WorldWideScience

Sample records for support layer comprising

  1. Method of forming a nanocluster comprising dielectric layer and device comprising such a layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    A method of forming a dielectric layer (330) on a further layer (114, 320) of a semiconductor device (300) is disclosed. The method comprises depositing a dielectric precursor compound and a further precursor compound over the further layer (114, 320), the dielectric precursor compound comprising a

  2. Photovoltaic device comprising compositionally graded intrinsic photoactive layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffbauer, Mark A; Williamson, Todd L

    2013-04-30

    Photovoltaic devices and methods of making photovoltaic devices comprising at least one compositionally graded photoactive layer, said method comprising providing a substrate; growing onto the substrate a uniform intrinsic photoactive layer having one surface disposed upon the substrate and an opposing second surface, said intrinsic photoactive layer consisting essentially of In.sub.1-xA.sub.xN,; wherein: i. 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1; ii. A is gallium, aluminum, or combinations thereof; and iii. x is at least 0 on one surface of the intrinsic photoactive layer and is compositionally graded throughout the layer to reach a value of 1 or less on the opposing second surface of the layer; wherein said intrinsic photoactive layer is isothermally grown by means of energetic neutral atom beam lithography and epitaxy at a temperature of 600.degree. C. or less using neutral nitrogen atoms having a kinetic energy of from about 1.0 eV to about 5.0 eV, and wherein the intrinsic photoactive layer is grown at a rate of from about 5 nm/min to about 100 nm/min.

  3. Heat exchanger with layers of helical tubes provided with improved tube supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnoy, M.; Mathieu, B.; Renaux, C.

    1986-01-01

    The present heat exchanger comprises coaxial layers of helically wound tubes; these tubes are supported by support plates, each comprising a row of perforations through which the tubes of a same layer pass. Truncated sleeves are in compression around the tubes within the perforations and mounted on the support plates. Pins fix the plates of different layers together against transverse movement but allowing radial movement. The present invention finds an application with nuclear reactor steam generators [fr

  4. Anti corrosion layer for stainless steel in molten carbonate fuel cell - comprises phase vapour deposition of titanium nitride, aluminium nitride or chromium nitride layer then oxidising layer in molten carbonate electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    Forming an anticorrosion protective layer on a stainless steel surface used in a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) - comprises the phase vapour deposition (PVD) of a layer comprising at least one of titanium nitride, aluminium nitride or chromium nitride and then forming a protective layer in situ...

  5. High-performance organic light-emitting diodes comprising ultrastable glass layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Viejo, Javier

    2018-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are one of the key solid-state light sources for various applications including small and large displays, automotive lighting, solid-state lighting, and signage. For any given commercial application, OLEDs need to perform at their best, which is judged by their device efficiency and operational stability. We present OLEDs that comprise functional layers fabricated as ultrastable glasses, which represent the thermodynamically most favorable and, thus, stable molecular conformation achievable nowadays in disordered solids. For both external quantum efficiencies and LT70 lifetimes, OLEDs with four different phosphorescent emitters show >15% enhancements over their respective reference devices. The only difference to the latter is the growth condition used for ultrastable glass layers that is optimal at about 85% of the materials’ glass transition temperature. These improvements are achieved through neither material refinements nor device architecture optimization, suggesting a general applicability of this concept to maximize the OLED performance, no matter which specific materials are used. PMID:29806029

  6. Support vector regression model for the estimation of γ-ray buildup factors for multi-layer shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trontl, Kresimir; Smuc, Tomislav; Pevec, Dubravko

    2007-01-01

    The accuracy of the point-kernel method, which is a widely used practical tool for γ-ray shielding calculations, strongly depends on the quality and accuracy of buildup factors used in the calculations. Although, buildup factors for single-layer shields comprised of a single material are well known, calculation of buildup factors for stratified shields, each layer comprised of different material or a combination of materials, represent a complex physical problem. Recently, a new compact mathematical model for multi-layer shield buildup factor representation has been suggested for embedding into point-kernel codes thus replacing traditionally generated complex mathematical expressions. The new regression model is based on support vector machines learning technique, which is an extension of Statistical Learning Theory. The paper gives complete description of the novel methodology with results pertaining to realistic engineering multi-layer shielding geometries. The results based on support vector regression machine learning confirm that this approach provides a framework for general, accurate and computationally acceptable multi-layer buildup factor model

  7. Artificial skin and patient simulator comprising the artificial skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to an artificial skin (10, 12, 14), and relates to a patient simulator (100) comprising the artificial skin. The artificial skin is a layered structure comprising a translucent cover layer (20) configured for imitating human or animal skin, and comprising a light emitting layer

  8. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising plasma etched porous support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han; LaConti, Anthony B.

    2010-10-05

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a rigid, non-electrically-conducting support, the support preferably being a sheet of polyimide having a thickness of about 7.5 to 15 microns. The support has a plurality of cylindrical pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores, which preferably have a diameter of about 0.1 to 5 microns, are made by plasma etching and preferably are arranged in a defined pattern, for example, with fewer pores located in areas of high membrane stress and more pores located in areas of low membrane stress. The pores are filled with a first solid polymer electrolyte, such as a perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer. A second solid polymer electrolyte, which may be the same as or different than the first solid polymer electrolyte, may be deposited over the top and/or bottom of the first solid polymer electrolyte.

  9. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising laser micromachined porous support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han [Waltham, MA; LaConti, Anthony B [Lynnfield, MA; Mittelsteadt, Cortney K [Natick, MA; McCallum, Thomas J [Ashland, MA

    2011-01-11

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a rigid, non-electrically-conducting support, the support preferably being a sheet of polyimide having a thickness of about 7.5 to 15 microns. The support has a plurality of cylindrical pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores, which preferably have a diameter of about 5 microns, are made by laser micromachining and preferably are arranged in a defined pattern, for example, with fewer pores located in areas of high membrane stress and more pores located in areas of low membrane stress. The pores are filled with a first solid polymer electrolyte, such as a perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer. A second solid polymer electrolyte, which may be the same as or different than the first solid polymer electrolyte, may be deposited over the top and/or bottom of the first solid polymer electrolyte.

  10. Doped LZO buffer layers for laminated conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [Knoxville, TN; Schoop, Urs [Westborough, MA; Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN; Thieme, Cornelis Leo Hans [Westborough, MA; Verebelyi, Darren T [Oxford, MA; Rupich, Martin W [Framingham, MA

    2010-03-23

    A laminated conductor includes a metallic substrate having a surface, a biaxially textured buffer layer supported by the surface of the substrate, the biaxially textured buffer layer comprising LZO and a dopant for mitigating metal diffusion through the LZO, and a biaxially textured conductor layer supported by the biaxially textured buffer layer.

  11. Thermally-insulating layer for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The thermally-insulating layer has been designed both for insulating surfaces within the core of a nuclear reactor and transmitting loads such as the core-weight. Said layer comprises a layer of bricks and a layer of tiles with smaller clearance between the tiles than between the bricks, the latter having a reduced cross-section against the tiles so as to be surrounded by relatively large interconnected ducts forming a continuous chamber behind the tile-layer in order to induce a substantial decreases in the transverse flow of the reactor-core coolant. The core preferably comprises hexagonal columns supported by rhomb-shaped plates, with channels distributed so as to mix the coolant of twelve columns. The plates are separated from support-tiles by means of pillars [fr

  12. Composites comprising novel RTIL-based polymers, and methods of making and using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gin, Douglas; Carlisle, Trevor; Noble, Richard; Nicodemus, Garret; McDanel, William; Cowan, Matthew

    2017-06-27

    The invention includes compositions comprising curable imidazolium-functionalized poly(room-temperature ionic liquid) copolymers and homopolymers. The invention further includes methods of preparing and using the compositions of the invention. The invention further includes novel methods of preparing thin, supported, room-temperature ionic liquid-containing polymeric films on a porous support. In certain embodiments, the methods of the invention avoid the use of a gutter layer, which greatly reduces the overall gas permeance and selectivity of the composite membrane. In other embodiments, the films of the invention have increased gas selectivity and permeance over films prepared using methods described in the prior art.

  13. Solute transport in a single fracture involving an arbitrary length decay chain with rock matrix comprising different geological layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudzadeh, Batoul; Liu, Longcheng; Moreno, Luis; Neretnieks, Ivars

    2014-08-01

    A model is developed to describe solute transport and retention in fractured rocks. It accounts for advection along the fracture, molecular diffusion from the fracture to the rock matrix composed of several geological layers, adsorption on the fracture surface, adsorption in the rock matrix layers and radioactive decay-chains. The analytical solution, obtained for the Laplace-transformed concentration at the outlet of the flowing channel, can conveniently be transformed back to the time domain by the use of the de Hoog algorithm. This allows one to readily include it into a fracture network model or a channel network model to predict nuclide transport through channels in heterogeneous fractured media consisting of an arbitrary number of rock units with piecewise constant properties. More importantly, the simulations made in this study recommend that it is necessary to account for decay-chains and also rock matrix comprising at least two different geological layers, if justified, in safety and performance assessment of the repositories for spent nuclear fuel. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Process for obtaining luminescent glass layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heindi, R.; Robert, A.

    1984-01-01

    Process for obtaining luminescent glass layers, application to the production of devices provided with said layers and to the construction of photoscintillators. The process comprises projecting onto a support, by cathodic sputtering, the material of at least one target, each target including silica and at least one chemical compound able to give luminescent centers, such as a cerium oxide, so as to form at least one luminescent glass layer of the said support. The layer or layers formed preferably undergo a heat treatment such as annealing in order to increase the luminous efficiency thereof. It is in this way possible to form a scintillating glass layer on the previously frosted entrance window of a photomultiplier in order to obtain an integrated photoscintillator

  15. One-dimensional conduction through supporting electrolytes: two-scale cathodic Debye layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almog, Yaniv; Yariv, Ehud

    2011-10-01

    Supporting-electrolyte solutions comprise chemically inert cations and anions, produced by salt dissolution, together with a reactive ionic species that may be consumed and generated on bounding ion-selective surfaces (e.g., electrodes or membranes). Upon application of an external voltage, a Faraday current is thereby established. It is natural to analyze this ternary-system process through a one-dimensional transport problem, employing the thin Debye-layer limit. Using a simple model of ideal ion-selective membranes, we have recently addressed this problem for moderate voltages [Yariv and Almog, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 176101 (2010)], predicting currents that scale as a fractional power of Debye thickness. We address herein the complementary problem of moderate currents. We employ matched asymptotic expansions, separately analyzing the two inner thin Debye layers adjacent to the ion-selective surfaces and the outer electroneutral region outside them. A straightforward calculation following comparable singular-perturbation analyses of binary systems is frustrated by the prediction of negative ionic concentrations near the cathode. Accompanying numerical simulations, performed for small values of Debye thickness, indicate a number unconventional features occurring at that region, such as inert-cation concentration amplification and electric-field intensification. The current-voltage correlation data of the electrochemical cell, obtained from compilation of these simulations, does not approach a limit as the Debye thickness vanishes. Resolution of these puzzles reveals a transformation of the asymptotic structure of the cathodic Debye layer. This reflects the emergence of an internal boundary layer, adjacent to the cathode, wherein field and concentration scaling differs from those of the Gouy-Chapman theory. The two-scale feature of the cathodic Debye layer is manifested through a logarithmic voltage scaling with Debye thickness. Accounting for this scaling, the

  16. Raman study of supported molybdenum disulfide single layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrer, William; Manciu, Felicia; Afanasiev, Pavel; Berhault, Gilles; Chianelli, Russell

    2008-10-01

    Owing to the increasing demand for clean transportation fuels, highly dispersed single layer transition metal sulfides such as MoS2-based catalysts play an important role in catalytic processes for upgrading and removing sulfur from heavy petroleum feed. In its crystalline bulk form, MoS2 is chemically rather inactive due to a strong tendency to form highly stacked layers, but, when dispersed as single-layer nanoclusters on a support, the MoS2 becomes catalytically active in the hydrogenolysis of sulphur and nitrogen from organic compounds (hydrotreating catalysis). In the present studies alumina-supported MoS2 samples were analyzed by confocal Raman spectroscopy. Evidence of peaks at 152 cm-1, 234 cm-1, and 336 cm-1, normally not seen in the Raman spectrum of the standard bulk crystal, confirms the formation of single layers of MoS2. Furthermore, the presence of the 383 cm-1 Raman line suggests the trigonal prismatic coordination of the formed MoS2 single layers. Depending on the sample preparation method, a restacking of MoS2 layers is also observed, mainly for ex-thiomolybdate samples sulfided at 550 C.

  17. Multilayer Electroactive Polymer Composite Material Comprising Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounaies, Zoubeida (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); Holloway, Nancy M. (Inventor); Draughon, Gregory K. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An electroactive material comprises multiple layers of electroactive composite with each layer having unique dielectric, electrical and mechanical properties that define an electromechanical operation thereof when affected by an external stimulus. For example, each layer can be (i) a 2-phase composite made from a polymer with polarizable moieties and an effective amount of carbon nanotubes incorporated in the polymer for a predetermined electromechanical operation, or (ii) a 3-phase composite having the elements of the 2-phase composite and further including a third component of micro-sized to nano-sized particles of an electroactive ceramic incorporated in the polymer matrix.

  18. Recyclable organic solar cells on substrates comprising cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippelen, Bernard; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Zhou, Yinhua; Moon, Robert; Youngblood, Jeffrey P

    2015-12-01

    Recyclable organic solar cells are disclosed herein. Systems and methods are further disclosed for producing, improving performance, and for recycling the solar cells. In certain example embodiments, the recyclable organic solar cells disclosed herein include: a first electrode; a second electrode; a photoactive layer disposed between the first electrode and the second electrode; an interlayer comprising a Lewis basic oligomer or polymer disposed between the photoactive layer and at least a portion of the first electrode or the second electrode; and a substrate disposed adjacent to the first electrode or the second electrode. The interlayer reduces the work function associated with the first or second electrode. In certain example embodiments, the substrate comprises cellulose nanocrystals that can be recycled. In certain example embodiments, one or more of the first electrode, the photoactive layer, and the second electrode may be applied by a film transfer lamination method.

  19. Barrier layer arrangement for conductive layers on silicon substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, L.S.; Agostinelli, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a circuit element comprised of a silicon substrate and a conductive layer located on the substrate. It is characterized in that the conductive layer consists essentially of a rare earth alkaline earth copper oxide and a barrier layer triad is interposed between the silicon substrate and the conductive layer comprised of a first triad layer located adjacent the silicon substrate consisting essentially of silica, a third triad layer remote from the silicon substrate consisting essentially of a least one Group 4 heavy metal oxide, and a second triad layer interposed between the first and third triad layers consisting essentially of a mixture of silica and at lease one Group 4 heavy metal oxide

  20. Improved electron transport layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention provides: a method of preparing a coating ink for forming a zinc oxide electron transport layer, comprising mixing zinc acetate and a wetting agent in water or methanol; a coating ink comprising zinc acetate and a wetting agent in aqueous solution or methanolic solution......; a method of preparing a zinc oxide electron transporting layer, which method comprises: i) coating a substrate with the coating ink of the present invention to form a film; ii) drying the film; and iii) heating the dry film to convert the zinc acetate substantially to ZnO; a method of preparing an organic...... photovoltaic device or an organic LED having a zinc oxide electron transport layer, the method comprising, in this order: a) providing a substrate bearing a first electrode layer; b) forming an electron transport layer according to the following method: i) coating a coating ink comprising an ink according...

  1. DC-to-DC converter comprising a reconfigurable capacitor unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to a configurable trench multi-capacitor device comprising a trench in a semiconductor substrate. The trench has a lateral extension exceeding 10 micrometer and a trench filling includes a number of at least four electrically conductive capacitor-electrode layers. A

  2. DC-to-DC converter comprising a reconfigurable capacitor unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klootwijk, J.H.; Bergveld, H.J.; Roozeboom, F.; Reefman, D.; Ruigrok, J.

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a configurable trench multi-capacitor device comprising a trench in a semiconductor substrate. The trench has a lateral extension exceeding 10 micrometer and a trench filling includes a number of at least four electrically conductive capacitor-electrode layers. A

  3. Characteristics of magnetic tunnel junctions comprising ferromagnetic amorphous NiFeSiB layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, B.S.; Kim, Y.K.; Hwang, J.Y.; Yim, H.I.; Rhee, J.R.; Kim, T.W.

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs), which consisted of amorphous ferromagnetic Ni 16 Fe 62 Si 8 B 14 free layers, were investigated. NiFeSiB has a lower saturation magnetization (M s : 800 emu/cm 3 ) than Co 90 Fe 10 and a higher anisotropy constant (K u : 2700 erg/cm 3 ) than Ni 80 Fe 20 . By increasing the free layer thickness, the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio of up to 41% was achieved and it exhibited a much lower switching field (H sw ) than the conventionally used CoFe free layer MTJ. Furthermore, by inserting a thin CoFe layer (1 nm) at the tunnel barrier/NiFeSiB interface, the TMR ratio and switching squareness were enhanced

  4. Layered distributed simulation architecture to support the C2 enterprise

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duvenhage, A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available between these systems and that a capability is required to demonstrate, support and evaluate interoperability. This paper discusses the layered software architecture of a C++ software application framework for developing applications that support...

  5. Relating performance of thin-film composite forward osmosis membranes to support layer formation and structure

    KAUST Repository

    Tiraferri, Alberto

    2011-02-01

    Osmotically driven membrane processes have the potential to treat impaired water sources, desalinate sea/brackish waters, and sustainably produce energy. The development of a membrane tailored for these processes is essential to advance the technology to the point that it is commercially viable. Here, a systematic investigation of the influence of thin-film composite membrane support layer structure on forward osmosis performance is conducted. The membranes consist of a selective polyamide active layer formed by interfacial polymerization on top of a polysulfone support layer fabricated by phase separation. By systematically varying the conditions used during the casting of the polysulfone layer, an array of support layers with differing structures was produced. The role that solvent quality, dope polymer concentration, fabric layer wetting, and casting blade gate height play in the support layer structure formation was investigated. Using a 1M NaCl draw solution and a deionized water feed, water fluxes ranging from 4 to 25Lm-2h-1 with consistently high salt rejection (>95.5%) were produced. The relationship between membrane structure and performance was analyzed. This study confirms the hypothesis that the optimal forward osmosis membrane consists of a mixed-structure support layer, where a thin sponge-like layer sits on top of highly porous macrovoids. Both the active layer transport properties and the support layer structural characteristics need to be optimized in order to fabricate a high performance forward osmosis membrane. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Development of a Novel Ceramic Support Layer for Planar Solid Oxide Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemensø, Trine; Boccaccini, Dino; Brodersen, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The conventional solid oxide cell is based on a Ni–YSZ support layer, placed on the fuel side of the cell, also known as the anode supported SOFC. An alternative design, based on a support of porous 3YSZ (3 mol.% Y2O3–doped ZrO2), placed on the oxygen electrode side of the cell, is proposed...... of the support can be done simultaneously with forming the oxygen electrode, since some of the best performing oxygen electrodes are based on infiltrated LSC. The potential of the proposed structure was investigated by testing the mechanical and electrical properties of the support layer. Comparable strength...... properties to the conventional Ni/YSZ support were seen, and sufficient and fairly stable conductivity of LSC infiltrated 3YSZ was observed. The conductivity of 8–15 S cm–1 at 850 °C seen for over 600 h, corresponds to a serial resistance of less than 3.5 m Ω cm2 of a 300 μm thick support layer....

  7. Supported Zeolite Beta Layers via an Organic Template-Free Preparation Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Reuss

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Layers of high silica zeolites, synthesized with an organic structure directing agent (OSDA and grown onto porous support structures, frequently suffer from the thermal stress during the removal of OSDA via the calcination process. The different thermal expansion coefficients of the zeolite and the support material, especially when stainless steel is used as a support, causes enormous tension resulting in defect formation in the zeolite layer. However, the calcination is an easy procedure to decompose the OSDA in the pore system of the zeolite. Recently, methods to synthesize zeolite beta without the use of an organic structure directing agent have been described. In the present study, a seed-directed synthesis is used to prepare OSDA-free zeolite beta layers on stainless steel supports via an in situ preparation route. For the application as membrane, a porous stainless steel support has been chosen. The beta/stainless steel composites are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. To prove its possible application as a membrane, the beta/stainless steel composites were also tested by single gas permeances of H2, He, CO2, N2, and CH4.

  8. Supported Zeolite Beta Layers via an Organic Template-Free Preparation Route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuss, Stephanie; Sanwald, Dirk; Schülein, Marion; Schwieger, Wilhelm; Al-Thabaiti, Shaeel A; Mokhtar, Mohamed; Basahel, Sulaiman N

    2018-01-21

    Layers of high silica zeolites, synthesized with an organic structure directing agent (OSDA) and grown onto porous support structures, frequently suffer from the thermal stress during the removal of OSDA via the calcination process. The different thermal expansion coefficients of the zeolite and the support material, especially when stainless steel is used as a support, causes enormous tension resulting in defect formation in the zeolite layer. However, the calcination is an easy procedure to decompose the OSDA in the pore system of the zeolite. Recently, methods to synthesize zeolite beta without the use of an organic structure directing agent have been described. In the present study, a seed-directed synthesis is used to prepare OSDA-free zeolite beta layers on stainless steel supports via an in situ preparation route. For the application as membrane, a porous stainless steel support has been chosen. The beta/stainless steel composites are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). To prove its possible application as a membrane, the beta/stainless steel composites were also tested by single gas permeances of H₂, He, CO₂, N₂, and CH₄.

  9. A method for the densification of ceramic layers, especially ceramic layers within solid oxide cell (SOC) technology, and products obtained by the method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    A ceramic layer, especially for use in solid oxide cell (SOC) technology, is densified in a method comprising (a) providing a multilayer system by depositing the porous ceramic layer, which is to be densified, onto the selected system of ceramic layers on a support, (b) pre-sintering the resulting......(s) in the porous layer surface and (e) performing a thermal treatment at a temperature T2, where T2 > ?1, to obtain densification of and grain growth in the porous layer formed in step (b). The method makes it possible to obtain dense ceramic layers at temperatures, which are compatible with the other materials...... present in a ceramic multilayer system....

  10. Hydrothermal performance of catalyst supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Marshall, Christopher L.; Libera, Joseph A.; Dumesic, James A.; Pagan-Torres, Yomaira J.

    2018-04-10

    A high surface area catalyst with a mesoporous support structure and a thin conformal coating over the surface of the support structure. The high surface area catalyst support is adapted for carrying out a reaction in a reaction environment where the thin conformal coating protects the support structure within the reaction environment. In various embodiments, the support structure is a mesoporous silica catalytic support and the thin conformal coating comprises a layer of metal oxide resistant to the reaction environment which may be a hydrothermal environment.

  11. Identifying a compound modifying a cellular response, comprises attaching cells having a reporter system onto solid supports, releasing a library member, screening and identifying target cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods for identifying compounds capable of modulating a cellular response. The methods involve attaching living cells to solid supports comprising a library of test compounds. Test compounds modulating a cellular response, for example via a cell surface molecule...... may be identified by selecting solid supports comprising cells, wherein the cellular response of interest has been modulated. The cellular response may for example be changes in signal transduction pathways modulated by a cell surface molecule....

  12. Organic photovoltaic cells utilizing ultrathin sensitizing layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Barry P [Princeton, NJ; Forrest, Stephen R [Princeton, NJ

    2011-05-24

    A photosensitive device includes a series of organic photoactive layers disposed between two electrodes. Each layer in the series is in direct contact with a next layer in the series. The series is arranged to form at least one donor-acceptor heterojunction, and includes a first organic photoactive layer comprising a first host material serving as a donor, a thin second organic photoactive layer comprising a second host material disposed between the first and a third organic photoactive layer, and the third organic photoactive layer comprising a third host material serving as an acceptor. The first, second, and third host materials are different. The thin second layer serves as an acceptor relative to the first layer or as a donor relative to the third layer.

  13. Canadian safeguards research and development in support of the IAEA program document outlining the various tasks which comprise the program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    Canada has established a safeguards research and development program, the purpose of which is to supplement the resources of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The program of support is a coordinated effort for the development and application of safeguards techniques and instruments to facilities safeguarded by the IAEA. This document sets forth those tasks which comprise the program

  14. Structural Study and Modification of Support Layer for Forward Osmosis Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Meixia

    2016-06-01

    Water scarcity is a serious global issue, due to the increasing population and developing economy, and membrane technology is an essential way to address this problem. Forward osmosis (FO) is an emerging membrane process, due to its low energy consumption (not considering the draw solute regeneration). A bottleneck to advance this technology is the design of the support layer for FO membranes to minimize the internal concentration polarization. In this dissertation, we focus on the structural study and modification of the support layer for FO membranes. Firstly, we digitally reconstruct different membrane morphologies in 3D and propose a method for predicting performance in ultrafiltration operations. Membranes with analogous morphologies are later used as substrate for FO membranes. Secondly, we experimentally apply substrates with different potentially suitable morphologies as an FO support layer. We investigate their FO performance after generating a selective polyamide layer on the top, by interfacial polymerization. Among the different substrates we include standard asymmetric porous membranes prepared from homopolymers, such as polysulfone. Additionally block copolymer membrane and Anodisc alumina membrane are chosen based on their exceptional structures, with cylindrical pores at least in part. 3D digitally reconstructed porous substrates, analogous to those investigated for ultrafiltration, are then used to model the performance in FO operation. Finally, we analyze the effect of intermediate layers between the porous substrate and the interfacial polymerized layer. We investigate two materials including chitosan and hydrogel. The main results are the following. Pore-scale modeling for digital membrane generation effectively predicts the velocity profile in different layers of the membrane and the performance in UF experiments. Flow simulations confirm the advantage of finger-like substrates over sponge-like ones, when high water permeance is sought

  15. Electrode material comprising graphene-composite materials in a graphite network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Harold H.; Lee, Jung K.

    2017-08-08

    A durable electrode material suitable for use in Li ion batteries is provided. The material is comprised of a continuous network of graphite regions integrated with, and in good electrical contact with a composite comprising graphene sheets and an electrically active material, such as silicon, wherein the electrically active material is dispersed between, and supported by, the graphene sheets.

  16. Polymer supported ZIF-8 membranes by conversion of sputtered zinc oxide layers

    KAUST Repository

    Neelakanda, Pradeep; Barankova, Eva; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2015-01-01

    ZIF-8 composite membranes were synthesized at room temperature from aqueous solution by a double-zinc-source method on polyacrylonitrile (PAN) porous supports. The support was coated with zinc oxide (ZnO) by magnetron sputtering prior to ZIF-8 growth to improve the nucleation as well as the adhesion between the ZIF-8 layer and support. By this method, we were able to grow a continuous, dense, very thin (900 nm) and defect free ZIF-8 layer on a polymeric support. The developed ZIF-8 membranes had a gas permeance of 1.23 x 10-7 mol m-2 sec-1 Pa-1 for hydrogen and a selectivity of 26 for hydrogen/propane gases which is 5 times higher than the Knudsen selectivity. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis were done to characterize the membranes.

  17. Polymer supported ZIF-8 membranes by conversion of sputtered zinc oxide layers

    KAUST Repository

    Neelakanda, Pradeep

    2015-09-05

    ZIF-8 composite membranes were synthesized at room temperature from aqueous solution by a double-zinc-source method on polyacrylonitrile (PAN) porous supports. The support was coated with zinc oxide (ZnO) by magnetron sputtering prior to ZIF-8 growth to improve the nucleation as well as the adhesion between the ZIF-8 layer and support. By this method, we were able to grow a continuous, dense, very thin (900 nm) and defect free ZIF-8 layer on a polymeric support. The developed ZIF-8 membranes had a gas permeance of 1.23 x 10-7 mol m-2 sec-1 Pa-1 for hydrogen and a selectivity of 26 for hydrogen/propane gases which is 5 times higher than the Knudsen selectivity. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis were done to characterize the membranes.

  18. Strain rate effects on localized necking in substrate-supported metal layers

    OpenAIRE

    BEN BETTAIEB, Mohamed; ABED-MERAIM, Farid

    2017-01-01

    Due to their good mechanical and technological performances, thin substrate-supported metal layers are increasingly used as functional components in flexible electronic devices. Consequently, the prediction of necking, and the associated limit strains, for such components is of major academic and industrial importance. The current contribution aims to numerically investigate the respective and combined effects of strain rate sensitivity of the metal layer and the addition of an elastomer l...

  19. Electrical properties of GaAs metal–oxide–semiconductor structure comprising Al2O3 gate oxide and AlN passivation layer fabricated in situ using a metal–organic vapor deposition/atomic layer deposition hybrid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Aoki

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a compressive study on the fabrication and optimization of GaAs metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS structures comprising a Al2O3 gate oxide, deposited via atomic layer deposition (ALD, with an AlN interfacial passivation layer prepared in situ via metal–organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD. The established protocol afforded self-limiting growth of Al2O3 in the atmospheric MOCVD reactor. Consequently, this enabled successive growth of MOCVD-formed AlN and ALD-formed Al2O3 layers on the GaAs substrate. The effects of AlN thickness, post-deposition anneal (PDA conditions, and crystal orientation of the GaAs substrate on the electrical properties of the resulting MOS capacitors were investigated. Thin AlN passivation layers afforded incorporation of optimum amounts of nitrogen, leading to good capacitance–voltage (C–V characteristics with reduced frequency dispersion. In contrast, excessively thick AlN passivation layers degraded the interface, thereby increasing the interfacial density of states (Dit near the midgap and reducing the conduction band offset. To further improve the interface with the thin AlN passivation layers, the PDA conditions were optimized. Using wet nitrogen at 600 °C was effective to reduce Dit to below 2 × 1012 cm−2 eV−1. Using a (111A substrate was also effective in reducing the frequency dispersion of accumulation capacitance, thus suggesting the suppression of traps in GaAs located near the dielectric/GaAs interface. The current findings suggest that using an atmosphere ALD process with in situ AlN passivation using the current MOCVD system could be an efficient solution to improving GaAs MOS interfaces.

  20. Layered plasma polymer composite membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Walter C.

    1994-01-01

    Layered plasma polymer composite fluid separation membranes are disclosed, which comprise alternating selective and permeable layers for a total of at least 2n layers, where n is .gtoreq.2 and is the number of selective layers.

  1. Multi-Layer Real-Time Support for JVM-based Smart Phone Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEO, E.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Employing the Java virtual machine (JVM architecture provides smart phone systems stability and security by sandboxing third-party applications and controlling their behavior. However, the JVM layer hinders applications from notifying the operating system scheduler about their timeliness requirements; therefore, applications sometimes fail to respond on time. In order to improve the responsiveness of smart phone applications, this paper proposes two schemes. First, for existing applications that cannot be rebuilt, we modify the kernel scheduler to value task priorities over fairness. Second, we propose cross-layer real-time support APIs to deliver applications' priorities to the kernel scheduler, which will help developers to add real-time scheduling support to their applications. Our prototype demonstrates that the suggested schemes dramatically improve response times and throughputs of prioritized applications.

  2. Conductive and robust nitride buffer layers on biaxially textured substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Sambasivan [Chicago, IL; Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN; Barnett, Scott A [Evanston, IL; Kim, Ilwon [Skokie, IL; Kroeger, Donald M [Knoxville, TN

    2009-03-31

    The present invention relates to epitaxial, electrically conducting and mechanically robust, cubic nitride buffer layers deposited epitaxially on biaxially textured substrates such as metals and alloys. The invention comprises of a biaxially textured substrate with epitaxial layers of nitrides. The invention also discloses a method to form such epitaxial layers using a high rate deposition method as well as without the use of forming gases. The invention further comprises epitaxial layers of oxides on the biaxially textured nitride layer. In some embodiments the article further comprises electromagnetic devices which may have superconducting properties.

  3. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising a porous support and a solid polymer electrolyte including a dispersed reduced noble metal or noble metal oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han; Mittelsteadt, Cortney K; Norman, Timothy J; Griffith, Arthur E; LaConti, Anthony B

    2015-02-24

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a thin, rigid, dimensionally-stable, non-electrically-conducting support, the support having a plurality of cylindrical, straight-through pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores are unevenly distributed, with some or no pores located along the periphery and more pores located centrally. The pores are completely filled with a solid polymer electrolyte, the solid polymer electrolyte including a dispersed reduced noble metal or noble metal oxide. The solid polymer electrolyte may also be deposited over the top and/or bottom surfaces of the support.

  4. Multi-layer micro/nanofluid devices with bio-nanovalves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Auciello, Orlando H.; Firestone, Millicent A.

    2013-01-01

    A user-friendly multi-layer micro/nanofluidic flow device and micro/nano fabrication process are provided for numerous uses. The multi-layer micro/nanofluidic flow device can comprise: a substrate, such as indium tin oxide coated glass (ITO glass); a conductive layer of ferroelectric material, preferably comprising a PZT layer of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) positioned on the substrate; electrodes connected to the conductive layer; a nanofluidics layer positioned on the conductive layer and defining nanochannels; a microfluidics layer positioned upon the nanofluidics layer and defining microchannels; and biomolecular nanovalves providing bio-nanovalves which are moveable from a closed position to an open position to control fluid flow at a nanoscale.

  5. MCrAlY bond coat with enhanced Yttrium layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Paul D; Hawk, Jeffrey A

    2015-04-21

    One or more embodiments relates to an MCrAlY bond coat comprising an MCrAlY layer in contact with a Y--Al.sub.2O.sub.3 layer. The MCrAlY layer is comprised of a .gamma.-M solid solution, a .beta.-MAl intermetallic phase, and Y-type intermetallics. The Y--Al.sub.2O.sub.3 layer is comprised of Yttrium atoms coordinated with oxygen atoms comprising the Al.sub.2O.sub.3 lattice. Both the MCrAlY layer and the Y--Al.sub.2O.sub.3 layer have a substantial absence of Y--Al oxides, providing advantage in the maintainability of the Yttrium reservoir within the MCrAlY bulk. The MCrAlY bond coat may be fabricated through application of a Y.sub.2O.sub.3 paste to an MCrAlY material, followed by heating in a non-oxidizing environment.

  6. Preparation of supported electrocatalyst comprising multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gang; Zelenay, Piotr

    2013-08-27

    A process for preparing a durable non-precious metal oxygen reduction electrocatalyst involves heat treatment of a ball-milled mixture of polyaniline and multiwalled carbon nanotubes in the presence of a Fe species. The catalyst is more durable than catalysts that use carbon black supports. Performance degradation was minimal or absent after 500 hours of operation at constant cell voltage of 0.40 V.

  7. Direct synthesis of few-layer graphene supported platinum nanocatalyst for methanol oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hong; Ma, Xiaohui; Sheng, Leimei; An, Kang; Yu, Liming; Zhao, Hongbin; Xu, Jiaqiang; Ren, Wei; Zhao, Xinluo

    2014-11-01

    High-crystalline few-layer graphene supported Pt nanoparticles have been synthesized by arc discharge evaporation of carbon electrodes containing Pt element. A high-temperature treatment under hydrogen atmosphere has been carried out to obtain a new type of Pt/graphene catalyst for methanol oxidation in direct methanol fuel cell. The morphology and structure characterizations of as-grown few-layer graphene supported Pt nanoparticles and Pt/graphene catalysts have been studied by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Cyclic voltammograms and chronoamperometric curves show that our present Pt/graphene catalysts have larger current density for methanol oxidation, higher tolerance to carbon monoxide poisoning, and better stability during the operating procedure, compared to commercial Pt/C catalysts.

  8. Potential and limitations of S-layers as support for planar lipid bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiene, E.

    2011-01-01

    A huge step in the development of life was most certainly the formation of lipid membranes and the resulting possibility for generating confined volumes, structurally discrete from the environment. Yet, communication had to be maintained with the outside world, so these membrane borders were populated with functional units, like membrane receptors and transporters, enabling the exchange of material, energy and information. Therefore, from a scientific point of view, the requirement for analysis platforms for membrane proteins incorporated into model membrane scaffolds emerged. The membrane systems hosting arbitrary membrane proteins are desired to unite the features of stability and fluidity and to provide a quasi natural environment for the membrane proteins in order to maintain their structure and function. In the current state of the art there are hardly any relevant fluid membrane models, which is why in this project a prokaryotic protein-lipid architecture was mimicked as a promising supportive system for biological membranes. A large number of bacteria and archaea envelope their outer cell membrane with a proteinaceous lattice, the so-called surface- or S-layer. The present work deals with S-layer protein lattices as a support for anchored lipid bilayers. S-layer proteins show the intrinsic ability to self-assemble into periodically structured, two-dimensional patterns with a porous character. Genetic or chemical modification of the proteinaceous crystal layers can provide regularly spread binding moieties for functionalised lipids as components of a lipid membrane. In this project, a wildtype S-layer (SbpA from L. sphaericus exhibiting p4 lattice symmetry) was chemically activated to provide anchors for amino-functionalised lipids; and in a genetic approach a recombinant, HIS-tagged derivative was used for attracting Ni-functionalised lipids. The latter method seemed a more elegant way of lipid binding, since the anchoring regions were more regularly spread

  9. Diffuse layer effects on the current in galvanic cells containing supporting electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soestbergen, M. van, E-mail: m.vansoestbergen@tudelft.n [Materials Innovation Institute, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Department of Precision and Microsystems Engineering, University of Technology Delft, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)

    2010-02-01

    We study the effect of an inert supporting electrolyte on the steady-state ionic current through galvanic cells by solving the full Poisson-Nernst-Planck transport equation coupled to the generalized Frumkin-Butler-Volmer boundary equation for the electrochemical charge transfer at the electrodes. Consequently, the model presented here allows for non-zero space charge densities locally at the electrodes, thus extending the frequently used models based on the local electroneutrality condition by including diffuse layer (DL) effects. This extension is necessary since the DLs determine the ion concentration and electrical field at the reaction planes, which uniquely determine the charge transfer at the electrodes. In this work we present numerical results for systems which contain added inert supporting electrolyte using finite element discretization and compare those with semi-analytical results obtained using singular perturbation theory (limit of negligibly thin DLs). In case of negligibly thin DLs the presence of supporting electrolyte will introduce a limiting current below the classical diffusion-limiting current. Just as for systems without supporting electrolyte, the supporting electrolyte induced limiting current formally does not occur for systems having non-negligibly thin double DLs. For thin, however still finite, double layers this limit can still be seen as a steepening of the polarization curve for current vs. voltage.

  10. Diffuse layer effects on the current in galvanic cells containing supporting electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soestbergen, M. van

    2010-01-01

    We study the effect of an inert supporting electrolyte on the steady-state ionic current through galvanic cells by solving the full Poisson-Nernst-Planck transport equation coupled to the generalized Frumkin-Butler-Volmer boundary equation for the electrochemical charge transfer at the electrodes. Consequently, the model presented here allows for non-zero space charge densities locally at the electrodes, thus extending the frequently used models based on the local electroneutrality condition by including diffuse layer (DL) effects. This extension is necessary since the DLs determine the ion concentration and electrical field at the reaction planes, which uniquely determine the charge transfer at the electrodes. In this work we present numerical results for systems which contain added inert supporting electrolyte using finite element discretization and compare those with semi-analytical results obtained using singular perturbation theory (limit of negligibly thin DLs). In case of negligibly thin DLs the presence of supporting electrolyte will introduce a limiting current below the classical diffusion-limiting current. Just as for systems without supporting electrolyte, the supporting electrolyte induced limiting current formally does not occur for systems having non-negligibly thin double DLs. For thin, however still finite, double layers this limit can still be seen as a steepening of the polarization curve for current vs. voltage.

  11. Solid oxide fuel cell cathode with oxygen-reducing layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surdoval, Wayne A.; Berry, David A.; Shultz, Travis

    2018-04-03

    The disclosure provides a SOFC comprised of an electrolyte, anode, and cathode, where the cathode comprises an MIEC and an oxygen-reducing layer. The oxygen-reducing layer is in contact with the MIEC, and the MIEC is generally between and separating the oxygen-reducing layer and the electrolyte. The oxygen-reducing layer is comprised of single element oxides, single element carbonates, or mixtures thereof, and has a thickness of less than about 30 nm. In a particular embodiment, the thickness is less than 5 nm. In another embodiment, the thickness is about 3 monolayers or less. The oxygen-reducing layer may be a continuous film or a discontinuous film with various coverage ratios. The oxygen-reducing layer at the thicknesses described may be generated on the MIEC surface using means known in the art such as, for example, ALD processes.

  12. High-permeance crosslinked PTMSP thin-film composite membranes as supports for CO2 selective layer formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepan D. Bazhenov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the development of the composite gas separation membranes for post-combustion CO2 capture, little attention is focused on the optimization of the membrane supports, which satisfy the conditions of this technology. The primary requirements to the membrane supports are concerned with their high CO2 permeance. In this work, the membrane supports with desired characteristics were developed as high-permeance gas separation thin film composite (TFC membranes with the thin defect-free layer from the crosslinked highly permeable polymer, poly[1-(trimethylsilyl-1-propyne] (PTMSP. This layer is insoluble in chloroform and can be used as a gutter layer for the further deposition of the СО2-selective materials from the organic solvents. Crosslinking of PTMSP was performed using polyethyleneimine (PEI and poly (ethyleneglycol diglycidyl ether (PEGDGE as crosslinking agents. Optimal concentrations of PEI in PTMSP and PEGDGE in methanol were selected in order to diminish the undesirable effect on the final membrane gas transport characteristics. The conditions of the kiss-coating technique for the deposition of the thin defect-free PTMSP-based layer, namely, composition of the casting solution and the speed of movement of the porous commercial microfiltration-grade support, were optimized. The procedure of post-treatment with alcohols and alcohol solutions was shown to be crucial for the improvement of gas permeance of the membranes with the crosslinked PTMSP layer having thickness ranging within 1–2.5 μm. The claimed membranes showed the following characteristics: CO2 permeance is equal to 50–54 m3(STP/(m2 h bar (18,500–20,000 GPU, ideal CO2/N2 selectivity is 3.6–3.7, and their selective layers are insoluble in chloroform. Thus, the developed high-permeance TFC membranes are considered as a promising supports for further modification by enhanced CO2 selective layer formation. Keywords: Thin-film composite membrane

  13. Ductility prediction of substrate-supported metal layers based on rate-independent crystal plasticity theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akpama Holanyo K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, both the bifurcation theory and the initial imperfection approach are used to predict localized necking in substrate-supported metal layers. The self-consistent scale-transition scheme is used to derive the mechanical behavior of a representative volume element of the metal layer from the behavior of its microscopic constituents (the single crystals. The mechanical behavior of the elastomer substrate follows the neo-Hookean hyperelastic model. The adherence between the two layers is assumed to be perfect. Through numerical results, it is shown that the limit strains predicted by the initial imperfection approach tend towards the bifurcation predictions when the size of the geometric imperfection in the metal layer vanishes. Also, it is shown that the addition of an elastomer layer to a metal layer enhances ductility.

  14. Method for making photovoltaic devices using oxygenated semiconductor thin film layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James Neil; Albin, David Scott; Feldman-Peabody, Scott; Pavol, Mark Jeffrey; Gossman, Robert Dwayne

    2014-12-16

    A method for making a photovoltaic device is presented. The method includes steps of disposing a window layer on a substrate and disposing an absorber layer on the window layer. Disposing the window layer, the absorber layer, or both layers includes introducing a source material into a deposition zone, wherein the source material comprises oxygen and a constituent of the window layer, of the absorber layer or of both layers. The method further includes step of depositing a film that comprises the constituent and oxygen.

  15. The Research of Clinical Decision Support System Based on Three-Layer Knowledge Base Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yicheng Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In many clinical decision support systems, a two-layer knowledge base model (disease-symptom of rule reasoning is used. This model often does not express knowledge very well since it simply infers disease from the presence of certain symptoms. In this study, we propose a three-layer knowledge base model (disease-symptom-property to utilize more useful information in inference. The system iteratively calculates the probability of patients who may suffer from diseases based on a multisymptom naive Bayes algorithm, in which the specificity of these disease symptoms is weighted by the estimation of the degree of contribution to diagnose the disease. It significantly reduces the dependencies between attributes to apply the naive Bayes algorithm more properly. Then, the online learning process for parameter optimization of the inference engine was completed. At last, our decision support system utilizing the three-layer model was formally evaluated by two experienced doctors. By comparisons between prediction results and clinical results, our system can provide effective clinical recommendations to doctors. Moreover, we found that the three-layer model can improve the accuracy of predictions compared with the two-layer model. In light of some of the limitations of this study, we also identify and discuss several areas that need continued improvement.

  16. Methods for producing thin film charge selective transport layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Scott Ryan; Olson, Dana C.; van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria

    2018-01-02

    Methods for producing thin film charge selective transport layers are provided. In one embodiment, a method for forming a thin film charge selective transport layer comprises: providing a precursor solution comprising a metal containing reactive precursor material dissolved into a complexing solvent; depositing the precursor solution onto a surface of a substrate to form a film; and forming a charge selective transport layer on the substrate by annealing the film.

  17. Asymmetric polymeric membranes containing a metal-rich dense layer with a controlled thickness and method of making same

    KAUST Repository

    Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor; Villalobos, Vazquez De La Parra Luis Francisco

    2016-01-01

    A structure, and methods of making the structure are provided in which the structure can include: a membrane having a first layer and a second layer, the first layer comprising polymer chains formed with coordination complexes with metal ions, and the second layer consisting of a porous support layer formed of polymer chains substantially, if not completely, lacking the presence of metal ions. The structure can be an asymmetric polymeric membrane containing a metal-rich layer as the first layer. In various embodiments the first layer can be a metal-rich dense layer. The first layer can include pores. The polymer chains of the first layer can be closely packed. The second layer can include a plurality of macro voids and can have an absence of the metal ions of the first layer.

  18. Asymmetric polymeric membranes containing a metal-rich dense layer with a controlled thickness and method of making same

    KAUST Repository

    Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2016-01-21

    A structure, and methods of making the structure are provided in which the structure can include: a membrane having a first layer and a second layer, the first layer comprising polymer chains formed with coordination complexes with metal ions, and the second layer consisting of a porous support layer formed of polymer chains substantially, if not completely, lacking the presence of metal ions. The structure can be an asymmetric polymeric membrane containing a metal-rich layer as the first layer. In various embodiments the first layer can be a metal-rich dense layer. The first layer can include pores. The polymer chains of the first layer can be closely packed. The second layer can include a plurality of macro voids and can have an absence of the metal ions of the first layer.

  19. Electrode assembly for a lithium ion battery, process for the production of such electrode assembly, and lithium ion battery comprising such electrode assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, F.M.; Wagemaker, M.

    2013-01-01

    The invention provides an electrode assembly for a lithium ion battery, the electrode assembly comprising a lithium storage electrode layer on a current collector, wherein the lithium storage electrode layer is a porous layer having a porosity in the range of -35 %, with pores having pore widths in

  20. Thermally oxidized aluminum as catalyst-support layer for vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotube growth using ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azam, Mohd Asyadi, E-mail: asyadi@jaist.ac.jp [School of Materials Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (JAIST), 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan); Fujiwara, Akihiko [Research and Utilization Division, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Shimoda, Tatsuya [School of Materials Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (JAIST), 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan)

    2011-11-01

    Characteristics and role of Al oxide (Al-O) films used as catalyst-support layer for vertical growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were studied. EB-deposited Al films (20 nm) were thermally oxidized at 400 deg. C (10 min, static air) to produce the most appropriate surface structure of Al-O. Al-O catalyst-support layers were characterized using various analytical measurements, i.e., atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and spectroscopy ellipsometry (SE). The thermally oxidized Al-O has a highly roughened surface, and also has the most suitable surface chemical states compared to other type of Al-O support layers. We suggest that the surface of thermally oxidized Al-O characterized in this work enhanced Co catalyst activity to promote the vertically aligned SWCNT growth.

  1. Numerical evaluation of micro-structural parameters of porous supports in metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiss, Georg; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Brandstätter, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    Metallic supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) are considered as a durable and cost effective alternative to the state-of-the-art ceramic supported cell designs. In order to understand the mass and charge transport in the metal-support of this new type of cell a novel technique involving X......-ray tomography and micro-structural modelling is presented in this work. The simulation technique comprises a novel treatment of the boundary conditions, which leads to more accurate effective transport parameters compared to those, which can be achieved with the conventional homogenisation procedures....... Furthermore, the porosity distribution in the metal-support was determined, which provided information about the inhomogeneous nature of the material. In addition to that, transport parameters for two identified, different dense layers of the metal-support are evaluated separately. The results...

  2. TFB:TPDSi2 interfacial layer usable in organic photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Iobin J [Evanston, IL; Hains, Alexander W [Evanston, IL

    2011-02-15

    The present invention, in one aspect, relates to a solar cell. In one embodiment, the solar cell includes an anode; an active organic layer comprising an electron-donating organic material and an electron-accepting organic material; and an interfacial layer formed between the anode and active organic layer, where the interfacial layer comprises a hole-transporting polymer characterized with a hole-mobility higher than that of the electron-donating organic material in the active organic layer, and a small molecule that has a high hole-mobility and is capable of crosslinking on contact with air.

  3. Multi-layer thin-film electrolytes for metal supported solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydn, Markus; Ortner, Kai; Franco, Thomas; Uhlenbruck, Sven; Menzler, Norbert H.; Stöver, Detlev; Bräuer, Günter; Venskutonis, Andreas; Sigl, Lorenz S.; Buchkremer, Hans-Peter; Vaßen, Robert

    2014-06-01

    A key to the development of metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells (MSCs) is the manufacturing of gas-tight thin-film electrolytes, which separate the cathode from the anode. This paper focuses the electrolyte manufacturing on the basis of 8YSZ (8 mol.-% Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2). The electrolyte layers are applied by a physical vapor deposition (PVD) gas flow sputtering (GFS) process. The gas-tightness of the electrolyte is significantly improved when sequential oxidic and metallic thin-film multi-layers are deposited, which interrupt the columnar grain structure of single-layer electrolytes. Such electrolytes with two or eight oxide/metal layers and a total thickness of about 4 μm obtain leakage rates of less than 3 × 10-4 hPa dm3 s-1 cm-2 (Δp: 100 hPa) at room temperature and therefore fulfill the gas tightness requirements. They are also highly tolerant with respect to surface flaws and particulate impurities which can be present on the graded anode underground. MSC cell tests with double-layer and multilayer electrolytes feature high power densities more than 1.4 W cm-2 at 850 °C and underline the high potential of MSC cells.

  4. Analysis of white layers formed in hard turning of AISI 52100 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramesh, A.; Melkote, S.N.; Allard, L.F.; Riester, L.; Watkins, T.R.

    2005-01-01

    The formation mechanisms and properties of white layers produced in machining of hardened steels are not clearly understood to date. In particular, detailed analysis of their structure and mechanical properties is lacking. This paper investigates the differences in structure and properties of white layers formed during machining of hardened AISI 52100 steel (62 HRC) at different cutting speeds. A combination of experimental techniques including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and nano-indentation are used to analyze the white layers formed. TEM results suggest that white layers produced at low-to-moderate cutting speeds are in large part due to grain refinement induced by severe plastic deformation, whereas white layer formation at high cutting speeds is mainly due to thermally-driven phase transformation. The white layers at all speeds are found to be comprised of very fine (nano-scale) grains compared to the bulk material. XRD-based residual stress and retained austenite measurements, and hardness data support these findings

  5. Fast biosensor with reagent layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    A detection system and a sensor chip for detecting target mols., and thus corresponding analytes in a sample is described. Typically the detection system includes a sensor chip. The sensor chip (1) comprises on its detection surface a dissolvable reagent layer. When the dissolvable reagent layer is

  6. Structural evaluation report of piping and support structure for design-changed hot-water layer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo

    1998-05-01

    After hot-water layer system had been installed, the verification tests to reduce the radiation level at the top of reactor pool were performed many times. The major goal of this report is to assess the structural integrity on the piping and the support structures of design-changed hot-water layer system. The piping stress analysis was performed by using ADLPIPE program for the pump suction line and the pump discharge line subjected to dead weight, pressure, thermal expansion and seismic loadings. The stress analysis of the support structure was carried out using the reaction forces obtained from the piping stress analysis. The results of structural evaluation for the pipings and the support structures showed that the structural acceptance criteria were satisfied, in compliance with ASME, subsection ND for the piping and subsection NF for the support structures. Therefore based on the results of the analysis and the design, the structural integrity on the piping and the support structures of design-changed hot-water system was proved. (author). 9 refs., 9 tabs., 14 figs

  7. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Dennis P [Maplewood, MN; Schmoeckel, Alison K [Stillwater, MN; Vernstrom, George D [Cottage Grove, MN; Atanasoski, Radoslav [Edina, MN; Wood, Thomas E [Stillwater, MN; Yang, Ruizhi [Halifax, CA; Easton, E Bradley [Halifax, CA; Dahn, Jeffrey R [Hubley, CA; O'Neill, David G [Lake Elmo, MN

    2011-03-22

    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  8. Bias voltage dependence of magnetic tunnel junctions comprising amorphous ferromagnetic CoFeSiB layer with double barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, H.I.; Lee, S.Y.; Hwang, J.Y.; Rhee, J.R.; Chun, B.S.; Wang, K.L.; Kim, Y.K.; Kim, T.W.; Lee, S.S.; Hwang, D.G.

    2008-01-01

    Double-barrier magnetic tunnel junctions (DMTJs) with and without an amorphous ferromagnetic material such as CoFeSiB 10, CoFe 5/CoFeSiB 5, and CoFe 10 (nm) were prepared and compared to investigate the bias voltage dependence of the tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio. Typical DMTJ structures were Ta 45/Ru 9.5/IrMn 10/CoFe 7/AlO x /free layer 10/AlO x /CoFe 7/IrMn 10/Ru 60 (in nanometers). The interlayer coupling field and the normalized TMR ratios at the applied voltages of +0.4 and -0.4 V of the amorphous CoFeSiB free-layer DMTJ offer lower and higher values than that of the polycrystalline CoFe free-layer DMTJ, respectively. An amorphous ferromagnetic CoFeSiB layer improves the interface roughness of the free layer/tunnel barrier and, as a result, the interlayer coupling field and bias voltage dependence of the TMR ratio are suppressed at a given voltage. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xunming

    2010-02-23

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  10. Low cost fuel cell diffusion layer configured for optimized anode water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owejan, Jon P; Nicotera, Paul D; Mench, Matthew M; Evans, Robert E

    2013-08-27

    A fuel cell comprises a cathode gas diffusion layer, a cathode catalyst layer, an anode gas diffusion layer, an anode catalyst layer and an electrolyte. The diffusion resistance of the anode gas diffusion layer when operated with anode fuel is higher than the diffusion resistance of the cathode gas diffusion layer. The anode gas diffusion layer may comprise filler particles having in-plane platelet geometries and be made of lower cost materials and manufacturing processes than currently available commercial carbon fiber substrates. The diffusion resistance difference between the anode gas diffusion layer and the cathode gas diffusion layer may allow for passive water balance control.

