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Sample records for support mission-is northcom

  1. The Evolving Role of the Army National Guard in Homeland Defense and Civil Support

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rooney, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    .... To further unify the military effort U.S. Northern Command (NORTHCOM) has been created as a North American combatant command charged with the dual missions of homeland defense and civil support...

  2. Life support approaches for Mars missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drysdale, A. E.; Ewert, M. K.; Hanford, A. J.

    Life support approaches for Mars missions are evaluated using an equivalent system mass (ESM) approach, in which all significant costs are converted into mass units. The best approach, as defined by the lowest mission ESM, depends on several mission parameters, notably duration, environment and consequent infrastructure costs, and crew size, as well as the characteristics of the technologies which are available. Generally, for the missions under consideration, physicochemical regeneration is most cost effective. However, bioregeneration is likely to be of use for producing salad crops for any mission, for producing staple crops for medium duration missions, and for most food, air and water regeneration for long missions (durations of a decade). Potential applications of in situ resource utilization need to be considered further.

  3. Collaboration support system for "Phobos-Soil" space mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarov, V.; Nazirov, R.; Zakharov, A.

    2009-04-01

    Rapid development of communication facilities leads growth of interactions done via electronic means. However we can see some paradox in this segment in last times: Extending of communication facilities increases collaboration chaos. And it is very sensitive for space missions in general and scientific space mission particularly because effective decision of this task provides successful realization of the missions and promises increasing the ratio of functional characteristic and cost of mission at all. Resolving of this problem may be found by using respective modern technologies and methods which widely used in different branches and not in the space researches only. Such approaches as Social Networking, Web 2.0 and Enterprise 2.0 look most prospective in this context. The primary goal of the "Phobos-Soil" mission is an investigation of the Phobos which is the Martian moon and particularly its regolith, internal structure, peculiarities of the orbital and proper motion, as well as a number of different scientific measurements and experiments for investigation of the Martian environment. A lot of investigators involved in the mission. Effective collaboration system is key facility for information support of the mission therefore. Further to main goal: communication between users of the system, modern approaches allows using such capabilities as self-organizing community, user generated content, centralized and federative control of the system. Also it may have one unique possibility - knowledge management which is very important for space mission realization. Therefore collaboration support system for "Phobos-Soil" mission designed on the base of multilayer model which includes such levels as Communications, Announcement and Information, Data sharing and Knowledge management. The collaboration support system for "Phobos-Soil" mission will be used as prototype for prospective Russian scientific space missions and the presentation describes its architecture

  4. Tankering Fuel: A Cost Saving Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    2.41075 RIO DE JANEIRO IAP SBGL OS 3.1867 Riyadh Mil Apt Saudi A OERY OS 2.5587 Riyadh Mil Apt Saudi A OERY OS 2.5396 ROANOKE RGNLWOODRUM FLD KROA...US NGB NORTHCOM Davis Monthan AFB KDMA AF Arizona US ACC NORTHCOM Davision Army Airfield ARMY Virginia US IMCOM NORTHCOM Des Moines ANG KDSM AF...Carolina US NULL NORTHCOM MCAS New River NAVY North Carolina US NULL NORTHCOM MCAS Yuma KYUM NAVY Arizona US NULL NORTHCOM MCB 29 Palms NAVY

  5. Agent-Supported Mission Operations Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.

    2003-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of software agents to support of mission operations teamwork. The goals of the work was to make automation by agents easy to use, supervise and direct, manage information and communication to decrease distraction, interruptions, workload and errors, reduce mission impact of off-nominal situations and increase morale and decrease turnover. The accomplishments or the project are: 1. Collaborative agents - mixed initiative and creation of instructions for mediating agent 2. Methods for prototyping, evaluating and evolving socio-technical systems 3. Technology infusion: teamwork tools in mISSIons 4. Demonstrations in simulation testbed An example of the use of agent is given, the use of an agent to monitor a N2 tank leak. An incomplete instruction to the agent is handled with mediating assistants, or Intelligent Briefing and Response Assistant (IBRA). The IBRA Engine also watches data stream for triggers and executes Act-Whenever actions. There is also a Briefing and Response Instruction (BRI) which is easy for a discipline specialist to create through a BRI editor.

  6. Exploration Life Support Technology Development for Lunar Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K.; Barta, Daniel J.; McQuillan, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Exploration Life Support (ELS) is one of NASA's Exploration Technology Development Projects. ELS plans, coordinates and implements the development of new life support technologies for human exploration missions as outlined in NASA's Vision for Space Exploration. ELS technology development currently supports three major projects of the Constellation Program - the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the Altair Lunar Lander and Lunar Surface Systems. ELS content includes Air Revitalization Systems (ARS), Water Recovery Systems (WRS), Waste Management Systems (WMS), Habitation Engineering, Systems Integration, Modeling and Analysis (SIMA), and Validation and Testing. The primary goal of the ELS project is to provide different technology options to Constellation which fill gaps or provide substantial improvements over the state-of-the-art in life support systems. Since the Constellation missions are so challenging, mass, power, and volume must be reduced from Space Shuttle and Space Station technologies. Systems engineering analysis also optimizes the overall architecture by considering all interfaces with the life support system and potential for reduction or reuse of resources. For long duration missions, technologies which aid in closure of air and water loops with increased reliability are essential as well as techniques to minimize or deal with waste. The ELS project utilizes in-house efforts at five NASA centers, aerospace industry contracts, Small Business Innovative Research contracts and other means to develop advanced life support technologies. Testing, analysis and reduced gravity flight experiments are also conducted at the NASA field centers. This paper gives a current status of technologies under development by ELS and relates them to the Constellation customers who will eventually use them.

  7. Experiences in Interagency and International Interfaces for Mission Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, G. T.; Mitchell, W. J.; Thompson, T. W.; Cappellari, J. O., Jr.; Flores-Amaya, F.

    1996-01-01

    The Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GFSC) provides extensive support and products for Space Shuttle missions, expendable launch vehicle launches, and routine on-orbit operations for a variety of spacecraft. A major challenge in providing support for these missions is defining and generating the products required for mission support and developing the method by which these products are exchanged between supporting agencies. As interagency and international cooperation has increased in the space community, the FDD customer base has grown and with it the number and variety of external interfaces and product definitions. Currently, the FDD has working interfaces with the NASA Space and Ground Networks, the Johnson Space Center, the White Sands Complex, the Jet propulsion Laboratory (including the Deep Space Network), the United States Air Force, the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, the German Spaceflight Operations Center, the European Space Agency, and the National Space Development Agency of Japan. With the increasing spectrum of possible data product definitions and delivery methods, the FDD is using its extensive interagency experience to improve its support of established customers and to provide leadership in adapting/developing new interfaces. This paper describes the evolution of the interfaces between the FDD and its customers, discusses many of the joint activities ith these customers, and summarizes key lessons learned that can be applied to current and future support.

  8. GPHS-RTGs in support of the Cassini Mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report is organized by the program task structure as follows: (1) spacecraft integration and liaison; (2) engineering support; (3) safety; (4) qualified unicouple fabrication; (5) ETG fabrication, assembly, and test; (6) ground support equipment (GSE); (7) RTG shipping and launch support; (8) designs, reviews, and mission applications; (9) project management, quality assurance and reliability, contract changes, non-capital CAGO acquisition, and CAGO maintenance; and (H) contractor acquired government owned property (CAGO) acquisition

  9. Cross support overview and operations concept for future space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, William; Kaufeler, Jean-Francois

    1994-01-01

    Ground networks must respond to the requirements of future missions, which include smaller sizes, tighter budgets, increased numbers, and shorter development schedules. The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is meeting these challenges by developing a general cross support concept, reference model, and service specifications for Space Link Extension services for space missions involving cross support among Space Agencies. This paper identifies and bounds the problem, describes the need to extend Space Link services, gives an overview of the operations concept, and introduces complimentary CCSDS work on standardizing Space Link Extension services.

  10. Management of Operational Support Requirements for Manned Flight Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This Instruction establishes responsibilities for managing the system whereby operational support requirements are levied for support of manned flight missions including associated payloads. This management system will ensure that support requirements are properly requested and responses are properly obtained to meet operational objectives.

  11. Solid Waste Management Requirements Definition for Advanced Life Support Missions: Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazraki, Michael P.; Hogan, John; Levri, Julie; Fisher, John; Drysdale, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Prior to determining what Solid Waste Management (SWM) technologies should be researched and developed by the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Project for future missions, there is a need to define SWM requirements. Because future waste streams will be highly mission-dependent, missions need to be defined prior to developing SWM requirements. The SWM Working Group has used the mission architecture outlined in the System Integration, Modeling and Analysis (SIMA) Element Reference Missions Document (RMD) as a starting point in the requirement development process. The missions examined include the International Space Station (ISS), a Mars Dual Lander mission, and a Mars Base. The SWM Element has also identified common SWM functionalities needed for future missions. These functionalities include: acceptance, transport, processing, storage, monitoring and control, and disposal. Requirements in each of these six areas are currently being developed for the selected missions. This paper reviews the results of this ongoing effort and identifies mission-dependent resource recovery requirements.

  12. Using New Technologies in Support of Future Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, Adrian J.; Welch, David C.

    1997-01-01

    This paper forms a perspective of how new technologies such as onboard autonomy and internet-like protocols will change the look and feel of operations. It analyzes the concept of a lights-out mission operations control center and it's role in future mission support and it describes likely scenarios for evolving from current concepts.

  13. Scalable Integrated Multi-Mission Support System Simulator Release 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, John; Velamuri, Sarma; Casey, Taylor; Bemann, Travis

    2012-01-01

    The Scalable Integrated Multi-mission Support System (SIMSS) is a tool that performs a variety of test activities related to spacecraft simulations and ground segment checks. SIMSS is a distributed, component-based, plug-and-play client-server system useful for performing real-time monitoring and communications testing. SIMSS runs on one or more workstations and is designed to be user-configurable or to use predefined configurations for routine operations. SIMSS consists of more than 100 modules that can be configured to create, receive, process, and/or transmit data. The SIMSS/GMSEC innovation is intended to provide missions with a low-cost solution for implementing their ground systems, as well as significantly reducing a mission s integration time and risk.

  14. Game-based versus storyboard-based evaluations of crew support prototypes for long duration missions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smets, N.J.J.M.; Abbing, M.S.; Neerincx, M.A.; Lindenberg, J.; Oostendorp, H. van

    2010-01-01

    The Mission Execution Crew Assistant (MECA) is developing a distributed system of electronic partners (ePartners) to support astronauts performing nominal and off- nominal actions in long duration missions. The ePartners' support should adequately deal with the dynamics of the context, operations,

  15. Mission Applications Support at NASA: Coastal Applications of SWOT Mission Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, M. M.; Peterson, C. A.; Chao, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission is an international collaboration of two scientific communities focused on a better understanding of the world's oceans and its terrestrial surface waters. SWOT will produce the first global survey of Earth's surface water by measuring sea surface height and the heights, slopes, and inundated areas of rivers, lakes, and wetlands. These coastal, lake and river measurements will be useful for monitoring the hydrologic cycle, flooding, and climate impacts of a changing environment. NASA and their French, Canadian and the United Kingdom space agency partners are developing new wide swath altimetry technology that will cover most of the world's ocean and surface freshwater bodies, and will have the capability to make observations with unprecedented resolution compared to existing technologies and will have the capability of measuring how water bodies change over time. Along with existing altimetry datasets, simulated SWOT data sets are being planned to assess the quality and potential value of anticipated SWOT measurements to both oceanography and hydrology applications. With the surface water measurements anticipated from SWOT, a broad range of applications may inform coastal managers and marine operators of offshore conditions and currents relevant to their regions. One study proposed to the NASA ASP would highlight coastal and estuary applications potential of the future SWOT mission. This study would promote the use of remote sensing measurements to improve the understanding, monitoring and management of estuaries and deltas for a broad range of users. In addition, the AirSWOT airborne mission to demonstrate the wide swath technology of SWOT is providing preliminary data products in inland and coastal regions that may be useful for early assessment by users of the future value of SWOT. NASA's Applied Sciences Program (ASP), along with the international SWOT project teams, is supporting a program that promotes

  16. Assured Mission Support Space Architecture (AMSSA) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamon, Rob

    1993-01-01

    The assured mission support space architecture (AMSSA) study was conducted with the overall goal of developing a long-term requirements-driven integrated space architecture to provide responsive and sustained space support to the combatant commands. Although derivation of an architecture was the focus of the study, there are three significant products from the effort. The first is a philosophy that defines the necessary attributes for the development and operation of space systems to ensure an integrated, interoperable architecture that, by design, provides a high degree of combat utility. The second is the architecture itself; based on an interoperable system-of-systems strategy, it reflects a long-range goal for space that will evolve as user requirements adapt to a changing world environment. The third product is the framework of a process that, when fully developed, will provide essential information to key decision makers for space systems acquisition in order to achieve the AMSSA goal. It is a categorical imperative that military space planners develop space systems that will act as true force multipliers. AMSSA provides the philosophy, process, and architecture that, when integrated with the DOD requirements and acquisition procedures, can yield an assured mission support capability from space to the combatant commanders. An important feature of the AMSSA initiative is the participation by every organization that has a role or interest in space systems development and operation. With continued community involvement, the concept of the AMSSA will become a reality. In summary, AMSSA offers a better way to think about space (philosophy) that can lead to the effective utilization of limited resources (process) with an infrastructure designed to meet the future space needs (architecture) of our combat forces.

  17. Mars Relays Satellite Orbit Design Considerations for Global Support of Robotic Surface Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, Rolf; Cesarone, Robert; Cook, Richard; Knocke, Phillip; McOmber, Robert

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses orbit design considerations for Mars relay satellite (MRS)support of globally distributed robotic surface missions. The orbit results reported in this paper are derived from studies of MRS support for two types of Mars robotic surface missions: 1) the mars Environmental Survey (MESUR) mission, which in its current definition would deploy a global network of up to 16 small landers, and 2)a Small Mars Sample Return (SMSR) mission, which included four globally distributed landers, each with a return stage and one or two rovers, and up to four additional sets of lander/rover elements in an extended mission phase.

  18. Life Support Filtration System Trade Study for Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Perry, Jay L.

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) technical developments for highly reliable life support systems aim to maximize the viability of long duration deep space missions. Among the life support system functions, airborne particulate matter filtration is a significant driver of launch mass because of the large geometry required to provide adequate filtration performance and because of the number of replacement filters needed to a sustain a mission. A trade analysis incorporating various launch, operational and maintenance parameters was conducted to investigate the trade-offs between the various particulate matter filtration configurations. In addition to typical launch parameters such as mass, volume and power, the amount of crew time dedicated to system maintenance becomes an increasingly crucial factor for long duration missions. The trade analysis evaluated these parameters for conventional particulate matter filtration technologies and a new multi-stage particulate matter filtration system under development by NASAs Glenn Research Center. The multi-stage filtration system features modular components that allow for physical configuration flexibility. Specifically, the filtration system components can be configured in distributed, centralized, and hybrid physical layouts that can result in considerable mass savings compared to conventional particulate matter filtration technologies. The trade analysis results are presented and implications for future transit and surface missions are discussed.

  19. Ultra Reliable Closed Loop Life Support for Long Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Ewert, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    Spacecraft human life support systems can achieve ultra reliability by providing sufficient spares to replace all failed components. The additional mass of spares for ultra reliability is approximately equal to the original system mass, provided that the original system reliability is not too low. Acceptable reliability can be achieved for the Space Shuttle and Space Station by preventive maintenance and by replacing failed units. However, on-demand maintenance and repair requires a logistics supply chain in place to provide the needed spares. In contrast, a Mars or other long space mission must take along all the needed spares, since resupply is not possible. Long missions must achieve ultra reliability, a very low failure rate per hour, since they will take years rather than weeks and cannot be cut short if a failure occurs. Also, distant missions have a much higher mass launch cost per kilogram than near-Earth missions. Achieving ultra reliable spacecraft life support systems with acceptable mass will require a well-planned and extensive development effort. Analysis must determine the reliability requirement and allocate it to subsystems and components. Ultra reliability requires reducing the intrinsic failure causes, providing spares to replace failed components and having "graceful" failure modes. Technologies, components, and materials must be selected and designed for high reliability. Long duration testing is needed to confirm very low failure rates. Systems design should segregate the failure causes in the smallest, most easily replaceable parts. The system must be designed, developed, integrated, and tested with system reliability in mind. Maintenance and reparability of failed units must not add to the probability of failure. The overall system must be tested sufficiently to identify any design errors. A program to develop ultra reliable space life support systems with acceptable mass should start soon since it must be a long term effort.

  20. Experience of the United States in Hosting and Supporting IAEA Peer Review Missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamish, N.

    2016-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) provides a number of peer review services to its Member States. The United States has strongly supported these peer reviews since their inception. In 2010, the United States hosted an Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission, with a follow-up mission completed in 2014. The missions provided valuable recommendations and suggestions, identified a number of best practices, and acknowledged the prompt and effective actions taken by the NRC following the Fukushima Daiichi accident. Through hosting an International Physical Protection Advisory Service (IPPAS) mission in 2013, the United States benefited both from the insights provided by the team, as well as the U.S. Government’s gap analyses and preparatory efforts in advance of the mission. The United States strongly supports the IAEA’s Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) program, inviting a peer review mission to a U.S. nuclear power plant every 3 years. Although OSART is an operational, not regulatory, peer review, the NRC provides funding for the mission and gives inspection credit to operators that host them. The United States also contributes significant technical expertise to IAEA peer review missions hosted by other Member States. With the IRRS and IPPAS reaching their 10th and 20th anniversaries respectively, these programs have improved as they have matured. However, it remains critical for Member States to continue to support these programs, and provide feedback to the IAEA Secretariat on their effectiveness and areas where IAEA might enhance them. Doing so will ensure peer reviews remain an effective tool for strengthening nuclear safety and security worldwide. (author)

  1. Transportation Packages to Support Savannah River Site Missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opperman, E.

    2001-01-01

    The Savannah River Site's missions have expanded from primarily a defense mission to one that includes environmental cleanup and the stabilization, storage, and preparation for final disposition of nuclear materials. The development of packaging and the transportation of radioactive materials are playing an ever-increasing role in the successful completion of the site's missions. This paper describes the Savannah River Site and the three strategic mission areas of (1) nuclear materials stewardship, (2) environmental stewardship, and (3) nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship. The materials and components that need to be shipped, and associated packaging, will be described for each of the mission areas. The diverse range of materials requiring shipment include spent fuel, irradiated target assemblies, excess plutonium and uranium materials, high level waste canisters, transuranic wastes, mixed and low level wastes, and nuclear weapons stockpile materials and components. Since many of these materials have been in prolonged storage or resulted from disassembly of components, the composition, size and shape of the materials present packaging and certification challenges that need to be met. Over 30 different package designs are required to support the site's missions. Approximately 15 inbound shipping-legs transport materials into the Savannah River Site and the same number (15) of outgoing shipment-legs are carrying materials from the site for further processing or permanent disposal

  2. Tracking and data system support for the Mariner Mars 1971 mission. Volume 3: Orbit insertion through end of primary mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnum, P. W.; Renzetti, N. A.; Textor, G. P.; Kelly, L. B.

    1973-01-01

    The Tracking and Data System (TDS) Support for the Mariner Mars 1971 Mission final report contains the deep space tracking and data acquisition activities in support of orbital operations. During this period a major NASA objective was accomplished: completion of the 180th revolution and 90th day of data gathering with the spacecraft about the planet Mars. Included are presentations of the TDS flight support pass chronology data for each of the Deep Space Stations used, and performance evaluation for the Deep Space Network Telemetry, Tracking, Command, and Monitor Systems. With the loss of Mariner 8 at launch, Mariner 9 assumed the mission plan of Mariner 8, which included the TV mapping cycles and a 12-hr orbital period. The mission plan was modified as a result of a severe dust storm on the surface of Mars, which delayed the start of the TV mapping cycles. Thus, the end of primary mission date was extended to complete the TV mapping cycles.

  3. Penn State University ground software support for X-ray missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsley, L. K.; Nousek, J. A.; Corbet, R. H. D.

    1995-03-01

    The X-ray group at Penn State is charged with two software development efforts in support of X-ray satellite missions. As part of the ACIS instrument team for AXAF, the authors are developing part of the ground software to support the instrument's calibration. They are also designing a translation program for Ginga data, to change it from the non-standard FRF format, which closely parallels the original telemetry format, to FITS.

  4. Environmental control and life support technologies for advanced manned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, F. T.; Wynveen, R. A.; Lin, C.

    1986-01-01

    Regenerative environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) technologies are found by the present evaluation to have reached a degree of maturity that recommends their application to long duration manned missions. The missions for which regenerative ECLSSs are attractive in virtue of the need to avoid expendables and resupply requirements have been identified as that of the long duration LEO Space Station, long duration stays at GEO, a permanently manned lunar base (or colony), manned platforms located at the earth-moon libration points L4 or L5, a Mars mission, deep space exploration, and asteroid exploration. A comparison is made between nonregenerative and regenerative ECLSSs in the cases of 10 essential functions.

  5. Network Operations Support Plan for the Spot 2 mission (revision 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werbitzky, Victor

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this Network Operations Support Plan (NOSP) is to indicate operational procedures and ground equipment configurations for the SPOT 2 mission. The provisions in this document take precedence over procedures or configurations in other documents.

  6. Formulation Assessment and Support Team (FAST) for the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Abell, Paul; Reeves, David M.; NASA Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) Formulation Assessment and Support Team (FAST)

    2016-10-01

    The Formulation Assessment and Support Team (FAST) for the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) was a two-month effort, chartered by NASA, to provide timely inputs for mission requirement formulation in support of the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM) Requirements Closure Technical Interchange Meeting held December 15-16, 2015. Additionally, the FAST was tasked with developing an initial list of potential mission investigations and providing input on potential hosted payloads and partnerships. The FAST explored several aspects of potential science benefits and knowledge gain from the ARM. Expertise from the science, engineering, and technology communities was represented in exploring lines of inquiry related to key characteristics of the ARRM reference target asteroid (2008 EV5) for engineering design purposes. Specific areas of interest included target origin, spatial distribution and size of boulders, surface geotechnical properties, boulder physical properties, and considerations for boulder handling, crew safety, and containment. In order to increase knowledge gain potential from the mission, opportunities for partnerships and accompanying payloads that could be provided by domestic and international partners were also investigated. The ARM FAST final report was publicly released on February 18, 2016 and represents the FAST's final product. The report and associated public comments are being used to support mission requirements formulation and serve as an initial inquiry to the science and engineering communities relating to the characteristics of the ARRM reference target asteroid. This report also provides a suggested list of potential investigations sorted and grouped based on their likely benefit to ARM and potential relevance to NASA science and exploration goals. These potential investigations could be conducted to reduce mission risks and increase knowledge return in the areas of science, planetary defense, asteroid resources and in-situ resource

  7. Space Network IP Services (SNIS): An Architecture for Supporting Low Earth Orbiting IP Satellite Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, David J.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Space Network (SN) supports a variety of missions using the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), which includes ground stations in White Sands, New Mexico and Guam. A Space Network IP Services (SNIS) architecture is being developed to support future users with requirements for end-to-end Internet Protocol (IP) communications. This architecture will support all IP protocols, including Mobile IP, over TDRSS Single Access, Multiple Access, and Demand Access Radio Frequency (RF) links. This paper will describe this architecture and how it can enable Low Earth Orbiting IP satellite missions.

  8. Software-Defined Ground Stations - Enhancing Multi-Mission Support, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase 1 proposal to NASA requests $99,055.69 to enhance multiple mission support in ground stations through the use of software defined radios and virtual...

  9. SPICE for ESA Planetary Missions: geometry and visualization support to studies, operations and data analysis within your reach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marc

    2018-05-01

    JUICE is a mission chosen in the framework of the Cosmic Vision 2015-2024 program of the SRE. JUICE will survey the Jovian system with a special focus on the three Galilean Moons. Currently the mission is under study activities during its Definition Phase. For this period the future mission scenarios are being studied by the Science Working Team (SWT). The Mission Analysis and Payload Support (MAPPS) and the Solar System Science Operations Laboratory (SOLab) tools are being used to provide active support to the SWT in synergy with other operational tools used in the Department in order to evaluate the feasibility of those scenarios. This contribution will outline the capabilities, synergies as well as use cases of the mentioned tools focusing on the support provided to JUICEís study phase on the study of its critical operational scenarios and the early developments of its Science Ground Segment demonstrating the added value that such a tool provides to planetary science missions.

  10. Cyberinfrastructure for Aircraft Mission Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudinger, Lawrence C.

    2010-01-01

    Forth last several years NASA's Airborne Science Program has been developing and using infrastructure and applications that enable researchers to interact with each other and with airborne instruments via network communications. Use of these tools has increased near realtime situational awareness during field operations, resulting it productivity improvements, improved decision making, and the collection of better data. Advances in pre-mission planning and post-mission access have also emerged. Integrating these capabilities with other tools to evolve coherent service-oriented enterprise architecture for aircraft flight and test operations is the subject of ongoing efforts.

  11. FRMAC Mission Analysis: What is it, and why is it useful?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhonda Hopkins

    2008-01-01

    In 2002, the Director of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Nuclear Security Administration, Division of Emergency Response, requested a team of DOE scientists, considered experts in the field of radiological consequence management, assemble and construct a mission analysis upon which the DOE could build its response program and plan for future requirements. The team developed five scenarios upon which to build the data quality objectives (DQOs) that they considered necessary to ensure a comprehensive consequence management response from the DOE perspective. The resulting document was called the Consequence Management Mission Analysis. Based upon the positive reaction to this document and its obvious benefit to the Consequence Management mission, it was decided to expand the scope of the document to cover a mission analysis of the entire Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) mission. The documentation team was expanded to include representatives from all signatories to the National Response Plan who have a role in responding to radiological emergencies. The scope of the FRMAC Mission Analysis includes all federal response resources which are activated to provide rapid support to affected state and local governments in the form of radiological monitoring and dose assessment activities at the incident site. An analysis of the necessary resources was performed to determine the required numbers and types of responders, in addition to the procedures and equipment necessary for performing the monitoring and dose assessment activities from the time the federal assets arrive at the site through the first week of the incident. The five scenarios that were considered were: (1) Nuclear Detonation; (2) Nuclear Reactor Incident or Event Involving Significant Release; (3) Alpha Radiological Dispersal Devise or Failed Improvised Nuclear Device; (4) Beta-Gamma Radiological Dispersal Device; and (5) Psychological Threat

  12. Game-based evaluation of personalized support for astronauts in long duration missions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smets, N.J.J.M.; Abbing, M.S.; Neerincx, M.A.; Lindenberg, J.; Oostendorp, H. van

    2008-01-01

    Long duration missions set high requirements for personalized astronaut support that takes into account the social, cognitive and affective state of the astronaut. Such support should be tested as thoroughly as possible before deployment into space. The in-orbit influences of the astronaut's state

  13. The Integrated Medical Model: A Risk Assessment and Decision Support Tool for Human Space Flight Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstman, Eric L.; Minard, Charles; FreiredeCarvalho, Mary H.; Walton, Marlei E.; Myers, Jerry G., Jr.; Saile, Lynn G.; Lopez, Vilma; Butler, Douglas J.; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Integrated Medical Model (IMM) and its use as a risk assessment and decision support tool for human space flight missions. The IMM is an integrated, quantified, evidence-based decision support tool useful to NASA crew health and mission planners. It is intended to assist in optimizing crew health, safety and mission success within the constraints of the space flight environment for in-flight operations. It uses ISS data to assist in planning for the Exploration Program and it is not intended to assist in post flight research. The IMM was used to update Probability Risk Assessment (PRA) for the purpose of updating forecasts for the conditions requiring evacuation (EVAC) or Loss of Crew Life (LOC) for the ISS. The IMM validation approach includes comparison with actual events and involves both qualitative and quantitaive approaches. The results of these comparisons are reviewed. Another use of the IMM is to optimize the medical kits taking into consideration the specific mission and the crew profile. An example of the use of the IMM to optimize the medical kits is reviewed.

  14. Using reliability analysis to support decision making\\ud in phased mission systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yang; Prescott, Darren

    2017-01-01

    Due to the environments in which they will operate, future autonomous systems must be capable of reconfiguring quickly and safely following faults or environmental changes. Past research has shown how, by considering autonomous systems to perform phased missions, reliability analysis can support decision making by allowing comparison of the probability of success of different missions following reconfiguration. Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) offer fast, accurate reliability analysis that cou...

  15. Numerical simulation support to the ESA/THOR mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, F.; Servidio, S.; Perri, S.; Perrone, D.; De Marco, R.; Marcucci, M. F.; Daniele, B.; Bruno, R.; Camporeale, E.

    2016-12-01

    THOR is a spacecraft concept currently undergoing study phase as acandidate for the next ESA medium size mission M4. THOR has been designedto solve the longstanding physical problems of particle heating andenergization in turbulent plasmas. It will provide high resolutionmeasurements of electromagnetic fields and particle distribution functionswith unprecedented resolution, with the aim of exploring the so-calledkinetic scales. We present the numerical simulation framework which is supporting the THOR mission during the study phase. The THOR teamincludes many scientists developing and running different simulation codes(Eulerian-Vlasov, Particle-In-Cell, Gyrokinetics, Two-fluid, MHD, etc.),addressing the physics of plasma turbulence, shocks, magnetic reconnectionand so on.These numerical codes are being used during the study phase, mainly withthe aim of addressing the following points:(i) to simulate the response of real particle instruments on board THOR, byemploying an electrostatic analyser simulator which mimics the response ofthe CSW, IMS and TEA instruments to the particle velocity distributions ofprotons, alpha particle and electrons, as obtained from kinetic numericalsimulations of plasma turbulence.(ii) to compare multi-spacecraft with single-spacecraft configurations inmeasuring current density, by making use of both numerical models ofsynthetic turbulence and real data from MMS spacecraft.(iii) to investigate the validity of the Taylor hypothesis indifferent configurations of plasma turbulence

  16. Preliminary Analysis of ISS Maintenance History and Implications for Supportability of Future Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kevin J.; Robbins, William W.

    2004-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) enables the study of supportability issues associated with long-duration human spaceflight. The ISS is a large, complex spacecraft that must be maintained by its crew. In contrast to the Space Shuttle Orbiter vehicle, but similar to spacecraft that will be component elements of future missions beyond low-Earth orbit, ISS does not return to the ground for servicing and provisioning of spares is severely constrained by transportation limits. Although significant technical support is provided by ground personnel, all hands-on maintenance tasks are performed by the crew. It is expected that future missions to distant destinations will be further limited by lack of resupply opportunities and will, eventually, become largely independent of ground support. ISS provides an opportunity to begin learning lessons that will enable future missions to be successful. Data accumulated over the first several years of ISS operations have been analyzed to gain a better understanding of maintenance-related workload. This analysis addresses both preventive and corrective maintenance and includes all U.S segment core systems. Systems and tasks that are major contributors to workload are identified. As further experience accrues, lessons will be learned that will influence future system designs so that they require less maintenance and, when maintenance is required, it can be performed more efficiently. By heeding the lessons of ISS it will be possible to identify system designs that should be more robust and point towards advances in both technology and design that will offer the greatest return on investment.

  17. Enviromnental Control and Life Support Systems for Mars Missions - Issues and Concerns for Planetary Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Anderson, Molly S.; Lange, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Planetary protection represents an additional set of requirements that generally have not been considered by developers of technologies for Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS). Planetary protection guidelines will affect the kind of operations, processes, and functions that can take place during future human planetary exploration missions. Ultimately, there will be an effect on mission costs, including the mission trade space when planetary protection requirements begin to drive vehicle deisgn in a concrete way. Planetary protection requirements need to be considered early in technology development and mission programs in order to estimate these impacts and push back on requirements or find efficient ways to perform necessary functions. It is expected that planetary protection will be a significant factor during technology selection and system architecture design for future missions.

  18. LIDAR technology developments in support of ESA Earth observation missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Yannig; Caron, Jérôme; Hélière, Arnaud; Bézy, Jean-Loup; Meynart, Roland

    2017-11-01

    Critical lidar technology developments have been ongoing at the European Space Agency (ESA) in support of EarthCARE (Earth Clouds, Aerosols, and Radiation Explorer), the 6th Earth Explorer mission, and A-SCOPE (Advanced Space Carbon and Climate Observation of Planet Earth), one of the candidates for the 7th Earth Explorer mission. EarthCARE is embarking an Atmospheric backscatter Lidar (ATLID) while A-SCOPE is based on a Total Column Differential Absorption Lidar. As EarthCARE phase B has just started, the pre-development activities, aiming at validating the technologies used in the flight design and at verifying the overall instrument performance, are almost completed. On the other hand, A-SCOPE pre-phase A has just finished. Therefore technology developments are in progress, addressing critical subsystems or components with the lowest TRL, selected in the proposed instrument concepts. The activities described in this paper span over a broad range, addressing all critical elements of a lidar from the transmitter to the receiver.

  19. PDS MSL Analyst's Notebook: Supporting Active Rover Missions and Adding Value to Planetary Data Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Thomas

    Planetary data archives of surface missions contain data from numerous hosted instruments. Because of the nondeterministic nature of surface missions, it is not possible to assess the data without understanding the context in which they were collected. The PDS Analyst’s Notebook (http://an.rsl.wustl.edu) provides access to Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) data archives by integrating sequence information, engineering and science data, observation planning and targeting, and documentation into web-accessible pages to facilitate “mission replay.” In addition, Mars Exploration Rover (MER), Mars Phoenix Lander, Lunar Apollo surface mission, and LCROSS mission data are available in the Analyst’s Notebook concept, and a Notebook is planned for the Insight mission. The MSL Analyst’s Notebook contains data, documentation, and support files for the Curiosity rovers. The inputs are incorporated on a daily basis into a science team version of the Notebook. The public version of the Analyst’s Notebook is comprised of peer-reviewed, released data and is updated coincident with PDS data releases as defined in mission archive plans. The data are provided by the instrument teams and are supported by documentation describing data format, content, and calibration. Both operations and science data products are included. The operations versions are generated to support mission planning and operations on a daily basis. They are geared toward researchers working on machine vision and engineering operations. Science versions of observations from some instruments are provided for those interested in radiometric and photometric analyses. Both data set documentation and sol (i.e., Mars day) documents are included in the Notebook. The sol documents are the mission manager and documentarian reports that provide a view into science operations—insight into why and how particular observations were made. Data set documents contain detailed information regarding the mission, spacecraft

  20. A computer graphics pilot project - Spacecraft mission support with an interactive graphics workstation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, John; Ehrner, Marie-Jacqueline; Reese, Jodi; Chang, Kan; Tseng, Irene

    1986-01-01

    The NASA Computer Graphics Pilot Project was undertaken to enhance the quality control, productivity and efficiency of mission support operations at the Goddard Operations Support Computing Facility. The Project evolved into a set of demonstration programs for graphics intensive simulated control room operations, particularly in connection with the complex space missions that began in the 1980s. Complex mission mean more data. Graphic displays are a means to reduce the probabilities of operator errors. Workstations were selected with 1024 x 768 pixel color displays controlled by a custom VLSI chip coupled to an MC68010 chip running UNIX within a shell that permits operations through the medium of mouse-accessed pulldown window menus. The distributed workstations run off a host NAS 8040 computer. Applications of the system for tracking spacecraft orbits and monitoring Shuttle payload handling illustrate the system capabilities, noting the built-in capabilities of shifting the point of view and rotating and zooming in on three-dimensional views of spacecraft.

  1. Biological life-support systems for Mars mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitelson, J I

    1992-01-01

    Mars mission like the Lunar base is the first venture to maintain human life beyond earth biosphere. So far, all manned space missions including the longest ones used stocked reserves and can not be considered egress from biosphere. Conventional path proposed by technology for Martian mission LSS is to use physical-chemical approaches proved by the experience of astronautics. But the problem of man living beyond the limits of the earth biosphere can be fundamentally solved by making a closed ecosystem for him. The choice optimum for a Mars mission LSS can be substantiated by comparing the merits and demerits of physical-chemical and biological principles without ruling out possible compromise between them. The work gives comparative analysis of ecological and physical-chemical principles for LSS. Taking into consideration universal significance of ecological problems with artificial LSS as a particular case of their solution, complexity and high cost of large-scale experiments with manned LSS, it would be expedient for these works to have the status of an International Program open to be joined. A program of making artificial biospheres based on preceding experience and analysis of current situation is proposed.

  2. Payload/orbiter contamination control requirement study: Preliminary contamination mission support plan. [a management analysis of project planning of spacecraft sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareiss, L. E.; Hooper, V. W.; Ress, E. B.

    1976-01-01

    Progress is reported on the mission support plan and those support activities envisioned to be applicable and necessary during premission and postmission phases of the Spacelab program. The purpose, role, and requirements of the contamination control operations for the first two missions of the Spacelab equipped Space Transportation System are discussed. The organization of the contamination control operation and its relationship to and interfaces with other mission support functions is also discussed. Some specific areas of contamination to be investigated are treated. They are: (1) windows and viewports, (2) experiment equipment, (3) thermal control surfaces, (4) the contaminant induced atmosphere (as differentiated from the normal ambient atmosphere at the orbit altitude), and (5) optical navigation instruments.

  3. Real-Time Science Operations to Support a Lunar Polar Volatiles Rover Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Colaprete, Anthony; Elphic, Richard C.; Mattes, Greg; Ennico, Kimberly; Fritzler, Erin; Marinova, Margarita M.; McMurray, Robert; Morse, Stephanie; Roush, Ted L.; hide

    2014-01-01

    demonstration illustrated the need for science operations personnel in constant communications with the flight mission operators and the Science Backroom to provide immediate and continual science support and validation throughout the mission. Specific data analysis tools are also required to enable immediate data monitoring, visualization, and decision making. The field campaign demonstrated that this novel methodology of real-time science operations is possible and applicable to providing important new insights regarding lunar polar volatiles for both science and exploration.

  4. Aerospace Communications Technologies in Support of NASA Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is endeavoring in expanding communications capabilities to enable and enhance robotic and human exploration of space and to advance aero communications here on Earth. This presentation will discuss some of the research and technology development work being performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center in aerospace communications in support of NASAs mission. An overview of the work conducted in-house and in collaboration with academia, industry, and other government agencies (OGA) to advance radio frequency (RF) and optical communications technologies in the areas of antennas, ultra-sensitive receivers, power amplifiers, among others, will be presented. In addition, the role of these and other related RF and optical communications technologies in enabling the NASA next generation aerospace communications architecture will be also discussed.

  5. Advances in Astromaterials Curation: Supporting Future Sample Return Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, C. A.; Zeigler, R. A.; Fries, M. D..; Righter, K.; Allton, J. H.; Zolensky, M. E.; Calaway, M. J.; Bell, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Astromaterials, curated at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, are the most extensive, best-documented, and leastcontaminated extraterrestrial samples that are provided to the worldwide research community. These samples include lunar samples from the Apollo missions, meteorites collected over nearly 40 years of expeditions to Antarctica (providing samples of dozens of asteroid bodies, the Moon, and Mars), Genesis solar wind samples, cosmic dust collected by NASA's high altitude airplanes, Comet Wild 2 and interstellar dust samples from the Stardust mission, and asteroid samples from JAXA's Hayabusa mission. A full account of NASA's curation efforts for these collections is provided by Allen, et al [1]. On average, we annually allocate about 1500 individual samples from NASA's astromaterials collections to hundreds of researchers from around the world, including graduate students and post-doctoral scientists; our allocation rate has roughly doubled over the past 10 years. The curation protocols developed for the lunar samples returned from the Apollo missions remain relevant and are adapted to new and future missions. Several lessons from the Apollo missions, including the need for early involvement of curation scientists in mission planning [1], have been applied to all subsequent sample return campaigns. From the 2013 National Academy of Sciences report [2]: "Curation is the critical interface between sample return missions and laboratory research. Proper curation has maintained the scientific integrity and utility of the Apollo, Antarctic meteorite, and cosmic dust collections for decades. Each of these collections continues to yield important new science. In the past decade, new state-of-the-art curatorial facilities for the Genesis and Stardust missions were key to the scientific breakthroughs provided by these missions." The results speak for themselves: research on NASA's astromaterials result in hundreds of papers annually, yield fundamental

  6. Requirements for Designing Life Support System Architectures for Crewed Exploration Missions Beyond Low-Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David; Perry,Jay; Sargusingh, Miriam; Toomarian, Nikzad

    2016-01-01

    NASA's technology development roadmaps provide guidance to focus technological development on areas that enable crewed exploration missions beyond low-Earth orbit. Specifically, the technology area roadmap on human health, life support and habitation systems describes the need for life support system (LSS) technologies that can improve reliability and in-situ maintainability within a minimally-sized package while enabling a high degree of mission autonomy. To address the needs outlined by the guiding technology area roadmap, NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program has commissioned the Life Support Systems (LSS) Project to lead technology development in the areas of water recovery and management, atmosphere revitalization, and environmental monitoring. A notional exploration LSS architecture derived from the International Space has been developed and serves as the developmental basis for these efforts. Functional requirements and key performance parameters that guide the exploration LSS technology development efforts are presented and discussed. Areas where LSS flight operations aboard the ISS afford lessons learned that are relevant to exploration missions are highlighted.

  7. Investigation of bio-regenerative life support and Trash-to-gas experiment on a 4 month mars simulation mission

    OpenAIRE

    Caraccio, A.; Poulet, Lucie; Hintze, P.; Miles, J.D.

    2014-01-01

    Future crewed missions to other planets or deep space locations will require regenerative Life Support Systems (LSS) as well as recycling processes for mission waste. Constant resupply of many commodity materials will not be a sustainable option for deep space missions, nor will stowing trash on board a vehicle or at a lunar or Martian outpost. The habitable volume will decline as the volume of waste increases. A complete regenerative environmentally controlled life support system (ECLSS) on ...

  8. Cryosphere campaigns in support of ESA's Earth Explorers Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, Tânia; Davidson, Malcolm; Plank, Gernot; Floberghagen, Rune; Parrinello, Tommaso; Mecklenburg, Susanne; Drusch, Matthias; Fernandez, Diego

    2014-05-01

    In the framework of its Earth Observation Programmes the European Space Agency (ESA) carries out ground based and airborne campaigns to support geophysical algorithm development, calibration/validation, simulation of future spaceborne Earth observation missions, and applications development related to land, oceans, atmosphere and solid Earth. ESA has conducted over 110 airborne and ground measurements campaigns since 1981 and this presentation will describe three campaigns in Antarctica and the Arctic. They were undertaken during the calibration/validation phase of Earth Explorer (EE) missions, such as SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity), GOCE (Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer) and CryoSat-2. In support of SMOS and GOCE, the DOMECair airborne campaign took place in Antarctica, in the Dome C region in the middle of January 2013. The two main objectives were a) to quantify and document the spatial variability in the DOME C area (SMOS) and b) to fill a gap in the high-quality gravity anomaly maps in Antarctica where airborne gravity measurements are sparse (GOCE). Results from the campaign for the SMOS component, showed that the DOME C area is not as spatially homogenous as previously assumed, therefore comparisons of different missions (e.g. SMOS and NASA's Aquarius) with different footprints must be done with care, highlighting once again the importance of field work to test given assumptions. One extremely surprising outcome of this campaign was the pattern similarity between the gravity measurements and brightness temperature fields. To date, there has never been an indication that L-Band brightness temperatures could be correlated to gravity, but preliminary analysis showed coincident high brightness temperature with high gravity values, suggesting that topography may influence microwave emissions. Also in support of SMOS, the SMOSice airborne campaign has been planned in the Arctic. It was motived by a previous ESA SMOSice study that

  9. Geospatial Information is the Cornerstone of Effective Hazards Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Every day there are hundreds of natural disasters world-wide. Some are dramatic, whereas others are barely noticeable. A natural disaster is commonly defined as a natural event with catastrophic consequences for living things in the vicinity. Those events include earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, landslides, tsunami, volcanoes, and wildfires. Man-made disasters are events that are caused by man either intentionally or by accident, and that directly or indirectly threaten public health and well-being. These occurrences span the spectrum from terrorist attacks to accidental oil spills. To assist in responding to natural and potential man-made disasters, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has established the Geospatial Information Response Team (GIRT) (http://www.usgs.gov/emergency/). The primary purpose of the GIRT is to ensure rapid coordination and availability of geospatial information for effective response by emergency responders, and land and resource managers, and for scientific analysis. The GIRT is responsible for establishing monitoring procedures for geospatial data acquisition, processing, and archiving; discovery, access, and delivery of data; anticipating geospatial needs; and providing relevant geospatial products and services. The GIRT is focused on supporting programs, offices, other agencies, and the public in mission response to hazards. The GIRT will leverage the USGS Geospatial Liaison Network and partnerships with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), and Northern Command (NORTHCOM) to coordinate the provisioning and deployment of USGS geospatial data, products, services, and equipment. The USGS geospatial liaisons will coordinate geospatial information sharing with State, local, and tribal governments, and ensure geospatial liaison back-up support procedures are in place. The GIRT will coordinate disposition of USGS staff in support of DHS response center activities as requested by DHS. The GIRT

  10. Supporting Students as Scientists: One Mission's Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J.; Chambers, L. H.; Trepte, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    NASA's CALIPSO satellite mission provides an array of opportunities for teachers, students, and the general public. In developing our latest plan for education and public outreach, CALIPSO focused on efforts that would support students as scientists. CALIPSO EPO activities are aimed at inspiring young scientists through multiple avenues of potential contact, including: educator professional development, student-scientist mentoring, curriculum resource development, and public outreach through collaborative mission efforts. In this session, we will explore how these avenues complement one another and take a closer look at the development of the educator professional development activities. As part of CALIPSO's EPO efforts, we have developed the GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations Programs (AIP). The program encourages students to engage in authentic science through research on the atmosphere. The National Research Council (NRC) has emphasized the importance of teaching scientific inquiry in the National Science Education Standards (1996, 2000) and scientific practice in the recent Framework for K-12 Science Education (2011). In order to encourage student-centered science inquiry, teacher training utilizing GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations and GLOBE's Student Research Process are provided to middle and high school teachers to assist them in incorporating real scientific investigations into their classroom. Through participation in the program, teachers become a part of GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) - an international community of teachers, students, and scientists studying environmental science in over 24,000 schools around the world. The program uses NASA's satellites and the collection of atmosphere data by students to provide an engaging science learning experience for the students, and teachers. The GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations program offers year-long support to both teachers and students through direct involvement with NASA

  11. IUS/TUG orbital operations and mission support study. Volume 4: Project planning data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Planning data are presented for the development phases of interim upper stage (IUS) and tug systems. Major project planning requirements, major event schedules, milestones, system development and operations process networks, and relevant support research and technology requirements are included. Topics discussed include: IUS flight software; tug flight software; IUS/tug ground control center facilities, personnel, data systems, software, and equipment; IUS mission events; tug mission events; tug/spacecraft rendezvous and docking; tug/orbiter operations interface, and IUS/orbiter operations interface.

  12. Environmental control and life support system requirements and technology needs for advanced manned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Ferolyn T.; Sedej, Melaine; Lin, Chin

    1987-01-01

    NASA has completed an environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) technology R&D plan for advanced missions which gave attention to the drivers (crew size, mission duration, etc.) of a range of manned missions under consideration. Key planning guidelines encompassed a time horizon greater than 50 years, funding resource requirements, an evolutionary approach to goal definition, and the funding of more than one approach to satisfy a given perceived requirement. Attention was given to the ECLSS requirements of transportation and service vehicles, platforms, bases and settlements, ECLSS functions and average load requirements, unique drivers for various missions, and potentially exploitable commonalities among vehicles and habitats.

  13. Technology and Tool Development to Support Safety and Mission Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, Ewen; Pai, Ganesh

    2017-01-01

    The Assurance Case approach is being adopted in a number of safety-mission-critical application domains in the U.S., e.g., medical devices, defense aviation, automotive systems, and, lately, civil aviation. This paradigm refocuses traditional, process-based approaches to assurance on demonstrating explicitly stated assurance goals, emphasizing the use of structured rationale, and concrete product-based evidence as the means for providing justified confidence that systems and software are fit for purpose in safely achieving mission objectives. NASA has also been embracing assurance cases through the concepts of Risk Informed Safety Cases (RISCs), as documented in the NASA System Safety Handbook, and Objective Hierarchies (OHs) as put forth by the Agency's Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA). This talk will give an overview of the work being performed by the SGT team located at NASA Ames Research Center, in developing technologies and tools to engineer and apply assurance cases in customer projects pertaining to aviation safety. We elaborate how our Assurance Case Automation Toolset (AdvoCATE) has not only extended the state-of-the-art in assurance case research, but also demonstrated its practical utility. We have successfully developed safety assurance cases for a number of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) operations, which underwent, and passed, scrutiny both by the aviation regulator, i.e., the FAA, as well as the applicable NASA boards for airworthiness and flight safety, flight readiness, and mission readiness. We discuss our efforts in expanding AdvoCATE capabilities to support RISCs and OHs under a project recently funded by OSMA under its Software Assurance Research Program. Finally, we speculate on the applicability of our innovations beyond aviation safety to such endeavors as robotic, and human spaceflight.

  14. Game-based versus storyboard-based evaluations of crew support prototypes for long duration missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smets, N. J. J. M.; Abbing, M. S.; Neerincx, M. A.; Lindenberg, J.; van Oostendorp, H.

    2010-03-01

    The Mission Execution Crew Assistant (MECA) is developing a distributed system of electronic partners (ePartners) to support astronauts performing nominal and off- nominal actions in long duration missions. The ePartners' support should adequately deal with the dynamics of the context, operations, team and personal conditions, which will change over time substantially. Such support—with the concerning context effects—should be thoroughly tested in all stages of the development process. A major question is how to address the context effects of in-space operations for evaluations of crew support prototypes. Via game-technology, the prototype can be tested with astronauts or their representatives, immersed in the envisioned, simulated context. We investigated if a game-based evaluation better addresses the context effects by producing a more elaborate, in-depth and realistic user experience than a "classical" storyboard-based evaluation. In the game-based evaluation, the participants showed higher arousal levels where expected, a more intense feeling of spatial presence, better situation awareness, and faster performance where needed. Such an evaluation can be used as an alternative or complement of field or micro-world tests when context dynamics cannot be simulated in these last tests cost-efficiently.

  15. Biological life support systems for martian missions: some problems and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, A. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Kovaleva, N. P.; Lasseur, C.

    Taking into account the experience of scientific researches obtained during experiments in the BIOS - 3 of the Institute of Biophysics of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Science (IBP SB RAS) and the MELISSA program (ESA), approaches in creation biological life support systems for a flight period and a fixed-site base of Martian mission are considered. Various alternate variants of designing of elements of BLSS based on use of Chlorella and/or Spirulina, and also greenhouses with higher plants for the flight period of Martian mission are analyzed. For this purpose construction of BLSS ensuring full closure of matter turnover according to gas exchange and water and partial closure on the human's exometabolites is supposed. For the fixed site Martian station BLSS based on use of higher plants with a various degree of closure of internal mass exchange are suggested. Various versions of BLSS configuration and degree of closure of mass exchange depending on duration of Martian mission, the diet type of a crew and some other conditions are considered. Special attention is given to problems of reliability and tolerance of matter turnover processes in BLSS which maintenance is connected, in particular, with additional oxygen reproduction inside a system. Technologies for realization of BLSS of various configurations are offered and justified. The auxiliary role of the physicochemical methods in BLSS functioning both for the flight period and for the crew stay on Mars is justified.

  16. Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua Launch and Early Mission Attitude Support Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracewell, D.; Glickman, J.; Hashmall, J.; Natanson, G.; Sedlak, J.

    2003-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua satellite was successfully launched on May 4,2002. Aqua is the second in the series of EOS satellites. EOS is part of NASA s Earth Science Enterprise Program, whose goals are to advance the scientific understanding of the Earth system. Aqua is a three-axis stabilized, Earth-pointing spacecraft in a nearly circular, sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 705 km. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics attitude team supported all phases of the launch and early mission. This paper presents the main results and lessons learned during this period, including: real-time attitude mode transition support, sensor calibration, onboard computer attitude validation, response to spacecraft emergencies, postlaunch attitude analyses, and anomaly resolution. In particular, Flight Dynamics support proved to be invaluable for successful Earth acquisition, fine-point mode transition, and recognition and correction of several anomalies, including support for the resolution of problems observed with the MODIS instrument.

  17. The Earth Observing System (EOS) Ground System: Leveraging an Existing Operational Ground System Infrastructure to Support New Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardison, David; Medina, Johnny; Dell, Greg

    2016-01-01

    The Earth Observer System (EOS) was officially established in 1990 and went operational in December 1999 with the launch of its flagship spacecraft Terra. Aqua followed in 2002 and Aura in 2004. All three spacecraft are still operational and producing valuable scientific data. While all are beyond their original design lifetime, they are expected to remain viable well into the 2020s. The EOS Ground System is a multi-mission system based at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center that supports science and spacecraft operations for these three missions. Over its operational lifetime to date, the EOS Ground System has evolved as needed to accommodate mission requirements. With an eye towards the future, several updates are currently being deployed. Subsystem interconnects are being upgraded to reduce data latency and improve system performance. End-of-life hardware and operating systems are being replaced to mitigate security concerns and eliminate vendor support gaps. Subsystem hardware is being consolidated through the migration to Virtual Machine based platforms. While mission operations autonomy was not a design goal of the original system concept, there is an active effort to apply state-of-the-art products from the Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) to facilitate automation where possible within the existing heritage architecture. This presentation will provide background information on the EOS ground system architecture and evolution, discuss latest improvements, and conclude with the results of a recent effort that investigated how the current system could accommodate a proposed new earth science mission.

  18. CE-SAM: a conversational interface for ISR mission support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzocaro, Diego; Parizas, Christos; Preece, Alun; Braines, Dave; Mott, David; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.

    2013-05-01

    There is considerable interest in natural language conversational interfaces. These allow for complex user interactions with systems, such as fulfilling information requirements in dynamic environments, without requiring extensive training or a technical background (e.g. in formal query languages or schemas). To leverage the advantages of conversational interactions we propose CE-SAM (Controlled English Sensor Assignment to Missions), a system that guides users through refining and satisfying their information needs in the context of Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) operations. The rapidly-increasing availability of sensing assets and other information sources poses substantial challenges to effective ISR resource management. In a coalition context, the problem is even more complex, because assets may be "owned" by different partners. We show how CE-SAM allows a user to refine and relate their ISR information needs to pre-existing concepts in an ISR knowledge base, via conversational interaction implemented on a tablet device. The knowledge base is represented using Controlled English (CE) - a form of controlled natural language that is both human-readable and machine processable (i.e. can be used to implement automated reasoning). Users interact with the CE-SAM conversational interface using natural language, which the system converts to CE for feeding-back to the user for confirmation (e.g. to reduce misunderstanding). We show that this process not only allows users to access the assets that can support their mission needs, but also assists them in extending the CE knowledge base with new concepts.

  19. Mission simulation as an approach to develop requirements for automation in Advanced Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, J. D.; Eckelkamp, R. E.; Barta, D. J.; Dragg, J.; Henninger, D. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines mission simulation as an approach to develop requirements for automation and robotics for Advanced Life Support Systems (ALSS). The focus is on requirements and applications for command and control, control and monitoring, situation assessment and response, diagnosis and recovery, adaptive planning and scheduling, and other automation applications in addition to mechanized equipment and robotics applications to reduce the excessive human labor requirements to operate and maintain an ALSS. Based on principles of systems engineering, an approach is proposed to assess requirements for automation and robotics using mission simulation tools. First, the story of a simulated mission is defined in terms of processes with attendant types of resources needed, including options for use of automation and robotic systems. Next, systems dynamics models are used in simulation to reveal the implications for selected resource allocation schemes in terms of resources required to complete operational tasks. The simulations not only help establish ALSS design criteria, but also may offer guidance to ALSS research efforts by identifying gaps in knowledge about procedures and/or biophysical processes. Simulations of a planned one-year mission with 4 crewmembers in a Human Rated Test Facility are presented as an approach to evaluation of mission feasibility and definition of automation and robotics requirements.

  20. Integrated payload and mission planning, phase 3. Volume 3: Ground real-time mission operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    The payloads tentatively planned to fly on the first two Spacelab missions were analyzed to examine the cost relationships of providing mission operations support from onboard vs the ground-based Payload Operations Control Center (POCC). The quantitative results indicate that use of a POCC, with data processing capability, to support real-time mission operations is the most cost effective case.

  1. Education and Public Outreach for MSFC's Ground-Based Observations in Support of the HESSI Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi L.; Hagyard, Mona J.; Newton, Elizabeth K.

    1999-01-01

    A primary focus of NASA is the advancement of science and the communication of these advances to a number of audiences, both within the science research community and outside it. The upcoming High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (HESSI) mission and the MSFC ground-based observing program, provide an excellent opportunity to communicate our knowledge of the Sun, its cycle of activity, the role of magnetic fields in that activity, and its effect on our planet. In addition to ground-based support of the HESSI mission, MSFC's Solar Observatory, located in North Alabama, will involve students and the local education community in its day-to-day operations, an experience which is more immediate, personal, and challenging than their everyday educational experience. Further, by taking advantage of the Internet, our program can reach beyond the immediate community. By joining with Fernbank Science Center in Atlanta, Georgia, we will leverage their almost 30 years'experience in science program delivery in diverse situations to a distance learning opportunity which can encompass the entire Southeast and beyond. This poster will outline our education and public outreach plans in support of the HESSI mission in which we will target middle and high school students and their teachers.

  2. Human Exploration System Test-Bed for Integration and Advancement (HESTIA) Support of Future NASA Deep-Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmolejo, Jose; Ewert, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Engineering Directorate at the NASA - Johnson Space Center is outfitting a 20-Foot diameter hypobaric chamber in Building 7 to support future deep-space Environmental Control & Life Support System (ECLSS) research as part of the Human Exploration System Test-bed for Integration and Advancement (HESTIA) Project. This human-rated chamber is the only NASA facility that has the unique experience, chamber geometry, infrastructure, and support systems capable of conducting this research. The chamber was used to support Gemini, Apollo, and SkyLab Missions. More recently, it was used to conduct 30-, 60-, and 90-day human ECLSS closed-loop testing in the 1990s to support the International Space Station and life support technology development. NASA studies show that both planetary surface and deep-space transit crew habitats will be 3-4 story cylindrical structures driven by human occupancy volumetric needs and launch vehicle constraints. The HESTIA facility offers a 3-story, 20-foot diameter habitat consistent with the studies' recommendations. HESTIA operations follow stringent processes by a certified test team that including human testing. Project management, analysis, design, acquisition, fabrication, assembly and certification of facility build-ups are available to support this research. HESTIA offers close proximity to key stakeholders including astronauts, Human Research Program (who direct space human research for the agency), Mission Operations, Safety & Mission Assurance, and Engineering Directorate. The HESTIA chamber can operate at reduced pressure and elevated oxygen environments including those proposed for deep-space exploration. Data acquisition, power, fluids and other facility resources are available to support a wide range of research. Recently completed HESTIA research consisted of unmanned testing of ECLSS technologies. Eventually, the HESTIA research will include humans for extended durations at reduced pressure and elevated oxygen to demonstrate

  3. A simulation based optimization approach to model and design life support systems for manned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogan, Selen

    This dissertation considers the problem of process synthesis and design of life-support systems for manned space missions. A life-support system is a set of technologies to support human life for short and long-term spaceflights, via providing the basic life-support elements, such as oxygen, potable water, and food. The design of the system needs to meet the crewmember demand for the basic life-support elements (products of the system) and it must process the loads generated by the crewmembers. The system is subject to a myriad of uncertainties because most of the technologies involved are still under development. The result is high levels of uncertainties in the estimates of the model parameters, such as recovery rates or process efficiencies. Moreover, due to the high recycle rates within the system, the uncertainties are amplified and propagated within the system, resulting in a complex problem. In this dissertation, two algorithms have been successfully developed to help making design decisions for life-support systems. The algorithms utilize a simulation-based optimization approach that combines a stochastic discrete-event simulation and a deterministic mathematical programming approach to generate multiple, unique realizations of the controlled evolution of the system. The timelines are analyzed using time series data mining techniques and statistical tools to determine the necessary technologies, their deployment schedules and capacities, and the necessary basic life-support element amounts to support crew life and activities for the mission duration.

