Morgan McInnes, Melayne; Ozturk, Orgul Demet; McDermott, Suzanne; Mann, Joshua R.
Providing employment-related services, including supported employment through job coaches, has been a priority in federal policy since the enactment of the Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act in 1984. We take advantage of a unique panel data set of all clients served by the South Carolina Department of Disabilities and…
Lord, Sarah E; McGurk, Susan R; Nicholson, Joanne; Carpenter-Song, Elizabeth A; Tauscher, Justin S; Becker, Deborah R; Swanson, Sarah J; Drake, Robert E; Bond, Gary R
The potential of technology to enhance delivery and outcomes of Individual Placement and Support (IPS) supported employment. IPS supported employment has demonstrated robust success for improving rates of competitive employment among individuals with psychiatric disabilities. Still, a majority of those with serious mental illnesses are not employed (Bond, Drake, & Becker, 2012). The need to promote awareness of IPS and expand services is urgent. In this study, we describe ways that technologies may enhance delivery of IPS supported employment across the care continuum and stakeholder groups. Directions for research are highlighted. published literature, clinical observations, IPS learning collaborative. Technology has the potential to enhance direct service as well as workflow in the IPS supported employment process, which may lead to improved fidelity and client outcomes. Mobile and cloud technologies open opportunities for collaboration, self-directed care, and ongoing support to help clients obtain and maintain meaningful employment. Research is needed to evaluate efficacy of technology-based approaches for promoting client employment outcomes, to identify provider and organization barriers to using technology for IPS delivery, and to determine effective strategies for implementing technology with IPS in different settings and with diverse client audiences.
Friedman, D E
The competing interests of employers, working parents, and very young children collide in decisions over work schedules, child care arrangements, promotions, children's sicknesses, and overtime hours. With the rising number of women in the labor force, more and more employers are concerned about how their workers balance work and family priorities. This article examines the supports that employers provide to help parents with young children juggle demands on their time and attention. It reviews the availability of traditional benefits, such as vacation and health insurance, and describes family-friendly initiatives. Exciting progress is being made in this arena by leading employers, but coverage remains uneven: Employers say they provide family-friendly policies and programs to improve staff recruitment and retention, reduce absenteeism, and increase job satisfaction and company loyalty. Evaluations demonstrate positive impacts on each of these valued outcomes. Employee benefits and work/family supports seldom reach all layers of the work force, and low-income workers who need assistance the most are the least likely to receive or take advantage of it. Understandably, employer policies seek to maximize productive work time. However, it is often in the best interests of children for a parent to be able to set work aside to address urgent family concerns. The author concludes that concrete work/family supports like on-site child care, paid leave, and flextime are important innovations. Ultimately, the most valuable aid to employees would be a family-friendly workplace culture, with supportive supervision and management practices.
Rashid, Marghalara; Hodgetts, Sandra; Nicholas, David
To explore strategies to build employer capacity to support people with DD in meaningful employment from perspective of employment support workers. A grounded theory study was conducted with 34 employment support individuals. A theoretical sampling approach was used to identify and recruit participants from multiple sites in Ontario and Alberta. Three main themes, with seven sub-themes, emerged: (1) experiences of supporting employment finding for people with DD, (2) institutional influences on employee experiences, and (3) attitudes, assumptions and stigma. Several recommendations related to building employer capacity were offered. Our findings provide insight on specific elements and strategies that can support building employer capacity for persons with DD.
Corbière, M.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Lanctôt, N.; van Weeghel, J.
Purpose Supported employment (SE) programs are evidence-based programs offered to people with severe mental illness to facilitate obtaining and keeping competitive work. However, significant variations in individuals’ vocational success may be partly explained by differences in their employment
Morgan, Valda B.; Karr-Kidwell, PJ
Supported employment opportunities can help to meet the transition needs of individuals enrolled in special education programs. A review of related literature discusses characteristics of supported employment program participants, the need for individual transition planning, the school's role and responsibility, vocational planning, benefits,…
Cocks, Errol; Boaden, Ross
The Individual Placement and Support (IPS) model aims to achieve open employment for people with mental illness. The Supported Employment Fidelity Scale (SEFS) is a 15-item instrument that evaluates the extent to which a service follows the IPS principles of best practice. This paper describes the IPS model and an evaluation of a specialist employment program for people with mental illness using the SEFS. The SEFS enabled a quantitative assessment of service provision against the criteria of evidence-based practice principles. Data were collected from multiple sources. In addition, a literature review was conducted, and personnel engaged in implementation of the IPS model at other Australian employment programs were consulted. The program achieved a score of 59 of a possible 75 on the SEFS, which is described as fair supported employment. Analysis of the 15-scale items resulted in the identification of strengths, areas for further development, and a set of recommendations. The program was operating substantially in line with evidence-based practice principles and had considerable scope for further development. Issues arising from the evaluation, areas of applicability of the SEFS and the underlying literature, and implications for occupational therapy are highlighted.
Greene, Francis J.; Saridakis, George
This article examines the career progression of self-employed graduates immediately following graduation and four years subsequently. Using a career socialization theory specific to entrepreneurial settings, it links the role of skills acquired in UK higher education courses and the use of support with self-employment outcomes. Using a wide range…
Dinour, Lauren M; Szaro, Jacalyn M
Many mothers experience barriers to maintaining a breastfeeding relationship with their infants upon returning to work and, consequently, terminate breastfeeding earlier than recommended or intended. As such, employers are in a unique position to help further increase breastfeeding rates, durations, and exclusivity. The purpose of this review is to examine the literature regarding employer-based programs, policies, and interventions to support breastfeeding among working mothers. A systematic literature search was conducted for peer-reviewed articles published before April 2016. Studies were included if they focused on workplace-based lactation/breastfeeding support programs, policies, or interventions to promote breastfeeding among employees. For inclusion, articles must have measured at least one outcome, such as breastfeeding duration, breastfeeding exclusivity, or employee satisfaction. Twenty-two articles were included, representing 10 different countries and both public- and private-sector employers, including governmental offices, schools, hospitals, manufacturing/industrial companies, and financial settings, among others. Providing a lactation space was the most common employer-based support accommodation studied, followed by breastfeeding breaks and comprehensive lactation support programs. The majority of studies analyzing these three support types found at least one positive breastfeeding and/or nonbreastfeeding outcome. This review suggests that maintaining breastfeeding while working is not only possible but also more likely when employers provide the supports that women need to do so. Although some employers may have more extensive breastfeeding support policies and practices than others, all employers can implement a breastfeeding support program that fits their company's budget and resources.
McDonnell, J; Nofs, D; Hardman, M; Chambless, C
This study examined the relation between the procedural components of supported employment programs and employment outcomes for 120 individuals with disabilities. These individuals were involved in supported employment programs established through the Utah Supported Employment Project. The results suggest that successful implementation of supported employment services led to ongoing employment of study participants in community work sites, increased wages, and ongoing opportunities for worker...
Krantz, G; Ostergren, P O
Over the past few decades there has been a growing interest among researchers, in women's overall life circumstances and their relation to women's health status. For example, paid employment has been considered an important part of women's living conditions in Western societies as the number of women entering the labour market has grown constantly over the past decades. When comparing men's and women's health, one of the most consistent findings is a higher rate of symptoms among women. The most commonly reported symptoms in women are depressive symptoms, symptoms of bodily tension and chronic pain from muscles and joints. The aim of this study was to investigate whether socioeconomic factors, employment status, psychosocial work conditions and social network/support are associated with middle aged women's health status in terms of common symptoms. A mailed questionnaire was used in a cross sectional design assessing socioeconomic factors, employment status, psychosocial work conditions according to the demand/control model, social network/support and an index based on the 15 most frequent symptoms presented by middle aged women when seeking health care. A rural community with 13,200 inhabitants in the western part of Sweden. Women were randomly selected from the general population in the study area, 40 to 50 years of age. The response rate was 81.7 per cent. Women who were non-employed had a significantly increased odds of a high level of common symptoms (OR = 2.82; 95% confidence intervals 1.69, 4.70), as well as women exposed to job strain (OR = 3.27; 1.92, 5.57), independently of the level of social network/support. Furthermore, exposure to low social support, low social anchorage or low social participation independently showed significantly increased odds of a high level of common symptoms (OR = 2.75; 1.71, 4.42; OR = 2.91; 1.81, 4.69 and OR = 1.69; 1.10, 2.61, respectively). Work related factors, such as non-employment and job strain, and circumstances
Gjerdingen, Dwenda; McGovern, Patricia; Attanasio, Laura; Johnson, Pamela Jo; Kozhimannil, Katy Backes
The purpose of this study was to characterize the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms and employment and whether it is mediated by social support. We used data from a nationally representative sample of 700 US women who gave birth in 2005 and completed 2 surveys in the Listening to Mothers series, the first in early 2006, an average of 7.3 months postpartum, and the second an average of 13.4 months postpartum. A dichotomous measure of depressive symptoms was calculated from the 2-item Patient Health Questionnaire, and women reported their employment status and levels of social support from partners and others. We modeled the association between maternal employment and depressive symptoms using multivariate logistic regression, including social support and other control variables. Maternal employment and high support from a nonpartner source were both independently associated with significantly lower odds of depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.35 and P = .011, and AOR, 0.40, P = .011, respectively). These relationships remained significant after controlling for mothers' baseline mental and physical health, babies' health, and demographic characteristics (AOR, 0.326 and P = .015, and AOR, 0.267 and P = .025, respectively). Maternal employment and strong social support, particularly nonpartner support, were independently associated with fewer depressive symptoms. Clinicians should encourage mothers of young children who are at risk for depression to consider ways to optimize their employment circumstances and "other" social support.
Kin Wong, Kenny; Chiu, Rose; Tang, Betty; Mak, Donald; Liu, Joanne; Chiu, Siu Ning
Supported employment is an evidence-based practice that has proved to be consistently more effective than conventional vocational rehabilitation in helping people with severe mental illness find and sustain competitive employment. Most research on the effectiveness of supported employment comes from the United States. This study examined the effectiveness and applicability of a supported employment program based on the individual placement and support model in a Hong Kong setting. Ninety-two unemployed individuals with long-term mental illness who desired competitive employment were randomly assigned to either a supported employment program or a conventional vocational rehabilitation program and followed up for 18 months. Both vocational and nonvocational outcomes were measured. Over the 18-month study period, compared with participants in the conventional vocational rehabilitation program, those in the supported employment group were more likely to work competitively (70% versus 29%; odds ratio=5.63, 95% confidence interval=2.28-13.84), held a greater number of competitive jobs, earned more income, worked more days, and sustained longer job tenures. Repeated-measures analysis of variance found no substantive differences between participants in the two groups and no significant change from baseline over time for psychiatric symptoms and self-perceived quality of life. Consistent with previous research findings in the United States, the supported employment program was more effective than the conventional vocational rehabilitation program in helping individuals with long-term mental illness find and sustain competitive employment in a Hong Kong setting. The supported employment program based on the individual placement and support model can thus be recommended for wider use in local mental health practice.
Corbière, Marc; Villotti, Patrizia; Lecomte, Tania; Bond, Gary R; Lesage, Alain; Goldner, Elliot M
Job tenure for people with severe mental disorders, even for those enrolled in supported employment programs, is typically brief. Few studies to date have investigated the relationship between accommodations and natural supports available in the workplace, and job tenure for this population. The main objectives of this study were to develop and to validate a new measure to describe work accommodations and natural supports available in the workplace and to determine which of them are significantly related to job tenure for participants enrolled in supported employment services. In total, 124 people with a severe mental disorder enrolled in supported employment programs and who obtained only one competitive employment at the 9-month follow-up answered the Work Accommodation and Natural Support Scale (WANSS). They also provided information regarding their disclosure (or non-) of mental disorders in the workplace and the length of their job tenure. Confirmatory factor analysis conducted on the WANSS showed 40 items distributed on 6 dimensions (e.g., Schedule flexibility). Correlation results showed that disclosure was significantly related to the number of work accommodations and natural supports available in the workplace. Survival analyses indicated that one WANSS dimension was more salient in predicting job tenure: Supervisor and coworker supports. The WANSS is a valid and useful tool to assess work accommodations and natural supports available in the workplace that employment specialists could use in their practice.
Margolies, Paul J; Humensky, Jennifer L; Chiang, I-Chin; Covell, Nancy H; Jewell, Thomas C; Broadway-Wilson, Karen; Gregory, Raymond; Scannevin, Gary; Dixon, Lisa B
A growing body of literature demonstrates that high-fidelity implementation of the individual placement and support (IPS) model of supported employment increases the chances of achieving desired outcomes. This study examined the relationship between IPS fidelity, as self-reported by program sites, and employment outcomes and determined whether this relationship was maintained over time. A total of 78 outpatient programs in New York State provided data on self-reported IPS fidelity and employment outcomes. Pearson correlations were used to determine the relationship between fidelity scores and competitive employment rates. A mixed-effects model examined the relationship between repeated fidelity and employment measures over time. A significant positive relationship was found between better self-reported IPS fidelity and greater employment. The relationship between IPS fidelity and employment was sustained over time (up to one year). Higher-fidelity implementation of the IPS model, as self-assessed by program sites, was associated with higher employment rates, which were sustained over time.
Bond, Gary R; Drake, Robert E; Campbell, Kikuko
The individual placement and support (IPS) model of supported employment was first developed in community mental health centres for adults with severe mental illness. While IPS is an established evidence-based practice in this broad population, evidence on its effectiveness focused specifically on young adults has been limited. The current study aimed to address this gap. To investigate the effects of IPS on young adults, the authors conducted a secondary analysis on a pooled sample of 109 unemployed young adults (under age 30) from four randomized controlled trials employing a common research protocol that included a standardized measurement battery and rigorous fidelity monitoring. Researchers assessed these participants over 18 months on nine competitive employment outcome measures. On all measures, the IPS group had significantly better employment outcomes. Overall, 40 (82%) of IPS participants obtained employment during follow-up compared with 25 (42%) of control participants, χ(2) = 17.9, P < .001. IPS participants averaged 25.0 weeks of employment, compared with 7.0 weeks for control participants, t = 4.50, P < .001. The current analysis supports a small number of previous studies in showing that IPS is highly effective in helping young adults with severe mental illness to attain competitive employment. When young adults acquire competitive jobs and initiate a path towards normal adult roles, they may avoid the cycle of disability and psychiatric patient roles that are demeaning and demoralizing. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Rüsch, Nicolas; Nordt, Carlos; Kawohl, Wolfram; Brantschen, Elisabeth; Bärtsch, Bettina; Müller, Mario; Corrigan, Patrick W; Rössler, Wulf
The relationship of work-related discrimination to the change in self-stigma and stigma stress was assessed among supported employment participants in Switzerland. Self-stigma and the cognitive appraisal of mental illness stigma as a stressor were measured at baseline among supported employment participants (N=116). These variables and work-related discrimination in the past year were assessed one year later (N=96). Compared with participants who did not find employment (N=30), those who worked without experiencing discrimination (N=25) had lower levels of self-stigma and stigma stress at one year. Among those who worked and reported work-related discrimination (N=38), these measures did not decrease significantly. Experiencing discrimination at work may determine whether employment has positive effects in terms of self-stigma and stigma stress among individuals with mental illness. Interventions to reduce discrimination in work settings and to improve coping resources of these individuals could augment the positive effects of supported employment.
Haque, Adnan ul; Yamoah, Fred
This research attempts to explain reasons behind employment longevity on the basis of gender among the I.T staff. Previous empirical researches have confirmed the correlation between organisational commitment, job satisfaction, and organisational support programme. However, most researches were single dimension primarily due to their focus on establishing the relationship between above mentioned variables in different organisational settings whereas, this research mainly explore on the groun...
Esther MERCADO GARCÍA
Full Text Available This study analyzes the figure of the job coach in various Supported Employment services in Spain. A quality-oriented study carried out, based on the case study. Twenty-three semi-structured interviews held with professionals, along with thirtysix participant observations at different stages of Supported Employment. The results show disparity in the profiles associated with various areas of knowledge, as well as a diversity of functions related to the roles performed by the job coach depending on the number of staff taken on. The most significant competencies combined with personal skills and communicative abilities. It recommended that employment programs improve vocational retraining programs to make up for training deficiencies and provide professional skills for intervention in each service.
Full Text Available The number of days of absence from work associated with mental illness has risen dramatically in the past ten years in Germany. Companies are challenged by this issue and seek help for the physical and mental health of their employees. Supported Employment concepts such as the Individual Placement and Support (IPS model have been designed to bring jobless persons with mental disorders back to work. In the randomized, controlled SEplus-trial a modified IPS-approach is tested concerning its ability to shorten times of sick leave of persons with mental distress or a mental disorder and to prevent them from losing their job. The trial is outlined in this study protocol.
Employment Opportunities, Inc., Raleigh, NC.
This manual provides a leisure education program for individuals with disabilities, to facilitate leisure functioning in their homes and communities. The program is first introduced to participants and families upon admission into supported employment and is designed to be facilitated by a training specialist or job coach. The program can be…
AIMS: This meta-analysis sought to identify which subgroups of clients with severe mental illness (SMI) benefited from evidence-based supported employment. METHODS: We used meta-analysis to pool the samples from 4 randomized controlled trials comparing the Individual Placement and Support (IPS) model of supported employment to well-regarded vocational approaches using stepwise models and brokered services. Meta-analysis was used to determine the magnitude of effects for IPS\\/control group differences within specific client subgroups (defined by 2 work history, 7 sociodemographic, and 8 clinical variables) on 3 competitive employment outcomes (obtaining a job, total weeks worked, and job tenure). RESULTS: The findings strongly favored IPS, with large effect sizes across all outcomes: 0.96 for job acquisition, 0.79 for total weeks worked, and 0.74 for job tenure. Overall, 90 (77%) of the 117 effect sizes calculated for the 39 subgroups exceeded 0.70, and all 117 favored IPS. CONCLUSIONS: IPS produces better competitive employment outcomes for persons with SMI than alternative vocational programs regardless of background demographic, clinical, and employment characteristics.
Buch, Robert; Kuvaas, Bard; Dysvik, Anders
This study investigated the interplay between perceived investment in contract worker development by the "client" organization and contract workers' perceived organizational support from their temporary employment "agency." A study among 2021 contract workers from three temporary employment agencies in Norway showed that the…
Hogan, Michael F; Drake, Robert E; Goldman, Howard H
Medicaid is now the main payment source and financing mechanism for services for adults with serious mental illness. Services formerly paid with state mental health funds have been converted to Medicaid, lightening the burden on state budgets affected by recession and other factors. The change has allowed states to maintain community care and inpatient services (in general hospitals). Medicaid service benefits include clinic and inpatient care, case management, and some rehabilitation services. But using Medicaid to finance some high-priority services such as supported employment has proven difficult. Now critical changes in Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act allow states to amend their Medicaid State Plans to provide more flexible services to people with serious mental illness. Advocacy and support may be needed to encourage this step. A national campaign to finance supported employment would join various stakeholders in the field, including professional organizations, family and service user groups, and organizations representing service providers. The authors of this editorial pledge their energies to support this campaign. They present suggestions for a campaign, including building a coalition, goals and targets, and online resources.
Snyder, Kailey; Hansen, Kelli; Brown, Sara; Portratz, Amy; White, Kate; Dinkel, Danae
The majority of women are returning to work full-time after childbirth, and support within their place of employment may influence intention and duration for breastfeeding, but more research is needed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the influence of employment type on breastfeeding duration upon return to work by examining informal (i.e., verbal encouragement) and direct (i.e., lactation space, flexible time) factors of support. This was a retrospective survey of women's returning-to-work experiences while breastfeeding. Survey contents included respondent demographics as well as questions surrounding perceptions of employer support, work environment, and goal/satisfaction regarding breastfeeding. Data were analyzed via crosstabs and chi-square goodness of fit tests. A total of 1,002 women completed the survey. Significant differences were seen across different employment types. Women within the professional/management industry were most likely to receive informal and direct support for breastfeeding upon return to work. Women within the service industry and production/transportation industry reported receiving the lowest levels of informal and direct support. Workplace support varies by employment type and women in the service and production/transportation industry appear to be at a disadvantage compared with other employment types. There is a need for more breastfeeding support programs to be developed that target specific workplace characteristics.
Pickard, Linda; King, Derek; Brimblecombe, Nicola; Knapp, Martin
This paper explores the effectiveness of paid services in supporting unpaid carers' employment in England. There is currently a new emphasis in England on 'replacement care', or paid services for the cared-for person, as a means of supporting working carers. The international evidence on the effectiveness of paid services as a means of supporting carers' employment is inconclusive and does not relate specifically to England. The study reported here explores this issue using the 2009/10 Personal Social Services Survey of Adult Carers in England . The study finds a positive association between carers' employment and receipt of paid services by the cared-for person, controlling for covariates. It therefore gives support to the hypothesis that services for the cared-for person are effective in supporting carers' employment. Use of home care and a personal assistant are associated on their own with the employment of both men and women carers, while use of day care and meals-on-wheels are associated specifically with women's employment. Use of short-term breaks are associated with carers' employment when combined with other services. The paper supports the emphasis in English social policy on paid services as a means of supporting working carers, but questions the use of the term 'replacement care' and the emphasis on 'the market'.
Neault, Roberta A.; Mondair, Suneet
Employment counselors generally understand the benefits of workplace diversity; most are actively engaged in supporting diverse clients to attach to the workforce. However, they are less likely to be involved in supporting organizations to create workplaces where diverse workers are welcomed, appreciated, and fully engaged. In this article,…
Mueser, K T; McGurk, S R
The individual placement and supported (IPS) model of supported employment is the most empirically validated model of vocational rehabilitation for persons with schizophrenia or another serious mental illness. Over 18 randomized controlled trials have been conducted throughout the world demonstrating the effectiveness of supported employment at improving competitive work compared to other vocational programs: IPS supported employment is defined by the following principles: 1) inclusion of all clients who want to work; 2) integration of vocational and clinical services; 3) focus on competitive employment; 4) rapid job search and no required prevocational skills training; 5) job development by the employment specialist; 6) attention to client preferences about desired work and disclosure of mental illness to prospective employers; 7) benefits counseling; and 8) follow-along supports after a job is obtained. Supported employment has been successfully implemented in a wide range of cultural and clinical populations, although challenges to implementation are also encountered. Common challenges are related to problems such as the failure to access technical assistance, system issues, negative beliefs and attitudes of providers, funding restrictions, and poor leadership. These challenges can be overcome by tapping expertise in IPS supported employment, including standardized and tested models of training and consultation. Efforts are underway to increase the efficiency of training methods for supported employment and the overall program, and to improve its effectiveness for those clients who do not benefit. Progress in IPS supported employment offers people with a serious mental illness realistic hope for achieving their work goals, and taking greater control over their lives. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Teixeira, Carina; Mueser, Kim T; Rogers, E Sally; McGurk, Susan R
This study examined job endings and work trajectories among participants in a study comparing the effects of adding cognitive remediation to supported employment among individuals who had not benefited from supported employment. Data were from a controlled trial of 107 persons with serious mental illness enrolled in supported employment but who had not obtained or sustained competitive work. Participants were randomly assigned to enhanced supported employment only (with employment specialists trained to recognize cognitive difficulties and teach coping strategies) or to the Thinking Skills for Work program (enhanced supported employment plus cognitive remediation). For the 52 participants who worked, the two groups were compared on types of job endings, reasons for job endings, successful versus unsuccessful jobs, and work trajectories over the two-year study period. The two groups did not differ in types of job ending, although participants in Thinking Skills for Work were less likely than those in enhanced supported employment only to cite dissatisfaction with the job as a reason for the job ending. Participants in Thinking Skills for Work were also less likely to have an overall unsuccessful work trajectory, more likely to have only successful jobs, and more likely to be employed at the end of the study. The Thinking Skills for Work program appeared to help participants who had not benefited from supported employment stick with and master their jobs more effectively than those in enhanced supported employment only, resulting in better work trajectories over the course of the study.
Helms, Barbara L.; And Others
Study of a sample of 93 individuals with disabilities participating in supported employment programs in Connecticut found that monthly wages and levels of integration increased significantly when compared to working situations prior to supported employment placement. (JDD)
Mueser, Kim T; Aalto, Steve; Becker, Deborah R; Ogden, John S; Wolfe, Rosemarie S; Schiavo, Diane; Wallace, Charles J; Xie, Haiyi
This study evaluated whether a supplementary skills training program improved work outcomes for clients enrolled in supported employment programs. Thirty-five recently employed clients with severe mental illness who were receiving supported employment services at a free-standing agency were randomly assigned to participate in either the workplace fundamentals program, a skills training program designed to make work more "successful and satisfying," or treatment as usual. Knowledge of workplace fundamentals (for example, identifying workplace stressors, problem solving, and improving job performance) was assessed at baseline and at nine months; employment outcomes and use of additional vocational services were tracked for 18 months. Clients in the workplace fundamentals group (N=17) improved more in knowledge of workplace fundamentals than those in the control group (N=18) at the nine-month follow-up, but the two groups did not differ in the number of hours or days worked, salary earned, or receipt of additional vocational services over the 18-month period. In general, clients in this study had higher educational levels and better employment outcomes than clients in most previous studies of supported employment, making it difficult to detect possible effects of the skills training intervention on work. Supplementary skills training did not improve work outcomes for clients who were receiving supported employment.
Francisco de Borja Jordán de Urríes Vega
Full Text Available This work presents a cost-benefit analysis comparing supported employment (SE with special employment center (EEC, from an individual, corporate and society perspective. A simulation was carried out with a sample of 24 workers in regular employment by SE and hypothetical data were obtained for the same workers as if they were in a similar job in EEC. The results show that SE workers, working the same amount of hours, have higher hourly earnings than in EEC (9.22 € compared to 4.59 €. The SE also generates less social burden from the company (22.21 % than EEC (85.54 %. The Supported Employment’s payoff for society is much higher (315.03% than that of the EEC (83.14%. Therefore, the conclusions of the study are directed towards the consideration that supported employment is more beneficial in terms of cost benefit for the individual, business and society when compared to the special employment centers.
Swanberg, Jennifer; Macke, Caroline; Logan, T K
Partner violence may have significant consequences on women's employment, yet limited information is available about how women cope on the job with perpetrators' tactics and the consequences of her coping methods on employment status. This article investigates whether there is an association between workplace disclosure of victimization and current employment status; and whether there is an association between receiving workplace support and current employment status among women who disclosed victimization circumstances to someone at work. Using a sample of partner victimized women who were employed within the past year (N = 485), cross-tabulation and ANOVA procedures were conducted to examine the differences between currently employed and unemployed women. Binary logistic regressions were conducted to examine whether disclosure and receiving workplace support were significantly associated with current employment. Results indicate that disclosure and workplace support are associated with employment. Implications for clinical practice, workplace policies, and future research are discussed.
Wallace, Charles J; Tauber, Robert
Introduction by the column editors: Supported employment, as designed for persons with serious and persistent mental illness, has been termed individual placement and support. In two randomized controlled trials (1,2), clients who received individual placement and support services were more likely to obtain at least one job in the competitive sector, to work more hours, and to have a higher total income than their counterparts who received more traditional types of vocational rehabilitation. However, individual placement and support did not improve the length of time the employed participants kept their jobs. An adjunctive or additional element of individual placement and support, aimed at improving the job tenure of individuals with mental illness, would be a constructive contribution to the vocational rehabilitation for this population. In a previous Rehab Rounds column, Wallace and colleagues (3) described the development of the workplace fundamental skills module, a highly structured and user-friendly curriculum designed to teach workers with mental illness the social and workplace skills needed to keep their jobs. The workplace fundamental skills module supplements individual placement and support by conveying specific skills that enable workers to learn the requirements of their jobs, anticipate the stressors associated with their jobs, and cope with stressors by using a problem-solving process. The earlier report described the production and validation of the module's content. The purpose of this month's column is to present the preliminary results of a randomized comparison of the module's effects on job retention, symptoms, and community functioning when coupled with individual placement and support. To enable wide generalization of the findings of the study, the program was conducted in a typical community mental health center.
Drake, Robert E.; Skinner, Jonathan S.; Bond, Gary R.; Goldman, Howard H.
Social Security Administration disability programs are expensive, growing, and headed toward bankruptcy. People with psychiatric disabilities now constitute the largest and most rapidly expanding subgroup of program beneficiaries. Evidence-based supported employment is a well-defined, rigorously tested service model that helps people with psychiatric disabilities obtain and succeed in competitive employment. Providing evidence-based supported employment and mental health services to this population could reduce the growing rates of disability and enable those already disabled to contribute positively to the workforce and to their own welfare, at little or no cost (and, depending on assumptions, a possible savings) to the government. PMID:19414885
West, Michael; Targett, Pamela; Wehman, Paul; Cifu, Gabriella; Davis, Jacob
The objective of this study was to examine job separations from supported employment (SE). The aim was to identify the types and nature of separations and precipitating events leading to the separation. A retrospective chart review methodology was utilized. The study was conducted in a metropolitan area in the Southeast United States by a university-based SE program. Participants were 47 SE clients who had been placed into and separated from 67 jobs. Using a coding form, information regarding the type of separation and issues that preceded the separation were recorded. Data were aggregated using descriptive statistics. The largest number of separations was due to termination, followed by resignation and mutual consent of the employer and employee. The mean number of issues leading to the separation was 2.2, ranging from one to five. Only eight positive issues were found (compared to 116 negative and 20 neutral), the most prevalent being entry into an educational or training program. Common negative issues included poor work performance, attendance and punctuality problems, conflicts with the supervisor, and social and behavioral issues. The findings of this study illustrate the need to address job retention issues during the job development process, finding the most appropriate person-job fit and workplace culture for each client. The findings also support the need for vigilant and regular communication between the SE program and employers to intervene quickly when problems arise. Separation from Supported Employment (SE) SE is an evidence-based employment practice that has been shown effective across multiple disability groups. Studying job separations can provide valuable information for improving service. Locating the best person-job fit, as well as frequent contract with employers, can help prevent unnecessary job loss.
Garca-Villamisar, D.; Hughes, C.
Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a supported employment programme on measures of executive functions for 44 adults with autism, assessed at the beginning and the end of the programme period. The average length of time of the community employment was 30 months. Methods: Based on their predominant work activity…
There are high levels of global and national underemployment, but limited information is available on the impact of this phenomenon on the quality of employees' working lives. This study examines the relations among perceived employer support for creative work, different forms of underemployment and employee quality of life, including job satisfaction, perceived job security and job satisfaction. The study was performed using cross-sectional data from the Canadian 2010 Work and Lifelong Learning Survey (WALL), which included 1,042 randomly selected currently employed participants between the ages of 18 and 64 years of age. The study found a significant inverse association between employer support for innovative work and different forms of underemployment. It also suggested a strong relationship between support for such work and participation in work-related informal learning. The results from this study confirmed the hypothesis that employer support for creative work is significantly associated with the quality of employees' working lives, as manifested through increased job security and job satisfaction. Employees experiencing greater support for workplace creativity report less job-related stress. The present study identified relatively low employer support for creative work and significant differences in the perception of support among managers and workers. The results of this study indicate that employer support for innovative work can mitigate significant underutilization of employee knowledge and skills. Such support can contribute to the reduction of job-related stress, increased job satisfaction and perceived job security. This kind of support can also improve the quality of life of employees and facilitate creativity and overall organizational and social development.
Modini, Matthew; Tan, Leona; Brinchmann, Beate; Wang, Min-Jung; Killackey, Eoin; Glozier, Nicholas; Mykletun, Arnstein; Harvey, Samuel B
Individual placement and support (IPS) is a vocational rehabilitation programme that was developed in the USA to improve employment outcomes for people with severe mental illness. Its ability to be generalised to other countries and its effectiveness in varying economic conditions remains to be ascertained. To investigate whether IPS is effective across international settings and in different economic conditions. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials comparing IPS with traditional vocational services was undertaken; 17 studies, as well as 2 follow-up studies, were included. Meta-regressions were carried out to examine whether IPS effectiveness varied according to geographic location, unemployment rates or gross domestic product (GDP) growth. The overall pooled risk ratio for competitive employment using IPS compared with traditional vocational rehabilitation was 2.40 (95% CI 1.99-2.90). Meta-regressions indicated that neither geographic area nor unemployment rates affected the overall effectiveness of IPS. Even when a country's GDP growth was less than 2% IPS was significantly more effective than traditional vocational training, and its benefits remained evident over 2 years. Individual placement and support is an effective intervention across a variety of settings and economic conditions and is more than twice as likely to lead to competitive employment when compared with traditional vocational rehabilitation. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.
Mueser, Kim T; Cook, Judith A
Work is one of the most valued social rules in modern society, contributing to a person's sense of economic well-being, self-esteem, personal identity, and social status. Conversely, the inability to work or sustain employment due to a psychiatric condition is the primary factor in determining eligibility for disability benefits, such as Social Security Disability Income or Social Security Supplemental Income. Just as work is valued strongly by society, it is also important to people with serious mental illness. In this editorial, we contemplate why we cannot "do the right thing" and fully fund supported employment for persons with serious mental illness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Wilkins, Kathryn; Shields, Margot
Previous research indicates that nurses' job dissatisfaction relates to their work organization and environment; rarely has the contribution of employer provided support services been examined while controlling for the influence of other factors. The objective of this study was to examine job dissatisfaction among Canadian registered nurses in relation to employer-provided programs for child care and fitness or recreation. Data are from 2,993 respondents to the 2005 National Survey of the Work and Health of Nurses, weighted to represent Canada's 91,600 registered nurses in full-time, permanent positions who deliver direct care in hospitals or long-term care facilities. Multivariate modeling was used to examine job dissatisfaction in relation to employer-provided support programs, controlling for personal characteristics and variables reflecting work organization and the work environment. Employer-provided child care assistance programs were available to 16% of nurses, and fitness or recreation programs were available to 38%. An estimated 13% of nurses were dissatisfied with their jobs. Even when controlling for personal characteristics, overtime, shift work, shift length, weekly hours, overload, staffing inadequacy, autonomy, nurse-physician relations, and coworker respect, inverse associations with job dissatisfaction emerged for employer-supported child care (odds ratio = 0.49, 95% confidence interval = 0.27-0.88) and fitness programs (odds ratio = 0.65, 95% confidence interval = 0.42-0.99). This study provides new information suggesting that employer-provided support programs are protective against nurses' job dissatisfaction. This is a key finding in view of nursing shortages and the importance of job satisfaction to retention.
Lövgren, Veronica; Markström, Urban; Sauer, Lennart
This article presents an overview of research about support-to-work in relation to psychiatric and intellectual disabilities. The overview shows that support-to-work services are multifaceted, and that work can be seen as a tool for individual rehabilitation or as a set of goals to achieve. Providers are presented with specific components, which are characterized by systematic, targeted, and individualized interventions. The overview illustrates a need for long-term engagement and cooperation of and between welfare services and agents within the labor market to dissolve the Gordian knot that the transition from welfare interventions to employment seems to be.
Manderveld, Jocelyn; Griffiths, Dai; Kew, Chris; Krekels, Bas
Manderveld, J., Griffiths, D., Kew, C., & Krekels, B. (2008). Supporting lifelong competence development and employability using TENCompetence services. Presentation at Online Educa Berlin, December, 3, 2008, Berlin, Germany.
Morris, Adrienne; Waghorn, Geoffrey; Robson, Emma; Moore, Lyndell; Edwards, Emma
To implement the Individual Placement and Support (IPS) approach at 4 locations in regional New South Wales, Australia. Outcomes attained were compared with a national non-IPS program and with international trials of IPS within and outside the United States. Four IPS programs were established through formal partnerships between mental health services and disability employment services. Ninety-five mental health service clients commenced employment assistance and were tracked for a minimum of 12 months. Two sites achieved good fidelity to IPS principles, and 2 sites achieved fair fidelity. IPS clients had 3.5 times greater odds of attaining 13 weeks' employment than those receiving assistance in the national network of disability employment services. Implementing IPS is challenging in the Australian service delivery context. Factors other than program fidelity appear to contribute to excellent employment outcomes. Further research is needed to identify these factors.
This report provides an analysis of employer-supported training in Australia. Employer-supported training is the largest share of adult education and training in all Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. It has benefits for individuals, firms, and society. Cross-country studies have shown a positive association…
Alstveit, Marit; Severinsson, Elisabeth; Karlsen, Bjørg
The World Health Organization calls on health professionals to support women in combining maternity and work. The aim of this study was to explore midwives' and public health nurses' perceptions of supporting employed women to balance work and family life during pregnancy and early motherhood. An exploratory design, including multistage focus group interviews, was used. The focus group consisted of five midwives and one public health nurse who was working in maternity care. The data were analyzed by using qualitative content analysis. The comprehensive theme, "empowering the women when they are in 'another' state of normality", was based on two themes, "being in dialogue with the women" and "supporting the women to manage daily activities". The first theme was based on the subthemes, "perceiving the women to be in 'another' state of normality" and "providing an open atmosphere for dialogue", while the second subtheme was based on "confirming self-esteem" and "suggesting adjustments at work". The midwives and public health nurse empowered the women by enhancing their ability to carry out the self-care that was necessary in order to manage both their work and family life. Collaboration between maternity healthcare providers and employers should be developed in order to support employed women. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Universal Numbering System EN Employer Notification EP Employer Partnership of the Armed Services EPF Employment Policy Foundation ESGR Employer Support of...on Employers 33 lished in 2005 by the Employment Policy Foundation ( EPF ). According to that report, about half of FMLA leave-takers do not give...Magazine (Bates, 2005), summarizes the findings of a report published in 2005 by EPF ; the original report could not be located because EPF has closed. 4
Abdulwadud, Omar A; Snow, Mary Elizabeth
In recent years there has been a rise in the participation rate of women in employment. Some may become pregnant while in employment and subsequently deliver their babies. Most may decide to return early to work after giving birth for various reasons. Unless these mothers get support from their employers and fellow employees, they might give up breastfeeding when they return to work. As a result, the duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding to the recommended age of the babies would be affected.Workplace environment can play a positive role to promote breastfeeding. For women going back to work, various types of workplace support interventions are available and this should not be ignored by employers. Notably, promoting breastfeeding in a workplace may have benefits for the women, the baby and also the employer. To assess the effectiveness of workplace interventions to support and promote breastfeeding among women returning to paid work after the birth of their children, and its impact on process outcomes pertinent to employees and employers. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (2 August 2012). Two authors independently assessed all identified studies for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared workplace interventions with no intervention or two or more workplace interventions against each other. Two authors planned to evaluate the methodological quality of the eligible trials and extract data. There were no randomised controlled trials or quasi-randomised controlled trials identified. No trials have evaluated the effectiveness of workplace interventions in promoting breastfeeding among women returning to paid work after the birth of their child. The impact of such intervention on process outcomes is also unknown. Randomised controlled trials are required to establish the benefits of various types of workplace interventions to support, encourage and promote breastfeeding among working
Carers and people with disabilities are two disadvantaged groups at risk of social exclusion. Work is an important route to social inclusion, but carers and people with disabilities are under-represented in the work force. The present paper reports key findings from a new study that evaluated People into Employment (PIE), a pilot employment project in the north-east of England designed to support people with disabilities, carers and former carers in gaining mainstream work. The study aimed to identify what clients, partner agencies and employers perceived to be PIE's most important services, its strengths and areas where there was scope for further development. The study collected quantitative and qualitative data at the mid-point and at the end of the project through two questionnaire surveys, and interviews with PIE clients, the project development officer, partner agencies and employers. Drawing on the 'pathway model', the findings show that PIE's interventions included mobilising, matching, mediating and supporting activities. Key ingredients in PIE's success include: tailor-made job-search activities and training; adjusting the pace at which people move towards sustained employment; recognising and responding to the differing needs of people with disabilities, carers and former carers; confidence boosting; accompanying clients to job interviews; good job matching; and ongoing practical and emotional support for both clients and employers. Rudimentary calculations suggest that the cost per job to the project is less than the cost per job for large national projects. Overall, these findings illustrate how access to employment via flexible job-search services geared up to the local labour market can successfully promote social inclusion for carers and people with disabilities.
Haas, Karen S.
Many companies today consider employer-sponsored child care a viable solution to problems facing employees who are also parents. Companies can choose from many program options, each with particular benefits for employer and employees. This manual highlights what is presently happening in employer-supported child care, particularly the cost…
Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Eason, Christianne M.; Ferraro, Elizabeth M.; Goodman, Ashley
Context: Female athletic trainers (ATs) tend to depart the profession of athletic training after the age of 30. Factors influencing departure are theoretical. Professional demands, particularly at the collegiate level, have also been at the forefront of anecdotal discussion on departure factors. Objective: To understand the career and family intentions of female ATs employed in the collegiate setting. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-seven female ATs (single = 14, married with no children = 6, married with children = 7) employed in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting. Data Collection and Analysis: All female ATs responded to a series of open-ended questions via reflective journaling. Data were analyzed via a general inductive approach. Trustworthiness was established by peer review, member interpretive review, and multiple-analyst triangulation. Results: Our participants indicated a strong desire to focus on family or to start a family as part of their personal aspirations. Professionally, many female ATs were unsure of their longevity within the Division I collegiate setting or even the profession itself, with 2 main themes emerging as factors influencing decisions to depart: family planning persistence and family planning departure. Six female ATs planned to depart the profession entirely because of conflicts with motherhood and the role of the AT. Only 3 female ATs indicated a professional goal of persisting at the Division I setting regardless of their family or marital status, citing their ability to maintain work-life balance because of support networks. The remaining 17 female ATs planned to make a setting change to balance the roles of motherhood and AT because the Division I setting was not conducive to parenting. Conclusions: Our results substantiate those of previous researchers, which indicate the Division I setting can be
Zeytinoglu, Isik U; Denton, Margaret; Plenderleith, Jennifer Millen
The objectives of this paper are to examine (1) the association between flexible employment and nurses' intention to leave the profession, and (2) whether or not support at work mediates the association between flexible employment and nurses' intention to leave the profession. Flexible employment is analyzed objectively using non-permanent contract, part-time employment status, casual employment status, involuntary hours and on-call work, and subjectively using job insecurity. Support at work refers to organizational, supervisor and peer support. Data come from our survey of 1396 nurses employed in three teaching hospitals in Southern Ontario. Descriptive statistics are provided. Bivariate correlations, hierarchical regression analysis and mediation tests are conducted. Compared to those in full-time employment, nurses in part-time employment do not intend to leave the profession. None of the other objective flexible employment factors are associated with intention to leave the profession. Perceived job insecurity is associated with intention to leave the profession. Low support at work contributes to intention to leave the profession and mediates the association between job insecurity and intention to leave the profession. The study provides evidence to health sector managers and policy makers that part-time employment, perceived job security and support at work are important factors to consider in efforts to retain nurses in the profession. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Post, Michal; Campbell, Camille; Heinz, Tom; Kotsonas, Lori; Montgomery, Joyce; Storey, Keith
The article presents the benefits of successful collaboration between supported employment agencies and human resource managers when working together to secure employment for individuals with disabilities. Two case studies are presented: one involving a successful collaboration with county human resource managers in negotiating a change in the…
Nazarov, Zafar E.; Erickson, William A.; Bruyère, Susanne M.
Objective: It is useful to examine workplace factors influencing employment outcomes of individuals with disabilities and the interplay of disability, employment-related, and employer characteristics to inform rehabilitation practice. Design: A number of large national survey and administrative data sets provide information on employers and can…
Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Eason, Christianne M; Ferraro, Elizabeth M; Goodman, Ashley
Female athletic trainers (ATs) tend to depart the profession of athletic training after the age of 30. Factors influencing departure are theoretical. Professional demands, particularly at the collegiate level, have also been at the forefront of anecdotal discussion on departure factors. To understand the career and family intentions of female ATs employed in the collegiate setting. Qualitative study. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I. Twenty-seven female ATs (single = 14, married with no children = 6, married with children = 7) employed in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting. All female ATs responded to a series of open-ended questions via reflective journaling. Data were analyzed via a general inductive approach. Trustworthiness was established by peer review, member interpretive review, and multiple-analyst triangulation. Our participants indicated a strong desire to focus on family or to start a family as part of their personal aspirations. Professionally, many female ATs were unsure of their longevity within the Division I collegiate setting or even the profession itself, with 2 main themes emerging as factors influencing decisions to depart: family planning persistence and family planning departure. Six female ATs planned to depart the profession entirely because of conflicts with motherhood and the role of the AT. Only 3 female ATs indicated a professional goal of persisting at the Division I setting regardless of their family or marital status, citing their ability to maintain work-life balance because of support networks. The remaining 17 female ATs planned to make a setting change to balance the roles of motherhood and AT because the Division I setting was not conducive to parenting. Our results substantiate those of previous researchers, which indicate the Division I setting can be problematic for female ATs and stimulate departure from the setting and even the profession.
Wehman, Paul; Lau, Stephanie; Molinelli, Alissa; Brooke, Valerie; Thompson, Katie; Moore, Chandler; West, Michael
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of supported employment in securing and maintaining competitive employment for people with autism spectrum disorder, a group that has typically been found to be underemployed or unemployed. This prospective study followed and collected data on 33 individuals with autism spectrum disorder as they…
Kassile, Telemu; Anicetus, Honest; Kukula, Raphael; Mmbando, Bruno P
HIV is a major public health problem in the world, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. It often leads to loss of productive labour and disruption of existing social support system which results in deterioration of population health. This poses a great challenge to infected people in meeting their essential goods and services. This paper examines health and social support services provided by employers to HIV/AIDS infected employees in Tanzania. This was a cross-sectional study, which employed qualitative and quantitative methods in data collection and analysis. Structured questionnaires and in-depth interviews were used to assess the health and social support services provision at employers and employees perspectives. The study participants were employees and employers from public and private organizations. A total of 181 employees and 23 employers from 23 workplaces aged between 18-68 years were involved. The results show that 23.8% (i.e., 20.4% males and 27.3% females) of the employees had at least one member of the family or close relatives living with HIV at the time of the study. Fifty six percent of the infected employees reported to have been receiving health or social support from their employers. Employees' responses were consistent with those reported by their employers. A total of 12(52.2%) and 11(47.8%) employers reported to have been providing health and social supports respectively. Female employees (58.3%) from the private sector (60.0%) were more likely to receive supports than male employees (52.6%) and than those from the public sector (46.2%). The most common health and social support received by the employees were treatment, and nutritional support and reduction of workload, respectively. HIV/AIDS infected employees named treatment and nutritional support, and soft loans and reduced workload respectively, as the most important health and social supports they needed from their employers. This study provides baseline information for further studies
Marinelli, Kathleen A; Moren, Kathleen; Taylor, Julie Scott
The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine is a worldwide organization of physicians dedicated to the promotion, protection, and support of breastfeeding and human lactation. Our mission is to unite into one association members of the various medical specialties with this common purpose.
Jetha, Arif; Badley, Elizabeth; Beaton, Dorcas; Fortin, Paul R; Shiff, Natalie J; Rosenberg, Alan M; Tucker, Lori B; Mosher, Dianne P; Gignac, Monique A M
To examine perceived independence, overprotection, and support, and their association with the employment participation of young adults with rheumatic disease. One hundred and forty-three young adults, ages 18 to 30 years, with systemic lupus erythematosus (54.5%) and juvenile arthritis (45.5%) completed a 30-min online questionnaire of their work and education experiences. Information collected was demographic, health (e.g., pain, fatigue, disease activity), work context (e.g., career satisfaction, helpfulness of job accommodation/benefits, and workplace activity limitations), and psychosocial (e.g., independence, social support, and overprotection). Log-Poisson regression analysis examined factors associated with employment status. Over half of respondents were employed (59%) and 26% were enrolled in school. Respondents reported moderate to high perceptions of independence and social support. However, 27% reported that "quite a bit" to "a great deal" of overprotection characterized their relationships with those closest to them. At the bivariate level, employed participants and those indicating greater perceived independence reported greater social support and less overprotection. Multivariable analysis revealed that being employed was associated with older age, more job accommodations/benefits perceived as being helpful, and greater perceived independence. This is one of the first studies examining the employment of young adults with rheumatic diseases. Findings highlight the importance of psychosocial perceptions such as independence and overprotection, in addition to support related to working. Additional research is needed to better understand the role of those close to young adults with rheumatic diseases in supporting independence and encouraging employment.
Saha, Sanjib; Bejerholm, Ulrika; Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Jarl, Johan
The individual enabling and support (IES) model was effective in gaining competitive employment for people with affective disorders compared with traditional vocational rehabilitation (TVR) services in a randomized controlled trial in a Swedish setting. The object of this study is to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of IES comparing to TVR. We considered the costs of intervention and productivity gain due to increased competitive employment. We estimated quality of life using EuroQol 5 Dimension (EQ-5D) and Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life (MANSA) scale. EQ-5D was translated into quality-adjusted life-years (QALY), using the UK, Danish, and Swedish tariffs. We performed the analysis from a societal perspective with a one-year timeframe. The cost of IES was €7247 lower per person per year (2014 prices) compared to TVR. There were no significant differences in QALY improvement within or between groups. However, quality of life measured by the MANSA scale significantly improved over the study period in IES. Besides the small sample size, details on the intervention costs for both IES and TVR group were unavailable and had to be obtained from external sources. Implementation of IES for people with affective disorders is most likely cost-saving and is potentially even dominating TVR, although a larger trial is required to establish this.
Romero, Manuel G; Pitney, William A; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Brumels, Kirk
Athletic trainers (ATs) employed in the professional sport setting (ATPSSs) demonstrate moderate to high degrees of role strain. The experiences and perceptions of these ATs provide insight regarding the sources of role strain as well as ways to reduce it. To investigate the perceptions of ATPSSs regarding role strain. Qualitative study. From a purposeful sampling of 389 ATs employed in the 5 major sport leagues (Major League Baseball, Major League Soccer, National Basketball Association, National Football League, and National Hockey League), we identified 34 participants willing to participate in phone interviews. Data Collection and Procedures: Semistructured phone interviews. Inductive data analysis was based on a grounded theory approach. Credibility was addressed with member checks and a peer debriefing. Three first-order emergent themes materialized from the data: (1) sources of role strain, (2) consequences of role strain, and (3) strategies to alleviate role strain in ATPSSs. Participants described the antecedents of role strain as emerging from the competing expectations of the professional athlete, the organization, and the sport league. Consequences of role strain included effects on direct patient care and work-life imbalance. Improving organizational factors such as inadequate staffing and poor communication within the organization were strategies described by participants for decreasing role strain in the professional sports setting. Our participants discussed experiencing role strain, which was facilitated by trying to meet the competing demands placed on them with limited time and often with an inadequate support staff. Participant role strain affected health care and contributed to work-life imbalance. Participants described changing the organizational factors that contributed to role strain as a strategy to alleviate the perceived stress.
Seiger, Christine P.; Wiese, Bettina S.
We conducted a longitudinal study to investigate how social support from the partner is related to mothers' affective well-being during their return to employment after maternity leave and whether expectations of that support have an additional impact. We differentiated four forms of support and their respective expectation discrepancies:…
Delaware Valley Child Care Council, Philadelphia, PA.
This booklet outlines a number of options available to employers to enable them to better cope with child care issues that they and their employees face. Major options include: (1) flexible work policies, such as flexible scheduling, alternate work places, shorter work weeks, and the consolidating of sick leave, holidays, and vacation time into…
Mavranezouli, Ifigeneia; Megnin-Viggars, Odette; Cheema, Nadir; Howlin, Patricia; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Pilling, Stephen
Adults with autism face high rates of unemployment. Supported employment enables individuals with autism to secure and maintain a paid job in a regular work environment. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of supported employment compared with standard care (day services) for adults with autism in the United Kingdom.…
Perreault, Michel; Touré, El Hadj; Perreault, Nicole; Caron, Jean
Although it has been established that unemployment and underemployment increase distress and depression, the psychological mechanisms involved are not very clear. This study examines the roles of social support and coping strategies as mediators of the association between employment status and mental health, as well as gender and age differences as moderators. Residents from the epidemiological catchment area of south-west Montreal responded to a randomized household survey for adults in 2009. A follow-up was conducted based on participants' employment status 2 and 4 years later. ANOVAs tests were computed with SPSS to evaluate group differences, and structural equation modeling was performed with AMOS to test mediation effects. At baseline, among participants between 18 and 64 years old (n = 2325), 14.3 % were unemployed/not studying, 14.4 % worked part-time, and 56.5 % worked full-time. Employment status was found to significantly affect depression among those under 45 years old (chi-square = 23.4, p employment with depression, which was fully mediated by social support, less coping with drugs/medication, and less distress. A negative association with full-time employment was also noted with distress, which was partially mediated by increased social support, coping with alcohol, and less coping with drugs/medication. The total indirect effect suggests that full-time employees generally have more resources and do not tend to use avoidance strategies like coping with drugs/medication, resulting in less distress (β = -0.05; p employment, namely full-time employment, in communities.