  11. Studies of soft x-ray transmission through grid supported CH layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. S.; Keiter, P. A.; Klein, S. R.; Frank, Y.; Drake, R. P.; Shvarts, D.

    2017-10-01

    Recent experiments have shown that it may be possible to use laser-heated high-Z foils to drive new radiation transport (RadTran) experiments in gas fill tubes. These tubes must be pressurized above 1atm and the x-ray source needs to be physically separated from the gas. To achieve this, a grid-supported CH seal is implemented. The grid reduces the total surface area of the gas-seal interaction region lowering the thickness requirements for the CH layer. However, as mesh spacing is reduced, hole closure from wire ablation may reduce the x-ray flux. To optimize the seal design, experiments were performed measuring x-ray transmission through CH layers supported by meshes composed of copper, gold, or stainless steel and using hexagonal or square mesh geometries. The x-ray source was formed by heating a 0.5 μm thick planar gold foil with a 4 ns laser pulse at an intensity of 2 ×1014 W / cm 2. Emission data was collected using an x-ray framing camera and a Dante photodiode array. Experiments show that the CH layers can reach effective temperatures of nearly 100 eV but mesh design significantly affects performance, with a nearly 20 eV difference between the best and worst performing seal targets. This talk will discuss our findings and their impact on future RadTran experiments. This work is funded by the U.S. DOE, through the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in HED Laboratory Plasmas, Grant Number DE-NA0001840, the National LUFP, Grant Number DE-NA0000850, and through NNSA/OICF under Cooperatvie Agreement No. DE-FC52-08NA2830.

  12. Compositions comprising free-standing two-dimensional nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsoum, Michel W.; Gogotsi, Yury; Abdelmalak, Michael Naguib; Mashtalir, Olha

    2017-12-05

    The present invention is directed to methods of transferring urea from an aqueous solution comprising urea to a MXene composition, the method comprising contacting the aqueous solution comprising urea with the MXene composition for a time sufficient to form an intercalated MXene composition comprising urea.

  13. A Two-Layer Least Squares Support Vector Machine Approach to Credit Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingli; Li, Jianping; Xu, Weixuan; Shi, Yong

    Least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) is a revised version of support vector machine (SVM) and has been proved to be a useful tool for pattern recognition. LS-SVM had excellent generalization performance and low computational cost. In this paper, we propose a new method called two-layer least squares support vector machine which combines kernel principle component analysis (KPCA) and linear programming form of least square support vector machine. With this method sparseness and robustness is obtained while solving large dimensional and large scale database. A U.S. commercial credit card database is used to test the efficiency of our method and the result proved to be a satisfactory one.

  14. BALLISTIC RESISTANT ARTICLES COMPRISING TAPES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VAN DER EEM, JORIS; HARINGS, JULES; JANSE, GERARDUS; TJADEN, HENDRIK

    2015-01-01

    The invention pertains to a ballistic-resistant moulded article comprising a compressed stack of sheets comprising reinforcing tapes having a tensile strength of at least 1.0 GPa, a tensile modulus of at least 40 GPa, and a tensile energy-to-break of at least 15 J/g, the direction of the tapes

  15. Layer-by-layer assembly of thin film oxygen barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Woo-Sik; Rawson, Ian; Grunlan, Jaime C.

    2008-01-01

    Thin films of sodium montmorillonite clay and cationic polyacrylamide were grown on a polyethylene terephthalate film using layer-by-layer assembly. After 30 clay-polymer layers are deposited, with a thickness of 571 nm, the resulting transparent film has an oxygen transmission rate (OTR) below the detection limit of commercial instrumentation ( 2 /day/atm). This low OTR, which is unprecedented for a clay-filled polymer composite, is believed to be due to a brick wall nanostructure comprised of completely exfoliated clay in polymeric mortar. With an optical transparency greater than 90% and potential for microwaveability, this thin composite is a good candidate for foil replacement in food packaging and may also be useful for flexible electronics packaging

  16. Role of core support material in veneer failure of brittle layer structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Ilja; Bhowmick, Sanjit; Lawn, Brian R

    2007-07-01

    A study is made of veneer failure by cracking in all-ceramic crown-like layer structures. Model trilayers consisting of a 1 mm thick external glass layer (veneer) joined to a 0.5 mm thick inner stiff and hard ceramic support layer (core) by epoxy bonding or by fusion are fabricated for testing. The resulting bilayers are then glued to a thick compliant polycarbonate slab to simulate a dentin base. The specimens are subjected to cyclic contact (occlusal) loading with spherical indenters in an aqueous environment. Video cameras are used to record the fracture evolution in the transparent glass layer in situ during testing. The dominant failure mode is cone cracking in the glass veneer by traditional outer (Hertzian) cone cracks at higher contact loads and by inner (hydraulically pumped) cone cracks at lower loads. Failure is deemed to occur when one of these cracks reaches the veneer/core interface. The advantages and disadvantages of the alumina and zirconia core materials are discussed in terms of mechanical properties-strength and toughness, as well as stiffness. Consideration is also given to the roles of interface strength and residual thermal expansion mismatch stresses in relation to the different joining methods. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Ni-YSZ cermet substrate supported thin SDC and YSZ+SDC bi-layer SOFCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.; Robertson, M.; Deces-Petit, C.; Xie, Y.; Hui, R.; Yick, S.; Styles, E.; Roller, J.; Kesler, O.; Qu, W.; Jankovic, J.; Tang, Z.; Perednis, D.; Maric, R.; Ghosh, D. [National Research Council of Canada, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Inst. for Fuel Cell Innovation

    2005-07-01

    One of the disadvantages of a ceria-based electrolyte is that it becomes a mixed conductor at anode conditions, which causes cell voltage loss and fuel efficiency loss due to internal shorting. Chemical and mechanical stability is another concern for long-term service. To lower manufacturing costs, efforts have been made to bring proven semiconductor manufacturing technology to Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs). This study employed Tape casting of cermet substrates, Screen-printing of functional layers and Co-firing of cell components (TSC) to fabricate nickel (Ni)-cermet supported cells with mainly ceria-based thin electrolytes. Ni-Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) cermet supported cell with Samaria Doped Ceria (SDC) single layer electrolytes and YSZ+SDC bi-layer electrolytes were successfully developed for low-temperature performance characterization. The elemental distribution at the cell interface was mapped and the electrochemical performance of the cells was recorded. Many high-Zr-content micro-islands were found on the thin SDC surface. The influence of co-firing temperature and thin-film preparation methods on the Zr-islands' appearance was also investigated. Using in-situ sintered cathodes, high performance of the SDC cells was obtained. It was concluded that the bi-layer cells did show higher Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) values, with 1180 mW/cm{sup 2} at 650 degrees C, as well as good performance at 700-800 degrees C, with near OCV value. However, their performance was much lower than those of the SDC cells at low operating temperature. Zr-micro-islands formation on the SDC electrolyte was observed and investigated. 6 refs., 5 tabs., 7 figs.

  18. Dual-role plasticizer and dispersant for ceramic layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Thus, one aspect of the invention relates to a green ceramic layer comprising a ceramic material, a binder, and a dual-role dispersant and plasticizer, wherein said dual-role dispersant and plasticizer is an organic di- or tri-ester selected from compounds of formula (I), (II), (III) and (IV......). Another aspect of the present invention relates to a slurry for use in the manufacturing of a green ceramic layer comprising a ceramic material, a solvent, a binder, and a dual-role dispersant and plasticizer, wherein said dual role dispersant and plasticizer is an organic di- or tri- ester. Further...... aspects include uses of and methods of manufacturing said green ceramic layers....

  19. Semipermeable thin-film membranes comprising siloxane, alkoxysilyl and aryloxysilyl oligomers and copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Walter C.; Friesen, Dwayne T.

    1988-01-01

    Novel semiperimeable membranes and thin film composite (TFC) gas separation membranes useful in the separation of oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, water vapor, methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, lower hydrocarbons, and other gases are disclosed. The novel semipermeable membranes comprise the polycondensation reaction product of two complementary polyfunctional compounds, each having at least two functional groups that are mutually reactive in a condensation polymerization reaction, and at least one of which is selected from siloxanes, alkoxsilyls and aryloxysilyls. The TFC membrane comprises a microporous polymeric support, the surface of which has the novel semipermeable film formed thereon, preferably by interfacial polymerization.

  20. Mass transfer model for two-layer TBP oxidation reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurinat, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    To prove that two-layer, TBP-nitric acid mixtures can be safely stored in the canyon evaporators, it must be demonstrated that a runaway reaction between TBP and nitric acid will not occur. Previous bench-scale experiments showed that, at typical evaporator temperatures, this reaction is endothermic and therefore cannot run away, due to the loss of heat from evaporation of water in the organic layer. However, the reaction would be exothermic and could run away if the small amount of water in the organic layer evaporates before the nitric acid in this layer is consumed by the reaction. Provided that there is enough water in the aqueous layer, this would occur if the organic layer is sufficiently thick so that the rate of loss of water by evaporation exceeds the rate of replenishment due to mixing with the aqueous layer. This report presents measurements of mass transfer rates for the mixing of water and butanol in two-layer, TBP-aqueous mixtures, where the top layer is primarily TBP and the bottom layer is comprised of water or aqueous salt solution. Mass transfer coefficients are derived for use in the modeling of two-layer TBP-nitric acid oxidation experiments. Three cases were investigated: (1) transfer of water into the TBP layer with sparging of both the aqueous and TBP layers, (2) transfer of water into the TBP layer with sparging of just the TBP layer, and (3) transfer of butanol into the aqueous layer with sparging of both layers. The TBP layer was comprised of 99% pure TBP (spiked with butanol for the butanol transfer experiments), and the aqueous layer was comprised of either water or an aluminum nitrate solution. The liquid layers were air sparged to simulate the mixing due to the evolution of gases generated by oxidation reactions. A plastic tube and a glass frit sparger were used to provide different size bubbles. Rates of mass transfer were measured using infrared spectrophotometers provided by SRTC/Analytical Development

  1. Influence of (phospho)lipases on properties of mica supported phospholipid layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurak, Malgorzata, E-mail: mjurak@interia.pl [Department of Physical Chemistry-Interfacial Phenomena, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Maria Curie-Sklodowska Sq. 2, 20031 Lublin (Poland); Chibowski, Emil [Department of Physical Chemistry-Interfacial Phenomena, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Maria Curie-Sklodowska Sq. 2, 20031 Lublin (Poland)

    2010-08-15

    The effect of enzymes: lipase from Candida cylindracea (L{sub Cc}), phospholipase A{sub 2} from hog pancreas (PLA{sub 2}) and phospholipase C from Bacillus cereus (PLC) to modulate wetting properties of solid supported phospholipid bilayers was studied via advancing and receding contact angle measurements of water, formamide and diiodomethane, and calculation of the surface free energy and its components from van Oss et al. (LWAB) and contact angle hysteresis (CAH) approaches. Simultaneously, topography of the studied layers was determined by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The investigated lipid bilayers were transferred on mica plates from subphase of pure water by means of Langmuir-Blodgett and Langmuir-Schaefer techniques. The investigated phospolipid layers were: saturated DPPC (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine), unsaturated DOPC (1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine), and their mixture DPPC/DOPC. The obtained results revealed that the lipid membrane degradation by the enzymes caused increase in its surface free energy due to the amphiphilic hydrolysis products, which may accumulate in the lipid bilayer. In result activity of the enzymes may increase and then break down the bilayer structure takes place. It is likely that after dissolution of the hydrolysis reaction products in the bulk phase, patches of bare mica surface are accessible, which contribute to the apparent surface free energy changes. Comparison of AFM images and the free energy changes of the layers gives better insight into changes of their properties. The observed gradual increase in the layer surface free energy allows controlling of the hydrolysis process to obtain the surfaces of defined properties.

  2. Characterization of metal-supported axial injection plasma sprayed solid oxide fuel cells with aqueous suspension plasma sprayed electrolyte layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldbillig, D.; Kesler, O.

    A method for manufacturing metal-supported SOFCs with atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) is presented, making use of aqueous suspension feedstock for the electrolyte layer and dry powder feedstock for the anode and cathode layers. The cathode layer was deposited first directly onto a metal support, in order to minimize contact resistance, and to allow the introduction of added porosity. The electrolyte layers produced by suspension plasma spraying (SPS) were characterized in terms of thickness, permeability, and microstructure, and the impact of substrate morphology on electrolyte properties was investigated. Fuel cells produced by APS were electrochemically tested at temperatures ranging from 650 to 750 °C. The substrate morphology had little effect on open circuit voltage, but substrates with finer porosity resulted in lower kinetic losses in the fuel cell polarization.

  3. Characterization of metal-supported axial injection plasma sprayed solid oxide fuel cells with aqueous suspension plasma sprayed electrolyte layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldbillig, D. [University of British Columbia, Department of Materials Engineering, 309-6350 Stores Road, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Kesler, O. [University of Toronto, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, 5 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-06-15

    A method for manufacturing metal-supported SOFCs with atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) is presented, making use of aqueous suspension feedstock for the electrolyte layer and dry powder feedstock for the anode and cathode layers. The cathode layer was deposited first directly onto a metal support, in order to minimize contact resistance, and to allow the introduction of added porosity. The electrolyte layers produced by suspension plasma spraying (SPS) were characterized in terms of thickness, permeability, and microstructure, and the impact of substrate morphology on electrolyte properties was investigated. Fuel cells produced by APS were electrochemically tested at temperatures ranging from 650 to 750 C. The substrate morphology had little effect on open circuit voltage, but substrates with finer porosity resulted in lower kinetic losses in the fuel cell polarization. (author)

  4. Improved adhesion of metal oxide layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to: a method of preparing a coating ink for forming a zinc oxide layer, which method comprises the steps of: a) mixing zinc acetate and AlOH (OAc)2 in water or methanol and b) filtering out solids; a coating ink comprising zinc acetate and AlOH (OAc)2 in aqueous or m...

  5. Optoelectronic devices, low temperature preparation methods, and improved electron transport layers

    KAUST Repository

    Eita, Mohamed S.; El, Labban Abdulrahman; Usman, Anwar; Beaujuge, Pierre; Mohammed, Omar F.

    2016-01-01

    An optoelectronic device such as a photovoltaic device which has at least one layer, such as an electron transport layer, which comprises a plurality of alternating, oppositely charged layers including metal oxide layers. The metal oxide can be zinc

  6. Layer-resolved readout of magnetic signals using ferromagnetic resonance effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, T.; Suto, H.; Nagasawa, T.; Kudo, K.; Mizushima, K.; Sato, R.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a method to read the data stored in a three-dimensional (3D) magnetic recording medium comprising plural storage layers. The readout is realized by selecting the storage layer with the ferromagnetic resonance frequency, and detecting the magnetization orientation with the ferromagnetic resonance absorption. This concept is experimentally confirmed with magnetic media comprising NiFe and CoFe layers. The feasibility of applying this method to a realistic 3D magnetic recording medium is discussed by calculating the absorption spectra of several storage layers with different perpendicular magnetic anisotropy constants. - Highlights: ► A method is introduced to read data in the 3-dimensional magnetic recording medium. ► The storage layer to read is selected according to its particular FMR frequency. ► The magnetization of the selected storage layer is detected with the FMR absorption

  7. Interfacial layers in tape cast anode-supported doped lanthanum gallate SOFC elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maffei, N.; De Silveira, G. [Materials Technology Laboratory, Natural Resources Canada, CANMET, 405 Rochester Street, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada) K1A OG3

    2003-04-01

    Lanthanum gallate doped with strontium and magnesium (LSGM) is a promising electrolyte system for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The reported formation of interfacial layers in monolithic type SOFCs based on lanthanum gallate is of concern because of its impact on the performance of the fuel cell. Planar anode-supported SOFC elements (without the cathode) were prepared by the tape casting technique in order to determine the nature of the anode/electrolyte interface after sintering. Two anode systems were studied, one a NiO-CeO{sub 2} cermet, and the other, a modified lanthanum gallate anode containing manganese. Sintering studies were conducted at 1250, 1300, 1350, 1400 and 1450 C to determine the effect of temperature on the interfacial characteristics. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed a significant diffusion of Ni from the NiO-CeO{sub 2} anode resulting in the formation of an interfacial layer regardless of sintering temperature. Significant La diffusion from the electrolyte into the anode was also observed. In the case of the modified lanthanum gallate anode containing manganese, there was no interfacial layer formation, but a significant diffusion of Mn into the electrolyte was observed.

  8. Relating performance of thin-film composite forward osmosis membranes to support layer formation and structure

    KAUST Repository

    Tiraferri, Alberto; Yip, Ngai Yin; Phillip, William A.; Schiffman, Jessica D.; Elimelech, Menachem

    2011-01-01

    the technology to the point that it is commercially viable. Here, a systematic investigation of the influence of thin-film composite membrane support layer structure on forward osmosis performance is conducted. The membranes consist of a selective polyamide

  9. W-containing oxide layers obtained on aluminum and titanium by PEO as catalysts in thiophene oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnev, V. S.; Lukiyanchuk, I. V.; Vasilyeva, M. S.; Morozova, V. P.; Zelikman, V. M.; Tarkhanova, I. G.

    2017-11-01

    W-containing oxide layers fabricated on titanium and aluminum alloys by Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) have been tested in the reaction of the peroxide oxidation of thiophene. Samples with two types of coatings have been investigated. Coatings I contained tungsten oxide in the matrix and on the surface of amorphous silica-titania or silica-alumina layers, while coatings II comprised crystalline WO3 and/or Al2(WO4)3. Aluminum-supported catalyst containing a smallest amount of transition metals in the form of tungsten oxides and manganese oxides in low oxidation levels showed high activity and stability.

  10. Electrochemical energy storage devices comprising self-compensating polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul; Bautista-Martinez, Jose Antonio; Friesen, Cody; Switzer, Elise

    2018-01-30

    The disclosed technology relates generally to devices comprising conductive polymers and more particularly to electrochemical devices comprising self-compensating conductive polymers. In one aspect, electrochemical energy storage device comprises a negative electrode comprising an active material including a redox-active polymer. The device additionally comprises a positive electrode comprising an active material including a redox-active polymer. The device further comprises an electrolyte material interposed between the negative electrode and positive electrode and configured to conduct mobile counterions therethrough between the negative electrode and positive electrode. At least one of the negative electrode redox-active polymer and the positive electrode redox-active polymer comprises a zwitterionic polymer unit configured to reversibly switch between a zwitterionic state in which the zwitterionic polymer unit has first and second charge centers having opposite charge states that compensate each other, and a non-zwitterionic state in which the zwitterionic polymer unit has one of the first and second charge centers whose charge state is compensated by mobile counterions.

  11. Semiconductor device comprising a pn-heterojunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    An electric device is disclosed comprising a pn-heterojunction ( 4 ) formed by a nanowire ( 3 ) of 111 -V semiconductor material and a semiconductor body ( 1 ) comprising a group IV semiconductor material. The nanowire ( 3 ) is positioned in direct contact with the surface ( 2 ) of the semiconductor

  12. Polysulfide intercalated layered double hydroxides for metal capture applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Ma, Shulan

    2017-04-04

    Polysulfide intercalated layered double hydroxides and methods for their use in vapor and liquid-phase metal capture applications are provided. The layered double hydroxides comprise a plurality of positively charged host layers of mixed metal hydroxides separated by interlayer spaces. Polysulfide anions are intercalated in the interlayer spaces.

  13. Coating compositions comprising bismuth-alloyed zinc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present application discloses (i) a coating composition comprising a particulate zinc-based alloyed material, said material comprising 0.05-0.7% by weight of bismuth (Bi), the D50 of the particulate material being in the range of 2.5-30 µm; (ii) a coated structure comprising a metal structure...... having a first coating of the zinc-containing coating composition applied onto at least a part of the metal structure in a dry film thickness of 5-100 µm; and an outer coating applied onto said zinc-containing coating in a dry film thickness of 30-200 µm; (iii) a particulate zinc-based alloyed material......, wherein the material comprises 0.05-0.7%(w/w) of bismuth (Bi), and wherein the D50 of the particulate material is in the range of 2.5-30 µm; (iv) a composite powder consisting of at least 25%(w/w) of the particulate zinc-based alloyed material, the rest being a particulate material consisting of zinc...

  14. Layer-specific morphological and molecular differences in neocortical astrocytes and their dependence on neuronal layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanjakornsiripan, Darin; Pior, Baek-Jun; Kawaguchi, Daichi; Furutachi, Shohei; Tahara, Tomoaki; Katsuyama, Yu; Suzuki, Yutaka; Fukazawa, Yugo; Gotoh, Yukiko

    2018-04-24

    Non-pial neocortical astrocytes have historically been thought to comprise largely a nondiverse population of protoplasmic astrocytes. Here we show that astrocytes of the mouse somatosensory cortex manifest layer-specific morphological and molecular differences. Two- and three-dimensional observations revealed that astrocytes in the different layers possess distinct morphologies as reflected by differences in cell orientation, territorial volume, and arborization. The extent of ensheathment of synaptic clefts by astrocytes in layer II/III was greater than that by those in layer VI. Moreover, differences in gene expression were observed between upper-layer and deep-layer astrocytes. Importantly, layer-specific differences in astrocyte properties were abrogated in reeler and Dab1 conditional knockout mice, in which neuronal layers are disturbed, suggesting that neuronal layers are a prerequisite for the observed morphological and molecular differences of neocortical astrocytes. This study thus demonstrates the existence of layer-specific interactions between neurons and astrocytes, which may underlie their layer-specific functions.

  15. Covalentely Attached Multilayer Films Comprising Phthalocyanine and Their Photoelectron Conversion Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZANG Mao-feng; YAO Qiao-hong; YANG Zhao-hui; HUANG Chun-hui; CAO Wei-xiao

    2004-01-01

    The photosensitive multilayer films from sulfonated metal-free, sulfonated copper-, and sulfonated nickel-phthalocyanines were fabricated with diazoresin layer by layer on a substrate via electrostatic interaction by the self-assembly technique. Under UV irradiation, the linkage nature between the layers of the film is converted from the electrostatic bonding to covalent bonding. The covalently attached multilayer films are very stable towards polar solvents and salt aqueous solutions. The photovoltaic properties of the covalently attached film can be determined by means of a traditional three-electrode photoelectrochemical cell in aqueous solutions with KCl as the supporting electrolyte. The photocurrent determination has shown that the sulfonated copper-containing phthalocyanine films possess a higher photocurrent value than sulfonated metalfree and sulfonated nickel-containing phthalocyanine films.

  16. Burst switched optical networks supporting legacy and future service types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franzl, Gerald; Hayat, Faisal; Holynski, Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    Focusing on the principles and the paradigm of OBS an overview addressing expectable performance and application issues is presented. Proposals on OBS were published over a decade and the presented techniques spread into many directions. The paper comprises discussions of several challenges that ...... and found capable to overcome shortcomings of recent proposals. In conclusion, an OBS that offers different connection types may support most client demands within a sole optical network layer....

  17. Scrape-off layer turbulence in TCV: evidence in support of stochastic modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Theodorsen, A.; Garcia, O.E.; Horáček, Jan; Kube, R.; Pitts, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 4 (2016), č. článku 044006. ISSN 0741-3335 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/12/2327 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : turbulence * intermittency * transport * scrape-off layer * tcv * plasma * tokamak Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.392, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0741-3335/58/4/044006/meta

  18. Cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising lignin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, David; Bowman, Mark P; Zawacky, Steven R; Van Buskirk, Ellor J; Kamarchik, Peter

    2013-07-30

    A cationic electrodepositable coating composition is disclosed. The present invention in directed to a cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising a lignin-containing cationic salt resin, that comprises (A) the reaction product of: lignin, an amine, and a carbonyl compound; (B) the reaction product of lignin, epichlorohydrin, and an amine; or (C) combinations thereof.

  19. Effects of framework design and layering material on fracture strength of implant-supported zirconia-based molar crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamio, Shingo; Komine, Futoshi; Taguchi, Kohei; Iwasaki, Taro; Blatz, Markus B; Matsumura, Hideo

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of framework design and layering material on the fracture strength of implant-supported zirconia-based molar crowns. Sixty-six titanium abutments (GingiHue Post) were tightened onto dental implants (Implant Lab Analog). These abutment-implant complexes were randomly divided into three groups (n = 22) according to the design of the zirconia framework (Katana), namely, uniform-thickness (UNI), anatomic (ANA), and supported anatomic (SUP) designs. The specimens in each design group were further divided into two subgroups (n = 11): zirconia-based all-ceramic restorations (ZAC group) and zirconia-based restorations with an indirect composite material (Estenia C&B) layered onto the zirconia framework (ZIC group). All crowns were cemented on implant abutments, after which the specimens were tested for fracture resistance. The data were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann-Whitney U-test with the Bonferroni correction (α = 0.05). The following mean fracture strength values (kN) were obtained in UNI design, ANA design, and SUP design, respectively: Group ZAC, 3.78, 6.01, 6.50 and Group ZIC, 3.15, 5.65, 5.83. In both the ZAC and ZIC groups, fracture strength was significantly lower for the UNI design than the other two framework designs (P = 0.001). Fracture strength did not significantly differ (P > 0.420) between identical framework designs in the ZAC and ZIC groups. A framework design with standardized layer thickness and adequate support of veneer by zirconia frameworks, as in the ANA and SUP designs, increases fracture resistance in implant-supported zirconia-based restorations under conditions of chewing attrition. Indirect composite material and porcelain perform similarly as layering materials on zirconia frameworks. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) is a compilation of GIS data that comprises a nationwide digital Flood Insurance Rate Map. The GIS data and services are...

  1. Microfluidically supported biochip design for culture of endothelial cell layers with improved perfusion conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raasch, Martin; Rennert, Knut; Jahn, Tobias; Peters, Sven; Henkel, Thomas; Huber, Otmar; Schulz, Ingo; Becker, Holger; Lorkowski, Stefan; Funke, Harald; Mosig, Alexander

    2015-03-02

    Hemodynamic forces generated by the blood flow are of central importance for the function of endothelial cells (ECs), which form a biologically active cellular monolayer in blood vessels and serve as a selective barrier for macromolecular permeability. Mechanical stimulation of the endothelial monolayer induces morphological remodeling in its cytoskeleton. For in vitro studies on EC biology culture devices are desirable that simulate conditions of flow in blood vessels and allow flow-based adhesion/permeability assays under optimal perfusion conditions. With this aim we designed a biochip comprising a perfusable membrane that serves as cell culture platform multi-organ-tissue-flow (MOTiF biochip). This biochip allows an effective supply with nutrition medium, discharge of catabolic cell metabolites and defined application of shear stress to ECs under laminar flow conditions. To characterize EC layers cultured in the MOTiF biochip we investigated cell viability, expression of EC marker proteins and cell adhesion molecules of ECs dynamically cultured under low and high shear stress, and compared them with an endothelial culture in established two-dimensionally perfused flow chambers and under static conditions. We show that ECs cultured in the MOTiF biochip form a tight EC monolayer with increased cellular density, enhanced cell layer thickness, presumably as the result of a rapid and effective adaption to shear stress by remodeling of the cytoskeleton. Moreover, endothelial layers in the MOTiF biochip express higher amounts of EC marker proteins von-Willebrand-factor and PECAM-1. EC layers were highly responsive to stimulation with TNFα as detected at the level of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin expression and modulation of endothelial permeability in response to TNFα/IFNγ treatment under flow conditions. Compared to static and two-dimensionally perfused cell culture condition we consider MOTiF biochips as a valuable tool for studying EC biology in vitro under

  2. An Added Layer of Support: Introducing a Heterarchical Peer Mentoring Intervention to a Preservice Science Teacher Education Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neesemann, Lisa Ann

    2017-01-01

    In an effort to support preservice science teachers during their concurrent student teaching experiences and masters coursework, I created and implemented a Peer Mentoring Intervention to add an additional layer of support to those most traditionally curated. In this intervention, preservice secondary science teachers were paired into…

  3. Layered semiconductor neutron detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

    2013-12-10

    Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

  4. MULTI-LAYER MIRROR FOR RADIATION IN THE XUV WAVELENGHT RANGE AND METHOD FOR MANUFACTURE THEREOF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijkerk, Frederik; Louis, Eric; Kessels, M.J.H.; Verhoeven, Jan; Den Hartog, Harmen Markus Johannes

    2002-01-01

    Multi-layer mirror for radiation with a wavelength in the wavelength range between 0.1 nm and 30 nm (the so-called XUV range), comprising a stack of thin films substantially comprising scattering particles which scatter the radiation, which thin films are separated by separating layers with a

  5. Layered phenomena in the mesopause region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plane, J. M. C.; Bailey, S. M.; Baumgarten, G.; Rapp, M.

    2015-05-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics comprises a collection of papers which were mostly presented at the 11th Layered Phenomena in the Mesopause Region (LPMR) Workshop, held at the University of Leeds between 29th July 2013 and 1st August 2013. The topics covered at the workshop included atmospheric dynamics, mesospheric ice clouds, meteoric metal layers, meteoric smoke particles, and airglow layers. There was also a session on the potential of planned sub-orbital spacecraft for making measurements in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT).

  6. Organic photovoltaic device with interfacial layer and method of fabricating same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Tobin J.; Hains, Alexander W.

    2013-03-19

    An organic photovoltaic device and method of forming same. In one embodiment, the organic photovoltaic device has an anode, a cathode, an active layer disposed between the anode and the cathode; and an interfacial layer disposed between the anode and the active layer, the interfacial layer comprising 5,5'-bis[(p-trichlorosilylpropylphenyl)phenylamino]-2,2'-bithiophene (PABTSi.sub.2).

  7. Polyelectrolyte Layer-by-Layer Assembly on Organic Electrochemical Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Pappa, Anna-Maria

    2017-03-06

    Oppositely charged polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) were built up in a layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly on top of the conducting polymer channel of an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT), aiming to combine the advantages of well-established PEMs with a high performance electronic transducer. The multilayered film is a model system to investigate the impact of biofunctionalization on the operation of OECTs comprising a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) film as the electrically active layer. Understanding the mechanism of ion injection into the channel that is in direct contact with charged polymer films provides useful insights for novel biosensing applications such as nucleic acid sensing. Moreover, LbL is demonstrated to be a versatile electrode modification tool enabling tailored surface features in terms of thickness, softness, roughness, and charge. LbL assemblies built up on top of conducting polymers will aid the design of new bioelectronic platforms for drug delivery, tissue engineering, and medical diagnostics.

  8. Polyelectrolyte Layer-by-Layer Assembly on Organic Electrochemical Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Pappa, Anna-Maria; Inal, Sahika; Roy, Kirsty; Zhang, Yi; Pitsalidis, Charalampos; Hama, Adel; Pas, Jolien; Malliaras, George G.; Owens, Roisin M.

    2017-01-01

    Oppositely charged polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) were built up in a layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly on top of the conducting polymer channel of an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT), aiming to combine the advantages of well-established PEMs with a high performance electronic transducer. The multilayered film is a model system to investigate the impact of biofunctionalization on the operation of OECTs comprising a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) film as the electrically active layer. Understanding the mechanism of ion injection into the channel that is in direct contact with charged polymer films provides useful insights for novel biosensing applications such as nucleic acid sensing. Moreover, LbL is demonstrated to be a versatile electrode modification tool enabling tailored surface features in terms of thickness, softness, roughness, and charge. LbL assemblies built up on top of conducting polymers will aid the design of new bioelectronic platforms for drug delivery, tissue engineering, and medical diagnostics.

  9. GAS SEPARATION MEMBRANES COMPRISING PERMEABILITY ENHANCING ADDITIVES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessling, Matthias; Sterescu, D.M.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to polymer compositions comprising a (co)polymer comprising (a) an arylene oxide moiety and (b) a dendritic (co)polymer, a hyperbranched (co)polymer or a mixture thereof, and the use of these polymer compositions as membrane materials for the separation of gases. The

  10. Freestanding films of crosslinked gold nanoparticles prepared via layer-by-layer spin-coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlicke, Hendrik; Schröder, Jan H.; Trebbin, Martin; Petrov, Alexey; Ijeh, Michael; Weller, Horst; Vossmeyer, Tobias

    2011-07-01

    A new, extremely efficient method for the fabrication of films comprised of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) crosslinked by organic dithiols is presented in this paper. The method is based on layer-by-layer spin-coating of both components, GNPs and crosslinker, and enables the deposition of films several tens of nanometers in thickness within a few minutes. X-ray diffraction and conductance measurements reveal the proper adjustment concentration of the crosslinker solution of the critical is in order to prevent the destabilization and coalescence of particles. UV/vis spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and conductivity measurements indicate that films prepared via layer-by-layer spin-coating are of comparable quality to coatings prepared via laborious layer-by-layer self-assembly using immersion baths. Because spin-coated films are not bound chemically to the substrate, they can be lifted-off by alkaline underetching and transferred onto 3d-electrodes to produce electrically addressable, freely suspended films. Comparative measurements of the sheet resistances indicate that the transfer process does not compromise the film quality.

  11. Freestanding films of crosslinked gold nanoparticles prepared via layer-by-layer spin-coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlicke, Hendrik; Schroeder, Jan H; Trebbin, Martin; Petrov, Alexey; Ijeh, Michael; Weller, Horst; Vossmeyer, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    A new, extremely efficient method for the fabrication of films comprised of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) crosslinked by organic dithiols is presented in this paper. The method is based on layer-by-layer spin-coating of both components, GNPs and crosslinker, and enables the deposition of films several tens of nanometers in thickness within a few minutes. X-ray diffraction and conductance measurements reveal the proper adjustment concentration of the crosslinker solution of the critical is in order to prevent the destabilization and coalescence of particles. UV/vis spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and conductivity measurements indicate that films prepared via layer-by-layer spin-coating are of comparable quality to coatings prepared via laborious layer-by-layer self-assembly using immersion baths. Because spin-coated films are not bound chemically to the substrate, they can be lifted-off by alkaline underetching and transferred onto 3d-electrodes to produce electrically addressable, freely suspended films. Comparative measurements of the sheet resistances indicate that the transfer process does not compromise the film quality.

  12. Interfacial bonding stabilizes rhodium and rhodium oxide nanoparticles on layered Nb oxide and Ta oxide supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, Megan E; Binz, Jason M; Tanase, Mihaela; Shahri, Seyed Mehdi Kamali; Sharma, Renu; Rioux, Robert M; Mallouk, Thomas E

    2014-04-16

    Metal nanoparticles are commonly supported on metal oxides, but their utility as catalysts is limited by coarsening at high temperatures. Rhodium oxide and rhodium metal nanoparticles on niobate and tantalate supports are anomalously stable. To understand this, the nanoparticle-support interaction was studied by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM), and synchrotron X-ray absorption and scattering techniques. Nanosheets derived from the layered oxides KCa2Nb3O10, K4Nb6O17, and RbTaO3 were compared as supports to nanosheets of Na-TSM, a synthetic fluoromica (Na0.66Mg2.68(Si3.98Al0.02)O10.02F1.96), and α-Zr(HPO4)2·H2O. High surface area SiO2 and γ-Al2O3 supports were also used for comparison in the ITC experiments. A Born-Haber cycle analysis of ITC data revealed an exothermic interaction between Rh(OH)3 nanoparticles and the layered niobate and tantalate supports, with ΔH values in the range -32 kJ·mol(-1) Rh to -37 kJ·mol(-1) Rh. In contrast, the interaction enthalpy was positive with SiO2 and γ-Al2O3 supports. The strong interfacial bonding in the former case led to "reverse" ripening of micrometer-size Rh(OH)3, which dispersed as 0.5 to 2 nm particles on the niobate and tantalate supports. In contrast, particles grown on Na-TSM and α-Zr(HPO4)2·H2O nanosheets were larger and had a broad size distribution. ETEM, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and pair distribution function analyses were used to study the growth of supported nanoparticles under oxidizing and reducing conditions, as well as the transformation from Rh(OH)3 to Rh nanoparticles. Interfacial covalent bonding, possibly strengthened by d-electron acid/base interactions, appear to stabilize Rh(OH)3, Rh2O3, and Rh nanoparticles on niobate and tantalate supports.

  13. Highly conductive, multi-layer composite precursor composition to fuel cell flow field plate or bipolar plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Bor Z [Centerville, OH; Zhamu, Aruna [Centerville, OH; Guo, Jiusheng [Centerville, OH

    2011-02-15

    This invention provides a moldable, multiple-layer composite composition, which is a precursor to an electrically conductive composite flow field plate or bipolar plate. In one preferred embodiment, the composition comprises a plurality of conductive sheets and a plurality of mixture layers of a curable resin and conductive fillers, wherein (A) each conductive sheet is attached to at least one resin-filler mixture layer; (B) at least one of the conductive sheets comprises flexible graphite; and (C) at least one resin-filler mixture layer comprises a thermosetting resin and conductive fillers with the fillers being present in a sufficient quantity to render the resulting flow field plate or bipolar plate electrically conductive with a conductivity no less than 100 S/cm and thickness-direction areal conductivity no less than 200 S/cm.sup.2.

  14. Medical preparation container comprising microwave powered sensor assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a medical preparation container which comprises a microwave powered sensor assembly. The microwave powered sensor assembly comprises a sensor configured to measure a physical property or chemical property of a medical preparation during its heating in a microwave ...... oven. The microwave powered sensor assembly is configured for harvesting energy from microwave radiation emitted by the microwave oven and energize the sensor by the harvested microwave energy.......The present invention relates to a medical preparation container which comprises a microwave powered sensor assembly. The microwave powered sensor assembly comprises a sensor configured to measure a physical property or chemical property of a medical preparation during its heating in a microwave...

  15. Lithium-ion batteries having conformal solid electrolyte layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2014-05-27

    Hybrid solid-liquid electrolyte lithium-ion battery devices are disclosed. Certain devices comprise anodes and cathodes conformally coated with an electron insulating and lithium ion conductive solid electrolyte layer.

  16. Superlattice doped layers for amorphous silicon photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Rajeewa R.

    1988-01-12

    Superlattice doped layers for amorphous silicon photovoltaic cells comprise a plurality of first and second lattices of amorphous silicon alternatingly formed on one another. Each of the first lattices has a first optical bandgap and each of the second lattices has a second optical bandgap different from the first optical bandgap. A method of fabricating the superlattice doped layers also is disclosed.

  17. Electrically conductive aluminum oxide thin film used as cobalt catalyst-support layer in vertically aligned carbon nanotube growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azam, Mohd Asyadi; Ismail, Syahriza; Mohamad, Noraiham; Isomura, Kazuki; Shimoda, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    This paper will present the unique characteristics of aluminum oxide (Al–O) and cobalt catalyst included in aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode system of energy storage device, namely electrochemical capacitor. Electrical conductivity and nanostructure of the thermally oxidized Al–O used as catalyst-support layer in vertically grown single-walled CNTs were studied. Al–O films were characterized by means of current–voltage measurement and high resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis. The Al–O support layer was found to be conductive, with a relatively low resistance and, approximately 20 nm film thickness of Al–O is suggested to be too thin to form insulating barrier. The scanning TEM—annular dark field analysis confirmed that the nanosized cobalt catalyst particles distributed on Al–O surfaces and also embedded inside the Al–O film structure. (paper)

  18. Encapsulation methods and dielectric layers for organic electrical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Yigal D; Chu, William Siu-Keung; MacQueen, David Brent; Shi, Yijan

    2013-07-02

    The disclosure provides methods and materials suitable for use as encapsulation barriers and dielectric layers in electronic devices. In one embodiment, for example, there is provided an electroluminescent device or other electronic device with a dielectric layer comprising alternating layers of a silicon-containing bonding material and a ceramic material. The methods provide, for example, electronic devices with increased stability and shelf-life. The invention is useful, for example, in the field of microelectronic devices.

  19. Layered double hydroxide nanosheet as a two-dimensional support of dense platinum nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hyo Gyoung; Cho, Se Hee; Ji, Hong Geun [H and A PharmaChem, R and D center, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Hyeon [Dept. of Chemistry, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Transition metal nanoparticles (NPs) with a narrow size distribution have been intensively synthesized on various solid supports for anti-agglomeration, and high catalytic activity and selectivity. Layered double hydroxides (LDH) are currently attracting intense interest in the field of heterogeneous catalysis as catalyst supports. In order to obtain a well-crystallized LDH nanosheet, the as-synthesize d carbonate form of LDH was hydrothermally treated according to a reported procedure, and further reacted by anion-exchange with an aqueous solution of NaNO{sub 3} and acetate buffer to give the nitrate form of LDH. Dense and uniform Pt NPs were synthesized on the exfoliated LDH nanosheets through precursor exchange and thermal reduction of the precursor ions. In this nanocomposite, the Pt Nps were uniformly grown on the surface of the LDH nano sheet and the average size of Pt Nps was 2nm.

  20. An experimental study on the preparation of tochilinite-originated intercalation compounds comprised of Fe 1-xS host layers and various kinds of guest layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yiya; Xi, Guangcheng; Zhong, Chang; Wang, Linping; Lu, Jun; Sun, Ximeng; Zhu, Lu; Han, Qikun; Chen, Lin; Shi, Lei; Sun, Mei; Li, Qianrong; Yu, Min; Yin, Mingwen

    2009-08-01

    Tochilinite represents a mineral group of ordered mixed-layer structures containing alternating Fe 1-xS layers with mackinawite-like structure and metal hydroxide layers with Mg(OH) 2-like structure. In this article, we report the preparation of a series of tochilinite-originated (or Fe 1-xS-based) intercalation compounds (ICs). According to their preparation procedures, these ICs can be divided into four kinds. The first kind of IC was sodium tochilinite (Na-tochilinite), which was prepared by the hydrothermal reaction of metallic Fe particles with concentrated Na 2S·9H 2O aqueous solutions. The hydroxide layer of the Na-tochilinite was a mixed hydroxide of Na + ions along with a certain amount of Fe 2+ ions. When the hydroxide layer of the Na-tochilinite completely dissolved in aqueous solutions, a Fe-deficient mackinawite-like phase Fe 1-xS was obtained, which was probably an electron-deficient p-type conductor. The second kind of ICs was prepared by 'low-temperature direct intercalation in aqueous solutions, using Na-tochilinite as a parental precursor. When the Na-tochilinite was ultrasonicated in aqueous solutions containing Lewis basic complexing agents (like NH 3, N 2H 4, 2,2'-bipyridine (bipy), and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen)), the Na + ions of the Na-tochilinite were removed and the Lewis basic complexing agents entered the hydroxide layer of the Na-tochilinite and became coordinated with the Fe 2+ ions, and the second kind of ICs was thus produced. The second kind of ICs includes NH 3 IC, N 2H 4 IC, N 2H 4-NH 3 IC, [Fe(bipy) 3] 2+-containing IC and [Fe(phen) 3] 2+-containing IC. The third kind of ICs, which includes NH 3 IC, N 2H 4-NH 3 IC and N 2H 4-LiOH (NaOH) IC, was prepared by the hydrothermal reaction of metallic Fe particles with (NH 4) 2S aqueous solution, S (elemental) + N 2H 4·H 2O aqueous solution, and S + N 2H 4·H 2O + LiOH (NaOH) aqueous solution, respectively. The third kind of ICs has a close relationship with the second kind of ICs both

  1. Preparation of functional layers for anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells by the reverse roll coating process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mücke, R.; Büchler, O.; Bram, M.; Leonide, A.; Ivers-Tiffée, E.; Buchkremer, H. P.

    The roll coating technique represents a novel method for applying functional layers to solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). This fast process is already used for mass production in other branches of industry and offers a high degree of automation. It was utilized for coating specially developed anode (NiO + 8YSZ, 8YSZ: 8 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia) and electrolyte (8YSZ) suspensions on green and pre-sintered tape-cast anode supports (NiO + 8YSZ). The layers formed were co-fired in a single step at 1400 °C for 5 h. As a result, the electrolyte exhibited a thickness of 14-18 μm and sufficient gas tightness. Complete cells with a screen-printed and sintered La 0.65Sr 0.3MnO 3- δ (LSM)/8YSZ cathode yielded a current density of 0.9-1.1 A cm -2 at 800 °C and 0.7 V, which is lower than the performance of non-co-fired slip-cast or screen-printed Jülich standard cells with thinner anode and electrolyte layers. The contribution of the cell components to the total area-specific resistance (ASR) was calculated by analyzing the distribution function of the relaxation times (DRTs) of measured electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) and indicates the potential improvement in the cell performance achievable by reducing the thickness of the roll-coated layers. The results show that the anode-supported planar half-cells can be fabricated cost-effectively by combining roll coating with subsequent co-firing.

  2. Multi-functional layered structure having structural and radiation shielding attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Raj K. (Inventor); Barghouty, Abdulnasser Fakhri (Inventor); Penn, Benjamin G. (Inventor); Hulcher, Anthony Bruce (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A cosmic and solar radiation shielding structure that also has structural attributes is comprised of three layers. The first layer is 30-42 percent by volume of ultra-high molecular weight (UHMW) polyethylene fibers, 18-30 percent by volume of graphite fibers, and a remaining percent by volume of an epoxy resin matrix. The second layer is approximately 68 percent by volume of UHMW polyethylene fibers and a remaining percent by volume of a polyethylene matrix. The third layer is a ceramic material.

  3. Optoelectronic device with nanoparticle embedded hole injection/transport layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingwu [Chelmsford, MA; Li, Wenguang [Andover, MA; Jiang, Hua [Methuen, MA

    2012-01-03

    An optoelectronic device is disclosed that can function as an emitter of optical radiation, such as a light-emitting diode (LED), or as a photovoltaic (PV) device that can be used to convert optical radiation into electrical current, such as a photovoltaic solar cell. The optoelectronic device comprises an anode, a hole injection/transport layer, an active layer, and a cathode, where the hole injection/transport layer includes transparent conductive nanoparticles in a hole transport material.

  4. Coated silicon comprising material for protection against environmental corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Brian Thomas (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with an embodiment of the invention, an article is disclosed. The article comprises a gas turbine engine component substrate comprising a silicon material; and an environmental barrier coating overlying the substrate, wherein the environmental barrier coating comprises cerium oxide, and the cerium oxide reduces formation of silicate glass on the substrate upon exposure to corrodant sulfates.

  5. Palladium catalyst system comprising zwitterion and/or acid-​functionalized ionic liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention concerns a catalyst system in particular a catalyst system comprising Palladium (Pd), a zwitterion and/or an acid-functionalized ionic liquid, and one or more phosphine ligands, wherein the Pd catalyst can be provided by a complex precursor, such as Pd(CH3COO)2, PdCI2, Pd(CH3...... methyl methacrylate and/or methacrylic acid. Catalyst systems according to the invention are suitable for reactions forming separable product and catalyst phases and supported ionic liquid phase SILP applications....

  6. Ball bearings comprising nickel-titanium and methods of manufacture thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher (Inventor); Glennon, Glenn N. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a friction reducing nickel-titanium composition. The nickel-titanium composition includes a first phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.45:0.55 to about 0.55:0.45; a second phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.70:0.30 to about 0.80:0.20; and a third phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.52:0.48 to about 0.62:0.38. A bearing for reducing friction comprising a nickel-titanium composition comprising a first phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.45:0.55 to about 0.55:0.45; a second phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.70:0.30 to about 0.80:0.20; and a third phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.52:0.48 to about 0.62:0.38; where the bearing is free from voids and pinholes.

  7. An Added Layer of Support: Introducing a Heterarchical Peer Mentoring Intervention to a Preservice Science Teacher Education Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neesemann, Lisa Ann

    In an effort to support preservice science teachers during their concurrent student teaching experiences and masters coursework, I created and implemented a Peer Mentoring Intervention to add an additional layer of support to those most traditionally curated. In this intervention, preservice secondary science teachers were paired into heterarchical (as contrasted with hierarchical) mentoring groups, instructed in norms of collaboration and given class time to work as dyads offering support and feedback to one another. During the three-semester span of the intervention data was collected in many forms, such as prompted journal entries, course assignments and semi-structured interviews. Qualitative findings are reported and the case study of one dyad is also presented. Findings included concerns and solutions regarding relating to the assigned peer, developing academic and organizational skills, navigating and learning to appreciate different layers of support, a deeper level of reflection, varying levels of commitment to social justice, and realized self-efficacy. Next steps include refining and implementing the program with a new cohort of students as well as following the participants as they move forward in their teaching careers as well as rethinking the role of mentorship to realize equality among members and challenge the traditionally established hierarchies in mentor relationships.

  8. Shear wave propagation in piezoelectric-piezoelectric composite layered structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu Mli Gaur

    Full Text Available The propagation behavior of shear wave in piezoelectric composite structure is investigated by two layer model presented in this approach. The composite structure comprises of piezoelectric layers of two different materials bonded alternatively. Dispersion equations are derived for propagation along the direction normal to the layering and in direction of layering. It has been revealed that thickness and elastic constants have significant influence on propagation behavior of shear wave. The phase velocity and wave number is numerically calculated for alternative layer of Polyvinylidene Difluoride (PVDF and Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT-5H in composite layered structure. The analysis carried out in this paper evaluates the effect of volume fraction on the phase velocity of shear wave.

  9. Nanostructured layers of thermoelectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, Jeffrey J.; Lynch, Jared; Coates, Nelson; Forster, Jason; Sahu, Ayaskanta; Chabinyc, Michael; Russ, Boris

    2018-01-30

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to thermoelectric materials. In one aspect, a method includes providing a plurality of nanostructures. The plurality of nanostructures comprise a thermoelectric material, with each nanostructure of the plurality of nanostructures having first ligands disposed on a surface of the nanostructure. The plurality of nanostructures is mixed with a solution containing second ligands and a ligand exchange process occurs in which the first ligands disposed on the plurality of nanostructures are replaced with the second ligands. The plurality of nanostructures is deposited on a substrate to form a layer. The layer is thermally annealed.

  10. Printhead and inkjet printer comprising such a printhead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a printhead comprising multiple substantially closed ink chambers (13), the ink chambers being mutually separated by at least one wall (12), wherein each of the chambers comprises an electro-mechanical converter (15), where actuation of the converter leads to a volume change

  11. Group-III nitride based high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with barrier/spacer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarkar, Prashant; Smorchkova, Ioulia P.; Keller, Stacia; Mishra, Umesh; Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw; Wu, Yifeng

    2005-02-01

    A Group III nitride based high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) is disclosed that provides improved high frequency performance. One embodiment of the HEMT comprises a GaN buffer layer, with an Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N (y=1 or y 1) layer on the GaN buffer layer. An Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N (0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5) barrier layer on to the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer, opposite the GaN buffer layer, Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer having a higher Al concentration than that of the Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N barrier layer. A preferred Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer has y=1 or y.about.1 and a preferred Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N barrier layer has 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. A 2DEG forms at the interface between the GaN buffer layer and the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer. Respective source, drain and gate contacts are formed on the Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N barrier layer. The HEMT can also comprising a substrate adjacent to the buffer layer, opposite the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y N layer and a nucleation layer between the Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N buffer layer and the substrate.

  12. Ionic liquids comprising heteraromatic anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, William F.; Brennecke, Joan F.; Maginn, Edward J.; Mindrup, Elaine; Gurkan, Burcu; Price, Erica; Goodrich, Brett

    2018-04-24

    Some embodiments described herein relate to ionic liquids comprising an anion of a heteraromatic compound such as optionally substituted pyrrolide, optionally substituted pyrazolide, optionally substituted indolide, optionally substituted phospholide, or optionally substituted imidazolide. Methods and devices for gas separation or gas absorption related to these ionic liquids are also described herein.

  13. Compositions, methods, and systems comprising fluorous-soluble polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swager, Timothy M.; Lim, Jeewoo; Takeda, Yohei

    2015-10-13

    The present invention generally relates to compositions, methods, and systems comprising polymers that are fluorous-soluble and/or organize at interfaces between a fluorous phase and a non-fluorous phase. In some embodiments, emulsions or films are provided comprising a polymer. The polymers, emulsions, and films can be used in many applications, including for determining, treating, and/or imaging a condition and/or disease in a subject. The polymer may also be incorporated into various optoelectronic device such as photovoltaic cells, organic light-emitting diodes, organic field effect transistors, or the like. In some embodiments, the polymers comprise pi-conjugated backbones, and in some cases, are highly emissive.

  14. Single Layered Versus Double Layered Intestinal Anastomosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Vandana; Singh, Surendra; Rath, Pratap Kumar; Behera, Tapas Ranjan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Gastrointestinal anastomosis is one of the most common procedures being performed in oesophagogastric, hepatobiliary, bariatric, small bowel and colorectal surgery; however, the safety and efficacy of single layer or double layer anastomotic technique is still unclear. Aim To assess and compare the efficacy, safety and cost effectiveness of single layered versus double layered intestinal anastomosis. Materials and Methods This prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled comparative study comprised of patients who underwent intestinal resection and anastomosis. They were randomly assigned to undergo either single layered extra-mucosal anastomosis (Group-A) or double layered intestinal anastomosis (Group-B). Primary outcome measures included average time taken for anastomosis, postoperative complications, mean duration of hospital stay and cost of suture material used; secondary outcome measures assessed the postoperative return of bowel function. Statistical analysis was done by Chi-square test and student t-test. Results A total of 97 participants were randomized. Fifty patients were allocated to single layered extramucosal continuous anastomosis (Group-A) and 47 patients to double layered anastomosis (Group-B). The patients in each group were well matched for age, sex and diagnosis. The mean time taken for anastomosis (15.12±2.27 minutes in Group-A versus 24.38±2.26 minutes in Group-B) and the length of hospital stay (5.90±1.43 days in Group-A versus 7.29±1.89 days in Group-B) was significantly shorter in Group-A {p-value anastomosis. However, there was no significant difference in the complication rates between the two groups. Conclusion It can be concluded that single layered extramucosal continuous intestinal anastomosis is equally safe and perhaps more cost effective than the conventional double layered method and may represent the optimal choice for routine surgical practice. PMID:28764239

  15. Antimalarial activity of compounds comprising a primary benzene sulfonamide fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Katherine T; Fisher, Gillian M; Sumanadasa, Subathdrage D M; Skinner-Adams, Tina; Moeker, Janina; Lopez, Marie; Poulsen, Sally-Ann

    2013-11-15

    Despite the urgent need for effective antimalarial drugs with novel modes of action no new chemical class of antimalarial drug has been approved for use since 1996. To address this, we have used a rational approach to investigate compounds comprising the primary benzene sulfonamide fragment as a potential new antimalarial chemotype. We report the in vitro activity against Plasmodium falciparum drug sensitive (3D7) and resistant (Dd2) parasites for a panel of fourteen primary benzene sulfonamide compounds. Our findings provide a platform to support the further evaluation of primary benzene sulfonamides as a new antimalarial chemotype, including the identification of the target of these compounds in the parasite. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of southern yellow pine bark layers by Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas L. Eberhardt

    2009-01-01

    The outer bark (rhytidome) of the southern yellow pines is a complex structure comprised of alternating layers of obliterated phloem and periderm tissues, with the latter comprised of three layers, those being phellem, phellogen, and phelloderm. An attenuated total reflectance (ATR) sampling accessory, coupled with a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer,...