  4. Guiding Requirements for Designing Life Support System Architectures for Crewed Exploration Missions Beyond Low-Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jay L.; Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Toomarian, Nikzad

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) technology development roadmaps provide guidance to focus technological development in areas that enable crewed exploration missions beyond low-Earth orbit. Specifically, the technology area roadmap on human health, life support and habitation systems describes the need for life support system (LSS) technologies that can improve reliability and in-flight maintainability within a minimally-sized package while enabling a high degree of mission autonomy. To address the needs outlined by the guiding technology area roadmap, NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program has commissioned the Life Support Systems (LSS) Project to lead technology development in the areas of water recovery and management, atmosphere revitalization, and environmental monitoring. A notional exploration LSS architecture derived from the International Space has been developed and serves as the developmental basis for these efforts. Functional requirements and key performance parameters that guide the exploration LSS technology development efforts are presented and discussed. Areas where LSS flight operations aboard the ISS afford lessons learned that are relevant to exploration missions are highlighted.

  5. Nano-FTIR Spectroscopy to Investigate the Silicate Mineralogy of Mercury Analogues: Supporting MERTIS Onboard BepiColombo Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varatharajan, I.; Maturilli, A.; Helbert, J.; Ulrich, G.; Born, K.; Namur, O.; Kästner, B.; Hecht, L.; Charlier, B.; Hiesinger, H.

    2018-05-01

    Nano-FTIR Spectroscopy is used to investigate the silicate mineralogy of synthetic Mercury analogues produced under reduced conditions representing different Mercury terrains. The study will support MERTIS payload onboard BepiColombo mission.

  6. Biological life support systems for a Mars mission planetary base: Problems and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, A. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Kovaleva, N. P.; Lamaze, B.; Lobo, M.; Lasseur, Ch.

    The study develops approaches to designing biological life support systems for the Mars mission - for the flight conditions and for a planetary base - using experience of the Institute of Biophysics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IBP SB RAS) with the Bios-3 system and ESA's experience with the MELISSA program. Variants of a BLSS based on using Chlorella and/or Spirulina and higher plants for the flight period of the Mars mission are analyzed. It is proposed constructing a BLSS with a closed-loop material cycle for gas and water and for part of human waste. A higher-plant-based BLSS with the mass exchange loop closed to various degrees is proposed for a Mars planetary base. Various versions of BLSS configuration and degree of closure of mass exchange are considered, depending on the duration of the Mars mission, the diet of the crew, and some other conditions. Special consideration is given to problems of reliability and sustainability of material cycling in BLSS, which are related to production of additional oxygen inside the system. Technologies of constructing BLSS of various configurations are proposed and substantiated. Reasons are given for using physicochemical methods in BLSS as secondary tools both during the flight and the stay on Mars.

  7. LLNL Site plan for a MOX fuel lead assembly mission in support of surplus plutonium disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronson, M.C.

    1997-10-01

    The principal facilities that LLNL would use to support a MOX Fuel Lead Assembly Mission are Building 332 and Building 334. Both of these buildings are within the security boundary known as the LLNL Superblock. Building 332 is the LLNL Plutonium Facility. As an operational plutonium facility, it has all the infrastructure and support services required for plutonium operations. The LLNL Plutonium Facility routinely handles kilogram quantities of plutonium and uranium. Currently, the building is limited to a plutonium inventory of 700 kilograms and a uranium inventory of 300 kilograms. Process rooms (excluding the vaults) are limited to an inventory of 20 kilograms per room. Ongoing operations include: receiving SSTS, material receipt, storage, metal machining and casting, welding, metal-to-oxide conversion, purification, molten salt operations, chlorination, oxide calcination, cold pressing and sintering, vitrification, encapsulation, chemical analysis, metallography and microprobe analysis, waste material processing, material accountability measurements, packaging, and material shipping. Building 334 is the Hardened Engineering Test Building. This building supports environmental and radiation measurements on encapsulated plutonium and uranium components. Other existing facilities that would be used to support a MOX Fuel Lead Assembly Mission include Building 335 for hardware receiving and storage and TRU and LLW waste storage and shipping facilities, and Building 331 or Building 241 for storage of depleted uranium.

  8. LLNL Site plan for a MOX fuel lead assembly mission in support of surplus plutonium disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronson, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    The principal facilities that LLNL would use to support a MOX Fuel Lead Assembly Mission are Building 332 and Building 334. Both of these buildings are within the security boundary known as the LLNL Superblock. Building 332 is the LLNL Plutonium Facility. As an operational plutonium facility, it has all the infrastructure and support services required for plutonium operations. The LLNL Plutonium Facility routinely handles kilogram quantities of plutonium and uranium. Currently, the building is limited to a plutonium inventory of 700 kilograms and a uranium inventory of 300 kilograms. Process rooms (excluding the vaults) are limited to an inventory of 20 kilograms per room. Ongoing operations include: receiving SSTS, material receipt, storage, metal machining and casting, welding, metal-to-oxide conversion, purification, molten salt operations, chlorination, oxide calcination, cold pressing and sintering, vitrification, encapsulation, chemical analysis, metallography and microprobe analysis, waste material processing, material accountability measurements, packaging, and material shipping. Building 334 is the Hardened Engineering Test Building. This building supports environmental and radiation measurements on encapsulated plutonium and uranium components. Other existing facilities that would be used to support a MOX Fuel Lead Assembly Mission include Building 335 for hardware receiving and storage and TRU and LLW waste storage and shipping facilities, and Building 331 or Building 241 for storage of depleted uranium

  9. Long-range planning cost model for support of future space missions by the deep space network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, J. S.; Remer, D. S.; Buchanan, H. R.

    1990-01-01

    A simple model is suggested to do long-range planning cost estimates for Deep Space Network (DSP) support of future space missions. The model estimates total DSN preparation costs and the annual distribution of these costs for long-range budgetary planning. The cost model is based on actual DSN preparation costs from four space missions: Galileo, Voyager (Uranus), Voyager (Neptune), and Magellan. The model was tested against the four projects and gave cost estimates that range from 18 percent above the actual total preparation costs of the projects to 25 percent below. The model was also compared to two other independent projects: Viking and Mariner Jupiter/Saturn (MJS later became Voyager). The model gave cost estimates that range from 2 percent (for Viking) to 10 percent (for MJS) below the actual total preparation costs of these missions.

  10. Business analysis: The commercial mission of the International Asteroid Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mission of the International Asteroid Mission (IAM) is providing asteroidal resources to support activities in space. The short term goal is to initiate IAM by mining a near-Earth, hydrous carbonaceous chondrite asteroid to service the nearer-term market of providing cryogenic rocket fuel in low lunar orbit (LLO). The IAM will develop and contract for the building of the transportation vehicles and equipment necessary for this undertaking. The long-term goal is to expand operations by exploiting asteroids in other manners, as these options become commercially viable. The primary business issues are what revenue can be generated from the baseline mission, how much will the mission cost, and how funding for this mission can be raised. These issues are addressed.

  11. Computer graphics aid mission operations. [NASA missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeletic, James F.

    1990-01-01

    The application of computer graphics techniques in NASA space missions is reviewed. Telemetric monitoring of the Space Shuttle and its components is discussed, noting the use of computer graphics for real-time visualization problems in the retrieval and repair of the Solar Maximum Mission. The use of the world map display for determining a spacecraft's location above the earth and the problem of verifying the relative position and orientation of spacecraft to celestial bodies are examined. The Flight Dynamics/STS Three-dimensional Monitoring System and the Trajectroy Computations and Orbital Products System world map display are described, emphasizing Space Shuttle applications. Also, consideration is given to the development of monitoring systems such as the Shuttle Payloads Mission Monitoring System and the Attitude Heads-Up Display and the use of the NASA-Goddard Two-dimensional Graphics Monitoring System during Shuttle missions and to support the Hubble Space Telescope.

  12. Data Management Coordinators Monitor STS-78 Mission at the Huntsville Operations Support Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Launched on June 20, 1996, the STS-78 mission's primary payload was the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS), which was managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). During the 17 day space flight, the crew conducted a diverse slate of experiments divided into a mix of life science and microgravity investigations. In a manner very similar to future International Space Station operations, LMS researchers from the United States and their European counterparts shared resources such as crew time and equipment. Five space agencies (NASA/USA, European Space Agency/Europe (ESA), French Space Agency/France, Canadian Space Agency /Canada, and Italian Space Agency/Italy) along with research scientists from 10 countries worked together on the design, development and construction of the LMS. This photo represents Data Management Coordinators monitoring the progress of the mission at the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at MSFC. Pictured are assistant mission scientist Dr. Dalle Kornfeld, Rick McConnel, and Ann Bathew.

  13. Potential Applications for Radioisotope Power Systems in Support of Human Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Robert L.; Colozza, Anthony J.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    Radioisotope power systems (RPS) for space applications have powered over 27 U.S. space systems, starting with Transit 4A and 4B in 1961, and more recently with the successful landing of the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity in August 2012. RPS enable missions with destinations far from the Sun with faint solar flux, on planetary surfaces with dense or dusty atmospheres, and at places with long eclipse periods where solar array sizes and energy storage mass become impractical. RPS could also provide an enabling capability in support of human exploration activities. It is envisioned that with the higher power needs of most human mission concepts, a high efficiency thermal-to-electric technology would be required such as the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope generator (ASRG). The ASRG should be capable of a four-fold improvement in efficiency over traditional thermoelectric RPS. While it may be impractical to use RPS as a main power source, many other applications could be considered, such as crewed pressurized rovers, in-situ resource production of propellants, back-up habitat power, drilling, any mobile or remote activity from the main base habitat, etc. This paper will identify potential applications and provide concepts that could be a practical extension of the current ASRG design in providing for robust and flexible use of RPS on human exploration missions.

  14. GPHS-RTGs in support of the Cassini mission. Semi-annual technical report, 29 March 1993--26 September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-24

    The following tasks were reported on: Spacecraft integration and liaison, engineering support, safety, qualified unicouple fabrication, ETG fabrication/assembly/test, ground support equipment, RTG shipping and launch support, designs/reviews/mission applications, project management/quality assurance/contract changes.

  15. Diagnostic Imaging in the Medical Support of the Future Missions to the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Duncan, J. Michael

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation is a course that reviews the diagnostic imaging techniques available for medical support on the future moon missions. The educational objectives of the course are to: 1) Update the audience on the curreultrasound imaging in space flight; 2) Discuss the unique aspects of conducting ultrasound imaging on ISS, interplanetary transit, ultrasound imaging on ISS, interplanetary transit, and lunar surface operations; and 3) Review preliminary data obtained in simulations of medical imaging in lunar surface operations.

  16. The Impact of Mission Duration on a Mars Orbital Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arney, Dale; Earle, Kevin; Cirillo, Bill; Jones, Christopher; Klovstad, Jordan; Grande, Melanie; Stromgren, Chel

    2017-01-01

    Performance alone is insufficient to assess the total impact of changing mission parameters on a space mission concept, architecture, or campaign; the benefit, cost, and risk must also be understood. This paper examines the impact to benefit, cost, and risk of changing the total mission duration of a human Mars orbital mission. The changes in the sizing of the crew habitat, including consumables and spares, was assessed as a function of duration, including trades of different life support strategies; this was used to assess the impact on transportation system requirements. The impact to benefit is minimal, while the impact on cost is dominated by the increases in transportation costs to achieve shorter total durations. The risk is expected to be reduced by decreasing total mission duration; however, large uncertainty exists around the magnitude of that reduction.

  17. GPHS-RTGs in support of the Cassini Mission. Semi-annual technical progress report, April 3, 1995--October 1, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document is the April-October 1995 Progress Report on the Cassini RTG Program. Nine tasks are summarized; (1) Spacecraft integration and liason, (2) Engineering support, (3) Safety, (4) Unicouple fabrication, (5) ETG fabrication, assembly, and test, (6) Ground support equipment, (7) RTG shipping and launch support, (8) Design, reviews, and mission applications, and (9) Project management, QA, contract changes, and material acquisitions

  18. A Multi-mission Event-Driven Component-Based System for Support of Flight Software Development, ATLO, and Operations first used by the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Navid; Tankenson, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper details an architectural description of the Mission Data Processing and Control System (MPCS), an event-driven, multi-mission ground data processing components providing uplink, downlink, and data management capabilities which will support the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) project as its first target mission. MPCS is developed based on a set of small reusable components, implemented in Java, each designed with a specific function and well-defined interfaces. An industry standard messaging bus is used to transfer information among system components. Components generate standard messages which are used to capture system information, as well as triggers to support the event-driven architecture of the system. Event-driven systems are highly desirable for processing high-rate telemetry (science and engineering) data, and for supporting automation for many mission operations processes.

  19. GPHS-RTGs in support of the Cassini Mission. Semi annual technical progress report, 28 March 1994--25 September 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The progress on the radioisotope generators and ancillary activities is described. This report is organized by program task as follows: spacecraft integration and liaison; engineering support; safety; qualified unicouple fabrication; ETG fabrication, assembly, and test; ground support equipment; RTG shipping and launch support; design, reviews, and mission applications; project management, quality assurance and reliability, contract changes, non-capital CAGO acquisition, and CAGO maintenance; contractor acquired government owned property (CAGO) acquisition

  20. Mission Planning and Decision Support for Underwater Glider Networks: A Sampling on-Demand Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Gabriele; Cococcioni, Marco; Alvarez, Alberto

    2015-12-26

    This paper describes an optimal sampling approach to support glider fleet operators and marine scientists during the complex task of planning the missions of fleets of underwater gliders. Optimal sampling, which has gained considerable attention in the last decade, consists in planning the paths of gliders to minimize a specific criterion pertinent to the phenomenon under investigation. Different criteria (e.g., A, G, or E optimality), used in geosciences to obtain an optimum design, lead to different sampling strategies. In particular, the A criterion produces paths for the gliders that minimize the overall level of uncertainty over the area of interest. However, there are commonly operative situations in which the marine scientists may prefer not to minimize the overall uncertainty of a certain area, but instead they may be interested in achieving an acceptable uncertainty sufficient for the scientific or operational needs of the mission. We propose and discuss here an approach named sampling on-demand that explicitly addresses this need. In our approach the user provides an objective map, setting both the amount and the geographic distribution of the uncertainty to be achieved after assimilating the information gathered by the fleet. A novel optimality criterion, called A η , is proposed and the resulting minimization problem is solved by using a Simulated Annealing based optimizer that takes into account the constraints imposed by the glider navigation features, the desired geometry of the paths and the problems of reachability caused by ocean currents. This planning strategy has been implemented in a Matlab toolbox called SoDDS (Sampling on-Demand and Decision Support). The tool is able to automatically download the ocean fields data from MyOcean repository and also provides graphical user interfaces to ease the input process of mission parameters and targets. The results obtained by running SoDDS on three different scenarios are provided and show that So

  1. Mission Planning and Decision Support for Underwater Glider Networks: A Sampling on-Demand Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Ferri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an optimal sampling approach to support glider fleet operators and marine scientists during the complex task of planning the missions of fleets of underwater gliders. Optimal sampling, which has gained considerable attention in the last decade, consists in planning the paths of gliders to minimize a specific criterion pertinent to the phenomenon under investigation. Different criteria (e.g., A, G, or E optimality, used in geosciences to obtain an optimum design, lead to different sampling strategies. In particular, the A criterion produces paths for the gliders that minimize the overall level of uncertainty over the area of interest. However, there are commonly operative situations in which the marine scientists may prefer not to minimize the overall uncertainty of a certain area, but instead they may be interested in achieving an acceptable uncertainty sufficient for the scientific or operational needs of the mission. We propose and discuss here an approach named sampling on-demand that explicitly addresses this need. In our approach the user provides an objective map, setting both the amount and the geographic distribution of the uncertainty to be achieved after assimilating the information gathered by the fleet. A novel optimality criterion, called A η , is proposed and the resulting minimization problem is solved by using a Simulated Annealing based optimizer that takes into account the constraints imposed by the glider navigation features, the desired geometry of the paths and the problems of reachability caused by ocean currents. This planning strategy has been implemented in a Matlab toolbox called SoDDS (Sampling on-Demand and Decision Support. The tool is able to automatically download the ocean fields data from MyOcean repository and also provides graphical user interfaces to ease the input process of mission parameters and targets. The results obtained by running SoDDS on three different scenarios are provided

  2. Mission Planning and Decision Support for Underwater Glider Networks: A Sampling on-Demand Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Gabriele; Cococcioni, Marco; Alvarez, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an optimal sampling approach to support glider fleet operators and marine scientists during the complex task of planning the missions of fleets of underwater gliders. Optimal sampling, which has gained considerable attention in the last decade, consists in planning the paths of gliders to minimize a specific criterion pertinent to the phenomenon under investigation. Different criteria (e.g., A, G, or E optimality), used in geosciences to obtain an optimum design, lead to different sampling strategies. In particular, the A criterion produces paths for the gliders that minimize the overall level of uncertainty over the area of interest. However, there are commonly operative situations in which the marine scientists may prefer not to minimize the overall uncertainty of a certain area, but instead they may be interested in achieving an acceptable uncertainty sufficient for the scientific or operational needs of the mission. We propose and discuss here an approach named sampling on-demand that explicitly addresses this need. In our approach the user provides an objective map, setting both the amount and the geographic distribution of the uncertainty to be achieved after assimilating the information gathered by the fleet. A novel optimality criterion, called Aη, is proposed and the resulting minimization problem is solved by using a Simulated Annealing based optimizer that takes into account the constraints imposed by the glider navigation features, the desired geometry of the paths and the problems of reachability caused by ocean currents. This planning strategy has been implemented in a Matlab toolbox called SoDDS (Sampling on-Demand and Decision Support). The tool is able to automatically download the ocean fields data from MyOcean repository and also provides graphical user interfaces to ease the input process of mission parameters and targets. The results obtained by running SoDDS on three different scenarios are provided and show that So

  3. Supporting the Future Total Force: A Methodology for Evaluating Potential Air National Guard Mission Assignments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lynch, Kristin F; Drew, John G; Sleeper, Sally; Williams, William A; Masters, James M; Luangkesorn, Louis; Tripp, Robert S; Lichter, Dahlia S; Roll, Charles R

    2007-01-01

    ... trained, highly experienced personnel with no aircraft to operate and support. The authors develop a methodology to evaluate missions that could be transferred from the active component to the ANG without significant cost to the total force...

  4. No mission is impossible for LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Time: 01:37:51 am, 3 October, 2011. The LHC is producing million collisions per second in its detectors. But at that time, one collision is “more special” than the others in the LHCb detector: the milestone of 1 inverse femtobarn of luminosity is surpassed. What was considered as “mission impossible” at the beginning of the year is now “mission accomplished”.   Mike Lamont (Operations Group Leader), Pierluigi Campana (LHCb Spokesperson), Steve Myers (Director for Accelerators and Technology), and Paul Collier (Head of the Beams Department) celebrate the LHCb milestone. LHCb is the CERN experiment specialising in the study of b-quarks, whose properties and behaviour are likely to provide physicists with important hints on several physics processes, including some new physics. “One inverse femtobarn of luminosity corresponds to about seventy billion b-quark pairs decayed in the LHCb detector,” explains Pierluigi Cam...

  5. Psychosocial interactions during ISS missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, N. A.; Salnitskiy, V. P.; Ritsher, J. B.; Gushin, V. I.; Weiss, D. S.; Saylor, S. A.; Kozerenko, O. P.; Marmar, C. R.

    2007-02-01

    Based on anecdotal reports from astronauts and cosmonauts, studies of space analog environments on Earth, and our previous research on the Mir Space Station, a number of psychosocial issues have been identified that can lead to problems during long-duration space expeditions. Several of these issues were studied during a series of missions to the International Space Station. Using a mood and group climate questionnaire that was completed weekly by crewmembers in space and personnel in mission control, we found no evidence to support the presence of predicted decrements in well-being during the second half or in any specific quarter of the missions. The results did support the predicted displacement of negative feelings to outside supervisors among both crew and ground subjects. There were several significant differences in mood and group perceptions between Americans and Russians and between crewmembers and mission control personnel. Crewmembers related cohesion to the support role of their leader, and mission control personnel related cohesion to both the task and support roles of their leader. These findings are discussed with reference to future space missions.

  6. Investigation of Bio-Regenerative Life Support and Trash-to-Gas Experiment on a 4-Month Mars Simulation Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraccio, Anne; Poulet, Lucie; Hintze, Paul E.; Miles, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Future crewed missions to other planets or deep space locations will require regenerative Life Support Systems (LSS) as well as recycling processes for mission waste. Constant resupply of many commodity materials will not be a sustainable option for deep space missions, nor will stowing trash on board a vehicle or at a lunar or Martian outpost. The habitable volume will decline as the volume of waste increases. A complete regenerative environmentally controlled life support system (ECLSS) on an extra-terrestrial outpost will likely include physico-chemical and biological technologies, such as bioreactors and greenhouse modules. Physico-chemical LSS do not enable food production and bio-regenerative LSS are not stable enough to be used alone in space. Mission waste that cannot be recycled into the bio-regenerative ECLSS can include excess food, food packaging, clothing, tape, urine and fecal waste. This waste will be sent to a system for converting the trash into high value products. Two crew members on a 120 day Mars analog simulation, in collaboration with Kennedy Space Centers (KSC) Trash to Gas (TtG) project investigated a semi-closed loop system that treated non-edible biomass and other logistical waste for volume reduction and conversion into useful commodities. The purpose of this study is to show how plant growth affects the amount of resources required by the habitat and how spent plant material can be recycled. Real-time data was sent to the reactor at KSC in Florida for replicating the analog mission waste for laboratory operation. This paper discusses the 120 day mission plant growth activity, logistical and plant waste management, power and water consumption effects of the plant and logistical waste, and potential energy conversion techniques using KSCs TtG technology.

  7. GPHS-RTGs in support of the Cassini Mission. Semi annual technical report, 30 September 1996--30 March 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The technical progress achieved during the period 27 January through 30 September 1996 through 30 March 1997 on Contract DE-AC03-91SF18852 Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators and Ancillary Activities is described. This report is organized by program task structure: spacecraft integration and liaison; engineering support; safety; qualified unicouple production; ETG fabrication, assembly, and test; ground support equipment (GSE); RTG shipping and launch support; designs, reviews, and mission applications; project management, quality assurance, reliability, contract changes, CAGO acquisition (operating funds), and CAGO maintenance and repair; and CAGO acquisition (capital funds)

  8. Approach to Spacelab Payload mission management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, H. G.; Lester, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    The nucleus of the approach to Spacelab Payload mission management is the establishment of a single point of authority for the entire payload on a given mission. This single point mission manager will serve as a 'broker' between the individual experiments and the STS, negotiating agreements by two-part interaction. The payload mission manager, along with a small support team, will represent the users in negotiating use of STS accommodations. He will provide the support needed by each individual experimenter to meet the scientific, technological, and applications objectives of the mission with minimum cost and maximum efficiency. The investigator will assume complete responsibility for his experiment hardware definition and development and will take an active role in the integration and operation of his experiment.

  9. Accounting for Epistemic Uncertainty in Mission Supportability Assessment: A Necessary Step in Understanding Risk and Logistics Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Andrew; De Weck, Olivier L.; Stromgren, Chel; Goodliff, Kandyce; Cirillo, William

    2017-01-01

    Future crewed missions to Mars present a maintenance logistics challenge that is unprecedented in human spaceflight. Mission endurance – defined as the time between resupply opportunities – will be significantly longer than previous missions, and therefore logistics planning horizons are longer and the impact of uncertainty is magnified. Maintenance logistics forecasting typically assumes that component failure rates are deterministically known and uses them to represent aleatory uncertainty, or uncertainty that is inherent to the process being examined. However, failure rates cannot be directly measured; rather, they are estimated based on similarity to other components or statistical analysis of observed failures. As a result, epistemic uncertainty – that is, uncertainty in knowledge of the process – exists in failure rate estimates that must be accounted for. Analyses that neglect epistemic uncertainty tend to significantly underestimate risk. Epistemic uncertainty can be reduced via operational experience; for example, the International Space Station (ISS) failure rate estimates are refined using a Bayesian update process. However, design changes may re-introduce epistemic uncertainty. Thus, there is a tradeoff between changing a design to reduce failure rates and operating a fixed design to reduce uncertainty. This paper examines the impact of epistemic uncertainty on maintenance logistics requirements for future Mars missions, using data from the ISS Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLS) as a baseline for a case study. Sensitivity analyses are performed to investigate the impact of variations in failure rate estimates and epistemic uncertainty on spares mass. The results of these analyses and their implications for future system design and mission planning are discussed.

  10. The Use of Inflight Online Distance Education for Mission Support and Psychological Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardon, Austin; Nichol, Kenneth; Mardon, Catherine

    Time, too much of and the resulting boredom is a major psychological barrier to multi year inner solar system space missions. Cross training which could be facilitated by online in flight educational programs might serve mission purposes and distract astronauts from the natural multiyear boredom to and from Mars. The personnel selected will be motivated well educated and likely very intelligent. They might have even experience some educational online and computer based education during their educational history. Distance learning is become more and more common in the educational landscape in the world. The mission doctor might learn geology. The geologist might learn ship systems. The pilot might learn basic medical treatment. The advantage of having planned out learning schemes might have major morale boosting factors by giving the self motivated high achieving crew something to direct their energies toward. The time lag could be compensated for by AI spacecraft educational software. Also for recreational purposes archeology or cultural studies could be taught to give greater breadth of interest. Online educational institutions might even do curriculum for free if they could be used afterward and before. Many high achievers have diverse interests and this might boost morale by allowing them to learn about a field of study that they had always had an interest in but their career took them in a different direction

  11. New Global Missions for Strategic Command

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Graham, David

    2002-01-01

    .... The focus of this White Paper is on the external decisions that will be needed to provide the Command with a clear mission, and the authority, resources and organizational support necessary to perform the mission...

  12. Investigation of Bio-Regenerative Life Support and Trash-To-Gas Experiment on a 4 Month Mars Simulation Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraccio, Anne; Poulet, Lucie; Hintze, Paul E.; Miles, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Future crewed missions to other planets or deep space locations will require regenerative Life Support Systems (LSS) as well as recycling processes for mission waste. Constant resupply of many commodity materials will not be a sustainable option for deep space missions, nor will storing trash on board a vehicle or at a lunar or Martian outpost. The habitable volume will decline as the volume of waste increases. A complete regenerative environmentally controlled life support system (ECLSS) on an extra-terrestrial outpost will likely include physico-chemical and biological technologies, such as bioreactors and greenhouse modules. Physico-chemical LSS do not enable food production and bio-regenerative LSS are not stable enough to be used alone in space. Mission waste that cannot be recycled into the bio-regenerative ECLSS can include excess food, food packaging, clothing, tape, urine and fecal waste. This waste will be sent to a system for converting the trash into the high value products. Two crew members on a 120 day Mars analog simulation, in collaboration with Kennedy Space Centers (KSC) Trash to Gas (TtG) project investigated a semi-closed loop system that treated non-edible biomass and other logistical waste for volume reduction and conversion into useful commodities. The purposes of this study are to show the how plant growth affects the amount of resources required by the habitat and how spent plant material can be recycled. Real-time data was sent to the reactor at KSC in Florida for replicating the analog mission waste for laboratory operation. This paper discusses the 120 day mission plant growth activity, logistical and plant waste management, power and water consumption effects of the plant and logistical waste, and potential energy conversion techniques using KSCs TtG reactor technology.

  13. JPL future missions and energy storage technology implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, Eugene V.

    1987-01-01

    The mission model for JPL future programs is presented. This model identifies mission areas where JPL is expected to have a major role and/or participate in a significant manner. These missions are focused on space science and applications missions, but they also include some participation in space station activities. The mission model is described in detail followed by a discussion on the needs for energy storage technology required to support these future activities.

  14. GPHS-RTGs in support of the Cassini mission. Semi annual technical progress report, 2 October 1995--31 March 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The technical progress achieved during the period 2 October 1995 through 31 March 1996 on Contract No. DE-AC03-91SF18852, Radioisotope Generators and Ancillary Activities is described herein. This report is organized by the program task structure as follows: spacecraft integration and liaison; engineering support; safety; qualified unicouple fabrication; ETG fabrication, assembly, and test; ground support equipment (GSE); RTG shipping and launch support; designs, reviews, and mission applications; project management, quality assurance and reliability, contract changes, non-capital CAGO acquisition, and CAGO maintenance; contract acquired government-owned property (CAGO) acquisition; and program calendars

  15. GPHS-RTGs in support of the Cassini Mission. Semi annual technical progress report, 1 April 1996--29 September 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This technical progress report discusses work on the Radioisotope Generators and Ancillary Activities for the Cassini spacecraft. The Cassini spacecraft is expected to launch in October 1997, and will explore Saturn and its moons. This progress report discusses issues in: spacecraft integration and liason, engineering support, safety, qualified unicouple fabrication, ETG fabrication and testing, ground support equipment, RTG shipping and launch support, designs, reviews and mission application. Safety analysis of the RTGs during reentry and launch accidents are covered. This report covers the period of April 1 to September 29, 1996

  16. UAVs Use for the Support of Emergency Response Teams Specific Missions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin-Gabriel CONSTANTINESCU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents various methods of implementation for a new technology concerning the assessment and coordination of emergency situations, which is based upon the usage of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs. The UAV platform is equipped with optical electronic sensors and other types of sensors, being an aerial surveillance device as efficient as any other classically piloted platform. While currently being in service as military operations support for various operation theaters, they can also be used for assisting emergency response teams, providing full national coverage. For these special response teams, the ability to carry out overview, surveillance or information gathering activities and locating fixed or mobile targets are key components for the successful accomplishment of their missions, which have the purpose of saving lives and properties and of limiting the damage done to the surrounding environment. More concretely, the presented scenarios are: response in emergency situations, extinguishing of large-scale fires, testing of chemically, biologically or radioactively polluted areas and assessment of natural disasters.

  17. Flight mission control for multiple spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Robert E.

    1990-10-01

    A plan developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for mission control of unmanned spacecraft is outlined. A technical matrix organization from which, in the past, project teams were formed to uniquely support a mission is replaced in this new plan. A cost effective approach was needed to make best use of limited resources. Mission control is a focal point operations and a good place to start a multimission concept. Co-location and sharing common functions are the keys to obtaining efficiencies at minimum additional risk. For the projects, the major changes are sharing a common operations area and having indirect control of personnel. The plan identifies the still direct link for the mission control functions. Training is a major element in this plan. Personnel are qualified for a position and certified for a mission. This concept is more easily accepted by new missions than the ongoing missions.

  18. Cost Analysis In A Multi-Mission Operations Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, M.; Felton, L.; Bornas, N.; Botts, D.; Roth, K.; Ijames, G.; Montgomery, P.

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft control centers have evolved from dedicated, single-mission or single missiontype support to multi-mission, service-oriented support for operating a variety of mission types. At the same time, available money for projects is shrinking and competition for new missions is increasing. These factors drive the need for an accurate and flexible model to support estimating service costs for new or extended missions; the cost model in turn drives the need for an accurate and efficient approach to service cost analysis. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) provides operations services to a variety of customers around the world. HOSC customers range from launch vehicle test flights; to International Space Station (ISS) payloads; to small, short duration missions; and has included long duration flagship missions. The HOSC recently completed a detailed analysis of service costs as part of the development of a complete service cost model. The cost analysis process required the team to address a number of issues. One of the primary issues involves the difficulty of reverse engineering individual mission costs in a highly efficient multimission environment, along with a related issue of the value of detailed metrics or data to the cost model versus the cost of obtaining accurate data. Another concern is the difficulty of balancing costs between missions of different types and size and extrapolating costs to different mission types. The cost analysis also had to address issues relating to providing shared, cloud-like services in a government environment, and then assigning an uncertainty or risk factor to cost estimates that are based on current technology, but will be executed using future technology. Finally the cost analysis needed to consider how to validate the resulting cost models taking into account the non-homogeneous nature of the available cost data and the

  19. Science Education and Public Outreach Forums (SEPOF): Providing Coordination and Support for NASA's Science Mission Directorate Education and Outreach Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, B. J.; Smith, D.; Shipp, S. S.; Schwerin, T. G.; Stockman, S. A.; Cooper, L. P.; Peticolas, L. M.

    2009-12-01

    NASA is working with four newly-formed Science Education and Public Outreach Forums (SEPOFs) to increase the overall coherence of the Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) program. SEPOFs support the astrophysics, heliophysics, planetary and Earth science divisions of NASA SMD in three core areas: * E/PO Community Engagement and Development * E/PO Product and Project Activity Analysis * Science Education and Public Outreach Forum Coordination Committee Service. SEPOFs are collaborating with NASA and external science and education and outreach communities in E/PO on multiple levels ranging from the mission and non-mission E/PO project activity managers, project activity partners, and scientists and researchers, to front line agents such as naturalists/interpreters, teachers, and higher education faculty, to high level agents such as leadership at state education offices, local schools, higher education institutions, and professional societies. The overall goal for the SEPOFs is increased awareness, knowledge, and understanding of scientists, researchers, engineers, technologists, educators, product developers, and dissemination agents of best practices, existing NASA resources, and community expertise applicable to E/PO. By coordinating and supporting the NASA E/PO Community, the NASA/SEPOF partnerships will lead to more effective, sustainable, and efficient utilization of NASA science discoveries and learning experiences.

  20. Logistics Needs for Potential Deep Space Mission Scenarios Post Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Pedro, Jr.; Shultz, Eric; Mattfeld, Bryan; Stromgren, Chel; Goodliff, Kandyce

    2015-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is currently being explored as the next step towards deep space human exploration, with the ultimate goal of reaching Mars. NASA is currently investigating a number of potential human exploration missions, which will progressively increase the distance and duration that humans spend away from Earth. Missions include extended human exploration in cis-lunar space which, as conceived, would involve durations of around 60 days, and human missions to Mars, which are anticipated to be as long as 1000 days. The amount of logistics required to keep the crew alive and healthy for these missions is significant. It is therefore important that the design and planning for these missions include accurate estimates of logistics requirements. This paper provides a description of a process and calculations used to estimate mass and volume requirements for crew logistics, including consumables, such as food, personal items, gasses, and liquids. Determination of logistics requirements is based on crew size, mission duration, and the degree of closure of the environmental control life support system (ECLSS). Details are provided on the consumption rates for different types of logistics and how those rates were established. Results for potential mission scenarios are presented, including a breakdown of mass and volume drivers. Opportunities for mass and volume reduction are identified, along with potential threats that could possibly increase requirements.

  1. Liquid Effluents Program mission analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, S.S.

    1994-01-01

    Systems engineering is being used to identify work to cleanup the Hanford Site. The systems engineering process transforms an identified mission need into a set of performance parameters and a preferred system configuration. Mission analysis is the first step in the process. Mission analysis supports early decision-making by clearly defining the program objectives, and evaluating the feasibility and risks associated with achieving those objectives. The results of the mission analysis provide a consistent basis for subsequent systems engineering work. A mission analysis was performed earlier for the overall Hanford Site. This work was continued by a ''capstone'' team which developed a top-level functional analysis. Continuing in a top-down manner, systems engineering is now being applied at the program and project levels. A mission analysis was conducted for the Liquid Effluents Program. The results are described herein. This report identifies the initial conditions and acceptable final conditions, defines the programmatic and physical interfaces and sources of constraints, estimates the resources to carry out the mission, and establishes measures of success. The mission analysis reflects current program planning for the Liquid Effluents Program as described in Liquid Effluents FY 1995 Multi-Year Program Plan

  2. Voice loops as coordination aids in space shuttle mission control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, E S; Watts-Perotti, J; Woods, D D

    1999-01-01

    Voice loops, an auditory groupware technology, are essential coordination support tools for experienced practitioners in domains such as air traffic management, aircraft carrier operations and space shuttle mission control. They support synchronous communication on multiple channels among groups of people who are spatially distributed. In this paper, we suggest reasons for why the voice loop system is a successful medium for supporting coordination in space shuttle mission control based on over 130 hours of direct observation. Voice loops allow practitioners to listen in on relevant communications without disrupting their own activities or the activities of others. In addition, the voice loop system is structured around the mission control organization, and therefore directly supports the demands of the domain. By understanding how voice loops meet the particular demands of the mission control environment, insight can be gained for the design of groupware tools to support cooperative activity in other event-driven domains.

  3. The SLICE, CHESS, and SISTINE Ultraviolet Spectrographs: Rocket-Borne Instrumentation Supporting Future Astrophysics Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Kevin; Hoadley, Keri; Fleming, Brian T.; Kane, Robert; Nell, Nicholas; Beasley, Matthew; Green, James C.

    2016-03-01

    NASA’s suborbital program provides an opportunity to conduct unique science experiments above Earth’s atmosphere and is a pipeline for the technology and personnel essential to future space astrophysics, heliophysics, and atmospheric science missions. In this paper, we describe three astronomy payloads developed (or in development) by the Ultraviolet Rocket Group at the University of Colorado. These far-ultraviolet (UV) (100-160nm) spectrographic instruments are used to study a range of scientific topics, from gas in the interstellar medium (accessing diagnostics of material spanning five orders of magnitude in temperature in a single observation) to the energetic radiation environment of nearby exoplanetary systems. The three instruments, Suborbital Local Interstellar Cloud Experiment (SLICE), Colorado High-resolution Echelle Stellar Spectrograph (CHESS), and Suborbital Imaging Spectrograph for Transition region Irradiance from Nearby Exoplanet host stars (SISTINE) form a progression of instrument designs and component-level technology maturation. SLICE is a pathfinder instrument for the development of new data handling, storage, and telemetry techniques. CHESS and SISTINE are testbeds for technology and instrument design enabling high-resolution (R>105) point source spectroscopy and high throughput imaging spectroscopy, respectively, in support of future Explorer, Probe, and Flagship-class missions. The CHESS and SISTINE payloads support the development and flight testing of large-format photon-counting detectors and advanced optical coatings: NASA’s top two technology priorities for enabling a future flagship observatory (e.g. the LUVOIR Surveyor concept) that offers factors of ˜50-100 gain in UV spectroscopy capability over the Hubble Space Telescope. We present the design, component level laboratory characterization, and flight results for these instruments.

  4. (abstract) Telecommunications for Mars Rovers and Robotic Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarone, Robert J.; Hastrup, Rolf C.; Horne, William; McOmber, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Telecommunications plays a key role in all rover and robotic missions to Mars both as a conduit for command information to the mission and for scientific data from the mission. Telecommunications to the Earth may be accomplished using direct-to-Earth links via the Deep Space Network (DSN) or by relay links supported by other missions at Mars. This paper reviews current plans for missions to Mars through the 2005 launch opportunity and their capabilities in support of rover and robotic telecommunications.

  5. SCOSII: ESA's new generation of mission control systems: The user's perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufeler, P.; Pecchioli, M.; Shurmer, I.

    1994-01-01

    In 1974 ESOC decided to develop a reusable Mission Control System infrastructure for ESA's missions operated under its responsibility. This triggered a long and successful product development line, which started with the Multi Mission Support System (MSSS) which entered in service in 1977 and is still being used today by the MARECS and ECS missions; it was followed in 1989 by a second generation of systems known as SCOS-I, which was/is used by the Hipparcos, ERS-1 and EURECA missions and will continue to support all future ESCO controlled missions until approximately 1995. In the meantime the increasing complexity of future missions together with the emergence of new hardware and software technologies have led ESOC to go for the development of a third generation of control systems, SCOSII, which will support their future missions up to at least the middle of the next decade. The objective of the paper is to present the characteristics of the SCOSII system from the perspective of the mission control team; i.e. it will concentrate on the improvements and advances in the performance, functionality and work efficiency of the system.

  6. Integrated Information Technology Framework for Analysis of Data from Enrichment Plants to Support the Safeguards Mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marr, Clifton T.; Thurman, David A.; Jorgensen, Bruce V.

    2008-01-01

    Many examples of software architectures exist that support process monitoring and analysis applications which could be applied to enrichment plants in a fashion that supports the Safeguards Mission. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed mature solutions that will provide the framework to support online statistical analysis of enrichment plans and the entire nuclear fuel cycle. Most recently, PNNL has developed a refined architecture and supporting tools that address many of the common problems analysis and modeling environments experience: pipelining, handling large data volumes, and real-time performance. We propose the architecture and tools may be successfully used in furthering the goals of nuclear material control and accountability as both an aid to processing plant owners and as comprehensive monitoring for oversight teams.

  7. Is Middlesex County College Accomplishing Its Mission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabkins, Xenia P.

    Over the past few years, New Jersey's Middlesex County College (MCC) has placed an inordinate amount of attention and effort on the issue of student transfer to four-year institutions. Although attention to traditional academic goals is important, MCC's stated mission also addresses other important segments of the college's market. The college has…

  8. Next Generation Life Support Project: Development of Advanced Technologies for Human Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Next Generation Life Support (NGLS) is one of several technology development projects sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Game Changing Development Program. NGLS is developing life support technologies (including water recovery, and space suit life support technologies) needed for humans to live and work productively in space. NGLS has three project tasks: Variable Oxygen Regulator (VOR), Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing bed, and Alternative Water Processing. The selected technologies within each of these areas are focused on increasing affordability, reliability, and vehicle self sufficiency while decreasing mass and enabling long duration exploration. The RCA and VOR tasks are directed at key technology needs for the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for an Exploration Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), with focus on prototyping and integrated testing. The focus of the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing-bed ventilation task is to provide integrated carbon dioxide removal and humidity control that can be regenerated in real time during an EVA. The Variable Oxygen Regulator technology will significantly increase the number of pressure settings available to the space suit. Current spacesuit pressure regulators are limited to only two settings while the adjustability of the advanced regulator will be nearly continuous. The Alternative Water Processor efforts will result in the development of a system capable of recycling wastewater from sources expected in future exploration missions, including hygiene and laundry water, based on natural biological processes and membrane-based post treatment. The technologies will support a capability-driven architecture for extending human presence beyond low Earth orbit to potential destinations such as the Moon, near Earth asteroids and Mars.

  9. Airborne Measurements in Support of the NASA Atmospheric Carbon and Transport - America (ACT-America) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Byron; Davis, Ken; Barrick, John; Browell, Edward; Chen, Gao; Dobler, Jeremy; Fried, Alan; Lauvaux, Thomas; Lin, Bing; McGill, Matt; hide

    2015-01-01

    NASA announced the research opportunity Earth Venture Suborbital -2 (EVS-2) mission in support of the NASA's science strategic goals and objectives in 2013. Penn State University, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), and other academic institutions, government agencies, and industrial companies together formulated and proposed the Atmospheric Carbon and Transport -America (ACT -America) suborbital mission, which was subsequently selected for implementation. The airborne measurements that are part of ACT-America will provide a unique set of remote and in-situ measurements of CO2 over North America at spatial and temporal scales not previously available to the science community and this will greatly enhance our understanding of the carbon cycle. ACT -America will consist of five airborne campaigns, covering all four seasons, to measure regional atmospheric carbon distributions and to evaluate the accuracy of atmospheric transport models used to assess carbon sinks and sources under fair and stormy weather conditions. This coordinated mission will measure atmospheric carbon in the three most important regions of the continental US carbon balance: Northeast, Midwest, and South. Data will be collected using 2 airborne platforms (NASA Wallops' C-130 and NASA Langley's B-200) with both in-situ and lidar instruments, along with instrumented ground towers and under flights of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) satellite. This presentation provides an overview of the ACT-America instruments, with particular emphasis on the airborne CO2and backscatter lidars, and the, rationale, approach, and anticipated results from this mission.

  10. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Ticker, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    be made approximately a year before launch, but there is a strong recommendation from the scientific and resource utilization communities that the ARM target be volatile and organic rich. Three of the proposed candidates are carbonaceous NEAs. Specifically, the ARRM reference target, 2008 EV5 is a carbonaceous (C-type) asteroid that has been remotely characterized (via visual, infrared, and radar wavelengths), is believed to be hydrated, and provides significant return mass (boulders on the surface greater than 20 metric tons). It also has an advantage in that the orbital dynamics of the NEA fall within the current baseline mission timeline of five years between the return of the robotic vehicle to cis-lunar space and the launch of the ARCM. Therefore, NEA 2008 EV5 provides a valid target that can be used to help with formulation and development efforts. Input to ARM and Future Activities: In the fall of 2015, NASA chartered the Formulation Assessment and Support Team (FAST) to provide timely inputs for mission requirement formulation in support of the ARRM Requirements Closure Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM) in mid-December of 2015, to assist in developing an initial list of potential mission investigations, and to provide input on potential hosted payloads and partnerships. Expertise from the science, engineering, and technology communities was represented in exploring lines of inquiry related to key characteristics of the ARRM reference target asteroid (2008 EV5) for engineering design purposes. As of December 2015, the FAST has been formally retired and the FAST final report was publically released in February of 2016. However, plans have been made to stand up an ARM Investigation Team (IT), which is expected be formed in 2016. The multidisciplinary IT will assist with the definition and support of mission investigations, support ARM program-level and project-level functions, and support NASA Head-quarters interactions with the science and technology

  11. Crew Transportation System Design Reference Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Contains summaries of potential design reference mission goals for systems to transport humans to andfrom low Earth orbit (LEO) for the Commercial Crew Program. The purpose of this document is to describe Design Reference Missions (DRMs) representative of the end-to-end Crew Transportation System (CTS) framework envisioned to successfully execute commercial crew transportation to orbital destinations. The initial CTS architecture will likely be optimized to support NASA crew and NASA-sponsored crew rotation missions to the ISS, but consideration may be given in this design phase to allow for modifications in order to accomplish other commercial missions in the future. With the exception of NASA’s mission to the ISS, the remaining commercial DRMs are notional. Any decision to design or scar the CTS for these additional non-NASA missions is completely up to the Commercial Provider. As NASA’s mission needs evolve over time, this document will be periodically updated to reflect those needs.

  12. Evolution of Training in NASA's Mission Operations Directorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutt, Jason

    2012-01-01

    NASA s Mission Operations Directorate provides all the mission planning, training, and operations support for NASA's human spaceflight missions including the International Space Station (ISS) and its fleet of supporting vehicles. MOD also develops and maintains the facilities necessary to conduct training and operations for those missions including the Mission Control Center, Space Station Training Facility, Space Vehicle Mockup Facility, and Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory. MOD's overarching approach to human spaceflight training is to "train like you fly." This approach means not only trying to replicate the operational environment in training but also to approach training with the same mindset as real operations. When in training, this means using the same approach for executing operations, responding to off-nominal situations, and conducting yourself in the operations environment in the same manner as you would for the real vehicle.

  13. Orbit determination for ISRO satellite missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Ch. Sreehari; Sinha, S. K.

    Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has been successful in using the in-house developed orbit determination and prediction software for satellite missions of Bhaskara, Rohini and APPLE. Considering the requirements of satellite missions, software packages are developed, tested and their accuracies are assessed. Orbit determination packages developed are SOIP, for low earth orbits of Bhaskara and Rohini missions, ORIGIN and ODPM, for orbits related to all phases of geo-stationary missions and SEGNIP, for drift and geo-stationary orbits. Software is tested and qualified using tracking data of SIGNE-3, D5-B, OTS, SYMPHONIE satellites with the help of software available with CNES, ESA and DFVLR. The results match well with those available from these agencies. These packages have supported orbit determination successfully throughout the mission life for all ISRO satellite missions. Member-Secretary

  14. Space Launch System (SLS) Mission Planner's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David Alan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this Space Launch System (SLS) Mission Planner's Guide (MPG) is to provide future payload developers/users with sufficient insight to support preliminary SLS mission planning. Consequently, this SLS MPG is not intended to be a payload requirements document; rather, it organizes and details SLS interfaces/accommodations in a manner similar to that of current Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) user guides to support early feasibility assessment. Like ELV Programs, once approved to fly on SLS, specific payload requirements will be defined in unique documentation.

  15. A Large Array of Small Antennas to Support Future NASA Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D. L.; Weinreb, S.; Preston, R. A.

    2001-01-01

    A team of engineers and scientists at JPL is currently working on the design of an array of small radio antennas with a total collecting area up to twenty times that of the largest existing (70 m) DSN antennas. An array of this size would provide obvious advantages for high data rate telemetry reception and for spacecraft navigation. Among these advantages are an order-of-magnitude increase in sensitivity for telemetry downlink, flexible sub-arraying to track multiple spacecraft simultaneously, increased reliability through the use of large numbers of identical array elements, very accurate real-time angular spacecraft tracking, and a dramatic reduction in cost per unit area. NASA missions in many disciplines, including planetary science, would benefit from this increased DSN capability. The science return from planned missions could be increased, and opportunities for less expensive or completely new kinds of missions would be created. The DSN array would also bean immensely valuable instrument for radio astronomy. Indeed, it would be by far the most sensitive radio telescope in the world. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. NASA Technology Demonstrations Missions Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Fiscal Year 2010 (FY10) budget introduced a new strategic plan that placed renewed emphasis on advanced missions beyond Earth orbit. This supports NASA s 2011 strategic goal to create innovative new space technologies for our exploration, science, and economic future. As a result of this focus on undertaking many and more complex missions, NASA placed its attention on a greater investment in technology development, and this shift resulted in the establishment of the Technology Demonstrations Missions (TDM) Program. The TDM Program, within the newly formed NASA Office of the Chief Technologist, supports NASA s grand challenges by providing a steady cadence of advanced space technology demonstrations (Figure 1), allowing the infusion of flexible path capabilities for future exploration. The TDM Program's goal is to mature crosscutting capabilities to flight readiness in support of multiple future space missions, including flight test projects where demonstration is needed before the capability can transition to direct mission The TDM Program has several unique criteria that set it apart from other NASA program offices. For instance, the TDM Office matures a small number of technologies that are of benefit to multiple customers to flight technology readiness level (TRL) 6 through relevant environment testing on a 3-year development schedule. These technologies must be crosscutting, which is defined as technology with potential to benefit multiple mission directorates, other government agencies, or the aerospace industry, and they must capture significant public interest and awareness. These projects will rely heavily on industry partner collaboration, and funding is capped for all elements of the flight test demonstration including planning, hardware development, software development, launch costs, ground operations, and post-test assessments. In order to inspire collaboration across government and industry

  17. Space Mission Operations Ground Systems Integration Customer Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Karl

    2014-01-01

    The facility, which is now the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL, has provided continuous space mission and related services for the space industry since 1961, from Mercury Redstone through the International Space Station (ISS). Throughout the long history of the facility and mission support teams, the HOSC has developed a stellar customer support and service process. In this era, of cost cutting, and providing more capability and results with fewer resources, space missions are looking for the most efficient way to accomplish their objectives. One of the first services provided by the facility was fax transmission of documents to, then, Cape Canaveral in Florida. The headline in the Marshall Star, the newspaper for the newly formed Marshall Space Flight Center, read "Exact copies of Documents sent to Cape in 4 minutes." The customer was Dr. Wernher von Braun. Currently at the HOSC we are supporting, or have recently supported, missions ranging from simple ISS payloads requiring little more than "bentpipe" telemetry access, to a low cost free-flyer Fast, Affordable, Science and Technology Satellite (FASTSAT), to a full service ISS payload Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer 2 (AMS2) supporting 24/7 operations at three operations centers around the world with an investment of over 2 billion dollars. The HOSC has more need and desire than ever to provide fast and efficient customer service to support these missions. Here we will outline how our customer-centric service approach reduces the cost of providing services, makes it faster and easier than ever for new customers to get started with HOSC services, and show what the future holds for our space mission operations customers. We will discuss our philosophy concerning our responsibility and accessibility to a mission customer as well as how we deal with the following issues: initial contact with a customer, reducing customer cost, changing regulations and security

  18. MMPM - Mars MetNet Precursor Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Schmidt, W.; Pichkhadze, K.; Linkin, V.; Vazquez, L.; Uspensky, M.; Polkko, J.; Genzer, M.; Lipatov, A.; Guerrero, H.; Alexashkin, S.; Haukka, H.; Savijarvi, H.; Kauhanen, J.

    2008-09-01

    We are developing a new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars - MetNet in situ observation network based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called the Met-Net Lander (MNL). The eventual scope of the MetNet Mission is to deploy some 20 MNLs on the Martian surface using inflatable descent system structures, which will be supported by observations from the orbit around Mars. Currently we are working on the MetNet Mars Precursor Mission (MMPM) to deploy one MetNet Lander to Mars in the 2009/2011 launch window as a technology and science demonstration mission. The MNL will have a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. Detailed characterization of the Martian atmospheric circulation patterns, boundary layer phenomena, and climatology cycles, require simultaneous in-situ measurements by a network of observation posts on the Martian surface. The scientific payload of the MetNet Mission encompasses separate instrument packages for the atmospheric entry and descent phase and for the surface operation phase. The MetNet mission concept and key probe technologies have been developed and the critical subsystems have been qualified to meet the Martian environmental and functional conditions. Prototyping of the payload instrumentation with final dimensions was carried out in 2003-2006.This huge development effort has been fulfilled in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), the Russian Lavoschkin Association (LA) and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI) since August 2001. Currently the INTA (Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial) from Spain is also participating in the MetNet payload development. To understand the behavior and dynamics of the Martian atmosphere, a wealth of simultaneous in situ observations are needed on varying types of Martian orography, terrain and altitude spanning all latitudes and longitudes. This will be performed by the Mars MetNet Mission. In addition to the science aspects the

  19. Is a 4-train support ''always'' more reliable than a 2-train support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guey, C.N.; Arrieta, L.; Youngblood, R.

    1986-06-01

    Once the gross features of a frontline fluid system have been defined, one must consider what support system configuration will provide the best overall system performance. This paper considers different dc bus configurations for a given emergency feedwater system. Results indicate that a four-train support system (i.e., 4 dc buses) gives a lower system unavailability for transients, but a higher system unavailability for Anticipated Transients Without Scram (ATWS), than a two-train support system (i.e., two dc buses). This serves to illustrate that more trains do not necessarily provide higher reliability, and that a configuration choice which is better for one mission success criterion may be worse for another. Because of the small characteristic unreliability of dc buses, the numerical comparisons made here are not dramatic, but the underlying topological point is nevertheless broadly applicable. The EFWS selected in this study consists of two turbine-driven pumps, and two motor-driven pumps, with associated piping, instruments, and valves. There are two divisions of EFWS, each division including one turbine-driven pump train, and one motor-driven pump train with a crosstie that can provide an alternate flow path in case one train is not available. Each of the motor-driven pumps has one ac power bus associated with it. No ac power is required for the turbine-driven trains

  20. It Takes a Village. Collaborative Outer Planet Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymer, A. M.; Turtle, E. P.; Hofstadter, M. D.; Simon, A. A.; Hospodarsky, G. B.

    2017-01-01

    A mission to one or both of our local Ice Giants (Uranus and Neptune) emerged as a high priority in the most recent Planetary Science Decadal Survey and was also specifically mentioned supportively in the Heliophysics Decadal Survey. In 2016, NASA convened a science definition team to study ice giant mission concepts in more detail. Uranus and Neptune represent the last remaining planetary type in our Solar System to have a dedicated orbiting mission. The case for a Uranus mission has been made eloquently in the Decadal Surveys. Here we summarize some of the major drivers that lead to enthusiastic support for an Ice Giant mission in general, and use the example of a Uranus Mission concept to illustrate opportunities such a mission might provide for cross-division collaboration and cost-sharing.

  1. RCC Plug Repair Thermal Tools for Shuttle Mission Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Alvaro C.; Anderson, Brian P.

    2010-01-01

    A thermal math model for the Space Shuttle Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) Plug Repair was developed to increase the confidence in the repair entry performance and provide a real-time mission support tool. The thermal response of the plug cover plate, local RCC, and metallic attach hardware can be assessed with this model for any location on the wing leading edge. The geometry and spatial location of the thermal mesh also matches the structural mesh which allows for the direct mapping of temperature loads and computation of the thermoelastic stresses. The thermal model was correlated to a full scale plug repair radiant test. To utilize the thermal model for flight analyses, accurate predictions of protuberance heating were required. Wind tunnel testing was performed at CUBRC to characterize the heat flux in both the radial and angular directions. Due to the complexity of the implementation of the protuberance heating, an intermediate program was developed to output the heating per nodal location for all OML surfaces in SINDA format. Three Design Reference Cases (DRC) were evaluated with the correlated plug thermal math model to bound the environments which the plug repair would potentially be used.

  2. Mission operations update for the restructured Earth Observing System (EOS) mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Angelita Castro; Chang, Edward S.

    1993-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Earth Observing System (EOS) will provide a comprehensive long term set of observations of the Earth to the Earth science research community. The data will aid in determining global changes caused both naturally and through human interaction. Understanding man's impact on the global environment will allow sound policy decisions to be made to protect our future. EOS is a major component of the Mission to Planet Earth program, which is NASA's contribution to the U.S. Global Change Research Program. EOS consists of numerous instruments on multiple spacecraft and a distributed ground system. The EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is the major ground system developed to support EOS. The EOSDIS will provide EOS spacecraft command and control, data processing, product generation, and data archival and distribution services for EOS spacecraft. Data from EOS instruments on other Earth science missions (e.g., Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)) will also be processed, distributed, and archived in EOSDIS. The U.S. and various International Partners (IP) (e.g., the European Space Agency (ESA), the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) of Japan, and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA)) participate in and contribute to the international EOS program. The EOSDIS will also archive processed data from other designated NASA Earth science missions (e.g., UARS) that are under the broad umbrella of Mission to Planet Earth.

  3. Open Source Next Generation Visualization Software for Interplanetary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Jay; Rinker, George

    2016-01-01

    Mission control is evolving quickly, driven by the requirements of new missions, and enabled by modern computing capabilities. Distributed operations, access to data anywhere, data visualization for spacecraft analysis that spans multiple data sources, flexible reconfiguration to support multiple missions, and operator use cases, are driving the need for new capabilities. NASA's Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS), Ames Research Center (ARC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are collaborating to build a new generation of mission operations software for visualization, to enable mission control anywhere, on the desktop, tablet and phone. The software is built on an open source platform that is open for contributions (http://nasa.github.io/openmct).

  4. Water Recovery System Design to Accommodate Dormant Periods for Manned Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabb, David; Carter, Layne

    2015-01-01

    Future manned missions beyond lower Earth orbit may include intermittent periods of extended dormancy. Under the NASA Advanced Exploration System (AES) project, NASA personnel evaluated the viability of the ISS Water Recovery System (WRS) to support such a mission. The mission requirement includes the capability for life support systems to support crew activity, followed by a dormant period of up to one year, and subsequently for the life support systems to come back online for additional crewed missions. Dormancy could be a critical issue due to concerns with microbial growth or chemical degradation that might prevent water systems from operating properly when the crewed mission began. As such, it is critical that the water systems be designed to accommodate this dormant period. This paper details the results of this evaluation, which include identification of dormancy issues, results of testing performed to assess microbial stability of pretreated urine during dormancy periods, and concepts for updating to the WRS architecture and operational concepts that will enable the ISS WRS to support the dormancy requirement.

  5. Minimal support technology and in situ resource utilization for risk management of planetary spaceflight missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, K. L.; Rygalov, V. Ye.; Johnson, S. B.