Fuller, T R; Oka, M; Otsuka, K; Yokoyama, N; Liberman, R P; Niwa, S I
INTRODUCTION BY THE COLUMN EDITORS: Because the mental health system in Japan has emphasized hospital-based treatment (1), patients with schizophrenia often remain institutionalized for long periods, even after their symptoms have stabilized. In addition, the introduction of modern community-based methods of treatment and rehabilitation was delayed by an antipsychiatry movement in the 1970s and the ascendance of a reductionistic biological approach to services (2). Lack of adequate outpatient services and community residential care in Japan has been a serious obstacle to destigmatization of mental disorders and has contributed to the heavy burden and stress experienced by families of mentally ill persons (3). More than 80 percent of patients discharged from mental hospitals return to live with their families, who are ill prepared to provide the supportive services required for community tenure. Involvement in work activities can facilitate community reentry for people with serious and persistent mental illness because employment displaces symptoms, provides structure and meaning in daily life, offers socialization with peers, and permits workers to earn income for shelter and food. In this issue's Rehab Rounds column, the authors describe an innovative vocational rehabilitation program for patients with schizophrenia that was designed to overcome obstacles to discharge and community adjustment. The program at Yabuki Prefecture Psychiatric Hospital, in the northern prefecture of Fukushima, Japan, has been successful in training patients for competitive work while capitalizing on the importance of work in Japanese culture and its traditionally supportive employer-employee relationships. The program is termed "hybrid" because it combines elements of transitional employment with supported employment (4).
Gao, Ni; Dolce, Joni; Rio, John; Heitzmann, Carma; Loving, Samantha
This column describes a goal-oriented, time-limited in vivo coaching/training approach for skills building among peer veterans vocational rehabilitation specialists of the Homeless Veteran Supported Employment Program (HVSEP). Planning, implementing, and evaluating the training approach for peer providers was intended, ultimately, to support veterans in their goal of returning to community competitive employment. The description draws from the training experience that aimed to improve the ability of peer providers to increase both rates of employment and wages of the homeless veterans using their services. Training peers using an in vivo training approach provided a unique opportunity for the veterans to improve their job development skills with a focus to support employment outcomes for the service users. Peers who received training also expressed that learning skills through an in vivo training approach was more engaging than typical classroom trainings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Abstract Background Vocational integration of people with mental illness is poor despite their willingness to work. The ‘Individual Placement and Support’ (IPS model which emphasises rapid and direct job placement and continuing support to patient and employer has proven to be the most effective vocational intervention programme. Various studies have shown that every second patient with severe mental illness was able to find competitive employment within 18 months. However, the goal of taking up employment within two months was rarely achieved. Thus, we aim to test whether the new concept of limited placement budgets increases the effectiveness of IPS. Methods/Design Six job coaches in six out-patients psychiatric clinics in the Canton of Zurich support unemployed patients of their clinic who seek competitive employment. Between June 2010 and May 2011 patients (N=100 are randomly assigned to three different placement budgets of 25h, 40h, or 55h working hours of job coaches. Support lasts two years for those who find a job. The intervention ends for those who fail to find competitive employment when the respective placement budgets run out. The primary outcome measure is the time between study inclusion and first competitive employment that lasted three months or longer. Over a period of three years interviews are carried out every six months to measure changes in motivation, stigmatization, social network and social support, quality of life, job satisfaction, financial situation, and health conditions. Cognitive and social-cognitive tests are conducted at baseline to control for confounding variables. Discussion This study will show whether the effectiveness of IPS can be increased by the new concept of limited placement budgets. It will also be examined whether competitive employment leads in the long term to an improvement of mental illness, to a transfer of the psychiatric support system to private and vocational networks, to an increase
Schall, Carol M; Wehman, Paul; Brooke, Valerie; Graham, Carolyn; McDonough, Jennifer; Brooke, Alissa; Ham, Whitney; Rounds, Rachael; Lau, Stephanie; Allen, Jaclyn
This paper presents findings from a retrospective observational records review study that compares the outcomes associated with implementation of supported employment (SE) with and without prior Project SEARCH with ASD Supports (PS-ASD) on wages earned, time spent in intervention, and job retention. Results suggest that SE resulted in competitive employment for 45 adults with ASD. Twenty-five individuals received prior intervention through PS-ASD while the other 20 individuals received SE only. Individuals in this sample who received PS-ASD required fewer hours of intervention. Additionally, individuals in the PS-ASD group achieved a mean higher wage and had higher retention rates than their peers who received SE only. Further research with a larger sample is needed to confirm these findings.
Ottomanelli, Lisa; Goetz, Lance L; Barnett, Scott D; Njoh, Eni; Dixon, Thomas M; Holmes, Sally Ann; LePage, James P; Ota, Doug; Sabharwal, Sunil; White, Kevin T
To determine the effects of a 24-month program of Individual Placement and Support (IPS) supported employment (SE) on employment outcomes for veterans with spinal cord injury (SCI). Longitudinal, observational multisite study of a single-arm, nonrandomized cohort. SCI centers in the Veterans Health Administration (n=7). Veterans with SCI (N=213) enrolled during an episode of either inpatient hospital care (24.4%) or outpatient care (75.6%). More than half the sample (59.2%) had a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI). IPS SE for 24 months. Competitive employment. Over the 24-month period, 92 of 213 IPS participants obtained competitive jobs for an overall employment rate of 43.2%. For the subsample of participants without TBI enrolled as outpatients (n=69), 36 obtained competitive jobs for an overall employment rate of 52.2%. Overall, employed participants averaged 38.2±29.7 weeks of employment, with an average time to first employment of 348.3±220.0 days. Nearly 25% of first jobs occurred within 4 to 6 months of beginning the program. Similar employment characteristics were observed in the subsample without TBI history enrolled as outpatients. Almost half of the veterans with SCI participating in the 24-month IPS program as part of their ongoing SCI care achieved competitive employment, consistent with their expressed preferences at the start of the study. Among a subsample of veterans without TBI history enrolled as outpatients, employment rates were >50%. Time to first employment was highly variable, but quite long in many instances. These findings support offering continued IPS services as part of ongoing SCI care to achieve positive employment outcomes. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Christensen, Ole; Kim, Hong Oh; Kim, Rae Young
We identify a class of continuous compactly supported functions for which the known part of the Gabor frame set can be extended. At least for functions with support on an interval of length two, the curve determining the set touches the known obstructions. Easy verifiable sufficient conditions fo...
Hamar, Brent; Coberley, Carter; Pope, James E; Rula, Elizabeth Y
To evaluate employee well-being change and associated change in productivity, health risk including biometrics, and workplace support over 2 years after implementation of a well-being improvement strategy. This was an employer case study evaluation of well-being, productivity (presenteeism, absenteeism, and job performance), health risk, and employer support across three employee assessment spanning 2 years. Employee well-being was compared with an independent sample of workers in the community. Well-being and job performance increased and presenteeism and health risk decreased significantly over the 2 years. Employee well-being started lower and increased to exceed community worker averages, approaching significance. Well-being improvement was associated with higher productivity across all measures. Increases in employer support for well-being were associated with improved well-being and productivity. This employer's well-being strategy, including a culture supporting well-being, was associated with improved health and productivity.
Yimyam, Susanha; Hanpa, Wasana
Resuming work is often considered an obstacle for continued breast feeding. The objectives of this participatory action research study were to develop a breast feeding support model in the workplace and to compare breast feeding rates before and after implementation of the breast feeding support campaign. Twenty-four women participated before the implementation of the breast feeding support campaign, whereas 31 women participated after the campaign. Data were collected by interviewing employed women about their breast feeding practices within six months post partum. Additional data were collected through interviews with the workplace administrator and head of work sections as well as observation of the breast feeding support campaigns. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis, whereas quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and χ(2) test. The workplace breast feeding support model was developed based on the concept of Mother-Friendly Workplace Initiatives by the World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action (WABA) and the Thai government׳s promotion of a workplace breast feeding corner. Within this model, a committee for breast feeding support was created for working with the research team to develop breast feeding activities and media for breast feeding education and breast feeding support campaigns in the workplace. Breast feeding rates at six months after implementation of the breast feeding support campaign were significantly higher than rates before, both for exclusive breast feeding and any breast feeding at levels .004 and .033, respectively. These results suggest that breast feeding should be encouraged in every workplace depending on context. Individual advice and help for employed mothers should be provided from pregnancy through weaning in the postpartum period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ellison, Aaron M; Osterweil, Leon J; Clarke, Lori; Hadley, Julian L; Wise, Alexander; Boose, Emery; Foster, David R; Hanson, Allen; Jensen, David; Kuzeja, Paul; Riseman, Edward; Schultz, Howard
A wide variety of data sets produced by individual investigators are now synthesized to address ecological questions that span a range of spatial and temporal scales. It is important to facilitate such syntheses so that "consumers" of data sets can be confident that both input data sets and synthetic products are reliable. Necessary documentation to ensure the reliability and validation of data sets includes both familiar descriptive metadata and formal documentation of the scientific processes used (i.e., process metadata) to produce usable data sets from collections of raw data. Such documentation is complex and difficult to construct, so it is important to help "producers" create reliable data sets and to facilitate their creation of required metadata. We describe a formal representation, an "analytic web," that aids both producers and consumers of data sets by providing complete and precise definitions of scientific processes used to process raw and derived data sets. The formalisms used to define analytic webs are adaptations of those used in software engineering, and they provide a novel and effective support system for both the synthesis and the validation of ecological data sets. We illustrate the utility of an analytic web as an aid to producing synthetic data sets through a worked example: the synthesis of long-term measurements of whole-ecosystem carbon exchange. Analytic webs are also useful validation aids for consumers because they support the concurrent construction of a complete, Internet-accessible audit trail of the analytic processes used in the synthesis of the data sets. Finally we describe our early efforts to evaluate these ideas through the use of a prototype software tool, SciWalker. We indicate how this tool has been used to create analytic webs tailored to specific data-set synthesis and validation activities, and suggest extensions to it that will support additional forms of validation. The process metadata created by SciWalker is
Ringwalt, C L; Graham, L A; Paschall, M J; Flewelling, R L; Browne, D C
Supporting Adolescents with Guidance and Employment (SAGE) is a multifaceted, community-based violence-prevention program. Its target is African-American male adolescents in Durham, North Carolina. Public health professionals, county government officials, and local businessmen collaborated in its development and implementation. The program is based on the paradigm of risk and protective factors, in which various risk factors for youth violence are buffered by modifiable, protective psychosocial processes. SAGE includes an eight-month African-American Rites of Passage program (adult mentoring, African-American culture and history lessons, and manhood and conflict-resolution training), a six-week summer employment component, and a 12-week entrepreneurial experience. Of the 260 youth recruited, 88 were randomly assigned to receive all three program components, 85 were assigned to the summer employment and entrepreneurial components only, and 87 were assigned to a delayed program or control condition. We compared these three groups' psychosocial and behavioral outcomes using survey data and archival records. Program implementation data include attendance records; mentor-youth activity logs pre- and postprogram focus group discussions; and telephone interviews with parents, program staff, and participants. The mean age of the adolescents recruited into the program was 14. Half reported receiving free lunches at school; half were not living with a father; and one quarter reported that their mothers had not completed high school. During the previous year, many had engaged in various violence-related behaviors, including fighting (49%) and carrying a gun (22%). Youths in each program condition were similar with respect to key demographic and behavioral characteristics. The key components of the SAGE program represent increasingly popular but untested approaches. Preliminary results reveal that these youths are involved in violent behavior both as perpetrators and as
Patricia McQuilkin MD
Full Text Available This article describes a model employed by the Academic Collaborative to Support Medical Education in Liberia to augment medical education in a postconflict setting where the health and educational structures and funding are very limited. We effectively utilized a cohort of visiting US pediatric faculty and trainees for short-term but recurrent clinical work and teaching. This model allows US academic medical centers, especially those with smaller residency programs, to provide global health experiences for faculty and trainees while contributing to the strengthening of medical education in the host country. Those involved can work toward a goal of sustainable training with a strengthened host country specialty education system. Partnerships such as ours evolve over time and succeed by meeting the needs of the host country, even during unanticipated challenges, such as the Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa.
Halpern, Michael T; Taylor, Humphrey
Workplace smoking cessation programs can increase smoking cessation rates, improve employee health, reduce exposure to second-hand smoke, and decrease costs. To assist with the development of such programs, we conducted a Global Workplace Smoking Survey to collect information on workplace attitudes towards smoking cessation programs. Data were collected from 1,403 employers (smoking and non-smoking) and 3,525 smoking employees participating in surveys in 14 countries in Asia, Europe, and South America in 2007. Results were weighted to ensure that they were representative of smokers and employers at companies with the specified number of employees. More than two-thirds of employers (69%) but less than half of employees (48%) indicated that their company should help employees with smoking cessation. Approximately two-thirds of employees and 81% of employers overall felt that smoke-free policies encourage cessation, but fewer individuals from Europe (vs. from Asia or South America) agreed with this. In companies with a smoke-free policy, 76% of employees and 80% of employers felt that their policy had been somewhat, very, or extremely effective in motivating employees to quit or reduce smoking. Employers and employees differed substantially regarding appropriate methods for encouraging cessation, with more employees favouring financial incentives and more employers favouring education. Both employees and employers value smoke-free workplace programs and workplace cessation support activities, although many would like their companies to offer more support. These results will be useful for organizations exploring means of facilitating smoking cessation amongst employees.
Chiu, Frank P.F.
Before the 1960s in Hong Kong, specialized vocational services for people with mental illness were very limited, and sheltered workshop seemed to be the only option for their future vocational placement at that time. As discussed in the literature, there are still many shortcomings of the sheltered workshop model, that brings us to the emergence of another community-based vocational service: Supported Employment. Unlike traditional vocational services, the concept of supported employment emphasizes the placing of the clients into integrated work environments and then providing on-going support and work-related skills training in the job post. Though supported employment services help many clients to sustain a job in the competitive market, many service barriers and problems still remain unsolved. These service barriers and problems will be discussed in this article, and suggestions will be made.
O'Brien, Karen M; Ganginis Del Pino, Heather V; Yoo, Sung-Kyung; Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Han, Young-Joo
Our research revealed differences in work-family constructs for employed mothers in 3 countries, Israel (N = 105), Korea (N = 298), and the United States (N = 305). Although levels of work-family conflict were comparable, the Korean women had the lowest levels of work-family enrichment compared with the Israeli and American mothers. Moreover, Korean women reported the most depression and the least support from both spouses and employers. Spousal support mediated the relationship between work-family conflict and depression for employed mothers in Israel, Korea, and the United States. As hypothesized by conservation of resources theory (Hobfoll, 1989, 1998, 2001), threat of resource loss (operationalized as work-family conflict) was related to depression more strongly than was resource gain (i.e., work-family enrichment). PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
... special tribute to the employers of our Guardsmen and Reservists, whose support and flexibility bolster... encourage National Guard and Reserve participation, and by bearing financial and organizational...
Waghorn, Geoffrey; Dias, Shannon; Gladman, Beverley; Harris, Meredith; Saha, Sukanta
The Individual Placement and Support (IPS) approach is an evidence-based form of supported employment for people with severe and persistent mental illness. This approach is not yet widely available in Australia even though there is mounting evidence of its generalisability outside the USA. One previous Australian randomised controlled trial found that IPS is effective for young people with first episode psychosis. The aim of the current trial was to assess the effectiveness of evidence-based supported employment when implemented for Australian adult consumers of public mental health services by utilising existing service systems. A four-site randomised control trial design (n = 208) was conducted in Brisbane (two sites), Townsville and Cairns. The intervention consisted of an IPS supported employment service hosted by a community mental health team. The control condition was delivered at each site by mental health teams referring consumers to other disability employment services in the local area. At 12 months, those in the IPS condition had 2.4 times greater odds of commencing employment than those in the control condition (42.5% vs. 23.5%). The conditions did not differ on secondary employment outcomes including job duration, hours worked, or job diversity. Attrition was higher than expected in both conditions with 28.4% completing the baseline interview but taking no further part in the study. The results support previous international findings that IPS-supported employment is more effective than non-integrated supported employment. IPS can be successfully implemented this way in Australia, but with a loss of effect strength compared to previous USA trials. © 2014 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Lavis, John N; Oxman, Andrew D; Lewin, Simon; Fretheim, Atle
This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. Policymakers have limited resources for developing--or supporting the development of--evidence-informed policies and programmes. These required resources include staff time, staff infrastructural needs (such as access to a librarian or journal article purchasing), and ongoing professional development. They may therefore prefer instead to contract out such work to independent units with more suitably skilled staff and appropriate infrastructure. However, policymakers may only have limited financial resources to do so. Regardless of whether the support for evidence-informed policymaking is provided in-house or contracted out, or whether it is centralised or decentralised, resources always need to be used wisely in order to maximise their impact. Examples of undesirable practices in a priority-setting approach include timelines to support evidence-informed policymaking being negotiated on a case-by-case basis (instead of having clear norms about the level of support that can be provided for each timeline), implicit (rather than explicit) criteria for setting priorities, ad hoc (rather than systematic and explicit) priority-setting process, and the absence of both a communications plan and a monitoring and evaluation plan. In this article, we suggest questions that can guide those setting priorities for finding and using research evidence to support evidence-informed policymaking. These are: 1. Does the approach to prioritisation make clear the timelines that have been set for addressing high-priority issues in different ways? 2. Does the approach incorporate explicit criteria for determining priorities? 3. Does the approach incorporate an explicit process for determining priorities? 4. Does the approach incorporate a communications strategy and a monitoring and evaluation plan?
Samele, Chiara; Forrester, Andrew; Bertram, Mark
Few employment programmes exist to support forensic service users with severe mental health problems and a criminal history. Little is known about how best to achieve this. The Employment and Social Inclusion Project (ESIP) was developed and piloted to support forensic service users into employment and vocational activities. This pilot service evaluation aimed to assess the number of service users who secured employment/vocational activities and explored services users' and staff experiences. Quantitative data were collected to record the characteristics of participating service users and how many secured employment and engaged in vocational activities. Eighteen qualitative interviews were conducted with service users and staff. Fifty-seven service users engaged with the project, most were men (93.0%) and previously employed (82.5%). Four service users (7.0%) secured paid competitive employment. Eight (14.0%) gained other paid employment. Tailored one-to-one support to increase skills and build confidence was an important feature of the project. Creation of a painting and decorating programme offered training and paid/flexible work. This exploratory project achieved some success in assisting forensic service users into paid employment. Further research to identify what works well for this important group will be of great value.
Coleman, N; Hull, B P; Ellitt, G
The preferred settings for lumbar support height and depth of 43 male and 80 female office workers were investigated. All subjects were equipped with identical modern office chairs with foam-padded backrests adjustable in both height and depth. Measurements of lumbar support settings were recorded in the workplace, outside of working hours, on four different occasions, over a 5 week period. Preferred lumbar support height and depth settings extended to both extremes of the adjustment range. The mean preferred height setting was 190 mm above the compressed seat surface. The mean depth setting (horizontal distance from front of seat to lumbar support point) was 387 mm. A regression model examining the effects of standing height, Body Mass Index (BMI) and gender on mean preferred lumbar support height showed a significant relationship between preferred height and BMI. Higher lumbar supports were chosen by subjects with greater BMIs. Gender and standing height were not associated with preferred lumbar support height settings. Preferred lumbar support depth was not significantly associated with standing height, gender or BMI. Older subjects were more likely to readjust their lumbar support from a disrupted position than younger subjects, indicating that older users are more sensitive to the position of their lumbar support. Subjects who reported recent back pain or discomfort that they believed to be associated with their chair or office work were found to set their lumbar support significantly closer to the front of the seat, probably to ensure greater support for their back. Based on the evidence that a high proportion of users do make adjustments to the height and depth of their lumbar support, and the finding that different groups of users, with different physical characteristics, adjust the position of their lumbar support in distinct and predictable ways, the researchers conclude that office chairs with traditional padded fixed-height lumbar supports are unlikely
Waynor, William R; Gill, Kenneth J; Gao, Ni
This study tested whether higher work-related self-efficacy would predict the achievement of competitive employment in supported employment (SE) programs. N = 105 individuals were recruited from 5 state-funded SE programs in a Northeastern state. Participants were required to be unemployed and seeking employment to be eligible to enter the study. Research staff met with the individuals at baseline and collected demographic information and data on self-efficacy and psychiatric symptoms. For the follow-up assessment at 6 months, data were collected on participants, self-efficacy, psychiatric symptoms, and employment activity. Thirty-eight percent of the participants achieved competitive employment at the 6-month follow-up. However, self-efficacy was not a positive predictor of competitive employment. Surprisingly, 1 of the subscales, work-related social skills self-efficacy, was negatively associated with employment. These findings suggest that self-efficacy is not a predictor of competitive employment for individuals living with serious mental illness and receiving supported employment services. It appears that SE can be helpful for participants with a range of self-efficacy. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
... of happiness were first put to paper, ordinary citizens have always stood ready to defend them as... a culture of military support in the workplace. These employers help keep our service members...
Kern, Robert S; Zarate, Roberto; Glynn, Shirley M; Turner, Luana R; Smith, Kellie M; Mitchell, Sharon S; Sugar, Catherine A; Bell, Morris D; Liberman, Robert P; Kopelowicz, Alex; Green, Michael F
Heterogeneity in work outcomes is common among individuals with serious mental illness (SMI). In 2 studies, we sought to examine the efficacy of adding errorless learning, a behavioral training intervention, to evidence-based supported employment to improve SMI work outcomes. Work behavior problems were targeted for intervention. We also explored associations between early work behavior and job tenure. For both studies (VA: n = 71; community mental health center: n = 91), randomization occurred at the time of job obtainment with participants randomized (1:1) to either errorless learning plus ongoing supported employment or ongoing supported employment alone and then followed for 12 months. Dependent variables included job tenure, work behavior, and hours worked and wages earned per week. For the primary intent-to-treat analyses, data were combined across studies. Findings revealed that participants in the errorless learning plus supported employment group stayed on their jobs significantly longer than those in the supported employment alone group (32.8 vs 25.6 wk). In addition, differential treatment effects favoring errorless learning were found on targeted work behavior problems (50.5% vs 27.4% improvement from baseline to follow-up assessment). There were no other differential treatment effects. For the prediction analyses involving work behavior, social skills explained an additional 18.3% of the variance in job tenure beyond levels of cognition, symptom severity, and past work history. These data support errorless learning as an adjunctive intervention to enhance supported employment outcomes and implicate the relevance of workplace social difficulties as a key impediment to prolonged job tenure. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center 2017.
Onufrak, Stephen J; Watson, Kathleen B; Kimmons, Joel; Pan, Liping; Khan, Laura Kettel; Lee-Kwan, Seung Hee; Park, Sohyun
To examine the workplace food and physical activity (PA) environments and wellness culture reported by employed United States adults, overall and by employer size. Cross-sectional study using web-based survey on wellness policies and environmental supports for healthy eating and PA. Worksites in the United States. A total of 2101 adults employed outside the home. Survey items were based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Worksite Health ScoreCard and Checklist of Health Promotion Environments and included the availability and promotion of healthy food items, nutrition education, promotion of breast-feeding, availability of PA amenities and programs, facility discounts, time for PA, stairwell signage, health promotion programs, and health risk assessments. Descriptive statistics were used to examine the prevalence of worksite environmental and facility supports by employer size (<100 or ≥100 employees). Chi-square tests were used to examine the differences by employer size. Among employed respondents with workplace food or drink vending machines, approximately 35% indicated the availability of healthy items. Regarding PA, 30.9% of respondents reported that their employer provided opportunities to be physically active and 17.6% reported worksite exercise facilities. Wellness programs were reported by 53.2% working for large employers, compared to 18.1% for smaller employers. Employee reports suggested that workplace supports for healthy eating, PA, and wellness were limited and were less common among smaller employers.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the association between physical activity (PA and different goal setting and strategies in youth. The study took into consideration different sources of support as well as gender variations. Classmate and Teacher Support scales were used to evaluate support in physical education (PE classes, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA was reported. Garmin Vivofit® activity trackers were used during an 8 week-long intervention to count daily steps. Data was collected from 65 adolescents (mean age 17.2 ± 0.2, 74 young adolescents (mean age 15.3 ± 0.2 and 57 children (mean age 11.5 ± 0.4. An experimental design was employed, with “goal” and “do your best” groups given different step goal strategies. The results show that both groups achieved a comparable number of steps. Two-way ANOVA showed interactional effects between gender and teacher support. There were no such effects for MVPA and number of steps. Although classmate support in PE was reported to be reasonably high, the findings show that it does not play a significant role in increasing MVPA behaviors in youths. However, the problem of significantly lower support given to adolescent girls by PE teachers should be embedded into the teaching context of PE students and counteracted in school setting realities.
Abstract Background: Despite the increasing number of large companies complying with the demands for a breastfeeding-friendly workplace, providing on-site lactation support, some mothers still find continuing to breastfeed a challenge. We postulated that greater support and encouragement from the partner would be independently predictive of whether the mother would take advantage of workplace milk expression breaks and lactation rooms and continue to breastfeed after returning to work. To evaluate this hypothesis, we conducted a survey at a female labor-intensive electronics manufacturer in Taiwan. Subjects and Methods: Six hundred eight working mothers in an electronics manufacturing plant in Tainan Science Park in Southern Taiwan who had access to dedicated lactation rooms at the workplace were interviewed. Questionnaire content included female employee demographics, employment characteristics, partner-related characteristics, and breastfeeding behavior after returning to work following the birth of their most recently born child. Results: The partner's initial support of the choice to breastfeed and encouragement to use the lactation room and milk expression breaks and the mother's perception of the partner's support for baby care were significant predictors of the intention to continue to breastfeed after returning to work, after adjusting for the employed mother's demographics and employment characteristics, supporting our hypothesis. Conclusions: These findings suggest that antenatal education or activities provided by the workplace should include the partner, which may improve workplace breastfeeding rates. PMID:24650363
Howlin, Patricia; Alcock, Jennifer; Burkin, Catherine
Few supported employment programmes have been specifically designed for people with autism, especially those who are more able. This study examines the outcome of a supported employment service (NAS Prospects) for adults with autism or Asperger syndrome (IQ 60+) over an 8 year period. Approximately 68 percent of clients found employment. Of the 192 jobs, the majority were permanent contracts and most involved administrative, technical or computing work. Assessment of current clients indicates that IQ, language skills and educational attainments are high. However, work has also been found for those of lower abilities. Individuals supported by Prospects show a rise in salaries, contribute more tax and claim fewer benefits. Satisfaction with the scheme is high among clients, employers and support workers. Although the programme continues to incur a financial deficit, this has decreased. Moreover, there are many non-financial benefits, which are difficult to quantify. The importance of specialist employment support of this kind is discussed.
Full Text Available Development of labor market and employment policy in Bulgaria in contemporary dynamic conditions of social and economic life is in close relation to the European policies and programs and the needs of creating conditions for raising the level of employability of some special target groups on the labor market determined as the most vulnerable and needing particular measures of support. Current study makes analyses of priorities and directions in Bulgarian national employment policy for 2017 as set into the National action plan on employment considering a number of strategic and legislative documents on both national and European level. The general conclusions are focused on the systematization of actions and the importance of social dialogue.
Batman, Kangan; Tully, Chris
This publication contains the three numeracy units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of farmers as employers: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her numeracy skills needed to deal with employment of agriculture…
Casper, Wendy J; Martin, Jennifer A; Buffardi, Louis C; Erdwins, Carol J
This study investigated the impact of work interfering with family (WIF) and family interfering with work (FIW) on women's organizational commitment and examined both the direct and moderating effects of their perceived organizational support. Participants were 143 professional employed mothers with at least 1 preschool-age child. The study found that WIF was positively related to continuance organizational commitment but unrelated to affective commitment, and FIW was not related to either form of organizational commitment. Results also indicated that perceived organizational support exhibited a main effect on both types of commitment.
Lee-Kwan, Seung Hee; Pan, Liping; Kimmons, Joel; Foltz, Jennifer; Park, Sohyun
Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is high among U.S. adults and is associated with obesity. Given that more than 100 million Americans consume food or beverages at work daily, the worksite may be a venue for interventions to reduce SSB consumption. However, the level of support for these interventions is unknown. We examined associations between workday SSB intake and employees' support for worksite wellness strategies (WWSs). We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from Web-based annual surveys that gather information on health-related attitudes and behaviors. Study setting was the United States. A total of 1924 employed adults (≥18 years) selected using probability-based sampling. The self-reported independent variable was workday SSB intake (0, food/drink, (3) available healthy options, and (4) less available SSB. Multivariable logistic regression was used to control for sociodemographic variables, employee size, and availability of cafeteria/vending machine. About half of employees supported accessible free water (54%), affordable healthy food/drink (49%), and available healthy options (46%), but only 28% supported less available SSB. Compared with non-SSB consumers, daily SSB consumers were significantly less supportive of accessible free water (adjusted odds ratio, .67; p < .05) or less available SSB (odds ratio, .49; p < .05). Almost half of employees supported increasing healthy options within worksites, although daily workday SSB consumers were less supportive of certain strategies. Lack of support could be a potential barrier to the successful implementation of certain worksite interventions.
Jetha, Arif; Bowring, Julie; Furrie, Adele; Smith, Frank; Breslin, Curtis
Objective To examine the job accommodation and benefit needs of young adults with disabilities as they transition into employment, and their perceived barriers to meeting support needs. Methods An online survey was conducted of 155 Canadian young adults with disabilities (mean age = 25.8 years). Respondents were either employed or seeking employment, and were asked about their need for health benefits, and soft (e.g., flexible scheduling) and hard accommodations (e.g., ergonomic interventions), and perceived accommodation barriers. Disability characteristics (e.g., disability type), demographic details and work context information were collected. Multivariable logistic analyses were conducted to examine the factors associated with a greater need for health benefits and hard and soft accommodations. Result Participants reported having a physical (79%), psychological (79%) or cognitive/learning disability (77%); 68% had > 1 disability. Over half (55%) were employed. Health benefits and soft accommodations were most needed by participants. Also, an average of six perceived accommodation barriers were indicated; difficulty with disability disclosure was most frequently reported. More perceived accommodation barriers were associated with a greater need for health benefits (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.04-1.31) and soft accommodations (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.01-1.27). A psychological disability was a associated with a greater need for health benefits (OR 2.91, 95% CI 1.09-7.43) and soft accommodations (OR 3.83, 95% CI 1.41-10.42). Discussion Employers can support the employment of young adults with disabilities through provision of extended health benefits and soft accommodations. Addressing accommodation barriers could minimize unmet workplace need, and improve employment outcomes for young adults with disabilities as they begin their career and across the life course.
Mckay, C. W.; Bown, R. L.
The paper discusses the importance of linking Ada Run Time Support Environments to the Common Ada Programming Support Environment (APSE) Interface Set (CAIS). A non-stop network operating systems scenario is presented to serve as a forum for identifying the important issues. The network operating system exemplifies the issues involved in the NASA Space Station data management system.
A specific set of assessment scales can underpin the management of distressing symptoms of patients requiring palliative care. A research assistant supported nurses working in a rural hospital setting during the introduction of these scales. A secondary analysis was conducted to further explore the qualitative data of a previously reported mixed-method study. In particular, the experiences of nurses working alongside a research assistant in the facilitation of using a new assessment form. Purposeful sampling was employed: participating nurses were invited to attend one of three focus group meetings. Data analysis revealed three main themes: a contact person, coach/mentor and extra help initiatives. Three to four subthemes corresponded with each main theme. Findings suggest nurses benefit from having someone to assist in learning about new documentation. Nurses respond positively to mentorship and practical guidance when integrating a new assessment form into routine evidence-based practice.
Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Harder, D. E.
more than those in studies from e.g. UK and US [3, 4, 5]. A similar trend was seen in a study from Norway . Government financial support seems to limit the amount of hours spent on paid work but not the percentage of students who take on paid work. Thus, full-time studies with benefits of increased...... capabilities and experience gained through employment could be aided by proper policies. Additionally, one of the highest impacts on study activity was the perceived study environment. As the engineering students have four hours per week of interaction with an instructor for each five ECTS...... to answer if the full-time student is under demise in these settings as opposed to settings without financial support [1, 2]. The research consisted of a web-based survey amongst all students at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The students in this survey had fewer employment hours and studied...
Rosenheck, Robert; Mueser, Kim T; Sint, Kyaw; Lin, Haiqun; Lynde, David W; Glynn, Shirley M; Robinson, Delbert G; Schooler, Nina R; Marcy, Patricia; Mohamed, Somaia; Kane, John M
Participation in work and school are central objectives for first episode psychosis (FEP) programs, but evidence effectiveness has been mixed in studies not focused exclusively on supported employment and education (SEE). Requirements for current motivation to work or go to school limit the generalizability of such studies. FEP participants (N=404) at thirty-four community treatment clinics participated in a cluster randomized trial that compared usual Community Care (CC) to NAVIGATE, a comprehensive, team-based treatment program that included ≥5h of SEE services per week, , grounded in many of the principles of the Individual Placement and Support model of supported employment combined with supported education services. All study participants were offered SEE regardless of their initial interest in work or school. Monthly assessments over 24months recorded days of employment and attendance at school, days of participation in SEE, and both employment and public support income (including disability income). General Estimation Equation models were used to compare CC and NAVIGATE on work and school participation, employment and public support income, and the mediating effect of receiving ≥3 SEE visits on these outcomes. NAVIGATE treatment was associated with a greater increase in participation in work or school (p=0.0486) and this difference appeared to be mediated by SEE. No group differences were observed in earnings or public support payments. A comprehensive, team-based FEP treatment approach was associated with greater improvement in work or school participation, and this effect appears to be mediated, in part, by participation in SEE. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Gjerdingen, D K; Chaloner, K M
This study was conducted to examine changes in women's mental health over the first postpartum year and factors that are associated with mental health. Participants included women who were married, employed, English-speaking, and giving birth to their first child at one of two hospitals in St Paul, Minnesota. Women who were eligible and willing to participate were mailed questionnaires at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postpartum. There were significant changes in mothers' general mental health, depression, and anxiety over the first postpartum year (P appearance, and infant illnesses. In addition, postpartum symptoms were predicted by physical illness, previous mental problems, poor general health, poor social support, fewer recreational activities, young age, and low income (R2 = 37% to 57%). In this select group of women, postpartum mental health was found to be least favorable 1 month after delivery and related to factors associated with employment, recent delivery, and level of social support.
Mattke, Soeren; Van Busum, Kristin R; Martsolf, Grant R
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) places strong emphasis on quality of care as a means to improve outcomes for Americans and promote the financial sustainability of our health care system. Included in the ACA are new disclosure requirements that require health plans to provide a summary of benefits and coverage that accurately describes the benefits under the plan or coverage. These requirements are intended to support employers' procurement of high-value health coverage for their employees. This study attempts to help employers understand the structural differences between health plans and the performance dimensions along which plans can differ, as well as to educate employers about available tools that can be used to evaluate plan options. The study also discusses the extent to which these and other tools or resources are used by employers to inform choices between health plans.
Lecomte, T; Corbière, M; Lysaker, P H
Supported employment programs are highly effective in helping people with severe mental illness obtain competitive jobs quickly. However, job tenure is often a problem for many. Of the various obstacles to job tenure documented, dysfunctional beliefs regarding the workplace and one's own abilities has been proposed as a therapeutic target. The purpose of this article is threefold: (1) to describe the development and the content of a novel group cognitive behavioral intervention designed to increase job tenure for people receiving supported employment services; (2) to present the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention; and (3) to investigate some preliminary data regarding employment outcomes. A group CBT intervention offered during 8 sessions over the course of one month, in order to respect the rapid job search principle of IPS (individual placement and support), was developed. The content was tailored to facilitate the learning of skills specific to the workplace, such as recognizing and managing one's stressors at work, determining and modifying dysfunctional thoughts (e.g. not jumping to conclusions, finding alternatives, seeking facts), overcoming obstacles (e.g. problem solving), improving one's self-esteem as a worker (recognizing strengths and qualities), dealing with criticism, using positive assertiveness, finding coping strategies (for symptoms and stress) to use at work, negotiating work accommodations and overcoming stigma. A trial is currently underway, with half the participants receiving supported employment as well as CBT-SE and the other half receiving only supported employment. A subsample of the first 24 participants having completed the 12-month follow-up were used for the analyses, including 12 having received at least 3 sessions out of the 8 group sessions and 12 receiving only supported employment. Feasibility and acceptability were determined by the group therapists' feedback, the participants' feedback as well as attendance to
Carlson, Kathleen F; Pogoda, Terri K; Gilbert, Tess A; Resnick, Sandra G; Twamley, Elizabeth W; O'Neil, Maya E; Sayer, Nina A
To quantify the need for, and interest in, supported employment (SE) among recent military veterans with traumatic brain injury (TBI); and to examine characteristics associated with veterans' interest in SE. Stratified random sample of Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans confirmed to have TBI through the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) screening and evaluation system. Community-based via mailed survey. We recruited 1800 veterans with clinician-confirmed TBI (mild TBI: n=1080; moderate/severe TBI: n=720) through multiple mailings. Among 1451 surveys that were not returned undeliverable, N=616 (42%) responded. Not applicable. Veterans rated their interest in SE after reading a script describing the program. Additional measures assessed mental health and pain-related comorbidities, employment, financial/housing difficulties, demographics, and military service characteristics. Estimates were weighted to represent the population of veterans with VHA clinician-confirmed TBI. Unemployment was reported by 45% (95% confidence interval [CI], 43-47) of veterans with TBI. Although 42% (95% CI, 40-44) reported they would be interested in using SE if it were offered to them, only 12% had heard of SE (95% CI, 11-14) and interest in SE. However, those who were unemployed, looking for work, experiencing financial strain, or at risk for homelessness were more likely to be interested in SE. Our research highlights an important gap between veterans' vocational needs and interests and their use of SE. Systematically identifying and referring those with employment and financial/housing difficulties may help close this gap. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Bai, Yeon K; Gaits, Susan I; Wunderlich, Shahla M
Returning to an unsupportive work environment has been identified as a major reason for avoidance or early abandonment of breastfeeding among working mothers. This study aimed to examine the nature and extent of accommodations offered to breastfeeding employees among New Jersey employers since the US federal Reasonable Break Time for Nursing Mothers law enactment. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to measure current lactation support in the workplace in New Jersey. Using convenience sampling, the survey was sent to managerial personnel in hospitals and nonhospitals. The level of support was assessed on company policy, lactation room, and room amenity. A composite lactation amenity score was calculated based on responses about lactation room amenities. Respondents (N = 51) completed a 22-item online questionnaire during fall 2011. The support level was compared by type of organization: hospital (n = 37) versus nonhospital (n = 14). The amenity score of hospitals was significantly higher than nonhospitals (1.44 vs 0.45, P = .002). The mean amenity score (score = 0.95) for all employers was far below comprehensive (score = 3.0). Compared to nonhospitals, hospitals were more likely to offer lactation rooms (81% vs 36%, P = .003), have their own breastfeeding policy (35.1% vs 7.1%, P = .01), and provide additional breastfeeding support (eg, education classes, resources; P < .05). Employers, regardless of the type of organization, need to improve their current practices and create equity of lactation support in the workplace. © The Author(s) 2014.
Abendroth, Anja-Kristin; van der Lippe, Tanja; Maas, Ineke
This paper studies the influence of state, workplace, and family support on the working hours of employed mothers and how these different support sources interact. Data taken from the European Social Survey 2004/2005 as well as country-specific information were used to estimate several hierarchical models. We find evidence that the availability of supportive workplace arrangements and family support positively impact the working hours of employed mothers and that state policies facilitating the traditional family have a negative effect. There is weak support for a positive relationship between state policies facilitating the dual-earner family and working hours of employed mothers. In addition, most of the sources of support appear to be complementary. Supportive family role models and supportive workplace arrangements have a reinforcing relationship, as do publicly funded child care and supportive workplace arrangements. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Besse, Christine; Poremski, Daniel; Laliberté, Vincent; Latimer, Eric
Many clinicians are concerned that competitive work may cause excessive stress for people with severe mental health problems. Individual Placement and Support (IPS) is acknowledged as the most effective model of supported employment for this population. The manner in which IPS clients define and experience employment-related stress is poorly understood. This qualitative study aims to explore how people with mental health problems receiving IPS services define and experience employment-related stress. We purposively sampled and interviewed 16 clients of an IPS programme, who had been competitively employed for more than 1 month. Data were collected between September 2014 and July 2015 in Montreal, Canada. Transcripts of semi-structured interviews were analysed using grounded theory methodology. IPS clients often defined stress similar to its common understanding: the result of experiencing prolonged or/and cumulative strains, or of an incongruence between efforts and rewards, hopes and reality. Stress experienced in this way could exacerbate psychiatric symptoms, especially depression or psychotic symptoms. However, when maintained at a more manageable level, stress stimulated learning and improved planning of tasks. Participants described different coping mechanisms, such as sharing their experiences and difficulties with others, focusing on problem resolution and avoidance. The first two of these helped IPS clients remain at work and bolstered their confidence. Work-related stress has potentially positive as well as negative consequences for IPS clients. In order to maximise the potential beneficial effects of stress, employment specialists can help clients anticipate potential stressors and plan how they might cope with them. Further research on the most effective ways of helping clients cope with stress is needed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kosmala-Anderson, Joanna; Wallace, Louise M
An important factor influencing duration of breastfeeding is mother's employment status. The main aim of this study was to determine the experience and views of employees (n = 46) in four large public sector organizations concerning breastfeeding support at work. Participants were recruited if they were employed by one of four public service employers and if they were planning to go on maternity leave in the next 6 months, on maternity leave or within 6 months of return from maternity leave. They completed a questionnaire anonymously. Almost 80% of women wanted to continue breastfeeding after returning to work. However, 90% of all respondents were not aware of any employer policy nor offered any information concerning support to enable breastfeeding after returning to work, despite two organizations having a range of maternity- and breastfeeding-related policies in development and some facilities in place. Almost 90% of respondents stated the employers should do more to support breastfeeding. This should include providing pregnant staff with information about breastfeeding support that they should expect and could therefore plan to use, including access to facilities to express and to store breast milk, to enable them to work flexible hours and to take rest breaks during working hours. Recommendations are made for employers.
Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Eason, Christianne M; Pitney, William A; Mueller, Megan N
Work-family conflict (WFC) has received much attention in athletic training, yet several factors related to this phenomenon have not been examined, specifically a practitioner's sex, occupational setting, willingness to leave the profession, and willingness to use work-leave benefits. To examine how sex and occupational differences in athletic training affect WFC and to examine willingness to leave the profession and use work-leave benefits. Cross-sectional study. Multiple occupational settings, including clinic/outreach, education, collegiate, industrial, professional sports, secondary school, and sales. A total of 246 athletic trainers (ATs) (men = 110, women = 136) participated. Of these, 61.4% (n = 151) were between 20 and 39 years old. Participants responded to a previously validated and reliable WFC instrument. We created and validated a 3-item instrument that assessed willingness to use work-leave benefits, which demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.88), as well as a single question about willingness to leave the profession. The mean (± SD) WFC score was 16.88 ± 4.4 (range = 5 [least amount of conflict] to 25 [highest amount of conflict]). Men scored 17.01 ± 4.5, and women scored 16.76 ± 4.36, indicating above-average WFC. We observed no difference between men and women based on conflict scores (t244 = 0.492, P = .95) or their willingness to leave the profession (t244 = -1.27, P = .21). We noted differences among ATs in different practice settings (F8,245 = 5.015, P work-leave benefits (2-tailed r = -0.533, P work-leave benefits was different among practice settings (F8,245 = 3.01, P = .003). The ATs employed in traditional practice settings reported higher levels of WFC. Male and female ATs had comparable experiences of WFC and willingness to leave the profession.
James, Alana I.
Two challenges identified for psychology higher education are supporting entry students' transition, and supporting graduates' transition into employment. The evaluation of the first phase of a cross-age mentoring action research project targeting these issues is presented; eight psychology undergraduates mentored 20 A-level psychology pupils in…
Paluch, Tamar; Fossey, Ellie; Harvey, Carol
A major barrier to employment for people with mental illness is limited access to supportive and non-discriminatory workplaces. Social firms are businesses committed to employing up to 50% of people with a disability or other disadvantage and to providing supportive work environments that benefit workers. Little research has been conducted to understand the features and social processes that support the vocational experiences of employees with mental health issues in social firms. This ethnographic study sought to explore the experiences of nine employees at one Australian social firm. Nine employees of a social firm, with and without mental illness. Study methods used included participant observation, interviewing and document analysis. The study highlights the complexity of running a socially-invested business, and the importance of cross-sectoral partnerships to support their operational success. Natural workplace supports, adequate training and support infrastructure and enabling participation in the business, were identified as important to creating a supportive workplace. Partnerships within the workplace and in support of the workplace are discussed. Future growth and development of partnerships are recommended to support the establishment of social firms.
... of confidence with respect to decision alternatives. This is an alternative, neural net-motivated method employing decision times or reaction time metrics and a set of decision analytic techniques for capturing, synthesizing, and analyzing decisions...
Baker-Ericzén, Mary J; Fitch, Meghan A; Kinnear, Mikaela; Jenkins, Melissa M; Twamley, Elizabeth W; Smith, Linda; Montano, Gabriel; Feder, Joshua; Crooke, Pamela J; Winner, Michelle G; Leon, Juan
The population of adults on the autism spectrum continues to increase, and vocational outcomes are particularly poor. Longitudinal studies of adults with autism spectrum and without intellectual disability have shown consistent and persistent deficits across cognitive, social, and vocational domains, indicating a need for effective treatments of functional disabilities as each impact employment. This initial pilot study is an open trial investigation of the feasibility, acceptability, and initial estimates of outcomes for the newly developed Supported Employment, Comprehensive Cognitive Enhancement, and Social Skills intervention, a manualized "soft skills" curriculum, to enhance both cognitive and social development in adults with autism spectrum. A total of eight adults with autism spectrum, without intellectual disability (78% males), participated in the study. Results support the original hypothesis that adults with autism spectrum can improve both cognitive (i.e. executive functioning) and social cognitive (i.e. social thinking and social communication) abilities. Further Supported Employment, Comprehensive Cognitive Enhancement, and Social Skills was found to be feasible, acceptable, and highly satisfactory for participants and parents. Employment rates more than doubled post-intervention, with an increase from 22% to 56% of participants employed. Conclusion is that Supported Employment, Comprehensive Cognitive Enhancement, and Social Skills has promise as an intervention that can be easily embedded into exiting supported employment vocational training programs to improve cognitive, social, and vocational outcomes.
Dahlan, Rahima; Midin, Marhani; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Nik Jaafar, Nik Ruzyanei; Abdul Rahman, Fairuz Nazri; Baharudin, Azlin; Das, Srijit; Sidi, Hatta
The study aimed to determine the rates of functional remission and employment as well as the factors associated with functional remission among patients with Schizophrenia, receiving community psychiatric service in an urban setting in Malaysia. From a total of 250 patients randomly selected, 155 fulfilled the study requirement and were assessed on their functional remission status using the Personal and Social Performance Scale. The relationships between functional remission and socio-demographic factors, clinical factors, social support, symptom remission and rates of hospitalization were examined. The results revealed that 74% (n=115) of the respondents had functional remission with only 20% (n=31) currently employed. Functional remission was found to be significantly associated with good social support (84.4% versus 36.4% psocial support, lower hospitalization rate and symptom remission, as significant predictors of functional remission. A majority of patients with Schizophrenia in this study achieved functional remission, however, only a small percentage of them were employed. Functional remission was influenced by severity of illness and levels of social support in these patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cotner, Bridget A; Ottomanelli, Lisa; O'Connor, Danielle R; Trainor, John K
In a 5-year study, individual placement and support (IPS) significantly increased employment rate of United States Veterans with spinal cord injury (SCI), a historically underemployed population. In a follow-up study, data on barriers and facilitators to IPS implementation were identified. Over 24 months of implementation, 82 key medical and vocational staff underwent semi-structured interviews (n = 130). Interviews were digitally recorded and qualitatively analyzed (ATLAS.ti v0.7) using a constant comparative method to generate themes. Some barriers to implementation occurred throughout the study, such as Veterans' lack of motivation and providers' difficulty integrating vocational and medical rehabilitation. Other barriers emerged at specific stages, for example, early barriers included a large geographic service area and a large patient caseload, and late barriers included need for staff education. Facilitators were mostly constant throughout implementation and included leadership support and successful integration of vocational staff into the medical care team. Implementation strategies need to be adjusted as implementation progresses and matures. The strategies that succeeded in this setting, which were situated in a real-world context of providing IPS as a part of SCI medical care, may inform implementation of IPS for other populations with physical disabilities. Implications for Rehabilitation Key facilitators to IPS in SCI implementation are integrating vocational staff with expertise in IPS and SCI on clinical rehabilitation teams and providing leadership support. Ongoing barriers to IPS in SCI include patient specific and program administration factors such as caseload size and staffing patterns. Varying implementation strategies are needed to address barriers as they arise and facilitate successful implementation.
de Bruyn, Marna; Wright, Jon
The Vona du Toit Model of Creative Ability (VdTMoCA) presents a framework for understanding client motivation and action in occupational therapy, emphasising the relationship between motivation and action. Similarly, motivation to work is regarded as the primary and in some instances, the only eligibility criterion for inclusion in supported employment services. This commentary explores the potential theoretical link between the VdTMoCA and supported employment, primarily applied to the South...
Cameron, Josh; Walker, Carl; Hart, Angie; Sadlo, Gaynor; Haslam, Imogen; Retain Support Group
To understand experiences and perspectives of job retention project users in relation to challenges faced and support received; to develop explanatory insight into effective interventions. 14 employed users of a United Kingdom job retention project, with a range of mental health problems. Semi-structured individual interviews which were collaboratively designed with service users. Data analysis involved deductive & inductive thematic analysis, constant comparative analysis, and service user collaboration. Participants' feelings of guilt and self blame were a major obstacle to job retention. The project helped them address these by supporting a reappraisal of their situation. This assisted identification of job accommodations and adjustments and confidence in self advocacy. Thus an important basis for improved dialogue with their employer was established. A peer support group provided an important adjunct to individual project worker interventions. 10 participants retained employment; three of those who did not were helped to retain work aspirations. The project effectively used a multi-faceted approach involving a person - environment-occupation focus on the worker, their work, and workplace. Such complex interventions may offer more promise than those interventions (such as cognitive behavioural therapy) which have a primary focus on the individual worker.
Batman, Kangan; Gadd, Nick; Lucas, Michele
This publication contains the three communication skills units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of farmers as employers: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her written and spoken communication and numeracy skills…
Wehman, Paul; Brooke, Valerie; Brooke, Alissa Molinelli; Ham, Whitney; Schall, Carol; McDonough, Jennifer; Lau, Stephanie; Seward, Hannah; Avellone, Lauren
Over the past few decades, there has been an increase in prevalence of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and those children are now becoming young adults in need of competitive integrated employment (CIE). Customized employment (CE) is one pathway to employment that has been successful for other individuals with developmental disabilities (DD), though research has been very limited on the effectiveness with individuals with ASD. This paper provides a retrospective review of 64 individuals with ASD who came to our program from 2009 to 2014 for supported employment services as referred by the state vocational rehabilitation services agency. Employment specialists engaged in situational assessment, discovery, job development, customized job descriptions, on-site training and support, positive behavioral supports, and job retention techniques. The employment specialists were responsible for tracking their actual time spent working directly with or for the jobseeker with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). All vocational rehabilitation clients with ASD served during this time successfully secured CIE, and maintained their employment with ongoing supports, with intensity of support time decreasing over time. The majority (63/64, 98.4%) of individuals successfully secured CIE through the use of supported employment, in 72 unique employment positions. Of the majority of the individuals who secured employment, 77% (50) individuals indicated that they had never worked before and additional 18% (12) reported having short intermittent histories of employment. Despite this lack of employment experience, in all cases the jobseeker directed the job search and ultimately the job selection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schellekens, Melanie P J; Tamagawa, Rie; Labelle, Laura E; Speca, Michael; Stephen, Joanne; Drysdale, Elaine; Sample, Sarah; Pickering, Barbara; Dirkse, Dale; Savage, Linette Lawlor; Carlson, Linda E
Despite growing evidence in support of mindfulness as an underlying mechanism of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs), it has been suggested that nonspecific therapeutic factors, such as the experience of social support, may contribute to the positive effects of MBIs. In the present study, we examined whether change in mindfulness and/or social support mediated the effect of Mindfulness-Based Cancer Recovery (MBCR) compared to another active intervention (i.e. Supportive Expressive Group Therapy (SET)), on change in mood disturbance, stress symptoms and quality of life. A secondary analysis was conducted of a multi-site randomized clinical trial investigating the impacts of MBCR and SET on distressed breast cancer survivors (MINDSET). We applied the causal steps approach with bootstrapping to test mediation, using pre- and post-intervention questionnaire data of the participants who were randomised to MBCR (n = 69) or SET (n = 70). MBCR participants improved significantly more on mood disturbance, stress symptoms and social support, but not on quality of life or mindfulness, compared to SET participants. Increased social support partially mediated the impact of MBCR versus SET on mood disturbance and stress symptoms. Because no group differences on mindfulness and quality of life were observed, no mediation analyses were performed on these variables. Findings showed that increased social support was related to more improvement in mood and stress after MBCR compared to support groups, whereas changes in mindfulness were not. This suggests a more important role for social support in enhancing outcomes in MBCR than previously thought.
