WorldWideScience

Sample records for support human activities

  1. Neuronal medium that supports basic synaptic functions and activity of human neurons in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardy, Cedric; van den Hurk, Mark; Eames, Tameji; Marchand, Cynthia; Hernandez, Ruben V; Kellogg, Mariko; Gorris, Mark; Galet, Ben; Palomares, Vanessa; Brown, Joshua; Bang, Anne G; Mertens, Jerome; Böhnke, Lena; Boyer, Leah; Simon, Suzanne; Gage, Fred H

    2015-05-19

    Human cell reprogramming technologies offer access to live human neurons from patients and provide a new alternative for modeling neurological disorders in vitro. Neural electrical activity is the essence of nervous system function in vivo. Therefore, we examined neuronal activity in media widely used to culture neurons. We found that classic basal media, as well as serum, impair action potential generation and synaptic communication. To overcome this problem, we designed a new neuronal medium (BrainPhys basal + serum-free supplements) in which we adjusted the concentrations of inorganic salts, neuroactive amino acids, and energetic substrates. We then tested that this medium adequately supports neuronal activity and survival of human neurons in culture. Long-term exposure to this physiological medium also improved the proportion of neurons that were synaptically active. The medium was designed to culture human neurons but also proved adequate for rodent neurons. The improvement in BrainPhys basal medium to support neurophysiological activity is an important step toward reducing the gap between brain physiological conditions in vivo and neuronal models in vitro.

  2. NASA Aerosciences Activities to Support Human Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBeau, Gerald J.

    2011-01-01

    The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) has been a critical element of the United State's human space flight program for over 50 years. It is the home to NASA s Mission Control Center, the astronaut corps, and many major programs and projects including the Space Shuttle Program, International Space Station Program, and the Orion Project. As part of JSC's Engineering Directorate, the Applied Aeroscience and Computational Fluid Dynamics Branch is charted to provide aerosciences support to all human spacecraft designs and missions for all phases of flight, including ascent, exo-atmospheric, and entry. The presentation will review past and current aeroscience applications and how NASA works to apply a balanced philosophy that leverages ground testing, computational modeling and simulation, and flight testing, to develop and validate related products. The speaker will address associated aspects of aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, rarefied gas dynamics, and decelerator systems, involving both spacecraft vehicle design and analysis, and operational mission support. From these examples some of NASA leading aerosciences challenges will be identified. These challenges will be used to provide foundational motivation for the development of specific advanced modeling and simulation capabilities, and will also be used to highlight how development activities are increasing becoming more aligned with flight projects. NASA s efforts to apply principles of innovation and inclusion towards improving its ability to support the myriad of vehicle design and operational challenges will also be briefly reviewed.

  3. Human Activity Recognition Supported on Indoor Localization: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerón, Jesús; López, Diego M

    2018-01-01

    The number of older adults is growing worldwide. This has a social and economic impact in all countries because of the increased number of older adults affected by chronic diseases, health emergencies, and disabilities, representing at the end high cost for the health system. To face this problem, the Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) domain has emerged. Its main objective is to extend the time that older adults can live independently in their homes. AAL is supported by different fields and technologies, being Human Activity Recognition (HAR), control of vital signs and location tracking the three of most interest during the last years. To perform a systematic review about Human Activity Recognition (HAR) approaches supported on Indoor Localization (IL) and vice versa, describing the methods they have used, the accuracy they have obtained and whether they have been directed towards the AAL domain or not. A systematic review of six databases was carried out (ACM, IEEE Xplore, PubMed, Science Direct and Springer). 27 papers were found. They were categorised into three groups according their approach: paper focus on 1. HAR, 2. IL, 3. HAR and IL. A detailed analysis of the following factors was performed: type of methods and technologies used for HAR, IL and data fusion, as well as the precision obtained for them. This systematic review shows that the relationship between HAR and IL has been very little studied, therefore providing insights of its potential mutual support to provide AAL solutions.

  4. Supporting Human Activities - Exploring Activity-Centered Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Bardram, Jakob

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore an activity-centered computing paradigm that is aimed at supporting work processes that are radically different from the ones known from office work. Our main inspiration is healthcare work that is characterized by an extreme degree of mobility, many interruptions, ad-hoc...

  5. Modelling of the Human Knee Joint Supported by Active Orthosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musalimov, V.; Monahov, Y.; Tamre, M.; Rõbak, D.; Sivitski, A.; Aryassov, G.; Penkov, I.

    2018-02-01

    The article discusses motion of a healthy knee joint in the sagittal plane and motion of an injured knee joint supported by an active orthosis. A kinematic scheme of a mechanism for the simulation of a knee joint motion is developed and motion of healthy and injured knee joints are modelled in Matlab. Angles between links, which simulate the femur and tibia are controlled by Simulink block of Model predictive control (MPC). The results of simulation have been compared with several samples of real motion of the human knee joint obtained from motion capture systems. On the basis of these analyses and also of the analysis of the forces in human lower limbs created at motion, an active smart orthosis is developed. The orthosis design was optimized to achieve an energy saving system with sufficient anatomy, necessary reliability, easy exploitation and low cost. With the orthosis it is possible to unload the knee joint, and also partially or fully compensate muscle forces required for the bending of the lower limb.

  6. Modelling of the Human Knee Joint Supported by Active Orthosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musalimov V.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses motion of a healthy knee joint in the sagittal plane and motion of an injured knee joint supported by an active orthosis. A kinematic scheme of a mechanism for the simulation of a knee joint motion is developed and motion of healthy and injured knee joints are modelled in Matlab. Angles between links, which simulate the femur and tibia are controlled by Simulink block of Model predictive control (MPC. The results of simulation have been compared with several samples of real motion of the human knee joint obtained from motion capture systems. On the basis of these analyses and also of the analysis of the forces in human lower limbs created at motion, an active smart orthosis is developed. The orthosis design was optimized to achieve an energy saving system with sufficient anatomy, necessary reliability, easy exploitation and low cost. With the orthosis it is possible to unload the knee joint, and also partially or fully compensate muscle forces required for the bending of the lower limb.

  7. Decision Support System Development for Human Extravehicular Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The extension of human presence into deep space will depend on how successfully human planetary extravehicular activities (EVAs) are conducted without real-time...

  8. Activity-Based Support for Mobility and Collaboration in Ubiquitous Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jacob Eyvind

    2004-01-01

    is to: (1) support human activity by managing its collection of work tasks on a computer, (2) support mobility by distributing activities across heterogeneous computing environments, (3) support asynchronous collaboration by allowing several people to participate in an activity, and (4) support...

  9. Decision Support System Requirements Definition for Human Extravehicular Activity Based on Cognitive Work Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew James; McGuire, Kerry M; Feigh, Karen M

    2017-06-01

    The design and adoption of decision support systems within complex work domains is a challenge for cognitive systems engineering (CSE) practitioners, particularly at the onset of project development. This article presents an example of applying CSE techniques to derive design requirements compatible with traditional systems engineering to guide decision support system development. Specifically, it demonstrates the requirements derivation process based on cognitive work analysis for a subset of human spaceflight operations known as extravehicular activity . The results are presented in two phases. First, a work domain analysis revealed a comprehensive set of work functions and constraints that exist in the extravehicular activity work domain. Second, a control task analysis was performed on a subset of the work functions identified by the work domain analysis to articulate the translation of subject matter states of knowledge to high-level decision support system requirements. This work emphasizes an incremental requirements specification process as a critical component of CSE analyses to better situate CSE perspectives within the early phases of traditional systems engineering design.

  10. Research on operation and maintenance support system adaptive to human recognition and understanding in human-centered plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numano, Masayoshi; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Mitomo, N.

    2004-01-01

    As a human-centered plant, advanced nuclear power plant needs appropriate role sharing between human and mobile intelligent agents. Human-machine cooperation for plant operation and maintenance activities is also required with an advanced interface. Plant's maintenance is programmed using mobile robots working under the radiation environments instead of human beings. Operation and maintenance support system adaptive to human recognition and understanding should be developed to establish adequate human and machine interface so as to induce human capabilities to the full and enable human to take responsibility for plan's operation. Plant's operation and maintenance can be cooperative activities between human and intelligent automonous agents having surveillance and control functions. Infrastructure of multi-agent simulation system for the support system has been investigated and developed based on work plans derived from the scheduler. (T. Tanaka)

  11. JAIF's teacher support activity on radiation education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kito, K.; Kudo, K.

    2016-01-01

    Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) has been conducting science teacher support activities on radiation education since 2011, after the Fukushima NPP Accident, in cooperation with member organizations of the Japan Nuclear Human Resource Development Network (JN-HRD Net). (author)

  12. DOES FAMILY SOCIAL SUPPORT AFFECT STARTUP BUSINESS ACTIVITIES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurlaily F.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, StartUp has shown a considerable progress in Indonesia. Although most of the StartUps are newly established companies in phase to find the right markets, the StartUps are expected to contribute to the economy and solve local problems. In Indonesia most of the StartUps are still in the idea stage. Therefore, they have no profit, loss, or even failure. It causes the StartUps to be difficult in gaining trust from investors. To overcome these problems, support from various parties is necessary for the development of StartUp activities. One of them is a support from family (Family Social Support. Previous studies have shown that family support contributes to the success of an entrepreneur. However, there has been no research on the relationship between family support with StartUp activities, especially in developing countries like Indonesia. This study examined the influence of family social support in the form of financial capital support, social capital, human capital, physical capital, and family cohesiveness on StartUp activities in Indonesia by using Poisson regression analysis. The results showed that family cohesiveness had a significant effect on the increase of StartUp activities.

  13. Human Reliability Assessment and Human Performance Evaluation: Research and Analysis Activities at the U.S. NRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramey-Smith, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The author indicates the themes of the six programs identified by the US NRC mission on human performance and human reliability activities. They aim at developing the technical basis to support human performance, at developing and updating a model of human performance and human reliability, at fostering national and international dialogue and cooperation efforts on human performance evaluation, at conducting operating events analysis and database development, and at providing support to human performance and human reliability inspection

  14. The Systems Engineering Process for Human Support Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry

    2005-01-01

    Systems engineering is designing and optimizing systems. This paper reviews the systems engineering process and indicates how it can be applied in the development of advanced human support systems. Systems engineering develops the performance requirements, subsystem specifications, and detailed designs needed to construct a desired system. Systems design is difficult, requiring both art and science and balancing human and technical considerations. The essential systems engineering activity is trading off and compromising between competing objectives such as performance and cost, schedule and risk. Systems engineering is not a complete independent process. It usually supports a system development project. This review emphasizes the NASA project management process as described in NASA Procedural Requirement (NPR) 7120.5B. The process is a top down phased approach that includes the most fundamental activities of systems engineering - requirements definition, systems analysis, and design. NPR 7120.5B also requires projects to perform the engineering analyses needed to ensure that the system will operate correctly with regard to reliability, safety, risk, cost, and human factors. We review the system development project process, the standard systems engineering design methodology, and some of the specialized systems analysis techniques. We will discuss how they could apply to advanced human support systems development. The purpose of advanced systems development is not directly to supply human space flight hardware, but rather to provide superior candidate systems that will be selected for implementation by future missions. The most direct application of systems engineering is in guiding the development of prototype and flight experiment hardware. However, anticipatory systems engineering of possible future flight systems would be useful in identifying the most promising development projects.

  15. Basic Education and Policy Support (BEPS) Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creative Associates International, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The Basic Education and Policy Support (BEPS) Activity is a multi-year, worldwide, indefinite quantity contract by which the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Global Bureau Center for Human Capacity (G/HCD) can work to achieve four objectives: (1) improve the quality, efficiency, access, and equity of education, particularly basic…

  16. ICT tools as support fort he management of human talent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Cristina Riascos Erazo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT within the organizational context has revolutionized management and administrative thought; this is evidenced through various aspects, one is how human talent is managed. This article seeks to show the results of research related to the evaluation of ICT used as support to human talent management and its essential objective was to characterize the main ICT tools used in the operational processes involved in managing human talent. The research was developed in two phases; first, identification of ICT tools that support human management processes, and second, determination of software used for human talent management in 60 companies in the Industrial, Commercial, and Service sectors in the city of Santiago de Cali. The research results indicate that diverse tools are available that facilitate the activities in the area of human talent management and which are mostly used in the commercial and service sectors

  17. Neuronal medium that supports basic synaptic functions and activity of human neurons in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bardy, C.; Hurk, M. van den; Eames, T.; Marchand, C.; Hernandez, R.V.; Kellogg, M.; Gorris, M.A.J.; Galet, B.; Palomares, V.; Brown, J.; Bang, A.G.; Mertens, J.; Bohnke, L.; Boyer, L.; Simon, S.; Gage, F.H.

    2015-01-01

    Human cell reprogramming technologies offer access to live human neurons from patients and provide a new alternative for modeling neurological disorders in vitro. Neural electrical activity is the essence of nervous system function in vivo. Therefore, we examined neuronal activity in media widely

  18. High molecular weight FGF2 isoforms demonstrate canonical receptor-mediated activity and support human embryonic stem cell self-renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Kole

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2 is a highly pleiotropic member of a large family of growth factors with a broad range of activities, including mitogenesis and angiogenesis (Ornitz et al., 1996; Zhang et al., 2006, and it is known to be essential for maintenance of balance between survival, proliferation, and self-renewal in human pluripotent stem cells (Eiselleova et al., 2009; Zoumaro-Djayoon et al., 2011. A single FGF2 transcript can be translated into five FGF2 protein isoforms, an 18 kDa low molecular weight (LMW isoform and four larger high molecular weight (HMW isoforms (Arese et al., 1999; Arnaud et al., 1999. As they are not generally secreted, high molecular weight (HMW FGF2 isoforms have predominantly been investigated intracellularly; only a very limited number of studies have investigated their activity as extracellular factors. Here we report over-expression, isolation, and biological activity of all recombinant human FGF2 isoforms. We show that HMW FGF2 isoforms can support self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs in vitro. Exogenous supplementation with HMW FGF2 isoforms also activates the canonical FGFR/MAPK pathway and induces mitogenic activity in a manner similar to that of the 18 kDa FGF2 isoform. Though all HMW isoforms, when supplemented exogenously, are able to recapitulate LMW FGF2 activity to some degree, it appears that certain isoforms tend to do so more poorly, demonstrating a lesser functional response by several measures. A better understanding of isoform-specific FGF2 effects will lead to a better understanding of developmental and pathological FGF2 signaling.

  19. The significance of human factors in nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weil, L.; Berg, H.P.

    1999-01-01

    Human factors is an aspect increasingly investigated in the last few years in efforts and programmes for enhancing the operational safety of nuclear systems. Methodology has been elaborated for analysis and evaluation of human reliability, or development of instruments supporting the decisions to be taken by the operators at the man-control room interface of nuclear installations, as well as initial approaches to introduce organisational factors which may influence the man-machine function allocation, and thus are an element of the safety culture concept. The significance of human factors in nuclear activities, as well as activities at the national and international level for optimisation of the man-machine interface and the man-organisation interface are discussed. (orig./CB) [de

  20. Supportive Accountability: A model for providing human support for internet and ehealth interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohr, D.C.; Cuijpers, P.; Lehman, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of and adherence to eHealth interventions is enhanced by human support. However, human support has largely not been manualized and has usually not been guided by clear models. The objective of this paper is to develop a clear theoretical model, based on relevant empirical

  1. Treatment of human-computer interface in a decision support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heger, A.S.; Duran, F.A.; Cox, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    One of the most challenging applications facing the computer community is development of effective adaptive human-computer interface. This challenge stems from the complex nature of the human part of this symbiosis. The application of this discipline to the environmental restoration and waste management is further complicated due to the nature of environmental data. The information that is required to manage environmental impacts of human activity is fundamentally complex. This paper will discuss the efforts at Sandia National Laboratories in developing the adaptive conceptual model manager within the constraint of the environmental decision-making. A computer workstation, that hosts the Conceptual Model Manager and the Sandia Environmental Decision Support System will also be discussed

  2. Development of an integrated decision support system to aid cognitive activities of operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Jun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2007-01-01

    As digital and computer technologies have grown, Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs) have evolved. In safety-critical systems, especially in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs), HMIs are important for reducing operational costs, the number of necessary operators, and the probability of accident occurrence. Efforts have been made to improve Main Control Room (MCR) interface design and to develop automated or decision support systems to ensure convenient operation and maintenance. In this paper, an integrated decision support system to aid operator cognitive processes is proposed for advanced MCRs of future NPPs. This work suggests the design concept of a decision support system which accounts for an operator's cognitive processes. The proposed system supports not only a particular task, but also the entire operation process based on a human cognitive process model. In this paper, the operator's operation processes are analyzed according to a human cognitive process model and appropriate support systems that support each cognitive process activity are suggested

  3. Supportive Accountability: A Model for Providing Human Support to Enhance Adherence to eHealth Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of and adherence to eHealth interventions is enhanced by human support. However, human support has largely not been manualized and has usually not been guided by clear models. The objective of this paper is to develop a clear theoretical model, based on relevant empirical literature, that can guide research into human support components of eHealth interventions. A review of the literature revealed little relevant information from clinical sciences. Applicable literature was drawn primarily from organizational psychology, motivation theory, and computer-mediated communication (CMC) research. We have developed a model, referred to as “Supportive Accountability.” We argue that human support increases adherence through accountability to a coach who is seen as trustworthy, benevolent, and having expertise. Accountability should involve clear, process-oriented expectations that the patient is involved in determining. Reciprocity in the relationship, through which the patient derives clear benefits, should be explicit. The effect of accountability may be moderated by patient motivation. The more intrinsically motivated patients are, the less support they likely require. The process of support is also mediated by the communications medium (eg, telephone, instant messaging, email). Different communications media each have their own potential benefits and disadvantages. We discuss the specific components of accountability, motivation, and CMC medium in detail. The proposed model is a first step toward understanding how human support enhances adherence to eHealth interventions. Each component of the proposed model is a testable hypothesis. As we develop viable human support models, these should be manualized to facilitate dissemination. PMID:21393123

  4. Defense Human Resources Activity > PERSEREC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content (Press Enter). Toggle navigation Defense Human Resources Activity Search Search Defense Human Resources Activity: Search Search Defense Human Resources Activity: Search Defense Human Resources Activity U.S. Department of Defense Defense Human Resources Activity Overview

  5. Pet ownership and older women: the relationships among loneliness, pet attachment support, human social support, and depressed mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause-Parello, Cheryl A

    2012-01-01

    Pets can play a positive role in the both the physical and psychological health of older adults. This cross sectional study investigated the relationships among loneliness, pet attachment support, human social support, and depressed mood in a convenience sample of 159 pet-owning older women residing in the community. Participants completed loneliness, pet attachment support, human social support, and depressed mood scales. The results supported significant relationships between loneliness, pet attachment support, human social support, and depressed mood. No relationship was found between human social support and depressed mood. Pet attachment support, but not human social support, influenced the relationship between loneliness and depressed mood indicating the importance of pet attachment as a greater form of support in this sample. Clinical and social implications for nurses working with the geriatric population were identified and discussed. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Extravehicular Activity Systems Education and Public Outreach in Support of NASA's STEM Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    The exploration activities associated with NASA?s goals to return to the Moon, travel to Mars, or explore Near Earth Objects (NEOs) will involve the need for human-supported space and surface extravehicular activities (EVAs). The technology development and human element associated with these exploration missions provide fantastic content to promote science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). As NASA Administrator Charles F. Bolden remarked on December 9, 2009, "We....need to provide the educational and experiential stepping-stones to inspire the next generation of scientists, engineers, and leaders in STEM fields." The EVA Systems Project actively supports this initiative by providing subject matter experts and hands-on, interactive presentations to educate students, educators, and the general public about the design challenges encountered as NASA develops EVA hardware for these missions. This paper summarizes these education and public efforts.

  7. 3D Data Acquisition Platform for Human Activity Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-02

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: In this project, we incorporated motion capture devices, 3D vision sensors, and EMG sensors to cross validate...multimodality data acquisition, and address fundamental research problems of representation and invariant description of 3D data, human motion modeling and...applications of human activity analysis, and computational optimization of large-scale 3D data. The support for the acquisition of such research

  8. Let's talk about it: dialogues with multimedia databases Database support for human activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, A.P.; van der Veer, Gerrit C.; Blanken, Henk

    We describe two scenarios of user tasks in which access to multimedia data plays a significant role. Because current multimedia databases cannot support these tasks, we introduce three new requirements on multimedia databases: multimedia objects should be active objects, querying is an interaction

  9. Perception of human activities : a means to support connectedness between the elderly and their caregivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, Kadian; Owusu, E.B.; Regazzoni, C.S.; Marcenaro, Lucio; Feijs, Loe; Hu, Jun; Holzinger, Andreas; Röcker, Carsten; Fred, Ana; Helfert, Markus; O'Donoghue, John; Ziefle, Martina

    2015-01-01

    This position paper describes a smart-phone based activity recognition system for improving social connectedness between caregivers and their elderly relatives. Sensing technologies can enable real-time monitoring to provide activity recognition in order to support health and safety among the

  10. Operator support systems activities at EPRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naser, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The integration of operator support systems supports the nuclear power plant goals of improved availability and reliability, enhanced safety, reduced operations and maintenance costs, and improved productivity. Two major aspects which supports this integration are discussed in this paper. The first is the plant communications and computing architecture which provides the infrastructure that allows the integration to exist in a easy to implement manner. Open systems concepts are utilized to guarantee interoperability of systems and interchangeability of equipment. The second is the EPRI Plant-Window System which supplies the interface between the human and the plant systems. It implements common human-machine interfaces amongst systems and supports the implementation of diagnostic and decision aids. Work in both of these areas is being done as part of the EPRI Instrumentation and Control Upgrade Program. A number of operator support systems have been developed and are in various stages of implementation, testing and utilization. Two of these, the RWCU and the EOPTS, are described here. 5 refs, 14 figs

  11. Phase-amplitude coupling supports phase coding in human ECoG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watrous, Andrew J; Deuker, Lorena; Fell, Juergen; Axmacher, Nikolai

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that high-frequency activity (HFA) is modulated by the phase of low-frequency activity. This phenomenon of phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) is often interpreted as reflecting phase coding of neural representations, although evidence for this link is still lacking in humans. Here, we show that PAC indeed supports phase-dependent stimulus representations for categories. Six patients with medication-resistant epilepsy viewed images of faces, tools, houses, and scenes during simultaneous acquisition of intracranial recordings. Analyzing 167 electrodes, we observed PAC at 43% of electrodes. Further inspection of PAC revealed that category specific HFA modulations occurred at different phases and frequencies of the underlying low-frequency rhythm, permitting decoding of categorical information using the phase at which HFA events occurred. These results provide evidence for categorical phase-coded neural representations and are the first to show that PAC coincides with phase-dependent coding in the human brain. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07886.001 PMID:26308582

  12. Human activity recognition and prediction

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a unique view of human activity recognition, especially fine-grained human activity structure learning, human-interaction recognition, RGB-D data based action recognition, temporal decomposition, and causality learning in unconstrained human activity videos. The techniques discussed give readers tools that provide a significant improvement over existing methodologies of video content understanding by taking advantage of activity recognition. It links multiple popular research fields in computer vision, machine learning, human-centered computing, human-computer interaction, image classification, and pattern recognition. In addition, the book includes several key chapters covering multiple emerging topics in the field. Contributed by top experts and practitioners, the chapters present key topics from different angles and blend both methodology and application, composing a solid overview of the human activity recognition techniques. .

  13. Robust Indoor Human Activity Recognition Using Wireless Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Jiang, Xinli; Cao, Rongyu; Wang, Xiyang

    2015-07-15

    Wireless signals-based activity detection and recognition technology may be complementary to the existing vision-based methods, especially under the circumstance of occlusions, viewpoint change, complex background, lighting condition change, and so on. This paper explores the properties of the channel state information (CSI) of Wi-Fi signals, and presents a robust indoor daily human activity recognition framework with only one pair of transmission points (TP) and access points (AP). First of all, some indoor human actions are selected as primitive actions forming a training set. Then, an online filtering method is designed to make actions' CSI curves smooth and allow them to contain enough pattern information. Each primitive action pattern can be segmented from the outliers of its multi-input multi-output (MIMO) signals by a proposed segmentation method. Lastly, in online activities recognition, by selecting proper features and Support Vector Machine (SVM) based multi-classification, activities constituted by primitive actions can be recognized insensitive to the locations, orientations, and speeds.

  14. Robust Indoor Human Activity Recognition Using Wireless Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Wireless signals–based activity detection and recognition technology may be complementary to the existing vision-based methods, especially under the circumstance of occlusions, viewpoint change, complex background, lighting condition change, and so on. This paper explores the properties of the channel state information (CSI of Wi-Fi signals, and presents a robust indoor daily human activity recognition framework with only one pair of transmission points (TP and access points (AP. First of all, some indoor human actions are selected as primitive actions forming a training set. Then, an online filtering method is designed to make actions’ CSI curves smooth and allow them to contain enough pattern information. Each primitive action pattern can be segmented from the outliers of its multi-input multi-output (MIMO signals by a proposed segmentation method. Lastly, in online activities recognition, by selecting proper features and Support Vector Machine (SVM based multi-classification, activities constituted by primitive actions can be recognized insensitive to the locations, orientations, and speeds.

  15. Mapping Cumulative Impacts of Human Activities on Marine Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    , Seaplan

    2018-01-01

    Given the diversity of human uses and natural resources that converge in coastal waters, the potential independent and cumulative impacts of those uses on marine ecosystems are important to consider during ocean planning. This study was designed to support the development and implementation of the 2009 Massachusetts Ocean Management Plan. Its goal was to estimate and visualize the cumulative impacts of human activities on coastal and marine ecosystems in the state and federal waters off of Ma...

  16. Key issues in human resource planning for home support workers in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Janice M; Knight, Lucy; Martin-Matthews, Anne; Légaré, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a synthesis of research on recruitment and retention challenges for home support workers (HSWs) in Canada. Home support workers (HSWs) provide needed support with personal care and daily activities to older persons living in the community. Literature (peer reviewed, government, and non-government documents) published in the past decade was collected from systematic data base searches between January and September 2009, and yielded over 100 references relevant to home care human resources for older Canadians. Four key human resource issues affecting HSWs were identified: compensation, education and training, quality assurance, and working conditions. To increase the workforce and retain skilled employees, employers can tailor their marketing strategies to specific groups, make improvements in work environment, and learn about what workers value and what attracts them to home support work. Understanding these HR issues for HSWs will improve recruitment and retention strategies for this workforce by helping agencies to target their limited resources. Given the projected increase in demand for these workers, preparations need to begin now and consider long-term strategies involving multiple policy areas, such as health and social care, employment, education, and immigration.

  17. Chloride transport in human fibroblasts is activated by hypotonic shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugolo, M.; Mastocola, T.; Flamigni, A.; Lenaz, G. (Universita' di Bologna (Italy))

    1989-05-15

    Incubation of human skin fibroblasts in hypotonic media induced the activation of {sup 36}Cl- efflux which was roughly proportional to the decrease in the osmolality of the media. The efflux of {sup 36}Cl- was insensitive to DIDS plus furosemide and inhibited by addition of a Cl- channel blocker such as 5-nitro-2-(3-phenyl propylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB). We propose that a conductive pathway for Cl- transport, almost silent in isotonic conditions, is activated by exposing human fibroblasts to hypotonic shock, this conclusion being supported by evidence that also {sup 36}Cl- influx was enhanced by hypotonic medium.

  18. Housing / Human Settlements Atlas series: continued support towards more sustainable human settlements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goss, H

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available an answer to the key question of what (shelter type or model and supportive services) should be built where (in the most suitable location with the highest potential to support sustainable human settlements). The investment potential profile indicator has...

  19. A HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING PROCESS TO SUPPORT HUMAN-SYSTEM INTERFACE DESIGN IN CONTROL ROOM MODERNIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesdi, C.; Joe, J.; Boring, R.

    2017-05-01

    The primary objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program is to sustain operation of the existing commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) through a multi-pathway approach in conducting research and development (R&D). The Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) System Technologies pathway conducts targeted R&D to address aging and reliability concerns with legacy instrumentation and control (I&C) and other information systems in existing U.S. NPPs. Control room modernization is an important part following this pathway, and human factors experts at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have been involved in conducting R&D to support migration of new digital main control room (MCR) technologies from legacy analog and legacy digital I&C. This paper describes a human factors engineering (HFE) process that supports human-system interface (HSI) design in MCR modernization activities, particularly with migration of old digital to new digital I&C. The process described in this work is an expansion from the LWRS Report INL/EXT-16-38576, and is a requirements-driven approach that aligns with NUREG-0711 requirements. The work described builds upon the existing literature by adding more detail around key tasks and decisions to make when transitioning from HSI Design into Verification and Validation (V&V). The overall objective of this process is to inform HSI design and elicit specific, measurable, and achievable human factors criteria for new digital technologies. Upon following this process, utilities should have greater confidence with transitioning from HSI design into V&V.

  20. Unmanned systems to support the human exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Douglas W.

    2010-04-01

    Robots and other unmanned systems will play many critical roles in support of a human presence on Mars, including surveying candidate landing sites, locating ice and mineral resources, establishing power and other infrastructure, performing construction tasks, and transporting equipment and supplies. Many of these systems will require much more strength and power than exploration rovers. The presence of humans on Mars will permit proactive maintenance and repair, and allow teleoperation and operator intervention, supporting multiple dynamic levels of autonomy, so the critical challenges to the use of unmanned systems will occur before humans arrive on Mars. Nevertheless, installed communications and navigation infrastructure should be able to support structured and/or repetitive operations (such as excavation, drilling, or construction) within a "familiar" area with an acceptable level of remote operator intervention. This paper discusses some of the factors involved in developing and deploying unmanned systems to make humans' time on Mars safer and more productive, efficient, and enjoyable.

  1. Human Activity-Understanding: A Multilayer Approach Combining Body Movements and Contextual Descriptors Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Granata

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A deep understanding of human activity is key to successful human-robot interaction (HRI. The translation of sensed human behavioural signals/cues and context descriptors into an encoded human activity remains a challenge because of the complex nature of human actions. In this paper, we propose a multilayer framework for the understanding of human activity to be implemented in a mobile robot. It consists of a perception layer which exploits a D-RGB-based skeleton tracking output used to simulate a physical model of virtual human dynamics in order to compensate for the inaccuracy and inconsistency of the raw data. A multi-support vector machine (MSVM model trained with features describing the human motor coordination through temporal segments in combination with environment descriptors (object affordance is used to recognize each sub-activity (classification layer. The interpretation of sequences of classified elementary actions is based on discrete hidden Markov models (DHMMs (interpretation layer. The framework assessment was performed on the Cornell Activity Dataset (CAD-120 [1]. The performances of our method are comparable with those presented in [2] and clearly show the relevance of this model-based approach.

  2. Social touch modulates endogenous μ-opioid system activity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Tuominen, Lauri; Dunbar, Robin; Hirvonen, Jussi; Manninen, Sandra; Arponen, Eveliina; Machin, Anna; Hari, Riitta; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Sams, Mikko

    2016-09-01

    In non-human primates, opioid-receptor blockade increases social grooming, and the endogenous opioid system has therefore been hypothesized to support maintenance of long-term relationships in humans as well. Here we tested whether social touch modulates opioidergic activation in humans using in vivo positron emission tomography (PET). Eighteen male participants underwent two PET scans with [11C]carfentanil, a ligand specific to μ-opioid receptors (MOR). During the social touch scan, the participants lay in the scanner while their partners caressed their bodies in a non-sexual fashion. In the baseline scan, participants lay alone in the scanner. Social touch triggered pleasurable sensations and increased MOR availability in the thalamus, striatum, and frontal, cingulate, and insular cortices. Modulation of activity of the opioid system by social touching might provide a neurochemical mechanism reinforcing social bonds between humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Towards human behavior recognition based on spatio temporal features and support vector machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabri, Sawsen; Ouarda, Wael; Alimi, Adel M.

    2017-03-01

    Security and surveillance are vital issues in today's world. The recent acts of terrorism have highlighted the urgent need for efficient surveillance. There is indeed a need for an automated system for video surveillance which can detect identity and activity of person. In this article, we propose a new paradigm to recognize an aggressive human behavior such as boxing action. Our proposed system for human activity detection includes the use of a fusion between Spatio Temporal Interest Point (STIP) and Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HoG) features. The novel feature called Spatio Temporal Histogram Oriented Gradient (STHOG). To evaluate the robustness of our proposed paradigm with a local application of HoG technique on STIP points, we made experiments on KTH human action dataset based on Multi Class Support Vector Machines classification. The proposed scheme outperforms basic descriptors like HoG and STIP to achieve 82.26% us an accuracy value of classification rate.

  4. Influence of vestibular activation on respiration in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kevin D.; Sharpe, Melissa K.; Drury, Daniel; Ertl, Andrew C.; Ray, Chester A.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the semicircular canals and otolith organs on respiration in humans. On the basis of animal studies, we hypothesized that vestibular activation would elicit a vestibulorespiratory reflex. To test this hypothesis, respiratory measures, arterial blood pressure, and heart rate were measured during engagement of semicircular canals and/or otolith organs. Dynamic upright pitch and roll (15 cycles/min), which activate the otolith organs and semicircular canals, increased respiratory rate (Delta2 +/- 1 and Delta3 +/- 1 breaths/min, respectively; P < 0.05). Dynamic yaw and lateral pitch (15 cycles/min), which activate the semicircular canals, increased respiration similarly (Delta3 +/- 1 and Delta2 +/- 1, respectively; P < 0.05). Dynamic chair rotation (15 cycles/min), which mimics dynamic yaw but eliminates neck muscle afferent, increased respiration (Delta3 +/- 1; P < 0.05) comparable to dynamic yaw (15 cycles/min). Increases in respiratory rate were graded as greater responses occurred during upright (Delta5 +/- 2 breaths/min) and lateral pitch (Delta4 +/- 1) and roll (Delta5 +/- 1) performed at 30 cycles/min. Increases in breathing frequency resulted in increases in minute ventilation during most interventions. Static head-down rotation, which activates otolith organs, did not alter respiratory rate (Delta1 +/- 1 breaths/min). Collectively, these data indicate that semicircular canals, but not otolith organs or neck muscle afferents, mediate increased ventilation in humans and support the concept that vestibular activation alters respiration in humans.

  5. A Framework for Agent-based Human Interaction Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Bürkle

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe an agent-based infrastructure for multimodal perceptual systems which aims at developing and realizing computer services that are delivered to humans in an implicit and unobtrusive way. The framework presented here supports the implementation of human-centric context-aware applications providing non-obtrusive assistance to participants in events such as meetings, lectures, conferences and presentations taking place in indoor "smart spaces". We emphasize on the design and implementation of an agent-based framework that supports "pluggable" service logic in the sense that the service developer can concentrate on coding the service logic independently of the underlying middleware. Furthermore, we give an example of the architecture's ability to support the cooperation of multiple services in a meeting scenario using an intelligent connector service and a semantic web oriented travel service.

  6. A Review of Human Activity Recognition Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalis eVrigkas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing human activities from video sequences or still images is a challenging task due to problems such as background clutter, partial occlusion, changes in scale, viewpoint, lighting, and appearance. Many applications, including video surveillance systems, human-computer interaction, and robotics for human behavior characterization, require a multiple activity recognition system. In this work, we provide a detailed review of recent and state-of-the-art research advances in the field of human activity classification. We propose a categorization of human activity methodologies and discuss their advantages and limitations. In particular, we divide human activity classification methods into two large categories according to whether they use data from different modalities or not. Then, each of these categories is further analyzed into sub-categories, which reflect how they model human activities and what type of activities they are interested in. Moreover, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the existing, publicly available human activity classification datasets and examine the requirements for an ideal human activity recognition dataset. Finally, we report the characteristics of future research directions and present some open issues on human activity recognition.

  7. INPO Perspectives and Activities to Enhance Supplier Human Performance and Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Within their own organizations, utilities have made significant improvements in human performance and safety culture, supported by a strong community of practice through INPO and WANO. In recent years, utilities have been making increasing use of suppliers for design, construction, inspection and maintenance services in support of their NPPs. Many of these suppliers do not have the benefit of being members of a community of practice when it comes to human performance and safety culture. To help the supplier community make improvements similar to what the utilities have achieved, INPO has recently expanded its Supplier Participant program to address the issue of human performance and safety culture in the supplier community. The intent of this paper will be to share the INPO’s perspectives and activities in helping suppliers of services and products to NPPs enhance their human performance and safety culture. (author)

  8. Active site similarity between human and Plasmodium falciparum phosphodiesterases: considerations for antimalarial drug design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Brittany L.; Thompson, Philip E.; Manallack, David T.

    2011-08-01

    The similarity between Plasmodium falciparum phosphodiesterase enzymes ( PfPDEs) and their human counterparts have been examined and human PDE9A was found to be a suitable template for the construction of homology models for each of the four PfPDE isoforms. In contrast, the architecture of the active sites of each model was most similar to human PDE1. Molecular docking was able to model cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) substrate binding in each case but a docking mode supporting cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) binding could not be found. Anticipating the potential of PfPDE inhibitors as anti-malarial drugs, a range of reported PDE inhibitors including zaprinast and sildenafil were docked into the model of PfPDEα. The results were consistent with their reported biological activities, and the potential of PDE1/9 inhibitor analogues was also supported by docking.

  9. Human hair identification by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S.Y.; Jang, S.G.; Chung, Y.S.

    1998-01-01

    Nondestructive neutron activation technique was used to analyze 17 elements (Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Cl, Cu, Hg, I, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Sb, Sr, V and Zn) in 75 human hair samples in 5 different locations, respectively, from 15 glassware workers. The analytical results were treated further statistically to find the elemental distribution among different human hairs and to identify the individual's hair. The identifying probability of one's hair by the comparison of elemental concentrations is found to be 10 4 -10 6 times higher from the same person's than from any other person's. The standard deviation of the elemental concentrations of samples taken from 5 different locations of one person is about 5 time smaller than the standard deviation for individual's hair. These data support the possibility of using NAA of hair for human hair identification. (author)

  10. Envisioning a Future Decision Support System for Requirements Engineering : A Holistic and Human-centred Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Alenljung, Beatrice

    2008-01-01

    Complex decision-making is a prominent aspect of requirements engineering (RE) and the need for improved decision support for RE decision-makers has been identified by a number of authors in the research literature. The fundamental viewpoint that permeates this thesis is that RE decision-making can be substantially improved by RE decision support systems (REDSS) based on the actual needs of RE decision-makers as well as the actual generic human decision-making activities that take place in th...

  11. Beyond advertising : large displays for supporting people’s needs and activities in public space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanis, Marije; Groen, Maarten; Meys, Wouter; Slakhorst, Wout; Veenstra, Mettina

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores how displays can be used to support human needs and activities in public spaces rather than be employed for commercial purposes only. Based on our analysis of screen usage around the world, eight different categories of usage are described and motivated. For the purpose of

  12. Can activity support influence image of a street?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiami Fachrudin, Hilma

    2018-03-01

    Activity support may affect the formation of the image of a corridor and street. Form, place, and character of activity support in an area will have the function attraction and usefulness of its activities. The aim of this research is to analyze how the influence of activity support on the image of a street, in this case, Dr.Mansyur street which located in front of Universitas Sumatera Utara. Along the street, there are various activities that conducted from morning until evening. The method used is a quantitative method with observation and questionnaire techniques. A population of this study is visitors and students of architecture department from Universitas Sumatera Utara (USU) with sample number is 100 respondents for visitors and 100 respondents for students. Independent variables are activity support factors that consist of the type of activity, form, color, dimension, material, position and lighting. The dependent variable is imageability by [1]. Data were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. The results show that activity support influences image Dr. Mansyur street that has an image as a campus and culinary area and easy to identify.

  13. THE ROLE OF HUMAN RESOURCE PRACTICES ON PROFITS GENERATED BY THE INNOVATIONS: THE ROLE OF TOP MANAGEMENT SUPPORT AND REGULARITY OF EMPLOYEES MEETINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Stanovcic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous scholars argue that human resource practices advance valuable knowledge what could be reflected positively on innovations. Accordingly, we empirically investigate whether human resource related practices such as top management support and regularity of employees meetings are related to profit generated by the innovation activities. Using survey data of Montenegrin firms, we find that firms in which top management supports employees' idea and have regular employees meetings related to innovation activities are likely to report higher profit generated by innovations. Therefore, our results underline the crucial role of human resource practices in the process of innovation that generates profitability for firms.

  14. Development of a Human Performance Evaluation Support System for Human Factors Validation of MCR MMI Design in APR-1400

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jun Su; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2005-01-01

    As CRT-based display and advanced information technology were applied to advanced reactors such as APR-1400 (Advanced Power Reactor-1400), human operators' tasks became more cognitive works. As a results, Human Factors Engineering (HFE) became more important in designing the MCR (Main Control Room) MMI (Man-Machine Interface) of an advanced reactor. According to the Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model, human factors validation of MCR MMI design should be performed through performance-based tests to determine whether it acceptably supports safe operation of the plant. In order to support the evaluation of the performance, a HUman Performance Evaluation Support System (HUPESS) is in development

  15. Tropical Rainforest and Human-Modified Landscapes Support Unique Butterfly Communities That Differ in Abundance and Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambhu, Hemchandranauth; Northfield, Tobin; Nankishore, Alliea; Ansari, Abdullah; Turton, Stephen

    2017-12-08

    Tropical forests account for at least 50% of documented diversity, but anthropogenic activities are converting forests to agriculture and urban areas at an alarming rate, with potentially strong effects on insect abundance and diversity. However, the questions remain whether insect populations are uniformly affected by land conversion and if insect conservation can occur in agricultural margins and urban gardens. We compare butterfly populations in tropical secondary forests to those found in sugarcane and urban areas in coastal Guyana and evaluate the potential for particular butterfly communities to inhabit human-modified landscapes. Butterflies were sampled for 1 yr using fruit-baited traps in three separated geographical locations on the coast. We used nonmetric multidimensional scaling to assess differences in species assemblages and a generalized linear mixed model to evaluate abundance, species richness, evenness, and diversity. The secondary forests in all three locations supported higher butterfly abundance and diversity than other human-modified areas, although the magnitude of this effect varied by season and location. However, each land use supported its own type of butterfly community, as species composition was different across the three land uses. Sugarcane field margins and urban gardens supported populations of butterflies rarely found in our tropical secondary forest sites. Land management practices that encourage forest conservation along with butterfly-friendly activities in human settlements and agricultural areas could improve butterfly conservation. To this end, butterfly conservation in Guyana and other tropical landscapes would benefit from a shift from inadvertently to actively making the landscape attractive for butterflies. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Supporting human performance in operations - principles for new nuclear build

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, L.; Davey, E.

    2006-01-01

    Operational experience worldwide continues to demonstrate that human performance is a key factor in the ongoing safety, production, and protection of investment in operation of nuclear plants for electricity generation. Human performance in support of plant operational objectives can be influenced by a range of factors, for example: organizational culture and expectations; role assignments, training, and individual and team behaviours; and the support offered by the workplace environment, tools, and task design. This paper outlines a perspective on some of the principles that should be considered for application in the design of new nuclear build to facilitate support for human performance in plant operations. The principles identified focus on but are not limited to the tasks of shift staff, and are derived from the observations and experience of the authors who are experienced with control room operations in current plants. (author)

  17. Supporting human performance in operations - principles for new nuclear build

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, L. [Ontario Power Generation, Darlington Nuclear Div., Bowmanville, Ontario (Canada); Davey, E. [Crew Systems Solutions, Deep River, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Operational experience worldwide continues to demonstrate that human performance is a key factor in the ongoing safety, production, and protection of investment in operation of nuclear plants for electricity generation. Human performance in support of plant operational objectives can be influenced by a range of factors, for example: organizational culture and expectations; role assignments, training, and individual and team behaviours; and the support offered by the workplace environment, tools, and task design. This paper outlines a perspective on some of the principles that should be considered for application in the design of new nuclear build to facilitate support for human performance in plant operations. The principles identified focus on but are not limited to the tasks of shift staff, and are derived from the observations and experience of the authors who are experienced with control room operations in current plants. (author)

  18. Down-regulation of telomerase activity in DLD-1 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells by tocotrienol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eitsuka, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2006-01-01

    As high telomerase activity is detected in most cancer cells, inhibition of telomerase by drug or dietary food components is a new strategy for cancer prevention. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effect of vitamin E, with particular emphasis on tocotrienol (unsaturated vitamin E), on human telomerase in cell-culture study. As results, tocotrienol inhibited telomerase activity of DLD-1 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells in time- and dose-dependent manner, interestingly, with δ-tocotrienol exhibiting the highest inhibitory activity. Tocotrienol inhibited protein kinase C activity, resulting in down-regulation of c-myc and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression, thereby reducing telomerase activity. In contrast to tocotrienol, tocopherol showed very weak telomerase inhibition. These results provide novel evidence for First time indicating that tocotrienol acts as a potent candidate regulator of telomerase and supporting the anti-proliferative function of tocotrienol

  19. An empirical study on the effects of human resource supporting strategies on job satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khodaei Valahzaghard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the essential functions of human resource management is to take care of skilled employees. The process is normally divided into two categories: first category includes different activities such as having health and safety in working centers, performing healthy and sport programs and some other similar activities to save and improve employees' physical characteristics. The second group includes other important issues normally called benefit packages, which includes good health insurance and retiring plans. Whenever an organization provides good benefit package and supporting programs, there is a better job satisfaction among employee. In this paper, the effects of related services to support employee to reach job satisfaction and employee activities in one of Iranian banks called Mellat bank is investigated using 276 random samples. The results show that employees are relatively satisfied from the benefit package of the bank and they were relatively happy on working for such organization.

  20. Diurnal Human Activity and Introduced Species Affect Occurrence of Carnivores in a Human-Dominated Landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Moreira-Arce

    Full Text Available Diurnal human activity and domestic dogs in agro-forestry mosaics should theoretically modify the diurnal habitat use patterns of native carnivores, with these effects being scale-dependent. We combined intensive camera trapping data with Bayesian occurrence probability models to evaluate both diurnal and nocturnal patterns of space use by carnivores in a mosaic of land-use types in southern Chile. A total of eight carnivores species were recorded, including human-introduced dogs. During the day the most frequently detected species were the culpeo fox and the cougar. Conversely, during the night, the kodkod and chilla fox were the most detected species. The best supported models showed that native carnivores responded differently to landscape attributes and dogs depending on both the time of day as well as the spatial scale of landscape attributes. The positive effect of native forest cover at 250 m and 500 m radius buffers was stronger during the night for the Darwin's fox and cougar. Road density at 250 m scale negatively affected the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s fox, whereas at 500 m scale roads had a stronger negative effect on the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s foxes and cougars. A positive effect of road density on dog occurrence was evidenced during both night and day. Patch size had a positive effect on cougar occurrence during night whereas it affected negatively the occurrence of culpeo foxes and skunks during day. Dog occurrence had a negative effect on Darwin's fox occurrence during day-time and night-time, whereas its negative effect on the occurrence of cougar was evidenced only during day-time. Carnivore occurrences were not influenced by the proximity to a conservation area. Our results provided support for the hypothesis that diurnal changes to carnivore occurrence were associated with human and dog activity. Landscape planning in our study area should be focused in reducing both the levels of diurnal human activity in

  1. Diurnal Human Activity and Introduced Species Affect Occurrence of Carnivores in a Human-Dominated Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Arce, Dario; Vergara, Pablo M; Boutin, Stan

    2015-01-01

    Diurnal human activity and domestic dogs in agro-forestry mosaics should theoretically modify the diurnal habitat use patterns of native carnivores, with these effects being scale-dependent. We combined intensive camera trapping data with Bayesian occurrence probability models to evaluate both diurnal and nocturnal patterns of space use by carnivores in a mosaic of land-use types in southern Chile. A total of eight carnivores species were recorded, including human-introduced dogs. During the day the most frequently detected species were the culpeo fox and the cougar. Conversely, during the night, the kodkod and chilla fox were the most detected species. The best supported models showed that native carnivores responded differently to landscape attributes and dogs depending on both the time of day as well as the spatial scale of landscape attributes. The positive effect of native forest cover at 250 m and 500 m radius buffers was stronger during the night for the Darwin's fox and cougar. Road density at 250 m scale negatively affected the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s fox, whereas at 500 m scale roads had a stronger negative effect on the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s foxes and cougars. A positive effect of road density on dog occurrence was evidenced during both night and day. Patch size had a positive effect on cougar occurrence during night whereas it affected negatively the occurrence of culpeo foxes and skunks during day. Dog occurrence had a negative effect on Darwin's fox occurrence during day-time and night-time, whereas its negative effect on the occurrence of cougar was evidenced only during day-time. Carnivore occurrences were not influenced by the proximity to a conservation area. Our results provided support for the hypothesis that diurnal changes to carnivore occurrence were associated with human and dog activity. Landscape planning in our study area should be focused in reducing both the levels of diurnal human activity in native forest remnants

  2. The IAEA activities supporting implementation of best practice in uranium production cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slezak, J.

    2010-01-01

    'Full text:' Since the International Atomic Energy Agency's foundation in 1957, the Agency has had an increasing interest in uranium production cycle (UPC) developments. Recent activities cover tasks on uranium geology & deposits, exploration, mining & processing including environmental issues. The two projects titles are (1) Updating uranium resources, supply and demand and nuclear fuel cycle databases and (2) Supporting good practices in the UPC in particular for new countries. Based o the recent experience, one of the new activities is focused at human resources development to improve application of best practice called Uranium Production Cycle Network (UPNet). (author)

  3. Human Activity in the Web

    OpenAIRE

    Radicchi, Filippo

    2009-01-01

    The recent information technology revolution has enabled the analysis and processing of large-scale datasets describing human activities. The main source of data is represented by the Web, where humans generally use to spend a relevant part of their day. Here we study three large datasets containing the information about Web human activities in different contexts. We study in details inter-event and waiting time statistics. In both cases, the number of subsequent operations which differ by ta...

  4. Plant diversity to support humans in a CELSS ground based demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, J. M.; Hoff, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    A controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) for human habitation in preparation for future long duration space flights is considered. The success of such a system depends upon the feasibility of revitalization of food resources and the human nutritional needs which are to be met by these food resources. Edible higher plants are prime candidates for the photoautotrophic components of this system if nutritionally adequate diets can be derived from these plant sources to support humans. Human nutritional requirements information based on current knowledge are developed for inhabitants envisioned in the CELSS ground based demonstrator. Groups of plant products that can provide the nutrients are identified.

  5. Supporting Active User Involvment in Prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj

    1990-01-01

    The term prototyping has in recent years become a buzzword in both research and practice of system design due to a number of claimed advantages of prototyping techniques over traditional specification techniques. In particular it is often stated that prototyping facilitates the users' involvement...... in the development process. But prototyping does not automatically imply active user involvement! Thus a cooperative prototyping approach aiming at involving users actively and creatively in system design is proposed in this paper. The key point of the approach is to involve users in activities that closely couple...... development of prototypes to early evaluation of prototypes in envisioned use situations. Having users involved in such activities creates new requirements for tool support. Tools that support direct manipulation of prototypes and simulation of behaviour have shown promise for cooperative prototyping...

  6. Activities of IAEA related to human interface in man-machine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Yasushi

    1988-01-01

    The present paper outlines some activities of IAEA related to human interface in man-machine systems. It has been recognized for quite some time that in large and complex man-machine interactive systems human errors can contribute substantially to failures of these systems, and that the improvement in the human interface in man-machine systems is essential for the safety of the plant. Many important surveys have been made in some member countries. These studies and operational experience have shown that it is possible to substantially reduce this adverse impact of human errors in nuclear power plant operations by the application of human factors technology. This technology. This technology includes: (1) selection of people with the requisite skills and knowledge and providing them with job-relevant training, (2) maintenance of the necessary job qualifications for each person in the plant, (3) design of man-machine interfaces which are fully compatible with the capabilities and limitations of the people in the system, and (4) design of job operations, including written materials, to facilitate required quality of human performance. A review is made of education/training, operator support systems, human error data collection, analysis of safety significant events and future activities. (Nogami, K.)

  7. Profiling gene expression induced by protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2 activation in human kidney cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacky Y Suen

    Full Text Available Protease-Activated Receptor-2 (PAR2 has been implicated through genetic knockout mice with cytokine regulation and arthritis development. Many studies have associated PAR2 with inflammatory conditions (arthritis, airways inflammation, IBD and key events in tumor progression (angiogenesis, metastasis, but they have relied heavily on the use of single agonists to identify physiological roles for PAR2. However such probes are now known not to be highly selective for PAR2, and thus precisely what PAR2 does and what mechanisms of downstream regulation are truly affected remain obscure. Effects of PAR2 activation on gene expression in Human Embryonic Kidney cells (HEK293, a commonly studied cell line in PAR2 research, were investigated here by comparing 19,000 human genes for intersecting up- or down-regulation by both trypsin (an endogenous protease that activates PAR2 and a PAR2 activating hexapeptide (2f-LIGRLO-NH(2. Among 2,500 human genes regulated similarly by both agonists, there were clear associations between PAR2 activation and cellular metabolism (1,000 genes, the cell cycle, the MAPK pathway, HDAC and sirtuin enzymes, inflammatory cytokines, and anti-complement function. PAR-2 activation up-regulated four genes more than 5 fold (DUSP6, WWOX, AREG, SERPINB2 and down-regulated another six genes more than 3 fold (TXNIP, RARG, ITGB4, CTSD, MSC and TM4SF15. Both PAR2 and PAR1 activation resulted in up-regulated expression of several genes (CD44, FOSL1, TNFRSF12A, RAB3A, COPEB, CORO1C, THBS1, SDC4 known to be important in cancer. This is the first widespread profiling of specific activation of PAR2 and provides a valuable platform for better understanding key mechanistic roles of PAR2 in human physiology. Results clearly support the development of both antagonists and agonists of human PAR2 as potential disease modifying therapeutic agents.

  8. User's manual of a support system for human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokobayashi, Masao; Tamura, Kazuo.

    1995-10-01

    Many kinds of human reliability analysis (HRA) methods have been developed. However, users are required to be skillful so as to use them, and also required complicated works such as drawing event tree (ET) and calculation of uncertainty bounds. Moreover, each method is not so complete that only one method of them is not enough to evaluate human reliability. Therefore, a personal computer (PC) based support system for HRA has been developed to execute HRA practically and efficiently. The system consists of two methods, namely, simple method and detailed one. The former uses ASEP that is a simplified THERP-technique, and combined method of OAT and HRA-ET/DeBDA is used for the latter. Users can select a suitable method for their purpose. Human error probability (HEP) data were collected and a database of them was built to use for the support system. This paper describes outline of the HRA methods, support functions and user's guide of the system. (author)

  9. Brain Activity and Human Unilateral Chewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, A.; Ichesco, E.; Myers, C.; Schutt, R.; Gerstner, G.E.

    2012-01-01

    Brain mechanisms underlying mastication have been studied in non-human mammals but less so in humans. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate brain activity in humans during gum chewing. Chewing was associated with activations in the cerebellum, motor cortex and caudate, cingulate, and brainstem. We also divided the 25-second chew-blocks into 5 segments of equal 5-second durations and evaluated activations within and between each of the 5 segments. This analysis revealed activation clusters unique to the initial segment, which may indicate brain regions involved with initiating chewing. Several clusters were uniquely activated during the last segment as well, which may represent brain regions involved with anticipatory or motor events associated with the end of the chew-block. In conclusion, this study provided evidence for specific brain areas associated with chewing in humans and demonstrated that brain activation patterns may dynamically change over the course of chewing sequences. PMID:23103631

  10. ActivityNet: A Large-Scale Video Benchmark for Human Activity Understanding

    KAUST Repository

    Heilbron, Fabian Caba

    2015-06-02

    In spite of many dataset efforts for human action recognition, current computer vision algorithms are still severely limited in terms of the variability and complexity of the actions that they can recognize. This is in part due to the simplicity of current benchmarks, which mostly focus on simple actions and movements occurring on manually trimmed videos. In this paper we introduce ActivityNet, a new largescale video benchmark for human activity understanding. Our benchmark aims at covering a wide range of complex human activities that are of interest to people in their daily living. In its current version, ActivityNet provides samples from 203 activity classes with an average of 137 untrimmed videos per class and 1.41 activity instances per video, for a total of 849 video hours. We illustrate three scenarios in which ActivityNet can be used to compare algorithms for human activity understanding: untrimmed video classification, trimmed activity classification and activity detection.

  11. ActivityNet: A Large-Scale Video Benchmark for Human Activity Understanding

    KAUST Repository

    Heilbron, Fabian Caba; Castillo, Victor; Ghanem, Bernard; Niebles, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    In spite of many dataset efforts for human action recognition, current computer vision algorithms are still severely limited in terms of the variability and complexity of the actions that they can recognize. This is in part due to the simplicity of current benchmarks, which mostly focus on simple actions and movements occurring on manually trimmed videos. In this paper we introduce ActivityNet, a new largescale video benchmark for human activity understanding. Our benchmark aims at covering a wide range of complex human activities that are of interest to people in their daily living. In its current version, ActivityNet provides samples from 203 activity classes with an average of 137 untrimmed videos per class and 1.41 activity instances per video, for a total of 849 video hours. We illustrate three scenarios in which ActivityNet can be used to compare algorithms for human activity understanding: untrimmed video classification, trimmed activity classification and activity detection.

  12. Human System Simulation in Support of Human Performance Technical Basis at NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Gertman; Katya Le Blanc; alan mecham; william phoenix; Magdy Tawfik; Jeffrey Joe

    2010-06-01

    This paper focuses on strategies and progress toward establishing the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL’s) Human Systems Simulator Laboratory at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES), a consortium of Idaho State Universities. The INL is one of the National Laboratories of the US Department of Energy. One of the first planned applications for the Human Systems Simulator Laboratory is implementation of a dynamic nuclear power plant simulation (NPP) where studies of operator workload, situation awareness, performance and preference will be carried out in simulated control rooms including nuclear power plant control rooms. Simulation offers a means by which to review operational concepts, improve design practices and provide a technical basis for licensing decisions. In preparation for the next generation power plant and current government and industry efforts in support of light water reactor sustainability, human operators will be attached to a suite of physiological measurement instruments and, in combination with traditional Human Factors Measurement techniques, carry out control room tasks in simulated advanced digital and hybrid analog/digital control rooms. The current focus of the Human Systems Simulator Laboratory is building core competence in quantitative and qualitative measurements of situation awareness and workload. Of particular interest is whether introduction of digital systems including automated procedures has the potential to reduce workload and enhance safety while improving situation awareness or whether workload is merely shifted and situation awareness is modified in yet to be determined ways. Data analysis is carried out by engineers and scientists and includes measures of the physical and neurological correlates of human performance. The current approach supports a user-centered design philosophy (see ISO 13407 “Human Centered Design Process for Interactive Systems, 1999) wherein the context for task performance along with the

  13. Technology development activities supporting tank waste remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, W.F.; Beeman, G.H.

    1994-06-01

    This document summarizes work being conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development (EM-50) in support of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program. The specific work activities are organized by the following categories: safety, characterization, retrieval, barriers, pretreatment, low-level waste, and high-level waste. In most cases, the activities presented here were identified as supporting tank remediation by EM-50 integrated program or integrated demonstration lead staff and the selections were further refined by contractor staff. Data sheets were prepared from DOE-HQ guidance to the field issued in September 1993. Activities were included if a significant portion of the work described provides technology potentially needed by TWRS; consequently, not all parts of each description necessarily support tank remediation

  14. Isothiocyanates: An Overview of Their Antimicrobial Activity against Human Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Romeo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant-derived products as antimicrobial agents has been investigated in depth. Isothiocyanates (ITCs are bioactive products resulting from enzymatic hydrolysis of glucosinolates (GLs, the most abundant secondary metabolites in the botanical order Brassicales. Although the antimicrobial activity of ITCs against foodborne and plant pathogens has been well documented, little is known about their antimicrobial properties against human pathogens. This review collects studies that focus on this topic. Particular focus will be put on ITCs’ antimicrobial properties and their mechanism of action against human pathogens for which the current therapeutic solutions are deficient and therefore of prime importance for public health. Our purpose was the evaluation of the potential use of ITCs to replace or support the common antibiotics. Even though ITCs appear to be effective against the most important human pathogens, including bacteria with resistant phenotypes, the majority of the studies did not show comparable results and thus it is very difficult to compare the antimicrobial activity of the different ITCs. For this reason, a standard method should be used and further studies are needed.