  17. Planar ceramic membrane assembly and oxidation reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Dyer, legal representative, Kathryn Beverly; Wilson, Merrill Anderson; Ohm, Ted R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Peterson, David; Chen, Christopher M.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Dyer, deceased, Paul Nigel

    2007-10-09

    Planar ceramic membrane assembly comprising a dense layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material, wherein the dense layer has a first side and a second side, a porous layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material in contact with the first side of the dense layer, and a ceramic channeled support layer in contact with the second side of the dense layer. The planar ceramic membrane assembly can be used in a ceramic wafer assembly comprising a planar ceramic channeled support layer having a first side and a second side; a first dense layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the first side of the ceramic channeled support layer; a first outer support layer comprising porous mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material and having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the outer side of the first dense layer; a second dense layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the second side of the ceramic channeled layer; and a second outer support layer comprising porous mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material and having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the outer side of the second dense layer.

  18. Method of bonding a conductive layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Jeffrey C.; Singh, Prabhakar

    1989-01-01

    A dense, electronically conductive interconnection layer 26 is bonded onto a porous, tubular, electronically conductive air electrode structure 16, optionally supported by a ceramic support 22, by (A) providing an air electrode surface, (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface 24, without the use of pressure, particles of LaCrO.sub.3 doped with an element selected from the group consisting of Sr, Mg, Ca, Ba, Co, and mixtures thereof, where the particles have a deposit on their surface comprising calcium oxide and chromium oxide; (C) heating the particles with the oxide surface deposit in an oxidizing atmosphere at from 1,300.degree. C. to 1,550.degree. C., without the application of pressure, to provide a dense, sintered, interconnection material 26 bonded to the air electrode 16, where calcium and chromium from the surface deposit are incorporated into the structure of the LaCrO.sub.3. A solid electrolyte layer 18 can be applied to the uncovered portion of the air electrode, and a fuel electrode 20 can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to provide an electrochemical cell 10.

  19. Atomic layer deposited oxide films as protective interface layers for integrated graphene transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrero-Vilatela, A.; Alexander-Webber, J. A.; Sagade, A. A.; Aria, A. I.; Braeuninger-Weimer, P.; Martin, M.-B.; Weatherup, R. S.; Hofmann, S.

    2017-12-01

    The transfer of chemical vapour deposited graphene from its parent growth catalyst has become a bottleneck for many of its emerging applications. The sacrificial polymer layers that are typically deposited onto graphene for mechanical support during transfer are challenging to remove completely and hence leave graphene and subsequent device interfaces contaminated. Here, we report on the use of atomic layer deposited (ALD) oxide films as protective interface and support layers during graphene transfer. The method avoids any direct contact of the graphene with polymers and through the use of thicker ALD layers (≥100 nm), polymers can be eliminated from the transfer-process altogether. The ALD film can be kept as a functional device layer, facilitating integrated device manufacturing. We demonstrate back-gated field effect devices based on single-layer graphene transferred with a protective Al2O3 film onto SiO2 that show significantly reduced charge trap and residual carrier densities. We critically discuss the advantages and challenges of processing graphene/ALD bilayer structures.

  20. Nanoscale Cross-Point Resistive Switching Memory Comprising p-Type SnO Bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Hota, Mrinal Kanti

    2015-02-23

    Reproducible low-voltage bipolar resistive switching is reported in bilayer structures of p-type SnO films. Specifically, a bilayer homojunction comprising SnOx (oxygen-rich) and SnOy (oxygen-deficient) in nanoscale cross-point (300 × 300 nm2) architecture with self-compliance effect is demonstrated. By using two layers of SnO film, a good memory performance is obtained as compared to the individual oxide films. The memory devices show resistance ratio of 103 between the high resistance and low resistance states, and this difference can be maintained for up to 180 cycles. The devices also show good retention characteristics, where no significant degradation is observed for more than 103 s. Different charge transport mechanisms are found in both resistance states, depending on the applied voltage range and its polarity. The resistive switching is shown to originate from the oxygen ion migration and subsequent formation/rupture of conducting filaments.

  1. Stability study of cermet-supported solid oxide fuel cells with bi-layered electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xinge; Gazzarri, Javier; Robertson, Mark; Deces-Petit, Cyrille [National Research Council, Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, 4250 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Kesler, Olivera [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King' s College Road, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2008-12-01

    Performance and stability of five cermet-supported button-type solid oxide fuel cells featuring a bi-layered electrolyte (SSZ/SDC), an SSC cathode, and a Ni-SSZ anode, were analyzed using polarization curves, impedance spectroscopy, and post-mortem SEM observation. The cell performance degradation at 650 C in H{sub 2}/air both with and without DC bias conditions was manifested primarily as an increase in polarization resistance, approximately at a rate of 2.3 m{omega} cm{sup 2} h{sup -1} at OCV, suggesting a decrease in electrochemical kinetics as the main phenomenon responsible for the performance decay. In addition, the initial series resistance was about ten times higher than the calculated resistance corresponding to the electrolyte, reflecting a possible inter-reaction between the electrolyte layers that occurred during the sintering stage. In situ and ex situ sintered cathodes showed no obvious difference in cell performance or decay rate. The stability of the cells with and without electrical load was also investigated and no significant influence of DC bias was recorded. Based on the experimental results presented, we preliminarily attribute the performance degradation to electrochemical and microstructural degradation of the cathode. (author)

  2. Stability study of cermet-supported solid oxide fuel cells with bi-layered electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinge; Gazzarri, Javier; Robertson, Mark; Decès-Petit, Cyrille; Kesler, Olivera

    Performance and stability of five cermet-supported button-type solid oxide fuel cells featuring a bi-layered electrolyte (SSZ/SDC), an SSC cathode, and a Ni-SSZ anode, were analyzed using polarization curves, impedance spectroscopy, and post-mortem SEM observation. The cell performance degradation at 650 °C in H 2/air both with and without DC bias conditions was manifested primarily as an increase in polarization resistance, approximately at a rate of 2.3 mΩ cm 2 h -1 at OCV, suggesting a decrease in electrochemical kinetics as the main phenomenon responsible for the performance decay. In addition, the initial series resistance was about ten times higher than the calculated resistance corresponding to the electrolyte, reflecting a possible inter-reaction between the electrolyte layers that occurred during the sintering stage. In situ and ex situ sintered cathodes showed no obvious difference in cell performance or decay rate. The stability of the cells with and without electrical load was also investigated and no significant influence of DC bias was recorded. Based on the experimental results presented, we preliminarily attribute the performance degradation to electrochemical and microstructural degradation of the cathode.

  3. Conserved S-Layer-Associated Proteins Revealed by Exoproteomic Survey of S-Layer-Forming Lactobacilli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brant R.; Hymes, Jeffrey; Sanozky-Dawes, Rosemary; Henriksen, Emily DeCrescenzo

    2015-01-01

    The Lactobacillus acidophilus homology group comprises Gram-positive species that include L. acidophilus, L. helveticus, L. crispatus, L. amylovorus, L. gallinarum, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, L. gasseri, and L. johnsonii. While these bacteria are closely related, they have varied ecological lifestyles as dairy and food fermenters, allochthonous probiotics, or autochthonous commensals of the host gastrointestinal tract. Bacterial cell surface components play a critical role in the molecular dialogue between bacteria and interaction signaling with the intestinal mucosa. Notably, the L. acidophilus complex is distinguished in two clades by the presence or absence of S-layers, which are semiporous crystalline arrays of self-assembling proteinaceous subunits found as the outermost layer of the bacterial cell wall. In this study, S-layer-associated proteins (SLAPs) in the exoproteomes of various S-layer-forming Lactobacillus species were proteomically identified, genomically compared, and transcriptionally analyzed. Four gene regions encoding six putative SLAPs were conserved in the S-layer-forming Lactobacillus species but not identified in the extracts of the closely related progenitor, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, which does not produce an S-layer. Therefore, the presence or absence of an S-layer has a clear impact on the exoproteomic composition of Lactobacillus species. This proteomic complexity and differences in the cell surface properties between S-layer- and non-S-layer-forming lactobacilli reveal the potential for SLAPs to mediate intimate probiotic interactions and signaling with the host intestinal mucosa. PMID:26475115

  4. Layer-by-layer cell membrane assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matosevic, Sandro; Paegel, Brian M.

    2013-11-01

    Eukaryotic subcellular membrane systems, such as the nuclear envelope or endoplasmic reticulum, present a rich array of architecturally and compositionally complex supramolecular targets that are as yet inaccessible. Here we describe layer-by-layer phospholipid membrane assembly on microfluidic droplets, a route to structures with defined compositional asymmetry and lamellarity. Starting with phospholipid-stabilized water-in-oil droplets trapped in a static droplet array, lipid monolayer deposition proceeds as oil/water-phase boundaries pass over the droplets. Unilamellar vesicles assembled layer-by-layer support functional insertion both of purified and of in situ expressed membrane proteins. Synthesis and chemical probing of asymmetric unilamellar and double-bilayer vesicles demonstrate the programmability of both membrane lamellarity and lipid-leaflet composition during assembly. The immobilized vesicle arrays are a pragmatic experimental platform for biophysical studies of membranes and their associated proteins, particularly complexes that assemble and function in multilamellar contexts in vivo.

  5. Contextual Feedback to Superficial Layers of V1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muckli, Lars; De Martino, Federico; Vizioli, Luca; Petro, Lucy S; Smith, Fraser W; Ugurbil, Kamil; Goebel, R.; Yacoub, Essa

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal cortical circuitry comprises feedforward, lateral, and feedback projections, each of which terminates in distinct cortical layers [1-3]. In sensory systems, feedforward processing transmits signals from the external world into the cortex, whereas feedback pathways signal the brain's

  6. Monitoring layer-by-layer assembly of polyelectrolyte multi-layers using high-order cladding mode in long-period fiber gratings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tian, F.; Kaňka, Jiří; Li, X.; Du, H.

    -, č. 196 (2014), s. 475-479 ISSN 0925-4005 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11038 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Layer-by-layer assembly * Polyelectrolyte * Cladding mode Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 4.097, year: 2014

  7. A Layered Approach to Critical Friendship as a Means to Support Pedagogical Innovation in Pre-Service Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Tim; Ní Chróinín, Déirdre; O'Sullivan, Mary

    2016-01-01

    In this article we describe and interpret how two distinct layers of critical friendship were used to support a pedagogical innovation in pre-service teacher education. The innovation, "Learning about Meaningful Physical Education" (LAMPE), focuses on ways to teach future teachers to foster meaningful experiences for learners in physical…

  8. Modeling superhydrophobic surfaces comprised of random roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaha, M. A.; Tafreshi, H. Vahedi; Gad-El-Hak, M.

    2011-11-01

    We model the performance of superhydrophobic surfaces comprised of randomly distributed roughness that resembles natural surfaces, or those produced via random deposition of hydrophobic particles. Such a fabrication method is far less expensive than ordered-microstructured fabrication. The present numerical simulations are aimed at improving our understanding of the drag reduction effect and the stability of the air-water interface in terms of the microstructure parameters. For comparison and validation, we have also simulated the flow over superhydrophobic surfaces made up of aligned or staggered microposts for channel flows as well as streamwise or spanwise ridge configurations for pipe flows. The present results are compared with other theoretical and experimental studies. The numerical simulations indicate that the random distribution of surface roughness has a favorable effect on drag reduction, as long as the gas fraction is kept the same. The stability of the meniscus, however, is strongly influenced by the average spacing between the roughness peaks, which needs to be carefully examined before a surface can be recommended for fabrication. Financial support from DARPA, contract number W91CRB-10-1-0003, is acknowledged.

  9. Removal of impurity phases from electrochemical devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides a solid oxide cell comprising a support layer, a first electrode layer, an electrolyte layer, and a second cathode layer, wherein at least one of the electrode layers comprises electrolyte material, a catalyst and agglomerated particles selected from the group consi...

  10. Optoelectronic devices, low temperature preparation methods, and improved electron transport layers

    KAUST Repository

    Eita, Mohamed S.

    2016-08-04

    An optoelectronic device such as a photovoltaic device which has at least one layer, such as an electron transport layer, which comprises a plurality of alternating, oppositely charged layers including metal oxide layers. The metal oxide can be zinc oxide. The plurality of layers can be prepared by layer-by-layer processing in which alternating layers are built up step-by-step due to electrostatic attraction. The efficiency of the device can be increased by this processing method compared to a comparable method like sputtering. The number of layers can be controlled to improve device efficiency. Aqueous solutions can be used which is environmentally friendly. Annealing can be avoided. A quantum dot layer can be used next to the metal oxide layer to form a quantum dot heterojunction solar device.

  11. Rare earth zirconium oxide buffer layers on metal substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert K.; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chirayil, Thomas G.; Lee, Dominic F.; Goyal, Amit; Feenstra, Roeland

    2001-01-01

    A laminate article comprises a substrate and a biaxially textured (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer over the substrate, wherein 0layer can be deposited using sol-gel or metal-organic decomposition. The laminate article can include a layer of YBCO over the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer. A layer of CeO.sub.2 between the YBCO layer and the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer can also be include. Further included can be a layer of YSZ between the CeO.sub.2 layer and the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer. The substrate can be a biaxially textured metal, such as nickel. A method of forming the laminate article is also disclosed.

  12. Development of layered anode structures supported over Apatite-type Solid Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandis P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Apatite-type lanthanum silicates (ATLS materials have attracted interest in recent literature as solid electrolytes for SOFCs. The fabrication of an ATLS based fuel cell with the state-of-art electrodes (NiO/YSZ as anode and LSCF or LSM as cathode can show degradation after long operation hours due to Si diffusion mainly towards the anode. In this work, we report a “layer-by-layer anodic electrodes” fabrication by means of spin coating and physical spraying. The overall aim of this work is the successful fabrication of such a layered structure including suitable blocking layers towards the inhibition of Si interdiffusion from the apatite electrolyte to the anode. The results showed that the deposition of 3 layers of LFSO/GDC (3μm, NiO/GDC (4μm and the final NiO/YSZ anode layer provided a stable half-cell, with no solid state reaction occurring among the electrodes and no Si diffusion observed towards the anode after thermal treatment at 800°C for 120h.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of ceramic-supported and metal-supported membrane layers for the separation of CO{sub 2} in fossil-fuel power plants; Herstellung und Charakterisierung von keramik- und metallgestuetzten Membranschichten fuer die CO{sub 2}-Abtrennung in fossilen Kraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauler, Felix

    2010-07-01

    The separation of CO{sub 2} in fossil fuel power plants has become a very important issue due to the contribution of this greenhouse gas to global warming. Thin microporous membranes are promising candidates for separating CO{sub 2} from gas flow before being exhausted into the atmosphere. The membrane demands are good permeation and separation properties and high stability under operation conditions. Novel sol-gel derived materials composed of TiO{sub 2}/ZrO{sub 2} and stabilized SiO{sub 2} seem to be promising due to their good chemical stability and microporous character, especially for the separation of H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. Metallic substrates should be preferred as membrane support because they exhibit practical advantages combining good mechanical stability and the benefit of facilitated joining. The present thesis deals with the development of sol-gel derived microporous membrane layers on ceramic and metallic supports for the separation of CO{sub 2}. In this context, the optimized preparation of high-quality membranes with TiO{sub 2}/ZrO{sub 2} and Ni, Co, Zr, Ti doped SiO{sub 2} top layers is presented. These multilayered membranes consist of a graded pore structure to provide a smooth transition of the pore size from the support to the functional layer. Due to the good surface properties, the ceramic substrates only need one interlayer, whereas the rough metallic substrates exhibiting larger pores require a total of three interlayers to obtain an enhanced surface quality. On both types of supports, crack-free functional layers with a thickness below 100 nm were deposited by dip-coating. The unsupported and supported sol-gel materials used for the top layers were investigated in terms of structural properties by thermal analysis, sorption measurements, X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. Gas permeation tests with He, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} und N{sub 2} were carried out to determine the membrane performance with regard to permeation rates and

  14. Microstructural properties of non-supported microporous ceramic membrane top-layers obtained by the sol-gel process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, Rob; de Lange, R.S.A.; Hekkink, J.H.A.; Hekkink, J.H.A.; Keizer, Klaas; Burggraaf, Anthonie; Burggraaf, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    Dried and calcined non-supported membrane top-layers of SiO2, SiO2/TiO2, SiO2/ZrO2 (10, 20 and 30 mol% TiO2 and ZrO2, respectively) and SiO2/Al2O3 (10 mol% AlO1.5) were prepared using acid catalyzed hydrolysis and condensation of alkoxides in ethanol. The microstructure was determined using nitrogen

  15. Layer by Layer Composite Membranes of Alginate-Chitosan Crosslinked by Glutaraldehyde in Pervaporation Dehydration of Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Rokhati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydrophilicity of membrane causing only water can pass through membrane. Pervaporation process using organophilic membrane has been offered as alternative for ethanol dehydration. This paper investigate pervaporation based biopolymer composite membrane from alginate-chitosan using layer by layer method prepared by glutaraldehyde as crosslinking agent and polyethersulfone (PES as supported membrane. Characterization of crosslinked of composite membrane by FTIR helped in identification of sites for interaction between layers of membrane and support layer (PES. The SEM showed a multilayer structure and a distinct interface between the chitosan layer, the sodium alginate layer and the support layer. The coating sequence of membranes had an obvious influence on the pervaporation dehydration performance of membranes. For the dehydration of 95 wt% ethanol-water mixtures, a good performance of PES-chitosan-alginate-chitosan (PES/Chi/Alg/Chi composite membrane was found in the pervaporation dehydration of ethanol. Article History: Received April 12nd , 2016; Received in revised form June 25th , 2016; Accepted July 1st , 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Rokhati, N., Istirokhatun, T. and Samsudin, A.M. (2016 Layer by Layer Composite Membranes of Alginate-Chitosan Crosslinked by Glutaraldehyde in Pervaporation Dehydration of Ethanol. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(2, 101-106. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.2.101-106 

  16. Impact of rheological layering on rift asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquet, Yoann; Schmalholz, Stefan M.; Duretz, Thibault

    2015-04-01

    Although numerous models of rift formation have been proposed, what triggers asymmetry of rifted margins remains unclear. Parametrized material softening is often employed to induce asymmetric fault patterns in numerical models. Here, we use thermo-mechanical finite element models that allow softening via thermal weakening. We investigate the importance of lithosphere rheology and mechanical layering on rift morphology. The numerical code is based on the MILAMIN solver and uses the Triangle mesh generator. Our model configuration consists of a visco-elasto-platic layered lithosphere comprising either (1) only one brittle-ductile transition (in the mantle) or (2) three brittle-ductile transitions (one in the upper crust, one in the lower crust and one in the mantle). We perform then two sets of simulations characterized by low and high extensional strain rates (5*10-15 s-1, 2*10-14 s-1). The results show that the extension of a lithosphere comprising only one brittle-ductile transition produces a symmetric 'neck' type rift. The upper and lower crusts are thinned until the lithospheric mantle is exhumed to the seafloor. A lithosphere containing three brittle-ductile transitions favors strain localization. Shear zones at different horizontal locations and generated in the brittle levels of the lithosphere get connected by the weak ductile layers. The results suggest that rheological layering of the lithosphere can be a reason for the generation of asymmetric rifting and subsequent rift morphology.

  17. S-layer architectures : extending the morphogenetic potential of S-layer protein self-assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, D.

    2013-01-01

    Self-assembly of molecular building blocks is a common principle for bottom up based building principles in nature. One example are crystalline bacterial surface layers, termed S-layers, which are the most commonly observed cell surface structures in prokaryotic organisms. They recrystallize into highly ordered, porous protein meshworks with unit cell sizes of 3 to 30 nm and pore sizes of 2 to 8 nm. In this work, S-layers were self-assembled on various three dimensional scaffolds in order to fabricate novel S-layer architectures. Exploiting the stabilizing effect of silica deposited on the S-layer protein meshwork led to the construction of hollow S-layer nano-containers derived from coated liposomes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques and release experiments with fluorescent dyes confirmed the dissolution of the supporting lipids. Silica deposition on different spherical particles in solution, as well as on planar S-layer coated surfaces, could be monitored by measuring the ζ-potential, the decline of monosilicic acid in solution, by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis or by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). Both, ζ-potential and release experiments showed differences between silicified plain liposomes and silicified S-layer coated liposomes. In addition, nanocapsules with calcium carbonate cores served as another template for the construction of silica supported S-layer architectures. These were investigated by SEM and fluorescence microscopy after fluorescence labeling. Additional coating with polyelectrolytes increased the stability of the nanocapsules. Their mechanical properties were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The influence of silica deposition was investigated by AFM and SEM. Further on, emulsomes and gas filled lipid supported microbubbles may serve as other templates for the design of spherical protein constructs although extraction of the

  18. Dielectric electroactive polymers comprising an ionic supramolecular structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to an ionic interpenetrating polymer network comprising at least one elastomer and an ionic supramolecular structure comprising the reaction product of at least two chemical compounds wherein each of said compounds has at least two functional groups and wherein said ...... compounds are able to undergo Lewis acid-base reactions. The interpenetrating polymer network may be used as dielectric electroactive polymers (DEAPs) having a high dielectric permittivity....

  19. Film of lignocellulosic carbon material for self-supporting electrodes in electric double-layer capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsubasa Funabashi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel thin, wood-based carbon material with heterogeneous pores, film of lignocellulosic carbon material (FLCM, was successfully fabricated by carbonizing softwood samples of Picea jezoensis (Jezo spruce. Simultaneous increase in the specific surface area of FLCM and its affinity for electrolyte solvents in an electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC were achieved by the vacuum ultraviolet/ozone (VUV/O3 treatment. This treatment increased the specific surface area of FLCM by 50% over that of original FLCM. The results obtained in this study confirmed that FLCM is an appropriate self-supporting EDLC electrode material without any warps and cracks.

  20. Two-Dimensional Layered Double Hydroxide Derived from Vermiculite Waste Water Supported Highly Dispersed Ni Nanoparticles for CO Methanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panpan Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Expanded multilayered vermiculite (VMT was successfully used as catalyst support and Ni/VMT synthesized by microwave irradiation assisted synthesis (MIAS exhibited excellent performance in our previous work. We also developed a two-dimensional porous SiO2 nanomesh (2D VMT-SiO2 by mixed-acid etching of VMT. Compared with three-dimensional (3D MCM-41, 2D VMT-SiO2 as a catalyst support provided a superior position for implantation of NiO species and the as-obtained catalyst exhibited excellent performance. In this paper, we successfully synthesized a layered double hydroxide (LDH using the spent liquor after mixed-acid etching of VMT, which mainly contained Mg2+ and Al3+. The as-calcined layered double oxide (LDO was used as a catalyst support for CO methanation. Compared with Ni/MgAl-LDO, Ni/VMT-LDO had smaller active component particles; therefore, in this study, it exhibited excellent catalytic performance over the whole temperature range of 250–500 °C. Ni/VMT-LDO achieved the best activity with 87.88% CO conversion, 89.97% CH4 selectivity, and 12.47 × 10−2·s−1 turn over frequency (TOF at 400 °C under a gas hourly space velocity of 20,000 mL/g/h. This study demonstrated that VMT-LDO as a catalyst support provided an efficient way to develop high-performance catalysts for synthetic natural gas (SNG from syngas.

  1. An estimate of the second law thermodynamic efficiency of the various units comprising an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sharmista; Seagrave, Richard C.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present an estimate of the second law thermodynamic efficiency of the various units comprising an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). The technique adopted here is based on an evaluation of the 'lost work' within each functional unit of the subsystem. Pertinent information for our analysis is obtained from a user interactive integrated model of an ECLSS. The model was developed using ASPEN. A potential benefit of this analysis is the identification of subsystems with high entropy generation as the most likely candidates for engineering improvements. This work has been motivated by the fact that the design objective for a long term mission should be the evaluation of existing ECLSS technologies not only the basis of the quantity of work needed for or obtained from each subsystem but also on the quality of work. In a previous study Brandhorst showed that the power consumption for partially closed and completely closed regenerable life support systems was estimated as 3.5 kw/individual and 10-12 kw/individual respectively. With the increasing cost and scarcity of energy resources, our attention is drawn to evaluate the existing ECLSS technologies on the basis of their energy efficiency. In general the first law efficiency of a system is usually greater than 50 percent. From literature, the second law efficiency is usually about 10 percent. The estimation of second law efficiency of the system indicates the percentage of energy degraded as irreversibilities within the process. This estimate offers more room for improvement in the design of equipment. From another perspective, our objective is to keep the total entropy production of a life support system as low as possible and still ensure a positive entropy gradient between the system and the surroundings. The reason for doing so is as the entropy production of the system increases, the entropy gradient between the system and the surroundings decreases, and the

  2. Topography and surface free energy of DPPC layers deposited on a glass, mica, or PMMA support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurak, Malgorzata; Chibowski, Emil

    2006-08-15

    An investigation of energetic properties of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) layers deposited on glass, mica, and PMMA (poly(methyl methacrylate)) surfaces was carried out by means of contact angles measurements (advancing and receding) for three probe liquids (diiodomethane, water, and formamide). DPPC was deposited on the surfaces from water (on glass and mica) or methanol (on PMMA) solutions. The topography of the tested surfaces was determined with a help of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Using the measured contact angles, the total apparent surface free energy and its components of the studied layers were determined from van Oss et al.'s (Lifshitz-van der Waals and acid-base components, LWAB) and contact angle hysteresis (CAH) approaches. It allowed us to learn about changes in the surface free energy of the layers (hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity) depending on their number and kind of support. It was found that the changes in the energy greatly depended on the surface properties of the substrate as well as the statistical number of monolayers of DPPC. However, principal changes took place for first three monolayers.

  3. Micro-patterning of self-supporting layers with conducting polymer wires for 3D-chip interconnection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, J.; Videlot, C.; Nguyen, T.N.; Wang, L.; Sarro, P.M.; Crawley, D.; Nikolic, K.; Forshaw, M.

    2003-01-01

    Highly conducting polymers have attracted much interest because of their potential applications in sensors and electronic devices. By the use of templates like porous membranes during polymerization conducting molecular wires can be formed with highly anisotropic properties which can be used as interconnecting layers in a three-dimensional (3D)-chip stacking. We focussed on two electrochemical polymerization (ECP) techniques to produce molecular wires based on polypyrrole (PPy) embedded in isolating porous polycarbonate membranes as self-supporting layers. The growth of the polymer through the membrane pores was investigated in order to achieve a good conductivity through the pores, but with a small cross-talk between them. A new polymerization technique based on a structured cathode has been developed in order to control the polymerization locally. By that technique micro-patterned membranes with separated conducting polymer wires could be produced

  4. Multi-layered hierarchical nanostructures for transparent monolithic dye-sensitized solar cell architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passoni, Luca; Fumagalli, Francesco; Perego, Andrea; Bellani, Sebastiano; Mazzolini, Piero; Di Fonzo, Fabio

    2017-06-01

    Monolithic dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) architectures hold great potential for building-integrated photovoltaics applications. They indeed benefit from lower weight and manufacturing costs as they avoid the use of a transparent conductive oxide (TCO)-coated glass counter electrode. In this work, a transparent monolithic DSC comprising a hierarchical 1D nanostructure stack is fabricated by physical vapor deposition techniques. The proof of concept device comprises hyperbranched TiO2 nanostructures, sensitized by the prototypical N719, as photoanode, a hierarchical nanoporous Al2O3 spacer, and a microporous indium tin oxide (ITO) top electrode. An overall 3.12% power conversion efficiency with 60% transmittance outside the dye absorption spectral window is demonstrated. The introduction of a porous TCO layer allows an efficient trade-off between transparency and power conversion. The porous ITO exhibits submicrometer voids and supports annealing temperatures above 400 °C without compromising its optoelectronical properties. After thermal annealing at 500 °C, the resistivity, mobility, and carrier concentration of the 800 nm-thick porous ITO layer are found to be respectively 2.3 × 10-3 Ω cm-1, 11 cm2 V-1 s-1, and 1.62 × 1020 cm-3, resulting in a series resistance in the complete device architecture of 45 Ω. Electrochemical impedance and intensity-modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy give insight into the electronic charge dynamic within the hierarchical monolithic DSCs, paving the way for potential device architecture improvements.

  5. Confined methane-water interfacial layers and thickness measurements using in situ Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Bruno; Liu, Yukun; Rizkin, Benjamin; Hartman, Ryan L

    2017-11-07

    Gas-liquid interfaces broadly impact our planet, yet confined interfaces behave differently than unconfined ones. We report the role of tangential fluid motion in confined methane-water interfaces. The interfaces are created using microfluidics and investigated by in situ 1D, 2D and 3D Raman spectroscopy. The apparent CH 4 and H 2 O concentrations are reported for Reynolds numbers (Re), ranging from 0.17 to 8.55. Remarkably, the interfaces are comprised of distinct layers of thicknesses varying from 23 to 57 μm. We found that rarefaction, mixture, thin film, and shockwave layers together form the interfaces. The results indicate that the mixture layer thickness (δ) increases with Re (δ ∝ Re), and traditional transport theory for unconfined interfaces does not explain the confined interfaces. A comparison of our results with thin film theory of air-water interfaces (from mass transfer experiments in capillary microfluidics) supports that the hydrophobicity of CH 4 could decrease the strength of water-water interactions, resulting in larger interfacial thicknesses. Our findings help explain molecular transport in confined gas-liquid interfaces, which are common in a broad range of societal applications.

  6. AFFORDABLE MULTI-LAYER CERAMIC (MLC) MANUFACTURING FOR POWER SYSTEMS (AMPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.A. Barringer, Ph.D.

    2002-11-27

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is attempting to develop high-performance, cost-competitive solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power systems. Recognizing the challenges and limitations facing the development of SOFC stacks comprised of electrode-supported cells and metallic interconnects, McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) has chosen to pursue an alternate path to commercialization. MTI is developing a multi-layer, co-fired, planar SOFC stack that will provide superior performance and reliability at reduced costs relative to competing designs. The MTI approach combines state-of-the-art SOFC materials with the manufacturing technology and infrastructure established for multi-layer ceramic (MLC) packages for the microelectronics industry. The rationale for using MLC packaging technology is that high quality, low-cost manufacturing has been demonstrated at high volumes. With the proper selection of SOFC materials, implementation of MLC fabrication methods offers unique designs for stacks (cells and interconnects) that are not possible through traditional fabrication methods. The MTI approach eliminates use of metal interconnects and ceramic-metal seals, which are primary sources of stack performance degradation. Co-fired cells are less susceptible to thermal cycling stresses by using material compositions that have closely matched coefficients of thermal expansion between the cell and the interconnect. The development of this SOFC stack technology was initiated in October 1999 under the DOE cosponsored program entitled ''Affordable Multi-layer Ceramic Manufacturing for Power Systems (AMPS)''. The AMPS Program was conducted as a two-phase program: Phase I--Feasibility Assessment (10/99--9/00); and Phase II--Process Development for Co-fired Stacks (10/00-3/02). This report provides a summary of the results from Phase I and a more detailed review of the results for Phase II. Phase I demonstrated the feasibility for fabricating multi-layer, co-fired cells and

  7. Secretory IgA is Concentrated in the Outer Layer of Colonic Mucus along with Gut Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric W. Rogier

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies of the secretory IgA (SIgA class comprise the first line of antigen-specific immune defense, preventing access of commensal and pathogenic microorganisms and their secreted products into the body proper. In addition to preventing infection, SIgA shapes the composition of the gut microbiome. SIgA is transported across intestinal epithelial cells into gut secretions by the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR. The epithelial surface is protected by a thick network of mucus, which is composed of a dense, sterile inner layer and a loose outer layer that is colonized by commensal bacteria. Immunofluorescence microscopy of mouse and human colon tissues demonstrated that the SIgA co-localizes with gut bacteria in the outer mucus layer. Using mice genetically deficient for pIgR and/or mucin-2 (Muc2, the major glycoprotein of intestinal mucus, we found that Muc2 but not SIgA was necessary for excluding gut bacteria from the inner mucus layer in the colon. Our findings support a model whereby SIgA is anchored in the outer layer of colonic mucus through combined interactions with mucin proteins and gut bacteria, thus providing immune protection against pathogens while maintaining a mutually beneficial relationship with commensals.

  8. A Cross-Layer Duty Cycle MAC Protocol Supporting a Pipeline Feature for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Chon Kim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the conventional duty cycle MAC protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs such as RMAC perform well in terms of saving energy and reducing end-to-end delivery latency, they were designed independently and require an extra routing protocol in the network layer to provide path information for the MAC layer. In this paper, we propose a new cross-layer duty cycle MAC protocol with data forwarding supporting a pipeline feature (P-MAC for WSNs. P-MAC first divides the whole network into many grades around the sink. Each node identifies its grade according to its logical hop distance to the sink and simultaneously establishes a sleep/wakeup schedule using the grade information. Those nodes in the same grade keep the same schedule, which is staggered with the schedule of the nodes in the adjacent grade. Then a variation of the RTS/CTS handshake mechanism is used to forward data continuously in a pipeline fashion from the higher grade to the lower grade nodes and finally to the sink. No extra routing overhead is needed, thus increasing the network scalability while maintaining the superiority of duty-cycling. The simulation results in OPNET show that P-MAC has better performance than S-MAC and RMAC in terms of packet delivery latency and energy efficiency.

  9. In vitro comparison of fracture load of implant-supported, zirconia-based, porcelain- and composite-layered restorations after artificial aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komine, Futoshi; Taguchi, Kohei; Fushiki, Ryosuke; Kamio, Shingo; Iwasaki, Taro; Matsumura, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated fracture load of single-tooth, implant-supported, zirconia-based, porcelain- and indirect composite-layered restorations after artificial aging. Forty-four zirconia-based molar restorations were fabricated on implant abutments and divided into four groups, namely, zirconia-based all-ceramic restorations (ZAC group) and three types of zirconia-based composite-layered restorations (ZIC-P, ZIC-E, and ZIC groups). Before layering an indirect composite material, the zirconia copings in the ZIC-P and ZIC-E groups were primed with Clearfil Photo Bond and Estenia Opaque Primer, respectively. All restorations were cemented on the abutments with glass-ionomer cement and then subjected to thermal cycling and cyclic loading. All specimens survived thermal cycling and cyclic loading. The fracture load of the ZIC-P group (2.72 kN) was not significantly different from that of the ZAC group (3.05 kN). The fracture load of the zirconia-based composite-layered restoration primed with Clearfil Photo Bond (ZIC-P) was comparable to that of the zirconia-based all-ceramic restoration (ZAC) after artificial aging.

  10. Synthesis of Functional Ceramic Supports by Ice Templating and Atomic Layer Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Klotz

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report an innovative route for the manufacturing of functional ceramic supports, by combining ice templating of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ and atomic layer deposition (ALD of Al2O3 processes. Ceramic YSZ monoliths are prepared using the ice-templating process, which is based on the controlled crystallization of water following a thermal gradient. Sublimation of the ice and the sintering of the material reveal the straight micrometer sized pores shaped by the ice crystal growth. The high temperature sintering allows for the ceramic materials to present excellent mechanical strength and porosities of 67%. Next, the conformality benefit of ALD is used to deposit an alumina coating at the surface of the YSZ pores, in order to obtain a functional material. The Al2O3 thin films obtained by ALD are 100 nm thick and conformally deposited within the macroporous ceramic supports, as shown by SEM and EDS analysis. Mercury intrusion experiments revealed a reduction of the entrance pore diameter, in line with the growth per cycle of 2 Å of the ALD process. In addition to the manufacture of the innovative ceramic nanomaterials, this article also describes the fine characterization of the coatings obtained using mercury intrusion, SEM and XRD analysis.

  11. Influence of Electrode Design and Contacting Layers on Performance of Electrolyte Supported SOFC/SOEC Single Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihails Kusnezoff

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The solid oxide cell is a basis for highly efficient and reversible electrochemical energy conversion. A single cell based on a planar electrolyte substrate as support (ESC is often utilized for SOFC/SOEC stack manufacturing and fulfills necessary requirements for application in small, medium and large scale fuel cell and electrolysis systems. Thickness of the electrolyte substrate, and its ionic conductivity limits the power density of the ESC. To improve the performance of this cell type in SOFC/SOEC mode, alternative fuel electrodes, on the basis of Ni/CGO as well as electrolytes with reduced thickness, have been applied. Furthermore, different interlayers on the air side have been tested to avoid the electrode delamination and to reduce the cell degradation in electrolysis mode. Finally, the influence of the contacting layer on cell performance, especially for cells with an ultrathin electrolyte and thin electrode layers, has been investigated. It has been found that Ni/CGO outperform traditional Ni/8YSZ electrodes and the introduction of a ScSZ interlayer substantially reduces the degradation rate of ESC in electrolysis mode. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that, for thin electrodes, the application of contacting layers with good conductivity and adhesion to current collectors improves performance significantly.

  12. Influence of Electrode Design and Contacting Layers on Performance of Electrolyte Supported SOFC/SOEC Single Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusnezoff, Mihails; Trofimenko, Nikolai; Müller, Martin; Michaelis, Alexander

    2016-11-08

    The solid oxide cell is a basis for highly efficient and reversible electrochemical energy conversion. A single cell based on a planar electrolyte substrate as support (ESC) is often utilized for SOFC/SOEC stack manufacturing and fulfills necessary requirements for application in small, medium and large scale fuel cell and electrolysis systems. Thickness of the electrolyte substrate, and its ionic conductivity limits the power density of the ESC. To improve the performance of this cell type in SOFC/SOEC mode, alternative fuel electrodes, on the basis of Ni/CGO as well as electrolytes with reduced thickness, have been applied. Furthermore, different interlayers on the air side have been tested to avoid the electrode delamination and to reduce the cell degradation in electrolysis mode. Finally, the influence of the contacting layer on cell performance, especially for cells with an ultrathin electrolyte and thin electrode layers, has been investigated. It has been found that Ni/CGO outperform traditional Ni/8YSZ electrodes and the introduction of a ScSZ interlayer substantially reduces the degradation rate of ESC in electrolysis mode. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that, for thin electrodes, the application of contacting layers with good conductivity and adhesion to current collectors improves performance significantly.

  13. Electrical investigations of layer-by-layer films of carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palumbo, M; Lee, K U; Ahn, B T; Suri, A; Coleman, K S; Zeze, D; Wood, D; Pearson, C; Petty, M C

    2006-01-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with anionic or cationic coatings have been prepared by exploiting the ability of certain surfactants to form a monolayer shell around the nanotube. The presence of electrically charged functional groups on the surface of the SWNT allows thin film deposition to proceed via the electrostatic layer-by-layer method. This self-assembly process was monitored using the quartz microbalance technique and Raman spectroscopy, while the morphology of the resulting thin layers was studied with atomic force microscopy. A variety of different architectures has been built up. In one arrangement, a single species of a modified SWNT (anionic or cationic) was alternated with a passive polymer to form a composite structure. A 'superlattice' architecture comprising alternating anionic and cationic modified nanotubes was also fabricated. The in-plane and out-of-plane dc conductivities of the films were measured at room temperature and contrasted with reference architectures (i.e. those containing no nanotubes). The results showed clearly that the incorporation of SWNTs into the multilayer assemblies provided electrically conductive thin films. It is suggested that the current versus voltage behaviour, particularly in the out-of-plane direction, is controlled by quantum mechanical tunnelling of carriers between the nanotubes

  14. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lineage 4 comprises globally distributed and geographically restricted sublineages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscolla, Mireia; Liu, Qingyun; Trauner, Andrej; Fenner, Lukas; Rutaihwa, Liliana; Borrell, Sonia; Luo, Tao; Gao, Qian; Kato-Maeda, Midori; Ballif, Marie; Egger, Matthias; Macedo, Rita; Mardassi, Helmi; Moreno, Milagros; Tudo Vilanova, Griselda; Fyfe, Janet; Globan, Maria; Thomas, Jackson; Jamieson, Frances; Guthrie, Jennifer L.; Asante-Poku, Adwoa; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Wampande, Eddie; Ssengooba, Willy; Joloba, Moses; Henry Boom, W.; Basu, Indira; Bower, James; Saraiva, Margarida; Vaconcellos, Sidra E. G.; Suffys, Philip; Koch, Anastasia; Wilkinson, Robert; Gail-Bekker, Linda; Malla, Bijaya; Ley, Serej D.; Beck, Hans-Peter; de Jong, Bouke C.; Toit, Kadri; Sanchez-Padilla, Elisabeth; Bonnet, Maryline; Gil-Brusola, Ana; Frank, Matthias; Penlap Beng, Veronique N.; Eisenach, Kathleen; Alani, Issam; Wangui Ndung’u, Perpetual; Revathi, Gunturu; Gehre, Florian; Akter, Suriya; Ntoumi, Francine; Stewart-Isherwood, Lynsey; Ntinginya, Nyanda E.; Rachow, Andrea; Hoelscher, Michael; Cirillo, Daniela Maria; Skenders, Girts; Hoffner, Sven; Bakonyte, Daiva; Stakenas, Petras; Diel, Roland; Crudu, Valeriu; Moldovan, Olga; Al-Hajoj, Sahal; Otero, Larissa; Barletta, Francesca; Jane Carter, E.; Diero, Lameck; Supply, Philip; Comas, Iñaki; Niemann, Stefan; Gagneux, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    Generalist and specialist species differ in the breadth of their ecological niche. Little is known about the niche width of obligate human pathogens. Here we analyzed a global collection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lineage 4 clinical isolates, the most geographically widespread cause of human tuberculosis. We show that Lineage 4 comprises globally distributed and geographically restricted sublineages, suggesting a distinction between generalists and specialists. Population genomic analyses showed that while the majority of human T cell epitopes were conserved in all sublineages, the proportion of variable epitopes was higher in generalists. Our data further support a European origin for the most common generalist sublineage. Hence, the global success of Lineage 4 reflects distinct strategies adopted by different sublineages and the influence of human migration. PMID:27798628

  15. A method for making a glass supported system, such glass supported system, and the use of a glass support therefor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unnikrishnan, S.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Fazal, I.; Louwerse, M.C.; Mogulkoc, B.; Sanders, Remco G.P.; de Boer, Meint J.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for making a glass supported micro or nano system, comprising the steps of: i) providing a glass support; ii) mounting at least one system on at least one glass support; and iii) bonding the system to the glass support, such that the system is circumferentially

  16. Migration of TCP Connections with Layer-2 Support in Wireless Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, H.G.P.; Cortes, Mauricio; Janiszewski, Tom J.; McKie, Jim B.; Mullender, Sape J.; Rajkumar, Ajay; Recchione, Michael C.; Rossetti, David A.; Turner, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Example embodiments provide methods of transparently migrating a reliable transport layer connection between a user and a first base station and a second base station in a wireless network. The method includes receiving at least one transport layer connection state information parameter from the

  17. III-V group compound semiconductor light-emitting element having a doped tantalum barrier layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oanna, Y.; Ozawa, N.; Yamashita, M.; Yasuda, N.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a III-V Group compound semiconductor light-emitting element having a III-V Group compound semiconductor body with a p-n junction and including a p-type layer involved in forming the p-n junction; and a multi-layer electrode mounted on the p-type layer of the semiconductor body. The electrode comprises a first layer of gold alloy containing a small amount of beryllium or zinc and formed in direct contact with the p-type layer of the semiconductor body and an uppermost layer formed of gold or aluminum. A tantalum layer doped with carbon, nitrogen and/or oxygen is formed between the first layer and the uppermost layer by means of vacuum vapor deposition

  18. Wettability of modified silica layers deposited on glass support activated by plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terpiłowski, Konrad, E-mail: terpil@umcs.pl [Department of Physical Chemistry – Interfacial Phenomena, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Lublin (Poland); Rymuszka, Diana [Department of Physical Chemistry – Interfacial Phenomena, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Lublin (Poland); Goncharuk, Olena V.; Sulym, Iryna Ya.; Gun’ko, Vladimir M. [Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • New modified silica materials synthesis. • Support surface plasma activation. • Apparent surface free energy determination. • Equilibrium contact angle calculation. - Abstract: Fumed silica modified by hexamethyldisilazane [HDMS] and polydimethylsiloxane [PDMS] was dispersed in a polystyrene/chloroform solution. To increase adhesion between deposited silica layers and a glass surface, the latter was pretreated with air plasma for 30 s. The silica/polystyrene dispersion was deposited on the glass support using a spin coater. After deposition, the plates were dried in a desiccator for 24 h. Water advancing and receding contact angles were measured using the tilted plate method. The apparent surface free energy (γ{sub S}) was evaluated using the contact angle hysteresis approach. The surface topography was determined using the optical profilometry method. Contact angles changed from 59.7° ± 4.4 (at surface coverage with trimethylsilyl groups Θ = 0.14) to 155° ± 3.1 at Θ = 1. The value of γ{sub S} decreased from 51.3 ± 2.8 mJ/m{sup 2} (for the sample at the lowest value of Θ) to 1.0 ± 0.4 mJ/m{sup 2} for the most hydrophobic sample. Thus, some systems with a high degree of modification by HDMS showed superhydrophobicity, and the sliding angle amounted to about 16° ± 2.1.

  19. Synthesis of Poly(3,4-Ethylenedioxy thiophene)-Poly(Styrene-4-Sulfonate) Composites for Support Fuel Cell Catalyst Layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eko Sulistiyono; Murni Handayani

    2009-01-01

    Synthesis of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene)-poly(styrene-4-sulfonate) composites for support fuel cell catalyst layer are synthesis composites which become fuel cell catalyst support so that catalyst has optimal performance. Main function of composites is support platinum particle for application in fuel cell. This article explains the result of composites production process from ( 3,4 Ethylenedioxy thiophene) and Sodium poly( styrene - 4-sulfonate) using two methods Jingning Shan method (method 1) and Zhigang Qi and Peter G.Pickup method (method 2). Analysis of the synthesis results used Scanning Electron Microscopic –Electron Dispersive X – Ray Spectrophotometer (SEM-EDS ). The analysis result show that both methods produce polymer agglomerate into a sponge-like morphology. Composite from method 1 has morphology, pores and proton transport better than composite produced by method 2. (author)

  20. Thin layer activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweickert, H.; Fehsenfeld, P.

    1995-01-01

    The reliability of industrial equip ment is substantially influenced by wear and corrosion; monitoring can prevent accidents and avoid down-time. One powerful tool is thin layer activation analysis (TLA) using accelerator systems. The information is used to improve mechanical design and material usage; the technology is used by many large companies, particularly in the automotive industry, e.g. Daimler Benz. A critical area of a machine component receives a thin layer of radioactivity by irradiation with charged particles from an accelerator - usually a cyclotron. The radioactivity can be made homogeneous by suitable selection of particle, beam energy and angle of incidence. Layer thickness can be varied from 20 microns to around 1 mm with different depth distributions; the position and size of the wear zone can be set to within 0.1 mm. The machine is then reassembled and operated so that wear can be measured. An example is a combustion engine comprising piston ring, cylinder wall, cooling water jacket and housing wall, where wear measurements on the cylinder wall are required in a critical zone around the dead-point of the piston ring. Proton beam bombardment creates a radioactive layer whose thickness is known accurately, and characteristic gamma radiation from this radioactive zone penetrates through the engine and is detected externally. Measurements can be made either of the activity removed from the surface, or of the (reduced) residual activity; wear measurement of the order of 10 -9 metres is possible

  1. Block copolymer/homopolymer dual-layer hollow fiber membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Hilke, Roland

    2014-12-01

    We manufactured the first time block copolymer dual-layer hollow fiber membranes and dual layer flat sheet membranes manufactured by double solution casting and phase inversion in water. The support porous layer was based on polystyrene and the selective layer with isopores was formed by micelle assembly of polystyrene-. b-poly-4-vinyl pyridine. The dual layers had an excellent interfacial adhesion and pore interconnectivity. The dual membranes showed pH response behavior like single layer block copolymer membranes with a low flux for pH values less than 3, a fast increase between pH4 and pH6 and a constant high flux level for pH values above 7. The dry/wet spinning process was optimized to produce dual layer hollow fiber membranes with polystyrene internal support layer and a shell block copolymer selective layer.

  2. Burst-Switched Optical Networks Supporting Legacy and Future Service Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Franzl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the principles and the paradigm of OBS an overview addressing expectable performance and application issues is presented. Proposals on OBS were published over a decade and the presented techniques spread into many directions. The paper comprises discussions of several challenges that OBS meets, in order to compile the big picture. The OBS principle is presented unrestricted to individual proposals and trends. Merits are openly discussed, considering basic teletraffic theory and common traffic characterisation. A more generic OBS paradigm than usual is impartially discussed and found capable to overcome shortcomings of recent proposals. In conclusion, an OBS that offers different connection types may support most client demands within a sole optical network layer.

  3. Palladium catalyst system comprising zwitterion and/or acid-functionalized ionic liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention concerns a catalyst system in particular a catalyst system comprising Palladium (Pd), a zwitterion and/or an acid-functionalized ionic liquid, and one or more phosphine ligands, wherein the Pd catalyst can be provided by a complex precursor, such as Pd(CH3COO)2, PdCI2, Pd(CH3......COCHCOCH3), Pd (CF3COO)2, Pd(PPh3)4 or Pd2(dibenzylideneacetone)3. Such catalyst systems can be used for e.g. alkoxycarbonylation reactions, carboxylation reactions, and/or in a co-polymerization reaction, e.g. in the production of methyl propionate and/or propanoic acid, optionally in processes forming...... methyl methacrylate and/or methacrylic acid. Catalyst systems according to the invention are suitable for reactions forming separable product and catalyst phases and supported ionic liquid phase SILP applications....

  4. Composition comprising lignin and antidi arrheal component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising lignin and at least one compound selected from the group consisting of bromelain, papain, tannin, carvacrol, thymol, alliin, allicin, fenugreek seed, egg, poppy, poppy seeds, humic acid, roots, kaolin, catechu, cellulase, flavonoid...

  5. The structure of the S-layer of Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, William J; Roberts, April K; Shone, Clifford C; Acharya, K Ravi

    2018-03-01

    The nosocomially acquired pathogen Clostridium difficile is the primary causative agent of antibiotic associated diarrhoea and causes tens of thousands of deaths globally each year. C. difficile presents a paracrystalline protein array on the surface of the cell known as an S-layer. S-layers have been demonstrated to possess a wide range of important functions, which, combined with their inherent accessibility, makes them a promising drug target. The unusually complex S-layer of C. difficile is primarily comprised of the high- and low- molecular weight S-layer proteins, HMW SLP and LMW SLP, formed from the cleavage of the S-layer precursor protein, SlpA, but may also contain up to 28 SlpA paralogues. A model of how the S-layer functions as a whole is required if it is to be exploited in fighting the bacterium. Here, we provide a summary of what is known about the S-layer of C. difficile and each of the paralogues and, considering some of the domains present, suggest potential roles for them.

  6. Self-Healing Textile: Enzyme Encapsulated Layer-by-Layer Structural Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddes, David; Jung, Huihun; Pena-Francesch, Abdon; Dion, Genevieve; Tadigadapa, Srinivas; Dressick, Walter J; Demirel, Melik C

    2016-08-10

    Self-healing materials, which enable an autonomous repair response to damage, are highly desirable for the long-term reliability of woven or nonwoven textiles. Polyelectrolyte layer-by-layer (LbL) films are of considerable interest as self-healing coatings due to the mobility of the components comprising the film. In this work mechanically stable self-healing films were fabricated through construction of a polyelectrolyte LbL film containing squid ring teeth (SRT) proteins. SRTs are structural proteins with unique self-healing properties and high elastic modulus in both dry and wet conditions (>2 GPa) due to their semicrystalline architecture. We demonstrate LbL construction of multilayers containing native and recombinant SRT proteins capable of self-healing defects. Additionally, we show these films are capable of utilizing functional biomolecules by incorporating an enzyme into the SRT multilayer. Urease was chosen as a model enzyme of interest to test its activity via fluorescence assay. Successful construction of the SRT films demonstrates the use of mechanically stable self-healing coatings, which can incorporate biomolecules for more complex protective functionalities for advanced functional fabrics.

  7. Method for the manufacture of a thin-layer battery stack on a three-dimensional substrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for the manufacture of a thin-layer battery stack on a three-dimensional substrate. The invention further relates to a thin-layer battery stack on a three-dimensional substrate obtainable by such a method. Moreover, the invention relates to a device comprising such

  8. Energy-enhanced atomic layer deposition : offering more processing freedom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potts, S.E.; Kessels, W.M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a popular deposition technique comprising two or more sequential, self-limiting surface reactions, which make up an ALD cycle. Energy-enhanced ALD is an evolution of traditional thermal ALD methods, whereby energy is supplied to a gas in situ in order to convert a

  9. Downhole transmission system comprising a coaxial capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David R [Provo, UT; Pixton, David S [Lehi, UT; Johnson, Monte L [Orem, UT; Bartholomew, David B [Springville, UT; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Rawle, Michael [Springville, UT

    2011-05-24

    A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a plurality of data transmission elements. A coaxial cable having an inner conductor and an outer conductor is disposed within a passage in the downhole component such that at least one capacitor is disposed in the passage and having a first terminal coupled to the inner conductor and a second terminal coupled to the outer conductor. Preferably the transmission element comprises an electrically conducting coil. Preferably, within the passage a connector is adapted to electrically connect the inner conductor of the coaxial cable and the lead wire. The coaxial capacitor may be disposed between and in electrically communication with the connector and the passage. In another embodiment a connector is adapted to electrical connect a first and a second portion of the inner conductor of the coaxial cable and a coaxial capacitor is in electrical communication with the connector and the passage.