Riley, Ruth; Weiss, Marjorie C
To identify the range of emotional labour employed by healthcare professionals in a healthcare setting and implications of this for staff and organisations. In a healthcare setting, emotional labour is the act or skill involved in the caring role, in recognizing the emotions of others and in managing our own. A thematic synthesis of qualitative studies which included emotion work theory in their design, employed qualitative methods and were situated in a healthcare setting. The reporting of the review was informed by the ENTREQ framework. 6 databases were searched between 1979-2014. Studies were included if they were qualitative, employed emotion work theory and were written in English. Papers were appraised and themes identified. Thirteen papers were included. The reviewed studies identified four key themes: (1) The professionalization of emotion and gendered aspects of emotional labour; (2) Intrapersonal aspects of emotional labour - how healthcare workers manage their own emotions in the workplace; (3) Collegial and organisational sources of emotional labour; (4) Support and training needs of professionals This review identified gendered, personal, organisational, collegial and socio-cultural sources of and barriers to emotional labour in healthcare settings. The review highlights the importance of ensuring emotional labour is recognized and valued, ensuring support and supervision is in place to enable staff to cope with the varied emotional demands of their work. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available By acknowledging the uncertainty and unpredictability of the job search process in an unemployment setting, the present study explored the predictive strength of dispositional employability in job search behaviours. Dispositional employability has been recognized as a potentially important personal resource that promotes job opportunities. However, it has rarely been assessed in an unemployment setting to date. According to recent employability models that differentiate between distal (i.e., personal strengths and proximal (e.g., perceived employability determinants of behaviour on the labour market, we hypoth- esized that: (i dispositional employability relates positively to job search intensity and (ii perception of one’s employment possibilities (i.e., perceived employability serves as an explanatory mechanism of this relationship. The hypothesized structural model was tested among a heterogeneous sample of 533 unemployed persons in Croatia. The results of structural equation modelling provided support for our hypotheses: dispositional employability related positively to job search intensity via perceived employ- ability. Accordingly, nurturing dispositional employability may be beneficial for unemployed persons as it relates positively to engagement in job search behaviour.
Full Text Available Nowadays, only companies that are adaptable and flexible in their structure and processes can survive. The basis for a motivated company aiming for peak performance is organisational innovation. Hungary is one of the less innovative countries in Europe. Only organisations that can integrate new solutions smoothly into their everyday operations will remain truly competitive. The Government of Hungary, in its Partnership Agreement with the European Union, set out the goals for improving and supporting the adaptability of enterprises, the promotion of flexible and family-friendly workplace practices and services, and the employment of women with young children. The aim of this study is to demonstrate, through a Hungarian example, the receptiveness of Hungarian small and medium-sized enterprises to flexible forms of employment. The effect of flexible employment on economic adaptability and competitiveness through workforce efficiency and retention is examined. Its aim is the raise the awareness of options to increase employment among Hungarian SME managers.
Uyanik, Hatice; Shogren, Karrie A; Blanck, Peter
Purpose This article reviews existing literature on positive psychology, supported decision-making (SDM), employment, and disability. It examines interventions and assessments that have been empirically evaluated for the enhancement of decision-making and overall well-being of people with disabilities. Additionally, conceptual themes present in the literature were explored. Methods A systematic review was conducted across two databases (ERIC and PsychINFO) using various combination of keywords of 'disabilit*', work rehabilitation and employment terms, positive psychology terms, and SDM components. Seven database searches were conducted with diverse combinations of keywords, which identified 1425 results in total to be screened for relevance using their titles and abstracts. Database search was supplemented with hand searches of oft-cited journals, ancestral search, and supplemental search from grey literature. Results Only four studies were identified in the literature targeting SDM and positive psychology related constructs in the employment and job development context. Results across the studies indicated small to moderate impacts of the assessment and interventions on decision-making and engagement outcomes. Conceptually there are thematic areas of potential overlap, although they are limited in the explicit integration of theory in supported decision-making, positive psychology, disability, and employment. Conclusion Results suggest a need for additional scholarship in this area that focuses on theory development and integration as well as empirical work. Such work should examine the potential utility of considering positive psychological interventions when planning for SDM in the context of career development activities to enhance positive outcomes related to decision-making, self-determination, and other positive psychological constructs.
Haldar, Shefali; Mishra, Sonali R; Khelifi, Maher; Pollack, Ari H; Pratt, Wanda
Although research has demonstrated improved outcomes for outpatients who receive peer support-such as through online health communities, support groups, and mentoring systems-hospitalized patients have few mechanisms to receive such valuable support. To explore the opportunities for a hospital-based peer support system, we administered a survey to 146 pediatric patients and caregivers, and conducted semi-structured interviews with twelve patients and three caregivers in a children's hospital. Our analysis revealed that hospitalized individuals need peer support for five key purposes: (1) to ask about medical details-such as procedures, treatments, and medications; (2) to learn about healthcare providers; (3) to report and prevent medical errors; (4) to exchange emotional support; and (5) to manage their time in the hospital. In this paper, we examine these themes and describe potential barriers to using a hospital-based peer support system. We then discuss the unique opportunities and challenges that the hospital environment presents when designing for peer support in this setting.
James, Alana I.
Two challenges identified for psychology higher education are supporting entry students’ transition, and supporting graduates’ transition into employment. The evaluation of the first phase of a cross-age mentoring action research project targeting these issues is presented; eight psychology undergraduates mentored 20 A-level psychology pupils in two schools. Mentors showed significant increases in two of nine psychological literacies, in self-efficacy but not self-esteem, were highly satisfie...
Davidson, M Meghan; Nitzel, Camie; Duke, Alysondra; Baker, Cynthia M; Bovaird, James A
The purpose of this research was to conduct a replication-based and extension study examining the effectiveness of a 5-week career group counseling intervention, Advancing Career Counseling and Employment Support for Survivors (ACCESS; Chronister, 2008). The present study was conducted in a markedly different geographic region within a larger community as compared with the original investigation conducted by Chronister and McWhirter (2006). Women survivors of intimate partner violence (N = 73) participated in ACCESS, with career-search self-efficacy, perceived career barriers, perceived career supports, anxiety, and depression assessed at preintervention, postintervention, and 8-week follow-up. Women survivors demonstrated significant improvements in career-search self-efficacy and perceived career barriers at postintervention. Moreover, these same improvements were maintained at the 8-week follow-up assessment with the addition of significant improvements in perceived future financial supports, anxiety, and depression compared with preintervention scores. This work replicates the initial findings regarding the effectiveness of ACCESS with respect to career-search self-efficacy (Chronister & McWhirter, 2006) as well as extends the initial research to include improvements in perceived career barriers and perceived career supports. Moreover, the present study extends the work to include the mental health outcomes of anxiety and depression; results demonstrated improvements in these areas at 8-week follow-up. This investigation begins to fill a critical need for evaluated career-focused interventions for the underserved population of women survivors of intimate partner violence.
Tourangeau, Ann; Patterson, Erin; Rowe, Alissa; Saari, Margaret; Thomson, Heather; MacDonald, Geraldine; Cranley, Lisa; Squires, Mae
To identify factors affecting Canadian home care nurse intention to remain employed (ITR). In developed nations, healthcare continues to shift into community settings. Although considerable research exists on examining nurse ITR in hospitals, similar research related to nurses employed in home care is limited. In the face of a global nursing shortage, it is important to understand the factors influencing nurse ITR across healthcare sectors. A qualitative exploratory descriptive design was used. Focus groups were conducted with home care nurses. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Six categories of influencing factors were identified by home care nurses as affecting ITR: job characteristics; work structures; relationships/communication; work environment; nurse responses to work; and employment conditions. Findings suggest the following factors influence home care nurse ITR: having autonomy; flexible scheduling; reasonable and varied workloads; supportive work relationships; and receiving adequate pay and benefits. Home care nurses did not identify job satisfaction as a single concept influencing ITR. Home care nursing management should support nurse autonomy, allow flexible scheduling, promote reasonable workloads and create opportunities for team building that strengthen supportive relationships among home care nurses and other health team members. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Employers expect graduates and postgraduates to demonstrate their education through more than good grades. Learning activities that develop subject skills during formalized programmes of undergraduate and postgraduate study also develop employability skills, if the curriculum is suitably aligned, and developmental planning is supported. Only little extra provision is required, but all development needs to be explicitly signposted to the learner, and the curriculum should be developed in consultation with employers. This review aims to raise awareness of current issues in the context of enhancing employability that arise from an increased global competition on the job market and the expectation of the Higher Education sector to produce work-ready graduates and postgraduates that are well equipped to adapt to a quickly changing work environment particularly due to transferable skills. In the context of lessons from the UK, these current issues and employability are discussed, and approaches to Personal Development Planning that prepare students for lifelong learning and that enable communicating and evidencing achievement are addressed. Issues specific to postgraduates, how actual work experience should be maximized as well as other career influences such as learned societies and social networking are highlighted. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
... development, including work site modification and use of advanced learning technology for skills training. (3) On-the-job training. (4) Job placement. (5) Application of rehabilitation technology in providing... EDUCATION SPECIAL PROJECTS AND DEMONSTRATIONS FOR PROVIDING SUPPORTED EMPLOYMENT SERVICES TO INDIVIDUALS...
Full Text Available The efficacy levels of workers in the youth development field can significantly impact the work done with youth. These levels may be impacted by workers’ perceptions of administrative occupational support at their organization. To date, limited research exists that examines youth work efficacy levels, and no research studies exist analyzing the relationship between youth workers’ efficacy levels and perceived organizational support. The current study examined the relationship between self-efficacy and the perceived organizational support felt by workers in a youth development setting. A total of 198 surveys were completed; results indicated that youth work efficacy was significantly related to perceived organizational support. This study is important to enhancing the body of knowledge regarding self-efficacy levels of workers in a youth development setting, as well as understanding motivation and self-confidence of youth development professionals.
Quinn, Chris; Happell, Brenda
To explore perceptions of nurses and patients regarding sexual intimacy in a long-term mental health unit. Qualitative exploratory design including in-depth semi-structured individual interviews with 12 registered nurses and 10 long-term patients of a forensic mental health hospital. The theme of supporting sexual intimacy was identified and described in this paper and included the following subthemes for nurses: It depends on the setting, need for guidelines and consent, and for patients-it depends on the setting; and need for support. The findings suggest that current guidelines regarding sexual intimacy in acute inpatient settings may not be appropriate in long-term facilities, with a need for guidelines to specifically address this setting. Furthermore, support for sexual intimacy needs of patients was identified as a strong need for patients and they believed not currently met. Nurses have an important role to play as part of their holistic approach to care and barriers to providing this aspect of care must be overcome to ensure patients' rights are respected. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The team employed a tailored waterfall process model in order to explore SBD applications in the support of defense acquisition and PORs. Figure 1...Engineering Model . Additionally, the team reviewed DOD case studies that implemented SBD. The SBD principles, along with the common themes from the...acquisition. 14. SUBJECT TERMS set based design, set based thinking, model based systems engineering, concurrent engineering, defense acquisition
Crowe, Laura; Butterworth, Peter; Leach, Liana
This study analysed data from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey to examine the relationship between employment status and mental health, and the mediating effects of financial hardship, mastery and social support. In addition, the study sought to explore the effects of duration of unemployment on mental health. The primary analysis used three waves of data from the HILDA Survey with 4965 young adult respondents. Longitudinal population-averaged logistic regression models assessed the association of employment status and mental health, including the contribution of mastery, financial hardship and social support in explaining this association between employment groups (unemployed vs. employed; under employed vs. employed). Sensitivity analyses utilised a fixed-effects approach and also considered the full-range of working-age respondents. Regression analysis was used to explore the effect of duration of unemployment on mental health. Respondents' who identified as unemployed or underemployed were at higher risk of poor mental health outcomes when compared to their employed counterparts. This association was ameliorated when accounting for mastery, financial hardship and social support for the unemployed, and was fully mediated for the underemployed. The fixed-effects models showed the transition to unemployment was associated with a decline in mental health and that mastery in particular contributed to that change. The same results were found with a broader age range of respondents. Finally, the relationship between duration of unemployment and mental health was not linear, with mental health showing marked decline across the first 9 weeks of unemployment. Mastery, social support and financial hardship are important factors in understanding the association of poor mental health with both unemployment and underemployment. Furthermore, the results suggest that the most deleterious effects on mental health may occur in the first two
Full Text Available Objective: This study analysed data from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA Survey to examine the relationship between employment status and mental health, and the mediating effects of financial hardship, mastery and social support. In addition, the study sought to explore the effects of duration of unemployment on mental health. Methods: The primary analysis used three waves of data from the HILDA Survey with 4965 young adult respondents. Longitudinal population-averaged logistic regression models assessed the association of employment status and mental health, including the contribution of mastery, financial hardship and social support in explaining this association between employment groups (unemployed vs. employed; under employed vs. employed. Sensitivity analyses utilised a fixed-effects approach and also considered the full-range of working-age respondents. Regression analysis was used to explore the effect of duration of unemployment on mental health. Results: Respondents’ who identified as unemployed or underemployed were at higher risk of poor mental health outcomes when compared to their employed counterparts. This association was ameliorated when accounting for mastery, financial hardship and social support for the unemployed, and was fully mediated for the underemployed. The fixed-effects models showed the transition to unemployment was associated with a decline in mental health and that mastery in particular contributed to that change. The same results were found with a broader age range of respondents. Finally, the relationship between duration of unemployment and mental health was not linear, with mental health showing marked decline across the first 9 weeks of unemployment. Conclusions and implications: Mastery, social support and financial hardship are important factors in understanding the association of poor mental health with both unemployment and underemployment. Furthermore, the results suggest
Lin, Shinyi; Chen, Yu-Chuan
In integrating theoretical perspectives of self-determination and goal-setting, this study proposes a conceptual model with moderating and mediating effects exploring gender issue in autonomy-supportive learning in higher education as research context. In the proposed model, goal-setting attributes, i.e., individual determinants, social…
Zivin, Kara; Yosef, Matheos; Levine, Debra S; Abraham, Kristen M; Miller, Erin M; Henry, Jennifer; Nelson, C Beau; Pfeiffer, Paul N; Sripada, Rebecca K; Harrod, Molly; Valenstein, Marcia
Prior research found lower employment rates among working-aged patients who use the VA than among non-Veterans or Veterans who do not use the VA, with the lowest reported employment rates among VA patients with mental disorders. This study assessed employment status, employment functioning, and barriers to employment among VA patients treated in primary care settings, and examined how depression and anxiety were associated with these outcomes. The sample included 287 VA patients treated in primary care in a large Midwestern VA Medical Center. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted examining associations between socio-demographic and clinical predictors of six employment domains, including: employment status, job search self-efficacy, work performance, concerns about job loss among employed Veterans, and employment barriers and likelihood of job seeking among not employed Veterans. 54% of respondents were employed, 36% were not employed, and 10% were economically inactive. In adjusted analyses, participants with depression or anxiety (43%) were less likely to be employed, had lower job search self-efficacy, had lower levels of work performance, and reported more employment barriers. Depression and anxiety were not associated with perceived likelihood of job loss among employed or likelihood of job seeking among not employed. Single VA primary care clinic; cross-sectional study. Employment rates are low among working-aged VA primary care patients, particularly those with mental health conditions. Offering primary care interventions to patients that address mental health issues, job search self-efficacy, and work performance may be important in improving health, work, and economic outcomes. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Rouse, Angelise M.
In general, case studies are a preferred strategy when "how" or "why" questions are being posed, when the investigator has little control over events, and when the focus is on a contemporary phenomenon within some real-life context (Yin, 2009). This article will examine the advantages and disadvantages of employing case study…
Full Text Available AIM: To describe the application of smart phone and supporting set for acquiring fundus images with slitlamp examination and non-contact lens in primary hospital of the rural area. METHODS: The supporting set for smart phone was purchased from taobao and securely connected to the ocular lens of slitlamp microscopy. The fundus photos were imaged with assistance of non-contact slitlamp lens from Volk. RESULTS: High quality images of various retinal diseases could be successfully taken with smart phone and supporting set by slitlamp examination. The fundus images were send to patients with Wechat as medical records or used for telconsultant. CONCLUSION: High resolution smart phones are wildly used nowadays and supporting sets are very accessible; thus high quality of images could be obtained with minimal cost in rural hospitals. The digital fundus images will be beneficial for medical record and rapid diagnosis with telconsultant.
Stephens, Dawn L; Collins, Michael D; Dodder, Richard A
Recent legislation, especially the Americans with Disabilities Act in 1990, generated the closure of institutions for people with disabilities and inclusion into community residences and employment. It has been well documented that individuals with developmental disabilities often experience difficulties with employment including both obtaining and maintaining jobs, and many researchers have looked for ways to make employment more successful [McConkey, R. & Mezza F. (2001). Employment aspirations of people with learning disabilities attending day centers. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 5(4), 309-318; Stevens, G. (2002). Employers' perceptions and practice in the employability of disabled people: a survey of companies in south east UK. Disability and Society, 17(7), 779-796; Capella, M., Roessler, R., & Hemmeria, K. (2002). Work-related skills awareness in high-school students with disabilities. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 33(2), 17-23; Ingraham, K., Rahimi, M., Tsang, H., Chan, F., & Oulvey, E. (2001). Work support groups in state vocational rehabilitation agency settings: a case study. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Skills, 5(1), 6-21; Gosling, V. & Cotterill, L. (2000). An employment project as a route to social inclusion for people with learning difficulties? Disability and Society, 15(7), 1001-1018; Neitupski, J. & Hamre-Nietupski, S. (2000). A systematic process for carving supported employment positions for people with severe disabilities. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 12(2), 103-119]. While research has accumulated that has examined predictors of successful employment, this research assessed longitudinal outcomes of employment. Data were obtained from an existing data set of all known persons receiving services from the Developmental Disabilities Division of the Oklahoma Department of Human Services (N=2760). Results indicated that as people moved to employment, scores on adaptive skills increased, that as people moved
Sean A. Kidd
Full Text Available Cognitive remediation (CR is a treatment approach that is being increasingly examined as a means through which the cognitive impacts of schizophrenia might be ameliorated. While CR has demonstrated good outcomes when paired with supported employment, little is known regarding how it might be integrated within supported education contexts. In this study CR was examined in a supported education context with 16 individuals with psychosis. The findings indicated that CR aligned well with the academic curriculum with very low attrition, was found useful by students, and showed similar pre-post differences on cognitive measures as those found in previous work.
Rezkalla, Michel M.N.; Zecchino, Antonio; Pertl, Michael
The displacement of conventional generation by converter connected resources reduces the available rotational inertia in the power system, which leads to faster frequency dynamics and consequently a less stable frequency behavior. Virtual inertia, employing energy storage systems, could be used...... of adjusting the battery charging process (i.e., power flow) according to pre-defined algorithms. On the other hand, in case of islanded operation (i.e., low inertia), some of the EV's technical constraints might cause oscillations. This study presents two control algorithms which show that the EVs are capable...... of providing virtual inertia support. The first controller employs a traditional droop control, while the second one is equipped with an innovative control algorithm to eliminate likely oscillations. It is shown that, the proposed innovative control algorithm compared to the traditional droop control, assures...
Hua, Ying; Loftness, Vivian; Heerwagen, Judith H.; Powell, Kevin M.
The increasingly collaborative nature of knowledge-based work requires workplaces to support both dynamic interactions and concentrated work, both of which are critical for collaboration performance. Given the prevalence of open-plan settings, this requirement has created new challenges for workplace design. Therefore, an understanding of the…
Oeij, P.R.A.; Torre, W. van der; Santoclides, M.E
This policy brief on Social Innovation of Employment informs on an inventory of challenges and policy recommendations based on the Case Study Report of Employment and on the Second Policy Foresight Workshop of Employment. A ‘paradigm shift’ is needed in the mind-set of policymakers. ‘Traditional’
Mishra, Seema; Bhatnagar, Sushma; Gupta, Deepak; Goyal, Gaurav Nirvani; Agrawal, Ravi; Jain, Roopesh; Chauhan, Himanshu
Mechanical ventilation in cancer patients is a critical issue The present prospective descriptive study was designed (1) to assess the patient population needing respirator support in ward setting at a premier state-run oncology institute in India, (2) to observe and analyze the course of their disease while on respirator, and (3) to coordinate better quality of life measures in cancer patients at the institute based on the present study's outcomes. Beginning from March 2005 to March 2006, all cancer patients who were connected to respirator in the wards were enrolled in the current study. Our anesthesiology department at the cancer institute also has primary responsibility for airway management and mechanical ventilation in high dependency units of oncology wards. Preventilation variables in cancer patients were assessed to judge the futility of mechanical ventilation in ward setting. Subsequently, patients were observed for disease course while on respirator. Final outcome with its etio-pathogenesis was correlated with predicted futility of mechanical ventilation. Over a period of 1 year, 132 (46 men and 86 women) cancer patients with median age 40 years (range 1-75 years) were connected to respirator in oncology wards. Based on the preventilation variables and indications for respirator support, right prediction of medical futility and hospital discharge was made in 77% of patients. Underestimation and overestimation of survival to hospital discharge was made in 10% cases and 13% cases, respectively. Based on preventilation variables, prediction of outcome in cancer patients needing respirator support can be made in 77% cases. This high probability of prediction can be used to educate patients, and their families and primary physicians, for well-informed and documented advance directives, formulated and regularly revised DNAR policies, and judicious use of respirator support for better quality-of-life outcomes.
Nguyen, Ha; Rezaei, Shawheen
This paper explores the spillover effects of job losses via input linkages during the Great Recession. Exploiting exogenous variation in tradable employment shocks across U.S. counties, the paper finds that job losses in the tradable sectors cause further job losses in local supporting services. The result is not due to reverse causation, construction job losses, or credit shortages. In ad...
People with learning disabilities have talents and skills, but rarely do they get the chance to start their own business. In Business was designed to challenge this and to make self employment a realistic option for some by setting out to support and capture the journey to business for people with a learning disability and those who support them.…
Smith-Morris, Carolyn; Lopez, Gilberto; Ottomanelli, Lisa; Goetz, Lance; Dixon-Lawson, Kimberly
This discussion considers the role and findings of ethnographic research within a clinical trial of supported employment for veterans with spinal cord injury. Contributing to qualitative evaluation research and to debates over anthropological evidence vis-à-vis clinical trials, we demonstrate how enactors of a randomized controlled trial can simultaneously attend to both the trial's evidentiary and procedural requirements and to the lived experiences and needs of patients and clinicians. Three major findings are described: (1) contextual information essential to fidelity efforts within the trial; (2) the role of human interrelationships and idiosyncratic networks in the trial's success; and (3) a mapping of the power and authority structures relevant to the staff's ability to perform the protocol. We emphasize strengths of anthropological ethnography in clinical trials that include the provision of complementary, qualitative data, the capture of otherwise unmeasured parts of the trial, and the realization of important information for the translation of the clinical findings into new settings. © 2014 by the American Anthropological Association.
Marchand, Alain; Drapeau, Aline; Beaulieu-Prévost, Dominic
This study investigated variations in psychological distress in a large sample of the Canadian population according to employment status, occupation, work organization conditions, reasons for non-employment, stress and support outside the work environment, family situation and individual characteristics. Data came from cycle 4 (2000-1) of the Canadian National Population Health Survey conducted by Statistics Canada. Multiple regression analyses, adjusted for the family situation, the level of support from the social network and the individual characteristics, were carried out on a sample of 7258 individuals aged from 18 to 65 years. Occupation, social support at work, age, self-esteem, presence of children aged five and under and social support outside of the workplace were associated with lower levels of psychological distress, while permanent and temporary disability, psychological demands in the workplace, job insecurity, female gender, and stressful financial, marital and parental situations were related to higher levels of psychological distress. Findings from this study suggest that, in terms of psychological distress, having a job is not always better than non-employment, and that specific non-employment situations associate differently with psychological distress.
Fayeq Ali Ali
The current study is to measure the employability skills of students and to assess how employability skills are perceived in higher educations. Three sets of employability skills have been used such as Basic Academic Skills, Personal Qualities and High-Order Thinking. A questionnaire has been developed and distributed among students in universities, Erbil, Kurdistan. Respondents’ opinions were assessed using a Likert scale analysis that shows opinions between two extremes of levels of agreeme...
Eekelen, Willem van; De Luca, Loretta; Ismail, Magwa
Examines economic and social factors affecting youth employment in Egypt and describes three national programmes for the promotion of youth employment based on human resources development, direct job creation and support in self-employment and enterprise creation. Describes one public-private project in each case.
Patterson, I D; Bell, J S
The objective of this study was to assess the emotional wellbeing of a broad sample of NHS employees in a psychiatric setting; to seek their views on sources of distress; and to identify preferred ways of dealing with it. A cross-sectional postal survey, employing two questionnaires: GHQ-28, and a semi-structured questionnaire. These were sent to a nominal 50% sample (n = 599). The population was the staff of a large Scottish psychiatric service. A 47.9% response rate was achieved; 32.9% of respondents exceeded a cut-off score of four on the GHQ-28. Neither occupational, group nor gender effects were significant on this measure. The reporting of emotionally-distressing problems affecting their performance was found to be more common amongst doctors; males, overall, showed a non-significant trend towards having been affected more than females by such problems; and older staff (above 45) were affected significantly more often than younger staff. Almost a third of staff were unaware of the availability of an internal organisational resource (the Occupational Health service). NHS Trusts should ensure the culture at work is appropriate from a preventative point of view and be aware that factors outwith the workplace can affect employees emotional wellbeing and performance. Preventative and supportive measures to minimise psychological distress in the workforce should be considered; the Scottish Needs Assessment Programme: Mental Health in the Workplace offers useful guidance.
Koole, K.; Vis, B.
Over the last years, the level of spending on maternal employment supporting policies has risen in most countries. Still, the variation across governments in this level is substantial. Under which conditions do governments spend relatively much? Drawing on the critical mass literature, we argue that
Tol, Wietse A; Patel, Vikram; Tomlinson, Mark; Baingana, Florence; Galappatti, Ananda; Silove, Derrick; Sondorp, Egbert; van Ommeren, Mark; Wessells, Michael G; Catherine, Panter-Brick
Background: Humanitarian crises are associated with an increase in mental disorders and psychological distress. Despite the emerging consensus on intervention strategies in humanitarian settings, the field of mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) in humanitarian settings lacks a consensus-based research agenda. Methods: From August 2009 to February 2010, we contacted policymakers, academic researchers, and humanitarian aid workers, and conducted nine semistructured focus group discussions with 114 participants in three locations (Peru, Uganda, and Nepal), in both the capitals and remote humanitarian settings. Local stakeholders representing a range of academic expertise (psychiatry, psychology, social work, child protection, and medical anthropology) and organizations (governments, universities, nongovernmental organizations, and UN agencies) were asked to identify priority questions for MHPSS research in humanitarian settings, and to discuss factors that hamper and facilitate research. Results: Thematic analyses of transcripts show that participants broadly agreed on prioritized research themes in the following order: (1) the prevalence and burden of mental health and psychosocial difficulties in humanitarian settings, (2) how MHPSS implementation can be improved, (3) evaluation of specific MHPSS interventions, (4) the determinants of mental health and psychological distress, and (5) improved research methods and processes. Rather than differences in research themes across countries, what emerged was a disconnect between different groups of stakeholders regarding research processes: the perceived lack of translation of research findings into actual policy and programs; misunderstanding of research methods by aid workers; different appreciation of the time needed to conduct research; and disputed universality of research constructs. Conclusions: To advance a collaborative research agenda, actors in this field need to bridge the perceived disconnect between
Shaw, William S.; Kristman, Vicki L.; Williams-Whitt, Kelly; Soklaridis, Sophie; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Côté, Pierre; Loisel, Patrick
INTRODUCTION An employer offer of temporary job modification is a key strategy for facilitating return-to-work (RTW) for musculoskeletal conditions, but there are no validated scales to assess the level of support for temporary job modifications across a range of job types and organizations. OBJECTIVE To pilot test a new 21-item self-report measure (the Job Accommodation Scale [JAS]) to assess its applicability, internal consistency, factor structure, and relation to physical job demands. METHODS Supervisors (N = 804, 72.8% male, mean age = 46) were recruited from 19 employment settings in the USA and Canada and completed a 30-min online survey regarding job modification practices. As part of the survey, supervisors nominated and described a job position they supervised and completed the JAS for a hypothetical worker (in that position) with an episode of low back pain. Job characteristics were derived from the occupational informational network job classification database. RESULTS The full response range (1–4) was utilized on all 21 items, with no ceiling or floor effects. Avoiding awkward postures was the most feasible accommodation and moving the employee to a different site or location was the least feasible. An exploratory factor analysis suggested five underlying factors (Modify physical workload; Modify work environment; Modify work schedule; Find alternate work; and Arrange for assistance), and there was an acceptable goodness-of-fit for the five parceled sub-factor scores as a single latent construct in a measurement model (structural equation model). Job accommodations were less feasible for more physical jobs and for heavier industries. CONCLUSIONS The pilot administration of the JAS with respect to a hypothetical worker with LBP showed initial support for its applicability, reliability, and validity when administered to supervisors. Future studies should assess its validity for use in actual disability cases, for a range of health conditions, and to
Full Text Available Shortage of qualified staff and constant struggle for talents along with the retention of most valuable employees belong to the hottest personnel issues for the majority of organizations nowadays. HR marketing can significantly help in these areas. Within HR marketing human resources officers become those marketers who strive to keep their organization’s name in the minds of all stakeholders, thus drawing their attention to organization’s qualities as an employer, and in such a way winning by taking care of the most talented employees. The aim of this paper is to determine and evaluate the benefits resulting from employer branding and also to identify the trends conducive to the strengthening of an employer’s brand. The data were obtained using a questionnaire survey (n = 492 in the selected Czech organizations. The results show that employer branding is an important element in all economic sectors and businesses can build their brands by focusing primarily on the stability of their current employees, their continuous development and their retaining of the most valuable knowledge. The article focuses on new strategic trends in building employer’s good brand and attracting the most knowledgable workers.
Davis, Lori L; Kyriakides, Tassos C; Suris, Alina M; Ottomanelli, Lisa A; Mueller, Lisa; Parker, Pamela E; Resnick, Sandra G; Toscano, Richard; Scrymgeour, Alexandra A; Drake, Robert E
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) often interferes with a person's ability to obtain or sustain employment, which leads to premature exit from the labor force and reduced income. To determine whether individual placement and support (IPS)-supported employment is more effective than stepwise vocational rehabilitation involving transitional work assignments at helping veterans with PTSD attain steady, competitive employment. The Veterans Individual Placement and Support Toward Advancing Recovery (VIP-STAR) study was a prospective, multisite, randomized clinical trial that included 541 unemployed veterans with PTSD at 12 Veterans Affairs medical centers. Data were collected from December 23, 2013, to May 3, 2017. Intent-to-treat analysis was performed. Individual placement and support is a supported employment intervention that rapidly engages people with disabilities in community job development to obtain work based on their individual job preferences. Transitional work is a stepwise vocational rehabilitation intervention that assigns people temporarily to noncompetitive jobs as preparation for competitive employment in the community. A priori hypotheses were that, compared with those in transitional work, more participants in the IPS group would become steady workers (primary) and earn more income from competitive jobs (secondary) over 18 months. Steady worker was defined as holding a competitive job for at least 50% of the 18-month follow-up period. A total of 541 participants (n = 271 IPS; n = 270 transitional work) were randomized. Mean (SD) age was 42.2 (11) years; 99 (18.3%) were women, 274 (50.6%) were white, 225 (41.6%) were African American, and 90 (16.6%) were of Hispanic, Spanish, or Latino ethnicity. More participants in the IPS group achieved steady employment than in the transitional work group (105 [38.7%] vs 63 [23.3%]; odds ratio, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.46-3.14). A higher proportion of IPS participants attained any competitive job (186 [68.6%] vs
Libbus, M Kay; Bullock, Linda F C
Both research and anecdotal reports suggest that maternal employment is associated with failure to initiate breastfeeding and early breastfeeding attrition. The objective of this study was to describe the experience with and attitudes toward breastfeeding of a sample of employers in a small Midwestern city in the United States. Based on an analysis of 85 mail-out questionnaires, we found that less than half of the employers had personal experience with breastfeeding. A large percentage of the sample, however, indicated that they would be willing to facilitate women who wished to breastfeed or express milk in the workplace. However, these employers also stated that they saw little value to their business of supporting breastfeeding in the work environment. Thus, enhancement of breastfeeding opportunity in the work environment may come as a result of public and employer education but, more likely, will require some type of directive from official sources.
Fortin, Guillaume; Lecomte, Tania; Corbière, Marc
When employment difficulties in people with severe mental illness (SMI) occur, it could be partly linked to issues not specific to SMI, such as personality traits or problems. Despite the fact that personality has a marked influence on almost every aspect of work behavior, it has scarcely been investigated in the context of employment for people with SMI. We aimed to evaluate if personality was more predictive than clinical variables of different competitive work outcomes, namely acquisition of competitive employment, delay to acquisition and job tenure. A sample of 82 people with a SMI enrolled in supported employment programs (SEP) was recruited and asked to complete various questionnaires and interviews. Statistical analyses included logistic regressions and survival analyses (Cox regressions). Prior employment, personality problems and negative symptoms are significantly related to acquisition of a competitive employment and to delay to acquisition whereas the conscientiousness personality trait was predictive of job tenure. Our results point out the relevance of personality traits and problems as predictors of work outcomes in people with SMI registered in SEP. Future studies should recruit larger samples and also investigate these links with other factors related to work outcomes.
Wye, Chung-Khain; Lim, Yet-Mee
This paper attempts to investigate if the undergraduates' core competencies are able to meet with the requirements set by the employers and to analyse the effectiveness of personal qualities and employability skills development in private university in Malaysia. Questionnaires survey, mean score comparison, and independent sample t-test are used…
Coyle-Shapiro, Jacqueline A-M; Conway, Neil
The authors surveyed 347 public sector employees on 4 measurement occasions to investigate the conceptual distinctiveness of the psychological contract and perceived organizational support (POS) and how they are associated over time. Results support the distinctiveness of the 2 concepts. In terms of their interrelationships over time, by drawing on psychological contract theory the authors found little support for a reciprocal relationship between POS and psychological contract fulfillment. Under an alternative set of hypotheses, by drawing on organizational support theory and by separating psychological contract fulfillment into its 2 components (perceived employer obligations and inducements), the authors found that perceived employer inducements were positively related to POS, which, in turn, was negatively related to perceived employer obligations. The results suggest that POS and the components of psychological contract fulfillment are more important in predicting organizational citizenship behavior than psychological contract fulfillment. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.
Maria Dorina PASCA
Full Text Available For people with disabilities, to find a way to improve life quality by having a job and by developing independent living skills is a “sine qua non” condition for their social integration. The social mediator working within a disability employment support system facilitates the logistic implementation of a viable and plausible program, which can identify, and maintain a workplace for people with disabilities, and acts as a motivational guarantee of these persons’ chance for a better life while also providing life lessons to all of us. Hence, the major role of the social mediator is to develop a new cognitive structure of communication for disabled people so that they can act as our equals and not as marginalized human beings.
The current trend of demographic aging can be alleviated by extending the working activity of older workers and seniors. In this thesis the attention is focused on the relationship between the employment of older people and setting of the pension scheme, since both affect the behaviour of older workers and seniors. The aim of this thesis was to find out the level of employment support of older workers and seniors, and to describe not only the view of seniors, who continue with work after thei...
Brown, Richard F; Owens, Myra; Bradley, Cathy
Cancer patients face difficulties in accessing legally mandated benefits and accommodations when they return to the workplace. Poor employer-employee communication inflates these difficulties. Although proven methods to facilitate physician-patient communication exist, these have not been applied to the workplace. Thus, we aimed to assess the feasibility and utility of applying these methods to educate patients about their workplace rights and provide them with communication skills training to aid their conversations with their employers. A DVD was produced to educate patients and facilitate workplace communication. Participants consisted of 28 solid tumor cancer patients (14 women and 14 men) who completed primary cancer treatment in the past 12 months and were employed at the time of diagnosis. Participants watched a communication skills training DVD and completed a telephone interview. The interview elicited information about workplace experiences and evaluation of the DVD training program. The physician-patient communication skills training model utilized was successfully translated to the employer-employee setting. All but one participant found the DVD useful and easy to understand and indicated a high degree of confidence in using the communication skills to help them ask for workplace accommodations. All participants agreed that it would help newly diagnosed patients in discussions with their employers. Our data provides promising preliminary evidence that patient communication skills training can be applied to the workplace setting and is a welcomed aid to newly diagnosed cancer patients in their discussions with employers regarding the impact of treatment on their work performance and needs for accommodations. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Introduction: Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities (ID con-stitute a unique but heterogeneous population, which includes a great variety of mental and developmental disorders, as well as congenital syndromes. Nowadays, many persons with mild or moderate ID, with specific training, can make considerable efforts to improve their lives, by having a job in either open or supported employment. On the other hand, since dental caries and periodontal diseases are among the most common secondary conditions affecting people with ID, oral diseases may detract the quality of life from disabled persons.The hypothesis: Employment (sheltered workshop, open or supported employment of persons with ID, may enable these individuals to improve their oral health status, attitudes and behavior, compared to the ID individuals who are not working, due to the development of specific socio-emotional characteristics and dexterities.Evaluation of the hypothesis: According to previous reports, employed people with ID demonstrated better self-esteem and greater autonomy, more satisfaction with their vocational/non-vocational ac-tivities and higher quality of life.
Evans, Carl; Maxfield, Tim; Gbadamosi, Gbolahan
An exploration of the value attached to the work experience of graduates, and particularly the value of part-time working whilst studying for a degree, from an employer's perspective, is reported. A documentary analysis of graduate recruiters was conducted to assess the extent to which work experience was specified for graduate employment…
DeLoach Walworth, Darcy
This comparative analysis examined the cost-effectiveness of music therapy as a procedural support in the pediatric healthcare setting. Many healthcare organizations are actively attempting to reduce the amount of sedation for pediatric patients undergoing various procedures. Patients receiving music therapy-assisted computerized tomography scans ( n = 57), echocardiograms ( n = 92), and other procedures ( n = 17) were included in the analysis. Results of music therapy-assisted procedures indicate successful elimination of patient sedation, reduction in procedural times, and decrease in the number of staff members present for procedures. Implications for nurses and music therapists in the healthcare setting are discussed.
Staffs' and managers' perceptions of how and when discrete event simulation modelling can be used as a decision support in quality improvement: a focus group discussion study at two hospital settings in Sweden.
Hvitfeldt-Forsberg, Helena; Mazzocato, Pamela; Glaser, Daniel; Keller, Christina; Unbeck, Maria
To explore healthcare staffs' and managers' perceptions of how and when discrete event simulation modelling can be used as a decision support in improvement efforts. Two focus group discussions were performed. Two settings were included: a rheumatology department and an orthopaedic section both situated in Sweden. Healthcare staff and managers (n=13) from the two settings. Two workshops were performed, one at each setting. Workshops were initiated by a short introduction to simulation modelling. Results from the respective simulation model were then presented and discussed in the following focus group discussion. Categories from the content analysis are presented according to the following research questions: how and when simulation modelling can assist healthcare improvement? Regarding how, the participants mentioned that simulation modelling could act as a tool for support and a way to visualise problems, potential solutions and their effects. Regarding when, simulation modelling could be used both locally and by management, as well as a pedagogical tool to develop and test innovative ideas and to involve everyone in the improvement work. Its potential as an information and communication tool and as an instrument for pedagogic work within healthcare improvement render a broader application and value of simulation modelling than previously reported. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
McGahey, Ellie; Waghorn, Geoffrey; Lloyd, Chris; Morrissey, Shirley; Williams, Philip Lee
Young people with mental illness experience high levels of unemployment, which can be related to stigma and discrimination. This may result from poor choices in disclosing personal information, such as their mental illness diagnosis, in the workplace. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive validity of a formal plan to manage personal information (PMPI) during the early stages of supported employment. The focal question was: does the use of a brief structured PMPI lead to more employment outcomes for young people with a mental illness? A sample of 40 young unemployed mental health service users (mean age 23.9 years), who were also attending employment services on the Gold Coast, was asked about their disclosure preferences. If they preferred not to disclose at all, they did not complete a plan for managing personal information. If they preferred to disclose some personal information, they were provided with assistance to complete a PMPI. Baseline information was gathered from two equal groups of 20 individuals. Employment status was ascertained at a 6-week follow-up interview. Those who completed a plan to manage their personal information had 4.9 times greater odds of employment at 6 weeks than those who preferred not to disclose any personal information. A formal PMPI has promising predictive validity with respect to job seekers not opposed to pragmatic forms of self-disclosure. Further research is needed to examine other properties of this decision-making tool. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
This study aims to provide theoretical and empirical clarity on whether people in “new” and precarious self-employment support the same political parties as those in traditional forms. Theoretical clarity is needed as the voting literature predominantly perceives self-employment in terms of
Information Literacy (IL) and its relationship to third level graduates’ employability has gained more attention in recent years. This article examines how IL has evolved from skills initially associated with academic libraries into a key workplace skill set of the knowledge economy. It outlines the challenges interviewees encounter when selling IL to employers, how IL can be utilised when preparing for upcoming interviews and suggests a distinction between workplace IL and employability IL. ...
Hirani, Shela Akbar Ali; Karmaliani, Rozina
Pakistan has the second highest child mortality rate in South Asia. Breastfeeding can promote infant health, prevent infection and possibly mortality. However, a gradual decline in breastfeeding is reported for Pakistan; especially among urban, educated, employed women. Little research exists regarding the experiences of professional women in Pakistan who are breastfeeding and employed. To describe the experiences of urban, professional women who breastfeed and are employed, as related to facilitators and barriers of breastfeeding. Using a qualitative descriptive design, nine full-time employed women were recruited through purposive sampling from a private tertiary care health setting in Karachi, Pakistan. A pre-tested, semi-structured interview guide was used for an in-depth interview of 40-45min with each participant. Most women spoke about the challenges of combining breastfeeding with employment, which resulted in early cessation of breastfeeding. The study indicated that positive maternal attributes such as knowledge about breastfeeding, planning, self-commitment, and open communication, as well as availability of social and workplace support is essential to enable urban, professional women in Pakistan to continue breastfeeding while employed. Pakistan has high infant and child mortality rate and decreasing prevalence of breastfeeding, especially among employed professional women. Our findings indicate an urgent need for lactation support programs that include integrated interventions for lactating women that offer informational support, social support, and formal workplace support. Copyright © 2012 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Si, Xiaohui; Lu, Wenxiu; Chu, Fulei
The variations of the supporting condition, which change the stiffness of tilting pad thrust bearing, may alter the dynamic behavior of the rotor system. The effects of supporting condition of thrust pad on the lateral vibration of a hydroelectric generating set are investigated in this paper. The action of a thrust bearing is described as moments acting on the thrust collar, and the tilting stiffness coefficients of thrust bearing are calculated. A model based on typical beam finite element ...
significant differences in affordability between individuals who had full time paid employment and those who ... Studies have shown that the direct costs of healthcare services2, travel time, patients' income, and ..... and age was their real ages.
Elwell, Laura; Powell, Jane; Wordsworth, Sharon; Cummins, Carole
Evidence indicates that health behavior change initiatives are often not implemented successfully. This qualitative study aims to understand the barriers and facilitators to implementation of health behavior change brief advice into routine practice in an acute children's hospital setting. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with health professionals working at a UK children's hospital (n=33). Participants were purposively sampled to incorporate a range of specialties, job roles and training. An inductive thematic framework analysis identified two emergent themes. These capture the challenges of implementing routine health behavior change support in a children's hospital setting: (1) 'health professional knowledge, beliefs and behaviors' and (2) 'patient and family related challenges'. This study enhances findings from previous research by outlining the challenges pediatric health professionals face in relation to supporting health behavior change. Challenges include failure to assume responsibility, low confidence, prioritization of the health provider relationship with patients and families, health provider and patient knowledge, and low patient and family motivation. Skills-based behavior change training is needed for pediatric health professionals to effectively support health behavior change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Madison, Kristin M; Volpp, Kevin G; Halpern, Scott D
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) turns to a nontraditional mechanism to improve public health: employer-provided financial incentives for healthy behaviors. Critics raise questions about incentive programs' effectiveness, employer involvement, and potential discrimination. We support incentive program development despite these concerns. The ACA sets the stage for a broad-based research and implementation agenda through which we can learn to structure incentive programs to not only promote public health but also address prevalent concerns. © 2011 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.
Ellenkamp, Joke J H; Brouwers, Evelien P M; Embregts, Petri J C M; Joosen, Margot C W; van Weeghel, Jaap
People with an intellectual disability value work as a significant part of their lives, and many of them want to participate in regular paid employment.Current estimates show that the number of people with ID who have some form of paid employment are very low, ranging from 9 to 40% across different countries,despite legislations. This review examines papers published in the past 20 years in an attempt to answer the following research question: ‘What work environment-related factors contribute to obtaining or maintaining work in competitive employment for people with an intellectual disability?’ The databases of PubMed, PsycINFO,CINAHL, Embase and Web of Science were searched for relevant papers published between 1993 and 2013. All papers were independently screened by two researchers.Methodological quality of the studies was evaluated, and data on work environment-related factors stimulating employment for people with intellectual disabilities were extracted and grouped into categories. A total of 1932 articles were retrieved. After extensive screening for relevance and quality, 26 articles were included in this review. Four themes/categories with work environment related factors that could influence work participation were distinguished. Five studies were conducted on employers’ decisions and opinions. Eight focused on job content and performance, and eight on workplace interaction and culture. Five studies evaluated support by job coaches. Despite ongoing legislation to promote participation of people with intellectual disabilities in the paid workforce, research in this area is still extremely scarce. In the past 20 years, very few studies have focused on work environment-related factors that can enhance competitive work for people with intellectual disabilities.This review shows that relevant work environment-related factors for obtaining and maintaining work in competitive employment include supporting the employers by paying specific attention to
Wittman, Fried; Jee, Babette; Polcin, Douglas L; Henderson, Diane
The architecture of residential recovery settings is an important silent partner in the alcohol/drug recovery field. The settings significantly support or hinder recovery experiences of residents, and shape community reactions to the presence of sober living houses (SLH) in ordinary neighborhoods. Grounded in the principles of Alcoholics Anonymous, the SLH provides residents with settings designed to support peer based recovery; further, these settings operate in a community context that insists on sobriety and strongly encourages attendance at 12-step meetings. Little formal research has been conducted to show how architectural features of the recovery setting - building appearance, spatial layouts, furnishings and finishes, policies for use of the facilities, physical care and maintenance of the property, neighborhood features, aspects of location in the city - function to promote (or retard) recovery, and to build (or detract from) community support. This paper uses a case-study approach to analyze the architecture of a community-based residential recovery service that has demonstrated successful recovery outcomes for its residents, is popular in its community, and has achieved state-wide recognition. The Environmental Pattern Language (Alexander, Ishikawa, & Silverstein, 1977) is used to analyze its architecture in a format that can be tested, critiqued, and adapted for use by similar programs in many communities, providing a model for replication and further research.
Full Text Available Narrated animated solution videos were implemented in a clinical study that compared a mastery setting that employed repeated cycles of testing with instructional support to a group that had a single opportunity to experience the materials. The mastery setting students attempted sequential questions sets on a topic, with animated solutions between each set, until mastery was achieved, combining formative assessment with worked examples. Students showed significant improvement from their first to second tries on similar sets of problems, attributable to the feedback and solutions they were given after the first try. These improvements were shown in two topics, superposition and electric potential. The single try group was given one version of the questions and solutions, and while they were not required to watch the solutions to move forward, they chose to. On a post-test including near and far transfer questions, no significant difference was seen between the mastery group and the single try group, but both significantly outperformed a control group that received no instructional support, indicating that students successfully transferred the skills from the solutions to the post-test.
Wada, Koji; Ohtsu, Mayumi; Aizawa, Yoshiharu; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Tagaya, Nobumi; Takahashi, Miyako
Improved outcomes of cancer treatment allow patients to undergo treatment while working. However, support from oncologists and medical institutions is essential for patients to continue working. This study aimed to clarify oncologists' awareness and behavior regarding patients who work during treatment, support in medical institutions and their association. A questionnaire was mailed to all 453 diplomates and faculty of the subspecialty board of medical oncology in the Japanese Society of Medical Oncology and all 1016 surgeons certified by the Japanese Board of Cancer Therapy living in the Kanto area. The questionnaire assessed demographics, oncologist awareness and behavior regarding patient employment and support measures at their medical institutions. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of awareness and behavior of oncologists with support measures at their institutions. A total of 668 individuals participated. The overall response rate was 45.5%. Only 53.6% of respondents advised patients to tell their supervisors about prospects for treatment and ask for understanding. For medical institutions, 28.8% had a nurse-involved counseling program and adjustments in radiation therapy (28.0%) and chemotherapy (41.9%) schedules to accommodate patients' work. There was a significant correlation between awareness and behavior of oncologists and medical institutions' measures to support employed cancer patients. There is room for improvement in awareness and behavior of oncologists and support in medical institutions for cancer patients continuing to work. Oncologists could support working patients by exerting influence on their medical institutions. Conversely, proactive development of support measures by medical institutions could alter the awareness and behavior of oncologists.
Wada, Koji; Aizawa, Yoshiharu; Ohtsu, Mayumi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Tagaya, Nobumi; Takahashi, Miyako
Improved outcomes of cancer treatment allow patients to undergo treatment while working. However, support from oncologists and medical institutions is essential for patients to continue working. This study aimed to clarify oncologists' awareness and behavior regarding patients who work during treatment, support in medical institutions and their association. A questionnaire was mailed to all 453 diplomates and faculty of the subspecialty board of medical oncology in the Japanese Society of Medical Oncology and all 1016 surgeons certified by the Japanese Board of Cancer Therapy living in the Kanto area. The questionnaire assessed demographics, oncologist awareness and behavior regarding patient employment and support measures at their medical institutions. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of awareness and behavior of oncologists with support measures at their institutions. A total of 668 individuals participated. The overall response rate was 45.5%. Only 53.6% of respondents advised patients to tell their supervisors about prospects for treatment and ask for understanding. For medical institutions, 28.8% had a nurse-involved counseling program and adjustments in radiation therapy (28.0%) and chemotherapy (41.9%) schedules to accommodate patients' work. There was a significant correlation between awareness and behavior of oncologists and medical institutions' measures to support employed cancer patients. There is room for improvement in awareness and behavior of oncologists and support in medical institutions for cancer patients continuing to work. Oncologists could support working patients by exerting influence on their medical institutions. Conversely, proactive development of support measures by medical institutions could alter the awareness and behavior of oncologists. (author)
Full Text Available There is high demand for roadway support in coal mines for the swelling soft rocks. As high strength steel sets can be taken as an effective alternative to control large deformation in this type of rocks, based on an original set, three new sets, including a floor beam set, a roof and floor beams set, and a roof and floor beams and braces set, are proposed in this research. In order to examine the strengths of new sets, four scaled sets of one original set, and three new sets, have been manufactured and tested in loading experiments. Results indicated that three new sets all exhibited higher strength than the original set. In experiments, the roof beam in set plays a significant effect on top arch strengthening, while the floor beam plays significant effect on bottom arch strengthening. The maximum bearing capacity and stiffness of the top arch with roof beam are increased to 1.63 times and 3.06 times of those in the original set, and the maximum bearing capacity and stiffness of the bottom arch with floor beam are increased to 1.44 times and 3.55 times of those in original set. Based on the roof and floor beams, two more braces in the bottom arch also play a significant effect in bottom corners strengthening, but extra braces play little role in top arch strengthening. These new sets provide more choices for roadway support in swelling soft rocks.
Worrell, R.B.; Stack, D.W.