  15. Potential Applications for Radioisotope Power Systems in Support of Human Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Robert L.; Colozza, Anthony J.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    Radioisotope power systems (RPS) for space applications have powered over 27 U.S. space systems, starting with Transit 4A and 4B in 1961, and more recently with the successful landing of the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity in August 2012. RPS enable missions with destinations far from the Sun with faint solar flux, on planetary surfaces with dense or dusty atmospheres, and at places with long eclipse periods where solar array sizes and energy storage mass become impractical. RPS could also provide an enabling capability in support of human exploration activities. It is envisioned that with the higher power needs of most human mission concepts, a high efficiency thermal-to-electric technology would be required such as the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope generator (ASRG). The ASRG should be capable of a four-fold improvement in efficiency over traditional thermoelectric RPS. While it may be impractical to use RPS as a main power source, many other applications could be considered, such as crewed pressurized rovers, in-situ resource production of propellants, back-up habitat power, drilling, any mobile or remote activity from the main base habitat, etc. This paper will identify potential applications and provide concepts that could be a practical extension of the current ASRG design in providing for robust and flexible use of RPS on human exploration missions.

  16. Inflammatory aetiology of human myometrial activation tested using directed graphs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available THERE ARE THREE MAIN HYPOTHESES FOR THE ACTIVATION OF THE HUMAN UTERUS AT LABOUR: functional progesterone withdrawal, inflammatory stimulation, and oxytocin receptor activation. To test these alternatives we have taken information and data from the literature to develop causal pathway models for the activation of human myometrium. The data provided quantitative RT-PCR results on key genes from samples taken before and during labour. Principal component analysis showed that pre-labour samples form a homogenous group compared to those during labour. We therefore modelled the alternative causal pathways in non-labouring samples using directed graphs and statistically compared the likelihood of the different models using structural equations and D-separation approaches. Using the computer program LISREL, inflammatory activation as a primary event was highly consistent with the data (p = 0.925, progesterone withdrawal, as a primary event, is plausible (p = 0.499, yet comparatively unlikely, oxytocin receptor mediated initiation is less compatible with the data (p = 0.091. DGraph, a software program that creates directed graphs, produced similar results (p= 0.684, p= 0.280, and p = 0.04, respectively. This outcome supports an inflammatory aetiology for human labour. Our results demonstrate the value of directed graphs in determining the likelihood of causal relationships in biology in situations where experiments are not possible.

  17. Activity recognition with smartphone support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guiry, J.J.; van der Ven, P.; Nelson, J.; Warmerdam, E.H.; Riper, H.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the authors describe a method of accurately detecting human activity using a smartphone accelerometer paired with a dedicated chest sensor. The design, implementation, testing and validation of a custom mobility classifier are also presented. Offline analysis was carried out to

  18. Differentially activated macrophages orchestrate myogenic precursor cell fate during human skeletal muscle regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saclier, Marielle; Yacoub-Youssef, Houda; Mackey, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    , we explored both in vitro and in vivo, in human, the interactions of differentially activated MPs with myogenic precursor cells (MPCs) during adult myogenesis and skeletal muscle regeneration. We showed in vitro that through the differential secretion of cytokines and growth factors, proinflammatory...... anti-inflammatory markers. These data demonstrate for the first time in human that MPs sequentially orchestrate adult myogenesis during regeneration of damaged skeletal muscle. These results support the emerging concept that inflammation, through MP activation, controls stem cell fate and coordinates......Macrophages (MPs) exert either beneficial or deleterious effects on tissue repair, depending on their activation/polarization state. They are crucial for adult skeletal muscle repair, notably by acting on myogenic precursor cells. However, these interactions have not been fully characterized. Here...

  19. Physical Human Activity Recognition Using Wearable Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Attal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of different classification techniques used to recognize human activities from wearable inertial sensor data. Three inertial sensor units were used in this study and were worn by healthy subjects at key points of upper/lower body limbs (chest, right thigh and left ankle. Three main steps describe the activity recognition process: sensors’ placement, data pre-processing and data classification. Four supervised classification techniques namely, k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN, Support Vector Machines (SVM, Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM, and Random Forest (RF as well as three unsupervised classification techniques namely, k-Means, Gaussian mixture models (GMM and Hidden Markov Model (HMM, are compared in terms of correct classification rate, F-measure, recall, precision, and specificity. Raw data and extracted features are used separately as inputs of each classifier. The feature selection is performed using a wrapper approach based on the RF algorithm. Based on our experiments, the results obtained show that the k-NN classifier provides the best performance compared to other supervised classification algorithms, whereas the HMM classifier is the one that gives the best results among unsupervised classification algorithms. This comparison highlights which approach gives better performance in both supervised and unsupervised contexts. It should be noted that the obtained results are limited to the context of this study, which concerns the classification of the main daily living human activities using three wearable accelerometers placed at the chest, right shank and left ankle of the subject.

  20. Physical Human Activity Recognition Using Wearable Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attal, Ferhat; Mohammed, Samer; Dedabrishvili, Mariam; Chamroukhi, Faicel; Oukhellou, Latifa; Amirat, Yacine

    2015-12-11

    This paper presents a review of different classification techniques used to recognize human activities from wearable inertial sensor data. Three inertial sensor units were used in this study and were worn by healthy subjects at key points of upper/lower body limbs (chest, right thigh and left ankle). Three main steps describe the activity recognition process: sensors' placement, data pre-processing and data classification. Four supervised classification techniques namely, k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN), Support Vector Machines (SVM), Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM), and Random Forest (RF) as well as three unsupervised classification techniques namely, k-Means, Gaussian mixture models (GMM) and Hidden Markov Model (HMM), are compared in terms of correct classification rate, F-measure, recall, precision, and specificity. Raw data and extracted features are used separately as inputs of each classifier. The feature selection is performed using a wrapper approach based on the RF algorithm. Based on our experiments, the results obtained show that the k-NN classifier provides the best performance compared to other supervised classification algorithms, whereas the HMM classifier is the one that gives the best results among unsupervised classification algorithms. This comparison highlights which approach gives better performance in both supervised and unsupervised contexts. It should be noted that the obtained results are limited to the context of this study, which concerns the classification of the main daily living human activities using three wearable accelerometers placed at the chest, right shank and left ankle of the subject.

  1. HUMAN ACTIVITY MONITORING USING SMARTPHONE

    OpenAIRE

    TOKALA, SAI SUJIT; ROKALA, RANADEEP

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of the project is to develop an algorithm which will classify the activity performed by a human who is carrying a smart phone. The day to day life made humans very busy at work and during daily activities, mostly elderly people who are at home have an important need to monitor their activity by others when they are alone, if they are inactive for a long time without movement, or in some situations like if they have fallen down, became unconscious for sometime or seized with a car...

  2. The influence of periodic increases of human activity on crepuscular and nocturnal mammals: Testing the weekend effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nix, Joshua H; Howell, Ryan G; Hall, Lucas K; McMillan, Brock R

    2018-01-01

    Human recreation can negatively affect wildlife, particularly on weekends when human activity is highest (i.e., the weekend effect). Much of what we understand about the weekend effect is based on research conducted on diurnal species, which have greater temporal overlap with humans. Because nocturnal species generally avoid times when humans are active, they are likely less affected by anthropogenic activity on weekends. Our objective was to test the weekend effect in relation to the degree of nocturnality of mammals in a recreational area. We predicted that as nocturnality increased, the effect of human activity would decrease. To address our objective, we placed 50 remote cameras along the Diamond Fork River in Utah from January to June 2015. We found that three out of the four focal species supported our predictions. Mule deer (crepuscular) reduced activity throughout our entire study area during weekends and avoided campgrounds. Beavers and mountain lions (both nocturnal) did not negatively respond to increased human activity. Raccoons (nocturnal) reduced activity during weekends, but only within campground areas. Our findings indicate that as the temporal overlap increases between wildlife and humans, so does the influence that humans have on wildlife. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Workshop on Human Activity at Scale in Earth System Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Melissa R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Aziz, H. M. Abdul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Coletti, Mark A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kennedy, Joseph H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nair, Sujithkumar S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Omitaomu, Olufemi A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-26

    Changing human activity within a geographical location may have significant influence on the global climate, but that activity must be parameterized in such a way as to allow these high-resolution sub-grid processes to affect global climate within that modeling framework. Additionally, we must have tools that provide decision support and inform local and regional policies regarding mitigation of and adaptation to climate change. The development of next-generation earth system models, that can produce actionable results with minimum uncertainties, depends on understanding global climate change and human activity interactions at policy implementation scales. Unfortunately, at best we currently have only limited schemes for relating high-resolution sectoral emissions to real-time weather, ultimately to become part of larger regions and well-mixed atmosphere. Moreover, even our understanding of meteorological processes at these scales is imperfect. This workshop addresses these shortcomings by providing a forum for discussion of what we know about these processes, what we can model, where we have gaps in these areas and how we can rise to the challenge to fill these gaps.

  4. Explicable Planning and Replanning for Human-in-the-loop Decision Support

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For the decision support scenarios that are particularly relevant to NASA, such as planning for human space missions, human operators will need a system that can (i)...

  5. Implementation of Business Game Activity Support System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANABU Motonari

    2004-01-01

    Business game can be used not only as an educational tool for the development of decision making ability, but also can be used for supporting the knowledge creation activity in organizations. In this paper, some conceptual considerations to meanings of the business game in the knowledge creation activity by using the knowledge creation theory and other related theories are given,and business game activity concept which refers to game play and development is proposed. Then focusing on the business game activity as an instantiation of the knowledge creation activity, and a Web based gaming activity support system based on the former system called YBG that enables us to play and develop many business games through the standard web browser is proposed. This system also provides us a lot of opportunities to play and develop the business games over business game communities.

  6. Application of the Human Activity Assistive Technology model for occupational therapy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Ed

    2013-08-01

    Theoretical models provide a framework for describing practice and integrating evidence into systematic research. There are few models that relate specifically to the provision of assistive technology in occupational therapy practice. The Human Activity Assistive Technology model is an enduring example that has continued to develop by integrating a social model of disability, concepts from occupational therapy theory and principles of assistive technology adoption and abandonment. This study first describes the core concepts of the Human Activity Assistive Technology model and reviews its development over three successive published versions. A review of the research literature reflects application of the model to clinical practice, study design, outcome measure selection and interpretation of results, particularly among occupational therapists. An evaluative framework is used to critique the adequacy of the Human Activity Assistive Technology model for practice and research, exploring attributes of clarity, simplicity, generality, accessibility and importance. Finally, recommendations are proposed for continued development of the model and research applications. Most of the existing research literature employs the Human Activity Assistive Technology model for background and study design; there is emerging evidence to support the core concepts as predictive factors. Although the concepts are generally simple, clear and applicable to occupational therapy practice and research, evolving terminology and outcomes become more complex with the conflation of integrated theories. The development of the Human Activity Assistive Technology model offers enhanced access and application for occupational therapists, but poses challenges to clarity among concepts. Suggestions are made for further development and applications of the model. © 2013 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  7. Protein Kinase-A Inhibition Is Sufficient to Support Human Neural Stem Cells Self-Renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Pauline; Boissart, Claire; Poulet, Aurélie; Peschanski, Marc; Benchoua, Alexandra

    2015-12-01

    Human pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem cells offer unprecedented opportunities for producing specific types of neurons for several biomedical applications. However, to achieve it, protocols of production and amplification of human neural stem cells need to be standardized, cost effective, and safe. This means that small molecules should progressively replace the use of media containing cocktails of protein-based growth factors. Here we have conducted a phenotypical screening to identify pathways involved in the regulation of hNSC self-renewal. We analyzed 80 small molecules acting as kinase inhibitors and identified compounds of the 5-isoquinolinesulfonamide family, described as protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase G inhibitors, as candidates to support hNSC self-renewal. Investigating the mode of action of these compounds, we found that modulation of PKA activity was central in controlling the choice between self-renewal or terminal neuronal differentiation of hNSC. We finally demonstrated that the pharmacological inhibition of PKA using the small molecule HA1004 was sufficient to support the full derivation, propagation, and long-term maintenance of stable hNSC in absence of any other extrinsic signals. Our results indicated that tuning of PKA activity is a core mechanism regulating hNSC self-renewal and differentiation and delineate the minimal culture media requirement to maintain undifferentiated hNSC in vitro. © 2015 AlphaMed Press.

  8. Statistics and risk philosophy in human activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Failla, L.

    1983-01-01

    Two leading interpretations of the use of statistics exist, the first one considering statistics as a physical law regulating the phenomena studied, and the other considering statistics as a method allowing to achieve exhaustive knowledge of the phenomena. The Author chooses the second theory, applies this concept of statistics to the risk involved in human activities and discusses the different kinds of risk in this field. The Author distinguishes between the risk that can be eliminated or at least reduced, and the risk inherent in the activity itself, that can never be completely eliminated -unless the activity is suppressed-; yet, also this kind of risk can be kept under control. Furthermore, she distinguishes between risks that can or cannot be foreseen. The Author supports the theory according to which the risk foreseen must be prevented through up-to-date techniques: this should be done coherently with the aim of the activity but independently of the economic cost. The theory considering risk probability as a physical law is mainly based on events happened in the past: it uses the occurrence probability as a law. This theory accepts the statistical risk and estimates its costs, including the ''human cost''. The Author examines the different statistical possibilities to study this specific phenomenon: so, the possibility to avoid the risks may arise along with -last but not least- the opportunity to eliminate or reduce the damage connected. On the contrary, statistics used as a physical law implies the acceptable of a given amount of risk compared with the cost of improving the technical conditions required to eliminate damages. In the end, a practical example of this theory is described

  9. Prospectively Isolated Human Bone Marrow Cell-Derived MSCs Support Primitive Human CD34-Negative Hematopoietic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Yoshikazu; Nakatsuka, Ryusuke; Sumide, Keisuke; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Masaya; Fujioka, Tatsuya; Uemura, Yasushi; Asano, Hiroaki; Sasaki, Yutaka; Inoue, Masami; Ogawa, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, Takayuki; Hino, Masayuki; Sonoda, Yoshiaki

    2015-05-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are maintained in a specialized bone marrow (BM) niche, which consists of osteoblasts, endothelial cells, and a variety of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs). However, precisely what types of MSCs support human HSCs in the BM remain to be elucidated because of their heterogeneity. In this study, we succeeded in prospectively isolating/establishing three types of MSCs from human BM-derived lineage- and CD45-negative cells, according to their cell surface expression of CD271 and stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA)-4. Among them, the MSCs established from the Lineage(-) CD45(-) CD271(+) SSEA-4(+) fraction (DP MSC) could differentiate into osteoblasts and chondrocytes, but they lacked adipogenic differentiation potential. The DP MSCs expressed significantly higher levels of well-characterized HSC-supportive genes, including IGF-2, Wnt3a, Jagged1, TGFβ3, nestin, CXCL12, and Foxc1, compared with other MSCs. Interestingly, these osteo-chondrogenic DP MSCs possessed the ability to support cord blood-derived primitive human CD34-negative severe combined immunodeficiency-repopulating cells. The HSC-supportive actions of DP MSCs were partially carried out by soluble factors, including IGF-2, Wnt3a, and Jagged1. Moreover, contact between DP MSCs and CD34-positive (CD34(+) ) as well as CD34-negative (CD34(-) ) HSCs was important for the support/maintenance of the CD34(+/-) HSCs in vitro. These data suggest that DP MSCs might play an important role in the maintenance of human primitive HSCs in the BM niche. Therefore, the establishment of DP MSCs provides a new tool for the elucidation of the human HSC/niche interaction in vitro as well as in vivo. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  10. Physical activity and social support in adolescents: analysis of different types and sources of social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Gerfeson; Júnior, José Cazuza de Farias

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of different types and sources of social support on physical activity in adolescents. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between physical activity and different types and sources of social support in adolescents. The sample consisted of 2,859 adolescents between 14-19 years of age in the city of João Pessoa, in Northeastern Brazil. Physical activity was measured with a questionnaire and social support from parents and friends using a 10-item scale five for each group (type of support: encouragement, joint participation, watching, inviting, positive comments and transportation). Multivariable analysis showed that the types of support provided by parents associated with physical activity in adolescents were encouragement for females (P genders (males: P = 0.009; females: P physical activity varies according to its source, as well as the gender and age of the adolescents.

  11. User`s manual of a support system for human reliability analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokobayashi, Masao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Tamura, Kazuo

    1995-10-01

    Many kinds of human reliability analysis (HRA) methods have been developed. However, users are required to be skillful so as to use them, and also required complicated works such as drawing event tree (ET) and calculation of uncertainty bounds. Moreover, each method is not so complete that only one method of them is not enough to evaluate human reliability. Therefore, a personal computer (PC) based support system for HRA has been developed to execute HRA practically and efficiently. The system consists of two methods, namely, simple method and detailed one. The former uses ASEP that is a simplified THERP-technique, and combined method of OAT and HRA-ET/DeBDA is used for the latter. Users can select a suitable method for their purpose. Human error probability (HEP) data were collected and a database of them was built to use for the support system. This paper describes outline of the HRA methods, support functions and user`s guide of the system. (author).

  12. Identification of critical timeconsuming student support activities in e-learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred J. de Vries

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Higher education staff involved in e-learning often struggle with organising their student support activities. To a large extent this is due to the high workload involved with such activities. We distinguish support related to learning content, learning processes and student products. At two different educational institutions, surveys were conducted to identify the most critical support activities, using the Nominal Group Method. The results are discussed and brought to bear on the distinction between content-related, process-related and product-related support activities.

  13. A novel framework for intelligent surveillance system based on abnormal human activity detection in academic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nawashi, Malek; Al-Hazaimeh, Obaida M; Saraee, Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    Abnormal activity detection plays a crucial role in surveillance applications, and a surveillance system that can perform robustly in an academic environment has become an urgent need. In this paper, we propose a novel framework for an automatic real-time video-based surveillance system which can simultaneously perform the tracking, semantic scene learning, and abnormality detection in an academic environment. To develop our system, we have divided the work into three phases: preprocessing phase, abnormal human activity detection phase, and content-based image retrieval phase. For motion object detection, we used the temporal-differencing algorithm and then located the motions region using the Gaussian function. Furthermore, the shape model based on OMEGA equation was used as a filter for the detected objects (i.e., human and non-human). For object activities analysis, we evaluated and analyzed the human activities of the detected objects. We classified the human activities into two groups: normal activities and abnormal activities based on the support vector machine. The machine then provides an automatic warning in case of abnormal human activities. It also embeds a method to retrieve the detected object from the database for object recognition and identification using content-based image retrieval. Finally, a software-based simulation using MATLAB was performed and the results of the conducted experiments showed an excellent surveillance system that can simultaneously perform the tracking, semantic scene learning, and abnormality detection in an academic environment with no human intervention.

  14. The Human Rights Philosophy: Support and Opposition among Undergraduate Social Work Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Julie A.; Mann, Mary; Gryglewicz, Kim

    2016-01-01

    In response to the rising importance of human rights, social work student attitudes toward human rights and the effect of human rights course content on these attitudes were assessed. Descriptive results from a sample of 77 students pointed to a few areas of low support for the human rights philosophy, specifically rights related to mental…

  15. Identification of molecules derived from human fibroblast feeder cells that support the proliferation of human embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anisimov, Sergey V.; Christophersen, Nicolaj S.; Correia, Ana S.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of human embryonic stem cell lines depend on a feeder cell layer for continuous growth in vitro, so that they can remain in an undifferentiated state. Limited knowledge is available concerning the molecular mechanisms that underlie the capacity of feeder cells to support both...... the proliferation and pluripotency of these cells. Importantly, feeder cells generally lose their capacity to support human embryonic stem cell proliferation in vitro following long-term culture. In this study, we performed large-scale gene expression profiles of human foreskin fibroblasts during early...... foreskin fibroblasts to serve as feeder cells for human embryonic stem cell cultures. Among these, the C-KIT, leptin and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) genes were the most interesting candidates....

  16. Anti-complement activities of human breast-milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundele, M O

    1999-08-01

    It has long been observed that the human milk possesses significant anti-inflammatory properties, while simultaneously protecting the infant against many intestinal and respiratory pathogens. There is, however, a paucity of information on the degree and extent of this anti-inflammatory activity. In the present study, the inhibitory effects of different fractions of human milk on serum complement activity were analysed. Colostrum and milk samples from healthy voluntary lactating donors at different postpartum ages were obtained and pooled normal human serum was used as source of complement in a modified CH50 assay. Inherent complement activity in human milk was also investigated by measuring the deposition of an activated C3 fragment on a serum-sensitive bacteria, and by haemolytic assays. Most whole- and defatted-milk samples consistently showed a dose-dependent inhibition of the serum complement activity. This inhibition was greater in mature milk compared to transitional milk samples. It was enhanced by inactivation of milk complement, and diminished by centrifugation of milk samples, which partly removed fat and larger protein components including casein micelles. Inherent complement activity in human milk was also demonstrated by haemolysis of sensitised sheep erythrocytes and deposition of C3 fragments on solid-phase bacteria. These activities were highest in the colostrum and gradually decreased as lactation proceeded. Several natural components abundant in the fluid phase of the human breast-milk have been shown to be inhibitors of complement activation in vitro. Their physiological significance probably reside in their ability to prevent inflammatory-induced tissue damage of the delicate immature gastrointestinal tract of the new-born as well as the mammary gland itself, which may arise from ongoing complement activation.

  17. ASSESSMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES FOR REGIONAL INNOVATION ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Lukyanova

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issues of human resource development regarding an innovation activity. Concepts of labor and human resources have been surveyed. An integral index for assessment of human resources for regional innovation activity has been developed and assessment of the Russian regions has been made on the basis of it. Development tendencies of modern human resources for innovation activity in Russia have been revealed.

  18. Monetary reward activates human prefrontal cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thut, G.; Roelcke, U.; Nienhusmeier, M.; Missimer, J.; Maguire, R.P.; Leenders, K.L.; Schultz, W.

    1997-01-01

    We present a rCBF PET activation study, in which we demonstrated that reward processing in humans activates a cortical-subcortical network including dorsolateral prefrontal, orbital frontal, thalamic and midbrain regions. It is suggested that, as found for non-human primates, the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical system is implicated in reward processing. (author) 1 fig., 3 refs

  19. Driven to Support: Individual- and County-Level Factors Associated With Public Support for Active Transportation Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cradock, Angie L; Barrett, Jessica L; Chriqui, Jamie F; Evenson, Kelly R; Goins, Karin Valentine; Gustat, Jeanette; Heinrich, Katie M; Perry, Cynthia K; Scanze, Michele; Schmid, Thomas L; Tabak, Rachel G; Umstattd Meyer, M Renee; Valko, Cheryl

    2018-03-01

    To assess predictors of stated support for policies promoting physically active transportation. Cross-sectional. US counties selected on county-level physical activity and obesity health status. Participants completing random-digit dialed telephone survey (n = 906). Survey measures assessed stated support for 5 policies to promote physically active transportation, access to active transportation facilities, and time spent in a car. County-level estimates included household car dependence and funding for bicycle-pedestrian projects. Multivariable generalized linear mixed models using binary distribution and logit link, accounting for clustering within county. Respondents supported policies for accommodating bicyclists and pedestrians through street improvements (89%), school active transportation programs (75%), employer-funded active commuting incentives (67%), and allocation of public funding (68%) and tax support (56%) for building and maintaining public transit. Residents spending >2 h/d (vs public transit (OR: 1.85; CI: 1.24-2.77) improvements. Residents in counties investing >$1.6 million in bicycle and pedestrian improvements expressed greater support for funding (OR: 1.71; CI: 1.04-2.83) and tax increases (OR: 1.73; CI: 1.08-2.75) for transit improvements compared to those with lower prior investments (transportation is higher where relevant investments in active transportation infrastructure are large (>$1.6 M), public transit is nearby, and respondents drive >2 h/d.

  20. A Review on Video-Based Human Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shian-Ru Ke

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This review article surveys extensively the current progresses made toward video-based human activity recognition. Three aspects for human activity recognition are addressed including core technology, human activity recognition systems, and applications from low-level to high-level representation. In the core technology, three critical processing stages are thoroughly discussed mainly: human object segmentation, feature extraction and representation, activity detection and classification algorithms. In the human activity recognition systems, three main types are mentioned, including single person activity recognition, multiple people interaction and crowd behavior, and abnormal activity recognition. Finally the domains of applications are discussed in detail, specifically, on surveillance environments, entertainment environments and healthcare systems. Our survey, which aims to provide a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of the field, also addresses several challenges associated with these systems and applications. Moreover, in this survey, various applications are discussed in great detail, specifically, a survey on the applications in healthcare monitoring systems.

  1. Dietary protein considerations to support active aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Benjamin T; Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2014-11-01

    Given our rapidly aging world-wide population, the loss of skeletal muscle mass with healthy aging (sarcopenia) represents an important societal and public health concern. Maintaining or adopting an active lifestyle alleviates age-related muscle loss to a certain extent. Over time, even small losses of muscle tissue can hinder the ability to maintain an active lifestyle and, as such, contribute to the development of frailty and metabolic disease. Considerable research focus has addressed the application of dietary protein supplementation to support exercise-induced gains in muscle mass in younger individuals. In contrast, the role of dietary protein in supporting the maintenance (or gain) of skeletal muscle mass in active older persons has received less attention. Older individuals display a blunted muscle protein synthetic response to dietary protein ingestion. However, this reduced anabolic response can largely be overcome when physical activity is performed in close temporal proximity to protein consumption. Moreover, recent evidence has helped elucidate the optimal type and amount of dietary protein that should be ingested by the older adult throughout the day in order to maximize the skeletal muscle adaptive response to physical activity. Evidence demonstrates that when these principles are adhered to, muscle maintenance or hypertrophy over prolonged periods can be further augmented in active older persons. The present review outlines the current understanding of the role that dietary protein occupies in the lifestyle of active older adults as a means to increase skeletal muscle mass, strength and function, and thus support healthier aging.

  2. Peculiarities of human psychoneuroendocrinology within support deprivation and decreased proprioceptive afferentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichiporuk, Igor

    Essentially important circumstance which is necessary for considering in a complex estimation of physical and mental health of the person in the conditions of space flight are interrelation and interference between neurohormoral system and the psychophysiological status. A main objective of research was a study of relationships of psychoneuroendocrine parameters of the person during simulation of microgravity effects via 7-day dry immersion (DI) in healthy male-volunteers 20-35 years old. The individual and typological features, which reflect specificity of behavior and the higher nervous activity in DI, have been revealed as a result of complex checkup consisting of thrice-repeated identical hormonal and psychophysiological measurements (initial, within and recovery). It allowed to define the system of the dominants determining an efficiency of personal activity in the conditions of support deprivation and decreased proprioceptive afferentation (DI’s effects), and also to reveal independent indicators of psychoneuroendocrine state, which define high capacity for work, in particular, properties of temperament, levels of stress, social conformity and emotional maturity, a sharing involvement of simple and complex sensory-motor reactions, balance and activity of thyroid, vago-insular and glucocorticoid systems of human organism.

  3. Human Resources practices and workplace environmental support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Ngwenya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The key to retaining employees lies on the organization’s capability of supporting employees by understanding and answering to their intrinsic motivators. It is important for employees to perceive a positive and valuing attitude of the organization toward them in order to have greater motivation for staying in the organization. Such condition for employee retention is based on the social exchange theory which holds that the exchange relationship between employer and employee goes beyond exchange of impersonal resources such as money, information, and service. One of the leading challenges in creating attractive and supporting working environment has be implementing effective human development strategies to enhance organizational performance and employee commitment. Therefore, managing human resources plays a crucial role in a process of increasing organization, starting from line managers who need to be aware of factors that motivate their subordinates to make them perform well, ending up with human resources professionals who have to understand motivation to effectively design and implement reward structure and systems. In employment situation, as in personal relationships, commitment is a tow-away street. If employers want committed employees, they need to be committed employers. Committed employees do better work than uncommitted ones and organizations with committed workers do better financially than organizations with uncommitted ones. Employers need to determine what is responsible for this disparity. Many employees perceive that employers do not value loyalty and are willing to sacrifice workers to maintain the financial bottom line. Employees points to decades of downsizing, rightsizing, and re-engineering as the evidence that employers treat them as expendable commodities when times get tough (Bragg, 2002.

  4. Real-time Human Activity Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albukhary, N.; Mustafah, Y. M.

    2017-11-01

    The traditional Closed-circuit Television (CCTV) system requires human to monitor the CCTV for 24/7 which is inefficient and costly. Therefore, there’s a need for a system which can recognize human activity effectively in real-time. This paper concentrates on recognizing simple activity such as walking, running, sitting, standing and landing by using image processing techniques. Firstly, object detection is done by using background subtraction to detect moving object. Then, object tracking and object classification are constructed so that different person can be differentiated by using feature detection. Geometrical attributes of tracked object, which are centroid and aspect ratio of identified tracked are manipulated so that simple activity can be detected.

  5. Deep Recurrent Neural Networks for Human Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmajid Murad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Adopting deep learning methods for human activity recognition has been effective in extracting discriminative features from raw input sequences acquired from body-worn sensors. Although human movements are encoded in a sequence of successive samples in time, typical machine learning methods perform recognition tasks without exploiting the temporal correlations between input data samples. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs address this issue by using convolutions across a one-dimensional temporal sequence to capture dependencies among input data. However, the size of convolutional kernels restricts the captured range of dependencies between data samples. As a result, typical models are unadaptable to a wide range of activity-recognition configurations and require fixed-length input windows. In this paper, we propose the use of deep recurrent neural networks (DRNNs for building recognition models that are capable of capturing long-range dependencies in variable-length input sequences. We present unidirectional, bidirectional, and cascaded architectures based on long short-term memory (LSTM DRNNs and evaluate their effectiveness on miscellaneous benchmark datasets. Experimental results show that our proposed models outperform methods employing conventional machine learning, such as support vector machine (SVM and k-nearest neighbors (KNN. Additionally, the proposed models yield better performance than other deep learning techniques, such as deep believe networks (DBNs and CNNs.

  6. Human PrimPol activity is enhanced by RPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Jiménez, María I; Lahera, Antonio; Blanco, Luis

    2017-04-10

    Human PrimPol is a primase belonging to the AEP superfamily with the unique ability to synthesize DNA primers de novo, and a non-processive DNA polymerase able to bypass certain DNA lesions. PrimPol facilitates both mitochondrial and nuclear replication fork progression either acting as a conventional TLS polymerase, or repriming downstream of blocking lesions. In vivo assays have shown that PrimPol is rapidly recruited to sites of DNA damage by interaction with the human replication protein A (RPA). In agreement with previous findings, we show here that the higher affinity of RPA for ssDNA inhibits PrimPol activities in short ssDNA templates. In contrast, once the amount of ssDNA increases up to a length in which both proteins can simultaneously bind ssDNA, as expected during replicative stress conditions, PrimPol and RPA functionally interact, and their binding capacities are mutually enhanced. When using M13 ssDNA as template, RPA stimulated both the primase and polymerase activities of PrimPol, either alone or in synergy with Polε. These new findings supports the existence of a functional PrimPol/RPA association that allows repriming at the exposed ssDNA regions formed in the leading strand upon replicase stalling.

  7. Deep Recurrent Neural Networks for Human Activity Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, Abdulmajid; Pyun, Jae-Young

    2017-11-06

    Adopting deep learning methods for human activity recognition has been effective in extracting discriminative features from raw input sequences acquired from body-worn sensors. Although human movements are encoded in a sequence of successive samples in time, typical machine learning methods perform recognition tasks without exploiting the temporal correlations between input data samples. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) address this issue by using convolutions across a one-dimensional temporal sequence to capture dependencies among input data. However, the size of convolutional kernels restricts the captured range of dependencies between data samples. As a result, typical models are unadaptable to a wide range of activity-recognition configurations and require fixed-length input windows. In this paper, we propose the use of deep recurrent neural networks (DRNNs) for building recognition models that are capable of capturing long-range dependencies in variable-length input sequences. We present unidirectional, bidirectional, and cascaded architectures based on long short-term memory (LSTM) DRNNs and evaluate their effectiveness on miscellaneous benchmark datasets. Experimental results show that our proposed models outperform methods employing conventional machine learning, such as support vector machine (SVM) and k-nearest neighbors (KNN). Additionally, the proposed models yield better performance than other deep learning techniques, such as deep believe networks (DBNs) and CNNs.

  8. Hippocampal and ventral medial prefrontal activation during retrieval-mediated learning supports novel inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeithamova, Dagmar; Dominick, April L; Preston, Alison R

    2012-07-12

    Memory enables flexible use of past experience to inform new behaviors. Although leading theories hypothesize that this fundamental flexibility results from the formation of integrated memory networks relating multiple experiences, the neural mechanisms that support memory integration are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that retrieval-mediated learning, whereby prior event details are reinstated during encoding of related experiences, supports participants' ability to infer relationships between distinct events that share content. Furthermore, we show that activation changes in a functionally coupled hippocampal and ventral medial prefrontal cortical circuit track the formation of integrated memories and successful inferential memory performance. These findings characterize the respective roles of these regions in retrieval-mediated learning processes that support relational memory network formation and inferential memory in the human brain. More broadly, these data reveal fundamental mechanisms through which memory representations are constructed into prospectively useful formats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Collaboration between Supported Employment and Human Resource Services: Strategies for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Michal; Campbell, Camille; Heinz, Tom; Kotsonas, Lori; Montgomery, Joyce; Storey, Keith

    2010-01-01

    The article presents the benefits of successful collaboration between supported employment agencies and human resource managers when working together to secure employment for individuals with disabilities. Two case studies are presented: one involving a successful collaboration with county human resource managers in negotiating a change in the…

  10. A Novel Energy-Efficient Approach for Human Activity Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lingxiang; Wu, Dihong; Ruan, Xiaoyang; Weng, Shaolin; Peng, Ao; Tang, Biyu; Lu, Hai; Shi, Haibin; Zheng, Huiru

    2017-09-08

    In this paper, we propose a novel energy-efficient approach for mobile activity recognition system (ARS) to detect human activities. The proposed energy-efficient ARS, using low sampling rates, can achieve high recognition accuracy and low energy consumption. A novel classifier that integrates hierarchical support vector machine and context-based classification (HSVMCC) is presented to achieve a high accuracy of activity recognition when the sampling rate is less than the activity frequency, i.e., the Nyquist sampling theorem is not satisfied. We tested the proposed energy-efficient approach with the data collected from 20 volunteers (14 males and six females) and the average recognition accuracy of around 96.0% was achieved. Results show that using a low sampling rate of 1Hz can save 17.3% and 59.6% of energy compared with the sampling rates of 5 Hz and 50 Hz. The proposed low sampling rate approach can greatly reduce the power consumption while maintaining high activity recognition accuracy. The composition of power consumption in online ARS is also investigated in this paper.

  11. Human Activity Recognition from Smart-Phone Sensor Data using a Multi-Class Ensemble Learning in Home Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Soumya; Mitra, Jhimli; Karunanithi, Mohan; Dowling, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Home monitoring of chronically ill or elderly patient can reduce frequent hospitalisations and hence provide improved quality of care at a reduced cost to the community, therefore reducing the burden on the healthcare system. Activity recognition of such patients is of high importance in such a design. In this work, a system for automatic human physical activity recognition from smart-phone inertial sensors data is proposed. An ensemble of decision trees framework is adopted to train and predict the multi-class human activity system. A comparison of our proposed method with a multi-class traditional support vector machine shows significant improvement in activity recognition accuracies.

  12. Human body contour data based activity recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myagmarbayar, Nergui; Yuki, Yoshida; Imamoglu, Nevrez; Gonzalez, Jose; Otake, Mihoko; Yu, Wenwei

    2013-01-01

    This research work is aimed to develop autonomous bio-monitoring mobile robots, which are capable of tracking and measuring patients' motions, recognizing the patients' behavior based on observation data, and providing calling for medical personnel in emergency situations in home environment. The robots to be developed will bring about cost-effective, safe and easier at-home rehabilitation to most motor-function impaired patients (MIPs). In our previous research, a full framework was established towards this research goal. In this research, we aimed at improving the human activity recognition by using contour data of the tracked human subject extracted from the depth images as the signal source, instead of the lower limb joint angle data used in the previous research, which are more likely to be affected by the motion of the robot and human subjects. Several geometric parameters, such as, the ratio of height to weight of the tracked human subject, and distance (pixels) between centroid points of upper and lower parts of human body, were calculated from the contour data, and used as the features for the activity recognition. A Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is employed to classify different human activities from the features. Experimental results showed that the human activity recognition could be achieved with a high correct rate.

  13. Development and quantitative effect estimation of an integrated decision support system to aid operator's cognitive activities for NPP advanced main control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Jun

    2007-02-01

    As digital and computer technologies have grown, human-machine interfaces (HMIs) have evolved. In safety critical systems, especially in nuclear power plants (NPPs), HMIs are important for reducing operational costs, for reducing the number of necessary operators, and for reducing the probability of accident occurrence. Efforts have been made to improve main control room (MCR) interface design and to develop automation or support systems to ensure convenient operation and maintenance. In this paper, an integrated decision support system to aid the cognitive activities of operators is proposed for advanced MCRs in future NPPs. The proposed system supports not merely a particular task, but also the entire operation process based on a human cognitive process model. It supports the operator's entire cognitive process by integrating decision support systems that support each cognitive activity. In this paper, the operator's operation processes are analyzed based on a human cognitive process model and appropriate support systems that support each activity of the human cognitive process are suggested. Two decision support systems were developed in this paper. The first one is the fault diagnosis advisory system (FDAS) which detects faults and diagnoses them. The FDAS provides a list of possible faults and expected causes to operators. It was implemented using two kinds of neural networks for more reliable diagnosis results. The second system is the multifunctional operator support system for operation guidance, which includes the FDAS and the operation guidance system. The operation guidance system is to prevent operator's commission errors and omission errors. Furthermore, the effect of the proposed system was estimated because to evaluate decision support systems in order to validate their efficiency is as important as to design highly reliable decision support systems. The effect estimations were performed theoretically and experimentally. The Bayesian

  14. Tracking a Subset of Skeleton Joints: An Effective Approach towards Complex Human Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Latif Anjum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a robust algorithm for complex human activity recognition for natural human-robot interaction. The algorithm is based on tracking the position of selected joints in human skeleton. For any given activity, only a few skeleton joints are involved in performing the activity, so a subset of joints contributing the most towards the activity is selected. Our approach of tracking a subset of skeleton joints (instead of tracking the whole skeleton is computationally efficient and provides better recognition accuracy. We have developed both manual and automatic approaches for the selection of these joints. The position of the selected joints is tracked for the duration of the activity and is used to construct feature vectors for each activity. Once the feature vectors have been constructed, we use a Support Vector Machines (SVM multiclass classifier for training and testing the algorithm. The algorithm has been tested on a purposely built dataset of depth videos recorded using Kinect camera. The dataset consists of 250 videos of 10 different activities being performed by different users. Experimental results show classification accuracy of 83% when tracking all skeleton joints, 95% when using manual selection of subset joints, and 89% when using automatic selection of subset joints.

  15. Adaptive Attention Allocation Support: Effects of System Conservativeness and Human Competence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maanen, Peter-Paul; Lucassen, Teun; van Dongen, Kees; Schmorrow, Dylan D.; Fidopiastis, Cali M.

    2011-01-01

    Naval tactical picture compilation is a task for which allocation of attention to the right information at the right time is crucial. Performance on this task can be improved if a support system assists the human operator. However, there is evidence that benefits of support systems are highly

  16. A Human Variant of Glucose-Regulated Protein 94 That Inefficiently Supports IGF Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marzec, Michal; Hawkes, Colin P; Eletto, Davide

    2016-01-01

    IGFs are critical for normal intrauterine and childhood growth and sustaining health throughout life. We showed previously that the production of IGF-1 and IGF-2 requires interaction with the chaperone glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94) and that the amount of secreted IGFs is proportional...... in a child with primary IGF deficiency and was later shown to be a noncommon single-nucleotide polymorphism with frequencies of 1%-4% in various populations. When tested in the grp94(-/-) cell-based complementation assay, P300L supported only approximately 58% of IGF secretion relative to wild-type GRP94....... Furthermore, recombinant P300L showed impaired nucleotide binding activity. These in vitro data strongly support a causal relationship between the GRP94 variant and the decreased concentration of circulating IGF-1, as observed in human carriers of P300L. Thus, mutations in GRP94 that affect its IGF chaperone...

  17. Small business support of youth physical activity opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suminski, Richard R; Ding, Ding

    2012-01-01

    Describe small business support for youth physical activity opportunities (YPAO) and identify factors associated with this support. Cross-sectional analysis of quantitative data relating business characteristics and support for YPAO. Eight demographically heterogeneous, urban neighborhoods in a Midwest metropolitan area. Adult small business owners (n = 90; 65% response rate; mean age 48.4 years; 73.3% male; 45.2% minority). Neighborhood demographics from the 2000 U.S. Census and self-reported business and owner characteristics. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to contrast business and owner characteristics between businesses that did and did not support YPAO. Businesses supporting YPAO had larger annual operating (F = 7.6; p = .018) and advertising budgets (F = 8.5; p = .009) and had younger owners (F = 6.1; p = .034), with sports backgrounds (χ(2) = 5.6; p = .018) and who felt businesses should support YPAO (χ(2) = 3.8; p = .048). Of the 46 businesses not supporting YPAO, 82.6% felt small businesses should support YPAO. The major reasons for nonsupport were difficulty identifying YPAO to support and not being asked for support. Business (e.g., budgets) and business owner characteristics (e.g., age), owner connectedness with YPAO, and the approach used for garnering support (active solicitation, clearly defined support mechanism) were associated with supporting YPAO. Additional business (e.g., annual revenues), owner (e.g., perceptions of YPAO), and environmental (e.g., crime rate, land use) factors should be examined as potential correlates.

  18. Supporting Activity-Based Computingusing Dynamically (De)Composable Mobile Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Schougaard, Kari Rye

    2004-01-01

    the document-centered paradigm for pervasive computing: it crosscuts work with different kinds of entities and sets the focus on the user and the user's tasks. In domain such as healthcare, activities are fundamentally mobile: doctors and nurses move throughout the hospital as their work progresses. Hence......, the computer must support mobility of activities. For this reason, we consider it important to investigate whether a computing platform that embraces mobility at a fundamental level supports implementing software for this new paradigm. This paper describes our initial design ideas for supporting activity......-centered computing in the Pervasive Object Model Project (POMP), a project which concerns the development of a platform for pervasive computing applications. We first describe POMP, the present the notion of activity-based computing, and last investigate how activity-based computing can be implemented in POMP....

  19. Activity-Oriented Design of Health Pal: A Smart Phone for Elders' Healthcare Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Shih-Chen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless telephones and personal digital assistants are emerging, as the information hubs connect their human users with assorted electronic devices and the World Wide Web. As such, they quickly become the de facto basis for personalized information services. The Kannon project team at the National Chiao Tung University (NCTU in Taiwan is developing a ubiquitous service infrastructure for elders' healthcare support. Among their deliverables, there is a PDA Phone, christened Health Pal, which can communicate with Bluetooth/ZigBee devices, uni¬ver¬sal plug-and-play (UPnP e-home service platforms, and online healthcare providers to offer 24/7 healthcare services to elderly people. This paper presents the early results of this effort including the functional and operational concepts of Health Pal as well as the activity-oriented approach of its design. Preliminary results of its usefulness and usability evaluations are reported. A comparison of this platform against several similar prototypes was also included to illustrate the advantage of applying activity-oriented design approach to human-computer interactions.

  20. Activity-Oriented Design of Health Pal: A Smart Phone for Elders' Healthcare Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chen Fan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Wireless telephones and personal digital assistants are emerging, as the information hubs connect their human users with assorted electronic devices and the World Wide Web. As such, they quickly become the de facto basis for personalized information services. The Kannon project team at the National Chiao Tung University (NCTU in Taiwan is developing a ubiquitous service infrastructure for elders' healthcare support. Among their deliverables, there is a PDA Phone, christened Health Pal, which can communicate with Bluetooth/ZigBee devices, uni¬ver¬sal plug-and-play (UPnP e-home service platforms, and online healthcare providers to offer 24/7 healthcare services to elderly people. This paper presents the early results of this effort including the functional and operational concepts of Health Pal as well as the activity-oriented approach of its design. Preliminary results of its usefulness and usability evaluations are reported. A comparison of this platform against several similar prototypes was also included to illustrate the advantage of applying activity-oriented design approach to human-computer interactions.

  1. Scaling behavior of online human activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Cai, Shi-Min; Huang, Junming; Fu, Yan; Zhou, Tao

    2012-11-01

    The rapid development of the Internet technology enables humans to explore the web and record the traces of online activities. From the analysis of these large-scale data sets (i.e., traces), we can get insights about the dynamic behavior of human activity. In this letter, the scaling behavior and complexity of human activity in the e-commerce, such as music, books, and movies rating, are comprehensively investigated by using the detrended fluctuation analysis technique and the multiscale entropy method. Firstly, the interevent time series of rating behaviors of these three types of media show similar scaling properties with exponents ranging from 0.53 to 0.58, which implies that the collective behaviors of rating media follow a process embodying self-similarity and long-range correlation. Meanwhile, by dividing the users into three groups based on their activities (i.e., rating per unit time), we find that the scaling exponents of the interevent time series in the three groups are different. Hence, these results suggest that a stronger long-range correlations exist in these collective behaviors. Furthermore, their information complexities vary in the three groups. To explain the differences of the collective behaviors restricted to the three groups, we study the dynamic behavior of human activity at the individual level, and find that the dynamic behaviors of a few users have extremely small scaling exponents associated with long-range anticorrelations. By comparing the interevent time distributions of four representative users, we can find that the bimodal distributions may bring forth the extraordinary scaling behaviors. These results of the analysis of the online human activity in the e-commerce may not only provide insight into its dynamic behaviors but may also be applied to acquire potential economic interest.

  2. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α enhances fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joo-Young; Hashizaki, Hikari; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Sakamoto, Tomoya; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → PPARα activation increased mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes and GPDH activity in human adipocytes. → PPARα activation also increased insulin-dependent glucose uptake in human adipocytes. → PPARα activation did not affect lipid accumulation in human adipocytes. → PPARα activation increased fatty acid oxidation through induction of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in human adipocytes. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) is a key regulator for maintaining whole-body energy balance. However, the physiological functions of PPARα in adipocytes have been unclarified. We examined the functions of PPARα using human multipotent adipose tissue-derived stem cells as a human adipocyte model. Activation of PPARα by GW7647, a potent PPARα agonist, increased the mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes such as PPARγ, adipocyte-specific fatty acid-binding protein, and lipoprotein lipase and increased both GPDH activity and insulin-dependent glucose uptake level. The findings indicate that PPARα activation stimulates adipocyte differentiation. However, lipid accumulation was not changed, which is usually observed when PPARγ is activated. On the other hand, PPARα activation by GW7647 treatment induced the mRNA expression of fatty acid oxidation-related genes such as CPT-1B and AOX in a PPARα-dependent manner. Moreover, PPARα activation increased the production of CO 2 and acid soluble metabolites, which are products of fatty acid oxidation, and increased oxygen consumption rate in human adipocytes. The data indicate that activation of PPARα stimulates both adipocyte differentiation and fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes, suggesting that PPARα agonists could improve insulin resistance without lipid accumulation in adipocytes. The expected effects of PPARα activation are very valuable for managing diabetic conditions accompanied by obesity, because

  3. Tuning metal support interactions enhances the activity and durability of TiO2-supported Pt nanocatalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Bing-Jen; Tsai, Meng-Che; Pan, Chun-Jern; Su, Wei-Nien; Rick, John; Chou, Hung-Lung; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Hwang, Bing-Joe

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The coverage of TiO x on Pt can be modified by thermal and fluoric acid treatments. • Strong metal support interaction (SMSI) can be testified by electrochemical method. • For the first time, the SMSI effect is observed at 200 °C with supporting TEM images. • Increased activity and stability are attributed to stronger SMSI. • This tunable approach is valid for other oxide supported catalysts, e.g. Pt/Nb-TiO 2 . - Abstract: A facile approach to enhance catalytic activity and durability of TiO 2 -supported Pt nanocatalysts by tuning strong metal support interaction (SMSI) is investigated in this work. No need for a high temperature treatment, the strong metal-support interaction (SMSI) in TiO 2 -supported Pt can be induced at 200° C by H 2 reduction. Moreover, electrochemical methods (methanol oxidation reaction and cyclic voltammetry) are first reported ever to be effective characterization tools for the coverage state caused by SMSI. In addition, the SMSI has also been confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and Transmission Electron Microscopy. It is found that the encapsulation of TiO 2-x species on the surface Pt clusters was induced and modified by thermal reduction and fluoric acid treatment. The catalytic activity and durability of the TiO 2 -supported Pt nanocatalysts are strongly dependent of the state of SMSI. The proposed SMSI-tunable approach to enhance the ORR activity and stability is also proved applicable to Pt/Ti 0.9 Nb 0.1 O 2 nanocatalysts. We believe that the reported approach paves the way for manipulating the activity and stability of other TiO 2 -supported metal nanocatalysts. Furthermore, the suggested electrochemical methods offer facile and effective ways to verify the presence of coverage state before combining with other physical analysis.

  4. Human rights education (HRE) and transnational activism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihr, A.; Schmitz, Hans-Peter

    2007-01-01

    Transnational human rights activism occupies today a significant place in the practice and scholarship of current global affairs. This article reviews the past successes and limits of this activism and suggests Human Rights Education (HRE) as a strategic tool currently underutilized by activists and

  5. Measures of Patient Activation and Social Support in a Peer-Led Support Network for Women With Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Dawn; Benson, Gretchen; Campbell, Susan; Sillah, Arthur; Berra, Kathy

    Social support has been associated with beneficial effects on many disease states and overall health and well-being. However, there is limited research exploring the impact of peer-led support models among women living with coronary heart disease. This study describes the structure of peer-led support groups offered by WomenHeart (WH): The National Coalition for Women Living with Heart Disease, and assesses WH participants' quality of life and social, emotional, and physical health. Participants were recruited from 50 WH groups. A 70-item online survey was administered, and the main analytic sample included 157 women. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between patient activation levels (lower activation levels: 1, 2 vs higher activation levels: 3, 4) and social support scores (range: lowest 8 to highest 34), adjusting for age. High levels of social support, patient activation, physical activity, and low levels of stress, anxiety, and depression were reported. Those who were at or above the median for the social support measures (indicating high levels of social support) had greater odds of high levels of patient activation (level 3 or 4) than individuals reporting low levels of social support (OR = 2.23; 95% CI, 1.04-4.76; P = .012). Women who regularly attended a support group by a trained peer leader were highly engaged in their health care and had low levels of stress, anxiety, and depression. These findings lend credibility to the value of the peer support model and could potentially be replicated in other disease states to enhance patient care.

  6. Analysis of Gait Pattern to Recognize the Human Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Prakash Gupta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Human activity recognition based on the computer vision is the process of labelling image sequences with action labels. Accurate systems for this problem are applied in areas such as visual surveillance, human computer interaction and video retrieval. The challenges are due to variations in motion, recording settings and gait differences. Here we propose an approach to recognize the human activities through gait. Activity recognition through Gait is the process of identifying an activity by the manner in which they walk. The identification of human activities in a video, such as a person is walking, running, jumping, jogging etc are important activities in video surveillance. We contribute the use of Model based approach for activity recognition with the help of movement of legs only. Experimental results suggest that our method are able to recognize the human activities with a good accuracy rate and robust to shadows present in the videos.

  7. The effects of gender, age, ethnicity, and liver cirrhosis on cytochrome P450 enzyme activity in human liver microsomes and inducibility in cultured human hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, Andrew; Mudra, Daniel R.; Johnson, Cory; Dwyer, Anne; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2004-01-01

    We have measured cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity in nearly 150 samples of human liver microsomes and 64 samples of cryopreserved human hepatocytes, and we have performed induction studies in over 90 preparations of cultured human hepatocytes. We have analyzed these data to examine whether the expression of CYP enzyme activity in liver microsomes and isolated hepatocytes or the inducibility of CYP enzymes in cultured hepatocytes is influenced by the gender, age, or ethnicity of the donor (the latter being limited to Caucasians, African Americans, and Hispanics due to a paucity of livers from Asian donors). In human liver microsomes, there were no statistically significant differences (P > 0.05) in CYP activity as a function of age, gender, or ethnicity with one exception. 7-Ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (CYP1A2) activity was greater in males than females, which is consistent with clinical observation. Liver microsomal testosterone 6β-hydroxylase (CYP3A4) activity was slightly greater in females than males, but the difference was not significant. However, in cryopreserved human hepatocytes, the gender difference in CYP3A4 activity (females = twice males) did reach statistical significance, which supports the clinical observation that females metabolize certain CYP3A4 substrates faster than do males. Compared with those from Caucasians and African Americans, liver microsomes from Hispanics had about twice the average activity of CYP2A6, CYP2B6, and CYP2C8 and half the activity of CYP1A2, although this apparent ethnic difference may be a consequence of the relatively low number of Hispanic donors. Primary cultures of hepatocytes were treated with β-naphthoflavone, an inducer of CYP1A2, phenobarbital or rifampin, both of which induce CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4, albeit it to different extents. Induction of these CYP enzymes in freshly cultured hepatocytes did not appear to be influenced by the gender or age of the donor. Furthermore, CYP3A4 induction in

  8. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} enhances fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joo-Young; Hashizaki, Hikari; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Sakamoto, Tomoya; Takahashi, Nobuyuki [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kawada, Teruo, E-mail: fat@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes and GPDH activity in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation also increased insulin-dependent glucose uptake in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation did not affect lipid accumulation in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased fatty acid oxidation through induction of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in human adipocytes. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) is a key regulator for maintaining whole-body energy balance. However, the physiological functions of PPAR{alpha} in adipocytes have been unclarified. We examined the functions of PPAR{alpha} using human multipotent adipose tissue-derived stem cells as a human adipocyte model. Activation of PPAR{alpha} by GW7647, a potent PPAR{alpha} agonist, increased the mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes such as PPAR{gamma}, adipocyte-specific fatty acid-binding protein, and lipoprotein lipase and increased both GPDH activity and insulin-dependent glucose uptake level. The findings indicate that PPAR{alpha} activation stimulates adipocyte differentiation. However, lipid accumulation was not changed, which is usually observed when PPAR{gamma} is activated. On the other hand, PPAR{alpha} activation by GW7647 treatment induced the mRNA expression of fatty acid oxidation-related genes such as CPT-1B and AOX in a PPAR{alpha}-dependent manner. Moreover, PPAR{alpha} activation increased the production of CO{sub 2} and acid soluble metabolites, which are products of fatty acid oxidation, and increased oxygen consumption rate in human adipocytes. The data indicate that activation of PPAR{alpha} stimulates both adipocyte differentiation and fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes, suggesting that PPAR{alpha} agonists could improve insulin resistance without lipid accumulation in adipocytes. The expected

  9. Cholesterol esterase activity of human intestinal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponz de Leon, M.; Carubbi, F.; Di Donato, P.; Carulli, N.

    1985-01-01

    It has been suggested that cholesterol absorption in humans is dependent on bile acid pool composition and that expansion of the cholic acid pool size is followed by an increase of the absorption values. Similar observations were reported in rats. In the present study, therefore, the authors investigated some general properties of human intestinal cholesterol esterase, with particular emphasis on the effect of bile acids on this enzymatic activity. Twenty-nine segments of small intestine were taken during operations; the enzymatic activity was studied by using mucosal homogenate as a source of enzyme and oleic acid, cholesterol, and 14 C-labeled cholesterol as substrates. The time-activity relationship was linear within the first two hours; optimal pH for esterification ranged between 5 and 6.2. There was little difference between the esterifying activity of the jejunal and ileal mucosa. Esterification of cholesterol was observed with all the investigated fatty acids but was maximal with oleic acid. Bile acids did not affect cholesterol esterase activity when present in the incubation mixture at 0.1 and 1.0 mM; the enzymatic activity, however, was significantly inhibited when bile acids were added at 20 mM. In conclusion, this study has shown that the human intestinal mucosa possesses a cholesterol esterase activity; at variance with the rat, however, the human enzyme does not seem to be stimulated by trihydroxy bile acids

  10. Social support for youth physical activity: Importance of siblings, parents, friends and school support across a segmented school day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolt Gregory S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whilst evidence exists for the influence of encouragement on physical activity participation, the diversity of support sources and the type of physical activity examined previously is limited. This study examined the importance of perceived encouragement from parents, siblings/cousins, friends, and schools on participation levels across three time-specific activity opportunities that are available during a school day (after-school physical activities, lunchtime activity, and active transportation to and from school. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 12–18 year old high school students (n = 3,471 were recruited from low SES schools within South Auckland, New Zealand and categorised as either Junior (Years 9–11 or Senior (Years 12 & 13 students. Participants reported their physical activity levels and quantity of encouragement received from their parent(s, friend(s, sibling(s/cousin(s, and school to be active. For each physical activity variable participants were dichotomized as being either "active" or "less active". For each social support source, participants were grouped into either receiving "high" or "low" levels of support. Binary logistic regression analyzes were conducted to calculate odd ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results Low parental support (Juniors, OR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.38–0.58; Seniors, OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.29–0.60 and low peer support (Juniors, OR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.51–0.74; Seniors, OR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.35–0.69 were associated with reduced odds of being regularly active after school. For lunchtime activity, low peer support (Juniors, OR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.32–0.48; Seniors, OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.29–0.57 was associated with reduced odds of being categorized as active. While no variables were significantly related to active transportation among senior students, low peer support was associated with reduced odds of actively commuting for Junior students (OR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.66–0.92. Irrespective

  11. Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells generated from human embryonic stem cells support pluripotent cell growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, Nóra; Veréb, Zoltán; Rajnavölgyi, Éva; Német, Katalin; Uher, Ferenc; Sarkadi, Balázs; Apáti, Ágota

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► MSC like cells were derived from hESC by a simple and reproducible method. ► Differentiation and immunosuppressive features of MSCl cells were similar to bmMSC. ► MSCl cells as feeder cells support the undifferentiated growth of hESC. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells were generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) through embryoid body formation, and isolated by adherence to plastic surface. MSCl cell lines could be propagated without changes in morphological or functional characteristics for more than 15 passages. These cells, as well as their fluorescent protein expressing stable derivatives, efficiently supported the growth of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells as feeder cells. The MSCl cells did not express the embryonic (Oct4, Nanog, ABCG2, PODXL, or SSEA4), or hematopoietic (CD34, CD45, CD14, CD133, HLA-DR) stem cell markers, while were positive for the characteristic cell surface markers of MSCs (CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105). MSCl cells could be differentiated toward osteogenic, chondrogenic or adipogenic directions and exhibited significant inhibition of mitogen-activated lymphocyte proliferation, and thus presented immunosuppressive features. We suggest that cultured MSCl cells can properly model human MSCs and be applied as efficient feeders in hESC cultures.