  10. Anomalous response of supported few-layer hexagonal boron nitride to DC electric fields: a confined water effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Camilla; Matos, Matheus; Mazzoni, Mário; Chacham, Hélio; Neves, Bernardo

    2013-03-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is a two-dimensional compound from III-V family, with the atoms of boron and nitrogen arranged in a honeycomb lattice, similar to graphene. Unlike graphene though, h-BN is an insulator material, with a gap larger than 5 eV. Here, we use Electric Force Microscopy (EFM) to study the electrical response of mono and few-layers of h-BN to an electric field applied by the EFM tip. Our results show an anomalous behavior in the dielectric response for h-BN for different bias orientation: for a positive bias applied to the tip, h-BN layers respond with a larger dielectric constant than the dielectric constant of the silicon dioxide substrate; while for a negative bias, the h-BN dielectric constant is smaller than the dielectric constant of the substrate. Based on first-principles calculations, we showed that this anomalous response may be interpreted as a macroscopic consequence of confinement of a thin water layer between h-BN and substrate. These results were confirmed by sample annealing and also also by a comparative analysis with h-BN on a non-polar substrate. All the authors acknowledge financial support from CNPq, Fapemig, Rede Nacional de Pesquisa em Nanotubos de Carbono and INCT-Nano-Carbono.

  11. Anti-fouling and high water permeable forward osmosis membrane fabricated via layer by layer assembly of chitosan/graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Hasan; Rastgar, Masoud; Shakeri, Alireza

    2017-08-01

    To date, forward osmosis (FO) has received considerable attention due to its potential application in seawater desalination. FO does not require external hydraulic pressure and consequently is believed to have a low fouling propensity. Despite the numerous privileges of FO process, a major challenge ahead for its development is the lack of high performance membranes. In this study, we fabricated a novel highly-efficient FO membrane using layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of positive chitosan (CS) and negative graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets via electrostatic interaction on a porous support layer. The support layer was prepared by blending hydrophilic sulfonated polyethersulfone (SPES) into polyethersulfone (PES) matrix using wet phase inversion process. Various characterization techniques were used to confirm successful fabrication of LbL membrane. The number of layers formed on the SPES-PES support layer was easily adjusted by repeating the CS and GO deposition cycles. Thin film composite (TFC) membrane was also prepared by the same SPES-PES support layer and polyamide (PA) active layer to compare membranes performances. The water permeability and salt rejection of the fabricated membranes were obtained by two kinds of draw solutions (including Na2SO4 and sucrose) under two different membrane orientations. The results showed that membrane coated by a CS/GO bilayers had water flux of 2-4 orders of magnitude higher than the TFC one. By increasing the number of CS/GO bilayers, the selectivity of the LbL membrane was improved. The novel fabricated LbL membrane showed better fouling resistance than the TFC one in the feed solution containing 200 ppm of sodium alginate as a foulant model.

  12. Synthesis and charge storage properties of double-layered NiSi nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jong-Hwan

    2010-01-01

    Based on bidirectional diffusion of Ni atoms, double-layered nickel silicide (NiSi) nanocrystals (NCs) for multilevel charge storage were fabricated, and their charge storage properties were examined. The double layer was produced by long-term thermal annealing (for 4 h at 900 o C) of a sandwich structure comprised of a thin Ni film of 0.3 nm sandwiched between two silicon-rich oxide (SiO 1.36 ) layers. Transmission electron microscopic image clearly exhibits a distinct NiSi nanocrystal double layer with a gap of about 7 nm between the mean positions of particle distribution in each NC layer. Capacitance-voltage measurements on the metal/oxide/semiconductor (MOS) capacitors with the double-layered NiSi nanocrystals are shown to have the apparent two plateaus of charge storage, the large memory window of about 9 V and the improved charge retention stability.

  13. Application of a mixture of soils to create a stable layer of support on the slope in ponds waterproofed with geo membranes. Application to a specific case in the reservoir Conseller Jose Ramon Garcia Anton in Elche (Alicante)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferran Gozalvez, F. J.; Ferrer Gisbert, C.; Redon Santafe, M.; Perez Sanchez, M.; Torregrosa Solar, J. S.; Zapata Raboso, F. J.; Sanchez Romero, F. J.

    2014-01-01

    This text present the experience developed in a reservoir in Elche (Alicante). This communication explains the importance of the layer of support to prevent the punching. This phenomenon can occur in a reservoir that has a deficient layer of support. Also, the paper describes the requirements to be met by the support layer to perform its function. (Author)

  14. Laser modification of macroscopic properties of metal surface layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrubiec, Franciszek

    1995-03-01

    Surface laser treatment of metals comprises a number of diversified technological operations out of which the following can be considered the most common: oxidation and rendering surfaces amorphous, surface hardening of steel, modification of selected physical properties of metal surface layers. In the paper basic results of laser treatment of a group of metals used as base materials for electric contacts have been presented. The aim of the study was to test the usability of laser treatment from the viewpoint of requirements imposed on materials for electric contacts. The results presented in the paper refer to two different surface treatment technologies: (1) modification of infusible metal surface layer: tungsten and molybdenum through laser fusing of their surface layer and its crystallization, and (2) modification of surface layer properties of other metals through laser doping of their surface layer with foreign elements. In the paper a number of results of experimental investigations obtained by the team under the author's supervision are presented.

  15. Solar cells with perovskite-based light sensitization layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Chang, Robert P.H.; Stoumpos, Konstantinos; Lee, Byunghong

    2018-05-08

    Solar cells are provided which comprise an electron transporting layer and a light sensitizing layer of perovskite disposed over the surface of the electron transporting layer. The perovskite may have a formula selected from the group consisting of A2MX6, Z2MX6 or YMX6, wherein A is an alkali metal, M is a metal or a metalloid, X is a halide, Z is selected from the group consisting of a primary ammonium, an iminium, a secondary ammonium, a tertiary ammonium, and a quaternary ammonium, and Y has formula Mb(L)3, wherein Mb is a transition metal in the 2+ oxidation state L is an N--N neutral chelating ligand. Methods of making the solar cells are also provided, including methods based on electrospray deposition.

  16. A rational method for developing and testing stable flexible indium- and vacuum-free multilayer tandem polymer solar cells comprising up to twelve roll processed layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Rieks; Dam, Henrik Friis; Andreasen, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    and to efficiently identify layers and interfaces that are not robust we developed a double sided illumination method and demonstrate how layer thicknesses can be optimized with respect to the roll processing in the aim of achieving functional tandem devices. The devices were prepared directly on barrier foil...

  17. Multi-layer film flow down an inclined plane: experimental investigation

    KAUST Repository

    Henry, Daniel

    2014-11-19

    We report the results from an experimental study of the flow of a film down an inclined plane where the film itself is comprised of up to three layers of different liquids. By measuring the total film thickness for a broad range of parameters including flow rates and liquid physical properties, we provide a thorough and systematic test of the single-layer approximation for multi-layer films for Reynolds numbers Re = ρQ/μ≈0.03-60. In addition, we also measure the change in film thickness of individual layers as a function of flow rates for a variety of experimental configurations. With the aid of high-speed particle tracking, we derive the velocity fields and free-surface velocities to compare to the single-layer approximation. Furthermore, we provide experimental evidence of small capillary ridge formations close to the point where two layers merge and compare our experimental parameter range for the occurrence of this phenomenon to those previously reported.

  18. Zinc comprising coordination compounds as growth stimulants of cotton seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusupov, Z.N.; Nurmatov, T.M.; Rakhimova, M.M.; Dzhafarov, M.I.; Nikolaeva, T.B.

    1991-01-01

    Present article is devoted to zinc comprising coordination compounds as growth stimulants of cotton seeds. The influence of zinc coordination compounds with physiologically active ligands on germinative energy and seed germination of cotton was studied. The biogical activity and effectiveness of zinc comprising coordination compounds at application them for humidification of cotton seeds was studied as well.

  19. Thermal Resistance across Interfaces Comprising Dimensionally Mismatched Carbon Nanotube-Graphene Junctions in 3D Carbon Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungkyu Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, reverse nonequilibrium molecular dynamics is employed to study thermal resistance across interfaces comprising dimensionally mismatched junctions of single layer graphene floors with (6,6 single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT pillars in 3D carbon nanomaterials. Results obtained from unit cell analysis indicate the presence of notable interfacial thermal resistance in the out-of-plane direction (along the longitudinal axis of the SWCNTs but negligible resistance in the in-plane direction along the graphene floor. The interfacial thermal resistance in the out-of-plane direction is understood to be due to the change in dimensionality as well as phonon spectra mismatch as the phonons propagate from SWCNTs to the graphene sheet and then back again to the SWCNTs. The thermal conductivity of the unit cells was observed to increase nearly linearly with an increase in cell size, that is, pillar height as well as interpillar distance, and approaches a plateau as the pillar height and the interpillar distance approach the critical lengths for ballistic thermal transport in SWCNT and single layer graphene. The results indicate that the thermal transport characteristics of these SWCNT-graphene hybrid structures can be tuned by controlling the SWCNT-graphene junction characteristics as well as the unit cell dimensions.

  20. Support influence on the properties of the alumina ceramic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clar, C.; Scian, A.N.; Aglietti, E.F.

    2003-01-01

    The ceramic substrates used as supports for the formation of a top layer membrane must meet several requirements.Some of them are: have an average pore size and a suitable surface rugosity to obtain a homogenous top layer preventing the penetration of the membrane precursor particles into the support pores.This work analyzes the performance of the three α-Al 2 O 3 supports, with different average pore sizes and surface textures, for the formation of a membrane top layer by the dipcoating technique from colloids in suspension of aluminum basic acetate and later thermal treatment at 1000degC.The pore size distribution of the supports, the support-membrane systems and the top layer membrane was obtained by the mercury intrusion porosimetry technique.The microstructural differences of the supports and the top layer thickness were observed by MEB.It could be observed that for numerous deposits the membrane layer pore size obtained is independent on the support used and that the thickness of the last layer is lower for the greater pore size supports.The possibility of an intermediate layer between the support and the top layer was considered in every case

  1. Method for manufacturing a solar cell with a surface-passivating dielectric double layer, and corresponding solar cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2014-01-01

    We will describe a solar cell with a Dielektrikumdoppelschicht and a method for their preparation. It comprises a first dielectric layer (3) containing aluminum oxide or consisting of alumina, and a second, hydrogen-containing dielectric layer (5) is produced by sequential vapor deposition, whereby

  2. Cross-layer design in optical networks

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt-Pearce, Maïté; Demeester, Piet; Saradhi, Chava

    2013-01-01

    Optical networks have become an integral part of the communications infrastructure needed to support society’s demand for high-speed connectivity.  Cross-Layer Design in Optical Networks addresses topics in optical network design and analysis with a focus on physical-layer impairment awareness and network layer service requirements, essential for the implementation and management of robust scalable networks.  The cross-layer treatment includes bottom-up impacts of the physical and lambda layers, such as dispersion, noise, nonlinearity, crosstalk, dense wavelength packing, and wavelength line rates, as well as top-down approaches to handle physical-layer impairments and service requirements.

  3. Resonant power converter comprising adaptive dead-time control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The invention relates in a first aspect to a resonant power converter comprising: a first power supply rail for receipt of a positive DC supply voltage and a second power supply rail for receipt of a negative DC supply voltage. The resonant power converter comprises a resonant network with an input...... terminal for receipt of a resonant input voltage from a driver circuit. The driver circuit is configured for alternatingly pulling the resonant input voltage towards the positive and negative DC supply voltages via first and second semiconductor switches, respectively, separated by intervening dead......-time periods in accordance with one or more driver control signals. A dead-time controller is configured to adaptively adjusting the dead-time periods based on the resonant input voltage....

  4. Thermoacoustic refrigerators and engines comprising cascading stirling thermodynamic units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhaus, Scott; Swift, Greg

    2013-06-25

    The present invention includes a thermoacoustic assembly and method for improved efficiency. The assembly has a first stage Stirling thermal unit comprising a main ambient heat exchanger, a regenerator and at least one additional heat exchanger. The first stage Stirling thermal unit is serially coupled to a first end of a quarter wavelength long coupling tube. A second stage Stirling thermal unit comprising a main ambient heat exchanger, a regenerator, and at least one additional heat exchanger, is serially coupled to a second end of the quarter wavelength long coupling tube.

  5. Fabrication of PVDF-based blend membrane with a thin hydrophilic deposition layer and a network structure supporting layer via the thermally induced phase separation followed by non-solvent induced phase separation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiguo; Cui, Zhenyu; Li, Tianyu; Qin, Shuhao; He, Benqiao; Han, Na; Li, Jianxin

    2017-10-01

    A simple strategy of thermally induced phase separation followed by non-solvent induced phase separation (TIPS-NIPS) is reported to fabricate poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)-based blend membrane. The dissolved poly (styrene-co-maleic anhydride) (SMA) in diluent prevents the crystallization of PVDF during the cooling process and deposites on the established PVDF matrix in the later extraction. Compared with traditional coating technique, this one-step TIPS-NIPS method can not only fabricate a supporting layer with an interconnected network structure even via solid-liquid phase separation of TIPS, but also form a uniform SMA skin layer approximately as thin as 200 nm via surface deposition of NIPS. Besides the better hydrophilicity, what's interesting is that the BSA rejection ratio increases from 48% to 94% with the increase of SMA, which indicates that the separation performance has improved. This strategy can be conveniently extended to the creation of firmly thin layer, surface functionalization and structure controllability of the membrane.

  6. Layer-by-Layer Assembly of a Self-Healing Anticorrosion Coating on Magnesium Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fan; Zhou, Chunyu; Wang, Xu; Szpunar, Jerzy

    2015-12-16

    Fabrication of self-healing anticorrosion coatings has attracted attention as it has the ability to extend the service life and prevent the substrate from corrosive attack. However, a coating system with a rapid self-healing ability and an improved corrosion resistance is rarely reported. In this work, we developed a self-healing anticorrosion coating on a magnesium alloy (AZ31). The coating comprises a cerium-based conversion layer, a graphene oxide layer, and a branched poly(ethylene imine) (PEI)/poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) multilayer. We incorporated the graphene oxide as corrosion inhibitors and used the PEI/PAA multilayers to provide the self-healing ability to the coating systems. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the composition of the multilayers, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyze the surface morphology. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results illustrate the improved corrosion resistance of the coating. The proposed coating also has a rapid self-healing ability in the presence of water.

  7. A middle layer solution to support ACID properties for NoSQL databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman E. Lotfy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to keep the strengths of RDBMSs as consistency and ACID properties and at the same time providing the benefits that inspired the NoSQL movement through a middle layer. The proposed middle layer uses a four phase commit protocol to ensure: the use of recent data, the use of the Pessimistic technique to forbid others dealing with data while it is used and the data updates residing in many locations to avoid the loss of data and disappointment. This mechanism is required, especially in distributed database application NoSQL based environment, because allowing conflicting transactions to continue not only wastes constrained computing power and decreases bandwidth, but also exacerbates conflicts. The middle layer keeps tracking all running transactions and manages with other layers the execution of concurrent transactions. This solution will help increase both of the scalability, and throughput. Finally, the experimental results show that the throughput of the system improves on increasing the number of middle layers in scenarios and the amount of updates to read in a transaction increases. Also the data are consistent with executing many transactions related to each other through updating the same data. The scalability and availability of the system is not affected while ensuring strict consistency.

  8. Block copolymer/homopolymer dual-layer hollow fiber membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Hilke, Roland; Neelakanda, Pradeep; Behzad, Ali Reza; Nunes, Suzana Pereira; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2014-01-01

    We manufactured the first time block copolymer dual-layer hollow fiber membranes and dual layer flat sheet membranes manufactured by double solution casting and phase inversion in water. The support porous layer was based on polystyrene

  9. Cable support arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendleton, E.; Murray, A.

    1983-01-01

    A cable support arrangement extending from a refuelling level floor of a nuclear reactor to the inner shield of a double rotatable shield comprises a linearly extensible cable support and disciplining boom, reaching from the floor to the main shield, and a circumferentially extensible cable support and disciplining means running from the end of the boom to a fixed end on the inner shield. (author)

  10. Biocatalytic material comprising multilayer enzyme coated fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungbae [Richland, WA; Kwak, Ja Hun [Richland, WA; Grate, Jay W [West Richland, WA

    2009-11-03

    The present invention relates generally to high stability, high activity biocatalytic materials and processes for using the same. The materials comprise enzyme aggregate coatings having high biocatalytic activity and stability useful in heterogeneous environment. These new materials provide a new biocatalytic immobilized enzyme system with applications in bioconversion, bioremediation, biosensors, and biofuel cells.

  11. Apparatus for plasma surface treating and preparation of membrane layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus suitable for plasma surface treating (e.g., forming a membrane layer on a substrate surface) comprises a plasma generation section which is operable at least at substantially atmospheric pressure and is in communication via at least one plasma inlet (e.g., a nozzle) with an enclosed

  12. Composite metal foil and ceramic fabric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Brent J.; Antoniak, Zen I.; Prater, John T.; DeSteese, John G.

    1992-01-01

    The invention comprises new materials useful in a wide variety of terrestrial and space applications. In one aspect, the invention comprises a flexible cloth-like material comprising a layer of flexible woven ceramic fabric bonded with a layer of metallic foil. In another aspect, the invention includes a flexible fluid impermeable barrier comprising a flexible woven ceramic fabric layer having metal wire woven therein. A metallic foil layer is incontinuously welded to the woven metal wire. In yet another aspect, the invention includes a material comprising a layer of flexible woven ceramic fabric bonded with a layer of an organic polymer. In still another aspect, the invention includes a rigid fabric structure comprising a flexible woven ceramic fabric and a resinous support material which has been hardened as the direct result of exposure to ultraviolet light. Inventive methods for producing such material are also disclosed.

  13. Layered inorganic solids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čejka, Jiří; Morris, R. E.; Nachtigall, P.; Roth, Wieslaw Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 27 (2014), s. 10274-10275 ISSN 1477-9226 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : layered inorganic solids * physical chemistry * catalysis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.197, year: 2014

  14. Layered materials with improved magnesium intercalation for rechargeable magnesium ion cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doe, Robert Ellis; Downie, Craig Michael; Fischer, Christopher; Lane, George Hamilton; Morgan, Dane; Nevin, Josh; Ceder, Gerbrand; Persson, Kristin Aslaug; Eaglesham, David

    2016-07-26

    Electrochemical devices which incorporate cathode materials that include layered crystalline compounds for which a structural modification has been achieved which increases the diffusion rate of multi-valent ions into and out of the cathode materials. Examples in which the layer spacing of the layered electrode materials is modified to have a specific spacing range such that the spacing is optimal for diffusion of magnesium ions are presented. An electrochemical cell comprised of a positive intercalation electrode, a negative metal electrode, and a separator impregnated with a nonaqueous electrolyte solution containing multi-valent ions and arranged between the positive electrode and the negative electrode active material is described.

  15. Smooth- and rough-wall boundary layer structure from high spatial range particle image velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, D. T.; Morrill-Winter, C.; Hutchins, N.; Marusic, I.; Schultz, M. P.; Klewicki, J. C.

    2016-10-01

    Two particle image velocimetry arrangements are used to make true spatial comparisons between smooth- and rough-wall boundary layers at high Reynolds numbers across a very wide range of streamwise scales. Together, the arrangements resolve scales ranging from motions on the order of the Kolmogorov microscale to those longer than twice the boundary layer thickness. The rough-wall experiments were obtained above a continuous sandpaper sheet, identical to that used by Squire et al. [J. Fluid Mech. 795, 210 (2016), 10.1017/jfm.2016.196], and cover a range of friction and equivalent sand-grain roughness Reynolds numbers (12 000 ≲δ+≲ 18000, 62 ≲ks+≲104 ). The smooth-wall experiments comprise new and previously published data spanning 6500 ≲δ+≲17 000 . Flow statistics from all experiments show similar Reynolds number trends and behaviors to recent, well-resolved hot-wire anemometry measurements above the same rough surface. Comparisons, at matched δ+, between smooth- and rough-wall two-point correlation maps and two-point magnitude-squared coherence maps demonstrate that spatially the outer region of the boundary layer is the same between the two flows. This is apparently true even at wall-normal locations where the total (inner-normalized) energy differs between the smooth and rough wall. Generally, the present results provide strong support for Townsend's [The Structure of Turbulent Shear Flow (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1956), Vol. 1] wall-similarity hypothesis in high Reynolds number fully rough boundary layer flows.

  16. Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment in Spain (SABLES 98) : a report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuxart, J.; Yague, C.; Morales, G.; Terradelles, E.; Orbe, J.; Calvo, J.; Vilu-Guerau, de J.; Soler, M.R.; Infante, C.; Buenestado, P.; Espinalt, A.; Jorgensem, H.E.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment in Spain (SABLES 98), which took place over the northern Spanish plateau comprising relatively flat grassland, in September 1998. The main objectives of the campaign were to study the properties of the mid-latitude stable boundary

  17. Method for manufacturing carrier containing e.g. proteins for human during oral drug delivery operation for food and drug administration application in pharmaceutical industry, involves providing active ingredient to core layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    NOVELTY - The method involves preparing a multi-layered film comprising a core layer and a barrier layer, where the core layer comprises active ingredient. The multi-layered film is subjected to a hot embossing step using an embossing stamp including protrusions that allows for generation...... delivery operation for a food and drug administration (FDA) application in a pharmaceutical industry. ADVANTAGE - The method enables allowing an individual micro-structure stuck in an embossing stamp to be demolded under the conditions such that demolding operation is done by treating elastically...

  18. A reconfigurable on-line learning spiking neuromorphic processor comprising 256 neurons and 128K synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Ning; Mostafa, Hesham; Corradi, Federico; Osswald, Marc; Stefanini, Fabio; Sumislawska, Dora; Indiveri, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    Implementing compact, low-power artificial neural processing systems with real-time on-line learning abilities is still an open challenge. In this paper we present a full-custom mixed-signal VLSI device with neuromorphic learning circuits that emulate the biophysics of real spiking neurons and dynamic synapses for exploring the properties of computational neuroscience models and for building brain-inspired computing systems. The proposed architecture allows the on-chip configuration of a wide range of network connectivities, including recurrent and deep networks, with short-term and long-term plasticity. The device comprises 128 K analog synapse and 256 neuron circuits with biologically plausible dynamics and bi-stable spike-based plasticity mechanisms that endow it with on-line learning abilities. In addition to the analog circuits, the device comprises also asynchronous digital logic circuits for setting different synapse and neuron properties as well as different network configurations. This prototype device, fabricated using a 180 nm 1P6M CMOS process, occupies an area of 51.4 mm(2), and consumes approximately 4 mW for typical experiments, for example involving attractor networks. Here we describe the details of the overall architecture and of the individual circuits and present experimental results that showcase its potential. By supporting a wide range of cortical-like computational modules comprising plasticity mechanisms, this device will enable the realization of intelligent autonomous systems with on-line learning capabilities.

  19. Chemical solution seed layer for rabits tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Wee, Sung-Hun

    2014-06-10

    A method for making a superconducting article includes the steps of providing a biaxially textured substrate. A seed layer is then deposited. The seed layer includes a double perovskite of the formula A.sub.2B'B''O.sub.6, where A is rare earth or alkaline earth metal and B' and B'' are different rare earth or transition metal cations. A superconductor layer is grown epitaxially such that the superconductor layer is supported by the seed layer.

  20. Buffer layers for REBCO films for use in superconducting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Wee, Sung-Hun

    2014-06-10

    A superconducting article includes a substrate having a biaxially textured surface. A biaxially textured buffer layer, which can be a cap layer, is supported by the substrate. The buffer layer includes a double perovskite of the formula A.sub.2B'B''O.sub.6, where A is rare earth or alkaline earth metal and B' and B'' are different transition metal cations. A biaxially textured superconductor layer is deposited so as to be supported by the buffer layer. A method of making a superconducting article is also disclosed.

  1. Method for plasma surface treating and preparation of membrane layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1992-01-01

    The invention relates to an apparatus suitable for plasma surface treating (e.g. forming a membrane layer on a substrate) which comprises a plasma generation section (2) which is in communication via at least one plasma inlet means (4) (e.g. a nozzle) with an enclosed plasma treating section (3)

  2. Strength of the Three Layer Beam with Two Binding Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smyczyński M. J.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the strength analysis of a simply supported three layer beam. The sandwich beam consists of: two metal facings, the metal foam core and two binding layers between the faces and the core. In consequence, the beam is a five layer beam. The main goal of the study is to elaborate a mathematical model of this beam, analytical description and a solution of the three-point bending problem. The beam is subjected to a transverse load. The nonlinear hypothesis of the deformation of the cross section of the beam is formulated. Based on the principle of the stationary potential energy the system of four equations of equilibrium is derived. Then deflections and stresses are determined. The influence of the binding layers is considered. The results of the solutions of the bending problem analysis are shown in the tables and figures. The analytical model is verified numerically using the finite element analysis, as well as experimentally.

  3. Coherent structures in wave boundary layers. Part 1. Oscillatory motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Stefan; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    This work concerns oscillatory boundary layers over smooth beds. It comprises combined visual and quantitative techniques including bed shear stress measurements. The experiments were carried out in an oscillating water tunnel. The experiments reveal two significant coherent flow structures: (i......) Vortex tubes, essentially two-dimensional vortices close to the bed extending across the width of the boundary-layer flow, caused by an inflectional-point shear layer instability. The imprint of these vortices in the bed shear stress is a series of small, insignificant kinks and dips. (ii) Turbulent...... spots, isolated arrowhead-shaped areas close to the bed in an otherwise laminar boundary layer where the flow ‘bursts’ with violent oscillations. The emergence of the turbulent spots marks the onset of turbulence. Turbulent spots cause single or multiple violent spikes in the bed shear stress signal...

  4. Metal-polymer composites comprising nanostructures and applications thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsing-Lin [Los Alamos, NM; Jeon, Sea Ho [Dracut, MA; Mack, Nathan H [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-08-02

    Metal-polymer composites, and methods of making and use thereof, said composites comprising a thermally-cured dense polyaniline substrate; an acid dopant; and, metal nanostructure deposits wherein the deposits have a morphology dependent upon the acid dopant.

  5. Multiscale Engineered Si/SiO x Nanocomposite Electrodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Layer-by-Layer Spray Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun; Kim, Ayoung; Chung, Dong Jae; Park, Eunjun; Young, Neil P; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Kim, Hansu; Grant, Patrick S

    2018-05-09

    Si-based high-capacity materials have gained much attention as an alternative to graphite in Li-ion battery anodes. Although Si additions to graphite anodes are now commercialized, the fraction of Si that can be usefully exploited is restricted due to its poor cyclability arising from the large volume changes during charge/discharge. Si/SiO x nanocomposites have also shown promising behavior, such as better capacity retention than Si alone because the amorphous SiO x helps to accommodate the volume changes of the Si. Here, we demonstrate a new electrode architecture for further advancing the performance of Si/SiO x nanocomposite anodes using a scalable layer-by-layer atomization spray deposition technique. We show that particulate C interlayers between the current collector and the Si/SiO x layer and between the separator and the Si/SiO x layer improved electrical contact and reduced irreversible pulverization of the Si/SiO x significantly. Overall, the multiscale approach based on microstructuring at the electrode level combined with nanoengineering at the material level improved the capacity, rate capability, and cycling stability compared to that of an anode comprising a random mixture of the same materials.

  6. Self-Supporting High Performance Multi-Layer Insulation Technology Development (SSMLI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new type of MLI—Integrated Multi-Layer Insulation (IMLI)—uses rigid, low-conductivity polymer spacers instead of netting to keep the radiation barriers separated....

  7. Engineering one-dimensional and two-dimensional birnessite manganese dioxides on nickel foam-supported cobalt–aluminum layered double hydroxides for advanced binder-free supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Hao, Xiaodong; Zhang, Yuxin; Diao, Zengpeng; Chen, Houwen; Zhang, Aiping; Wang, Zhongchang

    2014-01-01

    © The Royal Society of Chemistry. We report a facile decoration of the hierarchical nickel foam-supported CoAl layered double hydroxides (CoAl LDHs) with MnO2 nanowires and nanosheets by a chemical bath method and a hydrothermal approach for high

  8. Membranes having aligned 1-D nanoparticles in a matrix layer for improved fluid separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revanur, Ravindra; Lulevich, Valentin; Roh, Il Juhn; Klare, Jennifer E.; Kim, Sangil; Noy, Aleksandr; Bakajin, Olgica

    2015-12-22

    Membranes for fluid separation are disclosed. These membranes have a matrix layer sandwiched between an active layer and a porous support layer. The matrix layer includes 1-D nanoparticles that are vertically aligned in a porous polymer matrix, and which substantially extend through the matrix layer. The active layer provides species-specific transport, while the support layer provides mechanical support. A matrix layer of this type has favorable surface morphology for forming the active layer. Furthermore, the pores that form in the matrix layer tend to be smaller and more evenly distributed as a result of the presence of aligned 1-D nanoparticles. Improved performance of separation membranes of this type is attributed to these effects.

  9. Heat insulation support device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Koda, Tomokazu; Motojima, Osamu; Yamamoto, Junya.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention comprises a plurality of heat insulation legs disposed in a circumferential direction. Each of the heat insulative support legs has a hollow shape, and comprises an outer column and an inner column as support structures having a heat insulative property (heat insulative structure), and a thermal anchor which absorbs compulsory displacement by a thin flat plate (displacement absorber). The outer column, the thermal anchor and the inner column are connected by a support so as to offset the positional change of objects to be supported due to shrinkage when they are shrunk. In addition, the portion between the superconductive coils as the objects to be supported and the inner column is connected by the support. The superconductive thermonuclear device is entirely contained in a heat insulative vacuum vessel, and the heat insulative support legs are disposed on a lower lid of the heat insulative vacuum vessel. With such a constitution, they are strengthened against lateral load and buckling, thereby enabling to reduce the amount of heat intrusion while keeping the compulsory displacement easy to be absorbed. (I.N.)

  10. Non-cementitious compositions comprising vaterite and methods thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devenney, Martin; Fernandez, Miguel; Morgan, Samuel O.

    2015-09-15

    Non-cementitious compositions and products are provided. The compositions of the invention include a carbonate additive comprising vaterite such as reactive vaterite. Additional aspects of the invention include methods of making and using the non-cementitious compositions and products.

  11. Deep Support Vector Machines for Regression Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiering, Marco; Schutten, Marten; Millea, Adrian; Meijster, Arnold; Schomaker, Lambertus

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe a novel extension of the support vector machine, called the deep support vector machine (DSVM). The original SVM has a single layer with kernel functions and is therefore a shallow model. The DSVM can use an arbitrary number of layers, in which lower-level layers contain

  12. Pneumatic stepper motor and device comprising at least one such pneumatic stepper motor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenhuis, Vincent; Siepel, Françoise Jeanette; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    The invention relates to a pneumatic stepper motor, comprising: - a housing, said housing accommodating at least part of: - a rack or geared axle comprising a plurality of gear elements; and - two pistons, each comprising at least two teeth, said pistons being arranged to cooperate with said rack or

  13. Attrition resistant gamma-alumina catalyst support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Alan H.; Oukaci, Rachid; Goodwin, James G.

    2006-03-14

    A .gamma.-alumina catalyst support having improved attrition resistance produced by a method comprising the steps of treating a particulate .gamma.-alumina material with an acidic aqueous solution comprising water and nitric acid and then, prior to adding any catalytic material thereto, calcining the treated .gamma.-alumina.

  14. A Novel, Diazonium-Phenolic Resin Two-Layer Resist System Utilizing Photoinduced Interfacial Insolubilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Shou-ichi; Iwayanagi, Takao; Ueno, Takumi; Hashimoto, Michiaki; Nonogaki, Saburo

    1987-08-01

    This paper deals with a negative two-layer photoresist system utilizing a photoinduced insolubilization process at the interface. The bottom layer is a phenolic resin either with or without aromatic azide and the top layer is a photosensitive layer comprised of an aromatic diazonium compound and a water soluble polymer. Upon exposure to light, the diazo compound decomposes to cause insolubilization at the interface between the two layers. The system exhibits high contrast due to the combination of interfacial insolubilization and contrast enhancement by photobleaching of the diazonium compound. Patterns of 0.5 um lines and spaces are obtained using an i-line stepper and a resist system containing 4-diazo-N,N-dimethylaniline chloride zinc chloride in the top layer and 3-(4-azidostyry1)- 5,5-dimethyl- 2-cyclohexen-1-one in the bottom layer. Resists with varying spectral responses from mid-UV to g-line can be designed by selecting the kind of diazo compound used in the top layer.

  15. Cross-Layer Measurement on an IEEE 802.11g Wireless Network Supporting MPEG-2 Video Streaming Applications in the Presence of Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sona

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of wireless local area networks supporting video streaming applications, based on MPEG-2 video codec, in the presence of interference is here dealt with. IEEE 802.11g standard wireless networks, that do not support QoS in according with IEEE 802.11e standard, are, in particular, accounted for and Bluetooth signals, additive white Gaussian noise, and competitive data traffic are considered as sources of interference. The goal is twofold: from one side, experimentally assessing and correlating the values that some performance metrics assume at the same time at different layers of an IEEE 802.11g WLAN delivering video streaming in the presence of in-channel interference; from the other side, deducing helpful and practical hints for designers and technicians, in order to efficiently assess and enhance the performance of an IEEE 802.11g WLAN supporting video streaming in some suitable setup conditions and in the presence of interference. To this purpose, an experimental analysis is planned following a cross-layer measurement approach, and a proper testbed within a semianechoic chamber is used. Valuable results are obtained in terms of signal-to-interference ratio, packet loss ratio, jitter, video quality, and interference data rate; helpful hints for designers and technicians are finally gained.

  16. Dual layer hollow fiber sorbents: Concept, fabrication and characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Bhandari, Dhaval

    2013-02-01

    Hollow fiber sorbents are pseudo-monolithic separations materials created with fiber spinning technology using a polymer \\'binder\\', impregnated with high loadings of sorbent \\'fillers\\' [1]. To increase purified gas recovery during the sorption step and to ensure consistent sorption capacity over repeated cycles, a dense, thin polymer barrier layer on the fiber sorbents is needed to allow only thermal interactions between the sorbate loaded layer and the thermal regeneration fluid. This paper considers materials and methods to create delamination-free dual layer fiber sorbents, with a porous core and a barrier sheath layer formed using a simultaneous co-extrusion process. Low permeability polymers were screened for sheath layer creation, with the core layer comprising cellulose acetate polymer as binder and zeolite NaY as sorbent fillers. Appropriate core and sheath layer dope compositions were determined by the cloud-point method and rheology measurements. The morphology of the as-spun fibers was characterized in detail by SEM, EDX and gas permeation analysis. A simplified qualitative model is described to explain the observed fiber morphology. The effects of core, sheath spin dope and bore fluid compositions, spinning process parameters such as air-gap height, spin dope and coagulation bath temperatures, and elongation draw ratio are examined in detail. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A novel carbohydrate-binding surface layer protein from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Shuichiro; Koga, Tomoyuki; Yamashita, Kenichiro; Kuriura, Ryo; Ueda, Toshifumi

    2018-04-08

    In Archaea and Bacteria, surface layer (S-layer) proteins form the cell envelope and are involved in cell protection. In the present study, a putative S-layer protein was purified from the crude extract of Pyrococcus horikoshii using affinity chromatography. The S-layer gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Isothermal titration calorimetry analyses showed that the S-layer protein bound N-acetylglucosamine and induced agglutination of the gram-positive bacterium Micrococcus lysodeikticus. The protein comprised a 21-mer structure, with a molecular mass of 1,340 kDa, as determined using small-angle X-ray scattering. This protein showed high thermal stability, with a midpoint of thermal denaturation of 79 °C in dynamic light scattering experiments. This is the first description of the carbohydrate-binding archaeal S-layer protein and its characteristics.

  18. Erosion resistant elbow for solids conveyance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Not Available

    An elvow and process for fabrication for use in particulate material conveying comprising a curved outer pipe, a curved inner pipe having the same radius of curvature as the outer pipe, concentric with and internal to the outer pipe, comprising an outer layer comprised of a first material and an inner layer comprised of a second material wherein said first material is characterized by high erosion resistance when impinged by particulate material and wherein said second material is characterized by high tensile strength and flexibility, and an inner pipe supporting means for providing support to said inner pipe, disposed between said inner pipe and said outer pipe. 4 figures.

  19. HOLLOW FIBRE MEMBRANE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessling, Matthias; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Kopec, K.K.; Dutczak, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for manufacturing a hollow fibre membrane having a supporting layer and a separating layer, said process comprising: (a)extruding a spinning composition comprising a first polymer and a solvent for the first polymer through an inner annular orifice of a

  20. HOLLOW FIBRE MEMBRANE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessling, Matthias; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Kopec, K.K.; Dutczak, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for manufacturing a hollow fibre membrane having a supporting layer and a separating layer, said process comprising: (a) extruding a spinning composition comprising a first polymer and a solvent for the first polymer through an inner annular orifice of a

  1. Formulation and evaluation of a bilayer tablet comprising of diclofenac potassium as orodispersible layer and diclofenac sodium as sustained release core

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, Jabbar; Bashir, Sajid; Samie, Muhammad; Laghari, Sadaf

    2017-01-01

    Diclofenac a phenylacetic acid derivative has long been used as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug to treat certain conditions however its sustained release formulation with immediate release loading dose is desirable. The rationale of the current work was to develop and evaluate bilayer tablets with diclofenac potassium as orodispersible layer and diclofenac sodium as sustained release core. The diclofenac sodium core was prepared by wet granulation method while the...

  2. Compositions comprising enhanced graphene oxide structures and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Priyank Vijaya; Bardhan, Neelkanth M.; Belcher, Angela; Grossman, Jeffrey

    2016-12-27

    Embodiments described herein generally relate to compositions comprising a graphene oxide species. In some embodiments, the compositions advantageously have relatively high oxygen content, even after annealing.

  3. Correlating PSf Support Physicochemical Properties with the Formation of Piperazine-Based Polyamide and Evaluating the Resultant Nanofiltration Membrane Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micah Belle Marie Yap Ang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Membrane support properties influence the performance of thin-film composite nanofiltration membranes. We fabricated several polysulfone (PSf supports. The physicochemical properties of PSf were altered by adding polyethylene glycol (PEG of varying molecular weights (200–35,000 g/mol. This alteration facilitated the formation of a thin polyamide layer on the PSf surface during the interfacial polymerization reaction involving an aqueous solution of piperazine containing 4-aminobenzoic acid and an organic solution of trimesoyl chloride. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared validated the presence of PEG in the membrane support. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy illustrated that the thin-film polyamide layer morphology transformed from a rough to a smooth surface. A cross-flow filtration test indicated that a thin-film composite polyamide membrane comprising a PSf support (TFC-PEG20k with a low surface porosity, small pore size, and suitable hydrophilicity delivered the highest water flux and separation efficiency (J = 81.1 ± 6.4 L·m−2·h−1, RNa2SO4 = 91.1% ± 1.8%, and RNaCl = 35.7% ± 3.1% at 0.60 MPa. This membrane had a molecular weight cutoff of 292 g/mol and also a high rejection for negatively charged dyes. Therefore, a PSf support exhibiting suitable physicochemical properties endowed a thin-film composite polyamide membrane with high performance.

  4. Thermal barrier and support for nuclear reactor fuel core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betts, W.S. Jr.; Pickering, J.L.; Black, W.E.

    1987-01-01

    A nuclear reactor is described having a thermal barrier for supporting a fuel column of a nuclear reactor core within a reactor vessel having a fixed rigid metal liner. The fuel column has a refractory post extending downward. The thermal barrier comprises, in combination, a metallic core support having an interior chamber secured to the metal liner; fibrous thermal insulation material covering the metal liner and surrounding the metallic core support; means associated with the metallic core support and resting on the top for locating and supporting the full column post; and a column of ceramic material located within the interior chamber of the metallic core support, the height of the column is less than the height of the metallic core support so that the ceramic column will engage the means for locating and supporting the fuel column post only upon plastic deformation of the metallic core support; the core support comprises a metallic cylinder and the ceramic column comprises coaxially aligned ceramic pads. Each pad has a hole located within the metallic cylinder by means of a ceramic post passing through the holes in the pads

  5. Layered autonomous overwatch: the necessity and feasability of multiple unmanned systems in combat support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monckton, Simon; Digney, Bruce; Broten, Greg; Penzes, Steve

    2007-04-01

    Unmanned systems simultaneously reduce risk and magnify the impact of soldier-operators. For example, in Afghanistan UAVs routinely provide overwatch to manned units while UGVs support IED identification and disposal roles. Expanding these roles requires greater autonomy with a coherent unmanned "system of systems" approach that leverages one platform's strengths against the weakness of another. Specific collaborative unmanned systems such as shared sensing, communication relay, and distributed computing to achieve greater autonomy are often presented as possible solutions. By surveying currently deployed systems, this paper shows that the spectrum of air and ground systems provide an important mixture of range, speed, payload, and endurance with significant implications on mission structure. Rather than proposing UxV teams collaborating towards specific autonomous capabilities, this paper proposes that basic physical and environmental constraints will drive tactics towards a layered, unmanned battlespace that provides force protection and reconnaissance in depth to a manned core.

  6. High surface area graphene-supported metal chalcogenide assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Orme, Christine A.

    2017-04-25

    Disclosed here is a method for hydrocarbon conversion, comprising contacting at least one graphene-supported assembly with at least one hydrocarbon feedstock, wherein the graphene-supported assembly comprises (i) a three-dimensional network of graphene sheets crosslinked by covalent carbon bonds and (ii) at least one metal chalcogenide compound disposed on the graphene sheets, wherein the chalcogen of the metal chalcogenide compound is selected from S, Se and Te, and wherein the metal chalcogenide compound accounts for at least 20 wt. % of the graphene-supported assembly.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of supported heteropolymolybdate nanoparticles between silicate layers of Bentonite with enhanced catalytic activity for epoxidation of alkenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salavati, Hossein; Rasouli, Nahid

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The PVMo and nanocomposite catalyst (PVMo/Bentonite) as catalyst for epoxidation of alkenes. → The composite catalyst showed higher catalytic activity than parent heteropolymolybdate (PVMo). →The use of ultrasonic irradiation increased the conversions and reduced the reaction times. → The H 2 O 2 is a green and eco-friendly oxidant in this catalytic system. -- Abstract: A new heterogeneous catalyst (PVMo/Bentonite) consisting of vanadium substituted heteropolymolybdate with Keggin-type structure Na 5 [PV 2 Mo 10 O 40 ].14H 2 O (PVMo) supported between silicate layers of bentonite has been synthesized by impregnation method and characterized using X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and elemental analysis. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated that PVMo was finely dispersed into layers of bentonite as support. The PVMo/Bentonite used as an efficient heterogeneous catalyst for epoxidation of alkenes. Various cyclic and linear alkenes were oxidized into the corresponding epoxides in high yields and selectivity with 30% aqueous H 2 O 2 . The catalyst was reused several times, without observable loss of activity and selectivity. The obtained results showed that the catalytic activity of the PVMo/Bentonite was higher than that of pure heteropolyanion (PVMo).

  8. A Re-configurable On-line Learning Spiking Neuromorphic Processor comprising 256 neurons and 128K synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eQiao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Implementing compact, low-power artificial neural processing systems with real-time on-line learning abilities is still an open challenge. In this paper we present a full-custom mixed-signal VLSI device with neuromorphic learning circuits that emulate the biophysics of real spiking neurons and dynamic synapses for exploring the properties of computational neuroscience models and for building brain-inspired computing systems. The proposed architecture allows the on-chip configuration of a wide range of network connectivities, including recurrent and deep networks with short-term and long-term plasticity. The device comprises 128 K analog synapse and 256 neuron circuits with biologically plausible dynamics and bi-stable spike-based plasticity mechanisms that endow it with on-line learning abilities. In addition to the analog circuits, the device comprises also asynchronous digital logic circuits for setting different synapse and neuron properties as well as different network configurations. This prototype device, fabricated using a 180 nm 1P6M CMOS process, occupies an area of 51.4 mm 2 , and consumes approximately 4 mW for typical experiments, for example involving attractor networks. Here we describe the details of the overall architecture and of the individual circuits and present experimental results that showcase its potential. By supporting a wide range of cortical-like computational modules comprising plasticity mechanisms, this device will enable the realization of intelligent autonomous systems with on-line learning capabilities.

  9. Larval fish collected from sound-scattering layers in an offshore tropical area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, M S; Bonecker, A C T

    2017-12-01

    The composition of the larval fish assemblage in the sound-scattering layer of the continental shelf waters off the coast of south-eastern Brazil (12 and 22° S), a research project that is part of the Brazilian programme Avaliação do Potencial Sustentável de Recursos Vivos na Zona Econômica Exclusiva (REVIZEE), is described. Samples were collected during daylight hours and at dusk at five oceanographic stations in the winter of 1999 using an Isaacs-Kidd Midwater Trawl (IKMT). The oceanographic stations were chosen based on the detection of plankton layers by acoustic observation. A total of 2192 larval fish were identified, comprising 52 families and 62 species. Maurolicus stehmanni (Sternoptychidae) was the most abundant species found within the study area, comprising 18·5% of all identified larvae, followed by Psilotris celsus (Gobiidae) at 10·9%. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  10. Near-chip compliant layer for reducing perimeter stress during assembly process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Mark D.; Takken, Todd E.; Tian, Shurong; Yao, Yuan

    2018-03-20

    A heat source (single semiconductor chip or group of closely spaced semiconductor chips of similar height) is provided on a first side of a substrate, which substrate has on said first side a support member comprising a compressible material. A heat removal component, oriented at an angle to said heat source, is brought into proximity of said heat source such that said heat removal component contacts said support member prior to contacting said heat source. Said heat removal component is assembled to said heat source such that said support member at least partially absorbs global inequality of force that would otherwise be applied to said heat source, absent said support member comprising said compressible material.

  11. Efficient organic photovoltaic cells on a single layer graphene transparent conductive electrode using MoOx as an interfacial layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, J H; Jin, H; Zhang, Z K; Zhang, D D; Jia, S; Ma, L P; Ren, W C; Cheng, H M; Burn, P L

    2017-01-07

    The large surface roughness, low work function and high cost of transparent electrodes using multilayer graphene films can limit their application in organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. Here, we develop single layer graphene (SLG) films as transparent anodes for OPV cells that contain light-absorbing layers comprised of the evaporable molecular organic semiconductor materials, zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc)/fullerene (C60), as well as a molybdenum oxide (MoO x ) interfacial layer. In addition to an increase in the optical transmittance, the SLG anodes had a significant decrease in surface roughness compared to two and four layer graphene (TLG and FLG) anodes fabricated by multiple transfer and stacking of SLGs. Importantly, the introduction of a MoO x interfacial layer not only reduced the energy barrier between the graphene anode and the active layer, but also decreased the resistance of the SLG by nearly ten times. The OPV cells with the structure of polyethylene terephthalate/SLG/MoO x /CuI/ZnPc/C60/bathocuproine/Al were flexible, and had a power conversion efficiency of up to 0.84%, which was only 17.6% lower than the devices with an equivalent structure but prepared on commercial indium tin oxide anodes. Furthermore, the devices with the SLG anode were 50% and 86.7% higher in efficiency than the cells with the TLG and FLG anodes. These results show the potential of SLG electrodes for flexible and wearable OPV cells as well as other organic optoelectronic devices.

  12. Boundary layers as the primary transport regions of the earth's magnetotail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastman, T.E.; Frank, L.A.; Huang, C.Y.

    1985-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of ISEE and IMP LEPEDEA plasma measurements in the earth's magnetotail reveals that the magnetospheric boundary layer and the plasma sheet boundary layer are the primary transport regions there. These plasma measurements also distinguish various components of the plasma sheet, including the central plasma sheet and plasma sheet boundary layer. A significant new result reported here is the existence of cold-and hot-plasma components that are spatially copresent within the central plasma sheet. Such plasma components cannot be explained merely by temporal variations in spectra involving the entire plasma sheet. Contributions to a low-temperature component of the plasma sheet enter directly from the boundary layer located along the magnetotail flanks. Field-aligned flows predominate within the plasma sheet boundary layer, which is almost always present and is located near the northern and southern border of the plasma sheet. The plasma sheet boundary layer comprises highly anisotropic ion distributions, including counteracting ion beams, that evolve into the hot, isotropic component of the plasma sheet

  13. Computational Combination of the Optical Properties of Fenestration Layers at High Directional Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Oliver Grobe

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Complex fenestration systems typically comprise co-planar, clear and scattering layers. As there are many ways to combine layers in fenestration systems, a common approach in building simulation is to store optical properties separate for each layer. System properties are then computed employing a fast matrix formalism, often based on a directional basis devised by JHKlems comprising 145 incident and 145 outgoing directions. While this low directional resolution is found sufficient to predict illuminance and solar gains, it is too coarse to replicate the effects of directionality in the generation of imagery. For increased accuracy, a modification of the matrix formalism is proposed. The tensor-tree format of RADIANCE, employing an algorithm subdividing the hemisphere at variable resolutions, replaces the directional basis. The utilization of the tensor-tree with interfaces to simulation software allows sharing and re-use of data. The light scattering properties of two exemplary fenestration systems as computed employing the matrix formalism at variable resolution show good accordance with the results of ray-tracing. Computation times are reduced to 0.4% to 2.5% compared to ray-tracing through co-planar layers. Imagery computed employing the method illustrates the effect of directional resolution. The method is supposed to foster research in the field of daylighting, as well as applications in planning and design.

  14. Fibrous composites comprising carbon nanotubes and silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Huisheng [Shanghai, CN; Zhu, Yuntian Theodore [Cary, NC; Peterson, Dean E [Los Alamos, NM; Jia, Quanxi [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-10-11

    Fibrous composite comprising a plurality of carbon nanotubes; and a silica-containing moiety having one of the structures: (SiO).sub.3Si--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--NR.sub.1R.sub.2) or (SiO).sub.3Si--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--NCO; where n is from 1 to 6, and R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are each independently H, CH.sub.3, or C.sub.2H.sub.5.

  15. Nanophosphor composite scintillators comprising a polymer matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenchausen, Ross Edward; Mckigney, Edward Allen; Gilbertson, Robert David

    2010-11-16

    An improved nanophosphor composite comprises surface modified nanophosphor particles in a solid matrix. The nanophosphor particle surface is modified with an organic ligand, or by covalently bonding a polymeric or polymeric precursor material. The surface modified nanophosphor particle is essentially charge neutral, thereby preventing agglomeration of the nanophosphor particles during formation of the composite material. The improved nanophosphor composite may be used in any conventional scintillator application, including in a radiation detector.

  16. Energy efficient three-layer panels and elastic compliance of their middle layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrov Stanislav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-layer panels are referred to light weight energy efficient building envelopes. According to current trends, mineral wool from basalt fiber is preferable to be used as panels middle layer. All three-layers of the construction together account for mechanical properties, though these layers taken separately have very different mechanical properties. The work of such a composite design has a number of features that require careful consideration when calculating the panels for strength. Thus, it has not yet been described how squeeze reduction of a relatively soft middle layer affects the load bearing capacity of a panel. When panels are exposed to external loads, their middle layer is squeezed thus changing the characteristics of the panel. This effect is particularly evident in supporting structures. Besides, squeeze reduction of the middle layer changes its elastic-plastic propeties. The purpose of this work is to study the effect of the middle layer of an energy efficient panel squeeze reduction on its load bearing capacity. When solving this task, the authors worked out a methodology which takes into account squeeze reduction of a middle layer and its effect on load bearing capacity of the panel. The researches introduced an algorithm for solving this task and created a tool that allows to easily receive the exact solution. The paper presents this methodology and describes a computer program for calculating three-layer panels with account of changing elastic compliance of a middle layer. The main result of the work is an extended methodology of calculation of the panels and an obtained engineering tool that allows to quickly obtain an extended solution.

  17. Charge generation layers for solution processed tandem organic light emitting diodes with regular device architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfle, Stefan; Bernhard, Christoph; Bruns, Michael; Kübel, Christian; Scherer, Torsten; Lemmer, Uli; Colsmann, Alexander

    2015-04-22

    Tandem organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) utilizing fluorescent polymers in both sub-OLEDs and a regular device architecture were fabricated from solution, and their structure and performance characterized. The charge carrier generation layer comprised a zinc oxide layer, modified by a polyethylenimine interface dipole, for electron injection and either MoO3, WO3, or VOx for hole injection into the adjacent sub-OLEDs. ToF-SIMS investigations and STEM-EDX mapping verified the distinct functional layers throughout the layer stack. At a given device current density, the current efficiencies of both sub-OLEDs add up to a maximum of 25 cd/A, indicating a properly working tandem OLED.

  18. Purification of carbon nanotubes via selective heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, John A.; Wilson, William L.; Jin, Sung Hun; Dunham, Simon N.; Xie, Xu; Islam, Ahmad; Du, Frank; Huang, Yonggang; Song, Jizhou

    2017-11-21

    The present invention provides methods for purifying a layer of carbon nanotubes comprising providing a precursor layer of substantially aligned carbon nanotubes supported by a substrate, wherein the precursor layer comprises a mixture of first carbon nanotubes and second carbon nanotubes; selectively heating the first carbon nanotubes; and separating the first carbon nanotubes from the second carbon nanotubes, thereby generating a purified layer of carbon nanotubes. Devices benefiting from enhanced electrical properties enabled by the purified layer of carbon nanotubes are also described.