An efficient algebraic algorithm for finding the minimal cut sets for a large fault tree was defined and a new procedure which implements the algorithm was added to the Set Equation Transformation System (SETS). The algorithm includes the identification and separate processing of independent subtrees, the coalescing of consecutive gates of the same kind, the creation of additional independent subtrees, and the derivation of the fault tree stem equation in stages. The computer time required to determine the minimal cut sets using these techniques is shown to be substantially less than the computer time required to determine the minimal cut sets when these techniques are not employed. It is shown for a given example that the execution time required to determine the minimal cut sets can be reduced from 7,686 seconds to 7 seconds when all of these techniques are employed
Ilsø Hougaard, Bastian; Knoche, Hendrik
Self-management in health contexts requires patients to manage their own goal setting. Time series visualizations improve understanding of time-oriented data. But how they and interactions with them can support reflection and goal setting in self- management is poorly understood. We compare findi...
Research purpose: This study aimed at investigating motivations to volunteer, perceived graduate competencies, extent of participating in volunteering, along with gender and faculty of registration, as antecedents of perceived graduate employability among student volunteers and to compare the relative contributions of these antecedences in predicting perceived employability. Research approach, design and method: A cross-sectional research design and a quantitative data collection method were used. The relative weights analysis was conducted to answer the research question. Main findings: Overall, the results demonstrated, firstly, that different sets of predictors statistically significantly predict Perceived External Employability and Perceived Internal Employability, respectively. In the case of Perceived External Employability, a biographical predictor (faculty of registration is the strongest predictor, whereas in the case of Internal Employability, a questionnaire measurement (of Social Motivation comes out on top. Practical implications/managerial implications: The social motivation factor as a predictor of perceived internal employability suggests that the more students valued the social interactions brought about by their volunteering activities, the better they saw themselves equipped for employment. This gives some weight to the argument that engaging in volunteer activities can help equip students with competencies that make them more prepared for the world of work. Contribution/value-add: The study provided support for the construct validity of the scale for the measurement of perceived employability and evidence that different sets of predictors contribute to perceived internal and external employability.
McMahon, John M.; Wolffe, Karen E.; Wolfe, Judy; Brooker, Carrie
This Practice Report describes the development and implementation of the "Maine Employability Skills Program," a model employment program developed by the Maine Division for the Blind and Visually Impaired (DBVI). The program was designed to support the efforts of the chronically unemployed or underemployed. These consumers were either…
Fung, Fai; Lowe, Jason
As part of the Climate Change Act 2008, the UK Government sets out a national adaptation programme to address the risks and opportunities identified in a national climate change risk assessment (CCRA) every five years. The last risk assessment in 2012 was based on the probabilistic projections for the UK published in 2009 (UKCP09). The second risk assessment will also use information from UKCP09 alongside other evidence on climate projections. However, developments in the science of climate projeciton, and evolving user needs (based partly on what has been learnt about the diverse user requirements of the UK adaptation community from the seven years of delivering and managing UKCP09 products, market research and the peer-reviewed literature) suggest now is an appropriate time to update the projections and how they are delivered. A new set of UK climate projections are now being produced to upgrade UKCP09 to reflect the latest developments in climate science, the first phase of which will be delivered in 2018 to support the third CCRA. A major component of the work is the building of a tailored service to support users of the new projections during their development and to involve users in key decisions so that the projections are of most use. We will set out the plan for the new climate projections that seek to address the evolving user need. We will also present a framework which aims to (i) facilitate the dialogue between users, boundary organisations and producers, reflecting their different decision-making roles (ii) produce scientifically robust, user-relevant climate information (iii) provide the building blocks for developing further climate services to support adaptation activities in the UK.
Hardy, Claire; Griffiths, Amanda; Hunter, Myra S
To explore women's perspectives on what employers and managers should and should not do in relation to women going through the menopause. An online questionnaire was used to collect qualitative data in a cross-sectional study of working women. Three open-ended questions asked peri- and post-menopausal women, aged 45-65 years: (i) what they thought employers could do, or should do, to help menopausal women who may be experiencing difficult menopausal symptoms at work; (ii) how managers should behave; and (iii) how managers should not behave towards women going through the menopause. 137 women responded to the open questions in the survey. An inductive thematic analysis was conducted and three overarching themes emerged. Theme 1 related to employer/manager awareness, specifically to knowledge about the menopause and awareness of how the physical work environment might impact on menopausal women. Theme 2 related to employer/manager communication skills and behaviors, specifically those considered helpful and desired and those considered unhelpful and undesired. Theme 3 described employer actions, involving staff training and raising awareness, and supportive policies such as those relating to sickness absence and flexible working hours. The menopause can be difficult for some women to deal with at work, partly due to the working environment. To our knowledge, this is the first study to explore women's descriptions of how they would like to be treated by employers/managers, and what would be helpful and unhelpful. The results have clear implications for communication about menopause at work and for employer-level policy and practice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Milner, Allison; Krnjacki, Lauren; Butterworth, Peter; LaMontagne, Anthony D
Perceived social support is associated with overall better mental health. There is also evidence that unemployed workers with higher social support cope better psychologically than those without such support. However, there has been limited research about the effect of social support among people who have experienced both unemployment and employment. We assessed this topic using 12 years of annually collected cohort data. The sample included 3190 people who had experienced both unemployment and employment. We used longitudinal fixed-effects modelling to investigate within-person changes in mental health comparing the role of social support when a person was unemployed to when they were employed. Compared to when a person reported low social support, a change to medium (6.35, 95% 5.66 to 7.04, p social support (11.58, 95%, 95% CI 10.81 to 12.36, p health (measured on an 100 point scale, with higher scores representing better mental health). When a person was unemployed but had high levels of social support, their mental health was 2.89 points (95% CI 1.67 to 4.11, p social support. The buffering effect of social support was confirmed in stratified analysis. There was a strong direct effect of social support on mental health. The magnitude of these differences could be considered clinically meaningful. Our results also suggest that social support has a significant buffering effect on mental health when a person is unemployed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Karbing, Dan Stieper; Spadaro, Savino; Dey, Nilanjan
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the physiologic effects of applying advice on mechanical ventilation by an open-loop, physiologic model-based clinical decision support system. DESIGN: Prospective, observational study. SETTING: University and Regional Hospitals' ICUs. PATIENTS: Varied adult ICU population...
Castaño-Muñoz, Jonatan; Kalz, Marco; Kreijns, Karel; Punie, Yves
Although the potential of open education and MOOCs for professional development is usually recognized, it has not yet been explored extensively. How far employers support non-formal learning is still an open question. This paper presents the findings of a survey-based study which focuses on the
Our investments increase employment and economic opportunities for women and youth. ... The Employment and Growth program seeks to enhance the employment and economic opportunities of ... The untold story: IDRC supported researchers transform economic policy in Africa ... Careers · Contact Us · Site map.
Bahamontes-Rosa, Noemí; Alejandre, Ane Rodriguez; Gomez, Vanesa; Viera, Sara; Gomez-Lorenzo, María G; Sanz-Alonso, Laura María; Mendoza-Losana, Alfonso
Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is now commonly used as a method to confirm diagnosis of malaria and to differentiate recrudescence from re-infection, especially in clinical trials and in reference laboratories where precise quantification is critical. Although anti-malarial drug discovery is based on in vivo murine efficacy models, use of molecular analysis has been limited. The aim of this study was to develop qPCR as a valid methodology to support pre-clinical anti-malarial models by using filter papers to maintain material for qPCR and to compare this with traditional methods. FTA technology (Whatman) is a rapid and safe method for extracting nucleic acids from blood. Peripheral blood samples from mice infected with Plasmodium berghei, P. yoelii, or P. falciparum were kept as frozen samples or as spots on FTA cards. The extracted genetic material from both types of samples was assessed for quantification by qPCR using sets of specific primers specifically designed for Plasmodium 18S rRNA, LDH, and CytB genes. The optimal conditions for nucleic acid extraction from FTA cards and qPCR amplification were set up, and were confirmed to be suitable for parasite quantification using DNA as template after storage at room temperature for as long as 26 months in the case of P. berghei samples and 52 months for P. falciparum and P. yoelii. The quality of DNA extracted from the FTA cards for gene sequencing and microsatellite amplification was also assessed. This is the first study to report the suitability of FTA cards and qPCR assay to quantify parasite load in samples from in vivo efficacy models to support the drug discovery process.
I. V. Novash
Full Text Available The implementation of information support for PC-based and hardware-software based sets for digital overcurrent protection devices and their models testing using MatLab-Simulink environment is considered. It is demonstrated that the mathematical modeling of a part of the power system – viz. of the generalized electric power object – could be based on rigid and flexible models. Rigid models implemented on the basis of mathematical description of electrical and magnetic circuits of a power system can be considered as a reference model for the simulation results that have been obtained with the aid of another simulation system to be compared with. It is proposed to implement flexible models for generalized electric power object in the MatLabSimulink environment that includes the SimPowerSystems component library targeted to power system modeling. The features of the parameters calculation of the SimPowerSystems component library blocks that the power system model is formed of are considered. Out of the Simulink standard blocks the models of a wye-connected current transformers were composed as well as the digital overcurrent protection, missing in the component library. A comparison of simulation results of one and the same generalized electric power object implemented in various PC-based software packages was undertaken. The divergence of simulation results did not exceed 3 %; the latter allows us to recommend the MatLab-Simulink environment for information support creation for hardware-software based sets for digital overcurrent protection devices testing. The structure of the hardware-software based set for digital overcurrent protection device testing using the Omicron CMC 356 has been suggested. Time to trip comparison between the real digital protection device МР 801 and the model with the parameters which are exactly match the parameters of the prototype device was carried out using the identical test inputs. The results of the tests
Willemsen, M.C.; Gorts, C.A.; Soelen, P. van; Jonkers, R.E.; Hilberink, S.R.
OBJECTIVE: To measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in psychiatric settings and to assess determinants of support for complete smoking bans. DESIGN: Cross sectional study SETTING: Dutch psychiatric hospitals, outpatient care institutions, and sheltered home facilities. SUBJECTS: A
Moon, Sherril; Simonsen, Monica L.; Neubert, Debra A.
The purpose of this exploratory study was to survey community rehabilitation providers (CRPs) to determine their perceptions of the skills, experiences, and information that transitioning youth with developmental disabilities (DD) and their families need to access supported employment (SE) services. Supervisors of SE from 12 CRPs across one state…
Hammond, Athena; Homer, Caroline S E; Foureur, Maralyn
to identify and describe the design characteristics of hospital birth rooms that support midwives and their practice. this study used a qualitative exploratory descriptive methodology underpinned by the theoretical approach of critical realism. Data was collected through 21 in-depth, face-to-face photo-elicitation interviews and a thematic analysis guided by study objectives and the aims of exploratory research was undertaken. the study was set at a recently renovated tertiary hospital in a large Australian city. participants were 16 registered midwives working in a tertiary hospital; seven in delivery suite and nine in birth centre settings. Experience as a midwife ranged from three to 39 years and the sample included midwives in diverse roles such as educator, student support and unit manager. three design characteristics were identified that supported midwifery practice. They were friendliness, functionality and freedom. Friendly rooms reduced stress and increased midwives' feelings of safety. Functional rooms enabled choice and provided options to better meet the needs of labouring women. And freedom allowed for flexible, spontaneous and responsive midwifery practice. hospital birth rooms that possess the characteristics of friendliness, functionality and freedom offer enhanced support for midwives and may therefore increase effective care provision. new and existing birth rooms can be designed or adapted to better support the wellbeing and effectiveness of midwives and may thereby enhance the quality of midwifery care delivered in the hospital. Quality midwifery care is associated with positive outcomes and experiences for labouring women. Further research is required to investigate the benefit that may be transmitted to women by implementing design intended to support and enhance midwifery practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van den Berg, Tilja I J; Vrijhoef, Hubertus J M; Tummers, Gladys; Landeweerd, Jan A; van Merode, Godefridus G
The aim of this study is to explore whether the work organisation of diabetes specialist nurses (DSNs) differs significantly from nurses working in hospital and nursing home and if so, does this difference result in positive or negative consequences regarding work and health. In traditional health care settings, nurses exhibit a high level of environmental uncertainty and low decision-making authority, which has a negative effect on psychological reactions towards work. In professional nursing, specialisation, e.g. diabetic nursing, is a current trend in many countries. Therefore, insight into the determinants of the work situation of nursing specialists is becoming increasingly relevant. Comparisons were made between 3 different samples: 1204 nurses employed by 15 hospitals, 1058 nurses employed by 14 nursing homes, and 350 diabetes nurses working in other health care settings throughout the Netherlands. Data concerning organisation, work aspects, and psychological reactions were measured via questionnaires. Variances between the groups were analysed with ANCOVA, besides hierarchical multiple regression analysis was applied. Environmental uncertainty scored lower amongst diabetes nurses when compared to nurses working in the other two types of health care settings. Social support and role conflict scored low for diabetes nursing specialists who simultaneously perceived autonomy and role ambiguity highest. Diabetes nursing specialists also scored highest on intrinsic work motivation and job satisfaction and lowest for psychosomatic health. Except for social support and role ambiguity, diabetic nurses rate their [work] organisation, [work] aspects and psychological [work] reactions more positively than nurses employed in other health care settings.
Wehman, Paul; Schall, Carol M.; McDonough, Jennifer; Graham, Carolyn; Brooke, Valerie; Riehle, J. Erin; Brooke, Alissa; Ham, Whitney; Lau, Stephanie; Allen, Jaclyn; Avellone, Lauren
The purpose of this study was to develop and investigate an employer-based 9-month intervention for high school youth with autism spectrum disorder to learn job skills and acquire employment. The intervention modified a program titled Project SEARCH and incorporated the use of applied behavior analysis to develop Project SEARCH plus Autism…
Delman, Jonathan; Klodnick, Vanessa V
Peer providers are a promising practice for transition-age youth community mental health treatment engagement and support, yet little is known about the experience of being a young adult peer provider or what helps to make an individual in this role successful. Utilizing a capital theory lens, this study uses data from focus groups (two with young adult peer providers and two with their supervisors) to examine facilitators of young adult peer provider success in community mental health treatment settings. Eight factors were identified as critical to young adult peer provider on-the-job success: persistence, job confidence, resilience, job training, skilled communications with colleagues, regular and individualized supervision, support from colleagues, and family support. Findings suggest that young adult peer providers may benefit immensely from an agency level focus on fostering social organizational capital as well as more individualized efforts to increase cultural, social, and psychological capital through training and supervision.
Wakil, K.; Hussnain, MQ; Tahir, A.; Naeem, M. A.
Unmanaged placement, size, location, structure and contents of outdoor advertisement boards have resulted in severe urban visual pollution and deterioration of the socio-physical living environment in urban centres of Pakistan. As per the regulatory instruments, the approval decision for a new advertisement installation is supposed to be based on the locational density of existing boards and their proximity or remoteness to certain land- uses. In cities, where regulatory tools for the control of advertisement boards exist, responsible authorities are handicapped in effective implementation due to the absence of geospatial analysis capacity. This study presents the development of a spatial decision support system (SDSS) for regularization of advertisement boards in terms of their location and placement. The knowledge module of the proposed SDSS is based on provisions and restrictions prescribed in regulatory documents. While the user interface allows visualization and scenario evaluation to understand if the new board will affect existing linear density on a particular road and if it violates any buffer restrictions around a particular land use. Technically the structure of the proposed SDSS is a web-based solution which includes open geospatial tools such as OpenGeo Suite, GeoExt, PostgreSQL, and PHP. It uses three key data sets including road network, locations of existing billboards and building parcels with land use information to perform the analysis. Locational suitability has been calculated using pairwise comparison through analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and weighted linear combination (WLC). Our results indicate that open geospatial tools can be helpful in developing an SDSS which can assist solving space related iterative decision challenges on outdoor advertisements. Employing such a system will result in effective implementation of regulations resulting in visual harmony and aesthetic improvement in urban communities.
Full Text Available The variations of the supporting condition, which change the stiffness of tilting pad thrust bearing, may alter the dynamic behavior of the rotor system. The effects of supporting condition of thrust pad on the lateral vibration of a hydroelectric generating set are investigated in this paper. The action of a thrust bearing is described as moments acting on the thrust collar, and the tilting stiffness coefficients of thrust bearing are calculated. A model based on typical beam finite element method is established to calculate the dynamic response, and the effects of supporting conditions such as elastic oil tank support, different heights of the thrust pads with rigid support are discussed. The results reveal that the influence of thrust bearing is small when the elastic oil tanks work normally. When the supporting conditions turn to be rigid due to the oil leakage, the differences of thrust pad heights have evident influence on the load distribution of the thrust pads; while the effects on the tilting stiffness of the thrust bearing and the amplitude of the lateral shaft vibration is small when the maximum load on thrust pads is smaller than the allowable value.
Full Text Available Karine Bilodeau,1,2 Dominique Tremblay,2,3 Marie-José Durand4,5 1Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke, Longueuil, QC, Canada; 2Hôpital Charles-LeMoyne Research Center, Longueuil, QC, Canada; 3School of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke, Longueuil, QC, Canada; 4School of Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke, Longueuil, QC, Canada; 5Centre for Action in Work Disability Prevention and Rehabilitation, Longueuil, QC, Canada Background: Many recommendations have been made regarding survivorship care provided by teams of primary care professionals. However, the nature of that follow-up, including support for return-to-work (RTW after cancer, remains largely undefined. As implementation problems are frequently context-related, a pilot study was conducted to describe the contexts, according to Grol and Wensing, in which a new intervention is to be implemented. This pilot study is the first of three steps in intervention development planning.Method: In-depth semi-structured interviews (n=6 were carried out with stakeholders selected for their knowledgeable perspective of various settings, such as hospitals, primary care, employers, and community-based organizations. Interviews focused on participants’ perceptions of key contextual facilitators and barriers to consider for the deployment of an RTW intervention in a primary care setting. Data from interviews were transcribed and analyzed. A content analysis was performed based on an iterative process.Results: An intervention supporting the process of RTW in primary care makes sense for participants. Results suggest that important levers are present in organizational, professional, and social settings. However, many barriers, mainly related to organizational settings, have been identified, eg, distribution of tasks for survivor follow-up, continuity of information, and coordination of
Sanguanklin, Natthananporn; McFarlin, Barbara L; Finnegan, Lorna; Park, Chang Gi; Giurgescu, Carmen; White-Traut, Rosemary; Engstrom, Janet L
Most Thai women continue to work throughout their pregnancy; however, little is known about job strain and its relation to psychological distress. This study aimed to examine: (1) the direct effects of job strain, perceived workplace support, perceived family support, and coping strategies on psychological distress and (2) the moderating effect of perceived workplace support, perceived family support, and coping strategies on the relationship between job strain and psychological distress. Lazarus and Folkman's transactional model of stress and coping guided this cross-sectional study. Full-time employed pregnant women (N = 300) were recruited from three antenatal clinics in Thailand. Thai versions of the following instruments were used: the State-Anxiety Inventory and Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (psychological distress), the Job Content Questionnaire (job strain and perceived workplace support), the Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey (perceived family support), and the Ways of Coping Checklist-Revised (coping strategies). Job strain with other predictors explained 54% of the variance in psychological distress. In the separate hierarchical multiple linear regression models, two types of coping strategies, seeking social support and wishful thinking, moderated the effects of job strain on psychological distress. Perceived family support had a direct effect in reducing psychological distress. Job strain is a significant contributor to psychological distress. The average levels of seeking social support and wishful thinking were most beneficial in moderating the negative impact of job strain on psychological distress. Since perceived workplace and family support did not have moderating effects, stress management programs for decreasing the levels of job strain should be developed.
Borowiec, Marek L; Lee, Ernest K; Chiu, Joanna C; Plachetzki, David C
Understanding the phylogenetic relationships among major lineages of multicellular animals (the Metazoa) is a prerequisite for studying the evolution of complex traits such as nervous systems, muscle tissue, or sensory organs. Transcriptome-based phylogenies have dramatically improved our understanding of metazoan relationships in recent years, although several important questions remain. The branching order near the base of the tree, in particular the placement of the poriferan (sponges, phylum Porifera) and ctenophore (comb jellies, phylum Ctenophora) lineages is one outstanding issue. Recent analyses have suggested that the comb jellies are sister to all remaining metazoan phyla including sponges. This finding is surprising because it suggests that neurons and other complex traits, present in ctenophores and eumetazoans but absent in sponges or placozoans, either evolved twice in Metazoa or were independently, secondarily lost in the lineages leading to sponges and placozoans. To address the question of basal metazoan relationships we assembled a novel dataset comprised of 1080 orthologous loci derived from 36 publicly available genomes representing major lineages of animals. From this large dataset we procured an optimized set of partitions with high phylogenetic signal for resolving metazoan relationships. This optimized data set is amenable to the most appropriate and computationally intensive analyses using site-heterogeneous models of sequence evolution. We also employed several strategies to examine the potential for long-branch attraction to bias our inferences. Our analyses strongly support the Ctenophora as the sister lineage to other Metazoa. We find no support for the traditional view uniting the ctenophores and Cnidaria. Our findings are supported by Bayesian comparisons of topological hypotheses and we find no evidence that they are biased by long-branch attraction. Our study further clarifies relationships among early branching metazoan lineages
Lindbohm, M-L; Kuosma, E; Taskila, T; Hietanen, P; Carlsen, K; Gudbergsson, S; Gunnarsdottir, H
This study examined whether workplace support, sociodemographic factors and co-morbidity are associated with early retirement or non-employment due to other reasons among breast cancer survivors. We also compared quality of life and chronic symptoms (pain, fatigue, anxiety and depression) among employed, retired and other non-employed breast cancer survivors. We identified breast cancer survivors diagnosed between 1997 and 2002 from either a hospital or a cancer registry in Denmark, Finland, Iceland and Norway (NOCWO study). All patients had been treated with curative intent. Information on employment, co-morbidity and support was collected via a questionnaire. The sample included 1111 working-aged cancer-free survivors who had been employed at the time of diagnosis. We used multinomial logistic regression models to analyse the association of various determinants with early retirement and other non-employment (due to unemployment, subsidized employment or being a homemaker). Low education, low physical quality of life, co-morbidity and pain were associated with both early retirement and other non-employment after cancer. Other non-employed survivors also rated their mental quality of life as lower and experienced anxiety and fatigue more often than all the other survivors. Moreover, they reported a lower level of supervisor support after their diagnosis than the employed survivors. Retired survivors more often reported weak support from colleagues. Differences in ill health and functional status between various groups of non-employed cancer survivors need to be considered when planning policy measures for improving the labour market participation of this population and preventing their early withdrawal from working life. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Sveinsdottir, Vigdis; Tveito, Torill Helene; Bond, Gary R; Grasdal, Astrid Louise; Lie, Stein Atle; Reme, Silje Endresen
Early withdrawal or exclusion from the labor market leads to significant personal and societal costs. In Norway, the increasing numbers of young adults receiving disability pension is a growing problem. While a large body of research demonstrates positive effects of Supported Employment (SE) in patients with severe mental illness, no studies have yet investigated the effectiveness of SE in young adults with a range of social and health conditions who are receiving benefits. The SEED-trial is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing traditional vocational rehabilitation (TVR) to SE in 124 unemployed individuals between the ages of 18-29 who are receiving benefits due to various social- or health-related problems. The primary outcome is labor market participation during the first year after enrollment. Secondary outcomes include physical and mental health, health behaviors, and well-being, collected at baseline, 6, and 12 months. A cost-benefit analysis will also be conducted. The SEED-trial is the first RCT to compare SE to TVR in this important and vulnerable group, at risk of being excluded from working life at an early age. Clinicaltrials.gov, registration number NCT02375074 . Registered on December 3rd 2014.
Dec 18, 2017 ... Their Policy Analysis on Growth and Employment (PAGE) program takes ... Many organizations, many people approached us to try to get the results ... prevention among the "choice disabled" — vulnerable groups less able to ...
Full Text Available This research analyzes effects of foreign direct investment and Its Impact toward employment and export performance in Indonesia 2005-2015. This research with secondary data focuses on the Supporting factors in which attract foreign direct investment into Indonesia. This research focused on the problem First the impact of labor export results economic growth rate exchange rate inflation rate interest rate and tax toward foreign direct investment second the impact of foreign direct investment on the expansion of employment and export performance in Indonesia during the period 2005-2015. The result of this research explains that variables of human resourceslabor and export performance give positive effect as significantly to attracting foreign direct investment in Indonesia. While foreign direct investment in Indonesia gives positive effect to employment creation and to export performance.
L. Felice Reddy
Full Text Available Unemployment is a primary functional deficit for the majority of adults with schizophrenia. Research indicates that over two-thirds of adults living in the community with schizophrenia are unemployed. Despite effective programs to assist with job identification and placement, the ability to attain and maintain employment remains a pressing concern. Neurocognitive functioning is widely acknowledged to be a determinant of work outcome; however, effect sizes tend to be in the small to medium range. The present study sought to further understand the determinants of work outcome among a sample of 104 veterans with schizophrenia enrolled in a supported employment program. A small percentage of veterans in the study got competitive jobs; 53% who secured jobs maintained employment for longer than 6 months. Cognition, social cognition, and symptoms were unrelated to job attainment. However, speed of processing and social cognition were significant predictors of work outcomes such as wages and tenure. These findings suggest that cognitive abilities including processing speed and the ability to accurately interpret and respond to social cues are significant determinants of whether individuals with schizophrenia remain employed. The results are discussed in light of current available treatment options and domains to target in synergy with work rehabilitation efforts.
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the performance analysis of a camera based vehicle-to-vehicle visible light communication system employing undersampled phase shift on-off keying modulation under interference scenario. Two Nissan Qashqai front lights with daylight running light emitting diodes based lamps are used for communications. The bit error rate (BER performance of the proposed system is experimentally measured for a transmission span up to 24m focusing mostly on the side interference due to reflections. Based on experimental data we demonstrate reduction of the system performance due to the side reflection and illumination of the detector by other light sources which has to taken into account during further data processing. We provide with further statistics for particular shuter speed and transmitter power setting and discus BER improvement especially to meet FEC via the method of adaptive region of interest.
Tiedtke, C M; Dierckx de Casterlé, B; Frings-Dresen, M H W; De Boer, A G E M; Greidanus, M A; Tamminga, S J; De Rijk, A E
Remaining in paid work is of great importance for cancer survivors, and employers play a crucial role in achieving this. Return to work (RTW) is best seen as a process. This study aims to provide insight into (1) Dutch employers' experiences with RTW of employees with cancer and (2) the employers' needs for support regarding this process. Thirty employer representatives of medium and large for-profit and non-profit organizations were interviewed to investigate their experiences and needs in relation to employees with cancer. A Grounded Theory approach was used. We revealed a trajectory of complex communication and decision-making during different stages, from the moment the employee disclosed that they had been diagnosed to the period after RTW, permanent disability, or the employee's passing away. Employers found this process demanding due to various dilemmas. Dealing with an unfavorable diagnosis and balancing both the employer's and the employee's interests were found to be challenging. Two types of approach to support RTW of employees with cancer were distinguished: (1) a business-oriented approach and (2) a care-oriented approach. Differences in approach were related to differences in organizational structure and employer and employee characteristics. Employers expressed a need for communication skills, information, and decision-making skills to support employees with cancer. The employers interviewed stated that dealing with an employee with cancer is demanding and that the extensive Dutch legislation on RTW did not offer all the support needed. We recommend providing them with easily accessible information on communication and leadership training to better support employees with cancer. • Supporting employers by training communication and decision-making skills and providing information on cancer will contribute to improving RTW support for employees with cancer. • Knowing that the employer will usually be empathic when an employee reveals that they have
This is a case study of an initiative to support women returning to ICT after a career break, which was run in the UK and Ireland between 2005 and 2011.The article starts by outlining how the UK government’s concern about women failing return to SET careers led to the setting up of a national campaign (RETURN) to address this issue. A brief overview of previous research about women’s reasons for leaving ICT employment and the difficulties and barriers they encounter in returning to work, sets...
Tol, Wietse A; Barbui, Corrado; Galappatti, Ananda; Silove, Derrick; Betancourt, Theresa S; Souza, Renato; Golaz, Anne; van Ommeren, Mark
This review links practice, funding, and evidence for interventions for mental health and psychosocial wellbeing in humanitarian settings. We studied practice by reviewing reports of mental health and psychosocial support activities (2007-10); funding by analysis of the financial tracking service and the creditor reporting system (2007-09); and interventions by systematic review and meta-analysis. In 160 reports, the five most commonly reported activities were basic counselling for individuals (39%); facilitation of community support of vulnerable individuals (23%); provision of child-friendly spaces (21%); support of community-initiated social support (21%); and basic counselling for groups and families (20%). Most interventions took place and were funded outside national mental health and protection systems. 32 controlled studies of interventions were identified, 13 of which were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that met the criteria for meta-analysis. Two studies showed promising effects for strengthening community and family supports. Psychosocial wellbeing was not included as an outcome in the meta-analysis, because its definition varied across studies. In adults with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), meta-analysis of seven RCTs showed beneficial effects for several interventions (psychotherapy and psychosocial supports) compared with usual care or waiting list (standardised mean difference [SMD] -0·38, 95% CI -0·55 to -0·20). In children, meta-analysis of four RCTs failed to show an effect for symptoms of PTSD (-0·36, -0·83 to 0·10), but showed a beneficial effect of interventions (group psychotherapy, school-based support, and other psychosocial support) for internalising symptoms (six RCTs; SMD -0·24, -0·40 to -0·09). Overall, research and evidence focuses on interventions that are infrequently implemented, whereas the most commonly used interventions have had little rigorous scrutiny. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All
Tol, Wietse A; Barbui, Corrado; Galappatti, Ananda; Silove, Derrick; Betancourt, Theresa S; Souza, Renato; Golaz, Anne; van Ommeren, Mark
This review links practice, funding, and evidence for interventions for mental health and psychosocial wellbeing in humanitarian settings. We studied practice by reviewing reports of mental health and psychosocial support activities (2007–10); funding by analysis of the financial tracking service and the creditor reporting system (2007–09); and interventions by systematic review and meta-analysis. In 160 reports, the five most commonly reported activities were basic counselling for individuals (39%); facilitation of community support of vulnerable individuals (23%); provision of child-friendly spaces (21%); support of community-initiated social support (21%); and basic counselling for groups and families (20%). Most interventions took place and were funded outside national mental health and protection systems. 32 controlled studies of interventions were identified, 13 of which were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that met the criteria for meta-analysis. Two studies showed promising effects for strengthening community and family supports. Psychosocial wellbeing was not included as an outcome in the meta-analysis, because its definition varied across studies. In adults with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), meta-analysis of seven RCTs showed beneficial effects for several interventions (psychotherapy and psychosocial supports) compared with usual care or waiting list (standardised mean difference [SMD] −0.38, 95% CI −0.55 to −0.20). In children, meta-analysis of four RCTs failed to show an effect for symptoms of PTSD (−0.36, −0.83 to 0.10), but showed a beneficial effect of interventions (group psychotherapy, school-based support, and other psychosocial support) for internalising symptoms (six RCTs; SMD −0.24, −0.40 to −0.09). Overall, research and evidence focuses on interventions that are infrequently implemented, whereas the most commonly used interventions have had little rigorous scrutiny. PMID:22008428
Dr Lyes OUABDESSELAM
This article proposes a financial study of a project to create a commercial enterprise through the scheme proposed by the National Agency for Youth Employment Support (ANSEJ). The company is a testing and analysis laboratory. In this study we have prepared a complete financial package and we have budgeted this project over the entire amortization period of the investment credit in accordance with the timetable set by the support system for young entrepreneurs to set up a business in Algeria. ...
Full Text Available Orientation: Employers have come to recognise graduates’ employability capacities and their ability to adapt to new work demands as important human capital resources for sustaining a competitive business advantage. Research purpose: The study sought (1 to ascertain whether a significant relationship exists between a set of graduate employability capacities and a set of career adaptability capacities and (2 to identify the variables that contributed the most to this relationship. Motivation for the study: Global competitive markets and technological advances are increasingly driving the demand for graduate knowledge and skills in a wide variety of jobs. Contemporary career theory further emphasises career adaptability across the lifespan as a critical skill for career management agency. Despite the apparent importance attached to employees’ employability and career adaptability, there seems to be a general lack of research investigating the association between these constructs. Research approach, design and method: A cross-sectional, quantitative research design approach was followed. Descriptive statistics, Pearson product-moment correlations and canonical correlation analysis were performed to achieve the objective of the study. The participants (N = 196 were employed in professional positions in the human resource field and were predominantly early career black people and women. Main findings: The results indicated positive multivariate relationships between the variables and showed that lifelong learning capacities and problem solving, decision-making and interactive skills contributed the most to explaining the participants’ career confidence, career curiosity and career control. Practical/managerial implications: The study suggests that developing professional graduates’ employability capacities may strengthen their career adaptability. These capacities were shown to explain graduates’ active engagement in career management
Brännlund, Runar; Nordström, Leif Jonas; Stage, Jesper
In this paper, we study how foreign ownership of Swedish companies affects employment and wages. To study these effects, we specify a model based on the assumption that the Swedish labour market can be described as one where trade unions and employers bargain over employment and wages. Our...... hypothesis is that bargaining power is affected by institutional settings and the ownership of the firm. To test our hypothesis, we used a panel data set of 242 large Swedish manufacturing firms over the period 1980–2005. The results indicate no significant impact of foreign ownership on employment or wages...
MacFarlane, Anne; O'Donnell, Catherine; Mair, Frances; O'Reilly-de Brún, Mary; de Brún, Tomas; Spiegel, Wolfgang; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria; van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn; Lionis, Christos; Burns, Nicola; Gravenhorst, Katja; Princz, Christine; Teunissen, Erik; van den Driessen Mareeuw, Francine; Saridaki, Aristoula; Papadakaki, Maria; Vlahadi, Maria; Dowrick, Christopher
The implementation of guidelines and training initiatives to support communication in cross-cultural primary care consultations is ad hoc across a range of international settings with negative consequences particularly for migrants. This situation reflects a well-documented translational gap between evidence and practice and is part of the wider problem of implementing guidelines and the broader range of professional educational and quality interventions in routine practice. In this paper, we describe our use of a contemporary social theory, Normalization Process Theory and participatory research methodology--Participatory Learning and Action--to investigate and support implementation of such guidelines and training initiatives in routine practice. This is a qualitative case study, using multiple primary care sites across Europe. Purposive and maximum variation sampling approaches will be used to identify and recruit stakeholders-migrant service users, general practitioners, primary care nurses, practice managers and administrative staff, interpreters, cultural mediators, service planners, and policy makers. We are conducting a mapping exercise to identify relevant guidelines and training initiatives. We will then initiate a PLA-brokered dialogue with stakeholders around Normalization Process Theory's four constructs--coherence, cognitive participation, collective action, and reflexive monitoring. Through this, we will enable stakeholders in each setting to select a single guideline or training initiative for implementation in their local setting. We will prospectively investigate and support the implementation journeys for the five selected interventions. Data will be generated using a Participatory Learning and Action approach to interviews and focus groups. Data analysis will follow the principles of thematic analysis, will occur in iterative cycles throughout the project and will involve participatory co-analysis with key stakeholders to enhance the
Full Text Available Abstract Background Early withdrawal or exclusion from the labor market leads to significant personal and societal costs. In Norway, the increasing numbers of young adults receiving disability pension is a growing problem. While a large body of research demonstrates positive effects of Supported Employment (SE in patients with severe mental illness, no studies have yet investigated the effectiveness of SE in young adults with a range of social and health conditions who are receiving benefits. Methods/design The SEED-trial is a randomized controlled trial (RCT comparing traditional vocational rehabilitation (TVR to SE in 124 unemployed individuals between the ages of 18-29 who are receiving benefits due to various social- or health-related problems. The primary outcome is labor market participation during the first year after enrollment. Secondary outcomes include physical and mental health, health behaviors, and well-being, collected at baseline, 6, and 12 months. A cost-benefit analysis will also be conducted. Discussion The SEED-trial is the first RCT to compare SE to TVR in this important and vulnerable group, at risk of being excluded from working life at an early age. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov, registration number NCT02375074 . Registered on December 3rd 2014
Job initiation rates are steadily improving for people with severe and persistent mental illnesses. Yet, job retention rates, especially for those individuals who historically have had difficulty maintaining employment, continue to concern vocational rehabilitation professionals. In this paper, the author develops and refines her ideas that were presented in a previous research paper titled "Differences in Job Retention in a Supported Employment Program, Chinook Clubhouse." A more complete model, "The PASS to Success," is suggested by incorporating existing research with the author's revised work. Components of the model (Placement, Attitude, Support, Skills), can be used to predict vocational success and promote job retention.
Rachel Dunifon; Anne Toft Hansen; Sean Nicholson; Lisbeth Palmhøj Nielsen
Using a Danish data set that follows 135,000 Danish children from birth through 9th grade, we examine the effect of maternal employment during a child's first three and first 15 years on that child's grade point average in 9th grade. We address the endogeneity of employment by including a rich set of household control variables, instrumenting for employment with the gender- and education-specific local unemployment rate, and by including maternal fixed effects. We find that maternal employmen...
Bonner, Gwen; McLaughlin, Sue
This article shares findings of work undertaken with a group of mental health ward managers to consider their roles through workshops using an action learning approach. The tensions between the need to balance the burden of administrative tasks and act as clinical role models, leaders and managers are considered in the context of providing recovery-focused services. The group reviewed their leadership styles, broke down the administrative elements of their roles using activity logs, reviewed their working environments and considered how recovery focused they believed their wards to be. Findings support the notion that the ward manager role in acute inpatient settings is at times unmanageable. Administration is one aspect of the role for which ward managers feel unprepared and the high number of administrative tasks take them away from front line clinical care, leading to frustration. Absence from clinical areas reduces opportunities for role modeling good clinical practice to other staff. Despite the frustrations of administrative tasks, overall the managers thought they were supportive to their staff and that their wards were recovery focused.
Fauk, Nelsensius Klau; Mwakinyali, Silivano Edson; Putra, Sukma; Mwanri, Lillian
The purpose of this study was to understand the strategies employed by families that adopt Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)-orphaned children (Adoptive families) for coping with and mitigating the impact of AIDS in Mbeya Rural District, Tanzania. High numbers of AIDS-orphaned children aged below 18 years in Mbeya Region have led to increasing the burden of families caring for them. Understanding the coping strategies and impact mitigation activities employed by adoptive families is important in order to develop programmes to help them. This study employed a qualitative method for data collection (one-on-one in-depth interviews). The respondents included 12 male and 8 female heads of families that provide essential care for AIDS-orphaned children in Mbeya Rural District in Tanzania. The framework approach was used to analyse the data that were collected from 15 July to 15 August 2010. The study findings revealed that adoptive families faced several challenges including financial constraints due to increased needs for basic essentials such as health care expenses, school fees and food. Further impacts on adoptive families included shortage of work opportunities and limited time to address these challenges. To mitigate these challenges, adoptive families employed a range of coping strategies including selling family assets and renting out parts of cultivable land for extra cash. Task reallocation which involved the AIDS-orphaned children entering the labour force was also employed as a strategy to mitigate challenges and involved de-enrolling of children from schools so they could take part in income-generating activities in order to earn supplementary family income. The creation of additional income-generating activities such as poultry farming were other coping mechanisms employed, and these received support from both non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and governmental organisations, including the Isangati Agricultural Development Organization (local
Hillman, Stephen B.; Sawilowsky, Shlomo S.
Examined effects of maternal employment on use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, and other drugs by ninth graders (n=48). Comparison of maternal employment patterns (full-time versus part-time versus not employed outside the home) indicated no significant differences in substance use behavior among adolescents. Findings support literature on…
This article draws on research with adult sex workers in indoor settings in Great Britain to explore diverse forms of self-employment, employment relationships and small business development, set within the context of changes to the wider economy. It considers how external constraints such as the legal context, social stigma and dominant policy discourses can impact on sex workers' autonomy and actively work against their safety and wellbeing. The article argues that broad policy and legal approaches which fail to recognise the complexity of sex work constrain sex workers' opportunities for business development and improvement of their working circumstances. It suggests the need for recognition of sex work as legitimate labour, as a prerequisite for policy changes to support sex workers and pave the way for improved working conditions, not only in managed settings but also facilitating collective arrangements and independent lone working.
Military and Nonmilitary Settings PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Raymond C. Rosen, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: New Englad Research Instituites , Inc...Partner organizations may have provided financial or in-kind support, supplied facilities or equipment, collaborated in the research, exchanged...location list country) Partner’s contribution to the project (identify one or more) Financial support; In-kind support (e.g., partner makes
Kittelman, Angus; Wagner Bromley, Katherine; Mazzotti, Valerie L.
Work experiences are linked to positive post-school outcomes for youth and young adults with disabilities. Unfortunately, students who struggle to manage conflict and challenges in work settings have a difficult time maintaining employment. Though ecological assessments are used to create supported work plans surrounding socially inappropriate…
Kosovka Đ Ognjenovic
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to examine whether some previous knowledge about business prospects affects companies’ decisions about new employment in Serbia. In order to investigate this assumption a set of firm level data for 2012 is used. Following the theoretical approach that put an employer in a position to make various decisions about employment within the company, the trichotomous logit model is employed for the estimation of outcomes of possible companies’ decisions with respect to a set of independent variables. We find that the level of employment in the year that precedes companies’ decisions and relative changes in the number of employees in two successive years, as well as age and size of the company to some extent, affect companies’ decisions about new employment. The most important finding of our research is that the companies that experienced fluctuations in the number of employees and upgraded their business opportunities in the previous period hesitate to make decisions on the engagement of new workers, whereas those companies that lost some business opportunities rather decide to downsize the total number of employees.
Chaidez, Virginia; Palmer-Wackerly, Angela L; Trout, Kate E
A statewide Community Health Worker Employer Survey was administered to various clinical, community, and faith-based organizations (n = 240) across a range of rural and urban settings in the Midwest. At least 80% of participants agreed or strongly agreed that items characterized as supervisory support were present in their work environment. Thirty-six percent of respondents currently employed CHWs, over half (51%) of survey respondents reported seeing the need to hire/work with more CHWs, and 44% saw the need for CHWs increasing in the future. Regarding CHW support, a majority of respondents indicated networking opportunities (63%), paid time for networking (80%), adequate time for supervision (75%), orientation training (78%), mandatory training (78%), ongoing training (79%), and paid time for training (82%). Open-ended responses to the question "In your organization, what needs could CHWs meet?" resulted in the largest number of respondents reporting mental health issues as a priority, followed by connecting people with services or resources, educating the public on preventive health, family support, and home care/visitations. Our findings suggest that respondents, who largely have supervisory or managerial roles, view workplace environments in Nebraska favorably, despite the fact that nearly two-thirds of respondents typically work well over 40 h per week. In addition, CHWs could help address mental and physical health needs in a variety of community and clinical settings through primary and secondary prevention activities, such as provision of health screenings, health and nutrition education, connecting people to resources and empowering community members through these activities and more.
Fox, Ann; Emrich, Teri
Efforts to support workforce development led to the launch of a new master of public health program aimed at improving access to graduate studies for practising nutrition professionals. The first cohort of students identified employer support as a key determinant of their success. In order to identify ways of addressing both student and employer needs, we explored the perspectives of students' employers. Seventeen in-depth, semi-structured, open-ended interviews were conducted with employers. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. Transcripts were organized using NVivo software and coded thematically. All employers indicated support for employee education and development in principle, but most faced practical challenges related to limited staffing during education leaves. Organizational policies varied considerably across employer groups. Collective agreements that guided education policy were seen to ensure consistent support for employees, but also to limit creative approaches to education support in some situations. Employers highly valued graduate student projects that were directly related to the workplace; these projects presented opportunities for collaboration among the university, students, and employers. Universities need to work with employers and other stakeholders to identify ways of overcoming barriers to public health nutrition graduate education and workforce development.
Douglas, Sarah N.; Chapin, Shelley E.; Nolan, James F.
In recent years, there has been an increase in paraeducator supports, in large part because students with low incidence disabilities are being included more frequently in general education settings. As a result, special education teachers have been given additional supervisory responsibilities related to directing the work of paraeducators in…
Swanberg, Jennifer; Macke, Caroline; Logan, TK
Partner violence may have significant consequences on women's employment, yet limited information is available about how women cope on the job with perpetrators' tactics and the consequences of her coping methods on employment status. This article investigates whether there is an association between workplace disclosure of victimization and…
Liu, Li; Pang, Ran; Sun, Wei; Wu, Ming; Qu, Peng; Lu, Chunming; Wang, Lie
Psychological distress (e.g., depression and anxiety) has been regarded as the main cause of leaving work for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in workplaces. This study aims to explore the associations of functional social support (FSS) and psychological capital (PC) with depressive and anxiety symptoms among PLWHA employed full-time. This cross-sectional study was performed in Liaoning, China, during the period of December 2010-April 2011. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, the Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire, and the Psychological Capital Questionnaire were completed by PLWHA employed full-time. Structural equation modeling was used to test the proposed relationships between variables. Asymptotic and resampling strategies were performed to explore the mediating roles of PC and its components (self-efficacy, hope, optimism, resilience). Of 320 participants surveyed, 66.3% had depressive symptoms, and 45.6% had anxiety symptoms. Significant negative associations of FSS and PC with depressive and anxiety symptoms were revealed. PC (a*b = -0.209, BCa 95% CI: -0.293, -0.137, p < 0.05), hope (a*b = -0.103, BCa 95% CI: -0.192, -0.034, p < 0.05), and optimism (a*b = -0.047, BCa 95% CI: -0.106, -0.008, p < 0.05) significantly mediated the association between FSS and depressive symptoms. PC (a*b = -0.151, BCa 95% CI: -0.224, -0.095, p < 0.05) and self-efficacy (a*b = -0.080, BCa 95% CI: -0.158, -0.012, p < 0.05) significantly mediated the FSS-anxiety symptoms association. FSS and PC could help reduce depressive and anxiety symptoms among PLWHA employed full-time. PC fully mediates the associations of FSS with depressive and anxiety symptoms. In addition to enhancing FSS, PC development could be included in the prevention and treatment strategies for depressive and anxiety symptoms targeted at PLWHA employed full-time.
Iva Bjelinski Radić
Recently, under the influence of rapid development of digital technologies, new flexible forms of employment have emerged, which are characterized by strong or prevalent support of information and communication technology. Online platform Uber which provides urban passenger transport services is one of the best known examples of the abovementioned changes in work organization. Taking into account that emergence of Uber has given rise to numerous controversies and set new con...
Full Text Available This paper developed an approach, the window-based validation set for support vector data description (WVS-SVDD, to determine optimal parameters for support vector data description (SVDD model to map specific land cover by integrating training and window-based validation sets. Compared to the conventional approach where the validation set included target and outlier pixels selected visually and randomly, the validation set derived from WVS-SVDD constructed a tightened hypersphere because of the compact constraint by the outlier pixels which were located neighboring to the target class in the spectral feature space. The overall accuracies for wheat and bare land achieved were as high as 89.25% and 83.65%, respectively. However, target class was underestimated because the validation set covers only a small fraction of the heterogeneous spectra of the target class. The different window sizes were then tested to acquire more wheat pixels for validation set. The results showed that classification accuracy increased with the increasing window size and the overall accuracies were higher than 88% at all window size scales. Moreover, WVS-SVDD showed much less sensitivity to the untrained classes than the multi-class support vector machine (SVM method. Therefore, the developed method showed its merits using the optimal parameters, tradeoff coefficient (C and kernel width (s, in mapping homogeneous specific land cover.
Africa's persistent job crisis calls for more effective employment policies, including training programs and support for job searches. This project will address the crisis through recommendations that will improve employment policies in francophone Africa. Youth employment initiatives in Africa Over the last two decades, ...
de Koning, Jaap; Layard, Richard; Nickel, Stephen
European unemployment is too high, and employment is too low. Over 7½ per cent of Europe's workforce is unemployed, and only two thirds of people aged 15-64 are in work. At the Lisbon summit two years ago the heads of government set the target that by 2010 the employment rate should rise from 64...... per cent to at least 70 per cent. And for older workers between 55 and 64 the employment rate should rise from 38 per cent to at least one half. These are ambitious targets. They will require two big changes: more people must seek work, and among those seeking work a higher proportion must get a job....... So we need higher participation, and (for full employment) we need a much lower unemployment rate. Can it be done? A mere glance at the experience of different European countries shows that it can. As Table 1 shows, four E.U. countries already exceed the overall target for 2010 (Britain, Denmark...
Richardson, Lindsey; DeBeck, Kora; Feng, Cindy; Kerr, Thomas; Wood, Evan
Youth unemployment has been associated with labour market and health disparities. However, employment as a determinant of high-risk health behaviour among marginalized young people has not been well described. We sought to assess a potential relationship between employment status and initiation of intravenous drug use among a prospective cohort of street-involved youth. We followed injecting naïve youth in the At-Risk Youth Study, a cohort of street-involved youth aged 14-26 in Vancouver, Canada, and employed Cox regression analyses to examine whether employment was associated with injection initiation. Among 422 injecting naïve youth recruited between September 2005 and November 2011, 77 participants transitioned from non-injection to injection drug use, for an incidence density of 10.3 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.0-12.6) per 100 person years. Results demonstrating that employment was inversely associated with injection initiation (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.33-0.85) were robust to adjustment for a range of potential confounders. A lack of employment among street-involved youth was associated with the initiation of injection drug use, a practice that predisposes individuals to serious long-term health consequences. Future research should examine if reducing barriers to labour market involvement among street-involved youth prevents transitions into high-risk drug use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wittek, Peter; Tan, Chew Lim
Wavelet kernels have been introduced for both support vector regression and classification. Most of these wavelet kernels do not use the inner product of the embedding space, but use wavelets in a similar fashion to radial basis function kernels. Wavelet analysis is typically carried out on data with a temporal or spatial relation between consecutive data points. We argue that it is possible to order the features of a general data set so that consecutive features are statistically related to each other, thus enabling us to interpret the vector representation of an object as a series of equally or randomly spaced observations of a hypothetical continuous signal. By approximating the signal with compactly supported basis functions and employing the inner product of the embedding L2 space, we gain a new family of wavelet kernels. Empirical results show a clear advantage in favor of these kernels.
Gold, Paul B; Meisler, Neil; Santos, Alberto B; Carnemolla, Mark A; Williams, Olivia H; Keleher, Jennie
Urban-based randomized clinical trials of integrated supported employment (SE) and mental health services in the United States on average have doubled the employment rates of adults with severe mental illness (SMI) compared to traditional vocational rehabilitation. However, studies have not yet explored if the service integrative functions of SE will be effective in coordinating rural-based services that are limited, loosely linked, and geographically dispersed. In addition, SE's ability to replicate the work outcomes of urban programs in rural economies with scarce and less diverse job opportunities remains unknown. In a rural South Carolina county, we designed and implemented a program blending Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) with an SE model, Individual Placement and Support (IPS). The ACT-IPS program operated with ACT and IPS subteams that tightly integrated vocational with mental health services within each self-contained team. In a 24-month randomized clinical trial, we compared ACT-IPS to a traditional program providing parallel vocational and mental health services on competitive work outcomes for adults with SMI (N = 143; 69% schizophrenia, 77% African American). More ACT-IPS participants held competitive jobs (64 versus 26%; p < .001, effect size [ES] = 0.38) and earned more income (median [Mdn] = $549, interquartile range [IQR] = $0–$5,145, versus Mdn = $0, IQR = $0–$40; p < .001, ES = 0.70) than comparison participants. The competitive work outcomes of this rural ACT-IPS program closely resemble those of urban SE programs. However, achieving economic self-sufficiently and developing careers probably require increasing access to higher education and jobs imparting marketable technical skills. PMID:16177278
National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2017
According to the 2016 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) report, Education at a glance, much of the learning at work takes place through employer-supported training. Both employers and employees recognise the benefits of such training because skilling the workforce can lead to better jobs, greater firm competitiveness,…
Employer support for employees who are studying part-time for higher education qualifications constitutes a form of indirect employer engagement with higher education institutions that has contributed strongly to the development of work-related skills and knowledge over the years. However, this form of employer engagement with higher education…
MacNaughton, L. [Canadian Electricity Association, Montreal, PQ (Canada)]|[FortisAlberta, Calgary, AB (Canada)
This presentation outlined the reasons why the electricity sector should be considered as an excellent employment opportunity. A set of statistics was presented in which employees of the electricity sector cited factors that attracted them to the sector. Factors included benefits; job security; work/life balance; career development and advancement; compensation; work hours; safety on the job; and the fact that a friend or family member was in the industry. Data on personnel turnover per region was presented, along with data on employee satisfaction. Statistics on student and apprentice hiring and available graduates were listed. An estimated supply and demand gap was provided along with a list of current jobs where there are manpower shortages. Youth perceptions of the sector were examined and suggestions were made to promote the sector to young job seekers. Various plans were reviewed to rectify shortages. Study components included a survey of electricity employers; a survey of electricity employees; literature review; training organization survey; focus groups; interviews with human resources staff; and interviews with key industry stakeholders. A project research methodology was presented. It was noted that one in 5 non-support staff members will be eligible to retire over the next 5 years. Low and high growth scenarios were presented. In addition, a list of participating major employers was provided. tabs., figs.