  12. Anticancer activities of bovine and human lactoferricin-derived peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Mauricio; Hilchie, Ashley L; Haney, Evan F; Bolscher, Jan G M; Hyndman, M Eric; Hancock, Robert E W; Vogel, Hans J

    2017-02-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a mammalian host defense glycoprotein with diverse biological activities. Peptides derived from the cationic region of LF possess cytotoxic activity against cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Bovine lactoferricin (LFcinB), a peptide derived from bovine LF (bLF), exhibits broad-spectrum anticancer activity, while a similar peptide derived from human LF (hLF) is not as active. In this work, several peptides derived from the N-terminal regions of bLF and hLF were studied for their anticancer activities against leukemia and breast-cancer cells, as well as normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The cyclized LFcinB-CLICK peptide, which possesses a stable triazole linkage, showed improved anticancer activity, while short peptides hLF11 and bLF10 were not cytotoxic to cancer cells. Interestingly, hLF11 can act as a cell-penetrating peptide; when combined with the antimicrobial core sequence of LFcinB (RRWQWR) through either a Pro or Gly-Gly linker, toxicity to Jurkat cells increased. Together, our work extends the library of LF-derived peptides tested for anticancer activity, and identified new chimeric peptides with high cytotoxicity towards cancerous cells. Additionally, these results support the notion that short cell-penetrating peptides and antimicrobial peptides can be combined to create new adducts with increased potency.

  13. Long-term constraints on human activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovins, A. B.

    1976-04-01

    Biophysical and other ''outer limits'' of food, land, water, climatic change, stratospheric chemistry, energy, hazardous substances, non-fuel minerals, human stress, and social and ecological stability raise fundamental questions about present trends in management methods and in global organization. The diverse outer limits reflect complex, poorly perceived, and often unsuspected, interconnections between numerous biological and geophysical processes, many of which are obscure or still unknown. Our lack of predictive power, let alone of quantitative understanding, implies a need to treat essential life-support systems with great caution and forbearance, lest we erode safety margins whose importance we do not yet appreciate. Even those outer limits which now seem remote are relevant to present policy, as their timely avoidance may require us to discard otherwise attractive short-term policies in favor of others that offer less immediate advantage but that retain options which may be needed later. Such alternative policies may have to rely more on social than on technical innovation in order to address underlying disequilibria rather than merely palliating their symptoms. Moreover, some outer limits are sufficiently imminent, or require such long lead-times to avoid, that fundamental changes in policy, in institutions, and in the degree of global interdependence, seem necessary if we are to live to enjoy some of the later and more interesting limits to human activity.

  14. Culture Medium Supplements Derived from Human Platelet and Plasma: Cell Commitment and Proliferation Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Muraglia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Present cell culture medium supplements, in most cases based on animal sera, are not fully satisfactory especially for the in vitro expansion of cells intended for human cell therapy. This paper refers to (i an heparin-free human platelet lysate (PL devoid of serum or plasma components (v-PL and (ii an heparin-free human serum derived from plasma devoid of PL components (Pl-s and to their use as single components or in combination in primary or cell line cultures. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC primary cultures were obtained from adipose tissue, bone marrow, and umbilical cord. Human chondrocytes were obtained from articular cartilage biopsies. In general, MSC expanded in the presence of Pl-s alone showed a low or no proliferation in comparison to cells grown with the combination of Pl-s and v-PL. Confluent, growth-arrested cells, either human MSC or human articular chondrocytes, treated with v-PL resumed proliferation, whereas control cultures, not supplemented with v-PL, remained quiescent and did not proliferate. Interestingly, signal transduction pathways distinctive of proliferation were activated also in cells treated with v-PL in the absence of serum, when cell proliferation did not occur, indicating that v-PL could induce the cell re-entry in the cell cycle (cell commitment, but the presence of serum proteins was an absolute requirement for cell proliferation to happen. Indeed, Pl-s alone supported cell growth in constitutively activated cell lines (U-937, HeLa, HaCaT, and V-79 regardless of the co-presence of v-PL. Plasma- and plasma-derived serum were equally able to sustain cell proliferation although, for cells cultured in adhesion, the Pl-s was more efficient than the plasma from which it was derived. In conclusion, the cells expanded in the presence of the new additives maintained their differentiation potential and did not show alterations in their karyotype.

  15. Habitability and Human Factors Contributions to Human Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumaya, Jennifer Boyer

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Habitability and Human Factors Branch in support of human space flight in two main areas: Applied support to major space programs, and Space research. The field of Human Factors applies knowledge of human characteristics for the design of safer, more effective, and more efficient systems. This work is in several areas of the human space program: (1) Human-System Integration (HSI), (2) Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, (3) Extravehicular Activity (EVA), (4) Lunar Surface Systems, (5) International Space Station (ISS), and (6) Human Research Program (HRP). After detailing the work done in these areas, the facilities that are available for human factors work are shown.

  16. A Software Environment for an Adaptive Human-Aware Software Agent Supporting Attention-Demanding Tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Memon, Z.A.; Oorburg, R.; Umair, M.; Treur, J.; de Vos, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a software environment providing human-aware ambient support for a human performing a task that demands substantial amounts of attention. The agent obtains human attention-awareness in an adaptive manner by use of a dynamical model of human attention, gaze sensoring by an

  17. Evaluation of viability and proliferative activity of human urothelial cells cultured onto xenogenic tissue-engineered extracellular matrices.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davis, Niall F

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the viability and proliferative activity of human urothelial cells (HUCs) cultured on tissue-engineered extracellular matrix scaffolds and to assess the potential of extracellular matrixes to support the growth of HUCs in their expected in vivo urine environment.

  18. Biomechanics-based active control of bedding support properties and its influence on sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Deun, D; Verhaert, V; Willemen, T; Wuyts, J; Verbraecken, J; Exadaktylos, V; Haex, B; Vander Sloten, J

    2012-01-01

    Proper body support plays an import role in the recuperation of our body during sleep. Therefore, this study uses an automatically adapting bedding system that optimises spinal alignment throughout the night by altering the stiffness of eight comfort zones. The aim is to investigate the influence of such a dynamic sleep environment on objective and subjective sleep parameters. The bedding system contains 165 sensors that measure mattress indentation. It also includes eight actuators that control the comfort zones. Based on the measured mattress indentation, body movements and posture changes are detected. Control of spinal alignment is established by fitting personalized human models in the measured indentation. A total of 11 normal sleepers participated in this study. Sleep experiments were performed in a sleep laboratory where subjects slept three nights: a first night for adaptation, a reference night and an active support night (in counterbalanced order). Polysomnographic measurements were recorded during the nights, combined with questionnaires aiming at assessing subjective information. Subjective information on sleep quality, daytime quality and perceived number of awakenings shows significant improvements during the active support (ACS) night. Objective results showed a trend towards increased slow wave sleep. On the other hand, it was noticed that % N1-sleep was significantly increased during ACS night, while % N2-sleep was significantly decreased. No prolonged N1 periods were found during or immediately after steering.

  19. Virulent Type A Francisella tularensis actively suppresses cytokine responses in human monocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Devyn D.; Curry, Heather M.; Cremer, Thomas; Ravneberg, David; Fatehchand, Kavin; Shah, Prexy A.; Wewers, Mark D.; Schlesinger, Larry S.; Butchar, Jonathan P.; Tridandapani, Susheela; Gavrilin, Mikhail A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Human monocyte inflammatory responses differ between virulent and attenuated Francisella infection. Results: A mixed infection model showed that the virulent F. tularensis Schu S4 can attenuate inflammatory cytokine responses to the less virulent F. novicida in human monocytes. Conclusion: F. tularensis dampens inflammatory response by an active process. Significance: This suppression may contribute to enhanced pathogenicity of F. tularensis. Francisella tularensis is a Gram-negative facultative bacterium that can cause the disease tularemia, even upon exposure to low numbers of bacteria. One critical characteristic of Francisella is its ability to dampen or subvert the host immune response. Previous work has shown that monocytes infected with highly virulent F. tularensis subsp. tularensis strain Schu S4 responded with a general pattern of quantitatively reduced pro-inflammatory signaling pathway genes and cytokine production in comparison to those infected with the less virulent related F. novicida. However, it has been unclear whether the virulent Schu S4 was merely evading or actively suppressing monocyte responses. By using mixed infection assays with F. tularensis and F. novicida, we show that F. tularensis actively suppresses monocyte pro-inflammatory responses. Additional experiments show that this suppression occurs in a dose-dependent manner and is dependent upon the viability of F. tularensis. Importantly, F. tularensis was able to suppress pro-inflammatory responses to earlier infections with F. novicida. These results lend support that F. tularensis actively dampens human monocyte responses and this likely contributes to its enhanced pathogenicity. PMID:24783062

  20. Fire, Climate, and Human Activity: A Combustive Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehrwald, N. M.; Battistel, D.; Argiriadis, E.; Barbante, C.; Barber, L. B.; Fortner, S. K.; Jasmann, J.; Kirchgeorg, T.; Zennaro, P.

    2017-12-01

    Ice and lake core records demonstrate that fires caused by human activity can dominate regional biomass burning records in the Common Era. These major increases in fires are often associated with extensive land use change such as an expansion in agriculture. Regions with few humans, relatively stable human populations and/or unvarying land use often have fire histories that are dominated by climate parameters such as temperature and precipitation. Here, we examine biomass burning recorded in ice cores from northern Greenland (NEEM, (77°27'N; 51°3.6'W), Alaska (Juneau Icefield, 58° 35' N; 134° 29'W) and East Antarctica (EPICA DOME C; 75°06'S; 123°21'E), along with New Zealand lake cores to investigate interactions between climate, fire and human activity. Biomarkers such as levoglucosan, and its isomers mannosan and galactosan, can only be produced by cellulose combustion and therefore are specific indicators of past fire activity archived in ice and lake cores. These fire histories add another factor to climate proxies from the same core, and provide a comparison to regional fire syntheses from charcoal records and climate models. For example, fire data from the JSBACH-Spitfire model for the past 2000 years demonstrates that a climate-only scenario would not increase biomass burning in high northern latitudes for the past 2000 years, while NEEM ice core and regional pollen records demonstrate both increased fire activity and land use change that may be ascribed to human activity. Additional biomarkers such as fecal sterols in lake sediments can determine when people were in an area, and can help establish if an increased human presence in an area corresponds with intensified fire activity. This combination of specific biomarkers, other proxy data, and model output can help determine the relative impact of humans versus climate factors on regional fire activity.

  1. Quantifying multi-dimensional attributes of human activities at various geographic scales based on smartphone tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaolu; Li, Dongying

    2018-05-09

    Advancement in location-aware technologies, and information and communication technology in the past decades has furthered our knowledge of the interaction between human activities and the built environment. An increasing number of studies have collected data regarding individual activities to better understand how the environment shapes human behavior. Despite this growing interest, some challenges exist in collecting and processing individual's activity data, e.g., capturing people's precise environmental contexts and analyzing data at multiple spatial scales. In this study, we propose and implement an innovative system that integrates smartphone-based step tracking with an app and the sequential tile scan techniques to collect and process activity data. We apply the OpenStreetMap tile system to aggregate positioning points at various scales. We also propose duration, step and probability surfaces to quantify the multi-dimensional attributes of activities. Results show that, by running the app in the background, smartphones can measure multi-dimensional attributes of human activities, including space, duration, step, and location uncertainty at various spatial scales. By coordinating Global Positioning System (GPS) sensor with accelerometer sensor, this app can save battery which otherwise would be drained by GPS sensor quickly. Based on a test dataset, we were able to detect the recreational center and sports center as the space where the user was most active, among other places visited. The methods provide techniques to address key issues in analyzing human activity data. The system can support future studies on behavioral and health consequences related to individual's environmental exposure.

  2. Brain Activation During Singing: "Clef de Sol Activation" Is the "Concert" of the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavridis, Ioannis N; Pyrgelis, Efstratios-Stylianos

    2016-03-01

    Humans are the most complex singers in nature, and the human voice is thought by many to be the most beautiful musical instrument. Aside from spoken language, singing represents a second mode of acoustic communication in humans. The purpose of this review article is to explore the functional anatomy of the "singing" brain. Methodologically, the existing literature regarding activation of the human brain during singing was carefully reviewed, with emphasis on the anatomic localization of such activation. Relevant human studies are mainly neuroimaging studies, namely functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography studies. Singing necessitates activation of several cortical, subcortical, cerebellar, and brainstem areas, served and coordinated by multiple neural networks. Functionally vital cortical areas of the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes bilaterally participate in the brain's activation process during singing, confirming the latter's role in human communication. Perisylvian cortical activity of the right hemisphere seems to be the most crucial component of this activation. This also explains why aphasic patients due to left hemispheric lesions are able to sing but not speak the same words. The term clef de sol activation is proposed for this crucial perisylvian cortical activation due to the clef de sol shape of the topographical distribution of these cortical areas around the sylvian fissure. Further research is needed to explore the connectivity and sequence of how the human brain activates to sing.

  3. Support system for Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasajima, Fumio; Ohtomo, Akitoshi; Sakurai, Fumio; Onizawa, Koji

    1999-01-01

    In the research reactor of JAERI, the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been utilized as a major part of an irradiation usage. To utilize NAA, research participants are always required to learn necessary technique. Therefore, we started to examine a support system that will enable to carry out INAA easily even by beginners. The system is composed of irradiation device, gamma-ray spectrometer and data analyzing instruments. The element concentration is calculated by using KAYZERO/SOLCOI software with the K 0 standardization method. In this paper, we review on a construction of this INAA support system in JRR-3M of JAERI. (author)

  4. Learning dictionaries of sparse codes of 3D movements of body joints for real-time human activity understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jin; Yang, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    Real-time human activity recognition is essential for human-robot interactions for assisted healthy independent living. Most previous work in this area is performed on traditional two-dimensional (2D) videos and both global and local methods have been used. Since 2D videos are sensitive to changes of lighting condition, view angle, and scale, researchers begun to explore applications of 3D information in human activity understanding in recently years. Unfortunately, features that work well on 2D videos usually don't perform well on 3D videos and there is no consensus on what 3D features should be used. Here we propose a model of human activity recognition based on 3D movements of body joints. Our method has three steps, learning dictionaries of sparse codes of 3D movements of joints, sparse coding, and classification. In the first step, space-time volumes of 3D movements of body joints are obtained via dense sampling and independent component analysis is then performed to construct a dictionary of sparse codes for each activity. In the second step, the space-time volumes are projected to the dictionaries and a set of sparse histograms of the projection coefficients are constructed as feature representations of the activities. Finally, the sparse histograms are used as inputs to a support vector machine to recognize human activities. We tested this model on three databases of human activities and found that it outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithms. Thus, this model can be used for real-time human activity recognition in many applications.

  5. Learning dictionaries of sparse codes of 3D movements of body joints for real-time human activity understanding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Qi

    Full Text Available Real-time human activity recognition is essential for human-robot interactions for assisted healthy independent living. Most previous work in this area is performed on traditional two-dimensional (2D videos and both global and local methods have been used. Since 2D videos are sensitive to changes of lighting condition, view angle, and scale, researchers begun to explore applications of 3D information in human activity understanding in recently years. Unfortunately, features that work well on 2D videos usually don't perform well on 3D videos and there is no consensus on what 3D features should be used. Here we propose a model of human activity recognition based on 3D movements of body joints. Our method has three steps, learning dictionaries of sparse codes of 3D movements of joints, sparse coding, and classification. In the first step, space-time volumes of 3D movements of body joints are obtained via dense sampling and independent component analysis is then performed to construct a dictionary of sparse codes for each activity. In the second step, the space-time volumes are projected to the dictionaries and a set of sparse histograms of the projection coefficients are constructed as feature representations of the activities. Finally, the sparse histograms are used as inputs to a support vector machine to recognize human activities. We tested this model on three databases of human activities and found that it outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithms. Thus, this model can be used for real-time human activity recognition in many applications.

  6. Allopurinol reduces antigen-specific and polyclonal activation of human T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián ePérez-Mazliah

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Allopurinol is the most popular commercially available xanthine oxidase inhibitor and it is widely used for treatment of symptomatic hyperuricaemia, or gout. Although, several anti-inflammatory actions of allopurinol have been demonstrated in vivo and in vitro, there have been few studies on the action of allopurinol on T cells. In the current study, we have assessed the effect of allopurinol on antigen-specific and mitogen-driven activation and cytokine production in human T cells. Allopurinol markedly decreased the frequency of IFN-γ and IL-2-producing T cells, either after polyclonal or antigen-specific stimulation with Herpes Simplex virus 1, Influenza virus, tetanus toxoid and Trypanosoma cruzi-derived antigens. Allopurinol attenuated CD69 upregulation after CD3 and CD28 engagement and significantly reduced the levels of spontaneous and mitogen-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species in T cells. The diminished T cell activation and cytokine production in the presence of allopurinol support a direct action of allopurinol on human T cells, offering a potential pharmacological tool for the management of cell-mediated inflammatory diseases.

  7. A RESEARCH AIMED AT DETERMINATION BETWEEN HUMAN RESOURCES PRACTICES AND PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT RELATIONSHIP IN ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EBRU AYKAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Perceived Organizational Support (POS which was popularized in the early 1990s, is conception that may have both positive and negative effect on the staff and organization. In many ways perceived organizational support can determine the continuity of an organization over the long term. This study look at relationship between human resources practices which is taken on five dimensions and perceived organizational support. An investigation has been conduct over bed and supplier industry in Kayseri. The research that was performed with 227 worker is concluded that there are positive relations between training and human resources politics practices and perceived organizational support as of dimensions and between human resource management practices and perceived organizational support as of general.

  8. Human Exploration System Test-Bed for Integration and Advancement (HESTIA) Support of Future NASA Deep-Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmolejo, Jose; Ewert, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Engineering Directorate at the NASA - Johnson Space Center is outfitting a 20-Foot diameter hypobaric chamber in Building 7 to support future deep-space Environmental Control & Life Support System (ECLSS) research as part of the Human Exploration System Test-bed for Integration and Advancement (HESTIA) Project. This human-rated chamber is the only NASA facility that has the unique experience, chamber geometry, infrastructure, and support systems capable of conducting this research. The chamber was used to support Gemini, Apollo, and SkyLab Missions. More recently, it was used to conduct 30-, 60-, and 90-day human ECLSS closed-loop testing in the 1990s to support the International Space Station and life support technology development. NASA studies show that both planetary surface and deep-space transit crew habitats will be 3-4 story cylindrical structures driven by human occupancy volumetric needs and launch vehicle constraints. The HESTIA facility offers a 3-story, 20-foot diameter habitat consistent with the studies' recommendations. HESTIA operations follow stringent processes by a certified test team that including human testing. Project management, analysis, design, acquisition, fabrication, assembly and certification of facility build-ups are available to support this research. HESTIA offers close proximity to key stakeholders including astronauts, Human Research Program (who direct space human research for the agency), Mission Operations, Safety & Mission Assurance, and Engineering Directorate. The HESTIA chamber can operate at reduced pressure and elevated oxygen environments including those proposed for deep-space exploration. Data acquisition, power, fluids and other facility resources are available to support a wide range of research. Recently completed HESTIA research consisted of unmanned testing of ECLSS technologies. Eventually, the HESTIA research will include humans for extended durations at reduced pressure and elevated oxygen to demonstrate

  9. Fish invasions in the world's river systems: when natural processes are blurred by human activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Leprieur

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Because species invasions are a principal driver of the human-induced biodiversity crisis, the identification of the major determinants of global invasions is a prerequisite for adopting sound conservation policies. Three major hypotheses, which are not necessarily mutually exclusive, have been proposed to explain the establishment of non-native species: the "human activity" hypothesis, which argues that human activities facilitate the establishment of non-native species by disturbing natural landscapes and by increasing propagule pressure; the "biotic resistance" hypothesis, predicting that species-rich communities will readily impede the establishment of non-native species; and the "biotic acceptance" hypothesis, predicting that environmentally suitable habitats for native species are also suitable for non-native species. We tested these hypotheses and report here a global map of fish invasions (i.e., the number of non-native fish species established per river basin using an original worldwide dataset of freshwater fish occurrences, environmental variables, and human activity indicators for 1,055 river basins covering more than 80% of Earth's surface. First, we identified six major invasion hotspots where non-native species represent more than a quarter of the total number of species. According to the World Conservation Union, these areas are also characterised by the highest proportion of threatened fish species. Second, we show that the human activity indicators account for most of the global variation in non-native species richness, which is highly consistent with the "human activity" hypothesis. In contrast, our results do not provide support for either the "biotic acceptance" or the "biotic resistance" hypothesis. We show that the biogeography of fish invasions matches the geography of human impact at the global scale, which means that natural processes are blurred by human activities in driving fish invasions in the world's river systems

  10. Human glutaminyl cyclase and bacterial zinc aminopeptidase share a common fold and active site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misquitta Stephanie A

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutaminyl cyclase (QC forms the pyroglutamyl residue at the amino terminus of numerous secretory peptides and proteins. We previously proposed the mammalian QC has some features in common with zinc aminopeptidases. We now have generated a structural model for human QC based on the aminopeptidase fold (pdb code 1AMP and mutated the apparent active site residues to assess their role in QC catalysis. Results The structural model proposed here for human QC, deposited in the protein databank as 1MOI, is supported by a variety of fold prediction programs, by the circular dichroism spectrum, and by the presence of the disulfide. Mutagenesis of the six active site residues present in both 1AMP and QC reveal essential roles for the two histidines (140 and 330, QC numbering and the two glutamates (201 and 202, while the two aspartates (159 and 248 appear to play no catalytic role. ICP-MS analysis shows less than stoichiometric zinc (0.3:1 in the purified enzyme. Conclusions We conclude that human pituitary glutaminyl cyclase and bacterial zinc aminopeptidase share a common fold and active site residues. In contrast to the aminopeptidase, however, QC does not appear to require zinc for enzymatic activity.

  11. Disruption of PH–kinase domain interactions leads to oncogenic activation of AKT in human cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Chaitali; Janakiraman, Vasantharajan; Wu, Wen-I; Foo, Catherine K.; Kljavin, Noelyn M.; Chaudhuri, Subhra; Stawiski, Eric; Lee, Brian; Lin, Jie; Li, Hong; Lorenzo, Maria N.; Yuan, Wenlin; Guillory, Joseph; Jackson, Marlena; Rondon, Jesus; Franke, Yvonne; Bowman, Krista K.; Sagolla, Meredith; Stinson, Jeremy; Wu, Thomas D.; Wu, Jiansheng; Stokoe, David; Stern, Howard M.; Brandhuber, Barbara J.; Lin, Kui; Skelton, Nicholas J.; Seshagiri, Somasekar

    2012-01-01

    The protein kinase v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (AKT), a key regulator of cell survival and proliferation, is frequently hyperactivated in human cancers. Intramolecular pleckstrin homology (PH) domain–kinase domain (KD) interactions are important in maintaining AKT in an inactive state. AKT activation proceeds after a conformational change that dislodges the PH from the KD. To understand these autoinhibitory interactions, we generated mutations at the PH–KD interface and found that most of them lead to constitutive activation of AKT. Such mutations are likely another mechanism by which activation may occur in human cancers and other diseases. In support of this likelihood, we found somatic mutations in AKT1 at the PH–KD interface that have not been previously described in human cancers. Furthermore, we show that the AKT1 somatic mutants are constitutively active, leading to oncogenic signaling. Additionally, our studies show that the AKT1 mutants are not effectively inhibited by allosteric AKT inhibitors, consistent with the requirement for an intact PH–KD interface for allosteric inhibition. These results have important implications for therapeutic intervention in patients with AKT mutations at the PH–KD interface. PMID:23134728

  12. Human Activity Recognition in AAL Environments Using Random Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertas Damaševičius

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic human activity recognition systems aim to capture the state of the user and its environment by exploiting heterogeneous sensors attached to the subject’s body and permit continuous monitoring of numerous physiological signals reflecting the state of human actions. Successful identification of human activities can be immensely useful in healthcare applications for Ambient Assisted Living (AAL, for automatic and intelligent activity monitoring systems developed for elderly and disabled people. In this paper, we propose the method for activity recognition and subject identification based on random projections from high-dimensional feature space to low-dimensional projection space, where the classes are separated using the Jaccard distance between probability density functions of projected data. Two HAR domain tasks are considered: activity identification and subject identification. The experimental results using the proposed method with Human Activity Dataset (HAD data are presented.

  13. Human Activity Recognition in AAL Environments Using Random Projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damaševičius, Robertas; Vasiljevas, Mindaugas; Šalkevičius, Justas; Woźniak, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Automatic human activity recognition systems aim to capture the state of the user and its environment by exploiting heterogeneous sensors attached to the subject's body and permit continuous monitoring of numerous physiological signals reflecting the state of human actions. Successful identification of human activities can be immensely useful in healthcare applications for Ambient Assisted Living (AAL), for automatic and intelligent activity monitoring systems developed for elderly and disabled people. In this paper, we propose the method for activity recognition and subject identification based on random projections from high-dimensional feature space to low-dimensional projection space, where the classes are separated using the Jaccard distance between probability density functions of projected data. Two HAR domain tasks are considered: activity identification and subject identification. The experimental results using the proposed method with Human Activity Dataset (HAD) data are presented.

  14. A grounded theory of how social support influences physical activity in adolescent girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawkner, Samantha

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Adolescent girls are not sufficiently active to achieve health benefits. Social support from friends and family has been positively associated with physical activity in adolescent girls; however it is unclear how social support influences physical activity behaviour. This study aimed to develop a grounded theory of how social support influences physical activity in adolescent girls. Methods: A qualitative, constructivist grounded theory approach was adopted. Individual interviews explored adolescent girls’ perspectives of how significant others’ influenced their physical activity through providing social support, and through modelling physical activity. Results: Participants perceived social support to influence physical activity behaviour through performance improvements, self-efficacy, enjoyment, motivation and by enabling physical activity. Improvements in performance and self-efficacy were also linked to motivation to be active. Girls perceived modelling to influence behaviour through providing opportunities for them to be physically active, and by inspiring them to be active. Conclusion: The grounded theory outlines adolescent girls’ perceptions of how significant others influence their physical activity and provides a framework for future research examining the role of social support on physical activity. PMID:29405881

  15. A grounded theory of how social support influences physical activity in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Yvonne; Fawkner, Samantha; Niven, Ailsa

    2018-12-01

    Adolescent girls are not sufficiently active to achieve health benefits. Social support from friends and family has been positively associated with physical activity in adolescent girls; however it is unclear how social support influences physical activity behaviour. This study aimed to develop a grounded theory of how social support influences physical activity in adolescent girls. A qualitative, constructivist grounded theory approach was adopted. Individual interviews explored adolescent girls' perspectives of how significant others' influenced their physical activity through providing social support, and through modelling physical activity. Participants perceived social support to influence physical activity behaviour through performance improvements, self-efficacy, enjoyment, motivation and by enabling physical activity. Improvements in performance and self-efficacy were also linked to motivation to be active. Girls perceived modelling to influence behaviour through providing opportunities for them to be physically active, and by inspiring them to be active. The grounded theory outlines adolescent girls' perceptions of how significant others influence their physical activity and provides a framework for future research examining the role of social support on physical activity.

  16. Smartphone-based human activity recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes Ortiz, Jorge Luis

    2014-01-01

    Cotutela Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya i Università degli Studi di Genova Human Activity Recognition (HAR) is a multidisciplinary research field that aims to gather data regarding people's behavior and their interaction with the environment in order to deliver valuable context-aware information. It has nowadays contributed to develop human-centered areas of study such as Ambient Intelligence and Ambient Assisted Living, which concentrate on the improvement of people's Quality of Lif...

  17. Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells generated from human embryonic stem cells support pluripotent cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga, Nora [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Vereb, Zoltan; Rajnavoelgyi, Eva [Department of Immunology, Medical and Health Science Centre, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Nemet, Katalin; Uher, Ferenc; Sarkadi, Balazs [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Apati, Agota, E-mail: apati@kkk.org.hu [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary)

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSC like cells were derived from hESC by a simple and reproducible method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differentiation and immunosuppressive features of MSCl cells were similar to bmMSC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSCl cells as feeder cells support the undifferentiated growth of hESC. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells were generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) through embryoid body formation, and isolated by adherence to plastic surface. MSCl cell lines could be propagated without changes in morphological or functional characteristics for more than 15 passages. These cells, as well as their fluorescent protein expressing stable derivatives, efficiently supported the growth of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells as feeder cells. The MSCl cells did not express the embryonic (Oct4, Nanog, ABCG2, PODXL, or SSEA4), or hematopoietic (CD34, CD45, CD14, CD133, HLA-DR) stem cell markers, while were positive for the characteristic cell surface markers of MSCs (CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105). MSCl cells could be differentiated toward osteogenic, chondrogenic or adipogenic directions and exhibited significant inhibition of mitogen-activated lymphocyte proliferation, and thus presented immunosuppressive features. We suggest that cultured MSCl cells can properly model human MSCs and be applied as efficient feeders in hESC cultures.

  18. Degalactosylated/desialylated human serum containing GcMAF induces macrophage phagocytic activity and in vivo antitumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchiike, Daisuke; Uto, Yoshihiro; Mukai, Hirotaka; Ishiyama, Noriko; Abe, Chiaki; Tanaka, Daichi; Kawai, Tomohito; Kubo, Kentaro; Mette, Martin; Inui, Toshio; Endo, Yoshio; Hori, Hitoshi

    2013-07-01

    The group-specific component protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) has various biological activities, such as macrophage activation and antitumor activity. Clinical trials of GcMAF have been carried out for metastatic breast cancer, prostate cancer, and metastatic colorectal cancer. In this study, despite the complicated purification process of GcMAF, we used enzymatically-treated human serum containing GcMAF with a considerable macrophage-stimulating activity and antitumor activity. We detected GcMAF in degalactosylated/desialylated human serum by western blotting using an anti-human Gc globulin antibody, and Helix pomatia agglutinin lectin. We also found that GcMAF-containing human serum significantly enhanced the phagocytic activity of mouse peritoneal macrophages and extended the survival time of mice bearing Ehrlich ascites tumors. We demonstrated that GcMAF-containing human serum can be used as a potential macrophage activator for cancer immunotherapy.

  19. Formation of tissue factor activity following incubation of recombinant human tissue factor apoprotein with plasma lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, T.; Kisiel, W.

    1990-01-01

    Incubation of recombinant human tissue factor apoprotein (Apo-TF) with human plasma decreased the recalcified clotting time of this plasma in a time-and dose-dependent manner suggesting relipidation of the Apo-TF by plasma lipoproteins. Incubation of Apo-TF with purified preparations of human very low density, low density and high density lipoproteins resulted in tissue factor activity in a clotting assay. The order of effectiveness was VLDL greater than LDL much greater than HDL. Tissue factor activity generated by incubation of a fixed amount of Apo-TF with plasma lipoproteins was lipoprotein concentration-dependent and saturable. The association of Apo-TF with lipoprotein particles was supported by gel filtration studies in which 125 I-Apo-TF coeluted with the plasma lipoprotein in the void volume of a Superose 6 column in the presence and absence of calcium ions. In addition, void-volume Apo-TF-lipoprotein fractions exhibited tissue factor activity. These results suggest that the factor VIII-bypassing activity of bovine Apo-TF observed in a canine hemophilic model may be due, in part, to its association with plasma lipoproteins and expression of functional tissue factor activity

  20. A spectroscopic and catalytic investigation of active phase-support interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haller, G.L.

    1991-01-01

    Active catalytic phases (metal, mixed metals, oxide or mixed oxides) interacting with oxide support on which the active phase is dispersed can affect the percentage exposed, the morphology of supported particles, the degree of reducibility of cations, etc., in a variety of ways. Our objective is to characterize the physical chemistry of the active phase-oxide support by spectroscopic methods and to correlate this structure with catalytic function. The three systems discussed in this progress report are Ag/TiO{sub 2}, Ru-Cu/SiO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. 24 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Knowledge-based support for design and operational use of human-machine interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannsen, G.

    1994-01-01

    The possibilities for knowledge support of different human user classes, namely operators, operational engineers and designers of human-machine interfaces, are discussed. Several human-machine interface functionalities are briefly explained. The paper deals with such questions as which type of knowledge is needed for design and operation, how to represent it, where to get it from, how to process it, and how to consider and use it. The relationships between design and operational use are thereby emphasised. (author)

  2. Reflections of Prehistoric and Medieval human activities in floodplain deposits of the Únanovka Stream, South Moravia, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petřík, J.; Petr, L.; Šabatová, K.; Doláková, N.; Lukšíková, H.; Dohnalová, A.; Chadimová, Leona; Blaško, D.; Milo, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 3 (2015), s. 393-412 ISSN 0372-8854 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Holocene * floodplain * paleoecology * human activities * settlement pattern Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.103, year: 2015

  3. PGC-1α-Dependent Mitochondrial Adaptation Is Necessary to Sustain IL-2-Induced Activities in Human NK Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Dante; Jara, Claudia; Ibañez, Jorge; Ahumada, Viviana; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio; Martin, Adrian; Córdova, Alexandra; Montoya, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    Human Natural Killer (NK) cells are a specialized heterogeneous subpopulation of lymphocytes involved in antitumor defense reactions. NK cell effector functions are critically dependent on cytokines and metabolic activity. Among various cytokines modulating NK cell function, interleukin-2 (IL-2) can induce a more potent cytotoxic activity defined as lymphokine activated killer activity (LAK). Our aim was to determine if IL-2 induces changes at the mitochondrial level in NK cells to support the bioenergetic demand for performing this enhanced cytotoxic activity more efficiently. Purified human NK cells were cultured with high IL-2 concentrations to develop LAK activity, which was assessed by the ability of NK cells to lyse NK-resistant Daudi cells. Here we show that, after 72 h of culture of purified human NK cells with enough IL-2 to induce LAK activity, both the mitochondrial mass and the mitochondrial membrane potential increased in a PGC-1α-dependent manner. In addition, oligomycin, an inhibitor of ATP synthase, inhibited IL-2-induced LAK activity at 48 and 72 h of culture. Moreover, the secretion of IFN-γ from NK cells with LAK activity was also partially dependent on PGC-1α expression. These results indicate that PGC-1α plays a crucial role in regulating mitochondrial function involved in the maintenance of LAK activity in human NK cells stimulated with IL-2.

  4. The impact of the human DNA topoisomerase II C-terminal domain on activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L Meczes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Type II DNA topoisomerases (topos are essential enzymes needed for the resolution of topological problems that occur during DNA metabolic processes. Topos carry out an ATP-dependent strand passage reaction whereby one double helix is passed through a transient break in another. Humans have two topoII isoforms, alpha and beta, which while enzymatically similar are differentially expressed and regulated, and are thought to have different cellular roles. The C-terminal domain (CTD of the enzyme has the most diversity, and has been implicated in regulation. We sought to investigate the impact of the CTD domain on activity.We have investigated the role of the human topoII C-terminal domain by creating constructs encoding C-terminally truncated recombinant topoIIalpha and beta and topoIIalpha+beta-tail and topoIIbeta+alpha-tail chimeric proteins. We then investigated function in vivo in a yeast system, and in vitro in activity assays. We find that the C-terminal domain of human topoII isoforms is needed for in vivo function of the enzyme, but not needed for cleavage activity. C-terminally truncated enzymes had similar strand passage activity to full length enzymes, but the presence of the opposite C-terminal domain had a large effect, with the topoIIalpha-CTD increasing activity, and the topoIIbeta-CTD decreasing activity.In vivo complementation data show that the topoIIalpha C-terminal domain is needed for growth, but the topoIIbeta isoform is able to support low levels of growth without a C-terminal domain. This may indicate that topoIIbeta has an additional localisation signal. In vitro data suggest that, while the lack of any C-terminal domain has little effect on activity, the presence of either the topoIIalpha or beta C-terminal domain can affect strand passage activity. Data indicates that the topoIIbeta-CTD may be a negative regulator. This is the first report of in vitro data with chimeric human topoIIs.

  5. Interaction of Human Enterochromaffin Cells with Human Enteric Adenovirus 41 Leads to Serotonin Release and Subsequent Activation of Enteric Glia Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerberg, Sonja; Hagbom, Marie; Rajan, Anandi; Loitto, Vesa; Persson, B David; Allard, Annika; Nordgren, Johan; Sharma, Sumit; Magnusson, Karl-Eric; Arnberg, Niklas; Svensson, Lennart

    2018-04-01

    Human adenovirus 41 (HAdV-41) causes acute gastroenteritis in young children. The main characteristics of HAdV-41 infection are diarrhea and vomiting. Nevertheless, the precise mechanism of HAdV-41-induced diarrhea is unknown, as a suitable small-animal model has not been described. In this study, we used the human midgut carcinoid cell line GOT1 to investigate the effect of HAdV-41 infection and the individual HAdV-41 capsid proteins on serotonin release by enterochromaffin cells and on enteric glia cell (EGC) activation. We first determined that HAdV-41 could infect the enterochromaffin cells. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that the cells expressed HAdV-41-specific coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR); flow cytometry analysis supported these findings. HAdV-41 infection of the enterochromaffin cells induced serotonin secretion dose dependently. In contrast, control infection with HAdV-5 did not induce serotonin secretion in the cells. Confocal microscopy studies of enterochromaffin cells infected with HAdV-41 revealed decreased serotonin immunofluorescence compared to that in uninfected cells. Incubation of the enterochromaffin cells with purified HAdV-41 short fiber knob and hexon proteins increased the serotonin levels in the harvested cell supernatant significantly. HAdV-41 infection could also activate EGCs, as shown in the significantly altered expression of glia fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in EGCs incubated with HAdV-41. The EGCs were also activated by serotonin alone, as shown in the significantly increased GFAP staining intensity. Likewise, EGCs were activated by the cell supernatant of HAdV-41-infected enterochromaffin cells. IMPORTANCE The nonenveloped human adenovirus 41 causes diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, and low-grade fever mainly in children under 2 years of age. Even though acute gastroenteritis is well described, how human adenovirus 41 causes diarrhea is unknown. In our study, we analyzed the effect of human adenovirus 41

  6. Similarity of hydrolyzing activity of human and rat small intestinal disaccharidases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oku T

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Tsuneyuki Oku¹, Kenichi Tanabe¹, Shigeharu Ogawa², Naoki Sadamori¹, Sadako Nakamura¹¹Graduate School of Human Health Science, University of Nagasaki, Siebold, Nagayo, Japan; ²Juzenkai Hospital, Kagomachi, Nagasaki, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to clarify whether it is possible to extrapolate results from studies of the hydrolyzing activity of disaccharidases from rats to humans.Materials and methods: We measured disaccharidase activity in humans and rats using identical preparation and assay methods, and investigated the similarity in hydrolyzing activity. Small intestinal samples without malignancy were donated by five patients who had undergone bladder tumor surgery, and homogenates were prepared to measure disaccharidase activity. Adult rat homogenates were prepared using small intestine.Results: Maltase activity was the highest among the five disaccharidases, followed by sucrase and then palatinase in humans and rats. Trehalase activity was slightly lower than that of palatinase in humans and was similar to that of sucrase in rats. Lactase activity was the lowest in humans, but was similar to that of palatinase in rats. Thus, the hydrolyzing activity of five disaccharidases was generally similar in humans and rats. The relative activity of sucrose and palatinase versus maltase was generally similar between humans and rats. The ratio of rat to human hydrolyzing activity of maltase, sucrase, and palatinase was 1.9–3.1, but this was not a significant difference. Leaf extract from Morus alba strongly inhibited the activity of maltase, sucrase, and palatinase, but not trehalase and lactase, and the degree of inhibition was similar in humans and rats. L-arabinose mildly inhibited sucrase activity, but hardly inhibited the activity of maltase, palatinase, trehalase and lactase in humans and rats. The digestibility of 1-kestose, galactosylsucrose, and panose by small intestinal enzymes was very similar between humans and

  7. TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF DRIVING SUPPORT SYSTEMS BASED ON HUMAN BEHAVIORAL CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunichi DOI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Driving support and cruise assist systems are of growing importance in achieving both road traffic safety and convenience. Such driver support seeks to achieve, with the highest possible quality, nothing less than “driver-vehicle symbiosis under all conditions.” At the same time, many traffic accidents result from improper driver behavior. The author focuses on driver behavior under various driving conditions, conducting detailed measurement and analysis of visual perception and attention characteristics as well as perceptual characteristics involved in driving. The aim in doing so is to support research on driving support systems and driving workload reduction technologies that function as human-vehicle systems and take such characteristics into account.

  8. Groundwater impacts of foreseeable human activities on a HLW repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, N.M.

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has begun a program of Systematic Regulatory Analysis (SRA) to help ensure that all important technical issues related to the disposal of civilian, high-level nuclear wastes will be identified prior to the receipt of a license application. Large-scale groundwater withdrawals near a repository could have significant impacts on the groundwater flow system. Future large-scale withdrawals of groundwater could occur to support irrigation to growing population centers, such as Las Vegas. Various scenarios of groundwater withdrawals, along with other scenarios of future human activity, will need to be tested before evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site is complete

  9. Group B streptococcus activates transcriptomic pathways related to premature birth in human extraplacental membranes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae-Ryung; Harris, Sean M; Boldenow, Erica; McEachin, Richard C; Sartor, Maureen; Chames, Mark; Loch-Caruso, Rita

    2018-03-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) infection in pregnant women is the leading cause of infectious neonatal morbidity and mortality in the United States. Although inflammation during infection has been associated with preterm birth, the contribution of GBS to preterm birth is less certain. Moreover, the early mechanisms by which GBS interacts with the gestational tissue to affect adverse pregnancy outcomes are poorly understood. We hypothesized that short-term GBS inoculation activates pathways related to inflammation and premature birth in human extraplacental membranes. We tested this hypothesis using GBS-inoculated human extraplacental membranes in vitro. In agreement with our hypothesis, a microarray-based transcriptomics analysis of gene expression changes in GBS-inoculated membranes revealed that GBS activated pathways related to inflammation and preterm birth with significant gene expression changes occurring as early as 4 h postinoculation. In addition, pathways related to DNA replication and repair were downregulated with GBS treatment. Conclusions based on our transcriptomics data were further supported by responses of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and matrix metalloproteinases 1 (MMP1) and 3 (MMP3), all of which are known to be involved in parturition and premature rupture of membranes. These results support our initial hypothesis and provide new information on molecular targets of GBS infection in human extraplacental membranes.

  10. Impact of human wildlife conflict on socio-economy of support zone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of human wildlife conflict on socio-economy of support zone ... who mostly dependent on natural resources of their immediate environment. ... Most of the victims attack and kill the animals as a management method in both communities.

  11. Understanding Older Adult's Perceptions of Factors that Support Trust in Human and Robot Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuck, Rachel E; Rogers, Wendy A

    2017-06-01

    As the population of older adults increase so will the need for care providers, both human and robot. Trust is a key aspect to establish and maintain a successful older adult-care provider relationship. However, due to trust volatility it is essential to understand it within specific contexts. This proposed mixed methods study will explore what dimensions of trust emerge as important within the human-human and human-robot dyads in older adults and care providers. First, this study will help identify key qualities that support trust in a care provider relationship. By understanding what older adults perceive as needing to trust humans and robots for various care tasks, we can begin to provide recommendations based on user expectations for design to support trust.

  12. Google Home: Experience, Support and Re-Experience of Social Home Activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    2008-01-01

    Ambient Intelligence research is about ubiquitous computing and about social and intelligent properties of computer-supported environments. These properties aim at providing inhabitants or visitors of ambient intelligence environments with support in their activities. Activities include interactions

  13. Google Home: Experience, Support and Re-Experience of Social Home Activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    2006-01-01

    Ambient Intelligence research is about ubiquitous computing and about social and intelligent properties of computer-supported environments. These properties aim at providing inhabitants or visitors of ambient intelligence environments with support in their activities. Activities include interactions

  14. Designing, developing, and deploying systems to support human-robot teams in disaster response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijff, G.J.M.; Kruijff-Korbayová, I.; Keshavdas, S.; Larochelle, B.; Janíček, M.; Colas, F.; Liu, M.; Pomerleau, F.; Siegwart, R.; Neerincx, M.A.; Looije, R.; Smets, N.J.J.M.; Mioch, T.; Diggelen, J. van; Pirri, F.; Gianni, M.; Ferri, F.; Menna, M.; Worst, R.; Linder, T.; Tretyakov, V.; Surmann, H.; Svoboda, T.; Reinštein, M.; Zimmermann, K.; Petříček, T.; Hlaváč, V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes our experience in designing, developing and deploying systems for supporting human-robot teams during disaster response. It is based on R&D performed in the EU-funded project NIFTi. NIFTi aimed at building intelligent, collaborative robots that could work together with humans in

  15. Persistent neural activity in auditory cortex is related to auditory working memory in humans and nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Matysiak, Artur; Heil, Peter; König, Reinhard; Brosch, Michael

    2016-07-20

    Working memory is the cognitive capacity of short-term storage of information for goal-directed behaviors. Where and how this capacity is implemented in the brain are unresolved questions. We show that auditory cortex stores information by persistent changes of neural activity. We separated activity related to working memory from activity related to other mental processes by having humans and monkeys perform different tasks with varying working memory demands on the same sound sequences. Working memory was reflected in the spiking activity of individual neurons in auditory cortex and in the activity of neuronal populations, that is, in local field potentials and magnetic fields. Our results provide direct support for the idea that temporary storage of information recruits the same brain areas that also process the information. Because similar activity was observed in the two species, the cellular bases of some auditory working memory processes in humans can be studied in monkeys.

  16. Cognitive Human-Machine Interface Applied in Remote Support for Industrial Robot Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Kosicki

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available An attempt is currently being made to widely introduce industrial robots to Small-Medium Enterprises (SMEs. Since the enterprises usually employ too small number of robot units to afford specialized departments for robot maintenance, they must be provided with inexpensive and immediate support remotely. This paper evaluates whether the support can be provided by means of Cognitive Info-communication – communication in which human cognitive capabilities are extended irrespectively of geographical distances. The evaluations are given with an aid of experimental system that consists of local and remote rooms, which are physically separated – a six-degree-of-freedom NACHI SH133-03 industrial robot is situated in the local room, while the operator, who supervises the robot by means of audio-visual Cognitive Human-Machine Interface, is situated in the remote room. The results of simple experiments show that Cognitive Info-communication is not only efficient mean to provide the support remotely, but is probably also a powerful tool to enhance interaction with any data-rich environment that require good conceptual understanding of system's state and careful attention management. Furthermore, the paper discusses data presentation and reduction methods for data-rich environments, as well as introduces the concepts of Naturally Acquired Data and Cognitive Human-Machine Interfaces.

  17. Relationship model and supporting activities of JIT, TQM and TPM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuttapon SaeTong

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a relationship model and supporting activities of Just-in-time (JIT, Total Quality Management (TQM,and Total Productive Maintenance (TPM. By reviewing the concepts, 5S, Kaizen, preventive maintenance, Kanban, visualcontrol, Poka-Yoke, and Quality Control tools are the main supporting activities. Based on the analysis, 5S, preventive maintenance,and Kaizen are the foundation of the three concepts. QC tools are required activities for implementing TQM, whereasPoka-Yoke and visual control are necessary activities for implementing TPM. After successfully implementing TQM andTPM, Kanban is needed for JIT.

  18. Evaluation of photocatalytic activities of supported catalysts on NaX zeolite or activated charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brites-Nóbrega, Fernanda F. de [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidade Estadual de Maringá (UEM), Av. Colombo, 5790, CEP 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil); Sanitary and Environmental Engineering Department, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, Campus Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Polo, Aldino N.B.; Benedetti, Angélica M. [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná (UNIOESTE), Rua da Faculdade, 645, CEP 85903-000 Toledo, PR (Brazil); Leão, Mônica M.D. [Sanitary and Environmental Engineering Department, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, Campus Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Slusarski-Santana, Veronice, E-mail: veronice.santana@unioeste.br [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná (UNIOESTE), Rua da Faculdade, 645, CEP 85903-000 Toledo, PR (Brazil); Fernandes-Machado, Nádia R.C. [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidade Estadual de Maringá (UEM), Av. Colombo, 5790, CEP 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The synergic effect between ZnO and NaX was positive, which increased its activity. • The best results were obtained at pH 3 and 9 with ZnO/NaX and at pH 3 with Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/AC. • High degradation and considerable mineralization were attained with 10% ZnO/NaX. • ZnO and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} supported on NaX and AC are promising alternatives as photocatalysts. -- Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of ZnO and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} catalysts, both supported on NaX zeolite and activated charcoal (AC). The synergistic effect between oxide and support and the influence of solution pH (3, 7 and 9) on photocatalytic degradation of reactive blue 5G (C.I. 222) were analyzed. The catalysts Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/NaX, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/AC and ZnO/NaX, ZnO/AC with 5 and 10% (wt%) were prepared by wet impregnation. The results showed that the catalysts exhibit quite different structural and textural properties. The synergic effect between ZnO and NaX support was higher than that with the activated charcoal, showing that these catalysts were more efficient. The most photoactive catalyst was 10% ZnO/NaX which showed 100% discoloration of the dye solution at pH 3, 7 and 9 after 0.5, 5 and 2 h of irradiation, respectively. The hydrolytic nature of zeolite favored the formation of surface hydroxyl radicals, which increased the activity of the photocatalyst. Thus, catalysts supported on NaX zeolite are promising for use in photocatalysis.

  19. Human Decision Processes: Implications for SSA Support Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciano, P.

    2013-09-01

    paper), one opinion shared is that the rational, economic, deliberate listing/evaluation of all options is NOT representative of how many decision are made. A framework gaining interest lately describes two systems predominantly at work: intuition and reasoning (Kahneman, 2003). Intuition is fast, automatic, and parallel contrasted with the more effortful, deliberative, and sequential reasoning. One of the issues of contention is that considerable research is stacked supporting both sides claiming that intuition is: • A hallmark of expertise responsible for rapid, optimal decisions in the face of adversity • A vulnerability where biases serve as decision traps leading to wrong choices Using seminal studies from a range of domains and tasking, potential solutions for SSA decision support will be offered. Important issues such as managing uncertainty, framing inquiries, and information architecture, and contextual cues will be discussed. The purpose is to provide awareness of the human limitations and capabilities in complex decision making so engineers and designers can consider such factors in their development of SSA tools.

  20. Use of SQL Databases to Support Human Resource Management

    OpenAIRE

    Zeman, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Bakalářská práce se zaměřuje na návrh SQL databáze pro podporu Řízení lidských zdrojů a její následné vytvoření v programu MS SQL Server. This thesis focuses on the design of SQL database for support Human resources management and its creation in MS SQL Server. A

  1. The Role of Self-Efficacy and Friend Support on Adolescent Vigorous Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kyra; Warner, Lisa M; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2017-02-01

    Physical activity, including some form of vigorous activity, is a key component of a healthy lifestyle in young people. Self-efficacy and social support have been identified as key determinants of physical activity; however, the mechanism that reflects the interplay of these two factors is not well understood. The aim of the current study was to test social cognitive theory's notion that self-efficacy relates to intention that translates into behavior and to investigate whether friend support and self-efficacy synergize, interfere, or compensate for one another to predict vigorous physical activity in adolescents-a population at risk of rapid decreases in physical activity. A survey at two points in time was conducted in 226 students aged 12 to 16 years. In a conditional process analysis, friend support and physical activity self-efficacy were specified as interacting predictors of intention. The latter was specified as a mediator between self-efficacy and later vigorous physical activity, controlling for sex and age. Self-efficacy emerged as the dominant predictor of intention, followed by friend support, and an interaction between support and self-efficacy. In adolescents with high self-efficacy, intention was independent of support. In those with low self-efficacy, receiving friend support partly compensated for lack of self-efficacy. The effect of self-efficacy on vigorous physical activity was mediated by intention. Adolescent vigorous physical activity was indirectly predicted by self-efficacy via intention, and this mediation was further moderated by levels of friend support, indicating that friend support can partly buffer lack of self-efficacy.

  2. Active Elastic Support/Dry Friction Damper with Piezoelectric Ceramic Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Mingfu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic operation principle of elastic support/dry friction damper in rotor system was introduced and the unbalance response of the rotor with elastic support/dry friction damper was analyzed theoretically. Based on the previous structure using an electromagnet as actuator, an active elastic support/dry friction damper using piezoelectric ceramic actuator was designed and its effectiveness of reducing rotor vibration when rotor traverses its critical speed and blade-out event happened was experimentally verified. The experimental results show that the active elastic support/dry friction damper with piezoelectric ceramic actuator can significantly reduce vibration in rotor system; the vibration amplitude of the rotor in critical speed region decreased more than 2 times, and the active damper can protect the rotor when a blade-out event happened, so the rotor can traverse the critical speed and shut down smoothly. In addition, the structure is much simpler than the previous, the weight was reduced by half and the power consumption was only 5 W.

  3. Titania-polymeric powder coatings with nano-topography support enhanced human mesenchymal cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozumder, Mohammad Sayem; Zhu, Jesse; Perinpanayagam, Hiran

    2012-10-01

    Titanium implant osseointegration is dependent on the cellular response to surface modifications and coatings. Titania-enriched nanocomposite polymeric resin coatings were prepared through the application of advanced ultrafine powder coating technology. Their surfaces were readily modified to create nano-rough (topographies that supported human embryonic palatal mesenchymal cell responses. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy confirmed continuous and homogenous coatings with a similar composition and even distribution of titanium. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed complex micro-topographies, and atomic force microscopy revealed intricate nanofeatures and surface roughness. Cell counts, mitochondrial enzyme activity reduction of yellow 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) to dark purple, SEM, and inverted fluorescence microscopy showed a marked increase in cell attachment, spreading, proliferation, and metabolic activity on the nanostructured surfaces. Reverse Transcription- Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that type I collagen and Runx2 expression were induced, and Alizarin red staining showed that mineral deposits were abundant in the cell cultures grown on nanosurfaces. This enhancement in human mesenchymal cell attachment, growth, and osteogenesis were attributed to the nanosized surface topographies, roughness, and moderate wetting characteristics of the coatings. Their dimensional similarity to naturally occurring matrix proteins and crystals, coupled with their increased surface area for protein adsorption, may have facilitated the response. Therefore, this application of ultrafine powder coating technology affords highly biocompatible surfaces that can be readily modified to accentuate the cellular response. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Active carbon supported molybdenum carbides for higher alcohols synthesis from syngas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiongxiao; Chiarello, Gian Luca; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt

    This work provides an investigation of the high pressure CO hydrogenation to higher alcohols on K2CO3 promoted active carbon supported molybdenum carbide. Both activity and selectivity to alcohols over supported molybdenum carbides increased significantly compared to bulk carbides in literatures...

  5. Diesel-Enriched Particulate Matter Functionally Activates Human Dendritic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael; Karp, Matthew; Killedar, Smruti; Bauer, Stephen M.; Guo, Jia; Williams, D'Ann; Breysse, Patrick; Georas, Steve N.; Williams, Marc A.

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have associated exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) with exacerbations of asthma. It is unknown how different sources of PM affect innate immunity. We sought to determine how car- and diesel exhaust–derived PM affects dendritic cell (DC) activation. DC development was modeled using CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors. Airborne PM was collected from exhaust plenums of Fort McHenry Tunnel providing car-enriched particles (CEP) and diesel-enriched particles (DEP). DC were stimulated for 48 hours with CEP, DEP, CD40-ligand, or lipopolysaccharide. DC activation was assessed by flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and standard culture techniques. DEP increased uptake of fluorescein isothiocyanate–dextran (a model antigen) by DC. Diesel particles enhanced cell-surface expression of co-stimulatory molecules (e.g., CD40 [P < 0.01] and MHC class II [P < 0.01]). By contrast, CEP poorly affected antigen uptake and expression of cell surface molecules, and did not greatly affect cytokine secretion by DC. However, DEP increased production of TNF, IL-6, and IFN-γ (P < 0.01), IL-12 (P < 0.05), and vascular endothelial growth factor (P < 0.001). In co-stimulation assays of PM-exposed DC and alloreactive CD4+ T cells, both CEP and DEP directed a Th2-like pattern of cytokine production (e.g., enhanced IL-13 and IL-18 and suppressed IFN-γ production). CD4+ T cells were not functionally activated on exposure to either DEP or CEP. Car- and diesel-enriched particles exert a differential effect on DC activation. Our data support the hypothesis that DEP (and to a lesser extent CEP) regulate important functional aspects of human DC, supporting an adjuvant role for this material. PMID:17630318

  6. Human immunodeficiency virus-induced pathology favored by cellular transmission and activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, D.E.; Yoffe, B.; Bosworth, C.G.; Hollinger, F.B.; Rich, R.R.

    1988-01-01

    Epidemiological data suggest that transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) occurs primarily by transference of virally infected cells. However, the efficiency of lytic productive infection induced by HIV after transmission of cell-associated virus vs. free virus is difficult to assess. The present studies compare the extent of depletion of CD4+ (helper/inducer) T cells after mixing uninfected cells with either free HIV or irradiated HIV-infected allogeneic or autologous cells in vitro. Rapid CD4+ cellular depletion occurred only in cultures containing allogeneic infected cells or after addition of a nonspecific T cell activation signal to cultures with autologous infected cells. These in vitro observations strongly support the epidemiological implication that interactions between infected and uninfected cells are the most efficient means of transmission and HIV-induced cytopathology in vivo. They also provide direct support for the concept that immunological stimulation by foreign cells infected with HIV dramatically increases the likelihood of transmission. These in vitro observations suggest a model for the acquisition of HIV in vivo and the role of cellular activation in dissemination of the virus to uninfected cells in an infected individual

  7. Antiproliferative Activity of Egg Yolk Peptides in Human Colon Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousr, Marwa N; Aloqbi, Akram A; Omar, Ulfat M; Howell, Nazlin K

    2017-01-01

    Egg yolk peptides were successfully prepared from egg yolk protein by-products after lecithin extraction. Defatted egg yolk protein was hydrolyzed with pepsin and pancreatin and purified by gel filtration to produce egg yolk gel filtration fraction (EYGF-33) with antiproliferative activity. The highlight of this study was that the peptide EYGF-33 (1.0 mg/ml) significantly inhibits cell viability of colon cancer cells (Caco-2) with no inhibitory effects on the viability of human colon epithelial normal cells (HCEC) after 48 h. Reduced cell viability can be explained by cell cycle arrest in the S-phase in which DNA replication normally takes place. EYGF-33 significantly enhanced the production of superoxide anions in the mitochondria of Caco-2 cells; this could activate a mitochondrial apoptotic pathway leading to typical Poly Adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage as observed in the Western blot result. The induction of apoptotic cell death by EYGF-33 was supported by the externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS). However, further elucidation of the mechanism of EYGF-33-mediated apoptosis would provide further support for its use as a potential therapeutic and chemopreventive agent.

  8. A Distributed Simulation Facility to Support Human Factors Research in Advanced Air Transportation Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amonlirdviman, Keith; Farley, Todd C.; Hansman, R. John, Jr.; Ladik, John F.; Sherer, Dana Z.

    1998-01-01

    A distributed real-time simulation of the civil air traffic environment developed to support human factors research in advanced air transportation technology is presented. The distributed environment is based on a custom simulation architecture designed for simplicity and flexibility in human experiments. Standard Internet protocols are used to create the distributed environment, linking all advanced cockpit simulator, all Air Traffic Control simulator, and a pseudo-aircraft control and simulation management station. The pseudo-aircraft control station also functions as a scenario design tool for coordinating human factors experiments. This station incorporates a pseudo-pilot interface designed to reduce workload for human operators piloting multiple aircraft simultaneously in real time. The application of this distributed simulation facility to support a study of the effect of shared information (via air-ground datalink) on pilot/controller shared situation awareness and re-route negotiation is also presented.