  19. Color-stable and efficient tandem white organic light-emitting devices using a LiF n-doping layer and a MoO{sub x} p-doping layer as charge generating unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu; Wu, Qingyang; Zhang, Zhensong; Yue, Shouzhen; Guo, Runda; Wang, Peng; Wu, Mingzhu; Gou, Changhua; Zhao, Yi, E-mail: yizhao@jlu.edu.cn; Liu, Shiyong

    2013-10-31

    We have demonstrated color-stable and efficient tandem organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) using 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen):LiF/4,4′,4″-tris(N-3-methylphenyl-N-phenyl-amino)triphenylamine (m-MTDATA):molybdenum oxide (MoO{sub x}) as charge generating unit (CGU), which has the advantages of air stability and ease of fabrication; the working mechanism of Bphen:LiF/m-MTDATA:MoO{sub x} is also discussed through analysis of the electrical and spectral emission properties of tandem devices with different CGUs. The performance of tandem white OLED, comprising blue and yellow phosphorescent EL units, can be improved by optimizing the thickness of Bphen:LiF layer. The device comprised of 30 nm Bphen:LiF layer has a maximum current efficiency of 38.7 cd/A and it can still maintain 24.6 cd/A at the luminance of 10,370 cd/m{sup 2}. Moreover, the Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of the device are rather stable and the variation is only (± 0.003, ± 0.007) over a wide range of luminance (100–13,000 cd/m{sup 2}). - Highlights: • LiF n-doping layer and MoO{sub x} p-doping layer were used as charge generating units. • The device performance was improved by optimizing the thickness of n-doping layer. • High luminance and efficiency were both achieved at a very low current density. • The device showed rather stable spectra over a wide range of luminance.

  20. Securing wireless communications at the physical layer

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Ruoheng

    2009-01-01

    Throughout this book there is an underlying theme that the rich multipath environment that is typical of wireless scenarios supports the establishment of new security services at the physical layer, including new mechanisms that establish cryptographic keys, that support communication with assured confidentiality, and that can authenticate transmitters in mobile environments. The book takes a holistic approach to covering topics related to physical layer security solutions, with contributions ranging from the theoretical underpinnings behind secure communications to practical systems validatio

  1. Sporadic potassium layers and their connection to sporadic E layers in the mesopause region at Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Jiao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A double-laser beam lidar to measure potassium (K layer at Beijing (40.5° N, 116.2° E was successfully developed in 2010. The parameters of sporadic Ks layers and their distributions were given. The seasonal distribution of Ks occurrence frequency was obtained, with two maxima in July and January. The seasonal distributions of sporadic Es layer occurrence frequency over Beijing differ from those of Ks. However, the good correlation between Es and Ks in the case-by-case studies supports the mechanism of neutralization of metal ions in a descending Es layer.

  2. Structure of diaphragm floor of reactor container, construction module and construction method thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Oikawa, Tadaaki; Ushiroda, Koichi; Matsuura, Tadashi; Komaru, Toshimi; Nemoto, Yoichi; Makita, Tatsuo; Maezawa, Sumito.

    1998-01-01

    A diaphragm floor of a reactor container has a structure comprising iron beams buried in concretes and connection members connecting the iron beams and liners, in which the liners are supported by the iron beams, and the load of the iron reinforced concretes when formed on the liner is supported by the iron beams thereby enabling to construct a diaphragm floor with no or reduced amount of temporary support members. As a result, the construction operation can be promoted by reducing the amount of the temporary support members or making the removing operation of the temporary support members unnecessary. The concrete layer comprises at least two upper and lower layers of a firstly formed concrete layer and a subsequently formed concrete layer, and the iron beams have such a strength capable of enduring the load applied when the firstly formed concrete is placed. (N.H.)

  3. Transport parameters of thin, supported cathode layers in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs); Transportparameter duenner, getraegerter Kathodenschichten der oxidkeramischen Brennstoffzelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedershoven, Christian

    2010-12-22

    The aim of this work was to determine the transport properties of thin cathode layers, which are part of the composite layer of a fabricated anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The transport properties of the anode and cathode have a significant influence on the electrochemical performance of a fuel cell stack and therefore represent an important parameter when designing fuel cell stacks. In order to determine the transport parameters of the cathode layers in a fabricated SOFC, it is necessary to permeate the thin cathode layer deposited on the gas-tight electrolyte with a defined gas transport. These thin cathode layers cannot be fabricated as mechanically stable single layers and cannot therefore be investigated in the diffusion and permeation experiments usually used to determine transport parameters. The setup of these experiments - particularly the sample holder - was therefore altered in this work. The result of this altered setup was a three-dimensional flow configuration. Compared to the conventional setup, it was no longer possible to describe the gas transport in the experiments with an analytical one-dimensional solution. A numerical solution process had to be used to evaluate the measurements. The new setup permitted a sufficiently symmetrical gas distribution and thus allowed the description of the transport to be reduced to a two-dimensional description, which significantly reduced the computational effort required to evaluate the measurements. For pressure-induced transport, a parametrized coherent expression of transport could be derived. This expression is equivalent to the analytical description of the transport in conventional measurement setups, with the exception of parameters that describe the geometry of the gas diffusion. In this case, a numerical process is not necessary for the evaluation. Using the transport parameters of mechanically stable anode substrates, which can be measured both in the old and the new setups, the old and

  4. Thermal emitter comprising near-zero permittivity materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Ting S.; Campione, Salvatore; Sinclair, Michael B.

    2017-10-25

    A novel thermal source comprising a semiconductor hyperbolic metamaterial provides control of the emission spectrum and the angular emission pattern. These properties arise because of epsilon-near-zero conditions in the semiconductor hyperbolic metamaterial. In particular, the thermal emission is dominated by the epsilon-near-zero effect in the doped quantum wells composing the semiconductor hyperbolic metamaterial. Furthermore, different properties are observed for s and p polarizations, following the characteristics of the strong anisotropy of hyperbolic metamaterials.

  5. Recent Advances in Gas Barrier Thin Films via Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Polymers and Platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priolo, Morgan A; Holder, Kevin M; Guin, Tyler; Grunlan, Jaime C

    2015-05-01

    Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly has emerged as the leading non-vacuum technology for the fabrication of transparent, super gas barrier films. The super gas barrier performance of LbL deposited films has been demonstrated in numerous studies, with a variety of polyelectrolytes, to rival that of metal and metal oxide-based barrier films. This Feature Article is a mini-review of LbL-based multilayer thin films with a 'nanobrick wall' microstructure comprising polymeric mortar and nano-platelet bricks that impart high gas barrier to otherwise permeable polymer substrates. These transparent, water-based thin films exhibit oxygen transmission rates below 5 × 10(-3) cm(3) m(-2) day(-1) atm(-1) and lower permeability than any other barrier material reported. In an effort to put this technology in the proper context, incumbent technologies such as metallized plastics, metal oxides, and flake-filled polymers are briefly reviewed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. An intelligent service-based layered architecture for e learning and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javaid, Q.; Arif, F.

    2017-01-01

    The rapid advancement in ICT (Information and Communication Technology) is causing a paradigm shift in eLearning domain. Traditional eLearning systems suffer from certain shortcomings like tight coupling of system components, lack of personalization, flexibility, and scalability and performance issues. This study aims at addressing these challenges through an MAS (Multi Agent System) based multi-layer architecture supported by web services. The foremost objective of this study is to enhance learning process efficiency by provision of flexibility features for learning and assessment processes. Proposed architecture consists of two sub-system namely eLearning and eAssesssment. This architecture comprises of five distinct layers for each sub-system, with active agents responsible for miscellaneous tasks including content handling, updating, resource optimization, load handling and provision of customized environments for learners and instructors. Our proposed architecture aims at establishment of a facilitation level to learners as well as instructors for convenient acquisition and dissemination of knowledge. Personalization features like customized environments, personalized content retrieval and recommendations, adaptive assessment and reduced response time, are believed to significantly enhance learning and tutoring experience. In essence characteristics like intelligence, personalization, interactivity, usability, laidback accessibility and security, signify aptness of proposed architecture for improving conventional learning and assessment processes. Finally we have evaluated our proposed architecture by means of analytical comparison and survey considering certain quality attributes. (author)

  7. Silver halide photographic material providing an image and an unsharp mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadhead, P.; Farnell, G.C.

    1981-01-01

    Desirable edge effects are produced by normal imagewise exposure and processing of a sensitive radiographic film comprising a transparent film support bearing a layer of a direct-positive silver halide emulsion and a layer of a negative silver halide emulsion and wherein the film comprises means to reduce crossover between the two emulsion layers, one of said emulsion layers being adapted to record a primary image and the other being adapted to record an unsharp mask image. (author)

  8. Support system of a structure on a support base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arene, G.; Renaux, C.; Minguet, J.L.; Chantot, H.

    1984-01-01

    Two series of strips are fixed to the structure to be supported and to the base to define each one a closed convex envelope; the strips are flexible in the radial direction with regard to the envelope. The two series of strips are connected by a treillis of rigid bars set to form juxtaposed V or X. A good transversal rigidity and a certain radial flexibility are obtained. The invention can be applied to a fast neutron nuclear reactor, the reactor comprising a vertical axis vessel filled with liquid metal; the vessel rests on a support foundation by means of the support system proposed by the invention. The support system allows the supported structure to resist the effects of an eventual earthquake and brutal temperature variations [fr

  9. Apparatus suitable for plasma surface treating and process for preparing membrane layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1988-01-01

    The invention relates to an apparatus suitable for plasma surface treating (e.g. forming a membrane layer on a substrate) which comprises a plasma generation section (2) which is in communication via at least one plasma inlet means (4) (e.g. a nozzle) with an enclosed plasma treating section (3)

  10. Composite materials comprising two jonal functions and methods for making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fareed, Ali Syed; Garnier, John Edward; Schiroky, Gerhard Hans; Kennedy, Christopher Robin; Sonuparlak, Birol

    2001-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to mechanisms for preventing undesirable oxidation (i.e., oxidation protection mechanisms) in composite bodies. The oxidation protection mechanisms include getterer materials which are added to the composite body which gather or scavenge undesirable oxidants which may enter the composite body. The getterer materials may be placed into at least a portion of the composite body such that any undesirable oxidant approaching, for example, a fiber reinforcement, would be scavenged by (e.g., reacted with) the getterer. The getterer materials) may form at least one compound which acts as a passivation layer, and/or is able to move by bulk transport (e.g., by viscous flow as a glassy material) to a crack, and sealing the crack, thereby further enhancing the oxidation protection of the composite body. One or more ceramic filler materials which serve as reinforcements may have a plurality of super-imposed coatings thereon, at least one of which coatings may function as or contain an oxidation protection mechanism. Specifically, a coating comprising boron nitride which has been engineered or modified to contain some silicon exhibits improved corrosion resistance, specifically to oxygen and moisture. The coated materials may be useful as reinforcing materials in high performance composites to provide improved mechanical properties such as fracture toughness. The present invention also relates to improved composites which incorporate these materials, and to their methods of manufacture.

  11. On governing equations for crack layer propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, A.; Botsis, J.

    1988-01-01

    Results of analysis on damage distribution of a crack layer, in a model material, supported the self-similarity hypothesis of damage evolution which has been adopted by the crack layer theory. On the basis of measurements of discontinuity density and the double layer potential technique, a solution to the crack damage interaction problem has been developed. Evaluation of the stress intensity factor illustrated the methodology. Analysis of experimental results showed that Arrhenius type constitutive relationship described very well the expansion of the active zone of a crack layer.

  12. Anatomy of Heinrich Layer 1 and its role in the last deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodell, David A.; Nicholl, Joseph A.; Bontognali, Tomaso R. R.; Danino, Steffan; Dorador, Javier; Dowdeswell, Julian A.; Einsle, Joshua; Kuhlmann, Holger; Martrat, Belen; Mleneck-Vautravers, Maryline J.; Rodríguez-Tovar, Francisco Javier; Röhl, Ursula

    2017-03-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) core scanning and X-ray computed tomography data were measured every 1 mm to study the structure of Heinrich Event 1 during the last deglaciation at International Ocean Discovery Program Site U1308. Heinrich Layer 1 comprises two distinct layers of ice-rafted detritus (IRD), which are rich in detrital carbonate (DC) and poor in foraminifera. Each DC layer consists of poorly sorted, coarse-grained clasts of IRD embedded in a dense, fine-grained matrix of glacial rock flour that is partially cemented. The radiocarbon ages of foraminifera at the base of the two layers indicate a difference of 1400 14C years, suggesting that they are two distinct events, but the calendar ages depend upon assumptions made for surface reservoir ages. The double peak indicates at least two distinct stages of discharge of the ice streams that drained the Laurentide Ice Sheet through Hudson Strait during HE1 or, alternatively, the discharge of two independent ice streams containing detrital carbonate. Heinrich Event 1.1 was the larger of the two events and began at 16.2 ka (15.5-17.1 ka) when the polar North Atlantic was already cold and Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) weakened. The younger peak (H1.2) at 15.1 ka (14.3 to 15.9 ka) was a weaker event than H1.1 that was accompanied by minor cooling. Our results support a complex history for Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1) with reduction in AMOC during the early part ( 20-16.2 ka) possibly driven by melting of European ice sheets, whereas the Laurentide Ice Sheet assumed a greater role during the latter half ( 16.2-14.7 ka).

  13. Reversibility of temperature driven discrete layer-by-layer formation of dioctyl-benzothieno-benzothiophene films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohr, M; Ehmann, H M A; Jones, A O F; Salzmann, I; Shen, Q; Teichert, C; Ruzié, C; Schweicher, G; Geerts, Y H; Resel, R; Sferrazza, M; Werzer, O

    2017-03-22

    Film forming properties of semiconducting organic molecules comprising alkyl-chains combined with an aromatic unit have a decisive impact on possible applications in organic electronics. In particular, knowledge on the film formation process in terms of wetting or dewetting, and the precise control of these processes, is of high importance. In the present work, the subtle effect of temperature on the morphology and structure of dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) films deposited on silica surfaces by spin coating is investigated in situ via X-ray diffraction techniques and atomic force microscopy. Depending on temperature, bulk C8-BTBT exhibits a crystalline, a smectic A and an isotropic phase. Heating of thin C8-BTBT layers at temperatures below the smectic phase transition temperature leads to a strong dewetting of the films. Upon approaching the smectic phase transition, the molecules start to rewet the surface in the form of discrete monolayers with a defined number of monolayers being present at a given temperature. The wetting process and layer formation is well defined and thermally stable at a given temperature. On cooling the reverse effect is observed and dewetting occurs. This demonstrates the full reversibility of the film formation behavior and reveals that the layering process is defined by an equilibrium thermodynamic state, rather than by kinetic effects.

  14. Fabrication of contacts for silicon solar cells including printing burn through layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginley, David S; Kaydanova, Tatiana; Miedaner, Alexander; Curtis, Calvin J; Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria

    2014-06-24

    A method for fabricating a contact (240) for a solar cell (200). The method includes providing a solar cell substrate (210) with a surface that is covered or includes an antireflective coating (220). For example, the substrate (210) may be positioned adjacent or proximate to an outlet of an inkjet printer (712) or other deposition device. The method continues with forming a burn through layer (230) on the coating (220) by depositing a metal oxide precursor (e.g., using an inkjet or other non-contact printing method to print or apply a volume of liquid or solution containing the precursor). The method includes forming a contact layer (240) comprising silver over or on the burn through layer (230), and then annealing is performed to electrically connect the contact layer (240) to the surface of the solar cell substrate (210) through a portion of the burn through layer (230) and the coating (220).

  15. Synthesis of Polythiophene–Fullerene Hybrid Additives as Potential Compatibilizers of BHJ Active Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Kakogianni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Perfluorophenyl functionalities have been introduced as side chain substituents onto regioregular poly(3-hexyl thiophene (rr-P3HT, under various percentages. These functional groups were then converted to azides which were used to create polymeric hybrid materials with fullerene species, either C60 or C70. The P3HT–fullerene hybrids thus formed were thereafter evaluated as potential compatibilizers of BHJ active layers comprising P3HT and fullerene based acceptors. Therefore, a systematic investigation of the optical and morphological properties of the purified polymer–fullerene hybrid materials was performed, via different complementary techniques. Additionally, P3HT:PC70BM blends containing various percentages of the herein synthesized hybrid material comprising rr-P3HT and C70 were investigated via Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM in an effort to understand the effect of the hybrids as additives on the morphology and nanophase separation of this typically used active layer blend for OPVs.

  16. A note on the layered intrusions at Annandagstoppane and Juletoppane, western Dronning Maud Land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krynauw, J.R.; Hunter, D.R.; Wilson, A.H.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of the geology and geochemistry of the layered rocks at Annandagstoppane (72 degrees 33'S, 06 degrees 16'W) and Juletoppane (72 degrees 23'S, 05 degrees 33'W) in the Giaeverryggen, western Dronning Maud Land, are discussed. The mafic rocks in the two areas have been divided into a 'main suite' and a 'younger suite'. The main suite rocks comprise medium-grained gabbros, gabbronorites and anorhositic gabbros. lenticular and discontinuous rhythmic layers are present. The younger suite comprises basaltic dykes at Annandagstoppane, and a dolerite sill and small pods of fine-grained gabbroic bodies at Juletoppane. Petrographic and geochemical aspects of main suite rocks in the two areas show close similarities, and indicate that pyroxene and plagioclase were the primocrysts in the orthocumulate assemblages. The preliminary results suggest that the Annandagstoppane and Juletoppane gabbroic rocks may either constitute a single layered intrusion, or reflect outcrops of intrusions of several ages, their magmas having been derived from compositionally similar mantle sources. The close chemical similarities of the younger suite with the main suite suggest that all the mafic phases in the two areas are genetically related

  17. Coil Springs Layer Used to Support a Car Vertical Dynamics Simulator and to Reduce the Maximum Actuation Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan N. Dumitriu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A Danaher Thomson linear actuator with ball screw drive and a realtime control system are used here to induce vertical displacements under the driver/user seat of an in-house dynamic car simulator. In order to better support the car simulator and to dynamically protect the actuator’s ball screw drive, a layer of coil springs is used to support the whole simulator chassis. More precisely, one coil spring is placed vertically under each corner of the rectangular chassis. The paper presents the choice of the appropriate coil springs, so that to minimize as much as possible the ball screw drive task of generating linear motions, corresponding to the vertical displacements and accelerations encountered by a driver during a real ride. For this application, coil springs with lower spring constant are more suited to reduce the forces in the ball screw drive and thus to increase the ball screw drive life expectancy.

  18. Pipe support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollono, L.P.

    1979-01-01

    A pipe support for high temperature, thin-walled piping runs such as those used in nuclear systems is described. A section of the pipe to be suppported is encircled by a tubular inner member comprised of two walls with an annular space therebetween. Compacted load-bearing thermal insulation is encapsulated within the annular space, and the inner member is clamped to the pipe by a constant clamping force split-ring clamp. The clamp may be connected to pipe hangers which provide desired support for the pipe

  19. Electrical and stability performance of anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells with strontium- and magnesium-doped lanthanum gallate thin electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Weimin; Liu Jiang; Zhang Yaohui

    2008-01-01

    Anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) comprising NiO-samarium-doped ceria (SDC) (Sm 0.2 Ce 0.8 O 1.9 ) composite anode, thin tri-layer electrolyte, and La 0.6 Sr 0.4 Co 0.8 Fe 0.2 O 3 (LSCF)-La 0.9 Sr 0.1 Ga 0.8 Mg 0.2 O 3-δ (LSGM) composite cathode were fabricated. The thin tri-layer consisting of an 11-μm thick LSGM electrolyte layer and a 12-μm thick La 0.4 Ce 0.6 O 1.8 (LDC) layer on each side of the LSGM was prepared by centrifugal casting and co-firing technique. The performance of the cells operated with humidified H 2 as fuel and ambient air as oxidant showed a maximum power density of 1.23 W cm -2 at 800 deg. C. A stability test of about 100 h was carried out and some deterioration of output power was observed, while the open circuit voltage (OCV) kept unchanged. Impedance measurements showed that both the electrolyte ohmic resistance and the electrode polarization increased with time and the latter dominated the degradation

  20. Cellular responses modulated by FGF-2 adsorbed on albumin/heparin layer-by-layer assemblies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kumorek, Marta M.; Kubies, Dana; Filová, Elena; Houska, Milan; Kasoju, Naresh; Mázl Chánová, Eliška; Matějka, Roman; Krýslová, Markéta; Bačáková, Lucie; Rypáček, František

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 5 (2015), e0125484_1-e0125484_23 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0029; GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1857; GA ČR GPP108/12/P624; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:67985823 Keywords : self-assembly * layer-by-layer * heparin Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry; EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics (FGU-C) Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015

  1. Visualization of deuterium dead layer by atom probe tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Gemma, Ryota

    2012-12-01

    The first direct observation, by atom probe tomography, of a deuterium dead layer is reported for Fe/V multilayered film loaded with D solute atoms. The thickness of the dead layers was measured to be 0.4-0.5 nm. The dead layers could be distinguished from chemically intermixed layers. The results suggest that the dead layer effect occurs even near the interface of the mixing layers, supporting an interpretation that the dead layer effect cannot be explained solely by electronic charge transfer but also involves a modulation of rigidity. © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Visualization of deuterium dead layer by atom probe tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Gemma, Ryota; Al-Kassab, Talaat; Kirchheim, Reiner; Pundt, Astrid A.

    2012-01-01

    The first direct observation, by atom probe tomography, of a deuterium dead layer is reported for Fe/V multilayered film loaded with D solute atoms. The thickness of the dead layers was measured to be 0.4-0.5 nm. The dead layers could be distinguished from chemically intermixed layers. The results suggest that the dead layer effect occurs even near the interface of the mixing layers, supporting an interpretation that the dead layer effect cannot be explained solely by electronic charge transfer but also involves a modulation of rigidity. © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. On-chip optical filter comprising Fabri-Perot resonator structure and spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seunghoon; Horie, Yu; Faraon, Andrei; Arbabi, Amir

    2018-04-10

    An on-chip optical filter having Fabri-Perot resonators and a spectrometer may include a first sub-wavelength grating (SWG) reflecting layer and a second SWG reflecting layer facing each other. A plurality of Fabri-Perot resonators are formed by the first SWG reflecting layer and the second SWG reflecting layer facing each other. Each of the Fabri-Perot resonators may transmit light corresponding to a resonance wavelength of the Fabri-Perot resonator. The resonance wavelengths of the Fabri-Perot resonators may be determined according to duty cycles of grating patterns.

  4. Preparation of insulin-containing microcapsules by a layer-by-layer deposition of concanavalin A and glycogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Katsuhiko; Kodama, Daisuke; Endo, Yoshihiro; Anzai, Jun-ichi

    2009-01-01

    The sugar sensitive microcapsules were prepared by a layer-by-layer deposition of concanavalin A (Con A) and glycogen on a calcium carbonate particle containing fluorescein-labeled insulin (F-insulin). The Con A/glycogen multilayer capsules were formed through sugar-lectin interactions by using inner and outer poly(ethyleneimine)/poly(vinyl sulfate) multilayers as supports, while without the supports the microcapsules could not be formed. Fluorescent microscope observations revealed that the capsules thus prepared are spherical in shape with 3-10 microm diameter. The microcapsules released encapsulated F-insulin upon addition of sugars. This is because the added sugars replace glycogen in the binding site of Con A, resulting in the enhanced permeability of the microcapsules to insulin.

  5. Mass transfer model for two-layer TBP oxidation reactions: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurinat, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    To prove that two-layer, TBP-nitric acid mixtures can be safely stored in the Canyon evaporators, it must be demonstrated that a runaway reaction between TBP and nitric acid will not occur. Previous bench-scale experiments showed that, at typical evaporator temperatures, this reaction is endothermic and therefore cannot run away, due to the loss of heat from evaporation of water in the organic layer. However, the reaction would be exothermic and could run away if the small amount of water in the organic layer evaporates before the nitric acid in this layer is consumed by the reaction. Provided that there is enough water in the aqueous layer, this would occur if the organic layer is sufficiently thick so that the rate of loss of water by evaporation exceeds the rate of replenishment due to mixing with the aqueous layer. Bubbles containing reaction products enhance the rate of transfer of water from the aqueous layer to the organic layer. These bubbles are generated by the oxidation of TBP and its reaction products in the organic layer and by the oxidation of butanol in the aqueous layer. Butanol is formed by the hydrolysis of TBP in the organic layer. For aqueous-layer bubbling to occur, butanol must transfer into the aqueous layer. Consequently, the rate of oxidation and bubble generation in the aqueous layer strongly depends on the rate of transfer of butanol from the organic to the aqueous layer. This report presents measurements of mass transfer rates for the mixing of water and butanol in two-layer, TBP-aqueous mixtures, where the top layer is primarily TBP and the bottom layer is comprised of water or aqueous salt solution. Mass transfer coefficients are derived for use in the modeling of two-layer TBP-nitric acid oxidation experiments

  6. Reassembly of S-layer proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pum, Dietmar; Sleytr, Uwe B

    2014-01-01

    Crystalline bacterial cell surface layers (S-layers) represent the outermost cell envelope component in a broad range of bacteria and archaea. They are monomolecular arrays composed of a single protein or glycoprotein species and represent the simplest biological membranes developed during evolution. They are highly porous protein mesh works with unit cell sizes in the range of 3 to 30 nm, and pore sizes of 2 to 8 nm. S-layers are usually 5 to 20 nm thick (in archaea, up to 70 nm). S-layer proteins are one of the most abundant biopolymers on earth. One of their key features, and the focus of this review, is the intrinsic capability of isolated native and recombinant S-layer proteins to form self-assembled mono- or double layers in suspension, at solid supports, the air-water interface, planar lipid films, liposomes, nanocapsules, and nanoparticles. The reassembly is entropy-driven and a fascinating example of matrix assembly following a multistage, non-classical pathway in which the process of S-layer protein folding is directly linked with assembly into extended clusters. Moreover, basic research on the structure, synthesis, genetics, assembly, and function of S-layer proteins laid the foundation for their application in novel approaches in biotechnology, biomimetics, synthetic biology, and nanotechnology. (topical review)

  7. Buffer layers and articles for electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan P.; Aytug, Tolga; Christen, David K.; Feenstra, Roeland; Goyal, Amit

    2004-07-20

    Materials for depositing buffer layers on biaxially textured and untextured metallic and metal oxide substrates for use in the manufacture of superconducting and other electronic articles comprise RMnO.sub.3, R.sub.1-x A.sub.x MnO.sub.3, and combinations thereof; wherein R includes an element selected from the group consisting of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, and Y, and A includes an element selected from the group consisting of Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, and Ra.

  8. The obtaining of iron acetate from processed iron comprising catalyst of ammonia synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansurov, M.M.; Lugovenko, A.N.; Mirzoeva, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    Present article is devoted to obtaining of iron acetate from processed iron comprising catalyst of ammonia synthesis. The method of synthesis of iron acetate from processed iron comprising catalyst of ammonia synthesis was elaborated. The structure of complex was determined.

  9. Solar panel assembly and support pad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, W.W.

    1980-10-07

    A solar panel assembly is described comprising at least one solar panel, support means for carrying said panel, and at least one support pad having a base plate, upstanding longitudinal sides, and spaced apart flange means for connection to said support means, said upstanding sides and opposed flange means defining an interior volume for receiving and holding weighting material.

  10. Layered distributed architecture for plant automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravamuthan, G.; Verma, Yachika; Ranjan, Jyoti; Chachondia, Alka S.; Ganesh, G.

    2005-01-01

    The development of plant automation system and associated software remains one of the greatest challenges to the widespread implementation of highly adaptive re-configurable automation technology. This paper presents a layered distributed architecture for a plant automation system designed to support rapid reconfiguration and redeployment of automation components. The paper first presents evolution of automation architecture and their associated environment in the past few decades and then presents the concept of layered system architecture and the use of automation components to support the construction of a wide variety of automation system. It also highlights the role of standards and technology, which can be used in the development of automation components. We have attempted to adhere to open standards and technology for the development of automation component at a various layers. It also highlights the application of this concept in the development of an Operator Information System (OIS) for Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR). (author)

  11. Chlorophyll modulation of mixed layer thermodynamics in a mixed-layer isopycnal general circulation model - An example from Arabian Sea and Equatorial Pacific

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nakamoto, S.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Oberhuber, J.M.; Saito, H.; Muneyama, K.

    and supported by quasi-steady upwelling. Remotely sensed chlorophyll pigment concentrations from the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) are used to investigate the chlorophyll modulation of ocean mixed layer thermodynamics in a bulk mixed-layer model, embedded...

  12. Regulation and dysregulation of esophageal peristalsis by the integrated function of circular and longitudinal muscle layers in health and disease

    OpenAIRE

    Mittal, Ravinder K.

    2016-01-01

    Muscularis propria throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract including the esophagus is comprised of circular and longitudinal muscle layers. Based on the studies conducted in the colon and the small intestine, for more than a century, it has been debated whether the two muscle layers contract synchronously or reciprocally during the ascending contraction and descending relaxation of the peristaltic reflex. Recent studies in the esophagus and colon prove that the two muscle layers indeed c...

  13. Initiative For Thyroid Cancer Diagnosis: Decision Support System For Anaplast Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Ahmed Chandio

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high level exposure of biomedical image analysis, Medical image mining has become one of the well-established research area(s of machine learning. AI (Artificial Intelligence techniques have been vastly used to solve the complex classification problems of thyroid cancer. Since the persistence of copycat chromatin properties and unavailability of nuclei measurement techniques, it is really problem for doctors to determine the initial phases of nuclei enlargement and to assess the early changes of chromatin distribution. For example involvement of multiple transparent overlapping of nuclei may become the cause of confusion to infer the growth pattern of nuclei variations. Un-decidable nuclei eccentric properties may become one of the leading causes for misdiagnosis in Anaplast cancers. In-order to mitigate all above stated problems this paper proposes a novel methodology so called “Decision Support System for Anaplast Thyroid Cancer” and it proposes a medical data preparation algorithm AD (Analpast_Cancers which helps to select the appropriate features of Anaplast cancers such as (1 enlargement of nuclei, (2 persistence of irregularity in nuclei and existence of hyper chromatin. Proposed methodology comprises over four major layers, first layer deals with the noise reduction, detection of nuclei edges and object clusters. Second layer selects the features of object of interest such as nuclei enlargement, irregularity and hyper chromatin. Third layer constructs the decision model to extract the hidden patterns of disease associated variables and final layer evaluates the performance evaluation by using confusion matrix, precision and recall measures. The overall classification accuracy is measured about 97.2% with 10-k fold cross validation.

  14. Thin plasma-polymerized layers of hexamethyldisiloxane for humidity sensor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guermat, N.; Bellel, A.; Sahli, S.; Segui, Y.; Raynaud, P.

    2009-01-01

    The response of resistive-type sensors based on thin hexamethyldisiloxane layers to relative humidity (RH) was evaluated. Humidity sensitive layers were plasma polymerized at low frequency glow discharge using a capacitively coupled parallel plate reactor. The sensor design comprises the absorbing layer deposited on clean glass substrate with comb-shape aluminum electrodes (interdigitated structure). The change in electrical impedance of the sensing film was monitored as the device was exposed to humidity. The variation of the plasma-polymerization parameters resulted in different humidity sensing properties which could be correlated to the results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The deposited films exhibited a detectable response to RH ranging from 30 to 95% with low hysteresis, good reproducibility and stability in long-term use. Films with a greater thickness showed a significant decrease in the humidity sensing capability. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of SiH bonding groups, which are frequently linked to the film density. The increase in the plasma discharge power induced also a significant decrease in the diffusion process of water vapor inside the sensitive layer bulk.

  15. Thin-Film layers with Interfaces that reduce RF Losses on High-Resistivity Silicon Substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evseev, S. B.; Milosavljevic, S.; Nanver, L. K.

    2017-01-01

    Radio-Frequency (RF) losses on High-Resistivity Silicon (HRS) substrates were studied for several different surface passivation layers comprising thin-films of SiC, SiN and SiO2 In many combinations, losses from conductive surface channels were reduced and increasing the number of interfaces between

  16. Elastic Buckling Behaviour of General Multi-Layered Graphene Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Ming Lin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Elastic buckling behaviour of multi-layered graphene sheets is rigorously investigated. Van der Waals forces are modelled, to a first order approximation, as linear physical springs which connect the nodes between the layers. Critical buckling loads and their associated modes are established and analyzed under different boundary conditions, aspect ratios and compressive loading ratios in the case of graphene sheets compressed in two perpendicular directions. Various practically possible loading configurations are examined and their effect on buckling characteristics is assessed. To model more accurately the buckling behaviour of multi-layered graphene sheets, a physically more representative and realistic mixed boundary support concept is proposed and applied. For the fundamental buckling mode under mixed boundary support, the layers with different boundary supports deform similarly but non-identically, leading to resultant van der Waals bonding forces between the layers which in turn affect critical buckling load. Results are compared with existing known solutions to illustrate the excellent numerical accuracy of the proposed modelling approach. The buckling characteristics of graphene sheets presented in this paper form a comprehensive and wholesome study which can be used as potential structural design guideline when graphene sheets are employed for nano-scale sensing and actuation applications such as nano-electro-mechanical systems.

  17. A high-resolution tracking hodoscope based on capillary layers filled with liquid scintillator

    CERN Document Server

    Bay, A; Bruski, N; Buontempo, S; Currat, C; D'Ambrosio, N; Ekimov, A V; Ereditato, A; Fabre, Jean-Paul; Fanti, V; Frekers, D; Frenkel, A; Golovkin, S V; Govorun, V N; Harrison, K; Koppenburg, P; Kozarenko, E N; Kreslo, I E; Liberti, B; Martellotti, G; Medvedkov, A M; Mondardini, M R; Penso, G; Siegmund, W P; Vasilchenko, V G; Vilain, P; Wilquet, G; Winter, Klaus; Wörtche, H J

    2001-01-01

    Results are given on tests of a high-resolution tracking hodoscope based on layers of \\hbox{26-$\\mu$m-bore} glass capillaries filled with organic liquid scintillator (1-methylnaphthalene doped with R39). The detector prototype consisted of three 2-mm-thick parallel layers, with surface areas of $2.1 \\times 21$~cm$^2$. The layers had a centre-to-centre spacing of 6~mm, and were read by an optoelectronic chain comprising two electrostatically focused image intensifiers and an Electron-Bombarded Charge-Coupled Device (EBCCD). Tracks of cosmic-ray particles were recorded and analysed. The observed hit density was 6.6~hits/mm for particles crossing the layers perpendicularly, at a distance of 1~cm from the capillaries' readout end, and 4.2~hits/mm for particles at a distance of 20~cm. A track segment reconstructed in a single layer had an rms residual of $\\sim$~20~$\\mu$m, and allowed determination of the track position in a neighbouring layer with a precision of $\\sim$~170~$\\mu$m. This latter value corresponded to...

  18. Surface-stabilized gold nanocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN; Yan, Wenfu [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-12-08

    A surface-stabilized gold nanocatalyst includes a solid support having stabilizing surfaces for supporting gold nanoparticles, and a plurality of gold nanoparticles having an average particle size of less than 8 nm disposed on the stabilizing surfaces. The surface-stabilized gold nanocatalyst provides enhanced stability, such as at high temperature under oxygen containing environments. In one embodiment, the solid support is a multi-layer support comprising at least a first layer having a second layer providing the stabilizing surfaces disposed thereon, the first and second layer being chemically distinct.

  19. Dynamics of liquid solidification thermal resistance of contact layer

    CERN Document Server

    Lipnicki, Zygmunt

    2017-01-01

    This monograph comprehensively describes phenomena of heat flow during phase change as well as the dynamics of liquid solidification, i.e. the development of a solidified layer. The book provides the reader with basic knowledge for practical designs, as well as with equations which describe processes of energy transformation. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field of heat flow, but the book may also be beneficial for both practicing engineers and graduate students.

  20. How does the canine paw pad attenuate ground impacts? A multi-layer cushion system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaibin Miao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Macroscopic mechanical properties of digitigrade paw pads, such as non-linear elastic and variable stiffness, have been investigated in previous studies; however, little is known about the micro-scale structural characteristics of digitigrade paw pads, or the relationship between these characteristics and the exceptional cushioning of the pads. The digitigrade paw pad consists of a multi-layered structure, which is mainly comprised of a stratified epithelium layer, a dermis layer and a subcutaneous layer. The stratified epithelium layer and dermal papillae constitute the epidermis layer. Finite element analyses were carried out and showed that the epidermis layer effectively attenuated the ground impact across impact velocities of 0.05–0.4 m/s, and that the von Mises stresses were uniformly distributed in this layer. The dermis layer encompassing the subcutaneous layer can be viewed as a hydrostatic system, which can store, release and dissipate impact energy. All three layers in the paw pad work as a whole to meet the biomechanical requirements of animal locomotion. These findings provide insights into the biomechanical functioning of digitigrade paw pads and could be used to facilitate bio-inspired, ground-contacting component development for robots and machines, as well as contribute to footwear design.

  1. How does the canine paw pad attenuate ground impacts? A multi-layer cushion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Huaibin; Fu, Jun; Qian, Zhihui; Ren, Luquan; Ren, Lei

    2017-12-15

    Macroscopic mechanical properties of digitigrade paw pads, such as non-linear elastic and variable stiffness, have been investigated in previous studies; however, little is known about the micro-scale structural characteristics of digitigrade paw pads, or the relationship between these characteristics and the exceptional cushioning of the pads. The digitigrade paw pad consists of a multi-layered structure, which is mainly comprised of a stratified epithelium layer, a dermis layer and a subcutaneous layer. The stratified epithelium layer and dermal papillae constitute the epidermis layer. Finite element analyses were carried out and showed that the epidermis layer effectively attenuated the ground impact across impact velocities of 0.05-0.4 m/s, and that the von Mises stresses were uniformly distributed in this layer. The dermis layer encompassing the subcutaneous layer can be viewed as a hydrostatic system, which can store, release and dissipate impact energy. All three layers in the paw pad work as a whole to meet the biomechanical requirements of animal locomotion. These findings provide insights into the biomechanical functioning of digitigrade paw pads and could be used to facilitate bio-inspired, ground-contacting component development for robots and machines, as well as contribute to footwear design. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The solid oxide fuel cell comprising a metallic support material, an active anode layer consisting of a good hydrocarbon cracking catalyst, an electrolyte layer, an active cathode layer, and a transition layer consisting of preferably a mixture of LSM and a ferrite to the cathode current collector...

  3. Method for the manufacture of a superconductive Nb3Sn layer on a niobium surface for high frequency applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, H.

    1978-01-01

    A manufacturing method for depositing an Nb 3 Sn layer on a niobium surface for high frequency applications comprising developing a tin vapor atmosphere which also contains a highly volatile tin compound in the gaseous state, and holding the portions of the surface which are to be provided with the Nb 3 Sn layer at a temperature of between 900 0 and 1500 0 C for a predetermined period of time to form the Nb 3 Sn layer permitting niobium surfaces of any shape to be provided with Nb 3 Sn layers of high uniformity and quality

  4. Thermionic detector with multiple layered ionization source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, P. L.

    1985-01-01

    Method and apparatus for analyzing specific chemical substances in a gaseous environment comprises a thermionic source formed of multiple layers of ceramic material composition, an electrical current instrumentality for heating the thermionic source to operating temperatures in the range of 100 0 C. to 1000 0 C., an instrumentality for exposing the surface of the thermionic source to contact with the specific chemical substances for the purpose of forming gas phase ionization of the substances by a process of electrical charge emission from the surface, a collector electrode disposed adjacent to the thermiomic source, an instrumentality for biasing the thermionic source at an electrical potential which causes the gas phase ions to move toward the collector, and an instrumentality for measuring the ion current arriving at the collector. The thermionic source is constructed of a metallic heater element molded inside a sub-layer of hardened ceramic cement material impregnated with a metallic compound additive which is non-corrosive to the heater element during operation. The sub-layer is further covered by a surface-layer formed of hardened ceramic cement material impregnated with an alkali metal compound in a manner that eliminates corrosive contact of the alkali compounds with the heater element. The sub-layer further protects the heater element from contact with gas environments which may be corrosive. The specific ionization of different chemical substances is varied over a wide range by changing the composition and temperature of the thermionic source, and by changing the composition of the gas environment

  5. Development of a Boundary Layer Property Interpolation Tool in Support of Orbiter Return To Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Francis A.; Hamilton, H. Harris

    2006-01-01

    A new tool was developed to predict the boundary layer quantities required by several physics-based predictive/analytic methods that assess damaged Orbiter tile. This new tool, the Boundary Layer Property Prediction (BLPROP) tool, supplies boundary layer values used in correlations that determine boundary layer transition onset and surface heating-rate augmentation/attenuation factors inside tile gouges (i.e. cavities). BLPROP interpolates through a database of computed solutions and provides boundary layer and wall data (delta, theta, Re(sub theta)/M(sub e), Re(sub theta)/M(sub e), Re(sub theta), P(sub w), and q(sub w)) based on user input surface location and free stream conditions. Surface locations are limited to the Orbiter s windward surface. Constructed using predictions from an inviscid w/boundary-layer method and benchmark viscous CFD, the computed database covers the hypersonic continuum flight regime based on two reference flight trajectories. First-order one-dimensional Lagrange interpolation accounts for Mach number and angle-of-attack variations, whereas non-dimensional normalization accounts for differences between the reference and input Reynolds number. Employing the same computational methods used to construct the database, solutions at other trajectory points taken from previous STS flights were computed: these results validate the BLPROP algorithm. Percentage differences between interpolated and computed values are presented and are used to establish the level of uncertainty of the new tool.

  6. R&D for the local support structure and cooling channel for the ATLAS PIXEL Detector Insertable B-Layer (IBL)

    CERN Document Server

    Coelli, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The scope of the present R&D is to develop an innovative support, with an integrated cooling and based on carbon composites, for the electronic sensors of the Silicon Pixel Tracker, to be installed into the ATLAS Experiment on the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The inner layer of the detector is installed immediately outside the Beryllium beam pipe at a distance of 50 mm from the Interaction Point, where the high energy protons collide: the intense radiation field induce a radiation damage on the sensors so that a cooling system is necessary to remove the electrical power dissipated as heat, maintaining the sensor temperature sufficiently low. The task of the support system is to hold the detector modules in positions with high accuracy, minimizing the deformation induced by the cooling; this must be done with the lower possible mass because there are tight requirements in terms of material budget. An evaporative boiling system to remove the power dissipated by the sensors is incorporated in the...

  7. Sintering process optimization for multi-layer CGO membranes by in situ techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Andreas; Prasad, A.S.; Foghmoes, Søren Preben Vagn

    2013-01-01

    The sintering of asymmetric CGO bi-layers (thin dense membrane on a porous support; Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95-delta = CGO) with Co3O4 as sintering additive has been optimized by combination of two in situ techniques. Optical dilatometry revealed that bi-layer shape and microstructure are dramatically...... changing in a narrow temperature range of less than 100 degrees C. Below 1030 degrees C, a higher densification rate in the dense membrane layer than in the porous support leads to concave shape, whereas the densification rate of the support is dominant above 1030 degrees C, leading to convex shape. A fiat...... bi-layer could be prepared at 1030 degrees C, when shrinkage rates were similar. In situ van der Pauw measurements on tape cast layers during sintering allowed following the conductivity during sintering. A strong increase in conductivity and in activation energy E-a for conduction was observed...

  8. Provenance of the K/T boundary layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrand, A.R.; Boynton, W.V.

    1988-01-01

    An array of chemical, physical and isotopic evidence indicates that an impact into oceanic crust terminated the Cretaceous Period. Approximately 1500 cu km of debris, dispersed by the impact fireball, fell out globally in marine and nonmarine environments producing a 2 to 4 mm thick layer (fireball layer). In North American locales, the fireball layer overlies a 15 to 25 mm thick layer of similar but distinct composition. This 15 to 25 mm layer (ejecta layer) may represent approximately 1000 cu km of lower energy ejecta from a nearby impact site. Isotopic and chemical evidence supports a mantle provenance for the bulk of the layers. The extraordinary REE pattern of the boundary clays was modelled as a mixture of oceanic crust, mantle, and approximately 10 percent continental material. The results are presented. If the siderophiles of the ejecta layer were derived solely from the mantle, a test may be available to see if the siderophile element anomaly of the fireball layer had an extraterrestrial origin. Radiogenic Os-187 is depleted in the mantle relative to an undifferentiated chondritic source. Os-187/Os-186 ratios of 1.049 and 1.108 were calculated for the ejecta and fireball layers, respectively

  9. Two-Ply Composite Membranes with Separation Layers from Chitosan and Sulfoethylcellulose on a Microporous Support Based on Poly(diphenylsulfone-N-phenylphthalimide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Kononova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Two-ply composite membranes with separation layers from chitosan and sulfoethylcellulose were developed on a microporous support based on poly(diphenylsulfone-N-phenylphthalimide and investigated by use of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy methods. The pervaporation properties of the membranes were studied for the separation of aqueous alcohol (ethanol, propan-2-ol mixtures of different compositions. When the mixtures to be separated consist of less than 15 wt % water in propan-2-ol, the membranes composed of polyelectrolytes with the same molar fraction of ionogenic groups (-NH3+ for chitosan and -SO3− for sulfoethylcellulose show high permselectivity (the water content in the permeate was 100%. Factors affecting the structure of a non-porous layer of the polyelectrolyte complex formed on the substrate surface and the contribution of that complex to changes in the transport properties of membranes are discussed. The results indicate significant prospects for the use of chitosan and sulfoethylcellulose for the formation of highly selective pervaporation membranes.

  10. On the dynamics of relativistic multi-layer spherical shell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaspar, Merse E; Racz, Istvan, E-mail: merse@rmki.kfki.hu, E-mail: iracz@rmki.kfki.hu [RMKI, H-1121 Budapest, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, Budapest (Hungary)

    2011-04-21

    The relativistic time evolution of multi-layer spherically symmetric shell systems-consisting of infinitely thin shells separated by vacuum regions-is examined. Whenever two shells collide the evolution is continued with the assumption that the collision is totally transparent. The time evolution of various multi-layer shell systems-comprising large number of shells thereby mimicking the behavior of a thick shell making it possible to study the formation of acoustic singularities-is analyzed numerically and compared in certain cases to the corresponding Newtonian time evolution. The analytic setup is chosen such that the developed code is capable of following the evolution even inside the black hole region. This, in particular, allowed us to investigate the mass inflation phenomenon in the chosen framework.

  11. Development of redox stable, multifunctional substrates for anode supported SOFCS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy; Foghmoes, Søren Preben Vagn; Ramos, Tania

    2017-01-01

    Redox stable solid oxide fuel cells are beneficial in many aspects such as tolerance against system failures e.g fuel cut off and emergency shut down, but also allow for higher fuel utilization, which increases efficiency. State-ofthe-art Ni-cermet based anodes suffer from microstructural changes...... with a multifunctional anode support, the development of a two layer fuel electrode based on a redox stable strontium titanate layer for the electrochemically active layer and a redox stable Ni-YSZ support was pursued. Half-cells with well adhearing strontium titante anode layers on stateof-the-art Ni-YSZ cermet...... supports have been achieved. Redox tolerance of the half-cell depends could be increased by optimizing the redox stability of the cermet support....

  12. Layered zeolite materials and methods related thereto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsapatsis, Michael; Maheshwari, Sudeep; Bates, Frank S; Koros, William J

    2013-08-06

    A novel oxide material (MIN-I) comprising YO.sub.2; and X.sub.2O.sub.3, wherein Y is a tetravalent element and X is a trivalent element, wherein X/Y=O or Y/X=30 to 100 is provided. Surprisingly, MIN-I can be reversibly deswollen. MIN-I can further be combined with a polymer to produce a nanocomposite, depolymerized to produce predominantly fully exfoliated layers (MIN-2), and pillared to produce a pillared oxide material (MIN-3), analogous to MCM-36. The materials are useful in a wide range of applications, such as catalysts, thin films, membranes, and coatings.

  13. Immunogenic compositions comprising human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) mosaic Nef proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korber, Bette T [Los Alamos, NM; Perkins, Simon [Los Alamos, NM; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy [Los Alamos, NM; Fischer, William M [Los Alamos, NM; Theiler, James [Los Alamos, NM; Letvin, Norman [Boston, MA; Haynes, Barton F [Durham, NC; Hahn, Beatrice H [Birmingham, AL; Yusim, Karina [Los Alamos, NM; Kuiken, Carla [Los Alamos, NM

    2012-02-21

    The present invention relates to mosaic clade M HIV-1 Nef polypeptides and to compositions comprising same. The polypeptides of the invention are suitable for use in inducing an immune response to HIV-1 in a human.

  14. A ROBOT AND A METHOD OF CONTROLLING A ROBOT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to a robot comprising a horizontal or horizontally slanted transparent experiment layer being adapted to support items at arbitrary positions on or in the experiment layer, and a moveable sensor arranged below the transparent experimental layer said sensor being...

  15. Selectively gas-permeable composite membrane and process for production thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okita, K.; Asako, S.

    1984-01-01

    A selectively gas-permeable composite membrane and a process for producing said composite membrane are described. The composite membrane comprises a polymeric material support and a thin membrane deposited on the support, said thin membrane being obtained by glow discharge plasma polymerization of an organosilane compound containing at least one double bond or triple bond. Alternatively, the composite membrane comprises a polymeric material support having an average pore diameter of at least 0.1 micron, a hardened or cross-linked polyorganosiloxane layer on the support, and a thin membrane on the polyorganosiloxane layer, said thin membrane being obtained by plasma polymerization due to glow discharge of an organosilane compound containing at least one double bond or triple bond

  16. Electrical and stability performance of anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells with strontium- and magnesium-doped lanthanum gallate thin electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Weimin [College of Chemistry, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, Guangdong (China); Liu Jiang [College of Chemistry, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, Guangdong (China)], E-mail: jiangliu@scut.edu.cn; Zhang Yaohui [College of Chemistry, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, Guangdong (China)

    2008-05-20

    Anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) comprising NiO-samarium-doped ceria (SDC) (Sm{sub 0.2}Ce{sub 0.8}O{sub 1.9}) composite anode, thin tri-layer electrolyte, and La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3} (LSCF)-La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSGM) composite cathode were fabricated. The thin tri-layer consisting of an 11-{mu}m thick LSGM electrolyte layer and a 12-{mu}m thick La{sub 0.4}Ce{sub 0.6}O{sub 1.8} (LDC) layer on each side of the LSGM was prepared by centrifugal casting and co-firing technique. The performance of the cells operated with humidified H{sub 2} as fuel and ambient air as oxidant showed a maximum power density of 1.23 W cm{sup -2} at 800 deg. C. A stability test of about 100 h was carried out and some deterioration of output power was observed, while the open circuit voltage (OCV) kept unchanged. Impedance measurements showed that both the electrolyte ohmic resistance and the electrode polarization increased with time and the latter dominated the degradation.

  17. A combined SEM, CV and EIS study of multi-layered porous ceramic reactors for flue gas purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Zeming; Andersen, Kjeld Bøhm; Nygaard, Frederik Berg

    2013-01-01

    The effect of sintering temperature of 12-layered porous ceramic reactors (comprising 5 cells) was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The difference in microstructures of the reactors was evaluated by SEM...

  18. Triple-Layer Vascular Grafts Fabricated by Combined E-Jet 3D Printing and Electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ruiying; Gao, Xiangkai; Wang, Jian; Chen, Haoxiang; Tong, Chunyi; Tan, Yongjun; Tan, Zhikai

    2018-05-29

    Small-diameter tissue-engineered vascular grafts are urgently needed for clinic arterial substitute. To simulate the structures and functions of natural blood vessels, we designed a novel triple-layer poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) fibrous vascular graft by combining E-jet 3D printing and electrospinning techniques. The resultant vascular graft consisted of an interior layer comprising 3D-printed highly aligned strong fibers, a middle layer made by electrospun densely fibers, and an exterior structure composed of mixed fibers fabricated by co-electrospraying. The biocompatible triple-layer graft was used for in vivo implantation, and results demonstrated that the longitudinally-aligned fibers within the lumen of the graft could enhance the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells, while maintained good mechanical properties. The exterior layer provided a pathway that encouraged cells to migrate into the scaffold after implantation. This experimental graft overcame the limitations of conventionally electrospun vascular grafts of inadequate porosity and lowly cell penetration. The unique structure of the triple-layer vascular graft promoted cell growth and infiltration in vivo, thus provided an encouraging substitute for in situ tissue engineering.

  19. Double layer mixed matrix membrane adsorbers improving capacity and safety hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiful; Borneman, Z.; Wessling, M.

    2018-05-01

    Double layer mixed matrix membranes adsorbers have been developed for blood toxin removal by embedding activated carbon into cellulose acetate macroporous membranes. The membranes are prepared by phase inversion method via water vapor induced phase separation followed by an immersion precipitation step. Double layer MMM consisting of an active support and a separating layer. The active support layer consists of activated carbon particles embedded in macroporous cellulose acetate; the separating layer consists of particle free cellulose acetate. The double layer membrane possess an open and interconnected macroporous structure with a high loading of activated carbon available for blood toxins removal. The MMM AC has a swelling degree of 6.5 %, porosity of 53 % and clean water flux of 800 Lm-2h-1bar-1. The prepared membranes show a high dynamic Creatinine (Crt) removal during hemodilysis process. The Crt removal by adsorption contributes to amore than 83 % of the total removal. The double layer adsorptive membrane proves hemodialysis membrane can integrated with adsorption, in which blood toxins are removed in one step.

  20. AC losses in multilayer power transmission cables comprised of YBCO tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noji, H.

    2011-01-01

    I calculate AC properties in YBCO cable by an electric circuit model. The optimal helical pitches are determined by the calculation. The layer's current distribution is uniform on the optimal helical pitches. The calculation is useful as a first approximation of AC losses. AC losses in multilayer power transmission cables can be reduced by adjusting the helical winding pitch of each layer to make the layer's current distribution uniform. The optimum helical pitch can be estimated using an electric circuit (EC) model based on the expression that calculates the losses in the superconducting tapes composing the cable. It is known that the losses in a monolayer cable depend on the cable parameters (i.e., the gap between neighboring tapes, number of tapes N, diameter of the cable former and width of the tape). However, regarding Amemiya et al.'s measurement on the losses in monolayer cables, the numerical results of the losses calculated using the Norris formula for an isolated thin strip N times are close to the experimental results. Then, to determine the losses in a three-layer cable that Mukoyama et al. have reported, the losses are calculated by the EC model based on the Norris formula. The helical pitch of each layer is adjusted to make the layer's current distribution uniform in the cable reported by Mukoyama et al. The optimum helical pitches are calculated using the condition where the standard deviation of the layer currents is minimum, and the losses of the cable at the optimum helical pitches are calculated at 1 kA rms . By comparing the results of these calculations with the previously measured results, it was found that the mean error of the calculated values relative to the measured values is 23.7%, which indicates that the calculation using the EC model is useful as a first approximation.