Ronsen, M; Sundstrom, M
"A striking characteristic of recent Western labour market trends is the rise in employment among mothers of very young children. So far, few studies have analysed the impact of public policies on employment rates of young mothers. In this study we address this issue by comparing two similar countries, Norway and Sweden, which have the same set of policies with slight variations, using data sets with similar designs. We analyse rates of re-entry into paid work after first birth for mothers in 1968-88 by means of hazard regression. One important finding is that the right to paid maternity leave with job security greatly speeds up the return to work." excerpt
Amano, Koji; Morita, Tatsuya; Miyamoto, Jiro; Uno, Teruaki; Katayama, Hirofumi; Tatara, Ryohei
Few studies have investigated the need for nutritional support in advanced cancer patients in palliative care settings. Therefore, we conducted a questionnaire to examine the relationship between the perception of need for nutritional support and cancer cachexia and the prevalence of specific needs, perceptions, and beliefs in nutritional support. We conducted a questionnaire in palliative care settings. Patients were classified into two groups: (1) non-cachexia/pre-cachexia and (2) cachexia/refractory cachexia. A total of 117 out of 121 patients responded (96.7%). A significant difference was observed in the need for nutritional support between the groups: non-cachexia/pre-cachexia (32.7%) and cachexia/refractory cachexia (53.6%) (p = 0.031). The specific needs of patients requiring nutritional support were nutritional counseling (93.8%), ideas to improve food intake (87.5%), oral nutritional supplements (83.0%), parenteral nutrition and hydration (77.1%), and tube feeding (22.9%). The top perceptions regarding the best time to receive nutritional support and the best medical staff to provide nutritional support were "when anorexia, weight loss, and muscle weakness become apparent" (48.6%) and "nutritional support team" (67.3%), respectively. The top three beliefs of nutritional treatments were "I do not wish to receive tube feeding" (78.6%), "parenteral nutrition and hydration are essential" (60.7%), and "parenteral hydration is essential" (59.6%). Patients with cancer cachexia expressed a greater need for nutritional support. They wished to receive nutritional support from medical staff when they become unable to take sufficient nourishment orally and the negative impact of cachexia becomes apparent. Most patients wished to receive parenteral nutrition and hydration.
M. Burak ONEMLI
Full Text Available This study investigates whether there is a political business cycle (PBC on the agricultural supports in the Turkish economy. In this respect, we investigate the policies of different Turkish governments for the agricultural supports measured by the producer support estimates for the period 1986-2011. To this end, first the series for the producer support estimates are filtered by the Hodrick-Prescott filter, and then an econometric model is employed to estimate the effects of a set of explanatory variables including the economic crisis, the opportunistic and the partisan characteristics of the incumbent parties. Our results provide limited support for the opportunistic type PBC. Moreover, it seems that some Turkish governments have created the partisanship type PBCs
Lindbohm, M-L; Kuosma, E; Taskila, T
This study examined whether workplace support, sociodemographic factors and co-morbidity are associated with early retirement or non-employment due to other reasons among breast cancer survivors. We also compared quality of life and chronic symptoms (pain, fatigue, anxiety and depression) among...... employed, retired and other non-employed breast cancer survivors....
Full Text Available Abstract Background The implementation of guidelines and training initiatives to support communication in cross-cultural primary care consultations is ad hoc across a range of international settings with negative consequences particularly for migrants. This situation reflects a well-documented translational gap between evidence and practice and is part of the wider problem of implementing guidelines and the broader range of professional educational and quality interventions in routine practice. In this paper, we describe our use of a contemporary social theory, Normalization Process Theory and participatory research methodology—Participatory Learning and Action—to investigate and support implementation of such guidelines and training initiatives in routine practice. Methods This is a qualitative case study, using multiple primary care sites across Europe. Purposive and maximum variation sampling approaches will be used to identify and recruit stakeholders—migrant service users, general practitioners, primary care nurses, practice managers and administrative staff, interpreters, cultural mediators, service planners, and policy makers. We are conducting a mapping exercise to identify relevant guidelines and training initiatives. We will then initiate a PLA-brokered dialogue with stakeholders around Normalization Process Theory’s four constructs—coherence, cognitive participation, collective action, and reflexive monitoring. Through this, we will enable stakeholders in each setting to select a single guideline or training initiative for implementation in their local setting. We will prospectively investigate and support the implementation journeys for the five selected interventions. Data will be generated using a Participatory Learning and Action approach to interviews and focus groups. Data analysis will follow the principles of thematic analysis, will occur in iterative cycles throughout the project and will involve participatory co
Fritz Bradley Keith
Full Text Available Droplet size, which is affected by nozzle type, nozzle setups and operation, and spray solution, is one of the most critical factors influencing spray performance, environment pollution, food safety, and must be considered as part of any application scenario. Characterizing spray nozzles can be a timely and expensive proposition if the entire operational space (all combinations of spray pressure and orifice size, what influence flow rate is to be evaluated. This research proposes a structured, experimental design that allows for the development of computational models for droplet size based on any combination of a nozzle’s potential operational settings. The developed droplet size determination model can be used as Decision Support System (DSS for precise selection of sprayer working parameters to adapt to local field scenarios. Five nozzle types (designs were evaluated across their complete range of orifice size (flow rate* and spray pressures using a response surface experimental design. Several of the models showed high level fits of the modeled to the measured data while several did not as a result of the lack of significant effect from either orifice size (flow rate* or spray pressure. The computational models were integrated into a spreadsheet based user interface for ease of use. The proposed experimental design provides for efficient nozzle evaluations and development of computational models that allow for the determination of droplet size spectrum and spraying classification for any combination of a given nozzle’s operating settings. The proposed DSS will allow for the ready assessment and modification of a sprayers performance based on the operational settings, to ensure the application is made following recommendations in plant protection products (PPP labels.
McConkey, R; Collins, S
The social exclusion of persons with intellectual disability is more marked in congregated than in individualised supported accommodation. Goal setting was used as a means of increasing individuals' choices and engaging support staff in personalised planning. Method People living in four different housing and support options were invited to identify up to three 'social inclusion' goals they wanted to achieve in the coming months. Nine months later, a review was undertaken to see if their goals had been attained and also to identify what had helped or hindered individuals in doing this. The goal selection was then repeated and reviewed again after a further 9 months. Results The most commonly chosen goals were around social activities with other people and over half the participants were reported to have attained at least one of their goals within 9 months, particularly those in supported living arrangements that had greater hours of individual staff support. In the second 9-month period, fewer people chose goals, although the same proportion as before were successful. The main reason given for goal attainment was the information and support provided by staff. Conclusions Goal setting seems a suitable way of promoting social inclusion as it can be tailored to the needs and aspirations of individuals, although extra efforts may be needed to implement and sustain it with staff across all accommodation options.
Tan, Amy Cw; Emmerton, Lynne M; Hattingh, Laetitia; La Caze, Adam
Many rural hospitals in Australia are not large enough to sustain employment of a full-time pharmacist, or are unable to recruit or retain a full-time pharmacist. The absence of a pharmacist may result in hospital nurses undertaking medication-related roles outside their scope of practice. A potential solution to address rural hospitals' medication management needs is contracted part-time ('sessional') employment of a local pharmacist external to the hospital ('cross-sector'). The aim of this study was to explore the roles and experiences of pharmacists in their provision of sessional services to rural hospitals with no on-site pharmacist and explore how these roles could potentially address shortfalls in medication management in rural hospitals. A qualitative study was conducted to explore models with pharmacists who had provided sessional services to a rural hospital. A semi-structured interview guide was informed by a literature review, preliminary research and stakeholder consultation. Participants were recruited via advertisement and personal contacts. Consenting pharmacists were interviewed between August 2012 and January 2013 via telephone or Skype for 40-55 minutes. Thirteen pharmacists with previous or ongoing hospital sessional contracts in rural communities across Australia and New Zealand participated. Most commonly, the pharmacists provided weekly services to rural hospitals. All believed the sessional model was a practical solution to increase hospital access to pharmacist-mediated support and to address medication management gaps. Roles perceived to promote quality use of medicines were inpatient consultation services, medicines information/education to hospital staff, assistance with accreditation matters and system reviews, and input into pharmaceutical distribution activities. This study is the first to explore the concept of sessional rural hospital employment undertaken by pharmacists in Australia and New Zealand. Insights from participants
Suijkerbuijk, Yvonne B; Schaafsma, Frederieke G; van Mechelen, Joost C; Ojajärvi, Anneli; Corbière, Marc; Anema, Johannes R
People with severe mental illness show high rates of unemployment and work disability, however, they often have a desire to participate in employment. People with severe mental illness used to be placed in sheltered employment or were enrolled in prevocational training to facilitate transition to a competitive job. Now, there are also interventions focusing on rapid search for a competitive job, with ongoing support to keep the job, known as supported employment. Recently, there has been a growing interest in combining supported employment with other prevocational or psychiatric interventions. To assess the comparative effectiveness of various types of vocational rehabilitation interventions and to rank these interventions according to their effectiveness to facilitate competitive employment in adults with severe mental illness. In November 2016 we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsychINFO, and CINAHL, and reference lists of articles for randomised controlled trials and systematic reviews. We identified systematic reviews from which to extract randomised controlled trials. We included randomised controlled trials and cluster-randomised controlled trials evaluating the effect of interventions on obtaining competitive employment for adults with severe mental illness. We included trials with competitive employment outcomes. The main intervention groups were prevocational training programmes, transitional employment interventions, supported employment, supported employment augmented with other specific interventions, and psychiatric care only. Two authors independently identified trials, performed data extraction, including adverse events, and assessed trial quality. We performed direct meta-analyses and a network meta-analysis including measurements of the surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA). We assessed the quality of the evidence for outcomes within the network meta-analysis according to GRADE. We included 48 randomised controlled trials involving
HEALTH CARE TAX CAP: With health reform a major priority of the new 111th Congress and President Barack Obama, this Issue Briefexamines the administrative and implementation issues that arise from one of the major reform proposals: Capping the exclusion of employment-based health coverage from workers' taxable income. The amount that employers contribute toward workers' health coverage is generally excluded, without limit, from workers' taxable income. In addition, workers whose employers sponsor flexible spending accounts are able to pay out-of-pocket expenses with pretax dollars. Employers can also make available a premium conversion arrangement, which allows workers to pay their share of the premium for employment-based coverage with pretax dollars. In 2005, a presidential advisory board concluded that limiting the amount of tax-preferred health coverage could lower overall private-sector health spending. The panel recommended a cap on the amount of employment-based health coverage individuals can exclude from their income tax, as a way to reduce health spending. In his 2008 "Call to Action" for health care reform, Sen. Max Baucus (D-MT), chairman of the Senate Finance Committee, states that "Congress should explore ways to restructure the current tax incentives to encourage more efficient spending on health and to target our tax dollars more effectively and fairly." While a tax cap on health coverage sounds simple, for many employers, it could be difficult to administer and results would vary by employer based on the type of health benefit plan, the size and demographics of their work force, and even where the workers live. The change would be especially difficult for self-insured employers that do not pay insurance premiums, since they would have to set the "premium equivalent" for each worker. This would not only be costly for employers, depending upon the requirements set out by law, but could also create fairness and tax issues for many affected workers
selection of mothers between pregnancies drives the results, I focus on mothers whose change in employment status is likely not to be driven by underlying health (unemployed mothers and students). Given generous welfare bene ts and strict workplace regulations in Denmark, my findings support a residual......I use Danish survey and administrative data to examine the impact of maternal employment during pregnancy on birth outcomes. As healthier mothers are more likely to work and health shocks to mothers may impact employment and birth outcomes, I combine two strategies: First, I control extensively...... for time-varying factors that may correlate with employment and birth outcomes, such as pre-pregnancy family income and maternal occupation, pregnancy-related health shocks, maternal sick listing, and health behaviors (smoking and alcohol consumption). Second, to account for remaining time...
Hurn, Jane; Kneebone, Ian; Cropley, Mark
Goal achievement has been considered to be an important measure of outcome by clinicians working with patients in physical and neurological rehabilitation settings. This systematic review was undertaken to examine the reliability, validity and sensitivity of goal setting and goal attainment scaling approaches when used with working age and older people. To review the reliability, validity and sensitivity of both goal setting and goal attainment scaling when employed as an outcome measure within a physical and neurological working age and older person rehabilitation environment, by examining the research literature covering the 36 years since goal-setting theory was proposed. Data sources included a computer-aided literature search of published studies examining the reliability, validity and sensitivity of goal setting/goal attainment scaling, with further references sourced from articles obtained through this process. There is strong evidence for the reliability, validity and sensitivity of goal attainment scaling. Empirical support was found for the validity of goal setting but research demonstrating its reliability and sensitivity is limited. Goal attainment scaling appears to be a sound measure for use in physical rehabilitation settings with working age and older people. Further work needs to be carried out with goal setting to establish its reliability and sensitivity as a measurement tool.
Jobs For the Future, 2015
This brief highlights strategies for strengthening education and employment pathways for youth and adults returning from correctional facilities and notes key questions that new research should answer. It also explores barriers to employment for people with criminal records--whether or not they have been incarcerated--and potential policy…
An advanced-level treatment of the basics of set theory, this text offers students a firm foundation, stopping just short of the areas employing model-theoretic methods. Geared toward upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, it consists of two parts: the first covers pure set theory, including the basic motions, order and well-foundedness, cardinal numbers, the ordinals, and the axiom of choice and some of it consequences; the second deals with applications and advanced topics such as point set topology, real spaces, Boolean algebras, and infinite combinatorics and large cardinals. An
Wustenberghs, Hilde; Fevery, Davina; Lauwers, Ludwig; Marchand, Fleur; Spanoghe, Pieter
Sustainable crop protection (SCP) has many facets. Farmers may therefore perceive transition to SCP as very complex. The Dual Indicator Set for Crop Protection Sustainability (DISCUSS) can handle this complexity. To provide targeted support throughout the transition to SCP, complexity capture must be synchronised with the time course of on-farm decision-making. Tool use must be tuned to farmer awareness and appropriate level of data in consecutive stages. This paper thus explores the potential functionalities of DISCUSS in relation to both complexity and time. Results from apple and potato crop protection show three potential functions: DISCUSS can be used as (1) a simulation tool for communication and decision support, (2) an assessment and monitoring tool, and (3) a discussion support tool for farmer groups. Analysis of these functionalities using a framework for guiding on-farm sustainability assessment and strategic decision-making shows how each functionality can support the consecutive steps of transition to SCP, i.e. using the right tool functionality at the right time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ferguson, Kristin M
Prior research reveals high unemployment rates among homeless youth. The literature offers many examples of using evidence-informed and evidence-based supported employment models with vulnerable populations to assist them in obtaining and maintaining employment and concurrently addressing mental health challenges. However, there are few examples to date of these models with homeless youth with mental illness. The purpose of this article was thus to describe a methodology for establishing a university-agency research partnership to design, implement, evaluate, and replicate evidence-informed and evidence-based interventions with homeless youth with mental illness to enhance their employment, mental health, and functional outcomes. Data from two studies are used to illustrate the relationship between vocational skill-building/employment and mental health among homeless youth. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of conducting community-based participatory employment and clinical intervention research. The author highlights the opportunities and tensions associated with this approach.
Maciag, Timothy; Hepting, Daryl H.; Slezak, Dominik; Hilderman, Robert J.
On the Web, many popular e-commerce sites provide consumers with decision support tools to assist them in their commerce-related decision-making. Many consumers will rank the utility of these tools quite highly. Data obtained from web usage mining analyses, which may provide knowledge about a user's online experiences, could help indicate the utility of these tools. This type of analysis could provide insight into whether provided tools are adequately assisting consumers in conducting their online shopping activities or if new or additional enhancements need consideration. Although some research in this regard has been described in previous literature, there is still much that can be done. The authors of this paper hypothesize that a measurement of consumer decision accuracy, i.e. a measurement preferences, could help indicate the utility of these tools. This paper describes a procedure developed towards this goal using elements of rough set theory. The authors evaluated the procedure using two support tools, one based on a tool developed by the US-EPA and the other developed by one of the authors called cogito. Results from the evaluation did provide interesting insights on the utility of both support tools. Although it was shown that the cogito tool obtained slightly higher decision accuracy, both tools could be improved from additional enhancements. Details of the procedure developed and results obtained from the evaluation will be provided. Opportunities for future work are also discussed.
Saleh, Shadi S.; Alameddine, Mohamad S.; Hill, Dan; Darney-Beuhler, Jessica; Morgan, Ann
Context: The cost-effectiveness of employer-based wellness programs has been previously investigated with favorable financial and nonfinancial outcomes being detected. However, these investigations have mainly focused on large employers in urban settings. Very few studies examined wellness programs offered in rural settings. Purpose: This paper…
Full Text Available Purpose: The paper discusses issues associated with using funds that support the development of entrepreneurship – the purpose of the paper is to answer questions regarding the purposefulness and effectiveness of financial instruments from EU funds aimed at the development of emerging businesses (startups. Methodology: The paper analyzes previously conducted research studies in the fi eld of the discussed topic, it systematizes and describes the fi nancial instruments from EU funds supporting self- employment and startups in their early stages of activity. It also provides an overview of evaluation reports concerning these instruments. The paper also contains a case study: an analysis of the effectiveness of a selected project supporting the development of entrepreneurship (co-fi nanced from EU funds, in which the method of evaluating the net effect of the support in the short term has been used. Findings: An analysis of previously conducted research studies has shown that properly designed State aid targeted at those starting up their own business is sensible, as it provides them with seed capital and it helps them survive the most diffi cult period of the so-called “startup”. However, there is a lack of comprehensive studies to confirm the positive impact of business support interventions carried out using EU funds. The methodology of evaluating the net effect used by the Author in the conducted study has made it possible to identify the actual size of the – positive – impact of the selected project on the growth of self-employment. Limitations: The study revealed some limitations – the method and time of the study allow to capture the phenomenon on a micro-scale, in the short term. The institutions that are involved in the process of allocating funds should develop a comprehensive methodology that implements the idea of evaluating the net effect, allowing to assess the effectiveness of the support at regional and national level
Blankertz, Laura; Spinelli, Michael; Magura, Stephen; Bali, Priti; Madison, Elizabeth M.; Staines, Graham L.; Horowitz, Emily; Guarino, Honoria; Grandy, Audrey; Fong, Chunki; Gomez, Augustin; Dimun, Amy; Friedman, Ellen
An innovative employment counseling model, Customized Employment Supports, was developed for methadone-treatment patients, a population with historically low employment rates. The effectiveness of a key component of the model, "vocational fieldwork," the delivery of services in the community rather than only within the clinic, was assessed through…
Torp, Steffen; Syse, Jonn; Paraponaris, Alain; Gudbergsson, Sævar
The aim of this study is to investigate whether salaried and self-employed workers differ regarding factors relevant for return to work after being diagnosed with cancer. The possible mediators of an effect of self-employment on work ability were also investigated. A total of 1115 cancer survivors (1027 salaried and 88 self-employed) of common invasive cancer types who were in work at the time of diagnosis completed a mailed questionnaire 15-39 months after diagnosis. Twenty-four percent of self-employed cancer survivors reported that they had not returned to work at the time of the survey, and 18 % of those who were salaried had not. While 9 % of the self-employed had received disability or early retirement pension, only 5 % had received such a pension among salaried employees. Compared with the salaried workers, the self-employed people reported significantly more often reduced work hours (P self-employment on total work ability seems to be mediated by reduced work hours and a negative cancer-related financial change. Compared with salaried, self-employed workers in Norway, they seem to struggle with work after cancer. This may be because the two groups have different work tasks and because self-employed people have lower social support at work and less legal support from the Working Environment Act and public health insurance. Self-employed people with cancer should be informed about the work-related challenges they may encounter and be advised to seek practical help from social workers who know about the legal rights of self-employed people.
Hassink, Wolter H.J.; Hamermesh, Daniel S.
We present an organized set of stylized facts on the relations among flows of workers,changes in employment and changes in the numer of jobs at the firm level. Job turnover isusually measured by comparing stocks of employment in each firm at two points in time andadding up the absolute employment
Mejdahl, Caroline; Nielsen, Berit Kjærside; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik Ingvar
Rationale, aims and objectives: Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are being implemented in clinical practice across different healthcare settings with varying purposes. Involving patients in reporting outcomes may increase their attention to symptoms and thereby support their self-management. The ...... to strengthen patient involvement and securing benefit from PROs.......Rationale, aims and objectives: Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are being implemented in clinical practice across different healthcare settings with varying purposes. Involving patients in reporting outcomes may increase their attention to symptoms and thereby support their self......-management. The aim of the present study was to describe patients’ experiences with a web-based PRO system where patients complete a PRO questionnaire at home or in the outpatient clinic prior to a consultation. Moreover, the study aimed to explore how PROs influenced the interaction between patients and clinicians...
Dougé, Nathalie; Lehman, Erik B; McCall-Hosenfeld, Jennifer S
Depression and intimate partner violence (IPV) are significant health issues for U.S. women. Interaction effects between IPV and other psychosocial factors on the severity of depressive symptoms have not been fully explored. This study assessed effect modification, that is, how IPV interacts with sociodemographics, psychosocial factors and health risk behaviors, on the severity of depressive symptoms in women. We utilized cross-sectional data from female respondents (n = 16,106) of the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance Survey. Sociodemographics, psychosocial variables, and health risk behaviors determined to be significantly associated with depression were tested for interaction effects with IPV. Weighted ordinal logistic regression and predicted probabilities illustrated the effect of IPV status on depressive symptom severity, stratified by interaction effects. Recent and lifetime IPV exposure were associated with more severe depressive symptoms compared with no IPV exposure. IPV history interacted with employment status and social support on the severity of depressive symptoms in women. Overall, any IPV exposure was associated with more severe depressive symptoms among women with low social support and unemployment, although the effect of recent (versus lifetime) IPV was most pronounced among women with high social support or employed women. Social support and employment status interact with IPV on the severity of depressive symptoms in women. Therefore, social support or workplace interventions designed to improve depressive symptoms should examine IPV history. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schwab-Reese, Laura M; Ramirez, Marizen; Ashida, Sato; Peek-Asa, Corinne
For new mothers returning to work, the role of the workplace psychosocial environment on maternal mental health has not been fully described. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between psychosocial employment characteristics and mothers' postpartum depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. Ninety-seven women answered survey questions regarding employment, job demand, control, and support, and postpartum depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms soon after live birth and 6 months later. Working and nonworking mothers reported similar mental health symptoms. Psychological characteristics of employment were not associated with increased odds of mental health symptoms. Increased social support provided by coworkers, supervisors, and the organization was associated with reduced odds of anxiety symptoms. Our findings identified lack of workplace social support as a modifiable risk factor for postpartum anxiety. Future evaluations of workplace social support interventions may be explored to improve postpartum mental health symptoms. Am. J. Ind. Med. 60:109-120, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Rosen, S M
Human rights and public health considerations provide strong support for policies that maximize employment. Ample historical and conceptual evidence supports the feasibility of full employment policies. New factors affecting the labor force, the rate of technological change, and the globalization of economic activity require appropriate policies--international as well as national--but do not invalidate the ability of modern states to apply the measures needed. Among these the most important include: (I) systematic reduction in working time with no loss of income, (2) active labor market policies, (3) use of fiscal and monetary measures to sustain the needed level of aggregate demand, (4) restoration of equal bargaining power between labor and capital, (5) social investment in neglected and outmoded infrastructure, (6) accountability of corporations for decisions to shift or reduce capital investment, (7) major reductions in military spending, to be replaced by socially needed and economically productive expenditures, (8) direct public sector job creation, (9) reform of monetary policy to restore emphasis on minimizing unemployment and promoting full employment. None are without precedent in modern economies. The obstacles are ideological and political. To overcome them will require intellectual clarity and effective advocacy.
l. Definition of support functions; 2. Characteristic properties of support functions; 3. Examples of support functions; 4. Directional derivatives of support functions; 5. Further properties of h(y*; x*); 6. Extremal faces and their support functions; 7. The fundamental equations in Rsup(n); 8. Consequences of the fundamental equations in Rsup(n); 9. Extreme points; 10. Theorem of Kudo; 11. Comments on Kudo's theorem. (author)
Timmermans, Bram; Østergaard, Christian Richter
difference on a set of employment characteristics, i.e. employment growth, growth in high skilled employees, and growth in employees with a background in science and engineering, by using a partial propensity score matching approach. The findings of the analyses show that there are clear differences between......In this paper, we investigate, by merging the Danish linked employer-employee database with a Danish offshoring survey, the difference in employment between offshoring and non-offshoring firms that are active in manufacturing industries and business services in Denmark. We measure the mean...... Danish offshoring and non-offshoring firms in how the employee composition changes over time. The change in employment composition differ considerably between manufacturing industries and business services and on whether firms offshore administrative and technical business functions or other types...
Gooderham, Paul N.; Hines, Kjell
Norwegian data on employer-sponsored training revealed no public-sector support of the neo-Marxist theory of skill degrading; private-sector support for upgrading lower-level jobs and the emergence of flexible organizations; and limited support for bipolarization--increasing skills gap between full- and part-time workers. Bipolarization affected a…
Novak, Brad; Bullen, Chris; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Thornley, Simon
To review the evidence for the effectiveness of workplaces as settings for cardiovascular health promotion and reduction of heart health inequalities in New Zealand. Literature review and structured appraisal of 154 articles meeting inclusion criteria, of which one review and three trials addressed cardiovascular interventions specifically, and four systematic reviews addressed the effectiveness of workplace health promotion programmes generally. The reviewed studies showed that workplaces have good potential as settings for health promotion. We found mixed but largely supportive evidence that workplace interventions can lead to improvements in health outcomes, workplace environments, lifestyles, and productivity. Workplace programmes that ranked highest in both clinical and cost-effectiveness targeted industries employing large numbers of blue-collar workers, tackled multiple risk factors, intervened at both individual and environmental levels and incorporated occupational safety components. Such programmes appear to offer a substantial return on investment for employers in other countries, but local evidence is lacking. Employers and workers in blue-collar industries should be encouraged to participate in comprehensive heart health promotion programmes as a strategy for reducing existing socioeconomic and ethnic disparities in health. However, high-quality evidence of improved employee health and productivity is needed from well-designed New Zealand-based research to ensure that these programmes are optimally configured for effectiveness and attractive to employers and employees alike.
Rodriguez, Billie Jo
The Preschool-Wide Evaluation Tool (PreSET; Steed & Pomerleau, 2012) is published by Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company in Baltimore, MD. The PreSET purports to measure universal and program-wide features of early childhood programs' implementation fidelity of program-wide positive behavior intervention and support (PW-PBIS) and is,…
Sinakhone, Joyce K; Hunter, Bronwyn A; Jason, Leonard A
Women in metropolitan areas have lower employment participation and employment rates than men. Although women face multiple challenges in the labor market, those who have a history of substance use and are abstinent may have a greater disadvantage in obtaining viable employment opportunities due to factors associated with substance use. No research to date has examined employment experiences among women in recovery from substance use. This study examined employment characteristics and experiences of women who had a history of substance use and lived in sober-living environments in urban areas. Data were collected through telephone interviews to sober living homes that were located in 20 urban areas. Themes identified through thematic analysis included employment challenges, the importance of work to substance abuse recovery, job satisfaction, employment aspirations, and employment support in the sober living home. Employment is important to women in substance abuse recovery, not only as a means for financial support, but also as a life priority. The results highlight how employer scheduling practices, low-level positions, and lack of employment supports impact recovery. Findings provide insight into the need for employment support services, including employer education and flexible policies for women in recovery.
Nair, Manisha; Ariana, Proochista; Webster, Premila
Objective To explore the experiences of mothers employed through the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) using focus group discussions (FGDs) to understand the impact of mothers’ employment on infant feeding and care. The effects of mothers’ employment on nutritional status of children could be variable. It could lead to increased household income, but could also compromise child care and feeding. Setting The study was undertaken in the Dungarpur district of Rajasthan, India. Participants Mothers of infants employment compromises infant feeding and care’, ‘caregivers’ inability to substitute mothers’ care’, ‘compromises related to childcare and feeding outweigh benefits from MGNREGA’ and ‘employment as disempowering’. Mothers felt that the comprises to infant care and feeding due to long hours of work, lack of alternative adequate care arrangements, low wages and delayed payments outweighed the benefits from the scheme. Conclusions This study provides an account of the trade-off between mothers’ employment and child care. It provides an understanding of the household power relationships, societal and cultural factors that modulate the effects of mothers’ employment. From the perspective of mothers, it helps to understand the benefits and problems related to providing employment to women with infants in the MGNREGA scheme and make a case to pursue policy changes to improve their working conditions. PMID:24694624
Improve the delivery of library services by implementing total quality management (TQM), a system of continuous improvement employing participative management and centered on the needs of customers. Although TQM was originally designed for and successfully applied in business and manufacturing settings, this groundbreaking volume introduces strategies for translating TQM principles from the profit-based manufacturing sector to the library setting. Integrating Total Quality Management in a Library Setting shows librarians how to improve library services by implementing strategies such as employ
Porter, Marclyn D.
Many alternatively certified teachers, as was the case in this study, are employed as the teacher of record while simultaneously enrolled in education courses. Therefore, experiencing the collaborative, supportive, peer mentoring environmental elements that are present in many traditional "fieldwork" settings is not an option. By…
Tourangeau, Ann; Saari, Margaret; Patterson, Erin; Ferron, Era Mae; Thomson, Heather; Widger, Kimberley; MacMillan, Kathleen
Given the role nurse faculty have in educating nurses, little is known about what influences their intention to remain employed (ITR) in academic settings. Findings from a nurse faculty survey administered to test a conceptual model of factors hypothesized as influencing nurse faculty ITR are reported. A cross-sectional survey design was employed. We included colleges and universities in Ontario, Canada. The population of Ontario nurse faculty who reported being employed as nurse faculty with the College of Nurses of Ontario (Canada) was included. Of the 1328 nurse faculty who were surveyed, 650 participated. Participants completed a questionnaire with measures of work, work environment, job satisfaction, burnout and ITR. Regression analyses were conducted to test the model. Ten of 26 independent variables explained 25.4% of variance in nurse faculty ITR for five years. These variables included: proximity to retirement, quality of relationships with colleagues, being employed full time, having dependents, satisfaction with work-life balance, quality of education, satisfaction with job status, access to financial support for education from organization, access to required human resources and being unionized. Although not all influencing factors are modifiable, academic leadership should develop strategies that encourage nurse faculty ITR. Strategies that support collegial relationships among faculty, increase the number of full time positions, promote work-life balance, engage faculty in assessing and strengthening education quality, support faculty choice between full-time and part-time work, and ensure adequate human resources required to teach effectively will lead to heightened nurse faculty ITR. © 2013.
Chi, Wei; Li, Bo
In contrast to the United States and European countries, China has witnessed a widening gender pay gap in the past two decades. Nevertheless, the size of the gender pay gap could still be underestimated as a result of not accounting for the low-wage women who have dropped out of the labor force. As shown by a large and representative set of household survey data in China, since the 1980s the female employment rate has been falling and the gap between male and female employment rates has been ...
Pryor, Marie; White, David; Potter, Bronwyn; Traill, Roger
Clinical decision support tools available at the point of care are an effective adjunct to support clinicians to make clinical decisions and improve patient outcomes. We developed a methodology and applied it to evaluate commercially available online clinical diagnostic decision support (DDS) tools for use at the point of care. We identified 11 commercially available DDS tools and assessed these against an evaluation instrument that included 6 categories; general information, content, quality control, search, clinical results and other features. We developed diagnostically challenging clinical case scenarios based on real patient experience that were commonly missed by junior medical staff. The evaluation was divided into 2 phases; an initial evaluation of all identified and accessible DDS tools conducted by the Clinical Information Access Portal (CIAP) team and a second phase that further assessed the top 3 tools identified in the initial evaluation phase. An evaluation panel consisting of senior and junior medical clinicians from NSW Health conducted the second phase. Of the eleven tools that were assessed against the evaluation instrument only 4 tools completely met the DDS definition that was adopted for this evaluation and were able to produce a differential diagnosis. From the initial phase of the evaluation 4 DDS tools scored 70% or more (maximum score 96%) for the content category, 8 tools scored 65% or more (maximum 100%) for the quality control category, 5 tools scored 65% or more (maximum 94%) for the search category, and 4 tools score 70% or more (maximum 81%) for the clinical results category. The second phase of the evaluation was focused on assessing diagnostic accuracy for the top 3 tools identified in the initial phase. Best Practice ranked highest overall against the 6 clinical case scenarios used. Overall the differentiating factor between the top 3 DDS tools was determined by diagnostic accuracy ranking, ease of use and the confidence and
Brown, Travor; Hillier, Tara-Lynn; Warren, Amy M.
Purpose: This paper aims to assess the effectiveness of verbal self-guidance (VSG) and self-management on youth employability. It seeks to access the joint effectiveness of these interventions, grounded in social cognitive and goal setting theories, for youth job seekers. Design/methodology/approach: The studies used experimental designs involving…
Chanover, Nancy J.; Beebe, Reta; Neakrase, Lynn; Huber, Lyle; Rees, Shannon; Hornung, Danae
NASA’s Planetary Data System is charged with archiving electronic data products from NASA planetary missions that are sponsored by NASA’s Science Mission Directorate. This archive, currently organized by science disciplines, uses standards for describing and storing data that are designed to enable future scientists who are unfamiliar with the original experiments to analyze the data, and to do this using a variety of computer platforms, with no additional support. These standards address the data structure, description contents, and media design. The new requirement in the NASA ROSES-2015 Research Announcement to include a Data Management Plan will result in an increase in the number of derived data sets that are being delivered to the PDS. These data sets may come from the Planetary Data Archiving, Restoration and Tools (PDART) program, other Data Analysis Programs (DAPs) or be volunteered by individuals who are publishing the results of their analysis. In response to this increase, the PDS Atmospheres Node is developing a set of guidelines and user tools to make the process of archiving these derived data products more efficient. Here we provide a description of Atmospheres Node resources, including a letter of support for the proposal stage, a communication schedule for the planned archive effort, product label samples and templates in extensible markup language (XML), documentation templates, and validation tools necessary for producing a PDS4-compliant derived data bundle(s) efficiently and accurately.
Bond, G R; Drake, R E; Luciano, A
Young adults with early psychosis want to pursue normal roles - education and employment. This paper summarises the empirical literature on the effectiveness of early intervention programmes for employment and education outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of employment/education outcomes for early intervention programmes, distinguishing three programme types: (1) those providing supported employment, (2) those providing unspecified vocational services and (3) those without vocational services. We summarised findings for 28 studies. Eleven studies evaluated early intervention programmes providing supported employment. In eight studies that reported employment outcomes separately from education outcomes, the employment rate during follow-up for supported employment patients was 49%, compared with 29% for patients receiving usual services. The two groups did not differ on enrolment in education. In four controlled studies, meta-analysis showed that the employment rate for supported employment participants was significantly higher than for control participants, odds ratio = 3.66 [1.93-6.93], p < 0.0001. Five studies (four descriptive and one quasi-experimental) of early intervention programmes evaluating unspecified vocational services were inconclusive. Twelve studies of early intervention programmes without vocational services were methodologically heterogeneous, using diverse methods for evaluating vocational/educational outcomes and precluding a satisfactory meta-analytic synthesis. Among studies with comparison groups, 7 of 11 (64%) reported significant vocational/education outcomes favouring early intervention over usual services. In early intervention programmes, supported employment moderately increases employment rates but not rates of enrolment in education. These improvements are in addition to the modest effects early programmes alone have on vocational/educational outcomes compared with usual services.
Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Pitney, William A.; Eason, Christianne M.
Context The intercollegiate setting receives much of the scholarly attention related to work-life conflict (WLC). However research has been focused on the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting. Multiple factors can lead to WLC for the athletic trainer (AT), including hours, travel, and lack of flexibility in work schedules. Objective To investigate the experiences of WLC among ATs working in the non-Division I collegiate setting and to identify factors that contribute to fulfillment of work-life balance in this setting. Design Qualitative study. Setting Institutions in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Divisions II and III, the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics, and the National Junior College Athletic Association. Patients or Other Participants A total of 244 ATs (128 women, 114 men; age = 37.5 ± 13.3 years, experience = 14 ± 12 years) completed phase I. Thirteen participants (8 women, 5 men; age = 38 ± 13 years, experience = 13.1 ± 11.4 years) completed phase II. Data Collection and Analysis For phase I, participants completed a previously validated and reliable (Cronbach α > .90) Web-based survey measuring their levels of WLC and work-family conflict (WFC). This phase included 2 WFC scales defining family; scale 1 defined family as having a partner or spouse with or without children, and scale 2 defined family as those individuals, including parents, siblings, grandparents, and any other close relatives, involved in one's life. Phase II consisted of an interview. Qualitative data were evaluated using content analysis. Data source and multiple-analyst triangulation secured credibility. Results The WFC scores were 26.33 ± 7.37 for scale 1 and 20.46 ± 10.14 for scale 2, indicating a moderate level of WFC for scale 1 and a low level of WFC for scale 2. Qualitative analyses revealed that organizational dimensions, such as job demands and staffing issues, can negatively affect WLC, whereas a combination of
Matthew C. Saleh
Full Text Available Work is an important part of life, providing both economic security and a forum to contribute one’s talents and skills to society, thereby anchoring the individual in a social role. However, access to work is not equally available to people with disabilities globally. Regulatory environments that prohibit discrimination and support vocational training and educational opportunities constitute a critical first step toward economic independence. However, they have not proven sufficient in themselves. In this article, we aim to infuse deeper consideration of employer practice and demand-side policy reforms into global policy discussions of the right to work for people with disabilities. We begin by documenting the employment and economic disparities existing for people with disabilities globally, followed by a description of the international, regional, and local regulatory contexts aiming to improve labor market outcomes for people with disabilities. Next, we examine how policies can leverage employer interests to further address inequalities. We discuss employer policies and practices demonstrated in the research to facilitate recruitment, hiring, career development, retention, and meaningful workplace inclusion. The goal of the article is to synthesize existing international literature on employment rights for people with disabilities with the employer perspective.
Scott, Fraser J.; Connell, Pauline; Thomson, Linda A.; Willison, Debra
Recognising the importance of graduates being equipped with appropriate employability skills alongside their subject-specific skills, we have had transferable skills training embedded throughout our degree programmes for 30 years. More recently, a specific employability skills module for final-year honours students has been created. This module consists of a programme of\\ud activities supporting employability skills, which was delivered to final-year undergraduate students from 2012 to 2015. ...
Johnson, Ryan C; Allen, Tammy D
The present study tested a process model through which the strain-based (job control and role ambiguity) and time-based (work hours) job demands of employed mothers relate to child health via child modeling of mother's physical activity. Support was found for a model of these relationships using dyadic mother-child data (N = 359) from a large, multi-wave nationwide data set and job demands data from the Occupational Information Network (O*Net). Theoretical and practical implications, as well as future research directions, are also discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Bullis, Michael; Foss, Gilbert
The Test of Interpersonal Competence for Employment (TICE) designed to assess a mildly retarded worker's knowledge of interpersonal skills in the employment setting, was developed based on analysis of problems that mildly retarded workers experience and identification of correct responses to those problems by competitive employers. Initial…
Rush, Amanda; Christiansen, Jeffrey H; Farrell, Jake P; Goode, Susan M; Scott, Rodney J; Spring, Kevin J; Byrne, Jennifer A
In 2011, Watson and Barnes proposed a schema for classifying biobanks into 3 groups (mono-, oligo-, and poly-user), primarily based upon biospecimen access policies. We used results from a recent comprehensive survey of cancer biobanks in New South Wales, Australia to assess the applicability of this biobank classification schema in an Australian setting. Cancer biobanks were identified using publically available data, and by consulting with research managers. A comprehensive survey was developed and administered through a face-to-face setting. Data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel™ 2010 and IBM SPSS Statistics™ version 21.0. The cancer biobank cohort (n=23) represented 5 mono-user biobanks, 7 oligo-user biobanks, and 11 poly-user biobanks, and was analyzed as two groups (mono-/oligo- versus poly-user biobanks). Poly-user biobanks employed significantly more full-time equivalent staff, and were significantly more likely to have a website, share staff between biobanks, access governance support, utilize quality control measures, be aware of biobanking best practice documents, and offer staff training. Mono-/oligo-user biobanks were significantly more likely to seek advice from other biobanks. Our results further delineate a biobank classification system that is primarily based on access policy, and demonstrate its relevance in an Australian setting.
Lüscher, Janina; Stadler, Gertraud; Ochsner, Sibylle; Rackow, Pamela; Knoll, Nina; Hornung, Rainer; Scholz, Urte
Social support receipt from one's partner is assumed to be beneficial for successful smoking cessation. However, support receipt can have costs. Recent research suggests that the most effective support is unnoticed by the receiver (i.e., invisible). Therefore, this study examined the association between everyday levels of dyadic invisible emotional and instrumental support, daily negative affect, and daily smoking after a self-set quit attempt in smoker-non-smoker couples. Overall, 100 smokers (72.0% men, mean age M = 40.48, SD = 9.82) and their non-smoking partners completed electronic diaries from a self-set quit date on for 22 consecutive days, reporting daily invisible emotional and instrumental social support, daily negative affect, and daily smoking. Same-day multilevel analyses showed that at the between-person level, higher individual mean levels of invisible emotional and instrumental support were associated with less daily negative affect. In contrast to our assumption, more receipt of invisible emotional and instrumental support was related to more daily cigarettes smoked. The findings are in line with previous results, indicating invisible support to have beneficial relations with affect. However, results emphasize the need for further prospective daily diary approaches for understanding the dynamics of invisible support on smoking cessation. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Social support receipt from a close other has proven to have emotional costs. According to current studies, the most effective social support is unnoticed by the receiver (i.e., invisible). There is empirical evidence for beneficial effects of invisible social support on affective well-being. What does this study add? Confirming benefits of invisible social support for negative affect in a health behaviour change setting Providing first evidence for detrimental effects of invisible social support on smoking. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
Huang, Rong; Turner, Rebecca
Recent policy developments in English Higher Education have resulted in employability placed in the spotlight, whereby the success of universities will be measured based on graduate employment. This represents the latest focus placed on employability in the sector, as universities are increasingly expected to provide employment-ready graduates to…
Although increasing numbers of large companies are complying with demands for a breastfeeding-friendly workplace by providing lactation rooms and breast-pumping breaks, the effectiveness for intention to use breast-pumping breaks to express breast milk among employed mothers is uncertain. To explore the impact of employees' perceived breastfeeding support from the workplace and the benefits of breastfeeding on a woman's intention to use breast-pumping breaks after returning to work, we conducted a survey at a female labor-intensive electronics manufacturer in Taiwan. A structured questionnaire survey was administered to 715 working mothers employed in an electronics manufacturing plant in Tainan Science Park in Southern Taiwan. Questionnaire content included female employee demographics, employment characteristics, and breastfeeding behavior after returning to work, as well as employees' perception of breastfeeding-friendly support and awareness of the benefits of breastfeeding when raising their most recently born child. Higher education (odds ratio [OR] 2.33), non-clean room worksite (OR 1.51), awareness of breast-pumping breaks (OR 4.70), encouragement by colleagues to use breast-pumping breaks (OR 1.76), and greater awareness of the benefits of breastfeeding (OR 1.08) were significant predictors of the use of breast-pumping breaks after returning to work, whereas the perception of inefficiency when using breast-pumping breaks reduced an employed mother's intention to use breast-pumping breaks (OR 0.55). This study finds an association between an appreciation of the benefits provided by the employer and the likelihood of increased usage of breastfeeding breaks. Workplaces and employers can help employed mothers to understand the benefits of breastfeeding, which may increase the intention of the mother to take breast-pumping breaks after returning to work.
Abstract Background: Although increasing numbers of large companies are complying with demands for a breastfeeding-friendly workplace by providing lactation rooms and breast-pumping breaks, the effectiveness for intention to use breast-pumping breaks to express breast milk among employed mothers is uncertain. To explore the impact of employees' perceived breastfeeding support from the workplace and the benefits of breastfeeding on a woman's intention to use breast-pumping breaks after returning to work, we conducted a survey at a female labor-intensive electronics manufacturer in Taiwan. Subjects and Methods: A structured questionnaire survey was administered to 715 working mothers employed in an electronics manufacturing plant in Tainan Science Park in Southern Taiwan. Questionnaire content included female employee demographics, employment characteristics, and breastfeeding behavior after returning to work, as well as employees' perception of breastfeeding-friendly support and awareness of the benefits of breastfeeding when raising their most recently born child. Results: Higher education (odds ratio [OR] 2.33), non–clean room worksite (OR 1.51), awareness of breast-pumping breaks (OR 4.70), encouragement by colleagues to use breast-pumping breaks (OR 1.76), and greater awareness of the benefits of breastfeeding (OR 1.08) were significant predictors of the use of breast-pumping breaks after returning to work, whereas the perception of inefficiency when using breast-pumping breaks reduced an employed mother's intention to use breast-pumping breaks (OR 0.55). Conclusions: This study finds an association between an appreciation of the benefits provided by the employer and the likelihood of increased usage of breastfeeding breaks. Workplaces and employers can help employed mothers to understand the benefits of breastfeeding, which may increase the intention of the mother to take breast-pumping breaks after returning to work. PMID:24304034
Orr, Claudia; Sherony, Bruce; Steinhaus, Carol
Employers continue to report that soft skills are critically important in obtaining employment and achieving long-term career success. Given the challenging job market for college graduates, business school faculty need to provide practical opportunities for students to develop their soft skills in professional settings. A longitudinal study was…
Stergiou-Kita, Mary; Pritlove, Cheryl; van Eerd, Dwayne; Holness, Linn D; Kirsh, Bonnie; Duncan, Andrea; Jones, Jennifer
With improvements in screening, diagnosis, and treatment, the number of persons surviving cancer and staying at or returning to work is increasing. While workplace accommodations optimize workers' abilities to participate in the workforce, there has been little in-depth investigation of the types of accommodations reported to have been provided to cancer survivors and the processes relevant to ensuring their successful implementation. We employed an exploratory qualitative method and conducted 40 semi-structured interviews with three groups: (i) cancers survivors (n = 16), (ii) health/vocational service providers (n = 16), and (iii) employer representatives (n = 8) to explore return to work and accommodation processes, successes, and challenges. An inductive thematic analysis approach was used to analyze the data. Four types of accommodations were recommended: (1) graduated return to work plans and flexible scheduling, (2) modification of work duties and performance expectations, (3) retraining and supports at the workplace, and (4) modification of the physical work environment and/or the provision of adaptive aids/technologies. Processes relevant to ensuring effective accommodations included: (1) developing knowledge about accommodations, (2) employer's ability to accommodate, (3) negotiating reasonable accommodations, (4) customizing accommodations, and (5) implementing and monitoring accommodation plans. Accommodation challenges included: (1) survivors' fears requesting accommodations, (2) developing clear and specific accommodations, (3) difficult to accommodate jobs, and (4) workplace challenges, including strained pre-cancer workplace relationships, insufficient/inflexible workplace policies, employer concerns regarding productivity and precedent setting, and limited modified duties. Accommodations need to be customized and clearly linked to survivors' specific job demands, work context, and available workplace supports. Survivors need to feel
Full Text Available Most studies dedicated to the examination of employer branding in industrial/ organisational psychology investigated it using samples of applicants. The objective of the present research was to study the influence of the employer branding of a company on its employees’ attitudes. More precisely, we examined the interactive effect of the employment offering as portrayed by organisational communications and the employment experience as lived by employees on their affective commitment (AC. Furthermore, we analysed the mechanisms underlying these relationships, i.e. perceived organisational support (POS and psychological contract violation (PCV. One-hundred eighty-six department managers of a large multinational retailing company involved in employer branding practices were surveyed. Results indicated that employment offering and lived employment experience interact in the prediction of both POS and PCV and this interactive effect carries over to AC. Implications of these findings for both researchers and practitioners are discussed.
Benhamou, C.; Chambrin, J.L.; Todeschini, P.; Champredonde, J.; Lemaire, E.
As a consequence of a problem of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) encountered on guide tube support pins (GTSP) of first generation (1982) and of second generation (1987), EDF and Framatome decided in mars 1988 to launch an important program involving a complete overhaul of the design, the material used, the fabrication and the setting in reactor of GTSP. This program has led to the implementation in 900 MWe and 1300 MWe PWR of a new tube guide support pin called NG89. This implementation began in 1989, now 15 years later, 40% of the operating GTSP in 900 MWe and 1300 MWe PWR are of NG89 type, the oldest ones cumulate 105000 hours in service without negative feedback experience. The main features of the NG89 is: - to be made from an alloy X-750 containing boron (from 25 to 45 ppm) - to have a SCC threshold set at 720 MPa - to be machined from metal bars completely treated, - to have a rolling of the fillets, and - to undergo a shot blasting on the zones of the surface the most acted upon. (A.C.)
O'Donnell, Emily M; Berkman, Lisa F; Subramanian, S V
Supervisor-level policies and the presence of a manager engaged in an employee's need to achieve work-family balance, or "supervisory support," may benefit employee health, including self-reported pain. We conducted a census of employees at four selected extended care facilities in the Boston metropolitan region (n = 368). Supervisory support was assessed through interviews with managers and pain was reported by employees. Our multilevel logistic models indicate that employees with managers who report the lowest levels of support for work-family balance experience twice as much overall pain as employees with managers who report high levels of support. Low supervisory support for work-family balance is associated with an increased prevalence of employee-reported pain in extended care facilities. We recommend that manager-level policies and practices receive additional attention as a potential risk factor for poor health in this setting.
Breitschopf, Barbara [Fraunhofer Inst. for Systems and Innovation Research (Germany); Nathani, Carsten [Ruetter and Partner Socioeconomic Research and Consulting (Switzerland); Resch, Gustav [Vienna Univ. of Technology, Energy Economics Group (EEG) (Austria
The EMPLOY project aimed to help achieve the IEA-RETD’s objective to 'empower policy makers and energy market actors through the provision of information, tools and resources' by underlining the economic and industrial impacts of renewable energy technology deployment and providing reliable methodological approaches for employment – similar to those available for the incumbent energy technologies. The EMPLOY project resulted in a comprehensive set of methodological guidelines for estimating the employment impacts of renewable energy deployment in a coherent, uniform and systematic way. Guidelines were prepared for four different methodological approaches. In the introduction section of the guidelines policy makers are guided in their choice for the most suited approach, depending on the policy questions to be answered, the data availability and budget. The guidelines were tested for the IEA-RETD member state countries and Tunisia. The results of these calculations are included in the annex to the guidelines.
L. P. Cooke; J. Erola; M. Evertsson; M. Gahler; J. Harkonen; B. Hewitt; M. Jalovaara; M.-Y. Kan; T. H. Lyngstad; L. Mencarini; J.-F. Mignot; D. Mortelmans; A.-R. Poortman; C. Schmitt; H. Trappe
We theorize how social policy affects marital stability vis-à-vis macro and micro effects of wives' employment on divorce risk in 11 Western countries. Correlations among 1990s aggregate data on marriage, divorce, and wives' employment rates, along with attitudinal and social policy information, seem to support specialization hypotheses that divorce rates are higher where more wives are employed and where policies support that employment. This is an ecological fallacy, however, because of the...
Campos-Serna, Javier; Ronda-Pérez, Elena; Artazcoz, Lucia; Moen, Bente E; Benavides, Fernando G
Gender inequalities exist in work life, but little is known about their presence in relation to factors examined in occupation health settings. The aim of this study was to identify and summarize the working and employment conditions described as determinants of gender inequalities in occupational health in studies related to occupational health published between 1999 and 2010. A systematic literature review was undertaken of studies available in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Sociological Abstracts, LILACS, EconLit and CINAHL between 1999 and 2010. Epidemiologic studies were selected by applying a set of inclusion criteria to the title, abstract, and complete text. The quality of the studies was also assessed. Selected studies were qualitatively analysed, resulting in a compilation of all differences between women and men in the prevalence of exposure to working and employment conditions and work-related health problems as outcomes. Most of the 30 studies included were conducted in Europe (n=19) and had a cross-sectional design (n=24). The most common topic analysed was related to the exposure to work-related psychosocial hazards (n=8). Employed women had more job insecurity, lower control, worse contractual working conditions and poorer self-perceived physical and mental health than men did. Conversely, employed men had a higher degree of physically demanding work, lower support, higher levels of effort-reward imbalance, higher job status, were more exposed to noise and worked longer hours than women did. This systematic review has identified a set of working and employment conditions as determinants of gender inequalities in occupational health from the occupational health literature. These results may be useful to policy makers seeking to reduce gender inequalities in occupational health, and to researchers wishing to analyse these determinants in greater depth.