  9. Human activities affecting trace gases and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braatz, B.; Ebert, C.

    1990-01-01

    The Earth's climate has been in a constant state of change throughout geologic time due to natural perturbations in the global geobiosphere. However, various human activities have the potential to cause future global warming over a relatively short amount of time. These activities, which affect the Earth's climate by altering the concentrations of trace gases in the atmosphere, include energy consumption, particularly fossil-fuel consumption; industrial processes (production and use of chlorofluorocarbons, halons, and chlorocarbons, landfilling of wastes, and cement manufacture); changes in land use patterns, particularly deforestation and biomass burning; and agricultural practices (waste burning, fertilizer usage, rice production, and animal husbandry). Population growth is an important underlying factor affecting the level of growth in each activity. This paper describes how the human activities listed above contribute to atmospheric change, the current pattern of each activity, and how levels of each activity have changed since the early part of this century

  10. Support effects and catalytic trends for water gas shift activity of transition metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Astrid; Janssens, T.V.W.; Schumacher, Nana Maria Pii

    2010-01-01

    Water gas shift activity measurements for 12 transition metals (Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Re, Ir, Pt, Au) supported on inert MgAl2O4 and Ce0.75Zr0.25O2 are presented, to elucidate the influence of the active metal and the support. The activity is related to the adsorption energy of molecular...... activity on the MgAl2O4 support and are both characterized by weak CO adsorption. For the MgAl2O4-supported catalysts a volcano-type relation between the activity and the adsorption energy of atomic oxygen on the metal is obtained. The maximum activity is found for metals with a binding energy of oxygen...... around −2.5 eV. No clear correlation exists with the adsorption energy of CO. In contrast, the activity for the Ce0.75Zr0.25O2 support increases with increasing adsorption strength for CO, and based on a relatively low activity of Cu the activity does not seem to depend on the adsorption energy of oxygen...

  11. Spiritual activities as a resistance resource for women with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowell, R; Moneyham, L; Hennessy, M; Guillory, J; Demi, A; Seals, B

    2000-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the role that spiritual activities play in the adaptational outcomes of women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. To examine the role of spiritual activities as a resource that may reduce the negative effects of disease-related stressors on the adaptational outcomes in HIV-infected women. A theoretically based causal model was tested to examine the role of spiritual activities as a moderator of the impact of HIV-related stressors (functional impairment, work impairment, and HIV-related symptoms) on two stress-related adaptational outcomes (emotional distress and quality of life), using a clinic-based sample of 184 HIV-positive women. Findings indicated that as spiritual activities increased, emotional distress decreased even when adjustments were made for HIV-related stressors. A positive relationship between spiritual activities and quality of life was found, which approached significance. Findings showed that HIV-related stressors have a significant negative effect on both emotional distress and quality of life. The findings support the hypothesis that spiritual activities are an important psychological resource accounting for individual variability in adjustment to the stressors associated with HIV disease.

  12. Workshop on Critical Issues in Microgravity Fluids, Transport, and Reaction Processes in Advanced Human Support Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Joshi, Jitendra A.

    2004-01-01

    This workshop was designed to bring the experts from the Advanced Human Support Technologies communities together to identify the most pressing and fruitful areas of research where success hinges on collaborative research between the two communities. Thus an effort was made to bring together experts in both advanced human support technologies and microgravity fluids, transport and reaction processes. Expertise was drawn from academia, national laboratories, and the federal government. The intent was to bring about a thorough exchange of ideas and develop recommendations to address the significant open design and operation issues for human support systems that are affected by fluid physics, transport and reaction processes. This report provides a summary of key discussions, findings, and recommendations.

  13. A Human Activity Recognition System Using Skeleton Data from RGBD Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cippitelli, Enea; Gasparrini, Samuele; Gambi, Ennio; Spinsante, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of Active and Assisted Living is to develop tools to promote the ageing in place of elderly people, and human activity recognition algorithms can help to monitor aged people in home environments. Different types of sensors can be used to address this task and the RGBD sensors, especially the ones used for gaming, are cost-effective and provide much information about the environment. This work aims to propose an activity recognition algorithm exploiting skeleton data extracted by RGBD sensors. The system is based on the extraction of key poses to compose a feature vector, and a multiclass Support Vector Machine to perform classification. Computation and association of key poses are carried out using a clustering algorithm, without the need of a learning algorithm. The proposed approach is evaluated on five publicly available datasets for activity recognition, showing promising results especially when applied for the recognition of AAL related actions. Finally, the current applicability of this solution in AAL scenarios and the future improvements needed are discussed.

  14. A Human Activity Recognition System Using Skeleton Data from RGBD Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enea Cippitelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of Active and Assisted Living is to develop tools to promote the ageing in place of elderly people, and human activity recognition algorithms can help to monitor aged people in home environments. Different types of sensors can be used to address this task and the RGBD sensors, especially the ones used for gaming, are cost-effective and provide much information about the environment. This work aims to propose an activity recognition algorithm exploiting skeleton data extracted by RGBD sensors. The system is based on the extraction of key poses to compose a feature vector, and a multiclass Support Vector Machine to perform classification. Computation and association of key poses are carried out using a clustering algorithm, without the need of a learning algorithm. The proposed approach is evaluated on five publicly available datasets for activity recognition, showing promising results especially when applied for the recognition of AAL related actions. Finally, the current applicability of this solution in AAL scenarios and the future improvements needed are discussed.

  15. Activation of human factor V by factor Xa and thrombin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monkovic, D.D.; Tracy, P.B.

    1990-01-01

    The activation of human factor V by factor Xa and thrombin was studied by functional assessment of cofactor activity and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polycarylamide gel electrophoresis followed by either autoradiography of 125 I-labeled factor V activation products or Western blot analyses of unlabeled factor V activation products. Cofactor activity was measured by the ability of the factor V/Va peptides to support the activation of prothrombin. The factor Xa catalyzed cleavage of factor V was observed to be time, phospholipid, and calcium ion dependent, yielding a cofactor with activity equal to that of thrombin-activated factor V (factor Va). The cleavage pattern differed markedly from the one observed in the bovine system. The factor Xa activated factor V subunits expressing cofactor activity were isolated and found to consist of peptides of M r 220,000 and 105,000. Although thrombin cleaved the M r 220,000 peptide to yield peptides previously shown to be products of thrombin activation, cofactor activity did not increase. N-Terminal sequence analysis confirmed that both factor Xa and thrombin cleave factor V at the same bond to generate the M r 220,000 peptide. The factor Xa dependent functional assessment of 125 I-labeled factor V coupled with densitometric analyses of the cleavage products indicated that the cofactor activity of factor Xa activated factor V closely paralleled the appearance of the M r 220,000 peptide. The data indicate that factor Xa is as efficient an enzyme toward factor V as thrombin

  16. A Quantitative Index to Support Recurrence Prevention Plans of Human-Related Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yochan; Park, Jinkyun; Jung, Wondea [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Do Sam; Lee, Durk Hun [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In Korea, HuRAM+ (Human related event Root cause Analysis Method plus) was developed to scrutinize the causes of the human-related events. The information of the human-related events investigated by the HuRAM+ method has been also managed by a database management system, R-tracer. It is obvious that accumulating data of human error causes aims to support plans that reduce recurrences of similar events. However, in spite of the efforts for the development of the human error database, it was indicated that the database does not provide useful empirical basis for establishment of the recurrence prevention plans, because the framework to interpret the collected data and apply the insights from the data into the prevention plants has not been developed yet. In this paper, in order to support establishment of the recurrence prevention plans, a quantitative index, Human Error Repeat Interval (HERI), was proposed and its applications to human error prevention were introduced. In this paper, a quantitative index, the HERI was proposed and the statistics of HERIs were introduced. These estimations can be employed to evaluate effects of recurrence prevention plans to human errors. If a mean HERI score is low and the linear trend is not positive, it can be suspected that the recurrence prevention plans applied every human-related event has not been effectively propagated. For reducing repetitive error causes, the system design or operational culture can be reviewed. If there is a strong and negative trend, systematic investigation of the root causes behind these trends is required. Likewise, we expect that the HERI index will provide significant basis for establishing or adjusting prevention plans of human errors. The accurate estimation and application of HERI scores is expected to be done after accumulating more data. When a scatter plot of HERIs is fitted by two or more models, a statistical model selection method can be employed. Some criteria have been introduced by

  17. A Quantitative Index to Support Recurrence Prevention Plans of Human-Related Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yochan; Park, Jinkyun; Jung, Wondea; Kim, Do Sam; Lee, Durk Hun

    2015-01-01

    In Korea, HuRAM+ (Human related event Root cause Analysis Method plus) was developed to scrutinize the causes of the human-related events. The information of the human-related events investigated by the HuRAM+ method has been also managed by a database management system, R-tracer. It is obvious that accumulating data of human error causes aims to support plans that reduce recurrences of similar events. However, in spite of the efforts for the development of the human error database, it was indicated that the database does not provide useful empirical basis for establishment of the recurrence prevention plans, because the framework to interpret the collected data and apply the insights from the data into the prevention plants has not been developed yet. In this paper, in order to support establishment of the recurrence prevention plans, a quantitative index, Human Error Repeat Interval (HERI), was proposed and its applications to human error prevention were introduced. In this paper, a quantitative index, the HERI was proposed and the statistics of HERIs were introduced. These estimations can be employed to evaluate effects of recurrence prevention plans to human errors. If a mean HERI score is low and the linear trend is not positive, it can be suspected that the recurrence prevention plans applied every human-related event has not been effectively propagated. For reducing repetitive error causes, the system design or operational culture can be reviewed. If there is a strong and negative trend, systematic investigation of the root causes behind these trends is required. Likewise, we expect that the HERI index will provide significant basis for establishing or adjusting prevention plans of human errors. The accurate estimation and application of HERI scores is expected to be done after accumulating more data. When a scatter plot of HERIs is fitted by two or more models, a statistical model selection method can be employed. Some criteria have been introduced by

  18. Endothelial MMP14 is required for endothelial-dependent growth support of human airway basal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Bi-Sen; Gomi, Kazunori; Rafii, Shahin; Crystal, Ronald G.; Walters, Matthew S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human airway basal cells are the stem (or progenitor) population of the airway epithelium, and play a central role in anchoring the epithelium to the basement membrane. The anatomic position of basal cells allows for potential paracrine signaling between them and the underlying non-epithelial stromal cells. In support of this, we have previously demonstrated that endothelial cells support growth of basal cells during co-culture through vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA)-mediated signaling. Building on these findings, we found, by RNA sequencing analysis, that basal cells expressed multiple fibroblast growth factor (FGF) ligands (FGF2, FGF5, FGF11 and FGF13) and that only FGF2 and FGF5 were capable of functioning in a paracrine manner to activate classical FGF receptor (FGFR) signaling. Antibody-mediated blocking of FGFR1 during basal-cell–endothelial-cell co-culture significantly reduced the endothelial-cell-dependent basal cell growth. Stimulation of endothelial cells with basal-cell-derived growth factors induced endothelial cell expression of matrix metallopeptidase 14 (MMP14), and short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of endothelial cell MMP14 significantly reduced the endothelial-cell-dependent growth of basal cells. Overall, these data characterize a new growth-factor-mediated reciprocal ‘crosstalk’ between human airway basal cells and endothelial cells that regulates proliferation of basal cells. PMID:26116571

  19. Modeling and Visualization of Human Activities for Multicamera Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aswin C. Sankaranarayanan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Multicamera networks are becoming complex involving larger sensing areas in order to capture activities and behavior that evolve over long spatial and temporal windows. This necessitates novel methods to process the information sensed by the network and visualize it for an end user. In this paper, we describe a system for modeling and on-demand visualization of activities of groups of humans. Using the prior knowledge of the 3D structure of the scene as well as camera calibration, the system localizes humans as they navigate the scene. Activities of interest are detected by matching models of these activities learnt a priori against the multiview observations. The trajectories and the activity index for each individual summarize the dynamic content of the scene. These are used to render the scene with virtual 3D human models that mimic the observed activities of real humans. In particular, the rendering framework is designed to handle large displays with a cluster of GPUs as well as reduce the cognitive dissonance by rendering realistic weather effects and illumination. We envision use of this system for immersive visualization as well as summarization of videos that capture group behavior.

  20. Proposed Project Selection Method for Human Support Research and Technology Development (HSR&TD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of HSR&TD is to deliver human support technologies to the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) that will be selected for future missions. This requires identifying promising candidate technologies and advancing them in technology readiness until they are acceptable. HSR&TD must select an may of technology development projects, guide them, and either terminate or continue them, so as to maximize the resulting number of usable advanced human support technologies. This paper proposes an effective project scoring methodology to support managing the HSR&TD project portfolio. Researchers strongly disagree as to what are the best technology project selection methods, or even if there are any proven ones. Technology development is risky and outstanding achievements are rare and unpredictable. There is no simple formula for success. Organizations that are satisfied with their project selection approach typically use a mix of financial, strategic, and scoring methods in an open, established, explicit, formal process. This approach helps to build consensus and develop management insight. It encourages better project proposals by clarifying the desired project attributes. We propose a project scoring technique based on a method previously used in a federal laboratory and supported by recent research. Projects are ranked by their perceived relevance, risk, and return - a new 3 R's. Relevance is the degree to which the project objective supports the HSR&TD goal of developing usable advanced human support technologies. Risk is the estimated probability that the project will achieve its specific objective. Return is the reduction in mission life cycle cost obtained if the project is successful. If the project objective technology performs a new function with no current cost, its return is the estimated cash value of performing the new function. The proposed project selection scoring method includes definitions of the criteria, a project evaluation

  1. Hydrotreatment activities of supported molybdenum nitrides and carbides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolce, G.M.; Savage, P.E.; Thompson, L.T. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-05-01

    The growing need for alternative sources of transportation fuels encourages the development of new hydrotreatment catalysts. These catalysts must be active and more hydrogen efficient than the current commercial hydrotreatment catalysts. Molybdenum nitrides and carbides are attractive candidate materials possessing properties that are comparable or superior to those of commercial sulfide catalysts. This research investigated the catalytic properties of {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported molybdenum nitrides and carbides. These catalysts were synthesized via temperature-programmed reaction of supported molybdenum oxides with ammonia or methane/hydrogen mixtures. Phase constituents and compositions were determined by X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, and neutral activation analysis. Oxygen chemisorption was used to probe the surface properties of the catalysts. Specific activities of the molybdenum nitrides and carbides were competitive with those of a commercial sulfide catalyst for hydrodenitrogenation (HDN), hydrodesulfurization (HDS), and hydrodeoxygenation (HDO). For HDN and HDS, the catalytic activity on a molybdenum basis was a strong inverse function of the molybdenum loading. Product distributions of the HDN, HDO and HDS of a variety of heteroatom compounds indicated that several of the nitrides and carbides were more hydrogen efficient than the sulfide catalyst. 35 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Hierarchical Spatial Concept Formation Based on Multimodal Information for Human Support Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Yoshinobu; Inoue, Masakazu; Kobayashi, Hiroyoshi; Taniguchi, Tadahiro

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a hierarchical spatial concept formation method based on the Bayesian generative model with multimodal information e.g., vision, position and word information. Since humans have the ability to select an appropriate level of abstraction according to the situation and describe their position linguistically, e.g., "I am in my home" and "I am in front of the table," a hierarchical structure of spatial concepts is necessary in order for human support robots to communicate smoothly with users. The proposed method enables a robot to form hierarchical spatial concepts by categorizing multimodal information using hierarchical multimodal latent Dirichlet allocation (hMLDA). Object recognition results using convolutional neural network (CNN), hierarchical k-means clustering result of self-position estimated by Monte Carlo localization (MCL), and a set of location names are used, respectively, as features in vision, position, and word information. Experiments in forming hierarchical spatial concepts and evaluating how the proposed method can predict unobserved location names and position categories are performed using a robot in the real world. Results verify that, relative to comparable baseline methods, the proposed method enables a robot to predict location names and position categories closer to predictions made by humans. As an application example of the proposed method in a home environment, a demonstration in which a human support robot moves to an instructed place based on human speech instructions is achieved based on the formed hierarchical spatial concept.

  3. Hierarchical Spatial Concept Formation Based on Multimodal Information for Human Support Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinobu Hagiwara

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a hierarchical spatial concept formation method based on the Bayesian generative model with multimodal information e.g., vision, position and word information. Since humans have the ability to select an appropriate level of abstraction according to the situation and describe their position linguistically, e.g., “I am in my home” and “I am in front of the table,” a hierarchical structure of spatial concepts is necessary in order for human support robots to communicate smoothly with users. The proposed method enables a robot to form hierarchical spatial concepts by categorizing multimodal information using hierarchical multimodal latent Dirichlet allocation (hMLDA. Object recognition results using convolutional neural network (CNN, hierarchical k-means clustering result of self-position estimated by Monte Carlo localization (MCL, and a set of location names are used, respectively, as features in vision, position, and word information. Experiments in forming hierarchical spatial concepts and evaluating how the proposed method can predict unobserved location names and position categories are performed using a robot in the real world. Results verify that, relative to comparable baseline methods, the proposed method enables a robot to predict location names and position categories closer to predictions made by humans. As an application example of the proposed method in a home environment, a demonstration in which a human support robot moves to an instructed place based on human speech instructions is achieved based on the formed hierarchical spatial concept.

  4. Study of the catalytic activity of supported technetium catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitsyn, V.I.; Mikhailenko, I.E.; Pokorovskaya, O.V.

    1985-01-01

    The radioactive d metal 43 Tc 99 has catalytic properties in the synthesis of ammonia. For the purpose of reducing the quantity of the radioactive metal and of increasing the specific surface, the active component was applied to BaTiO 3 and gamma-Al 2 O 3 supports. This paper uses charcoal as a support and a table presents the catalytic activity of the samples during the synthesis of ammonia. X-ray diffractometric investigation of the catalysts was carried out with the use of Cu K /SUB alpha/ radiation. It is shown that the catalysts. The values of the specific rate constants of technetium in the catalysts. The values of the specific rate constants remain practically constant for all the catalyst samples studied, attesting to the absence of a specific metal-support interaction during the synthesis of ammonia

  5. Human-in-the-loop evaluation of RMS Active Damping Augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeo, Martha E.; Gilbert, Michael G.; Scott, Michael A.; Lepanto, Janet A.; Bains, Elizabeth M.; Jensen, Mary C.

    1993-01-01

    Active Damping Augmentation is the insertion of Controls-Structures Integration Technology to benefit the on-orbit performance of the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System. The goal is to reduce the vibration decay time of the Remote Manipulator System following normal payload maneuvers and operations. Simulation of Active Damping Augmentation was conducted in the realtime human-in-the-loop Systems Engineering Simulator at the NASA Johnson Space Center. The objective of this study was to obtain a qualitative measure of operational performance improvement from astronaut operators and to obtain supporting quantitative performance data. Sensing of vibratory motions was simulated using a three-axis accelerometer mounted at the end of the lower boom of the Remote Manipulator System. The sensed motions were used in a feedback control law to generate commands to the joint servo mechanisms which reduced the unwanted oscillations. Active damping of the Remote Manipulator System with an attached 3990 lb. payload was successfully demonstrated. Six astronaut operators examined the performance of an Active Damping Augmentation control law following single-joint and coordinated six-joint translational and rotational maneuvers. Active Damping Augmentation disturbance rejection of Orbiter thruster firings was also evaluated. Significant reductions in the dynamic response of the 3990 lb. payload were observed. Astronaut operators recommended investigation of Active Damping Augmentation benefits to heavier payloads where oscillations are a bigger problem (e.g. Space Station Freedom assembly operators).

  6. Adhesion and metabolic activity of human corneal cells on PCL based nanofiber matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stafiej, Piotr; Küng, Florian [Department of Ophthalmology, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Institute of Polymer Materials, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Martensstraße 7, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Thieme, Daniel; Czugala, Marta; Kruse, Friedrich E. [Department of Ophthalmology, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Schubert, Dirk W. [Institute of Polymer Materials, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Martensstraße 7, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Fuchsluger, Thomas A., E-mail: thomas.fuchsluger@uk-erlangen.de [Department of Ophthalmology, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)

    2017-02-01

    In this work, polycaprolactone (PCL) was used as a basic polymer for electrospinning of random and aligned nanofiber matrices. Our aim was to develop a biocompatible substrate for ophthalmological application to improve wound closure in defects of the cornea as replacement for human amniotic membrane. We investigated whether blending the hydrophobic PCL with poly (glycerol sebacate) (PGS) or chitosan (CHI) improves the biocompatibility of the matrices for cell expansion. Human corneal epithelial cells (HCEp) and human corneal keratocytes (HCK) were used for in vitro biocompatibility studies. After optimization of the electrospinning parameters for all blends, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and water contact angle were used to characterize the different matrices. Fluorescence staining of the F-actin cytoskeleton of the cells was performed to analyze the adherence of the cells to the different matrices. Metabolic activity of the cells was measured by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) for 20 days to compare the biocompatibility of the materials. Our results show the feasibility of producing uniform nanofiber matrices with and without orientation for the used blends. All materials support adherence and proliferation of human corneal cell lines with oriented growth on aligned matrices. Although hydrophobicity of the materials was lowered by blending PCL, no increase in biocompatibility or proliferation, as was expected, could be measured. All tested matrices supported the expansion of human corneal cells, confirming their potential as substrates for biomedical applications. - Highlights: • PCL was blended with chitosan and poly(glycerol sebacate) for electrospinning. • Biocompatibility was proven with two human corneal cell lines. • Both cell lines adhered and proliferated on random and aligned nanofiber matrices. • Cytoskeletal orientation is shown on aligned nanofiber matrices.

  7. Altered endoribonuclease activity of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 variants identified in the human population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Cheol Kim

    Full Text Available Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1 is the major mammalian enzyme in the DNA base excision repair pathway and cleaves the DNA phosphodiester backbone immediately 5' to abasic sites. APE1 also has 3'-5' DNA exonuclease and 3' DNA phosphodiesterase activities, and regulates transcription factor DNA binding through its redox regulatory function. The human APE1 has recently been shown to endonucleolytically cleave single-stranded regions of RNA. Towards understanding the biological significance of the endoribonuclease activity of APE1, we examined eight different amino acid substitution variants of APE1 previously identified in the human population. Our study shows that six APE1 variants, D148E, Q51H, I64V, G241R, R237A, and G306A, exhibit a 76-85% reduction in endoribonuclease activity against a specific coding region of the c-myc RNA, yet fully retain the ability to cleave apurinic/apyrimidinic DNA. We found that two APE1 variants, L104R and E126D, exhibit a unique RNase inhibitor-resistant endoribonuclease activity, where the proteins cleave c-myc RNA 3' of specific single-stranded guanosine residues. Expression of L104R and E126D APE1 variants in bacterial Origami cells leads to a 60-80% reduction in colony formation and a 1.5-fold increase in cell doubling time, whereas the other variants, which exhibit diminished endoribonuclease activity, had no effect. These data indicate that two human APE1 variants exhibit a unique endoribonuclease activity, which correlates with their ability to induce cytotoxicity or slow down growth in bacterial cells and supports the notion of their biological functionality.

  8. A human activity approach to User Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne

    1989-01-01

    the work situations in which computer-based artifacts are used: The framework deals with the role of the user interface in purposeful human work. Human activity theory is used in this analysis. The purpose of this article is to make the reader curious and hopefully open his or her eyes to a somewhat...

  9. Human activities threatening the biodiversity of the Uzungwa Scarp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies of human activities in the Uzungwa Scarp Forest Reserve, Udzungwa Mountains, were conducted in March-April and September 1997, in the western and southern parts of the forest. Different human activities, such as timber and pole cutting and withies harvesting, as well as the collection of non-timber forest ...

  10. Detection of cardiac activity changes from human speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovarek, Jaromir; Partila, Pavol; Voznak, Miroslav; Mikulec, Martin; Mehic, Miralem

    2015-05-01

    Impact of changes in blood pressure and pulse from human speech is disclosed in this article. The symptoms of increased physical activity are pulse, systolic and diastolic pressure. There are many methods of measuring and indicating these parameters. The measurements must be carried out using devices which are not used in everyday life. In most cases, the measurement of blood pressure and pulse following health problems or other adverse feelings. Nowadays, research teams are trying to design and implement modern methods in ordinary human activities. The main objective of the proposal is to reduce the delay between detecting the adverse pressure and to the mentioned warning signs and feelings. Common and frequent activity of man is speaking, while it is known that the function of the vocal tract can be affected by the change in heart activity. Therefore, it can be a useful parameter for detecting physiological changes. A method for detecting human physiological changes by speech processing and artificial neural network classification is described in this article. The pulse and blood pressure changes was induced by physical exercises in this experiment. The set of measured subjects was formed by ten healthy volunteers of both sexes. None of the subjects was a professional athlete. The process of the experiment was divided into phases before, during and after physical training. Pulse, systolic, diastolic pressure was measured and voice activity was recorded after each of them. The results of this experiment describe a method for detecting increased cardiac activity from human speech using artificial neural network.

  11. Human CD141+ Dendritic Cell and CD1c+ Dendritic Cell Undergo Concordant Early Genetic Programming after Activation in Humanized Mice In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihito Minoda

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Human immune cell subsets develop in immunodeficient mice following reconstitution with human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells. These “humanized” mice are useful models to study human immunology and human-tropic infections, autoimmunity, and cancer. However, some human immune cell subsets are unable to fully develop or acquire full functional capacity due to a lack of cross-reactivity of many growth factors and cytokines between species. Conventional dendritic cells (cDCs in mice are categorized into cDC1, which mediate T helper (Th1 and CD8+ T cell responses, and cDC2, which mediate Th2 and Th17 responses. The likely human equivalents are CD141+ DC and CD1c+ DC subsets for mouse cDC1 and cDC2, respectively, but the extent of any interspecies differences is poorly characterized. Here, we exploit the fact that human CD141+ DC and CD1c+ DC develop in humanized mice, to further explore their equivalency in vivo. Global transcriptome analysis of CD141+ DC and CD1c+ DC isolated from humanized mice demonstrated that they closely resemble those in human blood. Activation of DC subsets in vivo, with the TLR3 ligand poly I:C, and the TLR7/8 ligand R848 revealed that a core panel of genes consistent with DC maturation status were upregulated by both subsets. R848 specifically upregulated genes associated with Th17 responses by CD1c+ DC, while poly I:C upregulated IFN-λ genes specifically by CD141+ DC. MYCL expression, known to be essential for CD8+ T cell priming by mouse DC, was specifically induced in CD141+ DC after activation. Concomitantly, CD141+ DC were superior to CD1c+ DC in their ability to prime naïve antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. Thus, CD141+ DC and CD1c+ DC share a similar activation profiles in vivo but also have induce unique signatures that support specialized roles in CD8+ T cell priming and Th17 responses, respectively. In combination, these data demonstrate that humanized mice provide an attractive and tractable model to study

  12. Integral Public Activities as a Support to the Site Selection Process for LILW Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleznik, N.; Kralj, M.

    2008-01-01

    The first site selection process for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) repository took place between 1990 and 1993 in Slovenia was stopped unsuccessfully with very strong public opposition at local level, followed by political withdrawal on national level. As one of the consequences ARAO started to develop new approach to the site selection based also on the findings from sociology, psychology and other human sciences. The recommendations on public involvement and transparency were so strong that ARAO started with first limited public relation (PR) activities which later grew to the PR process which supports all technical activities in ARAO. Presently the PR process covers communication, information and research activities and assures careful planning, prompt responds and involvement of the highest responsible persons at ARAO. Integral public relation activities are divided in several parts. Majority of activities support the on-going site selection process where activities are presently focused on functioning of local partnerships developed as a basic communication tool to involve as much citizens and public as possible on local level. Presently two local partnerships are working in Krsko and Brezice community with clear role to enhance public involvement according to Aarchus convention. Each of the partnerships is organized in a specific way adjusted to the local needs. Communication activities are organized also for different other projects and are preparing the necessary basis for the work with different groups of stake holders and in different situations. As a foundation very broad information material, such as books, leaflets, reports, magazines, video cassettes, CD and DVD on the radioactive waste management is prepared and used for different purposes. We also try to be proactive with web pages and have a well organized visitors' center. Improvement of public relation process is achieved through constant survey and feed-back information

  13. Personalizing Narratives to Support Motivation for Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Olli; Oduor, Michael; Isomursu, Minna

    2017-01-01

    and self-monitoring are common for activity and emotion tracking applications, and lately there has been interest also in the use of narratives. Consequently, in this study we evaluate through a qualitative study how narratives are used to motivate physical activity. We analyze both user and system......Technology supporting motivation for physical activity has been a common theme for researchers and companies during the last decade. Mobile devices and applications with diverse features provide novel and personalized ways to motivate users for healthier lifestyles. Features like goal orientation...

  14. Evidence supporting a zoonotic origin of human coronavirus strain NL63.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Jeremy; Li, Shimena; Yount, Boyd; Smith, Alexander; Sturges, Leslie; Olsen, John C; Nagel, Juliet; Johnson, Joshua B; Agnihothram, Sudhakar; Gates, J Edward; Frieman, Matthew B; Baric, Ralph S; Donaldson, Eric F

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between bats and coronaviruses (CoVs) has received considerable attention since the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-like CoV was identified in the Chinese horseshoe bat (Rhinolophidae) in 2005. Since then, several bats throughout the world have been shown to shed CoV sequences, and presumably CoVs, in the feces; however, no bat CoVs have been isolated from nature. Moreover, there are very few bat cell lines or reagents available for investigating CoV replication in bat cells or for isolating bat CoVs adapted to specific bat species. Here, we show by molecular clock analysis that alphacoronavirus (α-CoV) sequences derived from the North American tricolored bat (Perimyotis subflavus) are predicted to share common ancestry with human CoV (HCoV)-NL63, with the most recent common ancestor between these viruses occurring approximately 563 to 822 years ago. Further, we developed immortalized bat cell lines from the lungs of this bat species to determine if these cells were capable of supporting infection with HCoVs. While SARS-CoV, mouse-adapted SARS-CoV (MA15), and chimeric SARS-CoVs bearing the spike genes of early human strains replicated inefficiently, HCoV-NL63 replicated for multiple passages in the immortalized lung cells from this bat species. These observations support the hypothesis that human CoVs are capable of establishing zoonotic-reverse zoonotic transmission cycles that may allow some CoVs to readily circulate and exchange genetic material between strains found in bats and other mammals, including humans.

  15. Effects of training and weight support on muscle activation in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Martin H; Løkkegaard, Annemette; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Jensen, Bente R

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high-intensity locomotor training on knee extensor and flexor muscle activation and adaptability to increased body-weight (BW) support during walking in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Thirteen male patients with idiopathic PD and eight healthy participants were included. The PD patients completed an 8-week training program on a lower-body, positive-pressure treadmill. Knee extensor and flexor muscles activation during steady treadmill walking (3 km/h) were measured before, at the mid-point, and after training. Increasing BW support decreased knee extensor muscle activation (normalization) and increased knee flexor muscle activation (abnormal) in PD patients when compared to healthy participants. Training improved flexor peak muscle activation adaptability to increased (BW) support during walking in PD patients. During walking without BW support shorter knee extensor muscle off-activation time and increased relative peak muscle activation was observed in PD patients and did not improve with 8 weeks of training. In conclusion, patients with PD walked with excessive activation of the knee extensor and flexor muscles when compared to healthy participants. Specialized locomotor training may facilitate adaptive processes related to motor control of walking in PD patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhanced casein kinase II activity in human tumour cell cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowald, K; Fischer, H; Issinger, O G

    1984-01-01

    Casein kinase II (CKII) activity is enhanced as much as 2-3 fold in established and 4-5-fold in transformed human cell lines when compared to that of fibroblasts and primary human tumour cell cultures where CKII activity never exceeded a basic level. The high activity of CKII in transformed cells...

  17. Next Generation Life Support Project Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Chullen, Cinda; Vega, Leticia; Cox, Marlon R.; Aitchison, Lindsay T.; Lange, Kevin E.; Pensinger, Stuart J.; Meyer, Caitlin E.; Flynn, Michael; Jackson, W. Andrew; hide

    2014-01-01

    Next Generation Life Support (NGLS) is one of over twenty technology development projects sponsored by NASA's Game Changing Development Program. The NGLS Project develops selected life support technologies needed for humans to live and work productively in space, with focus on technologies for future use in spacecraft cabin and space suit applications. Over the last three years, NGLS had five main project elements: Variable Oxygen Regulator (VOR), Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing bed, High Performance (HP) Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Glove, Alternative Water Processor (AWP) and Series-Bosch Carbon Dioxide Reduction. The RCA swing bed, VOR and HP EVA Glove tasks are directed at key technology needs for the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) and pressure garment for an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). Focus is on prototyping and integrated testing in cooperation with the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Advanced EVA Project. The HP EVA Glove Element, new this fiscal year, includes the generation of requirements and standards to guide development and evaluation of new glove designs. The AWP and Bosch efforts focus on regenerative technologies to further close spacecraft cabin atmosphere revitalization and water recovery loops and to meet technology maturation milestones defined in NASA's Space Technology Roadmaps. These activities are aimed at increasing affordability, reliability, and vehicle self-sufficiency while decreasing mass and mission cost, supporting a capability-driven architecture for extending human presence beyond low-Earth orbit, along a human path toward Mars. This paper provides a status of current technology development activities with a brief overview of future plans.

  18. METHANE DRY REFORMING OVER Ni SUPPORTED ON PINE SAWDUST ACTIVATED CARBON: EFFECTS OF SUPPORT SURFACE PROPERTIES AND METAL LOADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael García

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of metal loading and support surface functional groups (SFG on methane dry reforming (MDR over Ni catalysts supported on pine-sawdust derived activated carbon were studied. Using pine sawdust as the catalyst support precursor, the smallest variety and lowest concentration of SFG led to best Ni dispersion and highest catalytic activity, which increased with Ni loading up to 3 Ni atoms nm-2. At higher Ni loading, the formation of large metal aggregates was observed, consistent with a lower "apparen" surface area and a decrease in catalytic activity. The H2/CO ratio rose with increasing reaction temperature, indicating that increasingly important side reactions were taking place in addition to MDR.

  19. Human activity understanding for robot-assisted living

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, N.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigated the problem of understanding human activities, at different levels of granularity and taking into account both the variability in activities and annotator disagreement. To be able to capture the large variations within each of the action classes, we propose a model that uses

  20. Effects of training and weight support on muscle activation in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Martin Høyer; Løkkegaard, Annemette; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high-intensity locomotor training on knee extensor and flexor muscle activation and adaptability to increased body-weight (BW) support during walking in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Thirteen male patients with idiopathic PD and eight...... healthy participants were included. The PD patients completed an 8-week training program on a lower-body, positive-pressure treadmill. Knee extensor and flexor muscles activation during steady treadmill walking (3km/h) were measured before, at the mid-point, and after training. Increasing BW support...... decreased knee extensor muscle activation (normalization) and increased knee flexor muscle activation (abnormal) in PD patients when compared to healthy participants. Training improved flexor peak muscle activation adaptability to increased (BW) support during walking in PD patients. During walking without...

  1. Human Activity Recognition as Time-Series Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyesuk Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a system that can recognize daily human activities with a Kinect-style depth camera. Our system utilizes a set of view-invariant features and the hidden state conditional random field (HCRF model to recognize human activities from the 3D body pose stream provided by MS Kinect API or OpenNI. Many high-level daily activities can be regarded as having a hierarchical structure where multiple subactivities are performed sequentially or iteratively. In order to model effectively these high-level daily activities, we utilized a multiclass HCRF model, which is a kind of probabilistic graphical models. In addition, in order to get view-invariant, but more informative features, we extract joint angles from the subject’s skeleton model and then perform the feature transformation to obtain three different types of features regarding motion, structure, and hand positions. Through various experiments using two different datasets, KAD-30 and CAD-60, the high performance of our system is verified.

  2. Human cognitive task distribution model for maintenance support system of a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Ho

    2007-02-15

    In human factors research, more attention has been devoted to the operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs) than to their maintenance. However, human error related to maintenance is 45% among the total human errors from 1990 to 2005 in Korean nuclear power plants. Therefore, it is necessary to study human factors in the maintenance of an NPP. There is a current trend toward introducing digital technology into both safety and non-safety systems in NPPs. A variety of information about plant conditions can be used digitally. In the future, maintenance support systems will be developed based on an information-oriented NPP. In this context, it is necessary to study the cognitive tasks of the personnel involved in maintenance and the interaction between the personnel and maintenance support systems. The fundamental purpose of this work is how to distribute the cognitive tasks of the personnel involved in the maintenance in order to develop a maintenance support system that considers human factors. The second purpose is to find the causes of errors due to engineers or maintainers and propose system functions that are countermeasures to reduce these errors. In this paper, a cognitive task distribution model of the personnel involved in maintenance is proposed using Rasmussen's decision making model. First, the personnel were divided into three groups: the operators (inspectors), engineers, and maintainers. Second, human cognitive tasks related to maintenance were distributed based on these groups. The operators' cognitive tasks are detection and observation; the engineers' cognitive tasks are identification, evaluation, target state, select target, and procedure: and the maintainers' cognitive task is execution. The case study is an analysis of failure reports related to human error in maintenance over a period of 15years. By using error classification based on the information processing approach, the human errors involved in maintenance were classified

  3. Human cognitive task distribution model for maintenance support system of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Young Ho

    2007-02-01

    In human factors research, more attention has been devoted to the operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs) than to their maintenance. However, human error related to maintenance is 45% among the total human errors from 1990 to 2005 in Korean nuclear power plants. Therefore, it is necessary to study human factors in the maintenance of an NPP. There is a current trend toward introducing digital technology into both safety and non-safety systems in NPPs. A variety of information about plant conditions can be used digitally. In the future, maintenance support systems will be developed based on an information-oriented NPP. In this context, it is necessary to study the cognitive tasks of the personnel involved in maintenance and the interaction between the personnel and maintenance support systems. The fundamental purpose of this work is how to distribute the cognitive tasks of the personnel involved in the maintenance in order to develop a maintenance support system that considers human factors. The second purpose is to find the causes of errors due to engineers or maintainers and propose system functions that are countermeasures to reduce these errors. In this paper, a cognitive task distribution model of the personnel involved in maintenance is proposed using Rasmussen's decision making model. First, the personnel were divided into three groups: the operators (inspectors), engineers, and maintainers. Second, human cognitive tasks related to maintenance were distributed based on these groups. The operators' cognitive tasks are detection and observation; the engineers' cognitive tasks are identification, evaluation, target state, select target, and procedure: and the maintainers' cognitive task is execution. The case study is an analysis of failure reports related to human error in maintenance over a period of 15years. By using error classification based on the information processing approach, the human errors involved in maintenance were classified

  4. Consistent selection towards low activity phenotypes when catchability depends on encounters among human predators and fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Alós

    Full Text Available Together with life-history and underlying physiology, the behavioural variability among fish is one of the three main trait axes that determines the vulnerability to fishing. However, there are only a few studies that have systematically investigated the strength and direction of selection acting on behavioural traits. Using in situ fish behaviour revealed by telemetry techniques as input, we developed an individual-based model (IBM that simulated the Lagrangian trajectory of prey (fish moving within a confined home range (HR. Fishers exhibiting various prototypical fishing styles targeted these fish in the model. We initially hypothesised that more active and more explorative individuals would be systematically removed under all fished conditions, in turn creating negative selection differentials on low activity phenotypes and maybe on small HR. Our results partly supported these general predictions. Standardised selection differentials were, on average, more negative on HR than on activity. However, in many simulation runs, positive selection pressures on HR were also identified, which resulted from the stochastic properties of the fishes' movement and its interaction with the human predator. In contrast, there was a consistent negative selection on activity under all types of fishing styles. Therefore, in situations where catchability depends on spatial encounters between human predators and fish, we would predict a consistent selection towards low activity phenotypes and have less faith in the direction of the selection on HR size. Our study is the first theoretical investigation on the direction of fishery-induced selection of behaviour using passive fishing gears. The few empirical studies where catchability of fish was measured in relation to passive fishing techniques, such as gill-nets, traps or recreational fishing, support our predictions that fish in highly exploited situations are, on average, characterised by low swimming activity

  5. Human α-amylase present in lower-genital-tract mucosal fluid processes glycogen to support vaginal colonization by Lactobacillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Gregory T; French, Audrey L; Gilbert, Douglas; Zariffard, M Reza; Mirmonsef, Paria; Sullivan, Thomas H; Spear, William W; Landay, Alan; Micci, Sandra; Lee, Byung-Hoo; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2014-10-01

    Lactobacillus colonization of the lower female genital tract provides protection from the acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus, and from adverse pregnancy outcomes. While glycogen in vaginal epithelium is thought to support Lactobacillus colonization in vivo, many Lactobacillus isolates cannot utilize glycogen in vitro. This study investigated how glycogen could be utilized by vaginal lactobacilli in the genital tract. Several Lactobacillus isolates were confirmed to not grow in glycogen, but did grow in glycogen-breakdown products, including maltose, maltotriose, maltopentaose, maltodextrins, and glycogen treated with salivary α-amylase. A temperature-dependent glycogen-degrading activity was detected in genital fluids that correlated with levels of α-amylase. Treatment of glycogen with genital fluids resulted in production of maltose, maltotriose, and maltotetraose, the major products of α-amylase digestion. These studies show that human α-amylase is present in the female lower genital tract and elucidates how epithelial glycogen can support Lactobacillus colonization in the genital tract. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Coupling habitat suitability and ecosystem health with AEHRA to estimate E-flows under intensive human activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C. S.; Yang, S. T.; Zhang, H. T.; Liu, C. M.; Sun, Y.; Yang, Z. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Dong, B. E.; Lim, R. P.

    2017-08-01

    Sustaining adequate environmental flows (e-flows) is a key principle for maintaining river biodiversity and ecosystem health, and for supporting sustainable water resource management in basins under intensive human activities. But few methods could correctly relate river health to e-flows assessment at the catchment scale when they are applied to rivers highly impacted by human activities. An effective method is presented in this study to closely link river health to e-flows assessment for rivers at the catchment scale. Key fish species, as indicators of ecosystem health, were selected by using the foodweb model. A multi-species-based habitat suitability model (MHSI) was improved, and coupled with dominance of the key fish species as well as the Index of Biological Integrity (IBI) to enhance its accuracy in determining the fish-preferred key hydrologic habitat variables related to ecosystem health. Taking 5964 fish samples and concurrent hydrological habitat variables as the basis, the combination of key variables of flow-velocity and water-depth were determined and used to drive the Adapted Ecological Hydraulic Radius Approach (AEHRA) to study e-flows in a Chinese urban river impacted by intensive human activities. Results showed that upstream urbanization resulted in abnormal river-course geomorphology and consequently abnormal e-flows under intensive human activities. Selection of key species based on the foodweb and trophic levels of aquatic ecosystems can reflect a comprehensive requirement on e-flows of the whole aquatic ecosystem, which greatly increases its potential to be used as a guidance tool for rehabilitation of degraded ecosystems at large spatial scales. These findings have significant ramifications for catchment e-flows assessment under intensive human activities and for river ecohealth restoration in such rivers globally.

  7. NiMo-sulfide supported on activated carbon to produce renewable diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Y Acelas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to their weak polarity and large surface area, activated carbon supports have the potential to enhance the dispersion of metal-sulfides. It is expected that the absence of a strong metal-support interaction can result in the formation of a very active and stable Ni-Mo-S phase. In this study, catalysts with different amounts of nickel and molybdenum supported on a commercial activated carbon were prepared by a co-impregnation method and characterized by BET, XRF, and SEM techniques. The catalytic activity for hydroprocessing of Jatropha oil was evaluated in a batch reactor, and the composition of the liquid and gaseous products were determined. Results showed that gaseous products are mainly composed of high amounts of propane and small amounts of other light hydrocarbons (C1 to C5. Liquid hydrocarbon products consisted of a mixture containing mainly n-paraffins of C15-C18 and some oxygenated compounds. The catalysts with a mass fraction of 3 % Ni, 15 % Mo (Ni3Mo15/AC presented the highest selectivity toward C17-C18 hydrocarbons, with a product distribution similar to a commercial alumina-supported Ni-Mo-S catalyst.

  8. Surface Support Systems for Co-Operative and Integrated Human/Robotic Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2006-01-01

    Human and robotic partnerships to realize space goals can enhance space missions and provide increases in human productivity while decreasing the hazards that the humans are exposed to. For lunar exploration, the harsh environment of the moon and the repetitive nature of the tasks involved with lunar outpost construction, maintenance and operation as well as production tasks associated with in-situ resource utilization, make it highly desirable to use robotic systems in co-operation with human activity. A human lunar outpost is functionally examined and concepts for selected human/robotic tasks are discussed in the context of a lunar outpost which will enable the presence of humans on the moon for extended periods of time.

  9. How to support action prediction: Evidence from human coordination tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesper, Cordula

    2014-01-01

    When two or more people perform actions together such as shaking hands, playing ensemble music or carrying an object together, they often naturally adjust the spatial and temporal parameters of their movements to facilitate smooth task performance. This paper reviews recent findings from experime......”) might be a useful approach also for robotic systems to assist human users, thereby reducing cognitive load and flexibly supporting the acquisition of new skills....

  10. Influence of Fragrances on Human Psychophysiological Activity: With Special Reference to Human Electroencephalographic Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandhasamy Sowndhararajan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of fragrances such as perfumes and room fresheners on the psychophysiological activities of humans has been known for a long time, and its significance is gradually increasing in the medicinal and cosmetic industries. A fragrance consists of volatile chemicals with a molecular weight of less than 300 Da that humans perceive through the olfactory system. In humans, about 300 active olfactory receptor genes are devoted to detecting thousands of different fragrance molecules through a large family of olfactory receptors of a diverse protein sequence. The sense of smell plays an important role in the physiological effects of mood, stress, and working capacity. Electrophysiological studies have revealed that various fragrances affected spontaneous brain activities and cognitive functions, which are measured by an electroencephalograph (EEG. The EEG is a good temporal measure of responses in the central nervous system and it provides information about the physiological state of the brain both in health and disease. The EEG power spectrum is classified into different frequency bands such as delta (0.5–4 Hz, theta (4–8 Hz, alpha (8–13 Hz, beta (13–30 Hz and gamma (30–50 Hz, and each band is correlated with different features of brain states. A quantitative EEG uses computer software to provide the topographic mapping of the brain activity in frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital brain regions. It is well known that decreases of alpha and beta activities and increases of delta and theta activities are associated with brain pathology and general cognitive decline. In the last few decades, many scientific studies were conducted to investigate the effect of inhalation of aroma on human brain functions. The studies have suggested a significant role for olfactory stimulation in the alteration of cognition, mood, and social behavior. This review aims to evaluate the available literature regarding the influence of fragrances on the

  11. Influence of Fragrances on Human Psychophysiological Activity: With Special Reference to Human Electroencephalographic Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowndhararajan, Kandhasamy; Kim, Songmun

    2016-01-01

    The influence of fragrances such as perfumes and room fresheners on the psychophysiological activities of humans has been known for a long time, and its significance is gradually increasing in the medicinal and cosmetic industries. A fragrance consists of volatile chemicals with a molecular weight of less than 300 Da that humans perceive through the olfactory system. In humans, about 300 active olfactory receptor genes are devoted to detecting thousands of different fragrance molecules through a large family of olfactory receptors of a diverse protein sequence. The sense of smell plays an important role in the physiological effects of mood, stress, and working capacity. Electrophysiological studies have revealed that various fragrances affected spontaneous brain activities and cognitive functions, which are measured by an electroencephalograph (EEG). The EEG is a good temporal measure of responses in the central nervous system and it provides information about the physiological state of the brain both in health and disease. The EEG power spectrum is classified into different frequency bands such as delta (0.5–4 Hz), theta (4–8 Hz), alpha (8–13 Hz), beta (13–30 Hz) and gamma (30–50 Hz), and each band is correlated with different features of brain states. A quantitative EEG uses computer software to provide the topographic mapping of the brain activity in frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital brain regions. It is well known that decreases of alpha and beta activities and increases of delta and theta activities are associated with brain pathology and general cognitive decline. In the last few decades, many scientific studies were conducted to investigate the effect of inhalation of aroma on human brain functions. The studies have suggested a significant role for olfactory stimulation in the alteration of cognition, mood, and social behavior. This review aims to evaluate the available literature regarding the influence of fragrances on the

  12. Research and development activity in support of LCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubell, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    The research and development activity (RDAC) established in support of the Large Coil Program (LCP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is described. Some experimental results are presented and the importance of the RDAC to the magnet community is discussed

  13. Towards discrete wavelet transform-based human activity recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Manish; Jeon, Moongu

    2017-06-01

    Providing accurate recognition of human activities is a challenging problem for visual surveillance applications. In this paper, we present a simple and efficient algorithm for human activity recognition based on a wavelet transform. We adopt discrete wavelet transform (DWT) coefficients as a feature of human objects to obtain advantages of its multiresolution approach. The proposed method is tested on multiple levels of DWT. Experiments are carried out on different standard action datasets including KTH and i3D Post. The proposed method is compared with other state-of-the-art methods in terms of different quantitative performance measures. The proposed method is found to have better recognition accuracy in comparison to the state-of-the-art methods.

  14. Pervasive Computing Support for Hospitals: An Overview of the Activity-Based Computing Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Bardram, Jakob E

    2007-01-01

    The activity-based computing project researched pervasive computing support for clinical hospital work. Such technologies have potential for supporting the mobile, collaborative, and disruptive use of heterogeneous embedded devices in a hospital......The activity-based computing project researched pervasive computing support for clinical hospital work. Such technologies have potential for supporting the mobile, collaborative, and disruptive use of heterogeneous embedded devices in a hospital...

  15. Student-Centered Modules to Support Active Learning in Hydrology: Development Experiences and Users' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarboton, D. G.; Habib, E. H.; Deshotel, M.; Merck, M. F.; Lall, U.; Farnham, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    Traditional approaches to undergraduate hydrology and water resource education are textbook based, adopt unit processes and rely on idealized examples of specific applications, rather than examining the contextual relations in the processes and the dynamics connecting climate and ecosystems. The overarching goal of this project is to address the needed paradigm shift in undergraduate education of engineering hydrology and water resources education to reflect parallel advances in hydrologic research and technology, mainly in the areas of new observational settings, data and modeling resources and web-based technologies. This study presents efforts to develop a set of learning modules that are case-based, data and simulation driven and delivered via a web user interface. The modules are based on real-world case studies from three regional hydrologic settings: Coastal Louisiana, Utah Rocky Mountains and Florida Everglades. These three systems provide unique learning opportunities on topics such as: regional-scale budget analysis, hydrologic effects of human and natural changes, flashflood protection, climate-hydrology teleconnections and water resource management scenarios. The technical design and contents of the modules aim to support students' ability for transforming their learning outcomes and skills to hydrologic systems other than those used by the specific activity. To promote active learning, the modules take students through a set of highly engaging learning activities that are based on analysis of hydrologic data and model simulations. The modules include user support in the form of feedback and self-assessment mechanisms that are integrated within the online modules. Module effectiveness is assessed through an improvement-focused evaluation model using a mixed-method research approach guiding collection and analysis of evaluation data. Both qualitative and quantitative data are collected through student learning data, product analysis, and staff interviews

  16. Early Assessment of VIIRS On-Orbit Calibration and Support Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Chiang, Kwofu; McIntire, Jeffrey; Oudrari, Hassan; Wu, Aisheng; Schwaller, Mathew; Butler, James

    2012-01-01

    The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite, formally the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP), provides a bridge between current and future low-Earth orbiting weather and environmental observation satellite systems. The NASA s NPP VIIRS Characterization Support Team (VCST) is designed to assess the long term geometric and radiometric performance of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument onboard the S-NPP spacecraft and to support NPP Science Team Principal Investigators (PI) for their independent evaluation of VIIRS Environmental Data Records (EDRs). This paper provides an overview of Suomi NPP VIIRS on-orbit calibration activities and examples of sensor initial on-orbit performance. It focuses on the radiometric calibration support activities and capabilities provided by the NASA VCST.

  17. Predicting human activities in sequences of actions in RGB-D videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardim, David; Nunes, Luís.; Dias, Miguel

    2017-03-01

    In our daily activities we perform prediction or anticipation when interacting with other humans or with objects. Prediction of human activity made by computers has several potential applications: surveillance systems, human computer interfaces, sports video analysis, human-robot-collaboration, games and health-care. We propose a system capable of recognizing and predicting human actions using supervised classifiers trained with automatically labeled data evaluated in our human activity RGB-D dataset (recorded with a Kinect sensor) and using only the position of the main skeleton joints to extract features. Using conditional random fields (CRFs) to model the sequential nature of actions in a sequence has been used before, but where other approaches try to predict an outcome or anticipate ahead in time (seconds), we try to predict what will be the next action of a subject. Our results show an activity prediction accuracy of 89.9% using an automatically labeled dataset.

  18. Intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts support in vitro and in vivo growth of human small intestinal epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Lahar

    Full Text Available The intestinal crypt-niche interaction is thought to be essential to the function, maintenance, and proliferation of progenitor stem cells found at the bases of intestinal crypts. These stem cells are constantly renewing the intestinal epithelium by sending differentiated cells from the base of the crypts of Lieberkühn to the villus tips where they slough off into the intestinal lumen. The intestinal niche consists of various cell types, extracellular matrix, and growth factors and surrounds the intestinal progenitor cells. There have recently been advances in the understanding of the interactions that regulate the behavior of the intestinal epithelium and there is great interest in methods for isolating and expanding viable intestinal epithelium. However, there is no method to maintain primary human small intestinal epithelium in culture over a prolonged period of time. Similarly no method has been published that describes isolation and support of human intestinal epithelium in an in vivo model. We describe a technique to isolate and maintain human small intestinal epithelium in vitro from surgical specimens. We also describe a novel method to maintain human intestinal epithelium subcutaneously in a mouse model for a prolonged period of time. Our methods require various growth factors and the intimate interaction between intestinal sub-epithelial myofibroblasts (ISEMFs and the intestinal epithelial cells to support the epithelial in vitro and in vivo growth. Absence of these myofibroblasts precluded successful maintenance of epithelial cell formation and proliferation beyond just a few days, even in the presence of supportive growth factors. We believe that the methods described here can be used to explore the molecular basis of human intestinal stem cell support, maintenance, and growth.

  19. The spatial relationship between human activities and C, N, P, S in soil based on landscape geochemical interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huan; He, Zheng-Wei; Kong, Bo; Weng, Zhong-Yin; Shi, Ze-Ming

    2016-04-01

    The development and formation of chemical elements in soil are affected not only by parent material, climate, biology, and topology factors, but also by human activities. As the main elements supporting life on earth system, the C, N, P, S cycles in soil have been altered by human activity through land-use change, agricultural intensification, and use of fossil fuels. The present study attempts to analyze whether and how a connection can be made between macroscopical control and microcosmic analysis, to estimate the impacts of human activities on C, N, P, S elements in soil, and to determine a way to describe the spatial relationship between C, N, P, S in soil and human activities, by means of landscape geochemical theories and methods. In addition, the disturbances of human activities on C, N, P, S are explored through the analysis of the spatial relationship between human disturbed landscapes and element anomalies, thereby determining the diversified rules of the effects. The study results show that the rules of different landscapes influencing C, N, P, S elements are diversified, and that the C element is closely related to city landscapes; furthermore, the elements N, P, and S are shown to be closely related to river landscapes; the relationships between mine landscapes and the elements C, N, P, S are apparent; the relationships between the elements C, N, P, S and road landscapes are quite close, which shows that road landscapes have significant effects on these elements. Therefore, the conclusion is drawn that the response mechanism analysis of human disturbance and soil chemical element aggregation is feasible, based on the landscape geochemical theories and methods. The spatial information techniques, such as remote sensing and geographic information systems, are effective for research on soil element migration.

  20. The influence of human activity in the Arctic on climate and climate impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, H.P. [23834 The Clearing Dr., Eagle River, AK 99577 (United States); Boyle, M. [Institute for Resources, Environment and Sustainability, University of British Columbia, 2202 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6S 1K4 (Canada); Flowers, G.E. [Department of Earth Sciences, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Weatherly, J.W. [Snow and Ice Division, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 72 Lyme Road, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Hamilton, L.C. [Department of Sociology, University of New Hampshire, 20 College Road, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Hinzman, L. [Water and Environment Research Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks, P.O. Box 755860, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Gerlach, C. [Department of Anthropology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, P.O. Box 757720, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Zulueta, R. [Department of Biology, Global Change Research Group, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, PS-240, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Nicolson, C. [Department of Natural Resources Conservation, University of Massachusetts, 160 Holdsworth Way, Amherst, MA , 01003 (United States); Overpeck, J. [Institute for the Study of Planet Earth, University of Arizona, 715 North Park Avenue, 2nd Floor, Tucson, AZ, 85721 (United States)

    2007-05-15

    Human activities in the Arctic are often mentioned as recipients of climate-change impacts. In this paper we consider the more complicated but more likely possibility that human activities themselves can interact with climate or environmental change in ways that either mitigate or exacerbate the human impacts. Although human activities in the Arctic are generally assumed to be modest, our analysis suggests that those activities may have larger influences on the arctic system than previously thought. Moreover, human influences could increase substantially in the near future. First, we illustrate how past human activities in the Arctic have combined with climatic variations to alter biophysical systems upon which fisheries and livestock depend. Second, we describe how current and future human activities could precipitate or affect the timing of major transitions in the arctic system. Past and future analyses both point to ways in which human activities in the Arctic can substantially influence the trajectory of arctic system change.

  1. Wellbeing, activity and housing satisfaction - comparing residents with psychiatric disabilities in supported housing and ordinary housing with support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Mona; Argentzell, Elisabeth; Bejerholm, Ulrika; Tjörnstrand, Carina; Brunt, David

    2017-08-30

    The home is imperative for the possibilities for meaningful everyday activities among people with psychiatric disabilities. Knowledge of whether such possibilities vary with type of housing and housing support might reveal areas for improved support. We aimed to compare people with psychiatric disabilities living in supported housing (SH) and ordinary housing with support (OHS) regarding perceived well-being, engaging and satisfying everyday activities, and perceived meaning of activity in one's accommodation. The importance of these factors and socio-demographics for satisfaction with housing was also explored. This naturalistic cross-sectional study was conducted in municipalities and city districts (n = 21) in Sweden, and 155 SH residents and 111 OHS residents participated in an interview that included both self-reports and interviewer ratings. T-test and linear regression analysis were used. The SH group expressed more psychological problems, but better health, quality of life and personal recovery compared to the OHS residents. The latter were rated as having less symptom severity, and higher levels of functioning and activity engagement. Both groups rated themselves as under-occupied in the domains of work, leisure, home management and self-care, but the SH residents less so regarding home management and self-care chores. Although the groups reported similar levels of activity, the SH group were more satisfied with everyday activities and rated their housing higher on possibilities for social interaction and personal development. The groups did not differ on access to activity in their homes. The participants generally reported sufficient access to activity, social interaction and personal development, but those who wanted more personal development in the OHS group outnumbered those who stated they received enough. Higher scores on satisfaction with daily occupations, access to organization and information, wanting more social interaction, and personal

  2. Training to Support Standardization and Improvement of Configuration Management Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauber, V.; Scheffer, N.; Schoenfelder, C.

    2015-07-01

    In recent years AREVA has conducted several measures to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of configuration management-related activities within a nuclear power plant (NPP) new build as well as modernization projects, thereby further strengthening its commitment to achieving the highest level of safety in nuclear facilities. This paper describes a new training course that shall support the standardization and improvement of configuration management activities. Recommendations will be given that should be considered when designing and developing comparable training programs to support change processes within engineering units. (Author)

  3. Exploring Human Activity Patterns Using Taxicab Static Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Jiang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the patterns of human activities within a geographical space by adopting the taxicab static points which refer to the locations with zero speed along the tracking trajectory. We report the findings from both aggregated and individual aspects. Results from the aggregated level indicate the following: (1 Human activities exhibit an obvious regularity in time, for example, there is a burst of activity during weekend nights and a lull during the week. (2 They show a remarkable spatial drifting pattern, which strengthens our understanding of the activities in any given place. (3 Activities are heterogeneous in space irrespective of their drifting with time. These aggregated results not only help in city planning, but also facilitate traffic control and management. On the other hand, investigations on an individual level suggest that (4 activities witnessed by one taxicab will have different temporal regularity to another, and (5 each regularity implies a high level of prediction with low entropy by applying the Lempel-Ziv algorithm.