    2009-04-01

    All artificial systems and components in space degrade at higher rates than on Earth, depending in part on environmental conditions, design approach, assembly technologies, and the materials used. This degradation involves not only the hardware and software systems but the humans that interact with those systems. All technological functions and systems can be expressed through functional dependence: [Function]˜[ERU]∗[RUIS]∗[ISR]/[DR];where [ERU]efficiency (rate) of environmental resource utilization[RUIS]resource utilization infrastructure[ISR]in situ resources[DR]degradation rateThe limited resources of spaceflight and open space for autonomous missions require a high reliability (maximum possible, approaching 100%) for system functioning and operation, and must minimize the rate of any system degradation. To date, only a continuous human presence with a system in the spaceflight environment can absolutely mitigate those degradations. This mitigation is based on environmental amelioration for both the technology systems, as repair of data and spare parts, and the humans, as exercise and psychological support. Such maintenance now requires huge infrastructures, including research and development complexes and management agencies, which currently cannot move beyond the Earth. When considering what is required to move manned spaceflight from near Earth stations to remote locations such as Mars, what are the minimal technologies and infrastructures necessary for autonomous restoration of a degrading system in space? In all of the known system factors of a mission to Mars that reduce the mass load, increase the reliability, and reduce the mission’s overall risk, the current common denominator is the use of undeveloped or untested technologies. None of the technologies required to significantly reduce the risk for critical systems are currently available at acceptable readiness levels. Long term interplanetary missions require that space programs produce a craft

  6. Kepler Planet-Detection Mission: Introduction and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    those predicted for gas giant planets. Since the first discoveries of planetarycompanions around pulsars (1, 2) andnormal stars (3), more than 400...52,496 in total). Analysis of these data sets also led to a series of astrophysical discoveries , including oscillations of giant stars and two... Discovery mission. Funding for this mission is provided by NASA’s Science Mission Directorate. Supporting Online Material www.sciencemag.org/cgi

  7. Preliminary design of an asteroid hopping mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheppa, Michael D.

    In 2010, NASA announced that its new vision is to support private space launch operations. It is anticipated that this new direction will create the need for new and innovative ideas that push the current boundaries of space exploration and contain the promise of substantial gain, both in research and capital. The purpose of the study is to plan and estimate the feasibility of a mission to visit a number of near Earth asteroids (NEAs). The mission would take place before the end of the 21st century, and would only use commercially available technology. Throughout the mission design process, while holding astronaut safety paramount, it was the goal to maximize the return while keeping the cost to a minimum. A mission of the nature would appeal to the private space industry because it could be easily adapted and set into motion. The mission design was divided into three main parts; mission timeline, vehicle design and power sources, with emphasis on nuclear and solar electric power, were investigated. The timeline and associated trajectories were initially selected using a numerical estimation and then optimized using Satellite Tool Kit (STK) 9.s's Design Explorer Optimizer [1]. Next, the spacecraft was design using commercially available parts that would support the mission requirements. The Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) was and instrumental piece in maximizing the number of NEAs visited. Once the spacecraft was designed, acceptable power supply options were investigated. The VASIMR VX-200 requires 200 kilowatts of power to maintain thrust. This creates the need for a substantial power supply that consists of either a nuclear reactor of massive solar arrays. STK 9.1's Design Explorer Optimizer was able to create a mission time line that allowed for the exploration of seven NEAs in under two years, while keeping the total mission DeltaV under 71 kilometers per second. Based on these initial findings, it is determined that a mission of this

  8. PACA_Rosetta67P: Global Amateur Observing Support for ESA/Rosetta Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma A.; Alexander, Claudia; Morales, Efrain; Feliciano-Rivera, Christiana

    2015-11-01

    The PACA (Professional - Amateur Collaborative Astronomy) Project is an ecosystem of several social media platforms (Facebook, Pinterest, Twitter, Flickr, Vimeo) that takes advantage of the global and immediate connectivity amongst amateur astronomers worldwide, that can be galvanized to participate in a given observing campaign. The PACA Project has participated in organized campaigns such as Comet Observing Campaign (CIOC_ISON) in 2013 and Comet Siding Spring (CIOC_SidingSpring)in 2014. Currently the PACA Project is supporting ESA/Rosetta mission with ground-based observations of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (CG) through its perihelion in August 2015 and beyond; providing baseline observations of magnitude and evolution from locations around the globe. Comet 67P/CG will reach its brightest post-perihelion and pass closest to Earth in November 2015. We will present the various benefits of our professional - amateur collaboration: developing and building a core astronomer community; defining an observing campaign from basic information of the comet from its previous apparitions; coordinating with professionals and the mission to acquire observations, albeit low-resolution, but on a long timeline; while addressing the creation of several science products such as the variation of its magnitude over time and the changing morphology. We will present some of our results to date and compare with observations from professionals and previous apparations of the comet. We shall also highlight the challenges faced in building a successful collaborative partnership between the professional and amateur observers and their resolution. With the popularity of mobile platforms and instant connections with peers globally, the multi-faceted social universe has become a vital part of engagement of multiple communities for collaborative scientific partnerships and outreach. We shall also highlight other cometary observing campaigns that The PACA Project has initiated to evolve

  9. A Multi-mission Event-Driven Component-Based System for Support of Flight Software Development, ATLO, and Operations first used by the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Navid; Tankenson, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the architectural description of the Mission Data Processing and Control System (MPCS). MPCS is an event-driven, multi-mission ground data processing components providing uplink, downlink, and data management capabilities which will support the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) project as its first target mission. MPCS is designed with these factors (1) Enabling plug and play architecture (2) MPCS has strong inheritance from GDS components that have been developed for other Flight Projects (MER, MRO, DAWN, MSAP), and are currently being used in operations and ATLO, and (3) MPCS components are Java-based, platform independent, and are designed to consume and produce XML-formatted data

  10. Web Design for Space Operations: An Overview of the Challenges and New Technologies Used in Developing and Operating Web-Based Applications in Real-Time Operational Support Onboard the International Space Station, in Astronaut Mission Planning and Mission Control Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Operations Planning Team, Mission Control Centre and Mission Automation Support Network (MAS) have all evolved over the years to use commercial web-based technologies to create a configurable electronic infrastructure to manage the complex network of real-time planning, crew scheduling, resource and activity management as well as onboard document and procedure management required to co-ordinate ISS assembly, daily operations and mission support. While these Web technologies are classified as non-critical in nature, their use is part of an essential backbone of daily operations on the ISS and allows the crew to operate the ISS as a functioning science laboratory. The rapid evolution of the internet from 1998 (when ISS assembly began) to today, along with the nature of continuous manned operations in space, have presented a unique challenge in terms of software engineering and system development. In addition, the use of a wide array of competing internet technologies (including commercial technologies such as .NET and JAVA ) and the special requirements of having to support this network, both nationally among various control centres for International Partners (IPs), as well as onboard the station itself, have created special challenges for the MCC Web Tools Development Team, software engineers and flight controllers, who implement and maintain this system. This paper presents an overview of some of these operational challenges, and the evolving nature of the solutions and the future use of COTS based rich internet technologies in manned space flight operations. In particular this paper will focus on the use of Microsoft.s .NET API to develop Web-Based Operational tools, the use of XML based service oriented architectures (SOA) that needed to be customized to support Mission operations, the maintenance of a Microsoft IIS web server onboard the ISS, The OpsLan, functional-oriented Web Design with AJAX

  11. CEO Sites Mission Management System (SMMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenchard, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Late in fiscal year 2011, the Crew Earth Observations (CEO) team was tasked to upgrade its science site database management tool, which at the time was integrated with the Automated Mission Planning System (AMPS) originally developed for Earth Observations mission planning in the 1980s. Although AMPS had been adapted and was reliably used by CEO for International Space Station (ISS) payload operations support, the database structure was dated, and the compiler required for modifications would not be supported in the Windows 7 64-bit operating system scheduled for implementation the following year. The Sites Mission Management System (SMMS) is now the tool used by CEO to manage a heritage Structured Query Language (SQL) database of more than 2,000 records for Earth science sites. SMMS is a carefully designed and crafted in-house software package with complete and detailed help files available for the user and meticulous internal documentation for future modifications. It was delivered in February 2012 for test and evaluation. Following acceptance, it was implemented for CEO mission operations support in April 2012. The database spans the period from the earliest systematic requests for astronaut photography during the shuttle era to current ISS mission support of the CEO science payload. Besides logging basic image information (site names, locations, broad application categories, and mission requests), the upgraded database management tool now tracks dates of creation, modification, and activation; imagery acquired in response to requests; the status and location of ancillary site information; and affiliations with studies, their sponsors, and collaborators. SMMS was designed to facilitate overall mission planning in terms of site selection and activation and provide the necessary site parameters for the Satellite Tool Kit (STK) Integrated Message Production List Editor (SIMPLE), which is used by CEO operations to perform daily ISS mission planning. The CEO team

  12. Enabling Autonomous Space Mission Operations with Artificial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    For over 50 years, NASA's crewed missions have been confined to the Earth-Moon system, where speed-of-light communications delays between crew and ground are practically nonexistent. This ground-centered mode of operations, with a large, ground-based support team, is not sustainable for NASAs future human exploration missions to Mars. Future astronauts will need smarter tools employing Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques make decisions without inefficient communication back and forth with ground-based mission control. In this talk we will describe several demonstrations of astronaut decision support tools using AI techniques as a foundation. These demonstrations show that astronauts tasks ranging from living and working to piloting can benefit from AI technology development.

  13. New vision solar system exploration missions study: Analysis of the use of biomodal space nuclear power systems to support outer solar system exploration missions. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-08

    This report presents the results of an analysis of the capability of nuclear bimodal systems to perform outer solar system exploration missions. Missions of interest include orbiter mission s to Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. An initial technology baseline consisting of a NEBA 10 kWe, 1000 N thrust, 850 s, 1500 kg bimodal system was selected, and its performance examined against a data base for trajectories to outer solar system planetary destinations to select optimal direct and gravity assisted trajectories for study. A conceptual design for a common bimodal spacecraft capable of performing missions to all the planetary destinations was developed and made the basis of end to end mission designs for orbiter missions to Jupiter, Saturn, and Neptune. Concepts for microspacecraft capable of probing Jupiter`s atmosphere and exploring Titan were also developed. All mission designs considered use the Atlas 2AS for launch. It is shown that the bimodal nuclear power and propulsion system offers many attractive option for planetary missions, including both conventional planetary missions in which all instruments are carried by a single primary orbiting spacecraft, and unconventional missions in which the primary spacecraft acts as a carrier, relay, and mother ship for a fleet of micro spacecraft deployed at the planetary destination.

  14. Welcome Aboard Starship MIR: Mission Is Russian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullickson, Janice

    2009-01-01

    Six years ago Project Starship MIR, the Russian language "shuttle," launched at Turnagain Elementary, one of the Anchorage School District's 65 elementary schools. The MIR "peace" mission originated with encouragement from the local business community to prepare students for Alaska's future economic, social and political ties…

  15. Changes in maximum muscle strength and rapid muscle force characteristics after long-term special support and reconnaissance missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Astrup; Jacobsen, Jacob Ole; Thorlund, Jonas B

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of 8 days of immobilization during a Special Support and Reconnaissance mission (SSR) on muscle mass, contraction dynamics, maximum jump height/power, and body composition. METHODS: Unilateral maximal voluntary contraction, rate...... of force development, and maximal jump height were tested to assess muscle strength/power along with whole-body impedance analysis before and after SSR. RESULTS: Body weight, fat-free mass, and total body water decreased (4-5%) after SSR, along with impairments in maximal jump height (-8%) and knee...... extensor maximal voluntary contraction (-10%). Furthermore, rate of force development was severely affected (-15-30%). CONCLUSIONS: Eight days of immobilization during a covert SSR mission by Special Forces soldiers led to substantial decrements in maximal muscle force and especially in rapid muscle force...

  16. Manned Mars mission communication and data management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ronald E.

    1986-01-01

    A manned Mars mission will involve a small crew and many complex tasks. The productivity of the crew and the entire mission will depend significantly on effective automation of these tasks and the ease with which the crew can interface with them. The technology to support a manned Mars mission is available today; however, evolving software and electronic technology are enabling many interesting possibilities for increasing productivity and safety while reducing life cycle cost. Some of these advanced technologies are identified.

  17. Human interactions during Shuttle/Mir space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, N.; Salnitskiy, V.; Grund, E. M.; Weiss, D. S.; Gushin, V.; Kozerenko, O.; Sled, A.; Marmar, C. R.

    2001-01-01

    To improve the interpersonal climate of crewmembers involved with long-duration space missions, it is important to understand the factors affecting their interactions with each other and with members of mission control. This paper will present findings from a recently completed NASA-funded study during the Shuttle/Mir program which evaluated in-group/out-group displacement of negative emotions; changes in tension, cohesion, and leader support over time; and cultural differences. In-flight data were collected from 5 astronauts, 8 cosmonauts, and 42 American and 16 Russian mission control personnel who signed informed consent. Subjects completed a weekly questionnaire that assessed their mood and perception of their work group's interpersonal climate using questions from well-known, standardized measures (Profile of Mood States, Group and Work Environment Scales) and a critical incident log. There was strong evidence for the displacement of tension and dysphoric emotions from crewmembers to mission control personnel and from mission control personnel to management. There was a perceived decrease in commander support during the 2nd half of the missions, and for American crewmembers a novelty effect was found on several subscales during the first few months on-orbit. There were a number of differences between American and Russian responses which suggested that the former were less happy with their interpersonal environment than the latter. Mission control personnel reported more tension and dysphoria than crewmembers, although both groups scored better than other work groups on Earth. Nearly all reported critical incidents came from ground subjects, with Americans and Russians showing important differences in response frequencies.

  18. JSpOC Mission System Application Development Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, R.; Reele, P.; Sabol, C.; Zetocha, P.; Echeverry, J.; Kim, R.; Golf, B.

    2012-09-01

    The Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS) is the program of record tasked with replacing the legacy Space Defense Operations Center (SPADOC) and Astrodynamics Support Workstation (ASW) capabilities by the end of FY2015 as well as providing additional Space Situational Awareness (SSA) and Command and Control (C2) capabilities post-FY2015. To meet the legacy replacement goal, the JMS program is maturing a government Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) infrastructure that supports the integration of mission applications while acquiring mature industry and government mission applications. Future capabilities required by the JSpOC after 2015 will require development of new applications and procedures as well as the exploitation of new SSA data sources. To support the post FY2015 efforts, the JMS program is partnering with the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) to build a JMS application development environment. The purpose of this environment is to: 1) empower the research & development community, through access to relevant tools and data, to accelerate technology development, 2) allow the JMS program to communicate user capability priorities and requirements to the developer community, 3) provide the JMS program with access to state-of-the-art research, development, and computing capabilities, and 4) support market research efforts by identifying outstanding performers that are available to shepherd into the formal transition process. The application development environment will consist of both unclassified and classified environments that can be accessed over common networks (including the Internet) to provide software developers, scientists, and engineers everything they need (e.g., building block JMS services, modeling and simulation tools, relevant test scenarios, documentation, data sources, user priorities/requirements, and SOA integration tools) to develop and test mission applications. The developed applications will be exercised in these

  19. CryoSat Data Quality, Product Evolutions and Activities in Support to the Sentinel-3 Topography Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, J.; Femenias, P.; Parrinello, T.; Bojkov, B.; Dinardo, S.; Fornari, M.; Benveniste, J.

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that conventional nadir altimetry acquisitions are not always suitable to monitor oceanic small-scale dynamics, coastal processes as well as ice sheet areas of rough topography. CryoSat (CS) is the first SAR(in) altimeter concept to be flown on Earth and therefore represents a unique opportunity to process SAR data for which we still have poor knowledge. After briefly presenting the CS data quality and recent evolutions, this paper provide a high level overview of CS activities specifically aiming at supporting the Copernicus Sentinel-3 Topography mission (S-3) within the framework of: - The ground segment processing development and evolution - The data validation and quality control - The potential synergies for future scientific and operational exploitation over ice and ocean.

  20. Software Schedules Missions, Aids Project Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA missions require advanced planning, scheduling, and management, and the Space Agency has worked extensively to develop the programs and software suites necessary to facilitate these complex missions. These enormously intricate undertakings have hundreds of active components that need constant management and monitoring. It is no surprise, then, that the software developed for these tasks is often applicable in other high-stress, complex environments, like in government or industrial settings. NASA work over the past few years has resulted in a handful of new scheduling, knowledge-management, and research tools developed under contract with one of NASA s partners. These tools have the unique responsibility of supporting NASA missions, but they are also finding uses outside of the Space Program.

  1. Radioisotope Power System Delivery, Ground Support and Nuclear Safety Implementation: Use of the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator for the NASA's Mars Science Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.G. Johnson; K.L. Lively; C.C. Dwight

    2014-07-01

    Radioisotope power systems have been used for over 50 years to enable missions in remote or hostile environments. They are a convenient means of supplying a few milliwatts up to a few hundred watts of useable, long-term electrical power. With regard to use of a radioisotope power system, the transportation, ground support and implementation of nuclear safety protocols in the field is a complex process that requires clear identification of needed technical and regulatory requirements. The appropriate care must be taken to provide high quality treatment of the item to be moved so it arrives in a condition to fulfill its missions in space. Similarly it must be transported and managed in a manner compliant with requirements for shipment and handling of special nuclear material. This presentation describes transportation, ground support operations and implementation of nuclear safety and security protocols for a radioisotope power system using recent experience involving the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator for National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Mars Science Laboratory, which launched in November of 2011.

  2. Research on Life Science and Life Support Engineering Problems of Manned Deep Space Exploration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Bin; Guo, Linli; Zhang, Zhixian

    2016-07-01

    Space life science and life support engineering are prominent problems in manned deep space exploration mission. Some typical problems are discussed in this paper, including long-term life support problem, physiological effect and defense of varying extraterrestrial environment. The causes of these problems are developed for these problems. To solve these problems, research on space life science and space medical-engineering should be conducted. In the aspect of space life science, the study of space gravity biology should focus on character of physiological effect in long term zero gravity, co-regulation of physiological systems, impact on stem cells in space, etc. The study of space radiation biology should focus on target effect and non-target effect of radiation, carcinogenicity of radiation, spread of radiation damage in life system, etc. The study of basic biology of space life support system should focus on theoretical basis and simulating mode of constructing the life support system, filtration and combination of species, regulation and optimization method of life support system, etc. In the aspect of space medical-engineering, the study of bio-regenerative life support technology should focus on plants cultivation technology, animal-protein production technology, waste treatment technology, etc. The study of varying gravity defense technology should focus on biological and medical measures to defend varying gravity effect, generation and evaluation of artificial gravity, etc. The study of extraterrestrial environment defense technology should focus on risk evaluation of radiation, monitoring and defending of radiation, compound prevention and removal technology of dust, etc. At last, a case of manned lunar base is analyzed, in which the effective schemes of life support system, defense of varying gravity, defense of extraterrestrial environment are advanced respectively. The points in this paper can be used as references for intensive study on key

  3. Telecommunications Relay Support of the Mars Phoenix Lander Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Charles D., Jr.; Erickson, James K.; Gladden, Roy E.; Guinn, Joseph R.; Ilott, Peter A.; Jai, Benhan; Johnston, Martin D.; Kornfeld, Richard P.; Martin-Mur, Tomas J.; McSmith, Gaylon W.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Phoenix Lander, first of NASA's Mars Scout missions, arrived at the Red Planet on May 25, 2008. From the moment the lander separated from its interplanetary cruise stage shortly before entry, the spacecraft could no longer communicate directly with Earth, and was instead entirely dependent on UHF relay communications via an international network of orbiting Mars spacecraft, including NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey (ODY) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft, as well as ESA's Mars Express (MEX) spacecraft. All three orbiters captured critical event telemetry and/or tracking data during Phoenix Entry, Descent and Landing. During the Phoenix surface mission, ODY and MRO provided command and telemetry services, far surpassing the original data return requirements. The availability of MEX as a backup relay asset enhanced the robustness of the surface relay plan. In addition to telecommunications services, Doppler tracking observables acquired on the UHF link yielded an accurate position for the Phoenix landing site.

  4. The mission execution crew assistant : Improving human-machine team resilience for long duration missions

    OpenAIRE

    Neerincx, M.A.; Lindenberg, J.; Smets, N.J.J.M.; Bos, A.; Breebaart, L.; Grant, T.; Olmedo-Soler, A.; Brauer, U.; Wolff, M.

    2008-01-01

    Manned long-duration missions to the Moon and Mars set high operational, human factors and technical demands for a distributed support system, which enhances human-machine teams' capabilities to cope autonomously with unexpected, complex and potentially hazardous situations. Based on a situated Cognitive Engineering (sCE) method, we specified a theoretical and empirical founded Requirements Baseline (RB) for such a system (called Mission Execution Crew Assistant; MECA), and its rational consi...

  5. The Iodine Satellite (iSAT) Hall Thruster Demonstration Mission Concept and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John W.; Polzin, Kurt A.; Calvert, Derek; Kamhawi, Hani

    2014-01-01

    The use of iodine propellant for Hall thrusters has been studied and proposed by multiple organizations due to the potential mission benefits over xenon. In 2013, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center competitively selected a project for the maturation of an iodine flight operational feed system through the Technology Investment Program. Multiple partnerships and collaborations have allowed the team to expand the scope to include additional mission concept development and risk reduction to support a flight system demonstration, the iodine Satellite (iSAT). The iSAT project was initiated and is progressing towards a technology demonstration mission preliminary design review. The current status of the mission concept development and risk reduction efforts in support of this project is presented.

  6. Mission analysis report for single-shell tank leakage mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruse, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides an analysis of the leakage mitigation mission applicable to past and potential future leakage from the Hanford Site's 149 single-shell high-level waste tanks. This mission is a part of the overall missions of the Westinghouse Hanford Company Tank Waste Remediation System division to remediate the tank waste in a safe and acceptable manner. Systems engineers principles are being applied to this effort. Mission analysis supports early decision making by clearly defining program objectives. This documents identifies the initial conditions and acceptable final conditions, defines the programmatic and physical interfaces and constraints, estimates the resources to carry out the mission, and establishes measures of success. The results of the mission analysis provide a consistent basis for subsequent systems engineering work

  7. Mission Operations Planning and Scheduling System (MOPSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Terri; Hempel, Paul

    2011-01-01

    MOPSS is a generic framework that can be configured on the fly to support a wide range of planning and scheduling applications. It is currently used to support seven missions at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in roles that include science planning, mission planning, and real-time control. Prior to MOPSS, each spacecraft project built its own planning and scheduling capability to plan satellite activities and communications and to create the commands to be uplinked to the spacecraft. This approach required creating a data repository for storing planning and scheduling information, building user interfaces to display data, generating needed scheduling algorithms, and implementing customized external interfaces. Complex scheduling problems that involved reacting to multiple variable situations were analyzed manually. Operators then used the results to add commands to the schedule. Each architecture was unique to specific satellite requirements. MOPSS is an expert system that automates mission operations and frees the flight operations team to concentrate on critical activities. It is easily reconfigured by the flight operations team as the mission evolves. The heart of the system is a custom object-oriented data layer mapped onto an Oracle relational database. The combination of these two technologies allows a user or system engineer to capture any type of scheduling or planning data in the system's generic data storage via a GUI.

  8. Human spaceflight and an asteroid redirect mission: Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchell, M. J.

    2014-08-01

    The planning of human spaceflight programmes is an exercise in careful rationing of a scarce and expensive resource. Current NASA plans are to develop the new capability for human-rated launch into space to replace the Space Transportation System (STS), more commonly known as the Space Shuttle, combined with a heavy lift capability, and followed by an eventual Mars mission. As an intermediate step towards Mars, NASA proposes to venture beyond Low Earth Orbit to cis-lunar space to visit a small asteroid which will be captured and moved to lunar orbit by a separate robotic mission. The rationale for this and how to garner support from the scientific community for such an asteroid mission are discussed. Key points that emerge are that a programme usually has greater legitimacy when it emerges from public debate, mostly via a Presidential Commission, a report by the National Research Council or a Decadal Review of science goals etc. Also, human spaceflight missions need to have support from a wide range of interested communities. Accordingly, an outline scientific case for a human visit to an asteroid is made. Further, it is argued here that the scientific interest in an asteroid mission needs to be included early in the planning stages, so that the appropriate capabilities (here the need for drilling cores and carrying equipment to, and returning samples from, the asteroid) can be included.

  9. Human factor observations of the Biosphere 2, 1991-1993, closed life support human experiment and its application to a long-term manned mission to Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alling, Abigail; Nelson, Mark; Silverstone, Sally; Van Thillo, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Human factors are a key component to the success of long-term space missions such as those necessitated by the human exploration of Mars and the development of bioregenerative and eventually self-sufficient life support systems for permanent space outposts. Observations by participants living inside the 1991-1993 Biosphere 2 closed system experiment provide the following insights. (1) Crew members should be involved in the design and construction of their life support systems to gain maximum knowledge about the systems. (2) Individuals living in closed life support systems should expect a process of physiological and psychological adaptation to their new environment. (3) Far from simply being a workplace, the participants in such extended missions will discover the importance of creating a cohesive and satisfying life style. (4) The crew will be dependent on the use of varied crops to create satisfying cuisine, a social life with sufficient outlets of expression such as art and music, and to have down-time from purely task-driven work. (5) The success of the Biosphere 2 first 2-year mission suggests that crews with high cultural diversity, high commitment to task, and work democracy principles for individual responsibility may increase the probability of both mission success and personal satisfaction. (6) Remaining challenges are many, including the need for far more comprehensive real-time modeling and information systems (a "cybersphere") operating to provide real-time data necessary for decision-making in a complex life support system. (7) And, the aim will be to create a noosphere, or sphere of intelligence, where the people and their living systems are in sustainable balance.

  10. The PH-D proposal - A manned mission to PHOBOS and Deimos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, S. F.

    The rationale for a manned mission to the satellites of Mars is discussed. The view has been expressed that NASA must define a major program to follow the Shuttle and to utilize it. However, such a program could not be initiated and proceed without public support, and to obtain this support, public interest would have to be excited. It is shown that, of a number of possible targets for manned exploration in the solar system, Mars appears to be the only possible candidate. Attention is given to a comparison of three Mars missions, a Mars 1984 mission, a manned landing on Mars surface, a manned landing on Phobos and Deimos (Ph-D project), putting men in Mars orbit, the capabilities of the Ph-D mission, a description of the spacecraft, a Ph-D project operations plan, and aspects of timing, technology, and costs.

  11. Psychology and culture during long-duration space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, N.; Sandal, G.; Boyd, J. E.; Gushin, V. I.; Manzey, D.; North, R.; Leon, G. R.; Suedfeld, P.; Bishop, S.; Fiedler, E. R.; Inoue, N.; Johannes, B.; Kealey, D. J.; Kraft, N.; Matsuzaki, I.; Musson, D.; Palinkas, L. A.; Salnitskiy, V. P.; Sipes, W.; Stuster, J.; Wang, J.

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this paper is twofold: (a) to review the current knowledge of cultural, psychological, psychiatric, cognitive, interpersonal, and organizational issues that are relevant to the behavior and performance of astronaut crews and ground support personnel and (b) to make recommendations for future human space missions, including both transit and planetary surface operations involving the Moon or Mars. The focus will be on long-duration missions lasting at least six weeks, when important psychological and interpersonal factors begin to take their toll on crewmembers. This information is designed to provide guidelines for astronaut selection and training, in-flight monitoring and support, and post-flight recovery and re-adaptation.

  12. Overview of the Development of the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission 12.5-kW Hall Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Haag, Thomas; Yim, John; Chang, Li; Clayman, Lauren; Herman, Daniel; Shastry, Rohit; Thomas, Robert; Verhey, Timothy; hide

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing mission concepts for a solar electric propulsion technology demonstration mission. A number of mission concepts are being evaluated including ambitious missions to near Earth objects. The demonstration of a high-power solar electric propulsion capability is one of the objectives of the candidate missions under consideration. In support of NASA's exploration goals, a number of projects are developing extensible technologies to support NASA's near and long term mission needs. Specifically, the Space Technology Mission Directorate Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission project is funding the development of a 12.5-kilowatt magnetically shielded Hall thruster system to support future NASA missions. This paper presents the design attributes of the thruster that was collaboratively developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The paper provides an overview of the magnetic, plasma, thermal, and structural modeling activities that were carried out in support of the thruster design. The paper also summarizes the results of the functional tests that have been carried out to date. The planned thruster performance, plasma diagnostics (internal and in the plume), thermal, wear, and mechanical tests are outlined.

  13. Manned Mission Space Exploration Utilizing a Flexible Universal Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, P.; Barez, F.; Gowda, A.

    2018-02-01

    The proposed ASMS, Inc. "Flexible Universal Module" is in support of NASA's Deep Space Gateway project. The Flexible Universal Module provides a possible habitation or manufacturing environment in support of Manned Mission for Space Exploration.

  14. Integrated Human-Robotic Missions to the Moon and Mars: Mission Operations Design Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkin, Andrew; Lee, Young; Korth, David; LeBlanc, Troy

    2007-01-01

    For most of the history of space exploration, human and robotic programs have been independent, and have responded to distinct requirements. The NASA Vision for Space Exploration calls for the return of humans to the Moon, and the eventual human exploration of Mars; the complexity of this range of missions will require an unprecedented use of automation and robotics in support of human crews. The challenges of human Mars missions, including roundtrip communications time delays of 6 to 40 minutes, interplanetary transit times of many months, and the need to manage lifecycle costs, will require the evolution of a new mission operations paradigm far less dependent on real-time monitoring and response by an Earthbound operations team. Robotic systems and automation will augment human capability, increase human safety by providing means to perform many tasks without requiring immediate human presence, and enable the transfer of traditional mission control tasks from the ground to crews. Developing and validating the new paradigm and its associated infrastructure may place requirements on operations design for nearer-term lunar missions. The authors, representing both the human and robotic mission operations communities, assess human lunar and Mars mission challenges, and consider how human-robot operations may be integrated to enable efficient joint operations, with the eventual emergence of a unified exploration operations culture.

  15. Tank Waste Remediation System retrieval and disposal mission technical baseline summary description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    This document is prepared in order to support the US Department of Energy's evaluation of readiness-to-proceed for the Waste Retrieval and Disposal Mission at the Hanford Site. The Waste Retrieval and Disposal Mission is one of three primary missions under the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project. The other two include programs to characterize tank waste and to provide for safe storage of the waste while it awaits treatment and disposal. The Waste Retrieval and Disposal Mission includes the programs necessary to support tank waste retrieval, wastefeed, delivery, storage and disposal of immobilized waste, and closure of tank farms. This mission will enable the tank farms to be closed and turned over for final remediation. The Technical Baseline is defined as the set of science and engineering, equipment, facilities, materials, qualified staff, and enabling documentation needed to start up and complete the mission objectives. The primary purposes of this document are (1) to identify the important technical information and factors that should be used by contributors to the mission and (2) to serve as a basis for configuration management of the technical information and factors

  16. Towards a Multi-Mission, Airborne Science Data System Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, D. J.; Hardman, S.; Law, E.; Freeborn, D.; Kay-Im, E.; Lau, G.; Oswald, J.

    2011-12-01

    NASA earth science instruments are increasingly relying on airborne missions. However, traditionally, there has been limited common infrastructure support available to principal investigators in the area of science data systems. As a result, each investigator has been required to develop their own computing infrastructures for the science data system. Typically there is little software reuse and many projects lack sufficient resources to provide a robust infrastructure to capture, process, distribute and archive the observations acquired from airborne flights. At NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), we have been developing a multi-mission data system infrastructure for airborne instruments called the Airborne Cloud Computing Environment (ACCE). ACCE encompasses the end-to-end lifecycle covering planning, provisioning of data system capabilities, and support for scientific analysis in order to improve the quality, cost effectiveness, and capabilities to enable new scientific discovery and research in earth observation. This includes improving data system interoperability across each instrument. A principal characteristic is being able to provide an agile infrastructure that is architected to allow for a variety of configurations of the infrastructure from locally installed compute and storage services to provisioning those services via the "cloud" from cloud computer vendors such as Amazon.com. Investigators often have different needs that require a flexible configuration. The data system infrastructure is built on the Apache's Object Oriented Data Technology (OODT) suite of components which has been used for a number of spaceborne missions and provides a rich set of open source software components and services for constructing science processing and data management systems. In 2010, a partnership was formed between the ACCE team and the Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) mission to support the data processing and data management needs

  17. Mission to the Solar System: Exploration and Discovery. A Mission and Technology Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulkis, S. (Editor); Stetson, D. S. (Editor); Stofan, E. R. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Solar System exploration addresses some of humanity's most fundamental questions: How and when did life form on Earth? Does life exist elsewhere in the Solar System or in the Universe? - How did the Solar System form and evolve in time? - What can the other planets teach us about the Earth? This document describes a Mission and Technology Roadmap for addressing these and other fundamental Solar System Questions. A Roadmap Development Team of scientists, engineers, educators, and technologists worked to define the next evolutionary steps in in situ exploration, sample return, and completion of the overall Solar System survey. Guidelines were to "develop aa visionary, but affordable, mission and technology development Roadmap for the exploration of the Solar System in the 2000 to 2012 timeframe." The Roadmap provides a catalog of potential flight missions. (Supporting research and technology, ground-based observations, and laboratory research, which are no less important than flight missions, are not included in this Roadmap.)

  18. How an Effective Leadership and Governance Supports to Achieve Institutional Vision, Mission, and Objectives

    OpenAIRE

    Sreeramana Aithal

    2015-01-01

    Effective leadership by setting values and participative decision- making process is key not only to achieve the vision, mission and goals of the institution but also in building the organizational culture. The formal and informal arrangements in the institution to co-ordinate the academic and administrative planning and implementation reflects the institutions efforts in achieving its vision. This paper focus on the vision, mission and the objectives identified for a higher educa...

  19. Human missions to Mars: issues and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, M.; Kminek, G.

    Recent announcements of the planned future human exploration of Mars by both European and US space agencies have raised a host of questions and challenges that must be addressed in advance of long-duration human missions. While detailed mission planning is a long way off, numerous issues can already be identified in the broad context of planetary protection. In this session, a panel of experts will provide brief overviews of the types of challenges ahead, such as the protection of the martian environment; the integration of human and robotic mission elements and operations; precursor scientific information necessary to plan human missions; development and use of nuclear and other technologies for the protection and support of astronauts during the mission; protection of Earth upon return; and societal and ethical questions about human exploration. The session has been designed to encourage and incorporate audience participation in the discussion about the issues and challenges ahead.

  20. Environmental Monitoring as Part of Life Support for the Crew Habitat for Lunar and Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Darrell L.

    2010-01-01

    Like other crewed space missions, future missions to the moon and Mars will have requirements for monitoring the chemical and microbial status of the crew habitat. Monitoring the crew habitat becomes more critical in such long term missions. This paper will describe the state of technology development for environmental monitoring of lunar lander and lunar outpost missions, and the state of plans for future missions.

  1. ENTREPRENEURIAL UNIVERSITY: DEVELOPING AND INTEGRATING THE THIRD MISSION IN HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela, DIACONU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The modern unversity which activates in a highly competitive market and is mostly assisted and not financially supported by the state must find tools with which to be competitive and prestigious. It is necessary to identify the managerial and scientific opportunities with which to build the best resources in order to fulfill its mission. This study presents the role of the university in the economic and social environment supported by the mission undertaken by three components: teaching, scientific research and the social function and to what extent the third mission of the modern university is seen as a necessity in the context of current economic and social context by the universities of Romania. The method used was the content analysis of the mission of universities in Romania presented in the University Charter and its correlation with the analysis models on entrepreneurship and academic entrepreneurial management offered by the specialized literature. The conclusion is that more than 60% of universities in Romania formulated their mission by considering the three components and that understanding and building entrepreneurial culture is a condition of the successful fulfillment of the mission of the modern university.

  2. Determining Mission Statement Effectiveness from a Fit Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toh Seong-Yuen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the relationship between the organization's mission statement and its outcomes from a fit perspective in the alignment of the organization's structural and cultural elements. Based on an extension of Campbell's (1991 mission model by combination of ideas from two schools of thought in mission statement studies (structural and cultural, the authors introduce the concept of “fit” to show how it contributes towards a new mission statement model. The results show that both alignments are important to create a fit situation in order to positively impact organization outcomes. Based on Cohen (1988, the detected effect size of .322 is considered large. The managerial implication is that there should be more focus on managing organisational alignment to support a fit situation as this is instrumental to mission statement effectiveness. The originality of this study stems from the idea that while past studies develop model based on ideas from within the confine of a particular school of thought, this study is one of the first to combine ideas from both the structural and cultural schools of thought by extending Campbell's (1991 mission model using the fit perspective.

  3. AstroBiology Explorer Mission Concepts (ABE/ASPIRE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, Scott; Ennico, Kimberly A.

    2006-01-01

    The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) and the Astrobiology Space InfraRed Explorer (ASPIRE) Mission Concepts are two missions designed to address the questions (1) Where do we come from? and (2) Are we alone? as outlined in NASA s Origins Program using infrared spectroscopy to explore the identity, abundance, and distribution of molecules of astrobiological importance throughout the Universe. The ABE mission s observational program is focused on six tasks to: (1) Investigate the evolution of ice and organics in dense clouds and star formation regions, and the young stellar/planetary systems that form in them; (2) Measure the evolution of complex organic molecules in stellar outflows; (3) Study the organic composition of a wide variety of solar system objects including asteroids, comets, and the planets and their satellites; (4) Identify organic compounds in the diffuse interstellar medium and determine their distribution , abundance, and change with environment; (5) Detect and identify organic compounds in other galaxies and determine their dependence on galactic type; and (6) Measure deuterium enrichments in interstellar organics and use them as tracers of chemical processes. The ASPIRE mission s observational program expands upon ABE's core mission and adds tasks that (7) Address the role of silicates in interstellar organic chemistry; and (8) Use different resolution spectra to assess the relative roles and abundances of gas- and solid-state materials. ABE (ASPIRE) achieves these goals using a highly sensitive, cryogenically-cooled telescope in an Earth drift-away heliocentric orbit, armed with a suite of infrared spectrometers that cover the 2.5-20(40) micron spectral region at moderate spectral resolution (R>2000). ASPIRE's spectrometer complement also includes a high-resolution (R>25,000) module over the 4-8 micron spectral region. Both missions target lists are chosen to observe a statistically significant sample of a large number of objects of varied types in

  4. Cost and Operational Effectiveness Analysis of Aiternative Force Structures for Fulfillment of the United States Marine Corps Operational Support Airlift and Search and Rescue Missions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chase, Eric

    2000-01-01

    This thesis provides a preliminary cost and operational effectiveness analysis of alternative force structures for the United States Marine Corps operational support airlift and search and rescue missions...

  5. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission key enabling assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    An overall systems approach has been applied to develop action plans to support the retrieval and immobilization waste disposal mission. The review concluded that the systems and infrastructure required to support the mission are known. Required systems are either in place or plans have been developed. An analysis of the programmatic, management and technical activities necessary to declare Readiness to Proceed with execution of the mission demonstrates that the system, people, and hardware will be on line and ready to support the private contractors. The systems approach included defining the retrieval and immobilized waste disposal mission requirements and evaluating the readiness of the TWRS contractor to supply waste feed to the private contractors in June 2002. The Phase 1 feed delivery requirements from the Private Contractor Request for Proposals were reviewed, transfer piping routes were mapped on it, existing systems were evaluated, and upgrade requirements were defined. Technical Basis Reviews were completed to define work scope in greater detail, cost estimates and associated year by year financial analyses were completed. Personnel training, qualifications, management systems and procedures were reviewed and shown to be in place and ready to support the Phase 1B mission. Key assumptions and risks that could negatively impact mission success were evaluated and appropriate mitigative actions plans were planned and scheduled

  6. Evaluation of the NASA Arc Jet Capabilities to Support Mission Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calomino, Anthony; Bruce, Walt; Gage, Peter; Horn, Dennis; Mastaler, Mike; Rigali, Don; Robey, Judee; Voss, Linda; Wahlberg, Jerry; Williams, Calvin

    2010-01-01

    NASA accomplishes its strategic goals through human and robotic exploration missions. Many of these missions require launching and landing or returning spacecraft with human or return samples through Earth's and other planetary atmospheres. Spacecraft entering an atmosphere are subjected to extreme aerothermal loads. Protecting against these extreme loads is a critical element of spacecraft design. The safety and success of the planned mission is a prime concern for the Agency, and risk mitigation requires the knowledgeable use of thermal protection systems to successfully withstand the high-energy states imposed on the vehicle. Arc jets provide ground-based testing for development and flight validation of re-entry vehicle thermal protection materials and are a critical capability and core competency of NASA. The Agency's primary hypersonic thermal testing capability resides at the Ames Research Center and the Johnson Space Center and was developed and built in the 1960s and 1970s. This capability was critical to the success of Apollo, Shuttle, Pioneer, Galileo, Mars Pathfinder, and Orion. But the capability and the infrastructure are beyond their design lives. The complexes urgently need strategic attention and investment to meet the future needs of the Agency. The Office of Chief Engineer (OCE) chartered the Arc Jet Evaluation Working Group (AJEWG), a team of experienced individuals from across the Nation, to capture perspectives and requirements from the arc jet user community and from the community that operates and maintains this capability and capacity. This report offers the AJEWG's findings and conclusions that are intended to inform the discussion surrounding potential strategic technical and investment strategies. The AJEWG was directed to employ a 30-year Agency-level view so that near-term issues did not cloud the findings and conclusions and did not dominate or limit any of the strategic options.

  7. Recent Efforts in Advanced High Frequency Communications at the Glenn Research Center in Support of NASA Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation will discuss research and technology development work at the NASA Glenn Research Center in advanced frequency communications in support of NASAs mission. An overview of the work conducted in-house and also in collaboration with academia, industry, and other government agencies (OGA) in areas such as antenna technology, power amplifiers, radio frequency (RF) wave propagation through Earths atmosphere, ultra-sensitive receivers, among others, will be presented. In addition, the role of these and other related RF technologies in enabling the NASA next generation space communications architecture will be also discussed.

  8. Sleep and cognitive function of crewmembers and mission controllers working 24-h shifts during a simulated 105-day spaceflight mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Laura K.; Wright, Kenneth P.; Burke, Tina M.; Chinoy, Evan D.; Ronda, Joseph M.; Lockley, Steven W.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    duration work shifts. These findings indicate that extended duration work shifts present a significant challenge to crewmembers and mission support specialists during long-duration space mission operations. Future research is needed to evaluate the efficacy of alternative work schedules and the development and implementation of more effective countermeasures will be required to maintain high levels of performance.

  9. Reference Mission Version 3.0 Addendum to the Human Exploration of Mars: The Reference Mission of the NASA Mars Exploration Study Team. Addendum; 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Bret G. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This Addendum to the Mars Reference Mission was developed as a companion document to the NASA Special Publication 6107, "Human Exploration of Mars: The Reference Mission of the NASA Mars Exploration Study Team." It summarizes changes and updates to the Mars Reference Missions that were developed by the Exploration Office since the final draft of SP 6107 was printed in early 1999. The Reference Mission is a tool used by the exploration community to compare and evaluate approaches to mission and system concepts that could be used for human missions to Mars. It is intended to identify and clarify system drivers, significant sources of cost, performance, risk, and schedule variation. Several alternative scenarios, employing different technical approaches to solving mission and technology challenges, are discussed in this Addendum. Comparing alternative approaches provides the basis for continual improvement to technology investment plan and a general understanding of future human missions to Mars. The Addendum represents a snapshot of work in progress in support of planning for future human exploration missions through May 1998.

  10. Planetary Missions of the 20th Century*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, V. I.; Huntress, W. T.; Shevalev, I. L.

    2002-09-01

    Among of the highlights of the 20th century were flights of spacecraft to other bodies of the Solar System. This paper describes briefly the missions attempted, their goals, and fate. Information is presented in five tables on the missions launched, their goals, mission designations, dates, discoveries when successful, and what happened if they failed. More detailed explanations are given in the accompanying text. It is shown how this enterprise developed and evolved step by step from a politically driven competition to intense scientific investigations and international cooperation. Initially, only the USA and USSR sent missions to the Moon and planets. Europe and Japan joined later. The USSR carried out significant research in Solar System exploration until the end of the 1980s. The Russian Federation no longer supports robotic planetary exploration for economic reasons, and it remains to be seen whether the invaluable Russian experience in planetary space flight will be lost. Collaboration between Russian and other national space agencies may be a solution.

  11. Mission analysis report for the Hanford Tanks Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaus, P.S.

    1997-01-01

    This mission analysis report for the Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) supports the Hanford Site's Single-Shell Tank (SST) Waste Retrieval Program in its commitment to remove waste from the SSTs for treatment and final closure of the tanks. The results of the HTI will support the US Department of Energy's (DOE) privatization of retrieval efforts. This report addresses the HTI problem statement: Alternative technologies to past practice sluicing (PPS) have not yet been demonstrated to remove the hard heel from a sluiced tank or to remove waste from a leaking SST. Nor have performance-based criteria for cleanout and closure been demonstrated to the degree necessary to validate them as technically and economically achievable. This report also defines the mission statement and mission boundaries; the known interfaces, both programmatic and project; the mission level requirements; the test and evaluation methodology; and measures of success

  12. NASA Laboratory Analysis for Manned Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krihak, Michael K.; Shaw, Tianna E.

    2014-01-01

    The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability Element under the NASA Human Research Program. ELA instrumentation is identified as an essential capability for future exploration missions to diagnose and treat evidence-based medical conditions. However, mission architecture limits the medical equipment, consumables, and procedures that will be available to treat medical conditions during human exploration missions. Allocated resources such as mass, power, volume, and crew time must be used efficiently to optimize the delivery of in-flight medical care. Although commercial instruments can provide the blood and urine based measurements required for exploration missions, these commercial-off-the-shelf devices are prohibitive for deployment in the space environment. The objective of the ELA project is to close the technology gap of current minimally invasive laboratory capabilities and analytical measurements in a manner that the mission architecture constraints impose on exploration missions. Besides micro gravity and radiation tolerances, other principal issues that generally fail to meet NASA requirements include excessive mass, volume, power and consumables, and nominal reagent shelf-life. Though manned exploration missions will not occur for nearly a decade, NASA has already taken strides towards meeting the development of ELA medical diagnostics by developing mission requirements and concepts of operations that are coupled with strategic investments and partnerships towards meeting these challenges. This paper focuses on the remote environment, its challenges, biomedical diagnostics requirements and candidate technologies that may lead to successful blood-urine chemistry and biomolecular measurements in future space exploration missions.

  13. Use of nuclear facilities at Argonne-West to support new environmental missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.B.; Dwight, C.C.; Lineberry, M.J.

    1994-08-01

    At Argonne National Laboratory-West, facilities that were originally constructed to support the development of liquid-metal reactor technology are being used to meet the environmental and waste management need of the US Department of Energy. These needs include waste characterization, waste testing, and waste treatment technology development. Waste characterization and repackaging activities are being performed in the Hot Fuel Examination Facility for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Experimental Test Program. Characterization activities include sampling the gas in actual waste containers, categorizing waste contents for their gas generation potential, and extracting solid samples. A new waste testing project will utilize the Zero Powered Physics Reactor facility. In the workroom of these facility, laboratory gas generation experiments will be conducted with contact-handled transuranic waste. Both the characterization and waste testing activities are part of the effort to prepare the WIPP performance assessment. Waste treatment demonstrations have or will be conducted at the Transient Reactor Test facility and involve private sector participants. The demonstrations involve the development of thermal treatment for materials containing residual amounts of plutonium using plasma-arc technology. The success of these new programs is largely due to experience gained from past missions in such areas as radiological control and nuclear safety

  14. A Sustainable, Reliable Mission-Systems Architecture that Supports a System of Systems Approach to Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Steve; Orr, Jim; O'Neil, Graham

    2004-01-01

    A mission-systems architecture based on a highly modular "systems of systems" infrastructure utilizing open-standards hardware and software interfaces as the enabling technology is absolutely essential for an affordable and sustainable space exploration program. This architecture requires (a) robust communication between heterogeneous systems, (b) high reliability, (c) minimal mission-to-mission reconfiguration, (d) affordable development, system integration, and verification of systems, and (e) minimum sustaining engineering. This paper proposes such an architecture. Lessons learned from the space shuttle program are applied to help define and refine the model.

  15. The Ocean Surface Topography Sentinel-6/Jason-CS Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulicchi, L.; Cullen, R.; Donlon, C.; Vuilleumier@esa int, P.

    2016-12-01

    The Sentinel-6/Jason-CS mission consists of two identical satellites flying in sequence and designed to provide operational measurements of sea surface height significant wave high and wind speed to support operational oceanography and climate monitoring. The mission will be the latest in a series of ocean surface topography missions that will span nearly three decades. They follow the altimeters on- board TOPEX/Poseidon through to Jason-3 (launched in January 2016). Jason-CS will continue to fulfil objectives of the reference series whilst introducing a major enhancement in capability providing the operational and science oceanographic community with the state of the art in terms of spacecraft, measurement instrumentation design thus securing optimal operational and science data return. As a secondary objective the mission will also include Radio Occultation user services. Each satellite will be launched sequentially into the Jason orbit (up to 66 latitude) respectively in 2020 and 2025. The principle payload instrument is a high precision Ku/C band radar altimeter with retrieval of geophysical parameters (surface elevation, wind speed and SWH) from the altimeter data require supporting measurements: a DORIS receiver for Precise Orbit Determination; The Climate Quality Advanced Microwave Radiometer (AMR-C) for high stability path delay correction. Orbit tracking data are also provided by GPS & LRA. An additional GPS receiver will be dedicated to radio-occultation measurements. The programme is a part of the European Community Copernicus initiative, whose objective is to support Europe's goals regarding sustainable development and global governance of the environment by providing timely and quality data, information, services and knowledge. The Sentinel-6/Jason-CS in particular is a cooperative mission with contributions from NASA, NOAA, EUMETSAT, ESA, CNES and the European Union.

  16. Human and Robotic Exploration Missions to Phobos Prior to Crewed Mars Surface Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.; Chappell, Steven P.; Bekdash, Omar S.; Abercromby, Andrew F.

    2016-01-01

    Phobos is a scientifically significant destination that would facilitate the development and operation of the human Mars transportation infrastructure, unmanned cargo delivery systems and other Mars surface systems. In addition to developing systems relevant to Mars surface missions, Phobos offers engineering, operational, and public engagement opportunities that could enhance subsequent Mars surface operations. These opportunities include the use of low latency teleoperations to control Mars surface assets associated with exploration science, human landing-site selection and infrastructure development which may include in situ resource utilization (ISRU) to provide liquid oxygen for the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV). A human mission to Mars' moons would be preceded by a cargo predeploy of a surface habitat and a pressurized excursion vehicle (PEV) to Mars orbit. Once in Mars orbit, the habitat and PEV would spiral to Phobos using solar electric propulsion based systems, with the habitat descending to the surface and the PEV remaining in orbit. When a crewed mission is launched to Phobos, it would include the remaining systems to support the crew during the Earth-Mars transit and to reach Phobos after insertion in to Mars orbit. The crew would taxi from Mars orbit to Phobos to join with the predeployed systems in a spacecraft that is based on a MAV, dock with and transfer to the PEV in Phobos orbit, and descend in the PEV to the surface habitat. A static Phobos surface habitat was chosen as a baseline architecture, in combination with the PEV that was used to descend from orbit as the main exploration vehicle. The habitat would, however, have limited capability to relocate on the surface to shorten excursion distances required by the PEV during exploration and to provide rescue capability should the PEV become disabled. To supplement exploration capabilities of the PEV, the surface habitat would utilize deployable EVA support structures that allow astronauts to work

  17. The Stellar Imager (SI) Mission Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Lyon, Richard G.; Mundy, Lee G.; Allen, Ronald J.; Armstrong, Thomas; Danchi, William C.; Karovska, Margarita; Marzouk, Joe; Mazzuca, Lisa M.; hide

    2002-01-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is envisioned as a space-based, UV-optical interferometer composed of 10 or more one-meter class elements distributed with a maximum baseline of 0.5 km. It is designed to image stars and binaries with sufficient resolution to enable long-term studies of stellar magnetic activity patterns, for comparison with those on the sun. It will also support asteroseismology (acoustic imaging) to probe stellar internal structure, differential rotation, and large-scale circulations. SI will enable us to understand the various effects of the magnetic fields of stars, the dynamos that generate these fields, and the internal structure and dynamics of the stars. The ultimate goal of the mission is to achieve the best-possible forecasting of solar activity as a driver of climate and space weather on time scales ranging from months up to decades, and an understanding of the impact of stellar magnetic activity on life in the Universe. In this paper we describe the scientific goals of the mission, the performance requirements needed to address these goals, the "enabling technology" development efforts being pursued, and the design concepts now under study for the full mission and a possible pathfinder mission.

  18. Space nuclear tug mission applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, J.R.; Rauen, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    An initial assessment indicates that the NEBA-1 and NEBA-3 bimodal reactor designs can be integrated into a reusable tug which is capable of supporting many missions including GSO delivery, GSO retrieval, lunar trajectory deliveries, interplanetary deliveries, and a variety of satellite servicing. The tug close-quote s nuclear thermal propulsion provides timely transport and payload delivery, with GSO deliveries on the order of 3 endash 7 days. In general, the tug may provide a number of potential benefits to users. The tug may, for example, extend the life of an existing on-orbit spacecraft, boost spacecraft which were not delivered to their operational orbit, offer increased payload capability, or possibly allow payloads to launch on smaller less expensive launch vehicles. Reusing the tug for 5 or 10 missions requires total reactor burn times of 50 and 100 hours, respectively. Shielding, boom structure, and radiator requirements were identified as key factors in the configuration layout. Economic feasibility is still under evaluation, but preliminary estimates indicate that average flight costs may range from $32 M to $34 M for a 10-mission vehicle and from $39 M to $42 M for a 5-mission vehicle. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  19. A Virtual Social Support System for Long-Duration Space Exploration Missions, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our overall goal is to enhance the overall behavior health and performance of personnel on (future potential) long-duration missions. We propose to use a local...

  20. Software Innovation in a Mission Critical Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Operating in mission-critical environments requires trusted solutions, and the preference for "tried and true" approaches presents a potential barrier to infusing innovation into mission-critical systems. This presentation explores opportunities to overcome this barrier in the software domain. It outlines specific areas of innovation in software development achieved by the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Engineering Directorate in support of NASA's major human spaceflight programs, including International Space Station, Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (Orion), and Commercial Crew Programs. Software engineering teams at JSC work with hardware developers, mission planners, and system operators to integrate flight vehicles, habitats, robotics, and other spacecraft elements for genuinely mission critical applications. The innovations described, including the use of NASA Core Flight Software and its associated software tool chain, can lead to software that is more affordable, more reliable, better modelled, more flexible, more easily maintained, better tested, and enabling of automation.

  1. Fermilab Friends for Science Education | Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermilab Friends for Science Education FFSE Home About Us Join Us Support Us Contact Us Mission Directors Board Tools Calendar Join Us Donate Now Get FermiGear! Education Office Search Programs Calendar Join Us/Renew Membership Forms: Online - Print Support Us Donation Forms: Online - Print Tree of

  2. Logistics Reduction Technologies for Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyan, James L., Jr.; Ewert, Michael K.; Fink, Patrick W.

    2014-01-01

    Human exploration missions under study are limited by the launch mass capacity of existing and planned launch vehicles. The logistical mass of crew items is typically considered separate from the vehicle structure, habitat outfitting, and life support systems. Although mass is typically the focus of exploration missions, due to its strong impact on launch vehicle and habitable volume for the crew, logistics volume also needs to be considered. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) Project is developing six logistics technologies guided by a systems engineering cradle-to-grave approach to enable after-use crew items to augment vehicle systems. Specifically, AES LRR is investigating the direct reduction of clothing mass, the repurposing of logistical packaging, the use of autonomous logistics management technologies, the processing of spent crew items to benefit radiation shielding and water recovery, and the conversion of trash to propulsion gases. Reduction of mass has a corresponding and significant impact to logistical volume. The reduction of logistical volume can reduce the overall pressurized vehicle mass directly, or indirectly benefit the mission by allowing for an increase in habitable volume during the mission. The systematic implementation of these types of technologies will increase launch mass efficiency by enabling items to be used for secondary purposes and improve the habitability of the vehicle as mission durations increase. Early studies have shown that the use of advanced logistics technologies can save approximately 20 m(sup 3) of volume during transit alone for a six-person Mars conjunction class mission.

  3. Supervisors matter more than you think: components of a mission-centered organizational climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, A H

    1994-01-01

    A study was conducted in a medical center among a diverse sample of employees to examine whether components of organizational climate related to workers' knowledge of the organization's mission and mission-centered values. Findings supported a mediated relationship between supervisor behaviors, mission knowledge, and customer service orientation (the organization's key mission value). Employee perceptions of coworker and organizational support and knowledge of their own performance expectations also related positively to customer service orientation. Results suggest that supervisors are in an ideal position to disseminate a mission-centered climate. Practical applications of these findings for management wishing to develop mission-centered climates in health care organizations are discussed.

  4. A missional perspective on funerals and bereavement counselling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kotze

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the importance of a missional approach to the funeral and bereavement counselling process in congregational praxis in the midst of a context of secularisation. The creation of a missional perspective on the funeral and bereavement counselling could support the nature and praxis of a congregation in a secular society, especially if the congregation finds its relevance in the expression of the missio Dei. The basic theoretical research for missional ecclesiology, which is the systematic study directed toward greater knowledge of the fundamental aspects of missional ecclesiology (National Science Foundation 1953:38, is based on the premise that God is the source of all missions. The expression missio Dei means to join God in the mission he is already busy with in the world. As the one who sends, God the Father sends the Son, the Son sends the Holy Spirit, and the Holy Spirit sends the church. The church only participates in the mission God is already busy with. It is a mission that uses both words and deeds and brings hope in the midst of tragedy. It is the hope of the kingdom of God and the incarnation of Christ that can already be experienced and expressed in the present. It is also the hope of the transformation of everything to form a new heaven and earth. Hope and mission can therefore not be separated. The concretisation of the expression of the kingdom of Christ in the world is hope, and a strong emphasis is therefore placed on mission as action in hope. Hope must be present where tragedy reigns, and the funeral and bereavement counselling can be used as a vehicle for this hope. Hope can then become an instrument of healing. The church can thus participate in God’s mission in the midst of tragedy and make an impact on society by taking on a missional character of hope.

  5. Telecommunications and navigation systems design for manned Mars exploration missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Justin R.; Hastrup, Rolf C.

    1989-06-01

    This paper discusses typical manned Mars exploration needs for telecommunications, including preliminary navigation support functions. It is a brief progress report on an ongoing study program within the current NASA JPL Deep Space Network (DSN) activities. A typical Mars exploration case is defined, and support approaches comparing microwave and optical frequency performance for both local in situ and Mars-earth links are described. Optical telecommunication and navigation technology development opportunities in a Mars exploration program are also identified. A local Mars system telecommunication relay and navigation capability for service support of all Mars missions has been proposed as part of an overall solar system communications network. The effects of light-time delay and occultations on real-time mission decision-making are discussed; the availability of increased local mass data storage may be more important than increasing peak data rates to earth. The long-term frequency use plan will most likely include a mix of microwave, millimeter-wave and optical link capabilities to meet a variety of deep space mission needs.

  6. 78 FR 18317 - U.S. Healthcare Trade Mission to Russia- Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration U.S. Healthcare Trade Mission to Russia... Russia published at 77 FR 77032, December 31, 2012, to amend the Notice to revise the dates of the... additional time is needed to allow for additional recruitment and marketing in support of the mission...

  7. The art and science of mission patches and their origins in society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumfitt, A.; Thompson, L. A.; Raitt, D.

    2008-06-01

    Space exploration utilizes some of the latest and highest technology available to human kind; synonymous with space exploration is the mission patch. This specialized art form popularizes the exploration of space with millions of mission patches sold around the world. Space tourism and education centres like the Kennedy Space Centre rely heavily on each space shuttle launch to support their merchandising of mission patches, from the traditional sew on badge to T shirts. Do mission patches tell a story? Are they Art? What is the origin and role of this art form in society? The art form of space mission patches combines the 21st century relevance with heraldic origins predating the ninth century. The space mission patch is designed by the astronauts themselves if it is a manned mission. As an education tool teachers and educators use the space mission patch to engage their students in the excitement of space exploration, the mission patch design is utilized as an education tool in literature, science and art. The space mission patch is a particularly powerful message medium. This paper looks at the origins of the space mission patch, its relevance to art and its impact on society.