Introduction Gender inequalities exist in work life, but little is known about their presence in relation to factors examined in occupation health settings. The aim of this study was to identify and summarize the working and employment conditions described as determinants of gender inequalities in occupational health in studies related to occupational health published between 1999 and 2010. Methods A systematic literature review was undertaken of studies available in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Sociological Abstracts, LILACS, EconLit and CINAHL between 1999 and 2010. Epidemiologic studies were selected by applying a set of inclusion criteria to the title, abstract, and complete text. The quality of the studies was also assessed. Selected studies were qualitatively analysed, resulting in a compilation of all differences between women and men in the prevalence of exposure to working and employment conditions and work-related health problems as outcomes. Results Most of the 30 studies included were conducted in Europe (n=19) and had a cross-sectional design (n=24). The most common topic analysed was related to the exposure to work-related psychosocial hazards (n=8). Employed women had more job insecurity, lower control, worse contractual working conditions and poorer self-perceived physical and mental health than men did. Conversely, employed men had a higher degree of physically demanding work, lower support, higher levels of effort-reward imbalance, higher job status, were more exposed to noise and worked longer hours than women did. Conclusions This systematic review has identified a set of working and employment conditions as determinants of gender inequalities in occupational health from the occupational health literature. These results may be useful to policy makers seeking to reduce gender inequalities in occupational health, and to researchers wishing to analyse these determinants in greater depth. PMID:23915121
Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — This spreadsheet contains a list of all single-employer defined benefit pension plans trusteed by the PBGC since its creation in 1974. This data set will be updated...
Alina Ligia Dumitrescu
Full Text Available The Financial and economic crisis has brought to the fore the issues of unemployment, which is a constant concern of the EU. The study analyzes the European Employment Strategy, which aims to create a common framework for action based on the agreement of the Member States relating in order to a set of objectives and targets for employment. The research examines the impact of employment policies on labor market developments and measures taken to minimize imbalances in the labor market, reduce unemployment and increase employment.
Detweiler, Mark B; Sharma, Taral; Detweiler, Jonna G; Murphy, Pamela F; Lane, Sandra; Carman, Jack; Chudhary, Amara S; Halling, Mary H; Kim, Kye Y
Horticulture therapy employs plants and gardening activities in therapeutic and rehabilitation activities and could be utilized to improve the quality of life of the worldwide aging population, possibly reducing costs for long-term, assisted living and dementia unit residents. Preliminary studies have reported the benefits of horticultural therapy and garden settings in reduction of pain, improvement in attention, lessening of stress, modulation of agitation, lowering of as needed medications, antipsychotics and reduction of falls. This is especially relevant for both the United States and the Republic of Korea since aging is occurring at an unprecedented rate, with Korea experiencing some of the world's greatest increases in elderly populations. In support of the role of nature as a therapeutic modality in geriatrics, most of the existing studies of garden settings have utilized views of nature or indoor plants with sparse studies employing therapeutic gardens and rehabilitation greenhouses. With few controlled clinical trials demonstrating the positive or negative effects of the use of garden settings for the rehabilitation of the aging populations, a more vigorous quantitative analysis of the benefits is long overdue. This literature review presents the data supporting future studies of the effects of natural settings for the long term care and rehabilitation of the elderly having the medical and mental health problems frequently occurring with aging.
Neuwahl, Frederik; Mongelli, Ignazio; Delgado, Luis; Loeschel, Andreas
This paper analyses the employment consequences of policies aimed to support biofuels in the European Union. The promotion of biofuel use has been advocated as a means to promote the sustainable use of natural resources and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions originating from transport activities on the one hand, and to reduce dependence on imported oil and thereby increase security of the European energy supply on the other hand. The employment impacts of increasing biofuels shares are calculated by taking into account a set of elements comprising the demand for capital goods required to produce biofuels, the additional demand for agricultural feedstock, higher fuel prices or reduced household budget in the case of price subsidisation, price effects ensuing from a hypothetical world oil price reduction linked to substitution in the EU market, and price impacts on agro-food commodities. The calculations refer to scenarios for the year 2020 targets as set out by the recent Renewable Energy Roadmap. Employment effects are assessed in an input-output framework taking into account bottom-up technology information to specify biofuels activities and linked to partial equilibrium models for the agricultural and energy sectors. The simulations suggest that biofuels targets on the order of 10-15% could be achieved without adverse net employment effects. (author)
True, Gala; Alexander, Leslie B; Fisher, Celia B
Community researchers are laypersons who conduct research activities in their own communities. In addiction and HIV research, community researchers are valued for their insider status and knowledge. At the same time, their presence on the research team raises concerns about coercion and confidentiality when community researchers and participants know each other personally, and the work of navigating between the worlds of research and community leads to moral distress and burnout for some community researchers. In this paper, we draw upon the concept of 'moral experience' to explore the local moral worlds of community researchers in the context of addiction research. In February and March 2010, we conducted focus groups with 36 community researchers employed on community-based addiction studies in the United States to elicit perspectives on ethical and moral challenges they face in their work and insights on best practices to support their role in research. Community researchers described how their values were realized or thwarted in the context of research, and their strategies for coping with shifting identities and competing priorities. They delineated how their knowledge could be used to inform development of research protocols and help principal investigators build and maintain trust with the community researchers on their teams. Our findings contribute to current understandings of the moral experiences of community members employed in research, and inform policies and practices for the growing field of community-engaged research. Funders, research organizations, and research ethics boards should develop guidelines and standards to ensure studies have key resources in place to support community researchers and ensure quality and integrity of community-engaged work. Investigators who work with community researchers should ensure channels for frontline staff to provide input on research protocols and to create an atmosphere where challenges and concerns can be
Yurtkoru, E. Serra; Bozkurt, Tulay; Bekta, Fatos; Ahmed, Mahir Jibril; Kola, Vehap
The purpose of this study is to test the goal theorymodel originally developed by Locke and Latham in organizational setting inTurkey, and explain its influence on job satisfaction and affective commitment.Also mediating role of task specific strategy and moderating role ofselfefficacy are examined. Locke and Latham’s goal setting measure is adaptedto Turkish. Survey method is employed to collect data from 222 respondents fromautomotive industry. Goal setting dimensions predicted affective co...
Crooks, Valorie A
To answer three specific questions: (i) How do women experience the workplace after the onset of a musculoskeletal disease; (ii) What employment policy and programme suggestions can they offer for ways to better support chronically ill women in their abilities to maintain workforce participation; and (iii) How are these women's employment policy and programme recommendations informed by their own lived experiences and desires? In-depth interviews were conducted with 18 women who had developed musculoskeletal diseases while involved in the labour market. Data were coded and analysed thematically. Participants identified three common workplace barriers experienced and three types of workplace accommodations commonly requested. They offered four specific employment policy and programme recommendations for ways to better support women who develop musculoskeletal diseases in maintaining labour market participation. It is found that their employment policy and programme recommendations are informed by their own experiences in the workplace and desires for being supported in maintaining involvement in paid labour. Creating employment programmes and policies that support chronically ill women in their attempts to remain involved in the workforce based on how much paid labour they are able to perform and where they are best able to work is of the utmost importance.
A widespread finding among studies from the US and the UK is that maternal employment is correlated with an increased risk of child overweight, even in a causal manner, whereas studies from European countries obtain less conclusive results. As evidence for Germany is still scarce, the purpose of this study is to identify the effect of maternal employment on childhood overweight in Germany using two sets of representative micro data. Moreover, we explore potential underlying mechanisms that mi...
Pieter W. G. Bots
Full Text Available When hydrological models are used in support of water management decisions, stakeholders often contest these models because they perceive certain aspects to be inadequately addressed. A strongly contested model may be abandoned completely, even when stakeholders could potentially agree on the validity of part of the information it can produce. The development of a new model is costly, and the results may be contested again. We consider how existing hydrological models can be used in a policy process so as to benefit from both hydrological knowledge and the perspectives and local knowledge of stakeholders. We define a code of conduct as a set of "rules of the game" that we base on a case study of developing a water management plan for a Natura 2000 site in the Netherlands. We propose general rules for agenda management and information sharing, and more specific rules for model use and option development. These rules structure the interactions among actors, help them to explicitly acknowledge uncertainties, and prevent expertise from being neglected or overlooked. We designed the rules to favor openness, protection of core stakeholder values, the use of relevant substantive knowledge, and the momentum of the process. We expect that these rules, although developed on the basis of a water-management issue, can also be applied to support the use of existing computer models in other policy domains. As rules will shape actions only when they are constantly affirmed by actors, we expect that the rules will become less useful in an "unruly" social environment where stakeholders constantly challenge the proceedings.
O’Donnell, Emily M.; Berkman, Lisa F.; Subramanian, Sv
Objective Supervisor-level policies and the presence of a manager engaged in an employee’s need to achieve work/family balance, or “supervisory support,” may benefit employee health, including self-reported pain. Methods We conducted a census of employees at four selected extended-care facilities in the Boston metropolitan region (n= 368). Supervisory support was assessed through interviews with managers and pain was employee-reported. Results Our multilevel logistic models indicate that employees with managers who report the lowest levels of support for work/family balance experience twice as much overall pain as employees with managers who report high levels of support. Conclusions Low supervisory support for work/family balance is associated with an increased prevalence of employee-reported pain in extended-care facilities. We recommend that manager-level policies and practices receive additional attention as a potential risk factor for poor health in this setting. PMID:22892547
Case and Administrative Support Tools (CAST) is the secure portion of the Office of General Counsel (OGC) Dashboard business process automation tool used to help reduce office administrative labor costs while increasing employee effectiveness. CAST supports business functions which rely on and store Privacy Act sensitive data (PII). Specific business processes included in CAST (and respective PII) are: -Civil Rights Cast Tracking (name, partial medical history, summary of case, and case correspondance). -Employment Law Case Tracking (name, summary of case). -Federal Tort Claims Act Incident Tracking (name, summary of incidents). -Ethics Program Support Tools and Tracking (name, partial financial history). -Summer Honors Application Tracking (name, home address, telephone number, employment history). -Workforce Flexibility Initiative Support Tools (name, alternative workplace phone number). -Resource and Personnel Management Support Tools (name, partial employment and financial history).
Lin, Yi-Jiun; Huang, I-Chun; Wang, Yun-Tung
The aim of this exploratory study is to gain an understanding of the outcomes of home-based employment service programs for people with disabilities and their related factors in Taiwan. This study used survey method to collect 132 questionnaires. Descriptive and two-variable statistics including chi-square (χ(2)), independent sample t-test and analysis of variance were employed. The results found that 36.5% of the subjects improved their employment status and 75.8% of them improved in employability. Educational level and and vocational categories including "web page production", "e-commerce", "internet marketing", "on-line store" and "website set-up and management" were significantly "positively" associated with either of the two outcome indicators - change of employment status and employability. This study is the first evidence-based study about the outcomes of home-based employment service programs and their related factors for people with disabilities in Taiwan. The outcomes of the home-based employment service programs for people with disabilities were presented. Implications for Rehabilitation Home-based rehabilitation for people with disabilities can be effective. A programme of this kind supports participants in improving or gaining employment status as well as developing employability skills. Further consideration should be given to developing cost-effective home-based programmes and evaluating their effectiveness.
This paper studies the effects of service offshoring on the level and skill composition of domestic employment, using a rich data set of Italian firms and propensity score matching techniques. The results show that service offshoring has no effect on the level of employment but changes its composition in favor of high skilled workers.
Furberg, Robert D; Ortiz, Alexa M; Zulkiewicz, Brittany A; Hudson, Jordan P; Taylor, Olivia M; Lewis, Megan A
Tablet-based health care interventions have the potential to encourage patient care in a timelier manner, allow physicians convenient access to patient records, and provide an improved method for patient education. However, along with the continued adoption of tablet technologies, there is a concomitant need to develop protocols focusing on the configuration, management, and maintenance of these devices within the health care setting to support the conduct of clinical research. Develop three protocols to support tablet configuration, tablet management, and tablet maintenance. The Configurator software, Tile technology, and current infection control recommendations were employed to develop three distinct protocols for tablet-based digital health interventions. Configurator is a mobile device management software specifically for iPhone operating system (iOS) devices. The capabilities and current applications of Configurator were reviewed and used to develop the protocol to support device configuration. Tile is a tracking tag associated with a free mobile app available for iOS and Android devices. The features associated with Tile were evaluated and used to develop the Tile protocol to support tablet management. Furthermore, current recommendations on preventing health care-related infections were reviewed to develop the infection control protocol to support tablet maintenance. This article provides three protocols: the Configurator protocol, the Tile protocol, and the infection control protocol. These protocols can help to ensure consistent implementation of tablet-based interventions, enhance fidelity when employing tablets for research purposes, and serve as a guide for tablet deployments within clinical settings.
This Sounding Board article will briefly review the biopsychosocial impact of hearing loss. It will consider the individual and employment; the laws supporting employment and the current vocational rehabilitation system assisting people with hearing loss remain in the workplace. It concludes with the author's suggestion of three systematic changes to enhance the employee's workplace success.
Any investment has a positive effect on employment: setting up an investment object involves a number of jobs. But in national economic terms, investments into renewable energies have an employment effect only if the investments are viewed within the context of the energy system as a whole. A global scenario for extending the use of renewable energies as it is outlined by the group 2010 is expected to have a positive effect on employment. Employment effects in connection with renewable energies are inferior to those associated with investments that are economical ex ante, such as many investments for enhancing energy efficiency. (orig./RHM)
Dorant, Elisabeth; Krieger, Theresia
Family caregivers are the backbone of the long-term care support system within the home environment. Comprehensive caregiver support programs require collaboration and coordination within the system. A new public health concept, Vade Mecum, aims to harmonize and professionalize family caregiver support initiatives in geriatric care settings in the Euregion Maas-Rhine. Exploration of the new concept recently started in Germany to gain in-depth insight into current support and the needs of the geriatric care team and family caregivers. Within the context of an exploratory qualitative study, a participatory health research (PHR) strategy was applied to make optimal use of experience and knowledge from the system. Care professionals, engaged as co-researchers, were responsible for decisions about the research question, data collection methods and procedures of engaging family caregivers. A research team representing all professions within the geriatric department was formed. Research objectives were formulated and an appropriate mix of qualitative data collection methods consisting of interviews, focus groups and story-telling was chosen. Needs and expectations of the new concept, and practical solutions for involving family caregivers were discussed. A PHR strategy resulted in initiating a qualitative study in a geriatric care setting carried out by care professionals from the department. Knowledge was generated in a co-creative manner, and co-researchers were empowered. A comprehensive understanding of the system serves as a starting point for advancement of the new family caregiver concept.
Brücker, Herbert; Jahn, Elke
Germany on basis of a wage-setting curve. The wage-setting curve relies on the assumption that wages respond to a hange in the unemployment rate, albeit imperfectly. This allows one to derive the wage and employment effects of migration simultaneously in a general equilibrium framework. Using...
Virtanen, Pekka; Janlert, Urban; Hammarström, Anne
This study analysed interactions between job insecurity and temporary employment and health. We tested the violation hypothesis (whether permanent employment increases the health risk associated with job insecurity) and the intensification hypothesis (whether temporary employment increases the health risk associated with job insecurity) in a longitudinal setting. Previous research on this topic is scarce and based on cross-sectional data. A population cohort (n=1071) was surveyed at age 30 and age 42. Exposure to temporary employment during this 12-year period was elicited with a job-time matrix and measured as the score of 6-month periods. Exposure to job insecurity was measured according to the perceived threat of unemployment. Health at follow-up was assessed as optimal versus suboptimal self-rated health, sleep quality and mental health. In addition to sociodemographics and baseline health, the analyses were adjusted for exposure to unemployment, non-employment and self-employment during the 12-year period. 26% of participants had been exposed to temporary employment. The effect of job insecurity on health was the same in the exposed and unexposed groups, that is the violation hypothesis was not supported. Non-significant interactions between the exposures and all health outcomes also indicated null findings regarding the intensification hypothesis. These findings suggest that perceived job insecurity can lead to adverse health effects in both permanent and temporary employees. Policies should aim to improve work-related well-being by reducing job insecurity. Efforts towards 'flexicurity' are important, but it is equally important to remember that a significant proportion of employees with a permanent contract experience job insecurity.
Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran
This study assessed whether previous findings linking early maternal employment to lower cognitive and behavioral skills among middle class and White children generalized to other groups. Using a representative sample of urban, low-income, predominantly African American and Hispanic families (n = 444), OLS regression and propensity score matching models assessed links between maternal employment in the two years after childbearing and children’s functioning at age 7. Children whose mothers were employed early, particularly in their first 8 months, showed enhanced socio-emotional functioning compared to peers whose mother remained nonemployed. Protective associations emerged for both part time and full time employment, and were driven by African American children, with neutral effects for Hispanics. Informal home-based child care also heightened positive links. PMID:22931466
Marios A Pappas
Full Text Available The utilization of ICTs in creating new jobs and eliminating gender based inequalities in employability and entrepreneurship, employs increasingly more researchers, governments and organizations around the world. In this article we analyze the current situation regarding the impact of ICTs, social networks and media on creating new opportunities for the employability of women. We also present the new market requirements, the new e-skills that will be acquired by women in order to take advantage of new labor market opportunities. Finally special reference is made to new trends in women's entrepreneurship as well as the supportive role of ICTs.
The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 provided a subsidy to employers that offered a retiree health prescription coverage benefit actuarially equivalent to Medicare Part D. This article reviews the development of the subsidy, the support by the federal government and the issues that have arisen. It also presents analysis of data from a set of companies that offered retiree health in 2006 and 2007. The data show widespread acceptance of the subsidy and continuance of prescription coverage; however, companies that did not take the subsidy were more likely to be smaller and in less robust financial health. Analysis of a subset of the companies shows the magnitude of the benefits paid yearly and the accounting liability caused by retiree health relative to the size of the subsidy. The author concludes that the potential success or failure of the federal subsidy in preserving retiree health benefits will not be known for years. Nevertheless, with the elimination of the deductibility of the subsidy in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), employers surely will reexamine their offer of prescription coverage to retirees.
Hill, Roger B.; Fouts, Susan
Although there have been numerous changes within the workplace during the past century, employers continue to search for employees with a strong work ethic. Employers often cite a strong work ethic as the most desired characteristic in a new employee. Work ethic can be described as a set of characteristics and attitudes in which an individual…
Using a specially constructed panel data set on state minimum wage laws and labor market conditions, Neumark and Wascher (1992) presented evidence that countered the claim that minimum wages could be raised with no cost to employment. They concluded that estimates indicating that minimum wages reduced employment on the order of 1-2 percent for a…
Williams, Anne; Fossey, Ellie; Harvey, Carol
Social firms or enterprises aim to offer sustainable employment in supportive workplaces for people who are disadvantaged in the labour market. Therefore, this study sought to explore employees' views in one social firm about the features of their workplace that they found supportive. Seven employees were recruited, all of whom experienced persistent mental illness, and had worked in this social firm for between eleven months and six years. A semi-structured interview, the Work Environment Impact Scale (version 2.0), was used to explore participants' views of their workplace and to rate how its physical and social characteristics impacted them. Participants also rated their job satisfaction with a modified Indiana Job Satisfaction Scale. Features of the social firm workplace identified by these employees as contributing to their sustained employment and satisfaction were the rewards, task demands, work schedule, and workplace interactions with supervisors and other co-workers. From their views, guiding principles for the development of supportive workplaces and evaluation of their capacity to afford sustainable employment were derived. This study adds to current knowledge about workplace supports from an employee perspective, and is of relevance for informing future social firm development, workplace design and evaluation.
Graffam, Joseph; Shinkfield, Alison J; Hardcastle, Lesley
A large-scale study was conducted to examine the perceived employability of ex-prisoners and offenders. Four participant groups comprising 596 (50.4%) employers, 234 (19.8%) employment service workers, 176 (14.9%) corrections workers, and 175 (14.8%) prisoners and offenders completed a questionnaire assessing the likelihood of a hypothetical job seeker's both obtaining and maintaining employment; the importance of specific skills and characteristics to employability; and the likelihood that ex-prisoners, offenders, and the general workforce exhibit these skills and characteristics. Apart from people with an intellectual or psychiatric disability, those with a criminal background were rated as being less likely than other disadvantaged groups to obtain and maintain employment. In addition, ex-prisoners were rated as being less likely than offenders and the general workforce to exhibit the skills and characteristics relevant to employability. Implications for the preparation and support of ex-prisoners and offenders into employment are discussed, together with broader community-wide initiatives to promote reintegration.
Policy Analysis on Growth and Employment - PAGE II. This project by the Partnership for Economic Policy (PEP) will support quality ... The project is supported by the UK's Department for International Development, and additional funding is ...
Balsters, H.; de Vreeze, C.C.; de Vreeze, C.C.
An account is given of extending the well-known object-oriented type system of Luca Cardelli with set constructs and logical formalism. The system is based on typed &lgr;-notation, employing a subtyping relation and a powertype construct. Sets in this system are value expressions and are typed as
Background The increased use of multi-locus data sets for phylogenetic reconstruction has increased the need to determine whether a set of gene trees significantly deviate from the phylogenetic patterns of other genes. Such unusual gene trees may have been influenced by other evolutionary processes such as selection, gene duplication, or horizontal gene transfer. Results Motivated by this problem we propose a nonparametric goodness-of-fit test for two empirical distributions of gene trees, and we developed the software GeneOut to estimate a p-value for the test. Our approach maps trees into a multi-dimensional vector space and then applies support vector machines (SVMs) to measure the separation between two sets of pre-defined trees. We use a permutation test to assess the significance of the SVM separation. To demonstrate the performance of GeneOut, we applied it to the comparison of gene trees simulated within different species trees across a range of species tree depths. Applied directly to sets of simulated gene trees with large sample sizes, GeneOut was able to detect very small differences between two set of gene trees generated under different species trees. Our statistical test can also include tree reconstruction into its test framework through a variety of phylogenetic optimality criteria. When applied to DNA sequence data simulated from different sets of gene trees, results in the form of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves indicated that GeneOut performed well in the detection of differences between sets of trees with different distributions in a multi-dimensional space. Furthermore, it controlled false positive and false negative rates very well, indicating a high degree of accuracy. Conclusions The non-parametric nature of our statistical test provides fast and efficient analyses, and makes it an applicable test for any scenario where evolutionary or other factors can lead to trees with different multi-dimensional distributions. The
Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Pitney, William A; Eason, Christianne M
The intercollegiate setting receives much of the scholarly attention related to work-life conflict (WLC). However research has been focused on the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting. Multiple factors can lead to WLC for the athletic trainer (AT), including hours, travel, and lack of flexibility in work schedules. To investigate the experiences of WLC among ATs working in the non-Division I collegiate setting and to identify factors that contribute to fulfillment of work-life balance in this setting. Qualitative study. Institutions in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Divisions II and III, the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics, and the National Junior College Athletic Association. A total of 244 ATs (128 women, 114 men; age = 37.5 ± 13.3 years, experience = 14 ± 12 years) completed phase I. Thirteen participants (8 women, 5 men; age = 38 ± 13 years, experience = 13.1 ± 11.4 years) completed phase II. For phase I, participants completed a previously validated and reliable (Cronbach α > .90) Web-based survey measuring their levels of WLC and work-family conflict (WFC). This phase included 2 WFC scales defining family; scale 1 defined family as having a partner or spouse with or without children, and scale 2 defined family as those individuals, including parents, siblings, grandparents, and any other close relatives, involved in one's life. Phase II consisted of an interview. Qualitative data were evaluated using content analysis. Data source and multiple-analyst triangulation secured credibility. The WFC scores were 26.33 ± 7.37 for scale 1 and 20.46 ± 10.14 for scale 2, indicating a moderate level of WFC for scale 1 and a low level of WFC for scale 2. Qualitative analyses revealed that organizational dimensions, such as job demands and staffing issues, can negatively affect WLC, whereas a combination of organizational and personal dimensions can positively affect WLC. Overload continues to be a prevalent
Spitzmueller, Christiane; Zhang, Jing; Thomas, Candice L; Wang, Zhuxi; Fisher, Gwenith G; Matthews, Russell A; Strathearn, Lane
For employed mothers of infants, reconciliation of work demands and breastfeeding constitutes a significant challenge. The discontinuation of breastfeeding has the potential to result in negative outcomes for the mother (e.g., higher likelihood of obesity), her employer (e.g., increased absenteeism), and her infant (e.g., increased risk of infection). Given previous research findings identifying return to work as a major risk factor for breastfeeding cessation, we investigate what types of job characteristics relate to women's intentions to breastfeed shortly after giving birth and women's actual breastfeeding initiation and duration. Using job titles and job descriptors contained in a large Australian longitudinal cohort data set (N = 809), we coded job titles using the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL)'s Occupational Information Network (O*NET) database and extracted job characteristics. Hazardous working conditions and job autonomy were identified as significant determinants of women's breastfeeding intentions, their initiation of breastfeeding, and ultimately their breastfeeding continuation. Hence, we recommend that human resource professionals, managers, and public health initiatives provide breastfeeding-supportive resources to women who, based on their job characteristics, are at high risk to prematurely discontinue breastfeeding to ensure these mothers have equal opportunity to reap the benefits of breastfeeding. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Wo, Monica Chen Mun; Lim, Kheng Seang; Choo, Wan Yuen; Tan, Chong Tin
People with epilepsy (PWE) are negatively prejudiced in their ability to work. This study aimed to examine demographic, clinical and psychological factors associated with employability in PWE. This study recruited epilepsy patients from a neurology clinic in Malaysia. Employability was measured using employment ratio, with a ratio ≥90% (ER90) classified as high employability. Basic demographic data such as age, gender, marital status, religion, education level and household income was collected. Clinical measures consisted of age of seizure onset, seizure frequency, type of epilepsy, aura, polytherapy, nocturnal seizures and seizure control. Psychological measures included Work Self-Determination Index (WSDI), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES), and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Of 146 PWE, 64.4% had high employability. The participants were predominantly female (52%), Chinese (50.7%), single (50%), having tertiary education (55.5%) and focal epilepsy (72.6%). Clinically, only type of epilepsy was significantly correlated to employability of PWE. Employability of PWE was associated with ability to work (indicated by education level, work performance affected by seizures, ability to travel independently and ability to cope with stress at work) and family overprotection. The high employability group was found to have lower self-perceived stigma (ESS), higher self-determined motivation (WSDI), self-esteem (SES) and perceived social support (MSPSS), than the low employability group. Logistic regression analysis showed that tertiary education level (AOR 3.42, CI: 1.46-8.00), higher self-determination (WSDI, AOR 1.09, CI: 1.012-1.17), lower family overprotection (AOR 0.76, CI: 0.61-0.95), and generalised epilepsy (AOR 4.17, CI: 1.37-12.70) were significant predictors for higher employability in PWE. Ability to work (education level), clinical factor (type of epilepsy) and psychological factor (self-determined motivation and family
Kennedy, Virginia C
The purpose of this study was to describe the number and distribution of 26 administrative, professional, and technical public health occupations across the array of US governmental and nongovernmental industries. This study used data from the Occupational Employment Statistics program of the US Bureau of Labor Statistics. For each occupation of interest, the investigator determined the number of persons employed in 2006 in five industries and industry groups: government, nonprofit agencies, education, healthcare, and all other industries. Industry-specific employment profiles varied from one occupation to another. However, about three-fourths of all those engaged in these occupations worked in the private healthcare industry. Relatively few worked in nonprofit or educational settings, and less than 10 percent were employed in government agencies. The industry-specific distribution of public health personnel, particularly the proportion employed in the public sector, merits close monitoring. This study also highlights the need for a better understanding of the work performed by public health occupations in nongovernmental work settings. Finally, the Occupational Employment Statistics program has the potential to serve as an ongoing, national data collection system for public health workforce information. If this potential was realized, future workforce enumerations would not require primary data collection but rather could be accomplished using secondary data.
Cardi, Valentina; Lounes, Naima; Kan, Carol; Treasure, Janet
The aim of this study was to examine the impact of a "supported eating" intervention using mobile technology in patients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN). Twenty Inpatients and 18 Outpatients with AN underwent a test meal on two occasions, whilst listening to either a short video-clip ('vodcast'), or music delivered on an MP4 player. Self-report and behavioural measures were collected before and after each test meal. Differences were found between the inpatient and outpatient settings. Inpatients drank more of the test meal and had increased levels of vigilance to food after the test meal, in both conditions. When the support conditions (Vodcast vs. Music) were compared, inpatients seemed to benefit more from listening to music (reduced distress and more smoothie drunk), whereas outpatients benefitted more from using the vodcast (reduced distress, more smoothie drunk, and reduced vigilance to food). The context in which the intervention was delivered had an impact on self-report and behavioural measures collected during the test meal. This suggests that the form of meal support in AN needs to match the context. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Talking about Big Data in healthcare we usually refer to how to use data collected from current electronic medical records, either structured or unstructured, to answer clinically relevant questions. This operation is typically carried out by means of analytics tools (e.g. machine learning or by extracting relevant data from patient summaries through natural language processing techniques. From other perspective of research in medical informatics, powerful initiatives have emerged to help physicians taking decisions, in both diagnostics and therapeutics, built from the existing medical evidence (i.e. knowledge-based decision support systems. Much of the problems these tools have shown, when used in real clinical settings, are related to their implementation and deployment, more than failing in its support, but, technology is slowly overcoming interoperability and integration issues. Beyond the point-of-care decision support these tools can provide, the data generated when using them, even in controlled trials, could be used to further analyze facts that are traditionally ignored in the current clinical practice. In this paper, we reflect on the technologies available to make the leap and how they could help driving healthcare organizations shifting to a value-based healthcare philosophy.
Full Text Available In areas of medical diagnosis and decision-making, several uncertainty and ambiguity shrouded situations are most often imposed. In this regard, one may well assume that intuitionistic fuzzy sets (IFS should stand as a potent technique useful for demystifying associated with the real healthcare decision-making situations. To this end, we are developing a prototype model helpful for detecting the patients risk degree in Intensive Care Unit (ICU. Based on the intuitionistic fuzzy sets, dubbed Medical Intuitionistic Fuzzy Expert Decision Support System (MIFEDSS, the shown work has its origins in the Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS standard. It is worth noting that the proposed prototype effectiveness validation is associated through a real case study test at the Polyclinic ESSALEMA cited in Sfax, Tunisia. This paper does actually provide some practical initial results concerning the system as carried out in real life situations. Indeed, the proposed system turns out to prove that the MIFEDSS does actually display an imposing capability for an established handily ICU related uncertainty issues. The performance of the prototypes is compared with the MEWS standard which exposed that the IFS application appears to perform highly better in deferring accuracy than the expert MEWS score with higher degrees of sensitivity and specificity being recorded.
Christiansen, Jacob Stordal; Henriksen, Christian; Petersen, Henrik Laurberg
For a probability measure with compact and non-polar support in the complex plane we relate dynamical properties of the associated sequence of orthogonal polynomials fPng to properties of the support. More precisely we relate the Julia set of Pn to the outer boundary of the support, the lled Julia...... set to the polynomial convex hull K of the support, and the Green's function associated with Pn to the Green's function for the complement of K....
Stewart, Greg L; Dustin, Susan L; Barrick, Murray R; Darnold, Todd C
The authors examined how an applicant's handshake influences hiring recommendations formed during the employment interview. A sample of 98 undergraduate students provided personality measures and participated in mock interviews during which the students received ratings of employment suitability. Five trained raters independently evaluated the quality of the handshake for each participant. Quality of handshake was related to interviewer hiring recommendations. Path analysis supported the handshake as mediating the effect of applicant extraversion on interviewer hiring recommendations, even after controlling for differences in candidate physical appearance and dress. Although women received lower ratings for the handshake, they did not on average receive lower assessments of employment suitability. Exploratory analysis suggested that the relationship between a firm handshake and interview ratings may be stronger for women than for men.
Full Text Available One of the conventional methods for temporary support of tunnels is to use steel sets with shotcrete. The nature of a temporary support system demands a quick installation of its structures. As a result, the spacing between steel sets is not a fixed amount and it can be considered as a random variable. Hence, in the reliability analysis of these types of structures, the selection of an appropriate probability distribution function of spacing of steel sets is essential. In the present paper, the distances between steel sets are collected from an under-construction tunnel and the collected data is used to suggest a proper Probability Distribution Function (PDF for the spacing of steel sets. The tunnel has two different excavation sections. In this regard, different distribution functions were investigated and three common tests of goodness of fit were used for evaluation of each function for each excavation section. Results from all three methods indicate that the Wakeby distribution function can be suggested as the proper PDF for spacing between the steel sets. It is also noted that, although the probability distribution function for two different tunnel sections is the same, the parameters of PDF for the individual sections are different from each other.
Jones, Christopher G.
Communication skills are a fundamental personal competency for a successful career in accounting. What is not so obvious is the specific written communication skill set employers look for and the extent those skills are computer mediated. Using survey research, this article explores the particular skills employers desire and their satisfaction…
Feinstein-Winitzer, Rebecca T; Pollack, Harold A; Parish, Carrigan L; Pereyra, Margaret R; Abel, Stephen N; Metsch, Lisa R
We explored insurers' perceptions regarding barriers to reimbursement for oral rapid HIV testing and other preventive screenings during dental care. We conducted semistructured interviews between April and October 2010 with a targeted sample of 13 dental insurance company executives and consultants, whose firms' cumulative market share exceeded 50% of US employer-based dental insurance markets. Participants represented viewpoints from a significant share of the dental insurance industry. Some preventive screenings, such as for oral cancer, received widespread insurer support and reimbursement. Others, such as population-based HIV screening, appeared to face many barriers to insurance reimbursement. The principal barriers were minimal employer demand, limited evidence of effectiveness and return on investment specific to dental settings, implementation and organizational constraints, lack of provider training, and perceived lack of patient acceptance. The dental setting is a promising venue for preventive screenings, and addressing barriers to insurance reimbursement for such services is a key challenge for public health policy.
Schmidt, Lisa M; Reidmohr, Alison A; Helgerson, Steven D; Harwell, Todd S
Previous research has shown that multi-unit housing (MUH) residents are at risk of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, which can transfer between units. The purpose of this study was to determine SHS exposure and examine attitudes towards smoking policies among public housing authority (PHA) residents in rural and tribal settings. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 895 adult tenants (41 % response rate) living in PHA multiunit buildings in Montana in 2013. Our primary outcome was tenant support of smoke-free policies; our secondary outcome was exacerbation of child asthma symptoms due to SHS exposure. In 2014, we used multiple logistic regression models to test associations between independent variables and outcomes of interest. The majority (80.6 %) of respondents supported having a smoke-free policy in their building, with support being significantly higher among nonsmokers [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 4.2, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.5-11.6] and among residents living with children (aOR 2.9, 95 % CI 1.3-6.2). Tribal residents were as likely to support smoke-free policies as non-tribal residents (aOR 1.4; 95 % CI 0.5-4.0). Over half (56.5 %) of respondents reported SHS exposure in their home; residents in a building with no smoke-free policy in place were significantly more likely to report exposure (aOR 3.5, 95 % CI 2.2-5.5). SHS exposure was not significantly associated with asthma symptoms. There is a significant reduction in exposure to SHS in facilities with smoke-free policies and there is strong support for such policies by both tribal and non-tribal MUH residents. Opportunities exist for smoke-free policy initiatives in rural and tribal settings.
Ng, S S W; Lak, D C C; Lee, S C K; Ng, P P K
Occupational therapists play a major role in the assessment and referral of clients with severe mental illness for supported employment. Nonetheless, there is scarce literature about the content and predictive validity of the process. In addition, the criteria of successful job matching have not been analysed and job supervisors have relied on experience rather than objective standards in recruitment. This study aimed to explore the profile of successful clients working in 'shop sales' in a supportive environment using a neurocognitive assessment protocol, and to validate the protocol against 'internal standards' of the job supervisors. This was a concurrent validation study of criterion-related scales for a single job type. The subjective ratings from the supervisors were concurrently validated against the results of neurocognitive assessment of intellectual function and work-related cognitive behaviour. A regression model was established for clients who succeeded and failed in employment using supervisor's ratings and a cutoff value of 10.5 for the Performance Fitness Rating Scale (R(2) = 0.918, F = 3.794, p = 0.003). Classification And Regression Tree was also plotted to identify the profile of cases, with an overall accuracy of 0.861 (relative error, 0.26). Use of both inference statistics and data mining techniques enables the decision tree of neurocognitive assessments to be more readily applied by therapists in vocational rehabilitation, and thus directly improve the efficiency and efficacy of the process.
Rosti, Luisa; Chelli, Francesco
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the gender impact of tertiary education on the probability of entering and remaining in self-employment. Design/methodology/approach: A data set on labour market flows produced by the Italian National Statistical Office is exploited by interviewing about 62,000 graduate and non-graduate…
Harris, Anthony Wf; Kosic, Tanya; Xu, Jean; Walker, Chris; Gye, William; Redoblado Hodge, Antoinette
Finding work is a top priority for most people; however, this goal remains out of reach for the majority of individuals with a severe mental illness (SMI) who remain on benefits or are unemployed. Supported employment (SE) programs aimed at returning people with a severe mental illness to work are successful; however, they still leave a significant number of people with severe mental illness unemployed. Cognitive deficits are commonly found in SMI and are a powerful predictor of poor outcome. Fortunately, these deficits are amenable to treatment with cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) that significantly improves cognition in SMI. CRT combined with SE significantly increases the likelihood of individuals with severe mental illness obtaining and staying in work. However, the availability of CRT is limited in many settings. The aim of this study was to examine whether Web-based CRT combined with a SE program can improve the rate return to work of people with severe mental illness. A total of 86 people with severe mental illness (mean age 39.6 years; male: n=55) who were unemployed and who had joined a SE program were randomized to either a Web-based CRT program (CogRem) or an Internet-based control condition (WebInfo). Primary outcome measured was hours worked over 6 months post treatment. At 6 months, those participants randomized to CogRem had worked significantly more hours (P=.01) and had earned significantly more money (P=.03) than those participants randomized to the WebInfo control condition. No change was observed in cognition. This study corroborates other work that has found a synergistic effect of combining CRT with a SE program and extends this to the use of Web-based CRT. The lack of any improvement in cognition obscures the mechanism by which an improved wage outcome for participants randomized to the active treatment was achieved. However, the study substantially lowers the barrier to the deployment of CRT with other psychosocial interventions for
Kjeldsen, Anne Mette; Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher
Numerous studies have shown that public service motivation (PSM) is positively associated with public sector employment. However, the question of whether PSM influences or is influenced by employment decisions remains open, since previous studies have mostly relied on cross-sectional samples...... with experienced employees. This article investigates the relationship between PSM and employment sector in pre-entry and post-entry settings using data from a panel of Danish physiotherapy students surveyed before and after their first job in the public or private sector. The analyses show that PSM is neither...
K. Golmankhaneh, Alireza; Balankin, Alexander S.
There is no way to build a nontrivial Markov process having continuous trajectories on a totally disconnected fractal embedded in the Euclidean space. Accordingly, in order to delineate the diffusion process on the totally disconnected fractal, one needs to relax the continuum requirement. Consequently, a diffusion process depends on how the continuum requirement is handled. This explains the emergence of different types of anomalous diffusion on the same totally disconnected set. In this regard, we argue that the number of effective spatial degrees of freedom of a random walker on the totally disconnected Cantor set is equal to nsp = [ D ] + 1, where [ D ] is the integer part of the Hausdorff dimension of the Cantor set. Conversely, the number of effective dynamical degrees of freedom (ds) depends on the definition of a Markov process on the totally disconnected Cantor set embedded in the Euclidean space En (n ≥nsp). This allows us to deduce the equation of diffusion by employing the local differential operators on the Fα-support. The exact solutions of this equation are obtained on the middle-ɛ Cantor sets for different kinds of the Markovian random processes. The relation of our findings to physical phenomena observed in complex systems is highlighted.
A widespread finding among studies from the US and the UK is that maternal employment is correlated with an increased risk of child overweight, even in a causal manner, whereas studies from other countries obtain less conclusive results. As evidence for Germany is still scarce, the purpose of this study is to identify the effect of maternal employment on childhood overweight in Germany using two sets of representative micro data. We further explore potential underlying mechanisms that might explain this relationship. In order to address the selection into maternal full-time employment, we use an instrumental variable strategy exploiting the number of younger siblings in the household as an instrument. While the OLS models suggest that maternal full-time employment is related to a 5 percentage point higher probability of the child to be overweight, IV estimates indicate a 25 percentage points higher overweight probability due to maternal full-time employment. Exploring various possible pathways, we find that maternal full-time employment promotes unhealthy dietary and activity behavior which might explain the positive effect of maternal employment on child overweight to some extent. Although there are limitations to our IV approach, several sensitivity analyses confirm the robustness of our findings. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In 2014, the average employment of hired workers in California crop and livestock agriculture, counting all occupations, rose by 10% to 410,900. However, although the state reports the number of jobs on farms regularly, it does not report the number of workers who fill these jobs. We analyzed all Social Security numbers reported by farm employers in 2014 and found two workers for each average or year-round equivalent farm job, making the total number of farmworkers employed in agriculture 829,300, or twice average employment. Approximately 83% of farmworkers had their maximum earnings with an agricultural employer in 2014, and almost 80% of those primary farmworkers were employed by crop support firms (392,000 or fruit and nut farms (154,000. Over 60% of all workers had only one farm employer, followed by 27% with two or more farm employers, and 35% were employed in Kern (116,000, Fresno (96,000 and Monterey (82,000 counties. These data show that California has a remarkably stable farm workforce: most farmworkers are attached to one farm employer, often a labor contractor who moves them from farm to farm.
Dodgson, Joan E; Chee, Yuet-Oi; Yap, Tian Sew
Breastfeeding initiation rates have been steadily rising in Hong Kong, but most employed women wean prior to returning to work. While health care providers promote breastfeeding, women receive little support from employers. A few health care facilities offer some workplace breastfeeding support, but little is known about the specific types and amount of support that are offered. This paper reports a study whose aim was to describe workplace supports available to breastfeeding women employed by hospitals that provide maternity services in Hong Kong, and to determine if differences in workplace supports exist based on the hospitals' numbers of employees or funding source. In late 2001, a cross-sectional survey was completed by nurse managers or lactation consultants most knowledgeable about supports to breastfeeding employees in 19 hospitals. The number of workplace breastfeeding supports or Breastfeeding Support Score (M = 7.47; sd = 3.37) varied considerably. Mean Breastfeeding Support Score for government-funded hospitals was significantly higher (t = 2.31; P = 0.03) than for private hospitals. Of the 14 hospitals that had a designated space for using a breast pump, only five (26.3%) had a private room with a door that locked. Only two hospitals (11.1%) allowed employees to take breaks as needed to use a pump; employees in 10 (55.6%) had to use their meal and regular break times. Hospitals having a hospital-wide committee that addressed workplace breastfeeding issues had a more supportive environment for breastfeeding employees. Although all surveyed hospitals returned the questionnaire, the sample size was small. It was difficult to ensure accuracy and to differentiate subtle variations in the services provided using a self-report survey. Facilitating continued breastfeeding after employees' return to work requires that employers understand the needs of breastfeeding employees. Policy at the level of the employer and government is an essential component of
Sleskova, M.; Tuinstra, J.; Geckova, A.M.; van Dijk, J.P.; Salonna, F.; Groothoff, J.W.; Reijneveld, S.A.
Background: Recent research shows the possibility that the link between parental employment status and children's health can be affected by different cultural or societal settings. The aim of this study was to explore whether the effect of father's and mother's employment status on several aspects
Mahmoud, Ramadan A; Roehr, Charles Christoph; Schmalisch, Gerd
Non-invasive ventilatory support can reduce the adverse effects associated with intubation and mechanical ventilation, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, sepsis, and trauma to the upper airways. In the last 4 decades, nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been used to wean preterm infants off mechanical ventilation and, more recently, as a primary mode of respiratory support for preterm infants with respiratory insufficiency. Moreover, new methods of respiratory support have been developed, and the devices used to provide non-invasive ventilation (NIV) have improved technically. Use of NIV is increasing, and a variety of equipment is available in different clinical settings. There is evidence that NIV improves gas exchange and reduces extubation failure after mechanical ventilation in infants. However, more research is needed to identify the most suitable devices for particular conditions; the NIV settings that should be used; and whether to employ synchronized or non-synchronized NIV. Furthermore, the optimal treatment strategy and the best time for initiation of NIV remain to be identified. This article provides an overview of the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in newborn infants, and the clinical applications of NIV. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Purpose: Nowadays it is very difficult for Chinese retired soldiers to find proper jobs, and the primary reason is the significant gap between job requirements and soldiers owned job skills. Therefore, it is very important to improve the soldiers’ job skills and enhance their understanding of employment.Design/methodology/approach: This paper expands the study scope from the soldiers’ job skills to the employability, initiatively introduces the employment attitude which has obvious impact on the employment of soldiers, and analyses the influence that employment attitude can play on employability. At last, this paper develops statistical method to find the relationship between soldiers’ employment attitude and employability.Findings: The empirical analysis shows that soldiers’ employment attitude has the positive linkage with employability, which makes the employment attitude a measurable variable for the employability rather than an absolute standard.Research limitations/implications: According to the research purpose, more variables should be considered in the model, consequently, there are only three indicators to describe solders’ employment attitude and four indicators to describe solders’ employability.Originality/value: This paper takes research on soldiers’ employability in a new perspective. The soldiers’ employment attitude is served as the entry point, showing the influence that soldiers’ employment attitude has on employability.
Jolly, Kate; Ingram, Lucy; Khan, Khalid S; Deeks, Jonathan J; Freemantle, Nick; MacArthur, Christine
To examine the effect of setting, intensity, and timing of peer support on breast feeding. Systematic review and metaregression analysis of randomised controlled trials. Cochrane Library, Medline, CINAHL, the National Research Register, and British Nursing Index were searched from inception or from 1980 to 2011. Review methods Study selection, data abstraction, and quality assessment were carried out independently and in duplicate. Risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for individual studies and pooled. Effects were estimated for studies grouped according to setting (high income countries, low or middle income countries, and the United Kingdom), intensity (services in high income countries need to undergo concurrent evaluation.
Is there an occupational therapy employment crisis within Australia? An investigation into two consecutive cohorts of occupational therapy graduates from a single Victorian University identifying trends in employment.
Fay, Pearse; Adamson, Lynne
Within the context of growing concerns about a potential oversupply of occupational therapist, this research examines when, where and how long new graduates take to gain employment and identifies influences upon the health and university systems. A mixed method research design, using an online survey was adopted to investigate the topic. Two consecutive cohorts of graduates from a single university program were invited to participate. Seventy-five (58%) responses were received, with 63 (84%) currently employed in an occupational therapy role. Of the 12 (16%) not employed, only 3 (4%) described themselves as actively seeking employment in an occupational therapy role. A wide spread of employment settings and scope of practice areas was reported. Findings suggest that occupational therapy graduates are gaining employment in a range of settings and practice areas, relatively quickly. This research adds evidence to the conversation around graduate employment within a region of Australia. The Australian population, health system and university changes are possible factors influencing employment. The research reveals the difficulties in understanding the current situation with limitations in data collected, varied terminology and an ever changing job seeking environment. The research provides a starting point for the occupational therapy profession to further understand the directions the profession is taking. University programs may also benefit by using the research to tailor course content to assist graduates in gaining employment or to present students with the prospects of new employment opportunities. © 2017 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Price, Aaron; Lee, Hee-Sun
Stereoscopy has been used in science education for 100 years. Recent innovations in low cost technology as well as trends in the entertainment industry have made stereoscopy popular among educators and audiences alike. However, experimental studies addressing whether stereoscopy actually impacts science learning are limited. Over the last decade, we have conducted a series of quasi-experimental and experimental studies on how children and adult visitors in science museums and planetariums learned about the structure and function of highly spatial scientific objects such as galaxies, supernova, etc. We present a synthesis of the results from these studies and implications for stereoscopic visualization development. The overall finding is that the impact of stereoscopy on perceptions of scientific objects is limited when presented as static imagery. However, when presented as full motion films, a significantly positive impact was detected. To conclude, we present a set of stereoscopic design principles that can help design astronomical stereoscopic films that support deep and effective learning. Our studies cover astronomical content such as the engineering of and imagery from the Mars rovers, artistic stereoscopic imagery of nebulae and a high-resolution stereoscopic film about how astronomers measure and model the structure of our galaxy.
Seruya, Francine M; Hinojosa, Jim
The professional and organizational commitment of paediatric occupational therapists working in two distinct practice settings, schools and medically based settings, was investigated. A web-based survey program was used to administer a questionnaire to occupational therapists employed in New York, New Jersey and Connecticut. The study employed social identity theory as a guiding perspective in understanding therapists' professional and organizational commitment. One hundred and fifty-seven paediatric therapists responded to the Professional Commitment Questionnaire and the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire to gauge their commitment to both the profession and their employing organizations. Results indicated that paediatric therapists, regardless of employment setting, have high professional commitment. Paediatric occupational therapists employed in medically based settings indicated statistically significant higher organizational commitment than their school-based counterparts. For therapists that work in school settings, the presence of a professional cohort did not influence professional commitment scores. As the study employed a web-based survey methodology, only individuals who were members of associations and had access to a computer and the Internet were able to participate. Further study might include widening the participant pool as well as adding additional instruments to explore both professional and organizational commitment on a more national scale. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper aimed to identify the best way to engage, motivate and support early childhood services (ECS and primary schools (PS to create policy and practise changes to promote healthy eating and physical activity. This information would be used to develop a suitable program to implement within these children's settings to reduce the risk of childhood overweight and obesity. Methods The Medical Research Council's (UK framework for the design and evaluation of complex interventions was used to guide the development of the healthy eating and physical activity program suitable for ECS and PS. Within this framework a range of evaluation methods, including stakeholder planning, in-depth interviews with ECS and PS staff and acceptability and feasibility trials in one local government area, were used to ascertain the best way to engage and support positive changes in these children's settings. Results Both ECS and PS identified that they had a role to play to improve children's healthy eating and physical activity. ECS identified their role in promoting healthy eating and physical activity as important for children's health, and instilling healthy habits for life. PS felt that these were health issues, rather than educational issues; however, schools saw the link between healthy eating and physical activity and student learning outcomes. These settings identified that a program that provides a simple guide that recognises good practise in these settings, such as an award scheme using a health promoting schools approach, as a feasible and acceptable way for them to support children's healthy eating and physical activity. Conclusion Through the process of design and evaluation a program - Kids - 'Go for your life', was developed to promote and support children's healthy eating and physical activity and reduce the risk of childhood overweight and obesity. Kids - 'Go for your life' used an award program, based on a health promoting
van Gorp, D A M; van der Klink, J J L; Abma, F I; Jongen, P J; van Lieshout, I; Arnoldus, E P J; Beenakker, E A C; Bos, H M; van Eijk, J J J; Fermont, J; Frequin, S T F M; de Gans, K; Hengstman, G J D; Hupperts, R M M; Mostert, J P; Pop, P H M; Verhagen, W I M; Zemel, D; Heerings, M A P; Reneman, M F; Middelkoop, H A M; Visser, L H; van der Hiele, K
The aim of this study was to examine whether work capabilities differ between workers with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and workers from the general population. The second aim was to investigate whether the capability set was related to work and health outcomes. A total of 163 workers with MS from the MS@Work study and 163 workers from the general population were matched for gender, age, educational level and working hours. All participants completed online questionnaires on demographics, health and work functioning. The Capability Set for Work Questionnaire was used to explore whether a set of seven work values is considered valuable (A), is enabled in the work context (B), and can be achieved by the individual (C). When all three criteria are met a work value can be considered part of the individual's 'capability set'. Group differences and relationships with work and health outcomes were examined. Despite lower physical work functioning (U = 4250, p = 0.001), lower work ability (U = 10591, p = 0.006) and worse self-reported health (U = 9091, p ≤ 0.001) workers with MS had a larger capability set (U = 9649, p ≤ 0.001) than the general population. In workers with MS, a larger capability set was associated with better flexible work functioning (r = 0.30), work ability (r = 0.25), self-rated health (r = 0.25); and with less absenteeism (r = - 0.26), presenteeism (r = - 0.31), cognitive/neuropsychiatric impairment (r = - 0.35), depression (r = - 0.43), anxiety (r = - 0.31) and fatigue (r = - 0.34). Workers with MS have a larger capability set than workers from the general population. In workers with MS a larger capability set was associated with better work and health outcomes. This observational study is registered under NL43098.008.12: 'Voorspellers van arbeidsparticipatie bij mensen met relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerose'. The study is registered at the Dutch CCMO register ( https
Harris, Ruth; Ooms, Ann; Grant, Robert; Marshall-Lucette, Sylvie; Chu, Christine Sek Fun; Sayer, Jane; Burke, Linda
Securing employment after qualification is of utmost importance to newly qualified nurses to consolidate knowledge and skills. The factors that influence success in gaining this first post are not known. The study aimed to describe the first post gained after qualification in terms of setting, nature of employment contract and geographical distribution and explore the relationship between a range of factors (including ethnicity) and employment at the point of qualification. An exploratory study using structured questionnaires and secondary analysis of data routinely collected by the universities about students and their progress during their course. The study was conducted in eight universities within a large, multicultural city in the UK as part of the 'Readiness for Work' research programme. Eight hundred and four newly qualified nurses who had successfully completed a diploma or degree from one of the universities; a response rate of 77% representing 49% of all graduating students in the study population. Data were collected by self-completed semi-structured questionnaires administered to students at the time of qualification and at three months post-qualification. Routinely collected data from the universities were also collected. Fifty two percent of participants had been offered a job at the point of qualification (85% of those who had applied and been interviewed). Of these, 99% had been offered a nursing post, 88% in the city studied, 67% in the healthcare setting where they had completed a course placement. 44% felt "confident" and 32% "very confident" about their employment prospects. Predictors of employment success included ethnicity, specialty of nursing and university attended. Predictors of confidence and preparedness for job seeking included ethnicity, nursing specialty, gender and grade of degree. Newly qualified nurses from non-White/British ethnic groups were less likely to get a job and feel confident about and prepared for job seeking. This
with the ability of the product to be satisfactorily maintained throughout its intended useful life span with minimum expenditures of money and effort...during the pre-concept phase, thereby ensuring a reduction in cost due to reducing eventual retrofits, and a more supportable weapon system. Lauder ...It is shown that although large sums of money are expended on producing reliable components, these are vitiated if the end equipment is not exposed
Liber, J.M.; de Boo, G.M.; Huizenga, H.; Prins, P.J.M.