  4. Expanding Public/Private Partnerships For Improving Basic Education through School Sponsorship in the Dominican Republic. Final Report. Basic Education and Policy Support Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Patricia; Kane, Michael

    The Basic Education and Policy Support Activity (BEPS), a new five-year initiative sponsored by United States Agency for International Development's (USAID) Center for Human Capacity Development, is designed to improve the quality, effectiveness, and access to formal and nonformal basic education. BEPS operates through both core funds and buy-ins…

  5. Overview and Categorization of Robots Supporting Independent Living of Elderly People: What Activities Do They Support and How Far Have They Developed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedaf, Sandra; Gelderblom, Gert Jan; De Witte, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, many robots for the elderly have been developed, supporting different activities of elderly people. A systematic review in four scientific literature databases and a search in article references and European projects was performed in order to create an overview of robots supporting independent living of elderly people. The robots found were categorized based on their development stage, the activity domains they claim to support, and the type of support provided (i.e., physical, non-physical, and/or non-specified). In total, 107 robots for the elderly were identified. Six robots were still in a concept phase, 95 in a development phase, and six of these robots were commercially available. These robots claimed to provide support related to four activity domains: mobility, self-care, interpersonal interaction & relationships, and other activities. Of the many robots developed, only a small percentage is commercially available. Technical ambitions seem to be guiding robot development. To prolong independent living, the step towards physical support is inevitable and needs to be taken. However, it will be a long time before a robot will be capable of supporting multiple activities in a physical manner in the home of an elderly person in order to enhance their independent living.

  6. Predicting Child Physical Activity and Screen Time: Parental Support for Physical Activity and General Parenting Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, A. Lauren; Senso, Meghan M.; Levy, Rona L.; Sherwood, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine relationships between parenting styles and practices and child moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time. Methods: Participants were children (6.9 ± 1.8 years) with a body mass index in the 70–95th percentile and their parents (421 dyads). Parent-completed questionnaires assessed parental support for child physical activity (PA), parenting styles and child screen time. Children wore accelerometers to assess MVPA. Results: Parenting style did not predict MVPA, but support for PA did (positive association). The association between support and MVPA, moreover, varied as a function of permissive parenting. For parents high in permissiveness, the association was positive (greater support was related to greater MVPA and therefore protective). For parents low in permissiveness, the association was neutral; support did not matter. Authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were both associated with greater screen time. Conclusions: Parenting practices and styles should be considered jointly, offering implications for tailored interventions. PMID:24812256

  7. A Pattern Mining Approach to Sensor-based Human Activity Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Tao; Wang, Liang; Wu, Zhanqing

    2011-01-01

    Recognizing human activities from sensor readings has recently attracted much research interest in pervasive computing due to its potential in many applications such as assistive living and healthcare. This task is particularly challenging because human activities are often performed in not only...

  8. Humpback Dolphin (Genus Sousa) Behavioural Responses to Human Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwetz, Sarah; Lundquist, David; Würsig, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Humpback dolphins (genus Sousa) use shallow, near-shore waters throughout their range. This coastal distribution makes them vulnerable to recreational and commercial disturbances, especially near heavily populated and industrialized areas. Most research focusing on Sousa and human activities has emphasized direct impacts and threats, involving injury and death, with relatively little focus on indirect effects on dolphins, such as changes in behaviour that may lead to deleterious effects. Understanding behaviour is important in resolving human-wildlife conflict and is an important component of conservation. This chapter gives an overview of animal behavioural responses to human activity with examples from diverse taxa; reviews the scientific literature on behavioural responses of humpback dolphins to human activity throughout their range, including marine vessel traffic, dolphin tourism, cetacean-fishery interactions, noise pollution, and habitat alteration; and highlights information and data gaps for future humpback dolphin research to better inform behaviour-based management decisions that contribute to conservation efforts. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  9. Associations between Dementia Outcomes and Depressive Symptoms, Leisure Activities, and Social Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Heser

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social relations and depressive symptoms are intertwined. They both predict subsequent dementia, but only few studies on the association between social life aspects and subsequent dementia exist. Methods: The risk of subsequent dementia was estimated over 2 follow-up assessments, each 18 months apart, depending on leisure activity, social support (general scale and the 3 factors emotional support, practical support, and social integration, and depressive symptoms, using proportional hazard models in a cohort of elderly patients (n = 2,300, with a mean age of 82.45 years recruited for the study by their general practitioners. Results: Higher depressive symptoms and lower cognitive and physical activity were associated with an increased risk of subsequent all-cause dementia and Alzheimer's dementia (AD. While neither social engagement nor the general social support scale was associated with subsequent dementia, a higher level of social integration was associated with a lower dementia risk. In combined models, the results for activity variables remained similar, but the strength of the association between depressive symptoms and the subsequent risk of dementia decreased, and the association with social integration disappeared. Conclusions: Depressive symptoms increased and activity variables decreased the risk of subsequent dementia; however, activity variables, namely cognitive and physical activity, partly mediated the effect of depressive symptoms on the subsequent risk of all-cause dementia and AD. In many cases, social support was not associated with a risk of subsequent dementia.

  10. Activation of CHK1 in Supporting Cells Indirectly Promotes Hair Cell Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Jadali

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The sensory hair cells of the inner ear are exquisitely sensitive to ototoxic insults. Loss of hair cells after exposure to ototoxic agents causes hearing loss. Chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin causes hair cell loss. Cisplatin forms DNA mono-adducts as well as intra- and inter-strand DNA crosslinks. DNA cisplatin adducts are repaired through the DNA damage response. The decision between cell survival and cell death following DNA damage rests on factors that are involved in determining damage tolerance, cell survival and apoptosis. Cisplatin damage on hair cells has been the main focus of many ototoxic studies, yet the effect of cisplatin on supporting cells has been largely ignored. In this study, the effects of DNA damage response in cochlear supporting cells were interrogated. Supporting cells play a major role in the development, maintenance and oto-protection of hair cells. Loss of supporting cells may indirectly affect hair cell survival or maintenance. Activation of the Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase (PI3K signaling was previously shown to promote hair cell survival. To test whether activating PI3K signaling promotes supporting cell survival after cisplatin damage, cochlear explants from the neural subset (NS Cre Pten conditional knockout mice were employed. Deletion of Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog (PTEN activates PI3K signaling in multiple cell types within the cochlea. Supporting cells lacking PTEN showed increased cell survival after cisplatin damage. Supporting cells lacking PTEN also showed increased phosphorylation of Checkpoint Kinase 1 (CHK1 levels after cisplatin damage. Nearest neighbor analysis showed increased numbers of supporting cells with activated PI3K signaling in close proximity to surviving hair cells in cisplatin damaged cochleae. We propose that increased PI3K signaling promotes supporting cell survival through phosphorylation of CHK1 and increased survival of supporting cells indirectly increases hair cell

  11. Human Activity Differentially Redistributes Large Mammals in the Canadian Rockies National Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Kimo. Rogala

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available National parks are important for conservation of species such as wolves (Canis lupus and elk (Cervus canadensis. However, topography, vegetation conditions, and anthropogenic infrastructure within parks may limit available habitat. Human activity on trails and roads may lead to indirect habitat loss, further limiting available habitat. Predators and prey may respond differentially to human activity, potentially disrupting ecological processes. However, research on such impacts to wildlife is incomplete, especially at fine spatial and temporal scales. Our research investigated the relationship between wolf and elk distribution and human activity using fine-scale Global Positioning System (GPS wildlife telemetry locations and hourly human activity measures on trails and roads in Banff, Kootenay, and Yoho National Parks, Canada. We observed a complex interaction between the distance animals were located from trails and human activity level resulting in species adopting both mutual avoidance and differential response behaviors. In areas < 50 m from trails human activity led to a mutual avoidance response by both wolves and elk. In areas 50 - 400 m from trails low levels of human activity led to differential responses; wolves avoided these areas, whereas elk appeared to use these areas as a predation refugia. These differential impacts on elk and wolves may have important implications for trophic dynamics. As human activity increased above two people/hour, areas 50 - 400 m from trails were mutually avoided by both species, resulting in the indirect loss of important montane habitat. If park managers are concerned with human impacts on wolves and elk, or on these species' trophic interactions with other species, they can monitor locations near trails and roads and consider hourly changes of human activity levels in areas important to wildlife.

  12. Support of protective work of human error in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Yuriko

    1999-01-01

    The nuclear power plant human factor group of the Tokyo Electric Power Co., Ltd. supports various protective work of human error conducted at the nuclear power plant. Its main researching theme are studies on human factor on operation of a nuclear power plant, and on recovery and common basic study on human factor. In addition, on a base of the obtained informations, assistance to protective work of human error conducted at the nuclear power plant as well as development for its actual use was also promoted. Especially, for actions sharing some dangerous informations, various assistances such as a proposal on actual example analytical method to effectively understand a dangerous information not facially but faithfully, construction of a data base to conveniently share such dangerous information, and practice on non-accident business survey for a hint of effective promotion of the protection work, were promoted. Here were introduced on assistance and investigation for effective sharing of the dangerous informations for various actions on protection of human error mainly conducted in nuclear power plant. (G.K.)

  13. Human Activity Recognition from Body Sensor Data using Deep Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mohammad Mehedi; Huda, Shamsul; Uddin, Md Zia; Almogren, Ahmad; Alrubaian, Majed

    2018-04-16

    In recent years, human activity recognition from body sensor data or wearable sensor data has become a considerable research attention from academia and health industry. This research can be useful for various e-health applications such as monitoring elderly and physical impaired people at Smart home to improve their rehabilitation processes. However, it is not easy to accurately and automatically recognize physical human activity through wearable sensors due to the complexity and variety of body activities. In this paper, we address the human activity recognition problem as a classification problem using wearable body sensor data. In particular, we propose to utilize a Deep Belief Network (DBN) model for successful human activity recognition. First, we extract the important initial features from the raw body sensor data. Then, a kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) are performed to further process the features and make them more robust to be useful for fast activity recognition. Finally, the DBN is trained by these features. Various experiments were performed on a real-world wearable sensor dataset to verify the effectiveness of the deep learning algorithm. The results show that the proposed DBN outperformed other algorithms and achieves satisfactory activity recognition performance.

  14. Perceptions, Expectations, and Informal Supports Influence Exercise Activity in Frail Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Broderick

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore frail older adults’ perceptions of what influences their exercise behaviors. A qualitative descriptive design was used. Semi-structured, open-ended interviews were conducted with 29 frail older adults. Thematic content analysis established the findings. Frail older adults perceive exercise as a by-product of other purposeful activities such as manual work or social activities. Progression into frailty appears to be associated with a decline in non-family support, changing traditional roles within family support networks, and lower baseline activity levels. Frail older adults perceive exercise as incidental to more purposeful activities rather than an endpoint in itself. Therefore, exercise programs concentrating on functional outcomes may be more relevant for this population. Strategies that educate and promote social support networks may also benefit frail older adults.

  15. Human prostatic cancer cells, PC3, elaborate mitogenic activity which selectively stimulates human bone cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkel, V.S.; Mohan, S.; Herring, S.J.; Baylink, D.J.; Linkhart, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Prostatic cancer typically produces osteoblastic metastases which are not attended by marrow fibrosis. In the present study we sought to test the hypothesis that prostatic cancer cells produce factor(s) which act selectively on human osteoblasts. Such a paracrine mechanism would explain the observed increase in osteoblasts, unaccompanied by an increase in marrow fibroblasts. To test this hypothesis we investigated the mitogenic activity released by the human prostatic tumor cell line, PC3. PC3 cells have been reported previously to produce mitogenic activity for cells that was relatively specific for rat osteoblasts compared to rat fibroblasts. However, the effects of this activity on human cells has not been examined previously. PC3-conditioned medium (CM) (5-50 micrograms CM protein/ml) stimulated human osteoblast proliferation by 200-950% yet did not stimulate human fibroblast proliferation ([3H]thymidine incorporation). PC3 CM also increased cell numbers in human osteoblast but not fibroblast cell cultures. To determine whether the osteoblast-specific mitogenic activity could be attributed to known bone growth factors, specific assays for these growth factors were performed. PC3 CM contained 10 pg insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I, less than 2 pg IGF II, 54 pg basic fibroblast growth factor, and 16 pg transforming growth factor beta/microgram CM protein. None of these growth factors alone or in combination could account for the observed osteoblast-specific PC3 cell-derived mitogenic activity. Furthermore, when 5 micrograms/ml PC3 CM was tested in combination with maximally effective concentrations of either basic fibroblast growth factor, IGF I, IGF II, or transforming growth factor beta, it produced an additive effect suggesting that PC3 CM stimulates osteoblast proliferation by a mechanism independent of these bone mitogens

  16. IAEA activity on operator support systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dounaev, V.; Fujita, Y.; Juslin, K.; Haugset, K.; Lux, I.; Naser, J.

    1994-01-01

    Various operator support systems for nuclear power plants are already operational or under development in the IAEA Member States. Operator support systems are based on intelligent data processing and, in addition to plant operation, they are also becoming more important for safety. A key feature of operator support systems is their availability to restructure data to increase its relevance for a given situation. This can improve the user's ability to identify plant mode, system state, and component state and to identify and diagnose faults. Operator support systems can also assist the user in planning and implementing corrective actions to improve the nuclear power plant's availability and safety. In September 1991, the IAEA Committee for Contractual Scientific Services approved the Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on ''Operator Support Systems in Nuclear Power Plants'' in the framework of the Project ''Man-Machine Interface Studies''. The main objective of this programme is to provide guidance and technology transfer for the development and implementation of operator support systems. This includes the experience with human-machine interfaces and closely related issues such as instrumentation and control, the use of computers in nuclear power plants, and operator qualification. (author)

  17. VERA-CS User Support Activities for PoR 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochunas, Brendan [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this milestone is to document the user support activities that took place between 10/1/2016 and 3/31/2017 (PoR 14). In the normal PHI workflow, that also extends to several activities within RTM, a Kanban process is followed. This involves creating tickets for specific work items and track the progress to complete these specific work items.

  18. Challenges for Virtual Humans in Human Computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, Dennis; Ruttkay, Z.M.; Huang, T; Nijholt, Antinus; Pantic, Maja; Pentland, A.

    The vision of Ambient Intelligence (AmI) presumes a plethora of embedded services and devices that all endeavor to support humans in their daily activities as unobtrusively as possible. Hardware gets distributed throughout the environment, occupying even the fabric of our clothing. The environment

  19. RNA-Guided Activation of Pluripotency Genes in Human Fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Kai; Zhou, Yan; Blichfeld, Kristian Aabo

    2017-01-01

    -associated protein 9 (dCas9)-VP64 (CRISPRa) alone, or a combination of dCas9-VP64 and MS2-P65-HSF1 [synergistic activation mediator (SAM) system] mediated activation of five pluripotency genes: KLF4 (K), LIN28 (L), MYC (M), OCT4 (O), and SOX2 (S) in human cells (HEK293T, HeLa, HepG2, and primary fibroblasts...... could be obtained from these SAM fibroblasts. In conclusion, our study showed that CRISPR/Cas9-based ATFs are potent to activate and maintain transcription of endogenous human pluripotent genes. However, future improvements of the system are still required to improve activation efficiency and cellular...

  20. Magnetogastrographic detection of gastric electrical response activity in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irimia, Andrei; Richards, William O; Bradshaw, L Alan

    2006-01-01

    The detection and characterization of gastric electrical activity has important clinical applications, including the early diagnosis of gastric diseases in humans. In mammals, this phenomenon has two important features: an electrical control activity (ECA) that manifests itself as an electric slow wave (with a frequency of 3 cycles per minute in humans) and an electrical response activity (ERA) that is characterized by spiking potentials during the plateau phase of the ECA. Whereas the ECA has been recorded in humans both invasively and non-invasively (magnetogastrography-MGG), the ERA has never been detected non-invasively in humans before. In this paper, we report on our progress towards the non-invasive detection of ERA from the human stomach using a procedure that involves the application of principal component analysis to MGG recordings, which were acquired in our case from ten normal human patients using a Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometer. Both pre- and post-prandial recordings were acquired for each patient and 20 min of recordings (10 min of pre-prandial and 10 min of post-prandial data) were analysed for each patient. The mean percentage of ECA slow waves that were found to exhibit spikes of suspected ERA origin was 41% and 61% for pre- and post-prandial recordings, respectively, implying a 47% ERA increase post-prandially (P < 0.0001 at a 95% confidence level). The detection of ERA in humans is highly encouraging and points to the possible use of non-invasive ERA recordings as a valuable tool for the study of human gastric disorders

  1. Impact of the human activities on the climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deque, M.

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of the A2 scenario of the GIEC, the possible impacts on the french climate, of the human activities are examined. It seems that the human activities imposed and will be able to impose a faster change of the climate than the natural changes. For the hundred coming years the main characteristics could be: an increase of the temperature, an increase of the rains in winter and a decrease in summer, a decrease of the water in soils expected in freezing areas and an increase of the drought periods. (A.L.B.)

  2. Elevation of telomerase activity in chronic radiation ulcer of human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoying; Zhao Po; Wang Dewen; Yang Zhixiang

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the levels of telomerase activity in chronic radiation ulcers of human skin and the possible relationship between the enzyme and cancer transformation. Method: Using nonisotopic telomere repeat amplification protocol (TRAP), detections were performed in 20 cases of chronic radiation ulcers of human skin, 5 cases of normal skin tissues and 5 cases of carcinoma. Results: The positive rates for telomerase activity were 30.0%(6/20), 0(0/5) and 100%(5/5) in chronic radiation ulcers of human skin, normal skin and carcinoma, respectively. The telomerase activity in radiation ulcer was weaker than in carcinoma. Conclusion: The telomerase activity assay might be used as a marker for predicting the prognosis and the effect of treatment in chronic radiation ulcer of human skin

  3. Lessons Learned from Human Factor Technical Support for Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yeon Sub; Song, Tae Young

    2011-01-01

    NETEC is on the frontier to support Korean nuclear power plants. Requests of service are distributed through web based system. Human factor requests are occasionally posted. This paper analyzes interesting human factors requests/responses serviced, and summarizes the lesson learned. Subjects of the service include man machine interface, equipment label, procedure writing, procedure adherence, BISI, hand switch and alarm tile. Specifically the man machine interface is related to control command generated by acknowledge button, arrangement of switches. Procedure writing is about how to write contingency actions with proper numbering scheme. BISI is analyzed in view of automation level. Alarm tile is about how to handle the common alarm tile originated from local alarm boards. These topics seem to be legacies of past technology. Even though there are still human engineering discrepancies, these have been less evaluated because the topics need knowledge of other field domains

  4. The Activation Pathway of Human Rhodopsin in Comparison to Bovine Rhodopsin*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmin, Roman; Rose, Alexander; Szczepek, Michal; Elgeti, Matthias; Ritter, Eglof; Piechnick, Ronny; Hofmann, Klaus Peter; Scheerer, Patrick; Hildebrand, Peter W.; Bartl, Franz J.

    2015-01-01

    Rhodopsin, the photoreceptor of rod cells, absorbs light to mediate the first step of vision by activating the G protein transducin (Gt). Several human diseases, such as retinitis pigmentosa or congenital night blindness, are linked to rhodopsin malfunctions. Most of the corresponding in vivo studies and structure-function analyses (e.g. based on protein x-ray crystallography or spectroscopy) have been carried out on murine or bovine rhodopsin. Because these rhodopsins differ at several amino acid positions from human rhodopsin, we conducted a comprehensive spectroscopic characterization of human rhodopsin in combination with molecular dynamics simulations. We show by FTIR and UV-visible difference spectroscopy that the light-induced transformations of the early photointermediates are very similar. Significant differences between the pigments appear with formation of the still inactive Meta I state and the transition to active Meta II. However, the conformation of Meta II and its activity toward the G protein are essentially the same, presumably reflecting the evolutionary pressure under which the active state has developed. Altogether, our results show that although the basic activation pathways of human and bovine rhodopsin are similar, structural deviations exist in the inactive conformation and during receptor activation, even between closely related rhodopsins. These differences between the well studied bovine or murine rhodopsins and human rhodopsin have to be taken into account when the influence of point mutations on the activation pathway of human rhodopsin are investigated using the bovine or murine rhodopsin template sequences. PMID:26105054

  5. Combination of Accumulated Motion and Color Segmentation for Human Activity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briassouli Alexia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The automated analysis of activity in digital multimedia, and especially video, is gaining more and more importance due to the evolution of higher-level video processing systems and the development of relevant applications such as surveillance and sports. This paper presents a novel algorithm for the recognition and classification of human activities, which employs motion and color characteristics in a complementary manner, so as to extract the most information from both sources, and overcome their individual limitations. The proposed method accumulates the flow estimates in a video, and extracts "regions of activity" by processing their higher-order statistics. The shape of these activity areas can be used for the classification of the human activities and events taking place in a video and the subsequent extraction of higher-level semantics. Color segmentation of the active and static areas of each video frame is performed to complement this information. The color layers in the activity and background areas are compared using the earth mover's distance, in order to achieve accurate object segmentation. Thus, unlike much existing work on human activity analysis, the proposed approach is based on general color and motion processing methods, and not on specific models of the human body and its kinematics. The combined use of color and motion information increases the method robustness to illumination variations and measurement noise. Consequently, the proposed approach can lead to higher-level information about human activities, but its applicability is not limited to specific human actions. We present experiments with various real video sequences, from sports and surveillance domains, to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  6. Combination of Accumulated Motion and Color Segmentation for Human Activity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Kompatsiaris

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The automated analysis of activity in digital multimedia, and especially video, is gaining more and more importance due to the evolution of higher-level video processing systems and the development of relevant applications such as surveillance and sports. This paper presents a novel algorithm for the recognition and classification of human activities, which employs motion and color characteristics in a complementary manner, so as to extract the most information from both sources, and overcome their individual limitations. The proposed method accumulates the flow estimates in a video, and extracts “regions of activity” by processing their higher-order statistics. The shape of these activity areas can be used for the classification of the human activities and events taking place in a video and the subsequent extraction of higher-level semantics. Color segmentation of the active and static areas of each video frame is performed to complement this information. The color layers in the activity and background areas are compared using the earth mover's distance, in order to achieve accurate object segmentation. Thus, unlike much existing work on human activity analysis, the proposed approach is based on general color and motion processing methods, and not on specific models of the human body and its kinematics. The combined use of color and motion information increases the method robustness to illumination variations and measurement noise. Consequently, the proposed approach can lead to higher-level information about human activities, but its applicability is not limited to specific human actions. We present experiments with various real video sequences, from sports and surveillance domains, to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  7. Modulation of induced gamma band activity in the human EEG by attention and visual information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M M; Gruber, T; Keil, A

    2000-12-01

    Here we present a series of four studies aimed to investigate the link between induced gamma band activity in the human EEG and visual information processing. We demonstrated and validated the modulation of spectral gamma band power by spatial selective visual attention. When subjects attended to a certain stimulus, spectral power was increased as compared to when the same stimulus was ignored. In addition, we showed a shift in spectral gamma band power increase to the contralateral hemisphere when subjects shifted their attention to one visual hemifield. The following study investigated induced gamma band activity and the perception of a Gestalt. Ambiguous rotating figures were used to operationalize the law of good figure (gute Gestalt). We found increased gamma band power at posterior electrode sites when subjects perceived an object. In the last experiment we demonstrated a differential hemispheric gamma band activation when subjects were confronted with emotional pictures. Results of the present experiments in combination with other studies presented in this volume are supportive for the notion that induced gamma band activity in the human EEG is closely related to visual information processing and attentional perceptual mechanisms.

  8. Antiproliferative activity of recombinant human interferon-λ2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antiproliferative activity of recombinant human interferon-λ2 expressed in stably ... The representing 26 kDa protein band of IFN-λ2 was detected by SDS-PAGE and ... The antiproliferative activity of hIFN-λ2 was determined by MTT assay.

  9. FAKTOR - FAKTOR PENYEBAB MUNCULNYA ACTIVITY SUPPORT DI KAWASAN RUANG PUBLIK BUNDARAN HOTEL INDONESIA JAKARTA PUSAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endah Mustikowati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Area Bundaran Hotel Indonesia menjadi salah satu ruang publik di mana banyak pengunjung datang untuk melakukan berbagai kegiatan. Kondisi ini menyebabkan munculnya activity support misalnya PKL, penyewa peralatan olahraga, dan beberapa hiburan jalanan. Di puncak intensitas kegiatan, activity support tersebut tersebar di beberapa tempat ini seperti di koridor utama, jalur pejalan kaki dan air plaza mancur. Melihat fenomena itu, dapat disimpulkan bahwa terdapat faktor-faktor penyebab munculnya activity support tersebut. Dalam menjawab tujuan penelitian, digunakan penelitian rasionalistik kuantitatif sebagai paradigma untuk membangun variabel faktor berdasarkan teori Activity Support dan Ruang Publik. Variabel yang dioperasionalkan dalam kuesioner dianalisis dengan menggunakan analisis faktor uji statistik. Jumlah faktor variabel yang memiliki korelasi yang kuat dalam analisis tereduksi menjadi beberapa factor yang signifikan sebagai penyebab dari munculnya activity support di ruang publik, yaitu, area pedesrian, jalan masuk, sirkulasi dan parkir, keragaman kegiatan, karakteristik ruang publik, jenis kegiatan, bentuk-makna-arti ruang publik, aksesibilitas dan visual, budaya, fungsi dan bentuk ruang publik dan area lansekap, batasan kawasan dan ciri khas dari ruang publik. [Title: The Factors Causing Appearance of Activity Support in The Public Area Around Bundaran Hotel Indonesia in Central Jakarta] Bundaran Hotel Indonesia area becomes one of public space where many of people have coming to do some activities here. This condition causes the occurrences of activity support for instance the street vendors, sport equipments tenants, and some of street entertaintment. In the peak of intensity of activities, the activity supports crowded around this area such as in the main corridor, pedestrian pathways and fountain plaza. Seeing those phenomena, it could be concluded that there are causal factors of the occurrences of the activity support. In

  10. Predicting child physical activity and screen time: parental support for physical activity and general parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Shelby L; Crain, A Lauren; Senso, Meghan M; Levy, Rona L; Sherwood, Nancy E

    2014-07-01

    To examine relationships between parenting styles and practices and child moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time. Participants were children (6.9 ± 1.8 years) with a body mass index in the 70-95th percentile and their parents (421 dyads). Parent-completed questionnaires assessed parental support for child physical activity (PA), parenting styles and child screen time. Children wore accelerometers to assess MVPA. Parenting style did not predict MVPA, but support for PA did (positive association). The association between support and MVPA, moreover, varied as a function of permissive parenting. For parents high in permissiveness, the association was positive (greater support was related to greater MVPA and therefore protective). For parents low in permissiveness, the association was neutral; support did not matter. Authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were both associated with greater screen time. Parenting practices and styles should be considered jointly, offering implications for tailored interventions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Liver afferents contribute to water drinking-induced sympathetic activation in human subjects: a clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus May

    Full Text Available Water drinking acutely increases sympathetic activity in human subjects. In animals, the response appears to be mediated through transient receptor potential channel TRPV4 activation on osmosensitive hepatic spinal afferents, described as osmopressor response. We hypothesized that hepatic denervation attenuates water drinking-induced sympathetic activation. We studied 20 liver transplant recipients (44±2.6 years, 1.2±0.1 years post transplant as model of hepatic denervation and 20 kidney transplant recipients (43±2.6 years, 0.8±0.1 years post transplant as immunosuppressive drug matched control group. Before and after 500 ml water ingestion, we obtained venous blood samples for catecholamine analysis. We also monitored brachial and finger blood pressure, ECG, and thoracic bioimpedance. Plasma norepinephrine concentration had changed by 0.01±0.07 nmol/l in liver and by 0.21±0.07 nmol/l in kidney transplant recipients (p<0.05 between groups after 30-40 minutes of water drinking. While blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance increased in both groups, the responses tended to be attenuated in liver transplant recipients. Our findings support the idea that osmosensitive hepatic afferents are involved in water drinking-induced sympathetic activation in human subjects.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01237431.

  12. Liver Afferents Contribute to Water Drinking-Induced Sympathetic Activation in Human Subjects: A Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Marcus; Gueler, Faikah; Barg-Hock, Hannelore; Heiringhoff, Karl-Heinz; Engeli, Stefan; Heusser, Karsten; Diedrich, André; Brandt, André; Strassburg, Christian P.; Tank, Jens; Sweep, Fred C. G. J.; Jordan, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Water drinking acutely increases sympathetic activity in human subjects. In animals, the response appears to be mediated through transient receptor potential channel TRPV4 activation on osmosensitive hepatic spinal afferents, described as osmopressor response. We hypothesized that hepatic denervation attenuates water drinking-induced sympathetic activation. We studied 20 liver transplant recipients (44±2.6 years, 1.2±0.1 years post transplant) as model of hepatic denervation and 20 kidney transplant recipients (43±2.6 years, 0.8±0.1 years post transplant) as immunosuppressive drug matched control group. Before and after 500 ml water ingestion, we obtained venous blood samples for catecholamine analysis. We also monitored brachial and finger blood pressure, ECG, and thoracic bioimpedance. Plasma norepinephrine concentration had changed by 0.01±0.07 nmol/l in liver and by 0.21±0.07 nmol/l in kidney transplant recipients (pwater drinking. While blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance increased in both groups, the responses tended to be attenuated in liver transplant recipients. Our findings support the idea that osmosensitive hepatic afferents are involved in water drinking-induced sympathetic activation in human subjects. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01237431 PMID:22016786

  13. Human activity and climate variability project: annual report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harle, K.J.; Heijnis, H.; Henderson-Sellers, A.; Sharmeen, S.; Zahorowski, W.

    2002-01-01

    Knowledge of the state of the Australian environment, including natural climate variability, prior to colonial settlement is vital if we are to define and understand the impact of over two hundred years of post-industrial human activity on our landscape. ANSTO, in conjunction with university partners, is leading a major research effort to provide natural archives of human activity and climate variability over the last 500 years in Australia, utilising a variety of techniques, including lead-210 and radiocarbon dating and analyses of proxy indicators (such as microfossils) as well as direct evidence (such as trace elements) of human activity and climate variability. The other major project objectives were to contribute to the understanding of the impact of human induced and natural aerosols in the East Asian region on climate through analysis and sourcing of fine particles and characterisation of air samples using radon concentrations and to contribute to the improvement of land surface parameterisation schemes and investigate the potential to use stable isotopes to improve global climate models and thus improve our understanding of future climate

  14. Food & Fitness. Directory. Human Nutrition Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    Activities of the following regulatory and food service agencies of the Department of Agriculture are described: (1) Agricultural Research Service; (2) Cooperative State Research Service; (3) Economic Research Service; (4) Human Nutrition Information Service; (5) Office of Grants and Program Systems; (6) Office of International Cooperation and…

  15. Impact of a Chest Support on Lower Back Muscles Activity During Forward Bending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armaĝan Albayrak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is based on previous research on the poor body posture of surgeons and their experienced discomfort during surgical procedures. Since surgeons have head-bent and back-bent posture during open surgical procedures, a chest support is a viable supporting principle. This support is meant to reduce lower back pain by minimising lower back muscle activity. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of a chest support on lower back muscle activity during forward bending and to establish a possible relation between supporting force and the kind of balancing strategy a person adopts. Use of the chest support shows a significant reduction of muscle activity in the lower back and leg muscles. Within the participants three user groups are identified as “sceptical users”, “non-trusters” and “fully trusters”, each following a different balancing strategy. Since there are different kinds of users, the designed body support should offer the possibility for altering the posture and should not constrain the user to take a certain body posture.

  16. FCJ-195 Privacy, Responsibility, and Human Rights Activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky Kazansky

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we argue that many difficulties associated with the protection of digital privacy are rooted in the framing of privacy as a predominantly individual responsibility. We examine how models of privacy protection, such as Notice and Choice, contribute to the ‘responsibilisation’ of human rights activists who rely on the use of technologies for their work. We also consider how a group of human rights activists countered technology-mediated threats that this ‘responsibilisation’ causes by developing a collective approach to address their digital privacy and security needs. We conclude this article by discussing how technological tools used to maintain or counter the loss of privacy can be improved in order to support the privacy and digital security of human rights activists.

  17. Recognizing Human Activities User-independently on Smartphones Based on Accelerometer Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Siirtola

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Real-time human activity recognition on a mobile phone is presented in this article. Unlike in most other studies, not only the data were collected using the accelerometers of a smartphone, but also models were implemented to the phone and the whole classification process (preprocessing, feature extraction and classification was done on the device. The system is trained using phone orientation independent features to recognize five everyday activities: walking, running, cycling, driving a car and sitting/standing while the phone is in the pocket of the subject's trousers. Two classifiers were compared, knn (k nearest neighbors and QDA (quadratic discriminant analysis. The models for real-time activity recognition were trained offline using a data set collected from eight subjects and these offline results were compared to real-time recognition rates, which are obtained by implementing models to mobile activity recognition application which currently supports two operating systems: Symbian^3 and Android. The results show that the presented method is light and, therefore, suitable for be used in real-time recognition. In addition, the recognition rates on the smartphones were encouraging, in fact, the recognition accuracies obtained are approximately as high as offline recognition rates. Also, the results show that the method presented is not an operating system dependent.

  18. The verification of neutron activation analysis support system (cooperative research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasajima, Fumio; Ichimura, Shigeju; Ohtomo, Akitoshi; Takayanagi, Masaji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Sawahata, Hiroyuki; Ito, Yasuo [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Science and Technology; Onizawa, Kouji [Radiation Application Development Association, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-12-01

    Neutron activation analysis support system is the system in which even the user who has not much experience in the neutron activation analysis can conveniently and accurately carry out the multi-element analysis of the sample. In this verification test, subjects such functions, usability, precision and accuracy of the analysis and etc. of the neutron activation analysis support system were confirmed. As a method of the verification test, it was carried out using irradiation device, measuring device, automatic sample changer and analyzer equipped in the JRR-3M PN-3 facility, and analysis software KAYZERO/SOLCOI based on the k{sub 0} method. With these equipments, calibration of the germanium detector, measurement of the parameter of the irradiation field and analysis of three kinds of environmental standard sample were carried out. The k{sub 0} method adopted in this system is primarily utilized in Europe recently, and it is the analysis method, which can conveniently and accurately carried out the multi-element analysis of the sample without requiring individual comparison standard sample. By this system, total 28 elements were determined quantitatively, and 16 elements with the value guaranteed as analytical data of the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) environment standard sample were analyzed in the accuracy within 15%. This report describes content and verification result of neutron activation support system. (author)

  19. A Multiscale Survival Process for Modeling Human Activity Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianyang; Cui, Peng; Song, Chaoming; Zhu, Wenwu; Yang, Shiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Human activity plays a central role in understanding large-scale social dynamics. It is well documented that individual activity pattern follows bursty dynamics characterized by heavy-tailed interevent time distributions. Here we study a large-scale online chatting dataset consisting of 5,549,570 users, finding that individual activity pattern varies with timescales whereas existing models only approximate empirical observations within a limited timescale. We propose a novel approach that models the intensity rate of an individual triggering an activity. We demonstrate that the model precisely captures corresponding human dynamics across multiple timescales over five orders of magnitudes. Our model also allows extracting the population heterogeneity of activity patterns, characterized by a set of individual-specific ingredients. Integrating our approach with social interactions leads to a wide range of implications.

  20. BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY OF HUMAN SERA AGAINST ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    East African Medical Journal Vol. 77 No. 12 December 2000. BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY OF HUMAN SERA AGAINST SALMONELLA TYPHI AND SALMONELLA PARATYPHI A, B, C. E.O. Igumbor, BSc, MSc, PhD, Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Medicine, University of Zimbabwe P.O. Box Al78, Avondale, ...

  1. Stretch activates human myometrium via ERK, caldesmon and focal adhesion signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunping Li

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available An incomplete understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for myometrial activation from the quiescent pregnant state to the active contractile state during labor has hindered the development of effective therapies for preterm labor. Myometrial stretch has been implicated clinically in the initiation of labor and the etiology of preterm labor, but the molecular mechanisms involved in the human have not been determined. We investigated the mechanisms by which gestation-dependent stretch contributes to myometrial activation, by using human uterine samples from gynecologic hysterectomies and Cesarean sections. Here we demonstrate that the Ca requirement for activation of the contractile filaments in human myometrium increases with caldesmon protein content during gestation and that an increase in caldesmon phosphorylation can reverse this inhibitory effect during labor. By using phosphotyrosine screening and mass spectrometry of stretched human myometrial samples, we identify 3 stretch-activated focal adhesion proteins, FAK, p130Cas, and alpha actinin. FAK-Y397, which signals integrin engagement, is constitutively phosphorylated in term human myometrium whereas FAK-Y925, which signals downstream ERK activation, is phosphorylated during stretch. We have recently identified smooth muscle Archvillin (SmAV as an ERK regulator. A newly produced SmAV-specific antibody demonstrates gestation-specific increases in SmAV protein levels and stretch-specific increases in SmAV association with focal adhesion proteins. Thus, whereas increases in caldesmon levels suppress human myometrium contractility during pregnancy, stretch-dependent focal adhesion signaling, facilitated by the ERK activator SmAV, can contribute to myometrial activation. These results suggest that focal adhesion proteins may present new targets for drug discovery programs aimed at regulation of uterine contractility.

  2. The information infrastructure that supports evidence-based veterinary medicine: a comparison with human medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Lorraine

    2011-01-01

    In human medicine, the information infrastructure that supports the knowledge translation processes of exchange, synthesis, dissemination, and application of the best clinical intervention research has developed significantly in the past 15 years, facilitating the uptake of research evidence by clinicians as well as the practice of evidence-based medicine. Seven of the key elements of this improved information infrastructure are clinical trial registries, research reporting standards, systematic reviews, organizations that support the production of systematic reviews, the indexing of clinical intervention research in MEDLINE, clinical search filters for MEDLINE, and point-of-care decision support information resources. The objective of this paper is to describe why these elements are important for evidence-based medicine, the key developments and issues related to these seven information infrastructure elements in human medicine, how these 7 elements compare with the corresponding infrastructure elements in veterinary medicine, and how all of these factors affect the translation of clinical intervention research into clinical practice. A focused search of the Ovid MEDLINE database was conducted for English language journal literature published between 2000 and 2010. Two bibliographies were consulted and selected national and international Web sites were searched using Google. The literature reviewed indicates that the information infrastructure supporting evidence-based veterinary medicine practice in all of the 7 elements reviewed is significantly underdeveloped in relation to the corresponding information infrastructure in human medicine. This lack of development creates barriers to the timely translation of veterinary medicine research into clinical practice and also to the conduct of both primary clinical intervention research and synthesis research.

  3. A Novel Wearable Sensor-Based Human Activity Recognition Approach Using Artificial Hydrocarbon Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Hiram; Martínez-Villaseñor, María de Lourdes; Miralles-Pechuán, Luis

    2016-07-05

    Human activity recognition has gained more interest in several research communities given that understanding user activities and behavior helps to deliver proactive and personalized services. There are many examples of health systems improved by human activity recognition. Nevertheless, the human activity recognition classification process is not an easy task. Different types of noise in wearable sensors data frequently hamper the human activity recognition classification process. In order to develop a successful activity recognition system, it is necessary to use stable and robust machine learning techniques capable of dealing with noisy data. In this paper, we presented the artificial hydrocarbon networks (AHN) technique to the human activity recognition community. Our artificial hydrocarbon networks novel approach is suitable for physical activity recognition, noise tolerance of corrupted data sensors and robust in terms of different issues on data sensors. We proved that the AHN classifier is very competitive for physical activity recognition and is very robust in comparison with other well-known machine learning methods.

  4. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Supportive and Unsupportive Extracellular Matrix Substrates for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Maintenance*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soteriou, Despina; Iskender, Banu; Byron, Adam; Humphries, Jonathan D.; Borg-Bartolo, Simon; Haddock, Marie-Claire; Baxter, Melissa A.; Knight, David; Humphries, Martin J.; Kimber, Susan J.

    2013-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are pluripotent cells that have indefinite replicative potential and the ability to differentiate into derivatives of all three germ layers. hESCs are conventionally grown on mitotically inactivated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) or feeder cells of human origin. In addition, feeder-free culture systems can be used to support hESCs, in which the adhesive substrate plays a key role in the regulation of stem cell self-renewal or differentiation. Extracellular matrix (ECM) components define the microenvironment of the niche for many types of stem cells, but their role in the maintenance of hESCs remains poorly understood. We used a proteomic approach to characterize in detail the composition and interaction networks of ECMs that support the growth of self-renewing hESCs. Whereas many ECM components were produced by supportive and unsupportive MEF and human placental stromal fibroblast feeder cells, some proteins were only expressed in supportive ECM, suggestive of a role in the maintenance of pluripotency. We show that identified candidate molecules can support attachment and self-renewal of hESCs alone (fibrillin-1) or in combination with fibronectin (perlecan, fibulin-2), in the absence of feeder cells. Together, these data highlight the importance of specific ECM interactions in the regulation of hESC phenotype and provide a resource for future studies of hESC self-renewal. PMID:23658023

  5. Enzyme specific activity in functionalized nanoporous supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Chenghong; Soares, Thereza A; Shin, Yongsoon; Liu Jun; Ackerman, Eric J

    2008-01-01

    Here we reveal that enzyme specific activity can be increased substantially by changing the protein loading density (P LD ) in functionalized nanoporous supports so that the enzyme immobilization efficiency (I e , defined as the ratio of the specific activity of the immobilized enzyme to the specific activity of the free enzyme in solution) can be much higher than 100%. A net negatively charged glucose oxidase (GOX) and a net positively charged organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) were entrapped spontaneously in NH 2 - and HOOC-functionalized mesoporous silica (300 A, FMS) respectively. The specific activity of GOX entrapped in FMS increased with decreasing P LD . With decreasing P LD , I e of GOX in FMS increased from 150%. Unlike GOX, OPH in HOOC-FMS showed increased specific activity with increasing P LD . With increasing P LD , the corresponding I e of OPH in FMS increased from 100% to>200%. A protein structure-based analysis of the protein surface charges directing the electrostatic interaction-based orientation of the protein molecules in FMS demonstrates that substrate access to GOX molecules in FMS is limited at high P LD , consequently lowering the GOX specific activity. In contrast, substrate access to OPH molecules in FMS remains open at high P LD and may promote a more favorable confinement environment that enhances the OPH activity

  6. Human activity and the spread of Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall J. Cushman; Michelle Cooper; Ross K. Meentemeyer; Shelly Benson

    2008-01-01

    Increasing numbers of studies are finding that humans can facilitate the spread of exotic plant species in protected wildlands. Hiking trails commonly serve as conduits for invaders and the number of exotic plant species occurring in protected areas is often correlated positively with visitation rates. Despite such evidence linking human activity to the spread of...

  7. Active and passive social support in families of greylag geese (Anser anser)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheiber, IBR; Weiss, BM; Frigerio, D; Kotrschal, K

    2005-01-01

    In general, support by social allies may reduce stress, increase success in agonistic encounters and ease access to resources. Social support was mainly known from mammals, particularly primates, and has been studied in birds only recently. Basically two types are known: (i) 'active social support',

  8. a Three-Step Spatial-Temporal Clustering Method for Human Activity Pattern Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W.; Li, S.; Xu, S.

    2016-06-01

    How people move in cities and what they do in various locations at different times form human activity patterns. Human activity pattern plays a key role in in urban planning, traffic forecasting, public health and safety, emergency response, friend recommendation, and so on. Therefore, scholars from different fields, such as social science, geography, transportation, physics and computer science, have made great efforts in modelling and analysing human activity patterns or human mobility patterns. One of the essential tasks in such studies is to find the locations or places where individuals stay to perform some kind of activities before further activity pattern analysis. In the era of Big Data, the emerging of social media along with wearable devices enables human activity data to be collected more easily and efficiently. Furthermore, the dimension of the accessible human activity data has been extended from two to three (space or space-time) to four dimensions (space, time and semantics). More specifically, not only a location and time that people stay and spend are collected, but also what people "say" for in a location at a time can be obtained. The characteristics of these datasets shed new light on the analysis of human mobility, where some of new methodologies should be accordingly developed to handle them. Traditional methods such as neural networks, statistics and clustering have been applied to study human activity patterns using geosocial media data. Among them, clustering methods have been widely used to analyse spatiotemporal patterns. However, to our best knowledge, few of clustering algorithms are specifically developed for handling the datasets that contain spatial, temporal and semantic aspects all together. In this work, we propose a three-step human activity clustering method based on space, time and semantics to fill this gap. One-year Twitter data, posted in Toronto, Canada, is used to test the clustering-based method. The results show that the

  9. Affinity purification of recombinant human plasminogen activator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Affinity purification of recombinant human plasminogen activator from ... Screening antibody was performed using rhPA milk in an ELISA-elution assay. ... useful for purifying other tPA mutants or other novel recombinant milkderived proteins.

  10. Semi-active control of a cable-stayed bridge under multiple-support excitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ze-Bing; Huang, Jin-Zhi; Wang, Hong-Xia

    2004-03-01

    This paper presents a semi-active strategy for seismic protection of a benchmark cable-stayed bridge with consideration of multiple-support excitations. In this control strategy, Magnetorheological (MR) dampers are proposed as control devices, a LQG-clipped-optimal control algorithm is employed. An active control strategy, shown in previous researches to perform well at controlling the benchmark bridge when uniform earthquake motion was assumed, is also used in this study to control this benchmark bridge with consideration of multiple-support excitations. The performance of active control system is compared to that of the presented semi-active control strategy. Because the MR fluid damper is a controllable energy- dissipation device that cannot add mechanical energy to the structural system, the proposed control strategy is fail-safe in that bounded-input, bounded-output stability of the controlled structure is guaranteed. The numerical results demonstrated that the performance of the presented control design is nearly the same as that of the active control system; and that the MR dampers can effectively be used to control seismically excited cable-stayed bridges with multiple-support excitations.

  11. African American Youths with Internalizing Difficulties: Relation to Social Support and Activity Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Sylvia

    2006-01-01

    Social support and positive activity involvement are considered protective factors that can help offset the risks for youths living in impoverished areas. This study investigated whether insufficient social support and activity involvement are related to internalizing difficulties, such as depression, anxiety, loneliness, and low self-esteem.…

  12. Oncogenic KRAS activates an embryonic stem cell-like program in human colon cancer initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Rolle, Anne-France; Chiu, Thang K; Zeng, Zhaoshi; Shia, Jinru; Weiser, Martin R; Paty, Philip B; Chiu, Vi K

    2016-01-19

    Colorectal cancer is the third most frequently diagnosed cancer worldwide. Prevention of colorectal cancer initiation represents the most effective overall strategy to reduce its associated morbidity and mortality. Activating KRAS mutation (KRASmut) is the most prevalent oncogenic driver in colorectal cancer development, and KRASmut inhibition represents an unmet clinical need. We apply a systems-level approach to study the impact of KRASmut on stem cell signaling during human colon cancer initiation by performing gene set enrichment analysis on gene expression from human colon tissues. We find that KRASmut imposes the embryonic stem cell-like program during human colon cancer initiation from colon adenoma to stage I carcinoma. Expression of miR145, an embryonic SC program inhibitor, promotes cell lineage differentiation marker expression in KRASmut colon cancer cells and significantly suppresses their tumorigenicity. Our data support an in vivo plasticity model of human colon cancer initiation that merges the intrinsic stem cell properties of aberrant colon stem cells with the embryonic stem cell-like program induced by KRASmut to optimize malignant transformation. Inhibition of the embryonic SC-like program in KRASmut colon cancer cells reveals a novel therapeutic strategy to programmatically inhibit KRASmut tumors and prevent colon cancer.

  13. Human, Nature, Dynamism: The Effects of Content and Movement Perception on Brain Activations during the Aesthetic Judgment of Representational Paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Dio, Cinzia; Ardizzi, Martina; Massaro, Davide; Di Cesare, Giuseppe; Gilli, Gabriella; Marchetti, Antonella; Gallese, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Movement perception and its role in aesthetic experience have been often studied, within empirical aesthetics, in relation to the human body. No such specificity has been defined in neuroimaging studies with respect to contents lacking a human form. The aim of this work was to explore, through functional magnetic imaging (f MRI), how perceived movement is processed during the aesthetic judgment of paintings using two types of content: human subjects and scenes of nature. Participants, untutored in the arts, were shown the stimuli and asked to make aesthetic judgments. Additionally, they were instructed to observe the paintings and to rate their perceived movement in separate blocks. Observation highlighted spontaneous processes associated with aesthetic experience, whereas movement judgment outlined activations specifically related to movement processing. The ratings recorded during aesthetic judgment revealed that nature scenes received higher scored than human content paintings. The imaging data showed similar activation, relative to baseline, for all stimuli in the three tasks, including activation of occipito-temporal areas, posterior parietal, and premotor cortices. Contrast analyses within aesthetic judgment task showed that human content activated, relative to nature, precuneus, fusiform gyrus, and posterior temporal areas, whose activation was prominent for dynamic human paintings. In contrast, nature scenes activated, relative to human stimuli, occipital and posterior parietal cortex/precuneus, involved in visuospatial exploration and pragmatic coding of movement, as well as central insula. Static nature paintings further activated, relative to dynamic nature stimuli, central and posterior insula. Besides insular activation, which was specific for aesthetic judgment, we found a large overlap in the activation pattern characterizing each stimulus dimension (content and dynamism) across observation, aesthetic judgment, and movement judgment tasks. These

  14. Biologic activities of recombinant human-beta-defensin-4 toward cultured human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerashchenko, O L; Zhuravel, E V; Skachkova, O V; Khranovska, N N; Filonenko, V V; Pogrebnoy, P V; Soldatkina, M A

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study was in vitro analysis of biological activity of recombinant human beta-defensin-4 (rec-hBD-4). hBD-4 cDNA was cloned into pGEX-2T vector, and recombinant plasmid was transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3) cells. To purify soluble fusion GST-hBD-4 protein, affinity chromatography was applied. Rec-hBD-4 was cleaved from the fusion protein with thrombin, and purified by reverse phase chromatography on Sep-Pack C18. Effects of rec-hBD-4 on proliferation, viability, cell cycle distribution, substrate-independent growth, and mobility of cultured human cancer cells of A431, A549, and TPC-1 lines were analyzed by direct cell counting technique, MTT assay, flow cytofluorometry, colony forming assay in semi-soft medium, and wound healing assay. Rec-hBD-4 was expressed in bacterial cells as GST-hBD-4 fusion protein, and purified by routine 3-step procedure (affine chromatography on glutathione-agarose, cleavage of fusion protein by thrombin, and reverse phase chromatography). Analysis of in vitro activity of rec-hBD-4 toward three human cancer cell lines has demonstrated that the defensin is capable to affect cell behaviour in concentration-dependent manner. In 1-100 nM concentrations rec-hBD-4 significantly stimulates cancer cell proliferation and viability, and promotes cell cycle progression through G2/M checkpoint, greatly enhances colony-forming activity and mobility of the cells. Treatment of the cells with 500 nM of rec-hBD-4 resulted in opposite effects: significant suppression of cell proliferation and viability, blockage of cell cycle in G1/S checkpoint, significant inhibition of cell migration and colony forming activity. Recombinant human beta-defensin-4 is biologically active peptide capable to cause oppositely directed effects toward biologic features of cancer cells in vitro dependent on its concentration.

  15. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PARENTS' MOTIVATION FOR PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND THEIR BELIEFS, AND SUPPORT OF THEIR CHILDREN'S PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: A CLUSTER ANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naisseh, Matilda; Martinent, Guillaume; Ferrand, Claude; Hautier, Christophe

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have neglected the multivariate nature of motivation. The purpose of the current study was to first identify motivational profiles of parents' own physical activity. Second, the study examined if such profiles differ in the way in which parents perceive their children's competence in physical activity and the importance and support given to their children's physical activity. 711 physically active parents (57% mothers; M age = 39.7 yr.; children 6-11 years old) completed the Situational Motivation Scale, the Parents' Perceptions of Physical Activity Importance and their Children's Ability Questionnaire, and the Parental Support for Physical Activity Scale. Cluster analyses indicated four motivational profiles: Highly self-determined, Moderately self-determined, Non-self-determined, and Externally motivated profiles. Parents' beliefs and support toward their children's physical activity significantly differed across these profiles. It is the first study using Self-Determination Theory that provides evidence for the interpersonal outcomes of motivation.

  16. Comparative study of activated carbon, natural zeolite, and green sand supports for CuOX and ZnO sites as ozone decomposition catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhariyah, A. S.; Pradyasti, A.; Dianty, A. G.; Bismo, S.

    2018-03-01

    This research was based on ozone decomposition in industrial environment. Ozone is harmful to human. Therefore, catalysts were made as a mask filter to decompose ozone. Comparison studies of catalyst supports were done using Granular Activated Carbon (GAC), Natural Zeolite (NZ), and Green Sand (GS). GAC showed the highest catalytic activity compared to other supports with conversion of 98%. Meanwhile, the conversion using NZ was only 77% and GS had been just 27%. GAC had the highest catalytic activity because it had the largest pore volume, which is 0.478 cm3/g. So GAC was used as catalyst supports. To have a higher conversion in ozone decomposition, GAC was impregnated with metal oxide as the active site of the catalyst. Active site comparison was made using CuOX and ZnO as the active site. Morphology, composition, and crystal phase were analyzed using SEM-EDX, XRF, and XRD methods. Mask filter, which contained catalysts for ozone decomposition, was tested using a fixed bed reactor at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The result of conversion was analyzed using iodometric method. CuOX/GAC and ZnO/GAC 2%-w showed the highest catalytic activity and conversion reached 100%. From the durability test, CuOX/GAC 2%-w was better than ZnO/GAC 2%-w because the conversion of ozone to oxygen reached 100% with the lowest conversion was 70% for over eight hours.

  17. Physical activity and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Wojciechowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The dynamic development of the automotive industry, transport, and the media means that human life has become much easier. At the same time, the comfortable living conditions have decreased physical activity. Biologically conditioned, the need of activity has been minimised by the ever-increasing pace of life. As a result, it may lead to the loss of physical and mental health. Active recreation is not only an excellent source of activity, but also a source of satisfaction. Youths and adults should therefore spend their free time primarily on various forms of physical activity. Aim of the research : To evaluate the physical fitness of students who regularly practice physical exercise, those who occasionally practice, and those not practicing any form of physical activity. Material and methods : In the research we used a questionnaire of the Ruffier test and an orthostatic test. The study involved a group of 15 people aged 20–25 years. Participation in the study was entirely voluntary and anonymous. The study group consisted only of women. Results obtained from the questionnaire survey were fully reflected during exercise tests performed. Results and conclusions: Only regularly practiced physical activity has an effect on our body. Regular exercise increases our body’s physical capacity. Activity is the best means of prevention of lifestyle diseases. Youths and adults should spend their free time mainly doing various forms of physical activity.

  18. Exploring Techniques for Vision Based Human Activity Recognition: Methods, Systems, and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the wide applications of vision based intelligent systems, image and video analysis technologies have attracted the attention of researchers in the computer vision field. In image and video analysis, human activity recognition is an important research direction. By interpreting and understanding human activity, we can recognize and predict the occurrence of crimes and help the police or other agencies react immediately. In the past, a large number of papers have been published on human activity recognition in video and image sequences. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive survey of the recent development of the techniques, including methods, systems, and quantitative evaluation towards the performance of human activity recognition.

  19. Combining users' activity survey and simulators to evaluate human activity recognition systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azkune, Gorka; Almeida, Aitor; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Chen, Liming

    2015-04-08

    Evaluating human activity recognition systems usually implies following expensive and time-consuming methodologies, where experiments with humans are run with the consequent ethical and legal issues. We propose a novel evaluation methodology to overcome the enumerated problems, which is based on surveys for users and a synthetic dataset generator tool. Surveys allow capturing how different users perform activities of daily living, while the synthetic dataset generator is used to create properly labelled activity datasets modelled with the information extracted from surveys. Important aspects, such as sensor noise, varying time lapses and user erratic behaviour, can also be simulated using the tool. The proposed methodology is shown to have very important advantages that allow researchers to carry out their work more efficiently. To evaluate the approach, a synthetic dataset generated following the proposed methodology is compared to a real dataset computing the similarity between sensor occurrence frequencies. It is concluded that the similarity between both datasets is more than significant.

  20. Combining Users’ Activity Survey and Simulators to Evaluate Human Activity Recognition Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorka Azkune

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating human activity recognition systems usually implies following expensive and time-consuming methodologies, where experiments with humans are run with the consequent ethical and legal issues. We propose a novel evaluation methodology to overcome the enumerated problems, which is based on surveys for users and a synthetic dataset generator tool. Surveys allow capturing how different users perform activities of daily living, while the synthetic dataset generator is used to create properly labelled activity datasets modelled with the information extracted from surveys. Important aspects, such as sensor noise, varying time lapses and user erratic behaviour, can also be simulated using the tool. The proposed methodology is shown to have very important advantages that allow researchers to carry out their work more efficiently. To evaluate the approach, a synthetic dataset generated following the proposed methodology is compared to a real dataset computing the similarity between sensor occurrence frequencies. It is concluded that the similarity between both datasets is more than significant.

  1. Combining Users' Activity Survey and Simulators to Evaluate Human Activity Recognition Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azkune, Gorka; Almeida, Aitor; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Chen, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating human activity recognition systems usually implies following expensive and time-consuming methodologies, where experiments with humans are run with the consequent ethical and legal issues. We propose a novel evaluation methodology to overcome the enumerated problems, which is based on surveys for users and a synthetic dataset generator tool. Surveys allow capturing how different users perform activities of daily living, while the synthetic dataset generator is used to create properly labelled activity datasets modelled with the information extracted from surveys. Important aspects, such as sensor noise, varying time lapses and user erratic behaviour, can also be simulated using the tool. The proposed methodology is shown to have very important advantages that allow researchers to carry out their work more efficiently. To evaluate the approach, a synthetic dataset generated following the proposed methodology is compared to a real dataset computing the similarity between sensor occurrence frequencies. It is concluded that the similarity between both datasets is more than significant. PMID:25856329

  2. 16 CFR 1031.7 - Commission support of voluntary standards activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... government or industrial model code development activities, so as to develop uniformity and minimize... as hosting meetings and secretarial assistance. (11) Providing funding support for voluntary...

  3. Human factor as operating safety dominant of ATM navigation support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ю.В. Зайцев

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available  The method of specifying individual psychophysical characteristics of the human higher nervous activity has been studied to match professional fitness. Information processing rate is being estimated considering peculiarities of the nervous system of the operators working in extreme situations, and providing fluent knowledge of Ukrainian, Russian and English.

  4. Science Support: The Building Blocks of Active Data Curation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillory, A.