  1. Layer-by-Layer (LBL) Self-Assembled Biohybrid Nanomaterials for Efficient Antibacterial Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuanhao; Long, Yubo; Li, Qing-Lan; Han, Shuying; Ma, Jianbiao; Yang, Ying-Wei; Gao, Hui

    2015-08-12

    Although antibiotics have been widely used in clinical applications to treat pathogenic infections at present, the problem of drug-resistance associated with abuse of antibiotics is becoming a potential threat to human beings. We report a biohybrid nanomaterial consisting of antibiotics, enzyme, polymers, hyaluronic acid (HA), and mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), which exhibits efficient in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity with good biocompatibility and negligible hemolytic side effect. Herein, biocompatible layer-by-layer (LBL) coated MSNs are designed and crafted to release encapsulated antibiotics, e.g., amoxicillin (AMO), upon triggering with hyaluronidase, produced by various pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The LBL coating process comprises lysozyme (Lys), HA, and 1,2-ethanediamine (EDA)-modified polyglycerol methacrylate (PGMA). The Lys and cationic polymers provided multivalent interactions between MSN-Lys-HA-PGMA and bacterial membrane and accordingly immobilized the nanoparticles to facilitate the synergistic effect of these antibacterial agents. Loading process was characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD). The minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) of MSN-Lys-HA-PGMA treated to antibiotic resistant bacteria is much lower than that of isodose Lys and AMO. Especially, MSN-Lys-HA-PGMA exhibited good inhibition for pathogens in bacteria-infected wounds in vivo. Therefore, this type of new biohybrid nanomaterials showed great potential as novel antibacterial agents.

  2. Gold Nanoparticles Supported on a Layered Double Hydroxide as Efficient Catalysts for the One-Pot Synthesis of Flavones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatabe, Takafumi; Jin, Xiongjie; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Mizuno, Noritaka

    2015-11-02

    Flavones are a class of natural products with diverse biological activities and have frequently been synthesized by step-by-step procedures using stoichiometric amounts of reagents. Herein, a catalytic one-pot procedure for the synthesis of flavone and its derivatives is developed. In the presence of gold nanoparticles supported on a Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (Au/LDH), various kinds of flavones can be synthesized starting from 2'-hydroxyacetophenones and benzaldehydes (or benzyl alcohols). The present one-pot procedure consists of a sequence of several reactions, and Au/LDH can catalyze all these different types of reactions. The catalysis is shown to be truly heterogeneous, and Au/LDH can be readily recovered and reused. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Tapered leaf support pin for operating plant guide tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, J.T.; Hopkins, R.J.; Ford, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a mounting system for removably mounting the lower flange of a control rod guide tube over an opening in the upper core plate of a nuclear reactor comprising at least one elongated support pin mounted on the guide tube lower flange and resiliently receivable in a bore formed in the upper core plate. It comprises a support pin having a longitudinal axis and comprising a first pin portion mountable on the guide tube lower flange, and a second pin portion receivable within the upper core plate bore, the second pin portion including a solid body section adjacent the first pin portion and having an outer diameter which is accommodated by the bore by a close clearance fit; locking means mounted on the first pin portion of the support pin for retaining the guide tube lower flange between the solid body section of the second pin portion and the locking means; and a washer disposed around the first pin portion between the locking means and the control rod guide tube flange, the washer and the locking means including mutually engaging rounded surfaces for eliminating bending moments and stresses on the support pin during mounting of the locking means on the first pin portion of the support pin

  4. Composite membrane with integral rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routkevitch, Dmitri; Polyakov, Oleg G

    2015-01-27

    Composite membranes that are adapted for separation, purification, filtration, analysis, reaction and sensing. The composite membranes can include a porous support structure having elongate pore channels extending through the support structure. The composite membrane also includes an active layer comprising an active layer material, where the active layer material is completely disposed within the pore channels between the surfaces of the support structure. The active layer is intimately integrated within the support structure, thus enabling great robustness, reliability, resistance to mechanical stress and thermal cycling, and high selectivity. Methods for the fabrication of composite membranes are also provided.

  5. Composite membranes and methods for making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routkevitch, Dmitri; Polyakov, Oleg G

    2012-07-03

    Composite membranes that are adapted for separation, purification, filtration, analysis, reaction and sensing. The composite membranes can include a porous support structure having elongate pore channels extending through the support structure. The composite membrane also includes an active layer comprising an active layer material, where the active layer material is completely disposed within the pore channels between the surfaces of the support structure. The active layer is intimately integrated within the support structure, thus enabling great robustness, reliability, resistance to mechanical stress and thermal cycling, and high selectivity. Methods for the fabrication of composite membranes are also provided.

  6. Spacer grid for fuel assembly of nuclear reactor comprising opposite support points made with elastic thin plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feutrel, C.

    1983-01-01

    Two series of thin walls form square cells, each containing a fuel pencil. Support points are made in the cells walls. Splines obtained by two parallel slots in the length of the cells. The reaction of fuel pencil produce a deformation of the elastic splines made in the plate, for compensation of the tolerance allowed on the diameter of the pencils [fr

  7. Leaping shampoo glides on a lubricating air layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Li, E. Q.; Marston, J. O.; Bonito, A.; Thoroddsen, S. T.

    2013-06-01

    When a stream of shampoo is fed onto a pool in one's hand, a jet can leap sideways or rebound from the liquid surface in an intriguing phenomenon known as the Kaye effect. Earlier studies have debated whether non-Newtonian effects are the underlying cause of this phenomenon, making the jet glide on top of a shear-thinning liquid layer, or whether an entrained air layer is responsible. Herein we show unambiguously that the jet slides on a lubricating air layer. We identify this layer by looking through the pool liquid and observing its rupture into fine bubbles. The resulting microbubble sizes suggest this air layer is of submicron thickness. This thickness estimate is also supported by the tangential deceleration of the jet during the rebounding.

  8. Leaping shampoo glides on a lubricating air layer

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, S.

    2013-06-10

    When a stream of shampoo is fed onto a pool in one\\'s hand, a jet can leap sideways or rebound from the liquid surface in an intriguing phenomenon known as the Kaye effect. Earlier studies have debated whether non-Newtonian effects are the underlying cause of this phenomenon, making the jet glide on top of a shear-thinning liquid layer, or whether an entrained air layer is responsible. Herein we show unambiguously that the jet slides on a lubricating air layer. We identify this layer by looking through the pool liquid and observing its rupture into fine bubbles. The resulting microbubble sizes suggest this air layer is of submicron thickness. This thickness estimate is also supported by the tangential deceleration of the jet during the rebounding.

  9. Leaping shampoo glides on a lubricating air layer

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, S.; Li, Erqiang; Marston, J. O.; Bonito, A.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2013-01-01

    When a stream of shampoo is fed onto a pool in one's hand, a jet can leap sideways or rebound from the liquid surface in an intriguing phenomenon known as the Kaye effect. Earlier studies have debated whether non-Newtonian effects are the underlying cause of this phenomenon, making the jet glide on top of a shear-thinning liquid layer, or whether an entrained air layer is responsible. Herein we show unambiguously that the jet slides on a lubricating air layer. We identify this layer by looking through the pool liquid and observing its rupture into fine bubbles. The resulting microbubble sizes suggest this air layer is of submicron thickness. This thickness estimate is also supported by the tangential deceleration of the jet during the rebounding.

  10. Method for recovering aroma concentrate from a caffeine- or theobromine-comprising food base material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kattenberg, H.R.; Willemsen, J.H.A.; Starmans, D.A.J.; Hoving, H.D.; Winters, M.G.M.

    2002-01-01

    Described is a method for recovering aroma concentrate from a caffeine- or theobromine-comprising food base material, such as coffee or tea, and in particular cocoa, at least comprising the steps of: introducing the food base material into an aqueous extractant and incubating the food base material

  11. A Survey on Multimedia-Based Cross-Layer Optimization in Visual Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Daniel G.; Guedes, Luiz Affonso

    2011-01-01

    Visual sensor networks (VSNs) comprised of battery-operated electronic devices endowed with low-resolution cameras have expanded the applicability of a series of monitoring applications. Those types of sensors are interconnected by ad hoc error-prone wireless links, imposing stringent restrictions on available bandwidth, end-to-end delay and packet error rates. In such context, multimedia coding is required for data compression and error-resilience, also ensuring energy preservation over the path(s) toward the sink and improving the end-to-end perceptual quality of the received media. Cross-layer optimization may enhance the expected efficiency of VSNs applications, disrupting the conventional information flow of the protocol layers. When the inner characteristics of the multimedia coding techniques are exploited by cross-layer protocols and architectures, higher efficiency may be obtained in visual sensor networks. This paper surveys recent research on multimedia-based cross-layer optimization, presenting the proposed strategies and mechanisms for transmission rate adjustment, congestion control, multipath selection, energy preservation and error recovery. We note that many multimedia-based cross-layer optimization solutions have been proposed in recent years, each one bringing a wealth of contributions to visual sensor networks. PMID:22163908

  12. Atmospheric stability inside containments with a heated layer of liquid on the floor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vate, J.F. van de [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation, Petten (Netherlands)

    1977-01-01

    The study of atmospheric stability inside containments with a heated layer of liquid comprised derivation of the boundary condition for stable atmospheric stratifications and the experimental validation of the boundary condition for stable atmospheric stratification. This report includes description of the model for stirred aerosol deposition and the calculation results for maximum aerodynamic diameter of a confined aerosol remaining just well-stirred.

  13. Thin layer chromatographic analysis of some common over the counter (OTC cough–cold preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manpreet Kaur Chahal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, potential utility of thin layer chromatography to differentiate some common OTC cough–cold preparations was evaluated. Twenty solvent systems were examined from which a solvent systems A comprising methanol:ammonia in the ratio of 100:1.5 (v/v and B comprising chloroform:methanol in the ratio of 90:10 (v/v were found to be most suitable as it showed a high degree of separation of different components of these preparations. It was also found that iodine fuming technique is the best visualizing method for examining the TLC chromatograms of these drug samples prior to subsequent instrumental analysis.

  14. Thermally stable nanoparticles on supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldan Cuenya, Beatriz; Naitabdi, Ahmed R.; Behafarid, Farzad

    2012-11-13

    An inverse micelle-based method for forming nanoparticles on supports includes dissolving a polymeric material in a solvent to provide a micelle solution. A nanoparticle source is dissolved in the micelle solution. A plurality of micelles having a nanoparticle in their core and an outer polymeric coating layer are formed in the micelle solution. The micelles are applied to a support. The polymeric coating layer is then removed from the micelles to expose the nanoparticles. A supported catalyst includes a nanocrystalline powder, thin film, or single crystal support. Metal nanoparticles having a median size from 0.5 nm to 25 nm, a size distribution having a standard deviation .ltoreq.0.1 of their median size are on or embedded in the support. The plurality of metal nanoparticles are dispersed and in a periodic arrangement. The metal nanoparticles maintain their periodic arrangement and size distribution following heat treatments of at least 1,000.degree. C.

  15. Bias-polarity-dependent UV/visible transferable electroluminescence from ZnO nanorod array LED with graphene oxide electrode supporting layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weizhen; Wang, Wei; Xu, Haiyang; Li, Xinghua; Yang, Liu; Ma, Jiangang; Liu, Yichun

    2015-09-01

    A simple top electrode preparation process, employing continuous graphene oxide films as electrode supporting layers, was adopted to fabricate a ZnO nanorod array/p-GaN heterojunction LED. The achieved LED demonstrated different electroluminescence behaviors under forward and reverse biases: a yellow-red emission band was observed under forward bias, whereas a blue-UV emission peak was obtained under reverse bias. Electroluminescence spectra under different currents and temperatures, as well as heterojunction energy-band alignments, reveal that the yellow-red emission under forward bias originates from recombinations related to heterointerface defects, whereas the blue-UV electroluminescence under reverse bias is ascribed to transitions from near-band-edge and Mg-acceptor levels in p-GaN.

  16. Significantly improved efficiency of organic solar cells incorporating Co3O4 NPs in the active layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, S. Amber; Ikram, M.; Ali, S.

    2018-03-01

    Effect of various concentrations of fabricated cobalt oxide (Co3O4) nanoparticles (NPs) in the active layer of different donors and acceptors based hybrid organic bulk heterojunction-BHJ devices were investigated using inverted architecture. The organic active layer comprising different donors P3HT (poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) and PTB7 (Poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b] thiophenediyl

  17. Hot gas handling device and motorized vehicle comprising the device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Geltink, J.; Beukers, A.; Van Tooren, M.J.L.; Koussios, S.

    2012-01-01

    The invention relates to a device for handling hot exhaust gasses discharged from an internal combustion engine. The device comprises a housing (2), enclosing a space (3) for transporting the exhaust gasses. The housing (2) is provided with an entrance - opening (4) for the exhaust gasses discharged

  18. Organic photovoltaic devices with a single layer geometry (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesov, Vladimir A.; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Aizawa, Naoya; Larrain, Felipe A.; Chou, Wen-Fang; Perrotta, Alberto; Graham, Samuel; Kippelen, Bernard

    2016-09-01

    Organic photovoltaics (OPV) can lead to a low cost and short energy payback time alternative to existing photovoltaic technologies. However, to fulfill this promise, power conversion efficiencies must be improved and simultaneously the architecture of the devices and their processing steps need to be further simplified. In the most efficient devices to date, the functions of photocurrent generation, and hole/electron collection are achieved in different layers adding complexity to the device fabrication. In this talk, we present a novel approach that yields devices in which all these functions are combined in a single layer. Specifically, we report on bulk heterojunction devices in which amine-containing polymers are first mixed in the solution together with the donor and acceptor materials that form the active layer. A single-layer coating yields a self-forming bottom electron-collection layer comprised of the amine-containing polymer (e.g. PEIE). Hole-collection is achieved by subsequent immersion of this single layer in a solution of a polyoxometalate (e.g. phosphomolybdic acid (PMA)) leading to an electrically p-doped region formed by the diffusion of the dopant molecules into the bulk. The depth of this doped region can be controlled with values up to tens of nm by varying the immersion time. Devices with a single 500 nm-thick active layer of P3HT:ICBA processed using this method yield power conversion efficiency (PCE) values of 4.8 ± 0.3% at 1 sun and demonstrate a performance level superior to that of benchmark three-layer devices with separate layers of PEIE/P3HT:ICBA/MoOx (4.1 ± 0.4%). Devices remain stable after shelf lifetime experiments carried-out at 60 °C over 280 h.

  19. Groundwater vulnerability assessment using hydrogeologic and geoelectric layer susceptibility indexing at Igbara Oke, Southwestern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oni, T. E.; Omosuyi, G. O.; Akinlalu, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater vulnerability assessment was carried out at Igbara Oke Southwestern Nigeria, with a view to classify the area into vulnerability zones, by applying the electrical resistivity method, using Schlumberger electrode arrays with maximum electrode separation (AB/2) of 65 m in (41) different locations for data acquisition. Geoelectric parameters (layer resistivity and thickness) were determined from the interpreted data. The study area comprises four geoelectric layers (topsoil, lateritic layer, weathered/fractured layer and fresh basement). The geoelectric parameters of the overlying layers across the area were used to assess the vulnerability of the underlying aquifers to near-surface contaminants with the aid of vulnerability maps generated. Three models were compared by maps using geo-electrically derived models; longitudinal conductance, GOD (groundwater occurrence, overlying lithology and depth to the aquifer) and GLSI (geoelectric layer susceptibility indexing). The total longitudinal conductance map shows the north central part of the study area as a weakly protected (0.1-0.19) area, while the northern and southern parts have poor protective capacity (septic tank, refuse dump should be cited far from groundwater development area.

  20. Toward Transparent Data Management in Multi-layer Storage Hierarchy for HPC Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadhwa, Bharti [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Byna, Suren [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Butt, Ali R. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    2018-04-17

    Upcoming exascale high performance computing (HPC) systems are expected to comprise multi-tier storage hierarchy, and thus will necessitate innovative storage and I/O mechanisms. Traditional disk and block-based interfaces and file systems face severe challenges in utilizing capabilities of storage hierarchies due to the lack of hierarchy support and semantic interfaces. Object-based and semantically-rich data abstractions for scientific data management on large scale systems offer a sustainable solution to these challenges. Such data abstractions can also simplify users involvement in data movement. Here, we take the first steps of realizing such an object abstraction and explore storage mechanisms for these objects to enhance I/O performance, especially for scientific applications. We explore how an object-based interface can facilitate next generation scalable computing systems by presenting the mapping of data I/O from two real world HPC scientific use cases: a plasma physics simulation code (VPIC) and a cosmology simulation code (HACC). Our storage model stores data objects in different physical organizations to support data movement across layers of memory/storage hierarchy. Our implementation sclaes well to 16K parallel processes, and compared to the state of the art, such as MPI-IO and HDF5, our object-based data abstractions and data placement strategy in multi-level storage hierarchy achieves up to 7 X I/O performance improvement for scientific data.

  1. Defect-rich Ni-Ti layered double hydroxide as a highly efficient support for Au nanoparticles in base-free and solvent-free selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengran; Fan, Guoli; Yu, Jiaying; Yang, Lan; Li, Feng

    2018-04-17

    Tuning the surface properties of supported metal catalysts is of vital importance for governing their catalytic performances in nanocatalysis. Here, we report highly dispersed nanometric gold nanoparticles (NPs) supported on Ni-Ti layered double hydroxides (NiTi-LDHs), which were employed in solvent-free and base-free selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol. A series of characterization techniques demonstrated that defect-rich NiTi-LDHs could efficiently stabilize Au NPs and decrease surface electron density of Au NPs. The as-formed Au/NiTi-LDH catalyst with a Ni/Ti molar ratio of 3 : 1 and an Au loading of 0.71 wt% yielded the highest turnover frequency value of ∼4981 h-1 at 120 °C among tested Au/NiTi-LDH catalysts with different Ni/Ti molar ratios, along with a high benzaldehyde selectivity of 98%. High catalytic efficiency of the catalyst was mainly correlated with surface cooperation between unique defects (i.e. defective Ti3+ species and oxygen vacancies) and abundant hydroxyl groups on the brucite-like layers of the NiTi-LDH support, which could lead to the preferential adsorption and activation of an alcohol hydroxyl moiety in benzyl alcohol and oxygen molecule, as well as the formation of more electron-deficient Ni3+ and Au0 species on the catalyst surface. Furthermore, the present Au/NiTi-LDH catalyst tolerated the oxidation of a wide variety of substrate structures into the corresponding aldehydes, acids or ketones. Our primary results illustrate that defect-rich NiTi-LDHs are promising supports which can efficiently modify surface structure and electronic properties of supported metal catalysts and consequently improve their catalytic performances.

  2. The boundary layers as the primary transport regions of the earth's magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, T. E.; Frank, L. A.; Huang, C. Y.

    1985-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of ISEE and IMP LEPEDEA plasma measurements in the earth's magnetotail reveals that the magnetospheric boundary layer and the plasma sheet boundary layer are the primary transport regions there. These plasma measurements also reveal various components of the plasma sheet, including the central plasma sheet and plasma sheet boundary layer. A significant new result reported here is that of cold- and hot-plasma components that are spatially co-present within the central plasma sheet. Such plasma components cannot be explained merely by temporal variations in spectra involving the entire plasma sheet. Contributions to a low temperature component of the plasma sheet enter directly from the boundary layer located along the magnetotail flanks. Field-aligned flows predominate within the plasma sheet boundary layer which is almost always present and is located near the high- and low-latitude border of the plasma sheet. The plasma sheet boundary layer comprises highly anisotropic ion distributions, including counter-streaming ion beams, that evolve into the hot, isotropic component of the plasma sheet. Tailward acceleration regions generate these ion beams with plasma input from the magnetospheric boundary layer. Antisunward-flowing ion beams, at E/q less than 1 kV and of ionospheric composition, are frequently observed in the plasma sheet boundary layer and in tail lobes. These ion beams are likely accelerated at low altitude over the polar cap and especially along auroral field lines.

  3. Temperature actuated automatic safety rod release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutter, E.; Pardini, J.A.; Walker, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor having a core, a safety rod for downward insertion into and upward withdrawal from the core, a drive shaft for supporting and operating the safety rod, and drive means connected to the drive shaft for operating the shaft. An apparatus is described for releasably supporting the safety rod, the apparatus comprising an upper adapter adapted to be affixed to the upper end of the safety rod, the upper adapter having a retention means, a lower portion on the drive shaft and having a hollow interior for housing the upper adapter, a bimetallic means supported within the hollow interior of the lower portion and having at least one ledge which engages the retention means to support the upper adapter, the bimetallic means being a substantially cylindrical bimetallic member for receiving the upper adapter in a generally coaxial relation, the substantially cylindrical bimetallic member comprising an inner layer and an outer layer, and the inner layer having a greater coefficient of thermal expansion than the outer layer

  4. Electromagnetic radiation absorbers and modulators comprising polyaniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Arthur J.; Ginder, John M.; Roe, Mitchell G.; Hajiseyedjavadi, Hamid

    1992-01-01

    A composition for absorbing electromagnetic radiation, wherein said electromagnetic radiation possesses a wavelength generally in the range of from about 1000 Angstroms to about 50 meters, wherein said composition comprises a polyaniline composition of the formula ##STR1## where y can be equal to or greater than zero, and R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 are independently selected from the group containing of H, --OCH.sub.3, --CH.sub.3, --F, --Cl, --Br, --I, NR.sup.3 .sub.2, --NHCOR.sup.3, --OH, --O.sup.-, SR.sup.3, --OCOR.sup.3, --NO.sub.2, --COOH, --COOR.sup.3, --COR.sup.3, --CHO, and --CN, where R.sup.3 is a C.sub.1 to C.sub.8 alkyl, aryl or aralkyl group.

  5. Tension layer winding of cable-in-conduit conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devernoe, A.; Ciancetta, G.; King, M.; Parizh, M.; Painter, T.; Miller, J.

    1996-01-01

    A 710 mm i.d. by 440 mm long, 6 layer Cable-in-Conduit (CIC) coil was precision tension layer wound with Incoloy 908 jacketed conductor to model winding technology that will be used for the Nb 3 Sn outsert coils of the 45 Tesla Hybrid Magnet Project at the US National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. This paper reports on the set up of a new winding facility with unique capabilities for insulating and winding long length CIC conductor and on special procedures which were developed to wind and support layer to layer transitions and to safely form conductor into and out of the winding. Analytical methods used to predict conduit keystoning, springback and back tensioning requirements before winding are reported in comparison to results obtained during winding and actual winding build-up dimensions on a layer by layer basis in comparison to design requirements

  6. Radiography for a Shock-accelerated Liquid Layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P. Meekunnasombat J.G. Oakley/inst M.H. Anderson R. Bonazza

    2005-01-01

    This program supported the experimental study of the interaction of planar shock waves with both solid structures (a single cylinder or a bank of cylinders) and single and multiple liquid layers. Objectives of the study included: characterization of the shock refraction patterns; measurements of the impulsive loading of the solid structures; observation of the response of the liquid layers to shock acceleration; assessment of the shock-mitigation effects of single and multiple liquid layers. The uploaded paper is intended as a final report for the entire funding period. The poster described in the paper won the Best Poster Award at the 25 International Symposium on Shock Waves

  7. Characterizing the structural degradation in a PEMFC cathode catalyst layer : carbon corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, A.; Stumper, J. [Ballard Power Systems, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Gyenge, E. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering

    2009-07-01

    The structural degradation resulting from carbon corrosion of a cathode catalyst layer in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was investigated in this study. In order to oxidize the catalyst carbon support, the PEMFC catalyst layer was subjected to a 30 hour accelerated stress test that cycled the cathode potential from 0.1 to 1.5 VRHE at 30 and 150 second intervals. The rate and amount of carbon loss was determined by measuring the carbon dioxide in the exhaust gas. The structural degradation of the catalyst layer was characterized and correlated to the PEMFC performance using cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and polarization analyses. This analysis revealed a clear thinning of the cathode catalyst layer and gas diffusion layer carbon sub-layer, and a reduction in the effective platinum surface area due to the carbon support oxidation. The thinned cathode catalyst layer changed the water management, and increased the voltage loss associated with the oxygen mass transport and catalyst layer ohmic resistance. In order to further develop and verify this methodology for other degradation mechanisms, emphasis was placed on EIS measurements.

  8. Alignment of Carbon Nanotubes Comprising Magnetically Sensitive Metal Oxides in Nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Haiping (Inventor); Peterson, G. P. " Bud" (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is a nanoparticle mixture or suspension or nanofluid comprising nonmagnetically sensitive nanoparticles, magnetically sensitive nanoparticles, and surfactant(s). The present invention also relates to methods of preparing and using the same.

  9. Process for the separation of contaminant or mixture of contaminants from a Ch4-comprising gaseous feed streem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The invention provides a process for the separation of a contaminant or mixture of contaminants from a CH4-comprising gaseous feed streem, comprising the subsequent steps of: a) passing a CH4-comprising gaseous feed streem comprising the contaminant or the mixture of contaminants in to and through a

  10. Multilayer electronic component systems and methods of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dane (Inventor); Wang, Guoan (Inventor); Kingsley, Nickolas D. (Inventor); Papapolymerou, Ioannis (Inventor); Tentzeris, Emmanouil M. (Inventor); Bairavasubramanian, Ramanan (Inventor); DeJean, Gerald (Inventor); Li, RongLin (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Multilayer electronic component systems and methods of manufacture are provided. In this regard, an exemplary system comprises a first layer of liquid crystal polymer (LCP), first electronic components supported by the first layer, and a second layer of LCP. The first layer is attached to the second layer by thermal bonds. Additionally, at least a portion of the first electronic components are located between the first layer and the second layer.

  11. Cheap Thin Film Oxygen Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention provides a membrane, comprising a porous support layer a gas tight electronically and ionically conducting membrane layer and a catalyst layer, characterized in that the electronically and ionically conducting membrane layer is formed from a material having a crystallite...... structure with a crystal size of about 1 to 100 nm, and a method for producing same....

  12. Effectiveness of Protective Action of Coatings from Moisture Sorption into Surface Layer of Sand Moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaźnica N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of the sorption process of surface layers of sand moulds covered by zirconium and zirconium - graphite alcohol coatings are presented in the paper. Investigations comprised two kinds of sand grains (silica sand and reclaimed sand of moulding sand with furan resin. Tests were performed under conditions of a high relative air humidity 75 - 85% and a constant temperature within the range 28 – 33°C. To evaluate the effectiveness of coatings protective action from moisture penetration into surface layers of sand moulds gravimetric method of quantitavie moisture sorption and ultrasonic method were applied in measurements.

  13. Deformation sensor based on polymer-supported discontinuous graphene multi-layer coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carotenuto, G.; Schiavo, L.; Romeo, V.; Nicolais, L.

    2014-01-01

    Graphene can be conveniently used in the modification of polymer surfaces. Graphene macromolecules are perfectly transparent to the visible light and electrically conductive, consequently these two properties can be simultaneously provided to polymeric substrates by surface coating with thin graphene layers. In addition, such coating process provides the substrates of: water-repellence, higher surface hardness, low-friction, self-lubrication, gas-barrier properties, and many other functionalities. Polyolefins have a non-polar nature and therefore graphene strongly sticks on their surface. Nano-crystalline graphite can be used as graphene precursor in some chemical processes (e.g., graphite oxide synthesis by the Hummer method), in addition it can be directly applied to the surface of a polyolefin substrate (e.g., polyethylene) to cover it by a thin graphene multilayer. In particular, the nano-crystalline graphite perfectly exfoliate under the application of a combination of shear and friction forces and the produced graphene single-layers perfectly spread and adhere on the polyethylene substrate surface. Such polymeric materials can be used as ITO (indium-tin oxide) substitute and in the fabrication of different electronic devices. Here the fabrication of transparent resistive deformation sensors based on low-density polyethylene films coated by graphene multilayers is described. Such devices are very sensible and show a high reversible and reproducible behavior

  14. Attrition resistant Fischer-Tropsch catalyst and support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Alan H.; Oukaci, Rachid; Goodwin, James G.

    2004-05-25

    A catalyst support having improved attrition resistance and a catalyst produced therefrom. The catalyst support is produced by a method comprising the step of treating calcined .gamma.-alumina having no catalytic material added thereto with an acidic aqueous solution having an acidity level effective for increasing the attrition resistance of the calcined .gamma.-alumina.

  15. Luminescent screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, C.-I.

    1982-01-01

    Luminescent screens which are useful for such purposes as intensifying screens for radiographs are comprised of a support bearing a layer of finely divided particles of a phosphor dispersed in a cross-linked polymeric matrix formed by heat-curing of a coating composition comprising an unsaturated cross-linkable polymer, a polymerizable acrylic monomer, a thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer, and a heat-activatable polymerization initiator. The phosphor layer includes voids formed by evaporation of an evaporable component which is present in the coating composition from which such layer is formed. (author)

  16. Nanoimprinted distributed feedback lasers comprising TiO2 thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannahme, Christoph; Smith, Cameron; Leung, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Design guidelines for optimizing the sensing performance of nanoimprinted second order distributed feedback dye lasers are presented. The guidelines are verified by experiments and simulations. The lasers, fabricated by UV-nanoimprint lithography into Pyrromethene doped Ormocomp thin films on glass......, have their sensor sensitivity enhanced by a factor of up to five via the evaporation of a titanium dioxide (TiO2) waveguiding layer. The influence of the TiO2 layer thickness on the device sensitivity is analyzed with a simple model that accurately predicts experimentally measured wavelength shifts...

  17. Turbulence and Coherent Structure in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer near the Eyewall of Hurricane Hugo (1989)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. A.; Marks, F. D.; Montgomery, M. T.; Black, P. G.

    2008-12-01

    In this talk we present an analysis of observational data collected from NOAA'S WP-3D research aircraft during the eyewall penetration of category five Hurricane Hugo (1989). The 1 Hz flight level data near 450m above the sea surface comprising wind velocity, temperature, pressure and relative humidity are used to estimate the turbulence intensity and fluxes. In the turbulent flux calculation, the universal shape spectra and co-spectra derived using the 40 Hz data collected during the Coupled Boundary Layer Air-sea Transfer (CBLAST) Hurricane experiment are applied to correct the high frequency part of the data collected in Hurricane Hugo. Since the stationarity assumption required for standard eddy correlations is not always satisfied, different methods are summarized for computing the turbulence parameters. In addition, a wavelet analysis is conducted to investigate the time and special scales of roll vortices or coherent structures that are believed important elements of the eye/eyewall mixing processes that support intense storms.

  18. Application of the top specified boundary layer (TSBL) approximation to initial characterization of an inland aquifer mineralization: 2. Seepage of saltwater through semi-confining layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, H.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a generalized basic study that addresses practical needs for an understanding of the major mechanisms involved in the mineralization of groundwater in the Great Bend Prairie aquifer in south- central Kansas. This Quaternary alluvial aquifer and associated surface waters are subject to contamination by saltwater, which in some areas seeps from the deeper Permian bedrock formation into the overlying freshwater aquifer through semiconfining layers. A simplified conceptual model is adopted. It incorporates the freshwater aquifer whose bottom is comprised of a semiconfining layer through which a hydrologically minor but geochemically important saline water discharge seeps into the aquifer. A hierarchy of approximate approaches is considered to analyze the mineralization processes taking place in the aquifer. The recently developed top specified boundary layer (TSBL) approach is very convenient to use for the initial characterization of these processes, and is further adapted to characterization of head-driven seepage through semi-confining layers. TSBL calculations indicate that the seeping saline water may create two distinct new zones in the aquifer: (1) a completely saline zone (CSZ) adjacent to the semiconfining bottom of the aquifer, and (2) a transition zone (TZ) which develops between the CSZ and the freshwater zone. Some possible scenarios associated with the various mineralization patterns are analyzed and discussed.

  19. A high performance ceria based interdiffusion barrier layer prepared by spin-coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plonczak, Pawel; Joost, Mario; Hjelm, Johan

    2011-01-01

    A multiple spin-coating deposition procedure of Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO) for application in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) was developed. The thin and dense CGO layer can be employed as a barrier layer between yttria stabilised zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte and a (La, Sr)(Co, Fe)O3 based cathode....... The decomposition of the polymer precursor used in the spin-coating process was studied. The depositions were performed on anode supported half cells. By controlling the sintering temperature between each spin-coating process, dense and crack-free CGO films with a thickness of approximately 1 μm were obtained....... The successive steps of dense layer production was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction was employed to monitor the crystal structure of the CGO layer sintered at different temperatures. The described spin coated barrier layer was evaluated using an anode supported cell...

  20. Mechanical alignment of particles for use in fabricating superconducting and permanent magnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nellis, W.J.; Maple, M.B.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method of fabricating oriented compacts of superconducting and/or permanent magnetic material. It comprises: providing a base layer of support material, mechanically orienting aligned superconducting or permanently magnetic particles into the desired orientation on the base layer, without mixing the particles with a liquid, optionally covering the particles with a support material, fabricating the base layer and oriented particles assemblage into a desired construct and recovering the resulting fabricated material

  1. Bottom-type scattering layers and equatorial spread F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Hysell

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Jicamarca radar observations of bottom-type coherent scattering layers in the post-sunset bottomside F-region ionosphere are presented and analyzed. The morphology of the primary waves seen in radar images of the layers supports the hypothesis of kudeki+bhattacharyya-1999 that wind-driven gradient drift instabilities are operating. In one layer event when topside spread F did not occur, irregularities were distributed uniformly in space throughout the layers. In another event when topside spread F did eventually occur, the irregularities within the pre-existing bottom-type layers were horizontally clustered, with clusters separated by about 30km. The same horizontal periodicity was evident in the radar plumes and large-scale irregularities that emerged later in the event. We surmise that horizontal periodicity in bottom-type layer irregularity distribution is indicative of large-scale horizontal waves in the bottomside F-region that may serve as seed waves for large-scale Rayleigh Taylor instabilities. Key words. Ionosphere (equatorial ionosphere; ionospheric irregularties; plasma waves and instabilities

  2. Multi-layered controllable stiffness beams for morphing: energy, actuation force, and material strain considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, Gabriel; Gandhi, Farhan

    2010-01-01

    Morphing aerospace structures could benefit from the ability of structural elements to transition from a stiff load-bearing state to a relatively compliant state that can undergo large deformation at low actuation cost. The present paper focuses on multi-layered beams with controllable flexural stiffness—comprising polymer layers affixed to the surfaces of a base beam and cover layers, in turn, affixed to the surfaces of the polymer layers. Heating the polymer through the glass transition reduces its shear modulus, decouples the cover layers from the base beam and reduces the overall flexural stiffness. Although the stiffness and actuation force required to bend the beam reduce, the energy required to heat the polymer layer must also be considered. Results show that for beams with low slenderness ratios, relatively thick polymer layers, and cover layers whose extensional stiffness is high, the decoupling of the cover layers through softening of the polymer layers can result in flexural stiffness reductions of over 95%. The energy savings are also highest for these configurations, and will increase as the deformation of the beam increases. The decoupling of the cover layers from the base beam through the softening of the polymer reduces the axial strains in the cover layers significantly; otherwise material failure would prevent large deformation. Results show that when the polymer layer is stiff, the cover layers are the dominant contributors to the total energy in the beam, and the energy in the polymer layers is predominantly axial strain energy. When the polymer layers are softened the energy in the cover layers is a small contributor to the total energy which is dominated by energy in the base beam and shear strain energy in the polymer layer

  3. Flexible single-layer ionic organic-inorganic frameworks towards precise nano-size separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Liang; Wang, Shan; Zhou, Ding; Zhang, Hao; Li, Bao; Wu, Lixin

    2016-02-01

    Consecutive two-dimensional frameworks comprised of molecular or cluster building blocks in large area represent ideal candidates for membranes sieving molecules and nano-objects, but challenges still remain in methodology and practical preparation. Here we exploit a new strategy to build soft single-layer ionic organic-inorganic frameworks via electrostatic interaction without preferential binding direction in water. Upon consideration of steric effect and additional interaction, polyanionic clusters as connection nodes and cationic pseudorotaxanes acting as bridging monomers connect with each other to form a single-layer ionic self-assembled framework with 1.4 nm layer thickness. Such soft supramolecular polymer frameworks possess uniform and adjustable ortho-tetragonal nanoporous structure in pore size of 3.4-4.1 nm and exhibit greatly convenient solution processability. The stable membranes maintaining uniform porous structure demonstrate precisely size-selective separation of semiconductor quantum dots within 0.1 nm of accuracy and may hold promise for practical applications in selective transport, molecular separation and dialysis systems.

  4. Development of thin film oxygen transport membranes on metallic supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Ye

    2012-04-25

    interlayer, though it comprised some cracks. The second interlayer had a crack-free and porous structure. The top membrane layer was deposited by physical vapor deposition (magnetron sputtering) with a thickness of 3.8 {mu}m improving the gastightness considerably but showing still reasonable air-leakage. Summarizing, the successful development of a metal-perovskite-composite could be shown, which acts as a basis for a further development of a gas-tight metal supported oxygen transport asymmetric membrane structure. (orig.)

  5. Polymer coating comprising 2-methoxyethyl acrylate units synthesized by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Source: US2012184029A The present invention relates to preparation of a polymer coating comprising or consisting of polymer chains comprising or consisting of units of 2-methoxyethyl acrylate synthesized by Surface-Initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (SI ATRP) such as ARGET SI ATRP...

  6. Spanwise vorticity and wall normal velocity structure in the inertial region of turbulent boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas Bautista, Juan Carlos; Morrill-Winter, Caleb; White, Christopher; Chini, Gregory; Klewicki, Joseph

    2017-11-01

    The Reynolds shear stress gradient is a leading order mechanism on the inertial domain of turbulent wall-flows. This quantity can be described relative to the sum of two velocity-vorticity correlations, vωz and wωy . Recent studies suggest that the first of these correlates with the step-like structure of the instantaneous streamwise velocity profile on the inertial layer. This structure is comprised of large zones of uniform momentum segregated by slender regions of concentrated vorticity. In this talk we study the contributions of the v and ωz motions to the vorticity transport (vωz) mechanism through the use of experimental data at large friction Reynolds numbers, δ+. The primary contributions to v and ωz were estimated by identifying the peak wavelengths of their streamwise spectra. The magnitudes of these peaks are of the same order, and are shown to exhibit a weak δ+ dependence. The peak wavelengths of v, however, exhibit a strong wall-distance (y) dependence, while the peak wavelengths of ωz show only a weak y dependence, and remain almost O (√{δ+}) in size throughout the inertial domain. This research was partially supported by the National Science Foundation and partially supported by the Australian Research Council.

  7. Rapid prototyping of a double-layer polyurethane-collagen conduit for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tongkui; Yan, Yongnian; Zhang, Renji; Liu, Li; Xu, Wei; Wang, Xiaohong

    2009-03-01

    A new technique for preparing double-layer polyurethane (PU)-collagen nerve conduits for peripheral nerve repair via a double-nozzle, low-temperature, deposition manufacturing (DLDM) system has been developed. The DLDM system is based on a digital prototyping approach, and uses a combination of thermally induced phase separation and freeze-drying. With this system, two kinds of biomaterials with different properties can be combined to produce scaffold structures with good biocompatibility in the inner layer and with the desired mechanical strength protruded by the outer. The forming precision is high, the wall thickness can be controlled, and a tight connection between the two layers can be achieved. The effects of changing the processing parameters and the material temperature on the structure of the scaffolds have been investigated. Additionally, the effect of material concentration on the mechanical strength and hydrophilic properties of the scaffolds has also been studied. Ideal peripheral nerve repair conduits, comprising an outer microporous layer of PU and internal oriented filaments of collagen, have been manufactured through optimizing the processing parameters and the biomaterial concentrations.

  8. Seasonal variability in virtual height of ionospheric f/sub 2/ layer at the pakistan atmospheric region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jilani, A.A.; Afridi, F.A.K.; Mian, K.; Zai, M.A.K.Y.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the seasonal variability in virtual height of ionospheric F/sub 2/ layer for Pakistan's atmospheric region (PAR). In this communication virtual height variations have been analyzed by the descriptive statistical techniques. These methodologies comprise an autoregressive strategy, linear regression and polynomial regression. The relevance of these models has been illuminated using predicted values of different parameters under the seasonal variation of ionospheric F/sub 2/ layer in virtual height that affect the radio wave propagation through the ionosphere. These techniques are implemented to theorize the physical process of varying the virtual heights that leads this study towards formulating the variations due to interaction of radio wave propagation with this ionospheric layer. (author)

  9. Angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure: Multiple layers of emitters and multiple initial states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huff, W.R.A.; Kellar, S.A.; Moler, E.J.; California Univ., Berkeley, CA; Chen, Y.; Wu, H.; Shirley, D.A.; Hussain, Z.

    1995-01-01

    Recently, angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure (ARPEFS) has been applied to experimental systems involving multiple layers of emitters and non-s core-level photoemission in an effort to broaden the utility of the technique. Most of the previous systems have been comprised of atomic or molecular overlayers adsorbed onto a single-crystal, metal surface and the photoemission data were taken from an s atomic core-level in the overlayer. For such a system, the acquired ARPEFS data is dominated by the p o final state wave backscattering from the substrate atoms and is well understood. In this study, we investigate ARPEFS as a surface-region structure determination technique when applied to experimental systems comprised of multiple layers of photoemitters and arbitrary initial state core-level photoemission. Understanding the data acquired from multiple layers of photoemitters is useful for studying multilayer interfaces, ''buried'' surfaces, and clean crystals in ultra- high vacuum. The ability to apply ARPEFS to arbitrary initial state core-level photoemission obviously opens up many systems to analysis. Efforts have been ongoing to understand such data in depth. We present clean Cu(111) 3s, 3p, and 3d core-level, normal photoemission data taken on a high resolution soft x-ray beamline 9.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley, California and clean Ni(111) 3p normal photoemission data taken at the National Synchrotron Light Source in Upton, New York, USA

  10. WORKPLACE SOCIAL SUPPORT AND WORK–FAMILY CONFLICT: A META-ANALYSIS CLARIFYING THE INFLUENCE OF GENERAL AND WORK–FAMILY-SPECIFIC SUPERVISOR AND ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT

    OpenAIRE

    KOSSEK, ELLEN ERNST; PICHLER, SHAUN; BODNER, TODD; HAMMER, LESLIE B.

    2011-01-01

    This article uses meta-analysis to develop a model integrating research on relationships between employee perceptions of general and work–family-specific supervisor and organizational support and work–family conflict. Drawing on 115 samples from 85 studies comprising 72,507 employees, we compared the relative influence of 4 types of workplace social support to work–family conflict: perceived organizational support (POS); supervisor support; perceived organizational work–family support, also k...

  11. Microbial Immobilization of Si, Mn, Fe, and Sr Ions in the Nacreous Layer of Sinohyliopsis schlegeli and Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazaki, Kazue; Morii, Issei

    Environmental changes recorded in the shell nacre of Sinohyliopsis schlegeli were observed with elemental factors of characteristic water and nutrition for eight months in a cultivated drainage pond at Kanazawa University, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan. Tetracycline as an indicator was injected into the shell nacre once every month from May to November in 2007. Water qualities such as the pH, redox potential, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen concentration, and water temperature were measured periodically, and the suspended solids in the water were removed by filtration for optical microscopy, X-ray fluorescence analysis, and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) observations. X-ray fluorescence chemical analysis of shell nacre indicated layers with strong tetracycline accumulation corresponding to high concentrations of Si, Mn, Fe, and Sr ions. The redox potential and dissolved oxygen concentration measurements supported the existence of layers in the nacre. The suspended materials in the drainage pond water comprised mainly of Si, Mn, and Fe elements, which were the same elements involved in microbial immobilization in the shell nacre during the summer of 2007. SEM-EDX analyses confirmed that the ions originated from diatoms, Siderocapsa sp. and Gallionella ferruginea in the stomach. There was little microbial immobilization of the ions in winter. The results suggested elemental immobilization in the layered shell nacre and indicated that Sinohyliopsis schlegeli fed on the ions, to grow the nacre during summer. Sinohyliopsis schlegeli with these biogenic oxides might contribute to the scavenging of heavy metals in natural water.

  12. Field layer important for Nordic people’s forest preferences [Policy Brief

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Busse; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard; Gundersen, Vegard Sverre

    2016-01-01

    New SNS supported research shows that field layer characteristics largely influenced the Nordic population’s forest preferences. Active introduction and management of field layer may be encouraging for forest manag-ers and policy makers - especially in an ur-ban context - as it proposes...

  13. Hydrothermal synthesis of a layered-type W-Ti-O mixed metal oxide and its solid acid activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murayama, T.; Nakajima, K.; Hirata, J.; Omata, K.; Hensen, E.J.M.; Ueda, W.

    2017-01-01

    A layered-type W–Ti–O mixed oxide was synthesized by hydrothermal synthesis from an aqueous solution of ammonium metatungstate and titanium sulfate. To avoid the formation of titania, oxalic acid was used as a reductant. Optimized synthesis led to rod-like particles comprised of MO6 (M = W, Ti)

  14. Pressure support for limiting strain in a superconducting winding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marston, P.G.; Nolan, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    A pressure support unit is described for limiting strain in a superconducting winding including a restraining member surrounding the superconducting winding; and a pressure compartment, having at least one segment for receiving pressurized fluid, disposed between the superconducting winding and the restraining member; and a pressure support system comprising a plurality of such pressure support units

  15. Effect of layer number and layer stacking registry on the formation and quantification of defects in graphene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    da Costa, Sara; Ek Weis, Johan; Frank, Otakar; Kalbáč, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 98, MAR 2016 (2016), s. 592-598 ISSN 0008-6223 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH13022 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Multi-layered graphene * Applied research * Plasma applications Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 6.337, year: 2016

  16. Thermal shock behavior of toughened gadolinium zirconate/YSZ double-ceramic-layered thermal barrier coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Xinghua; Zhao, Huayu; Zhou, Xiaming; Liu, Chenguang; Wang, Liang; Shao, Fang; Yang, Kai; Tao, Shunyan; Ding, Chuanxian

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Gd 2 Zr 2 O 7 /YSZ DCL thermal barrier coating was designed and fabricated. • The Gd 2 Zr 2 O 7 top ceramic layer was toughened by addition of nanostructured 3YSZ. • Remarkable improvement in thermal shock resistance of the DCL coating was achieved. - Abstract: Double-ceramic-layered (DCL) thermal barrier coating system comprising of toughened Gadolinium zirconate (Gd 2 Zr 2 O 7 , GZ) as the top ceramic layer and 4.5 mol% Y 2 O 3 partially-stabilized ZrO 2 (4.5YSZ) as the bottom ceramic layer was fabricated by plasma spraying and thermal shock behavior of the DCL coating was investigated. The GZ top ceramic layer was toughened by addition of nanostructured 3 mol% Y 2 O 3 partially-stabilized ZrO 2 (3YSZ) to improve fracture toughness of the matrix. The thermal shock resistance of the DCL coating was enhanced significantly compared to that of single-ceramic-layered (SCL) GZ-3YSZ composite coating, which is believed to be primarily attributed to the two factors: (i) the increase in fracture toughness of the top ceramic layer by incorporating nanostructured YSZ particles and (ii) the improvement in strain tolerance through the utilization of 4.5YSZ as the bottom ceramic layer. In addition, the failure mechanisms are mainly attributed to the still low fracture toughness of the top ceramic layer and oxidation of the bond-coat

  17. Anisotropic microporous supports impregnated with polymeric ion-exchange materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Dwayne; Babcock, Walter C.; Tuttle, Mark

    1985-05-07

    Novel ion-exchange media are disclosed, the media comprising polymeric anisotropic microporous supports containing polymeric ion-exchange or ion-complexing materials. The supports are anisotropic, having small exterior pores and larger interior pores, and are preferably in the form of beads, fibers and sheets.

  18. A method of producing a multilayer barrier structure for a solid oxide fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of producing a multilayer barrier structure for a solid oxide cell stack, comprising the steps of: - providing a metal interconnect, wherein the metal interconnect is a ferritic stainless steel layer; - applying a first metal oxide layer on said metal...... oxide; and - reacting the metal oxide in said first metal oxide layer with the metal of said metal interconnect during the SOC-stack initialisation, and a solid oxide stack comprising an anode contact layer and support structure, an anode layer, an electrolyte layer, a cathode layer, a cathode contact...... layer, a metallic interconnect, and a multilayer barrier structure which is obtainable by the above method and through an initialisation step, which is carried out under controlled conditions for atmosphere composition and current load, which depends on the layer composition facilitating the formation...

  19. Zirconium Phosphate Supported MOF Nanoplatelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Yuwei; Clearfield, Abraham

    2016-06-06

    We report a rare example of the preparation of HKUST-1 metal-organic framework nanoplatelets through a step-by-step seeding procedure. Sodium ion exchanged zirconium phosphate, NaZrP, nanoplatelets were judiciously selected as support for layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of Cu(II) and benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (H3BTC) linkers. The first layer of Cu(II) is attached to the surface of zirconium phosphate through covalent interaction. The successive LBL growth of HKUST-1 film is then realized by soaking the NaZrP nanoplatelets in ethanolic solutions of cupric acetate and H3BTC, respectively. The amount of assembled HKUST-1 can be readily controlled by varying the number of growth cycles, which was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and gas adsorption analyses. The successful construction of HKUST-1 on NaZrP was also supported by its catalytic performance for the oxidation of cyclohexene.

  20. Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Clones of Viruses Comprising the Towne Cytomegalovirus Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Cui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clones have proven invaluable for genetic manipulation of herpesvirus genomes. BAC cloning can also be useful for capturing representative genomes that comprise a viral stock or mixture. The Towne live attenuated cytomegalovirus vaccine was developed in the 1970s by serial passage in cultured fibroblasts. Although its safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy have been evaluated in nearly a thousand human subjects, the vaccine itself has been little studied. Instead, genetic composition and in vitro growth properties have been inferred from studies of laboratory stocks that may not always accurately represent the viruses that comprise the vaccine. Here we describe the use of BAC cloning to define the genotypic and phenotypic properties of viruses from the Towne vaccine. Given the extensive safety history of the Towne vaccine, these BACs provide a logical starting point for the development of next-generation rationally engineered cytomegalovirus vaccines.

  1. Bacterial artificial chromosome clones of viruses comprising the towne cytomegalovirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaohong; Adler, Stuart P; Davison, Andrew J; Smith, Larry; Habib, El-Sayed E; McVoy, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones have proven invaluable for genetic manipulation of herpesvirus genomes. BAC cloning can also be useful for capturing representative genomes that comprise a viral stock or mixture. The Towne live attenuated cytomegalovirus vaccine was developed in the 1970s by serial passage in cultured fibroblasts. Although its safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy have been evaluated in nearly a thousand human subjects, the vaccine itself has been little studied. Instead, genetic composition and in vitro growth properties have been inferred from studies of laboratory stocks that may not always accurately represent the viruses that comprise the vaccine. Here we describe the use of BAC cloning to define the genotypic and phenotypic properties of viruses from the Towne vaccine. Given the extensive safety history of the Towne vaccine, these BACs provide a logical starting point for the development of next-generation rationally engineered cytomegalovirus vaccines.

  2. A gas sensor comprising two back-to-back connected Au/TiO2 Schottky diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Niloofar; Yousefiazari, Ehsan

    2018-04-01

    A miniature, but sturdy, gas sensor capable of operation at temperatures as high as 600 °C is presented. The device comprises two back-to-back connected gold/rutile Schottky diodes, which are fabricated on the opposite bases of a self-standing 100 μm-thick pellet of polycrystalline rutile. The rutile layer is formed by the direct oxidation of titanium metal in air at 900 °C, and the Au/rutile diodes are formed by the diffusion bonding of the gold wire segments to the pellet bases. The current versus voltage diagrams and gas sensing properties of the Au/rutile/Au structured device are recorded at different voltage sweeping frequencies and operating temperatures. The interesting features of these diagrams are explained based on an equivalent circuit of the device, which considers Schottky-type contacts at both bases and memristive conduction for the rutile in between. The device current is controlled by the leakage current of the reverse biased diode, which depends on the concentration of the oxygen vacancy at the Au/rutile interface and, hence, on the composition of the surrounding atmosphere. The device current increases 15 times in response to the presence of 1000 ppm of ethanol vapor in air. Consisting only of bulk gold and bulk rutile, the device is resilient to harsh environments and elevated temperatures; a suitable gas sensor for in-exhaust installation.

  3. Self-regulating chemo-mechano-chemical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizenberg, Joanna; He, Ximin; Aizenberg, Michael

    2017-05-16

    A chemo-mechano-chemical (C.sub.1-M-C.sub.2) system includes a base supporting an actuatable structure, said structure comprising a functionalized portion and being embedded in an environmentally responsive gel capable of volume change in response to an environmental stimulus; a first fluid layer disposed over the base and in contact with the actuatable structure, said first fluid layer comprising the environmentally responsive gel; and a second fluid layer in contact with the actuatable structure, wherein the layers are positioned such that the functionalized portion is in contact with the second layer in a first relaxed state and in contact with the first layer in a second actuated state and wherein the functionalized portion interacts with at least one of the layers to provide a chemical or physical response.

  4. Theoretical investigation of layered zeolite frameworks: Interaction between IPC-1P layers derived from zeolite UTL

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grajciar, L.; Bludský, Ota; Roth, Wieslaw Jerzy; Nachtigall, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 204, Apr 15 (2013), s. 15-21 ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP106/12/G015 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : layered zeolites * density functional theory * hydrogen bonding * structure Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.309, year: 2013

  5. High-Quality Ultrathin Gold Layers For Use In Plasmonic And Metamaterials Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sukham, Johneph; Takayama, Osamu; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2018-01-01

    The propagation of electromagnetic waves can be manipulated at the nanoscale by surface plasmons supported by ultra thin metal layers. An adhesion layer, with thickness in the order of few nanometerss is used for depositing ultra thin metal gold layers. Cr and Ti are the most popular metallic...... adhesion layers. Apart from them, a non metallic silane based wetting layer like (3-Aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APTMS) can be used. The behaviour of the propagating surface plasmons due to the influence of these adhesion layers has not been thoroughly investigated. To study the influence of the adhesion...... layers on propagating plasmons for use in plasmonic and metamaterial applications,we experimentally compared the performances of the ultra-thin gold layers using Cr and APTMS adhesion layers and without any adhesion layer. We show that the gold layers using APTMS adhesion exhibit short range surface...