  8. Virtual Mission First Results Supporting the WATER HM Satellite Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsdorf, D.; Andreadis, K.; Lettenmaier, D.; Moller, D.; Rodriguez, E.; Bates, P.; Mognard, N.; Participants, W.

    2007-12-01

    Surface fresh water is essential for life, yet we have surprisingly poor knowledge of its variability in space and time. Similarly, ocean circulation and ocean-atmosphere interactions fundamentally drive weather and climate variability, yet the global ocean current and eddy field (e.g., the Gulf Stream) that affects ocean circulation is poorly known. The Water And Terrestrial Elevation Recovery Hydrosphere Mapper satellite mission concept (WATER HM or SWOT per the NRC Decadal Survey) is a swath-based interferometric-altimeter designed to acquire elevations of ocean and terrestrial water surfaces at unprecedented spatial and temporal resolutions. WATER HM will have tremendous implications for estimation of the global water cycle, water management, ocean and coastal circulation, and assessment of many water-related impacts from climate change (e.g., sea level rise, carbon evasion, etc.). We describe a hydrological "virtual mission" (VM) for WATER HM which consists of: (a) A hydrodynamic-instrument simulation model that maps variations in water levels along river channels and across floodplains. These are then assimilated to estimate discharge and to determine trade-offs between resolutions and mission costs. (b) Measurements from satellites to determine feasibility of existing platforms for measuring storage changes and estimating discharge. First results demonstrate that: (1) Ensemble Kalman filtering of VM simulations recover water depth and discharge, reducing the discharge RMSE from 23.2% to 10.0% over an 84- day simulation period, relative to a simulation without assimilation. The filter also shows that an 8-day overpass frequency produces discharge relative errors of 10.0%, while 16-day and 32-day frequencies result in errors of 12.1% and 16.9%, respectively. (2) SRTM measurements of water surfaces along the Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, and Amazon rivers, as well as smaller tributaries, show height standard deviations of 5 meters or greater (SRTM is the

  9. The EUVE Mission at UCB: Squeezing More From Less

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroozas, B. A.; Cullison, J. L.; McDonald, K. E.; Nevitt, R.; Malina, R. F.

    2000-05-01

    With 8 years on orbit, and over three years in an outsourced mode at U.C. Berkeley (UCB), NASA's Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) continues to be a highly mature and productive scientific mission. The EUVE satellite is extremely stable and exhibits little degradation in its original scientific capabilities, and science data return continues to be at the >99% level. The Project's very small, dedicated, innovative, and relatively cheap ( \\$1 million/year) support team at UCB continues to validate the success of NASA's outsourcing "experiment" while providing a very high science-per-dollar return on NASA's investment with no significant additional risk to the flight systems. The EUVE mission still has much more to offer in terms of important and exciting scientific discoveries as well as mission operations innovations. To highlight this belief the EUVE team at UCB continues to find creative ways to do more with less -- to squeeze the maximum out of available funds -- in NASA's "cheaper, better, faster" environment. This paper provides an overview of the EUVE mission's past, current, and potential future efforts toward automating and integrating its multi-functional data processing systems in proposal management, observation planning, mission operations and engineering, and the processing, archival, and delivery of raw telemetry and science data products. The paper will also discuss the creative allocation of the Project's few remaining personnel resources who support both core mission functions and new innovations, while at the same time minimizing overall risk and stretching the available budget. This work is funded through NASA/UCB Cooperative Agreement NCC5-138.

  10. DYNAMIC: A Decadal Survey and NASA Roadmap Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, L. J.; Oberheide, J.

    2016-12-01

    -latitude dynamics and response to external forcing for all species.] Clearly the best possible return from this NASA mission is with the broad support, collaboration and participation from the entire ITM whether their focus is on spacebased measurements, groundbased measurements, or modeling and theory.

  11. Training Concept for Long Duration Space Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, William

    2008-01-01

    There has been papers about maintenance and psychological training for Long Duration Space Mission (LDSM). There are papers on the technology needed for LDSMs. Few are looking at how groundbased pre-mission training and on-board in-transit training must be melded into one training concept that leverages this technology. Even more importantly, fewer are looking at how we can certify crews pre-mission. This certification must ensure, before the crew launches, that they can handle any problem using on-board assets without a large ground support team.

  12. A decision support system for mission-based ship routing considering multiple performance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, You; Frangopol, Dan M.; Sabatino, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    It is crucial to evaluate the risk associated with marine vessels subjected to inclement weather and sea conditions when developing a decision support system for ship routing. The generalized decision making framework developed in this paper performs a variety of tasks, including, but not limited to quantifying the flexural and fatigue performance of ship structures and employing multi-attribute utility theory to evaluate ship mission performance. A structural reliability approach is utilized to compute the probability of failure considering the uncertainties in structural capacity and load effects; specifically, effects of flexural and fatigue damage are investigated. The expected repair cost, cumulative fatigue damage, total travel time, and carbon dioxide emissions associated with ship routing are considered as consequences within the risk assessment procedure adopted in this paper. Additionally, the decision maker’s risk attitude is integrated into the presented approach by employing utility theory. The presented methodology can assist decision makers in making informed decisions concerning ship routing. In order to illustrate its capabilities the approach is applied to the Joint High-speed Sealift Ship. - Highlights: • Multi-attribute utility theory is proposed for the ship routing decision making. • Spectral-based fatigue damage and repair loss are computed. • Travel time and CO_2 emissions are incorporated within the decision making process. • The attitude of the decision maker has significant effects on the utility value.

  13. Gardening for Therapeutic People-Plant Interactions during Long-Duration Space Missions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odeh Raymond

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants provide people with vital resources necessary to sustain life. Nutrition, vitamins, calories, oxygen, fuel, and medicinal phytochemicals are just a few of the life-supporting plant products, but does our relationship with plants transcend these physical and biochemical products? This review synthesizes some of the extant literature on people-plant interactions, and relates key findings relevant to space exploration and the psychosocial and neurocognitive benefits of plants and nature in daily life. Here, a case is made in support of utilizing plant-mediated therapeutic benefits to mitigate potential psychosocial and neurocognitive decrements associated with long-duration space missions, especially for missions that seek to explore increasingly distant places where ground-based support is limited.

  14. The MARS2013 Mars analog mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groemer, Gernot; Soucek, Alexander; Frischauf, Norbert; Stumptner, Willibald; Ragonig, Christoph; Sams, Sebastian; Bartenstein, Thomas; Häuplik-Meusburger, Sandra; Petrova, Polina; Evetts, Simon; Sivenesan, Chan; Bothe, Claudia; Boyd, Andrea; Dinkelaker, Aline; Dissertori, Markus; Fasching, David; Fischer, Monika; Föger, Daniel; Foresta, Luca; Fritsch, Lukas; Fuchs, Harald; Gautsch, Christoph; Gerard, Stephan; Goetzloff, Linda; Gołebiowska, Izabella; Gorur, Paavan; Groemer, Gerhard; Groll, Petra; Haider, Christian; Haider, Olivia; Hauth, Eva; Hauth, Stefan; Hettrich, Sebastian; Jais, Wolfgang; Jones, Natalie; Taj-Eddine, Kamal; Karl, Alexander; Kauerhoff, Tilo; Khan, Muhammad Shadab; Kjeldsen, Andreas; Klauck, Jan; Losiak, Anna; Luger, Markus; Luger, Thomas; Luger, Ulrich; McArthur, Jane; Moser, Linda; Neuner, Julia; Orgel, Csilla; Ori, Gian Gabriele; Paternesi, Roberta; Peschier, Jarno; Pfeil, Isabella; Prock, Silvia; Radinger, Josef; Ramirez, Barbara; Ramo, Wissam; Rampey, Mike; Sams, Arnold; Sams, Elisabeth; Sandu, Oana; Sans, Alejandra; Sansone, Petra; Scheer, Daniela; Schildhammer, Daniel; Scornet, Quentin; Sejkora, Nina; Stadler, Andrea; Stummer, Florian; Taraba, Michael; Tlustos, Reinhard; Toferer, Ernst; Turetschek, Thomas; Winter, Egon; Zanella-Kux, Katja

    2014-05-01

    We report on the MARS2013 mission, a 4-week Mars analog field test in the northern Sahara. Nineteen experiments were conducted by a field crew in Morocco under simulated martian surface exploration conditions, supervised by a Mission Support Center in Innsbruck, Austria. A Remote Science Support team analyzed field data in near real time, providing planning input for the management of a complex system of field assets; two advanced space suit simulators, four robotic vehicles, an emergency shelter, and a stationary sensor platform in a realistic work flow were coordinated by a Flight Control Team. A dedicated flight planning group, external control centers for rover tele-operations, and a biomedical monitoring team supported the field operations. A 10 min satellite communication delay and other limitations pertinent to human planetary surface activities were introduced. The fields of research for the experiments were geology, human factors, astrobiology, robotics, tele-science, exploration, and operations research. This paper provides an overview of the geological context and environmental conditions of the test site and the mission architecture, in particular the communication infrastructure emulating the signal travel time between Earth and Mars. We report on the operational work flows and the experiments conducted, including a deployable shelter prototype for multiple-day extravehicular activities and contingency situations.

  15. Roles and Missions: Are We Doing It Right?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hetherington, James R

    2008-01-01

    .... As senior military leaders fight over the roles and missions of the services, the unacceptable easy answer is to allow the services to buy equipment they think they need to support roles they deem...

  16. Research Support: The New Mission for Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Erik T.

    2013-01-01

    Research support services are growing areas of importance in academic libraries and are part of the libraries' larger goal to provide wider support for research-related services. Ithaka's "Library Survey 2010" indicated that research support services, along with teaching facilitation, are the two growth areas projected by library directors. In…

  17. Internet Technology for Future Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Joseph F. (Technical Monitor); Rash, James; Casasanta, Ralph; Hogie, Keith

    2002-01-01

    Ongoing work at National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), seeks to apply standard Internet applications and protocols to meet the technology challenge of future satellite missions. Internet protocols and technologies are under study as a future means to provide seamless dynamic communication among heterogeneous instruments, spacecraft, ground stations, constellations of spacecraft, and science investigators. The primary objective is to design and demonstrate in the laboratory the automated end-to-end transport of files in a simulated dynamic space environment using off-the-shelf, low-cost, commodity-level standard applications and protocols. The demonstrated functions and capabilities will become increasingly significant in the years to come as both earth and space science missions fly more sensors and the present labor-intensive, mission-specific techniques for processing and routing data become prohibitively. This paper describes how an IP-based communication architecture can support all existing operations concepts and how it will enable some new and complex communication and science concepts. The authors identify specific end-to-end data flows from the instruments to the control centers and scientists, and then describe how each data flow can be supported using standard Internet protocols and applications. The scenarios include normal data downlink and command uplink as well as recovery scenarios for both onboard and ground failures. The scenarios are based on an Earth orbiting spacecraft with downlink data rates from 300 Kbps to 4 Mbps. Included examples are based on designs currently being investigated for potential use by the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission.

  18. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission initial updated baseline summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swita, W.R.

    1998-01-01

    This document provides a summary of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Retrieval and Disposal Mission Initial Updated Baseline (scope, schedule, and cost), developed to demonstrate Readiness-to-Proceed (RTP) in support of the TWRS Phase 1B mission. This Updated Baseline is the proposed TWRS plan to execute and measure the mission work scope. This document and other supporting data demonstrate that the TWRS Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team is prepared to fully support Phase 1B by executing the following scope, schedule, and cost baseline activities: Deliver the specified initial low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) feed batches in a consistent, safe, and reliable manner to support private contractors' operations starting in June 2002; Deliver specified subsequent LAW and HLW feed batches during Phase 1B in a consistent, safe, and reliable manner; Provide for the interim storage of immobilized HLW (IHLW) products and the disposal of immobilized LAW (ILAW) products generated by the private contractors; Provide for disposal of byproduct wastes generated by the private contractors; and Provide the infrastructure to support construction and operations of the private contractors' facilities

  19. Mars mission opportunity and transit time sensitivity for a nuclear thermal rocket propulsion application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, A.C.; Mulqueen, J.A.; Nishimuta, E.L.; Emrich, W.J.

    1993-01-01

    President George Bush's 1989 challenge to America to support the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) of ''Back to the Moon and Human Mission to Mars'' gives the space industry an opportunity to develop effective and efficient space transportation systems. This paper presents stage performance and requirements for a nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) Mars transportation system to support the human Mars mission of the SEI. Two classes of Mars mission profiles are considered in developing the NTR propulsion vehicle performance and requirements. The two Mars mission classes include the opposition class and conjunction class. The opposition class mission is associated with relatively short Mars stay times ranging from 30 to 90 days and total mission duration of 350 to 600 days. The conjunction class mission is associated with much longer Mars stay times ranging from 500 to 600 days and total mission durations of 875 to 1,000 days. Vehicle mass scaling equations are used to determine the NTR stage mass, size, and performance range required for different Mars mission opportunities and for different Mars mission durations. Mission opportunities considered include launch years 2010 to 2018. The 2010 opportunity is the most demanding launch opportunity and the 2018 opportunity is the least demanding opportunity. NTR vehicle mass and size sensitivity to NTR engine thrust level, engine specific impulse, NTR engine thrust-to-weight ratio, and Mars surface payload are presented. NTR propulsion parameter ranges include those associated with NERVA, particle bed reactor (PBR), low-pressure, and ceramic-metal-type engine design

  20. Mars mission opportunity and transit time sensitivity for a nuclear thermal rocket propulsion application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Archie C.; Mulqueen, John A.; Nishimuta, Ena L.; Emrich, William J.

    1993-01-01

    President George Bush's 1989 challenge to America to support the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) of ``Back to the Moon and Human Mission to Mars'' gives the space industry an opportunity to develop effective and efficient space transportation systems. This paper presents stage performance and requirements for a nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) Mars transportation system to support the human Mars mission of the SEI. Two classes of Mars mission profiles are considered in developing the NTR propulsion vehicle performance and requirements. The two Mars mission classes include the opposition class and conjunction class. The opposition class mission is associated with relatively short Mars stay times ranging from 30 to 90 days and total mission duration of 350 to 600 days. The conjunction class mission is associated with much longer Mars stay times ranging from 500 to 600 days and total mission durations of 875 to 1,000 days. Vehicle mass scaling equations are used to determine the NTR stage mass, size, and performance range required for different Mars mission opportunities and for different Mars mission durations. Mission opportunities considered include launch years 2010 to 2018. The 2010 opportunity is the most demanding launch opportunity and the 2018 opportunity is the least demanding opportunity. NTR vehicle mass and size sensitivity to NTR engine thrust level, engine specific impulse, NTR engine thrust-to-weight ratio, and Mars surface payload are presented. NTR propulsion parameter ranges include those associated with NERVA, particle bed reactor (PBR), low-pressure, and ceramic-metal-type engine design.

  1. Advanced Nuclear Power Concepts for Human Exploration Missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert L. Cataldo; Lee S. Mason

    2000-01-01

    The design reference mission for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) human mission to Mars supports a philosophy of living off the land in order to reduce crew risk, launch mass, and life-cycle costs associated with logistics resupply to a Mars base. Life-support materials, oxygen, water, and buffer gases, and the crew's ascent-stage propellant would not be brought from Earth but rather manufactured from the Mars atmosphere. The propellants would be made over ∼2 yr, the time between Mars mission launch window opportunities. The production of propellants is very power intensive and depends on type, amount, and time to produce the propellants. Closed-loop life support and food production are also power intensive. With the base having several habitats, a greenhouse, and propellant production capability, total power levels reach well over 125 kW(electric). The most mass-efficient means of satisfying these requirements is through the use of nuclear power. Studies have been performed to identify a potential system concept, described in this paper, using a mobile cart to transport the power system away from the Mars lander and provide adequate separation between the reactor and crew. The studies included an assessment of reactor and power conversion technology options, selection of system and component redundancy, determination of optimum separation distance, and system performance sensitivity to some key operating parameters

  2. The mission execution crew assistant : Improving human-machine team resilience for long duration missions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerincx, M.A.; Lindenberg, J.; Smets, N.J.J.M.; Bos, A.; Breebaart, L.; Grant, T.; Olmedo-Soler, A.; Brauer, U.; Wolff, M.

    2008-01-01

    Manned long-duration missions to the Moon and Mars set high operational, human factors and technical demands for a distributed support system, which enhances human-machine teams' capabilities to cope autonomously with unexpected, complex and potentially hazardous situations. Based on a situated

  3. NASA's Planetary Science Missions and Participations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daou, Doris; Green, James L.

    2017-04-01

    instrument. This was a tremendously successful activity leading to another similar call for instrument proposals for the Europa mission. Europa mission instruments will be used to conduct high priority scientific investigations addressing the science goals for the moon's exploration outlined in the National Resource Council's Planetary Decadal Survey, Vision and Voyages (2011). International partnerships are an excellent, proven way of amplifying the scope and sharing the science results of a mission otherwise implemented by an individual space agency. The exploration of the Solar System is uniquely poised to bring planetary scientists, worldwide, together under the common theme of understanding the origin, evolution, and bodies of our solar neighborhood. In the past decade we have witnessed great examples of international partnerships that made various missions the success they are known for today. The Planetary Science Division at NASA continues to seek cooperation with our strong international partners in support of planetary missions.

  4. NASA COAST and OCEANIA Airborne Missions Support Ecosystem and Water Quality Research in the Coastal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guild, Liane; Kudela, Raphael; Hooker, Stanford; Morrow, John; Russell, Philip; Palacios, Sherry; Livingston, John M.; Negrey, Kendra; Torres-Perez, Juan; Broughton, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    NASA has a continuing requirement to collect high-quality in situ data for the vicarious calibration of current and next generation ocean color satellite sensors and to validate the algorithms that use the remotely sensed observations. Recent NASA airborne missions over Monterey Bay, CA, have demonstrated novel above- and in-water measurement capabilities supporting a combined airborne sensor approach (imaging spectrometer, microradiometers, and a sun photometer). The results characterize coastal atmospheric and aquatic properties through an end-to-end assessment of image acquisition, atmospheric correction, algorithm application, plus sea-truth observations from state-of-the-art instrument systems. The primary goal is to demonstrate the following in support of calibration and validation exercises for satellite coastal ocean color products: 1) the utility of a multi-sensor airborne instrument suite to assess the bio-optical properties of coastal California, including water quality; and 2) the importance of contemporaneous atmospheric measurements to improve atmospheric correction in the coastal zone. The imaging spectrometer (Headwall) is optimized in the blue spectral domain to emphasize remote sensing of marine and freshwater ecosystems. The novel airborne instrument, Coastal Airborne In-situ Radiometers (C-AIR) provides measurements of apparent optical properties with high dynamic range and fidelity for deriving exact water leaving radiances at the land-ocean boundary, including radiometrically shallow aquatic ecosystems. Simultaneous measurements supporting empirical atmospheric correction of image data are accomplished using the Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14). Flight operations are presented for the instrument payloads using the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter flown over Monterey Bay during the seasonal fall algal bloom in 2011 (COAST) and 2013 (OCEANIA) to support bio-optical measurements of

  5. European union mission for the rule of law in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Bejtush Gashi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we have studied the international circumstances that have affected the deployment of the EULEX Mission in Kosovo. The EULEX mission is the European Union Mission for the Rule of Law in Kosovo. Its main goal is to advise, assist and support the Kosovo authorities in issues of the rule of law, especially in the field of police, judiciary and customs performance. Also this mission has the responsibility to develop and further strengthen the independent multi-ethnic justice system in Kosovo, by ensuring that the rule of law institutions are not politically influenced and that they meet the known international standards and best European practices. This mission was foreseen to be deployed to Kosovo, based on the Ahtissari Comprehensive Status Proposal for Kosovo, but due to its non-approval by the UN Security Council, its full implementation was delayed until December 2008. EULEX acts within the framework of Resolution 1244 of the UN Security Council and under a single chain of command in Brussels. EULEX officials have supported Kosovo Police, the Judiciary system and Kosovo Customs, through MMA actions for achieving objectives and goals that are foreseen by the program strategy of EULEX. But in terms of efficiency, EULEX has only achieved modest results. In the northern part of Kosovo, EULEX has failed, as a result of its ambivalent mandate and incoherence of EU Foreign and Security Policy.

  6. [The mission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Moreno, J; Blanch Mon, A

    2000-01-01

    After having made a historical review of the concept of mission statement, of evaluating its importance (See Part I), of describing the bases to create a mission statement from a strategic perspective and of analyzing the advantages of this concept, probably more important as a business policy (See Parts I and II), the authors proceed to analyze the mission statement in health organizations. Due to the fact that a mission statement is lacking in the majority of health organizations, the strategy of health organizations are not exactly favored; as a consequence, neither are its competitive advantage nor the development of its essential competencies. After presenting a series of mission statements corresponding to Anglo-Saxon health organizations, the authors highlight two mission statements corresponding to our social context. The article finishes by suggesting an adequate sequence for developing a mission statement in those health organizations having a strategic sense.

  7. Habitability during long-duration space missions - Key issues associated with a mission to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuster, Jack

    1989-01-01

    Isolation and confinement conditions similar to those of a long-duration mission to Mars are examined, focusing on 14 behavioral issues with design implications. Consideration is given to sleep, clothing, exercise, medical support, personal hygiene, food preparation, group interaction, habitat aesthetics, outside communications, recreational opportunities, privacy, waste disposal, onboard training, and the microgravity environment. The results are used to develop operational requirements and habitability design guidelines for interplanetary spacecraft.

  8. Middleware Evaluation and Benchmarking for Use in Mission Operations Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, Rob; Waktola, Waka

    2005-01-01

    Middleware technologies have been promoted as timesaving, cost-cutting alternatives to the point-to-point communication used in traditional mission operations systems. However, missions have been slow to adopt the new technology. The lack of existing middleware-based missions has given rise to uncertainty about middleware's ability to perform in an operational setting. Most mission architects are also unfamiliar with the technology and do not know the benefits and detriments to architectural choices - or even what choices are available. We will present the findings of a study that evaluated several middleware options specifically for use in a mission operations system. We will address some common misconceptions regarding the applicability of middleware-based architectures, and we will identify the design decisions and tradeoffs that must be made when choosing a middleware solution. The Middleware Comparison and Benchmark Study was conducted at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center to comprehensively evaluate candidate middleware products, compare and contrast the performance of middleware solutions with the traditional point- to-point socket approach, and assess data delivery and reliability strategies. The study focused on requirements of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission, validating the potential use of middleware in the GPM mission ground system. The study was jointly funded by GPM and the Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC), a virtual organization for providing mission enabling solutions and promoting the use of appropriate new technologies for mission support. The study was broken into two phases. To perform the generic middleware benchmarking and performance analysis, a network was created with data producers and consumers passing data between themselves. The benchmark monitored the delay, throughput, and reliability of the data as the characteristics were changed. Measurements were taken under a variety of topologies, data demands

  9. Human Mars Surface Mission Nuclear Power Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle A.

    2018-01-01

    A key decision facing Mars mission designers is how to power a crewed surface field station. Unlike the solar-powered Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) that could retreat to a very low power state during a Martian dust storm, human Mars surface missions are estimated to need at least 15 kilowatts of electrical (kWe) power simply to maintain critical life support and spacecraft functions. 'Hotel' loads alone for a pressurized crew rover approach two kWe; driving requires another five kWe-well beyond what the Curiosity rover’s Radioisotope Power System (RPS) was designed to deliver. Full operation of a four-crew Mars field station is estimated at about 40 kWe. Clearly, a crewed Mars field station will require a substantial and reliable power source, beyond the scale of robotic mission experience. This paper explores the applications for both fission and RPS nuclear options for Mars.

  10. STS-61 mission director's post-mission report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Ronald L.

    1995-01-01

    To ensure the success of the complex Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission, STS-61, NASA established a number of independent review groups to assess management, design, planning, and preparation for the mission. One of the resulting recommendations for mission success was that an overall Mission Director be appointed to coordinate management activities of the Space Shuttle and Hubble programs and to consolidate results of the team reviews and expedite responses to recommendations. This report presents pre-mission events important to the experience base of mission management, with related Mission Director's recommendations following the event(s) to which they apply. All Mission Director's recommendations are presented collectively in an appendix. Other appendixes contain recommendations from the various review groups, including Payload Officers, the JSC Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Section, JSC EVA Management Office, JSC Crew and Thermal Systems Division, and the STS-61 crew itself. This report also lists mission events in chronological order and includes as an appendix a post-mission summary by the lead Payload Deployment and Retrieval System Officer. Recommendations range from those pertaining to specific component use or operating techniques to those for improved management, review, planning, and safety procedures.

  11. The missions and means framework as an ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitz, Paul H.; Bray, Britt E.; Michaelis, James R.

    2016-05-01

    The analysis of warfare frequently suffers from an absence of logical structure for a] specifying explicitly the military mission and b] quantitatively evaluating the mission utility of alternative products and services. In 2003, the Missions and Means Framework (MMF) was developed to redress these shortcomings. The MMF supports multiple combatants, levels of war and, in fact, is a formal embodiment of the Military Decision-Making Process (MDMP). A major effect of incomplete analytic discipline in military systems analyses is that they frequently fall into the category of ill-posed problems in which they are under-specified, under-determined, or under-constrained. Critical context is often missing. This is frequently the result of incomplete materiel requirements analyses which have unclear linkages to higher levels of warfare, system-of-systems linkages, tactics, techniques and procedures, and the effect of opposition forces. In many instances the capabilities of materiel are assumed to be immutable. This is a result of not assessing how platform components morph over time due to damage, logistics, or repair. Though ill-posed issues can be found many places in military analysis, probably the greatest challenge comes in the disciplines of C4ISR supported by ontologies in which formal naming and definition of the types, properties, and interrelationships of the entities are fundamental to characterizing mission success. Though the MMF was not conceived as an ontology, over the past decade some workers, particularly in the field of communication, have labelled the MMF as such. This connection will be described and discussed.

  12. Space Transportation Infrastructure Supported By Propellant Depots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, David; Woodcock, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    A space transportation infrastructure is described that utilizes propellant depot servicing platforms to support all foreseeable missions in the Earth-Moon vicinity and deep space out to Mars. The infrastructure utilizes current expendable launch vehicle (ELV) systems such as the Delta IV Heavy, Atlas V, and Falcon 9, for all crew, cargo, and propellant launches to orbit. Propellant launches are made to Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) Depot and an Earth-Moon Lagrange Point 1 (L1) Depot to support a new reusable in-space transportation vehicles. The LEO Depot supports missions to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) for satellite servicing and to L1 for L1 Depot missions. The L1 Depot supports Lunar, Earth-Sun L2 (ESL2), Asteroid and Mars Missions. New vehicle design concepts are presented that can be launched on current 5 meter diameter ELV systems. These new reusable vehicle concepts include a Crew Transfer Vehicle (CTV) for crew transportation between the LEO Depot, L1 Depot and missions beyond L1; a new reusable lunar lander for crew transportation between the L1 Depot and the lunar surface; and Mars orbital Depot are based on International Space Station (ISS) heritage hardware. Data provided includes the number of launches required for each mission utilizing current ELV systems (Delta IV Heavy or equivalent) and the approximate vehicle masses and propellant requirements. Also included is a discussion on affordability with ideas on technologies that could reduce the number of launches required and thoughts on how this infrastructure include competitive bidding for ELV flights and propellant services, developments of new reusable in-space vehicles and development of a multiuse infrastructure that can support many government and commercial missions simultaneously.

  13. Sectoral programming mission isotope techniques for geothermal development. Philippines. UNDP sectoral support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, K.; Sun, Y.

    1995-10-01

    This report discusses the accomplishments of IAEA Technical Cooperation project PHI/8/016 ''Isotope Techniques in Geothermal Hydrology''. It is intended to help Philippine National Oil Company's Energy Development Corporation (PNOC-EDC) in use of isotope techniques for geothermal development. This report discusses outcomes of the mission, conclusions and recommendations on applications of isotopes techniques in geothermal agro-industrial plants and geothermal hydrology

  14. Medical support and technology for long-duration space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, S.; Nicogossian, A.; Buchanan, P.; Pool, S. L.

    1982-01-01

    The current philosophy and development directions being taken towards realization of medical systems for use on board space stations are discussed. Data was gained on the performance of physical examinations, venipuncture and blood flow, blood smear and staining, white blood cell differential count, throat culture swab and colony count, and microscopy techniques during a 28-day period of the Skylab mission. It is expected that the advent of Shuttle flights will rapidly increase the number of persons in space, create a demand for in-space rather than on-earth medical procedures, and necessitate treatments for disorders without the provision for an early return to earth. Attention is being given to pressurized environment and extravehicular conditions of treatment, the possibilities of the use of the OTV for moving injured or ill crewmembers to other space stations, and to isolation of persons with communicable diseases from station crews.

  15. Mission operations management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Redefining the approach and philosophy that operations management uses to define, develop, and implement space missions will be a central element in achieving high efficiency mission operations for the future. The goal of a cost effective space operations program cannot be realized if the attitudes and methodologies we currently employ to plan, develop, and manage space missions do not change. A management philosophy that is in synch with the environment in terms of budget, technology, and science objectives must be developed. Changing our basic perception of mission operations will require a shift in the way we view the mission. This requires a transition from current practices of viewing the mission as a unique end product, to a 'mission development concept' built on the visualization of the end-to-end mission. To achieve this change we must define realistic mission success criteria and develop pragmatic approaches to achieve our goals. Custom mission development for all but the largest and most unique programs is not practical in the current budget environment, and we simply do not have the resources to implement all of our planned science programs. We need to shift our management focus to allow us the opportunity make use of methodologies and approaches which are based on common building blocks that can be utilized in the space, ground, and mission unique segments of all missions.

  16. CAMEX-3 MISSION REPORTS V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Convection And Moisture EXperiment (CAMEX)-3 Mission Reports were filed every day that an aircraft flew in support of the experiment. The reports include a short...

  17. Adding a Mission to the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Common Ground System (CGS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. W.; Grant, K. D.; Jamilkowski, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence, Information and Services (IIS), the CGS is a multi-mission enterprise system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners. The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of missions: 1) Command and control and mission management for the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) mission today, expanding this support to the JPSS-1 satellite and the Polar Free Flyer mission in 2017 2) Data acquisition via a Polar Receptor Network (PRN) for S-NPP, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W1), POES, and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and Coriolis/WindSat for the Department of Defense (DoD) 3) Data routing over a global fiber Wide Area Network (WAN) for S-NPP, JPSS-1, Polar Free Flyer, GCOM-W1, POES, DMSP, Coriolis/WindSat, the NASA Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN, which includes several Earth Observing System [EOS] missions), MetOp for the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), and the National Science Foundation (NSF) 4) Environmental data processing and distribution for S-NPP, GCOM-W1 and JPSS-1 With this established infrastructure and existing suite of missions, the CGS

  18. Red Dragon drill missions to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Stoker, Carol R.; Gonzales, Andrew; McKay, Christopher P.; Davila, Alfonso; Glass, Brian J.; Lemke, Larry L.; Paulsen, Gale; Willson, David; Zacny, Kris

    2017-12-01

    We present the concept of using a variant of a Space Exploration Technologies Corporation (SpaceX) Dragon space capsule as a low-cost, large-capacity, near-term, Mars lander (dubbed ;Red Dragon;) for scientific and human precursor missions. SpaceX initially designed the Dragon capsule for flight near Earth, and Dragon has successfully flown many times to low-Earth orbit (LEO) and successfully returned the Dragon spacecraft to Earth. Here we present capsule hardware modifications that are required to enable flight to Mars and operations on the martian surface. We discuss the use of the Dragon system to support NASA Discovery class missions to Mars and focus in particular on Dragon's applications for drilling missions. We find that a Red Dragon platform is well suited for missions capable of drilling deeper on Mars (at least 2 m) than has been accomplished to date due to its ability to land in a powered controlled mode, accommodate a long drill string, and provide payload space for sample processing and analysis. We show that a Red Dragon drill lander could conduct surface missions at three possible targets including the ice-cemented ground at the Phoenix landing site (68 °N), the subsurface ice discovered near the Viking 2 (49 °N) site by fresh impact craters, and the dark sedimentary subsurface material at the Curiosity site (4.5 °S).

  19. How Technology and Data Affect Mission Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-17

    relevant. For example , a concept of support developed using the Op- erational Logistics Planner is not a complete list of detailed decisions by phase, but...a standard issue green notebook and a good me- chanical pencil. Technology and the analysis and mobilization of data can enable or disrupt mission

  20. A look towards the future in the handling of space science mission geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, Charles; Bachman, Nathaniel; Semenov, Boris; Wright, Edward

    2018-01-01

    The "SPICE" system has been widely used since the days of the Magellan mission to Venus as the method for scientists and engineers to access a variety of space mission geometry such as positions, velocities, directions, orientations, sizes and shapes, and field-of-view projections (Acton, 1996). While originally focused on supporting NASA's planetary missions, the use of SPICE has slowly grown to include most worldwide planetary missions, and it has also been finding application in heliophysics and other space science disciplines. This paper peeks under the covers to see what new capabilities are being developed or planned at SPICE headquarters to better support the future of space science. The SPICE system is implemented and maintained by NASA's Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility (NAIF) located at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California (http://naif.jpl.nasa.gov).

  1. Analysis of Foreign Area Officer (FAO) Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    East jArabic (MS) Attache Atache NORTHCOM C~anada, Ottawa Ontario ALUSNA 10-6 jAn jFrech Afttche A.ttache N0RTHCOM IMaesc ALUSNA 0-8 S Amyerica...GOG jArabic [Pal-miI/sales Total billets: 15 58 UNCLASSIFIED The Naval Component Commands identified these unconstrained FAQ billets. 58 UNCLASSIFIED

  2. Orion's Powered Flight Guidance Burn Options for Near Term Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fill, Thomas; Goodman, John; Robinson, Shane

    2018-01-01

    NASA's Orion exploration spacecraft will fly more demanding mission profiles than previous NASA human flight spacecraft. Missions currently under development are destined for cislunar space. The EM-1 mission will fly unmanned to a Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO) around the Moon. EM-2 will fly astronauts on a mission to the lunar vicinity. To fly these missions, Orion requires powered flight guidance that is more sophisticated than the orbital guidance flown on Apollo and the Space Shuttle. Orion's powered flight guidance software contains five burn guidance options. These five options are integrated into an architecture based on a proven shuttle heritage design, with a simple closed-loop guidance strategy. The architecture provides modularity, simplicity, versatility, and adaptability to future, yet-to-be-defined, exploration mission profiles. This paper provides a summary of the executive guidance architecture and details the five burn options to support both the nominal and abort profiles for the EM-1 and EM-2 missions.

  3. Results from Navigator GPS Flight Testing for the Magnetospheric MultiScale Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulich, Tyler D.; Bamford, William A.; Wintermitz, Luke M. B.; Price, Samuel R.

    2012-01-01

    The recent delivery of the first Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Navigator Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers to the Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission spacecraft is a high water mark crowning a decade of research and development in high-altitude space-based GPS. Preceding MMS delivery, the engineering team had developed receivers to support multiple missions and mission studies, such as Low Earth Orbit (LEO) navigation for the Global Precipitation Mission (GPM), above the constellation navigation for the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) proof-of-concept studies, cis-Lunar navigation with rapid re-acquisition during re-entry for the Orion Project and an orbital demonstration on the Space Shuttle during the Hubble Servicing Mission (HSM-4).

  4. Multi-mission space science data processing systems - Past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, William H.

    1990-01-01

    Packetized telemetry that is consistent with the international Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) has been baselined for future NASA missions such as Space Station Freedom. Some experiences from past and present multimission systems are examined, including current experiences in implementing a CCSDS standard packetized data processing system, relative to the effectiveness of the multimission approach in lowering life cycle cost and the complexity of meeting new mission needs. It is shown that the continued effort toward standardization of telemetry and processing support will permit the development of multimission systems needed to meet the increased requirements of future NASA missions.

  5. Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission: Robotic Boulder Capture Option Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Belbin, Scott P.; Reeves, David M.; Earle, Kevin D.; Naasz, Bo J.; Abell, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently studying an option for the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM) that would capture a multi-ton boulder (typically 2-4 meters in size) from the surface of a large (is approximately 100+ meter) Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) and return it to cislunar space for subsequent human and robotic exploration. This alternative mission approach, designated the Robotic Boulder Capture Option (Option B), has been investigated to determine the mission feasibility and identify potential differences from the initial ARRM concept of capturing an entire small NEA (4-10 meters in size), which has been designated the Small Asteroid Capture Option (Option A). Compared to the initial ARRM concept, Option B allows for centimeter-level characterization over an entire large NEA, the certainty of target NEA composition type, the ability to select the boulder that is captured, numerous opportunities for mission enhancements to support science objectives, additional experience operating at a low-gravity planetary body including extended surface contact, and the ability to demonstrate future planetary defense strategies on a hazardous-size NEA. Option B can leverage precursor missions and existing Agency capabilities to help ensure mission success by targeting wellcharacterized asteroids and can accommodate uncertain programmatic schedules by tailoring the return mass.

  6. The Spartan 1 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruddace, Raymond G.; Fritz, G. G.; Shrewsberry, D. J.; Brandenstein, D. J.; Creighton, D. C.; Gutschewski, G.; Lucid, S. W.; Nagel, J. M.; Fabian, J. M.; Zimmerman, D.

    1989-01-01

    The first Spartan mission is documented. The Spartan program, an outgrowth of a joint Naval Research Laboratory (NRL)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) development effort, was instituted by NASA for launching autonomous, recoverable payloads from the space shuttle. These payloads have a precise pointing system and are intended to support a wide range of space-science observations and experiments. The first Spartan, carrying an NRL X-ray astronomy instrument, was launched by the orbiter Discovery (STS51G) on June 20, 1985 and recovered successfully 45 h later, on June 22. During this period, Spartan 1 conducted a preprogrammed series of observations of two X-ray sources: the Perseus cluster of galaxies and the center of our galaxy. The mission was successful from both on engineering and a scientific viewpoint. Only one problem was encountered, the attitude control system (ACS) shut down earlier than planned because of high attitude control system gas consumption. A preplanned emergency mode then placed Spartan 1 into a stable, safe condition and allowed a safe recovery. The events are described of the mission and presents X-ray maps of the two observed sources, which were produced from the flight data.

  7. NASA COAST and OCEANIA Airborne Missions in Support of Ecosystem and Water Quality Research in the Coastal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guild, Liane S.; Hooker, Stanford B.; Kudela, Raphael; Morrow, John; Russell, Philip; Myers, Jeffrey; Dunagan, Stephen; Palacios, Sherry; Livingston, John; Negrey, Kendra; hide

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, coastal marine ecosystems are exposed to land-based sources of pollution and sedimentation from anthropogenic activities including agriculture and coastal development. Ocean color products from satellite sensors provide information on chlorophyll (phytoplankton pigment), sediments, and colored dissolved organic material. Further, ship-based in-water measurements and emerging airborne measurements provide in situ data for the vicarious calibration of current and next generation satellite ocean color sensors and to validate the algorithms that use the remotely sensed observations. Recent NASA airborne missions over Monterey Bay, CA, have demonstrated novel above- and in-water measurement capabilities supporting a combined airborne sensor approach (imaging spectrometer, microradiometers, and a sun photometer). The results characterize coastal atmospheric and aquatic properties through an end-to-end assessment of image acquisition, atmospheric correction, algorithm application, plus sea-truth observations from state-of-the-art instrument systems. The primary goal of the airborne missions was to demonstrate the following in support of calibration and validation exercises for satellite coastal ocean color products: 1) the utility of a multi-sensor airborne instrument suite to assess the bio-optical properties of coastal California, including water quality; and 2) the importance of contemporaneous atmospheric measurements to improve atmospheric correction in the coastal zone. Utilizing an imaging spectrometer optimized in the blue to green spectral domain enables higher signal for detection of the relatively dark radiance measurements from marine and freshwater ecosystem features. The novel airborne instrument, Coastal Airborne In-situ Radiometers (C-AIR) provides measurements of apparent optical properties with high dynamic range and fidelity for deriving exact water leaving radiances at the land-ocean boundary, including radiometrically shallow aquatic

  8. A urine-fuelled soil-based bioregenerative life support system for long-term and long-distance manned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Federico; Tang, Fiona H. M.; Pallud, Céline; Gu, Chuanhui

    2018-05-01

    A soil-based cropping unit fuelled with human urine for long-term manned space missions was investigated with the aim to analyze whether a closed-loop nutrient cycle from human liquid wastes was achievable. Its ecohydrology and biogeochemistry were analysed in microgravity with the use of an advanced computational tool. Urine from the crew was used to supply primary (N, P, and K) and secondary (S, Ca and Mg) nutrients to wheat and soybean plants in the controlled cropping unit. Breakdown of urine compounds into primary and secondary nutrients as well as byproduct gases, adsorbed, and uptake fractions were tracked over a period of 20 years. Results suggested that human urine could satisfy the demand of at least 3 to 4 out of 6 nutrients with an offset in pH and salinity tolerable by plants. It was therefore inferred that a urine-fuelled life support system can introduce a number of advantages including: (1) recycling of liquids wastes and production of food; (2) forgiveness of neglect as compared to engineered electro-mechanical systems that may fail under unexpected or unplanned conditions; and (3) reduction of supply and waste loads during space missions.

  9. Planning for Crew Exercise for Deep Space Mission Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, E. Cherice; Ryder, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Exercise which is necessary for maintaining crew health on-orbit and preparing the crew for return to 1G can be challenging to incorporate into spaceflight vehicles. Deep space missions will require further understanding of the physiological response to microgravity, understanding appropriate mitigations, and designing the exercise systems to effectively provide mitigations, and integrating effectively into vehicle design with a focus to support planned mission scenarios. Recognizing and addressing the constraints and challenges can facilitate improved vehicle design and exercise system incorporation.

  10. NASA's Space Launch System: A Heavy-Lift Platform for Entirely New Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) will contribute a new capability for human space flight and scientific missions beyond low-Earth orbit. The SLS Program, managed at NASA s Marshall Space Fight Center, will develop the heavy-lift vehicle that will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions. Orion will carry crews to space, provide emergency abort capability, sustain the crew during space travel, and provide safe reentry from deep-space return velocities. Supporting Orion s first autonomous flight to lunar orbit and back in 2017 and its first crewed flight in 2021, the SLS ultimately offers a flexible platform for both human and scientific exploration. The SLS plan leverages legacy infrastructure and hardware in NASA s inventory, as well as continues with advanced propulsion technologies now in development, to deliver an initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability in 2017, evolving to a 130-t capability after 2021, using a block upgrade approach. This paper will give an overview of the SLS design and management approach against a backdrop of the missions it will support. It will detail the plan to deliver the initial SLS capability to the launch pad in the near term, as well as summarize the innovative approaches the SLS team is applying to deliver a safe, affordable, and sustainable long-range capability for entirely new missions opening a new realm of knowledge and a world of possibilities for multiple partners. Design reference missions that the SLS is being planned to support include asteroids, Lagrange Points, and Mars, among others. The Agency is developing its mission manifest in parallel with the development of a heavy-lift flagship that will dramatically increase total lift and volume capacity beyond current launch vehicle options, reduce trip times, and provide a robust platform for conducting new missions destined to rewrite textbooks with the

  11. The 1997 remote sensing mission to Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmaus, K.; Robert, B.; Berezin, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    In June and July of 1997, the US Department of Energy, in cooperation with the Republic of Kazakhstan Ministry of Science - Academy of Science conducted a remote sensing mission to Kazakhstan. The mission was conducted as a technology demonstration under a Memorandum of Understanding between the United States Department of Energy and the Republic of Kazakhstan's Ministry of science - Academy of Science. The mission was performed using a US Navy P-3 Orion aircraft and imaging capabilities developed by the Department of Energy's Office of Non-proliferation and National Security. The imaging capabilities consisted of two imaging pods - a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) pod and a multi sensor imaging pod (MSI). Seven experiments were conducted to demonstrate how remote sensing can be used to support city planning, land cover mapping, mineral exploration, and non-proliferation monitoring. Results of the mission will be presented

  12. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission key enabling assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    An overall systems approach has been applied to develop action plans to support the retrieval and immobilization waste disposal mission. The review concluded that the systems and infrastructure required to support the mission are known. Required systems are either in place or plans have been developed to ensure they exist when needed. The review showed that since October 1996 a robust system engineering approach to establishing integrated Technical Baselines, work breakdown structures, tank farm structure and configurations and work scope and costs has been established itself as part of the culture within TWRS. An analysis of the programmatic, management and technical activities necessary to declare readiness to proceed with execution of the mission demonstrates that the system, people and hardware will be on line and ready to support the private contractors. The systems approach included defining the retrieval and immobilized waste disposal mission requirements and evaluating the readiness of the TWRS contractor to supply waste feed to the private contractors in June 2OO2. The Phase 1 feed delivery requirements from the Private Contractor Request for Proposals were reviewed. Transfer piping routes were mapped out, existing systems were evaluated, and upgrade requirements were defined. Technical Basis Reviews were completed to define work scope in greater detail, cost estimates and associated year by year financial analyses were completed. TWRS personnel training, qualifications, management systems and procedures were reviewed and shown to be in place and ready to support the Phase 1B mission. Key assumptions and risks that could negatively impact mission success were evaluated and appropriate mitigative actions plans were planned and scheduled

  13. Model implementation for dynamic computation of system cost for advanced life support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levri, J. A.; Vaccari, D. A.

    2004-01-01

    Life support system designs for long-duration space missions have a multitude of requirements drivers, such as mission objectives, political considerations, cost, crew wellness, inherent mission attributes, as well as many other influences. Evaluation of requirements satisfaction can be difficult, particularly at an early stage of mission design. Because launch cost is a critical factor and relatively easy to quantify, it is a point of focus in early mission design. The method used to determine launch cost influences the accuracy of the estimate. This paper discusses the appropriateness of dynamic mission simulation in estimating the launch cost of a life support system. This paper also provides an abbreviated example of a dynamic simulation life support model and possible ways in which such a model might be utilized for design improvement. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Advanced Modular Power Approach to Affordable, Supportable Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Kimnach, Greg L.; Fincannon, James; Mckissock,, Barbara I.; Loyselle, Patricia L.; Wong, Edmond

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of missions to the Moon, Mars and Near Earth Asteroids (NEA) indicate that these missions often involve several distinct separately launched vehicles that must ultimately be integrated together in-flight and operate as one unit. Therefore, it is important to see these vehicles as elements of a larger segmented spacecraft rather than separate spacecraft flying in formation. The evolution of large multi-vehicle exploration architecture creates the need (and opportunity) to establish a global power architecture that is common across all vehicles. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Modular Power System (AMPS) project managed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is aimed at establishing the modular power system architecture that will enable power systems to be built from a common set of modular building blocks. The project is developing, demonstrating and evaluating key modular power technologies that are expected to minimize non-recurring development costs, reduce recurring integration costs, as well as, mission operational and support costs. Further, modular power is expected to enhance mission flexibility, vehicle reliability, scalability and overall mission supportability. The AMPS project not only supports multi-vehicle architectures but should enable multi-mission capability as well. The AMPS technology development involves near term demonstrations involving developmental prototype vehicles and field demonstrations. These operational demonstrations not only serve as a means of evaluating modular technology but also provide feedback to developers that assure that they progress toward truly flexible and operationally supportable modular power architecture.

  15. Evolution of Orion Mission Design for Exploration Mission 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutkowski, Jeffrey P.; Dawn, Timothy F.; Jedrey, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    The evolving mission design and concepts of NASA’s next steps have shaped Orion into the spacecraft that it is today. Since the initial inception of Orion, through the Constellation Program, and now in the Exploration Mission frame-work with the Space Launch System (SLS), each mission design concept and pro-gram goal have left Orion with a set of capabilities that can be utilized in many different mission types. Exploration Missions 1 and 2 (EM-1 and EM-2) have now been at the forefront of the mission design focus for the last several years. During that time, different Design Reference Missions (DRMs) were built, analyzed, and modified to solve or mitigate enterprise level design trades to ensure a viable mission from launch to landing. The resulting DRMs for EM-1 and EM-2 were then expanded into multi-year trajectory scans to characterize vehicle performance as affected by variations in Earth-Moon geometry. This provides Orion’s subsystems with stressing reference trajectories to help design their system. Now that Orion has progressed through the Preliminary and Critical Design Reviews (PDR and CDR), there is a general shift in the focus of mission design from aiding the vehicle design to providing mission specific products needed for pre-flight and real time operations. Some of the mission specific products needed include, large quantities of nominal trajectories for multiple monthly launch periods and abort options at any point in the mission for each valid trajectory in the launch window.

  16. Human and Robotic Mission to Small Bodies: Mapping, Planning and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neffian, Ara V.; Bellerose, Julie; Beyer, Ross A.; Archinal, Brent; Edwards, Laurence; Lee, Pascal; Colaprete, Anthony; Fong, Terry

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the requirements, performs a gap analysis and makes a set of recommendations for mapping products and exploration tools required to support operations and scientific discovery for near- term and future NASA missions to small bodies. The mapping products and their requirements are based on the analysis of current mission scenarios (rendezvous, docking, and sample return) and recommendations made by the NEA Users Team (NUT) in the framework of human exploration. The mapping products that sat- isfy operational, scienti c, and public outreach goals include topography, images, albedo, gravity, mass, density, subsurface radar, mineralogical and thermal maps. The gap analysis points to a need for incremental generation of mapping products from low (flyby) to high-resolution data needed for anchoring and docking, real-time spatial data processing for hazard avoidance and astronaut or robot localization in low gravity, high dynamic environments, and motivates a standard for coordinate reference systems capable of describing irregular body shapes. Another aspect investigated in this study is the set of requirements and the gap analysis for exploration tools that support visualization and simulation of operational conditions including soil interactions, environment dynamics, and communications coverage. Building robust, usable data sets and visualisation/simulation tools is the best way for mission designers and simulators to make correct decisions for future missions. In the near term, it is the most useful way to begin building capabilities for small body exploration without needing to commit to specific mission architectures.

  17. Human Factor Investigation of Waste Processing System During the HI-SEAS 4-month Mars Analog Mission in Support of NASA's Logistic Reduction and Repurposing Project: Trash to Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraccio, Anne; Hintze, Paul E.; Miles, John D.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project is a collaborative effort in which NASA is tasked with reducing total logistical mass through reduction, reuse and recycling of various wastes and components of long duration space missions and habitats. Trash to Gas (TtG) is a sub task to LRR with efforts focused on development of a technology that converts wastes generated during long duration space missions into high-value products such as methane, water for life support, raw material production feedstocks, and other energy sources. The reuse of discarded materials is a critical component to reducing overall mission mass. The 120 day Hawaii Space Exploration and Analog Simulation provides a unique opportunity to answer questions regarding crew interface and system analysis for designing and developing future flight-like versions of a TtG system. This paper will discuss the human factors that would affect the design of a TtG or other waste processing systems. An overview of the habitat, utility usage, and waste storage and generation is given. Crew time spent preparing trash for TtG processing was recorded. Gas concentrations were measured near the waste storage locations and at other locations in the habitat. In parallel with the analog mission, experimental processing of waste materials in a TtG reactor was performed in order to evaluate performance with realistic waste materials.

  18. Human Factor Investigation of Waste Processing System During the HI-SEAS 4 Month Mars Analog Mission in Support of NASA's Logistic Reduction and Repurposing Project: Trash to Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraccio, Anne; Hintze, Paul; Miles, John D.

    2014-01-01

    NASAs Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project is a collaborative effort in which NASA is tasked with reducing total logistical mass through reduction, reuse and recycling of various wastes and components of long duration space missions and habitats. Trash to Gas (TtG) is a sub task to LRR with efforts focused on development of a technology that converts wastes generated during long duration space missions into high-value products such as methane, water for life support, raw material production feedstocks, and other energy sources. The reuse of discarded materials is a critical component to reducing overall mission mass. The 120 day Hawaii Space Exploration and Analog Simulation provides a unique opportunity to answer questions regarding crew interface and system analysis for designing and developing future flight-like versions of a TtG system. This paper will discuss the human factors that would affect the design of a TtG or other waste processing systems. An overview of the habitat, utility usage, and waste storage and generation is given. Crew time spent preparing trash for TtG processing was recorded. Gas concentrations were measured near the waste storage locations and at other locations in the habitat. In parallel with the analog mission, experimental processing of waste materials in a TtG reactor was performed in order to evaluate performance with realistic waste materials.

  19. SMART-1 technology, scientific results and heritage for future space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, B. H.; Racca, G.; Marini, A.; Koschny, D.; Frew, D.; Grieger, B.; Camino-Ramos, O.; Josset, J. L.; Grande, M.; Smart-1 Science; Technology Working Team

    2018-02-01

    ESA's SMART-1 mission to the Moon achieved record firsts such as: 1) first Small Mission for Advanced Research and Technology; with spacecraft built and integrated in 2.5 years and launched 3.5 years after mission approval; 2) first mission leaving the Earth orbit using solar power alone; 3) most fuel effective mission (60 L of Xenon) and longest travel (13 months) to the Moon!; 4) first ESA mission reaching the Moon and first European views of lunar poles; 5) first European demonstration of a wide range of new technologies: Li-Ion modular battery, deep-space communications in X- and Ka-bands, and autonomous positioning for navigation; 6) first lunar demonstration of an infrared spectrometer and of a Swept Charge Detector Lunar X-ray fluorescence spectrometer; 7) first ESA mission with opportunity for lunar science, elemental geochemistry, surface mineralogy mapping, surface geology and precursor studies for exploration; 8) first controlled impact landing on the Moon with real time observations campaign; 9) first mission supporting goals of the International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG) in technical and scientific exchange, international collaboration, public and youth engagement; 10) first mission preparing the ground for ESA collaboration in Chandrayaan-1, Chang' E1 and future international lunar exploration. We review SMART-1 highlights and new results that are relevant to the preparation for future lunar exploration. The technology and methods had impact on space research and applications. Recent SMART-1 results are relevant to topics on: 1) the study of properties of the lunar dust, 2) impact craters and ejecta, 3) the study of illumination, 4) radio observations and science from the Moon, 5) support to future missions, 6) identifying and characterising sites for exploration and exploitation. On these respective topics, we discuss recent SMART-1 results and challenges. We also discuss the use of SMART-1 publications library. The SMART-1 archive

  20. Warfighter Associate: Decision Aiding and Metrics for Mission Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    Distributions: highlights the Pareto Principle -- the top 20% of the mission-command staff is heavily involved in collaborations. • Our...developing “Command Web”, a web service to support thin- client functionality (Intelligent Presentation Services enables this) Thank you

  1. Definition of technology development missions for early space stations orbit transfer vehicle serving. Phase 2, task 1: Space station support of operational OTV servicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Representative space based orbital transfer vehicles (OTV), ground based vehicle turnaround assessment, functional operational requirements and facilities, mission turnaround operations, a comparison of ground based versus space based tasks, activation of servicing facilities prior to IOC, fleet operations requirements, maintenance facilities, OTV servicing facilities, space station support requirements, and packaging for delivery are discussed.

  2. [Myanmar mission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfandari, B; Persichetti, P; Pelissier, P; Martin, D; Baudet, J

    2004-06-01

    The authors report the accomplishment of humanitarian missions in plastic surgery performed by a small team in town practice in Yangon, about their 3 years experience in Myanmar with 300 consultations and 120 surgery cases. They underline the interest of this type of mission and provide us their reflexion about team training, the type of relation with the country where the mission is conducted and the type of right team.

  3. Exploring Cognition Using Software Defined Radios for NASA Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Dale J.; Reinhart, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    NASA missions typically operate using a communication infrastructure that requires significant schedule planning with limited flexibility when the needs of the mission change. Parameters such as modulation, coding scheme, frequency, and data rate are fixed for the life of the mission. This is due to antiquated hardware and software for both the space and ground assets and a very complex set of mission profiles. Automated techniques in place by commercial telecommunication companies are being explored by NASA to determine their usability by NASA to reduce cost and increase science return. Adding cognition the ability to learn from past decisions and adjust behavior is also being investigated. Software Defined Radios are an ideal way to implement cognitive concepts. Cognition can be considered in many different aspects of the communication system. Radio functions, such as frequency, modulation, data rate, coding and filters can be adjusted based on measurements of signal degradation. Data delivery mechanisms and route changes based on past successes and failures can be made to more efficiently deliver the data to the end user. Automated antenna pointing can be added to improve gain, coverage, or adjust the target. Scheduling improvements and automation to reduce the dependence on humans provide more flexible capabilities. The Cognitive Communications project, funded by the Space Communication and Navigation Program, is exploring these concepts and using the SCaN Testbed on board the International Space Station to implement them as they evolve. The SCaN Testbed contains three Software Defined Radios and a flight computer. These four computing platforms, along with a tracking antenna system and the supporting ground infrastructure, will be used to implement various concepts in a system similar to those used by missions. Multiple universities and SBIR companies are supporting this investigation. This paper will describe the cognitive system ideas under consideration and

  4. An agent-oriented approach to automated mission operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Odubiyi, Jide

    1994-01-01

    As we plan for the next generation of Mission Operations Control Center (MOCC) systems, there are many opportunities for the increased utilization of innovative knowledge-based technologies. The innovative technology discussed is an advanced use of agent-oriented approaches to the automation of mission operations. The paper presents an overview of this technology and discusses applied operational scenarios currently being investigated and prototyped. A major focus of the current work is the development of a simple user mechanism that would empower operations staff members to create, in real time, software agents to assist them in common, labor intensive operations tasks. These operational tasks would include: handling routine data and information management functions; amplifying the capabilities of a spacecraft analyst/operator to rapidly identify, analyze, and correct spacecraft anomalies by correlating complex data/information sets and filtering error messages; improving routine monitoring and trend analysis by detecting common failure signatures; and serving as a sentinel for spacecraft changes during critical maneuvers enhancing the system's capabilities to support nonroutine operational conditions with minimum additional staff. An agent-based testbed is under development. This testbed will allow us to: (1) more clearly understand the intricacies of applying agent-based technology in support of the advanced automation of mission operations and (2) access the full set of benefits that can be realized by the proper application of agent-oriented technology in a mission operations environment. The testbed under development addresses some of the data management and report generation functions for the Explorer Platform (EP)/Extreme UltraViolet Explorer (EUVE) Flight Operations Team (FOT). We present an overview of agent-oriented technology and a detailed report on the operation's concept for the testbed.

  5. SMART: A Propositional Logic-Based Trade Analysis and Risk Assessment Tool for a Complex Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Masahiro; Nicholas, Austin; Alibay, Farah; Parrish, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a new trade analysis software called the Space Mission Architecture and Risk Analysis Tool (SMART). This tool supports a high-level system trade study on a complex mission, such as a potential Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission, in an intuitive and quantitative manner. In a complex mission, a common approach to increase the probability of success is to have redundancy and prepare backups. Quantitatively evaluating the utility of adding redundancy to a system is important but not straightforward, particularly when the failure of parallel subsystems are correlated.

  6. Designing Mission Operations for the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Glen G.; Beerer, Joseph G.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, to understand the internal structure and thermal evolution of the Moon, offered unique challenges to mission operations. From launch through end of mission, the twin GRAIL orbiters had to be operated in parallel. The journey to the Moon and into the low science orbit involved numerous maneuvers, planned on tight timelines, to ultimately place the orbiters into the required formation-flying configuration necessary. The baseline GRAIL mission is short, only 9 months in duration, but progressed quickly through seven very unique mission phases. Compressed into this short mission timeline, operations activities and maneuvers for both orbiters had to be planned and coordinated carefully. To prepare for these challenges, development of the GRAIL Mission Operations System began in 2008. Based on high heritage multi-mission operations developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Lockheed Martin, the GRAIL mission operations system was adapted to meet the unique challenges posed by the GRAIL mission design. This paper describes GRAIL's system engineering development process for defining GRAIL's operations scenarios and generating requirements, tracing the evolution from operations concept through final design, implementation, and validation.

  7. Analysis and control of macro - and microorganisms interactions for missions of different duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somova, L.; Pechurkin, N.