    2013-12-01

    While the scientific method is built on reproducibility and transparency, and results are published in peer reviewed literature, we have come to the digital age of very large datasets (now of the order of petabytes and soon exabytes) which cannot be published in the traditional way. To preserve reproducibility and transparency, active curation is necessary to keep and protect the information in the long term, and 'science support' activities provide the building blocks for active data curation. With the explosive growth of data in all fields in recent years, there is a pressing urge for data centres to now provide adequate services to ensure long-term preservation and digital curation of project data outputs, however complex those may be. Science support provides advice and support to science projects on data and information management, from file formats through to general data management awareness. Another purpose of science support is to raise awareness in the science community of data and metadata standards and best practice, engendering a culture where data outputs are seen as valued assets. At the heart of Science support is the Data Management Plan (DMP) which sets out a coherent approach to data issues pertaining to the data generating project. It provides an agreed record of the data management needs and issues within the project. The DMP is agreed upon with project investigators to ensure that a high quality documented data archive is created. It includes conditions of use and deposit to clearly express the ownership, responsibilities and rights associated with the data. Project specific needs are also identified for data processing, visualization tools and data sharing services. As part of the National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS) and National Centre for Earth Observation (NCEO), the Centre for Environmental Data Archival (CEDA) fulfills this science support role of facilitating atmospheric and Earth observation data generating projects to ensure

  5. Social support, physical activity and sedentary behavior among 6th-grade girls: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoelscher Deanna M

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the importance of social support in promoting physical activity, little is known about the relative influence of the type or source of social support on adolescent girls' physical activity and sedentary behaviors. This study examined the associations of two types of social support (social participation in and social encouragement for physical activity and two social support sources (family and friends with self-reported daily minutes of physical activity and sedentary behavior among sixth-grade girls in Texas. Methods A secondary analysis of 718 sixth-grade girls between the ages of 10 to 14 was performed using cross-sectional baseline data from an osteoporosis prevention intervention study. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors (television-video viewing and computer-video game playing were assessed using 3 administrations of the Self-Administered Physical Activity Checklist; social support indicators were assessed with Likert-type items from a psychosocial questionnaire. Results In multiple linear regression analyses, friend physical activity participation (partial correlation coefficient (r = 0.10, p = .009 and friend (r = 0.12 and family encouragement (r = 0.11 (p Conclusion Findings lend support to the importance of social support for physical activity among adolescent girls but suggest that the source and type of social support may differ for physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Further research is needed to assess the causal or reciprocal relation between the roles of friends and family in promoting physical activity and of family physical activity in decreasing sedentary behaviors among early adolescent girls.

  6. Evaluation of perfluoroalkyl acid activity using primary mouse and human hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, Mitchell B.; Das, Kaberi P.; Wood, Carmen R.; Wolf, Cynthia J.; Abbott, Barbara D.; Lau, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    While perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been studied at length, less is known about the biological activity of other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) detected in the environment. Using a transient transfection assay developed in COS-1 cells, our group has previously evaluated a variety of PFAAs for activity associated with activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). Here we use primary heptatocytes to further assess the biological activity of a similar group of PFAAs using custom designed Taqman Low Density Arrays. Primary mouse and human hepatoyctes were cultured for 48 h in the presence of varying concentrations of 12 different PFAAs or Wy14,643, a known activator of PPARα. Total RNA was collected and the expression of 48 mouse or human genes evaluated. Gene selection was based on either in-house liver microarray data (mouse) or published data using primary hepatocytes (human). Gene expression in primary mouse hepatocytes was more restricted than expected. Genes typically regulated in whole tissue by PPARα agonists were not altered in mouse cells including Acox1, Me1, Acaa1a, Hmgcs1, and Slc27a1. Cyp2b10, a gene regulated by the constitutive androstane receptor and a transcript normally up-regulated by in vivo exposure to PFAAs, was also unchanged in cultured mouse hepatocytes. Cyp4a14, Ehhadh, Pdk4, Cpt1b, and Fabp1 were regulated as expected in mouse cells. A larger group of genes were differentially expressed in human primary hepatocytes, however, little consistency was observed across compounds with respect to which genes produced a significant dose response making the determination of relative biological activity difficult. This likely reflects weaker activation of PPARα in human versus rodent cells as well as variation among individual cell donors. Unlike mouse cells, CYP2B6 was up-regulated in human hepatocytes by a number of PFAAs as was PPARδ. Rankings were conducted on the limited

  7. TiO2 nanotubes supported NiW hydrodesulphurization catalysts: Characterization and activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palcheva, R.; Dimitrov, L.; Tyuliev, G.; Spojakina, A.; Jiratova, K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► NiW catalysts supported on TiO 2 nanotubes, titania and alumina. ► The best results are obtained with NiW/TiO 2 nanotubes in hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of thiophene. ► Active phase is Ni-WO x S y . ► Electronic promotion of W by Ti. - Abstract: High surface area TiO 2 nanotubes (Ti-NT) synthesized by alkali hydrothermal method were used as a support for NiW hydrodesulphurization catalyst. Nickel salt of 12-tungstophosphoric acid – Ni 3/2 PW 12 O 40 was applied as oxide precursor of the active components. The catalyst was characterized by S BET , XRD, UV–vis DRS, Raman spectroscopy, XPS, TPR and HRTEM. The results obtained were compared with those for the NiW catalysts prepared over high surface area titania and alumina supports. A polytungstate phase evidenced by Raman spectroscopy was observed indicating the destruction of the initial heteropolyanion. The catalytic experiments revealed two times higher thiophene conversion on NiW catalyst supported on Ti-NT than those of catalysts supported on alumina and titania. Increased HDS activity of the NiW catalyst supported on Ti-NT could be related to a higher amount of W oxysulfide entities interacting with Ni sulfide particles as consequence of the electronic effects of the Ti-NT observed with XPS analysis.

  8. Water quality degradation effects on freshwater availability: Impacts to human activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, N.E.; Meybeck, Michel

    2000-01-01

    The quality of freshwater at any point on the landscape reflects the combined effects of many processes along water pathways. Human activities on all spatial scales affect both water quality and quantity. Alteration of the landscape and associated vegetation has not only changed the water balance, but typically has altered processes that control water quality. Effects of human activities on a small scale are relevant to an entire drainage basin. Furthermore, local, regional, and global differences in climate and water flow are considerable, causing varying effects of human activities on land and water quality and quantity, depending on location within a watershed, geology, biology, physiographic characteristics, and climate. These natural characteristics also greatly control human activities, which will, in turn, modify (or affect) the natural composition of water. One of the most important issues for effective resource management is recognition of cyclical and cascading effects of human activities on the water quality and quantity along hydrologic pathways. The degradation of water quality in one part of a watershed can have negative effects on users downstream. Everyone lives downstream of the effects of some human activity. An extremely important factor is that substances added to the atmosphere, land, and water generally have relatively long time scales for removal or clean up. The nature of the substance, including its affinity for adhering to soil and its ability to be transformed, affects the mobility and the time scale for removal of the substance. Policy alone will not solve many of the degradation issues, but a combination of policy, education, scientific knowledge, planning, and enforcement of applicable laws can provide mechanisms for slowing the rate of degradation and provide human and environmental protection. Such an integrated approach is needed to effectively manage land and water resources.

  9. Regulation of calcium homeostasis in activated human neutrophils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. The objectives of the current study were to: (i) present an integrated model for the restoration of calcium homeostasis in activated human neutrophils based on current knowledge and recent research; and (ii) identify potential targets for the modulation of calcium fluxes in activated neutrophils based on this model ...

  10. Instrumental support in the physical activity community - premilinary results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elloumi, Lamia; Zhang, Qiwen; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    Currently, we witness the growth of ICT-mediated solutions for chronic diseases management, especially to assist and support patients in lifestyle changes in order to improve their health condition. Being physically active is one the recommended lifestyle changes for patients with chronic diseases.

  11. Physical activity support community togetheractive - architecture, implementation and evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elloumi, Lamia; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    Reducing sedentary lifestyle and physical inactivity is getting an increased attention of researchers and health organizations due to its significant benefits on health. In the same direction we are proposing a virtual community system, TogetherActive, which supports people in their daily physical

  12. A simplified method for active-site titration of lipases immobilised on hydrophobic supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalder, Tim D; Kurtovic, Ivan; Barrow, Colin J; Marshall, Susan N

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a simple and accurate protocol to measure the functional active site concentration of lipases immobilised on highly hydrophobic supports. We used the potent lipase inhibitor methyl 4-methylumbelliferyl hexylphosphonate to titrate the active sites of Candida rugosa lipase (CrL) bound to three highly hydrophobic supports: octadecyl methacrylate (C18), divinylbenzene crosslinked methacrylate (DVB) and styrene. The method uses correction curves to take into account the binding of the fluorophore (4-methylumbelliferone, 4-MU) by the support materials. We showed that the uptake of the detection agent by the three supports is not linear relative to the weight of the resin, and that the uptake occurs in an equilibrium that is independent of the total fluorophore concentration. Furthermore, the percentage of bound fluorophore varied among the supports, with 50 mg of C18 and styrene resins binding approximately 64 and 94%, respectively. When the uptake of 4-MU was calculated and corrected for, the total 4-MU released via inhibition (i.e. the concentration of functional lipase active sites) could be determined via a linear relationship between immobilised lipase weight and total inhibition. It was found that the functional active site concentration of immobilised CrL varied greatly among different hydrophobic supports, with 56% for C18, compared with 14% for DVB. The described method is a simple and robust approach to measuring functional active site concentration in immobilised lipase samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. pH-dependent antitumor activity of proton pump inhibitors against human melanoma is mediated by inhibition of tumor acidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Milito, Angelo; Canese, Rossella; Marino, Maria Lucia; Borghi, Martina; Iero, Manuela; Villa, Antonello; Venturi, Giulietta; Lozupone, Francesco; Iessi, Elisabetta; Logozzi, Mariantonia; Della Mina, Pamela; Santinami, Mario; Rodolfo, Monica; Podo, Franca; Rivoltini, Licia; Fais, Stefano

    2010-07-01

    Metastatic melanoma is associated with poor prognosis and still limited therapeutic options. An innovative treatment approach for this disease is represented by targeting acidosis, a feature characterizing tumor microenvironment and playing an important role in cancer malignancy. Proton pump inhibitors (PPI), such as esomeprazole (ESOM) are prodrugs functionally activated by acidic environment, fostering pH neutralization by inhibiting proton extrusion. We used human melanoma cell lines and xeno-transplated SCID mice to provide preclinical evidence of ESOM antineoplastic activity. Human melanoma cell lines, characterized by different mutation and signaling profiles, were treated with ESOM in different pH conditions and evaluated for proliferation, viability and cell death. SCID mice engrafted with human melanoma were used to study ESOM administration effects on tumor growth and tumor pH by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). ESOM inhibited proliferation of melanoma cells in vitro and induced a cytotoxicity strongly boosted by low pH culture conditions. ESOM-induced tumor cell death occurred via rapid intracellular acidification and activation of several caspases. Inhibition of caspases activity by pan-caspase inhibitor z-vad-fmk completely abrogated the ESOM-induced cell death. ESOM administration (2.5 mg kg(-1)) to SCID mice engrafted with human melanoma reduced tumor growth, consistent with decrease of proliferating cells and clear reduction of pH gradients in tumor tissue. Moreover, systemic ESOM administration dramatically increased survival of human melanoma-bearing animals, in absence of any relevant toxicity. These data show preclinical evidence supporting the use of PPI as novel therapeutic strategy for melanoma, providing the proof of concept that PPI target human melanoma modifying tumor pH gradients.

  14. HuAc: Human Activity Recognition Using Crowdsourced WiFi Signals and Skeleton Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The joint of WiFi-based and vision-based human activity recognition has attracted increasing attention in the human-computer interaction, smart home, and security monitoring fields. We propose HuAc, the combination of WiFi-based and Kinect-based activity recognition system, to sense human activity in an indoor environment with occlusion, weak light, and different perspectives. We first construct a WiFi-based activity recognition dataset named WiAR to provide a benchmark for WiFi-based activity recognition. Then, we design a mechanism of subcarrier selection according to the sensitivity of subcarriers to human activities. Moreover, we optimize the spatial relationship of adjacent skeleton joints and draw out a corresponding relationship between CSI and skeleton-based activity recognition. Finally, we explore the fusion information of CSI and crowdsourced skeleton joints to achieve the robustness of human activity recognition. We implemented HuAc using commercial WiFi devices and evaluated it in three kinds of scenarios. Our results show that HuAc achieves an average accuracy of greater than 93% using WiAR dataset.

  15. TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION IN HUMAN ACTIVITY OF THE INFORMATION AGE: HUMAN AND ICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Yu. Burov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article a brief overview of projects initiated by the U.S. National Science Foundation that related to new knowledge on integration and mutual development of social systems is proposed. The projects have a potential for transformation of science and researches, improvement of life quality and economy prosperity, as well as they should ensure outrunning development of information and communication technologies for all spheres of human activity: anthropocentric computerization, integration of information and informatics, robust intelligence, cyber-human systems, as well as two cross-technical areas - human and/or robots interaction, security and information protection.

  16. Functional assessment of human enhancer activities using whole-genome STARR-sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuwen; Yu, Shan; Dhiman, Vineet K; Brunetti, Tonya; Eckart, Heather; White, Kevin P

    2017-11-20

    Genome-wide quantification of enhancer activity in the human genome has proven to be a challenging problem. Recent efforts have led to the development of powerful tools for enhancer quantification. However, because of genome size and complexity, these tools have yet to be applied to the whole human genome.  In the current study, we use a human prostate cancer cell line, LNCaP as a model to perform whole human genome STARR-seq (WHG-STARR-seq) to reliably obtain an assessment of enhancer activity. This approach builds upon previously developed STARR-seq in the fly genome and CapSTARR-seq techniques in targeted human genomic regions. With an improved library preparation strategy, our approach greatly increases the library complexity per unit of starting material, which makes it feasible and cost-effective to explore the landscape of regulatory activity in the much larger human genome. In addition to our ability to identify active, accessible enhancers located in open chromatin regions, we can also detect sequences with the potential for enhancer activity that are located in inaccessible, closed chromatin regions. When treated with the histone deacetylase inhibitor, Trichostatin A, genes nearby this latter class of enhancers are up-regulated, demonstrating the potential for endogenous functionality of these regulatory elements. WHG-STARR-seq provides an improved approach to current pipelines for analysis of high complexity genomes to gain a better understanding of the intricacies of transcriptional regulation.

  17. Coordinating complex decision support activities across distributed applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Richard M.

    1994-01-01

    Knowledge-based technologies have been applied successfully to automate planning and scheduling in many problem domains. Automation of decision support can be increased further by integrating task-specific applications with supporting database systems, and by coordinating interactions between such tools to facilitate collaborative activities. Unfortunately, the technical obstacles that must be overcome to achieve this vision of transparent, cooperative problem-solving are daunting. Intelligent decision support tools are typically developed for standalone use, rely on incompatible, task-specific representational models and application programming interfaces (API's), and run on heterogeneous computing platforms. Getting such applications to interact freely calls for platform independent capabilities for distributed communication, as well as tools for mapping information across disparate representations. Symbiotics is developing a layered set of software tools (called NetWorks! for integrating and coordinating heterogeneous distributed applications. he top layer of tools consists of an extensible set of generic, programmable coordination services. Developers access these services via high-level API's to implement the desired interactions between distributed applications.

  18. IAEA activities in support of RERTR programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, K.M.

    2004-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency has supported the programme for Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors from the very initial stage. As part of its research reactor programme, the Agency has convened several technical meetings and seminars, issued many publications on the subject, and provided technical and financial assistance to many reactor operators in the developing countries. The worldwide current status of fuel enrichment for research reactors and a resume of Agency activities are presented in this paper. (author)

  19. Ensemble Manifold Rank Preserving for Acceleration-Based Human Activity Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Dapeng; Jin, Lianwen; Yuan, Yuan; Xue, Yang

    2016-06-01

    With the rapid development of mobile devices and pervasive computing technologies, acceleration-based human activity recognition, a difficult yet essential problem in mobile apps, has received intensive attention recently. Different acceleration signals for representing different activities or even a same activity have different attributes, which causes troubles in normalizing the signals. We thus cannot directly compare these signals with each other, because they are embedded in a nonmetric space. Therefore, we present a nonmetric scheme that retains discriminative and robust frequency domain information by developing a novel ensemble manifold rank preserving (EMRP) algorithm. EMRP simultaneously considers three aspects: 1) it encodes the local geometry using the ranking order information of intraclass samples distributed on local patches; 2) it keeps the discriminative information by maximizing the margin between samples of different classes; and 3) it finds the optimal linear combination of the alignment matrices to approximate the intrinsic manifold lied in the data. Experiments are conducted on the South China University of Technology naturalistic 3-D acceleration-based activity dataset and the naturalistic mobile-devices based human activity dataset to demonstrate the robustness and effectiveness of the new nonmetric scheme for acceleration-based human activity recognition.

  20. Activated human mast cells induce LOX-1-specific scavenger receptor expression in human monocyte-derived macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervi Alanne-Kinnunen

    Full Text Available Activated mast cells in atherosclerotic lesions degranulate and release bioactive compounds capable of regulating atherogenesis. Here we examined the ability of activated human primary mast cells to regulate the expression of the major scavenger receptors in cultured human primary monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs.Components released by immunologically activated human primary mast cells induced a transient expression of lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor (LOX-1 mRNA in HMDMs, while the expression of two other scavenger receptors, MSR1 and CD36, remained unaffected. The LOX-1-inducing secretory components were identified as histamine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1, which exhibited a synergistic effect on LOX-1 mRNA expression. Histamine induced a transient expression of LOX-1 protein. Mast cell -induced increase in LOX-1 expression was not associated with increased uptake of oxidized LDL by the macrophages.Mast cell-derived histamine, TNF-α, and TGF-β1 act in concert to induce a transient increase in LOX-1 expression in human primary monocyte-derived macrophages. The LOX-1-inducing activity potentially endows mast cells a hitherto unrecognized role in the regulation of innate immune reactions in atherogenesis.

  1. Next Generation Life Support Project: Development of Advanced Technologies for Human Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Next Generation Life Support (NGLS) is one of several technology development projects sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Game Changing Development Program. NGLS is developing life support technologies (including water recovery, and space suit life support technologies) needed for humans to live and work productively in space. NGLS has three project tasks: Variable Oxygen Regulator (VOR), Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing bed, and Alternative Water Processing. The selected technologies within each of these areas are focused on increasing affordability, reliability, and vehicle self sufficiency while decreasing mass and enabling long duration exploration. The RCA and VOR tasks are directed at key technology needs for the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for an Exploration Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), with focus on prototyping and integrated testing. The focus of the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing-bed ventilation task is to provide integrated carbon dioxide removal and humidity control that can be regenerated in real time during an EVA. The Variable Oxygen Regulator technology will significantly increase the number of pressure settings available to the space suit. Current spacesuit pressure regulators are limited to only two settings while the adjustability of the advanced regulator will be nearly continuous. The Alternative Water Processor efforts will result in the development of a system capable of recycling wastewater from sources expected in future exploration missions, including hygiene and laundry water, based on natural biological processes and membrane-based post treatment. The technologies will support a capability-driven architecture for extending human presence beyond low Earth orbit to potential destinations such as the Moon, near Earth asteroids and Mars.

  2. The possibility of aromorphosis in further development of closed human life support systems using genetically modified organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitelson, Josef

    Creation of closed systems that would be able to support human life outside the biosphere for extended periods of time (CES) was started after humans went into outer space. The last fifty years have seen the construction of experimental variants of the CES in Russia, USA, and Japan. The "MELISSA" project of the European Space Agency is being prepared to be launched. Much success has been achieved in closing material loops in the CES. An obstacle to constructing a fully closed ecosystem is significant imbalance in material exchange between the producing components and the decomposing ones in the CES. The spectrum of metabolites released by humans does not fully correspond to the requirements of the main producer of the CES -plants. However, this imbalance can be corrected by rather simple physicochemical processes that can be used in the CES without unclosing the system. The major disagreement that prevents further improvement of human life support systems (LSS) is that the spectrum of products of photosynthesis in the CES does not correspond to human food requirements qual-itatively, quantitatively, or in terms of diversity. In the normal, physiologically sound, human diet, this discrepancy is resolved by adding animal products. However, there are technical, technological, and hygienic obstacles to including animals in the closed human life support systems, and if higher animals are considered, there are also ethical arguments. If between the photoautotrophic link, plants, and the heterotrophic link, the human, there were one more heterotrophic link, farm animals, the energy requirements of the system would be increased by nearly an order of magnitude, decreasing its efficiency and making it heavier and bulkier. Is there another way to close loops in human life support systems? In biology, such "findings" of evolution, which open up new perspectives and offer ample opportunities for possible adapta-tions, are termed aromorphoses (Schmalhausen, 1948). In further

  3. Chemical form of selenium affects its uptake, transport, and glutathione peroxidase activity in the human intestinal Caco-2 cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Jackson, Matthew I; Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Combs, Gerald F

    2011-11-01

    Determining the effect of selenium (Se) chemical form on uptake, transport, and glutathione peroxidase activity in human intestinal cells is critical to assess Se bioavailability at nutritional doses. In this study, we found that two sources of L-selenomethionine (SeMet) and Se-enriched yeast each increased intracellular Se content more effectively than selenite or methylselenocysteine (SeMSC) in the human intestinal Caco-2 cell model. Interestingly, SeMSC, SeMet, and digested Se-enriched yeast were transported at comparable efficacy from the apical to basolateral sides, each being about 3-fold that of selenite. In addition, these forms of Se, whether before or after traversing from apical side to basolateral side, did not change the potential to support glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. Although selenoprotein P has been postulated to be a key Se transport protein, its intracellular expression did not differ when selenite, SeMSC, SeMet, or digested Se-enriched yeast was added to serum-contained media. Taken together, our data show, for the first time, that the chemical form of Se at nutritional doses can affect the absorptive (apical to basolateral side) efficacy and retention of Se by intestinal cells; but that, these effects are not directly correlated to the potential to support GPx activity.

  4. Human Activity Recognition by Combining a Small Number of Classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazabal, Alfredo; Garcia-Moreno, Pablo; Artes-Rodriguez, Antonio; Ghahramani, Zoubin

    2016-09-01

    We consider the problem of daily human activity recognition (HAR) using multiple wireless inertial sensors, and specifically, HAR systems with a very low number of sensors, each one providing an estimation of the performed activities. We propose new Bayesian models to combine the output of the sensors. The models are based on a soft outputs combination of individual classifiers to deal with the small number of sensors. We also incorporate the dynamic nature of human activities as a first-order homogeneous Markov chain. We develop both inductive and transductive inference methods for each model to be employed in supervised and semisupervised situations, respectively. Using different real HAR databases, we compare our classifiers combination models against a single classifier that employs all the signals from the sensors. Our models exhibit consistently a reduction of the error rate and an increase of robustness against sensor failures. Our models also outperform other classifiers combination models that do not consider soft outputs and an Markovian structure of the human activities.

  5. Active role of the support in NO{sub x} storage and reductioncatalytic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tek, Mustafa [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, Dumlupinar Bulvari No:1, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Ustunel, Hande, E-mail: ustunel@metu.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, Dumlupinar Bulvari No:1, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Toffoli, Daniele, E-mail: toffoli@units.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Trieste, Via L. Giorgieri 1, I-34127 Trieste (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} units provide strong anchoring sites for the BaO storage material. • The support stabilises the interaction between NO{sub 2} and small supported BaO clusters. • This support-mediated increase in stability is not observed for SO{sub 2} adsorption. • The larger activity of titania supported BaO clusters towards NO{sub 2} adsorption could be used to inhibit sulfur poisoning. - Abstract: We present first-principles density functional theory calculations of the adsorption properties of NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} on isolated (BaO){sub n} (n = 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 9) clusters as well as on small BaO clusters ((BaO){sub n} with n = 1, 2, 4) supported on the anatase TiO{sub 2}(0 0 1) surface. The TiO{sub 2} support influences binding indirectly by enhancing the electron donation from the BaO clusters to both chemisorbed NO{sub 2} and the support. This support-mediated increase in stability is not observed for SO{sub 2}. We describe in detail and highlight the role played by TiO{sub 2} on the charge transfer mechanism, which can be used to control the catalytic properties of the active components of nitrogen storage and reduction catalytic systems. The relatively larger activity of the supported BaO clusters towards NO{sub 2} adsorption in comparison to SO{sub 2} could in principle offer protection against sulfur poisoning.

  6. Mechanical unloading of the failing human heart fails to activate the protein kinase B/Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3beta survival pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razeghi, Peter; Bruckner, Brian A; Sharma, Saumya; Youker, Keith A; Frazier, O H; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich

    2003-01-01

    Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support of the failing human heart improves myocyte function and increases cell survival. One potential mechanism underlying this phenomenon is activation of the protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) survival pathway. Left ventricular tissue was obtained both at the time of implantation and explantation of the LVAD (n = 11). Six patients were diagnosed with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, 4 patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and 1 patient with peripartum cardiomyopathy. The mean duration of LVAD support was 205 +/- 35 days. Myocyte diameter and phosphorylation of ERK were used as indices for reverse remodeling. Transcript levels of genes required for the activation of PKB/Akt (insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin receptor substrate-1) were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. In addition, we measured the relative activity of PKB/Akt and GSK-3beta, and assayed for molecular and histological indices of PKB/Akt activation (cyclooxygenase mRNA levels and glycogen levels). Myocyte diameter and phosphorylation of ERK decreased with LVAD support. In contrast, none of the components of the PKB/Akt/GSK-3beta pathway changed significantly with mechanical unloading. The PKB/Akt/GSK-3beta pathway is not activated during LVAD support. Other signaling pathways must be responsible for the improvement of cellular function and cell survival during LVAD support. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. A Flexible Approach for Human Activity Recognition Using Artificial Hydrocarbon Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Hiram; Miralles-Pechuán, Luis; Martínez-Villaseñor, María de Lourdes

    2016-10-25

    Physical activity recognition based on sensors is a growing area of interest given the great advances in wearable sensors. Applications in various domains are taking advantage of the ease of obtaining data to monitor personal activities and behavior in order to deliver proactive and personalized services. Although many activity recognition systems have been developed for more than two decades, there are still open issues to be tackled with new techniques. We address in this paper one of the main challenges of human activity recognition: Flexibility. Our goal in this work is to present artificial hydrocarbon networks as a novel flexible approach in a human activity recognition system. In order to evaluate the performance of artificial hydrocarbon networks based classifier, experimentation was designed for user-independent, and also for user-dependent case scenarios. Our results demonstrate that artificial hydrocarbon networks classifier is flexible enough to be used when building a human activity recognition system with either user-dependent or user-independent approaches.

  8. Differential Antifungal Activity of Human and Cryptococcal Melanins with Structural Discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Néstor; Covarrubias, Cristian; Rodas, Paula I; Hermosilla, Germán; Olate, Verónica R; Valdés, Cristián; Meyer, Wieland; Magne, Fabien; Tapia, Cecilia V

    2017-01-01

    Melanin is a pigment found in all biological kingdoms, and plays a key role in protection against ultraviolet radiation, oxidizing agents, and ionizing radiation damage. Melanin exerts an antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, and parasites. We demonstrated an antifungal activity of synthetic and human melanin against Candida sp. The members of the Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii species complexes are capsulated yeasts, which cause cryptococcosis. For both species melanin is an important virulence factor. To evaluate if cryptococcal and human melanins have antifungal activity against Cryptococcus species they both were assayed for their antifungal properties and physico-chemical characters. Melanin extracts from human hair and different strains of C. neoformans ( n = 4) and C. gattii ( n = 4) were investigated. The following minimum inhibitory concentrations were found for different melanins against C. neoformans and C. gattii were (average/range): 13.7/(7.8-15.6) and 19.5/(15.6-31.2) μg/mL, respectively, for human melanin; 273.4/(125->500) and 367.2/(125.5->500) μg/mL for C. neoformans melanin and 125/(62.5-250) and 156.2/(62-250) μg/mL for C. gattii melanin. Using Scanning Electron Microscopy we observed that human melanin showed a compact conformation and cryptococcal melanins exposed an amorphous conformation. Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed some differences in the signals related to C-C bonds of the aromatic ring of the melanin monomers. High Performance Liquid Chromatography established differences in the chromatograms of fungal melanins extracts in comparison with human and synthetic melanin, particularly in the retention time of the main compound of fungal melanin extracts and also in the presence of minor unknown compounds. On the other hand, MALDI-TOF-MS analysis showed slight differences in the spectra, specifically the presence of a minor intensity ion in synthetic and human melanin, as well as in some fungal melanin extracts. We

  9. Extravehicular Activity Systems Education and Public Outreach in Support of NASA's STEM Initiatives in Fiscal Year 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Heather; Jennings, Mallory A.; Lamberth, Erika Guillory

    2012-01-01

    NASA's goals to send humans beyond low Earth orbit will involve the need for a strong engineering workforce. Research indicates that student interest in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) areas is on the decline. According to the Department of Education, the United States President has mandated that 100,000 educators be trained in STEM over the next decade to reduce this trend. NASA has aligned its Education and Public Outreach (EPO) initiatives to include emphasis in promoting STEM. The Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Systems Project Office at the NASA Johnson Space Center actively supports this NASA initiative by providing subject matter experts and hands-on, interactive presentations to educate students, educators, and the general public about the design challenges encountered as NASA develops EVA hardware for exploration missions. This paper summarizes the EVA Systems EPO efforts and metrics from fiscal year 2011.

  10. Costing human rights and community support interventions as a part of universal access to HIV treatment and care in a Southern African setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Louisa; Akugizibwe, Paula; Clayton, Michaela; Amon, Joseph J; Sabin, Miriam Lewis; Bennett, Rod; Stegling, Christine; Baggaley, Rachel; Kahn, James G; Holmes, Charles B; Garg, Navneet; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Mack, Christina DeFilippo; Williams, Phoebe; Smyth, Caoimhe; Vitoria, Marco; Crowley, Siobhan; Williams, Brian; McClure, Craig; Granich, Reuben; Hirnschall, Gottfried

    2011-09-01

    Expanding access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has both individual health benefits and potential to decrease HIV incidence. Ensuring access to HIV services is a significant human rights issue and successful programmes require adequate human rights protections and community support. However, the cost of specific human rights and community support interventions for equitable, sustainable and non-discriminatory access to ART are not well described. Human rights and community support interventions were identified using the literature and through consultations with experts. Specific costs were then determined for these health sector interventions. Population and epidemic data were provided through the Statistics South Africa 2009 national mid-year estimates. Costs of scale up of HIV prevention and treatment were taken from recently published estimates. Interventions addressed access to services, minimising stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV, confidentiality, informed consent and counselling quality. Integrated HIV programme interventions included training for counsellors, 'Know Your Rights' information desks, outreach campaigns for most at risk populations, and adherence support. Complementary measures included post-service interviews, human rights abuse monitoring, transportation costs, legal assistance, and funding for human rights and community support organisations. Other essential non-health sector interventions were identified but not included in the costing framework. The annual costs for the human rights and community support interventions are United States (US) $63.8 million (US $1.22 per capita), representing 1.5% of total health sector HIV programme costs. Respect for human rights and community engagement can be understood both as an obligation of expanded ART programmes and as a critically important factor in their success. Basic rights-based and community support interventions constitute only a small percentage of overall programmes

  11. Costing Human Rights and Community Support Interventions as a Part of Universal Access to HIV Treatment and Care in a Southern African Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Louisa; Akugizibwe, Paula; Clayton, Michaela; Amon, Joseph J; Sabin, Miriam Lewis; Bennett, Rod; Stegling, Christine; Baggaley, Rachel; Kahn, James G; Holmes, Charles B; Garg, Navneet; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Mack, Christina DeFilippo; Williams, Phoebe; Smyth, Caoimhe; Vitoria, Marco; Crowley, Siobhan; Williams, Brian; McClure, Craig; Granich, Reuben; Hirnschall, Gottfried

    2011-01-01

    Expanding access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has both individual health benefits and potential to decrease HIV incidence. Ensuring access to HIV services is a significant human rights issue and successful programmes require adequate human rights protections and community support. However, the cost of specific human rights and community support interventions for equitable, sustainable and non-discriminatory access to ART are not well described. Human rights and community support interventions were identified using the literature and through consultations with experts. Specific costs were then determined for these health sector interventions. Population and epidemic data were provided through the Statistics South Africa 2009 national mid-year estimates. Costs of scale up of HIV prevention and treatment were taken from recently published estimates. Interventions addressed access to services, minimising stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV, confidentiality, informed consent and counselling quality. Integrated HIV programme interventions included training for counsellors, ‘Know Your Rights’ information desks, outreach campaigns for most at risk populations, and adherence support. Complementary measures included post-service interviews, human rights abuse monitoring, transportation costs, legal assistance, and funding for human rights and community support organisations. Other essential non-health sector interventions were identified but not included in the costing framework. The annual costs for the human rights and community support interventions are United States (US) $63.8 million (US $1.22 per capita), representing 1.5% of total health sector HIV programme costs. Respect for human rights and community engagement can be understood both as an obligation of expanded ART programmes and as a critically important factor in their success. Basic rights-based and community support interventions constitute only a small percentage of overall

  12. Effect of losartan on human platelet activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Cuesta, J I; Montón, M; Rodríguez-Feo, J A; Jiménez, A M; González-Fernández, F; Rico, L A; García, R; Gómez, J; Farré, J; Casado, S; López-Farré, A

    1999-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that losartan can block the thromboxane A2 receptor on the vascular wall. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of losartan on human platelet activation. Platelets were obtained from 15 healthy men, aged 26-40 years. Platelet activation was measured by changes in the light transmission of platelet-rich plasma stimulated by the thromboxane A2 analog U46619 (5 x 10(-6) mol/l) or ADP (10(-5) mol/l). U46619-stimulated platelet aggregation was significantly inhibited by losartan in a dose-dependent manner. Only a high dose of EXP 3174 (5 x 10(-5) mol/l), the in vivo active metabolite of losartan, was able to attenuate U46619-induced platelet activation. Captopril, an angiotensin I converting inhibitor, failed to modify U46619-induced platelet aggregation. Furthermore, the binding of [3H]-U46619 to platelets was competitively inhibited by losartan, whereas only a high dose of EXP 3174 reduced the binding of [3H]-U46619. Captopril failed to modify the binding of [3H]-U46619 to platelets. Losartan also reduced the platelet activation induced by ADP (10(-5) mol/l), a platelet agonist partially dependent on thromboxane A2. In addition, when thromboxane A2 generation was blocked by aspirin, ADP-induced platelet aggregation was inhibited to a similar degree to the inhibition induced by losartan. Exogenous angiotensin II did not elicit any modification of either U46619- or ADP-stimulated platelet aggregation. Losartan decreased platelet aggregation by a thromboxane A2-dependent mechanism. EXP 3174 was less potent than losartan in reducing thromboxane A2-dependent platelet activation. Captopril and exogenous angiotensin II had no effect on human platelet activation. These results suggest that losartan reduced thromboxane A2-dependent platelet activation independently of its effect on angiotensin II.

  13. Spatiotemporal organization of alpha-motoneuron activity in the human spinal cord during different gaits and gait transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanenko, Y P; Cappellini, G; Poppele, R E; Lacquaniti, F

    2008-06-01

    Here we studied the spatiotemporal organization of motoneuron (MN) activity during different human gaits. We recorded the electromyographic (EMG) activity patterns in 32 ipsilateral limb and trunk muscles from normal subjects while running and walking on a treadmill (3-12 km/h). In addition, we recorded backward walking and skipping, a distinct human gait that comprises the features of both walking and running. We mapped the recorded EMG activity patterns onto the spinal cord in approximate rostrocaudal locations of the MN pools. The activation of MNs tends to occur in bursts and be segregated by spinal segment in a gait-specific manner. In particular, sacral and cervical activation timings were clearly gait-dependent. Swing-related activity constituted an appreciable fraction (> 30%) of the total MN activity of leg muscles. Locomoting at non-preferred speeds (running and walking at 5 and 9 km/h, respectively) showed clear differences relative to preferred speeds. Running at low speeds was characterized by wider sacral activation. Walking at high non-preferred speeds was accompanied by an 'atypical' locus of activation in the upper lumbar spinal cord during late stance and by a drastically increased activation of lumbosacral segments. The latter findings suggest that the optimal speed of gait transitions may be related to an optimal intensity of the total MN activity, in addition to other factors previously described. The results overall support the idea of flexibility and adaptability of spatiotemporal activity in the spinal circuitry with constraints on the temporal functional connectivity of hypothetical pulsatile burst generators.

  14. Metabolic activity and collagen turnover in human tendon in response to physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, M; Langberg, H; Miller, B F

    2005-01-01

    Connective tissue of the human tendon plays an important role in force transmission. The extracellular matrix turnover of tendon is influenced by physical activity. Blood flow, oxygen demand, and the level of collagen synthesis and matrix metalloproteinases increase with mechanical loading. Gene...... of overuse tendon injuries occurring during sport, work or leisure-related activities....

  15. An Internet-based program for depressive symptoms using human and automated support: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira A

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Adriana Mira,1 Juana Bretón-López,1,2 Azucena García-Palacios,1,2 Soledad Quero,1,2 Rosa María Baños,2,3 Cristina Botella1,2 1Department of Basic, Clinical Psychology and Psychobiology, Labpsitec, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón de la Plana, Spain; 2CIBER of Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition CIBERobn, CB06/03 Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Santiago de Compostela, Spain; 3Department of Personality, Evaluation and Psychological Treatment, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia, Spain Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the efficacy of an Internet-based program for depressive symptoms using automated support by information and communication technologies (ICTs and human support. Patients and methods: An Internet-based program was used to teach adaptive ways to cope with depressive symptoms and daily problems. A total of 124 participants who were experiencing at least one stressful event that caused interference in their lives, many of whom had clinically significant depressive symptoms, were randomly assigned into either an intervention group with ICT support (automated mobile phone messages, automated emails, and continued feedback through the program; an intervention group with ICT support plus human support (brief weekly support phone call without clinical content; or a waiting-list control. At pre-, post-, and 12-month follow-up, they completed depression, anxiety, positive and negative effect, and perceived stress measures. Results were analyzed using both intention-to-treat and completers data. The majority were women (67.7%, with a mean age of 35.6 years (standard deviation =9.7. Results: The analysis showed that the two intervention groups improved significantly pre- to posttreatment, compared with the control group. Furthermore, improvements were maintained at the 12-month follow-up. Adherence and satisfaction with the program was high in both conditions. Conclusion: The Internet-based program was effective and well

  16. Differential effects of human activity on Hawaiian spinner dolphins in their resting bays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L. Heenehan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hawaiian spinner dolphins display predictable daily behavior, using shallow bays to rest during the daytime, bays that are also frequented by humans. All previous research on the potential response of Hawaiian spinner dolphins to human activity has been conducted visually, at the surface. In this study we take a different approach by using passive acoustic monitoring to analyze dolphin behavior and assess whether human activity affects the behavior of the animals. We used days (n=99 and hours (n=641 when dolphins were confirmed present in visual surveys between January 9, 2011 and August 15, 2012 and metrics generated from concomitant 30-second sound recordings (n=9615. Previous research found that the dolphins were predictably silent during rest and that acoustic activity matched general activity of the dolphins with higher acoustic activity before and after rest, and silence during rest. The daily pattern of dolphin whistle activity in Bay 2 and 4 (Kealakekua and Kauhako matched what would be expected from this earlier work. However, in Bay 1 and 3 (Makako and Honaunau there was no drop in dolphin whistle activity during rest. After assessing the relationship between time of day and dolphin acoustic activity, data on human presence were used to determine how variability in the dolphins’ acoustic activity might be explained by human activity (i.e. the number of vessels, kayaks and swimmer snorkelers present. Bay 2, the bay with the most human activity, showed no relationship between dolphin whistle activity and human presence (either vessels, kayaks, or swimmer/snorkelers. Although the relationships were weak, Bay 1 displayed a positive relationship between dolphin whistle activity and the number of vessels and swimmer/snorkelers present in the bay. Bay 4 also showed a positive relationship between dolphin whistle activity and the number of swimmer snorkelers. We also documented less sound being added to the soundscape with each additional

  17. Tactile interactions activate mirror system regions in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKyton, Ayelet

    2011-12-07

    Communicating with others is essential for the development of a society. Although types of communications, such as language and visual gestures, were thoroughly investigated in the past, little research has been done to investigate interactions through touch. To study this we used functional magnetic resonance imaging. Twelve participants were scanned with their eyes covered while stroking four kinds of items, representing different somatosensory stimuli: a human hand, a realistic rubber hand, an object, and a simple texture. Although the human and the rubber hands had the same overall shape, in three regions there was significantly more blood oxygen level dependent activation when touching the real hand: the anterior medial prefrontal cortex, the ventral premotor cortex, and the posterior superior temporal cortex. The last two regions are part of the mirror network and are known to be activated through visual interactions such as gestures. Interestingly, in this study, these areas were activated through a somatosensory interaction. A control experiment was performed to eliminate confounds of temperature, texture, and imagery, suggesting that the activation in these areas was correlated with the touch of a human hand. These results reveal the neuronal network working behind human tactile interactions, and highlight the participation of the mirror system in such functions.

  18. Virulent Type A Francisella tularensis actively suppresses cytokine responses in human monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devyn D Gilette

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is a Gram-negative facultative bacterium that can cause the disease tularemia, even upon exposure to low numbers of bacteria. One critical characteristic of Francisella is its ability to dampen or subvert the host immune response. Previous work has shown that monocytes infected with highly virulent F. tularensis subsp. tularensis strain Schu S4 responded with a general pattern of quantitatively reduced pro-inflammatory signaling pathway genes and cytokine production in comparison to those infected with the less virulent related F. novicida. However, it has been unclear whether the virulent Schu S4 was merely evading or actively suppressing monocyte responses. By using mixed infection assays with F. tularensis and F. novicida, we show that F. tularensis actively suppresses monocyte pro-inflammatory responses. Additional experiments show that this suppression occurs in a dose-dependent manner and is dependent upon the viability of F. tularensis. Importantly, F. tularensis was able to suppress pro-inflammatory responses to earlier infections with F. novicida. These results lend support that F. tularensis actively dampens human monocyte responses and this likely contributes to its enhanced pathogenicity.

  19. Human activity spaces and plague risks in three contrasting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since 1980 plague has been a human threat in the Western Usambara Mountains in Tanzania. However, the spatial-temporal pattern of plague occurrence remains poorly understood. The main objective of this study was to gain understanding of human activity patterns in relation to spatial distribution of fleas in Lushoto ...

  20. Cytotoxic activities of Coriolus versicolor (Yunzhi) extracts on human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-06

    Aug 6, 2007 ... four human liver cancer (7703, HepG2, 7721, PLC) and four human breast cancer (Bcap37, ZR75-30,. MCF-7, T-47D) cell lines ... Key words: Coriolus versicolor, fruit body, polysaccharide, anti-tumor. INTRODUCTION. Coriolus ... somewhat in structure, composition, and physiological activity. The present ...

  1. 25 CFR 1000.65 - What kinds of activities do planning and negotiation grants support?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Other Financial Assistance for Planning and Negotiation... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What kinds of activities do planning and negotiation... planning and negotiation grants support? The planning and negotiation grants support activities such as...

  2. Highly Active, Carbon-supported, PdSn Nano-core, Partially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carbon-supported, Pt partially covered, PdSn alloy nanoparticles (Pt-PdSn/C) were synthesized via a metathetical reaction of PdSn alloy nanoparticles, and a platinum precursor. The electrochemical activity was evaluated by methanol oxidation. The Pt-PdSn/C catalysts were characterized by transmission electron ...

  3. Support vector machines classifiers of physical activities in preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study is to develop, test, and compare multinomial logistic regression (MLR) and support vector machines (SVM) in classifying preschool-aged children physical activity data acquired from an accelerometer. In this study, 69 children aged 3-5 years old were asked to participate in a s...

  4. Selective activation of neuromuscular compartments within the human trapezius muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, A; Roeleveld, K; Mork, P J

    2009-01-01

    of the human trapezius muscle can be independently activated by voluntary command, indicating neuromuscular compartmentalization of the trapezius muscle. The independent activation of the upper and lower subdivisions of the trapezius is in accordance with the selective innervation by the fine cranial and main...... branch of the accessory nerve to the upper and lower subdivisions. These findings provide new insight into motor control characteristics, learning possibilities, and function of the clinically relevant human trapezius muscle....

  5. Ex-vivo α-galactosylceramide activation of NKT cells in humans and macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Caroline S; Cameron, Garth; Godfrey, Dale I; Kent, Stephen J

    2012-08-31

    NKT cells are key mediators of antiviral and anticancer immunity. Experiments in mice have demonstrated that activation of NKT cells in vivo induces the expression of multiple effector molecules critical to successful immunity. Human clinical trials have shown similar responses, although in vivo activation of NKT cells in humans or primate models are far more limited in number and scope. Measuring ex vivo activation of NKT cells by the CD1d-restricted glycolipid ligand α-Galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) through cytokine expression profiles is a useful marker of NKT cell function, but for reasons that are unclear, this approach does not appear to work as well in humans and non-human primate macaque models in comparison to mice. We performed a series of experiments on human and macaque (Macaca nemestrina) fresh whole blood samples to define optimal conditions to detect NKT cell cytokine (TNF, IFNγ, IL-2) and degranulation marker (CD107a) expression by flow cytometry. We found that conditions previously described for mouse splenocyte NKT cell activation were suboptimal on human or macaque blood NKT cells. In contrast, a 6h incubation with brefeldin A added for the last 4h, in a 96-well plate based assay, and using an α-GalCer concentration of 1 μg/ml were optimal methods to stimulate NKT cells in fresh blood from both humans and macaques. Unexpectedly, we noted that blood NKT cells from macaques infected with SIV were more readily activated by α-GalCer than NKT cells from uninfected macaques, suggesting that SIV infection may have primed the NKT cells. In conclusion, we describe optimized methods for the ex vivo antigen-specific activation of human and macaque blood NKT cells. These assays should be useful in monitoring NKT cells in disease and in immunotherapy studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Understanding Usability Work as a Human Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Mie

    Three core themes are explored in eight papers: Usability work as a human activity, usability practice and methods, and persuasiveness of evaluation results and feedback. We explore how usability work is much more than methods and work procedures, and argue that maturing our understanding...

  7. Practice leadership and active support in residential services for people with intellectual disabilities: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beadle-Brown, J; Mansell, J; Ashman, B; Ockenden, J; Iles, R; Whelton, B

    2014-09-01

    We hypothesised that a key factor determining the quality of active support was 'practice leadership' - provided by the first-line manager to focus staff attention and develop staff skills in providing direct support to enable people with intellectual disabilities to have a good quality of life. This exploratory study focused on what levels of practice leadership were found and its role in explaining variation in active support. Relevant aspects of management, including practice leadership, were assessed by questionnaires administered to staff in residential settings alongside observational measures of active support and resident engagement in meaningful activity. Relationships between these variables were explored using regression and post hoc group comparisons. There was wide variation, with average levels of practice leadership being low, though improving over the period studied. Practice leadership had a significant impact on active support, but was fully mediated by the effect of quality of management. When the quality of management was higher better practice leadership did produce a significant difference in active support. However, higher quality of management on its own did not produce better active support. A number of limitations are acknowledged and further research is required. Practice leadership appears to be an important factor in enabling staff to provide active support but as part of generally good management. Given the rather low levels found, attention needs to be given to the training, career development and support of practice leaders and also to how to protect their time from their many other responsibilities. © 2013 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. A THREE-STEP SPATIAL-TEMPORAL-SEMANTIC CLUSTERING METHOD FOR HUMAN ACTIVITY PATTERN ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Huang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available How people move in cities and what they do in various locations at different times form human activity patterns. Human activity pattern plays a key role in in urban planning, traffic forecasting, public health and safety, emergency response, friend recommendation, and so on. Therefore, scholars from different fields, such as social science, geography, transportation, physics and computer science, have made great efforts in modelling and analysing human activity patterns or human mobility patterns. One of the essential tasks in such studies is to find the locations or places where individuals stay to perform some kind of activities before further activity pattern analysis. In the era of Big Data, the emerging of social media along with wearable devices enables human activity data to be collected more easily and efficiently. Furthermore, the dimension of the accessible human activity data has been extended from two to three (space or space-time to four dimensions (space, time and semantics. More specifically, not only a location and time that people stay and spend are collected, but also what people “say” for in a location at a time can be obtained. The characteristics of these datasets shed new light on the analysis of human mobility, where some of new methodologies should be accordingly developed to handle them. Traditional methods such as neural networks, statistics and clustering have been applied to study human activity patterns using geosocial media data. Among them, clustering methods have been widely used to analyse spatiotemporal patterns. However, to our best knowledge, few of clustering algorithms are specifically developed for handling the datasets that contain spatial, temporal and semantic aspects all together. In this work, we propose a three-step human activity clustering method based on space, time and semantics to fill this gap. One-year Twitter data, posted in Toronto, Canada, is used to test the clustering-based method. The

  9. Human phenylalanine hydroxylase is activated by H2O2: a novel mechanism for increasing the L-tyrosine supply for melanogenesis in melanocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schallreuter, Karin U.; Wazir, Umar; Kothari, Sonal; Gibbons, Nicholas C.J.; Moore, Jeremy; Wood, John M.

    2004-01-01

    Epidermal phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) produces L-tyrosine from the essential amino acid L-phenylalanine supporting melanogenesis in human melanocytes. Those PAH activities increase linearly in the different skin phototypes I-VI (Fitzpatrick classification) and also increase up to 24 h after UVB light with only one minimal erythemal dose. Since UVB generates also H 2 O 2 , we here asked the question whether this reactive oxygen species could influence the activity of pure recombinant human PAH. Under saturating conditions with the substrate L-phenylalanine (1 x 10 -3 M), the V max for enzyme activity increased 4-fold by H 2 O 2 (>2.0 x 10 -3 M). Lineweaver-Burk analysis identified a mixed activation mechanism involving both the regulatory and catalytic domains of PAH. Hyperchem molecular modelling and Deep View analysis support oxidation of the single Trp 120 residue to 5-OH-Trp 120 by H 2 O 2 causing a conformational change in the regulatory domain. PAH was still activated by H 2 O 2 in the presence of the electron donor/cofactor 6(R)-L-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin despite slow oxidation of this cofactor. In vivo FT-Raman spectroscopy confirmed decreased epidermal phenylalanine in association with increased tyrosine after UVB exposure. Hence, generation of H 2 O 2 by UVB can activate epidermal PAH leading to an increased L-tyrosine pool for melanogenesis

  10. A novel approach to mechanical foot stimulation during human locomotion under body weight support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravano, S; Ivanenko, Y P; Maccioni, G; Macellari, V; Poppele, R E; Lacquaniti, F

    2011-04-01

    Input from the foot plays an essential part in perceiving support surfaces and determining kinematic events in human walking. To simulate adequate tactile pressure inputs under body weight support (BWS) conditions that represent an effective form of locomotion training, we here developed a new method of phasic mechanical foot stimulation using light-weight pneumatic insoles placed inside the shoes (under the heel and metatarsus). To test the system, we asked healthy participants to walk on a treadmill with different levels of BWS. The pressure under the stimulated areas of the feet and subjective sensations were higher at high levels of BWS and when applied to the ball and toes rather than heels. Foot stimulation did not disturb significantly the normal motor pattern, and in all participants we evoked a reliable step-synchronized triggering of stimuli for each leg separately. This approach has been performed in a general framework looking for "afferent templates" of human locomotion that could be used for functional sensory stimulation. The proposed technique can be used to imitate or partially restore surrogate contact forces under body weight support conditions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Control system design for flexible rotors supported by actively lubricated bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Santos, Ilmar

    2008-01-01

    and keeping the lengths of the two eigenvalues constant in the real-imaginary plane. The methodology is applied to an industrial gas compressor supported by active tilting-pad journal bearings. The unbalance response functions and mode shapes of the flexible rotor with and without active control are presented...

  12. Immune suppressor factor confers stromal cell line with enhanced supporting activity for hematopoietic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Hideaki; Shibata, Fumi; Fukuchi, Yumi; Goto-Koshino, Yuko; Ito, Miyuki; Urano, Atsushi; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Kitamura, Toshio

    2006-01-01

    Immune suppressor factor (ISF) is a subunit of the vacuolar ATPase proton pump. We earlier identified a short form of ISF (ShIF) as a stroma-derived factor that supports cytokine-independent growth of mutant Ba/F3 cells. Here, we report that ISF/ShIF supports self-renewal and expansion of primary hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Co-culture of murine bone marrow cells with a stromal cell line overexpressing ISF or ShIF (MS10/ISF or MS10/ShIF) not only enhanced their colony-forming activity and the numbers of long-term culture initiating cells, but also maintained the competitive repopulating activity of HSC. This stem cell supporting activity depended on the proton-transfer function of ISF/ShIF. Gene expression analysis of ISF/ShIF-transfected cell lines revealed down-regulation of secreted frizzled-related protein-1 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3, and the restoration of their expressions in MS10/ISF cells partially reversed its enhanced LTC-IC supporting activity to a normal level. These results suggest that ISF/ShIF confers stromal cells with enhanced supporting activities for HSCs by modulating Wnt-activity and the extracellular matrix

  13. Zoonotic and Non-Zoonotic Diseases in Relation to Human Personality and Societal Values: Support for the Parasite-Stress Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Thornhill

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The parasite-stress model of human sociality proposes that humans' ontogenetic experiences with infectious diseases as well as their evolutionary historical interactions with these diseases exert causal influences on human psychology and social behavior. This model has been supported by cross-national relationships between parasite prevalence and human personality traits, and between parasite prevalence and societal values. Importantly, the parasite-stress model emphasizes the causal role of non-zoonotic parasites (which have the capacity for human-to-human transmission, rather than zoonotic parasites (which do not, but previous studies failed to distinguish between these conceptually distinct categories. The present investigation directly tested the differential predictive effects of zoonotic and non-zoonotic (both human-specific and multihost parasite prevalence on personality traits and societal values. Supporting the parasite-stress model, cross-national differences in personality traits (unrestricted sexuality, extraversion, openness to experiences and in societal values (individualism, collectivism, gender equality, democratization are predicted specifically by non-zoonotic parasite prevalence.

  14. Uncovering intrinsic modular organization of spontaneous brain activity in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong He

    the temporal and spatial brain functional networks of the human brain that underlie spontaneous neuronal dynamics, which provides important implications for our understanding of how intrinsically coherent spontaneous brain activity has evolved into an optimal neuronal architecture to support global computation and information integration in the absence of specific stimuli or behaviors.

  15. Forms of Supporting Local Innovative Business Activity in European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Fedirko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates contemporary trends of innovation policy of European countries, describes the essence of contemporary mechanisms and tools for supporting local innovative development. The following most powerful tools for facilitating scientific and technical and innovative business activity are discovered: direct support of private R&D, financing of innovative enterprises, governmental and private cooperative scientific and research projects. A trend is identified for decreasing the share of institutional financing of R&D, and increasing of weight of competitive financing of academic institutions. A conclusion is made as for spreading of technologies commercialization processes support, especially on final stages thereof; the share of these has increased in respect of governmental programs focused on early stages of scientific and research projects. An insight is that within the last two decades the tools for facilitating local innovative business activities have been diversified in the EU: alongside with long-term collaborative governmental and private R&D and initiatives for developing innovative science intensive clusters, short-term tools have been significantly spread, such as innovation projects vouchers and science intensive start-ups support. Given that, it is established that traditionally developed toolkit for supporting small and medium enterprises is being complimented with scaled programs of large companies direct financing. A general trend is identified for increasing the weight of collaborative programs, while the share of individual subsidies and grants for R&D and that of companies innovative activity has substantially decreased. Higher effectiveness of start-ups facilitation measures is concluded, as well as that of venture investments, in comparison with individual subsidies. The leading role of start-ups in EU economy is determined by a range of advantages originating from dynamic process of formation thereof

  16. Nuclear factor-kappaB activation correlates with better prognosis and Akt activation in human gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Lan; Lee, Hye Seung; Jung, Jieun; Cho, Sung Jin; Chung, Hee-Yong; Kim, Woo Ho; Jin, Young-Woo; Kim, Chong Soon; Nam, Seon Young

    2005-04-01

    Because the biological significance of constitutive nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation in human gastric cancer is unclear, we undertook this study to clarify the regulatory mechanism of NF-kappaB activation and its clinical significance. Immunohistochemistry for NF-kappaB/RelA was done on 290 human gastric carcinoma specimens placed on tissue array slides. The correlations between NF-kappaB activation and clinicopathologic features, prognosis, Akt activation, tumor suppressor gene expression, or Bcl-2 expression were analyzed. We also did luciferase reporter assay, Western blot analysis, and reverse transcription-PCR using the SNU-216 human gastric cancer cell line transduced with retroviral vectors containing constitutively active Akt or the NF-kappaB repressor mutant of IkappaBalpha. Nuclear expression of RelA was found in 18% of the gastric carcinomas and was higher in early-stage pathologic tumor-node-metastasis (P = 0.019). A negative correlation was observed between NF-kappaB activation and lymphatic invasion (P = 0.034) and a positive correlation between NF-kappaB activation and overall survival rate of gastric cancer patients (P = 0.0228). In addition, NF-kappaB activation was positively correlated with pAkt (P = 0.047), p16 (P = 0.004), adenomatous polyposis coli (P Smad4 (P = 0.002), and kangai 1 (P Akt. NF-kappaB activation was frequently observed in early-stage gastric carcinoma and was significantly correlated with better prognosis and Akt activation. These findings suggest that NF-kappaB activation is a valuable prognostic variable in gastric carcinoma.

  17. Predicting Chinese human resource managers' strategic competence : roles of identity, career variety, organizational support and career adaptability.

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Y.; Yang, W.; Zhou, X.; Tian, Z.; Eves, A.

    2016-01-01

    Based on career construction theory, the predictors of human resource managers' strategic competence in the Chinese context were examined. Results from a survey administered to Chinese HR managers (N = 220) showed that professional identification, career variety and organizational support for strategic human resource management positively predicted Chinese human resource managers' strategic competence. In addition, career adaptability served as a significant mediator for the above relations. ...

  18. Basic Education and Policy Support Activity: Tools and Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creative Associates International, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The Basic Education and Policy Support (BEPS) Activity is a United States Agency for International Development (USAID)-sponsored, multi-year initiative designed to further improve the quality of, effectiveness of, and access to formal and nonformal basic education. This catalog is one element of the BEPS information dissemination process. The…

  19. Monitoring Human Activity through Portable Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sebestyen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring human activity may be useful for medical supervision and for prophylactic purposes. Mobile devices like intelligent phones or watches have multiple sensors and wireless communication capabilities which can be used for this purpose. This paper presents some integrated solutions for determining and continuous monitoring of a person’s state. Aspects taken into consideration are: activity detection and recognition based on acceleration sensors, wireless communication protocols for data acquisition, web monitoring, alerts generation and statistical processing of multiple sensorial data. As practical implementations two case studies are presented, one using an intelligent phone and another using a mixed signal processor integrated in a watch.

  20. Design of an integrated operator support system for advanced NPP MCRs. Issues and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Jun; Seong Poong-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Recently, human error has been highlighted as one of the main causes of accidents in nuclear power plants (NPPs). In order to prevent human errors during the main control room (MCR) operations, which are highly complex and mentally taxing activities, improved interfaces and operator support systems have been developed for advanced MCRs. Although operator support systems have the capability to improve the safety and reliability of an NPP, inappropriate designs can have adverse effects on the system safety. Designs based on systematic development frames and validation/verification of the systems are pivotal strategies to circumvent the negative effects of operator support systems. In this paper, an integrated operator support system designed to aid the cognitive activities of operators as well as theoretical and experimental evaluation methods of operator support systems are reviewed. From this review, it was concluded that not only issues about systems (e.g., the accuracy of the system outputs), but also issues about human operators who use the systems (for instance, information quality, the operator's trust and dependency on support systems) should be considered in the design of efficient operator support systems. (author)

  1. A Cost Model for Integrated Logistic Support Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Elena Nenni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An Integrated Logistic Support (ILS service has the objective of improving a system’s efficiency and availability for the life cycle. The system constructor offers the service to the customer, and she becomes the Contractor Logistic Support (CLS. The aim of this paper is to propose an approach to support the CLS in the budget formulation. Specific goals of the model are the provision of the annual cost of ILS activities through a specific cost model and a comprehensive examination of expected benefits, costs and savings under alternative ILS strategies. A simple example derived from an industrial application is also provided to illustrate the idea. Scientific literature is lacking in the topic and documents from the military are just dealing with the issue of performance measurement. Moreover, they are obviously focused on the customer’s perspective. Other scientific papers are general and focused only on maintenance or life cycle management. The model developed in this paper approaches the problem from the perspective of the CLS, and it is specifically tailored on the main issues of an ILS service.