  6. Chemical Force Spectroscopy Evidence Supporting the Layer-by-Layer Model of Organic Matter Binding to Iron (oxy)Hydroxide Mineral Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Chassé , Alexander W.; Ohno, Tsutomu; Higgins, Steven R.; Amirbahman, Aria; Yildirim, Nadir; Parr, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. The adsorption of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to metal (oxy)hydroxide mineral surfaces is a critical step for C sequestration in soils. Although equilibrium studies have described some of the factors controlling this process, the molecular-scale description of the adsorption process has been more limited. Chemical force spectroscopy revealed differing adhesion strengths of DOM extracted from three soils and a reference peat soil material to an iron (oxy)hydroxide mineral surface. The DOM was characterized using ultrahigh-resolution negative ion mode electrospray ionization Fourier Transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The results indicate that carboxyl-rich aromatic and N-containing aliphatic molecules of DOM are correlated with high adhesion forces. Increasing molecular mass was shown to decrease the adhesion force between the mineral surface and the DOM. Kendrick mass defect analysis suggests that mechanisms involving two carboxyl groups result in the most stable bond to the mineral surface. We conceptualize these results using a layer-by-layer "onion" model of organic matter stabilization on soil mineral surfaces.

  7. Chemical Force Spectroscopy Evidence Supporting the Layer-by-Layer Model of Organic Matter Binding to Iron (oxy)Hydroxide Mineral Surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Chassé, Alexander W.

    2015-08-18

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. The adsorption of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to metal (oxy)hydroxide mineral surfaces is a critical step for C sequestration in soils. Although equilibrium studies have described some of the factors controlling this process, the molecular-scale description of the adsorption process has been more limited. Chemical force spectroscopy revealed differing adhesion strengths of DOM extracted from three soils and a reference peat soil material to an iron (oxy)hydroxide mineral surface. The DOM was characterized using ultrahigh-resolution negative ion mode electrospray ionization Fourier Transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The results indicate that carboxyl-rich aromatic and N-containing aliphatic molecules of DOM are correlated with high adhesion forces. Increasing molecular mass was shown to decrease the adhesion force between the mineral surface and the DOM. Kendrick mass defect analysis suggests that mechanisms involving two carboxyl groups result in the most stable bond to the mineral surface. We conceptualize these results using a layer-by-layer "onion" model of organic matter stabilization on soil mineral surfaces.

  8. Supported chromium-molybdenum and tungsten sulfide catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chianelli, R.R.; Jacobson, A.J.; Young, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes the process for preparing a supported hydroprocessing catalyst. The process comprising compositing a quantity of a particulate, porous catalyst support material comprising one or more refactory oxides with one or more catalyst precursor salts and heating the composite at elevated temperature of at least about 200/sup 0/C up to about 600/sup 0/, in the presence of a sulfur-bearing compound in an amount whereby sulfur in the form of the sulfur-bearing compound in an amount whereby sulfur in the form of the sulfur bearing compound is present in excess of that contained in the catalyst precursor and under oxygen-free conditions for a time sufficient to form the catalyst. The catalyst precursor salt contains a tetrathiometallate anion of Mo, W or mixture therof and a cation comprising trivalent chromium or a mixture of trivalent chromium with one or more divalent promoter metals selected from the group consisting of Fe, Ni, Co, Mn, Cu and a mixture thereof wherein the trivalent chromium and divalent promoter metals are chelated by at least one neutral, nitrogen-containing polydentate ligand, L

  9. Modeling the Conducting Stably-Stratified Layer of the Earth's Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitdemange, L.; Philidet, J.; Gissinger, C.

    2017-12-01

    Observations of the Earth magnetic field as well as recent theoretical works tend to show that the Earth's outer liquid core is mostly comprised of a convective zone in which the Earth's magnetic field is generated - likely by dynamo action -, but also features a thin, stably stratified layer at the top of the core.We carry out direct numerical simulations by modeling this thin layer as an axisymmetric spherical Couette flow for a stably stratified fluid embedded in a dipolar magnetic field. The dynamo region is modeled by a conducting inner core rotating slightly faster than the insulating mantle due to magnetic torques acting on it, such that a weak differential rotation (low Rossby limit) can develop in the stably stratified layer.In the case of a non-stratified fluid, the combined action of the differential rotation and the magnetic field leads to the well known regime of `super-rotation', in which the fluid rotates faster than the inner core. Whereas in the classical case, this super-rotation is known to vanish in the magnetostrophic limit, we show here that the fluid stratification significantly extends the magnitude of the super-rotation, keeping this phenomenon relevant for the Earth core. Finally, we study how the shear layers generated by this new state might give birth to magnetohydrodynamic instabilities or waves impacting the secular variations or jerks of the Earth's magnetic field.

  10. Simple single-emitting layer hybrid white organic light emitting with high color stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, C.; Lu, Z. H.

    2017-10-01

    Simultaneously achieving a high efficiency and color quality at luminance levels required for solid-state lighting has been difficult for white organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Single-emitting layer (SEL) white OLEDs, in particular, exhibit a significant tradeoff between efficiency and color stability. Furthermore, despite the simplicity of SEL white OLEDs being its main advantage, the reported device structures are often complicated by the use of multiple blocking layers. In this paper, we report a highly simplified three-layered white OLED that achieves a low turn-on voltage of 2.7 V, an external quantum efficiency of 18.9% and power efficiency of 30 lm/W at 1000 cd/cm2. This simple white OLED also shows good color quality with a color rendering index of 75, CIE coordinates (0.42, 0.46), and little color shifting at high luminance. The device consists of a SEL sandwiched between a hole transport layer and an electron transport layer. The SEL comprises a thermally activated delayer fluorescent molecule having dual functions as a blue emitter and as a host for other lower energy emitters. The improved color stability and efficiency in such a simple device structure is explained as due to the elimination of significant energy barriers at various organic-organic interfaces in the traditional devices having multiple blocking layers.

  11. Local-circuit phenotypes of layer 5 neurons in motor-frontal cortex of YFP-H mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianing Yu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Layer 5 pyramidal neurons comprise an important but heterogeneous group of cortical projection neurons. In motor-frontal cortex, these neurons are centrally involved in the cortical control of movement. Recent studies indicate that local excitatory networks in mouse motor-frontal cortex are dominated by descending pathways from layer 2/3 to 5. However, those pathways were identified in experiments involving unlabeled neurons in wild type mice. Here, to explore the possibility of class-specific connectivity in this descending pathway, we mapped the local sources of excitatory synaptic input to a genetically labeled population of cortical neurons: YFP-positive layer 5 neurons of YFP-H mice. We found, first, that in motor cortex, YFP-positive neurons were distributed in a double blade, consistent with the idea of layer 5B having greater thickness in frontal neocortex. Second, whereas unlabeled neurons in upper layer 5 received their strongest inputs from layer 2, YFP-positive neurons in the upper blade received prominent layer 3 inputs. Third, YFP-positive neurons exhibited distinct electrophysiological properties, including low spike frequency adaptation, as reported previously. Our results with this genetically labeled neuronal population indicate the presence of distinct local-circuit phenotypes among layer 5 pyramidal neurons in mouse motor-frontal cortex, and present a paradigm for investigating local circuit organization in other genetically labeled populations of cortical neurons.

  12. Photovoltaic module and laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunea, Gabriela E.; Kim, Sung Dug; Kavulak, David F.J.

    2018-04-10

    A photovoltaic module is disclosed. The photovoltaic module has a first side directed toward the sun during normal operation and a second, lower side. The photovoltaic module comprises a perimeter frame and a photovoltaic laminate at least partially enclosed by and supported by the perimeter frame. The photovoltaic laminate comprises a transparent cover layer positioned toward the first side of the photovoltaic module, an upper encapsulant layer beneath and adhering to the cover layer, a plurality of photovoltaic solar cells beneath the upper encapsulant layer, the photovoltaic solar cells electrically interconnected, a lower encapsulant layer beneath the plurality of photovoltaic solar cells, the upper and lower encapsulant layers enclosing the plurality of photovoltaic solar cells, and a homogenous rear environmental protection layer, the rear environmental protection layer adhering to the lower encapsulant layer, the rear environmental protection layer exposed to the ambient environment on the second side of the photovoltaic module.

  13. Layering and Ordering in Electrochemical Double Layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yihua [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Kawaguchi, Tomoya [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Pierce, Michael S. [Rochester Institute of Technology, School of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester, New York 14623, United States; Komanicky, Vladimir [Faculty of Science, Safarik University, 041 54 Kosice, Slovakia; You, Hoydoo [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States

    2018-02-26

    Electrochemical double layers (EDL) form at electrified interfaces. While Gouy-Chapman model describes moderately charged EDL, formation of Stern layers was predicted for highly charged EDL. Our results provide structural evidence for a Stern layer of cations, at potentials close to hydrogen evolution in alkali fluoride and chloride electrolytes. Layering was observed by x-ray crystal truncation rods and atomic-scale recoil responses of Pt(111) surface layers. Ordering in the layer is confirmed by glancing-incidence in-plane diffraction measurements.

  14. Asymptotic spectral analysis in colliding leaky quantum layers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kondej, S.; Krejčiřík, David

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 446, č. 2 (2017), s. 1328-1355 ISSN 0022-247X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : quantum layers * leaky graphs * Delta interaction supported on hypersurfaces * Norm-resolvent convergence * non-self-adjoint interaction Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 1.064, year: 2016

  15. Rigid thin windows for vacuum applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Glenn Allyn; Ciarlo, Dino R.; Myers, Booth Richard; Chen, Hao-Lin; Wakalopulos, George

    1999-01-01

    A thin window that stands off atmospheric pressure is fabricated using photolithographic and wet chemical etching techniques and comprises at least two layers: an etch stop layer and a protective barrier layer. The window structure also comprises a series of support ribs running the width of the window. The windows are typically made of boron-doped silicon and silicon nitride and are useful in instruments such as electron beam guns and x-ray detectors. In an electron beam gun, the window does not impede the electrons and has demonstrated outstanding gun performance and survivability during the gun tube manufacturing process.

  16. Joint-layer encoder optimization for HEVC scalable extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Ming; He, Yuwen; Dong, Jie; Ye, Yan; Xiu, Xiaoyu; He, Yong

    2014-09-01

    Scalable video coding provides an efficient solution to support video playback on heterogeneous devices with various channel conditions in heterogeneous networks. SHVC is the latest scalable video coding standard based on the HEVC standard. To improve enhancement layer coding efficiency, inter-layer prediction including texture and motion information generated from the base layer is used for enhancement layer coding. However, the overall performance of the SHVC reference encoder is not fully optimized because rate-distortion optimization (RDO) processes in the base and enhancement layers are independently considered. It is difficult to directly extend the existing joint-layer optimization methods to SHVC due to the complicated coding tree block splitting decisions and in-loop filtering process (e.g., deblocking and sample adaptive offset (SAO) filtering) in HEVC. To solve those problems, a joint-layer optimization method is proposed by adjusting the quantization parameter (QP) to optimally allocate the bit resource between layers. Furthermore, to make more proper resource allocation, the proposed method also considers the viewing probability of base and enhancement layers according to packet loss rate. Based on the viewing probability, a novel joint-layer RD cost function is proposed for joint-layer RDO encoding. The QP values of those coding tree units (CTUs) belonging to lower layers referenced by higher layers are decreased accordingly, and the QP values of those remaining CTUs are increased to keep total bits unchanged. Finally the QP values with minimal joint-layer RD cost are selected to match the viewing probability. The proposed method was applied to the third temporal level (TL-3) pictures in the Random Access configuration. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed joint-layer optimization method can improve coding performance by 1.3% for these TL-3 pictures compared to the SHVC reference encoder without joint-layer optimization.

  17. Ballistic Limit of High-Strength Steel and Al7075-T6 Multi-Layered Plates Under 7.62-mm Armour Piercing Projectile Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, N. A.; Abdullah, S.; Zamri, W. F. H.; Abdullah, M. F.; Omar, M. Z.; Sajuri, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the computational-based ballistic limit of laminated metal panels comprised of high strength steel and aluminium alloy Al7075-T6 plate at different thickness combinations to necessitate the weight reduction of existing armour steel plate. The numerical models of monolithic configuration, double-layered configuration and triple-layered configuration were developed using a commercial explicit finite element code and were impacted by 7.62 mm armour piercing projectil...

  18. A device for supporting a pin bundle in a nuclear reactor assembly casing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmonier, Pierre; Mesnage, Bernard; Teulon, Jean; Vayra, Jean; Venobre, Henri.

    1974-01-01

    Description is given of a device for supporting a pin-bundle in a nuclear reactor assembly casing. That device comprises a member coaxially mounted at the bottom of the vertically mounted casing, adapted to support a plurality of parallel rails along whose edges slide grooves made in the pin-plugs. It is characterized in that said supporting member is provided with a lateral groove open toward its periphery, cooperating with clamping-lugs that form extensions of the rail-sides and comprise an inwardly directed portion adapted to be engaged in the groove. This can be applied to fast neutron nuclear reactors [fr

  19. Successive reactive liquid flow episodes in a layered intrusion (Unit 9, Rum Eastern Layered Intrusion, Scotland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuthold, Julien; Blundy, Jon; Holness, Marian

    2014-05-01

    We will present a detailed microstructural and geochemical study of reactive liquid flow in Unit 9 of the Rum Eastern Layered Intrusion. In the study region, Unit 9 comprises an underlying lens-like body of peridotite overlain by a sequence of troctolite and gabbro (termed allivalite), with some local and minor anorthosite. The troctolite is separated from the overlying gabbro by a distinct, sub-horizontal, undulose horizon (the major wavy horizon). Higher in the stratigraphy is another, similar, horizon (the minor wavy horizon) that separates relatively clinopyroxene-poor gabbro from an overlying gabbro. To the north of the peridotite lens, both troctolite and gabbro grade into poikilitic gabbro. Clinopyroxene habit in the allivalite varies from thin rims around olivine in troctolite, to equigranular crystals in gabbro, to oikocrysts in the poikilitic gabbro. The poikilitic gabbros contain multiple generations of clinopyroxene, with Cr-rich (~1.1 wt.% Cr2O3), anhedral cores with moderate REE concentrations (core1) overgrown by an anhedral REE-depleted second generation with moderate Cr (~0.7 wt.% Cr2O3) (core2). These composite cores are rimmed by Cr-poor (~0.2 wt.% Cr2O3) and REE-poor to moderate clinopyroxene. We interpret these microstructures as a consequence of two separate episodes of partial melting triggered by the intrusion of hot olivine-phyric picrite to form the discontinuous lenses that comprise the Unit 9 peridotite. Loss of clinopyroxene-saturated partial melt from the lower part of the allivalite immediately following the early stages of sill intrusion resulted in the formation of clinopyroxene-poor gabbro. The spatial extent of clinopyroxene loss is marked by the minor wavy horizon. A further partial melting event stripped out almost all clinopyroxene from the lowest allivalite, to form a troctolite, with the major wavy horizon marking the extent of melting during this second episode. The poikilitic gabbro formed from clinopyroxene-saturated melt

  20. Waveguide module comprising a first plate with a waveguide channel and a second plate with a raised portion in which a sealing layer is forced into the waveguide channel by the raised portion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassner, II, Bernd H.; Liedtke, Richard; McDonald, Jacob Jeremiah; Halligan, Matthew

    2018-04-17

    The various technologies presented herein relate to utilizing a sealing layer of malleable material to seal gaps, etc., at a joint between edges of a waveguide channel formed in a first plate and a surface of a clamping plate. A compression pad is included in the surface of the clamping plate and is dimensioned such that the upper surface of the pad is less than the area of the waveguide channel opening on the first plate. The sealing layer is placed between the waveguide plate and the clamping plate, and during assembly of the waveguide module, the compression pad deforms a portion of the sealing layer such that it ingresses into the waveguide channel opening. Deformation of the sealing layer results in the gaps, etc., to be filled, improving the operational integrity of the joint.

  1. Oxygen barrier of multilayer thin films comprised of polysaccharides and clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Galina; Kirkland, Christopher; Cain, Amanda A; Grunlan, Jaime C

    2013-06-05

    Multilayered thin films of chitosan (CH), carrageenan (CR) and montmorillonite (MMT) clay, deposited using the layer-by-layer technique, were studied in an effort to produce fully renewable polysaccharide-based thin films with low oxygen permeability. Ten 'trilayers' of CH/MMT/CR (film reduced its oxygen permeability (1.76×10(-15) cm(3) cm/cm(2) s Pa) by an order of magnitude under dry conditions. By adding an additional layer of CH to the trilayer sequence, a 'quadlayer' film of CH/CR/CH/MMT (barrier is believed to be due to the unique nanostructure of these films, often referred to as a "nanobrick wall" structure, as well as a strong association amongst the oppositely charged polysaccharides. Combining fully renewable and food contact approved ingredients with high gas barrier and optical transparency makes this technology promising as a foil replacement for food packaging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Electric circuit breaker comprising a plurality of vacuum interrupters simultaneously operated by a common operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, Philip; Imam, Imdad

    1980-01-01

    This circuit breaker comprises a plurality of a vacuum-type circuit interrupters, each having a movable contact rod. A common operating device for the interrupters comprises a linearly-movable operating member. The interrupters are mounted at one side of the operating member with their movable contact rods extending in a direction generally toward the operating member. Means is provided for mechanically coupling the operating member to the contact rods, and this means comprises a plurality of insulating operating rods, each connected at one end to the operating member and at its opposite end to one of the movable contact rods. The operating rods are of substantially equal length and have longitudinal axes that converge and intersect at substantially a common point.

  3. Effect of the Die Temperature and Blank Thickness on the Formability of a Laser-Welded Blank of a Boron Steel Sheet with Removing Al-Si Coating Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Lee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Reducing carbon emissions has been a major focus in the automobile industry to address various environmental issues. In particular, studies on parts comprised of high strength sheets and light car bodies are ongoing. Accordingly, this study examined the use of boron steel, which is commonly used in high strength sheets. Boron steel is a type of sheet used for hot stamping parts. Although it has high strength, the elongation is inferior, which reduces its crash energy absorption capacity. To solve this problem, two sheets of different thickness were welded so the thin sheet would absorb crash energy and the thick sheet would work as a support. Boron steel, however, may show weakening at the welding spot due to the Al-Si coating layer used to prevent oxidation from occurring during the welding process. Therefore, a certain part of the coating layer of a double-thickness boron steel sheet that is welded in the hot stamping process is removed through laser ablation, and the formability of the hot-work was examined.

  4. Preparation of self-supporting molecularly imprinted films via transition layer construction and RAFT polymerization, and their use in HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Peng; Tang, Shengfu; Shi, Liyi; Li, Zongzhou; Song, Na

    2013-01-01

    Molecularly imprinted films with self-supporting property (SS-MIFs) have been prepared by using the strategy of transition layer construction followed by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The structure, composition and selectivity of the SS-MIFs as well as the mechanism of mass transfer were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform IR spectrometry, specific surface area analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, and HPLC. Surface area analysis showed the samples possessed specific surface areas as high as 80.5 m 2 .g −1 . This is almost 9 times more than that of the original porous anodic aluminum oxide substrate. Thermogravimetric analysis also showed the samples to be thermally stable up to 350 °C. The separating power was investigated by HPLC and revealed a selective separation effect for the target molecules theobromine. The separation factor is 5.37. (author)

  5. Graphene-oxide-supported CuAl and CoAl layered double hydroxides as enhanced catalysts for carbon-carbon coupling via Ullmann reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nesreen S.; Menzel, Robert; Wang, Yifan; Garcia-Gallastegui, Ainara; Bawaked, Salem M.; Obaid, Abdullah Y.; Basahel, Sulaiman N.; Mokhtar, Mohamed

    2017-02-01

    Two efficient catalyst based on CuAl and CoAl layered double hydroxides (LDHs) supported on graphene oxide (GO) for the carbon-carbon coupling (Classic Ullmann Homocoupling Reaction) are reported. The pure and hybrid materials were synthesised by direct precipitation of the LDH nanoparticles onto GO, followed by a chemical, structural and physical characterisation by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), surface area measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The GO-supported and unsupported CuAl-LDH and CoAl-LDH hybrids were tested over the Classic Ullman Homocoupling Reaction of iodobenzene. In the current study CuAl- and CoAl-LDHs have shown excellent yields (91% and 98%, respectively) at very short reaction times (25 min). GO provides a light-weight, charge complementary and two-dimensional material that interacts effectively with the 2D LDHs, in turn enhancing the stability of LDH. After 5 re-use cycles, the catalytic activity of the LDH/GO hybrid is up to 2 times higher than for the unsupported LDH.

  6. Macular Choroidal Small-Vessel Layer, Sattler's Layer and Haller's Layer Thicknesses: The Beijing Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Wang, Ya Xing; Zhang, Qi; Wei, Wen Bin; Xu, Liang; Jonas, Jost B

    2018-03-13

    To study macular choroidal layer thickness, 3187 study participants from the population-based Beijing Eye Study underwent spectral-domain optical coherence tomography with enhanced depth imaging for thickness measurements of the macular small-vessel layer, including the choriocapillaris, medium-sized choroidal vessel layer (Sattler's layer) and large choroidal vessel layer (Haller's layer). In multivariate analysis, greater thickness of all three choroidal layers was associated (all P  0.05) associated with the prevalence of open-angle glaucoma or diabetic retinopathy. There was a tendency (0.07 > P > 0.02) toward thinner choroidal layers in chronic angle-closure glaucoma. The ratio of small-vessel layer thickness to total choroidal thickness increased (P layer and Haller's layer thickness to total choroidal thickness decreased. A higher ratio of small-vessel layer thickness to total choroidal thickness was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of AMD (early type, intermediate type, late geographic type). Axial elongation-associated and aging-associated choroidal thinning affected Haller's and Sattler's layers more markedly than the small-vessel layer. Non-exudative and exudative AMD, except for geographic atrophy, was associated with slightly increased choroidal thickness.

  7. Biomimetic processing of oriented crystalline ceramic layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesarano, J.; Shelnutt, J.A.

    1997-10-01

    The aim of this project was to develop the capabilities for Sandia to fabricate self assembled Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of various materials and to exploit their two-dimensional crystalline structure to promote the growth of oriented thin films of inorganic materials at room temperature. This includes the design and synthesis of Langmuir-active (amphiphilic) organic molecules with end groups offering high nucleation potential for various ceramics. A longer range goal is that of understanding the underlying principles, making it feasible to use the techniques presented in this report to fabricate unique oriented films of various materials for electronic, sensor, and membrane applications. Therefore, whenever possible, work completed in this report was completed with the intention of addressing the fundamental phenomena underlying the growth of crystalline, inorganic films on template layers of highly organized organic molecules. This problem was inspired by biological processes, which often produce exquisitely engineered structures via templated growth on polymeric layers. Seashells, for example, exhibit great toughness owing to their fine brick-and-mortar structure that results from templated growth of calcium carbonate on top of layers of ordered organic proteins. A key goal in this work, therefore, is to demonstrate a positive correlation between the order and orientation of the template layer and that of the crystalline ceramic material grown upon it. The work completed was comprised of several parallel efforts that encompassed the entire spectrum of biomimetic growth from solution. Studies were completed on seashells and the mechanisms of growth for calcium carbonate. Studies were completed on the characterization of LB films and the capability developed for the in-house fabrication of these films. Standard films of fatty acids were studied as well as novel polypeptides and porphyrins that were synthesized.

  8. Acellular bi-layer silk fibroin scaffolds support tissue regeneration in a rabbit model of onlay urethroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yeun Goo; Tu, Duong; Franck, Debra; Gil, Eun Seok; Algarrahi, Khalid; Adam, Rosalyn M; Kaplan, David L; Estrada, Carlos R; Mauney, Joshua R

    2014-01-01

    Acellular scaffolds derived from Bombyx mori silk fibroin were investigated for their ability to support functional tissue regeneration in a rabbit model of urethra repair. A bi-layer silk fibroin matrix was fabricated by a solvent-casting/salt leaching process in combination with silk fibroin film casting to generate porous foams buttressed by homogeneous silk fibroin films. Ventral onlay urethroplasty was performed with silk fibroin grafts (Group 1, N = 4) (Width × Length, 1 × 2 cm(2)) in adult male rabbits for 3 m of implantation. Parallel control groups consisted of animals receiving small intestinal submucosa (SIS) implants (Group 2, N = 4) or urethrotomy alone (Group 3, N = 3). Animals in all groups exhibited 100% survival prior to scheduled euthanasia and achieved voluntary voiding following 7 d of initial catheterization. Retrograde urethrography of each implant group at 3 m post-op revealed wide urethral calibers and preservation of organ continuity similar to pre-operative and urethrotomy controls with no evidence of contrast extravasation, strictures, fistulas, or stone formation. Histological (hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome), immunohistochemical, and histomorphometric analyses demonstrated that both silk fibroin and SIS scaffolds promoted similar extents of smooth muscle and epithelial tissue regeneration throughout the original defect sites with prominent contractile protein (α-smooth muscle actin and SM22α) and cytokeratin expression, respectively. De novo innervation and vascularization were also evident in all regenerated tissues indicated by synaptophysin-positive neuronal cells and vessels lined with CD31 expressing endothelial cells. Following 3 m post-op, minimal acute inflammatory reactions were elicited by silk fibroin scaffolds characterized by the presence of eosinophil granulocytes while SIS matrices promoted chronic inflammatory responses indicated by mobilization of mononuclear cell infiltrates. The results of this study

  9. Acellular bi-layer silk fibroin scaffolds support tissue regeneration in a rabbit model of onlay urethroplasty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeun Goo Chung

    Full Text Available Acellular scaffolds derived from Bombyx mori silk fibroin were investigated for their ability to support functional tissue regeneration in a rabbit model of urethra repair. A bi-layer silk fibroin matrix was fabricated by a solvent-casting/salt leaching process in combination with silk fibroin film casting to generate porous foams buttressed by homogeneous silk fibroin films. Ventral onlay urethroplasty was performed with silk fibroin grafts (Group 1, N = 4 (Width × Length, 1 × 2 cm(2 in adult male rabbits for 3 m of implantation. Parallel control groups consisted of animals receiving small intestinal submucosa (SIS implants (Group 2, N = 4 or urethrotomy alone (Group 3, N = 3. Animals in all groups exhibited 100% survival prior to scheduled euthanasia and achieved voluntary voiding following 7 d of initial catheterization. Retrograde urethrography of each implant group at 3 m post-op revealed wide urethral calibers and preservation of organ continuity similar to pre-operative and urethrotomy controls with no evidence of contrast extravasation, strictures, fistulas, or stone formation. Histological (hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome, immunohistochemical, and histomorphometric analyses demonstrated that both silk fibroin and SIS scaffolds promoted similar extents of smooth muscle and epithelial tissue regeneration throughout the original defect sites with prominent contractile protein (α-smooth muscle actin and SM22α and cytokeratin expression, respectively. De novo innervation and vascularization were also evident in all regenerated tissues indicated by synaptophysin-positive neuronal cells and vessels lined with CD31 expressing endothelial cells. Following 3 m post-op, minimal acute inflammatory reactions were elicited by silk fibroin scaffolds characterized by the presence of eosinophil granulocytes while SIS matrices promoted chronic inflammatory responses indicated by mobilization of mononuclear cell infiltrates. The results

  10. Layered double hydroxides as supports for intercalation and sustained release of antihypertensive drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Shengjie; Ni Zheming; Xu Qian; Hu Baoxiang; Hu Jun

    2008-01-01

    Zn/Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were intercalated with the anionic antihypertensive drugs Enalpril, Lisinopril, Captopril and Ramipril by using coprecipitation or ion-exchange technique. TG-MS analyses suggested that the thermal stability of Ena - , Lis - (arranged with monolayer, resulted from X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) analysis was enhanced much more than Cap - and Ram - (arranged with bilayer). The release studies show that the release rate of all samples markedly decreased in both pH 4.25 and 7.45. However, the release time of Ena - , Lis - were much longer compared with Cap - , Ram - in both pH 4.25 and 7.45, it is possible that the intercalated guests, arranged with monolayer in the interlayer, show lesser repulsive force and strong affinity with the LDH layers. And the release data followed both the Higuchi-square-root law and the first-order equation well. Based on the analysis of batch release, intercalated structural models as well as the TG-DTA results, we conclude that for drug-LDH, stronger the affinity between intercalated anions and the layers is, better the thermal property and the stability to the acid attack of drug-LDH, and the intercalated anions are easier apt to monolayer arrangement within the interlayer, were presented. - Graphical abstract: A series of antihypertensive drugs including Enalpril, Lisinopril, Captopril and Ramipril were intercalated into Zn/Al-NO 3 -LDHs successfully by coprecipitation or ion-exchange technique. We focus on the structure, thermal property and low/controlled release property of as-synthesized drug-LDH composite intended for the possibility of applying these LDH-antihypertensive nanohybrids in drug delivery and controlled release systems

  11. Molecular sleds comprising a positively -charged amino acid sequence and a molecular cargo and uses thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangel, F Walter; Blainey, Paul C; Graziano, Vito; Herrmann, Andreas; McGrath, William J; van Oijen, Antonius Martinus; Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to compositions which may comprise a molecular sled linked to cargo and uses thereof. In particular, the present invention relates to a non-naturally occurring or engineered composition which may comprise a molecular sled, linkers and a molecular cargo connected to the

  12. Manufacturing a submicron structure using a liquid precursor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishihara, R.; Van de Zwan, M.; Trifunovic, M.

    2014-01-01

    Methods for manufacture of a submicron semiconductor structure on a substrate are described. The method may comprise: forming at least one template layer over a support substrate; forming one or more template structures, preferably one or more recesses and/or mesas, in said template layer, said one

  13. Integrating seawater desalination and wastewater reclamation forward osmosis process using thin-film composite mixed matrix membrane with functionalized carbon nanotube blended polyethersulfone support layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyeon-Gyu; Son, Moon; Choi, Heechul

    2017-10-01

    Thin-film composite mixed matrix membrane (TFC MMM) with functionalized carbon nanotube (fCNT) blended in polyethersulfone (PES) support layer was synthesized via interfacial polymerization and phase inversion. This membrane was firstly tested in lab-scale integrating seawater desalination and wastewater reclamation forward osmosis (FO) process. Water flux of TFC MMM was increased by 72% compared to that of TFC membrane due to enhanced hydrophilicity. Although TFC MMM showed lower water flux than TFC commercial membrane, enhanced reverse salt flux selectivity (RSFS) of TFC MMM was observed compared to TFC membrane (15% higher) and TFC commercial membrane (4% higher), representing membrane permselectivity. Under effluent organic matter (EfOM) fouling test, 16% less normalized flux decline of TFC MMM was observed compared to TFC membrane. There was 8% less decline of TFC MMM compared to TFC commercial membrane due to fCNT effect on repulsive foulant-membrane interaction enhancement, caused by negatively charged membrane surface. After 10 min physical cleaning, TFC MMM displayed higher recovered normalized flux than TFC membrane (6%) and TFC commercial membrane (4%); this was also supported by visualized characterization of fouling layer. This study presents application of TFC MMM to integrated seawater desalination and wastewater reclamation FO process for the first time. It can be concluded that EfOM fouling of TFC MMM was suppressed due to repulsive foulant-membrane interaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Self-guiding light in layered nonlinear media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergé, L.; Mezentsev, V. K.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    We study the propagation of intense optical beams in layered Kerr media. With appropriate shapes, beams with a power close to the self-focusing threshold are shown to propagate over long distances as quasistationary waveguides in cubic media supporting a periodic nonlinear refractive index. (C...

  15. Fuel cell testing of Pt–Ru catalysts supported on differently prepared and pretreated carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarz, Wojciech; Lota, Grzegorz; Frackowiak, Elzbieta; Czerwiński, Andrzej; Piela, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) testing of Pt–Ru catalysts supported on differently prepared multiwall carbon nanotube (MCNT) supports was performed to elucidate the influence of the different supports on the operating characteristics of the catalysts under real direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) anode and H 2 -PEMFC anode conditions. The MCNTs were either thin, entangled or thick, disentangled. Pretreatment of the MCNTs was also done and it was either high-temperature KOH etching or annealing (graphitization). The performance of the catalysts was compared against the performance of a commercial Pt–Ru catalyst supported on a high-surface-area carbon black. Among the different MCNT supports, the graphitized, entangled support offered the best performance in all tests, which was equal to the performance of the commercial catalyst, despite the MCNT catalyst layer was ca. 2.2 times thicker than the carbon black catalyst layer. Even for an MCNT catalyst layer, which was almost 7 times thicker than the carbon black catalyst layer, the transport limitations were not prohibitive. This confirmed the expected potential of nanotube supports for providing superior reactant transport properties of the PEMFC catalyst layers

  16. Hybrid Cryogenic Tank Construction and Method of Manufacture Therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A lightweight, high-pressure cryogenic tank construction includes an inner layer comprising a matrix of fiber and resin suitable for cryogenic use. An outer layer in intimate contact with the inner layer provides support of the inner layer, and is made of resin composite. The tank is made by placing a fiber preform on a mandrel and infusing the preform with the resin. The infused preform is then encapsulated within the outer layer.

  17. Martian Mixed Layer during Pathfinder Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, G. M.; Valero, F.; Vazquez, L.

    2008-09-01

    neglects the effect of the radiation heating which is negligible under fair weather conditions on Earth. However, it is relevant under martian conditions due to the absorption of solar radiation by dust. Supported both by [11] and the low dust optical depth (≃ 0.3 for the PF summer), the con- vective heating of the mixed layer domiantes the radiation heating (around three times higher), al- lowing us to estimate these values via mixed layer similarity.

  18. Method and device for fabricating dispersion fuel comprising fission product collection spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaber, Eric L; Fielding, Randall S

    2015-05-05

    A method of fabricating a nuclear fuel comprising a fissile material, one or more hollow microballoons, a phenolic resin, and metal matrix. The fissile material, phenolic resin and the one or more hollow microballoons are combined. The combined fissile material, phenolic resin and the hollow microballoons are heated sufficiently to form at least some fissile material carbides creating a nuclear fuel particle. The resulting nuclear fuel particle comprises one or more fission product collection spaces. In a preferred embodiment, the fissile material, phenolic resin and the one or more hollow microballoons are combined by forming the fissile material into microspheres. The fissile material microspheres are then overcoated with the phenolic resin and microballoon. In another preferred embodiment, the fissile material, phenolic resin and the one or more hollow microballoons are combined by overcoating the microballoon with the fissile material, and phenolic resin.

  19. Two-layer type filter for removal of radioactive iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taoki, M

    1976-04-16

    The object is to provide a filter for removing radioactive iodine, which is used for disposal of gaseous waste in an atomic power plant, to particularly hold a pressure loss lower. The filter according to the present invention comprises two layers, which are filled at a front stage with active carbon, which is small in pressure loss and has a good collective efficiency relative to iodine, and at a rear stage with silver zeolite, which has a good collective efficiency relative to both iodine and methyl iodine, whereby respective adsorbent are effectively utilized to minimize pressure loss even if a large quantity of air.

  20. Two-layer type filter for removal of radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taoki, Masafumi.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a filter for removing radioactive iodine, which is used for disposal of gaseous waste in an atomic power plant, to particularly hold a pressure loss lower. Structure: The filter according to the present invention comprises two layers, which are filled at a front stage with active carbon, which is small in pressure loss and has a good collective efficiency relative to iodine, and at a rear stage with silver zeolite, which has a good collective efficiency relative to both iodine and methyl iodine, whereby respective adsorbent are effectively utilized to minimize pressure loss even if a large quantity of air. (Kamimura, M.)

  1. Electromagnetic Modeling of the Propagation Characteristics of Satellite Communications Through Composite Precipitation Layers, Part1: Mathematical Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Al-Rizzo

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A systematic and general formulation of a Propagation Simulation Program (PSP is developed for the coherent field of microwave and millimeter wave carrier signals traversing intermediate layered precipitation media, taking into account the random behavior of particle size, orientation, shape and concentration distributions.  Based on a rigorous solution of the volumetric multiple-scattering integral equations, the formalism offers the capability of treating the potential transmission impairments on satellite-earth links and radar remote sensing generated by composite atmospheric layers of precipitation in conjunction with the finite polarization isolation of dual-polarized transmitting and receiving antennas. A multi-layered formulation is employed which encompasses an ensemble of discrete particles comprising an arbitrary mixture of ice crystals, melting snow and raindrops that may exist simultaneously along satellite-earth communication paths.

  2. Magneto-electroluminescence effects in the single-layer organic light-emitting devices with macrocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-T. Pham

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Magneto-electroluminescence (MEL effects are observed in single-layer organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs comprising only macrocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs. The fluorescence devices were prepared using synthesized MAHs, namely, [n]cyclo-meta-phenylene ([n]CMP, n = 5, 6. The MEL ratio of the resulting OLED is 1%–2% in the spectral wavelength range of 400-500 nm, whereas it becomes negative (−1.5% to −2% in the range from 650 to 700 nm. The possible physical origins of the sign change in the MEL are discussed. This wavelength-dependent sign change in the MEL ratio could be a unique function for future single-layer OLEDs capable of magnetic-field-induced color changes.

  3. Magneto-electroluminescence effects in the single-layer organic light-emitting devices with macrocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, S.-T.; Ikemoto, K.; Suzuki, K. Z.; Izumi, T.; Taka, H.; Kita, H.; Sato, S.; Isobe, H.; Mizukami, S.

    2018-02-01

    Magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) effects are observed in single-layer organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) comprising only macrocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs). The fluorescence devices were prepared using synthesized MAHs, namely, [n]cyclo-meta-phenylene ([n]CMP, n = 5, 6). The MEL ratio of the resulting OLED is 1%-2% in the spectral wavelength range of 400-500 nm, whereas it becomes negative (-1.5% to -2%) in the range from 650 to 700 nm. The possible physical origins of the sign change in the MEL are discussed. This wavelength-dependent sign change in the MEL ratio could be a unique function for future single-layer OLEDs capable of magnetic-field-induced color changes.

  4. Feature-Driven Domain Analysis of Session Layer Protocols of Internet of Things

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köksal, Omer; Tekinerdogan, B.

    2017-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) architecture is defined as a layered structure in which each layer represents a coherent set of services. For supporting the communication among the different IoT entities many different communication protocols are now available in practice. For practitioners, it is

  5. Resource Allocation and Cross Layer Control in Wireless Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Georgiadis, L; Neely, M; Tassiulas, L

    2006-01-01

    Information .ow in a telecommunication network is accomplished through the interaction of mechanisms at various design layers with the end goal of supporting the information exchange needs of the applications...

  6. Lateral acoustic wave resonator comprising a suspended membrane of low damping resonator material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady; , Ihab F.; Ziaei-Moayyed, Maryam; Branch; , Darren W.; Su; Mehmet F.,; Reinke; Charles M.,

    2013-09-03

    A very high-Q, low insertion loss resonator can be achieved by storing many overtone cycles of a lateral acoustic wave (i.e., Lamb wave) in a lithographically defined suspended membrane comprising a low damping resonator material, such as silicon carbide. The high-Q resonator can sets up a Fabry-Perot cavity in a low-damping resonator material using high-reflectivity acoustic end mirrors, which can comprise phononic crystals. The lateral overtone acoustic wave resonator can be electrically transduced by piezoelectric couplers. The resonator Q can be increased without increasing the impedance or insertion loss by storing many cycles or wavelengths in the high-Q resonator material, with much lower damping than the piezoelectric transducer material.

  7. Energy storage systems having an electrode comprising Li.sub.xS.sub.y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jiguang; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Wang, Wei; Zheng, Jianming; Xu, Wu; Shao, Yuyan; Yang, Zhenguo

    2016-08-02

    Improved lithium-sulfur energy storage systems can utilizes Li.sub.xS.sub.y as a component in an electrode of the system. For example, the energy storage system can include a first electrode current collector, a second electrode current collector, and an ion-permeable separator separating the first and second electrode current collectors. A second electrode is arranged between the second electrode current collector and the separator. A first electrode is arranged between the first electrode current collector and the separator and comprises a first condensed-phase fluid comprising Li.sub.xS.sub.y. The energy storage system can be arranged such that the first electrode functions as a positive or a negative electrode.

  8. Implementation of ZnO/ZnMgO strained-layer superlattice for ZnO heteroepitaxial growth on sapphire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhov, Vladimir; Bakin, Andrey; Tsiaoussis, Ioannis; Rothman, Johan; Ivanov, Sergey; Stoemenos, John; Waag, Andreas

    2011-05-01

    The main challenge in fabrication of ZnO-based devices is the absence of reliable p-type material. This is mostly caused by insufficient crystalline quality of the material and not well-enough-developed native point defect control of ZnO. At present high-quality ZnO wafers are still expensive and ZnO heteroepitaxial layers on sapphire are the most reasonable alternative to homoepitaxial layers. But it is still necessary to improve the crystalline quality of the heteroepitaxial layers. One of the approaches to reduce defect density in heteroepitaxial layers is to introduce a strained-layer superlattice (SL) that could stop dislocation propagation from the substrate-layer interface. In the present paper we have employed fifteen periods of a highly strained SL structure. The structure was grown on a conventional double buffer layer comprising of high-temperature MgO/low-temperature ZnO on sapphire. The influence of the SLs on the properties of the heteroepitaxial ZnO layers is investigated. Electrical measurements of the structure with SL revealed very high values of the carrier mobility up to 210 cm2/Vs at room temperature. Structural characterization of the obtained samples showed that the dislocation density in the following ZnO layer was not reduced. The high mobility signal appears to come from the SL structure or the SL/ZnO interface.

  9. Nanoscale Cross-Point Resistive Switching Memory Comprising p-Type SnO Bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Hota, Mrinal Kanti; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Wang, Qingxiao; Melnikov, Vasily; Mohammed, Omar F.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2015-01-01

    Reproducible low-voltage bipolar resistive switching is reported in bilayer structures of p-type SnO films. Specifically, a bilayer homojunction comprising SnOx (oxygen-rich) and SnOy (oxygen-deficient) in nanoscale cross-point (300 × 300 nm2

  10. Layered double hydroxide supported gold nanoclusters by glutathione-capped Au nanoclusters precursor method for highly efficient aerobic oxidation of alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lun; Dou, Liguang; Zhang, Hui

    2014-03-01

    M3Al-layered double hydroxide (LDH, M = Mg, Ni, Co) supported Au nanoclusters (AuNCs) catalysts have been prepared for the first time by using water-soluble glutathione-capped Au nanoclusters as precursor. Detailed characterizations show that the ultrafine Au nanoclusters (ca. 1.5 +/- 0.6 nm) were well dispersed on the surface of LDH with a loading of Au below ~0.23 wt% upon synergetic interaction between AuNCs and M3Al-LDH. AuNCs/Mg3Al-LDH-0.23 exhibits much higher catalytic performance for the oxidation of 1-phenylethanol in toluene than Au/Mg3Al-LDH(DP) by the conventional deposition precipitation method and can be applied for a wide range of alcohols without basic additives. This catalyst can also be reused without loss of activity or selectivity. The AuNCs/M(= Ni, Co)3Al-LDH catalysts present even higher alcohol oxidation activity than AuNCs/Mg3Al-LDH. Particularly, AuNCs/Ni3Al-LDH-0.22 exhibits the highest activity (46 500 h-1) for the aerobic oxidation of 1-phenylethanol under solvent-free conditions attributed to its strongest Au-support synergy. The excellent activity and stability of AuNCs/M3Al-LDH catalysts render these materials promising candidates for green base-free selective oxidation of alcohols by molecular oxygen.M3Al-layered double hydroxide (LDH, M = Mg, Ni, Co) supported Au nanoclusters (AuNCs) catalysts have been prepared for the first time by using water-soluble glutathione-capped Au nanoclusters as precursor. Detailed characterizations show that the ultrafine Au nanoclusters (ca. 1.5 +/- 0.6 nm) were well dispersed on the surface of LDH with a loading of Au below ~0.23 wt% upon synergetic interaction between AuNCs and M3Al-LDH. AuNCs/Mg3Al-LDH-0.23 exhibits much higher catalytic performance for the oxidation of 1-phenylethanol in toluene than Au/Mg3Al-LDH(DP) by the conventional deposition precipitation method and can be applied for a wide range of alcohols without basic additives. This catalyst can also be reused without loss of activity

  11. Method for producing substrates for superconducting layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    There is provided a method for producing a substrate (600) suitable for supporting an elongated superconducting element, wherein, e.g., a deformation process is utilized in order to form disruptive strips in a layered solid element, and where etching is used to form undercut volumes (330, 332...

  12. S-layer fusion protein as a tool functionalizing emulsomes and CurcuEmulsomes for antibody binding and targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucisik, Mehmet H; Küpcü, Seta; Breitwieser, Andreas; Gelbmann, Nicola; Schuster, Bernhard; Sleytr, Uwe B

    2015-04-01

    Selective targeting of tumor cells by nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems is highly desirable because it maximizes the drug concentration at the desired target while simultaneously protecting the surrounding healthy tissues. Here, we show a design for smart nanocarriers based on a biomimetic approach that utilizes the building principle of virus envelope structures. Emulsomes and CurcuEmulsomes comprising a tripalmitin solid core surrounded by phospholipid layers are modified by S-layer proteins that self-assemble into a two-dimensional array to form a surface layer. One significant advantage of this nanoformulation is that it increases the solubility of the lipophilic anti-cancer agent curcumin in the CurcuEmulsomes by a factor of 2700. In order to make the emulsomes specific for IgG, the S-layer protein is fused with two protein G domains. This S-layer fusion protein preserves its recrystallization characteristics, forming an ordered surface layer (square lattice with 13 nm unit-by-unit distance). The GG domains are presented in a predicted orientation and exhibit a selective binding affinity for IgG. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of heat conducting substrates on explosive crystallization in thin layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Wilhelm

    2017-09-01

    Crystallization in a thin, initially amorphous layer is considered. The layer is in thermal contact with a substrate of very large dimensions. The energy equation of the layer contains source and sink terms. The source term is due to liberation of latent heat in the crystallization process, while the sink term is due to conduction of heat into the substrate. To determine the latter, the heat diffusion equation for the substrate is solved by applying Duhamel's integral. Thus, the energy equation of the layer becomes a heat diffusion equation with a time integral as an additional term. The latter term indicates that the heat loss due to the substrate depends on the history of the process. To complete the set of equations, the crystallization process is described by a rate equation for the degree of crystallization. The governing equations are then transformed to a moving co-ordinate system in order to analyze crystallization waves that propagate with invariant properties. Dual solutions are found by an asymptotic expansion for large activation energies of molecular diffusion. By introducing suitable variables, the results can be presented in a universal form that comprises the influence of all non-dimensional parameters that govern the process. Of particular interest for applications is the prediction of a critical heat loss parameter for the existence of crystallization waves with invariant properties.

  14. Pipe support for use in a nuclear system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollono, L.P.; Mello, R.M.

    1976-01-01

    Description is given of a vertical pipe support system. It comprises a tubular pipe support structure having the same inside diameter and the same wall thickness as the pipe, the pipe support structure having a generally triangularly shaped extension formed integral with and extending circumferentially around its outward side, the bottom side of this extension generally forming a ledge; an annular load-bearing insulation formed adjacent to the extension; means for clamping the load-bearing insulation to extension; and means for providing constant vertical support to means for clamping [fr

  15. An empirical firn-densification model comprising ice-lences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Niels; Fisher, D.A.; Koerner, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    a suitable value of the surface snow density. In the present study, a simple densification model is developed that specifically accounts for the content of ice lenses in the snowpack. An annual layer is considered to be composed of an ice fraction and a firn fraction. It is assumed that all meltwater formed...... changes reflect a volume change of the ice sheet with no corresponding change of mass, i.e. a volume change that does not influence global sea level....

  16. Buffer layers grown by replicating the texture of an original template tape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Sunme; Yoo, Jaeun; Park, Chan; Youm, Dojun

    2007-01-01

    We propose a fabrication method of the buffer layers, whose biaxial textures are replicated from an original template tape. The purpose of this method is economical texturing process for coated conductors. At first we prepared a biaxially textured metal tape (TM-tape). Then a sacrifice layer (SA), a buffer layer (BU) and a thick metallic layer (SM) were sequentially deposited on the TM-tape. SA-layer and BU-layer were deposited epitaxially to copy the texture of the TM-tape. SA-layer was dissoluble in water. SM-layer with the textured BU-layer was separated and could be used for a supporting tape for the further growth of a superconducting layer. In this way, it is possible to reuse the original textured TM-tape many times. In this paper, we report the results of our experiments, in which we used a biaxially Ni tape, BaO film, STO film, and a thick Ag film for TM-tape, SA-layer, BU-layer, and SM-layer, respectively. The Ag/STO layers were successfully separated form the Ni tape by dissolving the BaO layer in water. The texture quality of the STO layer was well secured after the separation

  17. Synthesising methods of layered double hydroxides and its use in the fabrication of dye Sensitised solar cell (DSSC): A short review

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Giphin; Saravanakumar, M. P.

    2017-11-01

    The layered double hydroxides (LDH) which are anionic clay substances comprising of stacked cationic layers and interlayer anions. The cationic sheets contain octahedral structure consisting the divalent and trivalent ions in the center and hydroxyl bunches in the corners, gathered by three bonding with the neighbouring octahedra on every side of the layer. The ratio between the quantity of cations and OH- ions is 2:1, so a positive charge shows up on the layer because of the presence of trivalent cations. The interlayer space gives the compensation anions and water molecules, assuring a balanced out layered structure. The LDH materials were successfully synthesised from magnesium, aluminium, zinc and chromium chloride salts utilizing the co-precipitation technique. A Zn-Al LDH was researched as a potential sorbent material. This article reviews the recent advances in the preparation and intercalation of layered double hydroxides and its application in the fabrication of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC).

  18. Experience-driven formation of parts-based representations in a model of layered visual memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenia Jitsev

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Growing neuropsychological and neurophysiological evidence suggests that the visual cortex uses parts-based representations to encode, store and retrieve relevant objects. In such a scheme, objects are represented as a set of spatially distributed local features, or parts, arranged in stereotypical fashion. To encode the local appearance and to represent the relations between the constituent parts, there has to be an appropriate memory structure formed by previous experience with visual objects. Here, we propose a model how a hierarchical memory structure supporting efficient storage and rapid recall of parts-based representations can be established by an experience-driven process of self-organization. The process is based on the collaboration of slow bidirectional synaptic plasticity and homeostatic unit activity regulation, both running at the top of fast activity dynamics with winner-take-all character modulated by an oscillatory rhythm. These neural mechanisms lay down the basis for cooperation and competition between the distributed units and their synaptic connections. Choosing human face recognition as a test task, we show that, under the condition of open-ended, unsupervised incremental learning, the system is able to form memory traces for individual faces in a parts-based fashion. On a lower memory layer the synaptic structure is developed to represent local facial features and their interrelations, while the identities of different persons are captured explicitly on a higher layer. An additional property of the resulting representations is the sparseness of both the activity during the recall and the synaptic patterns comprising the memory traces.

  19. Ionically Paired Layer-by-Layer Hydrogels: Water and Polyelectrolyte Uptake Controlled by Deposition Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Selin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite intense recent interest in weakly bound nonlinear (“exponential” multilayers, the underlying structure-property relationships of these films are still poorly understood. This study explores the effect of time used for deposition of individual layers of nonlinearly growing layer-by-layer (LbL films composed of poly(methacrylic acid (PMAA and quaternized poly-2-(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (QPC on film internal structure, swelling, and stability in salt solution, as well as the rate of penetration of invading polyelectrolyte chains. Thicknesses of dry and swollen films were measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry, film internal structure—by neutron reflectometry (NR, and degree of PMAA ionization—by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The results suggest that longer deposition times resulted in thicker films with higher degrees of swelling (up to swelling ratio as high as 4 compared to dry film thickness and stronger film intermixing. The stronger intermixed films were more swollen in water, exhibited lower stability in salt solutions, and supported a faster penetration rate of invading polyelectrolyte chains. These results can be useful in designing polyelectrolyte nanoassemblies for biomedical applications, such as drug delivery coatings for medical implants or tissue engineering matrices.

  20. Wave propagation in elastic layers with damping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Sergey; Darula, Radoslav

    2016-01-01

    The conventional concepts of a loss factor and complex-valued elastic moduli are used to study wave attenuation in a visco-elastic layer. The hierarchy of reduced-order models is employed to assess attenuation levels in various situations. For the forcing problem, the attenuation levels are found...... for alternative excitation cases. The differences between two regimes, the low frequency one, when a waveguide supports only one propagating wave, and the high frequency one, when several waves are supported, are demonstrated and explained....

  1. LENA Conversion Foils Using Single-Layer Graphene, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our key innovation will be the use of single-layer graphene as LENA conversion foils, with appropriate microgrids and nanogrids to support the foils. Phase I...

  2. Nanographene synthesized in triple-phase plasmas as a highly durable support of catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Tomoki; Kondo, Hiroki; Takeda, Keigo; Ishikawa, Kenji; Hiramatsu, Mineo; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2018-04-01

    Nanographene was synthesized in triple-phase plasmas comprising a gaseous phase, a gas-liquid boundary layer, and an in-liquid phase using a setup in which one electrode was placed in the gaseous phase while the other was immersed in the liquid phase. The triple-phase plasmas were generated using a pure alcohol, such as ethanol, 1-propanol, or 1-butanol, by applying a high voltage to a pair of electrodes made of copper or graphite. The nanographene synthesized using ethanol had high durability and thus could serve as a catalyst support in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). The PEFCs exhibited low degradation rates in the high-potential cycle test of a half-cell, as a result of which, a loss of only 10% was observed in the effective electrochemical surface area of Pt, even after 10,000 cycles.