Objective: In this randomized controlled trial, we investigated the effectiveness of a school-based targeted intervention program for disruptive behavior. A child-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program was introduced at schools in disadvantaged settings and with active teacher support
Liber, J.M.; de Boo, G.M.; Huizenga, H.; Prins, P.J.M.
Objective: In this randomized controlled trial, we investigated the effectiveness of a school-based targeted intervention program for disruptive behavior. A child-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program was introduced at schools in disadvantaged settings and with active teacher support
Kinge, Jonas Minet
Body mass index (BMI) is an imperfect measure of body fat. Recent studies provide evidence in favor of replacing BMI with waist circumference (WC). Hence, I investigated whether or not the association between fat mass and employment status vary by anthropometric measures. I used 15 rounds of the Health Survey for England (1998-2013), which has measures of employment status in addition to measured height, weight, and WC. WC and BMI were entered as continuous variables and obesity as binary variables defined using both WC and BMI. I used multivariate models controlling for a set of covariates. The association of WC with employment was of greater magnitude than the association between BMI and employment. I reran the analysis using conventional instrumental variables methods. The IV models showed significant impacts of obesity on employment; however, they were not more pronounced when WC was used to measure obesity, compared to BMI. This means that, in the IV models, the impact of fat mass on employment did not depend on the measure of fat mass.
Beyer, Stephen; Brown, Tony; Akandi, Rachel; Rapley, Mark
Background: Policy objectives for people with intellectual disabilities include day service modernization and the promotion of paid employment and quality of life. Quality of life is under represented as an outcome measure in vocational research. This research compares subjective and objective quality of life, and quality of work environment for…
This research note uses two German data sets – the large-scale German Socio-Economic Panel and unique data from own student questionnaires – to analyse the relationship between risk aversion and the choice for public sector employment. Main results are: (1) more risk averse individuals sort into public sector employment, (2) the impact of career specific and unemployment risk attitudes is larger than the impact of general risk attitudes, and (3) risk taking is rewarded with higher wages in th...
Albeverio, S.; Fenstad, J.E.; Stanford Univ., CA; Hoeegh-Krohn, R.; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 13 - Marseille; Aix-Marseille-2 Univ., 13 - Marseille; Karwowski, W.; Lindstroem, T.
We discuss Hamiltonians in L 2 (Rsup(d), dx) of the form H = -Δ + V, with V a potential supported by a zero measure set C. In particular if C is a path of a Brownian motion b such that V(x) = ∫(1-0)lambda(x,ωdelta(x-b(s,ω)ds, we show that H exists as a nontrivial, self-adjoint, lower bounded perturbation of -Δ when d 4 -type is also discussed. The proofs use methods of nonstandard analysis. (orig.)
Koopman, Rudpolhus Gerardus Maria
There are all kind of support programs to support entrepreneurship. There are several ways of supporting entrepreneurship, where the person, the entrepreneur, is seen as one of the key factors for stimulating entrepreneurship. The support of the person is what I mention as soft support. To avoid confusion and to get insight in the different kinds of soft support of the entrepreneur, different terms used for this support should be put into perspective. Soft support like coaching, mentoring, co...
Curby, Timothy W; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E; Abry, Tashia
Many teachers believe that providing greater emotional and organizational supports in the beginning of the year strengthens their ability to teach effectively as the year progresses. Some interventions, such as the Responsive Classroom (RC) approach, explicitly embed this sequence into professional development efforts. We tested the hypothesis that earlier emotional and organizational supports set the stage for improved instruction later in the year in a sample of third- and fourth-grade teachers enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of the RC approach. Further, we examined the extent to which the model generalized for teachers using varying levels of RC practices as well as whether or not teachers were in the intervention or control groups. Teachers' emotional, organizational, and instructional interactions were observed using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (Pianta, La Paro, & Hamre, 2008) on five occasions throughout the year. Results indicated a reciprocal relation between emotional and instructional supports. Specifically, higher levels of emotional support earlier in the year predicted higher instructional support later in the year. Also, higher levels of instructional support earlier in the year predicted higher emotional support later in the year. Classroom organization was not found to have longitudinal associations with the other domains across a year. This pattern was robust when controlling for the use of RC practices as well as across intervention and control groups. Further, teachers' use of RC practices predicted higher emotional support and classroom organization throughout the year, suggesting the malleability of this teacher characteristic. Discussion highlights the connection between teachers' emotional and instructional supports and how the use of RC practices improves teachers' emotionally supportive interactions with students. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights
The aim of this research was to explore demographic, familial, and attitudinal correlates of Taiwanese women's employment status. Using data from a representative nationwide sample of female workers aged 21 and above (N = 1,047), the author found that (a) the employment rate of females decreased steadily with age, with no sign of reentry into the…
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Regarding the importance of employment in social and emotional status of individuals, it would be important for the deaf. The purpose of the present study was to assess the employment status of the members of Tehran deaf community.Methods: This descriptive study was performed on all members of Tehran deaf community. A researchers-made questionnaire which had three parts (demographic information, employment status of the deaf members and their attitudes regarding employment was used in this study. The obtained data were analyzed using descriptive methods.Results: Majority of deaf community members were adult (ages ranging between 18 and 30. Sixty-eight of them (52.5% were female and 53 (47.5% were male, from our participants, 56.2% were unemployed and 43.8% were employed. Main problems were: having no access to facilities regarding their disability (14.5%, communication problems (9.4%, lower salaries because of their disability (12.4%, being far from the working place (15.4%, disproportion of working environment to their disability (11.4%, maltreatment of their coworkers (13.2%, maltreatment of their employer (12.5% and discrimination because of their disability (11.2%, the attitudes of the deaf members were positive regarding the employment in all areas: 90% of them considered it as an essential part of life versus 10% of them mentioned not very important issue.Conclusion: Our findings showed that most of the deaf were supported by their family members, but not by the social facilities or their past education. The social policies should be reformed to support employment of the deaf.
Crump, Matthew J C; Logan, Gordon D
Contextual cues signaling task likelihood or the likelihood of task repetition are known to modulate the size of switch costs. We follow up on the finding by Leboe, Wong, Crump, and Stobbe (2008) that location cues predictive of the proportion of switch or repeat trials modulate switch costs. Their design employed one cue per task, whereas our experiment employed two cues per task, which allowed separate assessment of modulations to the cue-repetition benefit, a measure of lower level cue-encoding processes, and to the task-alternation cost, a measure of higher level processes representing task-set information. We demonstrate that location information predictive of switch proportion modulates performance at the level of task-set representations. Furthermore, we demonstrate that contextual control occurs even when subjects are unaware of the associations between context and switch likelihood. We discuss the notion that contextual information provides rapid, unconscious control over the extent to which prior task-set representations are retrieved in the service of guiding online performance.
Methods: Qualitative research methods were applied. Data were collected using semistructured interviews and a collage-making and storytelling method. Thematic analysis highlighted the main themes representing the meaning the five participants ascribed to the group. Results: The findings suggest that the group offered the participants a sense of belonging and a means of social and emotional support. The group also created opportunity for learning, encouraged mental and physical mobilisation and stimulation, and served as an additional link to professional services. Conclusion: The findings suggest that student-facilitated support groups could offer a viable supplement for offering support to service users in PHC settings. The group assisted MHC users to cope with symptoms, social integration, and participating in meaningful activities as part of rehabilitation services.
Wada, Roy; Chaloupka, Frank J; Powell, Lisa M; Jernigan, David H
There is strong scientific evidence supporting the effectiveness of increasing alcohol taxes for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related problems. Opponents have argued that alcohol tax increases lead to job losses. However, there has been no comprehensive economic analysis of the impact of alcohol taxes on employment. To fill this gap, a regional macroeconomic simulation model was used to assess the net impact of two hypothetical alcohol tax increases (a 5-cent per drink excise tax increase and a 5% sales tax increase on beer, wine, and distilled spirits, respectively) on employment in Arkansas, Florida, Massachusetts, New Mexico, and Wisconsin. The model accounted for changes in alcohol demand, average state income, and substitution effects. The employment impact of spending the new tax revenue on general expenditures versus health care was also assessed. Simulation results showed that a 5-cent per drink additional excise tax on alcoholic beverages with new tax revenues allocated to general expenditures increased net employment in Arkansas (802 jobs); Florida (4583 jobs); Massachusetts (978 jobs); New Mexico (653 jobs); and Wisconsin (1167 jobs). A 5% additional sales tax also increased employment in Arkansas (789 jobs; Florida (4493 jobs); Massachusetts (898 jobs); New Mexico (621 jobs); and Wisconsin (991 jobs). Using new alcohol tax revenues to fund health care services resulted in slightly lower net increases in state employment. The overall economic impact of alcohol tax increases cannot be fully assessed without accounting for the job gains resulting from additional tax revenues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hall, Peter V; Montgomery, Phyllis; Davie, Samantha; Dickins, Kevin; Forchuk, Cheryl; Jeng, Momodou S; Kersey, Melissa; Meier, Amanda; Lahey, Pam; Rudnick, Abraham; Solomon, Michelle; Warner, Laura
For people with mental illness (psychiatric survivors), seeking and securing employment involves personal, social, and environmental factors. In Canada, psychiatric survivors are under-represented in the workforce, and services can help by tailoring their supports to help make the most gains in employment. Determine whether individual socio-demographic and health factors predict seeking and securing employment among psychiatric survivors. A community sample of psychiatric survivors from a Southwestern Ontario region participated in this study. Stepwise logistic regression was used to analyze data from 363 participants who had completed a variety of questionnaires to ascertain individual characteristics and employment outcomes. Health service utilization, living circumstances, homelessness, substance use issues, general health, social integration, ethnicity, having children under 18, and being a student emerged as significant predictors of seeking and securing work. Other commonly accepted human capital indicators, such as education and age, were not predictive of employment search behavior and outcomes. Individual characteristics that predict employment search and success outcomes for psychiatric survivors include aspects related to treatment and living circumstances, which stands in contrast to predictors of employment for the general population, suggesting that employment support services may need to be tailored to psychiatric survivors specifically.
Fugini, Maria Grazia; Valles, Ramon Salvador
This book explores the factors that affect the efficiency and effectiveness of electronic government (e-Government) by analyzing two employment- service systems in Italy and Catalonia: the Borsa Lavoro Lombardia Portal (Lombardy Employment Services Portal) and the Servei d'Ocupació de Catalunya (Catalan Employment Services Portal). The evaluation methodology used in the case studies and the related set of technical, social, and economic indicators are clearly described. The technological and organizational features of the systems of the two systems are then compared and their impacts assessed
Alegria, Margarita; Drake, Robert E; Kang, Hyeon-Ah; Metcalfe, Justin; Liu, Jingchen; DiMarzio, Karissa; Ali, Naomi
Social determinants of health, such as poverty and minority background, severely disadvantage many people with mental disorders. A variety of innovative federal, state, and local programs have combined social services with mental health interventions. To explore the potential effects of such supports for addressing poverty and disadvantage on mental health outcomes, we simulated improvements in three social determinants-education, employment, and income. We used two large data sets: one from the National Institute of Mental Health that contained information about people with common mental disorders such as anxiety and depression, and another from the Social Security Administration that contained information about people who were disabled due to severe mental disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Our simulations showed that increasing employment was significantly correlated with improvements in mental health outcomes, while increasing education and income produced weak or nonsignificant correlations. In general, minority groups as well as the majority group of non-Latino whites improved in the desired outcomes. We recommend that health policy leaders, state and federal agencies, and insurers provide evidence-based employment services as a standard treatment for people with mental disorders. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Fayeq Ali Ali
Full Text Available Skills are prerequisite for managers and employees success, especially for newly graduate students. This study is to evaluate the employability skills of business students at Ishik University and to assess how employability skills are perceived by potential employers. Three sets of employability skills have been used in this study such as basic academic skills, high-order thinking, and personal qualities. A questionnaire has been developed which included above dimensions and was distributed among students in the faculty of administrative sciences and economics at Ishik University, Kurdistan Region. Respondents’ opinions were assessed using a Likert scale analysis that shows divergent opinions between two extremes of levels of agreement and disagreement. Another technique of an open-ended questionnaire was used when conducting interviews with a few of the potential employers in some private sector companies. Study focuses on the common employability skills of business graduates by evaluating the faculty of administrative sciences and economics courses. Study find out that communication skills, team working skills, computer skills, and critical thinking were among the employability skills which are expected by potential employers. The paper concludes that business graduates have developed an adequate level of employability skill through their years of academic training at business department in Ishik University. Thus, the curriculum of business department at Ishik University is adequately developed to prompt the employability skills that are sought by potential employers that every business student should acquire to stand out in the aggressively competitive job market.
Saunders, Venetia; Zuzel, Katherine
Graduate employability is a key issue for Higher Education. In this two-part study student employability skills have been evaluated from the perspective of sandwich students and graduates in biomolecular science, and their employers. A strong correlation was found between employer and sandwich student/graduate perceptions of the relative…
Clark Patrick Heard
Full Text Available Background: Leadership is vital to clinical, organizational, and professional success. This has compelled a high volume of research primarily related to formal leadership concepts. However, as organizations flatten, eliminate departmental structures, or decentralize leadership structures the relevance of informal leaders has markedly enhanced. Methods: Using a qualitative phenomenological methodology consistent with interpretative phenomenological analysis, this study examines the impact of informal leadership in the clinical setting for occupational therapists. Data was collected through the completion of semi-structured interviews with 10 peer-identified informal occupational therapy leaders in Ontario, Canada. Collected data was transcribed verbatim and coded for themes by multiple coders. Several methods were employed to support trustworthiness. Results: The results identify that informal leaders are collaborative, accessible, and considered the “go to” staff. They demonstrate professional competence knowledge, experience, and accountability and are inspirational and creative. Practically, informal leaders organically shape the practice environment while building strength and capacity among their peers. Conclusion: Recommendations for supporting informal leaders include acknowledgement of the role and its centrality, enabling informal leaders time to undertake the role, and supporting consideration of informal leadership concepts at the curriculum and professional level.
Li, Hongying; Lou, Jing; Shang, Zhi
This work presents a numerical model for simulation of three-fluid flow involving two different moving interfaces. These interfaces are captured using the level-set method via two different level-set functions. A combined formulation with only one set of conservation equations for the whole physical domain, consisting of the three different immiscible fluids, is employed. Numerical solution is performed on a fixed mesh using the finite volume method. Surface tension effect is incorporated using the Continuum Surface Force model. Validation of the present model is made against available results for stratified flow and rising bubble in a container with a free surface. Applications of the present model are demonstrated by a variety of three-fluid flow systems including (1) three-fluid stratified flow, (2) two-fluid stratified flow carrying the third fluid in the form of drops and (3) simultaneous rising and settling of two drops in a stationary third fluid. The work is supported by a Thematic and Strategic Research from A*STAR, Singapore (Ref. #: 1021640075).
Katz, Ruth; Lowenstein, Ariela; Prilutzky, Dana; Halperin, Dafna
The study examined employers' knowledge of and attitudes toward working carers who care for aging family members. The study was based on the ecological model. One hundred employers were interviewed using structured questionnaires and 13 employers by additional in-depth interviews. Both research instruments included areas of disruption to the organization, existing policies, and feasibility as to developing appropriate policies to support working carers. Results show that caregiving caused a disruption in workers' functioning mainly by being absent, leaving work early, and coming to work late. Usually, there was "no policy," and half of the employers did not support introducing such a policy. Women managers in public organizations, who had less seniority and less previous experience with working-carers, tended to be more positive about supportive policies. Recommendations are included.
Iva Bjelinski Radić
Full Text Available Recently, under the influence of rapid development of digital technologies, new flexible forms of employment have emerged, which are characterized by strong or prevalent support of information and communication technology. Online platform Uber which provides urban passenger transport services is one of the best known examples of the abovementioned changes in work organization. Taking into account that emergence of Uber has given rise to numerous controversies and set new contemporary regulatory challenges in the labour law field, the author in this paper problematizes the main labour law issues and challenges arising from Uber’s business model. The first part of the paper contains the short overview of the new forms of employment emerged under the influence of digitalisation of labour market, with the special emphasis on the model of crowd work. In the second part the author analyses the Uber’s business model. In the third part the issue of classification of Uber drivers as employees or self-employed persons is examined in detail. The following question has been considered especially from the Croatian labour law perspective – whether the key elements of an employment relationship are de facto present, and to what extent, in the contractual relationship between Uber and its drivers – partners. Finally, the author concludes with the final remarks and underlines the need to establish clear and transparent legal framework which will be suitable for development of the new forms of employment emerged under the influence of digital technologies.
... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment of aliens; Access to sensitive... Complaints § 268.205 Employment of aliens; Access to sensitive information. (a) Definitions. The definitions...— (i) A citizen or National of the United States, (ii) An alien who: (A) Meets the conditions set forth...
Koopman, Rudpolhus Gerardus Maria
There are all kind of support programs to support entrepreneurship. There are several ways of supporting entrepreneurship, where the person, the entrepreneur, is seen as one of the key factors for stimulating entrepreneurship. The support of the person is what I mention as soft support. To avoid
Sanders, J.; Dorenbosch, L.; Blonk, R.
This contribution aims to provide a framework for viewing the fragility of employability and potentially fruitful routes for making employability more sustainable. A second goal, is to inspire readers with examples from the Netherlands, to create and test promising interventions, so that a broad set
El Jamil, Fatima; Hamadeh, Ghassan N; Osman, Hibah
Intern support groups have been instituted in many residency programs to improve resident well-being. In this article, we discuss the themes that emerged in intern support group meetings in a family medicine program operating in a setting of war and political instability. We held support groups, led by a family physician and a psychologist, that met monthly. Participants were residents in the family medicine program at the American University of Beirut. These residents began their training days after the commencement of the 34-day war between Israel and Hizbollah in 2006. Themes and issues discussed by the residents were noted and are reported in this article. We found that despite the stressors of the political situation, our interns focused on the usual stress of internship, such as the difficulties of functioning as interns in other departments and dealing with the time demands of internship as their main sources of stress at the beginning of internship. The stresses associated with the war did not emerge in the group until later in the year. These included tension with patients and political confrontations with staff, as well as personal struggles with the lack of political stability and depressed mood. This paper serves to share our experience and highlight some areas of concern that residents experience when training in a country or region that is at war.
Ropiquet, Anne; Li, Blaise; Hassanin, Alexandre
Supermatrix and supertree are two methods for constructing a phylogenetic tree by using multiple data sets. However, these methods are not a panacea, as conflicting signals between data sets can lead to misinterpret the evolutionary history of taxa. In particular, the supermatrix approach is expected to be misleading if the species-tree signal is not dominant after the combination of the data sets. Moreover, most current supertree methods suffer from two limitations: (i) they ignore or misinterpret secondary (non-dominant) phylogenetic signals of the different data sets; and (ii) the logical basis of node robustness measures is unclear. To overcome these limitations, we propose a new approach, called SuperTRI, which is based on the branch support analyses of the independent data sets, and where the reliability of the nodes is assessed using three measures: the supertree Bootstrap percentage and two other values calculated from the separate analyses: the mean branch support (mean Bootstrap percentage or mean posterior probability) and the reproducibility index. The SuperTRI approach is tested on a data matrix including seven genes for 82 taxa of the family Bovidae (Mammalia, Ruminantia), and the results are compared to those found with the supermatrix approach. The phylogenetic analyses of the supermatrix and independent data sets were done using four methods of tree reconstruction: Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood, and unweighted and weighted maximum parsimony. The results indicate, firstly, that the SuperTRI approach shows less sensitivity to the four phylogenetic methods, secondly, that it is more accurate to interpret the relationships among taxa, and thirdly, that interesting conclusions on introgression and radiation can be drawn from the comparisons between SuperTRI and supermatrix analyses.
... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of net earnings from self-employment... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(a)-1 Definition of net earnings from self-employment. (a) Subject to the special rules set forth in §§ 1.1402(a)-3...
Wicks, E K; Hall, M A
Health insurance purchasing cooperatives were established in the early to mid-1990s for the purpose of making health insurance more affordable and accessible for small employers. Extensive interviews at six cooperatives reveal that while some cooperatives enrolled large numbers of small employers, most have won only small market shares and a number have struggled for survival, not always successfully. They have allowed small employers to offer individual employees choice of health plans, but none has been able to sustain lower prices than are available in the conventional market. Among the important impediments to their success are limited support from health plans and conflicts over the role of insurance agents.
Employment and Growth. Emploi et croissance. Language English. Read more about Poverty Reduction through Private Sector Development : Policy Research on Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises. Language English. Read more about Child Support, Poverty and Gender Equality in the Caribbean - Phase II. Language ...
Although economic progress has reduced poverty, the region still suffers from important ... environmental depletion, growing informal employment, and food insecurity. ... Read more about Supporting sustainable economic growth in ASEAN ... CIES representatives shared details of the unique role the Consortium plays in ...
Demoralization is a commonly observed feeling state that is characterized by a sense of loss of or threat to one's personal values or goals and a perceived inability to overcome obstacles toward achieving these goals. Demoralization has features in common with burnout and may precede or accompany it. Psychiatrists working in many mental health care organizational settings, be they in the public or private sectors, may be at particular risk for demoralization. This is due partly to stressors that threaten their own professional values because of factors such as programmatic cut backs, budgetary reductions and changing social emphases on the value of mental health treatments. They also may be at risk for demoralization because of the effects on them of the governance styles of the agencies in which they are employed. The leadership or governance style in large organizational settings often is authoritarian, hierarchical and bureaucratic, approaches that are antithetical to the more participative leadership styles favored by many mental health professionals in their clinical activities. Clinical leaders in mental health organizations must exhibit various competencies to successfully address demoralization in clinical staff and to provide a counterbalance to the effects of the governance style of many agencies in which they are employed. Appropriate leadership skills, sometimes too simplistically termed "social support", have been found to reduce burnout in various populations and are likely to lessen demoralization as well. This paper reviews these important leadership issues and the relationship of social support to recognized leadership competencies.
The fit note replaced the sick note in 2010. The statement of fitness for work (fit note) is expected to benefit the British economy by helping more people stay in work and prevent long-term sickness absence. Understanding and responding to employers' views on the fit note is key, in order for this goal to be achieved. To explore employers' views on the fit note. A qualitative study was undertaken and face-to-face interviews were conducted with participants representing employers from a variety of industries. There were 21 participants who were mainly human resources officers and line managers. Employers welcomed the introduction of the fit note and felt that it was an improvement on the sick note. The majority of employers felt the fit note had the potential to promote an earlier return to work, if used properly. The main problems reported were the completion of the fit notes and quality of advice received from general practitioners. Employers felt that the most helpful advice came from fit notes with information on the functional effects of the medical condition. Some employers found return to work decisions problematic. The fit note has the potential to promote an earlier return to work. In order for the fit note to achieve its aim, further understanding of the difficulties employers are having when making return to work decisions is important, in order to develop guidance to enable them to provide the practical support employees need to return to work sooner. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Full Text Available Background. There are modes of mechanical ventilation that can select ventilator settings with computer controlled algorithms (targeting schemes. Two examples are adaptive support ventilation (ASV and mid-frequency ventilation (MFV. We studied how different clinician-chosen ventilator settings are from these computer algorithms under different scenarios. Methods. A survey of critical care clinicians provided reference ventilator settings for a 70 kg paralyzed patient in five clinical/physiological scenarios. The survey-derived values for minute ventilation and minute alveolar ventilation were used as goals for ASV and MFV, respectively. A lung simulator programmed with each scenario’s respiratory system characteristics was ventilated using the clinician, ASV, and MFV settings. Results. Tidal volumes ranged from 6.1 to 8.3 mL/kg for the clinician, 6.7 to 11.9 mL/kg for ASV, and 3.5 to 9.9 mL/kg for MFV. Inspiratory pressures were lower for ASV and MFV. Clinician-selected tidal volumes were similar to the ASV settings for all scenarios except for asthma, in which the tidal volumes were larger for ASV and MFV. MFV delivered the same alveolar minute ventilation with higher end expiratory and lower end inspiratory volumes. Conclusions. There are differences and similarities among initial ventilator settings selected by humans and computers for various clinical scenarios. The ventilation outcomes are the result of the lung physiological characteristics and their interaction with the targeting scheme.
Jun 1, 2013 ... graduate employability, what private universities doing in Ethiopia and the associated ... needs to be supported by national graduate employability focused policy ... given by Malaysia‟s Ministry of Higher Education (2012) on the basis of the ... Student/ staff satisfaction. Output. Graduates. Research outputs.
Full Text Available Besides influences economic, political and social on the standard form of individual employment contract, which led to a more flexible regulatory framework in the field of labor relations, an important factor that marked trend evolving contract atypical employment is the number of women who entered the labor market in recent decades. Because most strongly feminized form of employment non-standard employment relationship part-time, this article captures the issues most important about the relationship work part-time and the gender factor, the impact of this form of employment on the size women's social and level of protection provided by labor law and social protection rules in light of states that have agreed to support and legitimize this form of employment. Also, the circumstances of the most important, determining the choice of women in terms of hiring part-time, rationales justifying the strong influence of gender in hiring part-time, along with the identification of negative consequences of the feminization of this atypical forms of work are important factors that are discussed in this article.
All educators want their classrooms to be inviting areas that support investigations. However, a common mistake is to fill learning spaces with items or objects that are set up by the teacher or are simply "for show." This type of setting, although it may create a comfortable space for students, fails to stimulate investigations and…
Kahanov, Leamor; Loebsack, Alice R; Masucci, Matthew A; Roberts, Jeff
Female athletic trainers (ATs) are currently underrepresented in the collegiate setting. Parenting and family obligations may play a role in this underrepresentation. To examine female ATs' perspectives on parenting and working in the secondary school and collegiate employment settings. Cross-sectional study. Online survey. A total of 1000 nonstudent, female certified ATs who were currently members of the National Athletic Trainers' Association. An original survey was developed to assess perceptions related to motherhood and work responsibilities. Descriptive statistics were used to assess age, years of experience as a certified AT, employment position, and parent or nonparent status. A correlation matrix was conducted to determine factors among parent and nonparent status, perceptions of motherhood, and employment-setting decisions. Of the 1000 surveys sent via e-mail, 411 (41.1%) female ATs responded. Responses indicated that a majority of the female ATs worked in the secondary school setting. Sixty-one percent of the respondents did not have children. Past female ATs' experiences indicated a perception that motherhood created more challenges or struggles (or both) in the work and family settings. Whether parents considered children a factor in employment-setting changes produced conflicting results: no significant correlations or differences were found among responses. Parenting considerations had influences on both the home and employment settings. Although parents and nonparents had different views on the implications of parenting in the workplace, both groups agreed that parenting could affect the work environment and the choice to change employment settings and careers. Administrative decisions need to be considered in relation to parenting concerns. Mentoring that includes employment-setting choices relative to life goals should be provided to ATs, regardless of sex.
English, Dan; Ankem, Kalyani; English, Kathleen
There are clinical and economic benefits to incorporating clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) in patient care interventions in the clinical pharmacy setting. However, user dissatisfaction and resistance to HIT can prevent optimal use of such systems, particularly when users employ system workarounds and overrides. The present study applied a modified version of the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) to evaluate the disposition and satisfaction with CDSS among clinical pharmacists who perform surveillance to identify potential medication therapy interventions on patients in the hospital setting. A survey of clinical pharmacists (N = 48) was conducted. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to analyze the influence of the UTAUT-related variables on behavioral intention and satisfaction with CDSS among clinical pharmacists. While behavioral intention did not predict actual use of HIT, facilitating conditions had a direct effect on pharmacists' use of CDSS. Likewise, satisfaction with CDSS was found to have a direct effect on use, with more satisfied users being less inclined to employ workarounds or overrides of the system. Based on the findings, organizational structures that facilitate CDSS use and user satisfaction affect the extent to which pharmacy and health care management maximize use in the clinical pharmacy setting.
Lin, Emile N.J. Th. van; Vight, Lisette van der; Huizenga, Henk; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.; Visser, Andries G.
Purpose: First, to investigate the set-up improvement resulting from the introduction of a customised head and neck (HN) support system in combination with a technologist-driven off-line correction protocol in HN radiotherapy. Second, to define margins for planning target volume definition, accounting for systematic and random set-up uncertainties. Methods and materials: In 63 patients 498 treatment fractions were evaluated to develop and implement a 3D shrinking action level correction protocol. In the comparative study two different HN-supports were compared: a flexible 'standard HN-support' and a 'customised HN-support'. For all three directions (x, y and z) random and systematic set-up deviations (1 S.D.) were measured. Results: The customised HN-support improves the patient positioning compared to the standard HN-support. The 1D systematic errors in the x, y and z directions were reduced from 2.2-2.3 mm to 1.2-2.0 mm (1 S.D.). The 1D random errors for the y and z directions were reduced from 1.6 and 1.6 mm to 1.1 and 1.0 mm (1 S.D.). The correction protocol reduced the 1D systematic errors further to 0.8-1.1 mm (1 S.D.) and all deviations in any direction were within 5 mm. Treatment time per measured fraction was increased from 10 to 13 min. The total time required per patient, for the complete correction procedure, was approximately 40 min. Conclusions: Portal imaging is a powerful tool in the evaluation of the department specific patient positioning procedures. The introduction of a comfortable customised HN-support, in combination with an electronic portal imaging device-based correction protocol, executed by technologists, led to an improvement of overall patient set-up. As a result, application of proposed recipes for CTV-PTV margins indicates that these can be reduced to 3-4 mm
Employment and Growth. Language English. Read more about Economic Research Forum - Core Support 2012-2014. Language English. Read more about IDRC-GDN: A Strengthened Partnership for Research Capacity Building. Language English. Read more about Impact of Minimum Wage on the Labour Market in ...
Cetin, Muejgan; Egrican, Niluefer
Solar energy is considered a key source for the future, not only for Turkey, also for all of the world. Therefore the development and usage of solar energy technologies are increasingly becoming vital for sustainable economic development. The main objective of this study is investigating the employment effects of solar energy industry in Turkey. Some independent reports and studies, which analyze the economic and employment impacts of solar energy industry in the world have been reviewed. A wide range of methods have been used in those studies in order to calculate and to predict the employment effects. Using the capacity targets of the photovoltaic (PV) and concentrated solar power (CSP) plants in the solar Roadmap of Turkey, the prediction of the direct and indirect employment impacts to Turkey's economy is possible. As a result, solar energy in Turkey would be the primary source of energy demand and would have a big employment effects on the economics. That can only be achieved with the support of governmental feed-in tariff policies of solar energy and by increasing research-development funds. - Highlights: → The objective of the study, is investigating employment effects of solar energy. → Using the capacity targets of the PV and CSP plants in solar roadmap of Turkey. → Direct employment has been calculated by constructing of the solar power plant. → If multiplier effect is accepted as 2, total employment will be doubled. → Validity of the figures depends on the government's policies.
Stenehjem, E.J.; Metzger, J.E.
This report provides a framework which energy planners can use to readily estimate the size and timing of the population and employment changes associated with energy development. The direct employment requirements for eight different technologies are listed. This direct employment requirement can be combined with the set of employment multipliers and other information provided to obtain practical estimates of the employment and population impacts of new energy development. Some explanation is given for the variation of the multipliers among counties in the same region. A description is presented of a demographic model for deriving the annual population changes that can be expected as a result of in-migrating workers and their families. Several hypothetical examples of the procedure for making the calculations are discussed as practical exercises in using the multipliers. The necessary data are provided for obtaining estimates of population and employment changes in any county in the US.
Miller, Cynthia; Deitch, Victoria; Hill, Aaron
Between 2000 and 2003, the Employment Retention and Advancement (ERA) project identified and implemented a diverse set of innovative models designed to promote employment stability and wage or earnings progression among low-income individuals, mostly current or former welfare recipients. The project's goal was to determine which strategies could…
Gatos, Ilias; Tsantis, Stavros; Spiliopoulos, Stavros; Karnabatidis, Dimitris; Theotokas, Ioannis; Zoumpoulis, Pavlos; Loupas, Thanasis; Hazle, John D; Kagadis, George C
The purpose of the present study was to employ a computer-aided diagnosis system that classifies chronic liver disease (CLD) using ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE) imaging, with a stiffness value-clustering and machine-learning algorithm. A clinical data set of 126 patients (56 healthy controls, 70 with CLD) was analyzed. First, an RGB-to-stiffness inverse mapping technique was employed. A five-cluster segmentation was then performed associating corresponding different-color regions with certain stiffness value ranges acquired from the SWE manufacturer-provided color bar. Subsequently, 35 features (7 for each cluster), indicative of physical characteristics existing within the SWE image, were extracted. A stepwise regression analysis toward feature reduction was used to derive a reduced feature subset that was fed into the support vector machine classification algorithm to classify CLD from healthy cases. The highest accuracy in classification of healthy to CLD subject discrimination from the support vector machine model was 87.3% with sensitivity and specificity values of 93.5% and 81.2%, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis gave an area under the curve value of 0.87 (confidence interval: 0.77-0.92). A machine-learning algorithm that quantifies color information in terms of stiffness values from SWE images and discriminates CLD from healthy cases is introduced. New objective parameters and criteria for CLD diagnosis employing SWE images provided by the present study can be considered an important step toward color-based interpretation, and could assist radiologists' diagnostic performance on a daily basis after being installed in a PC and employed retrospectively, immediately after the examination. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Minocha, Shailey; Tudor, Ana-Despina
We showed a variety of virtual reality technologies, and through examples, we discussed how virtual reality technology is transforming work styles and workplaces. Virtual reality is becoming pervasive in almost all domains starting from arts, environmental causes to medical education and disaster management training, and to supporting patients with Dementia. Thus, an awareness of the virtual reality technology and its integration in curriculum design will provide and enhance employability ski...
Key skills such as communication and critical thinking are essential for today's microbiology graduate. There are many opportunities within the undergraduate curriculum to help students to use, develop and appreciate their own unique set of skills. This article describes personal experiences of research-led teaching at Manchester Metropolitan University (UK) which have been used successfully to encourage creativity and other employability skills in both large and smaller classroom settings, and through individual student project work. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
North, Adrian C; Davidson, Jane W
Sociologists have argued that musical taste should vary between social groups, but have not considered whether the effect extends beyond taste into uses of music and also emotional reactions to music. Moreover, previous research has ignored the culture in which participants are located. The present research employed a large sample from five post-industrial global regions and showed that musical taste differed between regions but not according to education and employment; and that there were three-way interactions between education, employment, and region in the uses to which participants put music and also their typical emotional reactions. In addition to providing partial support for existing sociological theory, the findings highlight the potential of culture as a variable in future quantitative research on taste. © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.
Jack, Gavin; Riach, Kathleen; Bariola, Emily; Pitts, Marian; Schapper, Jan; Sarrel, Philip
Large numbers of women transition through menopause whilst in paid employment. Symptoms associated with menopause may cause difficulties for working women, especially if untreated, yet employers are practically silent on this potentially costly issue. This review summarises existing research on the underexplored topic of menopause in the workplace, and synthesises recommendations for employers. Longstanding scholarly interest in the relationship between employment status and symptom reporting typically (but not consistently) shows that women in paid employment (and in specific occupations) report fewer and less severe symptoms than those who are unemployed. Recent studies more systematically focused on the effects of menopausal symptoms on work are typically cross-sectional self-report surveys, with a small number of qualitative studies. Though several papers established that vasomotor (and associated) symptoms have a negative impact on women's productivity, capacity to work and work experience, this is not a uniform finding. Psychological and other somatic symptoms associated with menopause can have a relatively greater negative influence. Physical (e.g., workplace temperature and design) and psychosocial (e.g., work stress, perceptions of control/autonomy) workplace factors have been found to influence the relationship between symptoms and work. Principal recommendations for employers to best support menopausal women as part of a holistic approach to employee health and well-being include risk assessments to make suitable adjustments to the physical and psychosocial work environment, provision of information and support, and training for line managers. Limitations of prior studies, and directions for future research are presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
A participatory supportive return to work program for workers without an employment contract, sick-listed due to a common mental disorder: an economic evaluation alongside a randomized controlled trial.
Lammerts, L.; van Dongen, J.M.; Schaafsma, F.G.; van Mechelen, W.; Anema, J.R.
BACKGROUND: Mental disorders are associated with high costs for productivity loss, sickness absence and unemployment. A participatory supportive return to work (RTW) program was developed in order to improve RTW among workers without an employment contract, sick-listed due to a common mental
Jones, Martin H.; Irvin, Matthew J.; Kibe, Grace W.
The study is one of few to examine how living in rural, suburban, or urban settings may alter factors supporting African Americans adolescents' math performance. The study examines the relationship of math self-concept and perceptions of friends' academic behaviors to African American students' math performance. Participants (N = 1,049) are…
Mendelsohn, Steven; Edyburn, Dave L; Rust, Kathy L; Schwanke, Todd D; Smith, Roger O
We know that work is recognized as a central component of life for individuals with and without disabilities. It yields many physical and psychological benefits to the individual while simultaneously contributing numerous benefits to society. Lawmakers have enacted a plethora of laws designed to prevent discrimination, provide incentives for employers to hire individuals with disabilities, and facilitate job training/career preparation. Assistive technology figures prominently in disability employment law as a critical strategy for gaining access and supporting employment and upward mobility in the workplace. However, little systematic effort has been devoted to examining assistive technology use and outcomes as they relate to the employment of individuals with disabilities. The purpose of this article is to articulate a series of issues that permeate assistive technology outcome measurement in employment settings and subsequently affect the use of research knowledge for federal and state policy makers. For each issue, the authors pose three questions for critical analysis: Does the law compel the provision of assistive technology? Does outcome data play any part in the operation of the law? When it does, what kind of data would be useful to collect and where could it be found? Finally, the authors provide a brief glimpse of the current and future research efforts concerning the RSA-911 database. The recent database summaries exemplify the importance of such a national data collection system for informing federal policy, particularly concerning the contributions of assistive technology device use and services on improving the employment of individuals with disabilities.
Holdren, G.R.; Glantz, C.S.; Berg, L.K.; Delinger, K.; Goodwin, S.M.; Rustad, J.R.; Schalla, R.; Schramke, J.A.
This report contains the environmental setting information developed for 20 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) installations in support of the DOE's Programmatic Environmental Impact Study (PEIS). The objective of the PEIS is to provide the public with information about the types of radiological and hazardous wastes and environmental contamination problems associated with major DOE facilities across the country, and to assess the relative risks that these wastes pose to the public, onsite workers, and the environment. Environmental setting information consists of the site-specific data required to model (using the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System) the atmospheric, groundwater, and surface water transport of contaminants within and near the boundaries of the installations. The environmental settings data describes the climate, atmospheric dispersion, hydrogeology, and surface water characteristics of the installations. The number of discrete environmental settings established for each installation was governed by two competing requirements: (1) the risks posed by contaminants released from numerous waste sites were to be modeled as accurately as possible, and (2) the modeling required for numerous release sites and a large number of contaminants had to be completed within the limits imposed by the PEIS schedule. The final product is the result of attempts to balance these competing concerns in a way that minimizes the number of settings per installation in order to meet the project schedule while at the same time providing adequate, if sometimes highly simplified, representations of the different areas within an installation. Environmental settings were developed in conjunction with installation experts in the fields of meteorology, geology, hydrology, and geochemistry. When possible, local experts participated in the initial development, fine tuning, and final review of the PEIS environmental settings
Erling F. Solheim
Full Text Available Two research questions are addressed: 1 What predicts employment among persons with spinal cord injury (SCI in Norway? 2 How do the employed compare with the non-employed in their job motivation, labour discrimination, quality of life, everyday coping, health and pain suffering? We use a cross-sectional survey from 2012. With a 51% response rate, 320 Norwegians aged 21–66 years with SCI participated. After injury, 69.5% were employed, and 44.5% remained employed at the time of the interview. There was no gender difference in employment. Among men and women, age at onset of SCI, ability to continue working in the same organisation and education was associated with employment. For men paraplegia and vocational rehabilitation were also significant. Occupational class was non-significant among both men and women. Job motivation and work ability could have affected past employment, and both the employed and non-employed supported the statement that employers discriminate against wheelchair users.
Meier, Ann; Musick, Kelly; Flood, Sarah; Dunifon, Rachel
Research studies and popular accounts of parenting have documented the joys and strains of raising children. Much of the literature comparing parents with those without children indicates a happiness advantage for those without children, although recent studies have unpacked this general advantage to reveal differences by the dimension of well-being considered and important features in parents' lives and parenting experiences. We use unique data from the 2010, 2012, and 2013 American Time Use Survey to understand emotions in mothering experiences and how these vary by key demographic factors: employment and partnership status. Assessing mothers' emotions in a broad set of parenting activities while controlling for a rich set of person- and activity-level factors, we find that mothering experiences are generally associated with high levels of emotional well-being, although single parenthood is associated with differences in the emotional valence. Single mothers report less happiness and more sadness, stress, and fatigue in parenting than partnered mothers, and these reports are concentrated among those single mothers who are not employed. Employed single mothers are happier and less sad and stressed when parenting than single mothers who are not employed. Contrary to common assumptions about maternal employment, we find overall few negative associations between employment and mothers' feelings regarding time with children, with the exception that employed mothers report more fatigue in parenting than those who are not employed.
Aleksandra Andysz; Aleksandra Jacukowicz; Aleksander Stańczak; Marcin Drabek
Objectives: Polish Labour Code provides employees with a range of solutions (benefits) supporting them in achieving balance between work and private life. This paper was aimed at indicating availability and the use of legal benefits supporting work-life balance (WLB) among Polish workers of small and medium enterprises. Material and Methods: The study sample included 219 respondents, aged 22–64, working in small and medium enterprises and employed on the basis of employment contracts for at l...
Cummins, Allison M; Denney-Wilson, E; Homer, C S E
This study explores the views of midwifery managers and key stakeholders, regarding the facilitators and barriers to employing new graduate midwives in midwifery continuity of care models. Maternity services in Australia are shifting towards midwifery continuity of care models, where midwives work in small group practices, requiring a change to the management of staff. Public policy in Australia supports maternity services to be reconfigured in this way. Historically, experienced midwives work in these models, as demand grows; new graduates are employed to staff the models. A qualitative descriptive approach exploring the manager's experience of employing new graduate's in the models. Managers, clinical educators and hospital midwifery consultants (n = 15) were recruited by purposeful sampling. Drivers, enablers, facilitators and barriers to employing new graduates in the models were identified. Visionary leadership enabled the managers to employ new graduates in the models through initial and ongoing support. Managing the myths stemming from fear of employing new graduates to work in midwifery continuity of care models was challenging. Managers and other key stakeholders provide initial and ongoing support through orientation and providing a reduced workload. Visionary leadership can be seen as critical to supporting new graduates into midwifery continuity of care models. The challenges for management to overcome include managing the myths stemming from fear of employing new graduates to work in a flexible way around the needs of the women within an organisation culture. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Jørgensen, Christian Helms; Tønder, Anna Hagen
, market-based regulation and institutionalised negotiation. In addition, it compares the organisation of young peoples’ educational choice and the selection process in the students’ transitions to work and examines employment protection in the four countries. Finally, it compares attempts to revive......This chapter examines how the systems of initial vocational education and training (VET-systems) in four Nordic countries connect to the labour market, and how they support the students’ transition to employment. It employs a conceptual lens of three different coordination regimes: state planning...
Dabos, Guillermo E; Rousseau, Denise M
The authors assessed the joint perceptions of the employee and his or her employer to examine mutuality and reciprocity in the employment relationship. Paired psychological contract reports were obtained from 80 employee-employer dyads in 16 university-based research centers. On the basis of in-depth study of the research setting, research directors were identified as primary agents for the university (employer) in shaping the terms of employment of staff scientists (employees). By assessing the extent of consistency between employee and employer beliefs regarding their exchange agreement, the present study mapped the variation and consequences of mutuality and reciprocity in psychological contracts. Results indicate that both mutuality and reciprocity are positively related to archival indicators of research productivity and career advancement, in addition to self-reported measures of Met Expectations and intention to continue working with the employer. Implications for psychological contract theory are presented. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)
Vyacheslav Nikolaevich Bobkov
Full Text Available The subject of the article is the relationships in labor utilization. The article analyzes the impact of employment instability on the socio-economic situation of employees in Russia. Questions revealing the concept content of employment instability, its real forms and socio-economic consequences for employees are considered. Methods of statistical and sociological data analysis are applied. Indicators to measure the scope and level of employment instability of employees are calculated. The dynamics in the time of the size of employment instability in Russia are analyzed. The obtained results can be applied within national economic and social policy. The findings indicate that employment instability is high, and it threatens socio-economic position of the great number of employees in Russia. It is argued that, in these conditions, the most appropriate in the fight against the spread of employment instability are the set of government initiatives, proactive position of the Russian society and the expansion of societal forms of control over the government.
Dykeman, Sarah; Williams, Allison M
The Compassionate Care Benefit was implemented in Canada in 2004 to support employed informal caregivers, the majority of which we know are women given the gendered nature of caregiving. In order to examine how this policy might evolve over time, we examine the evolution of a similar employment insurance program, Canada's Maternity Leave Benefit. National media articles were reviewed (n = 2,698) and, based on explicit criteria, were analyzed using content analysis. Through the application of Kingdon's policy agenda-setting framework, the results define key recommendations for the Compassionate Care Benefit, as informed by the developmental trajectory of the Maternity Leave Benefit. Recommendations for revising the Compassionate Care Benefit are made.
Cooklin, Amanda R; Rowe, Heather J; Fisher, Jane R W
To investigate the association between the mother-infant relationship, defined as maternal-infant emotional attachment, maternal separation anxiety and breastfeeding, and maternal employment status at 10 months following first childbirth. Samples of employed, pregnant women, over 18 years of age and with sufficient English literacy were recruited systematically from one public and one private maternity hospital in Victoria. Data were collected by structured interview and self-report questionnaire in the third trimester, and at 3 and 10 months postpartum. Socio-demographic, employment, and breastfeeding information was collected. Participants completed standardised assessments of maternal separation anxiety and mother-to-infant emotional attachment. Of 205 eligible women, 165 (81%) agreed to participate and 129 (78%) provided complete data. A reduced odds of employment participation was independently associated with continuing to breastfeed at 10 months (OR=0.22, p=0.004) and reporting higher maternal separation anxiety (OR=0.23, p=0.01) when maternal age, education, occupational status and use of paid maternity leave and occupational status were adjusted for in analyses. Employment participation in the first 10 months postpartum is associated with lower maternal separation anxiety, and shorter breastfeeding duration. Paid parental leave has public health implications for mothers and infants. These include permitting sufficient time to protect sustained breastfeeding, and the development of optimal maternal infant attachment, reflected in confidence about separation from her infant. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.
Blaschke, Sarah; O'Callaghan, Clare C; Schofield, Penelope
Given preliminary evidence for positive health outcomes related to contact with nature for cancer populations, research is warranted to ascertain possible strategies for incorporating nature-based care opportunities into oncology contexts as additional strategies for addressing multidimensional aspects of cancer patients' health and recovery needs. The objective of this study was to consolidate existing research related to nature-based supportive care opportunities and generate a conceptual framework for discerning relevant applications in the supportive care setting. Drawing on research investigating nature-based engagement in oncology contexts, a two-step analytic process was used to construct a conceptual framework for guiding nature-based supportive care design and future research. Concept analysis methodology generated new representations of understanding by extracting and synthesising salient concepts. Newly formulated concepts were transposed to findings from related research about patient-reported and healthcare expert-developed recommendations for nature-based supportive care in oncology. Five theoretical concepts (themes) were formulated describing patients' reasons for engaging with nature and the underlying needs these interactions address. These included: connecting with what is genuinely valued, distancing from the cancer experience, meaning-making and reframing the cancer experience, finding comfort and safety, and vital nurturance. Eight shared patient and expert recommendations were compiled, which address the identified needs through nature-based initiatives. Eleven additional patient-reported recommendations attend to beneficial and adverse experiential qualities of patients' nature-based engagement and complete the framework. The framework outlines salient findings about helpful nature-based supportive care opportunities for ready access by healthcare practitioners, designers, researchers and patients themselves. © Article author(s) (or their
Greene, Kaylin M; Staff, Jeremy
Most American youth hold a job at some point during adolescence, but should they work? This article presents a broad overview of teenage employment in the United States. It begins by describing which teenagers work and for how long and then focuses attention on the consequences (both good and bad) of paid work in adolescence. It then presents recent nationally representative data from the Monitoring the Future Study suggesting that limited hours of paid work do not crowd out developmentally appropriate after-school activities. A review of the literature also supports the idea that employment for limited hours in good jobs can promote career readiness and positive development. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of youth work for practitioners and policymakers who are delivering career-related programming. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.
Morrissey, Taryn W.; Warner, Mildred E.
Although employer-sponsored child care programs have become more common, there is little empirical research on whether these programs affect employees' satisfaction with child care or their work-life balance, and if effects vary across employee characteristics. In this exploratory study, we administered a survey to employees with children at one…
Daysal, N. Meltem; Betcherman, Gordon; Pages, Carmen
This paper studies the effects on registered employment and number of registered establishments of two employment subsidy schemes in Turkey. We implement a difference-in-differences methodology to construct appropriate counterfactuals for the covered provinces. Our findings suggest that both subs...... than boosting total employment and economic activity. This supports the theory that in countries with weak enforcement institutions, high labor taxes on low-wage workers may lead to substantial incentives for firms and workers to operate informally....
