liquids as a new generation of catalysts in the chemical industry will be also discussed for its use. The ionic liquids has potential to enhance the economic and environmental aspects because it has a low corrosion effect, can be recycled, and low waste form.

  5. 81929 - Fission-Product Separation Based on Room - Temperature Ionic Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin D. Rogers

    2004-12-09

    This project has demonstrated that Sr2+ and Cs+ can be selectively extracted from aqueous solutions into ionic liquids using crown ethers and that unprecedented large distribution coefficients can be achieved for these fission products. The volume of secondary wastes can be significantly minimized with this new separation technology. Through the current EMSP funding, the solvent extraction technology based on ionic liquids has been shown to be viable and can potentially provide the most efficient separation of problematic fission products from high level wastes. The key results from the current funding period are the development of highly selective extraction process for cesium ions based on crown ethers and calixarenes, optimization of selectivities of extractants via systematic change of ionic liquids, and investigation of task-specific ionic liquids incorporating both complexant and solvent characteristics.

  6. Acidic Brønsted Ionic Liquids Catalyzed the Preparation of 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    pyrrolidonium hydrogen sulfate ([Hnhp]HSO4), ... Ionic liquids (ILs), because of their low volatility, non- flammability .... The desired pure products were characterized by comparison of their physical data (melting points, IR, 1H and 13C–NMR) with.

  7. Environmentally benign methanolysis of polycarbonate to recover bisphenol A and dimethyl carbonate in ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fusheng; Li, Zhuo; Yu, Shitao; Cui, Xiao; Ge, Xiaoping

    2010-02-15

    An environmentally friendly strategy for methanolysis of polycarbonate (PC) to recover bisphenol A (BPA) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) was developed in which PC could be methanolyzed in an ionic liquid without any acid or base catalyst under moderate conditions. The effects of ionic liquid kinds, temperature, time, and methanol dosage on methanolysis results of PC were examined. It was showed that the methanolysis conversion of PC was almost 100% and the yields of both BPA and DMC were over 95% in presence of ionic liquid 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim][Cl]) and under the conditions of m(PC):m(CH(3)OH):m([Bmim][Cl])=2:3:2, reaction temperature 105 degrees C and time 2.5h. After easily separated from the product, the ionic liquid could be reused 8 times without obvious decrease in the conversion of PC and yields of BPA and DMC.

  8. Composite Electrolytes for Lithium Batteries: Ionic Liquids in APTES Crosslinked Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigelaar, Dean M.; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Bennett, William R.

    2007-01-01

    Solvent free polymer electrolytes were made consisting of Li(+) and pyrrolidinium salts of trifluoromethanesulfonimide added to a series of hyperbranched poly(ethylene oxide)s (PEO). The polymers were connected by triazine linkages and crosslinked by a sol-gel process to provide mechanical strength. The connecting PEO groups were varied to help understand the effects of polymer structure on electrolyte conductivity in the presence of ionic liquids. Polymers were also made that contain poly(dimethylsiloxane) groups, which provide increased flexibility without interacting with lithium ions. When large amounts of ionic liquid are added, there is little dependence of conductivity on the polymer structure. However, when smaller amounts of ionic liquid are added, the inherent conductivity of the polymer becomes a factor. These electrolytes are more conductive than those made with high molecular weight PEO imbibed with ionic liquids at ambient temperatures, due to the amorphous nature of the polymer.

  9. Transesterification of waste oil to biodiesel using Brønsted acid ionic liquid as catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Xie

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Brønsted acid ionic liquids were employed for the preparation of biodiesel using waste oil as the feedstock. It was found that IL 1–(3–sulfonic acidpropyl–3–methylimidazole hydrosulfate–[HO3S-pmim]HSO4 was an efficient catalyst for the reaction under the optimum conditions: n(oil:n(methanol 1:12, waste oil 15.0 g, ionic liquid 2.0 g, reaction temperature 120 oC and reaction time 8 h, the yield of biodiesel was more than 96%. The reusability of the ionic liquid was also investigated. When the ionic liquid was repeatedly used for five times, the yield of product was still more than 93%. Therefore, an efficient and environmentally friendly catalyst was provided for the synthesis of biodiesel from waste oils.

  10. Antifungal activity of ionic liquids based on (-)-menthol: a mechanism study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchodolski, Jakub; Feder-Kubis, Joanna; Krasowska, Anna

    2017-04-01

    The mechanism of toxicity of chiral ionic liquids with (1R,2S,5R)-(-)-menthol [Cn-Am-Men][Cl] (n=10, 11 or 12) in the fungus Candida albicans is reported here. Ionic liquids were more toxic towards Candida strain lacking all identified multidrug resistance efflux pumps. Moreover, the compounds tested inhibited C. albicans filamentation at the concentration at which detached fungal cells also adhered to the plastic surface. Our results showed the high activity of all the tested chiral ionic liquids in the permeabilization of C. albicans' membranes and in the digestion and interruption of the cell wall. The investigated ionic liquids thus have potential as disinfectants because besides their antifungal and antiadhesive action these compounds do not cause hemolysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Plasticizing effect of ionic liquid on cellulose acetate obtained by melt processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendaoud, Amine; Chalamet, Yvan

    2014-08-08

    Cellulose acetate (CA) plasticized by 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) and with diethylphtalate (DEP) was obtained by melt processing at 150°C. The effect and the interaction of ionic liquid with the cellulose acetate and their influence on structural, thermo-mechanical, rheological and tensile properties of CA materials were investigated. Ionic liquid (BMIMCl) has shown a good plasticization and more efficient destruction of the crystalline structure of cellulose acetate than the DEP plasticized CA. BMIMCl interacts intensively with CA molecules due to the pronounced van der Waals interactions, hydrogen bonding and electrostatic nature of ionic liquid. The tensile test and the low Young's modulus for plasticized CA suggest a strong reduction of the interaction between the CA chains due to the presence of the ionic liquid. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Induction of Circularly Polarized Luminescence from Europium by Amino Acid Based Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zercher, Ben; Hopkins, Todd A