  3. Effects of silicon:carbon P+ layer interfaces on solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey, F.R.; Vernstrom, G.D.; Weber, M.F.; Gilbert, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Results are presented showing the effects on amorphous silicon (a-Si) photovoltaic performance of the interfaces associated with a silicon carbide (a-Si:C) p+ layer. Carbon grading into the intrinsic layer from the p+ layer increases open circuit voltage (Voc) from 0.7V to 0.88V. This effect is very similar to the boron profile effect reported earlier and supports the contention that Voc is being limited by an electron current at the p-i interface. The interface between the p+ a-Si:C layer and the transparent conductive oxide (TCO) is shown to be a potential source of high series resistance, with an abrupt interface showing the most serious problem. The effect is explained by electron injection from the TCO into the p+ layer being inhibited as a result of band mismatch

  4. Hardwiring of fine synaptic layers in the zebrafish visual pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Michael R

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuronal connections are often arranged in layers, which are divided into sublaminae harboring synapses with similar response properties. It is still debated how fine-grained synaptic layering is established during development. Here we investigated two stratified areas of the zebrafish visual pathway, the inner plexiform layer (IPL of the retina and the neuropil of the optic tectum, and determined if activity is required for their organization. Results The IPL of 5-day-old zebrafish larvae is composed of at least nine sublaminae, comprising the connections between different types of amacrine, bipolar, and ganglion cells (ACs, BCs, GCs. These sublaminae were distinguished by their expression of cell type-specific transgenic fluorescent reporters and immunohistochemical markers, including protein kinase Cβ (PKC, parvalbumin (Parv, zrf3, and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT. In the tectum, four retinal input layers abut a laminated array of neurites of tectal cells, which differentially express PKC and Parv. We investigated whether these patterns were affected by experimental disruptions of retinal activity in developing fish. Neither elimination of light inputs by dark rearing, nor a D, L-amino-phosphono-butyrate-induced reduction in the retinal response to light onset (but not offset altered IPL or tectal lamination. Moreover, thorough elimination of chemical synaptic transmission with Botulinum toxin B left laminar synaptic arrays intact. Conclusion Our results call into question a role for activity-dependent mechanisms – instructive light signals, balanced on and off BC activity, Hebbian plasticity, or a permissive role for synaptic transmission – in the synaptic stratification we examined. We propose that genetically encoded cues are sufficient to target groups of neurites to synaptic layers in this vertebrate visual system.

  5. Community detection, link prediction, and layer interdependence in multilayer networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bacco, Caterina; Power, Eleanor A.; Larremore, Daniel B.; Moore, Cristopher

    2017-04-01

    Complex systems are often characterized by distinct types of interactions between the same entities. These can be described as a multilayer network where each layer represents one type of interaction. These layers may be interdependent in complicated ways, revealing different kinds of structure in the network. In this work we present a generative model, and an efficient expectation-maximization algorithm, which allows us to perform inference tasks such as community detection and link prediction in this setting. Our model assumes overlapping communities that are common between the layers, while allowing these communities to affect each layer in a different way, including arbitrary mixtures of assortative, disassortative, or directed structure. It also gives us a mathematically principled way to define the interdependence between layers, by measuring how much information about one layer helps us predict links in another layer. In particular, this allows us to bundle layers together to compress redundant information and identify small groups of layers which suffice to predict the remaining layers accurately. We illustrate these findings by analyzing synthetic data and two real multilayer networks, one representing social support relationships among villagers in South India and the other representing shared genetic substring material between genes of the malaria parasite.

  6. Multilayer tape cast SOFC – Effect of anode sintering temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauch, Anne; Birkl, Christoph; Brodersen, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Multilayer tape casting (MTC) is considered a promising, cost-efficient, up-scalable shaping process for production of planar anode supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Multilayer tape casting of the three layers comprising the half cell (anode support/active anode/electrolyte) can potentially...

  7. Deep neural mapping support vector machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yujian; Zhang, Ting

    2017-09-01

    The choice of kernel has an important effect on the performance of a support vector machine (SVM). The effect could be reduced by NEUROSVM, an architecture using multilayer perceptron for feature extraction and SVM for classification. In binary classification, a general linear kernel NEUROSVM can be theoretically simplified as an input layer, many hidden layers, and an SVM output layer. As a feature extractor, the sub-network composed of the input and hidden layers is first trained together with a virtual ordinary output layer by backpropagation, then with the output of its last hidden layer taken as input of the SVM classifier for further training separately. By taking the sub-network as a kernel mapping from the original input space into a feature space, we present a novel model, called deep neural mapping support vector machine (DNMSVM), from the viewpoint of deep learning. This model is also a new and general kernel learning method, where the kernel mapping is indeed an explicit function expressed as a sub-network, different from an implicit function induced by a kernel function traditionally. Moreover, we exploit a two-stage procedure of contrastive divergence learning and gradient descent for DNMSVM to jointly training an adaptive kernel mapping instead of a kernel function, without requirement of kernel tricks. As a whole of the sub-network and the SVM classifier, the joint training of DNMSVM is done by using gradient descent to optimize the objective function with the sub-network layer-wise pre-trained via contrastive divergence learning of restricted Boltzmann machines. Compared to the separate training of NEUROSVM, the joint training is a new algorithm for DNMSVM to have advantages over NEUROSVM. Experimental results show that DNMSVM can outperform NEUROSVM and RBFSVM (i.e., SVM with the kernel of radial basis function), demonstrating its effectiveness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Stabilization of the hypersonic boundary layer by finite-amplitude streaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jie; Fu, Song; Hanifi, Ardeshir

    2016-02-01

    Stabilization of two-dimensional disturbances in hypersonic boundary layer flows by finite-amplitude streaks is investigated using nonlinear parabolized stability equations. The boundary-layer flows at Mach numbers 4.5 and 6.0 are studied in which both first and second modes are supported. The streaks considered here are driven either by the so-called optimal perturbations (Klebanoff-type) or the centrifugal instability (Görtler-type). When the streak amplitude is in an appropriate range, i.e., large enough to modulate the laminar boundary layer but low enough to not trigger secondary instability, both first and second modes can effectively be suppressed.

  9. Tuning cell adhesion and growth on biomimetic polyelectrolyte multilayers by variation of pH during layer-by-layer assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Neha; Altgärde, Noomi; Svedhem, Sofia; Michanetzis, Georgios; Missirlis, Yannis; Groth, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Polyelectrolyte multilayers of chitosan and heparin are assembled on glass where heparin is applied at pH = 4, 9 and 4 during the formation of the first layers followed by pH = 9 at the last steps (denoted pH 4 + 9). Measurements of wetting properties, layer mass, and topography show that multilayers formed at pH = 4 are thicker, contain more water and have a smoother surface compared to those prepared at pH = 9 while the pH = 4 + 9 multilayers expressed intermediate properties. pH = 9 multilayers are more cell adhesive and support growth of C2C12 cells better than pH = 4 ones. However, pH 4 + 9 conditions improve the bioactivity to a similar level of pH = 9 layers. Multilayers prepared using pH 4 + 9 conditions form thick enough layers that may allow efficient loading of bioactive molecules. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Comparative Study of MIL-96(Al) as Continuous Metal-Organic Frameworks Layer and Mixed-Matrix Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knebel, Alexander; Friebe, Sebastian; Bigall, Nadja Carola; Benzaqui, Marvin; Serre, Christian; Caro, Jürgen

    2016-03-23

    MIL-96(Al) layers were prepared as supported metal-organic frameworks membrane via reactive seeding using the α-alumina support as the Al source for the formation of the MIL-96(Al) seeds. Depending on the solvent mixture employed during seed formation, two different crystal morphologies, with different orientation of the transport-active channels, have been formed. This crystal orientation and habit is predefined by the seed crystals and is kept in the subsequent growth of the seeds to continuous layers. In the gas separation of an equimolar H2/CO2 mixture, the hydrogen permeability of the two supported MIL-96(Al) layers was found to be highly dependent on the crystal morphology and the accompanied channel orientation in the layer. In addition to the neat supported MIL-96(Al) membrane layers, mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs, 10 wt % filler loading) as a composite of MIL-96(Al) particles as filler in a continuous Matrimid polymer phase have been prepared. Five particle sizes of MIL-96(Al) between 3.2 μm and 55 nm were synthesized. In the preparation of the MIL-96(Al)/Matrimid MMM (10 wt % filler loading), the following preparation problems have been identified: The bigger micrometer-sized MIL-96(Al) crystals show a trend toward sedimentation during casting of the MMM, whereas for nanoparticles aggregation and recrystallization to micrometer-sized MIL-96(Al) crystals has been observed. Because of these preparation problems for MMM, the neat supported MIL-96(Al) layers show a relatively high H2/CO2 selectivity (≈9) and a hydrogen permeance approximately 2 magnitudes higher than that of the best MMM.

  11. Metallization of bacterial cellulose for electrical and electronic device manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Barbara R [Oak Ridge, TN; O'Neill, Hugh M [Knoxville, TN; Jansen, Valerie Malyvanh [Memphis, TN; Woodward, Jonathan [Knoxville, TN

    2010-09-28

    A method for the deposition of metals in bacterial cellulose and for the employment of the metallized bacterial cellulose in the construction of fuel cells and other electronic devices is disclosed. The method for impregnating bacterial cellulose with a metal comprises placing a bacterial cellulose matrix in a solution of a metal salt such that the metal salt is reduced to metallic form and the metal precipitates in or on the matrix. The method for the construction of a fuel cell comprises placing a hydrated bacterial cellulose support structure in a solution of a metal salt such that the metal precipitates in or on the support structure, inserting contact wires into two pieces of the metal impregnated support structure, placing the two pieces of metal impregnated support structure on opposite sides of a layer of hydrated bacterial cellulose, and dehydrating the three layer structure to create a fuel cell.

  12. Bi-layered zirconia/fluor-apatite bridges supported by ceramic dental implants: a prospective case series after thirty months of observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, Benedikt Christopher; Witkowski, Siegbert; Butz, Frank; Vach, Kirstin; Kohal, Ralf-Joachim

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the success and survival rate of all-ceramic bi-layered implant-supported three-unit fixed dental prostheses (IS-FDPs) 3 years after implant placement. Thirteen patients (seven males, six females; age: 41-78 years) received two one-piece ceramic implants (alumina-toughened zirconia) each in the region of the premolars or the first molar and were finally restored with adhesively cemented bi-layered zirconia-based IS-FDPs (3 in the maxilla, 10 in the mandible) composed of CAD/CAM-fabricated zirconia frameworks pressed-over with fluor-apatite glass-ceramic ingots. At prosthetic delivery and the follow-ups after 1, 2 and 3 years, the restorations were evaluated using modified United States Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria. Restorations with minor veneer chippings, a small-area occlusal roughness, slightly soundable restoration margins, minimal contour deficiencies and tolerable color deviations were regarded as success. In case of more distinct defects that could, however, be repaired to a clinically acceptable level, IS-FDPs were regarded as surviving. Kaplan-Meier plots were used for the success/survival analyses. To verify an impact on subjective patients' perceptions, satisfaction was evaluated by visual analog scales (VAS). All patients were seen 3 years after implant installation. No IS-FDP had to be replaced, resulting in 100% survival after a mean observation period of 29.5 months (median: 30.7). At the 3-year follow-up, 7/13 IS-FDPs showed a veneer chipping, 13/13 an occlusal roughness and 12/13 minimal deficiencies of contour/color. Since six restorations showed a major chipping and/or a major occlusal roughness, the Kaplan-Meier success rate was 53.8%. However, patients' significantly improved perceptions of function, esthetics, sense, and speech at prosthetic delivery remained stable over time. Bi-layered zirconia/fluor-apatite IS-FDPs entirely survived the observation period but showed a high frequency of

  13. New Algorithm to Enable Construction and Display of 3D Structures from Scanning Probe Microscopy Images Acquired Layer-by-Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, William Nanqiao; Wang, Shuo; Ventrici de Souza, Joao Francisco; Kuhl, Tonya L; Liu, Gang-Yu

    2018-06-11

    Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) such as atomic force microscopy (AFM) is widely known for high-resolution imaging of surface structures and nanolithography in two dimension (2D), which provides important physical insights in surface science and material science. This work reports a new algorithm to enable construction and display of layer-by-layer 3D structures from SPM images. The algorithm enables alignment of SPM images acquired during layer-by-layer deposition, removal of redundant features, and faithfully constructs the deposited 3D structures. The display uses a "see-through" strategy to enable the structure of each layer to be visible. The results demonstrate high spatial accuracy as well as algorithm versatility; users can set parameters for reconstruction and display as per image quality and research needs. To the best of our knowledge, this method represents the first report to enable SPM technology for 3D imaging construction and display. The detailed algorithm is provided to facilitate usage of the same approach in any SPM software. These new capabilities support wide applications of SPM that require 3D image reconstruction and display, such as 3D nanoprinting, and 3D additive and subtractive manufacturing and imaging.

  14. Method for the production of fabricated hollow microspheroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramanayake, Shan; Luebke, David R.

    2015-06-09

    The method relates to the fabrication of a polymer microspheres comprised of an asymmetric layer surrounding a hollow interior. The fabricated hollow microsphere is generated from a nascent hollow microsphere comprised of an inner core of core fluid surrounded by a dope layer of polymer dope, where the thickness of the dope layer is at least 10% and less than 50% of the diameter of the inner core. The nascent hollow microsphere is exposed to a gaseous environment, generating a vitrified hollow microsphere, which is subsequently immersed in a coagulation bath. Solvent exchange produces a fabricated hollow microsphere comprised of a densified outer skin surrounding a macroporous inner layer, which surrounds a hollow interior. In an embodiment, the polymer is a polyimide or a polyamide-imide, and the non-solvent in the core fluid and the coagulation bath is water. The fabricated hollow microspheres are particularly suited as solvent supports for gas separation processes.

  15. Characterization and use of crystalline bacterial cell surface layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleytr, Uwe B.; Sára, Margit; Pum, Dietmar; Schuster, Bernhard

    2001-10-01

    Crystalline bacterial cell surface layers (S-layers) are one of the most common outermost cell envelope components of prokaryotic organisms (archaea and bacteria). S-layers are monomolecular arrays composed of a single protein or glycoprotein species and represent the simplest biological membranes developed during evolution. S-layers as the most abundant of prokaryotic cellular proteins are appealing model systems for studying the structure, synthesis, genetics, assembly and function of proteinaceous supramolecular structures. The wealth of information existing on the general principle of S-layers have revealed a broad application potential. The most relevant features exploited in applied S-layer research are: (i) pores passing through S-layers show identical size and morphology and are in the range of ultrafiltration membranes; (ii) functional groups on the surface and in the pores are aligned in well-defined positions and orientations and accessible for chemical modifications and binding functional molecules in very precise fashion; (iii) isolated S-layer subunits from a variety of organisms are capable of recrystallizing as closed monolayers onto solid supports (e.g., metals, polymers, silicon wafers) at the air-water interface, on lipid films or onto the surface of liposomes; (iv) functional domains can be incorporated in S-layer proteins by genetic engineering. Thus, S-layer technologies particularly provide new approaches for biotechnology, biomimetics, molecular nanotechnology, nanopatterning of surfaces and formation of ordered arrays of metal clusters or nanoparticles as required for nanoelectronics.

  16. Reactive Halogens in the Marine Boundary Layer (RHaMBLe): the tropical North Atlantic experiments

    OpenAIRE

    J. D. Lee; G. McFiggans; J. D. Allan; A. R. Baker; S. M. Ball; A. K. Benton; L. J. Carpenter; R. Commane; B. D. Finley; M. Evans; E. Fuentes; K. Furneaux; A. Goddard; N. Good; J. F. Hamilton

    2010-01-01

    The NERC UK SOLAS-funded Reactive Halogens in the Marine Boundary Layer (RHaMBLe) programme comprised three field experiments. This manuscript presents an overview of the measurements made within the two simultaneous remote experiments conducted in the tropical North Atlantic in May and June 2007. Measurements were made from two mobile and one ground-based platforms. The heavily instrumented cruise D319 on the RRS Discovery from Lisbon, Portugal to São Vicente, Cape Verde and back to Falmouth...

  17. Methods of forming aluminum oxynitride-comprising bodies, including methods of forming a sheet of transparent armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Henry Shiu-Hung [Idaho Falls, ID; Lillo, Thomas Martin [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-12-02

    The invention includes methods of forming an aluminum oxynitride-comprising body. For example, a mixture is formed which comprises A:B:C in a respective molar ratio in the range of 9:3.6-6.2:0.1-1.1, where "A" is Al.sub.2O.sub.3, "B" is AlN, and "C" is a total of one or more of B.sub.2O.sub.3, SiO.sub.2, Si--Al--O--N, and TiO.sub.2. The mixture is sintered at a temperature of at least 1,600.degree. C. at a pressure of no greater than 500 psia effective to form an aluminum oxynitride-comprising body which is at least internally transparent and has at least 99% maximum theoretical density.

  18. Kernel Function Tuning for Single-Layer Neural Networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vidnerová, Petra; Neruda, Roman

    -, accepted 28.11. 2017 (2018) ISSN 2278-0149 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-18108S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : single-layer neural networks * kernel methods * kernel function * optimisation Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.ijmerr.com/

  19. Enhanced activity of CaFeMg layered double hydroxides-supported gold nanodendrites for the electrochemical evolution of oxygen and hydrogen in alkaline media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havakeshian, Elaheh; Salavati, Hossein; Taei, Masoumeh; Hasheminasab, Fatemeh; Seddighi, Mohadeseh

    2018-02-01

    In this study, Au was electrodeposited on a support of CaFeMg layered double hydroxide and then, its catalytic activity was investigated for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Field emission scanning electron microscopy images showed that a uniform porous film of aggregated nano-particles of the LDH has been decorated with Au nanodendrite-like structures (AuNDs@LDH). The results obtained from polarization curves, Tafel plots and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that the AuNDs@LDH exhibits lower overpotential, higher current density, faster kinetics and enhanced stability for both of the OER and HER, in comparison with the single AuNPs and LDH catalysts.

  20. Apparatus and method supporting wireless access to multiple security layers in an industrial control and automation system or other system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Gene T.

    2013-04-16

    A method includes receiving a message at a first wireless node. The first wireless node is associated with a first wired network, and the first wired network is associated with a first security layer. The method also includes transmitting the message over the first wired network when at least one destination of the message is located in the first security layer. The method further includes wirelessly transmitting the message for delivery to a second wireless node when at least one destination of the message is located in a second security layer. The second wireless node is associated with a second wired network, and the second wired network is associated with the second security layer. The first and second security layers may be associated with different security paradigms and/or different security domains. Also, the message could be associated with destinations in the first and second security layers.

  1. Secondary ion emission from ultra-thin oxide layers bombarded by energetic (MeV) heavy ions: depth of origin and layer homogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allali, H.; Nsouli, B.; Thomas, J.P.; Cabaud, B.; Fuchs, G.; Hoareau, A.; Treilleux, M.; Danel, J.S.

    1993-09-01

    The escape depth of the secondary ions resulting from electronic sputtering of fast heavy ions in inorganic thin films has been investigated. Chromium layers deposited onto SiO 2 substrate as well as SiO x layers deposited onto chromium substrate have been characterized by secondary ion emission mass spectrometry (SIMS) in combination with time-of-flight (TOF) mass analysis (also referred as HSF-SIMS). These crossed experiments lead to a value around 1 nm for SiO x layers and 0.5 nm for Cr layers. On the other hand, HSF-SIMS can be used to correlate the intensity of the secondary ion emission to the film coverage rate and (or) the morphology of particular films like those produced by Low Energy Cluster Beam Deposition (LECBD). Using Sb deposits, the non-linear relationship between ion emission and coverage is interpreted in terms of sputtering enhancement in the individual supported clusters. (author) 22 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  2. Hollow fibre supported liquid membrane extraction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple sample pre-treatment method utilizing hollow fibre supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) was carried out on pharmaceuticals samples comprising of cough syrups (CS1 and CS2) and an anti-inflammatory product (AI). The active ingredients targeted in the extraction process were diphenylhydramine (DPH), ...

  3. Method for forming thermally stable nanoparticles on supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldan Cuenya, Beatriz; Naitabdi, Ahmed R.; Behafarid, Farzad

    2013-08-20

    An inverse micelle-based method for forming nanoparticles on supports includes dissolving a polymeric material in a solvent to provide a micelle solution. A nanoparticle source is dissolved in the micelle solution. A plurality of micelles having a nanoparticle in their core and an outer polymeric coating layer are formed in the micelle solution. The micelles are applied to a support. The polymeric coating layer is then removed from the micelles to expose the nanoparticles. A supported catalyst includes a nanocrystalline powder, thin film, or single crystal support. Metal nanoparticles having a median size from 0.5 nm to 25 nm, a size distribution having a standard deviation .ltoreq.0.1 of their median size are on or embedded in the support. The plurality of metal nanoparticles are dispersed and in a periodic arrangement. The metal nanoparticles maintain their periodic arrangement and size distribution following heat treatments of at least 1,000.degree. C.

  4. Metal clusters on supported argon layers; Metallcluster auf dielektrischen Substraten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, Bernhard

    2011-10-21

    The deposition of small sodium clusters on supported Ar(001)-surfaces is simulated. Theoretical description is achieved by a hierarchical model consisting of time-dependent DFT and molecular dynamics. The valence electrons of the sodium atoms are considered by Kohn-Sham-Scheme with self interaction correction. The interaction of argon atoms and sodium ions is described by atom-atom potentials whereas the coupling to the QM electrons is done by local pseudo-potentials. A decisive part of the model is the dynamical polarizability of the rare-gas atoms. The optional metal support is considered by the method of image charges. The influence of the forces caused by image charges and the influence of the number of argon monolayers on structure, optical response and deposition dynamics of Na{sub 6} and Na{sub 8} is investigated. There is very little influence on cluster structure and only a small shift of the cluster perpendicular to the surface. Concerning optical response the position of the Mie plasmon peak stays robust whereas the details of spectral fragmentation react very sensitively to changes. The forces caused by image charges of the metal support play only a little role with the dynamics of deposition while the thickness of the argon surface strongly influences the dissipation. (orig.)

  5. Wildlife Private Lands Specialist Support Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer represents the areas of Minnesota that MNDNR Wildlife Private Lands Specialists cover. These boundaries are provided for support mapping and to show...

  6. Identification of the support needs of individuals with severe mental illness using the Supports Intensity Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Cruz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to characterize the intensity of the support needs of individuals with severe mental illness. METHODS: quantitative and descriptive study that applied the Supports Intensity Scale to a sample comprising 182 individuals. RESULTS: the supports intensity profile identifies groups, individuals, and areas with different needs of support relative to the domains of home living, health, community living, learning, employment, and social living. As a whole, the intensity level of support needs found was low, and the domains with greater needs were employment and social. CONCLUSIONS: identification of the intensity of support needs is helpful in planning integral care and detecting professional training needs. The support provision-centered approach, associated with the person-related outcomes perspective, has been sparsely applied to individuals with mental illness, and this represents the main contribution of the present study. In addition, this study introduces novel approaches to assessment that are both concordant and an innovation in nursing because they might provide a tool for understanding other disabilities.

  7. Neurosensory and vascular function after 14 months of military training comprising cold winter conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Daniel; Pettersson, Hans; Burström, Lage; Nilsson, Tohr; Wahlström, Jens

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of 14 months of military training comprising cold winter conditions on neurosensory and vascular function in the hands and feet. Military conscripts (N=54) were assessed with quantitative sensory testing comprising touch, temperature, and vibration perception thresholds and finger systolic blood pressure (FSBP) after local cooling and a questionnaire on neurosensory and vascular symptoms at both baseline and follow-up. Ambient air temperature was recorded with body worn temperature loggers. The subjects showed reduced sensitivity to perception of touch, warmth, cold and vibrations in both the hands and feet except from vibrotactile perception in digit two of the right hand (right dig 2). Cold sensations, white fingers, and pain/discomfort when exposed to cold as well as pain increased in both prevalence and severity. There were no statistically significant changes in FSBP after local cooling. Fourteen months of winter military training comprising cold winter conditions reduced sensation from touch, warmth, cold, and vibrotactile stimulus in both hands and feet and increased the severity and prevalence of symptoms and pain. The vascular function in the hands, measured by FSBP after local cooling, was not affected.

  8. Differential erosion and the formation of layered yardangs in the Loulan region (Lop Nur), eastern Tarim Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yongchong; Xu, Lishuai; Mu, Guijin

    2018-02-01

    Yardangs are a type of wind-sculpted landform which generally form in hyper-arid regions. Several factors affect the development of yardangs, and the relative importance of these factors likely varies with differences in regional environmental factors. In the Loulan region of Lop Nur, wind dynamics are the principal factor affecting the development of yardangs. However, layered yardangs, which have undergone a unique form of differential erosion, are common in the region. These erosional landforms differ from typical yardangs which are eroded solely by abrasion and deflation. We conducted field and laboratory investigations of layered yardangs to determine their origin. The results indicate that there are two types of strata comprising the yardangs: uncompacted sand-silt layers, with a lower carbonate content; and compacted clay-silt layers, with a higher carbonate content. Both types of strata are horizontal and occur in alternating layers. This type of structure enables the wind to more easily erode the less resistant sand-silt layers at different heights, leaving the more resistant compacted clay-silt layers relatively intact. Eventually the undercut remnant clay-silt layers collapse once the weight of the suspended strata exceeds their elastic resistance (more than 90% of the fallen blocks have length/thickness ratios between 1.2 and 2.5). Therefore, in addition to wind dynamics, the lithology and structure of the strata are important factors affecting the development of the layered yardangs. This type of differential erosion accelerates the development of the yardangs in the Loulan region.

  9. Topological Phase Transition in Layered GaS and GaSe

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Zhiyong; Cheng, Yingchun; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2012-01-01

    By fully relativistic first principles calculations, we predict that appropriate strain engineering of layered GaX (X=S, Se) leads to a new class of three-dimensional topological insulators with an excitation gap of up to 135 meV. Our results provide a new perspective on the formation of three-dimensional topological insulators. Band inversion can be induced by strain only, without considering any spin-orbit coupling. The latter, however, is indispensable for the formation of local band gaps at the crossing points of the inverted bands. Our study indicates that three-dimensional topological insulators can also be realized in materials which comprise light elements only.

  10. Topological Phase Transition in Layered GaS and GaSe

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Zhiyong

    2012-06-29

    By fully relativistic first principles calculations, we predict that appropriate strain engineering of layered GaX (X=S, Se) leads to a new class of three-dimensional topological insulators with an excitation gap of up to 135 meV. Our results provide a new perspective on the formation of three-dimensional topological insulators. Band inversion can be induced by strain only, without considering any spin-orbit coupling. The latter, however, is indispensable for the formation of local band gaps at the crossing points of the inverted bands. Our study indicates that three-dimensional topological insulators can also be realized in materials which comprise light elements only.

  11. Photodetection, photon event localization and position tomography device comprising a gammagraphy camera equipped wit such devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jatteau, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    This device of photodetection and photon event (and noticeably scintillations) localization comprises at least a photomultiplier tube with unique photomultiplying structure and in front of this tube, a net of juxtaposed conduction metal wires excited by voltage pulses. This net comprises only 2n metallic wires to assure the localization of 2sup(2n) possible positions, and that is one of its characteristics [fr

  12. Optical device comprising a cantilever and method of fabrication and use thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iannuzzi, Davide; Deladi, S.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2008-01-01

    The present invention provides an optical device, comprising an optical fiber and a cantilever that is arranged on an end of the optical fiber; The cantilever may be an integral part of the optical fiber, and may have a length that is substantially equal to a diameter of the optical fiber.

  13. Optical device comprising a cantilever and method of fabrication and use thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iannuzzi, Davide; Deladi, S.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2011-01-01

    The present invention provides an optical device, comprising an optical fiber and a cantilever that is arranged on an end of the optical fiber; The cantilever may be an integral part of the optical fiber, and may have a length that is substantially equal to a diameter of the optical fiber.

  14. Hydraulic Stability of Single-Layer Dolos and Accropode Armour Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M.; Burcharth, H. F.

    1995-01-01

    A new design for Dolos breakwater armour layers is presented: Dolos armour units are placed in a selected geometric pattern in a single layer. A series of model tests have been performed in order to determine the stability of such single-layer Dolos armour layers. The test results are presented...... and compared to the stability formula for the traditional double-layer, randomly placed Dolos armour layer design presented by Burcharth (1992). The results of a series of stability tests performed with Accropode® armour layers is presented and compared to the test results obtained with single-layer Dolos...... armour layers. Run-up and reflection are presented for both single-layer Dolos armour and Accropode armour....

  15. Low-temperature atomic layer epitaxy of AlN ultrathin films by layer-by-layer, in-situ atomic layer annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Huan-Yu; Lee, Wei-Hao; Kao, Wei-Chung; Chuang, Yung-Chuan; Lin, Ray-Ming; Lin, Hsin-Chih; Shiojiri, Makoto; Chen, Miin-Jang

    2017-01-03

    Low-temperature epitaxial growth of AlN ultrathin films was realized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) together with the layer-by-layer, in-situ atomic layer annealing (ALA), instead of a high growth temperature which is needed in conventional epitaxial growth techniques. By applying the ALA with the Ar plasma treatment in each ALD cycle, the AlN thin film was converted dramatically from the amorphous phase to a single-crystalline epitaxial layer, at a low deposition temperature of 300 °C. The energy transferred from plasma not only provides the crystallization energy but also enhances the migration of adatoms and the removal of ligands, which significantly improve the crystallinity of the epitaxial layer. The X-ray diffraction reveals that the full width at half-maximum of the AlN (0002) rocking curve is only 144 arcsec in the AlN ultrathin epilayer with a thickness of only a few tens of nm. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy also indicates the high-quality single-crystal hexagonal phase of the AlN epitaxial layer on the sapphire substrate. The result opens a window for further extension of the ALD applications from amorphous thin films to the high-quality low-temperature atomic layer epitaxy, which can be exploited in a variety of fields and applications in the near future.

  16. Effect of layer thickness on device response of silicon heavily supersaturated with sulfur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, David [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy NY 12180 (United States); Department of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, United States Military Academy, West Point NY 10996 (United States); Mathews, Jay [US Army ARDEC – Benét Laboratories, Watervliet NY 12189 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH 45469 (United States); Sullivan, Joseph T.; Buonassisi, Tonio [School of Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge MA 02139 (United States); Akey, Austin [School of Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge MA 02139 (United States); Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Cambridge MA 02138 (United States); Aziz, Michael J. [Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Cambridge MA 02138 (United States); Persans, Peter [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy NY 12180 (United States); Warrender, Jeffrey M., E-mail: jwarrend@post.harvard.edu [US Army ARDEC – Benét Laboratories, Watervliet NY 12189 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    We report on a simple experiment in which the thickness of a hyperdoped silicon layer, supersaturated with sulfur by ion implantation followed by pulsed laser melting and rapid solidification, is systematically varied at constant average sulfur concentration, by varying the implantation energy, dose, and laser fluence. Contacts are deposited and the external quantum efficiency (EQE) is measured for visible wavelengths. We posit that the sulfur layer primarily absorbs light but contributes negligible photocurrent, and we seek to support this by analyzing the EQE data for the different layer thicknesses in two interlocking ways. In the first, we use the measured concentration depth profiles to obtain the approximate layer thicknesses, and, for each wavelength, fit the EQE vs. layer thickness curve to obtain the absorption coefficient of hyperdoped silicon for that wavelength. Comparison to literature values for the hyperdoped silicon absorption coefficients [S.H. Pan et al. Applied Physics Letters 98, 121913 (2011)] shows good agreement. Next, we essentially run this process in reverse; we fit with Beer’s law the curves of EQE vs. hyperdoped silicon absorption coefficient for those wavelengths that are primarily absorbed in the hyperdoped silicon layer, and find that the layer thicknesses obtained from the fit are in good agreement with the original values obtained from the depth profiles. We conclude that the data support our interpretation of the hyperdoped silicon layer as providing negligible photocurrent at high S concentrations. This work validates the absorption data of Pan et al. [Applied Physics Letters 98, 121913 (2011)], and is consistent with reports of short mobility-lifetime products in hyperdoped layers. It suggests that for optoelectronic devices containing hyperdoped layers, the most important contribution to the above band gap photoresponse may be due to photons absorbed below the hyperdoped layer.

  17. Effect of layer thickness on device response of silicon heavily supersaturated with sulfur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hutchinson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We report on a simple experiment in which the thickness of a hyperdoped silicon layer, supersaturated with sulfur by ion implantation followed by pulsed laser melting and rapid solidification, is systematically varied at constant average sulfur concentration, by varying the implantation energy, dose, and laser fluence. Contacts are deposited and the external quantum efficiency (EQE is measured for visible wavelengths. We posit that the sulfur layer primarily absorbs light but contributes negligible photocurrent, and we seek to support this by analyzing the EQE data for the different layer thicknesses in two interlocking ways. In the first, we use the measured concentration depth profiles to obtain the approximate layer thicknesses, and, for each wavelength, fit the EQE vs. layer thickness curve to obtain the absorption coefficient of hyperdoped silicon for that wavelength. Comparison to literature values for the hyperdoped silicon absorption coefficients [S.H. Pan et al. Applied Physics Letters 98, 121913 (2011] shows good agreement. Next, we essentially run this process in reverse; we fit with Beer’s law the curves of EQE vs. hyperdoped silicon absorption coefficient for those wavelengths that are primarily absorbed in the hyperdoped silicon layer, and find that the layer thicknesses obtained from the fit are in good agreement with the original values obtained from the depth profiles. We conclude that the data support our interpretation of the hyperdoped silicon layer as providing negligible photocurrent at high S concentrations. This work validates the absorption data of Pan et al. [Applied Physics Letters 98, 121913 (2011], and is consistent with reports of short mobility-lifetime products in hyperdoped layers. It suggests that for optoelectronic devices containing hyperdoped layers, the most important contribution to the above band gap photoresponse may be due to photons absorbed below the hyperdoped layer.

  18. Formation of Pentacene wetting layer on the SiO2 surface and charge trap in the wetting layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chaeho; Jeon, D.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the early-stage growth of vacuum-evaporated pentacene film on a native SiO 2 surface using atomic force microscopy and in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry. Pentacene deposition prompted an immediate change in the ellipsometry spectra, but atomic force microscopy images of the early stage films did not show a pentacene-related morphology other than the decrease in the surface roughness. This suggested that a thin pentacene wetting layer was formed by pentacene molecules lying on the surface before the crystalline islands nucleated. Growth simulation based on the in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry spectra supported this conclusion. Scanning capacitance microscopy measurement indicated the existence of trapped charges in the SiO 2 and pentacene wetting layer

  19. Conceptual evaluation of hybrid energy system comprising wind-biomass-nuclear plants for load balancing and for production of renewable synthetic transport fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Johan; Purvins, Arturs; Papaioannou, Ioulia T.; Shropshire, David; Cherry, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Future energy systems will increasingly need to integrate variable renewable energy in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from power production. Addressing this trend the present paper studies how a hybrid energy systems comprising aggregated wind farms, a biomass processing plant, and a nuclear cogeneration plant could support high renewable energy penetration. The hybrid energy system operates so that its electrical output tends to meet demand. This is achieved mainly through altering the heat-to-power ratio of the nuclear reactor and by using excess electricity for hydrogen production through electrolysis. Hybrid energy systems with biomass treatment processes, i.e. drying, torrefaction, pyrolysis and synthetic fuel production were evaluated. It was shown that the studied hybrid energy system comprising a 1 GWe wind farm and a 347 MWe nuclear reactor could closely follow the power demand profile with a standard deviation of 34 MWe. In addition, on average 600 m"3 of bio-gasoline and 750 m"3 bio-diesel are produced daily. The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions of up to 4.4 MtCO_2eq annually compared to power generation and transport using conventional fossil fuel sources. (author)

  20. Wall-attached structures of streamwise velocity fluctuations in turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jinyul; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2017-11-01

    The wall-attached structures of streamwise velocity fluctuations (u) are explored using direct numerical simulation data of turbulent boundary layer at Reτ = 1000 . We identify the structures of u, which are extended close to the wall. Their height (ly) ranges from the near-wall region to the edge of turbulent boundary layer. They are geometrically self-similar in a sense that the length and width of the structures are proportional to the distance from the wall. The population density of the attached structures shows that the tall attached structures (290 wall. The wall-attached structures of u identified in the present work are a proper candidate for Townsend's attached eddy hypothesis and these structures exist in the low Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer. This work was supported by the Creative Research Initiatives (No. 2017-013369) program of the National Research Foundation of Korea (MSIP) and supported by the Supercomputing Center (KISTI).

  1. First investigation of the microbiology of the deepest layer of ocean crust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia U Mason

    Full Text Available The gabbroic layer comprises the majority of ocean crust. Opportunities to sample this expansive crustal environment are rare because of the technological demands of deep ocean drilling; thus, gabbroic microbial communities have not yet been studied. During the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expeditions 304 and 305, igneous rock samples were collected from 0.45-1391.01 meters below seafloor at Hole 1309D, located on the Atlantis Massif (30 °N, 42 °W. Microbial diversity in the rocks was analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing (Expedition 304, and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, cloning and sequencing, and functional gene microarray analysis (Expedition 305. The gabbroic microbial community was relatively depauperate, consisting of a low diversity of proteobacterial lineages closely related to Bacteria from hydrocarbon-dominated environments and to known hydrocarbon degraders, and there was little evidence of Archaea. Functional gene diversity in the gabbroic samples was analyzed with a microarray for metabolic genes ("GeoChip", producing further evidence of genomic potential for hydrocarbon degradation--genes for aerobic methane and toluene oxidation. Genes coding for anaerobic respirations, such as nitrate reduction, sulfate reduction, and metal reduction, as well as genes for carbon fixation, nitrogen fixation, and ammonium-oxidation, were also present. Our results suggest that the gabbroic layer hosts a microbial community that can degrade hydrocarbons and fix carbon and nitrogen, and has the potential to employ a diversity of non-oxygen electron acceptors. This rare glimpse of the gabbroic ecosystem provides further support for the recent finding of hydrocarbons in deep ocean gabbro from Hole 1309D. It has been hypothesized that these hydrocarbons might originate abiotically from serpentinization reactions that are occurring deep in the Earth's crust, raising the possibility that the lithic

  2. Development of the REFOCUS intervention to increase mental health team support for personal recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Mike; Bird, Victoria; Le Boutillier, Clair; Farkas, Marianne; Grey, Barbara; Larsen, John; Leamy, Mary; Oades, Lindsay; Williams, Julie

    2015-12-01

    There is an emerging evidence base about best practice in supporting recovery. This is usually framed in relation to general principles, and specific pro-recovery interventions are lacking. To develop a theoretically based and empirically defensible new pro-recovery manualised intervention--called the REFOCUS intervention. Seven systematic and two narrative reviews were undertaken. Identified evidence gaps were addressed in three qualitative studies. The findings were synthesised to produce the REFOCUS intervention, manual and model. The REFOCUS intervention comprises two components: recovery-promoting relationships and working practices. Approaches to supporting relationships comprise coaching skills training for staff, developing a shared team understanding of recovery, exploring staff values, a Partnership Project with people who use the service and raising patient expectations. Working practices comprise the following: understanding values and treatment preferences; assessing strengths; and supporting goal-striving. The REFOCUS model describes the causal pathway from the REFOCUS intervention to improved recovery. The REFOCUS intervention is an empirically supported pro-recovery intervention for use in mental health services. It will be evaluated in a multisite cluster randomised controlled trial (ISRCTN02507940). © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  3. Microhardness changes gradient of the duplex stainless steel (DSS surface layer after dry turning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Krolczyk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the gradient of microhardness changes as a function of the distance from the material surface after turning with a wedge provided with a coating with a ceramic intermediate layer. The investigation comprised the influence of cutting speed on surface integrity microhardness in dry machining. The tested material was duplex stainless steel (DSS with two-phase, ferritic-austenitic structure. The tests have been performed under production conditions during machining of parts for electric motors and deep-well pumps.

  4. Self-composite comprised of nanocrystalline diamond and a non-diamond component useful for thermoelectric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, Dieter M [Downers Grove, IL

    2009-08-11

    One provides nanocrystalline diamond material that comprises a plurality of substantially ordered diamond crystallites that are sized no larger than about 10 nanometers. One then disposes a non-diamond component within the nanocrystalline diamond material. By one approach this non-diamond component comprises an electrical conductor that is formed at the grain boundaries that separate the diamond crystallites from one another. The resultant nanowire is then able to exhibit a desired increase with respect to its ability to conduct electricity while also preserving the thermal conductivity behavior of the nanocrystalline diamond material.

  5. The effect of layer-by-layer chitosan-hyaluronic acid coating on graft-to-bone healing of a poly(ethylene terephthalate) artificial ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Ge, Yunsheng; Zhang, Pengyun; Wu, Lingxiang; Chen, Shiyi

    2012-01-01

    Surface coating with an organic layer-by-layer self-assembled template of chitosan and hyaluronic acid on a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) artificial ligament was designed for the promotion and enhancement of graft-to-bone healing after artificial ligament implantation in a bone tunnel. The results of in vitro culturing of MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblastic cells supported the hypothesis that the layer-by-layer coating of chitosan and hyaluronic acid could promote the cell compatibility of grafts and could promote osteoblast proliferation. A rabbit extra-articular tendon-to-bone healing model was used to evaluate the effect of this kind of surface-modified stainless artificial ligament in vivo. The final results proved that this organic compound coating could significantly promote and enhance new bone formation at the graft-bone interface histologically and, correspondingly, the experimental group with coating had significantly higher biomechanical properties compared with controls at 8 weeks (P < 0.05).

  6. Instrument comprising a cable or tube provided provided with a propulsion device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breedveld, P.

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to an instrument (1) comprising a cable or tube (3), at a distal end of which a propulsion device (4) is provided for moving the cable or tube in a hollow space, the propulsion device being shaped like a donut lying in a plane at right angles to the longitudinal direction of

  7. Electrode kinetics of ethanol oxidation on novel CuNi alloy supported catalysts synthesized from PTFE suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen Gupta, S.; Datta, J.

    An understanding of the kinetics and mechanism of the electrochemical oxidation of ethanol is of considerable interest for the optimization of the direct ethanol fuel cell. In this paper, the electro-oxidation of ethanol in sodium hydroxide solution has been studied over 70:30 CuNi alloy supported binary platinum electrocatalysts. These comprised mixed deposits of Pt with Ru or Mo. The electrodepositions were carried out under galvanostatic condition from a dilute suspension of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) containing the respective metal salts. Characterization of the catalyst layers by scanning electron microscope (SEM)-energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) indicated that this preparation technique yields well-dispersed catalyst particles on the CuNi alloy substrate. Cyclic voltammetry, polarization study and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to investigate the kinetics and mechanism of ethanol electro-oxidation over a range of NaOH and ethanol concentrations. The relevant parameters such as Tafel slope, charge transfer resistance and the reaction orders in respect of OH - ions and ethanol were determined.

  8. The inland boundary layer at low latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.

    1985-08-01

    Observations from the Koorin boundary-layer experiment in Australia (latitude 16 °S) were analysed in a study of the nocturnal jet development. For geostrophic winds in the range 10 20 m s-1, ageostrophic wind magnitudes of 5 10m s-1 were common above the surface layer near sunset, with cross-isobar flow angles of about 40 °. The jet that then developed by midnight was probably the result of these large ageostrophic winds, strong surface cooling and favourable baroclinity and sloping terrain. The analysis is supported by numerical model calculations with special emphasis on the role of long-wave radiative cooling on turbulent decay. Decay is rapid in the presence of radiation, although there is little influence on stress divergence levels. Evidence of sea-breeze influences on the jet evolution, and on features of deeply penetrating sea breezes in general, will be presented and discussed in part 2 of this study (submitted to Boundary-Layer Meteorol.).

  9. Ionizing device comprising a microchannel electron multiplier with secondary electron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalmeton, Vincent.

    1974-01-01

    The present invention relates to a ionizing device comprising a microchannel electron multiplier involving secondary electron emission as a means of ionization. A system of electrodes is used to accelerate said electrons, ionize the gas and extract the ions from thus created plasma. Said ionizer is suitable for bombarding the target in neutron sources (target of the type of nickel molybdenum coated with tritiated titanium or with a tritium deuterium mixture) [fr

  10. Collapsible Photovoltaic Module for a Large-Scale Solar Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    An elongate photovoltaic (PV) module for use in a solar energy conversion plant for the production of electricity from incident light, the PV-module comprising a top portion with a support panel (G) carrying on a front side a plurality of electrically connected PV cells (D), and a transparent...... protective layer (A) sealed to the support panel (G) so as to encapsulate the PV-cells (D) between the support panel (G) and the protective layer (A), wherein prior to installation of the PV-module at the deployment site a collapsible portion of the PV-module is configured to be collapsible in a longitudinal...... direction by folding and/or rolling, wherein the collapsible portion includes at least the top portion, wherein the PV-module further comprises one or more integrated ballast chambers (I) in a bottom portion of the PV-module arranged on a rear side of the support panel (G), wherein said integrated ballast...

  11. Silver-doped metal layers for medical applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kocourek, Tomáš; Jelínek, Miroslav; Mikšovský, Jan; Jurek, Karel; Weiserová, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 8 (2014), s. 1-7, č. článku 085602. ISSN 1054-660X Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : silver -doped * layer * pulsed laser deposition * adhesion * antibacterial efficacy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.032, year: 2014

  12. Moored surface buoy observations of the diurnal warm layer

    KAUST Repository

    Prytherch, J.

    2013-09-01

    An extensive data set is used to examine the dynamics of diurnal warming in the upper ocean. The data set comprises more than 4700 days of measurements at five sites in the tropics and subtropics, obtained from surface moorings equipped to make comprehensive meteorological, incoming solar and infrared radiation, and high-resolution subsurface temperature (and, in some cases, velocity) measurements. The observations, which include surface warmings of up to 3.4°C, are compared with a selection of existing models of the diurnal warm layer (DWL). A simple one-layer physical model is shown to give a reasonable estimate of both the magnitude of diurnal surface warming (model-observation correlation 0.88) and the structure and temporal evolution of the DWL. Novel observations of velocity shear obtained during 346 days at one site, incorporating high-resolution (1 m) upper ocean (5-15 m) acoustic Doppler current profile measurements, are also shown to be in reasonable agreement with estimates from the physical model (daily maximum shear model-observation correlation 0.77). Physics-based improvements to the one-layer model (incorporation of rotation and freshwater terms) are discussed, though they do not provide significant improvements against the observations reported here. The simplicity and limitations of the physical model are used to discuss DWL dynamics. The physical model is shown to give better model performance under the range of forcing conditions experienced across the five sites than the more empirical models. ©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Moored surface buoy observations of the diurnal warm layer

    KAUST Repository

    Prytherch, J.; Farrar, J. T.; Weller, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    An extensive data set is used to examine the dynamics of diurnal warming in the upper ocean. The data set comprises more than 4700 days of measurements at five sites in the tropics and subtropics, obtained from surface moorings equipped to make comprehensive meteorological, incoming solar and infrared radiation, and high-resolution subsurface temperature (and, in some cases, velocity) measurements. The observations, which include surface warmings of up to 3.4°C, are compared with a selection of existing models of the diurnal warm layer (DWL). A simple one-layer physical model is shown to give a reasonable estimate of both the magnitude of diurnal surface warming (model-observation correlation 0.88) and the structure and temporal evolution of the DWL. Novel observations of velocity shear obtained during 346 days at one site, incorporating high-resolution (1 m) upper ocean (5-15 m) acoustic Doppler current profile measurements, are also shown to be in reasonable agreement with estimates from the physical model (daily maximum shear model-observation correlation 0.77). Physics-based improvements to the one-layer model (incorporation of rotation and freshwater terms) are discussed, though they do not provide significant improvements against the observations reported here. The simplicity and limitations of the physical model are used to discuss DWL dynamics. The physical model is shown to give better model performance under the range of forcing conditions experienced across the five sites than the more empirical models. ©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Characterization of Rare Reverse Flow Events in Adverse Pressure Gradient Turbulent Boundary Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaehler, Christian J.; Bross, Matthew; Fuchs, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Time-resolved tomographic flow fields measured in the viscous sublayer region of a turbulent boundary layer subjected to an adverse pressure gradient (APG) are examined with the aim to resolve and characterize reverse flow events at Reτ = 5000. The fields were measured using a novel high resolution tomographic particle tracking technique. It is shown that this technique is able to fully resolve mean and time dependent features of the complex three-dimensional flow with high accuracy down to very near-wall distances ( 10 μm). From time resolved Lagrangian particle trajectories, statistical information as well as instantaneous topological features of near-wall flow events are deduced. Similar to the zero pressure gradient case (ZPG), it was found that individual events with reverse flow components still occur relatively rarely under the action of the pressure gradient investigated here. However, reverse flow events comprised of many individual events, are shown to appear in relatively organized groupings in both spanwise and streamise directions. Furthermore, instantaneous measurements of reverse flow events show that these events are associated with the motion of low-momentum streaks in the near-wall region. This work is supported by the Priority Programme SPP 1881 Turbulent Superstructures and the individual project Grant KA1808/8-2 of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.

  15. Tear film lipid layer: A molecular level view

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cwiklik, Lukasz

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1858, č. 10 (2016), s. 2421-2430 ISSN 0005-2736 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-14292S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : tear film * tear film lipid layer * molecular dynamics simulations Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.498, year: 2016

  16. Multi-Layer Self-Nanoemulsifying Pellets: an Innovative Drug Delivery System for the Poorly Water-Soluble Drug Cinnarizine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahba, Ahmad Abdul-Wahhab; Ahmed, Abid Riaz; Alanazi, Fars Kaed; Mohsin, Kazi; Abdel-Rahman, Sayed Ibrahim

    2018-04-25

    Beside their solubility limitations, some poorly water-soluble drugs undergo extensive degradation in aqueous and/or lipid-based formulations. Multi-layer self-nanoemulsifying pellets (ML-SNEP) introduce an innovative delivery system based on isolating the drug from the self-nanoemulsifying layer to enhance drug aqueous solubility and minimize degradation. In the current study, various batches of cinnarizine (CN) ML-SNEP were prepared using fluid bed coating and involved a drug-free self-nanoemulsifying layer, protective layer, drug layer, moisture-sealing layer, and/or an anti-adherent layer. Each layer was optimized based on coating outcomes such as coating recovery and mono-pellets%. The optimized ML-SNEP were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), in vitro dissolution, and stability studies. The optimized ML-SNEP were free-flowing, well separated with high coating recovery. SEM showed multiple well-defined coating layers. The acidic polyvinylpyrrolidone:CN (4:1) solution presented excellent drug-layering outcomes. DSC and XRD confirmed CN transformation into amorphous state within the drug layer. The isolation between CN and self-nanoemulsifying layer did not adversely affect drug dissolution. CN was able to spontaneously migrate into the micelles arising from the drug-free self-nanoemulsifying layer. ML-SNEP showed superior dissolution compared to Stugeron® tablets at pH 1.2 and 6.8. Particularly, on shifting to pH 6.8, ML-SNEP maintained > 84% CN in solution while Stugeron® tablets showed significant CN precipitation leaving only 7% CN in solution. Furthermore, ML-SNEP (comprising Kollicoat® Smartseal 30D) showed robust stability and maintained > 97% intact CN within the accelerated storage conditions. Accordingly, ML-SNEP offer a novel delivery system that combines both enhanced solubilization and stabilization of unstable poorly soluble drugs.

  17. Processes for multi-layer devices utilizing layer transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Sanchez, Carlos Anthony; Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Kim, Bongsang; Cederberg, Jeffrey; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J

    2015-02-03

    A method includes forming a release layer over a donor substrate. A plurality of devices made of a first semiconductor material are formed over the release layer. A first dielectric layer is formed over the plurality of devices such that all exposed surfaces of the plurality of devices are covered by the first dielectric layer. The plurality of devices are chemically attached to a receiving device made of a second semiconductor material different than the first semiconductor material, the receiving device having a receiving substrate attached to a surface of the receiving device opposite the plurality of devices. The release layer is etched to release the donor substrate from the plurality of devices. A second dielectric layer is applied over the plurality of devices and the receiving device to mechanically attach the plurality of devices to the receiving device.

  18. On Decision Support for Sustainability and Resilience of Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Havbro Faber; Qin, J.; Miragliaa, S.

    2017-01-01

    in Bayesian decision analysis and probabilistic systems performance modelling. A principal example for decision support at regulatory level is presented for a coupled system comprised of infrastructure, social, hazard and environmental subsystems. The infrastructure systems is modelled as multi...

  19. Antiferromagnetic iridium-manganese intermediate layers for perpendicular recording media (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Kumar; Piramanayagam, S. N.; Sbiaa, Rachid; Kay, Yew Seng; Tan, Hang Khume; Wong, Seng Kai

    2009-04-01

    Current generation of cobalt-oxide-based perpendicular magnetic recording media uses single or dual ruthenium intermediate layers in order to grow crystallographically textured, and magnetically isolated granular media. In this work, the potential advantages of an antiferromagnetic iridium-manganese intermediate layer directly under the recording layer are highlighted. Owing to its close lattice matching with hexagonal cobalt, iridium-manganese which has the L12, or AuCu3-type crystal structure, can support the heteroepitaxial growth of the cobalt-based recording layer. In one of the media schemes described here, (111) textured iridium-manganese thin film was grown on 7.5 nm thick ruthenium layer. On the iridium-manganese as segregation layer, the Co-oxide-based magnetic recording layer showed perpendicular texture with Δθ50 below 4°, coercivity of over 4000 Oe alongside magnetic exchange decoupling, average grain sizes of 6 nm with distributions under 14%, and improved thermal stability. Measurements of the anisotropy constant did not show any significant change and even an IrMn capping layer was observed to improve the thermal stability. The possible mechanisms through which the IrMn layer could affect the thermal stability are hypothesized. The initial layers of the magnetic recording layer on IrMn segregation layers also showed exchange-decoupled and segregated grains, which is unlike that observed on Ru segregation layers. In a second media scheme, (111) textured iridium-manganese thin film was grown on a crystalline soft magnetic underlayer belonging on top of amorphous soft underlayers. In this scheme, partial pinning of the soft underlayer due to exchange-bias interaction with the IrMn layer was observed. This scheme offers the possibility to reduce the intermediate layer thickness, thus improve media writability, and with further optimization, could potentially facilitate the approach toward 1 Tbits/in.2.

  20. Photomlxer for terahertz electromagnetic wave emission comprising quantum dots in a laser cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a photomixer for generating terahertz electromagnetic radiation in response to illumination by a time-modulated optical signal. The photomixer (300) comprises a carrier substrate (310) with a plurality of quantum dots arranged in an emission region (308) thereof...