    In developing different t pes of life support systems for use in space or extremey environments Earth, researchers should pay attention to the functional state and stability of such systems. Special attention has been given to the interactions between macro- and microorganisms. Microorganisms are considered the most suitable indicators of a system's health and its component links. We can divide all space missions into types by which the behavior of man microbe interactions may be categorized: short missions and long ones. For short missions sanitary and hygiene procedures can be used to control the microflora of open and / or physico -chemical systems of life support. F r more prolonged missions hygieneo provisions may become inadequate and opportunistic infection occur rapidly. In general we should understand that the task of maintaining the heals of human being under conditions of stress is not only a question of sanitation and hygiene, but also a problem of the ecological balance within the habitat.

  8. Collaborative Mission Design at NASA Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Kerry M.; Allen, B. Danette; Amundsen, Ruth M.

    2005-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has developed and tested two facilities dedicated to increasing efficiency in key mission design processes, including payload design, mission planning, and implementation plan development, among others. The Integrated Design Center (IDC) is a state-of-the-art concurrent design facility which allows scientists and spaceflight engineers to produce project designs and mission plans in a real-time collaborative environment, using industry-standard physics-based development tools and the latest communication technology. The Mission Simulation Lab (MiSL), a virtual reality (VR) facility focused on payload and project design, permits engineers to quickly translate their design and modeling output into enhanced three-dimensional models and then examine them in a realistic full-scale virtual environment. The authors were responsible for envisioning both facilities and turning those visions into fully operational mission design resources at LaRC with multiple advanced capabilities and applications. In addition, the authors have created a synergistic interface between these two facilities. This combined functionality is the Interactive Design and Simulation Center (IDSC), a meta-facility which offers project teams a powerful array of highly advanced tools, permitting them to rapidly produce project designs while maintaining the integrity of the input from every discipline expert on the project. The concept-to-flight mission support provided by IDSC has shown improved inter- and intra-team communication and a reduction in the resources required for proposal development, requirements definition, and design effort.

  9. Accessing Information on the Mars Exploration Rovers Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, J. D.; Schreiner, J. A.

    2005-12-01

    In January 2004, the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) mission successfully deployed two robotic geologists - Spirit and Opportunity - to opposite sides of the red planet. Onboard each rover is an array of cameras and scientific instruments that send data back to Earth, where ground-based systems process and store the information. During the height of the mission, a team of about 250 scientists and engineers worked around the clock to analyze the collected data, determine a strategy and activities for the next day and then carefully compose the command sequences that would instruct the rovers in how to perform their tasks. The scientists and engineers had to work closely together to balance the science objectives with the engineering constraints so that the mission achieved its goals safely and quickly. To accomplish this coordinated effort, they adhered to a tightly orchestrated schedule of meetings and processes. To keep on time, it was critical that all team members were aware of what was happening, knew how much time they had to complete their tasks, and could easily access the information they need to do their jobs. Computer scientists and software engineers at NASA Ames Research Center worked closely with the mission managers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to create applications that support the mission. One such application, the Collaborative Information Portal (CIP), helps mission personnel perform their daily tasks, whether they work inside mission control or the science areas at JPL, or in their homes, schools, or offices. With a three-tiered, service-oriented architecture (SOA) - client, middleware, and data repository - built using Java and commercial software, CIP provides secure access to mission schedules and to data and images transmitted from the Mars rovers. This services-based approach proved highly effective for building distributed, flexible applications, and is forming the basis for the design of future mission software systems. Almost two

  10. Solar Cell and Array Technology Development for NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piszczor, Michael; McNatt, Jeremiah; Mercer, Carolyn; Kerslake, Tom; Pappa, Richard

    2012-01-01

    NASA is currently developing advanced solar cell and solar array technologies to support future exploration activities. These advanced photovoltaic technology development efforts are needed to enable very large (multi-hundred kilowatt) power systems that must be compatible with solar electric propulsion (SEP) missions. The technology being developed must address a wide variety of requirements and cover the necessary advances in solar cell, blanket integration, and large solar array structures that are needed for this class of missions. Th is paper will summarize NASA's plans for high power SEP missions, initi al mission studies and power system requirements, plans for advanced photovoltaic technology development, and the status of specific cell and array technology development and testing that have already been conducted.

  11. Overview: Solar Electric Propulsion Concept Designs for SEP Technology Demonstration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcguire, Melissa L.; Hack, Kurt J.; Manzella, David; Herman, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    JPC presentation of the Concept designs for NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration mission paper. Multiple Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Missions were developed to assess vehicle performance and estimated mission cost. Concepts ranged from a 10,000 kg spacecraft capable of delivering 4000 kg of payload to one of the Earth Moon Lagrange points in support of future human-crewed outposts to a 180 kg spacecraft capable of performing an asteroid rendezvous mission after launched to a geostationary transfer orbit as a secondary payload.

  12. Planning and Management of Real-Time Geospatialuas Missions Within a Virtual Globe Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebiker, S.; Eugster, H.; Flückiger, K.; Christen, M.

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents the design and development of a hardware and software framework supporting all phases of typical monitoring and mapping missions with mini and micro UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles). The developed solution combines state-of-the art collaborative virtual globe technologies with advanced geospatial imaging techniques and wireless data link technologies supporting the combined and highly reliable transmission of digital video, high-resolution still imagery and mission control data over extended operational ranges. The framework enables the planning, simulation, control and real-time monitoring of UAS missions in application areas such as monitoring of forest fires, agronomical research, border patrol or pipeline inspection. The geospatial components of the project are based on the Virtual Globe Technology i3D OpenWebGlobe of the Institute of Geomatics Engineering at the University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland (FHNW). i3D OpenWebGlobe is a high-performance 3D geovisualisation engine supporting the web-based streaming of very large amounts of terrain and POI data.

  13. Massively Clustered CubeSats NCPS Demo Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Glen A.; Young, David; Kim, Tony; Houts, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Technologies under development for the proposed Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) will require an un-crewed demonstration mission before they can be flight qualified over distances and time frames representative of a crewed Mars mission. In this paper, we describe a Massively Clustered CubeSats platform, possibly comprising hundreds of CubeSats, as the main payload of the NCPS demo mission. This platform would enable a mechanism for cost savings for the demo mission through shared support between NASA and other government agencies as well as leveraged commercial aerospace and academic community involvement. We believe a Massively Clustered CubeSats platform should be an obvious first choice for the NCPS demo mission when one considers that cost and risk of the payload can be spread across many CubeSat customers and that the NCPS demo mission can capitalize on using CubeSats developed by others for its own instrumentation needs. Moreover, a demo mission of the NCPS offers an unprecedented opportunity to invigorate the public on a global scale through direct individual participation coordinated through a web-based collaboration engine. The platform we describe would be capable of delivering CubeSats at various locations along a trajectory toward the primary mission destination, in this case Mars, permitting a variety of potential CubeSat-specific missions. Cameras on various CubeSats can also be used to provide multiple views of the space environment and the NCPS vehicle for video monitoring as well as allow the public to "ride along" as virtual passengers on the mission. This collaborative approach could even initiate a brand new Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) program for launching student developed CubeSat payloads beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) on future deep space technology qualification missions. Keywords: Nuclear Propulsion, NCPS, SLS, Mars, CubeSat.

  14. Dusty plasmas over the Moon: theory research in support of the upcoming lunar missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popel, Sergey; Zelenyi, Lev; Zakharov, Alexander; Izvekova, Yulia; Dolnikov, Gennady; Dubinskii, Andrey; Kopnin, Sergey; Golub, Anatoly

    The future Russian lunar missions Luna 25 and Luna 27 are planned to be equipped with instruments for direct detection of nano- and microscale dust particles and determination of plasma properties over the surface of the Moon. Lunar dust over the Moon is usually considered as a part of a dusty plasma system. Here, we present the main our theory results concerning the lunar dusty plasmas. We start with the description of the observational data on dust particles on and over the surface of the Moon. We show that the size distribution of dust on the lunar surface is in a good agreement with the Kolmogorov distribution, which is the size distribution of particles in the case of multiple crushing. We discuss the role of adhesion which has been identified as a significant force in the dust particle launching process. We evaluate the adhesive force for lunar dust particles with taking into account the roughness and adsorbed molecular layers. We show that dust particle launching can be explained if the dust particles rise at a height of about dozens of nanometers owing to some processes. This is enough for the particles to acquire charges sufficient for the dominance of the electrostatic force over the gravitational and adhesive forces. The reasons for the separation of the dust particles from the surface of the Moon are, in particular, their heating by solar radiation and cooling. We consider migration of free protons in regolith from the viewpoint of the photoemission properties of the lunar soil. Finally, we develop a model of dusty plasma system over the Moon and show that it includes charged dust, photoelectrons, and electrons and ions of the solar wind. We determine the distributions of the photoelectrons and find the characteristics of the dust which rise over the lunar regolith. We show that there are no significant constraints on the Moon landing sites for future lunar missions that will study dusty plasmas in the surface layer of the Moon. We discuss also waves in

  15. Impact of Water Recovery from Wastes on the Lunar Surface Mission Water Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John W.; Hogan, John Andrew; Wignarajah, Kanapathipi; Pace, Gregory S.

    2010-01-01

    Future extended lunar surface missions will require extensive recovery of resources to reduce mission costs and enable self-sufficiency. Water is of particular importance due to its potential use for human consumption and hygiene, general cleaning, clothes washing, radiation shielding, cooling for extravehicular activity suits, and oxygen and hydrogen production. Various water sources are inherently present or are generated in lunar surface missions, and subject to recovery. They include: initial water stores, water contained in food, human and other solid wastes, wastewaters and associated brines, ISRU water, and scavenging from residual propellant in landers. This paper presents the results of an analysis of the contribution of water recovery from life support wastes on the overall water balance for lunar surface missions. Water in human wastes, metabolic activity and survival needs are well characterized and dependable figures are available. A detailed life support waste model was developed that summarizes the composition of life support wastes and their water content. Waste processing technologies were reviewed for their potential to recover that water. The recoverable water in waste is a significant contribution to the overall water balance. The value of this contribution is discussed in the context of the other major sources and loses of water. Combined with other analyses these results provide guidance for research and technology development and down-selection.

  16. IAEA Completes Nuclear Security Advisory Mission in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    An International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) team of experts today completed a nuclear security advisory mission in France. The mission was carried out at the request of the French Government. The scope of the two-week International Physical Protection Advisory Service (IPPAS) follow-up mission included France’s responses to the recommendations of the initial mission in 2011, the regulatory framework for the security of nuclear material and facilities as well as computer security. The IPPAS team also reviewed the country’s implementation of the 2005 Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM). As part of the review, the team visited the Georges Besse II uranium enrichment plant at the Tricastin nuclear site in Pierrelatte, south-eastern France. The team observed that the nuclear security regime in France is robust and well-established, and incorporates the fundamental principles of the amended CPPNM. The team provided recommendations and suggestions to support France in enhancing and sustaining nuclear security. Good practices were identified that can serve as examples to other IAEA Member States to help strengthen their nuclear security activities.

  17. Engineering, Analysis and Technology FY 1995 Site Support Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyama, R.M.

    1994-09-01

    The vision of the Engineering, Analysis and Technology organization is to be recognized as the cost-effective supplier of specialized, integrated, multi-disciplined engineering teams to support Hanford missions. The mission of the Engineering, Analysis and Technology organization is to provide centralized engineering services. These services are focused on supplying technical design, analytical engineering and related support services that support Hanford's environmental restoration mission. These services include engineering analysis, design and development of systems and engineered equipment, supplying multi-disciplined engineering teams to all Hanford programs and project organizations, engineering document release, and site-wide leadership in the development and implementation of engineering standards, engineering practices, and configuration management processes

  18. DSMS investment in support of satellite constellations and formation flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statman, J. I.

    2003-01-01

    Over the years, NASA has supported unmanned space missions, beyond earth orbit, through a Deep Space Mission System (DSMS) that is developed and operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and subcontractors. The DSMS capabilities have been incrementally upgraded since its establishment in the late '50s and are delivered primarily through three Deep Space Communications Complexes (DSCC 's) near Goldstone, California, Madrid, Spain, and Canberra, Australia and from facilities at JPL. Traditionally, mission support (tracking, command, telemetry, etc) is assigned on an individual-mission basis, between each mission and a ground-based asset, independent of other missions. As NASA, and its international partners, move toward flying fullconstellations and precision formations, the DSMS is developing plans and technologies to provide the requisite support. The key activities under way are: (1) integrated communications architecture for Mars exploration, including relays on science orbiters and dedicated relay satellites to provide continuous coverage for orbiters, landers and rovers. JPL is developing an architecture, as well as protocols and equipment, required for the cost-effective operations of such an infrastructure. (2) Internet-type protocols that will allow for efficient operations across the deep-space distances, accounting for and accommodating the long round-trip-light-time. JPL is working with the CCSDS to convert these protocols to an international standard and will deploy such protocol, the CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP), on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and on the Deep Impact (01) missions. (3) Techniques to perform cross-navigation between spacecrafi that fly in a loose formation. Typical cases are cross-navigation between missions that approach Mars and missionsthat are at Mars, or the determination of a baseline for missions that fly in an earth-lead- lag configuration. (4) Techniques and devices that allow the precise metrology and

  19. The Impact of Traffic Prioritization on Deep Space Network Mission Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Esther; Segui, John; Gao, Jay; Clare, Loren; Abraham, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    A select number of missions supported by NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) are demanding very high data rates. For example, the Kepler Mission was launched March 7, 2009 and at that time required the highest data rate of any NASA mission, with maximum rates of 4.33 Mb/s being provided via Ka band downlinks. The James Webb Space Telescope will require a maximum 28 Mb/s science downlink data rate also using Ka band links; as of this writing the launch is scheduled for a June 2014 launch. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, launched June 18, 2009, has demonstrated data rates at 100 Mb/s at lunar-Earth distances using NASA's Near Earth Network (NEN) and K-band. As further advances are made in high data rate space telecommunications, particularly with emerging optical systems, it is expected that large surges in demand on the supporting ground systems will ensue. A performance analysis of the impact of high variance in demand has been conducted using our Multi-mission Advanced Communications Hybrid Environment for Test and Evaluation (MACHETE) simulation tool. A comparison is made regarding the incorporation of Quality of Service (QoS) mechanisms and the resulting ground-to-ground Wide Area Network (WAN) bandwidth necessary to meet latency requirements across different user missions. It is shown that substantial reduction in WAN bandwidth may be realized through QoS techniques when low data rate users with low-latency needs are mixed with high data rate users having delay-tolerant traffic.

  20. Titan Orbiter with Aerorover Mission (TOAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittler, Edward C.; Cooper, J. F.; Mahaffey, P.; Esper, J.; Fairbrother, D.; Farley, R.; Pitman, J.; Kojiro, D. R.; TOAM Team

    2006-12-01

    We propose to develop a new mission to Titan called Titan Orbiter with Aerorover Mission (TOAM). This mission is motivated by the recent discoveries of Titan, its atmosphere and its surface by the Huygens Probe, and a combination of in situ, remote sensing and radar mapping measurements of Titan by the Cassini orbiter. Titan is a body for which Astrobiology (i.e., prebiotic chemistry) will be the primary science goal of any future missions to it. TOAM is planned to use an orbiter and balloon technology (i.e., aerorover). Aerobraking will be used to put payload into orbit around Titan. The Aerorover will probably use a hot air balloon concept using the waste heat from the MMRTG 500 watts. Orbiter support for the Aerorover is unique to our approach for Titan. Our strategy to use an orbiter is contrary to some studies using just a single probe with balloon. Autonomous operation and navigation of the Aerorover around Titan will be required, which will include descent near to the surface to collect surface samples for analysis (i.e., touch and go technique). The orbiter can provide both relay station and GPS roles for the Aerorover. The Aerorover will have all the instruments needed to sample Titan’s atmosphere, surface, possible methane lakes-rivers, use multi-spectral imagers for surface reconnaissance; to take close up surface images; take core samples and deploy seismometers during landing phase. Both active and passive broadband remote sensing techniques will be used for surface topography, winds and composition measurements.

  1. Altair Lander Life Support: Design Analysis Cycles 4 and 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly; Curley, Su; Rotter, Henry; Stambaugh, Imelda; Yagoda, Evan

    2011-01-01

    Life support systems are a critical part of human exploration beyond low earth orbit. NASA s Altair Lunar Lander team is pursuing efficient solutions to the technical challenges of human spaceflight. Life support design efforts up through Design Analysis Cycle (DAC) 4 focused on finding lightweight and reliable solutions for the Sortie and Outpost missions within the Constellation Program. In DAC-4 and later follow on work, changes were made to add functionality for new requirements accepted by the Altair project, and to update the design as knowledge about certain issues or hardware matured. In DAC-5, the Altair project began to consider mission architectures outside the Constellation baseline. Selecting the optimal life support system design is very sensitive to mission duration. When the mission goals and architecture change several trade studies must be conducted to determine the appropriate design. Finally, several areas of work developed through the Altair project may be applicable to other vehicle concepts for microgravity missions. Maturing the Altair life support system related analysis, design, and requirements can provide important information for developers of a wide range of other human vehicles.

  2. ESA's Multi-mission Sentinel-1 Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veci, Luis; Lu, Jun; Foumelis, Michael; Engdahl, Marcus

    2017-04-01

    The Sentinel-1 Toolbox is a new open source software for scientific learning, research and exploitation of the large archives of Sentinel and heritage missions. The Toolbox is based on the proven BEAM/NEST architecture inheriting all current NEST functionality including multi-mission support for most civilian satellite SAR missions. The project is funded through ESA's Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM). The Sentinel-1 Toolbox will strive to serve the SEOM mandate by providing leading-edge software to the science and application users in support of ESA's operational SAR mission as well as by educating and growing a SAR user community. The Toolbox consists of a collection of processing tools, data product readers and writers and a display and analysis application. A common architecture for all Sentinel Toolboxes is being jointly developed by Brockmann Consult, Array Systems Computing and C-S called the Sentinel Application Platform (SNAP). The SNAP architecture is ideal for Earth Observation processing and analysis due the following technological innovations: Extensibility, Portability, Modular Rich Client Platform, Generic EO Data Abstraction, Tiled Memory Management, and a Graph Processing Framework. The project has developed new tools for working with Sentinel-1 data in particular for working with the new Interferometric TOPSAR mode. TOPSAR Complex Coregistration and a complete Interferometric processing chain has been implemented for Sentinel-1 TOPSAR data. To accomplish this, a coregistration following the Spectral Diversity[4] method has been developed as well as special azimuth handling in the coherence, interferogram and spectral filter operators. The Toolbox includes reading of L0, L1 and L2 products in SAFE format, calibration and de-noising, slice product assembling, TOPSAR deburst and sub-swath merging, terrain flattening radiometric normalization, and visualization for L2 OCN products. The Toolbox also provides several new tools for

  3. Data Analysis for the LISA Pathfinder Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, James Ira

    2009-01-01

    The LTP (LISA Technology Package) is the core part of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) Pathfinder mission. The main goal of the mission is to study the sources of any disturbances that perturb the motion of the freely-falling test masses from their geodesic trajectories as well as 10 test various technologies needed for LISA. The LTP experiment is designed as a sequence of experimental runs in which the performance of the instrument is studied and characterized under different operating conditions. In order to best optimize subsequent experimental runs, each run must be promptly analysed to ensure that the following ones make best use of the available knowledge of the instrument ' In order to do this, all analyses must be designed and tested in advance of the mission and have sufficient built-in flexibility to account for unexpected results or behaviour. To support this activity, a robust and flexible data analysis software package is also required. This poster presents two of the main components that make up the data analysis effort: the data analysis software and the mock-data challenges used to validate analysis procedures and experiment designs.

  4. Controlling Infrastructure Costs: Right-Sizing the Mission Control Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Keith; Sen-Roy, Michael; Heiman, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Johnson Space Center's Mission Control Center is a space vehicle, space program agnostic facility. The current operational design is essentially identical to the original facility architecture that was developed and deployed in the mid-90's. In an effort to streamline the support costs of the mission critical facility, the Mission Operations Division (MOD) of Johnson Space Center (JSC) has sponsored an exploratory project to evaluate and inject current state-of-the-practice Information Technology (IT) tools, processes and technology into legacy operations. The general push in the IT industry has been trending towards a data-centric computer infrastructure for the past several years. Organizations facing challenges with facility operations costs are turning to creative solutions combining hardware consolidation, virtualization and remote access to meet and exceed performance, security, and availability requirements. The Operations Technology Facility (OTF) organization at the Johnson Space Center has been chartered to build and evaluate a parallel Mission Control infrastructure, replacing the existing, thick-client distributed computing model and network architecture with a data center model utilizing virtualization to provide the MCC Infrastructure as a Service. The OTF will design a replacement architecture for the Mission Control Facility, leveraging hardware consolidation through the use of blade servers, increasing utilization rates for compute platforms through virtualization while expanding connectivity options through the deployment of secure remote access. The architecture demonstrates the maturity of the technologies generally available in industry today and the ability to successfully abstract the tightly coupled relationship between thick-client software and legacy hardware into a hardware agnostic "Infrastructure as a Service" capability that can scale to meet future requirements of new space programs and spacecraft. This paper discusses the benefits

  5. Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission Space Suit and EVA System Architecture Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Raul A.; Bowie, Jonathan T.; Watson, Richard D.; Sipila, Stephanie A.

    2014-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) requires a Launch/Entry/Abort (LEA) suit capability and short duration Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) capability for Orion. The EVAs will involve a two-person crew for approximately four hours. Currently, two EVAs are planned with one contingency EVA in reserve. Providing this EVA capability is very challenging due to system level constraints and a new and unknown environment. The goal of the EVA architecture for ARCM is one that builds upon previously developed technologies and lessons learned, and that accomplishes the ARCM mission while providing a stepping stone to future missions and destinations. The primary system level constraints are to 1) minimize system mass and volume and 2) minimize the interfacing impacts to the baseline Orion design. In order to minimize the interfacing impacts and to not perturb the baseline Orion schedule, the concept of adding "kits" to the baseline system is proposed. These kits consist of: an EVA kit (converts LEA suit to EVA suit), EVA Servicing and Recharge Kit (provides suit consumables), the EVA Tools, Translation Aids & Sample Container Kit (the tools and mobility aids to complete the tasks), the EVA Communications Kit (interface between the EVA radio and the MPCV), and the Cabin Repress Kit (represses the MPCV between EVAs). This paper will focus on the trade space, analysis, and testing regarding the space suit (pressure garment and life support system). Historical approaches and lessons learned from all past EVA operations were researched. Previous and current, successfully operated EVA hardware and high technology readiness level (TRL) hardware were evaluated, and a trade study was conducted for all possible pressure garment and life support options. Testing and analysis was conducted and a recommended EVA system architecture was proposed. Pressure garment options that were considered for this mission include the currently in-use ISS EVA Mobility Unit (EMU), all variations of

  6. Starship Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2009-01-01

    The design and mass cost of a starship and its life support system are investigated. The mission plan for a multi generational interstellar voyage to colonize a new planet is used to describe the starship design, including the crew habitat, accommodations, and life support. Only current technology is assumed. Highly reliable life support systems can be provided with reasonably small additional mass, suggesting that they can support long duration missions. Bioregenerative life support, growing crop plants that provide food, water, and oxygen, has been thought to need less mass than providing stored food for long duration missions. The large initial mass of hydroponics systems is paid for over time by saving the mass of stored food. However, the yearly logistics mass required to support a bioregenerative system exceeds the mass of food solids it produces, so that supplying stored dehydrated food always requires less mass than bioregenerative food production. A mixed system that grows about half the food and supplies the other half dehydrated has advantages that allow it to breakeven with stored dehydrated food in about 66 years. However, moderate increases in the hydroponics system mass to achieve high reliability, such as adding spares that double the system mass and replacing the initial system every 100 years, increase the mass cost of bioregenerative life support. In this case, the high reliability half food growing, half food supplying system does not breakeven for 389 years. An even higher reliability half and half system, with three times original system mass and replacing the system every 50 years, never breaks even. Growing food for starship life support requires more mass than providing dehydrated food, even for multigeneration voyages of hundreds of years. The benefits of growing some food may justify the added mass cost. Much more efficient recycling food production is wanted but may not be possible. A single multigenerational interstellar voyage to

  7. The 2nd Generation Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, Richard; Goodman, Michael; Meyer, Paul; Hardin, Danny; Hall, John; He, Yubin; Regner, Kathryn; Conover, Helen; Smith, Tammy; Lu, Jessica; hide

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a visualization and information system that fuses multiple Earth science data sources, to enable real time decisionmaking for airborne and ground validation experiments. Developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, RTMM is a situational awareness, decision-support system that integrates satellite imagery and orbit data, radar and other surface observations (e.g., lightning location network data), airborne navigation and instrument data sets, model output parameters, and other applicable Earth science data sets. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible using data acquisition systems, network communication links, network server resources, and visualizations through the Google Earth virtual globe application. In order to improve the usefulness and efficiency of the RTMM system, capabilities are being developed to allow the end-user to easily configure RTMM applications based on their mission-specific requirements and objectives. This second generation RTMM is being redesigned to take advantage of the Google plug-in capabilities to run multiple applications in a web browser rather than the original single application Google Earth approach. Currently RTMM employs a limited Service Oriented Architecture approach to enable discovery of mission specific resources. We are expanding the RTMM architecture such that it will more effectively utilize the Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Web Enablement services and other new technology software tools and components. These modifications and extensions will result in a robust, versatile RTMM system that will greatly increase flexibility of the user to choose which science data sets and support applications to view and/or use. The improvements brought about by RTMM 2nd generation system will provide mission planners and airborne scientists with enhanced decision-making tools and capabilities to more

  8. Xenon Acquisition Strategies for High-Power Electric Propulsion NASA Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Daniel A.; Unfried, Kenneth G.

    2015-01-01

    Solar electric propulsion (SEP) has been used for station-keeping of geostationary communications satellites since the 1980s. Solar electric propulsion has also benefitted from success on NASA Science Missions such as Deep Space One and Dawn. The xenon propellant loads for these applications have been in the 100s of kilograms range. Recent studies performed for NASA's Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) have demonstrated that SEP is critically enabling for both near-term and future exploration architectures. The high payoff for both human and science exploration missions and technology investment from NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) are providing the necessary convergence and impetus for a 30-kilowatt-class SEP mission. Multiple 30-50- kilowatt Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission (SEP TDM) concepts have been developed based on the maturing electric propulsion and solar array technologies by STMD with recent efforts focusing on an Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM). Xenon is the optimal propellant for the existing state-of-the-art electric propulsion systems considering efficiency, storability, and contamination potential. NASA mission concepts developed and those proposed by contracted efforts for the 30-kilowatt-class demonstration have a range of xenon propellant loads from 100s of kilograms up to 10,000 kilograms. This paper examines the status of the xenon industry worldwide, including historical xenon supply and pricing. The paper will provide updated information on the xenon market relative to previous papers that discussed xenon production relative to NASA mission needs. The paper will discuss the various approaches for acquiring on the order of 10 metric tons of xenon propellant to support potential near-term NASA missions. Finally, the paper will discuss acquisitions strategies for larger NASA missions requiring 100s of metric tons of xenon will be discussed.

  9. Visualization of the NASA ICON mission in 3d

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, R. A., Jr.; Immel, T. J.; Miller, N.

    2016-12-01

    The ICON Explorer mission (http://icon.ssl.berkeley.edu) will provide several data products for the atmosphere and ionosphere after its launch in 2017. This project will support the mission by investigating the capability of these tools for visualization of current and predicted observatory characteristics and data acquisition. Visualization of this mission can be accomplished using tools like Google Earth or CesiumJS, as well assistance from Java or Python. Ideally we will bring this visualization into the homes of people without the need of additional software. The path of launching a standalone website, building this environment, and a full toolkit will be discussed. Eventually, the initial work could lead to the addition of a downloadable visualization packages for mission demonstration or science visualization.

  10. Site Support Program Plan Infrastructure Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Fiscal Year 1996 Infrastructure Program Site Support Program Plan addresses the mission objectives, workscope, work breakdown structures (WBS), management approach, and resource requirements for the Infrastructure Program. Attached to the plan are appendices that provide more detailed information associated with scope definition. The Hanford Site's infrastructure has served the Site for nearly 50 years during defense materials production. Now with the challenges of the new environmental cleanup mission, Hanford's infrastructure must meet current and future mission needs in a constrained budget environment, while complying with more stringent environmental, safety, and health regulations. The infrastructure requires upgrading, streamlining, and enhancement in order to successfully support the site mission of cleaning up the Site, research and development, and economic transition

  11. Modeling Oxygen Production on Mars and Extension to a Human-Scale Mission

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) is the identification, collection, processing, and use of local materials to support space missions. It is a concept that has...

  12. Imaging X-Ray Polarimetry Explorer Mission Attitude Determination and Control Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladt, Jeff; Deininger, William D.; Kalinowski, William C.; Boysen, Mary; Bygott, Kyle; Guy, Larry; Pentz, Christina; Seckar, Chris; Valdez, John; Wedmore, Jeffrey; hide

    2018-01-01

    The goal of the Imaging X-Ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE) Mission is to expand understanding of high-energy astrophysical processes and sources, in support of NASA's first science objective in Astrophysics: "Discover how the universe works." X-ray polarimetry is the focus of the IXPE science mission. Polarimetry uniquely probes physical anisotropies-ordered magnetic fields, aspheric matter distributions, or general relativistic coupling to black-hole spin-that are not otherwise measurable. The IXPE Observatory consists of Spacecraft and Payload modules. The Payload includes three polarization sensitive, X-ray detector units (DU), each paired with its corresponding grazing incidence mirror module assemblies (MMA). A deployable boom provides the correct separation (focal length) between the DUs and MMAs. These Payload elements are supported by the IXPE Spacecraft. A star tracker is mounted directly with the deployed Payload to minimize alignment errors between the star tracker line of sight (LoS) and Payload LoS. Stringent pointing requirements coupled with a flexible structure and a non-collocated attitude sensor-actuator configuration requires a thorough analysis of control-structure interactions. A non-minimum phase notch filter supports robust control loop stability margins. This paper summarizes the IXPE mission science objectives and Observatory concepts, and then it describes IXPE attitude determination and control implementation. IXPE LoS pointing accuracy, control loop stability, and angular momentum management are discussed.

  13. Launch and Assembly Reliability Analysis for Human Space Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Grant; Gelito, Justin; Stromgren, Chel; Cirillo, William; Goodliff, Kandyce

    2012-01-01

    NASA's future human space exploration strategy includes single and multi-launch missions to various destinations including cis-lunar space, near Earth objects such as asteroids, and ultimately Mars. Each campaign is being defined by Design Reference Missions (DRMs). Many of these missions are complex, requiring multiple launches and assembly of vehicles in orbit. Certain missions also have constrained departure windows to the destination. These factors raise concerns regarding the reliability of launching and assembling all required elements in time to support planned departure. This paper describes an integrated methodology for analyzing launch and assembly reliability in any single DRM or set of DRMs starting with flight hardware manufacturing and ending with final departure to the destination. A discrete event simulation is built for each DRM that includes the pertinent risk factors including, but not limited to: manufacturing completion; ground transportation; ground processing; launch countdown; ascent; rendezvous and docking, assembly, and orbital operations leading up to trans-destination-injection. Each reliability factor can be selectively activated or deactivated so that the most critical risk factors can be identified. This enables NASA to prioritize mitigation actions so as to improve mission success.

  14. IAEA Remediation Mission to Japan Concludes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    classifying removed materials that do not warrant special radiation protection measures as ''radioactive waste''; - Japan is advised to consider explaining to the public the importance of focusing on radiation doses that may actually be received by people rather than on data indicating contamination levels; and - Japan is encouraged to continue its remediation efforts. In doing so, Japan is encouraged to take into account the advice provided by the Mission. The IAEA stands ready to support Japan as it considers new and appropriate criteria for such activities. The authorities and local residents in Japan fully assisted the IAEA international team in its endeavor to conclude its mission successfully. ''The team also appreciates the openness with which our discussions were conducted and the high level of cooperation and access we were granted by Japan,'' says Mr. Lentijo. ''This was an invaluable opportunity for us to learn from this important decontamination initiative. We would like to continue our support to Japan in this very challenging task. We look forward to sharing our findings with the international community.'' The final report of the mission will be presented to the Government of Japan in the next month. Background. The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant has led to elevated levels of radiation over large areas. The Government of Japan has been formulating a strategy and plans to implement countermeasures to remediate these areas. The IAEA organized an International Fact Finding Expert Mission of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident Following The Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, which took place between 24 May and 2 June 2011. The mission concluded today is a follow-up to the fact-finding mission held earlier in the year and an essential component of the IAEA's Nuclear Safety Action Plan, approved by the IAEA Board of Governors on 13 September and endorsed by all 151 Member States at the recent IAEA General Conference in

  15. Analysis of tritium mission FMEF/FAA fuel handling accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Keuren, J.C.

    1997-11-18

    The Fuels Material Examination Facility/Fuel Assembly Area is proposed to be used for fabrication of mixed oxide fuel to support the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) tritium/medical isotope mission. The plutonium isotope mix for the new mission is different than that analyzed in the FMEF safety analysis report. A reanalysis was performed of three representative accidents for the revised plutonium mix to determine the impact on the safety analysis. Current versions computer codes and meterology data files were used for the analysis. The revised accidents were a criticality, an explosion in a glovebox, and a tornado. The analysis concluded that risk guidelines were met with the revised plutonium mix.

  16. VEGA Space Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, V.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    VEGA (mission) is a combined spacecraft mission to VENUS and COMET HALLEY. It was launched in the USSR at the end of 1984. The mission consisted of two identical spacecraft VEGA 1 and VEGA 2. VEGA is an acronym built from the words `Venus' and `Halley' (`Galley' in Russian spelling). The basic design of the spacecraft was the same as has been used many times to deliver Soviet landers and orbiter...

  17. The SENTINEL-3 Mission: Overview and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benveniste, J.; Mecklenburg, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Copernicus Programme, being Europe's Earth Observation and Monitoring Programme led by the European Union, aims to provide, on a sustainable basis, reliable and timely services related to environmental and security issues. The Sentinel-3 mission forms part of the Copernicus Space Component. Its main objectives, building on the heritage and experience of the European Space Agency's (ESA) ERS and ENVISAT missions, are to measure sea-surface topography, sea- and land-surface temperature and ocean- and land-surface colour in support of ocean forecasting systems, and for environmental and climate monitoring. The series of Sentinel-3 satellites will ensure global, frequent and near-real time ocean, ice and land monitoring, with the provision of observation data in routine, long term (up to 20 years of operations) and continuous fashion, with a consistent quality and a high level of reliability and availability. The Sentinel-3 missions will be jointly operated by ESA and EUMETSAT. ESA will be responsible for the operations, maintenance and evolution of the Sentinel-3 ground segment on land related products and EUMETSAT for the marine products. The Sentinel-3 ground segment systematically acquires, processes and distributes a set of pre-defined core data products. Sentinel-3A is foreseen to be launched at the beginning of November 2015. The paper will give an overview on the mission, its instruments and objectives, the data products provided, the mechanisms to access the mission's data, and if available first results.

  18. Kilowatt-Class Fission Power Systems for Science and Human Precursor Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Lee S.; Gibson, Marc Andrew; Poston, Dave

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear power provides an enabling capability for NASA missions that might otherwise be constrained by power availability, mission duration, or operational robustness. NASA and the Department of Energy (DOE) are developing fission power technology to serve a wide range of future space uses. Advantages include lower mass, longer life, and greater mission flexibility than competing power system options. Kilowatt-class fission systems, designated "Kilopower," were conceived to address the need for systems to fill the gap above the current 100-W-class radioisotope power systems being developed for science missions and below the typical 100-k We-class reactor power systems being developed for human exploration missions. This paper reviews the current fission technology project and examines some Kilopower concepts that could be used to support future science missions or human precursors.

  19. Homeland Defense. U.S. Northern Command Has a Strong Exercise Program, but Involvement of Interagency Partners and States Can Be Improved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    fight the nation’s wars, DOD has developed an established, authoritative, time-tested process for planning, conducting, and evaluating exercises in...of mass destruction in Clark County, Nevada • Wildfires in the western United States • 2003 World Gymnastics Championship in California • Ongoing...exercises and, therefore, will be flexible to accommodate other organizations’ training objectives; however, NORTHCOM ultimately has its own

  20. Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission Space Suit and EVA System Architecture Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Jonathan; Buffington, Jesse; Hood, Drew; Kelly, Cody; Naids, Adam; Watson, Richard; Blanco, Raul; Sipila, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) requires a Launch/Entry/Abort (LEA) suit capability and short duration Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) capability from the Orion spacecraft. For this mission, the pressure garment selected for both functions is the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) with EVA enhancements and the life support option that was selected is the Exploration Portable Life Support System (PLSS) currently under development for Advanced Exploration Systems (AES). The proposed architecture meets the ARCM constraints, but much more work is required to determine the details of the suit upgrades, the integration with the PLSS, and the tools and equipment necessary to accomplish the mission. This work has continued over the last year to better define the operations and hardware maturation of these systems. EVA simulations were completed in the Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) and interfacing options were prototyped and analyzed with testing planned for late 2014. This paper discusses the work done over the last year on the MACES enhancements, the use of tools while using the suit, and the integration of the PLSS with the MACES.

  1. TEAM SELLING AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION IN THE MISSION CRITICAL SECTOR: A CASE STUDY OF EYP MISSION CRITICAL FACILITIES INC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. CRADER

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationships between selling teams (STs and customer satisfaction within the mission critical power design industry. The literature indicates that STs, which are considered a state of the art sales model, deserved further research. The SERVQUAL survey was used to measure customer satisfaction with EYP Mission Critical’s most strategic customers. The difference in customer satisfaction for customers serviced by STs and traditional sales personnel were compared. The investigation found support indicating that a ST approach had a positive relationship to increased customer satisfaction levels. Based on the results of the study, it is recommended that sales leaders within the specialized service industry consider a ST approach when formulating future revenue growth and relationship strategy.

  2. Digital communication constraints in prior space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassine, Nathan K.

    2004-01-01

    Digital communication is crucial for space endeavors. Jt transmits scientific and command data between earth stations and the spacecraft crew. It facilitates communications between astronauts, and provides live coverage during all phases of the mission. Digital communications provide ground stations and spacecraft crew precise data on the spacecraft position throughout the entire mission. Lessons learned from prior space missions are valuable for our new lunar and Mars missions set by our president s speech. These data will save our agency time and money, and set course our current developing technologies. Limitations on digital communications equipment pertaining mass, volume, data rate, frequency, antenna type and size, modulation, format, and power in the passed space missions are of particular interest. This activity is in support of ongoing communication architectural studies pertaining to robotic and human lunar exploration. The design capabilities and functionalities will depend on the space and power allocated for digital communication equipment. My contribution will be gathering these data, write a report, and present it to Communications Technology Division Staff. Antenna design is very carefully studied for each mission scenario. Currently, Phased array antennas are being developed for the lunar mission. Phased array antennas use little power, and electronically steer a beam instead of DC motors. There are 615 patches in the phased array antenna. These patches have to be modified to have high yield. 50 patches were created for testing. My part is to assist in the characterization of these patch antennas, and determine whether or not certain modifications to quartz micro-strip patch radiators result in a significant yield to warrant proceeding with repairs to the prototype 19 GHz ferroelectric reflect-array antenna. This work requires learning how to calibrate an automatic network, and mounting and testing antennas in coaxial fixtures. The purpose of this

  3. Clementine: An inexpensive mission to the Moon and Geographos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Eugene M.; Nozette, Stewart

    1993-03-01

    The Clementine Mission, a joint project of the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) and NASA, has been planned primarily to test and demonstrate a suite of lightweight sensors and other lightweight spacecraft components under extended exposure to the space environment. Although the primary objective of the mission is to space-qualify sensors for Department of Defense applications, it was recognized in 1990 that such a mission might also be designed to acquire scientific observations of the Moon and of Apollo asteroid (1620) Geographos. This possibility was explored jointly by SDIO and NASA, including representatives from NASA's Discovery Program Science Working Group, in early 1991. Besides the direct return of scientific information, one of the benefits envisioned from a joint venture was the development of lightweight components for possible future use in NASA's Discovery-class spacecraft. In Jan. 1992, SDIO informed NASA of its intent to fly a 'Deep Space Program Science Experiment,' now popularly called Clementine; NASA then formed an advisory science working group to assist in the early development of the mission. The Clementine spacecraft is being assembled at the Naval Research Laboratory, which is also in charge of the overall mission design and mission operations. Support for mission design is being provided by GSFC and by JPL. NASA's Deep Space Network will be utilized in tracking and communicating with the spacecraft. Following a recommendation of the COMPLEX committee of the Space Science Board, NASA will issue an NRA and appoint a formal science team in early 1993. Clementine is a 3-axis stabilized, 200 kg (dry weight) spacecraft that will be launched on a refurbished Titan-2G. One of the goals has been to build two spacecraft, including the sensors, for $100M. Total time elapsed from the decision to proceed to the launch will be two years.

  4. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission initial updated baseline summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swita, W.R.

    1998-01-01

    This document provides a summary of the proposed Tank Waste Remediation System Retrieval and Disposal Mission Initial Updated Baseline (scope, schedule, and cost) developed to demonstrate the Tank Waste Remediation System contractor's Readiness-to-Proceed in support of the Phase 1B mission

  5. Guidelines for NASA Missions to Engage the User Community as a Part of the Mission Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, V. M.; Friedl, L.; Bonniksen, C. K.

    2017-12-01

    NASA continues to improve the Earth Science Directorate in the areas of thematic integration, stakeholder feedback and Project Applications Program tailoring for missions to transfer knowledge between scientists and projects. The integration of application themes and the implementation of application science activities in flight projects have evolved to formally include user feedback and stakeholder integration. NASA's new Flight Applied Science Program Guidelines are designed to bridge NASA Earth Science Directorates in Flight, Applied Sciences and Research and Development by agreeing to integrate the user community into mission life cycles. Thus science development and science applications will guide all new instruments launched by NASAs ESD. The continued integration with the user community has enabled socio-economic considerations into NASA Earth Science projects to advance significantly. Making users a natural part of mission science leverages future socio-economic impact research and provides a platform for innovative and more actionable product to be used in decision support systems by society. This presentation will give an overview of the new NASA Guidelines and provide samples that demonstrate how the user community can be a part of NASA mission designs.

  6. Lessons Learned from Engineering a Multi-Mission Satellite Operations Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Maureen; Cary, Everett, Jr.; Esposito, Timothy; Parker, Jeffrey; Bradley, David

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Small Explorers (SMEX) satellites have surpassed their designed science-lifetimes and their flight operations teams are now facing the challenge of continuing operations with reduced funding. At present, these missions are being re-engineered into a fleet-oriented ground system at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). When completed, this ground system will provide command and control of four SMEX missions and will demonstrate fleet automation and control concepts. As a path-finder for future mission consolidation efforts, this ground system will also demonstrate new ground-based technologies that show promise of supporting longer mission lifecycles and simplifying component integration. One of the core technologies being demonstrated in the SMEX Mission Operations Center is the GSFC Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) architecture. The GMSEC architecture uses commercial Message Oriented Middleware with a common messaging standard to realize a higher level of component interoperability, allowing for interchangeable components in ground systems. Moreover, automation technologies utilizing the GMSEC architecture are being evaluated and implemented to provide extended lights-out operations. This mode of operation will provide routine monitoring and control of the heterogeneous spacecraft fleet. The operational concepts being developed will reduce the need for staffed contacts and is seen as a necessity for fleet management. This paper will describe the experiences of the integration team throughout the re-enginering effort of the SMEX ground system. Additionally, lessons learned will be presented based on the team's experiences with integrating multiple missions into a fleet-automated ground system.

  7. A High Fidelity Approach to Data Simulation for Space Situational Awareness Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerty, S.; Ellis, H., Jr.

    2016-09-01

    Space Situational Awareness (SSA) is vital to maintaining our Space Superiority. A high fidelity, time-based simulation tool, PROXOR™ (Proximity Operations and Rendering), supports SSA by generating realistic mission scenarios including sensor frame data with corresponding truth. This is a unique and critical tool for supporting mission architecture studies, new capability (algorithm) development, current/future capability performance analysis, and mission performance prediction. PROXOR™ provides a flexible architecture for sensor and resident space object (RSO) orbital motion and attitude control that simulates SSA, rendezvous and proximity operations scenarios. The major elements of interest are based on the ability to accurately simulate all aspects of the RSO model, viewing geometry, imaging optics, sensor detector, and environmental conditions. These capabilities enhance the realism of mission scenario models and generated mission image data. As an input, PROXOR™ uses a library of 3-D satellite models containing 10+ satellites, including low-earth orbit (e.g., DMSP) and geostationary (e.g., Intelsat) spacecraft, where the spacecraft surface properties are those of actual materials and include Phong and Maxwell-Beard bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) coefficients for accurate radiometric modeling. We calculate the inertial attitude, the changing solar and Earth illumination angles of the satellite, and the viewing angles from the sensor as we propagate the RSO in its orbit. The synthetic satellite image is rendered at high resolution and aggregated to the focal plane resolution resulting in accurate radiometry even when the RSO is a point source. The sensor model includes optical effects from the imaging system [point spread function (PSF) includes aberrations, obscurations, support structures, defocus], detector effects (CCD blooming, left/right bias, fixed pattern noise, image persistence, shot noise, read noise, and quantization

  8. Communications During Critical Mission Operations: Preparing for InSight's Landing on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar, Sami; Oudrhiri, Kamal; Kurtik, Susan; Weinstein-Weiss, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    Radio communications with deep space missions are often taken for granted due to the impressively successful records since, for decades, the technology and infrastructure have been developed for ground and flight systems to optimize telemetry and commanding. During mission-critical events such as the entry, descent, and landing of a spacecraft on the surface of Mars, the signal's level and frequency dynamics vary significantly and typically exceed the threshold of the budgeted links. The challenge is increased when spacecraft shed antennas with heat shields and other hardware during those risky few minutes. We have in the past successfully received signals on Earth during critical events even ones not intended for ground reception. These included the UHF signal transmitted by Curiosity to Marsorbiting assets. Since NASA's Deep Space Network does not operate in the UHF band, large radio telescopes around the world are utilized. The Australian CSIRO Parkes Radio Telescope supported the Curiosity UHF signal reception and DSN receivers, tools, and expertise were used in the process. In preparation for the InSight mission's landing on Mars in 2016, preparations are underway to support the UHF communications. This paper presents communication scenarios with radio telescopes, and the DSN receiver and tools. It also discusses the usefulness of the real-time information content for better response time by the mission team towards successful mission operations.

  9. The importance of scientific literacy to OCRWM's mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, G.P.

    1990-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) has the unique mission of finding a permanent solution to the nation's high-level radioactive waste management problems. This paper explores a vital question: will OCRWM have sufficient scientific and technical resources as well as a sufficient level of public support to carry out its mission? An affirmative answer to this question will require that adequate numbers of science and engineering students enter the field of radioactive waste management and that overall scientific literacy also be enhanced. This paper outlines current activities and programs within DOE and OCRWM to increase scientific literacy and to recruit and develop scientists and engineers. While this paper offers only a summary inspection of the issues surrounding the solution of developing and maintaining the human technical capabilities to carry forth OCRWM's mission, it is meant to initiate a continuing examination by the American Nuclear Society, DOE, and professional and technical societies of fundamental scientific education issues

  10. Site Support Program Plan Infrastructure Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-26

    The Fiscal Year 1996 Infrastructure Program Site Support Program Plan addresses the mission objectives, workscope, work breakdown structures (WBS), management approach, and resource requirements for the Infrastructure Program. Attached to the plan are appendices that provide more detailed information associated with scope definition. The Hanford Site`s infrastructure has served the Site for nearly 50 years during defense materials production. Now with the challenges of the new environmental cleanup mission, Hanford`s infrastructure must meet current and future mission needs in a constrained budget environment, while complying with more stringent environmental, safety, and health regulations. The infrastructure requires upgrading, streamlining, and enhancement in order to successfully support the site mission of cleaning up the Site, research and development, and economic transition.

  11. Exploration-Related Research on the International Space Station: Connecting Science Results to the Design of Future Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer L.; Robinson, Julie A.; Sawin, Charles F.; Ahlf, Peter R.

    2005-01-01

    In January, 2004, the US President announced a vision for space exploration, and charged NASA with utilizing the International Space Station (ISS) for research and technology targeted at supporting the US space exploration goals. This paper describes: 1) what we have learned from the first four years of research on ISS relative to the exploration mission, 2) the on-going research being conducted in this regard, 3) our current understanding of the major exploration mission risks that the ISS can be used to address, and 4) current progress in realigning NASA s research portfolio for ISS to support exploration missions. Specifically, we discuss the focus of research on solving the perplexing problems of maintaining human health on long-duration missions, and the development of countermeasures to protect humans from the space environment, enabling long duration exploration missions. The interchange between mission design and research needs is dynamic, where design decisions influence the type of research needed, and results of research influence design decisions. The fundamental challenge to science on ISS is completing experiments that answer key questions in time to shape design decisions for future exploration. In this context, exploration-relevant research must do more than be conceptually connected to design decisions-it must become a part of the mission design process.

  12. Micro-Inspector Spacecraft for Space Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Juergen; Alkalai, Leon; Lewis, Carol

    2005-01-01

    NASA is seeking to embark on a new set of human and robotic exploration missions back to the Moon, to Mars, and destinations beyond. Key strategic technical challenges will need to be addressed to realize this new vision for space exploration, including improvements in safety and reliability to improve robustness of space operations. Under sponsorship by NASA's Exploration Systems Mission, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), together with its partners in government (NASA Johnson Space Center) and industry (Boeing, Vacco Industries, Ashwin-Ushas Inc.) is developing an ultra-low mass (missions. The micro-inspector will provide remote vehicle inspections to ensure safety and reliability, or to provide monitoring of in-space assembly. The micro-inspector spacecraft represents an inherently modular system addition that can improve safety and support multiple host vehicles in multiple applications. On human missions, it may help extend the reach of human explorers, decreasing human EVA time to reduce mission cost and risk. The micro-inspector development is the continuation of an effort begun under NASA's Office of Aerospace Technology Enabling Concepts and Technology (ECT) program. The micro-inspector uses miniaturized celestial sensors; relies on a combination of solar power and batteries (allowing for unlimited operation in the sun and up to 4 hours in the shade); utilizes a low-pressure, low-leakage liquid butane propellant system for added safety; and includes multi-functional structure for high system-level integration and miniaturization. Versions of this system to be designed and developed under the H&RT program will include additional capabilities for on-board, vision-based navigation, spacecraft inspection, and collision avoidance, and will be demonstrated in a ground-based, space-related environment. These features make the micro-inspector design unique in its ability to serve crewed as well as robotic spacecraft, well beyond Earth-orbit and into arenas such

  13. Planetary protection implementation on future Mars lander missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Robert; Devincenzi, Donald L.

    1993-01-01

    A workshop was convened to discuss the subject of planetary protection implementation for Mars lander missions. It was sponsored and organized by the Exobiology Implementation Team of the U.S./Russian Joint Working Group on Space Biomedical and Life Support Systems. The objective of the workshop was to discuss planetary protection issues for the Russian Mars '94 mission, which is currently under development, as well as for additional future Mars lander missions including the planned Mars '96 and U.S. MESUR Pathfinder and Network missions. A series of invited presentations was made to ensure that workshop participants had access to information relevant to the planned discussions. The topics summarized in this report include exobiology science objectives for Mars exploration, current international policy on planetary protection, planetary protection requirements developed for earlier missions, mission plans and designs for future U.S. and Russian Mars landers, biological contamination of spacecraft components, and techniques for spacecraft bioload reduction. In addition, the recent recommendations of the U.S. Space Studies Board (SSB) on this subject were also summarized. Much of the discussion focused on the recommendations of the SSB. The SSB proposed relaxing the planetary protection requirements for those Mars lander missions that do not contain life detection experiments, but maintaining Viking-like requirements for those missions that do contain life detection experiments. The SSB recommendations were found to be acceptable as a guide for future missions, although many questions and concerns about interpretation were raised and are summarized. Significant among the concerns was the need for more quantitative guidelines to prevent misinterpretation by project offices and better access to and use of the Viking data base of bioassays to specify microbial burden targets. Among the questions raised were how will the SSB recommendations be integrated with existing

  14. Planetary protection implementation on future Mars lander missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Robert; Devincenzi, Donald L.

    1993-06-01

    A workshop was convened to discuss the subject of planetary protection implementation for Mars lander missions. It was sponsored and organized by the Exobiology Implementation Team of the U.S./Russian Joint Working Group on Space Biomedical and Life Support Systems. The objective of the workshop was to discuss planetary protection issues for the Russian Mars '94 mission, which is currently under development, as well as for additional future Mars lander missions including the planned Mars '96 and U.S. MESUR Pathfinder and Network missions. A series of invited presentations was made to ensure that workshop participants had access to information relevant to the planned discussions. The topics summarized in this report include exobiology science objectives for Mars exploration, current international policy on planetary protection, planetary protection requirements developed for earlier missions, mission plans and designs for future U.S. and Russian Mars landers, biological contamination of spacecraft components, and techniques for spacecraft bioload reduction. In addition, the recent recommendations of the U.S. Space Studies Board (SSB) on this subject were also summarized. Much of the discussion focused on the recommendations of the SSB. The SSB proposed relaxing the planetary protection requirements for those Mars lander missions that do not contain life detection experiments, but maintaining Viking-like requirements for those missions that do contain life detection experiments. The SSB recommendations were found to be acceptable as a guide for future missions, although many questions and concerns about interpretation were raised and are summarized. Significant among the concerns was the need for more quantitative guidelines to prevent misinterpretation by project offices and better access to and use of the Viking data base of bio-assays to specify microbial burden targets. Among the questions raised were how will the SSB recommendations be integrated with existing

  15. THE PLIGHT OF GERMAN MISSIONS IN MANDATE CAMEROON: AN HISTORICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang Michael Kpughe

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The First World War and its resultant Mandate and Trusteeship systems greatly affected the German mission enterprise in Cameroon. Apart from causing the forceful ousting of German missionaries from Cameroon, the British and the French whom the League of Nations and United Nations successively chose as administering powers within the Mandate and Trusteeship frameworks adopted hostile policies towards German missions. From the beginning of the war to the post-Second World War era, the foundation of German missions was seriously threatened. This paper critically examines the treatment of German missions in both British and French Cameroons during the Mandate and Trusteeship periods, focusing especially on the opposing attitudes of both administering powers towards the missions in their spheres of influence. The paper establishes that the administering powers’ treatment of German missions, which was underpinned by imperial and nationalist exigencies, roiled the attainment of the triple missionization agenda of planting self-supporting, self-governing and self-evangelizing churches. It thus argues that the First World War triggered the mistreatment of German missions, with some missions forced to terminate their activities while others were allowed to continue their mission work under difficult conditions.

  16. DOE Hanford Network Upgrades and Disaster Recovery Exercise Support the Cleanup Mission Now and into the Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckman, Todd J.; Hertzel, Ali K.; Lane, James J.

    2013-11-07

    In 2013, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site, located in Washington State, funded an update to the critical network infrastructure supporting the Hanford Federal Cloud (HFC). The project, called ET-50, was the final step in a plan that was initiated five years ago called "Hanford's IT Vision, 2015 and Beyond." The ET-50 project upgraded Hanford's core data center switches and routers along with a majority of the distribution layer switches. The upgrades allowed HFC the network intelligence to provide Hanford with a more reliable and resilient network architecture. The culmination of the five year plan improved network intelligence and high performance computing as well as helped to provide 10 Gbps capable links between core backbone devices (10 times the previous bandwidth). These improvements allow Hanford the ability to further support bandwidth intense applications, such as video teleconferencing. The ET-50 switch upgrade, along with other upgrades implemented from the five year plan, have prepared Hanford's network for the next evolution of technology in voice, video, and data. Hand-in-hand with ET-50's major data center outage, Mission Support Alliance's (MSA) Information Management (IM) organization executed a disaster recovery (DR) exercise to perform a true integration test and capability study. The DR scope was planned within the constraints of ET-50's 14 hour datacenter outage window. This DR exercise tested Hanford's Continuity of Operations (COOP) capability and failover plans for safety and business critical Hanford Federal Cloud applications. The planned suite of services to be tested was identified prior to the outage and plans were prepared to test the services ability to failover from the primary Hanford data center to the backup data center. The services tested were: Core Network (backbone, firewall, load balancers); Voicemail; Voice over IP (VoIP); Emergency Notification; Virtual desktops

  17. DOE Hanford Network Upgrades and Disaster Recovery Exercise Support the Cleanup Mission Now and into the Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckman, Todd J.; Hertzel, Ali K.; Lane, James J.

    2013-01-01

    In 2013, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site, located in Washington State, funded an update to the critical network infrastructure supporting the Hanford Federal Cloud (HFC). The project, called ET-50, was the final step in a plan that was initiated five years ago called 'Hanford's IT Vision, 2015 and Beyond.' The ET-50 project upgraded Hanford's core data center switches and routers along with a majority of the distribution layer switches. The upgrades allowed HFC the network intelligence to provide Hanford with a more reliable and resilient network architecture. The culmination of the five year plan improved network intelligence and high performance computing as well as helped to provide 10 Gbps capable links between core backbone devices (10 times the previous bandwidth). These improvements allow Hanford the ability to further support bandwidth intense applications, such as video teleconferencing. The ET-50 switch upgrade, along with other upgrades implemented from the five year plan, have prepared Hanford's network for the next evolution of technology in voice, video, and data. Hand-in-hand with ET-50's major data center outage, Mission Support Alliance's (MSA) Information Management (IM) organization executed a disaster recovery (DR) exercise to perform a true integration test and capability study. The DR scope was planned within the constraints of ET-50's 14 hour datacenter outage window. This DR exercise tested Hanford's Continuity of Operations (COOP) capability and failover plans for safety and business critical Hanford Federal Cloud applications. The planned suite of services to be tested was identified prior to the outage and plans were prepared to test the services ability to failover from the primary Hanford data center to the backup data center. The services tested were: Core Network (backbone, firewall, load balancers); Voicemail; Voice over IP (VoIP); Emergency Notification; Virtual desktops; and, Select set of production applications

  18. Atmosphere composition monitor for space station and advanced missions application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynveen, R.A.; Powell, F.T.

    1987-01-01

    Long-term human occupation of extraterrestrial locations may soon become a reality. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has recently completed the definition and preliminary design of the low earth orbit (LEO) space station. They are now currently moving into the detailed design and fabrication phase of this space station and are also beginning to analyze the requirements of several future missions that have been identified. These missions include, for example, Lunar and Mars sorties, outposts, bases, and settlements. A requirement of both the LEO space station and future missions are environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS), which provide a comfortable environment for humans to live and work. The ECLSS consists of several major systems, including atmosphere revitalization system (ARS), atmosphere pressure and composition control system, temperature and humidity control system, water reclamation system, and waste management system. Each of these major systems is broken down into subsystems, assemblies, units, and instruments. Many requirements and design drivers are different for the ECLSS of the LEO space station and the identified advanced missions (e.g., longer mission duration). This paper discusses one of the ARS assemblies, the atmosphere composition monitor assembly (ACMA), being developed for the LEO space station and addresses differences that will exist for the ACMA of future missions

  19. Mercury compositional units inferred by MDIS. A comparison with the geology in support to the BepiColombo mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, Francesca; Carli, Cristian; Galluzzi, Valentina; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Filacchione, Gianrico; Giacomini, Lorenza; Massirioni, Matteo; Palumbo, Pasquale

    2016-04-01

    distributed distinct spectral units. Therefore, integrating the spectral variability to a well defined morpho-stratigraphic (photo-interpreted) map will permit to improve the geologic map itself, defining sub-units, and associating spectral properties to analogue deposits. We are working to produce quadrangles color mosaics and high resolution color mosaics of smaller areas to define color products (common planetary geologic map) and obtain an "advanced" geologic map. The mapping process permits integration of different geological surface information to better understand the planet crust formation and evolution. Merging data from different instruments provides additional information about lithological composition, contributing to the construction of a more complete geological map (e.g., Giacomini et al., 2012). These work has been done in support of the BepiColombo Mission, which has an innovative Spectrometer and Imagers Integrated Observatory SYStem (SIMBIO-SYS). SIMBIO-SYS is composed by three instruments, the visible-near-infrared imaging spectrometer (VIHI), the high-resolution imager (HRIC) and the stereo imaging system (STC) which will be albe to improve the knowledge of Mercury surface form the geological and compositional point of view. This research was supported by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) within the SIMBIOSYS project (ASI-INAF agreement no. I/022/10/0)

  20. Global astrometry with the space interferometry mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, A.; Unwin, S.; Shao, M.