Thornley, Patricia; Chong, Katie; Bridgwater, Tony
Highlights: • Five diverse European member states could support around 30 biorefineries. • The facilities would create around 2 million man-years of employment. • Biorefineries create more jobs per unit of feedstock than bioelectricity plants. • Contribution to national GDP is very small; but agriculturally significant. • Increased straw demand could indirectly increase greenhouse gas emissions. - Abstract: Biorefineries are expected to play a major role in a future low carbon economy and substantial investments are being made to support this vision. However, it is important to consider the wider socio-economic impacts of such a transition. This paper quantifies the potential trade, employment and land impacts of economically viable European biorefinery options based on indigenous straw and wood feedstocks. It illustrates how there could be potential for 70–80 European biorefineries, but not hundreds. A single facility could generate tens of thousands of man-years of employment and employment creation per unit of feedstock is higher than for biomass power plants. However, contribution to national GDP is unlikely to exceed 1% in European member states, although contributions to national agricultural productivity may be more significant, particularly with straw feedstocks. There is also a risk that biorefinery development could result in reduced rates of straw incorporation into soil, raising concerns that economically rational decisions to sell rather than reincorporate straw could result in increased agricultural land-use or greenhouse gas emissions
Tonnon, Susanne C; van der Veen, Rozan; Westerman, Marjan J; Robroek, Suzan J W; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Van Der Beek, Allard J.; Proper, Karin I.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the measures employers in the construction industry take to promote sustainable employability, the barriers and facilitators that influence implementation and employer needs. METHODS: Questionnaire among 499 employers and interviews with 17 employers. RESULTS: Employers
Harbo, Karen; Jensen, Thomas Skov
platforms. A partnership is made between the digital library (partner libraries involved) and the virtual learning environment (educational institutions), based on the above definition of employability. This is done within the framework of Learning Management Systems (LMS) and Massive Open Online Courses......The DEFF project, E-learning, Information literacy and Library services, supports the education policy ambition of enhancing links between education and employment. The project consortium includes libraries from all Danish universities, university colleges and one business academy. Timeframe...... for the project is 2014-16. The project understands employability as: In close cooperation with study programmes libraries will strengthen students’ ability to perform independently and critically in a professional context by being able to identify, collect, evaluate, organize and present information via digital...
Harbo, Karen; Jensen, Thomas Skov
The DEFF project, E-learning, Information literacy and Library services, supports the education policy ambition of enhancing links between education and employment. The project consortium includes libraries from all Danish universities, university colleges and one business academy. Timeframe...... for the project is 2014-16. The project understands employability as: In close cooperation with study programmes libraries will strengthen students’ ability to perform independently and critically in a professional context by being able to identify, collect, evaluate, organize and present information via digital...... platforms. A partnership is made between the digital library (partner libraries involved) and the virtual learning environment (educational institutions), based on the above definition of employability. This is done within the framework of Learning Management Systems (LMS) and Massive Open Online Courses...
Song, Xiaowei (Andy); Mijatovic, Nenad; Kellers, Jürgen
A full-size stationary experimental set-up, which is a pole pair segment of a 2 MW high temperature superconducting (HTS) wind turbine generator, has been built and tested under the HTS-GEN project in Denmark. The performance of the HTS coil is crucial to the set-up, and further to the development...... is tested in LN2 first, and then tested in the set-up so that the magnetic environment in a real generator is reflected. The experimental results are reported, followed by a finite element simulation and a discussion on the deviation of the results. The tested and estimated Ic in LN2 are 148 A and 143 A...
Doležal, Martin; Rmoutil, M.; Vejnar, B.; Vlasák, V.
Roč. 440, č. 2 (2016), s. 922-939 ISSN 0022-247X Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Haar meager set * Haar null set * Polish group Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.064, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022247X1600305X
Cook, Joan M.; Biyanova, Tatyana; Coyne, James C.
An in-depth comparative case study was conducted of two attempts at diffusion of an empirically supported, but controversial, psychotherapy: eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). One Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) treatment setting in which there was substantial uptake was
Tackney, Charles T.
as a transcultural foundation. Workplace parameters, the minimal enabling conditions for the possibility of authentic employment relations, are then identified and compared. We explore common expectations for a theology of the workplace in terms of the direct and indirect employer: those national laws, systems......Authenticity / الصحة (as-sehah) serves as a criterion or predictor variable in a comparative theological investigation of employment relations parameters in light of social teachings from Sunni Islam and Roman Catholicism. Authenticity finds initial, shared significance in both religious traditions......, and traditions that condition the functional range of authenticity that can be actualized within national or other work settings as experienced in the direct employment contract. The method and findings are a first effort to clarify thought and aid mutual understanding for inter-faith employment circumstances...
Eldh, Ann Catrine; Carlsson, Eva
A growing number of middle-aged people are engaged in informal care of their parents while employed. To provide support as employers, co-workers or staff, health care professionals need insight into the experiences of people managing these responsibilities. To elucidate the experience of providing informal care to an ageing parent while managing the responsibilities of a working life. Narrative interviews were performed with 11 persons with experience of the phenomenon. Transcribed interviews were analysed with phenomenological hermeneutics. Informed consent was given prior to the interviews. The study was approved by a research ethics committee. Providing informal care to an ageing parent while also pursuing a working life implies seeking balance: a balance between providing support to the parent's needs and one's responsibilities at work. Being employed supports this balance as it provides both fulfilment and refuge. Being capable of managing both roles grants a sense of satisfaction, supporting one's sense of balance in life. The balance can be supported by sharing the responsibility of caring for the ageing parent with others. Despite perceived saturation and an effort to provide for the possibility to consider internal consistency, the findings should be considered as a contribution to the understanding of the phenomenon, as experienced by individuals in their life world. It is essential to recognise the impact that providing care for an ageing parent may have on the lives of a growing number of people, particularly if they have employment responsibilities. Acknowledgement by others supports one's ability to attain balance; as co-workers and managers, we can acknowledge the efforts of an informal caregiver and as health care staff recognise the valuable contribution made by people in mid-life who provide informal care for their ageing parents. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2010 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Payne, Nicola; Seenan, Susan; van den Akker, Olga
This study examined experiences and psychological distress about fertility treatment in people combining work and treatment. Five hundred and sixty-three participants in the UK completed an online survey asking about difficulties in combining work and treatment; workplace disclosure, support, absence and policy; and psychological distress about treatment. Absence from work and perceptions that treatment has an impact on work and career prospects were reported by the majority of participants and this was related to the psychological distress of treatment. Around three quarters of participants disclosed to their employer and colleagues. The key reason for disclosure was needing to ask for absence from work and the main reason for non-disclosure was privacy. Workplace policy relating to managing fertility treatment and support from colleagues and their employer was related to reduced psychological distress but workplace policy was reported by less than one quarter of participants. Difficulties experienced in combining work and treatment suggest that support is needed. Specific workplace policy, guidance for supervisors and flexibility in fertility clinic times should help support employees during treatment and reduce psychological distress, thereby potentially influencing physical health and treatment outcomes.
Panumate, Chetprayoon; Iida, Hiroyuki
This paper explores an innovative way to find a comfortable setting of video games. Pokemon is chosen as benchmark and game refinement measure is employed for the assessment. The number of Pokemon that one trainer can carry (i.e., setting with n=6) has never been changed after the first episode of Pokemon was released in 1996. Pokemon battle is simulated and various AIs are developed for the experiments. The results show that the original setting is the best for many players of various levels.
Schramke, J.A.; Glantz, C.S.; Holdren, G.R.
This report describes the environmental settings identified for the Hanford Site in support of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Programmatic Environmental Impact Study (PEIS). The objective of the PEIS is to provide the public with information about the types of waste and contamination problems associated with major DOE facilities across the country and to assess the relative risks that these wastes pose to the public, onsite workers, and the environment. The environmental setting information consists of the site-specific data required to model (using the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System) the atmospheric, groundwater, and surface-water transport of contaminants within the boundaries of the Hanford Site. The environmental setting data describes the climate, atmospheric dispersion, hydrogeology, and surface-water characteristics of the Site. The number of environmental settings developed for the Hanford Site was the fewest that could provide accurate results when used in the risk assessment modeling. Environmental settings for Hanford were developed in conjunction with local experts in the fields of meteorology, geology, hydrology, and geochemistry. Site experts participated in the initial development, fine-tuning, and final review of Hanford's PEIS environmental settings
Eran, Mordechai; Jacobson, Dan
Vroom's expectancy theory model to predict older worker's choices between employment or retirement hypothesized that a person's preference would be a function of differences between instrumentality of employment and retirement for attainment of outcomes, multiplied by the valence of each outcome, summed over outcomes. Results supported the…
Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos; Ketchum, Jessica M; Williams, Kelli; Kreutzer, Jeffrey S; Marquez de la Plata, Carlos D; O'Neil-Pirozzi, Therese M; Wehman, Paul
To examine racial differences in employment status and occupational status 1 year after a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Retrospective study. Longitudinal dataset of the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems national database. Subjects with primarily moderate to severe TBI (3468 whites vs 1791 minorities) hospitalized between 1989 and 2005. Not applicable. Employment status (competitively employed or unemployed) and occupational status (professional/managerial, skilled, or manual labor) at 1 year postinjury. Race and/or ethnicity has a significant effect on employment status at 1 year postinjury (chi(1)(2)=58.23, Pstatus, sex, Disability Rating Scale at discharge, marital status, cause of injury, age, and education. The adjusted odds of being unemployed versus competitively employed are 2.17 times (95% confidence interval, 1.78-2.65) greater for minorities than for whites. Race and ethnicity does not have a significant effect on occupational status at 1 year postinjury. With this empirical evidence supporting racial differences in employment outcomes between minorities and whites at 1 year postinjury, priority should be given to tailoring interventions to maximize minority survivors' work-related productivity.
Wan Kasim, Syarifah Hafizah; Midin, Marhani; Abu Bakar, Abdul Kadir; Sidi, Hatta; Nik Jaafar, Nik Ruzyanei; Das, Srijit
This study aimed to examine the rate and predictive factors of successful employment at 3 months upon enrolment into an employment program among patients with severe mental illness (SMI). A cross-sectional study using universal sampling technique was conducted on patients with SMI who completed a 3-month period of being employed at Hospital Permai, Malaysia. A total of 147 patients were approached and 126 were finally included in the statistical analyses. Successful employment was defined as the ability to work 40 or more hours per month. Factors significantly associated with successful employment from bivariate analyses were entered into a multiple logistic regression analysis to identify predictors of successful employment. The rate of successful employment at 3 months was 68.3% (n=81). Significant factors associated with successful employment from bivariate analyses were having past history of working, good family support, less number of psychiatric admissions, good compliance to medicine, good interest in work, living in hostel, being motivated to work, satisfied with the job or salary, getting a preferred job, being in competitive or supported employment and having higher than median scores of PANNS on the positive, negative and general psychopathology. Significant predictors of employment, from a logistic regression model were having good past history of working (phistory of working and getting a preferred job were significant predictors of successful employment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Emmanuel Joseph Fong
Full Text Available Background. Recognizing the needs of cancer survivors is one of the important aspects in healthcare delivery. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of unmet supportive care needs and its associated factors among the breast cancer survivors of community-based support group in Kuching, Sarawak. Materials and Methods. This was a cross-sectional study using Supportive Care Needs Survey (SCNS-SF34. All the members of community-based breast cancer support groups in Kuching were invited. A total of 101 respondents were face-to-face interviewed after the consent was obtained. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. The respondents endorsed health system and information domain with the highest mean score (2.48; 95% CI: 2.32–2.64. Top 10 items with “moderate to high” level unmet needs had a prevalence of 14.9% to 34.7% of respondents indicating need. Significantly higher level of unmet needs was associated with survivors who were younger (less than 60 years old, had higher education attainment, were unemployed, had survival duration of up to 5 years, and were undergoing active treatment. Conclusion. Systematic delivery of health information which is targeted, culturally sensitive, and linguistically appropriate for addressing younger age, education level, employment status, length of survivorship, and treatment stage should be considered not only at hospital-based setting but also at the community-based support groups.
Full Text Available Writing for peer-reviewed research journals is difficult and requires specialized skills and knowledge—in language, logical argumentation, data presentation, publication ethics and more. The task is especially challenging for researchers who use English as an additional language. In this discussion paper, I illustrate how research writing in non-anglophone settings can usefully be supported by three types of language professional: teachers of academic writing, authors’ editors, and academic translators. Reviewing the situation in Italy, I observe that Italian researchers have limited access to the best forms of writing support, in part due to misconceptions and complex hiring rules. Finally, and based on the higher educational trends in northern Europe, I envisage a future scenario for Italy where university-wide academic writing centers will be established, language professionals with disciplinary knowledge will become part of research institutes’ staff, and researchers will have facilitated access to the services of authors’ editors and academic translators on a per-manuscript basis. As research writing support becomes integrated into the university setting, Italian researchers’ productivity will increase and the profile of Italian reporting in the international literature will be raised.
Kaiser, Ulrich; Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj
of self-employment is associated with lower hourly wages compared to workers who were consecutively wage-employed. We also show, however, that this effect disappears—and even becomes positive in some settings—for formerly self-employed who find dependent employment in the same sector as their self......-employment sector. Hence, the on average negative effect of self-employment is rather caused by sector switching than by the self-employment experience per se. Moreover, formerly self-employed who either enjoyed a high income or hired at least one worker during their self-employment spell receive wages...... in subsequent dependent employment that are at least as high as for individuals who have been consecutively wage-employed....
Magill-Evans, Joyce; Galambos, Nancy; Darrah, Johanna; Nickerson, Christy
To identify the personal, family, and community factors that facilitate or hinder employment for young adults with developmental motor disabilities. Quantitative methods with an embedded qualitative component were used. Seventy-six persons between the ages of 20 and 30 years of age (Mean = 25, SD = 3.1) with a diagnosis of either cerebral palsy or spina bifida completed questionnaires addressing factors such as depression, and participated in a semi-structured interview that allowed participants to describe their experiences with education, employment, transportation, and other services. Almost half of the participants (n = 35) were not currently employed. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that gender (females were less likely to be employed), IQ (lower IQ associated with unemployment), and transportation dependence accounted for 42% of the variance in employment. Themes emerging from content analysis of the interviews supported the findings related to transportation barriers. Social reactions to disability limited employment opportunities, and participants often felt stuck in terms of employment options with limited opportunities for advancement. Transportation is a significant barrier to employment and innovative solutions are needed. Issues related to gender need to be considered when addressing employment inequities for persons with primarily motor disabilities.
Tackney, Charles Thomas
This research takes up the concept of authenticity as a criterion variable for theology of the workplace analysis, a domain which explores employment parameters in light of religious teaching on the social question at national, organizational or firm-specific levels. Following a review of the con......This research takes up the concept of authenticity as a criterion variable for theology of the workplace analysis, a domain which explores employment parameters in light of religious teaching on the social question at national, organizational or firm-specific levels. Following a review...... of the concept in Western culture, philosophy, and management studies, Religious Society of Friends (Quaker) and Roman Catholic social teachings are investigated for positively correlative data to help develop the criterion variable. From the literature review of concept and historical data in both traditions...... analysis should complement and support corporate social responsibility, management spirituality, authentic leadership / authentic follower, and other secular research by offering a research methods bridge between empirically grounded theology and secular studies, with the common goal of improving workplace...
Yakoboski, P; Ostuw, P
Forty-two million individuals work for small employers; 9 million are participating in an employment-based retirement plan, while 33 million are not participating in a plan. This Issue Brief examines the barriers that prevent small employers from sponsoring a retirement plan, their level of knowledge about plans, and changes that might lead to plan sponsorship. It also examines the motivations of small employers that sponsor retirement plans. Small employers identify three main reasons for not offering a plan: employees' preferences for wages and/or other benefits, administrative costs, and uncertain revenue that makes it difficult to commit to a plan. Small employers without plans report being familiar with 401(k) and profit-sharing plans, but little else. Forty-seven percent report never having heard of the savings incentive match plan for employees (SIMPLE), and 55 percent report never having heard of simplified employee pensions (SEPs). There is apparent misunderstanding about retirement plans among small employers that do not sponsor one, especially with regard to costs. For example, 35 percent do not know that a plan can be set up for less than $2,000. What changes would lead to serious consideration of retirement plan sponsorship? In order of reported importance: increased company profits (66 percent), a business tax credit (64 percent), reduced administrative requirements (50 percent), demand from employees (49 percent), allowing key executives to save more in the plan (49 percent), and easing, i.e., lengthening, of vesting requirements (40 percent). Many small employers that sponsor a retirement plan cite business reasons among their motivations. Sixty-eight percent cite a "positive effect on employee attitude and performance" as a major reason for offering a plan. Fifty-six percent cite a "competitive advantage in employee recruitment and retention" as a major reason. Small employers with a retirement plan report direct benefits from sponsorship, but many
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to characterize the intensity of the support needs of individuals with severe mental illness. METHODS: quantitative and descriptive study that applied the Supports Intensity Scale to a sample comprising 182 individuals. RESULTS: the supports intensity profile identifies groups, individuals, and areas with different needs of support relative to the domains of home living, health, community living, learning, employment, and social living. As a whole, the intensity level of support needs found was low, and the domains with greater needs were employment and social. CONCLUSIONS: identification of the intensity of support needs is helpful in planning integral care and detecting professional training needs. The support provision-centered approach, associated with the person-related outcomes perspective, has been sparsely applied to individuals with mental illness, and this represents the main contribution of the present study. In addition, this study introduces novel approaches to assessment that are both concordant and an innovation in nursing because they might provide a tool for understanding other disabilities.
Dale, Ann Marie; Enke, Chris; Buckner-Petty, Skye; Hipp, James Aaron; Marx, Christine; Strickland, Jaime; Evanoff, Bradley
To explore the availability and utilization of workplace health supports by employees of small and large-sized employers. Cross-sectional, telephone-based interviews collected on 16 workplace health supports for physical activity and diet. Participants selected by random-digit-dialing from 4 metropolitan areas of Missouri employees from 2012 to 2013. Two thousand fifteen working adults. We explored the availability and use of supports by employer size (employees vs ≥100 employees), accounting for industry and personal factors. We examined distributions and Poisson regression models of availability for supports by employer size and by industry and use of supports by employer size and personal factors. One-fifth of the 1796 employees were employed by small-sized employers. Large employers offered more supports than small (mean: 6 vs 3), but a higher proportion of employees of small-sized employers used supports when available (59% vs 47%). The differences in offered supports between industries were not due to size alone. In regard to the determinants of participation, the personal factors of gender, age, weight, and income were associated with participation in 10 of the supports. Employer size was also associated with participation in 10 supports. No associations were found between personal factors or workplace size and participation for 3 supports. A higher proportion of employees working for smaller businesses use available supports than employees of larger businesses. Supports offered by employers should target the needs and interests of the workforce, particularly for the higher risk low-income employees.
Full Text Available The mobile agent paradigm offers flexibility and autonomy to e-commerce applications. But it is challenging to employ a mobile agent to make a payment due to the security consideration. In this paper, we propose a new agent-assisted secure payment protocol, which is based on SET payment protocol and aims at enabling the dispatched consumer-agent to autonomously sign contracts and make the payment on behalf of the cardholder after having found the best merchant, without the possibility of disclosing any secret to any participant. This is realized by adopting the Signature-Share scheme, and employing a Trusted Third Party (TTP. In the proposed protocol, the principle that each participant knows what is strictly necessary for his/her role is followed as in SET. In addition, mechanisms have been devised for preventing and detecting double payment, overspending and overpayment attacks. Finally the security properties of the proposed protocol are studied analytically. In comparison with other existing models, the proposed protocol is more efficient and can detect more attacks.
Haas, Sheila A; Vlasses, Frances; Havey, Julia
There are multiple demands and challenges inherent in establishing staffing models in ambulatory heath care settings today. If health care administrators establish a supportive physical and interpersonal health care environment, and develop high-performing interprofessional teams and staffing models and electronic documentation systems that track performance, patients will have more opportunities to receive safe, high-quality evidence-based care that encourages patient participation in decision making, as well as provision of their care. The health care organization must be aligned and responsive to the community within which it resides, fully invested in population health management, and continuously scanning the environment for competitive, regulatory, and external environmental risks. All of these challenges require highly competent providers willing to change attitudes and culture such as movement toward collaborative practice among the interprofessional team including the patient.
Husted, Leif; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael
Labour market assimilation of Danish first generation male immigrants is analysed based on two panel data sets covering the population of immigrants and 10% of the Danish population during 1984-1995. Wages and employment probabilities are estimated jointly in a random effects model which corrects...... for unobserved cohort and individual effects and panel selectivity due to missing wage information. The results show that immigrants assimilate partially to Danes, but the assimilation process differs between refugees and non-refugees.......Labour market assimilation of Danish first generation male immigrants is analysed based on two panel data sets covering the population of immigrants and 10% of the Danish population during 1984-1995. Wages and employment probabilities are estimated jointly in a random effects model which corrects...
Husted, Leif; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael
Labour market assimilation of Danish first generation male immigrants is analysed based on two panel data sets covering the population of immigrants and 10% of the Danish population during 1984-1995. Wages and employment probabilities are estimated jointly in a random effects model which corrects...... for unobserved cohort and individual effects and panel selectivity due to missing wage information. The results show that immigrants assimilate partially to Danes, but the assimilation process differs between refugees and non-refugees.......Labour market assimilation of Danish first generation male immigrants is analysed based on two panel data sets covering the population of immigrants and 10% of the Danish population during 1984-1995. Wages and employment probabilities are estimated jointly in a random effects model which corrects...
Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Shu; Yu, Wusheng
Purpose – This paper therefore aims at systematically estimating the agricultural trade induced farm employment effects in China. Design/methodology/approach – Using detailed agricultural trade and production data during 1994-2009, the authors estimate the “labor contents” of agricultural trade f...... employment effects do not lend support to the popular notion that increased agricultural trade would help increase farm employment and have important implications for evaluating current and future trade policy in China and elsewhere.......Purpose – This paper therefore aims at systematically estimating the agricultural trade induced farm employment effects in China. Design/methodology/approach – Using detailed agricultural trade and production data during 1994-2009, the authors estimate the “labor contents” of agricultural trade...... flows and use these estimates to compute the farm employment effects. Findings – The authors find that China's agricultural trade has indeed generally developed along its widely believed comparative advantages and disadvantages; however, the farm employment “creation” effect due to labor...
Froehlich, Dominik E.; Beausaert, Simon A. J.; Segers, Mien S. R.
Employees in countries with advanced industrial economies need to continuously develop their competences to sustain their employability--that is, to have a set of competences that enables them to maintain or find an adequate job. But how should efforts to enhance employability progress in the context of the demographic shift? Previous research…
This study provides a conceptual framework for understanding what employers think about the value of graduates with similar educational credentials in the workplace (their employability), using insights from the new institutionalism. In this framework, the development of employers' beliefs about graduates' employability is broken into a number of…
Vlasblom, J.P.; Steen, van der J.T.; Jochemsen, H.
The Trent Universities Interprofessional Learning in Practice (TUILIP) project aimed to establish interprofessional learning (IPL) for healthcare students in clinical practice settings. Ten IPL facilitators were employed in eight varied practice setting pilot sites for up to a year to research,
Oddo, Vanessa M; Mueller, Noel T; Pollack, Keshia M; Surkan, Pamela J; Bleich, Sara N; Jones-Smith, Jessica C
To investigate the association between maternal employment and childhood overweight in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Design/Setting We utilized cross-sectional data from forty-five Demographic and Health Surveys from 2010 to 2016 (n 268 763). Mothers were categorized as formally employed, informally employed or non-employed. We used country-specific logistic regression models to investigate the association between maternal employment and childhood overweight (BMI Z-score>2) and assessed heterogeneity in the association by maternal education with the inclusion of an interaction term. We used meta-analysis to pool the associations across countries. Sensitivity analyses included modelling BMI Z-score and normal weight (weight-for-age Z-score≥-2 to employment was associated with childhood overweight. However, children of employed mothers, compared with children of non-employed mothers, had higher BMI Z-score and higher odds of normal weight. In countries where the association varied by education, children of formally employed women with high education, compared with children of non-employed women with high education, had higher odds of overweight (pooled OR=1·2; 95 % CI 1·0, 1·4). We find no clear association between employment and child overweight. However, maternal employment is associated with a modestly higher BMI Z-score and normal weight, suggesting that employment is currently associated with beneficial effects on children's weight status in most LMIC.
Boden, Rebecca; Nedeva, Maria
What constitutes graduate employability is discursively framed. In this paper we argue that whilst universities in the UK have long had an involvement in producing useful and productive citizens, the ongoing neoliberalisation of higher education has engendered a discursive shift in definitions of employability. Traditionally, universities regarded…
Kondo, Yutaka; Fukuda, Tatsuma; Uchimido, Ryo; Hifumi, Toru; Hayashida, Kei
Advanced life support (ALS) is thought to be associated with improved survival in prehospital trauma care when compared with basic life support (BLS). However, evidence on the benefits of prehospital ALS for patients with trauma is controversial. Therefore, we aim to clarify if ALS improves mortality in patients with trauma when compared with BLS by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of the recent literature. We will perform searches in PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for published observational studies, controlled before-and-after studies, randomised controlled trials and other controlled trials conducted in humans and published until March 2017. We will screen search results, assess study selection, extract data and assess the risk of bias in duplicate; disagreements will be resolved through discussions. Data from clinically homogeneous studies will be pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis, heterogeneity of effects will be assessed using the χ 2 test of homogeneity, and any observed heterogeneity will be quantified using the I 2 statistic. Last, the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach will be used to rate the quality of the evidence. Our study does not require ethical approval as it is based on findings of previously published articles. Results will be disseminated through publication in a peer-reviewed journal, presentations at relevant conferences and publications for patient information. PROSPERO (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews) registration number CRD42017054389. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
... Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. 242.68 Section 242.68 Housing and Urban Development... Requirements § 242.68 Disclosure and verification of Social Security and Employer Identification Numbers. The requirements set forth in 24 CFR part 5, regarding the disclosure and verification of Social Security Numbers...
Lymeus, Freddie; Lindberg, Per; Hartig, Terry
Mindfulness courses conventionally use effortful, focused meditation to train attention. In contrast, natural settings can effortlessly support state mindfulness and restore depleted attention resources, which could facilitate meditation. We performed two studies that compared conventional training with restoration skills training (ReST) that taught low-effort open monitoring meditation in a garden over five weeks. Assessments before and after meditation on multiple occasions showed that ReST meditation increasingly enhanced attention performance. Conventional meditation enhanced attention initially but increasingly incurred effort, reflected in performance decrements toward the course end. With both courses, attentional improvements generalized in the first weeks of training. Against established accounts, the generalized improvements thus occurred before any effort was incurred by the conventional exercises. We propose that restoration rather than attention training can account for early attentional improvements with meditation. ReST holds promise as an undemanding introduction to mindfulness and as a method to enhance restoration in nature contacts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Johannigman, Mark J; Leifheit, Michael; Bellman, Nick; Pierce, Tracey; Marriott, Angela; Bishop, Cheryl
A program in which health-system pharmacists and pharmacy technicians provide medication therapy management (MTM), wellness, and condition care (disease management) services under contract with local businesses is described. The health-system pharmacy department's Center for Medication Management contracts directly with company benefits departments for defined services to participating employees. The services include an initial wellness and MTM session and, for certain patients identified during the initial session, ongoing condition care. The initial appointment includes a medication history, point-of-care testing for serum lipids and glucose, body composition analysis, and completion of a health risk assessment. The pharmacist conducts a structured MTM session, reviews the patient's test results and risk factors, provides health education, discusses opportunities for cost savings, and documents all activities on the patient's medication action plan. Eligibility for the condition care program is based on a diagnosis of diabetes, hypertension, asthma, heart failure, or hyperlipidemia or elevation of lipid or glucose levels. Findings are summarized for employers after the initial wellness screening and at six-month intervals. Patients receiving condition care sign a customized contract, establish goals, attend up to four MTM sessions per year, and track their information on a website; employers may offer incentives for participation. When pharmacists recommend adjustments to therapy or cost-saving changes, it is up to patients to discuss these with their physician. A survey completed by each patient after the initial wellness session has indicated high satisfaction. Direct cost savings related to medication changes have averaged $253 per patient per year. Total cost savings to companies in the first year of the program averaged $1011 per patient. For the health system, the program has been financially sustainable. Key laboratory values indicate positive clinical
Vuyokazi N. Mtembu
Full Text Available Orientation: South Africa has high levels of unemployment and severe problem of youth unemployment. This implies that the country requires a comprehensive strategy to create more jobs for the youth. Policymaking is one of the strategies that have been introduced to encourage job creation for the youth. The youth wage subsidy is just one of the strategies proposed and this article unpacks what employers and unemployed youth say and think about this policy directive. Research purpose: The main aim of the study was to determine the perceptions of unemployed South African youth and employers on the proposed youth wage subsidy incentive scheme. Motivation for the study: Youth unemployment is a very important issue and the reality is that it is a concern of every government globally. South Africa is therefore not an exception as it is a country that has been experiencing high levels of youth unemployment for the last few decades. In an attempt to curb this pressing challenge of youth unemployment, a proposal to introduce a youth wage subsidy policy was made by government; (since its mention, this idea has been met with a lot of opposing opinions from those against it and applause from those who support it. This has motivated this study to probe the perceptions of the subsidy by those who will be affected by its provisions. Method: A triangulated research approach was adopted through the administration of survey questionnaires amongst the unemployed youth and semi-structured interviews with human resource managers and specialists. A sample of unemployed youth was drawn from selected communities within KwaZulu-Natal. In addition, semi-structured interviews were conducted with human resource managers and specialists at selected organisations to determine their perceptions of the proposed scheme and any benefits or limitations they believe it might have. Non-probability sampling was used to sample 100 respondents (N = 100, 90% of whom were unemployed
de Sola, Helena; Salazar, Alejandro; Dueñas, María; Ojeda, Begoña; Failde, Inmaculada
To determine the prevalence and the factors related to sick leave and job loss among individuals suffering from chronic pain (CP), and to analyse specifically the effect of family and social support on the individual's employment. Observational cross-sectional study. Data were collected using structured computer-assisted telephone interviews between February and June 2011. A nationwide study of 1543 Spanish adults of working age (families, and their satisfaction with the family and social support. To identify factors associated with sick leave and job loss among those suffering CP, 2 logistic regression models were generated. The prevalence of sick leave due to CP in the general Spanish population was 4.21% (95% CI 3.2% to 5.2%). Sick leave were more likely for individuals who considered their family were affected by their pain (OR=2.18), needed help to dressing and grooming (OR=2.98), taking medication (OR=2.18), had a shorter pain duration (OR=0.99) and higher educational level. The prevalence of job loss due to CP was 1.8% (95% CI 1.1% to 2.5%). It was related to feelings of sadness (OR=4.25), being unsatisfied with the care provided by health professionals (OR=2.60) and consulting a doctor more often due to CP (OR=1.09). CP is negatively associated with an individual's employment. This detrimental effect could be ameliorated if the factors related to sick leave and job loss provoked by CP are identified, especially those related to the effect of CP on the family and social environment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the legal texts of the Labour Code which refers to the elements / clauses in individual employment contract and clarifying those that have been essential. Rules of the Labour Code which refer to the contents of the individual employment contract are not consistent. The texts of the La bour Code which refer to the essential and specific clauses in individual employment contract are art. 17 para. (1 - (3, art. 20 and art. 41-48. Also Order no. 64/2003 sets out the mandatory elements that must be included in the individual employment con tract, showing that through negotiation between the parties, the contract may include specific clauses under the law. The analysis is done in the light of the provisions of art. 1179 and art. 1185 of the Civil Code, as in common law. At the end of the stud y, we conclude that certain provisions were essential character to the conclusion of any individual employment contract, others result of the negotiation, have essential character only to the contracting parties, while certain clauses are essential for certain types of individual employment contracts . Finally, it is assessed and the consequences of lack of essential clauses and establish its content contrary to legal norms.
Full Text Available Marketing is a dynamic discipline. Relation marketing is one of its conceptions and sets new standards for the cooperation between market players. It claims that a company’s market growth is influenced by longterm business relationships. Furthermore, it states that a company’s assets are defined by its relations within the business environment. Employer branding is defined as a series of actions, the goal of which is building a company’s brand on the market as “company of first choice for future employees”. The theoretical background for employer branding derives from relationship marketing.
Full Text Available Orientation: In an ever shrinking global talent pool organisations use employer brand to attract and retain talent, however, in the absence of theoretical pointers, many organisations are losing out on a powerful business tool by not developing or maintaining their employer brand correctly. Research purpose: This study explores the current state of knowledge about employer brand and identifies the various employer brand building blocks which are conceptually integrated in a predictive model. Motivation for the study: The need for scientific progress though the accurate representation of a set of employer brand phenomena and propositions, which can be empirically tested, motivated this study. Research design, approach and method: This study was nonempirical in approach and searched for linkages between theoretical concepts by making use of relevant contextual data. Theoretical propositions which explain the identified linkages were developed for purpose of further empirical research. Main findings: Key findings suggested that employer brand is influenced by target group needs, a differentiated Employer Value Proposition (EVP, the people strategy, brand consistency, communication of the employer brand and measurement of Human Resources (HR employer branding efforts. Practical/managerial implications: The predictive model provides corporate leaders and their human resource functionaries a theoretical pointer relative to employer brand which could guide more effective talent attraction and retention decisions. Contribution/value add: This study adds to the small base of research available on employer brand and contributes to both scientific progress as well as an improved practical understanding of factors which influence employer brand.
Nina Mikhailovna Volovskaya
Full Text Available The article, based on data of three sociological researches held in the Novosibirsk Oblast, considers development problems of self-employment among the unemployed population as one of the directions of the active policy promoting population’s employment and reducing unemployment. The dynamics of recovery from unemployment is studied, namely the unemployed population’s willingness and readiness for self-employment, the focus on its specific types, as well as on the necessary forms of support. The research has revealed favorable changes and trends in life and consciousness of unemployed citizens and their attitude to self-employment: the decreasing amount of citizens compelled to as little money as possible on most necessary things and living in poverty, growing incomes from self-employment in personal subsidiary plots, the increasing amount of people ready for self-employment, social mobility and self-reliance. But paternalistic moods of half of the respondents and the dominance of passive and compelled strategies raise concerns. It has been concluded that the majority of the respondents considers self-employment as a phenomenon of considerable potential, which does not save from unemployment, but is capable of providing the fulfilment of needs of a considerable part of rural population for working and earning money. Besides income as a means of living, self-employment forms an important position of the unemployed social activity, as opposed to social dependency. Measures to support the self-employed should be implemented either at the federal or at regional level. This would promote the increase in business activity, the growth of middle class and the general increase in Russian economic efficiency
Hofferth, Sandra L.; Goldscheider, Frances
This study examined the association between paternal and maternal employment changes and changes in the frequency of fathers praising, showing affection, disciplining, and reading to children. Data were drawn from the Young Adult supplement to the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979). Supporting economic theory, fathers were more involved…
... Veterans Affairs is participating in the audit of a contract for laboratory support services. Before... himself from participation in the audit. Since he cannot withdraw from participation in the contract audit... is employed by the National Science Foundation as a special Government employee to serve on a panel...
Peterson, Debbie; Gordon, Sarah; Neale, Jenny
Previous research has tended to focus on the barriers to employment for people with mental illness and the extra support they may need. This research contributes to the knowledge base pertaining to this population by looking at successful employment relationships in New Zealand. To describe factors enabling and/or sustaining the open employment of people with experience of mental illness. Fifteen pairs of employers and employees were interviewed individually but consecutively (using a semi-structured interview schedule) about their perceptions of the critical factors that enabled and sustained the employee's employment. Employee participants were recruited by advertisement, with employers approached through their employees. Transcripts were analysed using a thematic analysis. Themes raised in the interviews included the meaning of work, disclosure of mental illness, the benefits of working, special arrangements or accommodations, the work environment and key things employers and employees do to sustain successful employment. Four critical success factors were identified relating to disclosure, the employment relationship, freedom from discrimination and workplace flexibility.
Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran
This study assessed whether previous findings linking early maternal employment to lower cognitive and behavioral skills among middle-class and White children generalized to other groups. Using a representative sample of urban, low-income, predominantly African American and Hispanic families ("n" = 444), ordinary least squares regression…
Lo, Celia C; Cheng, Tyrone C
We intended to determine (1) whether stress from employment disadvantages led to increased frequency of heavy drinking and (2) whether race had a role in the relationship between such disadvantages and heavy drinking. Study data came from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, a prospective study that has followed a representative sample of youth since 1979. Our study employed data from 11 particular years, during which the survey included items measuring respondents' heavy drinking. Our final sample numbered 10,171 respondents, which generated 75,394 person-waves for data analysis. Both of our hypotheses were supported by results from multilevel mixed-effects linear regression capturing the time-varying nature of three employment disadvantages and of the heavy-drinking outcome. Results show that more-frequent heavy drinking was associated with employment disadvantages, and that disadvantages' effects on drinking were stronger for Blacks and Hispanics than for Whites. That worsening employment disadvantages have worse effects on minority groups' heavy drinking (compared to Whites) probably contributes to the racial health disparities in our nation. Policies and programs addressing such disparities are especially important during economic downturns.
Mancini, Michael A
This study explored the integration of peer services into community mental health settings through qualitative interviews with peer-providers and non-peer mental health workers. Results show peer job satisfaction was contingent upon role clarity, autonomy, and acceptance by non-peer coworkers. Mental health workers reported the need for organizational support for peer services and guidance about how to utilize peers, negotiate their professional boundaries and accommodate their mental health needs. Effective peer integration requires organizational readiness, staff preparation and clear policies and procedures. Consultation from consumer-based organizations, enhanced professional competencies, and professional development and career advancement opportunities for peers represent important resources.
Full Text Available Background: Few studies have examined the impact of cancer diagnosis on employment among breast cancer patients. We aim to gain an in-depth understanding on the employment issues faced by breast cancer patients as well as their financial coping strategies in a multi-ethnic Asian setting. Methods: Six focus group discussions (FGDs were carried out with breast cancer patients, representing various ethnicities and socioeconomic backgrounds, who were recruited from Hospital Kuala Lumpur, a public hospital, and University Malaya Medical Centre, a public academic hospital. All FGDs were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic content analysis was carried out using the NVivo software. Results: Majority of breast cancer patients quitted their jobs upon diagnosis of breast cancer, with many describing that their bosses were not understanding in terms of their cancer diagnosis. Those who were self-employed meanwhile reported less productivity. Patterns of financial coping strategies due to employment changes were diverse. Some patients chose to do light weight part time jobs, while others described the important role of husbands and relatives in coping with income loss. There were mixed responses regarding return to work, in which money was the major reason to return to work, while stress was cited as a barrier to not return to work. However, many reported barriers in finding a job after cancer due to discrimination against their cancer and their age. Conclusion: It is evident that a breast cancer diagnosis brings about adverse impact on employment. Multidisciplinary interventions are urgently required in Malaysia to improve the employment status of our cancer survivors including legislative reforms to prevent discrimination. This study was funded by AIA Bhd. NMRR ID: NMRR-16-2054-32802
Fanelli, Carlo; Rudman, Debbie Laliberté; Aldrich, Rebecca M
Drawing on interview and focus group data, this article explores research undertaken as part of a larger research project exploring precarity in the nonprofit employment services sector in a mid-sized Canadian city. We critically survey major legislative changes to Canadian employment and income security policies and programs, including the restructuring of work and labor relations, growth of performance-based contracting-out, erosion of intergovernmental transfers, worker stress, and emotional tolls. Our study's results demonstrate how employment precarity in the nonprofit employment services sector is amplified by top-down and centralized relationships with funding partners and policymaking divorced from the employment experiences of frontline staff. We make the case that it is important to work against rising workplace precarity to strengthen organizational and workplace conditions, as well as build environments more supportive of optimal employment support services. En se fondant sur des entretiens et des données découlant de groupes témoins, cet article présente des explorations entreprises dans une recherche plus large étudiant la précarité dans le secteur des emplois de service dans une ville canadienne de taille moyenne. Nous faisons une revue critique de changements importants intervenus dans la législation portant sur l'emploi au Canada et les politiques et programmes de la sécurité du revenu, incluant la restructuration du travail et des relations de travail, l'augmentation de la privatisation se fondant sur la performance, la diminution des transferts intergouvernementaux, le stress au travail et les conséquences émotionnelles. Les résultats de notre recherche démontrent comment la précarité de l'emploi dans les secteurs des services à but non lucratif est amplifiée par des relations allant du haut vers le bas et centralisée avec des partenaires et des politiques séparés de l'expérience des travailleurs sur le terrain. Nous d
Badland, Hannah M; Oliver, Melody; Kearns, Robin A; Mavoa, Suzanne; Witten, Karen; Duncan, Mitch J; Batty, G David
Although the neighbourhoods and health field is well established, the relationships between neighbourhood selection, neighbourhood preference, work-related travel behaviours, and transport infrastructure have not been fully explored. It is likely that understanding these complex relationships more fully will inform urban policy development, and planning for neighbourhoods that support health behaviours. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to identify associations between these variables in a sample of employed adults. Self-reported demographic, work-related transport behaviours, and neighbourhood preference data were collected from 1616 employed adults recruited from 48 neighbourhoods located across four New Zealand cities. Data were collected between April 2008 and September 2010. Neighbourhood built environment measures were generated using geographical information systems. Findings demonstrated that more people preferred to live in urban (more walkable), rather than suburban (less walkable) settings. Those living in more suburban neighbourhoods had significantly longer work commute distances and lower density of public transport stops available within the neighbourhood when compared with those who lived in more urban neighbourhoods. Those preferring a suburban style neighbourhood commuted approximately 1.5 km further to work when compared with participants preferring urban settings. Respondents who preferred a suburban style neighbourhood were less likely to take public or active transport to/from work when compared with those who preferred an urban style setting, regardless of the neighbourhood type in which they resided. Although it is unlikely that constructing more walkable environments will result in work-related travel behaviour change for all, providing additional highly walkable environments will help satisfy the demand for these settings, reinforce positive health behaviours, and support those amenable to change to engage in higher levels of
Saller, Maximilian A C; Habershon, Scott
Methods for solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation via basis set expansion of the wave function can generally be categorized as having either static (time-independent) or dynamic (time-dependent) basis functions. We have recently introduced an alternative simulation approach which represents a middle road between these two extremes, employing dynamic (classical-like) trajectories to create a static basis set of Gaussian wavepackets in regions of phase-space relevant to future propagation of the wave function [J. Chem. Theory Comput., 11, 8 (2015)]. Here, we propose and test a modification of our methodology which aims to reduce the size of basis sets generated in our original scheme. In particular, we employ short-time classical trajectories to continuously generate new basis functions for short-time quantum propagation of the wave function; to avoid the continued growth of the basis set describing the time-dependent wave function, we employ Matching Pursuit to periodically minimize the number of basis functions required to accurately describe the wave function. Overall, this approach generates a basis set which is adapted to evolution of the wave function while also being as small as possible. In applications to challenging benchmark problems, namely a 4-dimensional model of photoexcited pyrazine and three different double-well tunnelling problems, we find that our new scheme enables accurate wave function propagation with basis sets which are around an order-of-magnitude smaller than our original trajectory-guided basis set methodology, highlighting the benefits of adaptive strategies for wave function propagation.
Jones, Narelle; Torezani, Silvia; Luca, Joseph
Career opportunities for Australian research graduates have expanded in recent years into areas outside academia. However, the employment market is highly competitive, and Australian universities have recognised the need to produce graduates with transferable skills across all sectors, not just academia. The need to provide an infrastructure to…
... Employment Program--Self-Employment AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This document amends the vocational rehabilitation and employment regulations of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) concerning self-employment for individuals with qualifying disabilities. We are making...
Prescott, Sarah; Fleming, Jennifer; Doig, Emmah
The aim of this study was to explore clinicians' experiences of implementing goal setting with community dwelling clients with acquired brain injury, to develop a goal setting practice framework. Grounded theory methodology was employed. Clinicians, representing six disciplines across seven services, were recruited and interviewed until theoretical saturation was achieved. A total of 22 clinicians were interviewed. A theoretical framework was developed to explain how clinicians support clients to actively engage in goal setting in routine practice. The framework incorporates three phases: a needs identification phase, a goal operationalisation phase, and an intervention phase. Contextual factors, including personal and environmental influences, also affect how clinicians and clients engage in this process. Clinicians use additional strategies to support clients with impaired self-awareness. These include structured communication and metacognitive strategies to operationalise goals. For clients with emotional distress, clinicians provide additional time and intervention directed at new identity development. The goal setting practice framework may guide clinician's understanding of how to engage in client-centred goal setting in brain injury rehabilitation. There is a predilection towards a client-centred goal setting approach in the community setting, however, contextual factors can inhibit implementation of this approach. Implications for Rehabilitation The theoretical framework describes processes used to develop achievable client-centred goals with people with brain injury. Building rapport is a core strategy to engage clients with brain injury in goal setting. Clients with self-awareness impairment benefit from additional metacognitive strategies to participate in goal setting. Clients with emotional distress may need additional time for new identity development.
Michael K. Lemke
Full Text Available We investigated the phenomenon of sustained health-supportive behaviors among long-haul commercial truck drivers, who belong to an occupational segment with extreme health disparities. With a focus on setting-level factors, this study sought to discover ways in which individuals exhibit resiliency while immersed in endemically obesogenic environments, as well as understand setting-level barriers to engaging in health-supportive behaviors. Using a transcendental phenomenological research design, 12 long-haul truck drivers who met screening criteria were selected using purposeful maximum sampling. Seven broad themes were identified: access to health resources, barriers to health behaviors, recommended alternative settings, constituents of health behavior, motivation for health behaviors, attitude toward health behaviors, and trucking culture. We suggest applying ecological theories of health behavior and settings approaches to improve driver health. We also propose the Integrative and Dynamic Healthy Commercial Driving (IDHCD paradigm, grounded in complexity science, as a new theoretical framework for improving driver health outcomes.
Pamela Campa; Alessandra Casarico; Paola Profeta
This article analyzes to what extent gender culture affects gender gap in employment. Drawing on Italian data, we measure culture by building two indices: one based on individuals' attitudes, as done in the existing literature; one based on firms' attitudes. Firms' beliefs, which express their set of ideas, values and norms, though generally neglected, are as important as individuals' attitudes to explain female labor market outcomes. Using an instrumental variable analysis, we show that our ...
Clifton, Andrew [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Hodge, Bri-Mathias [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Power Systems Engineering Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Draxl, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; National Wind Technology Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Badger, Jake [Department of Wind Energy, Danish Technical University, Copenhagen Denmark; Habte, Aron [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Power Systems Engineering Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA
The range of resource data sets spans from static cartography showing the mean annual wind speed or solar irradiance across a region to high temporal and high spatial resolution products that provide detailed information at a potential wind or solar energy facility. These data sets are used to support continental-scale, national, or regional renewable energy development; facilitate prospecting by developers; and enable grid integration studies. This review first provides an introduction to the wind and solar resource data sets, then provides an overview of the common methods used for their creation and validation. A brief history of wind and solar resource data sets is then presented, followed by areas for future research.
... the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States; Announcement of Non- Material... reasons in great detail in the preamble of the ``Temporary Agricultural Employment of H-2A Aliens in the... set the AEWR. See ``Temporary Agricultural Employment of H-2A Aliens in the United States; Modernizing...
Background: Although increasing numbers of large companies are complying with demands for a breastfeeding-friendly workplace by providing lactation rooms and breast-pumping breaks, the effectiveness for intention to use breast-pumping breaks to express breast milk among employed mothers is uncertain. To explore the impact of employees' perceived breastfeeding support from the workplace and the benefits of breastfeeding on a woman's intention to use breast-pumping breaks after returning to wor...
Geisinger, Kurt F.; McCormick, Carina M.
Standard-setting studies utilizing procedures such as the Bookmark or Angoff methods are just one component of the complete standard-setting process. Decision makers ultimately must determine what they believe to be the most appropriate standard or cut score to use, employing the input of the standard-setting panelists as one piece of information…
Fleuren, Bram Bi; de Grip, Andries; Jansen, Nicole Wh; Kant, Imjert; Zijlstra, Fred Rh
the labor market to maintain economic welfare (1). Moreover, as a consequence of population aging (2-6), longevity, rapid changes in technology (7, 8) and changes in the nature of work (1), both the need to promote sustainable employability of individuals in society and the complexity to succeed in doing so increase even further. Only recently, van der Klink et al provided the first definition of the concept in the international scientific literature (1, p74): "Sustainable employability means that throughout their working lives, workers can achieve tangible opportunities in the form of a set of capabilities. They also enjoy the necessary conditions that allow them to make a valuable contribution through their work, now and in the future, while safeguarding their health and welfare. This requires, on the one hand, a work context that facilitates this for them and, on the other, the attitude and motivation to exploit these opportunities." This definition is accompanied by an equally recent operationalization of SE as a set of capabilities (9). Moreover, the definition itself also appeared in an earlier Dutch publication (10), which other international publications about SE most commonly refer to [ie, in comparison with other definitions in the non-international (eg, Dutch) literature] (11-13). As mentioned, the present paper provides a critical reflection on van der Klink et al's aforementioned definition of SE (1). Merits Van der Klink et al's definition of SE (1) has three important merits. First, SE is seen as a multidimensional construct. It is presented as consisting of a broad set of opportunities for employees to create value for themselves and for their employer that cover various aspects of working. Moreover, the individual's health and well-being as well as attitudinal and motivational aspects are included in the definition as well. This acknowledgement of the multidimensionality of SE is favorable, as it illustrates the complexity of the construct and of what
Efendi, Riswan; Azah Samsudin, Noor; Mat Deris, Mustafa; Guan Ting, Yip
Jaccard index and rough set approaches have been frequently implemented in decision support systems with various domain applications. Both approaches are appropriate to be considered for categorical data analysis. This paper presents the applications of sets operations for flu diagnosis systems based on two different approaches, such as, Jaccard index and rough set. These two different approaches are established using set operations concept, namely intersection and subset. The step-by-step procedure is demonstrated from each approach in diagnosing flu system. The similarity and dissimilarity indexes between conditional symptoms and decision are measured using Jaccard approach. Additionally, the rough set is used to build decision support rules. Moreover, the decision support rules are established using redundant data analysis and elimination of unclassified elements. A number data sets is considered to attempt the step-by-step procedure from each approach. The result has shown that rough set can be used to support Jaccard approaches in establishing decision support rules. Additionally, Jaccard index is better approach for investigating the worst condition of patients. While, the definitely and possibly patients with or without flu can be determined using rough set approach. The rules may improve the performance of medical diagnosis systems. Therefore, inexperienced doctors and patients are easier in preliminary flu diagnosis.
This study applies a novel neural-network technique, support vector regression (SVR), to forecast reliability in engine systems. The aim of this study is to examine the feasibility of SVR in systems reliability prediction by comparing it with the existing neural-network approaches and the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model. To build an effective SVR model, SVR's parameters must be set carefully. This study proposes a novel approach, known as GA-SVR, which searches for SVR's optimal parameters using real-value genetic algorithms, and then adopts the optimal parameters to construct the SVR models. A real reliability data for 40 suits of turbochargers were employed as the data set. The experimental results demonstrate that SVR outperforms the existing neural-network approaches and the traditional ARIMA models based on the normalized root mean square error and mean absolute percentage error
Full Text Available This empirical study investigates the work motivations of employed women in the Maltese labor market. A self-administered questionnaire purposely designed for the present study was presented to a quota sample of 400 women employed in Malta. Statistical analyses revealed that (a the most important work motivators are “financial independence” and “earning money for basic necessities”; (b the 16 proposed work motivations could be grouped under two internally consistent and unidimensional factors, namely, “personal and professional development” and “social and economic well-being”; and (c that the intention to continue to work in the future was associated with a higher level of “education,” and greater levels of work motivation related to “personal and professional development” and “social and economic well-being.” The findings are discussed and the study provides 10 important recommendations for Maltese labor market policy makers and employers aimed at boosting the participation of working women. These include a more supportive support system for working mothers, flexible educational and training opportunities, and tighter enforcement of laws to prevent gender discrimination and harassment at the place of work and nonobserved economic activity. The study concludes by providing some interesting avenues for further research.
Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is the most commonly diagnosed neurological disorder in children. Adults with ASD have some of the poorest employment outcomes in comparison to others with disabilities. While data in Canada is limited, roughly 25 per cent of Americans living with ASD are employed and no more than six per cent are competitively employed. Most earn less than the national minimum hourly wage, endure extended periods of joblessness and frequently shuffle between positions, further diminishing their prospects. Poor employment outcomes result in lower quality of life and often lead to steep economic costs. Governments are wise to pay attention to the poor employment outcomes as the high numbers of children now diagnosed with ASD will become adults in the future in need of employment opportunities. Improving employment outcomes for those living with ASD is an important policy objective. Work opportunities improve quality of life, economic independence, social integration, and ultimately benefit all. Adults with ASD can succeed with the right supports. Fortunately, there are many emerging policy and program options that demonstrate success. This paper conducts a review of studies and provides policy recommendations based on the literature, to help governments identify appropriate policy options. Some key factors are both those that are unique to the individual and the external supports available; namely school, work, and family. For example, factors that contribute to successful employment for people living with ASD may include IQ, social skills and self-determination, but for all, even for the less advantaged, external assistance from schools, employers and family can help. Inclusive special education programs in high school that offer work experiences are critical as are knowledgeable employers who can provide the right types of accommodation and leadership. In the work environment the use of vocational and rehabilitative supports, from
..., and out- build the rest of the world. During National Disability Employment Awareness Month, we... opportunity to apply for jobs, and it will allow Federal employees to better use technology at work. To win... for all people. IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this third day of October, in the year...