    2016-11-07

    Materials that emit circularly polarized light have application in several important industries. Because they show large optical activity and emit sharp visible light transitions, europium complexes are often exploited in applications that require circularly polarized luminescence (CPL). Chiral and coordinating ionic liquids based on prolinate, valinate, and aspartate anions are used to induce CPL from a simple achiral europium triflate salt. The sign of the induced CPL is dependent on the handedness (l vs d) of the amino acid anion. Comparison of the CPL spectra in ionic liquid with proline and valine vs aspartate shows that the number of carboxylate groups in the amino acid anion influences the europium coordination environment. DFT calculations predict a chiral eight-coordinate Eu(Pro)4- structure in the prolinate ionic liquid and a chiral seven- or eight-coordinate Eu(Asp)33- structure in the aspartate ionic liquid.

  13. Enhanced Stimuli-Responsive Electrorheological Property of Poly(ionic liquid)s-Capsulated Polyaniline Particles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen Zheng; Yuezhen Dong; Yang Liu; Xiaopeng Zhao; Jianbo Yin

    2017-01-01

    We used inherently conducting polyaniline as a core to develop a type of poly(ionic liquid)s-capsulated polyaniline composite particles in order to both overcome the surface charged character of pure poly...

  14. Extraction of S- and N-Compounds from the Mixture of Hydrocarbons by Ionic Liquids as Selective Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Gabrić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid-liquid extraction is an alternative method that can be used for desulfurization and denitrification of gasoline and diesel fuels. Recent approaches employ different ionic liquids as selective solvents, due to their general immiscibility with gasoline and diesel, negligible vapor pressure, and high selectivity to sulfur- and nitrogen-containing compounds. For that reason, five imidazolium-based ionic liquids and one pyridinium-based ionic liquid were selected for extraction of thiophene, dibenzothiophene, and pyridine from two model solutions. The influences of hydrodynamic conditions, mass ratio, and number of stages were investigated. Increasing the mass ratio of ionic liquid/model fuel and multistage extraction promotes the desulfurization and denitrification abilities of the examined ionic liquids. All selected ionic liquids can be reused and regenerated by means of vacuum evaporation.

  15. Ionic Liquid-Nanoparticle Hybrid Electrolytes and their Application in Secondary Lithium-Metal Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yingying

    2012-07-12

    Ionic liquid-tethered nanoparticle hybrid electrolytes comprised of silica nanoparticles densely grafted with imidazolium-based ionic liquid chains are shown to retard lithium dendrite growth in rechargeable batteries with metallic lithium anodes. The electrolytes are demonstrated in full cell studies using both high-energy Li/MoS2 and high-power Li/TiO2 secondary batteries. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Thermostable cellulases, and mutants thereof, capable of hydrolyzing cellulose in ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapra, Rajat; Datta, Supratim; Chen, Zhiwei; Holmes, Bradley M.; Simmons, Blake A.; Blanch, Harvey W.

    2016-04-26

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an ionic liquid and a thermostable cellulose, and a method of hydrolyzing a cellulose, comprising: (a) providing a composition comprising a solution comprising an ionic liquid and a cellulose, and (b) introducing a thermostable cellulase to the solution, such that the cellulose is hydrolyzed by the cellulase. The present invention also provides for a Thermatoga maritima thermostable cellulase mutant with increased cellulase activity.

  17. IONIC LIQUIDS DERIVATIVE OF 1Н-IMIDAZOLE AS NOVEL REAGENTS, CATALYSTS AND SOLVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sargorovschi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquids are becoming widely used in chemical processes. Taking this into account we focus on recent advances in the synthesis and the investigation of 1H-imidazole derived ionic liquids. The fi rst part of this paper focuses on describing the developments in the synthesis and physical properties of 1,3-disubstituted imidazolium salts. The second part describes the application of these unique reagents, as catalysts and solvents in organic chemistry.

  18. Synthesis of Guanidines via Reaction of Amines with Carbodiimides in the Presence of Ionic Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foad Shaghayeghi Toosi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Different ionic liquids (ILs were synthesized and evaluated for the preparation of substituted guanidines from the reaction of amines and carbodiimides. 1-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [HMIm]BF4 was found to be the best ionic liquid for this reaction. This IL acted as a promoter for the addition of primary and secondary amines to carbodiimides. By this efficient approach, various guanidines were prepared in excellent yields.

  19. Synthesis and applications of novel bis(ammonium) chiral ionic liquids derived from isomannide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Vineet; Olsen, Carl Erik; Schäffer, Susan J.

    2007-01-01

    Carbohydrate-based novel bis(ammonium) chiral ionic liquids have been synthesized by following a straightforward protocol using isomannide as the substrate. Their applications in chiral discrimination and optical resolution of racemates have been established.......Carbohydrate-based novel bis(ammonium) chiral ionic liquids have been synthesized by following a straightforward protocol using isomannide as the substrate. Their applications in chiral discrimination and optical resolution of racemates have been established....

  20. Moisture Stable Ambient Temperature Ionic Liquids: Solvents for the New Millennium. 1. The Heck Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Dallas

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report examples of the Heck reaction in the new moisture stable ambient temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim]PF6. We have found that the yield of product is comparable with Heck reactions carried out in DMF, the conventional solvent for this reaction, and that the ionic liquid/catalyst mixture can be recycled several times.