    1997-01-01

    The prospects for global astrometric measurements with the space interferometry mission (SIM) are discussed. The SIM mission will perform four microarcsec astrometric measurements on objects as faint as 20 mag using the optical interferometry technique with a 10 m baseline. The SIM satellite will perform narrow angle astrometry and global astrometry by means of an astrometric grid. The sensitivities of the SIM global astrometric performance and the grid accuracy versus instrumental parameters and sky coverage schemes are reported on. The problems in finding suitable astrometric grid objects to support microarcsec astrometry, and related ground-based observation programs are discussed.

  1. Model Based Mission Assurance: Emerging Opportunities for Robotic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, John W.; DiVenti, Tony

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) in a Model Based Engineering framework has created new opportunities to improve effectiveness and efficiencies across the assurance functions. The MBSE environment supports not only system architecture development, but provides for support of Systems Safety, Reliability and Risk Analysis concurrently in the same framework. Linking to detailed design will further improve assurance capabilities to support failures avoidance and mitigation in flight systems. This also is leading new assurance functions including model assurance and management of uncertainty in the modeling environment. Further, the assurance cases, a structured hierarchal argument or model, are emerging as a basis for supporting a comprehensive viewpoint in which to support Model Based Mission Assurance (MBMA).

  2. (abstract) Science-Project Interaction in the Low-Cost Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Stephen D.

    1994-01-01

    Large, complex, and highly optimized missions have performed most of the preliminary reconnaisance of the solar system. As a result we have now mapped significant fractions of its total surface (or surface-equivalent) area. Now, however, scientific exploration of the solar system is undergoing a major change in scale, and existing missions find it necessary to limit costs while fulfilling existing goals. In the future, NASA's Discovery program will continue the reconnaisance, exploration, and diagnostic phases of planetary research using lower cost missions, which will include lower cost mission operations systems (MOS). Historically, one of the more expensive functions of MOS has been its interaction with the science community. Traditional MOS elements that this interaction have embraced include mission planning, science (and engineering) event conflict resolution, sequence optimization and integration, data production (e.g., assembly, enhancement, quality assurance, documentation, archive), and other science support services. In the past, the payoff from these efforts has been that use of mission resources has been highly optimized, constraining resources have been generally completely consumed, and data products have been accurate and well documented. But because these functions are expensive we are now challenged to reduce their cost while preserving the benefits. In this paper, we will consider ways of revising the traditional MOS approach that might save project resources while retaining a high degree of service to the Projects' customers. Pre-launch, science interaction can be made simplier by limiting numbers of instruments and by providing greater redundancy in mission plans. Post launch, possibilities include prioritizing data collection into a few categories, easing requirements on real-time of quick-look data delivery, and closer integration of scientists into the mission operation.

  3. Analogs and the BHP Risk Reduction Strategy for Future Spaceflight Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmire, Sandra; Leveton, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    In preparation for future exploration missions to distant destinations (e.g., Moon, Near Earth Objects (NEO), and Mars), the NASA Human Research Program s (HRP) Behavioral Health and Performance Element (BHP) conducts and supports research to address four human health risks: Risk of Behavioral Conditions; Risk of Psychiatric Conditions; Risk of Performance Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team; and Risk of Performance Errors due to Sleep Loss, Fatigue, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload (HRP Science Management Plan, 2008). BHP Research, in collaboration with internal and external research investigators, as well as subject matter experts within NASA operations including flight surgeons, astronauts, and mission planners and others within the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD), identifies knowledge and technology gaps within each Risk. BHP Research subsequently manages and conducts research tasks to address and close the gaps, either through risk assessment and quantification, or the development of countermeasures and monitoring technologies. The resulting deliverables, in many instances, also support current Medical Operations and/or Mission Operations for the International Space Station (ISS).

  4. Improved Traceability of Mission Concept to Requirements Using Model Based Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reil, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) has recently been gaining significant support as a means to improve the traditional document-based systems engineering (DBSE) approach to engineering complex systems. In the spacecraft design domain, there are many perceived and propose benefits of an MBSE approach, but little analysis has been presented to determine the tangible benefits of such an approach (e.g. time and cost saved, increased product quality). This thesis presents direct examples of how developing a small satellite system model can improve traceability of the mission concept to its requirements. A comparison of the processes and approaches for MBSE and DBSE is made using the NASA Ames Research Center SporeSat CubeSat mission as a case study. A model of the SporeSat mission is built using the Systems Modeling Language standard and No Magics MagicDraw modeling tool. The model incorporates mission concept and requirement information from the missions original DBSE design efforts. Active dependency relationships are modeled to analyze the completeness and consistency of the requirements to the mission concept. Overall experience and methodology are presented for both the MBSE and original DBSE design efforts of SporeSat.

  5. Integrated Warfighter Biodefense Program (IWBP) - Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    one another or with environments to spread disease such as indirect transmission of cholera via water. In this paper only localized mixing is...from WHO reports and other sources. Cholera , Pneumonia, Malaria, and Hepatitis A were selected as representative diseases as their methods of...A(H1N1) and US NORTHCOM In March 2009, the US identified its first cases of „swine flu‟ in New York. Initial reports of cases in Mexico , where the

  6. Real-time data system: Incorporating new technology in mission critical environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratore, John F.; Heindel, Troy A.

    1990-01-01

    If the Space Station Freedom is to remain viable over its 30-year life span, it must be able to incorporate new information systems technologies. These technologies are necessary to enhance mission effectiveness and to enable new NASA missions, such as supporting the Lunar-Mars Initiative. Hi-definition television (HDTV), neural nets, model-based reasoning, advanced languages, CPU designs, and computer networking standards are areas which have been forecasted to make major strides in the next 30 years. A major challenge to NASA is to bring these technologies online without compromising mission safety. In past programs, NASA managers have been understandably reluctant to rely on new technologies for mission critical activities until they are proven in noncritical areas. NASA must develop strategies to allow inflight confidence building and migration of technologies into the trusted tool base. NASA has successfully met this challenge and developed a winning strategy in the Space Shuttle Mission Control Center. This facility, which is clearly among NASA's most critical, is based on 1970's mainframe architecture. Changes to the mainframe are very expensive due to the extensive testing required to prove that changes do not have unanticipated impact on critical processes. Systematic improvement efforts in this facility have been delayed due to this 'risk to change.' In the real-time data system (RTDS) we have introduced a network of engineering computer workstations which run in parallel to the mainframe system. These workstations are located next to flight controller operating positions in mission control and, in some cases, the display units are mounted in the traditional mainframe consoles. This system incorporates several major improvements over the mainframe consoles including automated fault detection by real-time expert systems and color graphic animated schematics of subsystems driven by real-time telemetry. The workstations have the capability of recording

  7. Space and Earth Sciences, Computer Systems, and Scientific Data Analysis Support, Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Ronald H. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This Final Progress Report covers the specific technical activities of Hughes STX Corporation for the last contract triannual period of 1 June through 30 Sep. 1993, in support of assigned task activities at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). It also provides a brief summary of work throughout the contract period of performance on each active task. Technical activity is presented in Volume 1, while financial and level-of-effort data is presented in Volume 2. Technical support was provided to all Division and Laboratories of Goddard's Space Sciences and Earth Sciences Directorates. Types of support include: scientific programming, systems programming, computer management, mission planning, scientific investigation, data analysis, data processing, data base creation and maintenance, instrumentation development, and management services. Mission and instruments supported include: ROSAT, Astro-D, BBXRT, XTE, AXAF, GRO, COBE, WIND, UIT, SMM, STIS, HEIDI, DE, URAP, CRRES, Voyagers, ISEE, San Marco, LAGEOS, TOPEX/Poseidon, Pioneer-Venus, Galileo, Cassini, Nimbus-7/TOMS, Meteor-3/TOMS, FIFE, BOREAS, TRMM, AVHRR, and Landsat. Accomplishments include: development of computing programs for mission science and data analysis, supercomputer applications support, computer network support, computational upgrades for data archival and analysis centers, end-to-end management for mission data flow, scientific modeling and results in the fields of space and Earth physics, planning and design of GSFC VO DAAC and VO IMS, fabrication, assembly, and testing of mission instrumentation, and design of mission operations center.

  8. The MSG Central Facility - A Mission Control System for Windows NT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R.

    The MSG Central Facility, being developed by Science Systems for EUMETSAT1, represents the first of a new generation of satellite mission control systems, based on the Windows NT operating system. The system makes use of a range of new technologies to provide an integrated environment for the planning, scheduling, control and monitoring of the entire Meteosat Second Generation mission. It supports packetised TM/TC and uses Science System's Space UNiT product to provide automated operations support at both Schedule (Timeline) and Procedure levels. Flexible access to historical data is provided through an operations archive based on ORACLE Enterprise Server, hosted on a large RAID array and off-line tape jukebox. Event driven real-time data distribution is based on the CORBA standard. Operations preparation and configuration control tools form a fully integrated element of the system.

  9. Abort Region Determinator (ARD) module feasibility report. Mission planning, mission analysis and software formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draeger, B. G.; Joyner, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed performance evaluation of the Abort Region Determinator (ARD) module design was provided in support of OFT-1 ascent and OFT-1 intact launch aborts. The evaluation method used compared ARD results against results obtained using the full-up Space Vehicle Dynamic Simulations program under the same conditions. Results were presented for each of the three major ARD math models: (1) the ascent numerical integrator; (2) the mass model, and (3) the second stage predictor as well as the total ARD module. These results demonstrate that the baselined ARD module meets all design objectives for mission control center orbital flight test launch/abort support.

  10. CORR Guidelines. Preparing and Conducting Review Missions of Construction Project Readiness for Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The construction readiness review (CORR) mission for nuclear power plant projects has been established with the aim of conducting peer reviews of construction projects related to nuclear power plants. Such a mission provides a detailed assessment of readiness for construction, construction progress, readiness for turnover, as well as recommendations for improvement. Organizations in Member States, such as nuclear utilities, owners, regulators and technical support organizations, can benefit from such reviews. A team of international experts with complementing specialities will conduct the CORR mission. The review is based on appropriate IAEA publications, such as IAEA Safety Standards Series Guides and IAEA Nuclear Energy Series publications, as well as on internationally recognized project and construction management guides. Mission findings are summarized in a mission report, which includes a list of recommendations, suggestions and identified good practices. The review is not intended to be a regulatory inspection or an audit against international codes and standards. Rather, it is a peer review aimed at improving implementation processes and procedures through an exchange of technical experiences and practices at the working level. The mission is applicable at any stage of a nuclear power plant construction project, although two specific phases are targeted: (1) start of construction mission (Phase 1 mission) and (2) an in-progress mission (Phase 2 mission). Missions are initiated when official requests are submitted by Member States through the appropriate IAEA channels

  11. Benefits of Delay Tolerant Networking for Earth Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Faith; Marquart, Jane; Menke, Greg

    2012-01-01

    To date there has been much discussion about the value of Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN) for space missions. Claims of various benefits, based on paper analysis, are good; however a benefits statement with empirical evidence to support is even better. This paper presents potential and actual advantages of using DTN for Earth science missions based on results from multiple demonstrations, conducted by the Communications, Standards, and Technology Laboratory (CSTL) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Demonstrations included two flight demonstrations using the Earth Observing Mission 1 (EO-1) and the Near Earth Network (NEN), a ground based demonstration over satellite links to the Internet Router in Space (IRIS) payload on Intelsat-14, and others using the NASA Tracking Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). Real and potential findings include increased flexibility and efficiency in science campaigns, reduced latency in a collaborative science scenario, and improved scientist-instrument communication and control.

  12. IAEA Remediation Mission Issues Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Full text: A team of international experts today completed their assessment of the strategy and plans being considered by the Japanese authorities to remediate the areas off-site TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Their Final Report, delivered to the Japanese authorities, is available here. ''A lot of good work, done at all levels, is on-going in Japan in the area of environmental remediation,'' said Juan Carlos Lentijo, Team Leader and General Director for Radiation Protection at Spain's nuclear regulatory authority. In the report, Japan is encouraged to continue its remediation efforts, taking into account the advice provided by the Mission. ''In the early phases of the Fukushima Daiichi accident, a very cautious approach was adopted by the Japanese authorities in terms of dealing with the handling of residue materials. It is considered right to do so,'' Lentijo said. ''However, at this point in time, we see that there is room to take a more balanced approach, focussing on the real priority areas, classifying residue materials and adopting appropriate remediation measures on the basis of the results of safety assessments for each specific situation.'' The IAEA stands ready to support Japan as it continues its efforts to remediate the environment in the area off-site the Fukushima Daiichi NPP. The IAEA sent the mission to Japan from 7 to 15 October 2011 following a request from the country's government. The mission, comprising 12 international and IAEA experts from several countries, visited numerous locations in the Fukushima Prefecture and conducted meetings in Tokyo and Fukushima with Japanese officials from several ministries and institutions. A Preliminary Summary Report was issued on 14 October. Background The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP has led to elevated levels of radiation over large areas. The Government of Japan has been formulating a strategy and plans to implement countermeasures to remediate these areas. The IAEA

  13. Research Objectives for Human Missions in the Proving Ground of Cis-Lunar Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, James; Niles, Paul; Eppler, Dean; Kennedy, Kriss; Lewis, Ruthan; Sullivan, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: This talk will introduce the preliminary findings in support of NASA's Future Capabilities Team. In support of the ongoing studies conducted by NASA's Future Capabilities Team, we are tasked with collecting re-search objectives for the Proving Ground activities. The objectives could include but are certainly not limited to: demonstrating crew well being and performance over long duration missions, characterizing lunar volatiles, Earth monitoring, near Earth object search and identification, support of a far-side radio telescope, and measuring impact of deep space environment on biological systems. Beginning in as early as 2023, crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit will be enabled by the new capabilities of the SLS and Orion vehicles. This will initiate the "Proving Ground" phase of human exploration with Mars as an ultimate destination. The primary goal of the Proving Ground is to demonstrate the capability of suitably long dura-tion spaceflight without need of continuous support from Earth, i.e. become Earth Independent. A major component of the Proving Ground phase is to conduct research activities aimed at accomplishing major objectives selected from a wide variety of disciplines including but not limited to: Astronomy, Heliophysics, Fun-damental Physics, Planetary Science, Earth Science, Human Systems, Fundamental Space Biology, Microgravity, and In Situ Resource Utilization. Mapping and prioritizing the most important objectives from these disciplines will provide a strong foundation for establishing the architecture to be utilized in the Proving Ground. Possible Architectures: Activities and objectives will be accomplished during the Proving Ground phase using a deep space habitat. This habitat will potentially be accompanied by a power/propulsion bus capable of moving the habitat to accomplish different objectives within cis-lunar space. This architecture can also potentially support stag-ing of robotic and tele-robotic assets as well as

  14. 75 FR 19248 - Subject: Safety Zone; Sea World Summer Nights Fireworks, Mission Bay, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... can better evaluate its effects on them and participate in the rulemaking process. Small businesses...-AA00 Subject: Safety Zone; Sea World Summer Nights Fireworks, Mission Bay, San Diego, CA AGENCY: Coast... navigable waters of Mission Bay in support of the Sea World Summer Nights Fireworks. This safety zone is...

  15. Concepts of Operations for Asteroid Rendezvous Missions Focused on Resources Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Sibille, Laurent; Sanders, Gerald B.; Jones, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Several asteroids are the targets of international robotic space missions currently manifested or in the planning stage. This global interest reflects a need to study these celestial bodies for the scientific information they provide about our solar system, and to better understand how to mitigate the collision threats some of them pose to Earth. Another important objective of these missions is providing assessments of the potential resources that asteroids could provide to future space architectures. In this paper, we examine a series of possible mission operations focused on advancing both our knowledge of the types of asteroids suited for different forms of resource extraction, and the capabilities required to extract those resources for mission enhancing and enabling uses such as radiation protection, propulsion, life support, shelter and manufacturing. An evolutionary development and demonstration approach is recommended within the framework of a larger campaign that prepares for the first landings of humans on Mars. As is the case for terrestrial mining, the development and demonstration approach progresses from resource prospecting (understanding the resource, and mapping the 'ore body'), mining/extraction feasibility and product assessment, pilot operations, to full in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). Opportunities to gather specific knowledge for ISRU via resource prospecting during science missions to asteroids are also examined to maximize the pace of development of needed ISRU capabilities and technologies for deep space missions.

  16. Communicating LightSail: Embedded Reporting and Web Strategies for Citizen-Funded Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilverda, M.; Davis, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Planetary Society (TPS) is a non-profit space advocacy group with a stated mission to "empower the world's citizens to advance space science and exploration." In 2009, TPS began work on LightSail, a small, citizen-funded spacecraft to demonstrate solar sailing propulsion technology. The program included a test flight, completed in June 2015, with a primary mission slated for late 2016. TPS initiated a LightSail public engagement campaign to provide the public with transparent mission updates, and foster educational outreach. A credentialed science journalist was given unrestricted access to the team and data, and provided regular reports without editorial oversight. An accompanying website, sail.planetary.org, provided project updates, multimedia, and real-time spacecraft data during the mission. Design approaches included a clean layout with text optimized for easy reading, balanced by strong visual elements to enhance reader comprehension and interest. A dedicated "Mission Control" page featured social media feeds, links to most recent articles, and a ground track showing the spacecraft's position, including overflight predictions based on user location. A responsive, cross-platform design allowed easy access across a broad range of devices. Efficient web server performance was prioritized by implementing a static content management system (CMS). Despite two spacecraft contingencies, the test mission successfully completed its primary objective of solar sail deployment. Qualitative feedback on the transparent, embedded reporting style was positive, and website metrics showed high user retention times. The website also grew awareness and support for the primary 2016 mission, driving traffic to a Kickstarter campaign that raised $1.24 million. Websites constantly evolve, and changes for the primary mission will include a new CMS to better support multiple authors and a custom dashboard to display real-time spacecraft sensor data.

  17. Considering Intermittent Dormancy in an Advanced Life Support Systems Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Perry, Jay L.

    2017-01-01

    Many advanced human space exploration missions being considered by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) include concepts in which in-space systems cycle between inhabited and uninhabited states. Managing the life support system (LSS) may be particularly challenged during these periods of intermittent dormancy. A study to identify LSS management challenges and considerations relating to dormancy is described. The study seeks to define concepts suitable for addressing intermittent dormancy states and to evaluate whether the reference LSS architectures being considered by the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems Project (LSSP) are sufficient to support this operational state. The primary focus of the study is the mission concept considered to be the most challenging-a crewed Mars mission with an extensive surface stay. Results from this study are presented and discussed.

  18. Parker Solar Probe: A NASA Mission to Touch the Sun: Mission Status Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, N. J.

    2017-12-01

    The newly renamed, Parker Solar Probe (PSP) mission will be the first mission to fly into the low solar corona, revealing how the corona is heated and the solar wind and energetic particles are accelerated, solving fundamental mysteries that have been top priority science goals since such a mission was first proposed in 1958. The scale and concept of such a mission has been revised at intervals since that time, yet the core has always been a close encounter with the Sun. The primary science goal of the Parker Solar Probe mission is to determine the structure and dynamics of the Sun's coronal magnetic field, understand how the solar corona and wind are heated and accelerated, and determine what mechanisms accelerate and transport energetic particles. PSP uses an innovative mission design, significant technology development and a risk-reducing engineering development to meet the science objectives. In this presentation, we provide an update on the progress of the Parker Solar Probe mission as we prepare for the July 2018 launch.

  19. Research from the NASA Twins Study and Omics in Support of Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundrot, C.; Shelhamer, M.; Scott, G.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Twins Study, NASA's first foray into integrated omic studies in humans, illustrates how an integrated omics approach can be brought to bear on the challenges to human health and performance on a Mars mission. The NASA Twins Study involves US Astronaut Scott Kelly and his identical twin brother, Mark Kelly, a retired US Astronaut. No other opportunity to study a twin pair for a prolonged period with one subject in space and one on the ground is available for the foreseeable future. A team of 10 principal investigators are conducting the Twins Study, examining a very broad range of biological functions including the genome, epigenome, transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, gut microbiome, immunological response to vaccinations, indicators of atherosclerosis, physiological fluid shifts, and cognition. A novel aspect of the study is the integrated study of molecular, physiological, cognitive, and microbiological properties. Major sample and data collection from both subjects for this study began approximately six months before Scott Kelly's one year mission on the ISS, continue while Scott Kelly is in flight and will conclude approximately six months after his return to Earth. Mark Kelly will remain on Earth during this study, in a lifestyle unconstrained by this study, thereby providing a measure of normal variation in the properties being studied. An overview of initial results and the future plans will be described as well as the technological and ethical issues raised for spaceflight studies involving omics.

  20. Constellation Mission Operation Working Group: ESMO Maneuver Planning Process Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The Earth Science Mission Operation (ESMO) Project created an Independent Review Board to review our Conjunction Risk evaluation process and Maneuver Planning Process to identify improvements that safely manages mission conjunction risks, maintains ground track science requirements, and minimizes overall hours expended on High Interest Events (HIE). The Review Board is evaluating the current maneuver process which requires support by multiple groups. In the past year, there have been several changes to the processes although many prior and new concerns exist. This presentation will discuss maneuver process reviews and Board comments, ESMO assessment and path foward, ESMO future plans, recent changes and concerns.

  1. Objectives and Model Payload Definition for NEO Human Mission Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnelli, I.; Galvez, A.; Carpenter, J.

    2011-10-01

    ESA has supported studies on NEO threat assessment systems and deflection concepts in the context of the General Studies Programme and in close cooperation with the directorates of Technical and Quality Management and of the Scientific Programme. This work has made it possible to identify a project for Europe to make a significant - yet realistic - contribution to the international efforts in this field: the Don Quijote NEO technology demonstration mission. This paper describes what such a small mission can do to prepare future human exploration and what is the in-situ data that can be obtained through such a project.

  2. CADRE Quick-Look: Homeland Security-NORTHCOM's Coalition War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Conway, John L

    2005-01-01

    .... Coalition warfare has many facets: it involves the blending of different cultures, multiple languages dialects, and disparate weapon systems, as well as differing perceptions of end states and how to...

  3. Hello, world: Harnessing social media for the Rosetta mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Emily; Mignone, Claudia; O'Flaherty, Karen; Homfeld, Anne-Mareike; Bauer, Markus; McCaughrean, Mark

    2015-04-01

    The European Space Agency's (ESA) comet-chasing Rosetta mission was launched in 2004, before social media became a popular tool for mainstream communication. By harnessing a range of platforms for communicating the key messages of this unprecedented mission as it reached its destination ten years later, new audiences were reached and a global impact was achieved. Rosetta-specific social media accounts - @ESA_Rosetta on Twitter, the Rosetta Mission Facebook page and the rosettamission Instagram account - were developed during 2013/14 and used alongside the traditional reporting line of the main ESA website and the Rosetta blog to build awareness about the mission. Coordinated with ESA's existing social media channels (Flickr, YouTube, G+, Twitter, Facebook and Livestream) and with the support of ESA's country desks and Rosetta partner agency accounts (including @philae2014), information could be shared in a number of European languages, ensuring a wide reach across Europe - and the world. We discuss the roles of the various social media accounts in supporting and promoting the competitions and social media campaigns that were built around the key mission milestones of 2014: waking up from deep space hibernation (January), arriving at Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (August) and naming the landing site for Philae ahead of the landing event in November. We discuss the different approach to each channel, such as the first person twitter accounts, the dialogue with and between blog users, and the discussions held live via G+ Hangouts with leading scientists and spacecraft operators. We compare and contrast the audiences, the interaction we had with them and how challenges were overcome. We also use the science-fiction-meets-science-fact Ambition short movie, and its "undercover" dissemination on social media, as an example of how the profile of the Rosetta mission was raised in a unique way. By using a variety of social media platforms to target different audiences with

  4. Walking the Walk/Talking the Talk: Mission Planning with Speech-Interactive Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Benjamin; Short, Philip; Webb, Stewart

    2010-01-01

    The application of simulation technology to mission planning and rehearsal has enabled realistic overhead 2-D and immersive 3-D "fly-through" capabilities that can help better prepare tactical teams for conducting missions in unfamiliar locales. For aircrews, detailed terrain data can offer a preview of the relevant landmarks and hazards, and threat models can provide a comprehensive glimpse of potential hot zones and safety corridors. A further extension of the utility of such planning and rehearsal techniques would allow users to perform the radio communications planned for a mission; that is, the air-ground coordination that is critical to the success of missions such as close air support (CAS). Such practice opportunities, while valuable, are limited by the inescapable scarcity of complete mission teams to gather in space and time during planning and rehearsal cycles. Moreoever, using simulated comms with synthetic entities, despite the substantial training and cost benefits, remains an elusive objective. In this paper we report on a solution to this gap that incorporates "synthetic teammates" - intelligent software agents that can role-play entities in a mission scenario and that can communicate in spoken language with users. We employ a fielded mission planning and rehearsal tool so that our focus remains on the experimental objectives of the research rather than on developing a testbed from scratch. Use of this planning tool also helps to validate the approach in an operational system. The result is a demonstration of a mission rehearsal tool that allows aircrew users to not only fly the mission but also practice the verbal communications with air control agencies and tactical controllers on the ground. This work will be presented in a CAS mission planning example but has broad applicability across weapons systems, missions and tactical force compositions.

  5. Space missions to the exoplanets: Will they ever be possible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genta, Giancarlo

    using a spacecraft to physically transfer back the information on a support of some type (the so called data clippers) may make missions of type 2 to be only marginally less complex than missions of type 3. Missions of type 3 are at least twice as demanding than those of type 2 for what propulsion is required, and are also much more demanding also from the viewpoint of autonomy. On the contrary, they may be simpler from the viewpoint of communications. Finally, missions of type 4 are often regarded as belonging to the science fiction domain more than to that of feasible realities. However, they might be the only possibility if the progress in the field of robotics and artificial intelligence will fall short from making it possible to proceed with robotic missions. As a conclusion, we can assess that, short of unpredictable technological breakthroughs, missions to the exoplanets are still far away in the future and educated guesses can set them centuries away from now. What can be done is to identify critical technologies and assess a roadmap to increase their technological readiness. This effort is really worthwhile, since aiming at a very difficult task like interstellar missions, will yield a positive fallout on space exploration in general. --- This paper is meant for the Panel on Exoplanetary Exploration (PEPE) which is not included in the list above, so it was included in PEX.1

  6. Data and Geocomputation: Time Critical Mission Support for the 2017 Hurricane Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaduri, B. L.; Tuttle, M.; Rose, A.; Sanyal, J.; Thakur, G.; White, D.; Yang, H. H.; Laverdiere, M.; Whitehead, M.; Taylor, H.; Jacob, M.

    2017-12-01

    A strong spatial data infrastructure and geospatial analysis capabilities are nucleus to the decision-making process during emergency preparedness, response, and recovery operations. For over a decade, the U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been developing critical data and analytical capabilities that provide the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the rest of the federal response community assess and evaluate impacts of natural hazards on population and critical infrastructures including the status of the national electricity and oil and natural gas networks. These capabilities range from identifying structures or buildings from very high-resolution satellite imagery, utilizing machine learning and high-performance computing, to daily assessment of electricity restoration highlighting changes in nighttime lights for the impacted region based on the analysis of NOAA JPSS VIIRS Day/Night Band (DNB) imagery. This presentation will highlight our time critical mission support efforts for the 2017 hurricane season that witnessed unprecedented devastation from hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria. ORNL provided 90m resolution LandScan USA population distribution data for identifying vulnerable population as well as structure (buildings) data extracted from 1m imagery for damage assessment. Spatially accurate data for solid waste facilities were developed and delivered to the response community. Human activity signatures were assessed from large scale collection of open source social media data around points of interests (POI) to ascertain level of destruction. The electricity transmission system was monitored in real time from data integration from hundreds of utilities and electricity outage information were provided back to the response community via standardized web-services.

  7. Lidar instruments for ESA Earth observation missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hélière, Arnaud; Armandillo, Errico; Durand, Yannig; Culoma, Alain; Meynart, Roland

    2017-11-01

    The idea of deploying a lidar system on an Earthorbiting satellite stems from the need for continuously providing profiles of our atmospheric structure with high accuracy and resolution and global coverage. Interest in this information for climatology, meteorology and the atmospheric sciences in general is huge. Areas of application range from the determination of global warming and greenhouse effects, to monitoring the transport and accumulation of pollutants in the different atmospheric regions (such as the recent fires in Southeast Asia), to the assessment of the largely unknown microphysical properties and the structural dynamics of the atmosphere itself. Spaceborne lidar systems have been the subject of extensive investigations by the European Space Agency since mid 1970's, resulting in mission and instrument concepts, such as ATLID, the cloud backscatter lidar payload of the EarthCARE mission, ALADIN, the Doppler wind lidar of the Atmospheric Dynamics Mission (ADM) and more recently a water vapour Differential Absorption Lidar considered for the WALES mission. These studies have shown the basic scientific and technical feasibility of spaceborne lidars, but they have also demonstrated their complexity from the instrument viewpoint. As a result, the Agency undertook technology development in order to strengthen the instrument maturity. This is the case for ATLID, which benefited from a decade of technology development and supporting studies and is now studied in the frame of the EarthCARE mission. ALADIN, a Direct Detection Doppler Wind Lidar operating in the Ultra -Violet, will be the 1st European lidar to fly in 2007 as payload of the Earth Explorer Core Mission ADM. WALES currently studied at the level of a phase A, is based upon a lidar operating at 4 wavelengths in near infrared and aims to profile the water vapour in the lower part of the atmosphere with high accuracy and low bias. Lastly, the European Space Agency is extending the lidar instrument field

  8. Short rendezvous missions for advanced Russian human spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtazin, Rafail F.; Budylov, Sergey G.

    2010-10-01

    The two-day stay of crew in a limited inhabited volume of the Soyuz-TMA spacecraft till docking to ISS is one of the most stressful parts of space flight. In this paper a number of possible ways to reduce the duration of the free flight phase are considered. The duration is defined by phasing strategy that is necessary for reduction of the phase angle between the chaser and target spacecraft. Some short phasing strategies could be developed. The use of such strategies creates more comfortable flight conditions for crew thanks to short duration and additionally it allows saving spacecraft's life support resources. The transition from the methods of direct spacecraft rendezvous using one orbit phasing (first flights of " Vostok" and " Soyuz" vehicles) to the currently used methods of two-day rendezvous mission can be observed in the history of Soviet manned space program. For an advanced Russian human rated spacecraft the short phasing strategy is recommended, which can be considered as a combination between the direct and two-day rendezvous missions. The following state of the art technologies are assumed available: onboard accurate navigation; onboard computations of phasing maneuvers; launch vehicle with high accuracy injection orbit, etc. Some operational requirements and constraints for the strategies are briefly discussed. In order to provide acceptable phase angles for possible launch dates the experience of the ISS altitude profile control can be used. As examples of the short phasing strategies, the following rendezvous missions are considered: direct ascent, short mission with the phasing during 3-7 orbits depending on the launch date (nominal or backup). For each option statistical modeling of the rendezvous mission is fulfilled, as well as an admissible phase angle range, accuracy of target state vector and addition fuel consumption coming out of emergency is defined. In this paper an estimation of pros and cons of all options is conducted.

  9. Xenon Acquisition Strategies for High-Power Electric Propulsion NASA Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Daniel A.; Unfried, Kenneth G.

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of high-power solar electric propulsion (SEP) for both NASA's human and science exploration missions combined with the technology investment from the Space Technology Mission Directorate have enabled the development of a 50kW-class SEP mission. NASA mission concepts developed, including the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission, and those proposed by contracted efforts for the 30kW-class demonstration have a range of xenon propellant loads from 100's of kg up to 10,000 kg. A xenon propellant load of 10 metric tons represents greater than 10% of the global annual production rate of xenon. A single procurement of this size with short-term delivery can disrupt the xenon market, driving up pricing, making the propellant costs for the mission prohibitive. This paper examines the status of the xenon industry worldwide, including historical xenon supply and pricing. The paper discusses approaches for acquiring on the order of 10 MT of xenon propellant considering realistic programmatic constraints to support potential near-term NASA missions. Finally, the paper will discuss acquisitions strategies for mission campaigns utilizing multiple high-power solar electric propulsion vehicles requiring 100's of metric tons of xenon over an extended period of time where a longer term acquisition approach could be implemented.

  10. Mars Trek: An Interactive Web Portal for Current and Future Missions to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, E.; Day, B.

    2017-09-01

    NASA's Mars Trek (https://marstrek.jpl.nasa.gov) provides a web-based Portal and a suite of interactive visualization and analysis tools to enable mission planners, lunar scientists, and engineers to access mapped data products from past and current missions to Mars. During the past year, the capabilities and data served by Mars Trek have been significantly expanded beyond its original design as a public outreach tool. At the request of NASA's Science Mission Directorate and Human Exploration Operations Mission Directorate, Mars Trek's technology and capabilities are now being extended to support site selection and analysis activities for the first human missions to Mars.

  11. Mars Trek: An Interactive Web Portal for Current and Future Missions to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, E.; Day, B.

    2017-01-01

    NASA's Mars Trek (https://marstrek.jpl.nasa.gov) provides a web-based Portal and a suite of interactive visualization and analysis tools to enable mission planners, lunar scientists, and engineers to access mapped data products from past and current missions to Mars. During the past year, the capabilities and data served by Mars Trek have been significantly expanded beyond its original design as a public outreach tool. At the request of NASA's Science Mission Directorate and Human Exploration Operations Mission Directorate, Mars Trek's technology and capabilities are now being extended to support site selection and analysis activities for the first human missions to Mars.

  12. Radiation Environments and Exposure Considerations for the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, William M.; Low, Nora M.; Zillmer, Andrew; Johnson, Gregory A.; Normand, Eugene

    2006-01-01

    The Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) is the next generation (RTG) being developed by DOE to provide reliable, long-life electric power for NASA's planetary exploration programs. The MMRTG is being developed by Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne and Teledyne Energy Systems Incorporated (TESI) for use on currently planned and projected flyby, orbital and planet landing missions. This is a significant departure from the design philosophy of the past which was to match specific mission requirements to RTG design capabilities. Undefined mission requirements provide a challenge to system designers by forcing them to put a design envelope around 'all possible missions'. These multi-mission requirements include internal and external radiation sources. Internal sources include the particles ejected by decaying Pu-238 and its daughters plus particles resulting from the interaction of these particles with other MMRTG materials. External sources include the full spectrum of charged particle radiation surrounding planets with magnetic fields and the surfaces of extraterrestrial objects not shielded by magnetic fields. The paper presents the results of investigations into the environments outlined above and the impact of radiation exposure on potential materials to be used on MMRTG and ground support personnel. Mission requirements were also reviewed to evaluate total integrated dose and to project potential shielding requirements for materials. Much of the information on mission shielding requirements was provided by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The primary result is an ionizing radiation design curve which indicates the limits to which a particular mission can take the MMRTG in terms of ionizing radiation exposure. Estimates of personnel radiation exposure during ground handling are also provided

  13. Regional Civil Support Forces for Homeland Defense and Civil Support Missions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nuismer, Barbara A

    2007-01-01

    To protect the homeland, a plan to form ten regional Civil Support Forces (CSF) made up of National Guard forces has been proposed by senior fellow Christine Wormuth of the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS...

  14. A Theoretical Analysis of the Mission Statement Based on the Axiological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius-Costel EŞI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is focused on a theoretical analysis of formulating the mission statement of business organizations in relation to the idea of the organizational axiological core. On one hand, we consider the CSR-Corporate Social Responsibility which, in our view, must be brought into direct connection both with the moral entrepreneurship (which should support the philosophical perspective of the statement of business organizations mission and the purely economic entrepreneurship based on profit maximization (which should support the pragmatic perspective. On the other hand, an analysis of the moral concepts which should underpin business is becoming fundamental, in our view, as far as the idea of the social specific value of the social entrepreneurship is evidenced. Therefore, our approach highlights a number of epistemic explanations in relation to the actual practice dimension.

  15. IAEA Leads Operational Safety Mission To Gravelines Nuclear Power Plant, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: An IAEA-led international team of experts today began an in-depth operational safety review of the Gravelines Nuclear Power Plant in France. The review, conducted at the invitation of the French government, focuses on programmes and activities essential to the safe operation of the nuclear power plant. The three-week review will cover the areas of Management, Organization and Administration; Training and Qualification; Operations; Maintenance; Technical Support; Operating Experience; Radiation Protection; Chemistry; Emergency Planning and Preparedness; and Severe Accident Management. The conclusions of the review will be based on the IAEA Safety Standards and on well-established international good practices. The mission is not a regulatory inspection, a design review or a substitute for an exhaustive assessment of the plant's overall safety status. The team, led by the IAEA's Division of Nuclear Installation Safety, comprises experts from Bulgaria, China, Germany, Hungary, Japan, Romania, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain and Ukraine. The Gravelines mission is the 173rd conducted as part of the IAEA's Operational Safety Review Team programme, which began in 1982. France participates actively in the programme and the Gravelines mission is the 24th hosted by the country. General information about OSART missions can be found on the IAEA Website: OSART Missions. (IAEA)

  16. Small Combatants for the Homeland Defense Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    11- meter rigid hulled inflatable boats, the boarding teams, all their required gear, and assorted habitation modules.160 The final MM adds Hellfire...average cost of the LCS should be under the $ 400 million price cap set by Congress.180 Even though the cost of each LCS is supposed to drop as more of...counter-proliferation, counter-smuggling, and counter- immigration missions away from normal logistical support. High sprint speeds of 40 to 45 knots

  17. Planning for Crew Exercise for Future Deep Space Mission Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Cherice; Ryder, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Providing the necessary exercise capability to protect crew health for deep space missions will bring new sets of engineering and research challenges. Exercise has been found to be a necessary mitigation for maintaining crew health on-orbit and preparing the crew for return to earth's gravity. Health and exercise data from Apollo, Space Lab, Shuttle, and International Space Station missions have provided insight into crew deconditioning and the types of activities that can minimize the impacts of microgravity on the physiological systems. The hardware systems required to implement exercise can be challenging to incorporate into spaceflight vehicles. Exercise system design requires encompassing the hardware required to provide mission specific anthropometrical movement ranges, desired loads, and frequencies of desired movements as well as the supporting control and monitoring systems, crew and vehicle interfaces, and vibration isolation and stabilization subsystems. The number of crew and operational constraints also contribute to defining the what exercise systems will be needed. All of these features require flight vehicle mass and volume integrated with multiple vehicle systems. The International Space Station exercise hardware requires over 1,800 kg of equipment and over 24 m3 of volume for hardware and crew operational space. Improvements towards providing equivalent or better capabilities with a smaller vehicle impact will facilitate future deep space missions. Deep space missions will require more understanding of the physiological responses to microgravity, understanding appropriate mitigations, designing the exercise systems to provide needed mitigations, and integrating effectively into vehicle design with a focus to support planned mission scenarios. Recognizing and addressing the constraints and challenges can facilitate improved vehicle design and exercise system incorporation.

  18. A CONTENT ANALYSIS OF THE MISSION STATEMENTS OF IRAN, TURKEY, INDIA AND UNITED STATES PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar AZIZI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical companies play a critical role in healthcare economy. Articulating mission statement of a Pharmaceutical company results in guiding strategies and activities of the firm. In this survey, mission statements of Iranian, Turkish, Indian and American pharmaceutical companies are analyzed. By using content analysis, frequencies of nine elements of the mission statement according to Fred R. David including: customers, product/service, market, technology, survival/growth/profitability, philosophy, self-perception, public image and employee were investigated. 98 mission statements of pharmaceutical companies (32 iranain companies, 16 Turkish companies, 30 Indian companies, and 20 American companies were analyzed. Simple correspondence analysis was used to extract the perceptual map. Results indicate that two dimensions of perceptual map include: focus of mission (throughput or input/output, and focus of mission elements (market or support. Iranian companies placed on the quarter of throughput /support, American and Turkish companies placed on the quarter of throughput/market. Indian companies placed on the quarter of input and output/market.

  19. Limited Reach: The Role of Mission and Institutional Aid in Supporting Minority Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Mary Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This study uses a mixed methods research design to explore the relationship between institutional financial aid practice and graduation rates at a subset of private, non-profit four-year colleges and universities and explores how institutions prioritize allocations to financial aid within the framework of institutional mission, culture, and…

  20. Introduction to Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jay

    2017-01-01

    This course provides an introduction to the design and development of life support systems to sustain humankind in the harsh environment of space. The life support technologies necessary to provide a respirable atmosphere and clean drinking water are emphasized in the course. A historical perspective, beginning with open loop systems employed aboard the earliest crewed spacecraft through the state-of-the-art life support technology utilized aboard the International Space Station today, will provide a framework for students to consider applications to possible future exploration missions and destinations which may vary greatly in duration and scope. Development of future technologies as well as guiding requirements for designing life support systems for crewed exploration missions beyond low-Earth orbit are also considered in the course.

  1. MACSAT - A Near Equatorial Earth Observation Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B. J.; Park, S.; Kim, E.-E.; Park, W.; Chang, H.; Seon, J.

    MACSAT mission was initiated by Malaysia to launch a high-resolution remote sensing satellite into Near Equatorial Orbit (NEO). Due to its geographical location, Malaysia can have large benefits from NEO satellite operation. From the baseline circular orbit of 685 km altitude with 7 degrees of inclination, the neighboring regions around Malaysian territory can be frequently monitored. The equatorial environment around the globe can also be regularly observed with unique revisit characteristics. The primary mission objective of MACSAT program is to develop and validate technologies for a near equatorial orbit remote sensing satellite system. MACSAT is optimally designed to accommodate an electro-optic Earth observation payload, Medium-sized Aperture Camera (MAC). Malaysian and Korean joint engineering teams are formed for the effective implementation of the satellite system. An integrated team approach is adopted for the joint development for MACSAT. MAC is a pushbroom type camera with 2.5 m of Ground Sampling Distance (GSD) in panchromatic band and 5 m of GSD in four multi-spectral bands. The satellite platform is a mini-class satellite. Including MAC payload, the satellite weighs under 200 kg. Spacecraft bus is designed optimally to support payload operations during 3 years of mission life. The payload has 20 km of swath width with +/- 30 o of tilting capability. 32 Gbits of solid state recorder is implemented as the mass image storage. The ground element is an integrated ground station for mission control and payload operation. It is equipped with S- band up/down link for commanding and telemetry reception as well as 30 Mbps class X-band down link for image reception and processing. The MACSAT system is capable of generating 1:25,000-scale image maps. It is also anticipated to have capability for cross-track stereo imaging for Digital elevation Model (DEM) generation.

  2. WFIRST: User and mission support at ISOC - IPAC Science Operations Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akeson, Rachel; Armus, Lee; Bennett, Lee; Colbert, James; Helou, George; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Laine, Seppo; Meshkat, Tiffany; Paladini, Roberta; Ramirez, Solange; Wang, Yun; Xie, Joan; Yan, Lin

    2018-01-01

    The science center for WFIRST is distributed between the Goddard Space Flight Center, the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) and the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI). The main functions of the IPAC Science Operations Center (ISOC) are:* Conduct the GO, archival and theory proposal submission and evaluation process* Support the coronagraph instrument, including observation planning, calibration and data processing pipeline, generation of data products, and user support* Microlensing survey data processing pipeline, generation of data products, and user support* Community engagement including conferences, workshops and general support of the WFIRST exoplanet communityWe will describe the components planned to support these functions and the community of WFIRST users.

  3. The Messenger Mission to Mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Domingue, D. L

    2007-01-01

    NASA’s MESSENGER mission, launched on 3 August, 2004 is the seventh mission in the Discovery series. MESSENGER encounters the planet Mercury four times, culminating with an insertion into orbit on 18 March 2011. It carries a comprehensive package of geophysical, geological, geochemical, and space environment experiments to complete the complex investigations of this solar-system end member, which begun with Mariner 10. The articles in this book, written by the experts in each area of the MESSENGER mission, describe the mission, spacecraft, scientific objectives, and payload. The book is of interest to all potential users of the data returned by the MESSENGER mission, to those studying the nature of the planet Mercury, and by all those interested in the design and implementation of planetary exploration missions.

  4. Cascade Storage and Delivery System for a Multi Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagoda, Evan; Swickrath, Michael; Stambaugh, Imelda

    2012-01-01

    NASA is developing a Multi Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV) for missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The MMSEV is a pressurized vehicle used to extend the human exploration envelope for Lunar, Near Earth Object (NEO), and Deep Space missions. The Johnson Space Center is developing the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) for the MMSEV. The MMSEV s intended use is to support longer sortie lengths with multiple Extra Vehicular Activities (EVAs) on a higher magnitude than any previous vehicle. This paper presents an analysis of a high pressure oxygen cascade storage and delivery system that will accommodate the crew during long duration Intra Vehicular Activity (IVA) and capable of multiple high pressure oxygen fills to the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) worn by the crew during EVAs. A cascade is a high pressure gas cylinder system used for the refilling of smaller compressed gas cylinders. Each of the large cylinders are filled by a compressor, but the cascade system allows small cylinders to be filled without the need of a compressor. In addition, the cascade system is useful as a "reservoir" to accommodate low pressure needs. A regression model was developed to provide the mechanism to size the cascade systems subject to constraints such as number of crew, extravehicular activity duration and frequency, and ullage gas requirements under contingency scenarios. The sizing routine employed a numerical integration scheme to determine gas compressibility changes during depressurization and compressibility effects were captured using the Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) equation of state. A multi-dimensional nonlinear optimization routine was used to find the minimum cascade tank system mass that meets the mission requirements. The sizing algorithms developed in this analysis provide a powerful framework to assess cascade filling, compressor, and hybrid systems to design long duration vehicle ECLSS architecture. 1

  5. Atmospheric Drag, Occultation ‘N’ Ionospheric Scintillation (ADONIS mission proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hettrich Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Atmospheric Drag, Occultation ‘N’ Ionospheric Scintillation mission (ADONIS studies the dynamics of the terrestrial thermosphere and ionosphere in dependency of solar events over a full solar cycle in Low Earth Orbit (LEO. The objectives are to investigate satellite drag with in-situ measurements and the ionospheric electron density profiles with radio occultation and scintillation measurements. A constellation of two satellites provides the possibility to gain near real-time data (NRT about ionospheric conditions over the Arctic region where current coverage is insufficient. The mission shall also provide global high-resolution data to improve assimilative ionospheric models. The low-cost constellation can be launched using a single Vega rocket and most of the instruments are already space-proven allowing for rapid development and good reliability. From July 16 to 25, 2013, the Alpbach Summer School 2013 was organised by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG, the European Space Agency (ESA, the International Space Science Institute (ISSI and the association of Austrian space industries Austrospace in Alpbach, Austria. During the workshop, four teams of 15 students each independently developed four different space mission proposals on the topic of “Space Weather: Science, Missions and Systems”, supported by a team of tutors. The present work is based on the mission proposal that resulted from one of these teams’ efforts.

  6. Palmer Quest: A Feasible Nuclear Fission "Vision Mission" to the Mars Polar Caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsey, F. D.; Beegle, L. W.; Nakagawa, R.; Elliott, J. O.; Matthews, J. B.; Coleman, M. L.; Hecht, M. H.; Ivaniov, A. B.; Head, J. W.; Milkovich, S.

    2005-01-01

    We are engaged in a NASA Vision Mission study, called Palmer Quest after the American Antarctic explorer Nathaniel Palmer, to assess the presence of life and evaluate the habitability of the basal domain of the Mars polar caps. We address this goal through four objectives: 1. Determine the presence of amino acids, nutrients, and geochemical heterogeneity in the ice sheet. 2. Quantify and characterize the provenance of the amino acids in Mars ice. 3. Assess the stratification of outcropped units for indications of habitable zones. 4. Determine the accumulation of ice, mineralogic material, and amino acids in Mars ice caps over the present epoch. Because of the defined scientific goal for the vision mission, the Palmer Quest focus is astrobiological; however, the results of the study make us optimistic that aggressive multi-platform in-situ missions that address a wide range of objectives, such as climate change, can be supported by variations of the approach used on this mission. Mission Overview: The Palmer Quest baseline

  7. The Impact of NATO/Multinational Military Missions on Health Care Management (l'Impact des missions OTAN/militaires internationales sur la gestion des soins de sante)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    ... (peacekeeping, humanitarian, disaster relief, etc.). Most of these missions are performed by multinational forces, which requires the cooperation of all military services including the medical support systems...

  8. How safe is safe enough? Radiation risk for a human mission to Mars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis A Cucinotta

    Full Text Available Astronauts on a mission to Mars would be exposed for up to 3 years to galactic cosmic rays (GCR--made up of high-energy protons and high charge (Z and energy (E (HZE nuclei. GCR exposure rate increases about three times as spacecraft venture out of Earth orbit into deep space where protection of the Earth's magnetosphere and solid body are lost. NASA's radiation standard limits astronaut exposures to a 3% risk of exposure induced death (REID at the upper 95% confidence interval (CI of the risk estimate. Fatal cancer risk has been considered the dominant risk for GCR, however recent epidemiological analysis of radiation risks for circulatory diseases allow for predictions of REID for circulatory diseases to be included with cancer risk predictions for space missions. Using NASA's models of risks and uncertainties, we predicted that central estimates for radiation induced mortality and morbidity could exceed 5% and 10% with upper 95% CI near 10% and 20%, respectively for a Mars mission. Additional risks to the central nervous system (CNS and qualitative differences in the biological effects of GCR compared to terrestrial radiation may significantly increase these estimates, and will require new knowledge to evaluate.

  9. Supporting Meteorological Field Experiment Missions and Postmission Analysis with Satellite Digital Data and Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    defined surface that approximates the geoid or the equipotential surface , which would coincide exactly with the mean ocean surface of Earth if the...TCS-08 field project. The hourly estimates of intensity (maximum sustained 1-min surface winds) were used to monitor the typhoon’s rapidly changing...spacecraft is the first mission to test surface wind vector retrievals via a passive sensor (Gaiser et al. 2004). Near-real-time WindSat wind

  10. Assessing Habitability: Lessons from the Phoenix Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Carol R.

    2013-01-01

    The Phoenix mission's key objective was to search for a habitable zone. The Phoenix lander carried a robotic arm with digging scoop to collect soil and icy material for analysis with an instrument payload that included volatile mineral and organic analysis(3) and soil ionic chemistry analysis (4). Results from Phoenix along with theoretical modeling and other previous mission results were used to evaluate the habitability of the landing site by considering four factors that characterize the environments ability to support life as we know it: the presence of liquid water, the presence of an energy source to support metabolism, the presence of nutrients containing the fundamental building blocks of life, and the absence of environmental conditions that are toxic to or preclude life. Phoenix observational evidence for the presence of liquid water (past or present) includes clean segregated ice, chemical etching of soil grains, calcite minerals in the soil and variable concentrations of soluble salts5. The maximum surface temperature measured was 260K so unfrozen water can form only in adsorbed films or saline brines but warmer climates occur cyclically on geologically short time scales due to variations in orbital parameters. During high obliquity periods, temperatures allowing metabolism extend nearly a meter into the subsurface. Phoenix discovered 1%w/w perchlorate salt in the soil, a chemical energy source utilized by a wide range of microbes. Nutrient sources including C, H, N, O, P and S compounds are supplied by known atmospheric sources or global dust. Environmental conditions are within growth tolerance for terrestrial microbes. Summer daytime temperatures are sufficient for metabolic activity, the pH is 7.8 and is well buffered and the projected water activity of a wet soil will allow growth. In summary, martian permafrost in the north polar region is a viable location for modern life. Stoker et al. presented a formalism for comparing the habitability of

  11. Artificial intelligence for the EChO mission planning tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Piquer, Alvaro; Ribas, Ignasi; Colomé, Josep

    2015-12-01

    The Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory (EChO) has as its main goal the measurement of atmospheres of transiting planets. This requires the observation of two types of events: primary and secondary eclipses. In order to yield measurements of sufficient Signal-to-Noise Ratio to fulfil the mission objectives, the events of each exoplanet have to be observed several times. In addition, several criteria have to be considered to carry out each observation, such as the exoplanet visibility, its event duration, and no overlapping with other tasks. It is expected that a suitable mission plan increases the efficiency of telescope operation, which will represent an important benefit in terms of scientific return and operational costs. Nevertheless, to obtain a long term mission plan becomes unaffordable for human planners due to the complexity of computing the huge number of possible combinations for finding an optimum solution. In this contribution we present a long term mission planning tool based on Genetic Algorithms, which are focused on solving optimization problems such as the planning of several tasks. Specifically, the proposed tool finds a solution that highly optimizes the defined objectives, which are based on the maximization of the time spent on scientific observations and the scientific return (e.g., the coverage of the mission survey). The results obtained on the large experimental set up support that the proposed scheduler technology is robust and can function in a variety of scenarios, offering a competitive performance which does not depend on the collection of exoplanets to be observed. Specifically, the results show that, with the proposed tool, EChO uses 94% of the available time of the mission, so the amount of downtime is small, and it completes 98% of the targets.

  12. Solar Probe Plus: A NASA Mission to Touch the SunMission Status Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, N. J.

    2016-12-01

    Solar Probe Plus (SPP), currently in Phase D, will be the first mission to fly into the low solar corona, revealing how the corona is heated and the solar wind and energetic particles are accelerated, solving fundamental mysteries that have been top priority science goals since such a mission was first proposed in 1958. The scale and concept of such a mission has been revised at intervals since that time, yet the core has always been a close encounter with the Sun. The primary science goal of the Solar Probe Plus mission is to determine the structure and dynamics of the Sun's coronal magnetic field, understand how the solar corona and wind are heated and accelerated, and determine what mechanisms accelerate and transport energetic particles. SPP uses an innovative mission design, significant technology development and a risk-reducing engineering development to meet the SPP science objectives. In this presentation, we provide an update on the progress of the Solar Probe Plus mission as we prepare for the July 2018 launch.

  13. What Is Nutrition Support Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sponsored CE Programs Calendar of Events What Is Nutrition Support Therapy All people need food to live. ... patient populations from pediatrics to geriatrics. Key Terms: Nutrition Support Therapy The provision of enteral or parenteral ...

  14. Recommendations and Suggestions of the IRRS Mission in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novosel, N.

    2016-01-01

    According to the Act on Radiological and Nuclear Safety, Director General of the State Office for Radiological and Nuclear Safety (SORNS) is obliged to conduct self-assessment of the national legislative framework and of the competent authorities and to provide for international audit of important segments of the national legislative framework and competent authorities with the purpose of continuous improvement of radiological and nuclear safety. SORNS as a state administration body competent for activities pertaining to radiological and nuclear safety, submitted in April 2013 the request to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to conduct an Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission. SORNS conducted a self-assessment in preparation for the mission and prepared a preliminary action plan. The results of SORNS self-assessment and supporting documentation were provided to the IRRS review team as advance reference material for the mission. IRRS mission took place in Zagreb from 7 to 17 Jun 2015. The IRRS team carried out the review in the following areas: responsibilities and functions of the government; the global nuclear safety regime; responsibilities and functions of the regulatory body; the management system of the regulatory body; the activities of the regulatory body including authorization, review and assessment, inspection and enforcement processes; development and content of regulations and guides; emergency preparedness and response; occupational radiation protection, patient protection, public and environmental exposure control, waste management and decommissioning. The IRRS team identified a number of recommendations and suggestions where improvements in the area of radiological and nuclear safety are necessary or desirable. Those recommendations and suggestions were translated and approved by the Government in the form of the Governmental conclusion. This conclusion presents the action plan for the SORNS and other governmental bodies and

  15. Mission Assurance Modeling and Simulation: A Cyber Security Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron, Gerald; Roberts, David; Poole, Donold; Aquino, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a cyber security modeling and simulation roadmap to enhance mission assurance governance and establish risk reduction processes within constrained budgets. The term mission assurance stems from risk management work by Carnegie Mellon's Software Engineering Institute in the late 19905. By 2010, the Defense Information Systems Agency revised its cyber strategy and established the Program Executive Officer-Mission Assurance. This highlights a shift from simply protecting data to balancing risk and begins a necessary dialogue to establish a cyber security roadmap. The Military Operations Research Society has recommended a cyber community of practice, recognizing there are too few professionals having both cyber and analytic experience. The authors characterize the limited body of knowledge in this symbiotic relationship. This paper identifies operational and research requirements for mission assurance M&S supporting defense and homeland security. M&S techniques are needed for enterprise oversight of cyber investments, test and evaluation, policy, training, and analysis.

  16. 78 FR 66336 - U.S. Healthcare Education Mission to New Delhi, Hyderabad, and Ahmedabad, India, January 27...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration U.S. Healthcare Education Mission to New... U.S. Healthcare Education Mission to New Delhi, Hyderabad, and Ahmedabad, India to revise the date... to allow for additional recruitment and marketing in support of the mission. Applications will now be...

  17. MILITARY MISSION COMBAT EFFICIENCY ESTIMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ighoyota B. AJENAGHUGHRURE

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Military infantry recruits, although trained, lacks experience in real-time combat operations, despite the combat simulations training. Therefore, the choice of including them in military operations is a thorough and careful process. This has left top military commanders with the tough task of deciding, the best blend of inexperienced and experienced infantry soldiers, for any military operation, based on available information on enemy strength and capability. This research project delves into the design of a mission combat efficiency estimator (MCEE. It is a decision support system that aids top military commanders in estimating the best combination of soldiers suitable for different military operations, based on available information on enemy’s combat experience. Hence, its advantages consist of reducing casualties and other risks that compromises the entire operation overall success, and also boosting the morals of soldiers in an operation, with such information as an estimation of combat efficiency of their enemies. The system was developed using Microsoft Asp.Net and Sql server backend. A case study test conducted with the MECEE system, reveals clearly that the MECEE system is an efficient tool for military mission planning in terms of team selection. Hence, when the MECEE system is fully deployed it will aid military commanders in the task of decision making on team members’ combination for any given operation based on enemy personnel information that is well known beforehand. Further work on the MECEE will be undertaken to explore fire power types and impact in mission combat efficiency estimation.

  18. Compact Magnet-less Circulators for ACE and Other NASA Missions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Aerosol/Cloud/Ecosystems (ACE) Mission, recommended by the National Research Council’s Earth Science Decadal Survey, will support the development of...