  2. The impact of an online Facebook support group for people with multiple sclerosis on non-active users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steadman, Jacqui; Pretorius, Chrisma

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating disease and there is little research on support networks for people with MS (PwMS). More specifically, most studies on online support groups focus on those who actively participate in the group, whereas the majority of those who utilise online support groups do so in a passive way. This study therefore aimed to explore the experiences of non-active users of an online Facebook support group for PwMS. Emphasis was placed on the facilitators and the barriers that were associated with membership to this group. An exploratory qualitative research design was implemented, whereby thematic analysis was utilised to examine the ten semi-structured interviews that were conducted. Several facilitators were acquired through the online support group; namely emotional support (constant source of support, exposure to negative aspects of the disease), informational support (group as a source of knowledge, quality of information) and social companionship (place of belonging). Some barriers were also identified; namely emotional support (emotions lost online, response to messages, exposure to negative aspects of the disease), informational support (information posted on the group, misuse of group) and social companionship (non-active status). These findings demonstrate that the non-active members of the online support group for PwMS have valid reasons for their non-active membership status. More important, the findings suggest that the online Facebook support group provided the group members with an important support network in the form of emotional support, informational support and social companionship, despite their non-active membership status or the barriers that have been identified.

  3. Refractoriness in human atria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsbye, Lasse; Jespersen, Thomas; Christ, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Refractoriness of cardiac cells limits maximum frequency of electrical activity and protects the heart from tonic contractions. Short refractory periods support major arrhythmogenic substrates and augmentation of refractoriness is therefore seen as a main mechanism of antiarrhythmic...... drugs. Cardiomyocyte excitability depends on availability of sodium channels, which involves both time- and voltage-dependent recovery from inactivation. This study therefore aims to characterise how sodium channel inactivation affects refractoriness in human atria. METHODS AND RESULTS: Steady......-state activation and inactivation parameters of sodium channels measured in vitro in isolated human atrial cardiomyocytes were used to parameterise a mathematical human atrial cell model. Action potential data were acquired from human atrial trabeculae of patients in either sinus rhythm or chronic atrial...

  4. Plasticizers May Activate Human Hepatic Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α Less Than That of a Mouse but May Activate Constitutive Androstane Receptor in Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yuki; Nakamura, Toshiki; Yanagiba, Yukie; Ramdhan, Doni Hikmat; Yamagishi, Nozomi; Naito, Hisao; Kamijima, Michihiro; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Nakajima, Tamie

    2012-01-01

    Dibutylphthalate (DBP), di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), and di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA) are used as plasticizers. Their metabolites activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α, which may be related to their toxicities. However, species differences in the receptor functions between rodents and human make it difficult to precisely extrapolate their toxicity from animal studies to human. In this paper, we compared the species differences in the activation of mouse and human hepatic PPARα by these plasticizers using wild-type (mPPARα) and humanized PPARα (hPPARα) mice. At 12 weeks old, each genotyped male mouse was classified into three groups, and fed daily for 2 weeks per os with corn oil (vehicle control), 2.5 or 5.0 mmol/kg DBP (696, 1392 mg/kg), DEHP (977, 1953 mg/kg), and DEHA (926, 1853 mg/kg), respectively. Generally, hepatic PPARα of mPPARα mice was more strongly activated than that of hPPARα mice when several target genes involving β-oxidation of fatty acids were evaluated. Interestingly, all plasticizers also activated hepatic constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) more in hPPARα mice than in mPPARα mice. Taken together, these plasticizers activated mouse and human hepatic PPARα as well as CAR. The activation of PPARα was stronger in mPPARα mice than in hPPARα mice, while the opposite was true of CAR. PMID:22792086

  5. Plasticizers May Activate Human Hepatic Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α Less Than That of a Mouse but May Activate Constitutive Androstane Receptor in Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Ito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dibutylphthalate (DBP, di(2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP, and di(2-ethylhexyladipate (DEHA are used as plasticizers. Their metabolites activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR α, which may be related to their toxicities. However, species differences in the receptor functions between rodents and human make it difficult to precisely extrapolate their toxicity from animal studies to human. In this paper, we compared the species differences in the activation of mouse and human hepatic PPARα by these plasticizers using wild-type (mPPARα and humanized PPARα (hPPARα mice. At 12 weeks old, each genotyped male mouse was classified into three groups, and fed daily for 2 weeks per os with corn oil (vehicle control, 2.5 or 5.0 mmol/kg DBP (696, 1392 mg/kg, DEHP (977, 1953 mg/kg, and DEHA (926, 1853 mg/kg, respectively. Generally, hepatic PPARα of mPPARα mice was more strongly activated than that of hPPARα mice when several target genes involving β-oxidation of fatty acids were evaluated. Interestingly, all plasticizers also activated hepatic constitutive androstane receptor (CAR more in hPPARα mice than in mPPARα mice. Taken together, these plasticizers activated mouse and human hepatic PPARα as well as CAR. The activation of PPARα was stronger in mPPARα mice than in hPPARα mice, while the opposite was true of CAR.

  6. Humans vs Hardware: The Unique World of NASA Human System Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, W.; Havenhill, M.; Overton, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Understanding spaceflight risks to crew health and performance is a crucial aspect of preparing for exploration missions in the future. The research activities of the Human Research Program (HRP) provide substantial evidence to support most risk reduction work. The Human System Risk Board (HSRB), acting on behalf of the Office of Chief Health and Medical Officer (OCHMO), assesses these risks and assigns likelihood and consequence ratings to track progress. Unfortunately, many traditional approaches in risk assessment such as those used in the engineering aspects of spaceflight are difficult to apply to human system risks. This presentation discusses the unique aspects of risk assessment from the human system risk perspective and how these limitations are accommodated and addressed in order to ensure that reasonable inputs are provided to support the OCHMO's overall risk posture for manned exploration missions.

  7. Process intensification by combination of activated carbon supported catalysts and alternative energy sources

    OpenAIRE

    Calvino Casilda, Vanesa; Pérez-Mayoral, E.

    2014-01-01

    [EN] Activated carbons are well known for their catalytic properties and for being used as a catalyst support in heterogeneous catalysis. Activated carbons possess most of the desired properties of a catalyst support; inertness towards unwanted reactions, stability under regeneration and reaction conditions, suitable mechanical properties, tunable surface area, porosity, and the possibility of being manufactured in different size and shape. On the other hand, the in...

  8. Aloe vera extract activity on human corneal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Anna; Paduch, Roman

    2012-02-01

    Ocular diseases are currently an important problem in modern societies. Patients suffer from various ophthalmologic ailments namely, conjunctivitis, dry eye, dacryocystitis or degenerative diseases. Therefore, there is a need to introduce new treatment methods, including medicinal plants usage. Aloe vera [Aloe barbadensis Miller (Liliaceae)] possesses wound-healing properties and shows immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory or antioxidant activities. NR uptake, MTT, DPPH• reduction, Griess reaction, ELISA and rhodamine-phalloidin staining were used to test toxicity, antiproliferative activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) reduction, nitric oxide (NO) and cytokine level, and distribution of F-actin in cells, respectively. The present study analyzes the effect of Aloe vera extracts obtained with different solvents on in vitro culture of human 10.014 pRSV-T corneal cells. We found no toxicity of ethanol, ethyl acetate and heptane extracts of Aloe vera on human corneal cells. No ROS reducing activity by heptane extract and trace action by ethanol (only at high concentration 125 µg/ml) extract of Aloe vera was observed. Only ethyl acetate extract expressed distinct free radical scavenging effect. Plant extracts decreased NO production by human corneal cells as compared to untreated controls. The cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10) production decreased after the addition of Aloe vera extracts to the culture media. Aloe vera contains multiple pharmacologically active substances which are capable of modulating cellular phenotypes and functions. Aloe vera ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts may be used in eye drops to treat inflammations and other ailments of external parts of the eye such as the cornea.

  9. Differential Antifungal Activity of Human and Cryptococcal Melanins with Structural Discrepancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Correa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Melanin is a pigment found in all biological kingdoms, and plays a key role in protection against ultraviolet radiation, oxidizing agents, and ionizing radiation damage. Melanin exerts an antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, and parasites. We demonstrated an antifungal activity of synthetic and human melanin against Candida sp. The members of the Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii species complexes are capsulated yeasts, which cause cryptococcosis. For both species melanin is an important virulence factor. To evaluate if cryptococcal and human melanins have antifungal activity against Cryptococcus species they both were assayed for their antifungal properties and physico-chemical characters. Melanin extracts from human hair and different strains of C. neoformans (n = 4 and C. gattii (n = 4 were investigated. The following minimum inhibitory concentrations were found for different melanins against C. neoformans and C. gattii were (average/range: 13.7/(7.8–15.6 and 19.5/(15.6–31.2 μg/mL, respectively, for human melanin; 273.4/(125–>500 and 367.2/(125.5–>500 μg/mL for C. neoformans melanin and 125/(62.5–250 and 156.2/(62–250 μg/mL for C. gattii melanin. Using Scanning Electron Microscopy we observed that human melanin showed a compact conformation and cryptococcal melanins exposed an amorphous conformation. Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR showed some differences in the signals related to C-C bonds of the aromatic ring of the melanin monomers. High Performance Liquid Chromatography established differences in the chromatograms of fungal melanins extracts in comparison with human and synthetic melanin, particularly in the retention time of the main compound of fungal melanin extracts and also in the presence of minor unknown compounds. On the other hand, MALDI-TOF-MS analysis showed slight differences in the spectra, specifically the presence of a minor intensity ion in synthetic and human melanin, as well as in some fungal

  10. Integrating biodiversity concepts with good governance to support ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-10-04

    Oct 4, 2005 ... support water resources management in South Africa. PJ Ashton1*, MJ Patrick2, HM .... Figure 1 shows that human activities, motivated by a diverse array of goals and .... catchment management strategy. • Legislation is the ...

  11. Human risk contributions in process industry: Guides for their pre-identification in well-structured activities and for post-incident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, O.M.

    1985-05-01

    The report should be considered a guide for the treating of human errors: for identifying their possibilities of occurrence when designing well-structured human tasks and for their improvement when they occur in reality. For these purposes a strong coupling between predictive and retrospective analysis is emphasized: In order to control human errors, post-incident analysis of cases with human errors in a given industrial plant should be performed as means of feedback from reality for the verification of results of predictive analysis and also as general means of identifying and improving such human errors which cannot be expected covered by predictive analysis. Primarily, the guide addresses people with a knowledge of the technical plant in question and involved in the safety-oriented design and improvement of human activities and without a particular human factors background. The main report describes the procedures for post-incident analysis and for Work Analysis, which is a search strategy developed for well-defined activities, e.g. test and calibration, and constitutes a formalized procedure for the pre-identification of relevant human errors leading to a lack of task result and/or to immediate effects not covered by the lack of task result itself. Work Analysis and the post-incident analysis procedure are based on a common description system for human malfunctions. This system is explained in appendix and so are its underlying models and way of reasoning. Finally, a word index is provided for supporting the reader. (author)

  12. SEMG activity of jaw-closing muscles during biting with different unilateral occlusal supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M-Q; He, J-J; Zhang, J-H; Wang, K; Svensson, P; Widmalm, S E

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that experimental and reversible changes of occlusion affect the levels of surface electromyographic (SEMG) activity in the anterior temporalis and masseter areas during unilateral maximal voluntary biting (MVB) in centric and eccentric position. Changes were achieved by letting 21 healthy subjects bite with and without a cotton roll between the teeth. The placement alternated between sides and between premolar and molar areas. The SEMG activity level was lower when biting in eccentric position without than with a cotton roll between teeth (P 0.05). In the anterior temporalis area, the balancing side SEMG activity was lower in eccentric than in centric but only in molar-supported biting (P = 0.026). These results support that the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles have different roles in keeping the mandible in balance during unilateral supported MVB. Changes in occlusal stability achieved by biting with versus without a cotton roll were found to affect the SEMG activity levels.

  13. KOH-activated multi-walled carbon nanotubes as platinum supports for oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chaoxiong; Song, Shuqin; Liu, Jinchao; Maragou, Vasiliki; Tsiakaras, Panagiotis

    In the present investigation, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) thermally treated by KOH were adopted as the platinum supporting material for the oxygen reduction reaction electrocatalysts. FTIR and Raman spectra were used to investigate the surface state of MWCNTs treated by KOH at different temperatures (700, 800, and 900 °C) and showed MWCNTs can be successfully functionalized. The structural properties of KOH-activated MWCNTs supported Pt were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and their electrochemical performance was evaluated by the aid of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and rotating disk electrode (RDE) voltammetry. According to the experimental findings of the present work, the surrface of MWCNTs can be successfully functionalized with oxygen-containing groups after activation by KOH, favoring the good dispersion of Pt nanoparticles with narrow size distribution. The as-prepared Pt catalysts supported on KOH treated MWCNTs at higher temperature, possess higher electrochemical surface area and exhibit desirable activity towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). More precisely, it has been found that the electrochemical active area of Pt/MWCNTs-900 is approximately two times higher than that of Pt/MWCNTs. It can be concluded that KOH activation is an effective way to decorate MWCNTs' surface with oxygen-containing groups and bigger surface area, which makes them more suitable as electrocatalyst support materials.

  14. Setting the scene: Human activities, environmental impacts and governance arrangements in Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tin, T.; Lamers, M.A.J.; Liggett, D.; Maher, P.T.; Hughes, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    The scope and intensity of human activity in the Antarctic region has changed considerably over the past 100 years, resulting in significant modifications to the Antarctic environment and its ecosystems, and to the institutional arrangements governing human activities. Since the nineteenth century,

  15. SAM: Support Vector Machine Based Active Queue Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing interest in the design of AQM (Active Queue Management) controllers. The purpose of these controllers is to manage the network congestion under varying loads, link delays and bandwidth. In this paper, a new AQM controller is proposed which is trained by using the SVM (Support Vector Machine) with the RBF (Radial Basis Function) kernal. The proposed controller is called the support vector based AQM (SAM) controller. The performance of the proposed controller has been compared with three conventional AQM controllers, namely the Random Early Detection, Blue and Proportional Plus Integral Controller. The preliminary simulation studies show that the performance of the proposed controller is comparable to the conventional controllers. However, the proposed controller is more efficient in controlling the queue size than the conventional controllers. (author)

  16. The impact of an online Facebook support group for people with multiple sclerosis on non-active users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqui Steadman

    2014-11-01

    Objectives: This study therefore aimed to explore the experiences of non-active users of an online Facebook support group for PwMS. Emphasis was placed on the facilitators and the barriers that were associated with membership to this group. Method: An exploratory qualitative research design was implemented, whereby thematic analysis was utilised to examine the ten semi-structured interviews that were conducted. Results: Several facilitators were acquired through the online support group; namely emotional support (constant source of support, exposure to negative aspects of the disease,informational support (group as a source of knowledge, quality of information and social companionship (place of belonging. Some barriers were also identified; namely emotional support (emotions lost online, response to messages, exposure to negative aspects of the disease, informational support (information posted on the group, misuse of group and social companionship (non-active status. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that the non-active members of the online support group for PwMS have valid reasons for their non-active membership status. More important,the findings suggest that the online Facebook support group provided the group members with an important support network in the form of emotional support, informational support and social companionship, despite their non-active membership status or the barriers that have been identified.

  17. Activity Monitors as Support for Older Persons' Physical Activity in Daily Life: Qualitative Study of the Users' Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, Maria; Eriksson, Lennie Carlén; Åkerberg, Nina; Johansson, Ann-Christin

    2018-02-01

    Falls are a major threat to the health and independence of seniors. Regular physical activity (PA) can prevent 40% of all fall injuries. The challenge is to motivate and support seniors to be physically active. Persuasive systems can constitute valuable support for persons aiming at establishing and maintaining healthy habits. However, these systems need to support effective behavior change techniques (BCTs) for increasing older adults' PA and meet the senior users' requirements and preferences. Therefore, involving users as codesigners of new systems can be fruitful. Prestudies of the user's experience with similar solutions can facilitate future user-centered design of novel persuasive systems. The aim of this study was to investigate how seniors experience using activity monitors (AMs) as support for PA in daily life. The addressed research questions are as follows: (1) What are the overall experiences of senior persons, of different age and balance function, in using wearable AMs in daily life?; (2) Which aspects did the users perceive relevant to make the measurements as meaningful and useful in the long-term perspective?; and (3) What needs and requirements did the users perceive as more relevant for the activity monitors to be useful in a long-term perspective? This qualitative interview study included 8 community-dwelling older adults (median age: 83 years). The participants' experiences in using two commercial AMs together with tablet-based apps for 9 days were investigated. Activity diaries during the usage and interviews after the usage were exploited to gather user experience. Comments in diaries were summarized, and interviews were analyzed by inductive content analysis. The users (n=8) perceived that, by using the AMs, their awareness of own PA had increased. However, the AMs' impact on the users' motivation for PA and activity behavior varied between participants. The diaries showed that self-estimated physical effort varied between participants and

  18. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. 334.761 Section 334.761 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.761 Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. (a) The areas—(1...

  19. Context-dependent spatially periodic activity in the human entorhinal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadasdy, Zoltan; Nguyen, T Peter; Török, Ágoston; Shen, Jason Y; Briggs, Deborah E; Modur, Pradeep N; Buchanan, Robert J

    2017-04-25

    The spatially periodic activity of grid cells in the entorhinal cortex (EC) of the rodent, primate, and human provides a coordinate system that, together with the hippocampus, informs an individual of its location relative to the environment and encodes the memory of that location. Among the most defining features of grid-cell activity are the 60° rotational symmetry of grids and preservation of grid scale across environments. Grid cells, however, do display a limited degree of adaptation to environments. It remains unclear if this level of environment invariance generalizes to human grid-cell analogs, where the relative contribution of visual input to the multimodal sensory input of the EC is significantly larger than in rodents. Patients diagnosed with nontractable epilepsy who were implanted with entorhinal cortical electrodes performing virtual navigation tasks to memorized locations enabled us to investigate associations between grid-like patterns and environment. Here, we report that the activity of human entorhinal cortical neurons exhibits adaptive scaling in grid period, grid orientation, and rotational symmetry in close association with changes in environment size, shape, and visual cues, suggesting scale invariance of the frequency, rather than the wavelength, of spatially periodic activity. Our results demonstrate that neurons in the human EC represent space with an enhanced flexibility relative to neurons in rodents because they are endowed with adaptive scalability and context dependency.

  20. Human impacts on regional avian diversity and abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher A. Lepczyk; Curtis H. Flather; Volker C. Radeloff; Anna M. Pidgeon; Roger B. Hammer; Jianguo Liu

    2008-01-01

    Patterns of association between humans and biodiversity typically show positive, negative, or negative quadratic relationships and can be described by 3 hypotheses: biologically rich areas that support high human population densities co-occur with areas of high biodiversity (productivity); biodiversity decreases monotonically with increasing human activities (ecosystem...

  1. Elevated personal exposure to particulate matter from human activities in a residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Andrea R; Kopperud, Royal J; Hildemann, Lynn M

    2004-01-01

    Continuous laser particle counters collocated with time-integrated filter samplers were used to measure personal, indoor, and outdoor particulate matter (PM) concentrations for a variety of prescribed human activities during a 5-day experimental period in a home in Redwood City, CA, USA. The mean daytime personal exposures to PM(2.5) and PM(5) during prescribed activities were 6 and 17 times, respectively, as high as the pre-activity indoor background concentration. Activities that resulted in the highest exposures of PM(2.5), PM(5), and PM(10) were those that disturbed dust reservoirs on furniture and textiles, such as dry dusting, folding clothes and blankets, and making a bed. The vigor of activity and type of flooring were also important factors for dust resuspension. Personal exposures to PM(2.5) and PM(5) were 1.4 and 1.6 times, respectively, as high as the indoor concentration as measured by a stationary monitor. The ratio of personal exposure to the indoor concentration was a function of both particle size and the distance of the human activity from the stationary indoor monitor. The results demonstrate that a wide variety of indoor human resuspension activities increase human exposure to PM and contribute to the "personal cloud" effect.

  2. Research Training, Institutional Support, and Self-Efficacy: Their Impact on Research Activity of Social Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Thomas Lynch

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available While the expectations for social work practitioners to do research have increased, their involvement is still limited. We know little about what factors influence involvement in research. The present study proposes a theoretical model that hypothesizes research training and institutional support for research as the exogenous variables, research self-efficacy as an intervening variable, and research activity as the endogenous variable. The study tests the model using data collected from a random sample of social workers. To a large degree the data support the model. Research self-efficacy has a significant effect on research activity. It is also an important mediating variable for the effect of institutional support on research activity. Although institutional support for research has no direct effect, it has an indirect effect via self-efficacy on research activity. However, research training has no effect on research activity and self-efficacy in research. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  3. Incorporating twitter-based human activity information in spatial analysis of crashes in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jie; Liu, Pan; Yu, Hao; Xu, Chengcheng

    2017-09-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate how to incorporate human activity information in spatial analysis of crashes in urban areas using Twitter check-in data. This study used the data collected from the City of Los Angeles in the United States to illustrate the procedure. The following five types of data were collected: crash data, human activity data, traditional traffic exposure variables, road network attributes and social-demographic data. A web crawler by Python was developed to collect the venue type information from the Twitter check-in data automatically. The human activities were classified into seven categories by the obtained venue types. The collected data were aggregated into 896 Traffic Analysis Zones (TAZ). Geographically weighted regression (GWR) models were developed to establish a relationship between the crash counts reported in a TAZ and various contributing factors. Comparative analyses were conducted to compare the performance of GWR models which considered traditional traffic exposure variables only, Twitter-based human activity variables only, and both traditional traffic exposure and Twitter-based human activity variables. The model specification results suggested that human activity variables significantly affected the crash counts in a TAZ. The results of comparative analyses suggested that the models which considered both traditional traffic exposure and human activity variables had the best goodness-of-fit in terms of the highest R 2 and lowest AICc values. The finding seems to confirm the benefits of incorporating human activity information in spatial analysis of crashes using Twitter check-in data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The anti-papillomavirus activity of human and bovine lactoferricin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Nitesh; Drobni, Peter; Näslund, Jonas; Sunkari, Vivekananda Gupta; Jenssen, Håvard; Evander, Magnus

    2007-09-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) cause common warts, laryngeal papilloma and genital condylomata and is necessary for the development of cervical cancer. We have previously found that lactoferrin has antiviral activity against HPV-16 and others have demonstrated that lactoferricin, an N-terminal fragment of lactoferrin, has inhibitory activities against several viruses. Two cell lines and two virus types, HPV-5 and HPV-16, were used to study if lactoferrin and lactoferricin could inhibit HPV pseudovirus (PsV) infection. We demonstrated that bovine lactoferrin (bLf) and human lactoferrin (hLf) were both potent inhibitors of HPV-5 and -16 PsV infections. Among the four lactoferricin derivatives we analyzed, a 15 amino acid peptide from bovine lactoferricin (bLfcin) 17-31 was the most potent inhibitor of both HPV-5 and HPV-16 PsV infection. Among the other derivatives, the human lactoferricin (hLfcin) 1-49 showed some antiviral activity against HPV PsV infection while bLfcin 17-42 inhibited only HPV-5 PsV infection in one of the cell lines. When we studied initial attachment of HPV-16, only bLfcin 17-42 and hLfcin 1-49 had an antiviral effect. This is the first time that lactoferricin was demonstrated to have an inhibitory effect on HPV infection and the antiviral activity differed depending on size, charge and structures of the lactoferricin.

  5. Human oocyte calcium analysis predicts the response to assisted oocyte activation in patients experiencing fertilization failure after ICSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Buitrago, M; Dhaenens, L; Lu, Y; Bonte, D; Vanden Meerschaut, F; De Sutter, P; Leybaert, L; Heindryckx, B

    2018-01-10

    Can human oocyte calcium analysis predict fertilization success after assisted oocyte activation (AOA) in patients experiencing fertilization failure after ICSI? ICSI-AOA restores the fertilization rate only in patients displaying abnormal Ca2+ oscillations during human oocyte activation. Patients capable of activating mouse oocytes and who showed abnormal Ca2+ profiles after mouse oocyte Ca2+ analysis (M-OCA), have variable responses to ICSI-AOA. It remains unsettled whether human oocyte Ca2+ analysis (H-OCA) would yield an improved accuracy to predict fertilization success after ICSI-AOA. Sperm activation potential was first evaluated by MOAT. Subsequently, Ca2+ oscillatory patterns were determined with sperm from patients showing moderate to normal activation potential based on the capacity of human sperm to generate Ca2+ responses upon microinjection in mouse and human oocytes. Altogether, this study includes a total of 255 mouse and 122 human oocytes. M-OCA was performed with 16 different sperm samples before undergoing ICSI-AOA treatment. H-OCA was performed for 11 patients who finally underwent ICSI-AOA treatment. The diagnostic accuracy to predict fertilization success was calculated based on the response to ICSI-AOA. Patients experiencing low or total failed fertilization after conventional ICSI were included in the study. All participants showed moderate to high rates of activation after MOAT. Metaphase II (MII) oocytes from B6D2F1 mice were used for M-OCA. Control fertile sperm samples were used to obtain a reference Ca2+ oscillation profile elicited in human oocytes. Donated human oocytes, non-suitable for IVF treatments, were collected and vitrified at MII stage for further analysis by H-OCA. M-OCA and H-OCA predicted the response to ICSI-AOA in 8 out of 11 (73%) patients. Compared to M-OCA, H-OCA detected the presence of sperm activation deficiencies with greater sensitivity (75 vs 100%, respectively). ICSI-AOA never showed benefit to overcome

  6. The Human Release Hypothesis for biological invasions: human activity as a determinant of the abundance of invasive plant species [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/33c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Zimmermann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Research on biological invasions has increased rapidly over the past 30 years, generating numerous explanations of how species become invasive. While the mechanisms of invasive species establishment are well studied, the mechanisms driving abundance patterns (i.e. patterns of population density remain poorly understood. Invasive species typically have higher abundances in their new environments than in their native ranges, and patterns of invasive species abundance differ between invaded regions. To explain differences in invasive species abundance, we propose the Human Release Hypothesis. In parallel to the established Enemy Release Hypothesis, this hypothesis states that the abundance of invasive species may be partly explained by the level of human activity or landscape maintenance, with intermediate levels of human activity providing optimal conditions for high abundance. The Human Release Hypothesis does not negate other important drivers of species invasions, but rather should be considered as a potentially important additional or complementary mechanism. We illustrate the hypothesis via a case study on an invasive rose species, and hypothesize which locations globally may be most likely to support high abundances of invasive species. We propose that more extensive empirical work on the Human Release Hypothesis could be useful to test its general applicability.

  7. A Comparison between LMS tools to support e-health educational activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo Novaes, Magdala; Soares de Vasconcelos, Gabriel; Florencio da Silva, Jackson Raniel

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to understand how a Learning Management System (LMS) plataform is used in a telehealth center to support two virtual learning enviroments focused on the education of the healthcare professionals and the students of a medical schoool. The study outcome is expected to provide indications towards choosing a better LSM for the telehelath center to support their educacional activities.

  8. Prediction of Human Activity by Discovering Temporal Sequence Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kang; Fu, Yun

    2014-08-01

    Early prediction of ongoing human activity has become more valuable in a large variety of time-critical applications. To build an effective representation for prediction, human activities can be characterized by a complex temporal composition of constituent simple actions and interacting objects. Different from early detection on short-duration simple actions, we propose a novel framework for long -duration complex activity prediction by discovering three key aspects of activity: Causality, Context-cue, and Predictability. The major contributions of our work include: (1) a general framework is proposed to systematically address the problem of complex activity prediction by mining temporal sequence patterns; (2) probabilistic suffix tree (PST) is introduced to model causal relationships between constituent actions, where both large and small order Markov dependencies between action units are captured; (3) the context-cue, especially interactive objects information, is modeled through sequential pattern mining (SPM), where a series of action and object co-occurrence are encoded as a complex symbolic sequence; (4) we also present a predictive accumulative function (PAF) to depict the predictability of each kind of activity. The effectiveness of our approach is evaluated on two experimental scenarios with two data sets for each: action-only prediction and context-aware prediction. Our method achieves superior performance for predicting global activity classes and local action units.

  9. Special Education in General Education Classrooms: Cooperative Teaching Using Supportive Learning Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robin R.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Supportive learning activities were implemented in a multiple-baseline time series design across four fifth-grade classrooms to evaluate the effects of a cooperative teaching alternative (supportive learning) on teaching behavior, the behavior and grades of general and special education students, and the opinions of general education teachers.…

  10. Supporting intra-group social metacognitive activities with technology: A grammar learning game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, I.; Horvers, A.; Desain, P.W.M.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of a technology enhanced collaborative grammar learning activity on students sentence parsing and formulation. These types of collaborative learning activities for grammar education are expected to support more effective learning. Yet, effective intra-group social

  11. Investigation of the Origin of Catalytic Activity in Oxide-Supported Nanoparticle Gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Ian [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2017-05-26

    Since Haruta’s discovery in 1987 of the surprising catalytic activity of supported Au nanoparticles, we have seen a very large number of experimental and theoretical efforts to explain this activity and to fully understand the nature of the behavior of the responsible active sites. In 2011, we discovered that a dual catalytic site at the perimeter of ~3nm diameter Au particles supported on TiO2 is responsible for oxidative catalytic activity. O2 molecules bind with Au atoms and Ti4+ ions in the TiO2 support and the weakened O-O bond dissociates at low temperatures, proceeding to produce O atoms which act as oxidizing agents for the test molecule, CO. The papers supported by DOE have built on this finding and have been concerned with two aspects of the behavior of Au/TiO2 catalysts: (1). Mechanistic behavior of dual catalytic sites in the oxidation of organic molecules such as ethylene and acetic acid; (2). Studies of the electronic properties of the TiO2 (110) single crystal in relation to its participation in charge transfer at the occupied dual catalytic site. A total of 20 papers have been produced through DOE support of this work. The papers combine IR spectroscopic investigations of Au/TiO2 catalysts with surface science on the TiO2(110) and TiO2 nanoparticle surfaces with modern density functional modeling. The primary goals of the work were to investigate the behavior of the dual Au/Ti4+ site for the partial oxidation of alcohols to acids, the hydrogenation of aldehydes and ketones to alcohols, and the condensation of oxygenate intermediates- all processes related to the utilization of biomass in the production of useful chemical energy sources.

  12. Evaluating Space Weather Architecture Options to Support Human Deep Space Exploration of the Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, L.; Minow, J.; Pulkkinen, A.; Fry, D.; Semones, E.; Allen, J.; St Cyr, C.; Mertens, C.; Jun, I.; Onsager, T.; Hock, R.

    2018-02-01

    NASA's Engineering and Space Center (NESC) is conducting an independent technical assessment of space environment monitoring and forecasting architecture options to support human and robotic deep space exploration.

  13. pH-Dependant Antifungal Activity of Valproic Acid against the Human Fungal Pathogen Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Chaillot

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Current antifungal drugs suffer from limitations including toxicity, the emergence of resistance and decreased efficacy at low pH that are typical of human vaginal surfaces. Here, we have shown that the antipsychotic drug valproic acid (VPA exhibited a strong antifungal activity against both sensitive and resistant Candida albicans in pH condition similar to that encountered in vagina. VPA exerted a strong anti-biofilm activity and attenuated damage of vaginal epithelial cells caused by C. albicans. We also showed that VPA synergizes with the allylamine antifungal, Terbinafine. We undertook a chemogenetic screen to delineate biological processes that underlies VPA-sensitivity in C. albicans and found that vacuole-related genes were required to tolerate VPA. Confocal fluorescence live-cell imaging revealed that VPA alters vacuole integrity and support a model where alteration of vacuoles contributes to the antifungal activity. Taken together, this study suggests that VPA could be used as an effective antifungal against vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  14. Climato-economic habitats support patterns of human needs, stresses, and freedoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Vliert, Evert

    2013-10-01

    This paper examines why fundamental freedoms are so unevenly distributed across the earth. Climato-economic theorizing proposes that humans adapt needs, stresses, and choices of goals, means, and outcomes to the livability of their habitat. The evolutionary process at work is one of collectively meeting climatic demands of cold winters or hot summers by using monetary resources. Freedom is expected to be lowest in poor populations threatened by demanding thermal climates, intermediate in populations comforted by undemanding temperate climates irrespective of income per head, and highest in rich populations challenged by demanding thermal climates. This core hypothesis is supported with new survey data across 85 countries and 15 Chinese provinces and with a reinterpretative review of results of prior studies comprising 174 countries and the 50 states in the United States. Empirical support covers freedom from want, freedom from fear, freedom of expression and participation, freedom from discrimination, and freedom to develop and realize one's human potential. Applying the theory to projections of temperature and income for 104 countries by 2112 forecasts that (a) poor populations in Asia, perhaps except Afghans and Pakistanis, will move up the international ladder of freedom, (b) poor populations in Africa will lose, rather than gain, relative levels of freedom unless climate protection and poverty reduction prevent this from happening, and (c) several rich populations will be challenged to defend current levels of freedom against worsening climato-economic livability.

  15. The human role in space. Volume 3: Generalizations on human roles in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The human role in space was studied. The role and the degree of direct involvement of humans that will be required in future space missions, was investigated. Valid criteria for allocating functional activities between humans and machines were established. The technology requirements, ecnomics, and benefits of the human presence in space were examined. Factors which affect crew productivity include: internal architecture; crew support; crew activities; LVA systems; IVA/EVA interfaces; and remote systems management. The accomplished work is reported and the data and analyses from which the study results are derived are included. The results provide information and guidelines to enable NASA program managers and decision makers to establish, early in the design process, the most cost effective design approach for future space programs, through the optimal application of unique human skills and capabilities in space.

  16. Design and Parametric Sizing of Deep Space Habitats Supporting NASA'S Human Space Flight Architecture Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toups, Larry; Simon, Matthew; Smitherman, David; Spexarth, Gary

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Human Space Flight Architecture Team (HAT) is a multi-disciplinary, cross-agency study team that conducts strategic analysis of integrated development approaches for human and robotic space exploration architectures. During each analysis cycle, HAT iterates and refines the definition of design reference missions (DRMs), which inform the definition of a set of integrated capabilities required to explore multiple destinations. An important capability identified in this capability-driven approach is habitation, which is necessary for crewmembers to live and work effectively during long duration transits to and operations at exploration destinations beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). This capability is captured by an element referred to as the Deep Space Habitat (DSH), which provides all equipment and resources for the functions required to support crew safety, health, and work including: life support, food preparation, waste management, sleep quarters, and housekeeping.The purpose of this paper is to describe the design of the DSH capable of supporting crew during exploration missions. First, the paper describes the functionality required in a DSH to support the HAT defined exploration missions, the parameters affecting its design, and the assumptions used in the sizing of the habitat. Then, the process used for arriving at parametric sizing estimates to support additional HAT analyses is detailed. Finally, results from the HAT Cycle C DSH sizing are presented followed by a brief description of the remaining design trades and technological advancements necessary to enable the exploration habitation capability.

  17. Applying activity theory to computer-supported collaborative learning and work-based activities in corporate settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collis, Betty; Margaryan, A.

    2004-01-01

    Business needs in many corporations call for learning outcomes that involve problem solutions, and creating and sharing new knowledge within worksplace situation that may involve collaboration among members of a team. We argue that work-based activities (WBA) and computer-supported collaborative

  18. Human skeletal uptake of natural alpha radioactivity from 210Pb-supported 210Po

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyedepo, A.C.

    1998-06-01

    This thesis contributes to increasing knowledge on the dosimetry of natural alpha-particle radiation in skeletal tissues, particularly in utero, and associated risks of malignancy. Alpha-particle radiation is an established aetiological factor of cancer. In the human body, polonium-210 decayed from skeletal lead-210 ( 210 Pb/ 210 Po) is the predominant natural alpha-emitter. 210 Pb displaces calcium (Ca) in mineral hydroxyapatite, especially during periods of rapid bone growth and remodelling when Ca is laid down. It was therefore necessary to study alpha activity uptake and calcification concurrently within bone. Human studies were undertaken on: fetal vertebrae, 17 - 42 weeks of gestation, 74 samples; adult vertebrae, 40 - 95 years, 40 samples; and adult ribs, 20 - 95 years, 51 samples. Specimens were unconcentrated and weighed 210 Pb/ 210 Po. Alpha track data were resolved by specially written software named SPATS (Selection Program for Analysing Track Structures). Ca and phosphorus (P) were biochemically determined. Results were examined for trends in bone type, gender and chronological ageing in humans. The main research findings were: 1) The Ca content of fetal vertebrae increased linearly at a weekly rate of 0.2g Ca 100 g -1 wet bone (typical values of 2, 4, 6 g 100 g -1 at 16, 26 and 36 weeks). 2) The P concentration also increased with advancing fetal age. 3) The Ca:P bone weight ratio rose from 1.7 to 2.2 by 32 gestational weeks. 4) The overall range in bone 210 Pb/ 210 Po alpha activity was 0.25 - 1.1 Bq kg -1 with correlation between activity concentration and fetal age (0.47 ± 0.05 Bq kg -1 for 17 - 26 weeks, 0.67 ± 0.04 Bq kg -1 for 32 - 42 weeks). 5) The correlation between increased alpha radioactivity and increased Ca concentration approximating to 0.0046 Bq g -1 of Ca. 6) A decreasing Ca content of adult vertebrae with increasing age from 40 - 95 years, from ∼ 14 to 5 g 100 g-1, but no correlation with age for adult rib Ca content of 10 - 30 g

  19. Hungarian national report on activities related to operator support systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adorjan, F.; Lux, I.; Vegh, J.; Vegh, E.

    1996-01-01

    Computerized operator support systems and related activities in Hungary are summarized. Systems developed in the past, presently developed and used as well as being in a planning phase are briefly described. Activity of the Hungarian participants in the framework of the co-ordinated project on operator support systems for nuclear power plant is summarized. (author). 55 refs

  20. Human platelet lysate supports the formation of robust human periodontal ligament cell sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Bei-Min; Wu, Rui-Xin; Bi, Chun-Sheng; He, Xiao-Tao; Yin, Yuan; Chen, Fa-Ming

    2018-04-01

    The use of stem cell-derived sheets has become increasingly common in a wide variety of biomedical applications. Although substantial evidence has demonstrated that human platelet lysate (PL) can be used for therapeutic cell expansion, either as a substitute for or as a supplement to xenogeneic fetal bovine serum (FBS), its impact on cell sheet production remains largely unexplored. In this study, we manufactured periodontal ligament stem cell (PDLSC) sheets in vitro by incubating PDLSCs in sheet-induction media supplemented with various ratios of PL and FBS, i.e. 10% PL without FBS, 7.5% PL + 2.5% FBS, 5% PL + 5% FBS, 2.5% PL + 7.5% FBS or 10% FBS without PL. Cultures with the addition of all the designed supplements led to successful cell sheet production. In addition, all the resultant cellular materials exhibited similar expression profiles of matrix-related genes and proteins, such as collagen I, fibronectin and integrin β1. Interestingly, the cell components within sheets generated by media containing both PL and FBS exhibited improved osteogenic potential. Following in vivo transplantation, all sheets supported significant new bone formation. Our data suggest that robust PDLSC sheets can be produced by applying PL as either an alternative or an adjuvant to FBS. Further examination of the relevant influences of human PL that benefit cell behaviour and matrix production will pave the way towards optimized and standardized conditions for cell sheet production. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. A Human Activity Recognition System Based on Dynamic Clustering of Skeleton Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Manzi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Human activity recognition is an important area in computer vision, with its wide range of applications including ambient assisted living. In this paper, an activity recognition system based on skeleton data extracted from a depth camera is presented. The system makes use of machine learning techniques to classify the actions that are described with a set of a few basic postures. The training phase creates several models related to the number of clustered postures by means of a multiclass Support Vector Machine (SVM, trained with Sequential Minimal Optimization (SMO. The classification phase adopts the X-means algorithm to find the optimal number of clusters dynamically. The contribution of the paper is twofold. The first aim is to perform activity recognition employing features based on a small number of informative postures, extracted independently from each activity instance; secondly, it aims to assess the minimum number of frames needed for an adequate classification. The system is evaluated on two publicly available datasets, the Cornell Activity Dataset (CAD-60 and the Telecommunication Systems Team (TST Fall detection dataset. The number of clusters needed to model each instance ranges from two to four elements. The proposed approach reaches excellent performances using only about 4 s of input data (~100 frames and outperforms the state of the art when it uses approximately 500 frames on the CAD-60 dataset. The results are promising for the test in real context.

  2. A Human Activity Recognition System Based on Dynamic Clustering of Skeleton Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzi, Alessandro; Dario, Paolo; Cavallo, Filippo

    2017-05-11

    Human activity recognition is an important area in computer vision, with its wide range of applications including ambient assisted living. In this paper, an activity recognition system based on skeleton data extracted from a depth camera is presented. The system makes use of machine learning techniques to classify the actions that are described with a set of a few basic postures. The training phase creates several models related to the number of clustered postures by means of a multiclass Support Vector Machine (SVM), trained with Sequential Minimal Optimization (SMO). The classification phase adopts the X-means algorithm to find the optimal number of clusters dynamically. The contribution of the paper is twofold. The first aim is to perform activity recognition employing features based on a small number of informative postures, extracted independently from each activity instance; secondly, it aims to assess the minimum number of frames needed for an adequate classification. The system is evaluated on two publicly available datasets, the Cornell Activity Dataset (CAD-60) and the Telecommunication Systems Team (TST) Fall detection dataset. The number of clusters needed to model each instance ranges from two to four elements. The proposed approach reaches excellent performances using only about 4 s of input data (~100 frames) and outperforms the state of the art when it uses approximately 500 frames on the CAD-60 dataset. The results are promising for the test in real context.

  3. Chemical constituents of Hericium erinaceum associated with the inhibitory activity against cellular senescence in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Hyung Jun; Yang, Hyo Hyun; Kim, Geum Soog; Lee, Seung Eun; Lee, Dae Young; Choi, Je Hun; Kim, Seung Yu; Lee, Eun Suk; Ji, Seung Heon; Kang, Ki Sung; Park, Hye-Jin; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2015-12-01

    Hericium erinaceum is an edible and medicinal mushroom widely used in Korea, Japan, and China. On the search for biologically active compounds supporting the medicinal usage, the MeOH extract of the fruiting bodies of H. erinaceum was investigated for its chemical constituents. Six compounds were isolated and identified as hericenone D (1), (22E,24R)-5α,8α-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol (2), erinacerin B (3), hericenone E (4), hericenone F (5) and isohericerin (6) by comparing their spectroscopic data with previously reported values. The inhibitory effects on adriamycin-induced cellular senescence in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) of the isolates (1-6) were studied. Among the isolated compounds, ergosterol peroxide (2) reduced senescence associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity increased in HUVECs treated with adriamycin. According to experimental data obtained, the active compound may inspire the development of a new pharmacologically useful substance to be used in the treatment and prevention of age-related diseases.

  4. Elastolytic activity of human blood monocytes characterized by a new monoclonal antibody against human leucocyte elastase. Relationship to rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, H S; Christensen, L D

    1990-01-01

    The leucocyte elastase of human blood monocytes was investigated by applying a new monoclonal antibody which did not block the enzyme activity against elastin. In a fixed population of mononuclear cells (MNC) and using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), the human leucocyte elastase (HLE...

  5. The Antitumor Activity of the Novel Compound Jesridonin on Human Esophageal Carcinoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Wang

    Full Text Available Jesridonin, a small molecule obtained through the structural modification of Oridonin, has extensive antitumor activity. In this study, we evaluated both its in vitro activity in the cancer cell line EC109 and its in vivo effect on tumor xenografts in nude mice. Apoptosis induced by Jesridonin was determined using an MTT assay, Annexin-V FITC assay and Hoechest 33258 staining. Apoptosis via mitochondrial and death receptor pathways were confirmed by detecting the regulation of MDM2, p53, and Bcl-2 family members and by activation of caspase-3/-8/-9. In addition, vena caudalis injection of Jesridonin showed significant inhibition of tumor growth in the xenograft model, and Jesridonin-induced cell apoptosis in tumor tissues was determined using TUNEL. Biochemical serum analysis of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, total protein (TP and albumin (ALB indicated no obvious effects on liver function. Histopathological examination of the liver, kidney, lung, heart and spleen revealed no signs of JD-induced toxicity. Taken together, these results demonstrated that Jesridonin exhibits antitumor activity in human esophageal carcinomas EC109 cells both in vitro and in vivo and demonstrated no adverse effects on major organs in nude mice. These studies provide support for new drug development.

  6. Potent selective nonpeptidic inhibitors of human lung tryptase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Laurence E.; Newhouse, Bradley J.; Ibrahim, Prabha; Rizzi, James; Kashem, Mohammed A.; Hartman, Ann; Brandhuber, Barbara J.; Wright, Clifford D.; Thomson, David S.; Vigers, Guy P. A.; Koch, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    Human lung tryptase, a homotetrameric serine protease unique to mast cell secretory granules, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma. A hypothesis that tethered symmetrical inhibitors might bridge two adjacent active sites was explored via a rationally designed series of bisbenzamidines. These compounds demonstrated a remarkable distanced-defined structure–activity relationship against human tryptase with one series possessing subnanomolar potencies. Additional evidence supporting the concept of active-site bridging is also presented. PMID:10411878

  7. Robust, synergistic regulation of human gene expression using TALE activators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeder, Morgan L; Linder, Samantha J; Reyon, Deepak; Angstman, James F; Fu, Yanfang; Sander, Jeffry D; Joung, J Keith

    2013-03-01

    Artificial activators designed using transcription activator-like effector (TALE) technology have broad utility, but previous studies suggest that these monomeric proteins often exhibit low activities. Here we demonstrate that TALE activators can robustly function individually or in synergistic combinations to increase expression of endogenous human genes over wide dynamic ranges. These findings will encourage applications of TALE activators for research and therapy, and guide design of monomeric TALE-based fusion proteins.

  8. Structure-activity relationships of carbon-supported platinum-bismuth and platinum-antimony oxidation catalysts

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maphoru, MV

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Compositional and morphological studies on supported platinum are important for the improvement and expanded use of catalysts for oxidative coupling reactions. Nanocomposites consisting of 5% Pt supported on activated carbon and promoted with 5% Bi...

  9. COURAGE AND FEAR IN THE CONTEXT OF OPPOSITION OF HUMAN ACTIVITY AND INACTIVITY: EXISTENTIAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro Yu. Snitko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to analyse fear and courage in the history of philosophy in the context of opposi-tion of human activity and inactivity that may lead to a profound understanding of the essence, causes and existen-tial aspects of human activity and inactivity. The implementation of the objective assumes the solution of the follow-ing tasks: analysis of philosophical interpretation of fear and courage; investigation of the relationship of fear and courage with active and passive forms of human being; revelation of existential dialectic of human activity and inac-tivity through the opposition of fear and courage. Methodology. The application of phenomenological approach and other methods of existential philosophy enabled to discover the importance of fear and courage for human existence. Significant contribution to the importance of the investigation of the fear-courage opposition in the context of hu-man activity and inactivity was made by M. Heidegger who pointed to the main modes of human being - «authen-tic» and «inauthentic» in the context of human activity and passivity. The application of hermeneutic method made possible the reconstruction of the reflection of fear-courage opposition in the history of philosophy. Scientific nov-elty. For the first time the analysis of the fear-courage opposition in the context of human activity and inactivity was carried out. Due to the analysis the fundamental existential character of the fear and courage opposition and its es-sential relationship with active and passive forms of human being were justified. Conclusions. In the course of this research it was found out that fear is closely connected with passive modes of human being. If classical philosophy placed emphasis on courage and associated fear with human mind and conscious decision, non-classical philosophy of the XIX century and existentialism focused on existential and ontological character of fear, its fundamental mean

  10. COURAGE AND FEAR IN THE CONTEXT OF OPPOSITION OF HUMAN ACTIVITY AND INACTIVITY: EXISTENTIAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro Yu. Snitko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to analyse fear and courage in the history of philosophy in the context of opposition of human activity and inactivity that may lead to a profound understanding of the essence, causes and existential aspects of human activity and inactivity. The implementation of the objective assumes the solution of the following tasks: analysis of philosophical interpretation of  fear and courage; investigation of the relationship of fear and courage with active and passive forms of human being; revelation of existential dialectic of human activity and inactivity through the opposition of  fear and courage. Methodology. The application of phenomenological approach and other methods of existential philosophy enabled to discover the importance of fear and courage for human existence. Significant contribution to the importance of the investigation of the fear-courage opposition in the context of human activity and inactivity was made by M. Heidegger who pointed to the main modes of human being - «authentic» and «inauthentic» in the context of human activity and passivity. The application of hermeneutic method made possible the reconstruction of the reflection of fear-courage opposition in the history of philosophy. Scientific novelty. For the first time the analysis of the  fear-courage opposition in the context of human activity and inactivity was carried out. Due to the analysis the  fundamental existential character of the fear and courage opposition and its essential relationship with active and passive forms of human being were justified. Conclusions. In the course of this research it was found out that fear is closely connected with passive modes of human being.  If classical philosophy placed emphasis on courage and associated fear with  human mind and conscious decision,  non-classical philosophy of the XIX century and existentialism focused on existential and ontological character of fear, its fundamental meaning

  11. SRS-A leukotrienes decrease the activity of human respiratory cilia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Pedersen, M

    1987-01-01

    We have studied the effects of the slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS-A) constituents leukotrienes (LT) C4 and D4 on the ciliary activity of human respiratory cells. The ciliary beat frequency on human nasal cells harvested by cell scraping from the inferior turbinate was measured...

  12. Youth at risk of physical inactivity may benefit more from activity-related support than youth not at risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmalz Dorothy L

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Background This study examines whether associations between activity-related support and adolescents' physical activity differ for adolescents at high versus low risk of physical inactivity. Methods: Participants included 202 middle-school-aged girls (N = 92 and boys (N = 110. Physical activity was assessed using three self-report questionnaires. Activity-related support from mothers, fathers, siblings, and peers was assessed using the Activity Support Scale. Perceived sport competence was assessed using the Physical Activity Self Description Questionnaire. Participants' height and weight were measured and used to calculate their age- and sex-adjusted Body Mass Index percentile. Participants were classified as being at high risk for physical inactivity if they fulfilled two of the following three criteria: (1 overweight; (2 female; or (3 having low perceived sport competence. Results: Activity-related support from all sources was associated with higher levels of physical activity among adolescents. A stronger association between activity support and physical activity was found for adolescents at high risk for physical inactivity in comparison to adolescents at low risk. Conclusions: Findings from this study suggest that the activity-related support from family and friends may be an effective tool in promoting physical activity among youth at risk of physical inactivity.

  13. Human Activity Recognition Using Hierarchically-Mined Feature Constellations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikonomopoulos, A.; Pantic, Maja

    In this paper we address the problem of human activity modelling and recognition by means of a hierarchical representation of mined dense spatiotemporal features. At each level of the hierarchy, the proposed method selects feature constellations that are increasingly discriminative and

  14. Dioxin-like activity of environmental compounds in human blood and environmental samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Manhai; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2012-01-01

    and humans. We found that some pesticides, plasticizers and phytoestrogens can activate the AhR, and the combined effect of compounds with no or weak AhR potency cannot be ignored. The significant DL-activity in the wastewater effluent indicates the treatment is not sufficient to prevent contamination...... of surface waters with dioxins. Our results from human studies suggest that the serum DL-activity reflect the complex mixture of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Greenlandic Inuit had lower serum DL-activity level compared to Europeans, probably due to long distance from the dioxin sources and UV...

  15. Dioxin-like activity in environmental and human samples from Greenland and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Manhai; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2012-01-01

    and humans. We found that some pesticides, plasticizers and phytoestrogens can activate the AhR, and the combined effect of compounds with no or weak AhR potency cannot be ignored. The significant DL-activity in the wastewater effluent indicates the treatment is not sufficient to prevent contamination...... of surface waters with dioxins. Our results from human studies suggest that the serum DL-activity reflect the complex mixture of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Greenlandic Inuit had lower serum DL-activity level compared to Europeans, probably due to long distance from the dioxin sources and UV...

  16. Extension Activity Support System (EASY: A Web-Based Prototype for Facilitating Farm Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Pettit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to disparate advances in delivering spatial information to support agricultural extension activities, the Extension Activity Support System (EASY project was established to develop a vision statement and conceptual design for such a system based on a national needs assessment. Personnel from across Australia were consulted and a review of existing farm information/management software undertaken to ensure that any system that is eventually produced from the EASY vision will build on the strengths of existing efforts. This paper reports on the collaborative consultative process undertaken to create the EASY vision as well as the conceptual technical design and business models that could support a fully functional spatially enabled online system.

  17. The Investigation of Social Support and Physical Activity Related to Workplace among Female Teachers in Jolfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibeh Sahranavard-Gargari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Although active life style is one of the main determining factors of health, the amount of regular physical activities in women is less than in men and even this amount, decreases with aging. Family, friends, colleagues and society’s support, especially at workplace, have a positive effect on the amount of engagement in physical activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the status of social support and physical activity related to workplace among female teachers in Jolfa. Material and Methods: In this study, 230 female teachers working at different schools in Jolfa were selected according to the inclusion criteria. Required data were collected using International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ and social support questionnaire by Sallis et al. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: The average of physical activity related to teachers’ work was about 20 minutes per week which is very low. Ten percent of them had light physical activity, 61.7% had moderate physical activity and 28.3% had heavy activity. The results of this study proved a significant relationship between social support and physical activity. Conclusion: Regarding the fact that a large percentage of the teachers do not have enough physical activity, having more physical activity and creating a social network through encouraging friends and colleagues to promote physical activity is emphasized.

  18. Bridging Human Reliability Analysis and Psychology, Part 2: A Cognitive Framework to Support HRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    April M. Whaley; Stacey M. L. Hendrickson; Ronald L. Boring; Jing Xing

    2012-06-01

    This is the second of two papers that discuss the literature review conducted as part of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) effort to develop a hybrid human reliability analysis (HRA) method in response to Staff Requirements Memorandum (SRM) SRM-M061020. This review was conducted with the goal of strengthening the technical basis within psychology, cognitive science and human factors for the hybrid HRA method being proposed. An overview of the literature review approach and high-level structure is provided in the first paper, whereas this paper presents the results of the review. The psychological literature review encompassed research spanning the entirety of human cognition and performance, and consequently produced an extensive list of psychological processes, mechanisms, and factors that contribute to human performance. To make sense of this large amount of information, the results of the literature review were organized into a cognitive framework that identifies causes of failure of macrocognition in humans, and connects those proximate causes to psychological mechanisms and performance influencing factors (PIFs) that can lead to the failure. This cognitive framework can serve as a tool to inform HRA. Beyond this, however, the cognitive framework has the potential to also support addressing human performance issues identified in Human Factors applications.

  19. Support for physical activity policies and perceptions of work and neighborhood environments: variance by BMI and activity status at the county and individual levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustat, Jeanette; O'Malley, Keelia; Hu, Tian; Tabak, Rachel G; Goins, Karin Valentine; Valko, Cheryl; Litt, Jill; Eyler, Amy

    2014-01-01

    To examine support for local policies encouraging physical activity and perceived neighborhood environment characteristics by physical activity and weight status of respondents across U.S. counties. We used a random-digit-dial, computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) to conduct a cross-sectional telephone questionnaire in selected U.S. counties in 2011. Counties with high prevalences of obesity and sedentary behavior (HH; n = 884) and counties with low prevalences of obesity and sedentary behavior (LL; n = 171) were selected nationally. Adult respondents from HH (n = 642) and LL (n = 566) counties. Questions were asked of respondents, pertaining to support for physical activity policies in various settings, neighborhood features, time spent in physical activity and sedentary behaviors, self-reported weight and height, and personal demographic information. Means and frequencies were calculated; bivariable and multivariable linear and logistic regression models, developed. Models were adjusted for individual characteristics and county HH/LL status. Respondents in LL counties perceived their neighborhood and work environments to be more supportive of healthy behaviors and were more supportive of local physical activity policies than respondents in HH counties (p physical activity, and decreased sedentary behavior. Policy support and neighborhood environments are associated with behaviors. Results can inform targeting policy agendas to facilitate the improvement of environments (community, work, and school) to be more supportive of physical activity.

  20. Albinism-causing mutations in recombinant human tyrosinase alter intrinsic enzymatic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinska, Monika B; Kovaleva, Elena; Backlund, Peter; Wingfield, Paul T; Brooks, Brian P; Sergeev, Yuri V

    2014-01-01

    Tyrosinase (TYR) catalyzes the rate-limiting, first step in melanin production and its gene (TYR) is mutated in many cases of oculocutaneous albinism (OCA1), an autosomal recessive cause of childhood blindness. Patients with reduced TYR activity are classified as OCA1B; some OCA1B mutations are temperature-sensitive. Therapeutic research for OCA1 has been hampered, in part, by the absence of purified, active, recombinant wild-type and mutant human enzymes. The intra-melanosomal domain of human tyrosinase (residues 19-469) and two OCA1B related temperature-sensitive mutants, R422Q and R422W were expressed in insect cells and produced in T. ni larvae. The short trans-membrane fragment was deleted to avoid potential protein insolubility, while preserving all other functional features of the enzymes. Purified tyrosinase was obtained with a yield of >1 mg per 10 g of larval biomass. The protein was a monomeric glycoenzyme with maximum enzyme activity at 37°C and neutral pH. The two purified mutants when compared to the wild-type protein were less active and temperature sensitive. These differences are associated with conformational perturbations in secondary structure. The intramelanosomal domains of recombinant wild-type and mutant human tyrosinases are soluble monomeric glycoproteins with activities which mirror their in vivo function. This advance allows for the structure - function analyses of different mutant TYR proteins and correlation with their corresponding human phenotypes; it also provides an important tool to discover drugs that may improve tyrosinase activity and treat OCA1.

  1. Albinism-causing mutations in recombinant human tyrosinase alter intrinsic enzymatic activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika B Dolinska

    Full Text Available Tyrosinase (TYR catalyzes the rate-limiting, first step in melanin production and its gene (TYR is mutated in many cases of oculocutaneous albinism (OCA1, an autosomal recessive cause of childhood blindness. Patients with reduced TYR activity are classified as OCA1B; some OCA1B mutations are temperature-sensitive. Therapeutic research for OCA1 has been hampered, in part, by the absence of purified, active, recombinant wild-type and mutant human enzymes.The intra-melanosomal domain of human tyrosinase (residues 19-469 and two OCA1B related temperature-sensitive mutants, R422Q and R422W were expressed in insect cells and produced in T. ni larvae. The short trans-membrane fragment was deleted to avoid potential protein insolubility, while preserving all other functional features of the enzymes. Purified tyrosinase was obtained with a yield of >1 mg per 10 g of larval biomass. The protein was a monomeric glycoenzyme with maximum enzyme activity at 37°C and neutral pH. The two purified mutants when compared to the wild-type protein were less active and temperature sensitive. These differences are associated with conformational perturbations in secondary structure.The intramelanosomal domains of recombinant wild-type and mutant human tyrosinases are soluble monomeric glycoproteins with activities which mirror their in vivo function. This advance allows for the structure - function analyses of different mutant TYR proteins and correlation with their corresponding human phenotypes; it also provides an important tool to discover drugs that may improve tyrosinase activity and treat OCA1.