  19. Mission Techniques for Exploring Saturn's icy moons Titan and Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reh, Kim; Coustenis, Athena; Lunine, Jonathan; Matson, Dennis; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Vargas, Andre; Beauchamp, Pat; Spilker, Tom; Strange, Nathan; Elliott, John

    2010-05-01

    The future exploration of Titan is of high priority for the solar system exploration community as recommended by the 2003 National Research Council (NRC) Decadal Survey [1] and ESA's Cosmic Vision Program themes. Cassini-Huygens discoveries continue to emphasize that Titan is a complex world with very many Earth-like features. Titan has a dense, nitrogen atmosphere, an active climate and meteorological cycles where conditions are such that the working fluid, methane, plays the role that water does on Earth. Titan's surface, with lakes and seas, broad river valleys, sand dunes and mountains was formed by processes like those that have shaped the Earth. Supporting this panoply of Earth-like processes is an ice crust that floats atop what might be a liquid water ocean. Furthermore, Titan is rich in very many different organic compounds—more so than any place in the solar system, except Earth. The Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) concept that followed the 2007 TandEM ESA CV proposal [2] and the 2007 Titan Explorer NASA Flagship study [3], was examined [4,5] and prioritized by NASA and ESA in February 2009 as a mission to follow the Europa Jupiter System Mission. The TSSM study, like others before it, again concluded that an orbiter, a montgolfiѐre hot-air balloon and a surface package (e.g. lake lander, Geosaucer (instrumented heat shield), …) are very high priority elements for any future mission to Titan. Such missions could be conceived as Flagship/Cosmic Vision L-Class or as individual smaller missions that could possibly fit within NASA's New Frontiers or ESA's Cosmic Vision M-Class budgets. As a result of a multitude of Titan mission studies, several mission concepts have been developed that potentially fit within various cost classes. Also, a clear blueprint has been laid out for early efforts critical toward reducing the risks inherent in such missions. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of potential Titan (and Enceladus) mission

  20. Leadership Challenges in ISS Operations: Lessons Learned from Junior and Senior Mission Control Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, James L.; Ritsher, Jennifer Boyd; Saylor, Stephanie A.; Kanas, Nick

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is operated by a multi-national, multi-organizational team that is dispersed across multiple locations, time zones, and work schedules. At NASA, both junior and senior mission control personnel have had to find ways to address the leadership challenges inherent in such work, but neither have had systematic training in how to do so. The goals of this study were to examine the major leadership challenges faced by ISS mission control personnel and to highlight the approaches that they have found most effective to surmount them. We pay particular attention to the approaches successfully employed by the senior personnel and to the training needs identified by the junior personnel. We also evaluate the extent to which responses are consistent across the junior and senior samples. Further, we compare the issues identified by our interview survey to those identified by a standardized questionnaire survey of mission control personnel and a contrasting group of space station crewmembers. We studied a sample of 14 senior ISS flight controllers and a contrasting sample of 12 more junior ISS controllers. Data were collected using a semi-structured qualitative interview and content analyzed using an iterative process with multiple coders and consensus meetings to resolve discrepancies. To further explore the meaning of the interview findings, we also conducted new analyses of data from a previous questionnaire study of 13 American astronauts, 17 Russian cosmonauts, and 150 U.S. and 36 Russian mission control personnel supporting the ISS or Mir space stations. The interview data showed that the survey respondents had substantial consensus on several leadership challenges and on key strategies for dealing with them, and they offered a wide range of specific tactics for implementing these strategies. Interview data from the junior respondents will be presented for the first time at the meeting. The questionnaire data showed that the US mission

  1. Mission Need Statement: Idaho Spent Fuel Facility Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbara Beller

    2007-09-01

    Approval is requested based on the information in this Mission Need Statement for The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) to develop a project in support of the mission established by the Office of Environmental Management to "complete the safe cleanup of the environmental legacy brought about from five decades of nuclear weapons development and government-sponsored nuclear energy research". DOE-ID requests approval to develop the Idaho Spent Fuel Facility Project that is required to implement the Department of Energy's decision for final disposition of spent nuclear fuel in the Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain. The capability that is required to prepare Spent Nuclear Fuel for transportation and disposal outside the State of Idaho includes characterization, conditioning, packaging, onsite interim storage, and shipping cask loading to complete shipments by January 1,2035. These capabilities do not currently exist in Idaho.

  2. The Role of Special Operations Forces in Global Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    adversary to achieve its objectives. 10 Gray Zone and competition short of armed conflict The concept of a gray area between peace and war...and distract, or a prolific arsonist in a region may achieve all of the escalatory objectives. Summary of actions: global competition options For...place today. COMPETITION CONTROL/ ADVANTAGE U.S. NEAR PEER STATES ASPIRING STATES NON-STATE ACTORS D DOD NORTHCOM SOUTHCOM EUCOM AFRICOM CENTCOM

  3. Axiomatic Design of Space Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2017-01-01

    Systems engineering is an organized way to design and develop systems, but the initial system design concepts are usually seen as the products of unexplained but highly creative intuition. Axiomatic design is a mathematical approach to produce and compare system architectures. The two axioms are:- Maintain the independence of the functional requirements.- Minimize the information content (or complexity) of the design. The first axiom generates good system design structures and the second axiom ranks them. The closed system human life support architecture now implemented in the International Space Station has been essentially unchanged for fifty years. In contrast, brief missions such as Apollo and Shuttle have used open loop life support. As mission length increases, greater system closure and increased recycling become more cost-effective.Closure can be gradually increased, first recycling humidity condensate, then hygiene wastewater, urine, carbon dioxide, and water recovery brine. A long term space station or planetary base could implement nearly full closure, including food production. Dynamic systems theory supports the axioms by showing that fewer requirements, fewer subsystems, and fewer interconnections all increase system stability. If systems are too complex and interconnected, reliability is reduced and operations and maintenance become more difficult. Using axiomatic design shows how the mission duration and other requirements determine the best life support system design including the degree of closure.

  4. Planning and Estimation of Operations Support Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Marilyn E.; Barley, Bryan; Bacskay, Allen; Clardy, Dennon

    2010-01-01

    Life Cycle Cost (LCC) estimates during the proposal and early design phases, as well as project replans during the development phase, are heavily focused on hardware development schedules and costs. Operations (phase E) costs are typically small compared to the spacecraft development and test costs. This, combined with the long lead time for realizing operations costs, can lead to de-emphasizing estimation of operations support requirements during proposal, early design, and replan cost exercises. The Discovery and New Frontiers (D&NF) programs comprise small, cost-capped missions supporting scientific exploration of the solar system. Any LCC growth can directly impact the programs' ability to fund new missions, and even moderate yearly underestimates of the operations costs can present significant LCC impacts for deep space missions with long operational durations. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) D&NF Program Office at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) recently studied cost overruns and schedule delays for 5 missions. The goal was to identify the underlying causes for the overruns and delays, and to develop practical mitigations to assist the D&NF projects in identifying potential risks and controlling the associated impacts to proposed mission costs and schedules. The study found that 4 out of the 5 missions studied had significant overruns at or after launch due to underestimation of the complexity and supporting requirements for operations activities; the fifth mission had not launched at the time of the mission. The drivers behind these overruns include overly optimistic assumptions regarding the savings resulting from the use of heritage technology, late development of operations requirements, inadequate planning for sustaining engineering and the special requirements of long duration missions (e.g., knowledge retention and hardware/software refresh), and delayed completion of ground system development work. This paper updates the D

  5. IAEA Completes Nuclear Security Advisory Mission in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    An International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) team of experts today completed a nuclear security advisory mission in Ecuador. The mission was carried out at the request of the Government of Ecuador. The scope of the two-week International Physical Protection Advisory Service (IPPAS) mission included the legislative and regulatory framework for the security of radioactive material, regulatory licensing, inspection and enforcement as well as coordination among authorities and other stakeholders involved in nuclear security. In September 2017, Ecuador ratified the 2005 Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM) and its incorporation into the nuclear security regime was also included in the scope of the mission. The IPPAS team carried out a number of visits, including to a steel company that uses gamma radiography, two hospitals, the National Polytechnic University and a company that transports radioactive material. In addition, the team visited a temporary storage facility for disused radioactive sources in Alóag, a town about 50 km south of the capital, Quito. The team observed that Ecuador is making efforts towards enhancing its national nuclear security regime. The team provided recommendations and suggestions to support Ecuador in enhancing and sustaining nuclear security. Good practices were identified that can serve as examples to other IAEA Member States to help strengthen their nuclear security activities.

  6. A decision model for planetary missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelrigg, G. A., Jr.; Brigadier, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    Many techniques developed for the solution of problems in economics and operations research are directly applicable to problems involving engineering trade-offs. This paper investigates the use of utility theory for decision making in planetary exploration space missions. A decision model is derived that accounts for the objectives of the mission - science - the cost of flying the mission and the risk of mission failure. A simulation methodology for obtaining the probability distribution of science value and costs as a function spacecraft and mission design is presented and an example application of the decision methodology is given for various potential alternatives in a comet Encke mission.

  7. JSC Advanced Curation: Research and Development for Current Collections and Future Sample Return Mission Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M. D.; Allen, C. C.; Calaway, M. J.; Evans, C. A.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2015-01-01

    Curation of NASA's astromaterials sample collections is a demanding and evolving activity that supports valuable science from NASA missions for generations, long after the samples are returned to Earth. For example, NASA continues to loan hundreds of Apollo program samples to investigators every year and those samples are often analyzed using instruments that did not exist at the time of the Apollo missions themselves. The samples are curated in a manner that minimizes overall contamination, enabling clean, new high-sensitivity measurements and new science results over 40 years after their return to Earth. As our exploration of the Solar System progresses, upcoming and future NASA sample return missions will return new samples with stringent contamination control, sample environmental control, and Planetary Protection requirements. Therefore, an essential element of a healthy astromaterials curation program is a research and development (R&D) effort that characterizes and employs new technologies to maintain current collections and enable new missions - an Advanced Curation effort. JSC's Astromaterials Acquisition & Curation Office is continually performing Advanced Curation research, identifying and defining knowledge gaps about research, development, and validation/verification topics that are critical to support current and future NASA astromaterials sample collections. The following are highlighted knowledge gaps and research opportunities.

  8. Capabilities required to conduct the LLNL plutonium mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kass, J.; Bish, W.; Copeland, A.; West, J.; Sack, S.; Myers, B.

    1991-01-01

    This report outlines the LLNL plutonium related mission anticipated over the next decade and defines the capabilities required to meet that mission wherever the Plutonium Facility is located. If plutonium work is relocated to a place where the facility is shared, then some capabilities can be commonly used by the sharing parties. However, it is essential that LLNL independently control about 20000 sq ft of net lab space, filled with LLNL controlled equipment, and staffed by LLNL employees. It is estimated that the cost to construct this facility should range from $140M to $200M. Purchase and installation of equipment to replace that already in Bldg 332 along with additional equipment identified as being needed to meet the mission for the next ten to fifteen years, is estimated to cost $118M. About $29M of the equipment could be shared. The Hardened Engineering Test Building (HETB) with its additional 8000 sq ft of unique test capability must also be replaced. The fully equipped replacement cost is estimated to be about $10M. About 40000 sq ft of setup and support space are needed along with office and related facilities for a 130 person resident staff. The setup space is estimated to cost $8M. The annual cost of a 130 person resident staff (100 programmatic and 30 facility operation) is estimated to be $20M

  9. Advances in Architectural Elements For Future Missions to Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reh, Kim; Coustenis, Athena; Lunine, Jonathan; Matson, Dennis; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Vargas, Andre; Beauchamp, Pat; Spilker, Tom; Strange, Nathan; Elliott, John

    2010-05-01

    The future exploration of Titan is of high priority for the solar system exploration community as recommended by the 2003 National Research Council (NRC) Decadal Survey [1] and ESA's Cosmic Vision Program themes. Recent Cassini-Huygens discoveries continue to emphasize that Titan is a complex world with very many Earth-like features. Titan has a dense, nitrogen atmosphere, an active climate and meteorological cycles where conditions are such that the working fluid, methane, plays the role that water does on Earth. Titan's surface, with lakes and seas, broad river valleys, sand dunes and mountains was formed by processes like those that have shaped the Earth. Supporting this panoply of Earth-like processes is an ice crust that floats atop what might be a liquid water ocean. Furthermore, Titan is rich in very many different organic compounds—more so than any place in the solar system, except Earth. The Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) concept that followed the 2007 TandEM ESA CV proposal [2] and the 2007 Titan Explorer NASA Flagship study [3], was examined [4,5] and prioritized by NASA and ESA in February 2009 as a mission to follow the Europa Jupiter System Mission. The TSSM study, like others before it, again concluded that an orbiter, a montgolfiere hot-air balloon and a surface package (e.g. lake lander, Geosaucer (instrumented heat shield), …) are very high priority elements for any future mission to Titan. Such missions could be conceived as Flagship/Cosmic Vision L-Class or as individual smaller missions that could possibly fit into NASA New Frontiers or ESA Cosmic Vision M-Class budgets. As a result of a multitude of Titan mission studies, a clear blueprint has been laid out for the work needed to reduce the risks inherent in such missions and the areas where advances would be beneficial for elements critical to future Titan missions have been identified. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the flagship mission architecture and

  10. Lunar Exploration Missions Since 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, S. J. (Editor); Gaddis, L. R.; Joy, K. H.; Petro, N. E.

    2017-01-01

    The announcement of the Vision for Space Exploration in 2004 sparked a resurgence in lunar missions worldwide. Since the publication of the first "New Views of the Moon" volume, as of 2017 there have been 11 science-focused missions to the Moon. Each of these missions explored different aspects of the Moon's geology, environment, and resource potential. The results from this flotilla of missions have revolutionized lunar science, and resulted in a profoundly new emerging understanding of the Moon. The New Views of the Moon II initiative itself, which is designed to engage the large and vibrant lunar science community to integrate the results of these missions into new consensus viewpoints, is a direct outcome of this impressive array of missions. The "Lunar Exploration Missions Since 2006" chapter will "set the stage" for the rest of the volume, introducing the planetary community at large to the diverse array of missions that have explored the Moon in the last decade. Content: This chapter will encompass the following missions: Kaguya; ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon’s Interaction with the Sun); Chang’e-1; Chandrayaan-1; Moon Impact Probe; Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO); Lunar Crater Observation Sensing Satellite (LCROSS); Chang’e-2; Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL); Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE); Chang’e-3.

  11. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission summary report: Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    A full report has been compiled describing the findings of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) Orientation Phase Mission to Uganda. The Mission suggest that the speculative uranium resources of the country could be within the very wide range of 0 to 105 000 tonnes of uranium metal. The Mission finds that most of these speculative resources are related to Proterozoic unconformities and to Cenozoic sandstones of the Western Rift Valley. Some potential is also associated with Post-tectonic granites. The Mission recommends to rehabilitate the Geological Survey of Uganda in order to enable it to conduct and support a uranium exploration programme for unconformity related and for standstone hosted uranium deposits. Recommended exploration methods encompass geological mapping and compilation, an airborne gamma-ray spectrometer survey north of 1 deg. North latitude, stream sediment sampling, and ground scintillometric surveys in favourable areas. Follow up work should include VLF-EM surveys, emanometry and drilling. (author)

  12. EUCLID mission design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Oswald; Ergenzinger, Klaus; Tuttle, Sean; Vaillon, L.; Johann, Ulrich

    2017-11-01

    EUCLID, a medium-class mission candidate of ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Program, currently in Definition Phase (Phase A/B1), shall map the geometry of the Dark Universe by investigating dark matter distributions, the distance-redshift relationship, and the evolution of cosmic structures. EUCLID consists of a 1.2 m telescope and two scientific instruments for ellipticity and redshift measurements in the visible and nearinfrared wavelength regime. We present a design concept of the EUCLID mission which is fully compliant with the mission requirements. Preliminary concepts of the spacecraft and of the payload including the scientific instruments are discussed.

  13. NASA Advanced Exploration Systems: Advancements in Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, Sarah A.; Schneider, Walter F.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems (LSS) project strives to develop reliable, energy-efficient, and low-mass spacecraft systems to provide environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) critical to enabling long duration human missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Highly reliable, closed-loop life support systems are among the capabilities required for the longer duration human space exploration missions assessed by NASA’s Habitability Architecture Team.

  14. Initial Single-Shell Tank Retrieval System mission analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzel, J.S.

    1996-03-01

    This document provides the mission analysis for the Initial Single-Shell Tank Retrieval System task, which supports the Single-Shell Tank Waste Retrieval Program in its commitment to remove waste from single-shell tanks for treatment and final closure

  15. 3 CFR - Waiver of Reimbursement Under the United Nations Participation Act to Support the United Nations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Participation Act to Support the United Nations/African Union Mission in Darfur Presidential Documents Other... the United Nations Participation Act to Support the United Nations/African Union Mission in Darfur... the United Nations/African Union Mission in Darfur to support the airlift of equipment for...

  16. GRACE Status at Mission End

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapley, B. D.; Flechtner, F. M.; Watkins, M. M.; Bettadpur, S. V.

    2017-12-01

    The twin satellites of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) were launched on March 17, 2002 and have operated for nearly 16 years. The mission objectives are to observe the spatial and temporal variations of the Earth's mass through its effects on the gravity field at the GRACE satellite altitude. The mass changes observed are related to both the changes within the solid earth and the change within and between the Erath system components. A significant cause of the time varying mass is water motion and the GRACE mission has provided a continuous decade long measurement sequence which characterizes the seasonal cycle of mass transport between the oceans, land, cryosphere and atmosphere; its inter-annual variability; and the climate driven secular, or long period, mass transport signals. The fifth reanalysis on the mission data set, the RL05 data, were released in mid-2013. With the planned launch of GRACE Follow-On in early 2018, plans are underway for a reanalysis that will be consistent with the GRACE FO processing standards. The mission is entering the final phases of its operation life with mission end expected to occur in early 2018. The current mission operations strategy emphasizes extending the mission lifetime to obtain an overlap with the GRACE FO. This presentation will review the mission status and the projections for mission lifetime, describe the current operations philosophy and its impact on the science data, discuss the issues related to achieving the GRACE and GRACE FO connection and discuss issues related to science data products during this phase of the mission period.

  17. WAVE-E: The WAter Vapour European-Explorer Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-LLuva, David; Deiml, Michael; Pavesi, Sara

    2017-04-01

    In the last decade, stratosphere-troposphere coupling processes in the Upper Troposphere Lower Stratosphere (UTLS) have been increasingly recognized to severely impact surface climate and high-impact weather phenomena. Weakened stratospheric circumpolar jets have been linked to worldwide extreme temperature and high-precipitation events, while anomalously strong stratospheric jets can lead to an increase in surface winds and tropical cyclone intensity. Moreover, stratospheric water vapor has been identified as an important forcing for global decadal surface climate change. In the past years, operational weather forecast and climate models have adapted a high vertical resolution in the UTLS region in order to capture the dynamical processes occurring in this highly stratified region. However, there is an evident lack of available measurements in the UTLS region to consistently support these models and further improve process understanding. Consequently, both the IPCC fifth assessment report and the ESA-GEWEX report 'Earth Observation and Water Cycle Science Priorities' have identified an urgent need for long-term observations and improved process understanding in the UTLS region. To close this gap, the authors propose the 'WAter Vapour European - Explorer' (WAVE-E) space mission, whose primary goal is to monitor water vapor in the UTLS at 1 km vertical, 25 km horizontal and sub-daily temporal resolution. WAVE-E consists of three quasi-identical small ( 500 kg) satellites (WAVE-E 1-3) in a constellation of Sun-Synchronous Low Earth Orbits, each carrying a limb sounding and cross-track scanning mid-infrared passive spectrometer (824 cm-1 to 829 cm-1). The core of the instruments builds a monolithic, field-widened type of Michelson interferometer without any moving parts, rendering it rigid and fault tolerant. Synergistic use of WAVE-E and MetOp-NG operational satellites is identified, such that a data fusion algorithm could provide water vapour profiles from the

  18. Overview of the Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) Flight Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) stratospheric balloon flight mission addresses the need to reduce the uncertainty in predicting human exposure to cosmic radiation in the aircraft environment. Measurements were taken that characterize the dosimetric properties of cosmic ray primaries, the ultimate source of aviation radiation exposure, and the cosmic ray secondary radiations that are produced and transported to aviation altitudes. In addition, radiation detectors were flown to assess their potential application to long-term, continuous monitoring of the aircraft radiation environment. RaD-X was successfully launched from Fort Sumner, New Mexico (34.5 N, 104.2 W), on 25 September 2015. Over 18 h of science data were obtained from a total of four different type dosimeters at altitudes above 20 km. The RaD-X flight mission was supported by laboratory radiation exposure testing of the balloon flight dosimeters and also by coordinated radiation measurements taken on ER-2 and commercial aircraft. This paper provides the science background and motivation for the RaD-X flight mission, a brief description of the balloon flight profile and the supporting aircraft flights, and a summary of the articles included in the RaD-X special collection and their contributions to the science goals of the RaD-X mission.

  19. A mission to Mercury and a mission to the moons of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    Two Advanced Design Projects were completed this academic year at Penn State - a mission to the planet Mercury and a mission to the moons of Mars (Phobos and Deimos). At the beginning of the fall semester the students were organized into six groups and given their choice of missions. Once a mission was chosen, the students developed conceptual designs. These designs were then evaluated at the end of the fall semester and combined into two separate mission scenarios. To facilitate the work required for each mission, the class was reorganized in the spring semester by combining groups to form two mission teams. An integration team consisting of two members from each group was formed for each mission team so that communication and exchange of information would be easier among the groups. The types of projects designed by the students evolved from numerous discussions with Penn State faculty and mission planners at the Lewis Research Center Advanced Projects Office. Robotic planetary missions throughout the solar system can be considered valuable precursors to human visits and test beds for innovative technology. For example, by studying the composition of the Martian moons, scientists may be able to determine if their resources may be used or synthesized for consumption during a first human visit.

  20. The Life Cycle Cost (LCC) of Life Support Recycling and Resupply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2015-01-01

    Brief human space missions supply all the crew's water and oxygen from Earth. The multiyear International Space Station (ISS) program instead uses physicochemical life support systems to recycle water and oxygen. This paper compares the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) of recycling to the LCC of resupply for potential future long duration human space missions. Recycling systems have high initial development costs but relatively low durationdependent support costs. This means that recycling is more cost effective for longer missions. Resupplying all the water and oxygen requires little initial development cost but has a much higher launch mass and launch cost. The cost of resupply increases as the mission duration increases. Resupply is therefore more cost effective than recycling for shorter missions. A recycling system pays for itself when the resupply LCC grows greater over time than the recycling LCC. The time when this occurs is called the recycling breakeven date. Recycling will cost very much less than resupply for long duration missions within the Earth-Moon system, such as a future space station or Moon base. But recycling would cost about the same as resupply for long duration deep space missions, such as a Mars trip. Because it is not possible to provide emergency supplies or quick return options on the way to Mars, more expensive redundant recycling systems will be needed.

  1. Medical and technology requirements for human solar system exploration missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld; Harris, Leonard; Couch, Lana; Sulzman, Frank; Gaiser, Karen

    1989-01-01

    Measures that need to be taken to cope with the health problems posed by zero gravity and radiation in manned solar system exploration missions are discussed. The particular systems that will be used aboard Space Station Freedom are addressed, and relevant human factors problems are examined. The development of a controlled ecological life support system is addressed.

  2. A ballistic mission to fly by Comet Halley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boain, R. J.; Hastrup, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes the available options, ballistic trajectory opportunities, and a preliminary reference trajectory that were selected as a basis for spacecraft design studies and programmatic planning for a Halley ballistic intercept mission in 1986. The paper also presents trajectory, performance, and navigation data which support the preliminary selection.

  3. Estimating Impact and Frequency of Risks to Safety and Mission Critical Systems Using CVSS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houmb, S.H.; Nunes Leal Franqueira, V.; Engum, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    Many safety and mission critical systems depend on the correct and secure operation of both supportive and core software systems. E.g., both the safety of personnel and the effective execution of core missions on an oil platform depend on the correct recording storing, transfer and interpretation of

  4. Concept designs for NASA's Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcguire, Melissa L.; Hack, Kurt J.; Manzella, David H.; Herman, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission were developed to assess vehicle performance and estimated mission cost. Concepts ranged from a 10,000 kilogram spacecraft capable of delivering 4000 kilogram of payload to one of the Earth Moon Lagrange points in support of future human-crewed outposts to a 180 kilogram spacecraft capable of performing an asteroid rendezvous mission after launched to a geostationary transfer orbit as a secondary payload. Low-cost and maximum Delta-V capability variants of a spacecraft concept based on utilizing a secondary payload adapter as the primary bus structure were developed as were concepts designed to be co-manifested with another spacecraft on a single launch vehicle. Each of the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission concepts developed included an estimated spacecraft cost. These data suggest estimated spacecraft costs of $200 million - $300 million if 30 kilowatt-class solar arrays and the corresponding electric propulsion system currently under development are used as the basis for sizing the mission concept regardless of launch vehicle costs. The most affordable mission concept developed based on subscale variants of the advanced solar arrays and electric propulsion technology currently under development by the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate has an estimated cost of $50M and could provide a Delta-V capability comparable to much larger spacecraft concepts.

  5. Automated and Adaptive Mission Planning for Orbital Express

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard, Caroline; Knight, Russell; Jones, Grailing; Tran, Daniel; Koblick, Darin

    2008-01-01

    The Orbital Express space mission was a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) lead demonstration of on-orbit satellite servicing scenarios, autonomous rendezvous, fluid transfers of hydrazine propellant, and robotic arm transfers of Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) components. Boeing's Autonomous Space Transport Robotic Operations (ASTRO) vehicle provided the servicing to the Ball Aerospace's Next Generation Serviceable Satellite (NextSat) client. For communication opportunities, operations used the high-bandwidth ground-based Air Force Satellite Control Network (AFSCN) along with the relatively low-bandwidth GEO-Synchronous space-borne Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) network. Mission operations were conducted out of the RDT&E Support Complex (RSC) at the Kirtland Air Force Base in New Mexico. All mission objectives were met successfully: The first of several autonomous rendezvous was demonstrated on May 5, 2007; autonomous free-flyer capture was demonstrated on June 22, 2007; the fluid and ORU transfers throughout the mission were successful. Planning operations for the mission were conducted by a team of personnel including Flight Directors, who were responsible for verifying the steps and contacts within the procedures, the Rendezvous Planners who would compute the locations and visibilities of the spacecraft, the Scenario Resource Planners (SRPs), who were concerned with assignment of communications windows, monitoring of resources, and sending commands to the ASTRO spacecraft, and the Mission planners who would interface with the real-time operations environment, process planning products and coordinate activities with the SRP. The SRP position was staffed by JPL personnel who used the Automated Scheduling and Planning ENvironment (ASPEN) to model and enforce mission and satellite constraints. The lifecycle of a plan began three weeks outside its execution on-board. During the planning timeframe, many aspects could change the plan

  6. Autonomous scheduling technology for Earth orbital missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, S.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a dynamic autonomous system (DYASS) of resources for the mission support of near-Earth NASA spacecraft is discussed and the current NASA space data system is described from a functional perspective. The future (late 80's and early 90's) NASA space data system is discussed. The DYASS concept, the autonomous process control, and the NASA space data system are introduced. Scheduling and related disciplines are surveyed. DYASS as a scheduling problem is also discussed. Artificial intelligence and knowledge representation is considered as well as the NUDGE system and the I-Space system.

  7. Spacelab Mission Implementation Cost Assessment (SMICA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guynes, B. V.

    1984-01-01

    A total savings of approximately 20 percent is attainable if: (1) mission management and ground processing schedules are compressed; (2) the equipping, staffing, and operating of the Payload Operations Control Center is revised, and (3) methods of working with experiment developers are changed. The development of a new mission implementation technique, which includes mission definition, experiment development, and mission integration/operations, is examined. The Payload Operations Control Center is to relocate and utilize new computer equipment to produce cost savings. Methods of reducing costs by minimizing the Spacelab and payload processing time during pre- and post-mission operation at KSC are analyzed. The changes required to reduce costs in the analytical integration process are studied. The influence of time, requirements accountability, and risk on costs is discussed. Recommendation for cost reductions developed by the Spacelab Mission Implementation Cost Assessment study are listed.

  8. Missions to Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, D. V.; Baines, K. H.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Chassefiere, E.; Chin, G.; Crisp, D.; Esposito, L. W.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Lellouch, E.; Moroz, V. I.; Nagy, A. F.; Owen, T. C.; Oyama, K.-I.; Russell, C. T.; Taylor, F. W.; Young, R. E.

    2002-10-01

    Venus has always been a fascinating objective for planetary studies. At the beginning of the space era Venus became one of the first targets for spacecraft missions. Our neighbour in the solar system and, in size, the twin sister of Earth, Venus was expected to be very similar to our planet. However, the first phase of Venus spacecraft exploration in 1962-1992 by the family of Soviet Venera and Vega spacecraft and US Mariner, Pioneer Venus, and Magellan missions discovered an entirely different, exotic world hidden behind a curtain of dense clouds. These studies gave us a basic knowledge of the conditions on the planet, but generated many more questions concerning the atmospheric composition, chemistry, structure, dynamics, surface-atmosphere interactions, atmospheric and geological evolution, and the plasma environment. Despite all of this exploration by more than 20 spacecraft, the "morning star" still remains a mysterious world. But for more than a decade Venus has been a "forgotten" planet with no new missions featuring in the plans of the world space agencies. Now we are witnessing the revival of interest in this planet: the Venus Orbiter mission is approved in Japan, Venus Express - a European orbiter mission - has successfully passed the selection procedure in ESA, and several Venus Discovery proposals are knocking at the doors of NASA. The paper presents an exciting story of Venus spacecraft exploration, summarizes open scientific problems, and builds a bridge to the future missions.

  9. Mission of Mercy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humenik, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Some dentists prefer solo charity work, but there is much to be said for collaboration within the profession in reaching out to those who are dentally underserved. Mission of Mercy (MOM) programs are regularly organized across the country for this purpose. This article describes the structure, reach, and personal satisfaction to be gained from such missions.

  10. Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission Space Suit and EVA System Architecture Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Jonathan T.; Blanco, Raul A.; Watson, Richard D.; Kelly, Cody; Buffington, Jesse; Sipila, Stephanie A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) space suit and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) architecture trade study and the current state of the work to mature the requirements and products to the mission concept review level. The mission requirements and the resulting concept of operations will be discussed. A historical context will be presented as to present the similarities and differences from previous NASA missions. That will set the stage for the trade study where all options for both pressure garment and life support were considered. The rationale for the architecture decisions will then be presented. Since the trade study did identity risks, the subsequent tests and analyses that mitigated the risks will be discussed. Lastly, the current state of the effort will be provided.

  11. Bomber Deterrence Missions: Criteria To Evaluate Mission Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    international security, the practice of general deterrence usually occurs when nations feel insecure , suspicious or even hostility towards them but...both a deterrence and assurance mission even though it was not planned or advertised as such. Since the intent of this mission was partly perceived

  12. System-level Analysis of Food Moisture Content Requirements for the Mars Dual Lander Transit Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levri, Julie A.; Perchonok, Michele H.

    2004-01-01

    In order to ensure that adequate water resources are available during a mission, any net water loss from the habitat must be balanced with an equivalent amount of required makeup water. Makeup water may come from a variety of sources, including water in shipped tanks, water stored in prepackaged food, product water from fuel cells, and in-situ water resources. This paper specifically addresses the issue of storing required makeup water in prepackaged food versus storing the water in shipped tanks for the Mars Dual Lander Transit Mission, one of the Advanced Life Support Reference Missions. In this paper, water mass balances have been performed for the Dual Lander Transit Mission, to determine the necessary requirement of makeup water under nominal operation (i.e. no consideration of contingency needs), on a daily basis. Contingency issues are briefly discussed with respect to impacts on makeup water storage (shipped tanks versus storage in prepackaged food). The Dual Lander Transit Mission was selected for study because it has been considered by the Johnson Space Center Exploration Office in enough detail to define a reasonable set of scenario options for nominal system operation and contingencies. This study also illustrates the concept that there are multiple, reasonable life support system scenarios for any one particular mission. Thus, the need for a particular commodity can depend upon many variables in the system. In this study, we examine the need for makeup water as it depends upon the configuration of the rest of the life support system.

  13. Human Behaviour in Long-Term Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session WP1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Psychological Support for International Space Station Mission; Psycho-social Training for Man in Space; Study of the Physiological Adaptation of the Crew During A 135-Day Space Simulation; Interpersonal Relationships in Space Simulation, The Long-Term Bed Rest in Head-Down Tilt Position; Psychological Adaptation in Groups of Varying Sizes and Environments; Deviance Among Expeditioners, Defining the Off-Nominal Act in Space and Polar Field Analogs; Getting Effective Sleep in the Space-Station Environment; Human Sleep and Circadian Rhythms are Altered During Spaceflight; and Methodological Approach to Study of Cosmonauts Errors and Its Instrumental Support.

  14. How to come to military platforms that are capable to perform the anticipated tasks and missions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, C.S.; Rijn, T.P.J. van

    2010-01-01

    A programme has been performed in the Netherlands to realise a framework to support the armed forces during the procurement of (land based) platforms. The aim is to procure platforms that are capable to perform the anticipated tasks and missions. The support comprises two aspects: formulation of

  15. Informing a hydrological model of the Ogooué with multi-mission remote sensing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kittel, Cecile Marie Margaretha; Nielsen, Karina; Tøttrup, C.

    2018-01-01

    with publicly available and free remote sensing observations. We used a rainfall–runoff model based on the Budyko framework coupled with a Muskingum routing approach. We parametrized the model using the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model (SRTM DEM) and forced it using precipitation from......Remote sensing provides a unique opportunity to inform and constrain a hydrological model and to increase its value as a decision-support tool. In this study, we applied a multi-mission approach to force, calibrate and validate a hydrological model of the ungauged Ogooué river basin in Africa...... model also captures overall total water storage change patterns, although the amplitude of storage change is generally underestimated. By combining hydrological modeling with multi-mission remote sensing from 10 different satellite missions, we obtain new information on an otherwise unstudied basin...

  16. STS-61 Space Shuttle mission report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-02-01

    The STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and fifth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-60; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2019, 2033, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-063. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L023A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 360L023B (lightweight) for the right SRB. This STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objective of the STS-61 mission was to perform the first on-orbit servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope. The servicing tasks included the installation of new solar arrays, replacement of the Wide Field/Planetary Camera I (WF/PC I) with WF/PC II, replacement of the High Speed Photometer (HSP) with the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement (COSTAR), replacement of rate sensing units (RSU's) and electronic control units (ECU's), installation of new magnetic sensing systems and fuse plugs, and the repair of the Goddard High Resolution Spectrometer (GHRS). Secondary objectives were to perform the requirements of the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), the IMAX Camera, and the Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test.

  17. Logistics Needs for Potential Deep Space Mission Scenarios Post Asteroid Crewed Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Pedro, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    A deep-space mission has been proposed to identify and redirect an asteroid to a distant retrograde orbit around the moon, and explore it by sending a crew using the Space Launch System and the Orion spacecraft. The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), which represents the third segment of the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), could be performed on EM-3 or EM-4 depending on asteroid return date. Recent NASA studies have raised questions on how we could progress from current Human Space Flight (HSF) efforts to longer term human exploration of Mars. This paper will describe the benefits of execution of the ARM as the initial stepping stone towards Mars exploration, and how the capabilities required to send humans to Mars could be built upon those developed for the asteroid mission. A series of potential interim missions aimed at developing such capabilities will be described, and the feasibility of such mission manifest will be discussed. Options for the asteroid crewed mission will also be addressed, including crew size and mission duration.

  18. IAEA Completes Nuclear Security Review Mission in United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    . Macfarlane. 'Together, the international community is working to strengthen nuclear security worldwide'. Background The mission was the 60th IPPAS mission conducted by the IAEA since the program began in 1995. The mission was the third to a Nuclear-Weapon State with a very large civil nuclear programme. IPPAS missions are intended to help IAEA Member States strengthen their national nuclear security regimes. The missions provide, upon request, peer advice on implementing international instruments, as well as IAEA nuclear security guidance on the protection of nuclear and other radioactive material and associated facilities and activities. IPPAS missions are conducted both on a nation-wide and facility-specific basis. The United States is an important partner in IAEA nuclear security activities and the largest national contributor to the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund. The United States also regularly contributes in kind by providing equipment and experts for missions, lecturers for training courses and contributes to the development of documents in the IAEA Nuclear Security Series. The United States is party to the Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material but has not yet ratified its 2005 Amendment. The United States also supports the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources as well as the Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources. (IAEA)

  19. Evaluation of full and degraded mission reliability and mission dependability for intermittently operated, multi-functional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sols, Alberto; Ramirez-Marquez, Jose E.; Verma, Dinesh; Vitoriano, Begona

    2007-01-01

    Availability is one of the metrics often used in the evaluation of system effectiveness. Its use as an effectiveness metric is often dictated by the nature of the system under consideration. While some systems operate continuously, many others operate on an intermittent basis where each operational period may often involve a different set of missions. This is the most likely scenario for complex multi-functional systems, where each specific system mission may require the availability of a different combination of system elements. Similarly, for these systems, not only is it important to know whether a mission can be initiated, it is just as important to know whether the system is capable of completing such a mission. Thus, for these systems, additional measures become relevant to provide a more holistic assessment of system effectiveness. This paper presents techniques for the evaluation of both full and degraded mission reliability and mission dependability for coherent, intermittently operated multi-functional systems. These metrics complement previously developed availability and degraded availability measures of multi-functional systems, in the comprehensive assessment of system effectiveness

  20. Impact Foam Testing for Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicle Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaab, Louis J.; Agrawal, Paul; Hawbaker, James

    2013-01-01

    Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicles (MMEEVs) are blunt-body vehicles designed with the purpose of transporting payloads from outer space to the surface of the Earth. To achieve high-reliability and minimum weight, MMEEVs avoid use of limited-reliability systems, such as parachutes and retro-rockets, instead using built-in impact attenuators to absorb energy remaining at impact to meet landing loads requirements. The Multi-Mission Systems Analysis for Planetary Entry (M-SAPE) parametric design tool is used to facilitate the design of MMEEVs and develop the trade space. Testing was conducted to characterize the material properties of several candidate impact foam attenuators to enhance M-SAPE analysis. In the current effort, two different Rohacell foams were tested to determine their thermal conductivity in support of MMEEV design applications. These applications include thermal insulation during atmospheric entry, impact attenuation, and post-impact thermal insulation in support of thermal soak analysis. Results indicate that for these closed-cell foams, the effect of impact is limited on thermal conductivity due to the venting of the virgin material gas and subsequent ambient air replacement. Results also indicate that the effect of foam temperature is significant compared to data suggested by manufacturer's specifications.

  1. Ground Based Support for Exoplanet Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukka, H.; Hentunen, V.-P.; Salmi, T.; Aartolahti, H.; Juutilainen, J.; Vilokki, H.; Nissinen, M.

    2011-10-01

    Taurus Hill Observatory (THO), observatory code A95, is an amateur observatory located in Varkaus, Finland. The observatory is maintained by the local astronomical association Warkauden Kassiopeia. THO research team has observed and measured various stellar objects and phenomena. Observatory has mainly focused to asteroid [1] and exoplanet light curve measurements, observing the gamma rays burst, supernova discoveries and monitoring [2] and long term monitoring projects [3]. In the early 2011 Europlanet NA1 and NA2 organized "Coordinated Observations of Exoplanets from Ground and Space"-workshop in Graz, Austria. The workshop gathered together proam astronomers who have the equipment to measure the light curves of the exoplanets. Also there were professional scientists working in the exoplanet field who attended to the workshop. The result of the workshop was to organize coordinated observation campaign for follow-up observations of exoplanets (e.g. CoRoT planets). Also coordinated observation campaign to observe stellar CME outbreaks was planned. THO has a lot of experience in field of exoplanet light curve measurements and therefore this campaign is very supported by the research team of the observatory. In next coming observing seasons THO will concentrate its efforts for this kind of campaigns.

  2. Payload operations management of a planned European SL-Mission employing establishments of ESA and national agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joensson, Rolf; Mueller, Karl L.

    1994-01-01

    Spacelab (SL)-missions with Payload Operations (P/L OPS) from Europe involve numerous space agencies, various ground infrastructure systems and national user organizations. An effective management structure must bring together different entities, facilities and people, but at the same time keep interfaces, costs and schedule under strict control. This paper outlines the management concept for P/L OPS of a planned European SL-mission. The proposal draws on the relevant experience in Europe, which was acquired via the ESA/NASA mission SL-1, by the execution of two German SL-missions and by the involvement in, or the support of, several NASA-missions.

  3. Mission operations technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsi, Giulio

    In the last decade, the operation of a spacecraft after launch has emerged as a major component of the total cost of the mission. This trend is sustained by the increasing complexity, flexibility, and data gathering capability of the space assets and by their greater reliability and consequent longevity. The trend can, however, be moderated by the progressive transfer of selected functions from the ground to the spacecraft and by application, on the ground, of new technology. Advances in ground operations derive from the introduction in the mission operations environment of advanced microprocessor-based workstations in the class of a few million instructions per second and from the selective application of artificial intelligence technology. In the last few years a number of these applications have been developed, tested in operational settings and successfully demonstrated to users. Some are now being integrated in mission operations facilities. An analysis of mission operations indicates that the key areas are: concurrent control of multiple missions; automated/interactive production of command sequences of high integrity at low cost; automated monitoring of spacecraft health and automated aides for fault diagnosis; automated allocation of resources; automated processing of science data; and high-fidelity, high-speed spacecraft simulation. Examples of major advances in selected areas are described.

  4. The Ocean Surface Topography SENTINEL-6/JASON-CS Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Sentinel-6/Jason-CS mission will consist of 2 spacecraft and will be the latest in a series of ocean surface topography missions that will span nearly three decades. They follow the altimeters on- board TOPEX/Poseidon through to Jason-3 (expected March 2015). Jason-CS will continue to fulfil objectives of the reference series whilst introducing a major enhancement in capability providing the operational and science oceanographic community with the state of the art in terms of platform, measurement instrumentation design thus securing optimal operational and science data return. The programme is a part of the EC Copernicus initiative, whose objective is to support Europe's goals regarding sustainable development and global governance of the environment by providing timely and quality data, information, services and knowledge. The programme brings together: ESA for development, procurement & early orbit activities; EUMETSAT for mission management, ground segment, flight ops, contributing funding of the 1st satellite and participation in funding for the 2nd satellite; NASA for the US payload and launcher procurement in addition to funding US science opportunities; EC for funding the operations and participation in funding (with EUMETSAT) for the 2nd satellite; NOAA are expected to provide US ground stations & operations services; CNES for mission expertise and provision of the POD service. The consortium plan to procure 2 satellites with the 1st planned for launch readiness in the 1st half of 2020 with the 2nd satellite 5 years later. The first major commitment to funding was given by the ESA member states that approved the programme in June 2014 and in addition the European Commission funding is also fully secure. The design is based on a platform derived from CryoSat-2 adjusted to the specific requirements of the higher orbit. The principle payload instrument is a high precision Ku/C band radar altimeter with retrieval of geophysical parameters (surface

  5. Improved Traceability of a Small Satellite Mission Concept to Requirements Using Model Based System Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reil, Robin L.

    2014-01-01

    Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) has recently been gaining significant support as a means to improve the "traditional" document-based systems engineering (DBSE) approach to engineering complex systems. In the spacecraft design domain, there are many perceived and propose benefits of an MBSE approach, but little analysis has been presented to determine the tangible benefits of such an approach (e.g. time and cost saved, increased product quality). This paper presents direct examples of how developing a small satellite system model can improve traceability of the mission concept to its requirements. A comparison of the processes and approaches for MBSE and DBSE is made using the NASA Ames Research Center SporeSat CubeSat mission as a case study. A model of the SporeSat mission is built using the Systems Modeling Language standard and No Magic's MagicDraw modeling tool. The model incorporates mission concept and requirement information from the mission's original DBSE design efforts. Active dependency relationships are modeled to demonstrate the completeness and consistency of the requirements to the mission concept. Anecdotal information and process-duration metrics are presented for both the MBSE and original DBSE design efforts of SporeSat.

  6. An independent assessment of the technical feasibility of the Mars One mission plan - Updated analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Sydney; Owens, Andrew; Ho, Koki; Schreiner, Samuel; de Weck, Olivier

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, the Mars One program has gained significant publicity for its plans to colonize the red planet. Beginning in 2025, the program plans to land four people on Mars every 26 months via a series of one-way missions, using exclusively existing technology. This one-way approach has frequently been cited as a key enabler of accelerating the first crewed landing on Mars. While the Mars One program has received considerable attention, little has been published in the technical literature regarding the formulation of its mission architecture. In light of this, we perform an independent analysis of the technical feasibility of the Mars One mission plan, focusing on the architecture of the life support and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) systems, and their impact on sparing and space logistics. To perform this analysis, we adopt an iterative analysis approach in which we model and simulate the mission architecture, assess its feasibility, implement any applicable modifications while attempting to remain within the constraints set forth by Mars One, and then resimulate and reanalyze the revised version of the mission architecture. Where required information regarding the Mars One mission architecture is not available, we assume numerical values derived from standard spaceflight design handbooks and documents. Through four iterations of this process, our analysis finds that the Mars One mission plan, as publicly described, is not feasible. This conclusion is obtained from analyses based on mission assumptions derived from and constrained by statements made by Mars One, and is the result of the following findings: (1) several technologies including ISRU, life support, and entry, descent, and landing (EDL) are not currently "existing, validated and available" as claimed by Mars One; (2) the crop growth area described by Mars One is insufficient to feed their crew; (3) increasing the crop growth area to provide sufficient food for the crew leads to atmospheric

  7. Mission,System Design and Payload Aspects of ESA's Mercury Cornerstone Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, A.; Anselmi, A.; Scoon, G. E. N.

    1999-09-01

    Aim of this paper is to summarise the 1-year study performed by Alenia Aerospazio in close co-operation with the European Space Agency, on the Mercury Cornerstone System and Technology Study, as a part of Horizon 2000+ Scientific Programme plan. ESA's definition study towards a mission to Mercury conceives the launch of a S/C in 2009, on a two to three years journey, plus a one-year scientific observations and data take. The mission's primary objectives are manyfolded, aiming at approaching basic scientific questions on the origin and evolution of Mercury: identify and map the chemical and mineral composition of the surface, measure the topography of surface landforms, define the gravitational field, investigate particles and magnetic fields. The mission is also intended to resolve the librational state of the planet, in a system experiment requiring high accuracy inertial attitude (arcsecond level) and orbit (m-level) reconstitution. This experiment will allow to infer whether Mercury has a molten core, which is crucial to theories of magnetic field generation, and theories of the thermal history of terrestrial type planets. A hard-lander is planned to perform in-situ surface geochemical analysis. The mission is expected to provide scientists with a global portrait of Mercury returning about 1200 Gbits of scientific data, during a 1-year observation phase. The crucial aspects of the spacecraft design have to do with the high-temperature and high-radiation environment. Thermal control is achieved by a combination of orbit selection, attitude law, and special design provisions for IR shielding and HT insulation. Ad-hoc design provisions are envisaged for power and antenna mechanisms. Though the conceptual objectives of this industrial study focused on system architectures and enabling technologies for a "Cornerstone" class mission, in this paper emphasis is given on the scientific payload aspects.

  8. Composable Mission Framework for Rapid End-to-End Mission Design and Simulation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation proposed here is the Composable Mission Framework (CMF) a model-based software framework that shall enable seamless continuity of mission design and...

  9. Electrical design for origami solar panels and a small spacecraft test mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewelow, James; Straub, Jeremy

    2017-05-01

    Efficient power generation is crucial to the design of spacecraft. Mass, volume, and other limitations prevent the use of traditional spacecraft support structures from being suitable for the size of solar array required for some missions. Folding solar panel / panel array systems, however, present a number of design challenges. This paper considers the electrical design of an origami system. Specifically, it considers how to provide low impedance, durable channels for the generated power and the electrical aspects of the deployment system and procedure. The ability to dynamically reconfigure the electrical configuration of the solar cells is also discussed. Finally, a small satellite test mission to demonstrate the technology is proposed, before concluding.

  10. NASA's Astronant Family Support Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beven, Gary; Curtis, Kelly D.; Holland, Al W.; Sipes, Walter; VanderArk, Steve

    2014-01-01

    During the NASA-Mir program of the 1990s and due to the challenges inherent in the International Space Station training schedule and operations tempo, it was clear that a special focus on supporting families was a key to overall mission success for the ISS crewmembers pre-, in- and post-flight. To that end, in January 2001 the first Family Services Coordinator was hired by the Behavioral Health and Performance group at NASA JSC and matrixed from Medical Operations into the Astronaut Office's organization. The initial roles and responsibilities were driven by critical needs, including facilitating family communication during training deployments, providing mission-specific and other relevant trainings for spouses, serving as liaison for families with NASA organizations such as Medical Operations, NASA management and the Astronaut Office, and providing assistance to ensure success of an Astronaut Spouses Group. The role of the Family Support Office (FSO) has modified as the ISS Program matured and the needs of families changed. The FSO is currently an integral part of the Astronaut Office's ISS Operations Branch. It still serves the critical function of providing information to families, as well as being the primary contact for US and international partner families with resources at JSC. Since crews launch and return on Russian vehicles, the FSO has the added responsibility for coordinating with Flight Crew Operations, the families, and their guests for Soyuz launches, landings, and Direct Return to Houston post-flight. This presentation will provide a summary of the family support services provided for astronauts, and how they have changed with the Program and families the FSO serves. Considerations for future FSO services will be discussed briefly as NASA proposes one year missions and beyond ISS missions. Learning Objective: 1) Obtain an understanding of the reasons a Family Support Office was important for NASA. 2) Become familiar with the services provided for

  11. Towards A Shared Mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Jørgen; Orth Gaarn-Larsen, Carsten

    A mission shared by stakeholders, management and employees is a prerequisite for an engaging dialog about the many and substantial changes and challenges currently facing universities. Too often this essen-tial dialog reveals mistrust and misunderstandings about the role and outcome of the univer......A mission shared by stakeholders, management and employees is a prerequisite for an engaging dialog about the many and substantial changes and challenges currently facing universities. Too often this essen-tial dialog reveals mistrust and misunderstandings about the role and outcome...... on a shared mission aiming at value creation (in the broadest interpretation). One important aspect of choosing value as the cornerstone of the mission of universities is to stress that the outcome is measured by external stakeholders and by their standards. Most of the paper is devoted to discussing value...... it possible to lead through processes that engage and excite while creating transparency and accountability. The paper will be illustrated with examples from Denmark and the Helios initiative taken by the Danish Academy of Technical Sciences (ATV) under the headline “The value creating university – courage...

  12. Mission-Critical Systems Design Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos Houliotis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Safety-critical systems are well documented and standardized (e.g. IEC 61508, RTCA DO-178B within system design cycles. However in Defence and Security, systems that are critical to the success of a Mission are not defined within the literature nor are there any guidelines in defining criticality in their design or operational capabilities. When it comes to Vetronics (Vehicle Electronics, a mission-critical system, is a system with much complexity and mixed criticality levels that is a part of the overall platform (military vehicle offering integrated system capabilities. In this paper, a framework is presented, providing guidelines in designing efficiently and effectively mission-critical systems considering principles of Interoperable Open Architectures (IOA, mission-critical integrity levels and following new standardization activities such as NATO Generic Vehicle Architecture (NGVA. A Defensive Aid Suite (DAS system is used as a case study to illustrate how this framework can be exploited. The indention of this extension is to provide an approach to precisely estimate threats in order to de-risk missions in the very early stages.

  13. Evaluating the feasibility of biological waste processing for long term space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, J. L.; Alazraki, M. P.; Atkinson, C. F.; Finger, B. W.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Recycling waste products during orbital (e.g., International Space Station) and planetary missions (e.g., lunar base, Mars transit mission, Martian base) will reduce storage and resupply costs. Wastes streams on the space station will include human hygiene water, urine, faeces, and trash. Longer term missions will contain human waste and inedible plant material from plant growth systems used for atmospheric regeneration, food production, and water recycling. The feasibility of biological and physical-chemical waste recycling is being investigated as part of National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. In-vessel composting has lower manpower requirements, lower water and volume requirements, and greater potential for sanitization of human waste compared to alternative bioreactor designs such as continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR). Residual solids from the process (i.e. compost) could be used a biological air filter, a plant nutrient source, and a carbon sink. Potential in-vessel composting designs for both near- and long-term space missions are presented and discussed with respect to the unique aspects of space-based systems.

  14. Advanced Life Support Project: Crop Experiments at Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, John C.; Stutte, Gary W.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Yorio, Neil

    2004-01-01

    Crop production systems provide bioregenerative technologies to complement human crew life support requirements on long duration space missions. Kennedy Space Center has lead NASA's research on crop production systems that produce high value fresh foods, provide atmospheric regeneration, and perform water processing. As the emphasis on early missions to Mars has developed, our research focused on modular, scalable systems for transit missions, which can be developed into larger autonomous, bioregenerative systems for subsequent surface missions. Components of these scalable systems will include development of efficient light generating or collecting technologies, low mass plant growth chambers, and capability to operate in the high energy background radiation and reduced atmospheric pressures of space. These systems will be integrated with air, water, and thermal subsystems in an operational system. Extensive crop testing has been done for both staple and salad crops, but limited data is available on specific cultivar selection and breadboard testing to meet nominal Mars mission profiles of a 500-600 day surface mission. The recent research emphasis at Kennedy Space Center has shifted from staple crops, such as wheat, soybean and rice, toward short cycle salad crops such as lettuce, onion, radish, tomato, pepper, and strawberry. This paper will review the results of crop experiments to support the Exploration Initiative and the ongoing development of supporting technologies, and give an overview of capabilities of the newly opened Space Life Science (SLS) Lab at Kennedy Space Center. The 9662 square m (104,000 square ft) SLS Lab was built by the State of Florida and supports all NASA research that had been performed in Hanger-L. In addition to NASA research, the SLS Lab houses the Florida Space Research Institute (FSRI), responsible for co-managing the facility, and the University of Florida (UF) has established the Space Agriculture and Biotechnology Research and

  15. 308 Building deactivation mission analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, D.P.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of the 308 Building (Fuels Development Laboratory) Deactivation Project mission analysis. Hanford systems engineering (SE) procedures call for a mission analysis. The mission analysis is an important first step in the SE process. The functions and requirements to successfully accomplish this mission, the selected alternatives and products will later be defined using the SE process

  16. 309 Building deactivation mission analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, D.P.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of the 309 Building (Plutonium Fuels Utilization Program) Deactivation Project mission analysis. Hanford systems engineering (SE) procedures call for a mission analysis. The mission analysis is an important first step in the SE process. The functions and requirements to successfully accomplish this mission, the selected alternatives and products will later be defined using the SE process

  17. Evolvable Mars Campaign Long Duration Habitation Strategies: Architectural Approaches to Enable Human Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Matthew A.; Toups, Larry; Howe, A. Scott; Wald, Samuel I.

    2015-01-01

    The Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) is the current NASA Mars mission planning effort which seeks to establish sustainable, realistic strategies to enable crewed Mars missions in the mid-2030s timeframe. The primary outcome of the Evolvable Mars Campaign is not to produce "The Plan" for sending humans to Mars, but instead its intent is to inform the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate near-term key decisions and investment priorities to prepare for those types of missions. The FY'15 EMC effort focused upon analysis of integrated mission architectures to identify technically appealing transportation strategies, logistics build-up strategies, and vehicle designs for reaching and exploring Mars moons and Mars surface. As part of the development of this campaign, long duration habitats are required which are capable of supporting crew with limited resupply and crew abort during the Mars transit, Mars moons, and Mars surface segments of EMC missions. In particular, the EMC design team sought to design a single, affordable habitation system whose manufactured units could be outfitted uniquely for each of these missions and reused for multiple crewed missions. This habitat system must provide all of the functionality to safely support 4 crew for long durations while meeting mass and volume constraints for each of the mission segments set by the chosen transportation architecture and propulsion technologies. This paper describes several proposed long-duration habitation strategies to enable the Evolvable Mars Campaign through improvements in mass, cost, and reusability, and presents results of analysis to compare the options and identify promising solutions. The concepts investigated include several monolithic concepts: monolithic clean sheet designs, and concepts which leverage the co-manifested payload capability of NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) to deliver habitable elements within the Universal Payload Adaptor between the SLS upper stage and the Orion

  18. The system design of TRIO cinema Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ho; Seon, Jongho; Kim, Khan-Hyuk; Lee, Dong-Hun; Kim, Kap-Sung; Lin, Robert; Parks, George; Tindall, Craig; Horbury, T. S.; Larson, Davin; Sample, John

    TRIO (Triplet Ionospheric Observatory) CINEMA ( Cubesat for Ion, Neutral, Electron, MAg-netic fields) is a space science mission with three identical cubesats. The main scientific objec-tives are a multi-observation of ionospheric ENA (Energetic Neutral Atom) imaging, ionospheric signature of suprathermal electrons and ions and complementary measurements of magnetic fields for particle data. For this, Main payloads consist of a suprathermal electron, ion, neutral (STEIN) instrument and a 3-axis magnetometer of magnetoresistive sensors. The CINEMA is a 3-unit CubeSat, which translates to a 10 cm x 10 cm x 30 cm in volume and no more than four kilograms in mass. An attitude control system (ACS) uses torque coils, a sun sensor and the magnetometers and spin CINEMA spcaecraft 4 rpm with the spin axis perpendicular to the ecliptic plane. CINEMA will be placed into a high inclination low earth orbit that crosses the auroral zone and cusp. Three institutes are collaborating to develop CINEMA cubesats: i) two cubesats by Kyung Hee University (KHU) under their World Class University (WCU) program, ii) one cubesat by UC Berkeley under the NSF support, and iii) three magnetometers are provide by Imperial College, respectively. In this paper, we describe the system design and their performance of TR IO cinema mission. TRIO cinema's development of miniature in-strument and spacecraft spinning operation will play an important role for future nanosatellite space missions

  19. Operationalizing Mobile Applications for Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    the Samsung Galaxy SII (i9100) if it is the Unlocked GSM International Version that runs Gingerbread 2.3.4 OS; the 8 Samsung Nexus S if it is the...runs Gingerbread 2.3.4 OS (Naval Postgraduate School, 2013). Likewise he software can also be run on tablets, including the Samsung Galaxy Tab 7...Concept of FIST The FIST application was created to function in numerous diverse environments to support various possible missions, such as

  20. An Advanced Neutron Spectrometer for Future Manned Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christl, Mark; Apple, Jeffrey A.; Cox, Mark D.; Dietz, Kurtis L.; Dobson, Christopher C.; Gibson, Brian F.; Howard, David E.; Jackson, Amanda C.; Kayatin, Mathew J.; Kuznetsov, Evgeny N.; hide

    2014-01-01

    An Advanced Neutron Spectrometer (ANS) is being developed to support future manned exploration missions. This new instrument uses a refined gate and capture technique that significantly improves the identification of neutrons in mixed radiation fields found in spacecraft, habitats and on planetary surfaces. The new instrument is a composite scintillator comprised of PVT loaded with litium-6 glass scintillators. We will describe the detection concept and show preliminary results from laboratory tests and exposures at particle accelerators

  1. The Integrated Medical Model - Optimizing In-flight Space Medical Systems to Reduce Crew Health Risk and Mission Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstman, Eric; Walton, Marlei; Minard, Charles; Saile, Lynn; Myers, Jerry; Butler, Doug; Lyengar, Sriram; Fitts, Mary; Johnson-Throop, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a decision support tool used by medical system planners and designers as they prepare for exploration planning activities of the Constellation program (CxP). IMM provides an evidence-based approach to help optimize the allocation of in-flight medical resources for a specified level of risk within spacecraft operational constraints. Eighty medical conditions and associated resources are represented in IMM. Nine conditions are due to Space Adaptation Syndrome. The IMM helps answer fundamental medical mission planning questions such as What medical conditions can be expected? What type and quantity of medical resources are most likely to be used?", and "What is the probability of crew death or evacuation due to medical events?" For a specified mission and crew profile, the IMM effectively characterizes the sequence of events that could potentially occur should a medical condition happen. The mathematical relationships among mission and crew attributes, medical conditions and incidence data, in-flight medical resources, potential clinical and crew health end states are established to generate end state probabilities. A Monte Carlo computational method is used to determine the probable outcomes and requires up to 25,000 mission trials to reach convergence. For each mission trial, the pharmaceuticals and supplies required to diagnose and treat prevalent medical conditions are tracked and decremented. The uncertainty of patient response to treatment is bounded via a best-case, worst-case, untreated case algorithm. A Crew Health Index (CHI) metric, developed to account for functional impairment due to a medical condition, provides a quantified measure of risk and enables risk comparisons across mission scenarios. The use of historical in-flight medical data, terrestrial surrogate data as appropriate, and space medicine subject matter expertise has enabled the development of a probabilistic, stochastic decision support tool capable of

  2. Global Precipitation Measurement Mission: Architecture and Mission Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundas, David

    2005-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), and other partners, with the goal of monitoring the diurnal and seasonal variations in precipitation over the surface of the earth. These measurements will be used to improve current climate models and weather forecasting, and enable improved storm and flood warnings. This paper gives an overview of the mission architecture and addresses some of the key trades that have been completed, including the selection of the Core Observatory s orbit, orbit maintenance trades, and design issues related to meeting orbital debris requirements.