  2. Virtual Habitat -a dynamic simulation of closed life support systems -human model status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus Czupalla, M. Sc.; Zhukov, Anton; Hwang, Su-Au; Schnaitmann, Jonas

    In order to optimize Life Support Systems on a system level, stability questions must be in-vestigated. To do so the exploration group of the Technical University of Munich (TUM) is developing the "Virtual Habitat" (V-HAB) dynamic LSS simulation software. V-HAB shall provide the possibility to conduct dynamic simulations of entire mission scenarios for any given LSS configuration. The Virtual Habitat simulation tool consists of four main modules: • Closed Environment Module (CEM) -monitoring of compounds in a closed environment • Crew Module (CM) -dynamic human simulation • P/C Systems Module (PCSM) -dynamic P/C subsystems • Plant Module (PM) -dynamic plant simulation The core module of the simulation is the dynamic and environment sensitive human module. Introduced in its basic version in 2008, the human module has been significantly updated since, increasing its capabilities and maturity significantly. In this paper three newly added human model subsystems (thermal regulation, digestion and schedule controller) are introduced touching also on the human stress subsystem which is cur-rently under development. Upon the introduction of these new subsystems, the integration of these into the overall V-HAB human model is discussed, highlighting the impact on the most important I/F. The overall human model capabilities shall further be summarized and presented based on meaningful test cases. In addition to the presentation of the results, the correlation strategy for the Virtual Habitat human model shall be introduced assessing the models current confidence level and giving an outlook on the future correlation strategy. Last but not least, the remaining V-HAB mod-ules shall be introduced shortly showing how the human model is integrated into the overall simulation.

  3. Immediate-early gene region of human cytomegalovirus trans-activates the promoter of human immunodeficiency virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.G.; Kenney, S.C.; Kamine, J.; Pagano, J.S.; Huang, E.S.

    1987-01-01

    Almost all homosexual patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are also actively infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). The authors have hypothesized that an interaction between HCMV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the agent that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, may exist at a molecular level and contribute to the manifestations of HIV infection. In this report, they demonstrate that the immediate-early gene region of HCMV, in particular immediate-early region 2, trans-activates the expression of the bacterial gene chloramphenicol acetyltransferase that is fused to the HIV long terminal repeat and carried by plasmid pHIV-CAT. The HCMV immediate-early trans-activator increases the level of mRNA from the plamid pHIV-CAT. The sequences of HIV that are responsive to trans-activation by the HDMV immediate-early region are distinct from HIV sequences that are required for response to the HIV tat. The stimulation of HIV gene expression by HDMV gene functions could enhance the consequences of HIV infection in persons with previous or concurrent HCMV infection

  4. Report: EPA Prepared to Implement Strategic Human Capital Management Activities But Challenges Remain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #2004-P-00024, September 20, 2004. EPA’s headquarters and regional offices are prepared to implement strategic human capital management activities, but an alignment of office-level activities to the Agency’s Strategy for Human Capital is lacking.

  5. Multilevel flow models studio: human-centralized development for operation support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yangping; Hidekazu Yoshikawa; Liu Jingquan; Yang Ming; Ouyang Jun

    2005-01-01

    Computerized Operation Support Systems (COSS), integrating Artificial Intelligence, Multimedia and Network Technology, are now being proposed for reducing operator's cognitive load for process operation. This study proposed a Human-Centralized Development (HCD) that COSS can be developed and maintained independently, conveniently and flexibly by operator and expert of industry system with little expertise on software development. A graphical interface system for HCD, Multilevel Flow Models Studio (MFMS), is proposed for development assistance of COSS. An Extensible Markup Language based file structure is designed to represent the Multilevel Flow Models (MFM) model for the target system. With a friendly graphical interface, MFMS mainly consists of two components: 1) an editor to intelligently assist user establish and maintain the MFM model; 2) an executor to implement the application for monitoring, diagnosis and operational instruction in terms of the established MFM model. A prototype MFMS system has been developed and applied to construct a trial operation support system for a Nuclear Power Plant simulated by RELAP5/MOD2. (authors)

  6. Implementation of resources to support patient physical activity through diabetes centres in Nova Scotia: the effectiveness of enhanced support for exercise participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowles, Jonathon R; Shields, Chris; d'Entremont, Lisette; McQuaid, Stephanie; Barron, Brittany; Dunbar, Peggy

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of enhancing support for physical activity counselling and exercise participation at diabetes centres in Nova Scotia on physical activity and exercise behaviours and clinical outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In all, 180 patients at 8 diabetes centres participated in this observational study. A range of enhanced supports for exercise were offered at these centres. A kinesiologist was added to the diabetes care team to primarily provide extra physical activity counselling and exercise classes. Patient physical activity and exercise levels, efficacy perceptions and mean glycated hemoglobin (A1C) were evaluated at baseline and 6 months. We compared changes in these variables for patients who participated in the enhanced supports versus patients who did not. Participants who attended exercise classes (n=46), increased moderate physical activity by 27% and doubled resistance exercise participation (1.0±1.8 to 2.0±2.1 days per week) whereas those who did not attend exercise classes (n=49) reduced moderate physical activity by 26% and did not change resistance exercise participation (interactions, p=0.04 and p=0.07, respectively). Patients who received resistance band instruction (n=15) from a kinesiologist had reductions in A1C (from 7.5±1.4 to 7.1±1.2; p=0.04), whereas other subgroups did not have significant changes in A1C. Offering enhanced support for exercise at diabetes centres produced improvements in physical activity and exercise in type 2 diabetes patients. Resistance band instruction from a kinesiologist combined with participating in a walking and resistance training program improved glycemic control, which underscores the importance of including exercise professionals in diabetes management. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Increase in Social Activity of Citizens on the Basis of Grant Support of Rural Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogatchev Alexander I.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems of development of social activity of population. The low activity of local population is now characterized by the following social trends: aloofness from public life, individualism, leading-strings mentality, consumer attitude, legal nihilism. The characteristic of the main reasons for the current situation is given in the article. It is noted that one of the effective tools to attract social investment and development is a grant support for local initiatives, which plays an important role in increasing the social activity of population. This article focuses on the development of grant support in the rural areas at the modern stage. The author analyzed the current status of grant support of rural initiatives in Russia and the Orel region. It is noted that the grant support has great potential, although it is at an early stage of its development. In the conclusion, actions for the development of social activity at the local level are planned.

  8. Matrix Metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) Is an Endogenous Activator of the MMP-9 Secreted by Placental Leukocytes: Implication in Human Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Pliego, Arturo; Espejel-Nuñez, Aurora; Castillo-Castrejon, Marisol; Meraz-Cruz, Noemi; Beltran-Montoya, Jorge; Zaga-Clavellina, Veronica; Nava-Salazar, Sonia; Sanchez-Martinez, Maribel; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe; Estrada-Gutierrez, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    pregnancies are able to secrete large amounts of MMP-9, and that the production of the enzyme it is enhanced by labor. We also demonstrate for the first time that endogenous MMP-3 plays a major role in MMP-9 activation process. These findings support the contribution of placental leukocytes to create the collagenolytic microenvironment that induces the rupture of the fetal membranes during human labor.

  9. Application of activity theory to analysis of human-related accidents: Method and case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Young Sik; Ham, Dong-Han; Yoon, Wan Chul

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes a new approach to human-related accident analysis based on activity theory. Most of the existing methods seem to be insufficient for comprehensive analysis of human activity-related contextual aspects of accidents when investigating the causes of human errors. Additionally, they identify causal factors and their interrelationships with a weak theoretical basis. We argue that activity theory offers useful concepts and insights to supplement existing methods. The proposed approach gives holistic contextual backgrounds for understanding and diagnosing human-related accidents. It also helps identify and organise causal factors in a consistent, systematic way. Two case studies in Korean nuclear power plants are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method. Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) was also applied to the case studies. The results of using HFACS were then compared with those of using the proposed method. These case studies showed that the proposed approach could produce a meaningful set of human activity-related contextual factors, which cannot easily be obtained by using existing methods. It can be especially effective when analysts think it is important to diagnose accident situations with human activity-related contextual factors derived from a theoretically sound model and to identify accident-related contextual factors systematically. - Highlights: • This study proposes a new method for analysing human-related accidents. • The method was developed based on activity theory. • The concept of activity system model and contradiction was used in the method. • Two case studies in nuclear power plants are presented. • The method is helpful to consider causal factors systematically and comprehensively.

  10. GOVERNMENT SUPPORT FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED BUSINESS AND INNOVATIVE ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pоlina Kolisnichenko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to reveal the conditions of the innovative development of the small and mediumsized entrepreneurship in Ukraine; the problems that suppress the innovative activity and small and medium-sized enterprises development; peculiarities of the tax incentives for the development of the entrepreneurship in the advanced countries and in Ukraine; the main kinds and characteristics of the small and medium-sized enterprises public support. Methodology. The methods of scientific research include: analysis and generalization for studying the main kinds and characteristics of the government support of the small and medium-sized enterprises; dynamic and comparative analysis for studying the problems and factors influencing the development of small and medium enterprises and innovative activity, peculiarities of tax incentives for business development; systemanalytical method for studying the conditions of the innovative development of the small and medium-sized entrepreneurship. Results. The government's financial support priorities should be: optimal application of the fiscal regulation instruments (reduction of the amount of taxes, determination of the criteria for the maximum taxation amount, tax incentives etc., maintenance of the self-investment of small and medium-sized enterprises as well as investment, financial means of the public influence over the development of the enterprises, effective combination of both direct and indirect forms of the innovative development support. Practical implications. The obtained results can be used in the process of formation and implementation of the small and medium enterprise sector development strategy and innovative activity in the long-term perspective. Value/originality. The obtained data can provide a better understanding of the direction of innovative business development in Ukraine.

  11. How to support action prediction: Evidence from human coordination tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesper, Cordula

    2014-01-01

    When two or more people perform actions together such as shaking hands, playing ensemble music or carrying an object together, they often naturally adjust the spatial and temporal parameters of their movements to facilitate smooth task performance. This paper reviews recent findings from experime......When two or more people perform actions together such as shaking hands, playing ensemble music or carrying an object together, they often naturally adjust the spatial and temporal parameters of their movements to facilitate smooth task performance. This paper reviews recent findings from......”) might be a useful approach also for robotic systems to assist human users, thereby reducing cognitive load and flexibly supporting the acquisition of new skills....

  12. Using Oceanography to Support Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byfield, V.

    2012-04-01

    Teachers are always on the lookout for material to give their brightest students, in order to keep them occupied, stimulated and challenged, while the teacher gets on with helping the rest. They are also looking for material that can inspire and enthuse those who think that school is 'just boring!' Oceanography, well presented, has the capacity to do both. As a relatively young science, oceanography is not a core curriculum subject (possibly an advantage), but it draws on the traditional sciences of biology, chemistry, physic and geology, and can provide wonderful examples for teaching concepts in school sciences. It can also give good reasons for learning science, maths and technology. Exciting expeditions (research cruises) to far-flung places; opportunities to explore new worlds, a different angle on topical debates such as climate change, pollution, or conservation can bring a new life to old subjects. Access to 'real' data from satellites or Argo floats can be used to develop analytical and problem solving skills. The challenge is to make all this available in a form that can easily be used by teachers and students to enhance the learning experience. We learn by doing. Active teaching methods require students to develop their own concepts of what they are learning. This stimulates new neural connections in the brain - the physical manifestation of learning. There is a large body of evidence to show that active learning is much better remembered and understood. Active learning develops thinking skills through analysis, problem solving, and evaluation. It helps learners to use their knowledge in realistic and useful ways, and see its importance and relevance. Most importantly, properly used, active learning is fun. This paper presents experiences from a number of education outreach projects that have involved the National Oceanography Centre in Southampton, UK. All contain some element of active learning - from quizzes and puzzles to analysis of real data from

  13. Preventive Biomechanics Optimizing Support Systems for the Human Body in the Lying and Sitting Position

    CERN Document Server

    Silber, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    How can we optimize a bedridden patient’s mattress? How can we make a passenger seat on a long distance flight or ride more comfortable? What qualities should a runner’s shoes have? To objectively address such questions using engineering and scientific methods, adequate virtual human body models for use in computer simulation of loading scenarios are required. The authors have developed a novel method incorporating subject studies, magnetic resonance imaging, 3D-CAD-reconstruction, continuum mechanics, material theory and the finite element method. The focus is laid upon the mechanical in vivo-characterization of human soft tissue, which is indispensable for simulating its mechanical interaction with, for example, medical bedding or automotive and airplane seating systems. Using the examples of arbitrary body support systems, the presented approach provides visual insight into simulated internal mechanical body tissue stress and strain, with the goal of biomechanical optimization of body support systems. ...

  14. Immunosuppressive activity of human cord-blood lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forte, T.M.; Davis, P.A.; Curtiss, L.K.

    1985-01-01

    It is now known that the role of plasma lipoproteins is multifunctional. More recently it has been shown that lipoproteins may regulate immune responses as well. Low-density lipoproteins carrying apolipoprotein B (apoB) are known to suppress phytohemagglutinin (PHA) activated lymphocytes by inhibiting DNA synthesis. More recently, an immunoregulatory role has been described for another apolipoprotein, apoE, which is found in low quantities in normal plasma. In these studies with human umbilical-cord blood the authors were intrigued by two factors: the low level of LDL and hence apoB, and the elevated quantity of apoE. This study examines the hypothesis that apoE may regulate lymphocyte function in the human fetus

  15. Human temporal cortical single neuron activity during working memory maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Leona; Corina, David; Ojemann, George

    2016-06-01

    The Working Memory model of human memory, first introduced by Baddeley and Hitch (1974), has been one of the most influential psychological constructs in cognitive psychology and human neuroscience. However the neuronal correlates of core components of this model have yet to be fully elucidated. Here we present data from two studies where human temporal cortical single neuron activity was recorded during tasks differentially affecting the maintenance component of verbal working memory. In Study One we vary the presence or absence of distracting items for the entire period of memory storage. In Study Two we vary the duration of storage so that distractors filled all, or only one-third of the time the memory was stored. Extracellular single neuron recordings were obtained from 36 subjects undergoing awake temporal lobe resections for epilepsy, 25 in Study one, 11 in Study two. Recordings were obtained from a total of 166 lateral temporal cortex neurons during performance of one of these two tasks, 86 study one, 80 study two. Significant changes in activity with distractor manipulation were present in 74 of these neurons (45%), 38 Study one, 36 Study two. In 48 (65%) of those there was increased activity during the period when distracting items were absent, 26 Study One, 22 Study Two. The magnitude of this increase was greater for Study One, 47.6%, than Study Two, 8.1%, paralleling the reduction in memory errors in the absence of distracters, for Study One of 70.3%, Study Two 26.3% These findings establish that human lateral temporal cortex is part of the neural system for working memory, with activity during maintenance of that memory that parallels performance, suggesting it represents active rehearsal. In 31 of these neurons (65%) this activity was an extension of that during working memory encoding that differed significantly from the neural processes recorded during overt and silent language tasks without a recent memory component, 17 Study one, 14 Study two

  16. Human Temporal Cortical Single Neuron Activity During Working Memory Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Leona; Corina, David; Ojemann, George

    2016-01-01

    The Working Memory model of human memory, first introduced by Baddeley and Hitch (1974), has been one of the most influential psychological constructs in cognitive psychology and human neuroscience. However the neuronal correlates of core components of this model have yet to be fully elucidated. Here we present data from two studies where human temporal cortical single neuron activity was recorded during tasks differentially affecting the maintenance component of verbal working memory. In Study One we vary the presence or absence of distracting items for the entire period of memory storage. In Study Two we vary the duration of storage so that distractors filled all, or only one-third of the time the memory was stored. Extracellular single neuron recordings were obtained from 36 subjects undergoing awake temporal lobe resections for epilepsy, 25 in Study one, 11 in Study two. Recordings were obtained from a total of 166 lateral temporal cortex neurons during performance of one of these two tasks, 86 study one, 80 study two. Significant changes in activity with distractor manipulation were present in 74 of these neurons (45%), 38 Study one, 36 Study two. In 48 (65%) of those there was increased activity during the period when distracting items were absent, 26 Study One, 22 Study Two. The magnitude of this increase was greater for Study One, 47.6%, than Study Two, 8.1%, paralleling the reduction in memory errors in the absence of distracters, for Study One of 70.3%, Study Two 26.3% These findings establish that human lateral temporal cortex is part of the neural system for working memory, with activity during maintenance of that memory that parallels performance, suggesting it represents active rehearsal. In 31 of these neurons (65%) this activity was an extension of that during working memory encoding that differed significantly from the neural processes recorded during overt and silent language tasks without a recent memory component, 17 Study one, 14 Study two

  17. Evolution of Flexible Multibody Dynamics for Simulation Applications Supporting Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, An; Brain, Thomas A.; MacLean, John R.; Quiocho, Leslie J.

    2016-01-01

    During the course of transition from the Space Shuttle and International Space Station programs to the Orion and Journey to Mars exploration programs, a generic flexible multibody dynamics formulation and associated software implementation has evolved to meet an ever changing set of requirements at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). Challenging problems related to large transitional topologies and robotic free-flyer vehicle capture/ release, contact dynamics, and exploration missions concept evaluation through simulation (e.g., asteroid surface operations) have driven this continued development. Coupled with this need is the requirement to oftentimes support human spaceflight operations in real-time. Moreover, it has been desirable to allow even more rapid prototyping of on-orbit manipulator and spacecraft systems, to support less complex infrastructure software for massively integrated simulations, to yield further computational efficiencies, and to take advantage of recent advances and availability of multi-core computing platforms. Since engineering analysis, procedures development, and crew familiarity/training for human spaceflight is fundamental to JSC's charter, there is also a strong desire to share and reuse models in both the non-realtime and real-time domains, with the goal of retaining as much multibody dynamics fidelity as possible. Three specific enhancements are reviewed here: (1) linked list organization to address large transitional topologies, (2) body level model order reduction, and (3) parallel formulation/implementation. This paper provides a detailed overview of these primary updates to JSC's flexible multibody dynamics algorithms as well as a comparison of numerical results to previous formulations and associated software.

  18. Initial investigation of organisational factors associated with the implementation of active support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyffe, Chris; McCubbery, Jeffrey; Reid, Katharine J

    2008-09-01

    Active support (AS) has been shown to increase the amount of time that residents in shared residential settings are involved in purposeful activities. The organisational processes required to implement AS have been less well researched. Staff in community houses answered questions about the occurrence of organisational activities and processes thought to assist AS implementation (e.g., training and teamwork), their understanding of engagement, and their experience of changes in staff practice consistent with AS (including implementation problems). Non-house-based managers were also interviewed about their role in AS implementation. Reported occurrence of organisational activities and processes (e.g., training and teamwork) and understanding of engagement were associated with more reports of changes in staff practice and fewer staff reports of implementation problems. Staff reports on the role of non-house-based managers were not associated with reports of changes in staff practice or with reports of fewer AS implementation problems. Non-house-based managers' reports overestimated their role in AS implementation when compared with reports from house-based staff groups. While there are limitations in the research design (including the reliance on staff reports), the findings support the importance of wider organisational factors (beyond training programs for direct support staff) as integral to the implementation of AS. There is a need for further research on AS implementation.

  19. Taenia solium cysticercosis/taeniosis: potential linkage with FAO activities; FAO support possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddi, Carlos; Nari, Armando; Amanfu, William

    2003-06-01

    Neurocysticercosis due to Taenia solium metacestodes is an important cause of human morbidity and mortality, particularly in parts of Latin America, Africa and Asia. The disease has been recognized as potentially eradicable. Emphasis has been placed on control through mass chemotherapy of human populations to remove tapeworm carriers, but this strategy does not control the source of infections, which is cysticercosis in pigs. Also, transmission may continue due to incomplete chemotherapy coverage of human carriers or because of immigration of tapeworm carriers into controlled areas. The FAO through the Veterinary Public Health (VPH) and Food Safety program has provided support for the write-up of guidelines for cysticercosis, diagnoses and control. This should be released in a joint effort with OIE and WHO and will provide regular support to seminars, workshops and congresses related to VPH. The FAO regular program has also established a global network of people directly involved in VPH, and is currently in the process of establishing four regional networks located in Asia, Africa, Eastern and Central Europe and Latin America. The networks should provide a basic framework to spread information related to diagnosis, prevention and control of major zoonotic diseases through electronic conferences, discussions, newsletters, and a Directory to establish contact with people involved in VPH and zoonotic diseases. Through the Technical Cooperation Program (TCP) the FAO has a tool to help Member Countries to create the basic environment to control emerging zoo-sanitary problems, such as zoonotic and food borne diseases.

  20. Potent selective nonpeptidic inhibitors of human lung tryptase

    OpenAIRE

    Burgess, Laurence E.; Newhouse, Bradley J.; Ibrahim, Prabha; Rizzi, James; Kashem, Mohammed A.; Hartman, Ann; Brandhuber, Barbara J.; Wright, Clifford D.; Thomson, David S.; Vigers, Guy P. A.; Koch, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    Human lung tryptase, a homotetrameric serine protease unique to mast cell secretory granules, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma. A hypothesis that tethered symmetrical inhibitors might bridge two adjacent active sites was explored via a rationally designed series of bisbenzamidines. These compounds demonstrated a remarkable distanced-defined structure–activity relationship against human tryptase with one series possessing subnanomolar potencies. Additional evidence supporting ...

  1. A dynamic human water and electrolyte balance model for verification and optimization of life support systems in space flight applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, P.; Czupalla, M.; Walter, U.

    2010-11-01

    In this paper we report on the development of a dynamic MATLAB SIMULINK® model for the water and electrolyte balance inside the human body. This model is part of an environmentally sensitive dynamic human model for the optimization and verification of environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) in space flight applications. An ECLSS provides all vital supplies for supporting human life on board a spacecraft. As human space flight today focuses on medium- to long-term missions, the strategy in ECLSS is shifting to closed loop systems. For these systems the dynamic stability and function over long duration are essential. However, the only evaluation and rating methods for ECLSS up to now are either expensive trial and error breadboarding strategies or static and semi-dynamic simulations. In order to overcome this mismatch the Exploration Group at Technische Universität München (TUM) is developing a dynamic environmental simulation, the "Virtual Habitat" (V-HAB). The central element of this simulation is the dynamic and environmentally sensitive human model. The water subsystem simulation of the human model discussed in this paper is of vital importance for the efficiency of possible ECLSS optimizations, as an over- or under-scaled water subsystem would have an adverse effect on the overall mass budget. On the other hand water has a pivotal role in the human organism. Water accounts for about 60% of the total body mass and is educt and product of numerous metabolic reactions. It is a transport medium for solutes and, due to its high evaporation enthalpy, provides the most potent medium for heat load dissipation. In a system engineering approach the human water balance was worked out by simulating the human body's subsystems and their interactions. The body fluids were assumed to reside in three compartments: blood plasma, interstitial fluid and intracellular fluid. In addition, the active and passive transport of water and solutes between those

  2. Social support for physical activity-role of Facebook with and without structured intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, David N; Tate, Deborah F; Ward, Dianne S; DeVellis, Robert F; Thayer, Linden M; Ammerman, Alice S

    2014-12-01

    Despite their widespread use and extensive technical features, little is known about how to use online social networking sites to increase physical activity. This study aims to examine Facebook engagement among participants in the online social networking arm of a randomized controlled physical activity promotion trial (n = 67). Facebook communications were double coded and analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Regression procedures were used to determine predictors of Facebook use and associations between types of use and changes in perceived social support and physical activity. Changes in perceived social support and physical activity were more strongly associated with participants' individual Facebook use than use of the Facebook intervention group. The way social media sites are used in intervention design could have an impact on their effects. Including existing friends in interventions and using applications that incorporate intervention activities into a more naturalistic use of Facebook may improve the efficacy of future interventions.

  3. Muscle cooling delays activation of the muscle metaboreflex in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, C A; Hume, K M; Gracey, K H; Mahoney, E T

    1997-11-01

    Elevation of muscle temperature has been shown to increase muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during isometric exercise in humans. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of muscle cooling on MSNA responses during exercise. Eight subjects performed ischemic isometric handgrip at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction to fatigue followed by 2 min of postexercise muscle ischemia (PEMI), with and without local cooling of the forearm. Local cooling of the forearm decreased forearm muscle temperature from 31.8 +/- 0.4 to 23.1 +/- 0.8 degrees C (P = 0.001). Time to fatigue was not different during the control and cold trials (156 +/- 11 and 154 +/- 5 s, respectively). Arterial pressures and heart rate were not significantly affected by muscle cooling during exercise, although heart rate tended to be higher during the second minute of exercise (P = 0.053) during muscle cooling. Exercise-induced increases in MSNA were delayed during handgrip with local cooling compared with control. However, MSNA responses at fatigue and PEMI were not different between the two conditions. These findings suggest that muscle cooling delayed the activation of the muscle metaboreflex during ischemic isometric exercise but did not prevent its full expression during fatiguing contraction. These results support the concept that muscle temperature can play a role in the regulation of MSNA during exercise.

  4. Telomere elongation in immortal human cells without detectable telomerase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, T M; Englezou, A; Gupta, J; Bacchetti, S; Reddel, R R

    1995-09-01

    Immortalization of human cells is often associated with reactivation of telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that adds TTAGGG repeats onto telomeres and compensates for their shortening. We examined whether telomerase activation is necessary for immortalization. All normal human fibroblasts tested were negative for telomerase activity. Thirteen out of 13 DNA tumor virus-transformed cell cultures were also negative in the pre-crisis (i.e. non-immortalized) stage. Of 35 immortalized cell lines, 20 had telomerase activity as expected, but 15 had no detectable telomerase. The 15 telomerase-negative immortalized cell lines all had very long and heterogeneous telomeres of up to 50 kb. Hybrids between telomerase-negative and telomerase-positive cells senesced. Two senescent hybrids demonstrated telomerase activity, indicating that activation of telomerase is not sufficient for immortalization. Some hybrid clones subsequently recommenced proliferation and became immortalized either with or without telomerase activity. Those without telomerase activity also had very long and heterogeneous telomeres. Taken together, these data suggest that the presence of lengthened or stabilized telomeres is necessary for immortalization, and that this may be achieved either by the reactivation of telomerase or by a novel and as yet unidentified mechanism.

  5. EDUCATIONAL NETWORKING: HUMAN VIEW TO CYBER DEFENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Yu. Burov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Networks play more and more important role for human life and activity, both in critical occupations (aviation, power industry, military missions etc., and in everyday life (home computers, education, leisure. Interaction between human and other elements of human-machine system have changed, because they coincide in the information habitat. Human-system integration has reached new level of defense needs. The paper will introduce features of information society in respect of a human and corresponding changes in HF/E: (1 information becomes a tool, goal, mean and environment of a human activity, (2 it becomes a part of the human nature and this makes him/her unprotected, (3 human psycho-physiological status becomes not only a basis of effective performance, but an object of control and support, and means of a human security and safety should be a part of information habitat, (4 networking environment becomes an independent actor in a human activity. Accompanying cyber-security challenges and tasks are discussed, as well as types of networking threats and Human View regarding the cyber security challenges.

  6. PATTERNS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AMONG AMERICAN INDIAN CHILDREN: AN ASSESSMENT OF BARRIERS AND SUPPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Janice L.; Davis, Sally M.; Gittelsohn, Joel; Going, Scott; Becenti, Alberta; Metcalfe, Lauve; Stone, Elaine; Harnack, Lisa; Ring, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Estimates indicate that 10% to 50% of American Indian and non-Indian children in the U.S. are obese, defined as a body mass index ≥ 95th percentile of the NHANES II reference data. Pathways is a two-phase, multi-site study to develop and test a school-based obesity prevention program in American Indian schoolchildren in grades three through five. During Phase I feasibility prior to initiation of the Pathways trial, data were collected related to physical activity patterns, and the supports of, and barriers to, physical activity. Nine schools from communities representing six different tribal groups participated in this study. Multiple measures were used for data collection including direct observation, paired child interviews, and in-depth interviews and focus groups with adults. Students completed the self-administered Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors (KAB) survey, and a Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ). Barriers to physical activity at schools included a lack of facilities, equipment, and trained staff persons for PE. Adults were not consistently active with their children, but they were highly supportive of their children’s activity level. Children reported a strong enjoyment of physical activity and strong peer support to be physically active. Weather conditions, safety concerns, and homework/chores were common barriers to physical activity reported by children and adult caregivers. The information was used to design culturally and age-appropriate, practical interventions including the five physical activity programs for schoolchildren in the Pathways study. PMID:11759094

  7. THE PROBLEM OF THE VALUES SUPPORTING REASONING IN THE HUMANITIES: A COGNITIVE-PRAGMATIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Savtchouk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The main cognitive models of the values supporting reasoning in the discourse of the humanities are identified, the typology of selected schemes is made, their modifications are characterised, the pragmatic differences of the models are determined. Particular attention is paid to the “cause to aim” justification of the value judgments that prevails in the humanities. The regularities of verbal representation of cognitive structures are ascertained, pragmatic properties of argumentative markers are explicated. The author’s typology of tactics that implements rational and emotional value-study strategies is proposed. A number of fallacies in the justification of normative value judgments are revealed, such as “semantic-pragmatic dissonance”, “simulation of reasoning”, “pseudoauthority”, “superfluity of argumentative resource”. The sources of such shortcomings are exemplified by the facts from the evidence base. The conclusion is that the author of the article chooses the cognitive model of argumentation in support of the values, the ways of its verbal presentation and the tactics of reasoning on the basis of pragmatic factors.

  8. Activation of ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase in human cells by the mycotoxin patulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.-S.; Yu, F.-Y.; Su, C.-C.; Kan, J.-C.; Chung, C.-P.; Liu, B.-H.

    2005-01-01

    Patulin (PAT), a mycotoxin produced by certain species of Penicillium and Aspergillus, is often detectable in moldy fruits and their derivative products. PAT led to a concentration-dependent and time-dependent increase in phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Exposure of HEK293 cells to concentrations above 5 μM PAT for 30 min induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation; activation of ERK1/2 was also observed after 24 h incubation with 0.05 μM of PAT. Treatment of human PBMCs for 30 min with 30 μM PAT dramatically increased the phosphorylated ERK1/2 levels. Both MEK1/2 inhibitors, U0126 and PD98059, suppressed ERK1/2 activation in either HEK293 or MDCK cells. In HEK293 cells, U0126-mediated inhibition of PAT-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation resulted in a significant decrease in levels of DNA damage, expressed as tail moment values, in the single cell gel electrophoresis assay. Conversely, U0126 did not affect cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase release, and the DNA synthesis rate in PAT-treated cultures. Exposure of HEK293 cells for 90 min to 15 μM PAT elevated the levels of early growth response gene-1 (egr-1) mRNA, but not of c-fos, fosB, and junB mRNAs. These results indicate that in human cells, PAT causes a rapid and persistent activation of ERK1/2 and this signaling pathway plays an important role in mediating PAT-induced DNA damage and egr-1 gene expression

  9. The behavioral outcomes of a technology-supported leisure activity in people with dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E.W.C. Gemert-Pijnen; N. Nijhof; Joost van Hoof; H. van Rijn

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This paper presents the results of an evaluation of a technology-supported leisure game for people with dementia in relation to the stimulation of social behavior. OBJECTIVE: In this study we explore the additional impact of technology-supported leisure activities on behavioral outcomes

  10. [Supporting an Academic Society with the Active Learning Tool Clica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Kensuke; Mitsubori, Masahiro

    2018-01-01

     Within school classrooms, Active Learning has been receiving unprecedented attention. Indeed, Active Learning's popularity does not stop in the classroom. As more and more people argue that the Japanese government needs to renew guidelines for education, Active Learning has surfaced as a method capable of providing the necessary knowledge and training for people in all areas of society, helping them reach their full potential. It has become accepted that Active Learning is more effective over the passive listening of lectures, where there is little to no interaction. Active Learning emphasizes that learners explain their thoughts, ask questions, and express their opinions, resulting in a better retention rate of the subject at hand. In this review, I introduce an Active Learning support tool developed at Digital Knowledge, "Clica". This tool is currently being used at many educational institutions. I will also introduce an online questionnaire that Digital Knowledge provided at the 10th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society for Pharmaceutical Palliative Care and Sciences.

  11. A Hierarchical Representation for Human Activity Recognition with Noisy Labels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, N.; Englebienne, G.; Lou, Z.; Kröse, B.

    2015-01-01

    Human activity recognition is an essential task for robots to effectively and efficiently interact with the end users. Many machine learning approaches for activity recognition systems have been proposed recently. Most of these methods are built upon a strong assumption that the labels in the

  12. Physical activity practice among children and adolescents with visual impairment--influence of parental support and perceived barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greguol, Márcia; Gobbi, Erica; Carraro, Attilio

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the practice of physical activity among children and adolescents with visual impairments (VI), regarding the possible influence of parental support and perceived barriers. Twenty-two young people with VIs (10 + 2.74 years old) and one of each of their parents were evaluated. They responded to the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C), Baecke Questionnaire, the Parental Support Scale and a questionnaire about perceived barriers to physical activity. The independent samples t-test, pearson correlation test and chi-square test were performed. Blind young people showed lower physical activity levels. There were significant correlations both between parents' physical activity and the support offered to children and between the PAQ-C results and the importance given by young people to physical activity, but only for those aged between 8 and 10 years old. The main perceived barriers were lack of security, motivation, professional training and information about available physical activity programs. The influence of parental support seems to be an important factor in the adoption of a physically active lifestyle for young people with VI. Parents and children should have more information about the benefits and opportunities of physical activity. Implications for Rehabilitation Young people with visual impairment should be encouraged by parents to practice physical activity. More information should be provided on the benefits of physical activity to both parents and children. Professional training should be available to help support this group become more active.

  13. Does solar activity affect human happiness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the direct influence of solar activity (represented by sunspot numbers) on human happiness (represented by the Twitter-based Happiness Index). We construct four models controlling for various statistical and dynamic effects of the analyzed series. The final model gives promising results. First, there is a statistically significant negative influence of solar activity on happiness which holds even after controlling for the other factors. Second, the final model, which is still rather simple, explains around 75% of variance of the Happiness Index. Third, our control variables contribute significantly as well: happiness is higher in no sunspots days, happiness is strongly persistent, there are strong intra-week cycles and happiness peaks during holidays. Our results strongly contribute to the topical literature and they provide evidence of unique utility of the online data.

  14. Software support for students engaging in scientific activity and scientific controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli-Sforza, Violetta; Weiner, Arlene W.; Lesgold, Alan M.

    Computer environments could support students in engaging in cognitive activities that are essential to scientific practice and to the understanding of the nature of scientific knowledge, but that are difficult to manage in science classrooms. The authors describe a design for a computer-based environment to assist students in conducting dialectical activities of constructing, comparing, and evaluating arguments for competing scientific theories. Their choice of activities and their design respond to educators' and theorists' criticisms of current science curricula. They give detailed specifications of portions of the environment.

  15. Being active supports client control over health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiveash, Barb; Nay, Rhonda

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify how healthcare clients achieve and maintain a sense of control over their health. The literature review conducted refers to: (i) key definitions of control, (ii) locus of control, and (iii) control and wellbeing. Participants with a range of acute and chronic health conditions and who had been hospitalised at some point were selected for the study. Symbolic interactionism (Blumer, 1969) and modified grounded theory of Strauss & Corbin (1998) provided the frameworks for this study. During the six month study period, data were collected from sixty participants and included interviews, participant observation, reviewing participants' records (nursing care plans, nursing notes and case histories), the nursing units' philosophy, organisational charts, policies and procedures, annual reports, consumer brochures and any other relevant information sources. Findings from the study indicated that participants moved from feeling vulnerable to having a sense of control through to being purposefully active. Vulnerability was associated with: (i) having limited choices in respect to their health, (ii) lacking adequate health information to make choices, (iii) being ignored by health providers with respect to their needs, and (iv) lacking friend/family supports. Purposefully activating was associated with three major categories: (i) reflecting, (ii) being self-determiningly involved and (iii) normalising. Findings from this study could be used by health care clients who want a sense of control over their health care, and also by health care providers who wish to support clients in the healthcare process.

  16. Guinea pig complement potently measures vibriocidal activity of human antibodies in response to cholera vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Whun; Jeong, Soyoung; Ahn, Ki Bum; Yang, Jae Seung; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun

    2017-12-01

    The vibriocidal assay using guinea pig complement is widely used for the evaluation of immune responses to cholera vaccines in human clinical trials. However, it is unclear why guinea pig complement has been used over human complement in the measurement of vibriocidal activity of human sera and there have not been comparison studies for the use of guinea pig complement over those from other species. Therefore, we comparatively investigated the effects of complements derived from human, guinea pig, rabbit, and sheep on vibriocidal activity. Complements from guinea pig, rabbit, and human showed concentration-dependent vibriocidal activity in the presence of quality control serum antibodies. Of these complements, guinea pig complement was the most sensitive and effective over a wide concentration range. When the vibriocidal activity of complements was measured in the absence of serum antibodies, human, sheep, and guinea pig complements showed vibriocidal activity up to 40-fold, 20-fold, and 1-fold dilution, respectively. For human pre- and post-vaccination sera, the most potent vibriocidal activity was observed when guinea pig complement was used. In addition, the highest fold-increases between pre- and post- vaccinated sera were obtained with guinea pig complement. Furthermore, human complement contained a higher amount of V. cholerae- and its lipopolysaccharide-specific antibodies than guinea pig complement. Collectively, these results suggest that guinea pig complements are suitable for vibriocidal assays due to their high sensitivity and effectiveness to human sera.

  17. Assessment of physical activity of the human body considering the thermodynamic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstein, Stefan; Rauschenberger, Philipp; Weigand, Bernhard; Siebert, Tobias; Schmitt, Syn; Schlicht, Wolfgang; Převorovská, Světlana; Maršík, František

    2016-01-01

    Correctly dosed physical activity is the basis of a vital and healthy life, but the measurement of physical activity is certainly rather empirical resulting in limited individual and custom activity recommendations. Certainly, very accurate three-dimensional models of the cardiovascular system exist, however, requiring the numeric solution of the Navier-Stokes equations of the flow in blood vessels. These models are suitable for the research of cardiac diseases, but computationally very expensive. Direct measurements are expensive and often not applicable outside laboratories. This paper offers a new approach to assess physical activity using thermodynamical systems and its leading quantity of entropy production which is a compromise between computation time and precise prediction of pressure, volume, and flow variables in blood vessels. Based on a simplified (one-dimensional) model of the cardiovascular system of the human body, we develop and evaluate a setup calculating entropy production of the heart to determine the intensity of human physical activity in a more precise way than previous parameters, e.g. frequently used energy considerations. The knowledge resulting from the precise real-time physical activity provides the basis for an intelligent human-technology interaction allowing to steadily adjust the degree of physical activity according to the actual individual performance level and thus to improve training and activity recommendations.

  18. [Maggie's Tokyo's Human Support the Meaning of Where Now ? And Cancer Journey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Yoshie

    2017-08-01

    The landscape architect Maggie Jencks felt that she wanted a place to "get herself back" when her breast cancer recurred and was told that she only had a few months remaining. Mr. Charles Jencks, her husband who fulfilled her wishes, opened the first "Maggie's Cancer Caring Centre" in Edinburgh in 1996. Masako Akiyama, the chief of Maggie's Tokyo found out about Maggie's Centre when she listened to a presentation from Andrew Anderson, the director of Maggie's Edinburgh, at an International Nursing Seminar in 2008. Masako Akiyama realized that support to "get back ones own power" is one of the important things. In addition, she felt that providing a "place" and "support" to patients and their families were predominant elements. When someone is diagnosed with cancer, the person gets a great shock and feels loneliness. Suddenly the person feels tomorrow will not come, every day becomes uncertain. These feelings affect their whole life such as enrollment, employment, loss of role, and change. They also affect people such as family, friends, colleagues, besides the person. Due to changes in treatment, the existential troubles that have been prolonged after the completion of the initial treatment appear. Cancer survivorship is called "Cancer journey"in the Maggie's flow. The cancer journey suddenly starts, when a person is diagnosed with cancer", without direction or a plan. Additionally, the "heart"is often left behind. To undertake the cancer journey, there are a lot of forks in the road that cannot turn back and they are urged to choose their path. "Where now ?"is a phrase in a pamphlet from Maggie's Centre, and the phrase shows that staff of Maggie's Centre can help cancer patient to recognize where they are in their Cancer journey. The Maggie's Centre has 2 important pillars: "building/environment"and "human support". As a "homely place" between hospital and my house, the building is "a healing space". Human support is provided free of charge and patients and

  19. Screening vaccine formulations for biological activity using fresh human whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Roger H; Hakimi, Jalil; Ha, Yukyung; Aboutorabian, Sepideh; Ausar, Salvador F; Hasija, Manvi; Smith, Steven G; Todryk, Stephen M; Dockrell, Hazel M; Rahman, Nausheen

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the relevant biological activity of any pharmaceutical formulation destined for human use is crucial. For vaccine-based formulations, activity must reflect the expected immune response, while for non-vaccine therapeutic agents, such as monoclonal antibodies, a lack of immune response to the formulation is desired. During early formulation development, various biochemical and biophysical characteristics can be monitored in a high-throughput screening (HTS) format. However, it remains impractical and arguably unethical to screen samples in this way for immunological functionality in animal models. Furthermore, data for immunological functionality lag formulation design by months, making it cumbersome to relate back to formulations in real-time. It is also likely that animal testing may not accurately reflect the response in humans. For a more effective formulation screen, a human whole blood (hWB) approach can be used to assess immunological functionality. The functional activity relates directly to the human immune response to a complete formulation (adjuvant/antigen) and includes adjuvant response, antigen response, adjuvant-modulated antigen response, stability, and potentially safety. The following commentary discusses the hWB approach as a valuable new tool to de-risk manufacture, formulation design, and clinical progression.

  20. Meta-analysis of expression of l(3)mbt tumor-associated germline genes supports the model that a soma-to-germline transition is a hallmark of human cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feichtinger, Julia; Larcombe, Lee; McFarlane, Ramsay J

    2014-05-15

    Evidence is starting to emerge indicating that tumorigenesis in metazoans involves a soma-to-germline transition, which may contribute to the acquisition of neoplastic characteristics. Here, we have meta-analyzed gene expression profiles of the human orthologs of Drosophila melanogaster germline genes that are ectopically expressed in l(3)mbt brain tumors using gene expression datasets derived from a large cohort of human tumors. We find these germline genes, some of which drive oncogenesis in D. melanogaster, are similarly ectopically activated in a wide range of human cancers. Some of these genes normally have expression restricted to the germline, making them of particular clinical interest. Importantly, these analyses provide additional support to the emerging model that proposes a soma-to-germline transition is a general hallmark of a wide range of human tumors. This has implications for our understanding of human oncogenesis and the development of new therapeutic and biomarker targets with clinical potential. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of UICC.

  1. Activation of human herpesvirus replication by apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Alka; Remick, Jill; Zeichner, Steven L

    2013-10-01

    A central feature of herpesvirus biology is the ability of herpesviruses to remain latent within host cells. Classically, exposure to inducing agents, like activating cytokines or phorbol esters that stimulate host cell signal transduction events, and epigenetic agents (e.g., butyrate) was thought to end latency. We recently showed that Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, or human herpesvirus-8 [HHV-8]) has another, alternative emergency escape replication pathway that is triggered when KSHV's host cell undergoes apoptosis, characterized by the lack of a requirement for the replication and transcription activator (RTA) protein, accelerated late gene kinetics, and production of virus with decreased infectivity. Caspase-3 is necessary and sufficient to initiate the alternative replication program. HSV-1 was also recently shown to initiate replication in response to host cell apoptosis. These observations suggested that an alternative apoptosis-triggered replication program might be a general feature of herpesvirus biology and that apoptosis-initiated herpesvirus replication may have clinical implications, particularly for herpesviruses that almost universally infect humans. To explore whether an alternative apoptosis-initiated replication program is a common feature of herpesvirus biology, we studied cell lines latently infected with Epstein-Barr virus/HHV-4, HHV-6A, HHV-6B, HHV-7, and KSHV. We found that apoptosis triggers replication for each HHV studied, with caspase-3 being necessary and sufficient for HHV replication. An alternative apoptosis-initiated replication program appears to be a common feature of HHV biology. We also found that commonly used cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents activate HHV replication, which suggests that treatments that promote apoptosis may lead to activation of latent herpesviruses, with potential clinical significance.

  2. Transposable element activity, genome regulation and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Jordan, I King

    2018-03-02

    A convergence of novel genome analysis technologies is enabling population genomic studies of human transposable elements (TEs). Population surveys of human genome sequences have uncovered thousands of individual TE insertions that segregate as common genetic variants, i.e. TE polymorphisms. These recent TE insertions provide an important source of naturally occurring human genetic variation. Investigators are beginning to leverage population genomic data sets to execute genome-scale association studies for assessing the phenotypic impact of human TE polymorphisms. For example, the expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analytical paradigm has recently been used to uncover hundreds of associations between human TE insertion variants and gene expression levels. These include population-specific gene regulatory effects as well as coordinated changes to gene regulatory networks. In addition, analyses of linkage disequilibrium patterns with previously characterized genome-wide association study (GWAS) trait variants have uncovered TE insertion polymorphisms that are likely causal variants for a variety of common complex diseases. Gene regulatory mechanisms that underlie specific disease phenotypes have been proposed for a number of these trait associated TE polymorphisms. These new population genomic approaches hold great promise for understanding how ongoing TE activity contributes to functionally relevant genetic variation within and between human populations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evidence from intrinsic activity that asymmetry of the human brain is controlled by multiple factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hesheng; Stufflebeam, Steven M; Sepulcre, Jorge; Hedden, Trey; Buckner, Randy L

    2009-12-01

    Cerebral lateralization is a fundamental property of the human brain and a marker of successful development. Here we provide evidence that multiple mechanisms control asymmetry for distinct brain systems. Using intrinsic activity to measure asymmetry in 300 adults, we mapped the most strongly lateralized brain regions. Both men and women showed strong asymmetries with a significant, but small, group difference. Factor analysis on the asymmetric regions revealed 4 separate factors that each accounted for significant variation across subjects. The factors were associated with brain systems involved in vision, internal thought (the default network), attention, and language. An independent sample of right- and left-handed individuals showed that hand dominance affects brain asymmetry but differentially across the 4 factors supporting their independence. These findings show the feasibility of measuring brain asymmetry using intrinsic activity fluctuations and suggest that multiple genetic or environmental mechanisms control cerebral lateralization.

  4. First forensic records of termite activity on non-fossilized human bones in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Queiroz

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to describe the first records of termite activity on non-fossilized human bones in Brazil. The cases reported in this study resulted from forensic analysis of six human skeletons found in northeastern Brazil between 2012 and 2014. Traces of tunnels and nests commonly produced by termites were found on several human bone surfaces as well as the specimens and characteristic signs of osteophagic activity. In four cases, the species were identified: Amitermes amifer Silvestri, 1901, Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky, 1855 (on two skeletons, and Microcerotermes indistinctus Mathews, 1977. In two other cases, the activity of termites on bone surfaces was evidenced by remains of nests and tunnels produced by these insects. At least in the samples of human remains available for this report, the number of termites collected was greater on bones found during autumn, the rainy season in the Northeast of Brazil. The human bones examined showed termites like insects with lots of strength at bone degradation, capable of continuing the process of decomposition of human remains even in completely skeletonized bodies.

  5. Biting Force and Muscle Activity in Implant-Supported Single Mandibular Overdentures Opposing Fixed Maxillary Dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Magaleh, Wafaʼa R; Abbas, Nadia A; Amer, Ashraf A; Abdelkader, Ann A; Bahgat, Basma

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relation between biting force and masticatory muscle activity in patients treated by 3 modalities of single mandibular dentures. Forty implants were placed in 10 patients with completely edentulous mandibles. The study was divided into 3 treatment stages. Initially, each patient received a conventional mandibular complete denture. At the second stage, 4 mandibular implants were placed and the denture was refitted to their abutments. Third stage comprised connecting the denture to the implants through ball attachments. During each treatment stage, maximum biting force and muscle activity were measured during maximum clenching and chewing of soft and hard food. Biting force demonstrated a statistically significant increase by time for the 3 treatment stages. The highest muscle activity was recorded for the conventional denture followed by the implant-supported overdenture without attachment, whereas the lowest values were recorded for the implant-supported overdenture with attachment. Biting force was related mainly to the quality of denture support. Muscle activity was higher in patients with conventional denture than with implant-supported prostheses (with or without attachments).

  6. A Review on Human Activity Recognition Using Vision-Based Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shugang; Wei, Zhiqiang; Nie, Jie; Huang, Lei; Wang, Shuang; Li, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Human activity recognition (HAR) aims to recognize activities from a series of observations on the actions of subjects and the environmental conditions. The vision-based HAR research is the basis of many applications including video surveillance, health care, and human-computer interaction (HCI). This review highlights the advances of state-of-the-art activity recognition approaches, especially for the activity representation and classification methods. For the representation methods, we sort out a chronological research trajectory from global representations to local representations, and recent depth-based representations. For the classification methods, we conform to the categorization of template-based methods, discriminative models, and generative models and review several prevalent methods. Next, representative and available datasets are introduced. Aiming to provide an overview of those methods and a convenient way of comparing them, we classify existing literatures with a detailed taxonomy including representation and classification methods, as well as the datasets they used. Finally, we investigate the directions for future research.

  7. Convolutional Neural Networks for Human Activity Recognition Using Body-Worn Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Moya Rueda

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Human activity recognition (HAR is a classification task for recognizing human movements. Methods of HAR are of great interest as they have become tools for measuring occurrences and durations of human actions, which are the basis of smart assistive technologies and manual processes analysis. Recently, deep neural networks have been deployed for HAR in the context of activities of daily living using multichannel time-series. These time-series are acquired from body-worn devices, which are composed of different types of sensors. The deep architectures process these measurements for finding basic and complex features in human corporal movements, and for classifying them into a set of human actions. As the devices are worn at different parts of the human body, we propose a novel deep neural network for HAR. This network handles sequence measurements from different body-worn devices separately. An evaluation of the architecture is performed on three datasets, the Oportunity, Pamap2, and an industrial dataset, outperforming the state-of-the-art. In addition, different network configurations will also be evaluated. We find that applying convolutions per sensor channel and per body-worn device improves the capabilities of convolutional neural network (CNNs.

  8. Physical Activity and Social Support in Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Gerfeson; Cheng, Luanna Alexandra; Mélo, Edilânea Nunes; de Farias, José Cazuza, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this review was to systematically synthesize the results of original studies on the association between physical activity and social support in adolescents, published until April 2011. Searches were carried out in Adolec, ERIC, Lilacs, Medline, SciELO, Scopus, SportsDiscus and Web of Science electronic databases and the reference…

  9. The Role of Self-Efficacy and Friend Support on Adolescent Vigorous Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kyra; Warner, Lisa M.; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Physical activity, including some form of vigorous activity, is a key component of a healthy lifestyle in young people. Self-efficacy and social support have been identified as key determinants of physical activity; however, the mechanism that reflects the interplay of these two factors is not well understood. The aim of the current…

  10. Training Classifiers with Shadow Features for Sensor-Based Human Activity Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Simon; Song, Wei; Cho, Kyungeun; Wong, Raymond; Wong, Kelvin K L

    2017-02-27

    In this paper, a novel training/testing process for building/using a classification model based on human activity recognition (HAR) is proposed. Traditionally, HAR has been accomplished by a classifier that learns the activities of a person by training with skeletal data obtained from a motion sensor, such as Microsoft Kinect. These skeletal data are the spatial coordinates (x, y, z) of different parts of the human body. The numeric information forms time series, temporal records of movement sequences that can be used for training a classifier. In addition to the spatial features that describe current positions in the skeletal data, new features called 'shadow features' are used to improve the supervised learning efficacy of the classifier. Shadow features are inferred from the dynamics of body movements, and thereby modelling the underlying momentum of the performed activities. They provide extra dimensions of information for characterising activities in the classification process, and thereby significantly improve the classification accuracy. Two cases of HAR are tested using a classification model trained with shadow features: one is by using wearable sensor and the other is by a Kinect-based remote sensor. Our experiments can demonstrate the advantages of the new method, which will have an impact on human activity detection research.

  11. High Accuracy Human Activity Recognition Based on Sparse Locality Preserving Projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiangbin; Qiu, Huiling

    2016-01-01

    Human activity recognition(HAR) from the temporal streams of sensory data has been applied to many fields, such as healthcare services, intelligent environments and cyber security. However, the classification accuracy of most existed methods is not enough in some applications, especially for healthcare services. In order to improving accuracy, it is necessary to develop a novel method which will take full account of the intrinsic sequential characteristics for time-series sensory data. Moreover, each human activity may has correlated feature relationship at different levels. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a three-stage continuous hidden Markov model (TSCHMM) approach to recognize human activities. The proposed method contains coarse, fine and accurate classification. The feature reduction is an important step in classification processing. In this paper, sparse locality preserving projections (SpLPP) is exploited to determine the optimal feature subsets for accurate classification of the stationary-activity data. It can extract more discriminative activities features from the sensor data compared with locality preserving projections. Furthermore, all of the gyro-based features are used for accurate classification of the moving data. Compared with other methods, our method uses significantly less number of features, and the over-all accuracy has been obviously improved.

  12. Training Classifiers with Shadow Features for Sensor-Based Human Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel training/testing process for building/using a classification model based on human activity recognition (HAR is proposed. Traditionally, HAR has been accomplished by a classifier that learns the activities of a person by training with skeletal data obtained from a motion sensor, such as Microsoft Kinect. These skeletal data are the spatial coordinates (x, y, z of different parts of the human body. The numeric information forms time series, temporal records of movement sequences that can be used for training a classifier. In addition to the spatial features that describe current positions in the skeletal data, new features called ‘shadow features’ are used to improve the supervised learning efficacy of the classifier. Shadow features are inferred from the dynamics of body movements, and thereby modelling the underlying momentum of the performed activities. They provide extra dimensions of information for characterising activities in the classification process, and thereby significantly improve the classification accuracy. Two cases of HAR are tested using a classification model trained with shadow features: one is by using wearable sensor and the other is by a Kinect-based remote sensor. Our experiments can demonstrate the advantages of the new method, which will have an impact on human activity detection research.

  13. High Accuracy Human Activity Recognition Based on Sparse Locality Preserving Projections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangbin Zhu

    Full Text Available Human activity recognition(HAR from the temporal streams of sensory data has been applied to many fields, such as healthcare services, intelligent environments and cyber security. However, the classification accuracy of most existed methods is not enough in some applications, especially for healthcare services. In order to improving accuracy, it is necessary to develop a novel method which will take full account of the intrinsic sequential characteristics for time-series sensory data. Moreover, each human activity may has correlated feature relationship at different levels. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a three-stage continuous hidden Markov model (TSCHMM approach to recognize human activities. The proposed method contains coarse, fine and accurate classification. The feature reduction is an important step in classification processing. In this paper, sparse locality preserving projections (SpLPP is exploited to determine the optimal feature subsets for accurate classification of the stationary-activity data. It can extract more discriminative activities features from the sensor data compared with locality preserving projections. Furthermore, all of the gyro-based features are used for accurate classification of the moving data. Compared with other methods, our method uses significantly less number of features, and the over-all accuracy has been obviously improved.

  14. Generation of Functional Thymic Epithelium from Human Embryonic Stem Cells that Supports Host T Cell Development

    OpenAIRE

    Parent, Audrey V.; Russ, Holger A.; Khan, Imran S.; LaFlam, Taylor N.; Metzger, Todd C.; Anderson, Mark S.; Hebrok, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Inducing immune tolerance to prevent rejection is a key step toward successful engraftment of stem-cell-derived tissue in a clinical setting. Using human pluripotent stem cells to generate thymic epithelial cells (TECs) capable of supporting T cell development represents a promising approach to reach this goal; however, progress toward generating functional TECs has been limited. Here, we describe a robust in vitro method to direct differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into th...

  15. Interaction Analysis for Supporting Students' Self-Regulation during Blog-Based CSCL Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailidis, Nikolaos; Kapravelos, Efstathios; Tsiatsos, Thrasyvoulos

    2018-01-01

    Self-regulated learning is an important means of supporting students' self-awareness and self-regulation level so as to enhance their motivation and engagement. Interaction Analysis (IA) contributes to this end, and its use in studying learning dynamics involved in asynchronous Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) activities has…

  16. System for supporting operator's cognitive activity in the decision-making process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gieci, A.

    1992-01-01

    New views upon the formation of a system of means for an efficient support of the operator are presented. The development of a system to promote cognitive activities at the Nuclear Power Plants Research Institute is outlined. As the major issues, changes in the operator's working environment and the starting model of the working situation during stress are briefly described. The fundamental elements of the supporting system under development, which constitute its didactical and engineering-cognitive basis, are explained. The suitability of using expert system technology in this supporting system is substantiated. A particular example of expert counselling of the NPPO-TINA type (Nuclear Power Plant Operation - Transparent Inference Architecture) is reported. (Z.S.). 5 figs., 6 refs

  17. Neutrophil activation during acetaminophen hepatotoxicity and repair in mice and humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, C. David; Bajt, Mary Lynn [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Sharpe, Matthew R. [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Hospital, Kansas City, KS (United States); McGill, Mitchell R. [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Farhood, Anwar [Department of Pathology, St. David' s North Austin Medical Center, Austin, TX 78756 (United States); Jaeschke, Hartmut, E-mail: hjaeschke@kumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Following acetaminophen (APAP) overdose there is an inflammatory response triggered by the release of cellular contents from necrotic hepatocytes into the systemic circulation which initiates the recruitment of neutrophils into the liver. It has been demonstrated that neutrophils do not contribute to APAP-induced liver injury, but their role and the role of NADPH oxidase in injury resolution are controversial. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to APAP overdose and neutrophil activation status was determined during liver injury and liver regeneration. Additionally, human APAP overdose patients (ALT: > 800 U/L) had serial blood draws during the injury and recovery phases for the determination of neutrophil activation. Neutrophils in the peripheral blood of mice showed an increasing activation status (CD11b expression and ROS priming) during and after the peak of injury but returned to baseline levels prior to complete injury resolution. Hepatic sequestered neutrophils showed an increased and sustained CD11b expression, but no ROS priming was observed. Confirming that NADPH oxidase is not critical to injury resolution, gp91{sup phox}−/− mice following APAP overdose displayed no alteration in injury resolution. Peripheral blood from APAP overdose patients also showed increased neutrophil activation status after the peak of liver injury and remained elevated until discharge from the hospital. In mice and humans, markers of activation, like ROS priming, were increased and sustained well after active liver injury had subsided. The similar findings between surviving patients and mice indicate that neutrophil activation may be a critical event for host defense or injury resolution following APAP overdose, but not a contributing factor to APAP-induced injury. - Highlights: • Neutrophil (PMN) function increases during liver repair after acetaminophen overdose. • Liver repair after acetaminophen (APAP)-overdose is not dependent on NADPH oxidase. • Human PMNs do not appear

  18. Acute activation, desensitization and smoldering activation of human acetylcholine receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara G Campling

    Full Text Available The behavioral effects of nicotine and other nicotinic agonists are mediated by AChRs in the brain. The relative contribution of acute activation versus chronic desensitization of AChRs is unknown. Sustained "smoldering activation" occurs over a range of agonist concentrations at which activated and desensitized AChRs are present in equilibrium. We used a fluorescent dye sensitive to changes in membra