  3. A review of Spacelab mission management approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, H. G., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The Spacelab development program is a joint undertaking of the NASA and ESA. The paper addresses the initial concept of Spacelab payload mission management, the lessons learned, and modifications made as a result of the actual implementation of Spacelab Mission 1. The discussion covers mission management responsibilities, program control, science management, payload definition and interfaces, integrated payload mission planning, integration requirements, payload specialist training, payload and launch site integration, payload flight/mission operations, and postmission activities. After 3.5 years the outlined overall mission manager approach has proven to be most successful. The approach does allow the mission manager to maintain the lowest overall mission cost.

  4. When security and medicine missions conflict: confidentiality in prison settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Scott A; Aburabi, Raed

    2016-06-13

    Purpose - It is a simple fact that prisons cannot exist - practically, legally, ethically or morally - without the support of physicians and other health professionals. Access to adequate healthcare is one of the fundamental measures of the legitimacy of a jail or prison. At the same time, there is a fundamental tension in the missions of the prison and doctor. The primary mission of the prison is security and often punishment. Reform and rehabilitation have intermittently been stated goals of prisons in the last century, but in practice those humane goals have rarely governed prison administrative culture. The primary mission of the physician is to promote the health and welfare of his or her patient. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach - At times, what is required to serve the patient's best interest is at odds with the interests of security. Much of the work of the prison physician does not conflict with the operation of security. Indeed, much of the work of the prison physician is allowed to proceed without much interference from the security regime. But given the fundamental discord in the legitimate missions of security vs medicine, conflict between the doctor and the warden is inevitable. Findings - In this paper, the authors consider the example of patient confidentiality to illustrate this conflict, using case examples inspired by real cases from the experience of the authors. Originality/value - The authors provide an ethical and practical framework for health professionals to employ when confronting these inevitable conflicts in correctional settings.

  5. Nuclear Thermal Rocket/Vehicle Design Options for Future NASA Missions to the Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Corban, Robert R.; Mcguire, Melissa L.; Beke, Erik G.

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) provides a unique propulsion capability to planners/designers of future human exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. In addition to its high specific impulse (approximately 850-1000 s) and engine thrust-to-weight ratio (approximately 3-10), the NTR can also be configured as a 'dual mode' system capable of generating electrical power for spacecraft environmental systems, communications, and enhanced stage operations (e.g., refrigeration for long-term liquid hydrogen storage). At present the Nuclear Propulsion Office (NPO) is examining a variety of mission applications for the NTR ranging from an expendable, single-burn, trans-lunar injection (TLI) stage for NASA's First Lunar Outpost (FLO) mission to all propulsive, multiburn, NTR-powered spacecraft supporting a 'split cargo-piloted sprint' Mars mission architecture. Each application results in a particular set of requirements in areas such as the number of engines and their respective thrust levels, restart capability, fuel operating temperature and lifetime, cryofluid storage, and stage size. Two solid core NTR concepts are examined -- one based on NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) derivative reactor (NDR) technology, and a second concept which utilizes a ternary carbide 'twisted ribbon' fuel form developed by the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The NDR and CIS concepts have an established technology database involving significant nuclear testing at or near representative operating conditions. Integrated systems and mission studies indicate that clusters of two to four 15 to 25 klbf NDR or CIS engines are sufficient for most of the lunar and Mars mission scenarios currently under consideration. This paper provides descriptions and performance characteristics for the NDR and CIS concepts, summarizes NASA's First Lunar Outpost and Mars mission scenarios, and describes characteristics for representative cargo and piloted vehicles compatible with a

  6. Requirements Development Issues for Advanced Life Support Systems: Solid Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levri, Julie A.; Fisher, John W.; Alazraki, Michael P.; Hogan, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Long duration missions pose substantial new challenges for solid waste management in Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems. These possibly include storing large volumes of waste material in a safe manner, rendering wastes stable or sterilized for extended periods of time, and/or processing wastes for recovery of vital resources. This is further complicated because future missions remain ill-defined with respect to waste stream quantity, composition and generation schedule. Without definitive knowledge of this information, development of requirements is hampered. Additionally, even if waste streams were well characterized, other operational and processing needs require clarification (e.g. resource recovery requirements, planetary protection constraints). Therefore, the development of solid waste management (SWM) subsystem requirements for long duration space missions is an inherently uncertain, complex and iterative process. The intent of this paper is to address some of the difficulties in writing requirements for missions that are not completely defined. This paper discusses an approach and motivation for ALS SWM requirements development, the characteristics of effective requirements, and the presence of those characteristics in requirements that are developed for uncertain missions. Associated drivers for life support system technological capability are also presented. A general means of requirements forecasting is discussed, including successive modification of requirements and the need to consider requirements integration among subsystems.

  7. NASA Intelligent Systems Project: Results, Accomplishments and Impact on Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, Joseph C.

    2005-01-01

    The Intelligent Systems Project was responsible for much of NASA's programmatic investment in artificial intelligence and advanced information technologies. IS has completed three major project milestones which demonstrated increased capabilities in autonomy, human centered computing, and intelligent data understanding. Autonomy involves the ability of a robot to place an instrument on a remote surface with a single command cycle. Human centered computing supported a collaborative, mission centric data and planning system for the Mars Exploration Rovers and data understanding has produced key components of a terrestrial satellite observation system with automated modeling and data analysis capabilities. This paper summarizes the technology demonstrations and metrics which quantify and summarize these new technologies which are now available for future Nasa missions.

  8. The Integrated Medical Model: A Risk Assessment and Decision Support Tool for Space Flight Medical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstman, Eric; Minard, Charles; Saile, Lynn; deCarvalho, Mary Freire; Myers, Jerry; Walton, Marlei; Butler, Douglas; Iyengar, Sriram; Johnson-Throop, Kathy; Baumann, David

    2009-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a decision support tool that is useful to mission planners and medical system designers in assessing risks and designing medical systems for space flight missions. The IMM provides an evidence based approach for optimizing medical resources and minimizing risks within space flight operational constraints. The mathematical relationships among mission and crew profiles, medical condition incidence data, in-flight medical resources, potential crew functional impairments, and clinical end-states are established to determine probable mission outcomes. Stochastic computational methods are used to forecast probability distributions of crew health and medical resource utilization, as well as estimates of medical evacuation and loss of crew life. The IMM has been used in support of the International Space Station (ISS) medical kit redesign, the medical component of the ISS Probabilistic Risk Assessment, and the development of the Constellation Medical Conditions List. The IMM also will be used to refine medical requirements for the Constellation program. The IMM outputs for ISS and Constellation design reference missions will be presented to demonstrate the potential of the IMM in assessing risks, planning missions, and designing medical systems. The implementation of the IMM verification and validation plan will be reviewed. Additional planned capabilities of the IMM, including optimization techniques and the inclusion of a mission timeline, will be discussed. Given the space flight constraints of mass, volume, and crew medical training, the IMM is a valuable risk assessment and decision support tool for medical system design and mission planning.

  9. A High Power Solar Electric Propulsion - Chemical Mission for Human Exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Laura M.; Martini, Michael C.; Oleson, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    Recently Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) as a main propulsion system has been investigated as an option to support manned space missions to near-Earth destinations for the NASA Gateway spacecraft. High efficiency SEP systems are able to reduce the amount of propellant long duration chemical missions require, ultimately reducing the required mass delivered to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by a launch vehicle. However, for long duration interplanetary Mars missions, using SEP as the sole propulsion source alone may not be feasible due to the long trip times to reach and insert into the destination orbit. By combining an SEP propulsion system with a chemical propulsion system the mission is able to utilize the high-efficiency SEP for sustained vehicle acceleration and deceleration in heliocentric space and the chemical system for orbit insertion maneuvers and trans-earth injection, eliminating the need for long duration spirals. By capturing chemically instead of with low-thrust SEP, Mars stay time increases by nearly 200 days. Additionally, the size the of chemical propulsion system can be significantly reduced from that of a standard Mars mission because the SEP system greatly decreases the Mars arrival and departure hyperbolic excess velocities (V(sub infinity)).

  10. Ultra Long-Life Spacecraft for Long Duration Space Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Savio

    2002-01-01

    After decades of Solar System exploration, NASA has almost completed the initial reconnaissance, and has been planning for landing and sample return missions on many planets, satellites, comets, and asteroids. The next logical step of space exploration is to expand the frontier into other missions within and outside the solar system. These missions can easily last for more than 30 to 50 years. Most of the current technologies and spacecraft design techniques are not adequate to support such long life missions. Many breakthrough technologies and non-conventional system architecture have to develop in order to sustain such long life missions.Some of these technologies are being developed by the NASA Exploration Team (neXt). Based on the projected requirements for ultra long life missions, the costs and benefits of the required technologies can be quantified. The ultra long-life space system should have four attributes: long-term survivability, administration of consumable resources, evolvability and adaptability, and low-cost long-term operations of the spacecraft. The discussion of survivability is the focus of this paper. Conventional fault tolerant system design has to tolerate only random failures, which can be handled effectively by dual or triple redundancy for a relatively short time. In contrast, the predominant failure mode in an ultra long-life system is the wear-out of components. All active components in the system are destined to fail before the end of the mission. Therefore, an ultra long-life system would require a large number of redundant components. This would be impractical in conventional fault tolerant systems because their fault tolerance techniques are very inefficient. For instance, a conventional dual-string avionics system duplicates the all the components including the processor, memory, and I/O controllers on a spacecraft. However, when the same component in both strings fail (e.g., the processor), the system will fail although all other

  11. NASA's Human Mission to a Near-Earth Asteroid: Landing on a Moving Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey H.; Lincoln, William P.; Weisbin, Charles R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a Bayesian approach for comparing the productivity and cost-risk tradeoffs of sending versus not sending one or more robotic surveyor missions prior to a human mission to land on an asteroid. The expected value of sample information based on productivity combined with parametric variations in the prior probability an asteroid might be found suitable for landing were used to assess the optimal number of spacecraft and asteroids to survey. The analysis supports the value of surveyor missions to asteroids and indicates one launch with two spacecraft going simultaneously to two independent asteroids appears optimal.

  12. Sustainable, Reliable Mission-Systems Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Graham; Orr, James K.; Watson, Steve

    2007-01-01

    A mission-systems architecture, based on a highly modular infrastructure utilizing: open-standards hardware and software interfaces as the enabling technology is essential for affordable and sustainable space exploration programs. This mission-systems architecture requires (a) robust communication between heterogeneous system, (b) high reliability, (c) minimal mission-to-mission reconfiguration, (d) affordable development, system integration, and verification of systems, and (e) minimal sustaining engineering. This paper proposes such an architecture. Lessons learned from the Space Shuttle program and Earthbound complex engineered system are applied to define the model. Technology projections reaching out 5 years are mde to refine model details.

  13. Mission-directed path planning for planetary rover exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Paul

    2005-07-01

    Robotic rovers uniquely benefit planetary exploration---they enable regional exploration with the precision of in-situ measurements, a combination impossible from an orbiting spacecraft or fixed lander. Mission planning for planetary rover exploration currently utilizes sophisticated software for activity planning and scheduling, but simplified path planning and execution approaches tailored for localized operations to individual targets. This approach is insufficient for the investigation of multiple, regionally distributed targets in a single command cycle. Path planning tailored for this task must consider the impact of large scale terrain on power, speed and regional access; the effect of route timing on resource availability; the limitations of finite resource capacity and other operational constraints on vehicle range and timing; and the mutual influence between traverses and upstream and downstream stationary activities. Encapsulating this reasoning in an efficient autonomous planner would allow a rover to continue operating rationally despite significant deviations from an initial plan. This research presents mission-directed path planning that enables an autonomous, strategic reasoning capability for robotic explorers. Planning operates in a space of position, time and energy. Unlike previous hierarchical approaches, it treats these dimensions simultaneously to enable globally-optimal solutions. The approach calls on a near incremental search algorithm designed for planning and re-planning under global constraints, in spaces of higher than two dimensions. Solutions under this method specify routes that avoid terrain obstacles, optimize the collection and use of rechargable energy, satisfy local and global mission constraints, and account for the time and energy of interleaved mission activities. Furthermore, the approach efficiently re-plans in response to updates in vehicle state and world models, and is well suited to online operation aboard a robot

  14. Application of virtual reality for crew mental health in extended-duration space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamon, Nick; Grimm, Jonathan M.; Horack, John M.; Newton, Elizabeth K.

    2018-05-01

    Human exploration of the solar system brings a host of environmental and engineering challenges. Among the most important factors in crew health and human performance is the preservation of mental health. The mental well-being of astronaut crews is a significant issue affecting the success of long-duration space missions, such as habitation on or around the Moon, Mars exploration, and eventual colonization of the solar system. If mental health is not properly addressed, these missions will be at risk. Upkeep of mental health will be especially difficult on long duration missions because many of the support systems available to crews on shorter missions will not be available. In this paper, we examine the use of immersive virtual reality (VR) simulations to maintain healthy mental states in astronaut crews who are removed from the essential comforts typically associated with terrestrial life. Various methods of simulations and their administration are analyzed in the context of current research and knowledge in the fields of psychology, medicine, and space sciences, with a specific focus on the environment faced by astronauts on long-term missions. The results of this investigation show that virtual reality should be considered a plausible measure in preventing mental state deterioration in astronauts, though more work is needed to provide a comprehensive view of the effectiveness and administration of VR methods.

  15. Kickstarting a New Era of Lunar Industrialization via Campaign of Lunar COTS Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Allison F.; Turner, Mark; Rasky, Daniel; Pittman, Robert B.; Zapata, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    To support the goals of expanding our human presence and current economic sphere beyond LEO, a new plan was constructed for NASA to enter into partnerships with industry to foster and incentivize a new era of lunar industrialization. For NASA to finally be successful in achieving sustainable human exploration missions beyond LEO, lessons learned from our space history have shown that it is essential for current program planning to include affordable and economic development goals as well as address top national priorities to obtain much needed public support. In the last 58 years of NASA's existence, only Apollo's human exploration missions beyond LEO were successful since it was proclaimed to be a top national priority during the 1960's. However, the missions were not sustainable and ended abruptly in 1972 due to lack of funding and insufficient economic gain. Ever since Apollo, there have not been any human missions beyond LEO because none of the proposed program plans were economical or proclaimed a top national priority. The proposed plan outlines a new campaign of low-cost, commercial-enabled lunar COTS (Commercial Orbital Transfer Services) missions which is an update to the Lunar COTS plan previously described. The objectives of this new campaign of missions are to prospect for resources, determine the economic viability of extracting those resources and assess the value proposition of using these resources in future exploration architectures such as Mars. These missions would be accomplished in partnership with commercial industry using the wellproven COTS Program acquisition model. This model proved to be very beneficial to both NASA and its industry partners as NASA saved significantly in development and operational costs, as much as tenfold, while industry partners successfully expanded their market share and demonstrated substantial economic gain. Similar to COTS, the goals for this new initiative are 1) to develop and demonstrate cost-effective, cis

  16. The LUVOIR Large Mission Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meara, John; LUVOIR Science and Technology Definition Team

    2018-01-01

    LUVOIR is one of four large mission concepts for which the NASA Astrophysics Division has commissioned studies by Science and Technology Definition Teams (STDTs) drawn from the astronomical community. We are currently developing two architectures: Architecture A with a 15.1 meter segmented primary mirror, and Architecture B with a 9.2 meter segmented primary mirror. Our focus in this presentation is the Architecture A LUVOIR. LUVOIR will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 point. It will be designed to support a broad range of astrophysics and exoplanet studies. The initial instruments developed for LUVOIR Architecture A include 1) a high-performance optical/NIR coronagraph with imaging and spectroscopic capability, 2) a UV imager and spectrograph with high spectral resolution and multi-object capability, 3) a high-definition wide-field optical/NIR camera, and 4) a high resolution UV/optical spectropolarimeter. LUVOIR will be designed for extreme stability to support unprecedented spatial resolution and coronagraphy. It is intended to be a long-lifetime facility that is both serviceable, upgradable, and primarily driven by guest observer science programs. In this presentation, we will describe the observatory, its instruments, and survey the transformative science LUVOIR can accomplish.

  17. Water Cycle Missions for the Next Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, P. R.

    2013-12-01

    The global water cycle describes the circulation of water as a vital and dynamic substance in its liquid, solid, and vapor phases as it moves through the atmosphere, oceans and land. Life in its many forms exists because of water, and modern civilization depends on learning how to live within the constraints imposed by the availability of water. The scientific challenge posed by the need to observe the global water cycle is to integrate in situ and space-borne observations to quantify the key water-cycle state variables and fluxes. The vision to address that challenge is a series of Earth observation missions that will measure the states, stocks, flows, and residence times of water on regional to global scales followed by a series of coordinated missions that will address the processes, on a global scale, that underlie variability and changes in water in all its three phases. The accompanying societal challenge is to foster the improved use of water data and information as a basis for enlightened management of water resources, to protect life and property from effects of extremes in the water cycle. A major change in thinking about water science that goes beyond its physics to include its role in ecosystems and society is also required. Better water-cycle observations, especially on the continental and global scales, will be essential. Water-cycle predictions need to be readily available globally to reduce loss of life and property caused by water-related natural hazards. Building on the 2007 Earth Science Decadal Survey, NASA's Plan for a Climate-Centric Architecture for Earth Observations and Applications from Space , and the 2012 Chapman Conference on Remote Sensing of the Terrestrial Water Cycle, a workshop was held in April 2013 to gather wisdom and determine how to prepare for the next generation of water cycle missions in support of the second Earth Science Decadal Survey. This talk will present the outcomes of the workshop including the intersection between

  18. Mars Hybrid Propulsion System Trajectory Analysis. Part II; Cargo Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Patrick R.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Qu, Min

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Human Spaceflight Architecture Team is developing a reusable hybrid transportation architecture in which both chemical and electric propulsion systems are used to send crew and cargo to Mars destinations such as Phobos, Deimos, the surface of Mars, and other orbits around Mars. By combining chemical and electrical propulsion into a single spaceship and applying each where it is more effective, the hybrid architecture enables a series of Mars trajectories that are more fuel-efficient than an all chemical architecture without significant increases in flight times. This paper shows the feasibility of the hybrid transportation architecture to pre-deploy cargo to Mars and Phobos in support of the Evolvable Mars Campaign crew missions. The analysis shows that the hybrid propulsion stage is able to deliver all of the current manifested payload to Phobos and Mars through the first three crew missions. The conjunction class trajectory also allows the hybrid propulsion stage to return to Earth in a timely fashion so it can be reused for additional cargo deployment. The 1,100 days total trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to deliver cargo to Mars every other Earth-Mars transit opportunity. For the first two Mars surface mission in the Evolvable Mars Campaign, the short trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to be reused for three round-trip journeys to Mars, which matches the hybrid propulsion stage's designed lifetime for three round-trip crew missions to the Martian sphere of influence.

  19. 78 FR 76821 - Executive-Led U.S.-Turkey Healthcare Trade Mission to Ankara, Istanbul, and Izmir

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... additional time is needed to allow for additional recruitment and marketing in support of the mission... Mobile-Health sub-sectors. Applications received after the February 6, 2014 cob deadline will be...

  20. Ground Contact Analysis for Korea’s Fictitious Lunar Orbiter Mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Joo Song

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the ground contact opportunity for the fictitious low lunar orbiter is analyzed to prepare for a future Korean lunar orbiter mission. The ground contact opportunity is basically derived from geometrical relations between the typical ground stations at the Earth, the relative positions of the Earth and Moon, and finally, the lunar orbiter itself. Both the cut-off angle and the orbiter’s Line of Sight (LOS conditions (weather orbiter is located at near or far side of the Moon seen from the Earth are considered to determine the ground contact opportunities. Four KOMPSAT Ground Stations (KGSs are assumed to be Korea’s future Near Earth Networks (NENs to support lunar missions, and world-wide separated Deep Space Networks (DSNs are also included during the contact availability analysis. As a result, it is concluded that about 138 times of contact will be made between the orbiter and the Daejeon station during 27.3 days of prediction time span. If these contact times are converted into contact duration, the duration is found to be about 8.55 days, about 31.31% of 27.3 days. It is discovered that selected four KGSs cannot provide continuous tracking of the lunar orbiter, meaning that international collaboration is necessary to track Korea’s future lunar orbiter effectively. Possible combinations of world-wide separated DSNs are also suggested to compensate for the lack of contact availability with only four KGSs, as with primary and backup station concepts. The provided algorithm can be easily modified to support any type of orbit around the Moon, and therefore, the presented results could aid further progress in the design field of Korea’s lunar orbiter missions.

  1. The STEREO Mission

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    The STEREO mission uses twin heliospheric orbiters to track solar disturbances from their initiation to 1 AU. This book documents the mission, its objectives, the spacecraft that execute it and the instruments that provide the measurements, both remote sensing and in situ. This mission promises to unlock many of the mysteries of how the Sun produces what has become to be known as space weather.

  2. 76 FR 7153 - Secretarial Business Development Mission; Transportation Infrastructure/Multimodal Products and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... jobs. This mission will support job creation by increasing exports of products and services that... yet done business in Qatar or the U.A.E. to enter these markets in support of job creation in the... before June 4, 2011. June 4 Doha, Qatar. Orientation. Market Briefing by U.S. Embassy Officials. Welcome...

  3. Direct UV/Optical Imaging of Stellar Surfaces: The Stellar Imager (SI) Vision Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Lyon, Richard G.; Schrijver, Carolus; Karovska, Margarita; Mozurkewich, David

    2007-01-01

    The Stellar Imager (SI) is a UV/optical, space-based interferometer designed to enable 0.1 milli-arcsecond (mas) spectral imaging of stellar surfaces and, via asteroseismology, stellar interiors and of the Universe in general. SI's science focuses on the role of magnetism in the Universe, particularly on magnetic activity on the surfaces of stars like the Sun. SI's prime goal is to enable long-term forecasting of solar activity and the space weather that it drives, in support of the Living with a Star program in the Exploration Era. SI will also revolutionize our understanding of the formation of planetary systems, of the habitability and climatology of distant planets, and of many magneto-hydrodynamically controlled processes in thc Universe. SI is a "Flagship and Landmark Discovery Mission" in the 2005 Sun Solar System Connection (SSSC) Roadmap and a candidate for a "Pathways to Life Observatory" in the Exploration of the Universe Division (EUD) Roadmap. We discuss herein the science goals of the SI Mission, a mission architecture that could meet those goals, and the technologies needed to enable this mission. Additional information on SI can be found at: http://hires.gsfc.nasa.gov/si/.

  4. Developing Sustainable Life Support System Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evan A.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable spacecraft life support concepts may allow the development of more reliable technologies for long duration space missions. Currently, life support technologies at different levels of development are not well evaluated against each other, and evaluation methods do not account for long term reliability and sustainability of the hardware. This paper presents point-of-departure sustainability evaluation criteria for life support systems, that may allow more robust technology development, testing and comparison. An example sustainable water recovery system concept is presented.

  5. A Numerical Method to Generate Reference Trajectories for Optimization Methods to Support Low-Thrust Mission Design

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The recent success of missions employing low thrust propulsion systems has demonstrated the promise this technology holds for a wide array of future applications,...

  6. OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevres Fernandez, Lee Roger; Bos, Brent

    2018-01-01

    NASA’s Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission constitutes the “first-of-its-kind” project to thoroughly characterize a near-Earth asteroid. The selected asteroid is (101955) 1999 RQ36 (a.k.a. Bennu). The mission launched in September 2016, and the spacecraft will reach its asteroid target in 2018 and return a sample to Earth in 2023. The spacecraft that will travel to, and collect a sample from, Bennu has five integrated instruments from national and international partners. NASA's OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission spacecraft includes the Touch-And-Go Camera System (TAGCAMS) three camera-head instrument. The purpose of TAGCAMS is to provide imagery during the mission to facilitate navigation to the target asteroid, confirm acquisition of the asteroid sample and document asteroid sample stowage. Two of the TAGCAMS cameras, NavCam 1 and NavCam 2, serve as fully redundant navigation cameras to support optical navigation and natural feature tracking. The third TAGCAMS camera, StowCam, provides imagery to assist with and confirm proper stowage of the asteroid sample. Analysis of spacecraft imagery acquired by the TAGCAMS during cruise to the target asteroid Bennu was performed using custom codes developed in MATLAB. Assessment of the TAGCAMS in-flight performance using flight imagery was done to characterize camera performance. One specific area of investigation that was targeted was bad pixel mapping. A recent phase of the mission, known as the Earth Gravity Assist (EGA) maneuver, provided images that were used for the detection and confirmation of “questionable” pixels, possibly under responsive, using image segmentation analysis. Ongoing work on point spread function morphology and camera linearity and responsivity will also be used for calibration purposes and further analysis in preparation for proximity operations around Bennu. Said analyses will provide a broader understanding

  7. Mars mission program for primary students: Building student and teacher skills in science, technology, engineering and mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, Naomi; Pakakis, Michael; Christie, Ian

    2011-09-01

    The Victorian Space Science Education Centre (VSSEC) scenario-based programs, including the Mission to Mars and Mission to the Orbiting Space Laboratory, utilize methodologies such as hands-on applications, immersive learning, integrated technologies, critical thinking and mentoring. The use of a scenario provides a real-life context and purpose to what students might otherwise consider disjointed information. These programs engage students in the areas of maths and science, and highlight potential career paths in science and engineering. The introduction of a scenario-based program for primary students engages students in maths and science at a younger age, addressing the issues of basic numeracy and science literacy, thus laying the foundation for stronger senior science initiatives. Primary students absorb more information within the context of the scenario, and presenting information they can see, hear, touch and smell creates a memorable learning and sensory experience. The mission also supports development of teacher skills in the delivery of hands-on science and helps build their confidence to teach science. The Primary Mission to the Mars Base gives primary school students access to an environment and equipment not available in schools. Students wear flight suits for the duration of the program to immerse them in the experience of being an astronaut. Astronauts work in the VSSEC Space Laboratory, which is transformed into a Mars base for the primary program, to conduct experiments in areas such as robotics, human physiology, microbiology, nanotechnology and environmental science. Specialist mission control software has been developed by La Trobe University Centre for Games Technology to provide age appropriate Information and Communication Technology (ICT) based problem solving and support the concept of a mission. Students in Mission Control observe the astronauts working in the space laboratory and talk to them via the AV system. This interactive

  8. Enhancements and Evolution of the Real Time Mission Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, M.; Blakeslee, R.; Hardin, D.; Hall, J.; He, Y.; Regner, K.

    2008-12-01

    The Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a visualization and information system that fuses multiple Earth science data sources, to enable real time decision-making for airborne and ground validation experiments. Developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, RTMM is a situational awareness, decision-support system that integrates satellite imagery, radar, surface and airborne instrument data sets, model output parameters, lightning location observations, aircraft navigation data, soundings, and other applicable Earth science data sets. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible using data acquisition systems, network communication links, network server resources, and visualizations through the Google Earth virtual earth application. RTMM has proven extremely valuable for optimizing individual Earth science airborne field experiments. Flight planners, mission scientists, instrument scientists and program managers alike appreciate the contributions that RTMM makes to their flight projects. RTMM has received numerous plaudits from a wide variety of scientists who used RTMM during recent field campaigns including the 2006 NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (NAMMA), 2007 Tropical Composition, Cloud, and Climate Coupling (TC4), 2008 Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) missions, the 2007-2008 NOAA-NASA Aerosonde Hurricane flights and the 2008 Soil Moisture Active-Passive Validation Experiment (SMAP-VEX). Improving and evolving RTMM is a continuous process. RTMM recently integrated the Waypoint Planning Tool, a Java-based application that enables aircraft mission scientists to easily develop a pre-mission flight plan through an interactive point-and-click interface. Individual flight legs are automatically calculated for altitude, latitude, longitude, flight leg distance, cumulative distance, flight leg time, cumulative time, and

  9. The European Union’s Aviation Security Mission in South Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højstrup Christensen, Gitte; Kammel, Arnold; Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    of the security situation in the country, all EU personnel were evacuated in January 2014, and the mission was (informally) terminated after fulfilling its mandated deployment period. Even though the mission had succeeded in training 350 personnel prior to the evacuation, its contribution to the overall security......When South Sudan gained independence in 2011, the new country needed assistance from external actors during the transition to prevent the security situation from deteriorating. In 2012 the EU launched its Aviation Security Mission (EUAVSEC) in South Sudan as part of its Common Security and Defence...... Policy. This came in response to a South Sudanese request for EU support and assistance in strengthening the security in Juba International Airport, as it had proven difficult for South Sudan to establish a fully operational transport hub. The EU estimated that an improvement of the airport security...

  10. The 'Granite' collegial mission of dialogue. Report; Mission collegiale de concertation Granite. Rapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boisson, P; Huet, Ph; Mingasson, J

    2000-06-01

    The aim of the 'Granite' collegial mission of dialogue is to inform the French authorities, associations and population about the project of construction of an underground laboratory for the study of the disposal of high level and long-life radioactive wastes in a granitic environment. The aim of the dialogue was not to select a site but to collect the public reactions and advices about such a project. However, such a dialogue has partially failed because of a misunderstanding of the population about the aims of the mission. However, the mission has collected many point of views and questions which are developed in this report. The first and second chapters recall the process of the mission and its progress, while a third chapter stresses on the questions asked by the public and which concern the fear of nuclear wastes and the incompatibility between the disposal of wastes and the socio-economical development of the region concerned. Thanks to the lessons drawn from this experience, the mission has formulated some recommendations (chapter 4) concerning the need for a better information of the population about any topic in relation with the radioactive wastes. Some complementary information is provided in appendixes. (J.S.)

  11. The Sun and Heliosphere Explorer – The Interhelioprobe Mission

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuznetsov, V. D.; Zimovets, I.V.; Anufreychik, K.; Bezrukikh, V.; Chulkov, I. V.; Konovalov, A. A.; Kotova, G.A.; Kovrazhkin, R. A.; Moiseenko, D.; Petrukovich, A. A.; Remizov, A.; Shestakov, A.; Skalsky, A.; Vaisberg, O. L.; Verigin, M. I.; Zhuravlev, R. N.; Andreevskyi, S. E.; Dokukin, V. S.; Fomichev, V. V.; Lebedev, N. I.; Obridko, V. N.; Polyanskyi, V. P.; Styazhkin, V. A.; Rudenchik, E. A.; Sinelnikov, V. M.; Zhugzhda, Yu. D.; Ryzhenko, A. P.; Ivanov, A. V.; Simonov, A. V.; Dobrovolskyi, V. S.; Konstantinov, M. S.; Kuzin, S. V.; Bogachev, S. A.; Kholodilov, A. A.; Kirichenko, A. S.; Lavrentiev, E. N.; Reva, A. A.; Shestov, S. V.; Ulyanov, A. S.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Iyudin, A. F.; Svertilov, S. I.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Galkin, V. I.; Marjin, B. V.; Morozov, O. V.; Osedlo, V. I.; Rubinshtein, I. A.; Scherbovsky, B. Ya.; Tulupov, V. I.; Kotov, Yu. D.; Yurov, V. N.; Glyanenko, A. S.; Kochemasov, A. V.; Lupar, E. E.; Rubtsov, I. V.; Trofimov, Yu. A.; Tyshkevich, V. G.; Ulin, S. E.; Novikov, A. S.; Dmitrenko, V. V.; Grachev, V. M.; Stekhanov, V. N.; Vlasik, K. F.; Uteshev, Z. M.; Chernysheva, I. V.; Shustov, A. E.; Petrenko, D. V.; Aptekar, R. L.; Dergachev, V. A.; Golenetskii, S. V.; Gribovskyi, K. S.; Frederiks, D. D.; Kruglov, E. M.; Lazutkov, V. P.; Levedev, V. V.; Oleinik, F. P.; Palshin, V. D.; Repin, A. I.; Savchenko, M. I.; Skorodumov, D. V.; Svinkin, D. S.; Tsvetkova, A. S.; Ulanov, M. V.; Kozhevatov, I. E.; Sylwester, J.; Siarkowski, M.; Bąkała, J.; Szaforz, Ż.; Kowaliński, M.; Dudnik, O. V.; Lavraud, B.; Hruška, František; Kolmašová, Ivana; Santolík, Ondřej; Šimůnek, Jiří; Truhlík, Vladimír; Auster, H.-U.; Hilchenbach, M.; Venedictov, Yu.; Berghofer, G.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 7 (2016), s. 781-841 ISSN 0016-7932 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Sun * heliosphere * Interhelioprobe space mission * solar physics * heliospheric physics * solar-terrestrial relations Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.482, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1134/S0016793216070124

  12. The NASA Commercial Crew Program (CCP) Mission Assurance Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Amy

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, NASA established the Commercial Crew Program in order to provide human access to the International Space Station and low earth orbit via the commercial (non-governmental) sector. A particular challenge to NASA has been how to determine the commercial providers transportation system complies with Programmatic safety requirements. The process used in this determination is the Safety Technical Review Board which reviews and approves provider submitted Hazard Reports. One significant product of the review is a set of hazard control verifications. In past NASA programs, 100 percent of these safety critical verifications were typically confirmed by NASA. The traditional Safety and Mission Assurance (SMA) model does not support the nature of the Commercial Crew Program. To that end, NASA SMA is implementing a Risk Based Assurance (RBA) process to determine which hazard control verifications require NASA authentication. Additionally, a Shared Assurance Model is also being developed to efficiently use the available resources to execute the verifications. This paper will describe the evolution of the CCP Mission Assurance process from the beginning of the Program to its current incarnation. Topics to be covered include a short history of the CCP; the development of the Programmatic mission assurance requirements; the current safety review process; a description of the RBA process and its products and ending with a description of the Shared Assurance Model.

  13. The planetary spatial data infrastructure for the OSIRIS-REx mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaGiustina, D. N.; Selznick, S.; Nolan, M. C.; Enos, H. L.; Lauretta, D. S.

    2017-12-01

    The primary objective of the Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission is to return a pristine sample of carbonaceous material from primitive asteroid (101955) Bennu. Understanding the geospatial context of Bennu is critical to choosing a sample-site and also linking the nature of the sample to the global properties of Bennu and the broader asteroid population. We established a planetary spatial data infrastructure (PSDI) support the primary objective of OSIRIS-REx. OSIRIS-REx is unique among planetary missions in that all remote sensing is performed to support the sample return objective. Prior to sampling, OSIRIS-REx will survey Bennu for nearly two years to select and document the most valuable primary and backup sample sites. During this period, the mission will combine coordinated observations from five science instruments into four thematic maps: deliverability, safety, sampleability, and scientific value. The deliverability map assesses the probability that the flight dynamics team can deliver the spacecraft to the desired location. The safety map indicates the probability that physical hazards are present at the sample-site. The sampleability map quantifies the probability that a sample can be successfully collected from the surface. Finally, the scientific value map shows the probability that the collected sample contains organics and volatiles and also places the sample site in a definitive geological context relative to Bennu's history. The OSIRIS-REx Science Processing and Operations Center (SPOC) serves as the operational PSDI for the mission. The SPOC is tasked with intake of all data from the spacecraft and other ground sources and assimilating these data into a single comprehensive system for processing and presentation. The SPOC centralizes all geographic data of Bennu in a relational database and ensures that standardization and provenance are maintained throughout proximity

  14. Supporting Real-Time Operations and Execution through Timeline and Scheduling Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Jessica J.; Pyrzak, Guy; Hashemi, Sam; Ahmed, Samia; McMillin, Kevin Edward; Medwid, Joseph Daniel; Chen, Diana; Hurtle, Esten

    2013-01-01

    Since 2003, the NASA Ames Research Center has been actively involved in researching and advancing the state-of-the-art of planning and scheduling tools for NASA mission operations. Our planning toolkit SPIFe (Scheduling and Planning Interface for Exploration) has supported a variety of missions and field tests, scheduling activities for Mars rovers as well as crew on-board International Space Station and NASA earth analogs. The scheduled plan is the integration of all the activities for the day/s. In turn, the agents (rovers, landers, spaceships, crew) execute from this schedule while the mission support team members (e.g., flight controllers) follow the schedule during execution. Over the last couple of years, our team has begun to research and validate methods that will better support users during realtime operations and execution of scheduled activities. Our team utilizes human-computer interaction principles to research user needs, identify workflow processes, prototype software aids, and user test these. This paper discusses three specific prototypes developed and user tested to support real-time operations: Score Mobile, Playbook, and Mobile Assistant for Task Execution (MATE).

  15. Measurements in Vacuum of the Complex Permittivity of Planetary Regolith Analog Materials in Support of the OSIRIS-REx Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, A.; Hickson, D. C.; Cunje, A.; Tsai, C. A.; Ghent, R. R.; Daly, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    In preparation for the OSIRIS-REx sample return mission, ground based radar data have been used to help characterize the carbonaceous asteroid (101955) Bennu as well as to produce a 3-D shape model. Radar data have also been used to derive the near-surface bulk density of the asteroid, a key engineering factor for sample acquisition and return. The relationship between radar albedo and bulk density of the nearsurface depends on the relative permittivity of the material, in this case regolith. The relative permittivity is complex such that ɛ r = ɛ r' + i ɛ r'', where ɛ r' is the dielectric constant and ɛ r'' is the loss factor. Laboratory permittivity measurements have been made in the past on a myriad of samples including Earth materials, lunar Apollo and analog samples, Mars soil analog samples, some meteorites, and cometary analog samples in support of the Rosetta mission. These measurements have been made in different frequency bands and in various conditions; however, no measurements to date have systematically explored the effect of changes in mineralogy on the complex permittivity, and particularly the loss tangent (tanδ , the ratio of ɛ r'' to ɛ r'). The loss tangent controls the absorption of the signal by the material. Continuing our investigation of the effects of mineralogy on these properties, we will present for the first time results of complex permittivity measurements of the UCF/DSI-CI-2 CI asteroid regolith simulant produced by Deep Space Industries Inc. The simulant is mineralogically similar to the CI meteorite Orgueil. CI meteorites are the most spectrally similar meteorites to (101955) Bennu. Since the simulant has been provided to us un-mixed, several sub-samples will be created containing different amounts of carbon, thus allowing us to systematically investigate the effects of carbon content on the permittivity. In order to remove moisture from our samples, powders are baked at 250°C for 48hrs prior to being loaded into a coaxial

  16. EO-1/Hyperion: Nearing Twelve Years of Successful Mission Science Operation and Future Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Campbell, Petya K.; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Zhang, Qingyuan; Landis, David R.; Ungar, Stephen G.; Ong, Lawrence; Pollack, Nathan H.; Cheng, Yen-Ben

    2012-01-01

    The Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite is a technology demonstration mission that was launched in November 2000, and by July 2012 will have successfully completed almost 12 years of high spatial resolution (30 m) imaging operations from a low Earth orbit. EO-1 has two unique instruments, the Hyperion and the Advanced Land Imager (ALI). Both instruments have served as prototypes for NASA's newer satellite missions, including the forthcoming (in early 2013) Landsat-8 and the future Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI). As well, EO-1 is a heritage platform for the upcoming German satellite, EnMAP (2015). Here, we provide an overview of the mission, and highlight the capabilities of the Hyperion for support of science investigations, and present prototype products developed with Hyperion imagery for the HyspIRI and other space-borne spectrometers.

  17. Mission analysis for cross-site transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riesenweber, S.D.; Fritz, R.L.; Shipley, L.E.

    1995-11-01

    The Mission Analysis Report describes the requirements and constraints associated with the Transfer Waste Function as necessary to support the Manage Tank Waste, Retrieve Waste, and Process Tank Waste Functions described in WHC-SD-WM-FRD-020, Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Functions and Requirements Document and DOE/RL-92-60, Revision 1, TWRS Functions and Requirements Document, March 1994. It further assesses the ability of the ''initial state'' (or current cross-site transfer system) to meet the requirements and constraints

  18. A Saturn Ring Observer Mission Using Multi-Mission Radioisotope Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelson, Robert D.; Spilker, Thomas R.; Shirley, James H.

    2006-01-01

    Saturn remains one of the most fascinating planets within the solar system. To better understand the complex ring structure of this planet, a conceptual Saturn Ring Observer (SRO) mission is presented that would spend one year in close proximity to Saturn's A and B rings, and perform detailed observations and measurements of the ring particles and electric and magnetic fields. The primary objective of the mission would be to understand ring dynamics, including the microphysics of individual particles and small scale (meters to a few kilometers) phenomena such as particle agglomeration behavior. This would be accomplished by multispectral imaging of the rings at multiple key locations within the A and B rings, and by ring-particle imaging at an unprecedented resolution of 0.5 cm/pixel. The SRO spacecraft would use a Venus-Earth-Earth-Jupiter Gravity Assist (VEEJGA) and be aerocaptured into Saturn orbit using an advanced aeroshell design to minimize propellant mass. Once in orbit, the SRO would stand off from the ring plane 1 to 1.4 km using chemical thrusters to provide short propulsive maneuvers four times per revolution, effectively causing the SRO vehicle to 'hop' above the ring plane. The conceptual SRO spacecraft would be enabled by the use of a new generation of multi-mission Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs) currently being developed by NASA and DOE. These RPSs include the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) and Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG). The RPSs would generate all necessary electrical power (≥330 We at beginning of life) during the 10-year cruise and 1-year science mission (∼11 years total). The RPS heat would be used to maintain the vehicle's operating and survival temperatures, minimizing the need for electrical heaters. Such a mission could potentially launch in the 2015-2020 timeframe, with operations at Saturn commencing in approximately 2030

  19. Fighting the War at Home : Strategic Narratives, Elite Responsiveness, and the Dutch Mission in Afghanistan, 2006–2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitriu, George; de Graaf, Beatrice|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/180916165

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Dutch deployment in Uruzgan between 2006 and 2010 with an eye to the challenge of garnering public support for protracted military missions abroad. The hypothesis is that public support can be shaped and sustained by strategic narratives regarding the use of force. Ringsmose

  20. Need for Cost Optimization of Space Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Anderson, Grant

    2017-01-01

    As the nation plans manned missions that go far beyond Earth orbit to Mars, there is an urgent need for a robust, disciplined systems engineering methodology that can identify an optimized Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLSS) architecture for long duration deep space missions. But unlike the previously used Equivalent System Mass (ESM), the method must be inclusive of all driving parameters and emphasize the economic analysis of life support system design. The key parameter for this analysis is Life Cycle Cost (LCC). LCC takes into account the cost for development and qualification of the system, launch costs, operational costs, maintenance costs and all other relevant and associated costs. Additionally, an effective methodology must consider system technical performance, safety, reliability, maintainability, crew time, and other factors that could affect the overall merit of the life support system.

  1. Exploring exoplanet populations with NASA's Kepler Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalha, Natalie M

    2014-09-02

    The Kepler Mission is exploring the diversity of planets and planetary systems. Its legacy will be a catalog of discoveries sufficient for computing planet occurrence rates as a function of size, orbital period, star type, and insolation flux. The mission has made significant progress toward achieving that goal. Over 3,500 transiting exoplanets have been identified from the analysis of the first 3 y of data, 100 planets of which are in the habitable zone. The catalog has a high reliability rate (85-90% averaged over the period/radius plane), which is improving as follow-up observations continue. Dynamical (e.g., velocimetry and transit timing) and statistical methods have confirmed and characterized hundreds of planets over a large range of sizes and compositions for both single- and multiple-star systems. Population studies suggest that planets abound in our galaxy and that small planets are particularly frequent. Here, I report on the progress Kepler has made measuring the prevalence of exoplanets orbiting within one astronomical unit of their host stars in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's long-term goal of finding habitable environments beyond the solar system.

  2. NextSTEP Hybrid Life Support

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NextSTEP Phase I Hybrid Life Support Systems (HLSS) effort assessed options, performance, and reliability for various mission scenarios using contractor-developed...

  3. A Mobile Data Application for the Fermi Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Thomas E.; Science Support Center, Fermi

    2014-01-01

    With the ever increasing use of smartphones and tablets among scientists and the world at large, it becomes increasingly important for projects and missions to have mobile friendly access to their data. This access could come in the form of mobile friendly websites and/or native mobile applications that allow the users to explore or access the data. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope mission has begun work along the latter path. In this poster I present the current version of the Fermi Data Portal, a native mobile application for both Android and iOS devices that allows access to various high level public data products from the Fermi Science Support Center (FSSC), the Gamma-ray Coordinate Network (GCN), and other sources. While network access is required to download data, most of the data served by the app are stored locally and are available even when a network connection is not available. This poster discusses the application's features as well as the development experience and lessons learned so far along the way.

  4. The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS): Project Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskovitz, Nicholas; Polishook, David; Thomas, Cristina; Willman, Mark; DeMeo, Francesca; Mommert, Michael; Endicott, Thomas; Trilling, David; Binzel, Richard; Hinkle, Mary; Siu, Hosea; Neugent, Kathryn; Christensen, Eric; Person, Michael; Burt, Brian; Grundy, Will; Roe, Henry; Abell, Paul; Busch, Michael

    2014-11-01

    The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) began in August 2013 as a multi-year physical characterization survey that was awarded survey status by NOAO. MANOS will target several hundred mission-accessible NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths, ultimately providing a comprehensive catalog of physical properties (astrometry, light curves, spectra). Particular focus is paid to sub-km NEOs, for which little data currently exists. These small bodies are essential to understanding the link between meteorites and asteroids, pose the most immediate impact hazard to the Earth, and are highly relevant to a variety of planetary mission scenarios. Accessing these targets is enabled through a combination of classical, queue, and target-of-opportunity observations carried out at 1- to 8-meter class facilities in both the northern and southern hemispheres. The MANOS observing strategy is specifically designed to rapidly characterize newly discovered NEOs before they fade beyond observational limits. MANOS will provide major advances in our understanding of the NEO population as a whole and for specific objects of interest. Here we present an overview of the survey, progress to date, and early science highlights including: (1) an estimate of the taxonomic distribution of spectral types for NEOs smaller than ~100 meters, (2) the distribution of rotational properties for approximately 100 previously unstudied objects, (3) models for the dynamical evolution of the overall NEO population over the past 0.5 Myr, and (4) progress in developing a new set of online tools at asteroid.lowell.edu that will enable near realtime public dissemination of our data while providing a portal to facilitate coordination efforts within the small body observer community.MANOS is supported through telescope allocations from NOAO and Lowell Observatory. We acknowledge funding support from an NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship to N. Moskovitz and NASA NEOO grant

  5. KEPLER Mission: development and overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borucki, William J

    2016-01-01

    The Kepler Mission is a space observatory launched in 2009 by NASA to monitor 170 000 stars over a period of four years to determine the frequency of Earth-size and larger planets in and near the habitable zone of Sun-like stars, the size and orbital distributions of these planets, and the types of stars they orbit. Kepler is the tenth in the series of NASA Discovery Program missions that are competitively-selected, PI-directed, medium-cost missions. The Mission concept and various instrument prototypes were developed at the Ames Research Center over a period of 18 years starting in 1983. The development of techniques to do the 10 ppm photometry required for Mission success took years of experimentation, several workshops, and the exploration of many ‘blind alleys’ before the construction of the flight instrument. Beginning in 1992 at the start of the NASA Discovery Program, the Kepler Mission concept was proposed five times before its acceptance for mission development in 2001. During that period, the concept evolved from a photometer in an L2 orbit that monitored 6000 stars in a 50 sq deg field-of-view (FOV) to one that was in a heliocentric orbit that simultaneously monitored 170 000 stars with a 105 sq deg FOV. Analysis of the data to date has detected over 4600 planetary candidates which include several hundred Earth-size planetary candidates, over a thousand confirmed planets, and Earth-size planets in the habitable zone (HZ). These discoveries provide the information required for estimates of the frequency of planets in our galaxy. The Mission results show that most stars have planets, many of these planets are similar in size to the Earth, and that systems with several planets are common. Although planets in the HZ are common, many are substantially larger than Earth. (review article)

  6. Automating the SMAP Ground Data System to Support Lights-Out Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission is a first tier mission in NASA's Earth Science Decadal Survey. SMAP will provide a global mapping of soil moisture and its freeze/thaw states. This mapping will be used to enhance the understanding of processes that link the terrestrial water, energy, and carbon cycles, and to enhance weather and forecast capabilities. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has been selected as the lead center for the development and operation of SMAP. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has an extensive history of successful deep space exploration. JPL missions have typically been large scale Class A missions with significant budget and staffing. SMAP represents a new area of JPL focus towards low cost Earth science missions. Success in this new area requires changes to the way that JPL has traditionally provided the Mission Operations System (MOS)/Ground Data System (GDS) functions. The operation of SMAP requires more routine operations activities and support for higher data rates and data volumes than have been achieved in the past. These activities must be addressed by a reduced operations team and support staff. To meet this challenge, the SMAP ground data system provides automation that will perform unattended operations, including automated commanding of the SMAP spacecraft.

  7. INIR: Integrated Nuclear Infrastructure Review Missions. Guidance on Preparing and Conducting INIR Missions (Rev. 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-04-01

    The IAEA's Integrated Nuclear Infrastructure Review (INIR) missions are designed to assist Member States, at their request, in evaluating the status of their national infrastructure for the introduction of a nuclear power programme. Each INIR mission is coordinated and led by the IAEA and conducted by a team of international experts drawn from Member States who have experience in different aspects of developing and deploying nuclear infrastructure. The IAEA publication Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power (IAEA Nuclear Energy Series No. NG-G-3.1) contains a description of 19 infrastructure issues to be considered during the different stages of development of a nuclear power programme. The starting point for an INIR mission is a self-evaluation performed by the Member State against these infrastructure issues. Following the self-evaluation, the INIR mission reviews the status of the national nuclear infrastructure, identifies existing gaps in specific infrastructure-related areas and proposes recommendations to fill these gaps. The INIR mission provides Member State representatives with an opportunity to have in depth discussions with international experts about experiences and best practices in different countries. In developing its recommendations, the INIR team takes into account the comments made by the relevant national organizations. Implementation of any of the team's recommendations is at the discretion of the Member State requesting the mission. The results of the INIR mission are expected to help the Member State to develop an action plan to fill any gaps, which in turn will help the development of the national nuclear infrastructure. The IAEA stands ready to assist, as requested and appropriate, in the different steps of this action plan. This guidance publication is directed to assist in preparing and conducting the INIR missions. It was developed under the coordination of the IAEA Integrated Nuclear Infrastructure

  8. Outreach for Cassini Huyghens mission and future Saturn and Titan exploration: From the Antikythera Mechanism to the TSSM mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussas, Xenophon; Bampasidis, Georgios; Coustenis, Athena; Solomonidou, Anezina

    2010-05-01

    These days Outreach is an activity tightly related to success in science. The public with its great interest to space and astronomy in general, the solar system exploration and Saturn and Titan in particular, loves the scientific outcome of Cassini and Huygens. This love of the public gives a lot, as its known interest to space, persuades politicians and policy makers to support space and future Saturn and Titan explorations. We use the scientific results from Cassini and Huyghens together with a mosaic from ancient science concerning the history of solar system exploration, such as the oldest known complex astronomical device, the Antikyhtera Mechanism, in outreach activities to ensure future missions and continuous support to present ones. A future mission to the Saturnian System focusing on exotic Titan will broaden people's interest not only to Physics and Astronomy, but to Mechanics, Technology and even Philosophy as well, since, obviously, the roots of the vast contribution of Space Science and Astronomy to the contemporary society can be traced back to the first astronomers of Antiquity. As an example we use the Antikythera Mechanism, a favourite astronomical device for the public, which is the first geared astronomical device ever, constructed that combines the spirit of the ancient Astronomy and scientific accuracy. It is common belief that Astronomy and Astrophysics is a perfect tool to easily involve people in Science, as the public is always interested in space subjects, captivated by the beauty and the mystery of the Universe. Years after the successful entry, descent and landing of the Huygens probe on Titan's surface, the outstanding achievements of the Cassini-Huygens mission enhance the outreach potential of Space Science. Titan is an earth-like world, embedded in a dense nitrogen atmospheric envelop and a surface carved by rivers, mountains, dunes and lakes, its exploration will certainly empower the perspective of the society for space activities

  9. The Double Star mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The Double Star Programme (DSP was first proposed by China in March, 1997 at the Fragrant Hill Workshop on Space Science, Beijing, organized by the Chinese Academy of Science. It is the first mission in collaboration between China and ESA. The mission is made of two spacecraft to investigate the magnetospheric global processes and their response to the interplanetary disturbances in conjunction with the Cluster mission. The first spacecraft, TC-1 (Tan Ce means "Explorer", was launched on 29 December 2003, and the second one, TC-2, on 25 July 2004 on board two Chinese Long March 2C rockets. TC-1 was injected in an equatorial orbit of 570x79000 km altitude with a 28° inclination and TC-2 in a polar orbit of 560x38000 km altitude. The orbits have been designed to complement the Cluster mission by maximizing the time when both Cluster and Double Star are in the same scientific regions. The two missions allow simultaneous observations of the Earth magnetosphere from six points in space. To facilitate the comparison of data, half of the Double Star payload is made of spare or duplicates of the Cluster instruments; the other half is made of Chinese instruments. The science operations are coordinated by the Chinese DSP Scientific Operations Centre (DSOC in Beijing and the European Payload Operations Service (EPOS at RAL, UK. The spacecraft and ground segment operations are performed by the DSP Operations and Management Centre (DOMC and DSOC in China, using three ground station, in Beijing, Shanghai and Villafranca.

  10. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armano, M; Audley, H; Born, M; Danzmann, K; Diepholz, I; Auger, G; Binetruy, P; Baird, J; Bortoluzzi, D; Brandt, N; Fitzsimons, E; Bursi, A; Caleno, M; Cavalleri, A; Cesarini, A; Dolesi, R; Ferroni, V; Cruise, M; Dunbar, N; Ferraioli, L

    2015-01-01

    LISA Pathfinder (LPF), the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology validation mission for future spaceborne gravitational wave detectors, such as the proposed eLISA mission. LISA Pathfinder, and its scientific payload - the LISA Technology Package - will test, in flight, the critical technologies required for low frequency gravitational wave detection: it will put two test masses in a near-perfect gravitational free-fall and control and measure their motion with unprecedented accuracy. This is achieved through technology comprising inertial sensors, high precision laser metrology, drag-free control and an ultra-precise micro-Newton propulsion system. LISA Pathfinder is due to be launched in mid-2015, with first results on the performance of the system being available 6 months thereafter.The paper introduces the LISA Pathfinder mission, followed by an explanation of the physical principles of measurement concept and associated hardware. We then provide a detailed discussion of the LISA Technology Package, including both the inertial sensor and interferometric readout. As we approach the launch of the LISA Pathfinder, the focus of the development is shifting towards the science operations and data analysis - this is described in the final section of the paper (paper)

  11. Cascade Distillation System Design for Safety and Mission Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarguisingh, Miriam; Callahan, Michael R.; Okon, Shira

    2015-01-01

    Per the NASA Human Health, Life Support and Habitation System Technology Area 06 report "crewed missions venturing beyond Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) will require technologies with improved reliability, reduced mass, self-sufficiency, and minimal logistical needs as an emergency or quick-return option will not be feasible".1 To meet this need, the development team of the second generation Cascade Distillation System (CDS 2.0) chose a development approach that explicitly incorporate consideration of safety, mission assurance, and autonomy. The CDS 2.0 preliminary design focused on establishing a functional baseline that meets the CDS core capabilities and performance. The critical design phase is now focused on incorporating features through a deliberative process of establishing the systems failure modes and effects, identifying mitigation strategies, and evaluating the merit of the proposed actions through analysis and test. This paper details results of this effort on the CDS 2.0 design.

  12. FLEX (Fluorescence Explorer mission: Observation fluorescence as a new remote sensing technique to study the global terrestrial vegetation state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Moreno

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available FLEX (Fluorescence EXplorer is a candidate for the 8th ESA’s Earth Explorer mission. Is the first space mission specifically designed for the estimation of vegetation fluorescence on a global scale. The mission is proposed to fly in tandem with the future ESA´s Sentinel-3 satellite. It is foreseen that the information obtained by Sentinel-3 will be supplemented with that provided by FLORIS (Fluorescence Imaging Spectrometer onboard FLEX. FLORIS will measure the radiance between 500 and 800 nm with a bandwidth between 0.1 nm and 2 nm, providing images with a 150 km swath and 300 m pixel size. This information will allow a detailed monitoring of vegetation dynamics, by improving the methods for the estimation of classical biophysical parameters, and by introducing a new one: fluorescence. This paper presents the current status of FLEX mission in A/B1 phase and the different ongoing studies, campaigns and projects carried out in support of the FLEX mission.

  13. The Mothership Mission Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, S. M.; DiCorcia, J. D.; Bonin, G.; Gump, D.; Lewis, J. S.; Foulds, C.; Faber, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Mothership is considered to be a dedicated deep space carrier spacecraft. It is currently being developed by Deep Space Industries (DSI) as a mission concept that enables a broad participation in the scientific exploration of small bodies - the Mothership mission architecture. A Mothership shall deliver third-party nano-sats, experiments and instruments to Near Earth Asteroids (NEOs), comets or moons. The Mothership service includes delivery of nano-sats, communication to Earth and visuals of the asteroid surface and surrounding area. The Mothership is designed to carry about 10 nano-sats, based upon a variation of the Cubesat standard, with some flexibility on the specific geometry. The Deep Space Nano-Sat reference design is a 14.5 cm cube, which accommodates the same volume as a traditional 3U CubeSat. To reduce cost, Mothership is designed as a secondary payload aboard launches to GTO. DSI is offering slots for nano-sats to individual customers. This enables organizations with relatively low operating budgets to closely examine an asteroid with highly specialized sensors of their own choosing and carry out experiments in the proximity of or on the surface of an asteroid, while the nano-sats can be built or commissioned by a variety of smaller institutions, companies, or agencies. While the overall Mothership mission will have a financial volume somewhere between a European Space Agencies' (ESA) S- and M-class mission for instance, it can be funded through a number of small and individual funding sources and programs, hence avoiding the processes associated with traditional space exploration missions. DSI has been able to identify a significant interest in the planetary science and nano-satellite communities.

  14. Evolving earth-based and in-situ satellite network architectures for Mars communications and navigation support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, Rolf; Weinberg, Aaron; McOmber, Robert

    1991-09-01

    Results of on-going studies to develop navigation/telecommunications network concepts to support future robotic and human missions to Mars are presented. The performance and connectivity improvements provided by the relay network will permit use of simpler, lower performance, and less costly telecom subsystems for the in-situ mission exploration elements. Orbiting relay satellites can serve as effective navigation aids by supporting earth-based tracking as well as providing Mars-centered radiometric data for mission elements approaching, in orbit, or on the surface of Mars. The relay satellite orbits may be selected to optimize navigation aid support and communication coverage for specific mission sets.

  15. Mission IRRS to Spain. First mission of this type realised in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentijo, J. C.; Mellado, I.

    2008-01-01

    The IRRS (Integrated Regulatory Review Service) mission to the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council (CSN), which took place from January 28 until February 8, has been the first integrated review of a regulatory body that includes all the aspects on nuclear safety radiation protection and security of all the facilities and activities under CSN responsibility. The review team was composed of eighteen experts from fifteen member sates, two observers, three IAEA officers and an administrative assistant, which have performed an exhaustive analysis of the Spanish regulatory system, including the legal and governmental infrastructure, the functions, responsibilities an organization of the CSN, the regulations and standards, and the assessment and inspection activities. The team members have interviewed different stake holders (public administrations, technical support organizations and licensees) and have observed several CSN inspections to different facilities as well. From the CSN point of view, the results of the IRRS mission are very positive. The relevant efforts devoted to prepare it, mainly the self-assessment process and the action plan established for implementing the improvement opportunities, have benefited the whole regulatory system and practices, being not the least the updating of the regulations and standards and the development of a CSN manag